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Sample records for asphalt stripping final

  1. Warm mix asphalt : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    The performance of pavements constructed using warm mix asphalt (WMA) technology were : compared to the performance of conventional hot mix asphalt (HMA) pavements placed on the : same project. Measurements of friction resistance, rutting/wear, ride ...

  2. Use of moisture induced stress testing to evaluate stripping potential of hot mix asphalt (HMA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Stripping of hot mix asphalt (HMA) in the field is an ongoing issue for many Departments of Transportation : (DOTs). A leading cause of stripping is hydraulic scouring. The Moisture Induced Stress Tester (MIST) is a recently : developed technology th...

  3. Evaluation of recycled asphaltic concrete : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    This report describes a project in which approximately 6,200 tons (5,630 Mg) of asphaltic concrete were recycled through a conventional asphalt batch plant. During the construction of the project, a buildup of asphalt-coated fines occurred in the dry...

  4. Stripping in hot mix asphalt produced by aggregates from construction and demolition waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, I; Pasandín, A R; Gallego, J

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the effect of water on the durability of hot asphalt mixtures made with recycled aggregates from construction and demolition debris. Indirect tensile stress tests were carried out to evaluate stripping behaviour. The mixtures tested were fabricated with 0, 20, 40 and 60% recycled aggregates. Two types of natural aggregates were used: schist and calcite dolomite. An increase in the percentage of recycled aggregates was found to produce a decrease in the tensile stress ratio of the hot asphalt mixtures. To study this phenomenon, two and three factor analyses of variance (ANOVA) were performed with indirect tensile stress being used as the dependent variable. The factors studied were the percentage of recycled aggregates (0, 20, 40 and 60%), the moisture state (dry, wet) and the type of natural aggregate (schist, calcite). On the basis of the ANOVA results, it was found that the most important factor affecting resistance was the moisture state (dry, wet) of the specimens. The percentage of recycled aggregate also affected indirect tensile stress, especially in the dry state. The type of natural aggregate did not have a significant effect on indirect tensile stress. The hot asphalt mixture specimens made with different percentages of recycled aggregates from construction and demolition debris and of natural quarry aggregates showed poor stripping behaviour. This stripping behaviour can be related to both the poor adhesion of the recycled aggregates and the high absorption of the mortar of cement adhered to them.

  5. Alabama warm mix asphalt field study : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    The Alabama Department of Transportation hosted a warm mix asphalt field demonstration in August 2007. The warm mix asphalt technology demonstrated was Evotherm Dispersed Asphalt Technology. The WMA and hot mix asphalt produced for the demonstration ...

  6. Final strip mine regs released

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-12-12

    The final interim surface mining regulations were published by the Office of Surface Mining on 12 December. Among the requirements are that the operation should minimize disturbances to the prevailing hydrological balance in order to prevent long-term adverse changes in water quality and quantity, in the depth of ground water and in the location of surface water drainage channels. Regulations for sedimentation ponds are retained but exemption may be granted to allow the pH to rise above 9 if manganese levels (4 mg/l) cannot be met. The 24-hour frequency event for which effluent limitations must be applied has been reduced from 25 years to 10 years. Large sedimentation ponds must be constructed to withstand, at a minimum, a 100-year frequency, 6-hour duration storm. The regulations are to take effect on the 3rd of May 1978.

  7. Effect of prolonged heating on the asphalt-aggregate bond strength of HMA containing liquid anti-strip additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    In this study, an attempt was made to determine the effect of prolonged heating on the bond strength between : aggregate and asphalt that contained anti-strip additives (LOF 6500 and Morelife 2200). On account of the : substantial decrease of anti-st...

  8. Quality control of recycled asphaltic concrete : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-07-01

    This study examined the variations found in recycled asphaltic concrete mix based upon plant quality control data and verification testing. The data was collected from four recycled hot-mix projects constructed in 1981. All plant control and acceptan...

  9. Improving DMS 9210 requirements for limestone rock asphalt - final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Limestone Rock Asphalt (LRA) mixtures have been produced and placed for several decades using : specification requirements currently listed under DMS 9210. Several districts have had placement issues : and premature failures at the beginning of 2010....

  10. Final Rule to Reduce Toxic Air Emissions from Asphalt Processing and Asphalt Roofing Manufacturing Facilities Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains a February 2003 fact sheet with information regarding the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) for Asphalt Processing and Asphalt Roofing Manufacturing.

  11. Steel slag in hot mix asphalt concrete : final report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-04-01

    In September 1994, steel slag test and control sections were constructed in Oregon to evaluate the use of steel slag in hot mix asphalt concrete (HMAC). This report covers the construction and five-year performance of a pavement constructed with 30% ...

  12. Evaluation of nuclear asphalt-content gauges. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-03-01

    The study evaluated the accuracy and precision of the Troxler, Model 3241-C, and CPN, Model AC-2, Nuclear Asphalt Content Gauges. To achieve precisions at plus or minus 0.15% 95% of the time, it was necessary to establish special procedures for making test samples, controlling environment, and calibration. Both gauges provided acceptable results utilizing a 3-point calibration. Their use in the field would be acceptable when the proper procedures are followed

  13. Field Control and Performance of Asphalt Mixtures Containing Greater than 25 Percent Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement : Draft Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-02

    The Alabama Department of Transportation (ALDOT) and other highway agencies are interested in utilization of higher percentages of reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) in asphalt mixtures. There are a number of research studies at both state and national...

  14. Evaluation of Moisture Damage and Stripping of Asphalt Concrete Prepared With New Additives of Polymer Modified Bitumen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basim H. Al-Humeidawi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The moisture induced damage and stripping are two of common reasons of premature failure of flexible pavement. The current research involved an extensive experimental investigation on two types of polymers (Novolac and PVA as modifiers in order to produce Polymer Modified Bitumen (PMB. Different ratios of both additives were investigated for rheological properties of binder and mechanical properties of Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA. The rheological properties of PMB were evaluated by penetration, softening point, ductility and thin film oven tests. The mechanical properties of HMA were assessed by Marshall Stability test, Retained Marshall Stability test, indirect tensile strength test, Tensile Strength Ratio (TSR, and striping test. The results of tests showed that the Novolac modifier improves the cohesion properties of binder and the adhesion of binder to aggregate. The PVA modifier mainly improves the adhesion of binder to aggregate with less degree of that of using Novolac. Both modifiers significantly improve moisture sensitivity and decrease the stripping of HMA. Also, the results showed that the addition of 2% of Novolac to binder to produce PMB represents the optimum option. The HMA with PMB Novolac 2% improves the Marshall Stability, Retained Marshall Stability, and TSR by 45%, 14% and 44% respectively. The very small amount of these additives compared with mix components and their reasonable price make them a superior and practical solution for premature failure of flexible pavement.

  15. 78 FR 35245 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the People's Republic of China: Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-12

    ... polyethylene terephthalate film, sheet, and strip (``PET film'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC... Film, Sheet, and Strip From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Antidumping Duty..., 2011. \\1\\ See Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the People's Republic of China...

  16. Assessment of asphalt concrete reinforcement grid in flexible pavements : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    This report investigated the application of accepted methods of pavement structural evaluation to independently assess the potential structural benefit of asphalt geogrid reinforcement of an operational flexible highway pavement. The asphalt interlay...

  17. Final environmental and regulatory assessment of using asphalt as a sealant in mine shafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This report discusses the properties of asphalt, the current regulatory status governing asphalt and future regulatory implications which may be pertinent in using asphalt as a waterproof shaft sealant. An understanding of the inherent organic composition of asphalt, an increase in the number of health and environmental research publications conducted on asphalt and an examination of the apparent trend of regulatory agencies toward more stringent environmental regulation governing the use of organic materials suggests asphalt could become regulated at a future time. This would only occur, however, if asphalt was found to conform to the present regulatory definitions of pollutants, contaminants or hazardous substances or if asphalt was included on a regulated substance list. In this regard, the study points out that asphalt contains very low levels of hazardous poly-nuclear aromatics (PNA's). These levels are significantly lower than the levels present in coal tars, a substance known to contain high levels of hazardous PNA's. Asphalt, however, has the inherent potential of producing higher concentrations of PNA's if the adverse condition of cracking should occur during the refinery production stage or on-site preparation of the asphalt. Also, unless existing control technology is applied, emission levels of sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, particulates and volatile organic carbons from the on-site preparation facilities could approach the permissible health standard levels of EPA. The study indicates, however, that available literature is limited on these issues

  18. 78 FR 47276 - Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) Film, Sheet, and Strip From India: Final Results of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-05

    ... (PET) Film, Sheet, and Strip From India: Final Results of the Expedited Second Sunset Review of the... terephthalate (PET) film, sheet, and strip (``PET film'') from India. The Department finds that revocation of... INFORMATION CONTACT: Sean Carey or Dana Mermelstein, AD/CVD Operations, Office 6, Import Administration...

  19. Evaluation of warm mix technologies for use in asphalt rubber - asphaltic concrete friction courses (AR\\0x2010ACFC) : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this research project was to determine whether warm mix asphalt (WMA) technologies can be : used by the Arizona Department of Transportation (ADOT) for the production of an asphalt rubberasphaltic : concrete friction course (AR...

  20. Evaluation of recycled hot mix asphalt concrete on Route 220 : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    This report describes the performance of an approximately 8-mi section of roadway on which the rod two layers of asphalt concrete were milled, recycled through a conventional asphalt batch plant, and relaid. The recycled mix consisted of about 40% re...

  1. Validity of multiple stress creep recovery (MSCR) test for DOTD asphalt binder specification : final report 564.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Numerous studies have shown that G*/Sin, the high temperature specification parameter for current Performance Graded (PG) asphalt binder is not adequate to reflect the rutting characteristics of polymer-modified binders. Consequently, many state De...

  2. Development of superior asphalt recycling agents. Phase 1, Technical feasibility. Final technical progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bullin, J.A.; Davison, R.R.; Glover, C.J.; Chaffin, J.; Liu, M.; Madrid, R.

    1997-07-01

    After an introduction and a literature survey in Chap. 1, Chap. 2 describes the tasks, together with objectives and important results obtained for each task throughout the entire project. Chaps. 3 thru 7 detail work in developing a qualitative and quantitative knowledge of asphalt oxidation, composition dependence of asphalt properties, and guidelines for producing superior asphalt binders through composition control. They also detail the development of a kinetic model for asphalt oxidative aging and present an understanding of the composition dependence of asphalt oxidation as well as other performance-related properties. Chaps. 8 and 9 compare the aging performance of recycled blends produced using commercial recycling agents and industrial supercritical fractions as rejuvenating agents. Oxidative aging of the recycled blends were evaluated along with the performance of the recycled blends in terms of the strategic highway research program performance grading procedure. Chap. 10 summarizes the work completed in the areas of processing schemes development, projection updates, and scale-up and commercialization plans.

  3. Asphalt Mixture for the First Asphalt Concrete Directly Fastened Track in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong-Hyeok Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The research has been initiated to develop the asphalt mixtures which are suitable for the surface of asphalt concrete directly fastened track (ADFT system and evaluate the performance of the asphalt mixture. Three aggregate gradations which are upper (finer, medium, and below (coarser. The nominal maximum aggregate size of asphalt mixture was 10 mm. Asphalt mixture design was conducted at 3 percent air voids using Marshall mix design method. To make impermeable asphalt mixture surface, the laboratory permeability test was conducted for asphalt mixtures of three different aggregate gradations using asphalt mixture permeability tester. Moisture susceptibility test was conducted based on AASHTO T 283. The stripping percentage of asphalt mixtures was measured using a digital camera and analyzed based on image analysis techniques. Based on the limited research results, the finer aggregate gradation is the most suitable for asphalt mixture for ADFT system with the high TSR value and the low stripping percentage and permeable coefficient. Flow number and beam fatigue tests for finer aggregate asphalt mixture were conducted to characterize the performance of asphalt mixtures containing two modified asphalt binders: STE-10 which is styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS polymer and ARMA which is Crum rubber modified asphalt. The performance tests indicate that the STE-10 shows the higher rutting life and fatigue life.

  4. Quantify the energy and environmental effects of using recycled asphalt and recycled concrete for pavement construction phase I : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    The objective of this study is to quantify the energy and environment impacts from using recycled materials : for highway construction. Specifically, when recycled asphalt pavement is re-used for producing hot mix : asphalt or when recycled concrete ...

  5. 78 FR 29700 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the United Arab Emirates: Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-21

    ... Film, Sheet, and Strip From the United Arab Emirates: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative... (PET Film) from the United Arab Emirates.\\1\\ This review covers two producers/exporters of subject... Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip from the United Arab Emirates: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

  6. 76 FR 22867 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the United Arab Emirates: Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-25

    ... Film, Sheet, and Strip From the United Arab Emirates: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...) from the United Arab Emirates. This review covers two producers/ exporters of subject merchandise: JBF... Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the United Arab Emirates: Preliminary Results of...

  7. Study of lime vs. no lime in cold in-place recycled asphalt concrete pavements : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-01

    The resilient characteristics of cold in-place recycled asphalt concrete with and without lime were examined. Six core samples were obtained from a site two months after construction; six months later, six additional core samples were obtained from t...

  8. 76 FR 76941 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From Taiwan: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-09

    ... on polyethylene terephthalate film, sheet and strip (PET Film) from Taiwan. The period of review (POR... Halle, AD/CVD Operations, Office 6, Import Administration, International Trade Administration, U.S... Results in the Administrative Review on Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet and Strip from Taiwan (PET...

  9. Aggregate Toughness/Abrasion Resistance and Durability/Soundness Tests Related to Asphalt Concrete Performance in Pavements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-03-01

    The properties of aggregates used in asphalt concretes are very important to the performance of the pavements in which the asphalt concretes are used. Often pavement distress, such as stripping and rutting, can be traced directly to the aggregates us...

  10. Introductory asphalt technology; Nyumon asphalt gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muroga, G. [Mitsubishi Oil Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-28

    The type and applications, manufacturing method, characteristics, road pavement etc. of asphalt were introduced. Among the petroleum asphalts, straight asphalt is used for road pavement,industry, and combustion, while blown asphalt is mainly used for the waterproofness of a building. Also, the demand for modified asphalt where rubber or thermoplastic elastomer was mixed is increasing. Straight asphalt is obtained by allowing atmospheric distillation tower bottom oil to be subjected to reduced pressure distillation and drawing reduced pressure gas oil and lubrication oil cut. Blown asphalt is produced by the oxidation dehydrogeneration and condensation polymerization reaction of soft straight asphalt. Rheology characteristics of asphalt are expressed by stiffness, relaxation elastic modulus, complex elastic modulus, etc. Also, asphalt has high electrical dielectric properties. Asphalt pavement has functions for dispersing traffic load and then transferring it to a lower layer, for resisting wear and cracking, and for preventing penetration of rainwater. 30 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Asphalt mix characterization using dynamic modulus and APA testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-11-01

    final report summarizes two research efforts related to asphalt mix characterization: dynamic modulus and Asphalt Pavement Analyzer testing. One phase of the research consisted of a laboratory-based evaluation of dynamic modulus of Oregon dense-grade...

  12. 76 FR 30910 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From India: Final Results of Countervailing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-27

    ... shipper review of polyethylene terephthalate film, sheet and strip (PET Film) from India for SRF Limited... Operations, Office 6, Import Administration, International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce..., International Trade Compliance Analyst, AD/CVD Operations, Office 6: New Shipper Reviews of the Antidumping Duty...

  13. 76 FR 30908 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From India: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-27

    ... polyethylene terephthalate film, sheet and strip (PET Film) from India for SRF Limited (SRF), covering the... Page or Elfi Blum, AD/CVD Operations, Office 6, Import Administration, International Trade... Interested Parties From Elfi Blum, International Trade Compliance Analyst, AD/CVD Operations, Office 6: New...

  14. 76 FR 71512 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From Korea: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-18

    ... terephthalate film, sheet, and strip (PET film) from Korea, covering the June 1, 2009, to May 31, 2010, period... the preliminary results. In addition, the Department is revoking the antidumping order on PET film... CONTACT: Tyler Weinhold or Robert James, AD/CVD Operations, Office 7, Import Administration, International...

  15. 76 FR 76948 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From India: Final Results of Countervailing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-09

    ... review of polyethylene terephthalate film, sheet and strip (PET Film) from India for Ester Industries Ltd... export of PET Film from India. Also, based on our analysis of Ester's comments, we made certain revisions..., Office 6, Import Administration, International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce, 14th...

  16. 75 FR 6634 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip from India: Final Results of Countervailing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-10

    ... of the countervailing duty order on polyethylene terephthalate film, sheet, and strip (PET film) from....'' EFFECTIVE DATE: February 10, 2010. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Elfi Blum, AD/CVD Operations, Office 6... Assistant Secretary for Import Administration, from Barbara E. Tillman, Director, AD/CVD Operations, Office...

  17. Asphalt cement poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... petroleum material that hardens when it cools. Asphalt cement poisoning occurs when someone swallows asphalt. If hot ... found in: Road paving materials Roofing materials Tile cements Asphalt may also be used for other purposes.

  18. Preparation and rheological behavior of polymer-modified asphalts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi, Ali Akbar

    1999-09-01

    Different materials and methods were used to prepare and stabilize polymer-modified asphalts. Addition of thermoplastic elastomers improved some technically important properties of asphalt. Due to inherent factors like large density difference between asphalt and polyethylene, many physical methods in which the structure of asphalt is unchanged, failed to stabilize this system. The effect of addition of copolymers and a pyrolytic oil residue derived from used tire rubber were also studied and found to be ineffective on the storage stability of the polymer-asphalt emulsions while high and moderate temperature properties of the asphalt were found to be improved. Finally, the technique of catalytic grafting of polymer on the surface of high-density particles (e.g. carbon black) was used to balance the large density difference between asphalt and polymer. The resulting polymer-asphalts were stable at high temperatures and showed enhanced properties at low and high temperatures.

  19. 77 FR 14493 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the People's Republic of China: Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-12

    ... Issues for the Final Results Surrogate Country Selection and Surrogate Financial Ratios Issue 1: Whether... Department should have selected the financial statement of JBF Industries Ltd. to calculate financial ratios... this review. We invited interested parties to comment on our Preliminary Results. Based on our analysis...

  20. Low temperature rheological properties of asphalt mixtures containing different recycled asphalt materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki Hoon Moon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP and Recycled Asphalt Shingles (RAS are valuable materials commonly reused in asphalt mixtures due to their economic and environmental benefits. However, the aged binder contained in these materials may negatively affect the low temperature performance of asphalt mixtures. In this paper, the effect of RAP and RAS on low temperature properties of asphalt mixtures is investigated through Bending Beam Rheometer (BBR tests and rheological modeling. First, a set of fourteen asphalt mixtures containing RAP and RAS is prepared and creep stiffness and m-value are experimentally measured. Then, thermal stress is calculated and graphically and statistically compared. The Huet model and the Shift-Homothety-Shift in time-Shift (SHStS transformation, developed at the École Nationale des Travaux Publics de l'État (ENTPE, are used to back calculate the asphalt binder creep stiffness from mixture experimental data. Finally, the model predictions are compared to the creep stiffness of the asphalt binders extracted from each mixture, and the results are analyzed and discussed. It is found that an addition of RAP and RAS beyond 15% and 3%, respectively, significantly change the low temperature properties of asphalt mixture. Differences between back-calculated results and experimental data suggest that blending between new and old binder occurs only partially. Based on the recent finding on diffusion studies, this effect may be associated to mixing and blending processes, to the effective contact between virgin and recycled materials and to the variation of the total virgin-recycled thickness of the binder film which may significantly influence the diffusion process. Keywords: Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP, Recycled Asphalt Shingles (RAS, Thermal stress, Statistical comparison, Back-calculation, Binder blending

  1. Stripping Voltammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovrić, Milivoj

    Electrochemical stripping means the oxidative or reductive removal of atoms, ions, or compounds from an electrode surface (or from the electrode body, as in the case of liquid mercury electrodes with dissolved metals) [1-5]. In general, these atoms, ions, or compounds have been preliminarily immobilized on the surface of an inert electrode (or within it) as the result of a preconcentration step, while the products of the electrochemical stripping will dissolve in the electrolytic solution. Often the product of the electrochemical stripping is identical to the analyte before the preconcentration. However, there are exemptions to these rules. Electroanalytical stripping methods comprise two steps: first, the accumulation of a dissolved analyte onto, or in, the working electrode, and, second, the subsequent stripping of the accumulated substance by a voltammetric [3, 5], potentiometric [6, 7], or coulometric [8] technique. In stripping voltammetry, the condition is that there are two independent linear relationships: the first one between the activity of accumulated substance and the concentration of analyte in the sample, and the second between the maximum stripping current and the accumulated substance activity. Hence, a cumulative linear relationship between the maximum response and the analyte concentration exists. However, the electrode capacity for the analyte accumulation is limited and the condition of linearity is satisfied only well below the electrode saturation. For this reason, stripping voltammetry is used mainly in trace analysis. The limit of detection depends on the factor of proportionality between the activity of the accumulated substance and the bulk concentration of the analyte. This factor is a constant in the case of a chemical accumulation, but for electrochemical accumulation it depends on the electrode potential. The factor of proportionality between the maximum stripping current and the analyte concentration is rarely known exactly. In fact

  2. Modified asphalt; Kairyo asphalt ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takarabe, A. [Mitsubishi Oil Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-28

    Modified asphalt in the area of road pavement in the relation of measures against flow on a road surface was introduced. The condition of road damage includes the print of a wheel, crack, and wear and semi-blown asphalt whose deformation is difficult even if temperature is increased to approximately 60 {degree}C and asphalt with rubber and resin are used to prevent these. The semi-blown asphalt is obtained by adding cut-back material to the normal asphalt, heating it, blowing air into it, and then oxidizing and polymerizing it, is harder and is more elastic than the normal asphalt, and has smaller viscosity change due to temperature change. The viscosity at 60 {degree}C was determined to be 10000{plus_minus}2000 poise according to the relationship between viscosity and crack using a large-scale execution experiment. The asphalt with rubber and resin is formed by adding modified material of styrene - butadiene copolymer and by adding thermoplastic elastomer and the former is used for preventing slide and the latter is used for preventing flow and wear. 10 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Asphalt emulsion; Asphalt nyuzai ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, T. [Toa Doro Kogyo Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-28

    The emulsification, manufacture, type, applications, etc. of asphalt emulsion were introduced. The emulsification of asphalt is obtained by mixing heated asphalt into an emulsification liquid where emulsifier is added to water and then agitating it. The emulsifier has both hydrophilic and lipophilic parts in the same molecule, prevents collision between asphalt particles after being arranged properly on the surface of asphalt particles, and prevent separation into water and asphalt. The emulsion is available for penetration and for mixing depending on applications and can be classified into cation emulsion, anion emulsion, and nonionic emulsion according to the property. The emulsion is mainly applied to road pavement, reaching approximately 90 % of the total manufactured emulsion. It is also used for other areas such as the filler of a slab race of each bullet train of Sanyo, Tohoku, and Jyoetsu and is also applied to the formation of a water-proof layer by spraying a high-concentration emulsion with rubber, agricultural water channels using asphalt emulsion and nonwoven cloth, etc. in civil engineering and agricultural fields. 2 refs., 13 figs., 8 tabs.

  4. Laboratory evaluation of resistance to moisture damage in asphalt mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Ebrahim Abu El-Maaty Behiry

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Moisture damage in asphalt mixtures refers to loss in strength and durability due to the presence of water. Egypt road network is showing severe deterioration such as raveling and stripping because the bond between aggregates and asphalt film is broken due to water intrusion. To minimize moisture damage, asphalt mixes are investigated to evaluate the effect of air voids, degree of saturation, media of attack and the conditioning period. Two medias of attack are considered and two anti-stripping additives are used (hydrated lime and Portland cement. The retained Marshall stability and tensile strength ratio are calculated to determine the resistance to moisture damage. The results showed that both lime and cement could increase Marshall stability, resilient modulus, tensile strength and resistance to moisture damage of mixtures especially at higher condition periods. Use of hydrated lime had better results than Portland cement.

  5. 78 FR 14266 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From Taiwan: Notice of Correction to the Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-05

    ... Milton Koch, AD/CVD Operations, Office 6, Import Administration, International Trade Administration, U.S... film, sheet, and strip (PET Film) from Taiwan.\\1\\ The period of review covered July 1, 2010, through... an incorrect case number associated with PET Film from Taiwan (i.e., incorrect case number A-533-824...

  6. 75 FR 62101 - Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip in Coils From the Republic of Korea: Final Results of Expedited...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-07

    ...\\ ``Gilphy 36'' is a trademark of Imphy, S.A. Certain martensitic precipitation-hardenable stainless steel is... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [C-580-835] Stainless Steel Sheet and... countervailing duty order (``CVD'') on stainless steel sheet and strip in coils from the Republic of Korea...

  7. 75 FR 6627 - Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip in Coils From Mexico; Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-10

    ... martensitic precipitation-hardenable stainless steel is also excluded from the scope of the order. This high... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-201-822] Stainless Steel Sheet and... review of the antidumping duty order on stainless steel sheet and strip (S4) in coils from Mexico. See...

  8. 75 FR 76700 - Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip in Coils From Taiwan: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-09

    ... is a trademark of Imphy, S.A. Certain martensitic precipitation-hardenable stainless steel is also... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-583-831] Stainless Steel Sheet and... antidumping duty order on stainless steel sheet and strip in coils (SSSSC) from Taiwan. This review covers...

  9. 75 FR 6631 - Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip in Coils from Japan: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-10

    ...\\``Gilphy 36'' is a trademark of Imphy, S.A. Certain martensitic precipitation-hardenable stainless steel is... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-588-845] Stainless Steel Sheet and... antidumping duty order on stainless steel sheet and strip in coils (SSSSC) from Japan. This review covers two...

  10. Determination of the most favorable experimental conditions for obtaining asphalt emulsions modified with discarded polymers in the reconstruction of pavements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coward Ugalde, Hector Arturo

    2014-01-01

    The most favorable experimental conditions are determined for the production of asphalt emulsions modified with tire scrap rubber, petroleum material and recycled asphalt in the reconstruction of flexible pavements in a slow breaking process. Asphalt emulsions are made with 65% V/V of fluidized asphalt at different conditions of operation and composition of soap solution. The equipment of a centrifugal pump and a colloidal mill are used. Two different compositions are employed to make soap solutions. The best conditions to prepare the asphalt emulsions in the pilot plant have been: a stirring speed of 2100 rpm in the centrifugal pump and a speed of 3300 rpm of the colloidal mill. Asphaltic grouts made with asphalt emulsion modified to 1% m/m of rubber have shown the best coverage in the stripping test, evidencing little asphalt release, high adhesion of the asphalt on the aggregate and good stability. Asphalt emulsions with rubber are recommended with a granulometry that passes the No. 200 mesh for rubber and use the indicated equipment to carry out the process of asphalt modification to obtain better results in the performance of asphalt emulsion [es

  11. Asphalt in Pavement Maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asphalt Inst., College Park, MD.

    Maintenance methods that can be used equally well in all regions of the country have been developed for the use of asphalt in pavement maintenance. Specific information covering methods, equipment and terminology that applies to the use of asphalt in the maintenance of all types of pavement structures, including shoulders, is provided. In many…

  12. Excess Foundry Sand Characterization and Experimental Investigation in Controlled Low-Strength Material and Hot-Mixing Asphalt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pauul J. Tikalsky

    2004-10-31

    This report provides technical data regarding the reuse of excess foundry sand. The report addresses three topics: (1) a statistically sound evaluation of the characterization of foundry sand, (2) a laboratory investigation to qualify excess foundry sand as a major component in controlled low-strength material (CLSM), and (3) the identification of the best methods for using foundry sand as a replacement for natural aggregates for construction purposes, specifically in asphalt paving materials. The survival analysis statistical technique was used to characterize foundry sand over a full spectrum of general chemical parameters, metallic elements, and organic compounds regarding bulk analysis and leachate characterization. Not limited to characterization and environmental impact, foundry sand was evaluated by factor analyses, which contributes to proper selection of factor and maximization of the reuse marketplace for foundry sand. Regarding the integration of foundry sand into CLSM, excavatable CLSM and structural CLSM containing different types of excess foundry sands were investigated through laboratory experiments. Foundry sand was approved to constitute a major component in CLSM. Regarding the integration of foundry sand into asphalt paving materials, the optimum asphalt content was determined for each mixture, as well as the bulk density, maximum density, asphalt absorption, and air voids at N{sub ini}, N{sub des}, and N{sub max}. It was found that foundry sands can be used as an aggregate in hot-mix asphalt production, but each sand should be evaluated individually. Foundry sands tend to lower the strength of mixtures and also may make them more susceptible to moisture damage. Finally, traditional anti-stripping additives may decrease the moisture sensitivity of a mixture containing foundry sand, but not to the level allowed by most highway agencies.

  13. Excess Foundry Sand Characterization and Experimental Investigation in Controlled Low-Strength Material and Hot-Mixing Asphalt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tikalsky, Paul J. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Bahia, Hussain U. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Deng, An [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Snyder, Thomas [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2004-10-15

    This report provides technical data regarding the reuse of excess foundry sand. The report addresses three topics: a statistically sound evaluation of the characterization of foundry sand, a laboratory investigation to qualify excess foundry sand as a major component in controlled low-strength material (CLSM), and the identification of the best methods for using foundry sand as a replacement for natural aggregates for construction purposes, specifically in asphalt paving materials. The survival analysis statistical technique was used to characterize foundry sand over a full spectrum of general chemical parameters, metallic elements, and organic compounds regarding bulk analysis and leachate characterization. Not limited to characterization and environmental impact, foundry sand was evaluated by factor analyses, which contributes to proper selection of factor and maximization of the reuse marketplace for foundry sand. Regarding the integration of foundry sand into CLSM, excavatable CLSM and structural CLSM containing different types of excess foundry sands were investigated through laboratory experiments. Foundry sand was approved to constitute a major component in CLSM. Regarding the integration of foundry sand into asphalt paving materials, the optimum asphalt content was determined for each mixture, as well as the bulk density, maximum density, asphalt absorption, and air voids at Nini, Ndes, and Nmax. It was found that foundry sands can be used as an aggregate in hot-mix asphalt production, but each sand should be evaluated individually. Foundry sands tend to lower the strength of mixtures and also may make them more susceptible to moisture damage. Finally, traditional anti-stripping additives may decrease the moisture sensitivity of a mixture containing foundry sand, but not to the level allowed by most highway agencies.

  14. Experimental Evaluation of Anti-Stripping Additives Mixing in Road Surface Pavement Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Tienfuan Kerh; Yu-Min Wang; Yulern Lin

    2005-01-01

    Most road surfaces in Taiwan are paved with asphalt concrete but the phenomena of rutting, cracking and stripping of the pavement are frequently occurring due to the effects of traffic flow, thermal variation and water erosion caused by rain. In this study, a series of experiments were performed to examine the effectiveness of anti-stripping fillers, which include; rock flour, rock flour with 1% lime and rock flour with 1% cement, respectively, in the mixture of asphalt concrete. The experime...

  15. Asphalt chemical fractionation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obando P, Klever N.

    1998-01-01

    Asphalt fractionation were carried out in the Esmeraldas Oil Refinery using n-pentane, SiO 2 and different mixture of benzene- methane. The fractions obtained were analyzed by Fourier's Transformed Infrared Spectrophotometry (FTIR)

  16. State of the Art Study on Aging of Asphalt Mixtures and Use of Antioxidant Additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okan Sirin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The detrimental effects of hardening in asphalt pavements were first recognized by pioneering pavement engineers in the 1900s and have been studied extensively during the last 70 years. This hardening process, referred to as asphalt aging, is generally defined as change in the rheological properties of asphalt binders/mixtures due to changes in chemical composition during construction and its service life period. Aging causes the asphalt material to stiffen and embrittle, which affects the durability and leads to a high potential for cracking. This paper presents the state of the art on asphalt and asphalt mixture aging and use of antioxidant additives to retard the aging. A picture of complex molecular structure of asphalt and its changes due to atmospheric condition and various protocols used to simulate aging in laboratory environment are also discussed. Emphasis is given on recent studies on simulation of aging of asphalt mixtures as there has been limited research on mixtures compared to the asphalt binder. Finally, this paper presents the application of antiaging techniques and its mechanism, use of various types of antioxidant additives to retard aging of asphalt and, hence, improve the performance of asphalt pavements.

  17. Laboratory investigation of the performances of cement and fly ash modified asphalt concrete mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suched Likitlersuang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The influence of filler materials on volumetric and mechanical performances of asphalt concrete was investigated in this study. The AC60/70 asphalt binder incorporating with cement and fly ash as filler materials was mixed with limestone following the Marshall mix design method. The filler contents of cement and/or fly ash were varied. The non-filler asphalt concrete mixtures of the AC60/70 and the polymer modified asphalt were prepared for the purpose of comparison. The investigation programme includes the indirect tensile test, the resilient modulus test and the dynamic creep test. The tests are conducted under the humid temperate environments. All tests were then carried out under standard temperature (25 °C and high temperature (55 °C by using a controlled temperature chamber via the universal testing machine. The wet-conditioned samples were prepared to investigate the moisture susceptibility. Results show that cement and/or fly ash were beneficial in terms of improved strength, stiffness and stripping resistance of asphalt mixture. In addition, the combined use of cement and fly ash can enhance rutting resistance at wet and high temperature conditions. The results indicate that the strength, stiffness and moisture susceptibility performances of the asphalt concrete mixtures improved by filler are comparable to the performance of the polymer modified asphalt mixture. Keywords: Asphalt concrete, Filler, Resilient modulus, Dynamic creep test, Moisture susceptibility

  18. Ageing evolution of foamed warm mix asphalt combined with reclaimed asphalt pavement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Martinez, M.; Marsac, P.; Gabet, T.; Pouget, S.; Hammoum, F.

    2017-01-01

    The combination of high rates of reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) and warm mix asphalt (WMA) technologies is still ambiguous in terms of durability. With the aim of clarifying this issue, a study comparing a hot mix asphalt with a WMA prepared using the foaming process technology. Both mixes contain 50% of RAP and are submitted to a laboratory ageing procedure. The long term related performance of the mixtures is compared by means of complex modulus and fatigue testing. Penetration and ring and ball tests are undertaken on the recovered bitumens, as well as the ageing evolution, characterised by the Fourier Transform Infrared analysis. Finally, the Apparent Molecular Weight Distribution (AMWD) of the binders is calculated from rheological measurements using the δ-method. Results show a relation between ageing evolution and mechanical performance. After ageing, the overall tendencies are similar for both processes. [es

  19. 76 FR 2332 - Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip in Coils From Mexico; Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-13

    ... convenience and customs purposes, the Department's written description of the merchandise subject to the order... Department has revised its indirect selling expense calculation since the Preliminary Results. For these final results, we included the total POR indirect selling expenses incurred by all three companies...

  20. Some Properties of Emulsified Asphalt Paving Mixture at Iraqi Environmental Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakir.A.Al-Mishhadani* Hasan.H.Al-Baid

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Cold emulsified asphalt mixture is generally a mix made of emulsified asphalt withaggregate. Emulsified asphalt is manufactured from base asphalt, emulsifier agent and waterwith approximate percentage of 40% to 75% asphalt, 0.1% to 2.5% emulsifier and 25% to60% water plus some minor components. This study aims to use the cold emulsified asphaltmixtures for road construction and maintenance in Iraq as an alternative to the hot asphaltmixtures, due to its economical, practical and environmental advantages. This studyfocusedto test and evaluates the emulsified asphalt material properties to be used as paving mixture.The tested properties of emulsified asphalt mixture were bulk density, air voids, dry Marshallstability, wet Marshall stability, retained Marshall stability, flow tests and compared with thecommon used specification.The results indicate that the emulsified asphalt type cationic slowsetting low viscosity (CSS-1 is very suitable with quartz type of aggregate from Al-Nibaayquarry. From many trial mixes it is found that the best percentages of initial residual bitumencontent to produced adequateresults for coating test ,mixing ,compaction ,curing and Marshallstability were ranged from (2.5%, 3%,3.5%,4% and 4.5%, andthe optimum percentage is(3.5%.Finally it can be conducted that the emulsified asphalt mixture is a suitable alternativemixture to the hot asphalt mixture for road construction and maintenance in Iraq.  

  1. Some Properties of Emulsified Asphalt Paving Mixture at Iraqi Environmental Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakir.A.Al-Mishhadani

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Cold emulsified asphalt mixture is generally a mix made of emulsified asphalt withaggregate. Emulsified asphalt is manufactured from base asphalt, emulsifier agent and waterwith approximate percentage of 40% to 75% asphalt, 0.1% to 2.5% emulsifier and 25% to60% water plus some minor components. This study aims to use the cold emulsified asphaltmixtures for road construction and maintenance in Iraq as an alternative to the hot asphaltmixtures, due to its economical, practical and environmental advantages. This studyfocusedto test and evaluates the emulsified asphalt material properties to be used as paving mixture.The tested properties of emulsified asphalt mixture were bulk density, air voids, dry Marshallstability, wet Marshall stability, retained Marshall stability, flow tests and compared with thecommon used specification.The results indicate that the emulsified asphalt type cationic slowsetting low viscosity (CSS-1 is very suitable with quartz type of aggregate from Al-Nibaayquarry. From many trial mixes it is found that the best percentages of initial residual bitumencontent to produced adequateresults for coating test ,mixing ,compaction ,curing and Marshallstability were ranged from (2.5%, 3%,3.5%,4% and 4.5%, andthe optimum percentage is(3.5%.Finally it can be conducted that the emulsified asphalt mixture is a suitable alternativemixture to the hot asphalt mixture for road construction and maintenance in Iraq.

  2. Influence of the Microwave Heating Time on the Self-Healing Properties of Asphalt Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Norambuena-Contreras

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to evaluate the influence of the microwave heating time on the self-healing properties of fibre-reinforced asphalt mixtures. To this purpose, self-healing properties of dense asphalt mixtures with four different percentages of steel wool fibres were evaluated as the three-point bending strength before and after healing via microwave heating at four different heating times. Furthermore, the thermal behaviour of asphalt mixtures during microwave heating was also evaluated. With the aim of quantifying the efficiency of the repair process, ten damage-healing cycles were done in the test samples. In addition, self-healing results were compared with the fibre spatial distribution inside asphalt samples evaluated by CT-scans. Crack-size change on asphalt samples during healing cycles was also evaluated through optical microscopy. It was found that the heating time is the most influential variable on the healing level reached by the asphalt mixtures tested by microwave radiation. CT-Scans results proved that fibre spatial distribution into the asphalt mixtures play an important role in the asphalt healing level. Finally, it was concluded that 40 s was the optimum heating time to reach the highest healing levels with the lowest damage on the asphalt samples, and that heating times over 30 s can seal the cracks, thus achieving the self-healing of asphalt mixtures via microwave heating.

  3. Dismantling of asphalt and recycling road materials in asphalt layers

    OpenAIRE

    Antunes, M. L.; Batista, F. A.

    2009-01-01

    Este registo pertence ao Repositório Científico do LNEC The interest of recycling of asphalt and other road materials for pavement construction and rehabilitation has been generally growing in Portugal, for the last 15 years. After some occasional demonstration projects dealing with hot and cold in situ recycling of asphalt layers, the first significant experiences with cold in situ recycling and hot mix plant recycling of asphalt applied in full scale rehabilitation projects, ...

  4. Investigation on performances of asphalt mixtures made with Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement: Effects of interaction between virgin and RAP bitumen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Noferini

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available According to most recent surveys, the European area produced 265 mil tonnes of asphalt for road applications in 2014. In the same year, the amount of available RAP was more than 50 mil tonnes. The use of RAP in new blended mixes reduces the need of neat bitumen, making RAP recycling economically attractive. Despite the economic and environmental benefits, road authorities tend to limit the use of RAP in asphalt mixes due to uncertainty about field performances. The present study focuses on the interaction between neat and RAP bitumen in asphalt mixes made with different RAP content. The effects of RAP on physical and rheological properties of the final bituminous blend were investigated. This study is part of a wider research, where a specific type of asphalt mixture was produced with different RAP contents being 10%, 20% and 30% by mass of the mix. Bitumen was extracted and recovered from asphalt mixes, then it was subjected to the following laboratory tests: standard characterization, dynamic viscosity and rheological analysis with DSR. Findings showed that the effects of RAP bitumen on the final blend varied in proportion to RAP content. A threshold value of RAP content was found, below which bitumen was not subjected to significant changes in physical and rheological properties. Practical implications on production methods and paving of RAP mixes are also proposed. Keywords: Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP, Recycling, Bitumen blending, Bitumen rheology

  5. A review of asphalt and asphalt mixture aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilmar Darío Fernández-Gómez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an extensive review of the pertinent literature regarding asphalt and asphalt mixture Aging. Aging affects flexible pavement performance and is produced by intrinsic and extrinsic variables as well as exposure time. Intrinsic variables include asphalt and aggregate properties, a mixture’s asphalt content, binder film thickness and air void content; extrinsic variables are associated with production (short-term aging and exposure to environmental field conditions (long-term aging. Taken together, both variables demonstrate that aging results from three distinct mechanisms: volatilisation, oxidation and steric hardening. Temperature, pressure and photo degradation treatments are used to simulate aging in the laboratory and empirical and semi-empirical models are created to represent and study aging. Aging increases asphalt complex modulus and decreases the phase angle. Mixtures become stiffer while fatigue life becomes reduced. Carbonyl and sulfoxide group formation in asphalt are often studied as such chemical changes show oxidation in aged asphalts. The prevailing models used to predict asphalt aging are discussed, though more comprehensive research into asphalt aging is still needed.

  6. Acoustic Properties of Absorbent Asphalts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trematerra, Amelia; Lombardi, Ilaria

    2017-08-01

    Road traffic is one of the greater cause of noise pollution in urban centers; a prolonged exposure to this source of noise disturbs populations subjected to it. In this paper is reported a study on the absorbent coefficients of asphalt. The acoustic measurements are carried out with a impedance tube (tube of Kundt). The sample are measured in three conditions: with dry material (traditional), “wet” asphalt and “dirty” asphalt.

  7. Performance prediction of hot mix asphalt from asphalt binders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafeez, I.; Kamal, M.A.; Shahzad, Q.; Bashir, N.; Ahadi, M.R.

    2012-01-01

    Asphalt binder being a high weight hydrocarbon contains asphaltene and maltene and is widely used as cementing materials in the construction of flexible pavements. Its performance in hot mix asphalt also depends on combining with different proportions of aggregates. The main objective of this study was to characterize asphalt cement rheological behavior and to investigate the influence of asphalt on asphalt-aggregate mixtures prepared with virgin binders and using polymers. Binder rheology and mixtures stiffness were determined under a range of cyclic loadings and temperature conditions. Master curves were developed for the evaluation of relationship between parameters like complex modulus and phase angle at different frequencies. Horizontal shift factors were also computed to determine time and temperature response of binders and mixes. The results showed that the stiffness of both the binder and the mixes depends on temperature and frequency of load. Polymer modified binder is least susceptible to temperature variations as compared to other virgin asphalt cement. Performance of asphalt mixtures can be predicted from those of asphalt binders using the master curve technique. (author)

  8. Utilization of recycled asphalt concrete with warm mix asphalt and cost-benefit analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julide Oner

    Full Text Available The asphalt paving industries are faced with two major problems. These two important challenges are generated with an increase in demand for environmentally friendly paving mixtures and the problem of rapidly rising raw materials. Recycling of reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP is a critical necessity to save precious aggregates and reduce the use of costly bitumen. Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA technology provides not only the option of recycling asphalt pavement at a lower temperature than the temperature maintained in hot mixtures but also encourages the utilization of RAP and therefore saves energy and money. This paper describes the feasibility of utilizing three different WMA additives (organic, chemical and water containing at recommended contents with different percentages of RAP. The mechanical properties and cost-benefit analysis of WMA containing RAP have been performed and compared with WMA without RAP. The results indicated that, 30%, 10% and 20% can be accepted as an optimum RAP addition related to organic, chemical and water containing additives respectively and organic additive with 30% RAP content has an appreciable increase in tensile strength over the control mix. It was also concluded that the RAP with WMA technology is the ability to reduce final cost compared to HMA and WMA mixtures.

  9. Utilization of recycled asphalt concrete with warm mix asphalt and cost-benefit analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oner, Julide; Sengoz, Burak

    2015-01-01

    The asphalt paving industries are faced with two major problems. These two important challenges are generated with an increase in demand for environmentally friendly paving mixtures and the problem of rapidly rising raw materials. Recycling of reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) is a critical necessity to save precious aggregates and reduce the use of costly bitumen. Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA) technology provides not only the option of recycling asphalt pavement at a lower temperature than the temperature maintained in hot mixtures but also encourages the utilization of RAP and therefore saves energy and money. This paper describes the feasibility of utilizing three different WMA additives (organic, chemical and water containing) at recommended contents with different percentages of RAP. The mechanical properties and cost-benefit analysis of WMA containing RAP have been performed and compared with WMA without RAP. The results indicated that, 30%, 10% and 20% can be accepted as an optimum RAP addition related to organic, chemical and water containing additives respectively and organic additive with 30% RAP content has an appreciable increase in tensile strength over the control mix. It was also concluded that the RAP with WMA technology is the ability to reduce final cost compared to HMA and WMA mixtures.

  10. Recovery of asphalt from bituminous minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jossinet, J

    1881-12-31

    A process is disclosed for the recovery of asphalt from bituminous minerals, consisting in that the mineral is extracted with mineral oil, which is recovered by distilling the raw asphalt and distilling the solution to obtain on the one hand the liquid oil contained in the raw asphalt for use in the extraction and on the other hand distilled asphalt.

  11. Mechanical Properties of Warm Mix Asphalt Prepared Using Foamed Asphalt Binders : Executive Summary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    Hot mix asphalt (HMA) is a mixture containing aggregates and asphalt binders prepared at specified : proportions. The aggregates and asphalt binder proportions are determined through a mix design : procedure such as the Marshall Mix Design or the Sup...

  12. Pavement Stripping in Saudi Arabia: Prediction and Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.I. Al-Abdul Wahhab

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Pavement weathering or stripping is a major distress in highway networks in arid regions. Using the Saudi Arabian road network as a case study area, seventeen road test sections were selected, out of which eight were stripped and nine were non-stripped. Aggregates from quarries used to build these sections were also collected and subjected to detailed physical and chemical tests to evaluate the ability of these tests to distinguish between stripped and non-stripped sections. The modified Lottman test was used to distinguish between compacted mixes. In addition, the Swedish Rolling Bottle test, was also found to be effective in being able to distinguish between different asphalt-aggregates for stripping potential. Eleven anti-stripping liquid additives, lime and cement, in addition to two polymers, were evaluated for their ability to reduce/eliminate stripping potential of stripping-prone aggregates. It was found that EE-2 Polymer, Portland cement, and their combination were effective with all aggregate sources.

  13. A study on engineering characteristics of asphalt concrete using filler with recycled waste lime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung Do, Hwang; Hee Mun, Park; Suk keun, Rhee

    2008-01-01

    This study focuses on determining the engineering characteristics of asphalt concrete using mineral fillers with recycled waste lime, which is a by-product of the production of soda ash (Na(2)CO(3)). The materials tested in this study were made using a 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% mixing ratio based on the conventional mineral filler ratio to analyze the possibility of using recycled waste lime. The asphalt concretes, made of recycled waste lime, hydrated lime, and conventional asphalt concrete, were evaluated through their fundamental engineering properties such as Marshall stability, indirect tensile strength, resilient modulus, permanent deformation characteristics, moisture susceptibility, and fatigue resistance. The results indicate that the application of recycled waste lime as mineral filler improves the permanent deformation characteristics, stiffness and fatigue endurance of asphalt concrete at the wide range of temperatures. It was also determined that the mixtures with recycled waste lime showed higher resistance against stripping than conventional asphalt concrete. It was concluded from various test results that a waste lime can be used as mineral filler and, especially, can greatly improve the resistance of asphalt concrete to permanent deformation at high temperatures.

  14. Progresses in irradiating SBS for road asphalt applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Linfan; Xie Leidong; Fu Haiying; Li Yintao; Yu Min; Sheng Kanglong; Yao Side

    2006-01-01

    crosslinked adequately, the PMA exhibited much higher softening point temperature and better ductility at 5 degree C. 3. Different polar monomers were grafted onto SBS by 60 Co γ-rays. The increased solubility of the grafted SBS, especially the contributions by the polarization part and the hydrogen-bond, were obtained by the method of group contribution calculation. The polarity enhancement was also revealed by contact angle measurements of SBS grafted with methyl acrylic acid or acrylic acid. 4. The radiation modified SBS improves cohesion intensity of the PMA, with stronger interfacial bonding between SBS and asphalt components. This facilitates easier swelling and extending of the SBS in the asphalt to form denser and more homogeneous networks of the PMA. In comparison with SBS-modified asphalt by conventional approaches, the road asphalt blended with the irradiated SBS was advantageous with distinct properties of increased thermostability, stronger complex modulus, reduced loss factor, higher SHRP temperature, and better road performance. Results of trial productions showed that PMA of the irradiated SBS exhibited better road performance in anti-stripping, resistance to thermoshrinking cracks at low temperatures and rutting resistance at high temperatures. (authors)

  15. Significance of Fines in Hot Mix Asphalt Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalaitzaki Elvira

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available According to their size, aggregates are classified in coarse grained, fine grained, and fines. The determination of fines content in aggregate materials is very simple and is performed through the aggregate washing during the sieving procedure to define the gradation curve. The very fine material consists of grains having a size lower than 63 μm. The presence of fines directly influences the composition and performance of concrete and asphalt mixtures (e.g. asphalt content, elasticity, fracture. The strength and load carrying capacity of hot mix asphalt (HMA results from the aggregate framework created through particle-particle contact and interlock. Fines or mineral filler have a role in HMA. The coarse aggregate framework is filled by the sand-sized material and finally by the mineral filler. At some point, the smallest particles lose contact becoming suspended in the binder not having the particle-particle contact that is created by the larger particles. The overall effect of mineral filler in hot mix asphalt specimens has been investigated through a series of laboratory tests. It is clear that a behaviour influenced by the adherence of fines to asphalt film has been developed. The optimum bitumen content requirement in case of stone filler is almost the same as that for fly ash. It has been found that the percentage of fly ash filler is crucial if it exceeds approximately a value of 4%.

  16. The Utilization of Graphene Oxide in Traditional Construction Materials: Asphalt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenbo Zeng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the advanced research fields of solar cell and energy storing materials, graphene and graphene oxide (GO are two of the most promising materials due to their high specific surface area, and excellent electrical and physical properties. However, they was seldom studied in the traditional materials because of their high cost. Nowadays, graphene and GO are much cheaper than before with the development of production technologies, which provides the possibility of using these extraordinary materials in the traditional construction industry. In this paper, GO was selected as a nano-material to modify two different asphalts. Then a thin film oven test and a pressure aging vessel test were applied to simulate the aging of GO-modified asphalts. After thermal aging, basic physical properties (softening point and penetration were tested for the samples which were introduced at different mass ratios of GO (1% and 3% to asphalt. In addition, rheological properties were tested to investigate how GO could influence the asphalts by dynamic shearing rheometer tests. Finally, some interesting findings and potential utilization (warm mixing and flame retardants of GO in asphalt pavement construction were explained.

  17. The Utilization of Graphene Oxide in Traditional Construction Materials: Asphalt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Wenbo; Wu, Shaopeng; Pang, Ling; Sun, Yihan; Chen, Zongwu

    2017-01-07

    In the advanced research fields of solar cell and energy storing materials, graphene and graphene oxide (GO) are two of the most promising materials due to their high specific surface area, and excellent electrical and physical properties. However, they was seldom studied in the traditional materials because of their high cost. Nowadays, graphene and GO are much cheaper than before with the development of production technologies, which provides the possibility of using these extraordinary materials in the traditional construction industry. In this paper, GO was selected as a nano-material to modify two different asphalts. Then a thin film oven test and a pressure aging vessel test were applied to simulate the aging of GO-modified asphalts. After thermal aging, basic physical properties (softening point and penetration) were tested for the samples which were introduced at different mass ratios of GO (1% and 3%) to asphalt. In addition, rheological properties were tested to investigate how GO could influence the asphalts by dynamic shearing rheometer tests. Finally, some interesting findings and potential utilization (warm mixing and flame retardants) of GO in asphalt pavement construction were explained.

  18. SYSTEM FOR CONTROLLING ELECTRIC DRIVE OF ASPHALT CONCRETE MIXING PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Surmak

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available It is proposed to evaluate quality of asphalt concrete mixture through definition of current component variable of a drive motor and measurement of its derivative sign. In order to carry out final determination of mixture uniformity a transducer on the basis of a nuclear magnetic resonance is applied. Block diagram of the system is presented and algorithm of its operation is given in the paper. In addition to improvement of the finished product quality the application of the system makes it possible to reduce bitumen consumption used for production of asphalt concrete.

  19. 76 FR 25670 - Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip in Coils From Italy: Final Results of the Full Five-Year (“Sunset...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-05

    ... martensitic precipitation-hardenable stainless steel is also excluded from the scope of the order. This high... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-475-824] Stainless Steel Sheet and... duty order on stainless steel sheet and strip (``SSSS'') in coils from Italy would be likely to lead to...

  20. Hydrogenizing oils, asphalts, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1925-03-14

    The hydrogenation of carbonaceous solids in presence of combined sulfur, e.g., sulfides as described in the parent specification is applied to the treatment of rock oils, shale oils, resins, ozokerite, asphalt, and the like, or fractions, residues, or acid sludge or other conversion products thereof, alone or mixed. Preferably the hydrogen or other reducing gas is in excess and under pressure, and is either circuited or led through a series of treatment vessels, hydrogen being added for that used. In an example, residues from American crude oil are passed continuously with hydrogen at 200 atmospheres and 450 to 500/sup 0/C over pressed precipitated cobalt sulfide, the issuing gases being cooled to condense the light oil produced.

  1. Investigation of Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA) Technologies and Increased Percentages of Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP) in Asphalt Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    The implementation of warm-mix asphalt (WMA) is becoming more widespread with a growing number of contractors utilizing various WMA technologies. Early research suggests WMA may be more susceptible to moisture damage than traditional hot-mix asphalt ...

  2. Arrangement for the measurement of the quantity of asphalt in an asphaltic compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noma, I.; Taniguchi, K.

    1978-01-01

    The arrangement for the measurement of the quantity of asphalt in an asphaltic compound in an apparatus for the mixture of asphalt components and an aggregate for the formation of an asphaltic compound characterized by the inclusion of a member for the transmission of a neutron beam which reacts with the hydrogen atoms in the asphaltic compound in such a way that the energy of a neutron beam is adsorbed; a continuous transport device feeds a continuous supply of the asphalt compound past the neutron beam; a member responds to an automatic detector for the quantity of asphaltic components in the asphaltic compound and provides an adjustment so that the quantity [of asphaltic components in asphaltic compound] may be held at a constant value. (G.C.)

  3. A review of warm mix asphalt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA) technology, recently developed in Europe, is gaining strong interest in the US. By : lowering the viscosity of asphalt binder and/or increasing the workability of mixture using minimal heat, WMA : technology allows the mixing, ...

  4. Controlling conductivity of asphalt concrete with graphite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Electrically conductive asphalt concrete has a huge potential for various multifunctional applications such as : self-healing, self-sensing, and deicing. In order to utilize the full spectrum of applications of electrically conductive : asphalt compo...

  5. Constructing better roads with asphalt rubber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pais Jorge C.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Brazilians mixtures containing asphalt rubber were evaluated by mechanical laboratory tests. A conventional mixture with asphalt CAP-50/70 was produced as a mixture control. With the aim of compare the Brazilians mixtures performance, a Portuguese asphalt rubber mixture was tested as well. The testing set involved the determination of the mechanical properties, fatigue and permanent deformation, of asphalt rubber produced by wet process through two different systems: continuous blend and terminal blend. The asphalt rubber morphology was evaluated in order to determine the compatibility of the systems. The asphalt rubber mixtures exhibit good resistance to permanent deformation and prolonged fatigue life in relation to mixture control. Therefore it is concluded that the application of asphalt rubber alters the characteristics of asphalt mixture in a very beneficial way.

  6. VISCOELASTIC STRUCTURAL MODEL OF ASPHALT CONCRETE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Bogomolov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The viscoelastic rheological model of asphalt concrete based on the generalized Kelvin model is offered. The mathematical model of asphalt concrete viscoelastic behavior that can be used for calculation of asphalt concrete upper layers of non-rigid pavements for strength and rutting has been developed. It has been proved that the structural model of Burgers does not fully meet all the requirements of the asphalt-concrete.

  7. Rutting Prediction in Asphalt Pavement Based on Viscoelastic Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahi Mohammed Hadi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rutting is one of the most disturbing failures on the asphalt roads due to the interrupting it is caused to the drivers. Predicting of asphalt pavement rutting is essential tool leads to better asphalt mixture design. This work describes a method of predicting the behaviour of various asphalt pavement mixes and linking these to an accelerated performance testing. The objective of this study is to develop a finite element model based on viscoplastic theory for simulating the laboratory testing of asphalt mixes in Hamburg Wheel Rut Tester (HWRT for rutting. The creep parameters C1, C2 and C3 are developed from the triaxial repeated load creep test at 50°C and at a frequency of 1 Hz and the modulus of elasticity and Poisson’ s ratio determined at the same temperature. Viscoelastic model (creep model is adopted using a FE simulator (ANSYS in order to calculate the rutting for various mixes under a uniform loading pressure of 500 kPa. An eight-node with a three Degrees of Freedom (UX, UY, and UZ Element is used for the simulation. The creep model developed for HWRT tester was verified by comparing the predicted rut depths with the measured one and by comparing the rut depth with ABAQUS result from literature. Reasonable agreement can be obtained between the predicted rut depths and the measured one. Moreover, it is found that creep model parameter C1 and C3 have a strong relationship with rutting. It was clear that the parameter C1 strongly influences rutting than the parameter C3. Finally, it can be concluded that creep model based on finite element method can be used as an effective tool to analyse rutting of asphalt pavements.

  8. The crack growth mechanism in asphaltic mixes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, M.M.J.; Hopman, P.C.; Molenaar, A.A.A.

    1995-01-01

    The crack growth mechanism in asphalt concrete (Ac) mixes is studied. In cyclic tests on several asphaltic mixes crack growth is measured, both with crack foils and with cOD-gauges. It is found that crack growth in asphaltic mixes is described by three processes which are parallel in time: cohesive

  9. Induction Healing of Porous Asphalt Concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Q.

    2012-01-01

    Porous asphalt shows excellent performance in both noise reduction and water drainage. Although porous asphalt has these great qualities, its service life is much shorter (sometimes only half) compared to dense graded asphalt roads. Ravelling, which is the loss of aggregate particles from the

  10. Characterization of asphalt treated base course material

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Asphalt-treated bases are often used in new pavements; the materials are available and low-cost, but there is little data on how these materials perform in cold regions. : This study investigated four ATB types (hot asphalt, emulsion, foamed asphalt,...

  11. Asphalt Concrete Mixtures: Requirements with regard to Life Cycle Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Mikolaj

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Design of asphalt concrete, required properties of constituent materials and their mixing ratios, is of tremendous significance and should be implemented with consideration given to the whole life cycle of those materials and the final construction. Conformity with requirements for long term performance of embedded materials is the general objective of the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA. Therefore, within the assessment, material properties need to be evaluated with consideration given to the whole service life—from the point of embedding in the construction until their disposal or recycling. The evaluation focuses on verification of conformity with criteria set for these materials and should guarantee serviceability and performance during their whole service life. Recycling and reuse of asphalt concrete should be preferred over disposal of the material. This paper presents methodology for LCA of asphalt concrete. It was created to ensure not only applicability of the materials in the initial stage, at the point of their embedding, but their suitability in terms of normatively prescribed service performance of the final construction. Methods described and results are presented in a case study for asphalt mixture AC 11; I design.

  12. Initiative assessment of asphalt works

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rikheim, Bente; Kjerschow, Einar

    2003-01-01

    Several asphalt works are utilizing heat from combustion of used oil for drying and heating of rock material in the production of asphalt. According to new regulations on combustion of waste, used oil is to be regarded as waste and subject to emission requirements according to the combustion regulations. Measurements show that emissions of CO, dust, dioxins, TOC and SO 2 exceed the limits set by the regulations. To conform to the regulations these asphalt works must improve their combustion technique. However, such measures may lead to increased formation of NOx. It is recommended that a combustion chamber for drying of rock material should be used in order to reduce the emissions of CO and TOC concentrations. The concentration of SO 2 may be reduced by dry cleaning by means of injection of lime. In the same way, active carbon is injected to remove dioxins. The asphalt works must be outfitted with measuring equipment that monitors and records certain operation and control parameters and some emission to air parameters. Periodic measurements are to be done of heavy metals and dioxins. It is estimated that the measures necessary to make the asphalt works comply with the regulations will cost about NOK 4 530 000 in investment per plant and that the operation expenses will increase by NOK 700 000 per year per plant. This includes maintenance, control etc

  13. Experimental Investigation on Asphalt Binders Ageing Behavior and Rejuvenating Feasibility in Multicycle Repeated Ageing and Recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yihua Nie

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Multicycle repeated utilization of reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP is a quite recent development of sustainable pavement materials technology. To investigate ageing rules and recycling possibility of asphalt binders in repeatedly used asphalt mixture, virgin asphalt AH-70 samples were heated by the rolling thin film oven test (RTFOT at 163°C, respectively, for 40, 85, 180, 240, and 300 minutes to simulate different ageing degrees, and then the aged ones were rejuvenated by adding a self-made rejuvenator. This ageing and recycling process was repeated altogether for 5 cycles to simulate repeated use of RAP binders. In repeated recycling, rejuvenator contents for different cycle numbers or ageing durations were not the same, and the optimum ones were initially estimated by an empirical formula and finally obtained by comparative tests. Empirical rheological tests and the infrared spectral (IR analysis were done before and after each cycle of recycling. Results indicate that for impact on deterioration of asphalt binders, ageing time is more important than cycle number. Meanwhile, the asphalt after multicycle repeated ageing and recycling can be restored to the empirical rheological indices level of the virgin asphalt and meet specifications requirements.

  14. An Image-Based Finite Element Approach for Simulating Viscoelastic Response of Asphalt Mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenke Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an image-based micromechanical modeling approach to predict the viscoelastic behavior of asphalt mixture. An improved image analysis technique based on the OTSU thresholding operation was employed to reduce the beam hardening effect in X-ray CT images. We developed a voxel-based 3D digital reconstruction model of asphalt mixture with the CT images after being processed. In this 3D model, the aggregate phase and air void were considered as elastic materials while the asphalt mastic phase was considered as linear viscoelastic material. The viscoelastic constitutive model of asphalt mastic was implemented in a finite element code using the ABAQUS user material subroutine (UMAT. An experimental procedure for determining the parameters of the viscoelastic constitutive model at a given temperature was proposed. To examine the capability of the model and the accuracy of the parameter, comparisons between the numerical predictions and the observed laboratory results of bending and compression tests were conducted. Finally, the verified digital sample of asphalt mixture was used to predict the asphalt mixture viscoelastic behavior under dynamic loading and creep-recovery loading. Simulation results showed that the presented image-based digital sample may be appropriate for predicting the mechanical behavior of asphalt mixture when all the mechanical properties for different phases became available.

  15. Waterproofing improvement of radioactive waste asphalt solid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Katsuhiko; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Ikeoka, Akira.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the waterproofing of asphalt solid by adding an alkaline earth metal salt and, further, paraffin, into radioactive liquid waste when processing asphalt solidification of the radioactive liquid waste. Method: Before processing molten asphalt solidification of radioactive liquid waste, soluble salts of alkaline earth metal such as calcium chloride, magnesium chloride, or the like is added to the radioactive liquid waste. Paraffin having a melting point of higher than 60 0 C, for example, is added to the asphalt, and waterproofing can be remarkably improved. The waste asphalt solid thus fabricated can prevent the swelling thereof, and can improve its waterproofing. (Yoshihara, H.)

  16. Thermal behavior of asphalt cements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claudy, P.M.; Letoffe, J.M.; Martin, D.; Planche, J.P.

    1998-01-01

    Asphalt cements are highly complex mixtures of hydrocarbon molecules whose thermal behavior is of prime importance for petroleum and road industry. From DSC, the determination of several thermal properties of asphalts is given, e.g. glass-transition temperature and crystallized fraction content.The dissolution of a pure n-paraffin C n H 2n+2 in an asphalt, as seen by DSC, should be a single peak. For 20 g of these glasses change with time and temperature. The formation of the crystallized phases is superposed to the enthalpic relaxation of the glasses, making a kinetic study very difficult. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  17. Analysis of the usage of rubberized asphalt in hot mix asphalt using Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwidarma Nataadmadja, Adelia; Prahara, Eduardi; Sumbung, Pierre Christian

    2017-12-01

    There has been an increasing demand in using more environmentally friendly materials in pavement construction. One of the alternative materials that have been widely used is the Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP) aggregates. The RAP aggregates are derived from the crushed and screened pavement materials that contain asphalt and aggregates. This material is usually combined with natural aggregates and virgin asphalt binder to construct a new pavement. There have been numerous positive feedbacks in using this material although RAP aggregates also have certain weaknesses, such as questionable interaction between virgin and recycled materials and increased stiffness of RAP binder. Moreover, there has been a push on using rubber as an additive to asphalt binder to improve the welfare of rubber farmers. This research combines the usage of both latex and RAP as the ingredients to design hot mix asphalt (HMA) as latex could help in improving the flexibility of HMA and the interaction between the virgin and recycled materials. The main objective of this research is to find a suitable percentage of RAP aggregates to be used in HMA with certain percentage of latex as the binder additive.

  18. Assessment of low temperature cracking in asphalt pavement mixes and rheological performance of asphalt binders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowah-Kuma, David

    Government spends a lot of money on the reconstruction and rehabilitation of road pavements in any given year due to various distresses and eventual failure. Low temperature (thermal) cracking, one of the main types of pavement distress, contributes partly to this economic loss, and comes about as a result of accumulated tensile strains exceeding the threshold tensile strain capacity of the pavement. This pavement distress leads to a drastic reduction of the pavement's service life and performance. In this study, the severity of low temperature (thermal) cracking on road pavements selected across the Province of Ontario and its predicted time to failure was assessed using the AASTHO Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide (MEPDG) and AASHTOWARE(TM) software, with inputs such as creep compliance and tensile strength from laboratory test. Highway 400, K1, K2, Y1, Sasobit, Rediset LQ, and Rediset WMX were predicted to have a pavement in-service life above 15 years. Additionally, the rheological performance of the recovered asphalt binders was assessed using Superpave(TM) tests such as the dynamic shear rheometer (DSR) and bending beam rheometer (BBR). Further tests using modified standard protocols such as the extended bending beam rheometer (eBBR) (LS-308) test method and double-edge notched tension (DENT) test (LS-299) were employed to evaluate the failure properties associated with in service performance. The various rheological tests showed K1 to be the least susceptible to low temperature cracking compared to the remaining samples whiles Highway 24 will be highly susceptible to low temperature cracking. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis was performed on the recovered asphalt binders to determine the presence of metals such as zinc (Zn) and molybdenum (Mo) believed to originate from waste engine oil, which is often added to asphalt binders. Finally, the severity of oxidative aging (hardening) of the recovered asphalt binders was also evaluated using the

  19. Influence of Temperature Upon Permanent Deformation Parameters of Asphalt Concrete Mixes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amjad Hamad Albayati

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The performance of asphalt concrete pavement has affected by many factors, the temperature is the most important environmental one which has a large effect on the structural behavior of flexible pavement materials. The main cause of premature failure of pavement is the rutting, Due to the viscoelastic nature of the asphalt cement, rutting is more pronounced in hot climate areas because the viscosity of the asphalt binder which is inversely related to rutting is significantly reduced with the increase in temperature resulting in a more rut susceptible paving mixtures. The objective of this study is to determine the effect of temperatures variations on the permanent deformation parameters (permanent strain (p, intercept (a, slope (b, Alpha and Mu as well as resilient strain (r and resilient modulus (Mr. To achieve this objective, one aggregate gradation with 12.5mm nominal maximum size, two grades of asphalt cements (40-50 and 60-70 brought form Al- Daurah refinery, limestone dust filler has been used to prepare the asphalt concrete mixtures. 30 Marshall specimens were prepared to determine the optimum asphalt cement content. Thereafter, 30 cylindrical asphalt concrete specimens (102mm in diameter and 203 mm in height are prepared in optimum asphalt cement and optimum ±0.5 percent. The prepared specimens were used in uniaxial repeated load test to evaluate the permanent deformation parameters of asphalt concrete mixes under the following testing temperature (5, 15, 25, 40 and 60c. The test result analyses appeared that Mr is decrease 51 percent when temperature increased from 5 c to 25 c and then decrease 22 percent with further increase in temperature from 25 c to 60 c. Also, the Alpha value decreases by a factor of 1.25 and 1.13 when temperature increases from 5 c to 25 c and 25 c to 60 c, espectively. Finally, statistical models were developed to predict the Alpha and Mu parameters of permanent deformation.

  20. Effect of Waste Plastic as Bitumen Modified in Asphalt Mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Mohd Ezree

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study are to investigate the engineering properties of the asphalt mixtures containing waste plastic at different percentages i.e. 4%, 6%, 8%, and 10% by weight of bitumen. The experimental tests performed in the study were stability, tensile strength, resilient modulus and dynamic creep test. Results showed that the mixture with 4% plastic has the highest stability (184kN. However, the stability slightly decreases with the increase of plastic additive. On the other hand, the highest tensile strength among the modified asphaltic concrete is 1049kPa (8% plastic added. The modified asphalt mixture with 8% plastic has the highest resilient modulus, which is 3422 MPa (25°C and 494Mpa (40°C. Where the highest creep modulus recorded is 73.30Mpa at 8% plastic added. It can be concluded that the addition of 8% plastic gave the highest value properties of asphalt mixture. Finally, it can be said that 8% plastic is the optimum value adding.

  1. Varicose vein stripping

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stripping; Venous reflux - vein stripping; Venous ulcer - veins Patient Instructions Surgical wound care - open Varicose veins - what to ask your doctor Images Circulatory system References American Family Physician. Management of varicose veins. www.aafp.org/afp/2008/ ...

  2. Effect of using of reclaimed asphalt and/or lower temperature asphalt on the availability of the road network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nicholls, C.; Wayman, M.; Mollenhauer, K.; McNally, C.; Tabakovic, A.; Varveri, A.; Cassidy, S.; Shahmohammadi, R.; Taylor, R.

    2015-01-01

    The use of reclaimed asphalt, secondary component materials and/or additives and lower temperature asphalt are being increasingly used in order to improve the sustainability of asphalt production. The use of reclaimed asphalt reduces the need for virgin materials whilst lower temperature asphalts

  3. Design and evaluation of foamed asphalt base materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Foamed asphalt stabilized base (FASB) combines reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP), recycled : concrete (RC), and/or graded aggregate base (GAB) with a foamed asphalt binder to produce a : partially stabilized base material. The objectives of this study...

  4. Mechanical Properties of Warm Mix Asphalt Prepared Using Foamed Asphalt Binders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    Warm mix asphalt (WMA) is a name given to a group of technologies that have the common purpose of reducing the viscosity : of the asphalt binders. This reduction in viscosity offers the advantage of producing asphalt-aggregate mixtures at lower mixin...

  5. Process of preparing asphalt bodies, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klever, H W

    1924-05-03

    A process for the preparation of asphaltic bodies is characterized in that bituminous minerals such as oil-shale, coal, etc. are submitted to a heating process, with or without pressure, which is so mild that asphaltic bodies result and petroleum and tar oils are formed only in small amounts, and that the asphaltic bodies are used either together with the mineral constituents or after filtration from the latter.

  6. Operational properties of nanomodified stone mastic asphalt

    OpenAIRE

    Inozemtsev Sergey Sergeevich; Korolev Evgeniy Valer’evich

    2015-01-01

    In order to prolong the lifetime and to improve the quality of pavements made of asphalt concrete it is necessary to apply innovative solutions in the process of design of such building materials. In order to solve the problem of low durability of asphalt concrete a modifier was proposed, which consists of diatomite, iron hydroxide sol (III) and silica sol. Application of the diatomite with nanoscale layer of nanomodifier allows getting a stone mastic asphalt, which has high values of physica...

  7. A comprehensive review on self-healing of asphalt materials: Mechanism, model, characterization and enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Daquan; Sun, Guoqiang; Zhu, Xingyi; Guarin, Alvaro; Li, Bin; Dai, Ziwei; Ling, Jianming

    2018-05-09

    Self-healing has great potential to extend the service life of asphalt pavement, and this capability has been regarded as an important strategy when designing a sustainable infrastructure. This review presents a comprehensive summary of the state-of-the-art investigations concerning the self-healing mechanism, model, characterization and enhancement, ranging from asphalt to asphalt pavement. Firstly, the self-healing phenomenon as a general concept in asphalt materials is analyzed including its definition and the differences among self-healing and some viscoelastic responses. Additionally, the development of self-healing in asphalt pavement design is introduced. Next, four kinds of possible self-healing mechanism and corresponding models are presented. It is pointed out that the continuum thermodynamic model, considering the whole process from damage initiation to healing recovery, can be a promising study field. Further, a set of self-healing multiscale characterization methods from microscale to macroscale as well as computational simulation scale, are summed up. Thereinto, the computational simulation shows great potential in simulating the self-healing behavior of asphalt materials from mechanical and molecular level. Moreover, the factors influencing self-healing capability are discussed, but the action mechanisms of some factors remain unclear and need to be investigated. Finally, two extrinsic self-healing technologies, induction heating and capsule healing, are recommended as preventive maintenance applications in asphalt pavement. In future, more effective energy-based healing systems or novel material-based healing systems are expected to be developed towards designing sustainable long-life asphalt pavement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Modified asphalt for pavements; Hosoyo kaishitsu asufuaruto ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsukagoshi, T. [Nippon Oil Co. Ltd., Yokohama (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Modified asphalt has been used widely in such applications as countermeasure against rutting, countermeasure against wear caused by tire chains in snowy and cold areas, or bridge deck pavement. Features of various kinds of modified asphalt, standards, and standard properties are introduced. Modified asphalt containing natural asphalt is used for steel plate deck pavement. Semi-blown asphalt is used when emphasis must be given to the countermeasure for flowing resistance of asphalt pavement. Features and standards of asphalt containing rubber, thermoplastic elastomer, and thermoplastic resin are described. Asphalt containing heat-setting resin shows excellent characteristics, which other types of modified asphalt do not possess, in the laboratory resistance test for fatigue, flowing, and wear. Change in the history of modified asphalt in Japan from the initial stage to the present are explained and shown in a table together with time and phenomena, and the change in the production of modified asphalt is shown. 15 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. Process of coagulating asphalts, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaeffer, J A; Pfersch, G

    1931-03-28

    The present invention has for its object a process of deasphaltizing and deparaffining applicable to mixtures of hydrocarbons such as crude mineral oils and tars obtained under the influence of heat from shales, lignites, peats, and similar products, to natural bitumens and those obtained by extraction with organic solvents and also all those derived from the substances, the process in question having the following characteristics: the coagulation or the precipitation of the asphaltic material, the resinous material, and the asphaltic and resinous material, which is found in the colloidal state or any other state in the substances given above, is obtained by the addition of a small amount of solvent and of acids or mixtures of acids.

  10. Aging of Rejuvenated Asphalt Binders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Mohammadafzali

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An important concern that limits the RAP content in asphalt mixtures is the fact that the aged binder that is present in the RAP can cause premature cracking. Rejuvenators are frequently added to high RAP mixtures to enhance the properties of the binder. There is no existing method to predict the longevity of a rejuvenated asphalt. This study investigated the aging of rejuvenated binders and compared their durability with that of virgin asphalt. Various samples with different types and proportions of RAP, virgin binder, and rejuvenator were aged by RTFO and three cycles of PAV. DSR and BBR tests were conducted to examine the high-temperature and low-temperature rheological properties of binders. Results indicated that the type and dosage of the rejuvenator have a great influence on the aging rate and durability of the binder. Some rejuvenators make the binder age slower, while others accelerate aging. These observations confirm the importance of evaluating the long-term aging of recycled binders. For this purpose, critical PAV time was proposed as a measure of binder’s longevity.

  11. Sustainable asphalt pavement: Application of slaughterhouse waste oil and fly ash in asphalt binder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez Ramos, Jorge Luis

    Increasing energy costs, lack of sufficient natural resources and the overwhelming demand for petroleum has stimulated the development of alternative binders to modify or replace petroleum-based asphalt binders. In the United States, the petroleum-based asphalt binder is mainly used to produce the Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA). There are approximately 4000 asphalt plants that make 500 million tons of asphalt binder valued at roughly 3 billion/year. The instability of the world's oil market has pushed oil prices to more than 80 per barrel in 2012, which increased the cost of asphalt binder up to $570 per ton. Therefore, there is a timely need to find alternative sustainable resources to the asphalt binder. This paper investigates the possibility of the partial replacement of the asphalt binder with slaughterhouse waste and/or fly ash. In order to achieve this objective, the asphalt binder is mixed with different percentages of waste oil and/or fly ash. In order to investigate the effect of these additives to the performance of the asphalt binder, a complete performance grade test performed on multiple samples. The results of the performance grade tests are compared with a control sample to observe how the addition of the waste oil and/or fly ash affects the sample. Considering the increasing cost and demand of asphalt, the use of slaughterhouse waste oil and/or fly ash as a partial replacement may result in environmental and monetary improvements in the transportation sector.

  12. Regional implementation of warm mix asphalt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Asphalt is used in over 94 percent of all paved roadways in the United States. The ability to reduce its cost and emissions : while improving its performance has benefits that could potentially change the direction the asphalt industry moves toward i...

  13. Laboratory evaluation of warm mix asphalt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-14

    "Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) has been traditionally produced at a discharge temperature of between : 280F (138C) and 320 F (160C), resulting in high energy (fuel) costs and generation of greenhouse : gases. The goal for Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA) is to...

  14. Hot Mix Asphalt Recycling : Practices and Principles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohajeri, M.

    2015-01-01

    Hot mix asphalt recycling has become common practice all over the world since the 1970s because of the crisis in oil prices. In the Netherlands, hot recycling has advanced to such an extent that in most of the mixtures more than 50% of reclaimed asphalt (RA) is allowed. These mixtures with such a

  15. Mix Proportion Design of Asphalt Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xianhu; Gao, Lingling; Du, Shoujun

    2017-12-01

    Based on the gradation of AC and SMA, this paper designs a new type of anti slide mixture with two types of advantages. Chapter introduces the material selection, ratio of ore mixture ratio design calculation, and determine the optimal asphalt content test and proportioning design of asphalt concrete mix. This paper introduces the new technology of mix proportion.

  16. Advanced evaluation of asphalt mortar for induction healing purposes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apostolidis, P.; Liu, X.; Scarpas, Athanasios; Kasbergen, C.; van de Ven, M.F.C.

    2016-01-01

    Induction heating technique is an innovative asphalt pavement maintenance method that is applied to inductive asphalt concrete mixes in order to prevent the formation of macro-cracks by increasing locally the temperature of asphalt. The development of asphalt mixes with improved electrical and

  17. Evaluation and Study the Effect of Additives and Other Factors on Tensile Strength of Asphalt Paving Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanaa Khaleel A. Al-Baiti

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The resistance of asphaltic concrete to cracking is dependent upon its tensile strength and flexibility characteristics. Also the low tensile strength has recognized as a major contributor to other performance problems. The fatigue life of mixtures decreases exponentially with decreasing of tensile strength. This trend is justified by the loss in stiffness and thereby initiating cracks and stripping. The main objective of this research is intended to study the effect of different variables related with the used materials and the external conditions on the tensile strength and predict a model of indirect tensile strength in asphalt concrete paving materials under the local prevailing conditions and investigate the effect of percent of additives of (Polyestrene resins and Hydrated Lime to enhance the resistance ability of asphalt concrete mixture against distresses. The main affected factors; soaking, asphalt content, compaction, aggregate maximum size and temperature, influence on the indirect tensile strength and presented through a statistics analysis model for tensile strength in asphalt mixture

  18. The Strip Module

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Tommy

    1996-01-01

    When the behaviour of a ship in waves is to be predicted it is convenient to have a tool which includes different approaches to the problem.The aim of this project is to develop such a tool named the strip theory module. The strip theory module will consist of submodules dependent on the I...

  19. Science Comic Strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae Hyun; Jang, Hae Gwon; Shin, Dong Sun; Kim, Sun-Ja; Yoo, Chang Young; Chung, Min Suk

    2012-01-01

    Science comic strips entitled Dr. Scifun were planned to promote science jobs and studies among professionals (scientists, graduate and undergraduate students) and children. To this end, the authors collected intriguing science stories as the basis of scenarios, and drew four-cut comic strips, first on paper and subsequently as computer files.…

  20. Anatomy Comic Strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin Seo; Kim, Dae Hyun; Chung, Min Suk

    2011-01-01

    Comics are powerful visual messages that convey immediate visceral meaning in ways that conventional texts often cannot. This article's authors created comic strips to teach anatomy more interestingly and effectively. Four-frame comic strips were conceptualized from a set of anatomy-related humorous stories gathered from the authors' collective…

  1. Latex improvement of recycled asphalt pavement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drennon, C.

    1982-08-01

    The performance of a single unmodified milled recycled asphalt concrete was compared to milled asphalt concrete modified by addition of three types of rubber latex. Latex was added at 2, 3, 5, and 8 percent latex by weight of asphalt in the asphalt concrete. Lattices used were a styrene butadiene (SBR), a natural rubber (NR), an acrylonitrile butadiene (NBR), and four varieties of out of specification SBR lattices. Marshall tests, while indecisive, showed a modest improvement in properties of SBR and NR added material at 3 and 5 percent latex. Addition of NBR latex caused deterioration in Marshall stability and flow over that of control. Repeated load tests were run using the indirect tensile test, analyzed by the VESYS program, which computes life of pavements. Repeated load tests showed improvement in asphalt concrete life when 3 and 5 percent SBR was added. Improvement was also shown by the out of specification SBR.

  2. Rubber modification of asphalt binders and mixes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, G.; Hesp, S.A.M. [Queen`s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry

    1995-12-31

    The physical properties of asphalt binders and concrete, modified with waste rubber tire, were examined. In an experiment designed to address the concern of waste disposal of scrap rubber, a control asphalt, devulcanized rubber modified asphalt and a crumb rubber modified asphalt were used to make asphalt concrete mixes. The three mixes were subjected to a thermal stress test to determine their low temperature fracture temperatures and strengths. Results were discussed in terms of the binder material used. At high service temperatures, the addition of 10% devulcanized rubber was found to have no beneficial effect, whereas the addition of 10% 80 mesh crumb rubber produced a modest improvement in performance. At low temperatures, the addition of devulcanized rubber produced increased resistance to cracking up to 90%. The addition of 10% 80 mesh crumb rubber increased fracture toughness by a factor of 3.3 times. 12 refs., 3 tabs.

  3. About Coloured Cold Asphaltic Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana Judele

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The first coloured bitumen was obtained by using bitumen from Peru and then bitumen from the Middle East, with a low content of asphaltenes, also called "colourable" bitumens. The colours obtained by adding iron oxides led nevertheless to dark colours, due to the presence of asphaltenes. Nowadays the coloured asphalt is obtained from synthesis binders with translucent aspect. The colours are obtained by adding inorganic pigments, mainly iron oxide for red, chromic oxide for green, titanic dioxide for white. The properties and behaviour of the coloured bitumen during its lifetime are comparable with the ones of classic bitumen, sometimes even better.

  4. Properties of Direct Coal Liquefaction Residue Modified Asphalt Mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Ji

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this paper are to use Direct Coal Liquefaction Residue (DLCR to modify the asphalt binders and mixtures and to evaluate the performance of modified asphalt mixtures. The dynamic modulus and phase angle of DCLR and DCLR-composite modified asphalt mixture were analyzed, and the viscoelastic properties of these modified asphalt mixtures were compared to the base asphalt binder SK-90 and Styrene-Butadiene-Styrene (SBS modified asphalt mixtures. The master curves of the asphalt mixtures were shown, and dynamic and viscoelastic behaviors of asphalt mixtures were described using the Christensen-Anderson-Marasteanu (CAM model. The test results show that the dynamic moduli of DCLR and DCLR-composite asphalt mixtures are higher than those of the SK-90 and SBS modified asphalt mixtures. Based on the viscoelastic parameters of CAM models of the asphalt mixtures, the high- and low-temperature performance of DLCR and DCLR-composite modified asphalt mixtures are obviously better than the SK-90 and SBS modified asphalt mixtures. In addition, the DCLR and DCLR-composite modified asphalt mixtures are more insensitive to the frequency compared to SK-90 and SBS modified asphalt mixtures.

  5. Determination of Specific Heat Capacity on Composite Shape-Stabilized Phase Change Materials and Asphalt Mixtures by Heat Exchange System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Biao; Zhou, Xue-Yan; Liu, Jiang; You, Zhanping; Wei, Kun; Huang, Xiao-Feng

    2016-05-19

    Previous research has shown that composite shape-stabilized phase change material (CPCM) has a remarkable capacity for thermal storage and stabilization, and it can be directly applied to highway construction without leakage. However, recent studies on temperature changing behaviors of CPCM and asphalt mixture cannot intuitively reflect the thermoregulation mechanism and efficiency of CPCM on asphalt mixture. The objective of this paper is to determine the specific heat capacity of CPCM and asphalt mixtures mixed with CPCM using the heat exchange system and the data acquisition system. Studies have shown that the temperature-rise curve of 5 °C CPCM has an obvious temperature plateau, while an asphalt mixture mixed with 5 °C CPCM does not; with increasing temperature, the specific heat capacities of both 5 °C CPCM and asphalt mixture first increase and then decrease, while the variation rate of 5 °C CPCM is larger than that of the asphalt mixture, and the maximum specific heat capacity of 5 °C CPCM appears around the initial phase change temperature. It is concluded that the temperature intervals of 5 °C CPCM are -18 °C-7 °C, 7 °C-25 °C and 25 °C-44 °C, respectively, and that of the asphalt mixture are -18 °C~10 °C, -10 °C~5 °C and 5 °C~28 °C. A low dosage of 5 °C CPCM has little influence on the specific heat capacity of asphalt mixture. Finally, the functions of specific heat capacities and temperature for CPCM and asphalt mixture mixed with CPCM were recommended by the sectional regression method.

  6. The Honeycomb Strip Chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graaf, Harry van der; Buskens, Joop; Rewiersma, Paul; Koenig, Adriaan; Wijnen, Thei

    1991-06-01

    The Honeycomb Strip Chamber (HSC) is a new position sensitive detector. It consists of a stack of folded foils, forming a rigid honeycomb structure. In the centre of each hexagonal cell a wire is strung. Conducting strips on the foils, perpendicular to the wires, pick up the induced avalanche charge. Test results of a prototype show that processing the signals form three adjacent strips nearest to the track gives a spatial resolution better than 64 μm for perpendicular incident tracks. The chamber performance is only slightly affected by a magnetic field. (author). 25 refs.; 21 figs

  7. Electrical and mechanical properties of asphalt concrete containing conductive fibers and fillers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, H.; Yang, Jun; Liao, Hui; Chen, Xianhua

    2016-01-01

    Electrically conductive asphalt concrete has the potential to satisfy multifunctional applications. Designing such asphalt concrete needs to balance the electrical and mechanical performance of asphalt concrete. The objective of this study is to design electrically conductive asphalt concrete

  8. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN FOAMING BEHAVIOR AND SURFACE ENERGY OF ASPHALT BINDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-ping Xu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available To solve the problem of insufficiency in microscopic performance of foamed asphalt binder, surface energy theory was utilized to analyze the foaming behavior and wettability of asphalt binder. Based on the surface energy theory, the Wilhelmy plate method and universal sorption device method were employed to measure the surface energy components of asphalt binders and aggregates, respectively. Combined with the traditional evaluation indictor for foamed asphalt, the relationship between the foaming property and surface energy of asphalt binder was analyzed. According to the surface energy components, the wettability of asphalt binder to aggregate was calculated to verify the performance of foamed asphalt mixture. Results indicate that the foaming behavior of asphalt will be influenced by surface energy, which will increase with the decline of surface energy. In addition, the surface energy of asphalt binder significantly influences the wettability of asphalt binder to aggregates. Meanwhile, there is an inversely proportional relationship between surface energy of asphalt binder and wettability. Therefore, it can be demonstrated that surface energy is a good indictor which can be used to evaluate the foaming behavior of the asphalt binder. And it is suggested to choose the asphalt binder with lower surface energy in the process of design of foamed asphalt mixture.

  9. Effects of asphalt rejuvenator on thermal and mechanical properties on oxidized hot mixed asphalt pavements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farace, Nicholas A.; Buttlar, William G.; Reis, Henrique

    2016-04-01

    The utilization of asphalt rejuvenator, and its effectiveness for restoring thermal and mechanical properties was investigated via Disk-shaped Compact Tension (DC(T)) and acoustic emission (AE) testing for determining mechanical properties and embrittlement temperatures of the mixtures. During the DC(T) testing the fracture energies and peak loads were used to measure the resistance of the rejuvenated asphalt to low temperature cracking. The AE testing monitored the acoustic emission activity while the specimens were cooled from room temperature to -40 °C to estimate the temperature at which thermal cracking began (i.e. the embrittlement temperature). First, a baseline response was obtained by obtaining the mechanical and thermal response of virgin HMA samples and HMA samples that had been exposed to oxidative aging for 36 hours at 135°C. The results showed the virgin samples had much higher peak loads and fracture energies than the 36 hours aged samples. Acoustic Emission showed similar results with the virgin samples having embrittlement temperatures 10 °C cooler than the 36 hours aged specimens. Then, overaged for 36 hours specimens were treated different amounts of rejuvenator (10%, 15%, and 20% by weight of binder content) and left to dwell for increased amount of time periods varying from one to eight weeks. It was observed that the AE results showed an improvement of embrittlement temperature with increasing with the dwell times. The 8 weeks specimens had cooler embrittlement temperatures than the virgin specimens. Finally, the low temperature effects on fracture energy and peak load of the rejuvenated asphalt was investigated. Rejuvenator was applied (10% by weight of binder) to specimens aged 36 hours at 135 °C, and the dwell time was varied from 1 to 4 weeks. The results showed that the peak loads were restored to levels of the virgin specimens, and the fracture energies improved to levels beyond that of the virgin specimens. The results also showed a

  10. Method of reprocessing radioactive asphalt solidification products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakaya, Iwao; Murakami, Tadashi; Miyake, Takafumi; Inagaki, Yuzo.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To obtain heat-stable solidification products and decrease the total volume thereof by modifying the solidified form by the reprocessing of existent radioactive asphalt solidification products. Method: Radioactive asphalt solidification products are heated into a fluidized state. Then, incombustible solvents such as perchloroethylene or trichloroethylene are added to a dissolving tank to gradually dissolve the radioactive asphalt solidification products. Thus, organic materials such as asphalts are transferred into the solvent layer, while inorganic materials containing radioactive materials remain as they are in the separation tank. Then, the inorganic materials containing the radioactive materials are taken out and then solidified, for example, by converting them into a rock or glass form. (Kawakami, Y.)

  11. Evaluation of asphalt treated permeable base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    III : Tec : hnical : Report Documentation Page : 1. Report No. : 2. Government Accession : No. : 3. Recipient's Catalog No : . : 201 : 3 : - : 09 : - : - : - : - : - : - : 4. Title and Subtitle : 5. Report Date : Evaluation of Asphalt Treated Permeab...

  12. Properties of sulfur-extended asphalt concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladkikh Vitaliy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, increased functional reliability of asphalt concrete coatings associated with various modifying additives that improve the durability of pavements. Promising builder is a technical sulfur. Asphalt concrete, made using a complex binder consisting of petroleum bitumen and technical sulfur, were calledsSulfur-Extended Asphalt Concrete. Such asphalt concrete, due to changes in the chemical composition of particulate and bitumen, changes the intensity of the interaction at the interface have increased rates of physical and mechanical properties. There was a lack of essential knowledge concerning mechanical properties of the sulfur-bituminous concrete with such an admixture; therefore, we had carried out the necessary examination. It is revealed that a new material satisfies local regulations in terms of compressive and tensile strength, shear resistance, and internal friction.

  13. Linking asphalt binder fatigue to asphalt mixture fatigue performance using viscoelastic continuum damage modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaei, Farinaz; Castorena, Cassie; Kim, Y. Richard

    2016-08-01

    Fatigue cracking is a major form of distress in asphalt pavements. Asphalt binder is the weakest asphalt concrete constituent and, thus, plays a critical role in determining the fatigue resistance of pavements. Therefore, the ability to characterize and model the inherent fatigue performance of an asphalt binder is a necessary first step to design mixtures and pavements that are not susceptible to premature fatigue failure. The simplified viscoelastic continuum damage (S-VECD) model has been used successfully by researchers to predict the damage evolution in asphalt mixtures for various traffic and climatic conditions using limited uniaxial test data. In this study, the S-VECD model, developed for asphalt mixtures, is adapted for asphalt binders tested under cyclic torsion in a dynamic shear rheometer. Derivation of the model framework is presented. The model is verified by producing damage characteristic curves that are both temperature- and loading history-independent based on time sweep tests, given that the effects of plasticity and adhesion loss on the material behavior are minimal. The applicability of the S-VECD model to the accelerated loading that is inherent of the linear amplitude sweep test is demonstrated, which reveals reasonable performance predictions, but with some loss in accuracy compared to time sweep tests due to the confounding effects of nonlinearity imposed by the high strain amplitudes included in the test. The asphalt binder S-VECD model is validated through comparisons to asphalt mixture S-VECD model results derived from cyclic direct tension tests and Accelerated Loading Facility performance tests. The results demonstrate good agreement between the asphalt binder and mixture test results and pavement performance, indicating that the developed model framework is able to capture the asphalt binder's contribution to mixture fatigue and pavement fatigue cracking performance.

  14. Fatigue Behavior of Modified Asphalt Concrete Pavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    saad I. Sarsam

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Fatigue cracking is the most common distress in road pavement. It is mainly due to the increase in the number of load repetition of vehicles, particularly those with high axle loads, and to the environmental conditions. In this study, four-point bending beam fatigue testing has been used for control and modified mixture under various micro strain levels of (250 μƐ, 400 μƐ, and 750 μƐ and 5HZ. The main objective of the study is to provide a comparative evaluation of pavement resistance to the phenomenon of fatigue cracking between modified asphalt concrete and conventional asphalt concrete mixes (under the influence of three percentage of Silica fumes 1%, 2%, 3% by the weight of asphalt content, and (changing in the percentage of asphalt content by (0.5% ± from the optimum. The results show that when Silica fumes content was 1%, the fatigue life increases by 17%, and it increases by 46% when Silica fumes content increases to 2%, and that fatigue life increases to 34 % when Silica fumes content increases to 3% as compared with control mixture at (250 μƐ, 20°C and optimum asphalt content. From the results above, we can conclude the optimum Silica fumes content was 2%. When the asphalt content was 4.4%, the fatigue life has increased with the use of silica fumes by (50%, when asphalt content was 5.4%, the additives had led to increasing the fatigue life by (69%, as compared with the conventional asphalt concrete pavement.

  15. Observation of asphalt binder microstructure with ESEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailenko, P; Kadhim, H; Baaj, H; Tighe, S

    2017-09-01

    The observation of asphalt binder with the environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) has shown the potential to observe asphalt binder microstructure and its evolution with binder aging. A procedure for the induction and identification of the microstructure in asphalt binder was established in this study and included sample preparation and observation parameters. A suitable heat-sampling asphalt binder sample preparation method was determined for the test and several stainless steel and Teflon sample moulds developed, finding that stainless steel was the preferable material. The magnification and ESEM settings conducive to observing the 3D microstructure were determined through a number of observations to be 1000×, although other magnifications could be considered. Both straight run binder (PG 58-28) and an air blown oxidised binder were analysed; their structures being compared for their relative size, abundance and other characteristics, showing a clear evolution in the fibril microstructure. The microstructure took longer to appear for the oxidised binder. It was confirmed that the fibril microstructure corresponded to actual characteristics in the asphalt binder. Additionally, a 'bee' micelle structure was found as a transitional structure in ESEM observation. The test methods in this study will be used for more comprehensive analysis of asphalt binder microstructure. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2017 Royal Microscopical Society.

  16. Operational properties of nanomodified stone mastic asphalt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inozemtsev Sergey Sergeevich

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to prolong the lifetime and to improve the quality of pavements made of asphalt concrete it is necessary to apply innovative solutions in the process of design of such building materials. In order to solve the problem of low durability of asphalt concrete a modifier was proposed, which consists of diatomite, iron hydroxide sol (III and silica sol. Application of the diatomite with nanoscale layer of nanomodifier allows getting a stone mastic asphalt, which has high values of physical and mechanical properties and allows refusing from expensive stabilizing additive. Mineral filler was replaced by diatomite, which has been modified by iron hydroxide sol (III and silica sol. Modified diatomite allows sorption of bitumen and increase the cohesive strength and resistance to shear at positive temperatures. The modified asphalt has higher resistance to rutting at high temperature, abrasion resistance at low temperature and impact of climatic factors: alternate freezing and thawing, wetting-drying, UV and IR radiations. It is achieved by formation of solid and dense bitumen film at the phase interface and controlling the content of light fractions of the bitumen. The modifier consists of sol of iron hydroxide, which blocks the oxidation and polymerization of bitumen during operation. The proposed material allows controlling the initial structure formation of stone mastic asphalt. It was shown that modern test methods allow assessing the durability of asphalt in the design phase compositions.

  17. Use of Adhesion Promoters in Asphalt Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cihlářová Denisa

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of asphalt binder as a significant binder in road constructions is to permanently bind aggregates of different compositions and grain sizes. The asphalt binder itself does not have suitable adhesiveness, so after a period of time, bare grains can appear. This results in a gradual separation of the grains from an asphalt layer and the presence of potholes in a pavement. Adhesion promoters or adhesive agents are important and proven promoters in practice. They are substances mainly based on the fatty acids of polyamides which should increase the reliability of the asphalt’s binder adhesion to the aggregates, thus increasing the lifetime period of the asphalt mixture as well as its resistance to mechanical strain. The amount of a promoter or agent added to the asphalt mixture is negligible and constitutes about 0.3% of the asphalt’s binder weight. Nevertheless, even this quantity significantly increases the adhesive qualities of an asphalt binder. The article was created in cooperatation with the Slovak University of Technology, in Bratislava, Slovakia, and focuses on proving the new AD2 adhesive additive and comparing it with the Addibit and Wetfix BE promoters used on aggregates from the Skuteč - Litická and Bystřec quarries.

  18. Effects of reclaimed asphalt pavement on indirect tensile strength test of conditioned foamed asphalt mix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katman, Herda Yati; Norhisham, Shuhairy; Ismail, Norlela; Ibrahim, Mohd Rasdan; Matori, Mohd Yazip

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of Indirect Tensile Strength (ITS) Test for samples prepared with reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP). Samples were conditioned in water at 25°C for 24 hours prior to testing. Results show that recycled aggregate from reclaimed asphalt pavement performs as well as virgin aggregate.

  19. Durability of European Asphalt Mixtures Containing Reclaimed Asphalt and Warm-Mix Additives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Varveri, A.; Avgerinopoulos, S.; Scarpas, Athanasios

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the moisture susceptibility of European asphalt mixtures (SMA) containing reclaimed asphalt (RA) and warm mix (WMA) additives. Test sections of a typical SMA mixture have been laid, from which cylindrical samples were cored and utilized for laboratory testing. Four variants

  20. Investigation on Tensile Strength Ratio (TSR Specimen to Predict Moisture Sensitivity of Asphalt Pavements Mixture and Using Polymer to Reduce Moisture Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Aziz Hameed Al-Shaybani

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Moisture damage of asphalt concrete is defined as losing the strength and Permanence caused by the active presence of moisture.The most common technique to reduce moisture damage is using modifiers with the asphalt binder or the aggregate.The goal of this study was to explore the effect of various modifiers of polymer on the moisture susceptibility mixture of asphaltic concrete pavement. Modifiers included in this research selected two kinds of polymers Crumb Rubber No 50 (CR No 50 and Methyl Methacrylates (MMA(which are available in the local markets in Iraq and have been used in three percentages for each type. These percentages are (5, 10 and 15% for (CR No 50 and (2.5, 5 and 7.5(% for (MMA.Each type of these polymers is blended with asphalt by wet process at constant blending times for a suitable range of temperatures. The experimental works showed that all polymers modified mixtures have indirect tensile strength higher than control asphalt mixtures, its about (2-15 %, dependent on different type of polymer and polymer concentration under predicted suitable blending time.Test results of indirect tensile strength indicated betterment in modifying the proprieties of mixture, the increased resistance mixture of asphalt concrete pavement versus moisture damage, and reduced the effect of water on asphalt concrete properties. The final result is the addition of (10% CR No 50 and (5% MMA to asphalt mixtures showed an improved mixture of asphalt concrete properties and produced strong mixtures for road construction.One model is predicted for tensile strength ratio [TSR]to estimate the effects of polymer modification on moisture susceptibility mixture of asphalt concrete.

  1. Experimental studies of biodegradation of asphalt by microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mine, Tatsuya; Mihara, Morihiro; Ooi, Takao; Lin, Kong-hua; Kawakami, Yasushi

    2000-04-01

    On the geological disposal system of the radioactive wastes, the activities of the microorganisms that could degrade the asphalt might be significant for the assessment of the system performance. As the main effects of the biodegradation of the asphalt, the fluctuation of leaching behavior of the nuclides included in asphalt waste has been indicated. In this study, the asphalt biodegradation test was carried out. The microorganism of which asphalt degradation ability was comparatively higher under aerobic condition and anaerobic condition was used. The asphalt biodegradation rate was calculated and it was evaluated whether the asphalt biodegradation in this system could occur. The results show that the asphalt biodegradation rate under anaerobic and high alkali condition will be 300 times lower than under aerobic and neutral pH. (author)

  2. Investigating the creep properties of asphaltic concrete containing ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hasan Taherkhani

    2018-03-10

    Mar 10, 2018 ... A three-stage model, developed was fitted to the dynamic ... This indicates that the rutting resistance of such asphalt ... drug delivery [23]. .... Different mathematical ... viour of asphaltic materials and prediction of flow number. A.

  3. Determination of usable residual asphalt binder in RAP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    For current recycled mix designs, the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) assumes 100% contribution of : working binder from Recycled Asphalt Pavement (RAP) materials when added to Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA). However, it is : unclear if this assu...

  4. Comparison of winter temperature profiles in asphalt and concrete pavements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    The objectives of this research were to 1) determine which pavement type, asphalt or concrete, has : higher surface temperatures in winter and 2) compare the subsurface temperatures under asphalt and : concrete pavements to determine the pavement typ...

  5. Terrestrial radiation level in selected asphalt plants in Port Harcourt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Terrestrial radiation level in selected asphalt plants in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. ... An environmental radiation survey in asphalt processing plants in Rivers State was been carried out ... Therefore the results show significant radiological risk.

  6. Appropriate models for estimating stresses and strains in asphalt layers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jooste, FJ

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available The broad objective is to make recommendations for appropriate modelling procedures to be used in the structural design of asphalt layers. Findings of this investigation are intended to be used in refining and validating existing asphalt pavement...

  7. Performance assessment of warm mix asphalt (WMA) pavements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA) is a new technology that was introduced in Europe in 1995. WMA offers several advantages over : conventional asphalt concrete mixtures, including: reduced energy consumption, reduced emissions, improved or more uniform : binder...

  8. Investigation of warm-mix asphalt using Iowa aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    The implementation of warm-mix asphalt (WMA) is becoming more widespread with a growing number of contractors utilizing various WMA technologies. Early research suggests WMA may be more susceptible to moisture damage than traditional hot-mix asphalt ...

  9. Utilizing Lab Tests to Predict Asphalt Concrete Overlay Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    A series of five experimental projects and three demonstration projects were constructed to better understand the performance of pavement overlays using various levels of asphalt binder replacement (ABR) from reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP), recycle...

  10. micro strip gas chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1998-01-01

    About 16 000 Micro Strip Gas Chambers like this one will be used in the CMS tracking detector. They will measure the tracks of charged particles to a hundredth of a millimetre precision in the region near the collision point where the density of particles is very high. Each chamber is filled with a gas mixture of argon and dimethyl ether. Charged particles passing through ionise the gas, knocking out electrons which are collected on the aluminium strips visible under the microscope. Such detectors are being used in radiography. They give higher resolution imaging and reduce the required dose of radiation.

  11. Effects of preparation process on performance of rubber modified asphalt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hanbing; Luo, Guobao; Wang, Xianqiang; Jiao, Yubo

    2015-06-01

    The rational utilization of waste rubber tire is essential for the environmental protection. Utilizing rubber particles to modify asphalt can not only improve asphalt performance, but also help the recycling of waste materials. Considering the effect of different preparation process parameters on the performance of rubber modified asphalt, this paper analyzes the effects of the shear temperature, shear time and shear rate on the performance of rubber modified asphalt, and provided a reference for its preparation.

  12. State of the art: Asphalt for airport pavement surfacing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg White

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Airport runways and taxiways are commonly comprised of a flexible pavement with an asphalt surface. Marshall-designed asphalt with sawn grooves is the most frequent airport asphalt surface material. However, some airports have adopted alternate asphalt mixtures for improved resistance to shear stress and for increased surface texture, allowing grooving to be avoided. Of the alternate asphalt mixtures, stone mastic asphalt is the most commonly reported. Resistance to shear stress is a critical performance requirement for airport surface asphalt. Shear stress resistance minimises the risk of rutting, shoving and groove closure. However, fracture resistance must not be ignored when developing even more shear resistance asphalt mixtures. Significant distress in airport asphalt surfaces, compliant with the traditional prescriptive specification, has increased interest in a performance-based airport asphalt specification. Commonly reported distresses include groove closure in slow moving aircraft areas and shearing in heavy aircraft braking zones. Development of reliable performance-indicative test methods is expected in the future and will enable warranted performance-based asphalt mixture design for airport surfaces. Keywords: Airport, Pavement, Asphalt, Surface

  13. Asphalts tests using onshore drilling oil wells residues; Ensaios asfalticos utilizando residuos de perfuracao onshore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucena, Adriano Elisio de F.L.; Rodrigues, John Kennedy G.; Ferreira, Heber Carlos; Lucena, Leda Christiane de F.L. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil); Lucena, Luciana de F.L. [Faculdade de Ciencias Sociais Aplicada (FACISA), Campina Grande, PB (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The drilling cuttings are one of the residues produced by the oils industries in large amounts during the drilling of oil wells. An alternative of final disposal of the drilling cutting residue is its utilization in asphalt mixtures. Based on this alternative, it was realized chemical and granulometric analysis and tests (Marshall and indirect tensile strength), on the asphaltic mixture using the residue from the oil drilling wells (well: 1-POTI-4-RN, located at Governador DIX-Sept Rosado - RN - Brazil). The achieved results to Marshall test indicated that for the analyzed mixture, the ideal content of residue that can be incorporated to the asphaltic composition and attend at the DNIT-ES 31 (2006) is 5%. To the indirect tensile strength test, the results showed a strength value higher than the minimum limit requested by the DNIT (0,65 MPa). The achieved results indicated the possibility of the utilization of the drilling cuttings in asphaltic pavements as fine aggregate, obeying the percentage limits, as an alternative to the final disposal. (author)

  14. Selective chemical stripping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malavallon, Olivier

    1995-04-01

    At the end of the 80's, some of the large European airlines expressed a wish for paint systems with improved strippability on their aircraft, allowing the possibility to strip down to the primer without altering it, using 'mild' chemical strippers based on methylene chloride. These improvements were initially intended to reduce costs and stripping cycle times while facilitating rapid repainting, and this without the need to change the conventionally used industrial facilities. The level of in-service performance of these paint systems was to be the same as the previous ones. Requirements related to hygiene safety and the environment were added to these initial requirements. To meet customers' expectations, Aerospatiale, within the Airbus Industry GIE, formed a work group. This group was given the task of specifying, following up the elaboration and qualifying the paint systems allowing requirements to be met, in relation with the paint suppliers and the airlines. The analysis made in this report showed the interest of transferring as far upstream as possible (to paint conception level) most of the technical constraints related to stripping. Thus, the concept retained for the paint system, allowing selective chemical stripping, is a 3-coat system with characteristics as near as possible to the previously used paints.

  15. ALICE Silicon Strip Detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Nooren, G

    2013-01-01

    The Silicon Strip Detector (SSD) constitutes the two outermost layers of the Inner Tracking System (ITS) of the ALICE Experiment. The SSD plays a crucial role in the tracking of the particles produced in the collisions connecting the tracks from the external detectors (Time Projection Chamber) to the ITS. The SSD also contributes to the particle identification through the measurement of their energy loss.

  16. Assessment of The Asphalt Produced in Some Factories of Asphalt in Al-Hilla City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Karem Abd

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to present an evaluation of  the properties and characteristics of asphalt concrete of several hot mix asphalt (HMA from five factories in Al-Hilla city. The research is divided into two parts. The first part included the laboratory analysis of samples. The second part is evaluation of results according to standard specifications.      The test results included (Asphalt content percent, stability, creep compliance, voids ratio, density, flow, crushed aggregate percent, Loss Angless abrasion and SO3 percent.The results of laboratorial tests indicated that all properties of asphalt mixes were susceptible and possible to be used in the asphaltic roads. The mixes types prepared and tested according to Marshall method. The values of Marshall stability, creep and density are (9.4, 5.4, 9.8, 9, 8.6, (2.5, 2.7, 2.7, 2.6, 2.3 and (2.334, 2.336, 2.337, 2.333, 2.338 with asphalt content between (4.2 to 4.6 % for all asphalt mixes of different factories.

  17. Evaluating The Performance of Asphalt Concrete Mixes by Utilizing Carbon Black as Asphalt Modifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliaa Faleh Al.ani

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Carbon black produced from several factories in Iraq is expected to provide a reinforcing agent for asphalt paving materials. Carbon black has many characteristics that distinguish  it from conventional mineral fillers, as well as their different function in pavement mixtures. Theory and exercise advanced  in the inclusive utilize of carbon black as a reinforcing agent for rubber has led to concept of asphalt reinforcement. The very fine particles of micro filler added in different contents will be dispersed in asphalt cement improving the mechanical properties of asphalt concrete mixes. In this Four percentages rates were utilized; 0, 3, 6, and 9 percent adding to asphalt grade (60-70. Mixes of asphalt concrete were destined at their optimum asphalt content (OAC then experienced to assess their engineering characteristics that contain moisture of damage, permanent deformation, modulus of resilient and characteristics of fatigue. These characteristics have been assessed utilizing indirect tensile strength, uniaxial repeated loading and repeated flexural beam tests. Mixtures improved with carbon black were existed to have amended permanent deformation and fatigue characteristics, else exhibited high resilient modulus and lower moisture susceptibility. Result showed that a rate changed from 3 to 9 percent has shown an increase in resilient modulus for increment of carbon black and modulus of resilient for mixes with 9 percent carbon black was 1.4 times that for mixes with 0 percent carbon black. The altering of carbon black from a range (3-9 percent has modified the fatigue property of the asphalt concrete mixes as determined by flexural test, Significantly, to modify the asphalt concrete manner taken the  percent of carbon black 6, and to produce the mixes more durable , higher resistance to distresses by adding the local knowledge.

  18. Influence of reclaimed asphalt with polymer modified bitumen on properties of different asphalts for a wearing course

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komačka, J.; Remišová, E.; Liu, G.; Leegwater, G.; Nielsen, E.

    2014-01-01

    A laboratory investigation was performed to study the effect of reclaimed asphalt with polymer modified bitumen on the properties describing asphalt performance. Three types of asphalts used for wearing courses in Europe (SMA 11, AC 11 and PA 8) were investigated. Five combinations of reclaimed

  19. AISI/DOE Advanced Process Control Program Vol. 3 of 6: MICROSTRUCTURAL ENGINEERING IN HOT-STRIP MILLS Part 2 of 2: Constitutive Behavior Modeling of Steels Under Hot-Rolling Conditions; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi-Wen Cheng; Patrick Purtscher

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the development of models for predicting (1) constitutive behaviors and (2) mechanical properties of hot-rolled steels as functions of chemical composition, microstructural features, and processing variables. The study includes the following eight steels: A36, DQSK, HSLA-V, HSLA-Nb, HSLA-50/Ti-Nb, and two interstitial-free (IF) grades. These developed models have been integrated into the Hot-Strip Mill Model (HSMM), which simulates the hot strip rolling mills and predicts the mechanical properties of hot-rolled products. The HSMM model has been developed by the University of British Columbia-Canada as a part of project on the microstructural engineering in hot-strip mills

  20. Natural asphalt modified binders used for high stiffness modulus asphalt concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilski, Marcin; Słowik, Mieczysław

    2018-05-01

    This paper presents a set of test results supporting the possibility of replacing, in Polish climate conditions, hard road 20/30 penetration grade bitumen used in the binder course and/or base course made of high stiffness modulus asphalt concrete with binders comprising of 35/50 or 50/70 penetration grade bitumens and additives in the form of natural Gilsonite or Trinidad Epuré asphalts. For the purpose of comparing the properties of the discussed asphalt binders, values of the Performance Grade have been determined according to the American Superpave system criteria.

  1. Strip interpolation in silicon and germanium strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wulf, E. A.; Phlips, B. F.; Johnson, W. N.; Kurfess, J. D.; Lister, C. J.; Kondev, F.; Physics; Naval Research Lab.

    2004-01-01

    The position resolution of double-sided strip detectors is limited by the strip pitch and a reduction in strip pitch necessitates more electronics. Improved position resolution would improve the imaging capabilities of Compton telescopes and PET detectors. Digitizing the preamplifier waveform yields more information than can be extracted with regular shaping electronics. In addition to the energy, depth of interaction, and which strip was hit, the digitized preamplifier signals can locate the interaction position to less than the strip pitch of the detector by looking at induced signals in neighboring strips. This allows the position of the interaction to be interpolated in three dimensions and improve the imaging capabilities of the system. In a 2 mm thick silicon strip detector with a strip pitch of 0.891 mm, strip interpolation located the interaction of 356 keV gamma rays to 0.3 mm FWHM. In a 2 cm thick germanium detector with a strip pitch of 5 mm, strip interpolation of 356 keV gamma rays yielded a position resolution of 1.5 mm FWHM

  2. Evaluation of rubber modified asphalt demonstration projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    As part of the Ontario Government's medium-term scrap tire management strategy, 11 rubber modified asphalt demonstration projects were funded or completed, with 13 additional projects from small to large (1,500-65,000 passenger tire equivalents) approved for the 1993 paving season. This report presents the results of an August to November 1993 study of the 11 demonstration projects. The evaluation included a description of the technology; technical review of the projects; economic analysis; review of the environmental literature; environmental review of the projects; comparison of the projects with similar ones in other jurisdictions; and recommendations. Detailed information on asphalt technology is included in an appendix.

  3. Hot Mix Asphalt Recycling: Practices and Principles

    OpenAIRE

    Mohajeri, M.

    2015-01-01

    Hot mix asphalt recycling has become common practice all over the world since the 1970s because of the crisis in oil prices. In the Netherlands, hot recycling has advanced to such an extent that in most of the mixtures more than 50% of reclaimed asphalt (RA) is allowed. These mixtures with such a high RA content are produced in a batch plant to which a parallel drum is attached. In this drum RA is pre-heated to approximately 130°C. Since 2007 another hot mix recycling techniques became availa...

  4. Practical experiences with new types of highly modified asphalt binders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Špaček, Petr; Hegr, Zdeněk; Beneš, Jan

    2017-09-01

    As a result of steadily increasing traffic load on the roads in the Czech Republic, we should be focused on the innovative technical solutions, which will lead to extending the life time of asphalt pavements. One of these ways could be the future use of bitumen with a higher degree of polymer modification. This paper discusses experience with comparison of new highly polymer modified asphalt binder type with conventional polymer modified asphalt binder and unmodified binder with penetration grade 50/70. There are compared the results of various types laboratory tests of asphalt binders, as well as the results of asphalt mixtures laboratory tests. The paper also mentions the experience with workability and compactability of asphalt mixture with highly polymer modified asphalt binder during the realization of the experimental reference road section by the Skanska company in the Czech Republic.

  5. Photosensitive Strip RETHGEM

    CERN Document Server

    Peskov, Vladimir; Nappi, E.; Oliveira, R.; Paic, G.; Pietropaolo, F.; Picchi, P.

    2008-01-01

    An innovative photosensitive gaseous detector, consisting of a GEM like amplification structure with double layered electrodes (instead of commonly used metallic ones) coated with a CsI reflective photocathode, is described. In one of our latest designs, the inner electrode consists of a metallic grid and the outer one is made of resistive strips; the latter are manufactured by a screen printing technology on the top of the metallic strips grid The inner metallic grid is used for 2D position measurements whereas the resistive layer provides an efficient spark protected operation at high gains - close to the breakdown limit. Detectors with active areas of 10cm x10cm and 10cm x20cm were tested under various conditions including the operation in photosensitive gas mixtures containing ethylferrocene or TMAE vapors. The new technique could have many applications requiring robust and reliable large area detectors for UV visualization, as for example, in Cherenkov imaging devices.

  6. Volumetric characteristics and compactability of asphalt rubber mixtures with organic warm mix asphalt additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Rodríguez-Alloza

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA refers to technologies that reduce manufacturing and compaction temperatures of asphalt mixtures allowing lower energy consumption and reducing greenhouse gas emissions from asphalt plants. These benefits, combined with the effective reuse of a solid waste product, make asphalt rubber (AR mixtures with WMA additives an excellent environmentally-friendly material for road construction. The effect of WMA additives on rubberized mixtures has not yet been established in detail and the lower mixing/compaction temperatures of these mixtures may result in insufficient compaction. In this sense, the present study uses a series of laboratory tests to evaluate the volumetric characteristics and compactability of AR mixtures with organic additives when production/compaction temperatures are decreased. The results of this study indicate that the additives selected can decrease the mixing/compaction temperatures without compromising the volumetric characteristics and compactability.

  7. Investigation of the use of recycled polymer-modified asphalt in asphaltic concrete pavements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-30

    This report presents issues associated with recycling polymer modified asphalt cements (PMACs), particularly blending aged PMAC with new PMAC. A styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS) PMAC was selected and graded using the Superpave Performance Grading (PG)...

  8. Volumetric characteristics and compactability of asphalt rubber mixtures with organic warm mix asphalt additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodríguez-Alloza, A.M.; Gallego, J.

    2017-01-01

    Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA) refers to technologies that reduce manufacturing and compaction temperatures of asphalt mixtures allowing lower energy consumption and reducing greenhouse gas emissions from asphalt plants. These benefits, combined with the effective reuse of a solid waste product, make asphalt rubber (AR) mixtures with WMA additives an excellent environmentally-friendly material for road construction. The effect of WMA additives on rubberized mixtures has not yet been established in detail and the lower mixing/compaction temperatures of these mixtures may result in insufficient compaction. In this sense, the present study uses a series of laboratory tests to evaluate the volumetric characteristics and compactability of AR mixtures with organic additives when production/compaction temperatures are decreased. The results of this study indicate that the additives selected can decrease the mixing/compaction temperatures without compromising the volumetric characteristics and compactability. [es

  9. Performance Evaluation of Stone Mastic Asphalt and Hot Mix Asphalt Mixtures Containing Recycled Concrete Aggregate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Saeed Pourtahmasb

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental and economic considerations have encouraged civil engineers to find ways to reuse recycled materials in new constructions. The current paper presents an experimental research on the possibility of utilizing recycled concrete aggregates (RCA in stone mastic asphalt (SMA and hot mix asphalt (HMA mixtures. Three categories of RCA in various percentages were mixed with virgin granite aggregates to produce SMA and HMA specimens. The obtained results indicated that, regardless of the RCA particular sizes, the use of RCA to replace virgin aggregates increased the needed binder content in the asphalt mixtures. Moreover, it was found that even though the volumetric and mechanical properties of the asphalt mixtures are highly affected by the sizes and percentages of the RCA but, based on the demands of the project and traffic volume, utilizing specific amounts of RCA in both types of mixtures could easily satisfy the standard requirements.

  10. Design Method and Cost-Benefit Analysis of Hybrid Fiber Used in Asphalt Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiwei Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fiber, as an additive, can improve the performance of asphalt concrete and be widely studied, but only a few works have been done for hybrid fiber. This paper presents a new and convenient method to design hybrid fiber and verifies hybrid fiber’s superiority in asphalt pavement engineering. Firstly, this paper expounds the design method used as its applied example with the hybrid fiber composed of lignin, polyester, and polypropylene fibers. In this method, a direct shear device (DSD is used to measure the shear damage energy density (SDED of hybrid fiber modified asphalts, and range and variance statistical analysis are applied to determine the composition proportion of hybrid fiber. Then, the engineering property of hybrid fiber reinforced asphalt concrete (AC-13 is investigated. Finally, a cost-benefit model is developed to analyze the advantage of hybrid fiber compared to single fibers. The results show that the design method employed in this paper can offer a beneficial reference. A combination of 1.8% of lignin fiber and 2.4% of polyester fiber plus 3.0% polypropylene fiber presented the best reinforcement of the hybrid fiber. The cost-benefit model verifies that the hybrid fiber can bring about comprehensive pavement performance and good economy.

  11. Rheological characterization of asphalt binders used in strain relief asphalt mixtures (SRAM)

    OpenAIRE

    Vasconcelos, Kamilla L.; Bariani Bernucci, Liedi Legi; Midori Takahashi, Marcia; Castelo-Branco, Verônica T. F.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The use of ´interlayers´ that tolerate high tensile and shear strain that exists above cracks in deteriorated pavements is becoming an interesting solution to prevent reflective cracking. Recent advances in polymer technology have led to binders that can be used to produce interlayer mixtures with good mechanical properties. In this study, two polymer-modified asphalt binders were evaluated, both from the production of strain relief asphalt mixtures used as interlayers in the field. ...

  12. Carbon fiber reinforced asphalt concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahromi, Saeed G.

    2008-01-01

    Fibers are often used in the manufacture of other materials. For many years, they have been utilized extensively in numerous applications in civil engineering. Fiber-reinforcement refers to incorporating materials with desired properties within some other materials lacking those properties. Use of fibers is not a new phenomenon, as the technique of fiber-reinforced bitumen began early as 1950. In all industrialized countries today, nearly all concretes used in construction are reinforced. A multitude of fibers and fiber materials are being introduced in the market regularly. The present paper presents characteristics and properties of carbon fiber-reinforced asphalt mixtures, which improve the performance of pavements. To evaluate the effect of fiber contents on bituminous mixtures, laboratory investigations were carried out on the samples with and without fibers. During the course of this study, various tests were undertaken, applying Marshall Test indirect tensile test, creep test and resistance to fatigue cracking by using repeated load indirect tensile test. Carbon fiber exhibited consistency in results and as such it was observed that the addition of fiber does affect the properties of bituminous mixtures, i.e. an increase in its stability and decrease in the flow value as well as an increase in voids in the mix. Results indicate that fibers have the potential to resist structural distress in pavement, in the wake of growing traffic loads and thus improve fatigue by increasing resistance to cracks or permanent deformation. On the whole, the results show that the addition of carbon fiber will improve some of the mechanical properties like fatigue and deformation in the flexible pavement. (author)

  13. Understanding asphalt compaction: An action research strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miller, Seirgei Rosario; ter Huerne, Henderikus L.; Doree, Andries G.; Amaratunga, Dilanthi

    2007-01-01

    In Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) construction, rollers provide the compaction energy required to produce a specified density. However, little is known about the heuristics used by the roller operators. This study forms part of a larger action research project focussing on the improvement of the HMA paving

  14. Interfacial debonding of ice-asphalt concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tazawa, E.; Mizoue, Y. (Hiroshima Univ., Hiroshima (Japan)); Kojima, T. (Hitachi Chemical Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1992-09-20

    Series of experimental investigations were carried out to clarify the bonding mechanism between ice and asphalt and to develop a new technique to reduce bonding resistance. The surface bonding resistance was measured by three methods and the main variables taken into consideration have been surface energy, surface roughness and stiffness of asphalt. Surface energy was varied by using various water repellents and the stiffness of the concrete was varied by mixing rubber particles. Correlations of the three variables were studied and the following results have been obtained. Decreasing of surface energy and increasing of deformability of asphalt concrete has been the effective method to decrease the bonding between ice and asphalt. For the case of water repellent coated surface, shear debonding strength has been linearly related to the energy required for debonding by dynamic tension and the shear debonding strength has decreased with the decrease in roughness of pavement. In the case of surface without using repellent, shear debonding strength has not been influenced by surface energy and roughness of pavement. 6 refs., 16 figs., 7 tabs.

  15. Extending the Lifespan of Porous Asphalt Concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Porous Asphalt (PA) concrete is widely used as a surfacing layer on highways in the Netherlands. The service life of PA wearing courses is limited because of the fact that it is vulnerable to raveling. The possibilities of applying preventive maintenance to PA wearing courses by means of spraying

  16. Application of Conductive Materials to Asphalt Pavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Viet Vo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Snow-melting pavement technique is an advanced preservation method, which can prevent the forming of snow or ice on the pavement surface by increasing the temperature using an embedded heating system. The main scope of this study is to evaluate the impact of conductive additives on the heating efficiency. The electrical resistivity and thermal conductivity were considered to investigate effects of conductive additives, graphite, and carbon fibers on the snow-melting ability of asphalt mixtures. Also, the distribution of the conductive additives within the asphalt concrete body was investigated by microstructural imaging. An actual test was applied to simulate realistic heating for an asphalt concrete mixture. Thermal testing indicated that graphite and carbon fibers improve the snow-melting ability of asphalt mixes and their combination is more effective than when used alone. As observed in the microstructural image, carbon fibers show a long-range connecting effect among graphite conductive clusters and gather in bundles when added excessively. According to the actual test, adding the conductive additives helps improve snow-melting efficiency by shortening processing time and raising the surface temperature.

  17. Steady-State Creep of Asphalt Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alibai Iskakbayev

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the experimental investigation of the steady-state creep process for fine-grained asphalt concrete at a temperature of 20 ± 2 °С and under stress from 0.055 to 0.311 MPa under direct tension and was found to occur at a constant rate. The experimental results also determined the start, the end point, and the duration of the steady-state creep process. The dependence of these factors, in addition to the steady-state creep rate and viscosity of the asphalt concrete on stress is satisfactorily described by a power function. Furthermore, it showed that stress has a great impact on the specific characteristics of asphalt concrete: stress variation by one order causes their variation by 3–4.5 orders. The described relations are formulated for the steady-state of asphalt concrete in a complex stressed condition. The dependence is determined between stress intensity and strain rate intensity.

  18. New technology for the production of magnesium strips and sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kawalla

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available A new production technology for magnesium strip, based on twin-roll-casting and strip rolling was developed in Freiberg Germany. By means of this economic method it is possible to produce strips in deep drawing quality with good forming properties in order to satisfy the request for low cost Mg sheets in the automotive and electronic industry. Both, coils as single sheets, were manufactured and rolled to a thickness of 1mm(0,5 mm. The technology of the new process and the properties of the twin-roll-casted material and the final sheets are presented.

  19. Plastic Bottles Waste Utilization as Modifier for Asphalt Mixture Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Hakeem

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Plastic Bottles was used as the polymeric waste to investigate performance of asphalt mixture Aggregates obtained from Margalla, Burhan and Karak quarries. 12 samples were prepared for conventional asphalt mixtures and 48 samples were prepared for PB modified asphalt mixture of each quarries at various proportions of PB waste. The PB used for modification according to wet process are 15%, 20%, 25% and 30% by weight of Optimum Bitumen Content (OBC. OBC of 4.2 % was concluded for conventional asphalt mixtures. The stability and flow values of the conventional and modified Asphalt Mixture were compared. The average Stability of the modified Margalla asphalt mixtures when 15% PB was used was much higher as compared to conventional asphalt mixtures. But when PB was used beyond 15%, the Marshall stability showed a decreasing trend for Margalla aggregates, increasing trend for Karak aggregates and decreasing trend for Burhan aggregates. This decline in stability is attributed to a decline in interlocking of aggregates due to lubricating effect. The corresponding flow for the Modified asphalt mixtures first showed a decreasing trend for Margalla aggregates at 15% PB modification but beyond 15%, an increasing trend in flow as compared to conventional asphalt mixtures The decrease in flow or increase in Marshall Stability is attributed to improvement in interlocking and decline in flow or stability is attributed to a decline in interlocking offered by binder and PB coated aggregate particles in modified asphalt.

  20. Study of Antiultraviolet Asphalt Modifiers and Their Antiageing Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinxuan Hu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultraviolet (UV radiation causes serious ageing problems on pavement surface. In recent years, different UV blocking materials have been used as modifiers to prevent asphalt ageing during the service life of the pavement. In this study, three different materials have been used as modifiers in base asphalt to test their UV blocking effects: layered double hydroxides (LDHs, organomontmorillonite (OMMT, and carbon black (CB. UV ageing was applied to simulate the ageing process and softening point, penetration, ductility, DSR (Dynamic Shear Rheometer test, and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR test were conducted to evaluate the anti-UV ageing effects of the three UV blocking modifiers. Physical property tests show that base asphalt was influenced more seriously by UV radiation compared to the modified asphalt. DSR test results indicate that the complex modulus of asphalt before UV ageing is increased because of modifiers, while the complex modulus of base asphalt after UV ageing is higher than that of the modified asphalt, which shows that the UV blocking modifiers promote the antiageing effects of asphalt. FTIR test reveals that the increment of carbonyl groups and sulfoxide groups of modified asphalt is less than that in base asphalt. Tests indicate the best UV blocking effect results for samples with LDHs and the worst UV blocking effect results for samples with CB.

  1. Fundamental evaluation of the interaction between RAS/RAP and virgin asphalt binders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    A comprehensive laboratory testing program was conducted in this research project to examine the blending between reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP)/recycled asphalt shingles (RAS) and virgin asphalt binders and to evaluate the factors that may affect ...

  2. Laboratory evaluation of long-term anti-icing performance and moisture susceptibility of chloride-based asphalt mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulian Zheng

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to investigate the long-term anti-icing performance and moisture susceptibility of chloride-based asphalt mixture. Two experiments (the natural and accelerated dissolving-out methods were conducted on the Marshall samples and their salt releasing amount were determined based on the density measurement of the aqueous solution with a hydrometer. In addition, the impact of anti-icing agents (MFL on the mixture water stability was also investigated. Results show that a similar tendency in both methods was observed and the salt dissolution history was generally divided into three phases. Most notably, compared with the natural dissolving-out experiment the accelerated test was more effective and time-saving. Moreover, asphalt concrete with MFL performed poorer water damage resistance than the conventional asphalt concrete and the residual stability of the former declined more dramatically than the later. Finally, based on the 60 °C dissolving-out experiment, a model to predict the effective working time of the anti-icing asphalt pavement was proposed subsequently. Keywords: Asphalt mixture, Chloride, Long-term anti-icing performance, Moisture susceptibility

  3. PECULIAR FEATURES PERTAINING TO STRIP FORMATION FROM BAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. N. Zdor

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes results of calculations and presents experimental substantiation of the dependence of a strip width being rolled out of a 10-mm diameter bar on its final thickness. It has been shown that the formation technology of thin steel strips out of a round bar makes it possible without any difficulties to obtain rolled products with the given cross-section dimensions due to proper selection of single drafting.

  4. Dynamic Underground Stripping Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aines, R.; Newmark, R.; McConachie, W.; Udell, K.; Rice, D.; Ramirez, A.; Siegel, W.; Buettner, M.; Daily, W.; Krauter, P.; Folsom, E.; Boegel, A.J.; Bishop, D.; Udell, K.

    1992-01-01

    LLNL is collaborating with the UC Berkeley College of Engineering to develop and demonstrate a system of thermal remediation and underground imaging techniques for use in rapid cleanup of localized underground spills. Called ''Dynamic Stripping'' to reflect the rapid and controllable nature of the process, it will combine steam injection, direct electrical heating, and tomographic geophysical imaging in a cleanup of the LLNL gasoline spill. In the first 8 months of the project, a Clean Site engineering test was conducted to prove the field application of the techniques before moving the contaminated site in FY 92

  5. Strip casting apparatus and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, R.S.; Baker, D.F.

    1988-09-20

    Strip casting apparatus including a molten-metal-holding container and a nozzle to deposit molten metal onto a moving chill drum to directly cast continuous metallic strip. The nozzle body includes a slot bounded between a back and a front lip. The slot width exceeds about 20 times the gap distance between the nozzle and the chill drum surface. Preferably, the slot width exceeds 0.5 inch. This method of strip casting minimizes pressure drop, insuring better metal-to-chill-drum contact which promotes heat transfer and results in a better quality metallic strip. 6 figs.

  6. Thermal Properties of Asphalt Mixtures Modified with Conductive Fillers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byong Chol Bai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the thermal properties of asphalt mixtures modified with conductive fillers used for snow melting and solar harvesting pavements. Two different mixing processes were adopted to mold asphalt mixtures, dry- and wet-mixing, and two conductive fillers were used in this study, graphite and carbon black. The thermal conductivity was compared to investigate the effects of asphalt mixture preparing methods, the quantity, and the distribution of conductive filler on thermal properties. The combination of conductive filler with carbon fiber in asphalt mixture was evaluated. Also, rheological properties of modified asphalt binders with conductive fillers were measured using dynamic shear rheometer and bending beam rheometer at grade-specific temperatures. Based on rheological testing, the conductive fillers improve rutting resistance and decrease thermal cracking resistance. Thermal testing indicated that graphite and carbon black improve the thermal properties of asphalt mixes and the combined conductive fillers are more effective than the single filler.

  7. Rheo-mechanical model for self-healing asphalt pavement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gömze, A L; Gömze, L N

    2017-01-01

    Examining the rheological properties of different asphalt mixtures at different temperatures, pressures and deformation conditions on the combined rheo-tribometers the authors have found that the generally used Burgers-model doesn’t explain the deformation properties of asphalt mixtures and pavements under loading forces and loading pressures. To understand better the rheological and deformation properties of such complex materials like asphalt mixtures and pavements the authors used Malvern Mastersizer X laser granulometer, Bruker D8 Advance X-ray diffractometer, Hitachi TM 1000 Scanning Elektronmicroscope, Tristar 3000 specific surface tester and the combined rheo-tribometer developed and patented by the authors. After the complex investigation of different asphalt mixtures the authors have found a new, more complex rheological model for the asphalts including self-healing asphalt pavements. (paper)

  8. Performance of Recycled Porous Hot Mix Asphalt with Gilsonite Additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludfi Djakfar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to evaluate the performance of porous asphalt using waste recycled concrete material and explore the effect of adding Gilsonite to the mixture. As many as 90 Marshall specimens were prepared with varied asphalt content, percentage of Gilsonite as an additive, and proportioned recycled and virgin coarse aggregate. The test includes permeability capability and Marshall characteristics. The results showed that recycled concrete materials seem to have a potential use as aggregate in the hot mix asphalt, particularly on porous hot mix asphalt. Adding Gilsonite at ranges 8–10% improves the Marshall characteristic of the mix, particularly its stability, without decreasing significantly the permeability capability of the mix. The use of recycled materials tends to increase the asphalt content of the mix at about 1 to 2% higher. With stability reaching 750 kg, the hot mix recycled porous asphalt may be suitable for use in the local roads with medium vehicle load.

  9. Contributory Factors Related to Permanent Deformation of Hot Asphalt Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaa Husein Abd

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Permanent deformation (Rutting of asphalt pavements which appears in many roads in Iraq, have caused a major impact on pavement performance by reducing the useful service life of pavement and creating services hazards for highway users. The main objective of this research is investigating the effect of some contributory factors related to permanent deformation of asphalt concrete mixture. To meet the objectives of this research, available local materials are used including asphalt binder, aggregates, mineral filler and modified asphalt binder. The Superpave mix design system was adopted with varying volumetric compositions. The Superpave Gyratory Compactor was used to compact 24 asphalt concrete cylindrical specimens. To collect the required data and investigate the development of permanent deformation in asphalt concrete under repeated loadings, Wheel-Tracking apparatus has been used in a factorial testing program during which 44 slab samples; with dimensions of 400×300×50 mm; were tested to simulate . actual pavement. Based on wheel-tracking test results, it has been concluded that increasing the compaction temperature from 110 to 150ºC caused a decreasing in permanent deformation by 20.5 and 15.6 percent for coarse and fine gradation control asphalt mixtures respectively. While the permanent deformation decreased about 21.3 percent when the compaction temperature is increased from 110 to 150ºC for coarse gradation asphalt mixtures modified with styrene butadiene styrene SBS with 3 percent by asphalt binder weight.

  10. Field testing of asphalt-emulsion radon-barrier system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, J.N.; Freeman, H.D.; Baker, E.G.; Elmore, M.R.; Nelson, D.A.; Voss, C.F.; Koehmstedt, P.L.

    1981-09-01

    Three years of laboratory and field testing have demonstrated that asphalt emulsion seals are effective radon diffusion barriers. Both laboratory and field tests in 1979, 1980 and 1981 have shown that an asphalt emulsion seal can reduce radon fluxes by greater than 99.9%. The effective diffusion coefficient for the various asphalt emulsion admix seals averages about 10 -6 cm 2 /s. The 1981 joint field test is a culmination of all the technology developed to date for asphalt emulsion radon barrier systems. Preliminary results of this field test and the results of the 1980 field test are presented. 18 figures, 6 tables

  11. Physical and rheological properties of Titanium Dioxide modified asphalt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhari, Rosnawati; Ezree Abdullah, Mohd; Khairul Ahmad, Mohd; Chong, Ai Ling; Haini, Rosli; Khatijah Abu Bakar, Siti

    2018-03-01

    Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) has been known as a useful photocatalytic material that is attributed to the several characteristics includes high photocatalytic activity compared with other metal oxide photocatalysts, compatible with traditional construction materials without changing any original performance. This study investigates the physical and rheological properties of modified asphalt with TiO2. Five samples of asphalt with different concentration of TiO2 were studied, namely asphalt 2%, 4%, 6% 8% and 10% TiO2. The tests includes are penetration, softening point, ductility, rotational viscosity and dynamic shear rheometer (DSR) test. From the results of this study, it is noted that addition of TiO2 has significant effect on the physical properties of asphalt. The viscosity tests revealed that asphalt 10% TiO2 has good workability among with reducing approximately 15°C compared to base asphalt. Based on the results from DSR measurements, asphalt 10% TiO2 has reduced temperature susceptibility and increase stiffness and elastic behaviour in comparison to base asphalt. As a result, TiO2 can be considered to be an additive to modify the properties of asphalt.

  12. Electron capture by highly stripped ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenland, P.T.

    1981-06-01

    This review describes theories of electron capture suitable for the description of rearrangement collisions between atomic hydrogen and completely stripped projectiles with charge greater than unity. The region of impact velocity considered lies between 0.05 and 3 au, which is of technological importance in fusion power devices. The semiclassical, impact parameter formalism is discussed and the use of atomic expansions at medium impact velocity is described. Experimental results for both completely and partially stripped projectiles are reviewed. The use of a molecular basis at low energy, and the role of pseudocrossings peculiar to the two centre Coulomb interaction are described. Finally, purely classical techniques, in which the electron wavefunction is represented by an ensemble of Kepler orbits are considered. The review was completed in February 1981. (author)

  13. Effects of reclaimed asphalt pavement on indirect tensile strength test of foamed asphalt mix tested in dry condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katman, Herda Yati; Norhisham, Shuhairy; Ismail, Norlela; Ibrahim, Mohd Rasdan; Matori, Mohd Yazip

    2013-01-01

    Indirect tensile strength (ITS) test was conducted to analyse strength of the foamed asphalt mixes incorporating reclaimed asphalt pavement. Samples were tested for ITS after cured in the oven at 40°C for 72 hours. This testing condition known as dry condition or unconditioned. Laboratory results show that reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) contents insignificantly affect the ITS results. ITS results significantly affected by foamed bitumen contents.

  14. Characteristics Buton Natural Asphalt-Rubber (BNA-R on the Performance Improvement of Warm Mix Asphalt Using Natural Zeolite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahjuningsih Nurul

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The decrease in the ability of service of pavement can be caused by the durability factor in the pavement layer in receiving heavy traffic load and the temperature of the pavement. Permanent deformation is one of the criteria of failure of asphalt mixture. Performance assessment of the asphalt mixture can be observed from the rheological properties of asphalt binder. The use of BNA-R in this study is intended to modify the characteristics of bitumen penetration grade 60 / 70 used in warm mix asphalt. Warm mix asphalt with lower temperatures of mixing and compaction than conventional asphalt mixtures was chosen because it is more environmentally friendly. To reduce the temperature in this warm asphalt technology is achieved by using natural zeolite. Both of these materials are local materials that are widely available in Indonesia. The rheology of asphalt 60/70 modified with BNA-R indicates that the addition of BNA-R in the base asphalt increase the complex modulus value and decrease the phase angle value. These values were related to the performance of mixture in the permanent deformation criteria. Reducing the temperature of mixing and compaction should be balanced with modifying the asphalt binder used. Rutting due to permanent deformation can resulted in inconvenience to the passengers and can lead to high costs of road maintenance. To determine the permanent deformation of asphalt mix with material combinations was performed through the wheel tracking test machine with 3,780 cycles for 3 hours. The results shows that after test track over 7 thousand passes have seen permanent deformation characteristics of asphalt concrete mixture with a variation of the characteristics of bitumen.

  15. Characteristics Buton Natural Asphalt-Rubber (BNA-R) on the Performance Improvement of Warm Mix Asphalt Using Natural Zeolite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahjuningsih, Nurul; Pranowo Hadiwardoyo, Sigit; Jachrizal Sumabrata, R.

    2018-03-01

    The decrease in the ability of service of pavement can be caused by the durability factor in the pavement layer in receiving heavy traffic load and the temperature of the pavement. Permanent deformation is one of the criteria of failure of asphalt mixture. Performance assessment of the asphalt mixture can be observed from the rheological properties of asphalt binder. The use of BNA-R in this study is intended to modify the characteristics of bitumen penetration grade 60 / 70 used in warm mix asphalt. Warm mix asphalt with lower temperatures of mixing and compaction than conventional asphalt mixtures was chosen because it is more environmentally friendly. To reduce the temperature in this warm asphalt technology is achieved by using natural zeolite. Both of these materials are local materials that are widely available in Indonesia. The rheology of asphalt 60/70 modified with BNA-R indicates that the addition of BNA-R in the base asphalt increase the complex modulus value and decrease the phase angle value. These values were related to the performance of mixture in the permanent deformation criteria. Reducing the temperature of mixing and compaction should be balanced with modifying the asphalt binder used. Rutting due to permanent deformation can resulted in inconvenience to the passengers and can lead to high costs of road maintenance. To determine the permanent deformation of asphalt mix with material combinations was performed through the wheel tracking test machine with 3,780 cycles for 3 hours. The results shows that after test track over 7 thousand passes have seen permanent deformation characteristics of asphalt concrete mixture with a variation of the characteristics of bitumen.

  16. Optical microtopographic inspection of asphalt pavement surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Manuel F. M.; Freitas, E. F.; Torres, H.; Cerezo, V.

    2017-08-01

    Microtopographic and rugometric characterization of surfaces is routinely and effectively performed non-invasively by a number of different optical methods. Rough surfaces are also inspected using optical profilometers and microtopographer. The characterization of road asphalt pavement surfaces produced in different ways and compositions is fundamental for economical and safety reasons. Having complex structures, including topographically with different ranges of form error and roughness, the inspection of asphalt pavement surfaces is difficult to perform non-invasively. In this communication we will report on the optical non-contact rugometric characterization of the surface of different types of road pavements performed at the Microtopography Laboratory of the Physics Department of the University of Minho.

  17. Finite element simulation of asphalt fatigue testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ullidtz, Per; Kieler, Thomas Lau; Kargo, Anders

    1997-01-01

    The traditional interpretation of fatigue tests on asphalt mixes has been in terms of a logarithmic linear relationship between the constant stress or strain amplitude and the number of load repetitions to cause failure, often defined as a decrease in modulus to half the initial value...... damage mechanics.The paper describes how continuum damage mechanics may be used with a finite element program to explain the progressive deterioration of asphalt mixes under laboratory fatigue testing. Both constant stress and constant strain testing are simulated, and compared to the actual results from...... three point and four point fatigue test on different mixes. It is shown that the same damage law, based on energy density, may be used to explain the gradual deterioration under constant stress as well as under constant strain testing.Some of the advantages of using this method for interpreting fatigue...

  18. Present status and future of various rubber materials. ; Asphalt. Kakushu gomu zairyo no genjo to kongo. ; Asphalt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakisaka, S. (Toa Doro Kogyo Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-12-15

    Asphalt is obtained at a rate of about 25 Kg per 1 Kl of oil and is produced at about 5 million tons per annum in Japan, 80 % of which is now used for the pavement of road. The purpose of this study is to examine the possibilities of developing new applications of asphalt to the anti-vibration, vibration-control and anti-noise materials, though its uses have already been diversified in fields other than for road paving, due to excellent performance regardless of cheap cost. In the paper, firstly, under a title of what is asphalt, the history, the composition and internal structure of asphalt were considered. Secondly, the dynamic characteristics of asphalt were considered. And lastly, under a title of the application of asphalt, examples of the application of asphalt to anti-noise materials were examined in the field of architecture, automobile and civil engineering respectively. Especially, in the field of civil engineering, improvements of flexibility and vibration-control by using the cement asphalt mortar (CAM) in the anti-vibration A-type slab track for railway, and also anti-noise and anti-vibration technologies applied to the road pavement body by using the ferrite asphalt were reviewed. 11 refs., 10 figs., 8 tabs.

  19. Mapping Asphaltic Roads’ Skid Resistance Using Imaging Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nimrod Carmon

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to evaluate a realistic feasibility of using hyperspectral remote sensing (also termed imaging spectroscopy airborne data for mapping asphaltic roads’ transportation safety. This is done by quantifying the road-tire friction, an attribute responsible for vehicle control and emergency stopping. We engaged in a real-life operational scenario, where the roads’ friction was modeled against the reflectance information extracted directly from the image. The asphalt pavement’s dynamic friction coefficient was measured by a standardized technique using a Dynatest 6875H (Dynatest Consulting Inc., Westland, MI, USA Friction Measuring System, which uses the common test-wheel retardation method. The hyperspectral data was acquired by the SPECIM AisaFenix 1K (Specim, Spectral Imaging Ltd., Oulu, Finland airborne system, covering the entire optical range (350–2500 nm, over a selected study site, with roads characterized by different aging conditions. The spectral radiance data was processed to provide apparent surface reflectance using ground calibration targets and the ACORN-6 atmospheric correction package. Our final dataset was comprised of 1370 clean asphalt pixels coupled with geo-rectified in situ friction measurement points. We developed a partial least squares regression model using PARACUDA-II spectral data mining engine, which uses an automated outlier detection procedure and dual validation routines—a full cross-validation and an iterative internal validation based on a Latin Hypercube sampling algorithm. Our results show prediction capabilities of R2 = 0.632 for full cross-validation and R2 = 0.702 for the best available model in internal validation, both with significant results (p < 0.0001. Using spectral assignment analysis, we located the spectral bands with the highest weight in the model and discussed their possible physical and chemical assignments. The derived model was applied back on the

  20. Dynamic modulus of nanosilica modified porous asphalt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshad, A. K.; Masri, K. A.; Ahmad, J.; Samsudin, M. S.

    2017-11-01

    Porous asphalt (PA) is a flexible pavement layer with high interconnected air void contents and constructed using open-graded aggregates. Due to high temperature environment and increased traffic volume in Malaysia, PA may have deficiencies particularly in rutting and stiffness of the mix. A possible way to improve these deficiencies is to improve the asphalt binder used. Binder is normally modified using polymer materials to improve its properties. However, nanotechnology presently is being gradually used for asphalt modification. Nanosilica (NS), a byproduct of rice husk and palm oil fuel ash is used as additive in this study. The aim of this study is to enhance the rutting resistance and stiffness performance of PA using NS. This study focused on the performance of PA in terms of dynamic modulus with the addition of NS modified binder to produce better and more durable PA. From the result of Dynamic SPT Test, it shows that the addition of NS was capable in enhancing the stiffness and rutting resistance of PA. The addition of NS also increase the dynamic modulus value of PA by 50%.

  1. Active carbon production from modified asphalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadhi, A.B.

    2006-01-01

    A granular activated carbons (GACs) have been prepared from some local raw materials such as Qiayarah asphalt (QA) after some modification treatments of this asphalt by various ratios of its original constituents (asphaltenes and maltens) at 180 degree C. Thermal carbonization method by sulfur and steam physical activation have been used for AC preparation. The carbons thus prepared were characterized in the term of iodine, methylene blue (MB), P-nitro phenol (PNP) and CCl4 adsorption. The BET surface area of the prepared ACs has been estimated via a calibration curve between iodine numbers and surface area determined from N2 adsorption isotherm from previous studies, also, the surface area of the prepared ACs were determined through another methods such as retention method by ethylene glycol mono ethyl ether (EGME), adsorption from vapor phase using acetone vapor and adsorption from solution method using PNP and MB as solutes. The results referred to the success of modification method for preparing ACs of good micro porosity as compared with the AC from the untreated asphalt as well as the commercial sample. (author)

  2. Rapid Radiochemical Methods for Asphalt Paving Material ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technical Brief Validated rapid radiochemical methods for alpha and beta emitters in solid matrices that are commonly encountered in urban environments were previously unavailable for public use by responding laboratories. A lack of tested rapid methods would delay the quick determination of contamination levels and the assessment of acceptable site-specific exposure levels. Of special concern are matrices with rough and porous surfaces, which allow the movement of radioactive material deep into the building material making it difficult to detect. This research focuses on methods that address preparation, radiochemical separation, and analysis of asphalt paving materials and asphalt roofing shingles. These matrices, common to outdoor environments, challenge the capability and capacity of very experienced radiochemistry laboratories. Generally, routine sample preparation and dissolution techniques produce liquid samples (representative of the original sample material) that can be processed using available radiochemical methods. The asphalt materials are especially difficult because they do not readily lend themselves to these routine sample preparation and dissolution techniques. The HSRP and ORIA coordinate radiological reference laboratory priorities and activities in conjunction with HSRP’s Partner Process. As part of the collaboration, the HSRP worked with ORIA to publish rapid radioanalytical methods for selected radionuclides in building material matrice

  3. Cookbook for rheological models - asphalt binders : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Rheology is defined as the science of the deformation and flow of matter (Hackley and Ferraris, : 2001). The measurement of rheological properties of matter has become very important in various : fields, especially the construction industry, where pr...

  4. Effects of conductive fillers on temperature distribution of asphalt pavements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Mingyu; Wu Shaopeng; Zhang Yuan; Wang Hong

    2010-01-01

    The sun provides a cheap and abundant source of clean and renewable energy. Solar cells have been used to capture this energy and generate electricity. A more useful form of the solar cell would be asphalt pavements, which get heated up by solar radiation. Graphite powders are utilized as thermal conductive fillers to make an asphalt collector conductive so as to improve the efficiency of the asphalt collector. Accounting for the important application conditions and evaluating the effects of the heat conductive materials and the solar energy absorbability of the conductive asphalt collector, a finite element model has been developed to predict temperature distributions in the conductive asphalt solar collector. In this study, an experimental validation exercise was conducted using the measured data taken from full-depth asphalt slabs. Validation results showed that the model can satisfactorily predict the temperature distributions in asphalt concrete slabs. The optimal depth is 25-50 mm for placing pipes that serve as the heat exchanger. Meanwhile, the effect of the surroundings on the solar energy potential of the asphalt collector was noticeable.

  5. Characterization of Failure and Permanent Deformation Behaviour of Asphalt Concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, J.G.

    2015-01-01

    Asphalt concrete is a viscoelastic material consisting of aggregates, filler and bitumen. The response of asphalt concrete is highly dependent on temperature, loading rate and confining pressure. Permanent deformation is one of the most important distresses developing during the flexible pavement

  6. Crack repair of asphalt concrete with induction energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    García, A.; Schlangen, E.; Ven, M. van de; Vliet, D. van

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that the healing rates of asphalt courses increase with the temperature. A new method, induction heating, is used in this paper to increase the lifetime of asphalt concrete pavements. Mastic will be first made electrically conductive by the addition of conductive fibers. Then it

  7. Estimation of fatigue characteristics of asphaltic mixes using simple tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Medani, T.O.; Molenaar, A.A.A.

    2000-01-01

    A simplified procedure for estimation of fatigue characteristics of asphaltic mixes is presented. The procedure requires the determination of the so-called master curve (Le. the relationship between the mix stiffness, the loading time and the temperature), the asphalt properties and the mix

  8. 7 CFR 2902.36 - Concrete and asphalt release fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Concrete and asphalt release fluids. 2902.36 Section... PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 2902.36 Concrete and asphalt release fluids. (a) Definition. Products that are designed to provide a lubricating barrier between the composite surface materials (e.g., concrete or...

  9. Including asphalt cooling and rolling regimes in laboratory compaction procedures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijleveld, Frank; Doree, Andries G.; Kim,

    2014-01-01

    Given the various changes occurring in the asphalt construction industry, improved process and quality control is becoming essential. The significance of appropriate rolling and compaction for the quality of asphalt is widely acknowledged and vital for improved process control. But what constitutes

  10. Application of waste tires to asphalt pavement. Improvement of adhesion of asphalt with rubber particles; Haitaiya no asphalt hoso eno tekiyo. Asphalt to gomu ryushi no fuchakusei no kairyo ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakaoka, I. [Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc., Osaka (Japan)

    1994-10-10

    With an objective to apply waste tires to asphalt pavement, an experiment was carried out to improve adhesion of asphalt with rubber particles by using polymers. The state of interface on rubber particle and asphalt mixture was observed by a scanning electron microscope. As a result, it was found that the surface of untreated rubber particles is not bonded with the asphalt, but polymer treated mixture was found to have the affinity of rubber particles with asphalt improved. Tensile bonding strength was tested on rubber plates and asphalt. The result revealed that the polymer-reformed mixture has two times as large tensile bonding strength as that of the untreated mixture. With regard to the characters of asphalt mixture mixed with rubber particles, the stability shows a decreasing trend as compared with the standard asphalt concrete, but presents an excellent performance in wear. The fluidity resistance value is inferior to the standard, but not as great as presenting a problem under normal using environment, where its applicability as a road paving material was verified. 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Hanford Permanent Isolation Barrier Program: Asphalt technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, H.D.; Romine, R.A.

    1994-11-01

    An important component of the Hanford Permanent Isolation Barrier is the use of a two-layer composite asphalt system, which provides backup water diversion capabilities if the primary capillary barrier fails to meet infiltration goals. Because of asphalt's potential to perform to specification over the 1000-year design life criterion, a composite asphalt barrier (HMAC/fluid-applied polymer-modified asphalt) is being considered as an alternative to the bentonite clay/high density poly(ethylene) barriers for the low-permeability component of the Hanford Permanent Isolation Barrier. The feasibility of using asphalt as a long-term barrier is currently being studied. Information that must be known is the ability of asphalt to retain desirable physical properties over a period of 1000 years. This paper presents the approach for performing accelerated aging tests and evaluating the performance of samples under accelerated conditions. The results of these tests will be compared with asphalt artifact analogs and the results of modeling the degradation of the selected asphalt composite to make life-cycle predictions

  12. Regional implementation of warm mix asphalt : [tech summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Asphalt is used in over 94 percent of all paved roadways in the United States. The ability to reduce its cost and : emissions while improving its performance has bene ts that could potentially change the direction the asphalt : industry moves in t...

  13. Induction healing of asphalt mixes with steel slag

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apostolidis, P.; Liu, X.; Wang, H.; van de Ven, M.F.C.; Scarpas, Athanasios

    2018-01-01

    Asphaltic mixes are self-healing materials since they have the capacity to close internal microcracks at higher temperatures or under external force. To trigger their self-healing, asphalt mixes modified with inductive agents can be heated and in that way healed through applying alternating magnetic

  14. Impact of Modificated Asphalt Mixtures on Paving Functioning and Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gediminas Gribulis

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric pollution began to increase in the beginning of 19th century, when the global economy and industrial development started the signal grow. The current problem of global warming is partly related with emission of carbon dioxide (CO2 to environment, which one of the sources are industrial production companies. Warm asphalt mix is usually used in the practice of Lithuania and the world for equipment of road paving. These mixes are produced in specialized asphalt mixers where stone dosing, drying and its mixing with bituminous binders are performed. The temperature of produced hot asphalt mix in mixer reach 150–180 °C and 120–160 °C of mixture laying on the road. Various pollutants, carbon dioxide, formaldehydes, and other are spread to the environment. The carried out researches in Lithuania and the world have showed that while using special additives it is possible to reduce the temperatures of warm asphalt production and laying on the road. Such reduction of temperature helps not to worsen the quality of asphalt layer, to lower the emission of pollutants to environment, to improve the conditions of road workers and to economically use the gas for production of asphalt mixes. Production technologies of different asphalt mixes, their advantages and disadvantages, and results of laboratory tests are analyzed in this article. Equipment samples of experimental road sections, using the warm mixing asphalt mixtures are given.

  15. Advanced Experimental Evaluation of Asphalt Mortar for Induction Healing Purposes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apostolidis, P.; Liu, X.; Scarpas, Athanasios; van Bochove, G; van de Ven, M.F.C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper studied the induction heating and healing capacity of asphalt mortar by adding electrically conductive additives (e.g. iron powder and steel fibers), and examined the influence of different combinations of them on the mechanical response of asphalt mortars. Induction heating technique is

  16. Recycling of Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement in Portland Cement Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salim Al-Oraimi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP is the result of removing old asphalt pavement material. RAP consists of high quality well-graded aggregate coated with asphalt cement. The removal of asphalt concrete is done for reconstruction purposes, resurfacing, or to obtain access to buried utilities. The disposal of RAP represents a large loss of valuable source of high quality aggregate. This research investigates the properties of concrete utilizing recycled reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP. Two control mixes with normal aggregate were designed with water cement ratios of 0.45 and 0.5. The control mixes resulted in compressive strengths of 50 and 33 MPa after 28 days of curing. The coarse fraction of RAP was used to replace the coarse aggregate with 25, 50, 75, and 100% for both mixtures. In addition to the control mix (0%, the mixes containing RAP were evaluated for slump, compressive strength, flexural strength, and modulus of elasticity. Durability was evaluated using surface absorption test.

  17. Preparation of Flame Retardant Modified with Titanate for Asphalt Binder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Improving the compatibility between flame retardant and asphalt is a difficult task due to the complex nature of the materials. This study explores a low dosage compound flame retardant and seeks to improve the compatibility between flame retardants and asphalt. An orthogonal experiment was designed taking magnesium hydroxide, ammonium polyphosphate, and melamine as factors. The oil absorption and activation index were tested to determine the effect of titanate on the flame retardant additive. The pavement performance test was conducted to evaluate the effect of the flame retardant additive. Oxygen index test was conducted to confirm the effect of flame retardant on flame ability of asphalt binder. The results of this study showed that the new composite flame retardant is more effective in improving the compatibility between flame retardant and asphalt and reducing the limiting oxygen index of asphalt binder tested in this study.

  18. Characterization of galvannealed strip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreas, G.; Hardy, Y.

    1999-01-01

    With the aim of enhancing coating quality control during galvannealing process, an online microscopic image acquisition sensor has been developed at CRM. In galvannealing process, the ζ phase surface density is a coating quality characteristic, and the on-line microscope, equipped with optics placed at 20 mm from the surface, grabs 250 μm x 190 μm images on which ζ crystals (approximate dimensions: 1 μm x 10 μm) can be clearly identified. On-line, the sensor is mounted in front of a roll where the strip has a stable position. The coating surface to sensor optics distance is continuously measured by an accurate triangulation sensor (1 μm repeatability) and is adjusted in such a way that, due to roll eccentricity, the image is focused at least twice per revolution. When focused, image of moving product is frozen by a short (10 ns) laser light pulse and is grabbed. The obtained image is then processed to extract ζ phase percentage and allows adjustment of process parameters to reach the desired coating characteristics. (author)

  19. Characteristics of dynamic triaxial testing of asphalt mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulloa Calderon, Alvaro

    Due to the increasing traffic loads and tire pressures, a serious detrimental impact has occurred on flexible pavements in the form of excessive permanent deformation once the critical combination of loading and environmental conditions are reached. This distress, also known as rutting, leads to an increase in road roughness and ultimately jeopardizes the road users' safety. The flow number (FN) simple performance test for asphalt mixtures was one of the final three tests selected for further evaluation from the twenty-four test/material properties initially examined under the NCHRP 9-19 project. Currently, no standard triaxial testing conditions in terms of the magnitude of the deviator and confining stresses have been specified. In addition, a repeated haversine axial compressive load pulse of 0.1 second and a rest period of 0.9 second are commonly used as part of the triaxial testing conditions. The overall objective of this research was to define the loading conditions that created by a moving truck load in the hot mixed asphalt (HMA) layer. The loading conditions were defined in terms of the triaxial stress levels and the corresponding loading time. Dynamic mechanistic analysis with circular stress distribution was used to closely simulate field loading conditions. Extensive mechanistic analyses of three different asphalt pavement structures subjected to moving traffic loads at various speeds and under braking and non-braking conditions were conducted using the 3D-Move model. Prediction equations for estimating the anticipated deviator and confining stresses along with the equivalent deviator stress pulse duration as a function of pavement temperature, vehicle speed, and asphalt mixture's stiffness have been developed. The magnitude of deviator stress, sigmad and confining stress, sigmac, were determined by converting the stress tensor computed in the HMA layer at 2" below pavement surface under a moving 18-wheel truck using the octahedral normal and shear

  20. THE FATIGUE DURABILITY OF THE MODIFIED ASPHALT CONCRETE UNDER THE EFFECT OF INTENSIVE TRAFFIC LOADS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri KALGIN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The problem of prediction of the service life of asphalt concrete surface constructed with modified asphalt concrete application onto a traffic lane is examined. Asphalt concrete behaviour in road surface under the traffic loads was analysed. There were shown The results of experiments and their mathematical analysis of the assessment of standard and modified cold asphalt concrete fatigue life on road surface were shown. The service life of an asphalt concrete surface covered with standard and modified cold asphalt concrete is examined. The prediction has been received with an account of stress relaxation processes in asphalt concrete pavement and unevenness of traffic load application.

  1. Buffers and vegetative filter strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew J. Helmers; Thomas M. Isenhart; Michael G. Dosskey; Seth M. Dabney

    2008-01-01

    This chapter describes the use of buffers and vegetative filter strips relative to water quality. In particular, we primarily discuss the herbaceous components of the following NRCS Conservation Practice Standards.

  2. Magnetic stripping studies for SPL

    CERN Document Server

    Posocco, P; CERN. Geneva. BE Department

    2010-01-01

    Magnetic stripping of H- can seriously enhance the beam losses along the SPL machine. These losses depend on the beam energy, on the beam transverse distribution and on the intensity of the magnetic field. For radioprotection issues the losses must be limited to 1 W/m. In this paper we will concentrate on the stripping phenomena inside the quadrupole magnets with the aim of defining the quadrupole range for the design phase of SPL.

  3. Performance evaluation of stone matrix asphalt using indonesian natural rock asphalt as stabilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyoman Suaryana

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available One type of road pavement material which is developed to be more resistant to permanent deformation is the SMA (Stone Matrix Asphalt. Utilization of the SMA mix in Indonesia has constraints in gain stabilizer and also difficulty to comply the gradations, mainly because it needs a relatively large amount of filler. Alternative of local materials that can be used is asbuton (natural rock asphalt from Buton Island. Asbuton is expected to act as a stabilizer and simultaneously provides an additional filler. The objective of this research is to evaluate the performance of the SMA that uses the asbuton. The methodology used in this research is the experimental method, its starts from material testing, design mix and performance testing that includes dynamic modulus, permanent deformation and fatigue resistance. The results obtained showed asbuton can prevent asphalt draindown as well as increase the proportion of filler. Draindown asphalt can be prevented by using binder absorbers with fiber cellulose and viscosity boosters with asbuton. Asbuton (LGA 50/25 can behave as a stabilizer as well as cellulose fiber. Addition of asbuton also improves the performance of the SMA mix, as shown with increase in the value of dynamic stability. In terms of resistance to fatigue, SMA with cellulosa as stabilizer and SMA with asbuton as stabilizer, relatively have the same performance. Master curve of dynamic modulus indicates SMA with asbuton as stabilizer is relatively stiffer at high temperatures (more than 4.4 °C, but relatively less stiff (less brittle at low temperatures. Keywords: Stone matrix asphalt, Asbuton, Draindown, Dynamic modulus, Permanent deformation

  4. Effects of Asphalt Mix Design Properties on Pavement Performance: A Mechanistic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad M. Abu Abdo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to investigate the effects of hot mix asphalt material properties on the performance of flexible pavements via mechanistic approach. 3D Move Analysis software was utilized to determine rutting and cracking distresses in an asphalt concrete (AC layer. Fourteen different Superpave mixes were evaluated by utilizing results of the Dynamic Modulus (|E⁎| Test and the Dynamic Shear Modulus (|G⁎| Test. Results showed that with the increase of binder content, the tendency of rutting in AC layer increased. However, with the increase of binder content, the cracking of AC layer lessened. Furthermore, when different binder grades were evaluated, results showed that with the increase of the upper binder grade number, rutting decreased, and with the increase of the lower binder grade number, rutting increased. Furthermore, analysis showed that with the increase of the lower binder grade number, higher percent of bottom up cracks would result. As a result of the analysis, binder grade should not be solely considered for cracking in AC layer; binder content and aggregate structure play a big role. Finally, results illustrated that the mechanistic approach is a better tool to determine the performance of asphalt pavement than commonly used methods.

  5. Quantification of the inherent uncertainty in the relaxation modulus and creep compliance of asphalt mixes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Hussein A.; Chehab, Ghassan R.; Najjar, Shadi S.

    2017-08-01

    Advanced material characterization of asphalt concrete is essential for realistic and accurate performance prediction of flexible pavements. However, such characterization requires rigorous testing regimes that involve mechanical testing of a large number of laboratory samples at various conditions and set-ups. Advanced measurement instrumentation in addition to meticulous and accurate data analysis and analytical representation are also of high importance. Such steps as well as the heterogeneous nature of asphalt concrete (AC) constitute major factors of inherent variability. Thus, it is imperative to model and quantify the variability of the needed asphalt material's properties, mainly the linear viscoelastic response functions such as: relaxation modulus, E(t), and creep compliance, D(t). The objective of this paper is to characterize the inherent uncertainty of both E(t) and D(t) over the time domain of their master curves. This is achieved through a probabilistic framework using Monte Carlo simulations and First Order approximations, utilizing E^{*} data for six AC mixes with at least eight replicates per mix. The study shows that the inherent variability, presented by the coefficient of variation (COV), in E(t) and D(t) is low at small reduced times, and increases with the increase in reduced time. At small reduced times, the COV in E(t) and D(t) are similar in magnitude; however, differences become significant at large reduced times. Additionally, the probability distributions and COVs of E(t) and D(t) are mix dependent. Finally, a case study is considered in which the inherent uncertainty in D(t) is forward propagated to assess the effect of variability on the predicted number of cycles to fatigue failure of an asphalt mix.

  6. Performance of asphalt mixture incorporating recycled waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, Nor Baizura; Abdullah, Mohd Ezree; Sanik, Mohd Erwan; Mokhtar, Mardiha; Kaamin, Masiri; Raduan, Rasyidah; Ramli, Mohd Zakwan

    2017-12-01

    Nowadays, the amount of premix waste was increased every year, especially at the batching plants. Normally, the waste materials will be discarded without doing any innovative and effective research about those materials. This situation has become one of the global concerns due to the increasing number of premix waste produced every year. Therefore, the aim of this study is to evaluate the performance of hot mix asphalt (HMA) using premix waste on improving asphalt mixture fatigue behaviour. The method used in this study was Superpave mix design method. The sample conducted in this study were 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, and 100% of premix waste respectively. For a binder test, the laboratory test conducted were penetration test, softening test and thin film oven test while for the performance test were resilient modulus test and indirect tensile fatigue test. From the laboratory test, the resilient modulus test was conducted with two different temperature which was 25°C and 40°C. The result from that test was 20% of premix waste had higher resilient modulus at that two different temperatures compared to another samples. From that test also shown that the sample at the lower temperature which was 25°C has higher resilient modulus compared to the temperature of 40°C. Indirect tensile fatigue test showed that the 30% of premix waste sample was suitable for the modified asphalt mixture with referring to the maximum deformation and strain for comparison control, 10%,20%, and 100% of premix waste samples. So, it can be concluded that premix waste inhibits great potential as road construction material and suitable for repeated traffic loading.

  7. Characterisation of Asphalt Concrete Using Nanoindentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbhuiya, Salim; Caracciolo, Benjamin

    2017-07-18

    In this study, nanoindentation was conducted to extract the load-displacement behaviour and the nanomechanical properties of asphalt concrete across the mastic, matrix, and aggregate phases. Further, the performance of hydrated lime as an additive was assessed across the three phases. The hydrated lime containing samples have greater resistance to deformation in the mastic and matrix phases, in particular, the mastic. There is strong evidence suggesting that hydrated lime has the most potent effect on the mastic phase, with significant increase in hardness and stiffness.

  8. Use of emulsion for warm mix asphalt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahabir Panda

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to increase in energy costs and emission problems in hot mix asphalt usually used, it brought a great interest to the researchers to develop the warm mix technology for pavement constructions. Commonly known as warm mix asphalt (WMA, it is a typical method in the bituminous paving technology, which allows production and placement of bituminous mixes at lower temperatures than that used for hot mix asphalt (HMA. The WMA involves an environmental friendly production process that utilises organic additives, chemical additives and water based technologies. The organic and chemical additives are normally very costly and still involve certain amount of environmental issues. These factors motivated the authors to take up this technology using simple, environment friendly and somewhat cost effective procedure. In this study, an attempt has been made to prepare warm mixes by first pre-coating the aggregates with medium setting bitumen emulsion (MS and then mixing the semi-coated aggregates with VG 30 bitumen at a lower temperature than normally required. After a number of trials it was observed that mostly three mixing temperatures, namely temperatures 110 °C, 120 °C and 130 °C were appropriate to form the bituminous mixes with satisfactory homogeneity and consistency and as such were maintained throughout this study. Marshall samples for paving mixes were prepared using this procedure for dense bituminous macadam (DBM gradings as per the specifications of Ministry of Road Transport and Highways (MORTH and subsequently Marshall properties of the resultant mixes were studied with the main objective of deciding the different parameters that were considered for development of appropriate warm mix asphalt. In this study it has been observed that out of three mixing temperatures tried, the mixes prepared at 120 °C with bitumen-emulsion composition of 80B:20E for DBM warm mix, offer highest Marshall stability and highest indirect tensile strength

  9. Performance Modification of Asphalt Binders using Thermoplastic Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. I. Al-Abdul Wahhab

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a need to improve the performance of asphalt binders to minimize stress cracking that occurs at low temperatures and plastic deformation at high temperatures. Importation of used asphalt-polymers from abroad, leads to an increase in the total construction cost as compared to the cost if the used polymers were of local origin. The main objective of this research was to modify locally produced asphalt. Ten polymers were identified as potential asphalt modifiers based on their physical properties and chemical composition. After preliminary laboratory evaluation for the melting point of these polymers, five polymers were selected for local asphalt modification. In the initial stage, required mixing time was decided based on the relation between shear loss modulus and mixing time .The optimum polymer content was selected based on Superpave binder performance grade specifications.The suitability of improvement was verified through the evaluation of permanent deformation and fatigue behavior of laboratory prepared asphalt concrete mixes. The results indicated that the rheological properties of the modified binders improved significantly with sufficient polymer content (3%. The aging properties of the modified binders were found to be dependent on the type of polymer.The fatigue life and resistance to permanent deformation were significantly improved due to enhanced binder rheological properties.  Thus, local asphalts can be modified using thermoplastic polymers.

  10. Qualitative criteria and thresholds for low noise asphalt mixture design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaitkus, A.; Andriejauskas, T.; Gražulytė, J.; Šernas, O.; Vorobjovas, V.; Kleizienė, R.

    2018-05-01

    Low noise asphalt pavements are cost efficient and cost effective alternative for road traffic noise mitigation comparing with noise barriers, façade insulation and other known noise mitigation measures. However, design of low noise asphalt mixtures strongly depends on climate and traffic peculiarities of different regions. Severe climate regions face problems related with short durability of low noise asphalt mixtures in terms of considerable negative impact of harsh climate conditions (frost-thaw, large temperature fluctuations, hydrological behaviour, etc.) and traffic (traffic loads, traffic volumes, studded tyres, etc.). Thus there is a need to find balance between mechanical and acoustical durability as well as to ensure adequate pavement skid resistance for road safety purposes. Paper presents analysis of the qualitative criteria and design parameters thresholds of low noise asphalt mixtures. Different asphalt mixture composition materials (grading, aggregate, binder, additives, etc.) and relevant asphalt layer properties (air void content, texture, evenness, degree of compaction, etc.) were investigated and assessed according their suitability for durable and effective low noise pavements. Paper concluded with the overview of requirements, qualitative criteria and thresholds for low noise asphalt mixture design for severe climate regions.

  11. Nanoscale study on water damage for different warm mix asphalt binders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kefei Liu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to analyze the water damage to different warm mix asphalt binders from the micro scale, five kinds of asphalt binders, 70#A base asphalt, sasobit warm mix asphalt, energy champion 120 °C (EC120 warm mix asphalt, aspha-min warm mix asphalt, sulfur-extended asphalt modifier (SEAM warm mix asphalt, under different conditions (dry/wet, original/aging are prepared for laboratory tests. The atomic force microscope (AFM is used to observe the surface properties and measure the adhesion force between the asphalt and the mineral aggregate. The obtained results show that under the dry condition aspha-min warm mix asphalt and SEAM warm mix asphalt show stronger adhesive ability with the mineral aggregate compared with other asphalt binders, but also have relatively large dispersion and fluctuation in the tested results; under the wet condition, aspha-min warm mix asphalt and SEAM warm mix asphalt show stronger water damage resistance ability. The EC120 warm mix asphalt and aspha-min warm mix asphalt are less sensitive to moist, and their corresponding adhesion force is less susceptible to the change of external moisture conditions, leading to a better ability to resist water erosion. The aging process significantly lowers the moisture erosion resistance ability, which further impairs the water damage resistance ability. The base asphalt is more sensitive to moisture and more vulnerable to water damage, no matter whether it is under original or aging conditions. The aging aspha-min warm mix asphalt has the least loss of adhesion force, the smallest dispersion of the tested adhesion force, the strongest water damage resistance ability, no matter it is dry or wet. Keywords: Road engineering, Warm mix asphalt, Moisture damage, Atomic force microscope, Microcosmic

  12. Asphalt Concrete for Cold Regions, A Comparative Laboratory Study and Analysis of Mixtures Containing Soft and Hard Grades of Asphalt Cement,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Justification January 1980 BY Distribution Availabilit CodesIAvail an~d/or Dist special Prepa red for DIRECTORATE OF MILITARY PROGRAMS OFFICE, CHIEF OF...of water on the resilient modulus of asphalt treated mixes. Proecedinfp 4. Asphalt concrete mixes using the Tilton aggregates Association of Asphalt

  13. Mathematical and experimental investigations of modeling, simulation and experiment to promote the life-cycle of polymer modified asphalt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    The formulation of constitutive equations for asphaltic pavement is based on rheological models which include the asphalt mixture, additives, and the bitumen. In terms of the asphalt, the rheology addresses the flow and permanent deformation in time,...

  14. Magnetic ring for stripping enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selph, F.

    1992-10-01

    A ring designed to recycle ions through a stripping medium offers the possibility for increasing output of the desired charge state by up to 4x. This could be a very important component of a Radioactive Nuclear Beam Facility. In order for such a ring to work effectively it must satisfy certain design conditions. These include achromaticity at the stripper, a dispersed region for an extraction magnet, and a number of first and higher order optics constraints which are necessary to insure that the beam emittance is not degraded unduly by the ring. An example is given of a candidate design of a stripping ring

  15. Development of indirect ring tension test for fracture characterization of asphalt mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeinali Siavashani, Alireza

    the distress survey which was conducted on the pavements after five years of service. The maximum allowable crack size analysis revealed that a significant improvement could be realized in terms of the pavements performance if the HMA were to be compacted to a higher density. Finally, the IRT fracture test data were compared to the results of the disk-shaped compact [DC(t)] test. The results of the two tests showed a strong correlation; however, the IRT test seemed to be more repeatable. KEYWORDS: Asphalt Pavement, Low-Temperature Cracking, Fracture Mechanics, Material Characterization, Laboratory Testing.

  16. Storm Water General Permit 3 for Rock and Asphalt

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — General permit #3 for storm water discharges associated with industrial activity for Asphalt Plants, Concrete Batch Plants, Rock Crushing Plants and Construction...

  17. Occupational Renal Dysfunction Among Asphalt Workers In Sharkia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    : An Epidemiological Study. ... Zagazig Journal of Occupational Health and Safety ... Abstract. Background: Occupational exposure to bitumen fumes emitted during hot application of asphalt carries the risk of exposure to significant amount of ...

  18. Characteristic Asphalt Concrete Wearing Course (ACWC) Using Variation Lime Filler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permana, R. A.; Pramesti, F. P.; Setyawan, A.

    2018-03-01

    This research use of lime filler Sukaraja expected add durability layers of concrete pavement is asphalt damage caused by the weather and load traffic. This study attempts to know how much value characteristic Marshall on a mixture of concrete asphalt using lime filler. This research uses experimental methods that is with a pilot to get results, thus will look filler utilization lime on construction concrete asphalt variation in filler levels 2 %, 3 %, 4 %.The results showed that the use of lime filler will affect characteristic a mixture of concrete asphalt. The more filler chalk used to increase the value of stability. On the cretaceous filler 2 % value of stability is 1067,04 kg. When lime filler levels added to the levels of filler 4 %, the value of stability increased to 1213,92 kg. The flexibility increased the number of filler as levels lime 2 % to 4 % suggests that are conducted more stiff mix.

  19. Density measurement verification for hot mix asphalt concrete pavement construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Oregon Department of Transportation (ODOT) requires a minimum density for the construction of dense-graded hot mix asphalt concrete (HMAC) pavements to ensure the likelihood that the pavement will not experience distresses that reduce the expected se...

  20. Density measurement verification for hot mixed asphalt concrete pavement construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Oregon Department of Transportation (ODOT) requires a minimum density for the construction of dense-graded hot mix asphalt concrete (HMAC) pavements to ensure the likelihood that the pavement will not experience distresses that reduce the expected se...

  1. Connecticut warm mix asphalt (WMA) pilot projects 2010 and 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    WMA overlays were placed in several pilot projects in Connecticut during the 2010 and 2011 construction : seasons. These technologies included Sasobit, Evotherm, Advera, Double-Barrel Green foamed : asphalt as well as SonneWarmix. The res...

  2. Implementation of warm-mix asphalt mixtures in Nebraska pavements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The primary objective of this research is to evaluate the feasibility of several WMA mixtures as potential asphalt paving : mixtures for Nebraska pavements. To that end, three well-known WMA additives (i.e., Sasobit, Evotherm, and Advera : synthetic ...

  3. Performance of Virginia's warm-mix asphalt trial sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    Three trial sections using two warm-mix asphalt (WMA) technologies were constructed in various locations in Virginia in 2006, and experiences with these trial sections were used in the development of the Virginia Department of Transportation's specia...

  4. Investigation of warm-mix asphalt for Iowa roadways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Phase II of this study further evaluated the performance of plant-produced warm-mix asphalt (WMA) mixes by conducting : additional mixture performance tests at a broader range of temperatures, adding additional pavements to the study, comparing : vir...

  5. Assessment of Quality of Asphalt Concrete used in Road ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OLUWASOGO

    subjected to bitumen extraction and sieve analysis, hot mix Marshall Stability and flow tests, penetration and ... asphalt concrete as well as other structures of the flexible pavement. ... High-quality road networks are very important to the.

  6. Development of bio-based polymers for use in asphalt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Asphalt binder is typically modified with poly type (styrene-butadiene-styrene or SBS) polymers to improve its rheological properties and performance grade. The elastic and principal component of SBS polymers is butadiene. For the last decade, butadi...

  7. Risk management of low air void asphalt concrete mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Various forms of asphalt pavement distress, such as rutting, shoving and bleeding, can be attributed, in many cases, to low air voids in : the mixtures during production and placement. The occurrence of low air void contents during plant production m...

  8. Towards analytical mix design for large-stone asphalt mixes.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rust, FC

    1992-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the development of an analytically based design procedure for large-aggregate asphalt and its application in thirteen trial sections. The physical and engineering properties of the various materials are discussed and related...

  9. Building Asphalt Pavement with SBS-based Compound Added Using a Dry Process in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Hosin; Kim, Yongjoo; Geisler, Nivi

    2009-01-01

    PMA where it is formulated to melt and blend with asphalt quickly during a batch mixing process. The main objectives of this study are to (1) build asphalt pavement using asphalt mixtures with SBS-based compound added using a “dry” process at the batch plant and (2) evaluate its performance under......-based compound seemed to affect the asphalt mix to become more flexible under the heavy loads. By adding SBS-based compound to asphalt mixtures using a “dry” process, it is expected that the pavement would become more resistant to rutting than a typical asphalt mixture used in Greenland while enduring its arctic...

  10. Production and performance of desulfurized rubber asphalt binder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanping Sheng

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Asphalt rubber binder typically exhibits disadvantages like segregation and high viscosity; however, this can be improved by the incorporation of desulfurized rubber powder. This study examined the swelling principle of desulfurized rubber asphalt (DRA. In addition, it evaluated the performance of DRA fabricated with various rubber powder contents under different shear conditions and development time. Superpave binders tests, including Brookfield viscosity, dynamic shear rheometer (DSR and bending beam rheometer (BBR tests, were applied on three control binders (i.e., neat, 20 mesh asphalt rubber binder, 40 mesh asphalt rubber binder and a DRA binder. Binder testing results indicated that rubber powder swelled into the base binder and resulted in enhanced stability. Optimum performance of the DRA binder was achieved by adding 20% (by weight of rubber powder into the base binder at shear rate, shear temperature, shear time and development time of 7000 r/min, 170 °C, 60 min and 45 min, respectively. Modified ranges of production conditions were also provided to widen the application of DRA in field construction. It appeared that DRA binder benefited from the recovered plasticity and viscosity of the rubber and consequently, exhibited superior performance over the neat and conventional asphalt rubber binders. Preliminary mixture evaluation was also conducted and the DRA binder was found to significantly improve the mixture resistance to permanent deformation and water damage. Overall, the DAR binder is encouraged to be used as a modified binder for flexible pavements. Keywords: Desulfurized rubber asphalt, Swelling model, Production process, Asphalt performance, Rubber asphalt

  11. Assessment of Asphalt Concrete Reinforcement Grid in Flexible Pavements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    successfully used as interlayers include asphalt rubber and geotextiles, and the applica- tion of recycling techniques to rework the upper 2–4 in. of the...from a set of weights dropped from increasingly greater predetermined heights onto a rubber buffer system connected to a 12 in. diameter segmented...pavement temperature at depth, IR = the infrared pavement surface temperature (°C), D = the asphalt depth to estimate the temperature (mm), 1

  12. DURABILITY OF ASPHALT CONCRETE MIXTURES USING DOLOMITE AGGREGATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imad Al-Shalout

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with the durability of asphalt concrete, including the effects of different gradations, compaction temperatures and immersion time on the durability potential of mixtures. The specific objectives of this study are: to investigate the effect of compaction temperature on the mechanical properties of asphalt concrete mixtures; investigate the effect of bitumen content and different aggregate gradations on the durability potential of bituminous mixtures.

  13. Laboratory Evaluation of Ground Tire Rubber in Stone Mastic Asphalt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Muniandy

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Stone mastic asphalt (SMA is a gap-graded mix whereby stiffer asphalt cement is required to bind the stone matrix or arrangement of stones together. Although various asphalt additives are traditionally available, the use of rubber crumbs in SMA is still a new rresearch endeavor. Many countries around the world are facing serious problems on what to do with reject or discarded tires. In the present study, commercial truck tires, containing 70% natural rubber, were ground and pre-blended in 80-100 penetration asphalt for use in SMA mixtures. An assessment was made of the laboratory performance of rubberized SMA in terms of stability, resilent modulus, dynamic creep and tensile strength ratio. It was observed that the performance of SMA with ground tire rubber was for superior as compared to SMA mix with unmodified asphalt. Sulfur and Styrene Butadeline Rubber (SBR were used in rubberized SMA mixes as additives to test the sensitivity of SMA mixtures. As standard practice a 0.3% newly developed cellulose oil palm fiber was used in SMA to minimize the asphalt drain-down effects.

  14. Performance of Hot Asphalt Mixtures Containing Plastic Bottles as Additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Hakeem

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on evaluating the resistance of polymer modified asphalt mixes and the role played by asphalt in the realm of construction is undeniably important. Addition of polymers(PB as additives to asphalt helps to improve the strength and water repellent property of the mix and as well as helps environment in various ways and at the same time, analyzing its lower maintenance activities and service life is most important. The use of inexpensive polymers, in this case, waste polymers has without any doubt proven to be the most convenient way of reducing the cost of construction and at the same time maintaining quality. The main resolve for this research was to establish the effects of the use of plastic bottles on hot asphalt and its mixtures. In order to put this into perspective, varying percentages of asphalt mixtures were calculated and subjected to laboratory tests. The two-factor variance analysis (ANOVA was conducted to determine the significance at various confidence limits. The results indicate that the inclusion of Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET had a particularly substantial effect on the properties of asphalt. Consequently, it can encourage the re-utilization of waste in the manufacturing industry in an ecologically friendly and cost-effective way.

  15. The use of waste materials in asphalt concrete mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncan, Mustafa; Tuncan, Ahmet; Cetin, Altan

    2003-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate (a) the effects of rubber and plastic concentrations and rubber particle sizes on properties of asphalt cement, (b) on properties of asphalt concrete specimens and (c) the effects of fly ash, marble powder, rubber powder and petroleum contaminated soil as filler materials instead of stone powder in the asphalt concrete specimens. One type of limestone aggregate and one penetration-graded asphalt cement (75-100) were used. Three concentrations of rubber and plastic (i.e. 5%, 10% and 20% of the total weight of asphalt cement), three rubber particle sizes (i.e. No. 4 [4.75mm] - 20 [0.85 mm], No. 20 [0.85mm] - 200 [0.075mm] and No. 4 [4.75mm] - 200 [0.075mm]) and one plastic particle size (i.e. No. 4 [4.75mm] - 10 [2.00mm]) were also used. It was found that while the addition of plastic significantly increased the strength of specimens, the addition of rubber decreased it. No. 4 [4.75mm] - 200 [0.075mm] rubber particles showed the best results with respect to the indirect tensile test. The Marshall stability and indirect tensile strength properties of plastic modified specimens increased. Marble powder and fly ash could be used as filler materials instead of stone powder in the asphalt concrete pavement specimens.

  16. Reinforcement of Recycled Foamed Asphalt Using Short Polypropylene Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjoo Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the reinforcing effects of the inclusion of short polypropylene fibers on recycled foamed asphalt (RFA mixture. Short polypropylene fibers of 10 mm length with a 0.15% by weight mixing ratio of the fiber to the asphalt binder were used. The Marshall stability test, the indirect tensile strength test, the resilient modulus test, and wheel tracking test of the RFA mixtures were conducted. The test results were compared to find out the reinforcing effects of the inclusion of the fiber and the other mixtures, which included the conventional recycled foamed asphalt (RFA mixtures; the cement reinforced recycled foamed asphalt (CRFA mixtures; the semihot recycled foamed asphalt (SRFA mixtures; and recycled hot-mix asphalt (RHMA mixtures. It is found that the FRFA mixture shows higher Marshall stability than the RFA and SRFA mixtures, higher indirect tensile strength than the RFA mixture, and higher rut resistance than the RFA, SRFA, and RHMA mixtures as seen from the wheel tracking test.

  17. Adjusting Asphalt Mixes for Increased Durability and Implementation of a Performance Tester to Evaluate Fatigue Cracking of Asphalt

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-17

    Cracking is a common failure mechanism in asphalt concrete pavement structures. It is one of the main reasons for large road maintenance and rehabilitation expenditures, as well as reduced user comfort and increased fuel consumption due to high road ...

  18. Rutting based evaluation of asphalt mixes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, K.M.

    2012-01-01

    Pavement rutting is one of the most common and destructive pavement distresses being observed in flexible pavements, which is primarily due to a-x-le loads that exceed legal limit and high ambient temperatures, and also poor mix design is one of the cause of rutting. The drastic increase in traffic volume during last few decades has resulted in premature pavement fillers of almost the whole road structure in Pakistan. In this scenario it is the time to investigate this problem and propose appropriate solution. Physical properties of aggregates and bitumen were evaluated in the laboratory. Mechanical Properties of three mixes. i.e., Marshall, Super pave and Stone Mastic Asphalt (SMA) were evaluated by performing creep test. indirect tensile test and dynamic modulus in order to compare the performance of mixes under prevailing load and environmental conditions of Pakistan. The study revealed that Super pave mixes performed better than Marshall and SMA. (author)

  19. The structure of the Cepheid instability strip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernie, J.D.

    1990-01-01

    About 100 classical Cepheids having color excesses on a homogeneous system with standard errors of 0.02 or less mag are used with the Feast-Walker period-luminosity-color relation to study the distribution of such stars in the instability strip. It is found that mean (B-V)mag is a better indicator of mean effective temperature than is mean B(i) - mean V(i)(i). The blue edge of the color-magnitude distribution is consistent with the theoretical blue edge for Y = 0.28 and Z = 0.02. Although the highest amplitude stars are found near the center of the period-color array, high- and low-amplitude stars can intermingle, and both kinds are to be found near the edges of the distribution. The same is true on the C-M array. Finally, it is pointed out that the Cepheids do not populate the instability strip uniformly if the red edge is taken to be parallel to the theoretical blue edge. Rather, the local instability region runs as a parallelogram in the C-M array from the theoretical blue edge upward and to the red. 24 refs

  20. Using Comic Strips in Language Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csabay, Noémi

    2006-01-01

    The author believes that using comic strips in language-learning classes has three main benefits. First, comic strips motivate younger learners. Second, they provide a context and logically connected sentences to help language learning. Third, their visual information is helpful for comprehension. The author argues that comic strips can be used in…

  1. Mechanical characterization of porous asphalt mixes modified with fatty acid amides -FAA-

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Senior Arrieta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Porous asphalt mixes (PAM, form a special road surface for asphalt pavement structures, have a special particle size distribution that lets infiltrate to the runoff storm water through of it because of its voids content about 20 %. Many researchers conducted studies and have concluded that the use of modified asphalts is completely necessary to design PAM. Organic and chemical additives and special procedures as foamed asphalt have enhanced the performance of PAM, during their service life. This paper is focused on the mechanical characterization of PAM and how the asphalt modified with fatty acid amides, influenced on their behavior and performance. Based on an experimental methodology with laboratory tests aimed at establishing a comparison between porous asphalt mixes, using for its design and production a penetration 60-70 pure asphalt and another one asphalt modified with fatty acid amides.

  2. Validity of multiple stress creep recovery (MSCR) test for DOTD asphalt binder specification : technical summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Higher traffic coupled with heavier loads led the asphalt industry to introduce polymer-modified binders to enhance the durability and strength of hot mix asphalt (HMA) pavements. When the Superpave Performance Graded (PG) binder specification (AASHT...

  3. Quantifying Asphalt Emulsion-Based Chip Seal Curing Times Using Electrical Resistance Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-15

    Chip sealing typically consists of covering a pavement surface with asphalt emulsion into which aggregate chips are embedded. The asphalt emulsion cures through the evaporation of water, thus providing mechanical strength to adhere to the pavement wh...

  4. 0-6686 : improving DMS 9210 requirements for limestone rock asphalt : [project summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Limestone rock asphalt (LRA) mixtures have : been produced and placed for several decades : using specification requirements currently listed : under DMS 9210, Limestone Rock Asphalt (LRA). : Several Texas Department of Transportation : (TxDOT) distr...

  5. Performance Assessment of Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA) Pavements : Executive Summary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA) is a new technology which was : introduced in 1995 in Europe. WMA is gaining attention all : over the world because it offers several advantages over : conventional asphalt concrete mixes. The benefits include: : (1) Reduced en...

  6. Performance Measures of Warm Asphalt Mixtures for Safe and Reliable Freight Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    Warm mix asphalt (WMA) is an emerging technology that can allow asphalt to flow at a lower temperature for mixing, placing and compaction. The advantages of WMA include reduced fuel consumption, less carbon dioxide emission, longer paving season, lon...

  7. Pavement service life extension due to asphalt surface treatment interlayer : research project capsule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    The Louisiana Department of Transportation and Development (DOTD) has been : using asphalt surface treatment (AST) interlayers over soil cement base courses : as a means to mitigate shrinkage cracks from reflecting through the asphaltic : concrete (A...

  8. Fatigue and fracture properties of aged binders in the context of reclaimed asphalt mixes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Evidence in the literature indicates that the stiffness of the asphalt binder increases and ductility of the binder decreases : with oxidative aging. Typically for unmodified asphalt binders, increase in stiffness or decrease in ductility is regarded...

  9. In-Place Recycling and Reclamation of Asphaltic Concrete Pavements in Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-01

    Full-depth reclamation has been defined by the Asphalt Recycling and Reclaiming Association as a rehabilitation technique in which the full thickness of the asphalt pavement and a predetermined portion of the underlying material (base, subbase, an...

  10. Improving Quality Control of Asphalt Pavement with RAP Using a Portable Infrared Spectroscopy Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    This project has investigated the effectiveness of a Portable Infrared Spectrometer (PIRS) device in estimating percent of Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP) and its contribution into oxidative aging of a new asphalt mixture immediately after productio...

  11. The road that's taken : Alberta's bitumen and the world of asphalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentein, J.

    2009-01-01

    Approximately one third of the bitumen produced by the oil sands industry in Canada is used as asphalt in roads and roofing materials. Crude oils used for asphalt production require very little refining. The asphalt market has become a key profit centre for some Cold Lake operators. Imperial Oil has established a research centre devoted to asphalt production at its Sarnia-based refinery. A decline in heavy oil supplies from Mexico and Venezuela has left Canada with a larger margin of the asphalt market. Industry leaders predict that demand for asphalt products will grow by 2.6 per cent per year. A sharp increase in asphalt prices led to many construction delays in 2007. Trials are now being conducted on a new warm mix paving technology that allows users to lower the temperature of asphalt by 20 to 30 degrees C when paving. 2 figs

  12. Evaluation of cement and fly ash treated recycled asphalt pavement and aggregates for base construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Many entities currently use recycled asphalt pavement (RAP) and other aggregates as base material, temporary haul roads, : and, in the case of RAP, hot mix asphalt construction. Several states currently allow the use of RAP combined with cement : for...

  13. A Review of the Application of Zeolite Materials in Warm Mix Asphalt Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Woszuk

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Among warm mix asphalt (WMA technologies, asphalt foaming techniques offer high potential in terms of decreasing production temperature. Reluctance of manufacturers to introduce this technology is connected with the concerns of a large investment costs. However, there are known additives which, through asphalt foaming, allow a decrease in temperatures by approximately 30 °C; the use of these additives do not involve expensive investment in order to change the asphalt mix production method. These additives are zeolites, that is, minerals of the aluminosilicate group, the crystalline structure of which contains water bound in a specific way. Its release, at mix asphalt production temperatures, causes asphalt foaming. It is currently known that zeolites can be used in WMA, including natural and synthetic zeolites obtained using chemical reagents and waste. This review presents the results of studies of WMA technology, including the effects of zeolite addition on asphalt properties and mix asphalt, as well as related environmental, economic, and technological benefits.

  14. Performance of Hot Mix Asphalt Mixture Incorporating Kenaf Fibre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hainin, M. R.; Idham, M. K.; Yaro, N. S. A.; Hussein, S. O. A. E.; Warid, M. N. M.; Mohamed, A.; Naqibah, S. N.; Ramadhansyah, P. J.

    2018-04-01

    Kenaf fibre has been recognised to increase the strength of concrete, but its application in asphalt concrete is still unanswered. This research investigated the performance of Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) incorporated with different percentages of kenaf fibre (0.1 %, 0.2% and 0.3% by weight of dry aggregate) in term of resilient modulus, rutting performance using Asphalt Pavement analyser (APA) and moisture damage using the Modified Lottman test (AASHTO-T283). The fibre was interweaved to a diameter of about 5-10 mm and length of 30 mm which is three times the nominal maximum aggregate size used in the mix. Asphaltic mixtures of asphalt concrete (AC) 10 were prepared and compacted using Marshall compactor which were subsequently tested to evaluate the resilient modulus and moisture susceptibility. Twelve cylindrical specimens (150mm diameter) from AC10, two control samples with two modified ones for each percentage of kenaf fibres compacted using Gyratory compactor were used for rutting test using APA. The laboratory results reveal that the addition of kenaf fibres slightly reduce the resilient modulus of the mixes and that asphaltic mix with 0.3% kenaf fibre can mitigate both rutting and moisture damage which makes the pavement more sustain to the loads applied even in the presence of water. 0.3% kenaf fibre content is considered to be the optimal content which had the least rut depth and the highest TSR of 81.07%. Based on grid analysis, addition of 0.3% kenaf fibre in asphaltic concrete was recommended in modifying the samples.

  15. Asphalt Roofing Shingles Into Energy Project Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jameson, Rex, PE

    2008-04-28

    Based on a widely cited September, 1999 report by the Vermont Agency of Natural Resources, nearly 11 million tons of asphalt roofing shingle wastes are produced in the United States each year. Recent data suggests that the total is made up of about 9.4 million tons from roofing tear-offs and about 1.6 million tons from manufacturing scrap. Developing beneficial uses for these materials would conserve natural resources, promote protection of the environment and strengthen the economy. This project explored the feasibility of using chipped asphalt shingle materials in cement manufacturing kilns and circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers. A method of enhancing the value of chipped shingle materials for use as fuel by removing certain fractions for use as substitute raw materials for the manufacture of new shingles was also explored. Procedures were developed to prevent asbestos containing materials from being processed at the chipping facilities, and the frequency of the occurrence of asbestos in residential roofing tear-off materials was evaluated. The economic feasibility of each potential use was evaluated based on experience gained during the project and on a review of the well established use of shingle materials in hot mix asphalt. This project demonstrated that chipped asphalt shingle materials can be suitable for use as fuel in circulating fluidized boilers and cement kilns. More experience would be necessary to determine the full benefits that could be derived and to discover long term effects, but no technical barriers to full scale commercial use of chipped asphalt shingle materials in these applications were discovered. While the technical feasibility of various options was demonstrated, only the use of asphalt shingle materials in hot mix asphalt applications is currently viable economically.

  16. Silicon strip detector qualification for the CMS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaussen, Gordon

    2008-01-01

    To provide the best spatial resolution for the particle trajectory reconstruction and a very fast readout, the inner tracking system of CMS is build up of silicon detectors with a pixel tracker in the center surrounded by a strip tracker. The silicon strip tracker consists of so-called modules representing the smallest detection unit of the tracking device. These modules are mounted on higher-level structures called shells in the tracker inner barrel (TIB), rods in the tracker outer barrel (TOB), disks in the tracker inner disks (TID) and petals in the tracker end caps (TEC). The performance of the participating two shells of the TIB, four rods of the TOB and two petals of the TEC (representing about 1% of the final strip tracker) could be studied in different magnetic fields over a period of approximately two month using cosmic muon signals. The last test before inserting the tracker in the CMS experiment was the Tracker Slice Test performed in spring/summer 2007 at the Tracker Integration Facility (TIF) at CERN after installing all subdetectors in the tracker support tube. Approximately 25% of the strip tracker +z side was powered and read out using a cosmic ray trigger built up of scintillation counters. In total, about 5 million muon events were recorded under various operating conditions. These events together with results from commissioning runs were used to study the detector response like cluster charges, signal-to-noise ratios and single strip noise behaviour as well as to identify faulty channels which turned out to be in the order of a few per mille. The performance of the silicon strip tracker during these different construction stages is discussed in this thesis with a special emphasis on the tracker end caps. (orig.)

  17. Silicon strip detector qualification for the CMS experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaussen, Gordon

    2008-10-06

    To provide the best spatial resolution for the particle trajectory reconstruction and a very fast readout, the inner tracking system of CMS is build up of silicon detectors with a pixel tracker in the center surrounded by a strip tracker. The silicon strip tracker consists of so-called modules representing the smallest detection unit of the tracking device. These modules are mounted on higher-level structures called shells in the tracker inner barrel (TIB), rods in the tracker outer barrel (TOB), disks in the tracker inner disks (TID) and petals in the tracker end caps (TEC). The performance of the participating two shells of the TIB, four rods of the TOB and two petals of the TEC (representing about 1% of the final strip tracker) could be studied in different magnetic fields over a period of approximately two month using cosmic muon signals. The last test before inserting the tracker in the CMS experiment was the Tracker Slice Test performed in spring/summer 2007 at the Tracker Integration Facility (TIF) at CERN after installing all subdetectors in the tracker support tube. Approximately 25% of the strip tracker +z side was powered and read out using a cosmic ray trigger built up of scintillation counters. In total, about 5 million muon events were recorded under various operating conditions. These events together with results from commissioning runs were used to study the detector response like cluster charges, signal-to-noise ratios and single strip noise behaviour as well as to identify faulty channels which turned out to be in the order of a few per mille. The performance of the silicon strip tracker during these different construction stages is discussed in this thesis with a special emphasis on the tracker end caps. (orig.)

  18. New Concept of Cultivation Using Limited Strip-Tillage with Strip Shallow Irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazid Ismi Intara

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE Dry land is one of land resources which potentially used for food crop cultivation, especially in the areas which have light to medium technical obstacles. The development of technology to improve soil quality in marginal lands to be productive lands is still widely open for agricultural development in Indonesia. Rooting medium quality can be improved by changing soil tillage method and observing the proper crop irrigation technology. It can be the solution for crop cultivation in clay loam soil. This study aimed to obtain water movement model in a minimally-tilled clay soil with strip shallow irrigation. The concept is limited soil-tillage with strip shallow irrigation method, water supply technique, and crop water requirement. Method used in this study includes developing water movement model (software development in a minimally-tilled clay soil with subsurface irrigation. In the final stages, research also conducted water movement analysis testing apparatus in the laboratory, field validation of the subsurface irrigation performance, and cultivation technique testing to chili pepper growth (Capsicum annuumL.. The development of water movement simulation on a limited strip-tillage with subsurface irrigation uses the concept to quantify the amount of water in the soil. The analysis of movement pattern was demonstrated on contour patterns. It showed that the wetting process can reach depth zone – 5 cm to the rooting zone. It was an important discovery on the development of minimum stripe tillage soil with subsurface irrigation. Specifically, it can be concluded that: the result of fitting by eyes to diffusivity graphic and water content obtained the required parameter values for soil physical properties. It was then simulated on horizontal water movement model on a minimum strip-tillage with strip shallow irrigation /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso

  19. Method of stripping solid particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    A method of stripping loaded solid particles is specified in which uniform batches of the loaded particles are passed successively upwardly through an elution column in the form of discrete plugs, the particles of which do not intermingle substantially with the particles of the vertically adjacent plug(s), and are contacted therein with eluant liquid flowed downwardly, strong eluate being withdrawn from the lower region of the column, the loaded particles being supplied as a slurry in a carrier liquid, and successive batches of loaded particles being isolated as measured batches and being separated from their carrier liquid before being contacted with strong eluate and slurried with the strong eluate into the lower region of the column. An example describes the stripping of ion exchange resin particles loaded with complex uranium ions. (author)

  20. Preparation and Performance of Asphalt Compound Modified with Waste Crumb Rubber and Waste Polyethylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuqiao Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Three kinds of modified asphalt were prepared by adding waste crumb rubber (WCR, waste polyethylene (WPE, and WCR/WPE to base asphalt, respectively. The influence of different doses on the performance of modified asphalt, such as 25°C penetration, softening point, 5°C ductility, and 135°C, 165°C viscosity, was studied, and the modification mechanism of modified asphalt was discussed through the fluorescence microscope. As the waterproofing materials, the waterproofness of WCR/WPE compound modified asphalt was tested. The results show that the WPE modified asphalt has excellent resistance to high temperature and WCR modified asphalt has good low temperature resistance. The resistance to deformation ability of WPE modified asphalt is better than that of the WCR modified asphalt. The 135°C viscosity of compound modified asphalt is better than that of WPE and WCR modified asphalt. In addition, the waterproofness of compound modified asphalt using waterproofing materials is better than that of common waterproofing materials.

  1. Specifications and Construction Methods for Asphalt Concrete and Other Plant-Mix Types, 3rd Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asphalt Inst., College Park, MD.

    The purpose of this publication is to assist engineers in the analysis, design and control of paving projects that use asphalt concrete and other asphalt plant-mixes. The scope of this new third edition has been enlarged, and changes necessitated by advances in asphalt technology have been incorporated. Chapters I and II and Appendices A and B…

  2. Survey of microbial degradation of asphalts with notes on relationship to nuclear waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ZoBell, C.E.; Molecke, M.A.

    1978-12-01

    A survey has been made of the microbial degradation of asphalts. Topics covered include chemical and physical properties of asphalts, their chemical stability, methods of demonstrating their microbial degradation, and environmental extremes for microbial activity based on existing literature. Specific concerns for the use of asphalt in nuclear waste management, plus potential effects and consequences thereof are discussed. 82 references

  3. Visualizing asphalt roller trajectories in context: acquiring, processing, and representing sensor readings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasenev, Alexandr

    2015-01-01

    The asphalt compaction process relies heavily on the skills and knowledge of roller operators who act alongside other stakeholders involved in asphalt paving. It is essential that these construction specialists: (1) are adequately informed about the initial temperature distribution of the asphalt

  4. The first engineered self-healing asphalt road : How is it performing?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Q.; Schlangen, H.E.J.G.; Van Bochove, G.

    2013-01-01

    Porous asphalt shows excellent performance in both noise reduction and water drainage. Although porous asphalt has these great qualities, its service life is much shorter (sometimes only half) compared to dense graded asphalt roads. Ravelling, which is the loss of aggregate particles from the

  5. On the representative volume element of asphalt concrete at low temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marasteanu, Mihai; Cannone Falchetto, Augusto; Velasquez, Raul; Le, Jia-Liang

    2016-08-01

    The feasibility of characterizing asphalt mixtures' rheological and failure properties at low temperatures by means of the Bending Beam Rheometer (BBR) is investigated in this paper. The main issue is the use of thin beams of asphalt mixture in experimental procedures that may not capture the true behavior of the material used to construct an asphalt pavement.

  6. Basic Performance of Fibre Reinforced Asphalt Concrete with Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement Produced In Low Temperatures with Foamed Bitumen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomicz-Kowalska, Anna; Iwański, Mateusz M.; Mrugała, Justyna

    2017-10-01

    During the reconstruction of road pavements, the reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP), which is obtained through milling of the worn out existing asphalt, is commonly used for producing new base courses in cold recycling processes. Two of these techniques are most popular: one using mineral-cement-emulsion mixes and one utilizing mineral cement mixes with foamed bitumen. Additionally, some amounts of RAP can be incorporated into traditional hot mix asphalt. The demand for energy efficient and environmentally friendly solutions however, results in a need for development of new techniques that would result in cheaper and more reliable solutions with smaller carbon footprint. The reduction of processing temperatures with simultaneous incorporation of reclaimed material is the most efficient way of obtaining these objectives, but it often results in the overall decrease of bituminous mix quality. The paper presents the possibility of using RAP for producing asphalt concrete in warm mix asphalt (WMA) production process by the use of foamed bitumen modified with Fischer-Tropsch synthetic wax and polymer-basalt fibers. Additionally, a series of reference mixtures were produced to investigate the effects of the additives and of the warm process. The carried out analyses and tests shown that the experimental warm mix asphalt produced with RAP and foamed bitumen returned satisfactory performance. The introduction of synthetic F-T wax in the warm foam bitumen mixes resulted in a significantly improved compaction levels and moisture and frost resistance and the addition of polymer-basalt fibers has further improved the permanent deformation resistance of the mixes. All of the designed and tested mixes have fulfilled the requirements for binding course asphalt concrete with medium traffic loads.

  7. Thermal and hydraulic analysis of multilayered asphalt pavements as active solar collectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascual-Muñoz, P.; Castro-Fresno, D.; Serrano-Bravo, P.; Alonso-Estébanez, A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A new type of asphalt solar collector has been introduced in this paper. • The common pipe network has been replaced for a highly porous asphalt layer. • The use of these collectors contributes to achieve current environmental targets. • Excellent thermal efficiencies have been obtained in the laboratory tests. • Further research is needed to increase the low flow rates achieved. - Abstract: The fulfillment of current environmental aims like reducing fossil fuel consumption or greenhouse gas emissions entails the development of new technologies that enable the use of cleaner, cheaper and renewable energies. Furthermore, the need to improve energy efficiency in buildings encourages scientists and engineers to find new ways of harvesting energy for later uses. The use of asphalt pavements as active solar collectors is introduced in this article. Several authors have studied the use of roads as an energy source before. However, a new technology is presented in which a multilayered pavement with a highly porous middle layer is used instead of a solar collector with an embedded pipe network. These collectors are fully integrated within the road infrastructure and may offer low cost solar energy for water heating. The paper includes a brief comment on the state-of-the-art. Then, a broad methodology is presented in which data, materials and procedures needed to run the tests are fully described. Finally, the results of the laboratory tests are stated and discussed. The prototype used in the laboratory provided excellent thermal efficiency. However, these good results contrast with the low flow rate levels registered during the tests. Thus, although this technology seems to be very promising, new experimental tests should be performed before an effective application is possible

  8. Sensitivity analysis of longitudinal cracking on asphalt pavement using MEPDG in permafrost region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Zhang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Longitudinal cracking is one of the most important distresses of asphalt pavement in permafrost regions. The sensitivity analysis of design parameters for asphalt pavement can be used to study the influence of every parameter on longitudinal cracking, which can help optimizing the design of the pavement structure. In this study, 20 test sections of Qinghai–Tibet Highway were selected to conduct the sensitivity analysis of longitudinal cracking on material parameter based on Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide (MEPDG and single factorial sensitivity analysis method. Some computer aided engineering (CAE simulation techniques, such as the Latin hypercube sampling (LHS technique and the multiple regression analysis are used as auxiliary means. Finally, the sensitivity spectrum of material parameter on longitudinal cracking was established. The result shows the multiple regression analysis can be used to determine the remarkable influence factor more efficiently and to process the qualitative analysis when applying the MEPDG software in sensitivity analysis of longitudinal cracking in permafrost regions. The effect weights of the three parameters on longitudinal cracking in descending order are air void, effective binder content and PG grade. The influence of air void on top layer is bigger than that on middle layer and bottom layer. The influence of effective asphalt content on top layer is bigger than that on middle layer and bottom layer, and the influence of bottom layer is slightly bigger than middle layer. The accumulated value of longitudinal cracking on middle layer and bottom layer in the design life would begin to increase when the design temperature of PG grade increased.

  9. Laboratory Measurements of Particulate Matter Concentrations from Asphalt Pavement Abrasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fullová Daša

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The issue of emissions from road traffic is compounded by the fact that the number of vehicles and driven kilometres increase each year. Road traffic is one of the main sources of particulate matter and traffic volume is still increasing and has unpleasant impact on longevity of the pavements and the environment. Vehicle motions cause mechanical wearing of the asphalt pavement surface - wearing course by vehicle tyres. The contribution deals with abrasion of bituminous wearing courses of pavements. The asphalt mixtures of wearing courses are compared in terms of mechanically separated particulate matter. The samples of asphalt mixtures were rutted in wheel tracking machine. The particulate matter measurements were performed in laboratory conditions. The experimental laboratory measurements make it possible to sample particulates without contamination from exhaust emissions, abraded particles from vehicles, resuspension of road dust and climate affects. The contribution offers partial results of measurements on six trial samples of asphalt mixtures with different composition. It presents particulate matter morphology and the comparison of rutted asphalt samples in terms of PM mass concentrations and chemical composition.

  10. The mechanical behavior of two warm-mix asphalts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. A. Rondón-Quintana

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results stemming from a comparative experimental analysis of two warm-mix asphalts (WMA and a dense-graded hot-mix asphalt (HMA. In order to evaluate asphalt mixture behavior, physical and rheological tests were conducted, including tests on resilient modulus, resistance to moisture-induced damage, resistance to fatigue and resistance to permanent deformation. Samples studied were subjected to short (STOA and long-term (LTOA aging. As far as asphalt mixture composition is concerned, the same particle size distribution and coarse aggregate were employed for both mixture types. The control HMA mixture was produced with AC 60-70, and the WMAs used the same asphalt cement modified with two chemical additives (Rediset WMX® and Cecabase RT®. The modified mixtures exhibited better resistance to permanent deformation, aging and moisture-induced damage (versus the control mixture. Likewise, WMAs generally saw increased fatigue resistance under controlled-stress loading, which rheological characterization showed is mainly attributable to binder additives and their concomitant modifications.

  11. Laboratory Evaluation of Aging Behaviour of SBS Modified Asphalt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To study the effect of aging SBS modified asphalt on the performance of asphalt pavement, aging at various times and temperatures was conducted with thin film oven, and then tests were made about the penetration, softening point, ductility, viscosity, toughness, and fluorescence microscopy of modified asphalt with different aging levels. The results show that, with the increasing of aging time, the penetration and ductility of modified asphalt decrease while its softening point and viscosity increase, and the variation trend of the toughness and tenacity is related to the aging temperature; the aging dynamic model with viscosity as parameter can well characterize the aging process of modified asphalt; at microlevel, with the decreasing of SBS particle size, the uniformity of particle size is better. Analysis of macroscopic properties, microscopic characteristics, and significance shows that the SBS particle area ratio has a significant correlation with tenacity as the aging temperature changes. When the aging temperature is 163°C, the SBS particle area ratio still has a significant correlation with tenacity as the aging time changes.

  12. UTILIZATION OF WASTE PLASTIC BOTTLES IN ASPHALT MIXTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TAHER BAGHAEE MOGHADDAM

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, large amounts of waste materials are being produced in the world. One of the waste materials is plastic bottle. Generating disposable plastic bottles is becoming a major problem in many countries. Using waste plastic as a secondary material in construction projects would be a solution to overcome the crisis of producing large amount of waste plastics in one hand and improving the structure’s characteristics such as resistance against cracking on the other hand. This study aimed to investigate the effects of adding plastic bottles in road pavement. Marshall properties as well as specific gravity of asphalt mixture containing different percentages of plastic bottles were evaluated. Besides, Optimum Asphalt Content (OAC was calculated for each percentages of plastic bottles used in the mix. The stiffness and fatigue characteristics of mixture were assessed at OAC value. Results showed that the stability and flow values of asphalt mixture increased by adding waste crushed plastic bottle into the asphalt mixture. Further, it was shown that the bulk specific gravity and stiffness of mixtures increased by adding lower amount of plastic bottles; however, adding higher amounts of plastic resulted in lower specific gravity and mix stiffness. In addition, it was concluded that the mixtures containing waste plastic bottles have lower OAC values compared to the conventional mixture, and this may reduce the amount of asphalt binder can be used in road construction projects. Besides, the mixtures containing waste plastic showed significantly greater fatigue resistance than the conventional mixture.

  13. Experimental Study on Color Durability of Color Asphalt Pavement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Shi; Huan, Su

    2017-06-01

    Aiming at the poor Color durability and the lack of research on Color asphalt pavement, spraying an anti-tire trace seal resin emulsion on the surface, a Color durable asphalt pavement was proposed. After long-term rolling and long-term aging test, the Color durability was evaluated by RGB function in Photoshop and trace residue rate formula. Test results proved that the Evaluation method was simple and effective. After long-term rolling, the Color of the road surface tends to a constant value. Spraying the emulsion on the road surface can resist tire traces. After long-term aging test, the resistance to tire traces was increased by 26.6% compared with the conventional type, while the former was 44.1% higher than the latter without long-term aging. The Color durable asphalt pavement can effectively improve the ability of Color asphalt pavement to resist tire traces, and significantly improve the Color durability of Color asphalt pavement.

  14. Aging test results of an asphalt membrane liner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buelt, J.L.; Barnes, S.M.

    1983-07-01

    The objective of the asphalt aging study described in this report was to determine the expected performance lifetime of a catalytically airblown asphalt membrane as a seepage barrier for inactive uranium mill tailings. The study, conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the Department of Energy's Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program, showed through chemical compatibility tests that the asphalt membrane is well suited for this purpose. The chemical compatibility tests were designed to accelerate the aging reactions in the asphalt and to determine the accelerated aging effect. Higher temperatures and oxygen concentrations proved to be effective acceleration parameters. By infrared spectral analysis, the asphalt was determined to have undergone 7 years of equivalent aging in a 3-month period when exposed to 40 0 C and 1.7 atm oxygen pressure. However, the extent of aging was limited to a maximum penetration of 0.5% of the total liner thickness. It was concluded that the liner could be expected to be effective as a seepage barrier for at least 1000 years before the entire thickness of the liner would be degraded

  15. Partial substitution of asphalt pavement with modified sulfur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.R. Souaya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of sulfur in pavement laying was developed in 1980 but it was restricted in the late 19th century due to its environmental problems and its high reactivity toward oxidation processes which give sulfuric acid products that are capable of destroying the asphalt mixture. The study involved the conversion of elemental sulfur to a more stable modified one using a combination of byproducts of olefin hydrocarbons that were obtained from petroleum fractional distillates and cyclic hydrocarbon bituminous residue at 145 °C. The changes in the structural characteristics and morphology of prepared modified sulfur were studied using XRD and SEM respectively. Also DSC curves help us to elucidate the changes in sulfur phases from α-orthorhombic to β-mono clinic structure. The technique of nanoindentation helps us to compare the mechanical properties of modified and pure sulfur including modulus of elasticity and hardness. The hot mixture asphalt designs were prepared according to the Marshall Method in which the asphalt binder content was partially substituted with 20%, 30%, 40%, and 50% modified sulfur. The mechanical properties were measured including Marshall Stability, flow, air voids, and Marshall Stiffness. From the overall study, the results indicated that asphalt could partially be substituted with modified sulfur with no significant deleterious effect on performance and durability of hot mixed asphalt.

  16. Collisional stripping of planetary crusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Philip J.; Leinhardt, Zoë M.; Elliott, Tim; Stewart, Sarah T.; Walter, Michael J.

    2018-02-01

    Geochemical studies of planetary accretion and evolution have invoked various degrees of collisional erosion to explain differences in bulk composition between planets and chondrites. Here we undertake a full, dynamical evaluation of 'crustal stripping' during accretion and its key geochemical consequences. Crusts are expected to contain a significant fraction of planetary budgets of incompatible elements, which include the major heat producing nuclides. We present smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of collisions between differentiated rocky planetesimals and planetary embryos. We find that the crust is preferentially lost relative to the mantle during impacts, and we have developed a scaling law based on these simulations that approximates the mass of crust that remains in the largest remnant. Using this scaling law and a recent set of N-body simulations of terrestrial planet formation, we have estimated the maximum effect of crustal stripping on incompatible element abundances during the accretion of planetary embryos. We find that on average approximately one third of the initial crust is stripped from embryos as they accrete, which leads to a reduction of ∼20% in the budgets of the heat producing elements if the stripped crust does not reaccrete. Erosion of crusts can lead to non-chondritic ratios of incompatible elements, but the magnitude of this effect depends sensitively on the details of the crust-forming melting process on the planetesimals. The Lu/Hf system is fractionated for a wide range of crustal formation scenarios. Using eucrites (the products of planetesimal silicate melting, thought to represent the crust of Vesta) as a guide to the Lu/Hf of planetesimal crust partially lost during accretion, we predict the Earth could evolve to a superchondritic 176Hf/177Hf (3-5 parts per ten thousand) at present day. Such values are in keeping with compositional estimates of the bulk Earth. Stripping of planetary crusts during accretion can lead to

  17. Performance of Asphalt Concrete Wearing Course (AC-WC) Utilizing Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement from Cold Milling Bound with 80/100 Pen Asphalt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanya, I. N. A.; Suweda, I. W.; Putra, G. K.

    2018-03-01

    Demands on natural aggregate materials for road pavement can be reduced by utilizing reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP). This research was aimed at evaluating the performance of AC-WC mixture using RAP materials from cold milling, bound with 80/100 pen asphalt. The RAP aggregate gradation was adjusted by adding the required amount of natural aggregates to meet the specification in Indonesia. The RAP and added aggregates were hotmixed and compacted with Marshall hummer at 2×75 blows. The asphalt content were varied. It was found that the optimum asphalt content was 6.05 % with the following Marshall characteristics: stability 1237.08 kg; flow 3.36 mm; Marshall quotient 324,73kg/mm; void in mix (VIM) 3,360%; void in mineral aggregate (VMA) 15.103; and void filled with bitumen (VFB) 77.759% and residual stability 91.04; all met the Indonesian specification. The cantabro abration loss (CAL) at 30°C was 9,02%. The indirect tensile stiffness modulus (ITSM) at 20 °C was 7961.4 MPa; dynamic creep with 100 kPa pressure at 40°C gave slope 0.0112 microsstrain/pulse which is suitable for heavy load traffic. The fatigue test results was obtained at increased stress level, i.e. at 900, 1100, and 1300 kPa. Based on the equation derived from the fatigue strain and repeated loading relationship, at 100 microstrain (με) the repeated load was 434,661.58 times, and at one million (106) repeated loading, the samples could withstand strain of 92,38 microstrain. The performance of the samples were overall better than AC-WC mixture using virgin aggregates bound with 60/70 pen asphalt.

  18. Viscoelastic behaviour of cold recycled asphalt mixes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cizkova, Zuzana; Suda, Jan

    2017-09-01

    Behaviour of cold recycled mixes depends strongly on both the bituminous binder content (bituminous emulsion or foamed bitumen) and the hydraulic binder content (usually cement). In the case of cold recycled mixes rich in bitumen and with low hydraulic binder content, behaviour is close to the viscoelastic behaviour of traditional hot mix asphalt. With decreasing bituminous binder content together with increasing hydraulic binder content, mixes are characteristic with brittle behaviour, typical for concrete pavements or hydraulically bound layers. The behaviour of cold recycled mixes with low content of both types of binders is similar to behaviour of unbound materials. This paper is dedicated to analysing of the viscoelastic behaviour of the cold recycled mixes. Therefore, the tested mixes contained higher amount of the bituminous binder (both foamed bitumen and bituminous emulsion). The best way to characterize any viscoelastic material in a wide range of temperatures and frequencies is through the master curves. This paper includes interesting findings concerning the dependency of both parts of the complex modulus (elastic and viscous) on the testing frequency (which simulates the speed of heavy traffic passing) and on the testing temperature (which simulates the changing climate conditions a real pavement is subjected to).

  19. Laboratorium Study of Asphalt Starbit E-55 Polymer Modified Application on Asphalt Concrete Wearing Course (Ac-Wc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damianus Kans Pangaraya

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The conventional asphalt road has almost been considered fail to serve the transportation needs. It is indicated by the occurrence of premature damage which is caused by vehicle load and climate. Starbit E-55, the polymer modified bitumen, is formulated to meet the requirement of transport development. Considering those needs, it is important to investigate the feasibility level of that modified bitumen as alternate asphalt instead of the conventional one. This research began with the measurement of the properties of hard layered AC-WC Starbit E-55, then comparing the result to 60/70 penetration of Pertamina asphalt. The next step is then, to determine the converted value so as to be close to that of Pertamina (60/70 penetration. This step is conducted by applying durability and ITS tests on the mixture. Result of the tests showed that hard layered AC-WC Starbit E-55 has better characteristic at 5.7% optimum level asphalt and 6.4% of Pertamina asphalt (60/70 penetration. Starbit E-55 converted level within hard-layered ACWC is 5.6%. The performance test result on immersion with variance of 1, 3, 5, 7 and 14 days shows that durability value of Starbit E-55 AC-WC has better performance. During the process, Starbit E-55 required 15.38% higher energy consumption.

  20. Development of a Calibration Strip for Immunochromatographic Assay Detection Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yue-Ming; Wei, Jian-Chong; Mak, Peng-Un; Vai, Mang-I; Du, Min; Pun, Sio-Hang

    2016-06-29

    With many benefits and applications, immunochromatographic (ICG) assay detection systems have been reported on a great deal. However, the existing research mainly focuses on increasing the dynamic detection range or application fields. Calibration of the detection system, which has a great influence on the detection accuracy, has not been addressed properly. In this context, this work develops a calibration strip for ICG assay photoelectric detection systems. An image of the test strip is captured by an image acquisition device, followed by performing a fuzzy c-means (FCM) clustering algorithm and maximin-distance algorithm for image segmentation. Additionally, experiments are conducted to find the best characteristic quantity. By analyzing the linear coefficient, an average value of hue (H) at 14 min is chosen as the characteristic quantity and the empirical formula between H and optical density (OD) value is established. Therefore, H, saturation (S), and value (V) are calculated by a number of selected OD values. Then, H, S, and V values are transferred to the RGB color space and a high-resolution printer is used to print the strip images on cellulose nitrate membranes. Finally, verification of the printed calibration strips is conducted by analyzing the linear correlation between OD and the spectral reflectance, which shows a good linear correlation (R² = 98.78%).

  1. Investigation of Asphalt Mixture Creep Behavior Using Thin Beam Specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zofka, Adam; Marasteanu, Mihai; Turos, Mugur

    2008-01-01

    The asphalt pavement layer consists of two or more lifts of compacted asphalt mixture; the top of the layer is also exposed to aging, a factor that significantly affects the mixture properties. The current testing specifications use rather thick specimens that cannot be used to investigate the gradual change in properties with pavement depth. This paper investigates the feasibility of using the 3-point bending test with thin asphalt mixture beams (127x12.7x6.35 mm) to determine the low-temperature creep compliance of the mixtures. Several theoretical and semi-empirical models, from the theory of composites, are reviewed and evaluated using numerical and experimental data. Preliminary results show that this method can be used for low-temperature mixture characterization but several crucial factors need further inspection and interpretation

  2. Effect of ageing on porosity of hot mix asphalt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, M.F.A.S. [Dept. de Estradas de Rodagem de Minas Gerais (DER/MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Lins, V.F.C. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica], e-mail: vlins@deq.ufmg.br; Pasa, V.M.D. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2011-01-15

    Asphalt ageing due to the action of solar radiation must be considered in the study of the performance of asphalt pavement, especially in Brazil because of its geographical characteristics. The aim of this work is to study asphalt ageing caused by the effect of xenon radiation, by using weathering tests. Sample degradation was evaluated by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The results of FTIR indicated an oxidation process of the material, which occurred during exposure in the xenon arc chamber. The area ratio related to the bands of the aliphatic CH/OH and CH/C=O groups and those of the Si-O-Si/OH groups of bitumen decreased after exposure to xenon radiation. The samples were analyzed by using X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The porosity of the samples before and after ageing was measured by using the SEM micrographs and the image software Quantikov. (author)

  3. Asphalt emulsion sealing of uranium mill tailings. 1980 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, J.N.; Koehmstedt, P.L; Esterl, D.J.; Freeman, H.D.; Buelt, J.L.; Nelson, D.A.; Elmore, M.R.

    1981-05-01

    Studies of asphalt emulsion sealants conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory have demonstrated that the sealants are effective in containing radon and other potentially hazardous material within uranium tailings. The laboratory and field studies have further demonstrated that radon exhalation from uranium tailings piles can be reduced by greater than 99% to near background levels. Field tests at the tailings pile in Grand Junction, Colorado, confirmed that an 8-cm admix seal containing 22 wt% asphalt could be effectively applied with a cold-mix paver. Other techniques were successfully tested, including a soil stabilizer and a hot, rubberized asphalt seal that was applied with a distributor truck. After the seals were applied and compacted, overburden was applied over the seal to protect the seal from ultraviolet degradation

  4. Asphalt emulsion sealing of uranium mill tailings. 1979 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, J.N.; Koehmstedt, P.L.; Esterl, D.J.; Freeman, H.D.

    1980-06-01

    Uranium mill tailings are a source of low-level radiation and radioactive materials that may be released into the environment. Stabilization or disposal of these tailings in a safe and environmentally sound way is necessary to minimize radon exhalation and other radioactive releases. One of the most promising concepts for stabilizing uranium tailings is being investigated at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory: the use of asphalt emulsion to contain radon and other potentially hazardous materials in uranium tailings. Results of these studies indicate that radon flux from uranium tailings can be reduced by greater than 99% by covering the tailings with an asphalt emulsion that is poured on or sprayed on (3.0 to 7.0 mm thick), or mixed with some of the tailings and compacted to form an admixture seal (2.5 to 15.2 cm) containing 18 wt % residual asphalt

  5. Hanford Permanent Isolation Barrier Program: Asphalt technology test plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, H.D.; Romine, R.A.

    1994-05-01

    The Hanford Permanent Isolation Barriers use engineered layers of natural materials to create an integrated structure with backup protective features. The objective of current designs is to develop a maintenance-free permanent barrier that isolates wastes for a minimum of 1000 years by limiting water drainage to near-zero amounts. Asphalt is being used as an impermeable water diversion layer to provide a redundant layer within the overall barrier design. Data on asphalt barrier properties in a buried environment are not available for the required 100-year time frame. The purpose of this test plan is to outline the activities planned to obtain data with which to estimate performance of the asphalt layers

  6. Hanford Permanent Isolation Barrier Program: Asphalt technology test plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, H.D.; Romine, R.A.

    1994-05-01

    The Hanford Permanent Isolation Barriers use engineered layers of natural materials to create an integrated structure with backup protective features. The objective of current designs is to develop a maintenance-free permanent barrier that isolates wastes for a minimum of 1000 years by limiting water drainage to near-zero amounts. Asphalt is being used as an impermeable water diversion layer to provide a redundant layer within the overall barrier design. Data on asphalt barrier properties in a buried environment are not available for the required 100-year time frame. The purpose of this test plan is to outline the activities planned to obtain data with which to estimate performance of the asphalt layers.

  7. Stability and Volumetric Properties of Asphalt Mixture Containing Waste Plastic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd Kader Siti Aminah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study are to determine the optimum bitumen content (OBC for every percentage added of waste plastics in asphalt mixtures and to investigate the stability properties of the asphalt mixtures containing waste plastic. Marshall stability and flow values along with density, air voids in total mix, voids in mineral aggregate, and voids filled with bitumen were determined to obtain OBC at different percentages of waste plastic, i.e., 4%, 6%, 8%, and 10% by weight of bitumen as additive. Results showed that the OBC for the plastic-modified asphalt mixtures at 4%, 6%, 8%, and 10% are 4.98, 5.44, 5.48, and 5.14, respectively. On the other hand, the controlled specimen’s shows better volumetric properties compared to plastic mixes. However, 4% additional of waste plastic indicated better stability than controlled specimen.

  8. Deformation Parameters and Fatigue of the Recycled Asphalt Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šrámek Juraj

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The deformational properties of asphalt mixtures measured by dynamic methods and fatigue allow a design the road to suit the expected traffic load. Quality of mixtures is also expressed by the resistance to permanent deformation. Complex modulus of stiffness and fatigue can reliably characterize the proposed mixture of asphalt pavement. The complex modulus (E* measurement of asphalt mixtures are carried out in laboratory of Department of Construction Management at University of Žilina by two-point bending test method on trapezoid-shaped samples. Today, the fatigue is verified on trapezoid-shaped samples and is assessed by proportional strain at 1 million cycles (ε6. The test equipment and software is used to evaluate fatigue and deformation characteristics.

  9. Effect of Material Composition and Environmental Condition on Thermal Characteristics of Conductive Asphalt Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Pan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Conductive asphalt concrete with high thermal conductivity has been proposed to improve the solar energy collection and snow melting efficiencies of asphalt solar collector (ASC. This paper aims to provide some insight into choosing the basic materials for preparation of conductive asphalt concrete, as well as determining the evolution of thermal characteristics affected by environmental factors. The thermal properties of conductive asphalt concrete were studied by the Thermal Constants Analyzer. Experimental results showed that aggregate and conductive filler have a significant effect on the thermal properties of asphalt concrete, while the effect of asphalt binder was not evident due to its low proportion. Utilization of mineral aggregate and conductive filler with higher thermal conductivity is an efficient method to prepare conductive asphalt concrete. Moreover, change in thermal properties of asphalt concrete under different temperature and moisture conditions should be taken into account to determine the actual thermal properties of asphalt concrete. There was no noticeable difference in thermal properties of asphalt concrete before and after aging. Furthermore, freezing–thawing cycles strongly affect the thermal properties of conductive asphalt concrete, due to volume expansion and bonding degradation.

  10. Adhesion Evaluation of Asphalt-Aggregate Interface Using Surface Free Energy Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Ji

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The influence of organic additives (Sasobit and RH and water on the adhesion of the asphalt-aggregate interface was studied according to the surface free energy theory. Two asphalt binders (SK-70 and SK-90, and two aggregate types (limestone and basalt were used in this study. The sessile drop method was employed to test surface free energy components of asphalt, organic additives and aggregates. The adhesion models of the asphalt-aggregate interface in dry and wet conditions were established, and the adhesion work was calculated subsequently. The energy ratios were built to evaluate the effect of organic additives and water on the adhesiveness of the asphalt-aggregate interface. The results indicate that the addition of organic additives can enhance the adhesion of the asphalt-aggregate interface in dry conditions, because organic additives reduced the surface free energy of asphalt. However, the organic additives have hydrophobic characteristics and are sensitive to water. As a result, the adhesiveness of the asphalt-aggregate interface of the asphalt containing organic additives in wet conditions sharply decreased due to water damage to asphalt and organic additives. Furthermore, the compatibility of asphalt, aggregate with organic additive was noted and discussed.

  11. Automated titration method for use on blended asphalts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauli, Adam T [Cheyenne, WY; Robertson, Raymond E [Laramie, WY; Branthaver, Jan F [Chatham, IL; Schabron, John F [Laramie, WY

    2012-08-07

    A system for determining parameters and compatibility of a substance such as an asphalt or other petroleum substance uses titration to highly accurately determine one or more flocculation occurrences and is especially applicable to the determination or use of Heithaus parameters and optimal mixing of various asphalt stocks. In a preferred embodiment, automated titration in an oxygen gas exclusive system and further using spectrophotometric analysis (2-8) of solution turbidity is presented. A reversible titration technique enabling in-situ titration measurement of various solution concentrations is also presented.

  12. An investigation of waste foundry sand in asphalt concrete mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakis, Recep; Koyuncu, Hakan; Demirbas, Ayhan

    2006-06-01

    A laboratory study regarding the reuse of waste foundry sand in asphalt concrete production by replacing a certain portion of aggregate with WFS was undertaken. The results showed that replacement of 10% aggregates with waste foundry sand was found to be the most suitable for asphalt concrete mixtures. Furthermore, the chemical and physical properties of waste foundry sand were analysed in the laboratory to determine the potential effect on the environment. The results indicated that the investigated waste foundry sand did not significantly affect the environment around the deposition

  13. The Spontaneous Combustion of Railway Ties and Asphalt Shingles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Geoffrey

    Many Low Carbon Fuels (LCFs) present unknown spontaneous combustion risks, which must be quantified before their use as fossil fuel replacements. Wood and coal spontaneous combustion is well understood; however, LCFs weather, and subsequent chemical changes could affect their spontaneous combustion properties. LCF spontaneous combustion could lead to accidental fires with possible loss of life, limb and property. The spontaneous combustion risks of two LCFs, discarded creosote-treated wooden railway ties and roofing asphalt shingles, were investigated with calorimetry and heat transfer experiments. Chemical changes due to weathering were studied with pyrolysis-Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (py-GC/MS). Creosote-treated wooden railway tie dust, roofing asphalt shingle particles, poplar wood pellets, and petroleum coke self-heating were studied with isothermal calorimetry. Railway tie dust and asphalt shingle heat transfer were characterized with a guarded hot plate. Petroleum coke self-heating was consistent with coal, while both poplar pellets and railway tie dust were found to be more reactive compared to oven test results of similar materials. The observed increase in reactivity was probably a result of significant moisture contenint in the pellet and railway tie dust. Critical conditions for spontaneous combustion were evaluated with the Frank-Kamenetskii parameter, assuming an ambient temperature of 40°C and constant moisture content. Kamenetskii calculations indicate that a 1.6 m cube of railway tie dust, or a 58 m cube of asphalt particles, would be unstable and combust. LCF chemistry may have been affected by weathering, which would cause chemical changes that affect their spontaneous combustion properties. Therefore, railway tie wood and roofing asphalt shingle chemistry were investigated by identifying products of 250° and 550°C pyrolysis with py-GC/MS. Railway tie wood pyrolyzates did not show signs of weathering; in contrast, asphalt pyrolysis

  14. Asphalt concrete modified by rubber crumbs in transport construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duhovny, G. S.; Karpenko, AV

    2018-03-01

    High-temperature and low-temperature characteristics of the rubber-bitumen binder and rubber asphalt concrete based on it are researched. The determination method of binder’s low-temperature characteristics is offered. The estimation of binder’s and pavement’s stability against technological and operational aging is evaluated. Estimation of environmental and economic aspects of using rubber crumbs is made. The possibility of using rubber crumbs as modifier of organic binder for production of asphalt concrete on its base is justified.

  15. Numerical simulation on the thermal response of heat-conducting asphalt pavements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Hong; Wu Shaopeng; Chen Mingyu; Zhang Yuan, E-mail: wusp@whut.edu.c [Key Laboratory of Silicate Materials Science and Engineering, Ministry of Education, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China)

    2010-05-01

    Using asphalt pavements as a solar collector is a subject of current interest all over the world because the sun provides a cheap and abundant source of clean and renewable energy, which can be captured by black asphalt pavements. A heat-conducting device is designed to absorb energy from the sun. In order to validate what parameters are critical in the asphalt collector, a finite element model is developed to predict the thermal response of the heat-conducting device compared to the conventional asphalt mixture. Some factors that may affect the asphalt pavement collector are considered, including the coefficient of heat conductivity of the asphalt pavement, the distance between pipes with the medium, water, and the pipe's diameter. Ultimately, the finite element model can provide pavement engineers with an efficient computational tool that can be a guide to the conductive asphalt solar collector's experiment in the laboratory.

  16. Numerical simulation on the thermal response of heat-conducting asphalt pavements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Hong; Wu Shaopeng; Chen Mingyu; Zhang Yuan

    2010-01-01

    Using asphalt pavements as a solar collector is a subject of current interest all over the world because the sun provides a cheap and abundant source of clean and renewable energy, which can be captured by black asphalt pavements. A heat-conducting device is designed to absorb energy from the sun. In order to validate what parameters are critical in the asphalt collector, a finite element model is developed to predict the thermal response of the heat-conducting device compared to the conventional asphalt mixture. Some factors that may affect the asphalt pavement collector are considered, including the coefficient of heat conductivity of the asphalt pavement, the distance between pipes with the medium, water, and the pipe's diameter. Ultimately, the finite element model can provide pavement engineers with an efficient computational tool that can be a guide to the conductive asphalt solar collector's experiment in the laboratory.

  17. Effect of moisture and freeze-thaw on mechanical properties of CRM asphalt mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Nak-Seok; Cho, Kee-Ju [Kyonggi University, Suwon(Korea)

    2000-06-30

    This paper presents the experimental test results on moisture and freeze-thaw resistance of hot mix crumb rubber modified (CRM) asphalt concrete mixture. To compare the differences in mechanical properties of conventional and CRM asphalt concretes, various tests were conducted under different moisture conditions and freeze-thaw cycles. Marshall mix design was also performed to determine the optimum asphalt contents for the both asphalt concrete mixtures. Test results revealed that the moisture and freeze-thaw resistance of CRM asphalt mixture was superior to the conventional asphalt concrete. As a result, it is considered that the utilization of waste tires in asphalt pavements has the potential of minimizing the damage due to the moisture and freeze-thaw. (author). 9 refs., 4 tabs., 8 figs.

  18. 3D silicon strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parzefall, Ulrich; Bates, Richard; Boscardin, Maurizio; Dalla Betta, Gian-Franco; Eckert, Simon; Eklund, Lars; Fleta, Celeste; Jakobs, Karl; Kuehn, Susanne; Lozano, Manuel; Pahn, Gregor; Parkes, Chris; Pellegrini, Giulio; Pennicard, David; Piemonte, Claudio; Ronchin, Sabina; Szumlak, Tomasz; Zoboli, Andrea; Zorzi, Nicola

    2009-01-01

    While the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN has started operation in autumn 2008, plans for a luminosity upgrade to the Super-LHC (sLHC) have already been developed for several years. This projected luminosity increase by an order of magnitude gives rise to a challenging radiation environment for tracking detectors at the LHC experiments. Significant improvements in radiation hardness are required with respect to the LHC. Using a strawman layout for the new tracker of the ATLAS experiment as an example, silicon strip detectors (SSDs) with short strips of 2-3 cm length are foreseen to cover the region from 28 to 60 cm distance to the beam. These SSD will be exposed to radiation levels up to 10 15 N eq /cm 2 , which makes radiation resistance a major concern for the upgraded ATLAS tracker. Several approaches to increasing the radiation hardness of silicon detectors exist. In this article, it is proposed to combine the radiation hard 3D-design originally conceived for pixel-style applications with the benefits of the established planar technology for strip detectors by using SSDs that have regularly spaced doped columns extending into the silicon bulk under the detector strips. The first 3D SSDs to become available for testing were made in the Single Type Column (STC) design, a technological simplification of the original 3D design. With such 3D SSDs, a small number of prototype sLHC detector modules with LHC-speed front-end electronics as used in the semiconductor tracking systems of present LHC experiments were built. Modules were tested before and after irradiation to fluences of 10 15 N eq /cm 2 . The tests were performed with three systems: a highly focused IR-laser with 5μm spot size to make position-resolved scans of the charge collection efficiency, an Sr 90 β-source set-up to measure the signal levels for a minimum ionizing particle (MIP), and a beam test with 180 GeV pions at CERN. This article gives a brief overview of the results obtained with 3D-STC-modules.

  19. 3D silicon strip detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parzefall, Ulrich [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany)], E-mail: ulrich.parzefall@physik.uni-freiburg.de; Bates, Richard [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Boscardin, Maurizio [FBK-irst, Center for Materials and Microsystems, via Sommarive 18, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Dalla Betta, Gian-Franco [INFN and Universita' di Trento, via Sommarive 14, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Eckert, Simon [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Eklund, Lars; Fleta, Celeste [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Jakobs, Karl; Kuehn, Susanne [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Lozano, Manuel [Instituto de Microelectronica de Barcelona, IMB-CNM, CSIC, Barcelona (Spain); Pahn, Gregor [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Parkes, Chris [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Pellegrini, Giulio [Instituto de Microelectronica de Barcelona, IMB-CNM, CSIC, Barcelona (Spain); Pennicard, David [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Piemonte, Claudio; Ronchin, Sabina [FBK-irst, Center for Materials and Microsystems, via Sommarive 18, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Szumlak, Tomasz [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Zoboli, Andrea [INFN and Universita' di Trento, via Sommarive 14, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Zorzi, Nicola [FBK-irst, Center for Materials and Microsystems, via Sommarive 18, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy)

    2009-06-01

    While the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN has started operation in autumn 2008, plans for a luminosity upgrade to the Super-LHC (sLHC) have already been developed for several years. This projected luminosity increase by an order of magnitude gives rise to a challenging radiation environment for tracking detectors at the LHC experiments. Significant improvements in radiation hardness are required with respect to the LHC. Using a strawman layout for the new tracker of the ATLAS experiment as an example, silicon strip detectors (SSDs) with short strips of 2-3 cm length are foreseen to cover the region from 28 to 60 cm distance to the beam. These SSD will be exposed to radiation levels up to 10{sup 15}N{sub eq}/cm{sup 2}, which makes radiation resistance a major concern for the upgraded ATLAS tracker. Several approaches to increasing the radiation hardness of silicon detectors exist. In this article, it is proposed to combine the radiation hard 3D-design originally conceived for pixel-style applications with the benefits of the established planar technology for strip detectors by using SSDs that have regularly spaced doped columns extending into the silicon bulk under the detector strips. The first 3D SSDs to become available for testing were made in the Single Type Column (STC) design, a technological simplification of the original 3D design. With such 3D SSDs, a small number of prototype sLHC detector modules with LHC-speed front-end electronics as used in the semiconductor tracking systems of present LHC experiments were built. Modules were tested before and after irradiation to fluences of 10{sup 15}N{sub eq}/cm{sup 2}. The tests were performed with three systems: a highly focused IR-laser with 5{mu}m spot size to make position-resolved scans of the charge collection efficiency, an Sr{sup 90}{beta}-source set-up to measure the signal levels for a minimum ionizing particle (MIP), and a beam test with 180 GeV pions at CERN. This article gives a brief overview of

  20. Dynamic Underground Stripping Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aines, R.; Newmark, R.; McConachie, W.; Rice, D.; Ramirez, A.; Siegel, W.; Buettner, M.; Daily, W.; Krauter, P.; Folsom, E.; Boegel, A.J.; Bishop, D.; udel, K.

    1992-03-01

    LLNL is collaborating with the UC Berkeley College of Engineering to develop and demonstrate a system of thermal remediation and underground imaging techniques for use in rapid cleanup of localized underground spills. Called ''Dynamic Stripping'' to reflect the rapid and controllable nature of the process, it will combine steam injection, direct electrical heating, and tomographic geophysical imaging in a cleanup of the LLNL gasoline spill. In the first 8 months of the project, a Clean Site engineering test was conducted to prove the field application of the techniques before moving to the contaminated site in FY 92

  1. Engineering test of stripping performance by multi-centrifugal contactors system for spent nuclear reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masayuki Takeuchi; Tadahiro Washiya; Hiroki Nakabayashi; Takashi Suganuma; Shinnichi Aose

    2005-01-01

    Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) has been developing centrifugal contactors which are compact and high performance for solvent extraction process in industrial reprocessing plant. The stripping performance including equilibrium time for distribution and hydraulic behavior of the multi-centrifugal contactors were mainly evaluated by using uranium nitrite solution on engineering scale (10 kgHM/hr). In particular, the effects of feed temperature of stripping solution and O/A on the stripping performance were focused in this test. As results, no hydraulic problem such as overflow and entrainment were observed in multi-centrifugal contactors system through all conditions, and the uranium and acid concentrations showed desirable profiles which were nearly consistent with calculated one by MIXSET-X code. As to stripping performance, uranium leak concentration in solvent reached to less than 0.01 g/L, which is target of the stripping performance on this centrifugal contactors system, within nine stages on all conditions. It was also found that the effect of feed temperature of stripping solution (35 degree C → 60 degree C) or O/A (1.0→0.8) on stripping performance corresponds to distribution capacity of two contactors, respectively. The stage efficiency for a contactor was estimated as 97-98% on stripping stage. There were no uranium leaks (less than 40μg/L) in spent solvent discharged from the final stage. The profiles of uranium concentration in multi-contactors become stable within 10 minutes after the stripping test starting. In this way, it was demonstrated that the centrifugal contactors system has good stripping performance on engineering scale. (authors)

  2. Fatigue Life Prediction of High Modulus Asphalt Concrete Based on the Local Stress-Strain Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulian Zheng

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Previously published studies have proposed fatigue life prediction models for dense graded asphalt pavement based on flexural fatigue test. This study focused on the fatigue life prediction of High Modulus Asphalt Concrete (HMAC pavement using the local strain-stress method and direct tension fatigue test. First, the direct tension fatigue test at various strain levels was conducted on HMAC prism samples cut from plate specimens. Afterwards, their true stress-strain loop curves were obtained and modified to develop the strain-fatigue life equation. Then the nominal strain of HMAC course determined using finite element method was converted into local strain using the Neuber method. Finally, based on the established fatigue equation and converted local strain, a method to predict the pavement fatigue crack initiation life was proposed and the fatigue life of a typical HMAC overlay pavement which runs a risk of bottom-up cracking was predicted and validated. Results show that the proposed method was able to produce satisfactory crack initiation life.

  3. Depletive stripping chronopotentiometry : a major step forward in electrochemical stripping techniques for metal ion speciation analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Town, R.M.; Leeuwen, van H.P.

    2004-01-01

    A comparative evaluation of the utility of the various modes of stripping chronopotentiometry (SCP) for trace metal speciation analysis is presented in the broad context of stripping voltammetric techniques. The remarkable fundamental advantages of depletive SCP at scanned deposition potential

  4. Potential profile in a conducting polymer strip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Lasse; West, Keld; Vlachopoulos, Nikolaos

    2002-01-01

    Many conjugated polymers show an appreciable difference in volume between their oxidized and reduced forms. This property can be utilized in soft electrochemically driven actuators, "artificial muscles". Several geometries have been proposed for the conversion of the volume expansion into useful...... mechanical work. In a particularly simple geometry, the length change of polymer strips is exploited. The polymer strips are connected to the driving circuit at the end of the strip that is attached to the support of the device. The other end of the strip is connected to the load. The advantage of this set...

  5. Optimizing the Stripping Procedure for LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Richardson, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    The LHCb experiment faces a major challenge from the large amounts of data received while the LHC is running. The ability to sort this information in a useful manner is important for working groups to perform physics analyses. Both hardware and software triggers are used to decrease the data rate and then the stripping process is used to sort the data into streams and further into stripping lines. This project studies the hundreds of stripping lines to look for overlaps between them in order to make the stripping process more efficient.

  6. Study on lifetime of C stripping foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hongbin; Lu Ziwei; Zhao Yongtao; Li Zhankui; Xu Hushan; Xiao Guoqing; Wang Yuyu; Zhang Ling; Li Longcai; Fang Yan

    2007-01-01

    The carbon stripping foils can be prepared with the AC and DC arc discharge methods, or even sandwiched with AC-DC alternative layers. The lifetime of the carbon stripping foils of 19 μg/cm 2 prepared with different methods and/or structures was measured. The factors affecting the bombarding lifetime of the carbon stripping foils, especially the method of the foil preparation and the structure of the carbon stripping foils, were discussed. It is observed that the foils prepared with the DC arc discharge method have a longer bombarding lifetime than those prepared with the AC arc discharge method. (authors)

  7. The Whipple Strip Sky Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kertzman, M. P.

    As part of the normal operation of the Whipple 10m Gamma Ray telescope, ten minute drift scan “zenith” runs are made each night of observation for use as calibration. Most of the events recorded during a zenith run are due to the background of cosmic ray showers. However, it would be possible for a hitherto unknown source of gamma rays to drift through the field. This paper reports the results of a search for serendipitous high energy gamma ray sources in the Whipple 10m nightly calibration zenith data. From 2000-2004 nightly calibration runs were taken at an elevation of 89 º. A 2- D analysis of these drift scan runs produces a strip of width ~ 3.5º in declination and spanning the full range of right ascension. In the 2004-05 observing season the calibration runs were taken at elevations of 86° and 83°. Beginning in the 2005-06 season, the nightly calibration runs were taken at an elevation of 80º. Collectively, these drift scans cover a strip approximately 12.5º wide in declination, centered at declination 37.18º, and spanning the full range of RA. The analysis procedures developed for drift scan data, the sensitivity of the method, and the results will be presented.

  8. Ageing evolution of foamed warm mix asphalt combined with reclaimed asphalt pavement; Evolución del envejecimiento en mezclas espumadas semicalientes con áridos reciclados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Martinez, M.; Marsac, P.; Gabet, T.; Pouget, S.; Hammoum, F.

    2017-07-01

    The combination of high rates of reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) and warm mix asphalt (WMA) technologies is still ambiguous in terms of durability. With the aim of clarifying this issue, a study comparing a hot mix asphalt with a WMA prepared using the foaming process technology. Both mixes contain 50% of RAP and are submitted to a laboratory ageing procedure. The long term related performance of the mixtures is compared by means of complex modulus and fatigue testing. Penetration and ring and ball tests are undertaken on the recovered bitumens, as well as the ageing evolution, characterised by the Fourier Transform Infrared analysis. Finally, the Apparent Molecular Weight Distribution (AMWD) of the binders is calculated from rheological measurements using the δ-method. Results show a relation between ageing evolution and mechanical performance. After ageing, the overall tendencies are similar for both processes. [Spanish] El comportamiento de mezclas asfálticas semicalientes (WMA) con alto contenido de material reciclado (RAP) es aún incierto a largo plazo. Por este motivo, en este estudio se compara el envejecimiento una mezcla caliente convencional y una mezcla espumada semicaliente con 50% de RAP. Ambas mezclas han sido sometidas a un proceso de envejecimiento en laboratorio. La respuesta a largo plazo se ha comparado a través de los ensayos de módulo de rigidez y de fatiga. En los betunes recuperados se han llevado a cabo los ensayos de penetración y anillo-bola, así como el seguimiento del envejecimiento a través del análisis de infrarrojos. Finalmente, la distribución de peso molecular aparente (AMWD) de los betunes se ha calculado a través de medidas reológicas usando el “δ-method”. En los resultados se observa una relación entre la evolución del envejecimiento y su respuesta mecánica, donde la tendencia general es similar para ambas técnicas.

  9. The 'KATOD-1' strip readout ASIC for cathode strip chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golutvin, I.A.; Gorbunov, N.V.; Karzhavin, V.Yu.; Khabarov, V.S.; Movchan, S.A.; Smolin, D.A.; Dvornikov, O.V.; Shumejko, N.M.; Chekhovskij, V.A.

    2001-01-01

    The 'KATOD-1', a 16-channels readout ASIC, has been designed to perform tests of P3 and P4 full-scale prototypes of the cathode strip chamber for the ME1/1 forward muon station of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment. The ASIC channel consists of two charge-sensitive preamplifiers, a three-stage shaper with cancellation, and an output driver. The ASIC is instrumented with control of gain, in the range of (-4.2 : +5.0) mV/fC, and control of output pulse-shape. The equivalent input noise is equal to 2400 e with the slope of 12 e/pF for detector capacity up to 200 pF. The peaking time is 100 ns for the chamber signal. The ASIC has been produced by a microwave Bi-jFET technology

  10. The "KATOD-1" Strip Readout ASIC for Cathode Strip Chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Golutvin, I A; Karjavin, V Yu; Khabarov, V S; Movchan, S A; Smolin, D A; Dvornikov, O V; Shumeiko, N M; Tchekhovski, V A

    2001-01-01

    The "KATOD-1", a 16-channels readout ASIC, has been designed to perform tests of P3 and P4 full-scale prototypes of the cathode strip chamber for the ME1/1 forward muon station of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment. The ASIC channel consists of two charge-sensitive preamplifiers, a three-stage shaper with tail cancellation, and an output driver. The ASIC is instrumented with control of gain, in the range of (-4.2\\div +5.0) mV/fC, and control of output pulse-shape. The equivalent input noise is equal to 2400 e with the slope of 12 e/pF for detector capacity up to 200 pF. The peaking time is 100 ns for the chamber signal. The ASIC has been produced by a microwave Bi-jFET technology.

  11. Mechanistic and Economical Characteristics of Asphalt Rubber Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mena I. Souliman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Load associated fatigue cracking is one of the major distress types occurring in flexible pavement systems. Flexural bending beam fatigue laboratory test has been used for several decades and is considered to be an integral part of the new superpave advanced characterization procedure. One of the most significant solutions to prolong the fatigue life for an asphaltic mixture is to utilize flexible materials as rubber. A laboratory testing program was performed on a conventional and Asphalt Rubber- (AR- gap-graded mixtures to investigate the impact of added rubber on the mechanical, mechanistic, and economical attributes of asphaltic mixtures. Strain controlled fatigue tests were conducted according to American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO procedures. The results from the beam fatigue tests indicated that the AR-gap-graded mixtures would have much longer fatigue life compared with the reference (conventional mixtures. In addition, a mechanistic analysis using 3D-Move software coupled with a cost analysis study based on the fatigue performance on the two mixtures was performed. Overall, analysis showed that AR modified asphalt mixtures exhibited significantly lower cost of pavement per 1000 cycles of fatigue life per mile compared to conventional HMA mixture.

  12. Effect of Particulates Generated from Asphalt Production on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF HORSFALL

    in air, including dust, soot, dirt, smoke and liquid droplets. Particulate matter is of localized importance near roads, cement works, and other industrial areas. Apart from screening out sunlight, dust on leaf blocks stomata and lowers their conductants to Carbon iv oxide (Jitin and Manish, 2014). Asphalt, which is also referred ...

  13. The adoption of innovative asphalt equipment in road construction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habets, M.J.M.; Voordijk, Johannes T.; van der Sijde, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to provide insight into the adoption process of innovative asphalt equipment in road construction and how the level of knowledge as characterised by the level of education in the companies affects this process. The emphasis is on equipment used for transporting

  14. Using waste plastic bottles as additive for stone mastic asphalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmadinia, Esmaeil; Zargar, Majid; Karim, Mohamed Rehan; Abdelaziz, Mahrez; Shafigh, Payam

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The PET increased the stiffness level of the mixture improving its resistance level against permanent deformation. → The effects of waste PET on Marshall Stability, air void and bulk specific gravity of the mixture are significant. → The appropriate amount of PET was found to be 6% by weight of bitumen. -- Abstract: Currently, polymer modified asphalt mixture is a relatively costly mixture for paving roads. One way to reduce the cost of such constructions and rendering them more convenient is by using inexpensive polymers, i.e. waste polymers. The main purpose of this research is to determine the effect of incorporating waste plastic bottles (Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET)) on the engineering properties of stone mastic asphalt (SMA) mixture. The volumetric and mechanical properties of asphalt mixes that include various percentages of PET (0%, 2%, 4%, 6%, 8% and 10%) were calculated and assessed with laboratory tests. The appropriate amount of PET was found to be 6% by weight of bitumen. The outcomes were statistically analysed and the determination of the significance at certain confidence limits was performed with the two factor variance analysis (ANOVA). Moreover, some studies conducted on polyethylene modified asphalt mixture have also been taken into consideration in this paper. The results show that the addition of PET has a significant positive effect on the properties of SMA and it can promote the re-use of waste material in industry in an environmentally friendly and economical way.

  15. Aggregate packing characteristics of good and poor performing asphalt mixes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Denneman, E

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The aggregate structure of the compacted mix is a determining factor for the performance of Hot-Mix Asphalt (HMA). In this paper, the grading characteristics of good and poor performing HMA mixes are explored using the concepts of the Bailey method...

  16. LABORATORY EVALUATION OF COMPACTABILITY AND PERFORMANCE OF WARM MIX ASPHALT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allex Eduardo Álvarez Lugo

    Full Text Available Warm mix asphalt (WMA is the term used to describe the set of technologies that allow fabrication of asphalt mixtures at lower temperatures than those specified for conventional hot mix asphalt (HMA. This temperature reduction leads to advantages, compared to construction of HMA, that include energy savings, reduced emissions, and safer working conditions. However, WMA is a relatively new technology and several aspects are still under evaluation. This paper assesses some of these aspects including laboratory compactability and its relation to mixture design, and performance of WMA (i.e., permanent deformation and cracking resistance fabricated with three WMA additives, namely Advera®, Sasobit®, and Evotherm®. Corresponding results showed better or equivalent laboratory compactability for the WMA, as compared to that of the HMA used as reference (or control-HMA, leading to smaller optimum asphalt contents selected based on a specific target density (i.e., 96%. In terms of performance, inclusion of the WMA additives led to decrease the mixture resistance to permanent deformation, although the mixture resistance to cracking can remain similar or even improve as compared to that of the control-HMA.

  17. Characterization of Brazilian asphalt using X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, Edson R.; Pinto, Nivia G.V.; Almeida, Ana P.G.; Braz, Delson; Lopes, Ricardo T.; Barroso, Regina C.; Motta, Laura M.G.

    2007-01-01

    Asphalt is a sticky, black and highly viscous liquid or semi-solid that is presented in most crude petroleum and in some natural deposits. The X ray diffraction can give valuable information over the characteristics of a material. Thus, the X-ray diffraction (XRD) method was employed to investigate parameters that characterize and differentiate asphalt groups (Boscan, CAP20, CAP40, CAP50/60, CAP50/70 and CAP85/100). The scattering measurements were carried out in θ-2θ reflection geometry using a powder diffractometer Shimadzu XRD-6000 at the Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory, Brazil. Scans were typically done from 8 deg to 28 deg every 0.05. The parameters analyzed were: FWHM, peak area, peak center, peak height, left half width and right half width. Thus, in this study, scattering profiles from different asphalt groups were carefully measured in order to establish characteristic signatures of these materials. The results indicate that by using three parameters (peak centroid, peak area and peak intensity) it is possible to characterize and differentiate the asphalt. (author)

  18. Field and laboratory investigation of warm mix asphalt in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    During the first half of this research study, TxDOT had only placed 1000 tons of warm mix asphalt : (WMA) as part of a demonstration project. By the end of this three year study, TxDOT had placed more : than 1,000,000 tons of WMA and allowed its use ...

  19. Nondestructive evaluation of warm mix asphalt through resonant column testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Non-destructive testing has been used for decades to characterize engineering properties of hot-mix asphalt. Among such tests is the resonant column (RC) test, which is commonly used to characterize soil materials. The resonant column device at Penn ...

  20. The Acoustical Durability of Thin Noise Reducing Asphalt Layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cedric Vuye

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Within the context of the European Noise Directive, traffic noise action plans have been established. One of those actions is to deepen the knowledge about low noise roads, as they are considered the most cost-efficient measure for traffic noise abatement. Therefore, ten test sections were installed in May 2012 in Belgium, with the objective of integrating Thin noise-reducing Asphalt Layers (TAL in the Flemish road surface policy in a later stage. Eight test sections are paved with TAL with a thickness of a maximum of 30 mm and a maximum content of accessible voids of 18%. The other two sections consist of a Double-layer Porous Asphalt Concrete (DPAC and a Stone Mastic Asphalt (SMA-10 as a reference section. The acoustical quality of the asphalt surfaces has been monitored in time using Statistical Pass-By (SPB and Close-ProXimity (CPX measurements up to 34 months after construction. Texture measurements performed with a laser profilometer are linked to the noise measurement results. Very promising initial noise reductions were found, up to 6 dB(A, but higher than expected acoustic deterioration rates and the presence of raveling led to noise reductions of a max. of 1 dB(A after almost three years. It is shown that the construction process itself has a large influence on the acoustical quality over time.

  1. Asphalt and Wood Shingling. Roofing Workbook and Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Arthur

    This combination workbook and set of tests contains materials on asphalt and wood shingling that have been designed to be used by those studying to enter the roofing and waterproofing trade. It consists of seven instructional units and seven accompanying objective tests. Covered in the individual units are the following topics: shingling…

  2. Thermal segregation of asphalt material in road repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Byzyka

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results from a field study of asphaltic pavement patching operations performed by three different contractors working in a total of ten sites. It forms part of an ongoing research programme towards improving the performance of pothole repairs. Thermal imaging technology was used to record temperatures of the patching material throughout the entire exercise, from the stage of material collection, through transportation to repair site, patch forming, and compaction. Practical complications occurring during patch repairs were also identified. It was found that depending on the weather conditions, duration of the travel and poor insulation of the transported hot asphalt mix, its temperature can drop as high as 116.6 °C over the period that the reinstatement team travel to the site and prepare the patch. This impacting is on the durability and performance of the executed repairs. Cold spots on the asphalt mat and temperature differentials between the new hot-fill asphalt mix and existing pavement were also identified as poorly compacted areas that were prone to premature failure. For example, over the five-minute period, the temperature at one point reduced by 33% whereas the temperatures of nearby areas decreased by 65% and 71%. A return visit to the repair sites, three months later, revealed that locations where thermal segregation was noted, during the patching operation, had failed prematurely.

  3. Design tool for the thermal energy potential of asphalt pavements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loomans, M.G.L.C.; Oversloot, H.P.; Bondt, A. de; Jansen, R.; Rij, H. van

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a design tool for the calculation of the thermal energy potential of a so-called asphalt collector. Two types of numerical models have been developed and validated against experimental results from a full-scale test-site. The validation showed to be a tedious

  4. Direct Tensile Test to Assess Healing in Asphalt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leegwater, G.A.; Scarpas, Athanasios; Erkens, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Asphalt concrete has the advantageous ability to heal. During rest
    periods, damage present In the material is restored to a certain extent.
    Healing of the material can be observed in iis regaining of strength
    and stiffness after rest periods. In this paper, a new test method is

  5. Direct tensile test to assess healing in asphalt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leegwater, G.A.; Scarpas, T.; Erkens, S.

    2016-01-01

    Asphalt concrete has the advantageous ability to heal. During rest periods, damage present in the material is restored to a certain extent. Healing of the material can be observed in its regaining of strength and stiffness after rest periods. In this paper, a new test method is presented. It was

  6. Improvement of the asphalt-waste products in leachability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuzuru, Hideo; Fojiri, Shigeru; Moriyama, Noboru

    1980-05-01

    To improve in leachability of the asphalt products containing evaporator residue from BWR, a method of reducing the swelling of asphalt products, which is a major cause for increasing the leachability, has been developed. Leachability of the resultant asphalt products was examined by IAEA's method. The reduction of swelling is achieved successfully by addition of an equivalent quantity of calcium chloride to the sodium sulfate contained in the residue; the sodium sulfate is converted to calcium sulfate and sodium chloride. The specimen (Asphalt/Na 2 SO 4 : 0.5) prepared by this improved method shows little swelling when immersed in water. The specimen without addition of calcium chloride gives a cumulative leaching fraction of about 0.65 for 137 Cs and 0.20 for 60 Co in 30 days. On the contrary, the corresponding values in about 100 days of the specimen with calcium chloride added are 5 x 10 -4 and 1 x 10 -4 for 137 Cs and 60 Co, respectively. These results indicate that the method is promising for reducing the leachability. Coating of the specimen surface with a fresh bitumen further reduces the leachability to a negligibly small value. (author)

  7. Investigation of Induction Heating in Asphalt Mortar: Numerical Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apostolidis, P.; Liu, X.; Scarpas, Athanasios; van de Ven, M.F.C.; van Bochove, G

    2016-01-01

    The research reported in this paper focuses on utilization of advanced finite-element analyses (COMSOL) for the design and assessment of the induction heating capacity of asphalt mortar by adding electrically conductive additives (e.g., steel fibers), and to understand the factors that influence the

  8. Investigation of asphalt core-plinth connection in embankment dams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weibiao Wang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The asphalt core itself is a no-joint water barrier in embankment dams and is connected to the concrete plinth on the bottom of the core. A reliable asphalt core-plinth connection is crucial and must remain watertight when the core deforms due to deformations in the embankment and foundation and due to reservoir water pressure. A large number of tension tests were conducted to determine the best ratios, joint thickness and suitable additives for the sandy asphalt mastic (SAM mix used for the connection. With the ratios of bitumen to filler to sand of 20%:35%:45% and by adding 4% SBS in the bitumen, one got a very suitable composition for the asphalt core-plinth connection in tensile conditions. Model tests were conducted to study the connection behavior when subjected to large shear displacements and high water pressure. The joint model test results indicate that the plane-surface plinth, curved-surface plinth, and plinth with or without copper water-stop showed no significant difference for the connection in the joint shear behavior. However, plinth with copper water-stop is suggested to enhance its tensile and shear behavior.

  9. Leaching of organic contaminants from storage of reclaimed asphalt pavement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norin, Malin; Strömvall, A M

    2004-03-01

    Recycling of asphalt has been promoted by rapid increases in both the use and price of petroleum-based bitumen. Semi-volatile organic compounds in leachates from reclaimed asphalt pavement, measured in field samples and in laboratory column test, were analysed through a GC/MS screen-test methodology. Sixteen PAH (polyaromatic hydrocarbons) were also analysed in leachates from the column study. The highest concentrations of semi-volatile compounds, approximately 400 microg l(-1), were measured in field samples from the scarified stockpile. Naphthalene, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP) were the most dominant of the identified semi-volatiles. The occurrence of these compounds in urban groundwater, also indicate high emission rates and persistent structures of the compounds, making them potentially hazardous. Car exhausts, rubber tires and the asphalt material itself are all probable emission sources, determined from the organic contaminants released from the stockpiles. The major leaching mechanism indicated was dissolution of organic contaminants from the surface of the asphalt gravels. In the laboratory column test, the release of high-molecular weight and more toxic PAH was higher in the leachates after two years than at the commencement of storage. The concentrations of semi-volatiles in leachates, were also several times lower than those from the field stockpile. These results demonstrate the need to follow up laboratory column test with real field measurements.

  10. Effect of the weather in the aging of asphalts by XRD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Edson da R.; Braz, Delson; Lopes, Ricardo T., E-mail: ecardoso@lin.ufrj.b [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear; Motta, Laura M.G. da, E-mail: Laura@coc.ufrj.b [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Construcao Civil/Geotecnia; Barroso, Regina C., E-mail: cely@uerj.b [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    2009-07-01

    Asphalt is a sticky, black and highly viscous liquid or semi-solid that is presented in most crude petroleum and in some natural deposits. As is well known, asphalt has been the preferential choice in pavement construction since excellent utility of pavement, however, as other organic substances, it is also subjected to aging phenomena evolving with time. Asphalt aging is one of the principal factors causing deterioration of asphalt pavements. The photodegradation of asphalts must be considered in the study of the performance of asphalt pavement, especially in geographical regions where high solar radiation intensity occurs. It has an important influence in asphalt aging in tropical places as Brazil. Many methods have been applied to simulate aging of bitumen. It was just a simulation but not real aging asphalt. In this study we submitted the asphalt to the weather as sun and rain. Periodically, during 430 days, the XRD profiles were done and the results analyzed. The scattering measurements were carried out in 0-20 reflection geometry using a powder diffractometer Shimadzu XRD-6000. Scans were typically done from 8 deg to 28 deg every 0.05 deg. The parameters FWHM and peak centroid were analyzed. From 0 until 180 days the aging was faster. The peaks were marked and analyzed with the pass of time. The crystallinity of asphalt increase with weather exposition. Some angles of profiles changed the position indicating change of atomics plans. (author)

  11. Performance Evaluation of Hot Mix Asphalt with Different Proportions of RAP Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Arshad Ahmad

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP is old asphalt pavement that has been removed from a road by milling or full depth removal. The use of RAP in hot mix asphalt (HMA eliminates the need to dispose old asphalt pavements and conserves asphalt binders and aggregates, resulting in significant cost savings and benefits to society. This paper presents a study on HMA with different RAP proportions carried out to evaluate the volumetric properties and performance of asphalt mixes containing different proportions of RAP. Marshall Mix Design Method was used to produce control mix (0% RAP and asphalt mixes containing 15% RAP, 25% RAP and 35% RAP in accordance with Specifications for Road Works of Public Works Department, Malaysia for AC14 dense graded asphalt gradation. Volumetric analysis was performed to ensure that the result is compliance with specification requirements. The resilient modulus test was performed to measure the stiffness of the mixes while the Modified Lottman test was conducted to evaluate the moisture susceptibility of these mixes. The Hamburg wheel tracking test was used to evaluate the rutting performance of these mixes. The results obtained showed that there were no substantial difference in Marshall Properties, moisture susceptibility, resilient modulus and rutting resistance between asphalt mixes with RAP and the control mix. The test results indicated that recycled mixes performed as good as the performance of conventional HMA in terms of moisture susceptibility and resilient modulus. It is recommended that further research be carried out for asphalt mixes containing more than 35% RAP material.

  12. Effect of the weather in the aging of asphalts by XRD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, Edson da R.; Braz, Delson; Lopes, Ricardo T.; Motta, Laura M.G. da; Barroso, Regina C.

    2009-01-01

    Asphalt is a sticky, black and highly viscous liquid or semi-solid that is presented in most crude petroleum and in some natural deposits. As is well known, asphalt has been the preferential choice in pavement construction since excellent utility of pavement, however, as other organic substances, it is also subjected to aging phenomena evolving with time. Asphalt aging is one of the principal factors causing deterioration of asphalt pavements. The photodegradation of asphalts must be considered in the study of the performance of asphalt pavement, especially in geographical regions where high solar radiation intensity occurs. It has an important influence in asphalt aging in tropical places as Brazil. Many methods have been applied to simulate aging of bitumen. It was just a simulation but not real aging asphalt. In this study we submitted the asphalt to the weather as sun and rain. Periodically, during 430 days, the XRD profiles were done and the results analyzed. The scattering measurements were carried out in 0-20 reflection geometry using a powder diffractometer Shimadzu XRD-6000. Scans were typically done from 8 deg to 28 deg every 0.05 deg. The parameters FWHM and peak centroid were analyzed. From 0 until 180 days the aging was faster. The peaks were marked and analyzed with the pass of time. The crystallinity of asphalt increase with weather exposition. Some angles of profiles changed the position indicating change of atomics plans. (author)

  13. Performance Evaluation of Hot Mix Asphalt with Different Proportions of RAP Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamil Arshad, Ahmad; Awang, Haryati; Shaffie, Ekarizan; Hashim, Wardati; Rahman, Zanariah Abd

    2018-03-01

    Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP) is old asphalt pavement that has been removed from a road by milling or full depth removal. The use of RAP in hot mix asphalt (HMA) eliminates the need to dispose old asphalt pavements and conserves asphalt binders and aggregates, resulting in significant cost savings and benefits to society. This paper presents a study on HMA with different RAP proportions carried out to evaluate the volumetric properties and performance of asphalt mixes containing different proportions of RAP. Marshall Mix Design Method was used to produce control mix (0% RAP) and asphalt mixes containing 15% RAP, 25% RAP and 35% RAP in accordance with Specifications for Road Works of Public Works Department, Malaysia for AC14 dense graded asphalt gradation. Volumetric analysis was performed to ensure that the result is compliance with specification requirements. The resilient modulus test was performed to measure the stiffness of the mixes while the Modified Lottman test was conducted to evaluate the moisture susceptibility of these mixes. The Hamburg wheel tracking test was used to evaluate the rutting performance of these mixes. The results obtained showed that there were no substantial difference in Marshall Properties, moisture susceptibility, resilient modulus and rutting resistance between asphalt mixes with RAP and the control mix. The test results indicated that recycled mixes performed as good as the performance of conventional HMA in terms of moisture susceptibility and resilient modulus. It is recommended that further research be carried out for asphalt mixes containing more than 35% RAP material.

  14. Evaluation of permanent deformation and durability of epoxidized natural rubber modified asphalt mix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mansob, Ramez A.; Ismail, Amiruddin; Rahmat, Riza Atiq O. K.; Nazri Borhan, Muhamad; Alsharef, Jamal M. A.; Albrka, Shaban Ismael; Rehan Karim, Mohamed

    2017-09-01

    The road distresses have caused too much in maintenance cost. However, better understandings of the behaviours and properties of asphalt, couples with greater development in technology, have allowed paving technologists to examine the benefits of introducing additives and modifiers. As a result, modifiers such as polymers are the most popular modifiers used to improve the performance of asphalt mix. This study was conducted to investigate the use of epoxidized natural rubber (ENR) to be mixed with asphalt mix. Tests were conducted to investigate the performance characteristics of ENR-asphalt mixes, where the mixes were prepared according to the wet process. Mechanical testing on the ENR-asphalt mixes have demonstrated that the asphalt mix permanent deformation performance at high temperature was found to be improved compared to the base mixes. However, the durability studies have indicated that ENR-asphalt mixes are slightly susceptible with the presence of moisture. The durability of the ENR-asphalt mixes were found to be enhanced in term of permanent deformation at high and intermediate temperatures compared to the base asphalt mixes. As conclusion, asphalt pavement performance can be enhanced by using ENR as modifier to face the major road distresses.

  15. Design and Properties of Asphalt Concrete Mixtures Using Renewable Bioasphalt Binder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setyawan, A.; Djumari; Irfansyah, P. A.; Shidiq, A. M.; Wibisono, I. S.; Fauzy, M. N.; Hadi, F. N.

    2017-02-01

    The needs of petroleum asphalt as materials for pavement is very large, while the petroleum classified as natural resources that cannot be renewable. As a result of petroleum dwindling and prices tend to be more expensive. So that requiring other alternative materials as a substitute for conventional asphalt derived from biomass or often called bioasphalt. This study aims to know the volumetric and Marshall characteristics on Asphalt Cement ( AC ) using the Damar asphalt modification to substitute 60/70 penetration asphalt as a binder. The volumetric and Marshall characteristic are porosity, density, flow, stability, and Marshall quotient. The characteristic of asphalt concrete at optimum bitumen content are compared to the conditions from highway agency 1987 and the general specification of asphalt concrete Bina Marga 2010 the third revision. The research uses experimental method in the laboratory with the samples made using the dasphalt modification as binder and incorporating the aggregate gradation no. VII SNI 03-1737-1989. The research is using 15 samples divided into 5 contents of damar asphalt, they are 5%, 5,5%, 6%, 6,5%, dan 7%. Tests carried out using Marshall test equipment to get the value of flow and stability and then be searched the value of optimum damar asphalt content. The result of asphalt concrete analysis using dasphalt modification as binder gives the value of optimum dasphalt content at 5,242%. The most characteristics already met the requirements and specifications.

  16. Mechanical behaviour of a creased thin strip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Liu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study the mechanical behaviour of a creased thin strip under opposite-sense bending was investigated. It was found that a simple crease, which led to the increase of the second moment of area, could significantly alter the overall mechanical behaviour of a thin strip, for example the peak moment could be increased by 100 times. The crease was treated as a cylindrical segment of a small radius. Parametric studies demonstrated that the geometry of the strip could strongly influence its flexural behaviour. We showed that the uniform thickness and the radius of the creased segment had the greatest and the least influence on the mechanical behaviour, respectively. We further revealed that material properties could dramatically affect the overall mechanical behaviour of the creased strip by gradually changing the material from being linear elastic to elastic-perfect plastic. After the formation of the fold, the moment of the two ends of the strip differed considerably when the elasto-plastic materials were used, especially for materials with smaller tangent modulus in the plastic range. The deformation patterns of the thin strips from the finite element simulations were verified by physical models made of thin metal strips. The findings from this study provide useful information for designing origami structures for engineering applications using creased thin strips.

  17. Nuclear reactor spring strip grid spacer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, J.F.; Flora, B.S.

    1978-01-01

    A bimetallic grid spacer is described comprising a grid structure of zircaloy formed by intersecting striplike members which define fuel element openings for receiving fuel elements and spring strips made of Inconel positioned within the grid structure for cooperating with the fuel elements to maintain them in their desired position. A plurality of these spring strips extend longitudinally between sides of the grid structure, being locked in position by the grid retaining strips. The fuel rods, which are disposed in the fuel openings formed in the grid structure, are positioned by means of the springs associated with the spring strips and a plurality of dimples which extend from the zircaloy grid structure into the openings. In one embodiment the strips are disposed in a plurality of arrays with those spring strip arrays situated in opposing diagonal quadrants of the grid structure extending in the same direction and adjacent spring strip arrays in each half of the spacer extending in relatively perpendicular directions. Other variations of the spring strip arrangements for a particular fuel design are disclosed herein

  18. Evaluation system for CO2 emission of hot asphalt mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Peng

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The highway construction industry plays an important role in economic and development, but is also a primary source of carbon emission. Accordingly, with the global climate change, energy conservation and reduction of carbon emissions have become critical issues in the highway construction industry. However, to date, a model for the highway construction industry has not been established. Hence, to implement a low-carbon construction model for highways, this study divided asphalt pavement construction into aggregate stacking, aggregate supply, and other stages, and compiled a list of energy consumption investigation. An appropriate calculation model of CO2 emission was then built. Based on the carbon emission calculation model, the proportion of carbon emissions in each stage was analyzed. The analytic hierarchy process was used to establish the system of asphalt pavement construction with a judgment matrix, thereby enabling calculation of the weight coefficient of each link. In addition, the stages of aggregate heating, asphalt heating, and asphalt mixture mixing were defined as key stages of asphalt pavement construction. Carbon emissions at these stages accounted for approximately 90% of the total carbon emissions. Carbon emissions at each stage and their impact on the environment were quantified and compared. The energy saving construction schemes as well as the environmental and socioeconomic benefits were then proposed. Through these schemes, significant reductions in carbon emissions and costs can be achieved. The results indicate that carbon emissions reduce by 32.30% and 35.93%, whereas costs reduce by 18.58% and 6.03%. The proposed energy-saving and emission reduction scheme can provide a theoretical basis and technical support for the development of low-carbon highway construction.

  19. CMS Silicon Strip Tracker Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Agram, Jean-Laurent

    2012-01-01

    The CMS Silicon Strip Tracker (SST), consisting of 9.6 million readout channels from 15148 modules and covering an area of 198 square meters, needs to be precisely calibrated in order to correctly reconstruct the events recorded. Calibration constants are derived from different workflows, from promptly reconstructed events with particles as well as from commissioning events gathered just before the acquisition of physics runs. The performance of the SST has been carefully studied since the beginning of data taking: the noise of the detector, data integrity, signal-over-noise ratio, hit reconstruction efficiency and resolution have been all investigated with time and for different conditions. In this paper we describe the reconstruction strategies, the calibration procedures and the detector performance results from the latest CMS operation.

  20. The CMS silicon strip tracker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Focardi, E.; Albergo, S.; Angarano, M.; Azzi, P.; Babucci, E.; Bacchetta, N.; Bader, A.; Bagliesi, G.; Bartalini, P.; Basti, A.; Biggeri, U.; Bilei, G.M.; Bisello, D.; Boemi, D.; Bosi, F.; Borrello, L.; Bozzi, C.; Braibant, S.; Breuker, H.; Bruzzi, M.; Candelori, A.; Caner, A.; Castaldi, R.; Castro, A.; Catacchini, E.; Checcucci, B.; Ciampolini, P.; Civinini, C.; Creanza, D.; D'Alessandro, R.; Da Rold, M.; Demaria, N.; De Palma, M.; Dell'Orso, R.; Marina, R. Della; Dutta, S.; Eklund, C.; Elliott-Peisert, A.; Feld, L.; Fiore, L.; French, M.; Freudenreich, K.; Fuertjes, A.; Giassi, A.; Giraldo, A.; Glessing, B.; Gu, W.H.; Hall, G.; Hammerstrom, R.; Hebbeker, T.; Hrubec, J.; Huhtinen, M.; Kaminsky, A.; Karimaki, V.; Koenig, St.; Krammer, M.; Lariccia, P.; Lenzi, M.; Loreti, M.; Luebelsmeyer, K.; Lustermann, W.; Maettig, P.; Maggi, G.; Mannelli, M.; Mantovani, G.; Marchioro, A.; Mariotti, C.; Martignon, G.; Evoy, B. Mc; Meschini, M.; Messineo, A.; My, S.; Paccagnella, A.; Palla, F.; Pandoulas, D.; Parrini, G.; Passeri, D.; Pieri, M.; Piperov, S.; Potenza, R.; Raffaelli, F.; Raso, G.; Raymond, M.; Santocchia, A.; Schmitt, B.; Selvaggi, G.; Servoli, L.; Sguazzoni, G.; Siedling, R.; Silvestris, L.; Skog, K.; Starodumov, A.; Stavitski, I.; Stefanini, G.; Tempesta, P.; Tonelli, G.; Tricomi, A.; Tuuva, T.; Vannini, C.; Verdini, P.G.; Viertel, G.; Xie, Z.; Wang, Y.; Watts, S.; Wittmer, B.

    1999-01-01

    The Silicon Strip Tracker (SST) is the intermediate part of the CMS Central Tracker System. SST is based on microstrip silicon devices and in combination with pixel detectors and the Microstrip Gas Chambers aims at performing pattern recognition, track reconstruction and momentum measurements for all tracks with p T ≥2 GeV/c originating from high luminosity interactions at √s=14 TeV at LHC. We aim at exploiting the advantages and the physics potential of the precise tracking performance provided by the microstrip silicon detectors on a large scale apparatus and in a much more difficult environment than ever. In this paper we describe the actual SST layout and the readout system. (author)

  1. Ultrasonic examination of JBK-75 strip material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, K.V.; Cunningham, R.A. Jr.; Lewis, J.C.; McClung, R.W.

    1982-12-01

    An ultrasonic inspection system was assembled to inspect the JBK-75 stainless steel sheath material (for the Large Coil Project) for the Westinghouse-Airco superconducting magnet program. The mechanical system provided for handling the 180-kg (400-lb) coils of strip material [1.6 mm thick by 78 mm wide by 90 to 120 m long (0.064 by 3.07 in. by 300 to 400 ft)], feeding the strip through the ultrasonic inspection and cleaning stations, and respooling the coils. We inspected 54 coils of strip for both longitudinal and laminar flaws. Simulated flaws were used to calibrate both inspections. Saw-cut notches [0.28 mm deep (0.011 in., about 17% of the strip thickness)] were used to calibrate the longitudinal flaw inspections; 1.59-mm-diam (0.063-in.) flat-bottom holes drilled halfway through a calibration strip were used to calibrate the laminar flaw tests

  2. Effect of new type of synthetic waxes on reduced production and compaction temperature of asphalt mixture with reclaimed asphalt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentová, Tereza; Benešová, Lucie; Mastný, Jan; Valentin, Jan

    2017-09-01

    Lower mixing and paving temperatures of asphalt mixtures, which are an important issue in recent years, with respect to increased energy demand of civil engineering structures during their processing, allow reduction of this demand and result in minimized greenhouse gas production. In present time, there are many possibilities how to achieve reduction of production temperature during the mixing and paving of an asphalt mixture. The existing solutions distinguish in target operating temperature behaviour which has to be achieved in terms of good workability. This paper is focused on technical solutions based on use of new types of selected synthetic and bio-based waxes. In case of bio-based additive sugar cane wax was used, which is free of paraffins and is reclaimed as waste product during processing of sugar cane. The used waxes are added to bituminous binder in form of free-flowing granules or fine-grained powder. Synthetic waxes are represented by new series of Fischer-Tropsch wax in form of fine granules as well as by polyethylene waxes in form of fine-grained powder or granules. Those waxes were used to modify a standard paving grade bitumen dosed into asphalt mixture of ACsurf type containing up to 30 % of reclaimed asphalt (RA).

  3. Acrylamide reduction in fried potato slices and strips by using asparaginase in combination with conventional blanching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedreschi, Franco; Risum, Jørgen; Granby, Kit

    then dried at 85°C for 10 min and immediately partially fried at 175°C for 1min. Finally, frozen par-fried potatoes were fried at 175°C for 3min to obtain French fries. Pre-drying of raw or blanched potato strips did not generate acrylamide formation as expected. Partial frying of pre-dried control potato...... strips generated 370μg/kg of acrylamide and the final frying determined French fries with 2075μg/kg of acrylamide. When control potato strips were treated with a 10000 ASNU/l asparaginase solution at 40°C for 20min, the acrylamide formation in French fries was reduced by 30%. When blanched potato strips...... were treated in the same way, the produced French fries have 60% less acrylamide content than blanched strips without the enzyme treatment. Soaking of blanched potato strips (75°C, 10min) in an 10000 ASNU/l asparaginase solution at 40°C for 20min is an effective way to reduce acrylamide formation after...

  4. Model for prediction of strip temperature in hot strip steel mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panjkovic, Vladimir

    2007-01-01

    Proper functioning of set-up models in a hot strip steel mill requires reliable prediction of strip temperature. Temperature prediction is particularly important for accurate calculation of rolling force because of strong dependence of yield stress and strip microstructure on temperature. A comprehensive model was developed to replace an obsolete model in the Western Port hot strip mill of BlueScope Steel. The new model predicts the strip temperature evolution from the roughing mill exit to the finishing mill exit. It takes into account the radiative and convective heat losses, forced flow boiling and film boiling of water at strip surface, deformation heat in the roll gap, frictional sliding heat, heat of scale formation and the heat transfer between strip and work rolls through an oxide layer. The significance of phase transformation was also investigated. Model was tested with plant measurements and benchmarked against other models in the literature, and its performance was very good

  5. Model for prediction of strip temperature in hot strip steel mill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panjkovic, Vladimir [BlueScope Steel, TEOB, 1 Bayview Road, Hastings Vic. 3915 (Australia)]. E-mail: Vladimir.Panjkovic@BlueScopeSteel.com

    2007-10-15

    Proper functioning of set-up models in a hot strip steel mill requires reliable prediction of strip temperature. Temperature prediction is particularly important for accurate calculation of rolling force because of strong dependence of yield stress and strip microstructure on temperature. A comprehensive model was developed to replace an obsolete model in the Western Port hot strip mill of BlueScope Steel. The new model predicts the strip temperature evolution from the roughing mill exit to the finishing mill exit. It takes into account the radiative and convective heat losses, forced flow boiling and film boiling of water at strip surface, deformation heat in the roll gap, frictional sliding heat, heat of scale formation and the heat transfer between strip and work rolls through an oxide layer. The significance of phase transformation was also investigated. Model was tested with plant measurements and benchmarked against other models in the literature, and its performance was very good.

  6. Synchrotron applications of pixel and strip detectors at Diamond Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchal, J.; Tartoni, N.; Nave, C.

    2009-01-01

    A wide range of position-sensitive X-ray detectors have been commissioned on the synchrotron X-ray beamlines operating at the Diamond Light Source in UK. In addition to mature technologies such as image-plates, CCD-based detectors, multi-wire and micro-strip gas detectors, more recent detectors based on semiconductor pixel or strip sensors coupled to CMOS read-out chips are also in use for routine synchrotron X-ray diffraction and scattering experiments. The performance of several commercial and developmental pixel/strip detectors for synchrotron studies are discussed with emphasis on the image quality achieved with these devices. Examples of pixel or strip detector applications at Diamond Light Source as well as the status of the commissioning of these detectors on the beamlines are presented. Finally, priorities and ideas for future developments are discussed.

  7. Optimization of fractional composition of the excipient in the elastomeric covering for asphalt highways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Nurullaev

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The computational method of optimum fractional composition of a dispersible filler of polymeric composite on the basis of three-dimensionally linked elastomer is developed according to non-linear programming. The coefficient of dynamic viscosity of polymeric suspension or the initial module of a viscoelasticity of the join solidification low-molecular rubbers with the final functional groups, filled by many fractional dioxide of silicon are considered as criteria of optimization. Influence of the limiting volume filling on energy of mechanical destruction was investigated. The elastomeric material is offered for use as a covering of asphalt highways in the form of a frost-proof waterproofing layer, which allowing multiply to increase operating properties.

  8. Profile of a science comic strip author

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2014-01-01

    After studying visual arts, Lison Bernet worked as a lock keeper, waitress, grape picker, farm labourer and chef before finally returning to her first love: drawing. Today a scientific illustrator, Lison is the author of the cartoon strip "La BD du LHC", which she draws every month for LHC France (by CNRS/IN2P3 and CEA/Irfu, see here).   © Lison Bernet. Lison’s career path might seem somewhat chaotic, but it is a reflection of the artist herself: original and passionate. “I never do anything by half measures. When I got into cooking for example [Lison took a chef training course for adults], I became completely wrapped up in it. I even went as far as cooking roasts during my lunch hour, just for practice…” says Lison. On completing the course, Lison got a job as a chef on a canal boat. And it was then that she got the drawing bug again. “I started keeping an illustrated travel diary,” she says. &ldquo...

  9. Research on the characteristics of temperature field of asphalt pavement in seasonal frozen region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiao, Jiangang; Liu, Weizheng

    2014-01-01

    The characteristics of climate in seasonal frozen area are low temperature and a large range of temperature variation between day and night in winter. These characteristics often lead to problems of asphalt pavement, especially transverse cracks. To reduce the problems of asphalt pavement, it is necessary to examine the distribution of the temperature range of asphalt pavement. A three-dimensional finite element model was used, taking the SMA asphalt pavement as an example with solid70 and plane55 unit features of ANSYS software. It can obtain the relationship between temperature gradient and time and the relationship between temperature gradient and depth. In addition, a function relation model of stress and time was also established. It can provide a theoretical basis for the prevention and treatment of problems of asphalt pavement in seasonal frozen area. Moreover, it has an important significance for improving asphalt pavement design

  10. Decision of National and Provincial Highway Asphalt Pavement Structure Based on Value Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingwei Ren

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is important that decision of asphalt pavement structure requires overall considerations of the performance and financial investment. To have asphalt pavement structure fulfilling good reliability, the asphalt pavement structure decision was researched based on value engineering theory. According to the national and provincial highway investigation data in Shandong Province during the last decade, the asphalt pavement performance attenuation rules of traffic levels and asphalt layer thicknesses were developed, and then the road performance evaluation method was presented. In addition, the initial investments, the costs of road maintenance, and middle-scale repair in a period were analyzed. For the light traffic and medium traffic example, using the value engineering method, the pavement performance and costs of which thickness varies from 6 cm to 10 cm were calculated and compared. It was concluded that value engineering was an effective method in deciding the asphalt pavement structure.

  11. The effect of long-term oxidation on the rheological properties of polymer modified asphalts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yonghong Ruan; Richard R. Davison; Charles J. Glover [Texas A & M University, College Station, TX (United States). Department of Chemical Engineering

    2003-10-01

    The effect of long-term aging on rheological properties of polymer modified asphalt binders was studied. Modifiers included diblock poly(styrene-b-butadiene) rubber, triblock poly(styrene-b-butadiene-b-styrene), and tire rubber. Asphalt aging was carried out either at 60{sup o}C in a controlled environmental room or at 100{sup o}C in a pressure aging vessel (AASHTO Provisional Standards, 1993). Both dynamic shear properties and extensional properties were investigated. Polymer modification resulted in increased asphalt complex modulus at high temperatures, decreased asphalt complex modulus at low temperatures, broadened relaxation spectra, and improved ductility. Oxidative aging decreased asphalt temperature susceptibility, damaged the polymer network in binders, further broadened the relaxation spectrum, and diminished polymer effectiveness in improving asphalt ductility. 27 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Mechanical Property and Analysis of Asphalt Components Based on Molecular Dynamics Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The asphalt-aggregate interface interaction plays a significant role in the overall performances of asphalt mixture. In order to analyze the chemical constitution of asphalt effects on the asphalt-aggregate interaction, the average structure C64H52S2 is selected to represent the asphalt, and the colloid, saturated phenol, and asphaltene are selected to represent the major constitutions in asphalt. The molecular models are established for the three compositions, respectively, and the Molecular Dynamics (MD simulation was conducted for the three kinds of asphaltene-aggregate system at different presses. Comparing the E value of Young modulus of these three polymers, the maximum modulus value of asphaltene was 2.80 GPa, the modulus value of colloid was secondary, and the minimum modulus of saturated phenol was 0.52 GPa. This result corresponds to conventional understanding.

  13. Leachability of Cr(VI) and other metals from asphalt composites with addition of filter dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahcic, Mitja; Milacic, Radmila; Mladenovic, Ana; Murko, Simona; Zuliani, Tea; Zupancic, Marija; Scancar, Janez

    2008-12-01

    The potential use of filter dust in asphalt composites for road construction was investigated. Filter dust contains high concentrations of metals, of which Cr(VI) and Pb are leached with water. Compact and ground asphalt composites with addition of 2% of filter dust by mass were studied. In order to evaluate their environmental impact, leachability tests were performed using water and salt water as leaching agents. The concentrations of Cr(VI) and Pb were determined in leachates over a time period of 182 days. The results indicated that Pb was not leached with leaching agents from asphalt composites. Cr(VI) was also not leached with leaching agents from compact asphalt composites. However, in ground asphalt composites, Cr(VI) was leached with water in concentrations up to 220 microg L(-1) and in salt water up to 150 microg L(-1). From the physico-mechanical and environmental aspects, filter dust can be used as a component in asphalt mixtures.

  14. Hanford protective barriers program: Status of asphalt barrier studies - FY 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, H.D.; Gee, G.W.

    1989-11-01

    The Hanford Protective Barrier Program is evaluating alternate barriers to provide a means of meeting stringent water infiltration requirements. One type of alternate barrier being considered is an asphalt-based layer, 1.3 to 15 cm thick. Evaluations of these barriers were initiated in FY 1988, and, based on laboratory studies, two asphalt formulations were selected for further testing in small-tube lysimeters: a hot rubberized asphalt and an admixture of cationic asphalt emulsion and concrete sand containing 24 wt% residual asphalt. Eight lysimeters containing asphalt seals were installed as part of the Small Tube Lysimeter Test Facility on the Hanford Site. Two control lysimeters containing Hanford sand with a surface gravel treatment were also installed for comparison. 5 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab

  15. Performance Evaluation and Improving Mechanisms of Diatomite-Modified Asphalt Mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao; Xie, Jun; Zhou, Xiaojun; Liu, Quantao; Pang, Ling

    2018-04-27

    Diatomite is an inorganic natural resource in large reserve. This study consists of two phases to evaluate the effects of diatomite on asphalt mixtures. In the first phase, we characterized the diatomite in terms of mineralogical properties, chemical compositions, particle size distribution, mesoporous distribution, morphology, and IR spectra. In the second phase, road performances, referring to the permanent deformation, crack, fatigue, and moisture resistance, of asphalt mixtures with diatomite were investigated. The characterization of diatomite exhibits that it is a porous material with high SiO₂ content and large specific surface area. It contributes to asphalt absorption and therefore leads to bonding enhancement between asphalt and aggregate. However, physical absorption instead of chemical reaction occurs according to the results of FTIR. The resistance of asphalt mixtures with diatomite to permanent deformation and moisture are superior to those of the control mixtures. But, the addition of diatomite does not help to improve the crack and fatigue resistance of asphalt mixture.

  16. SGC Tests for Influence of Material Composition on Compaction Characteristic of Asphalt Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qun Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Compaction characteristic of the surface layer asphalt mixture (13-type gradation mixture was studied using Superpave gyratory compactor (SGC simulative compaction tests. Based on analysis of densification curve of gyratory compaction, influence rules of the contents of mineral aggregates of all sizes and asphalt on compaction characteristic of asphalt mixtures were obtained. SGC Tests show that, for the mixture with a bigger content of asphalt, its density increases faster, that there is an optimal amount of fine aggregates for optimal compaction and that an appropriate amount of mineral powder will improve workability of mixtures, but overmuch mineral powder will make mixtures dry and hard. Conclusions based on SGC tests can provide basis for how to adjust material composition for improving compaction performance of asphalt mixtures, and for the designed asphalt mixture, its compaction performance can be predicted through these conclusions, which also contributes to the choice of compaction schemes.

  17. Using ESEM to analyze the microscopic property of basalt fiber reinforced asphalt concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunmei Gao

    2018-07-01

    Full Text Available The basalt fiber staggered distribution in the asphalt concrete matrix and the bonding situation between asphalt are analyzed by images collected using field emission environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM test equipment. The results show that bonding of the fiber and the asphalt binder is very good and there is a strong binding force of chemical bonding connections between the two; the lipophilicity of basalt fiber is very good, the wrapped cover ability of asphalt for fiber is very strong; basalt fiber forms the local space network structure in the asphalt concrete matrix, effectively overcome the relative slip between the particles, connect the damaged parts into a whole; basalt fiber across internal micropores, and the internal defects in material can be remedied. At the same time, crack resistance mechanism of the fiber to internal micro cracks is qualitatively explained according to the magnitude of the stress intensity factor Kf. Keywords: Road engineering, Asphalt concrete, Basalt fiber, Microscopic analysis

  18. Prototype Strip Barrel Modules for the ATLAS ITk Strip Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Sawyer, Craig; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The module design for the Phase II Upgrade of the new ATLAS Inner Tracker (ITk) detector at the LHC employs integrated low mass assembly using single-sided flexible circuits with readout ASICs and a powering circuit incorporating control and monitoring of HV, LV and temperature on the module. Both readout and powering circuits are glued directly onto the silicon sensor surface resulting in a fully integrated, extremely low radiation length module which simultaneously reduces the material requirements of the local support structure by allowing a reduced width stave structure to be employed. Such a module concept has now been fully demonstrated using so-called ABC130 and HCC130 ASICs fabricated in 130nm CMOS technology to readout ATLAS12 n+-in-p silicon strip sensors. Low voltage powering for these demonstrator modules has been realised by utilising a DCDC powerboard based around the CERN FEAST ASIC. This powerboard incorporates an HV multiplexing switch based on a Panasonic GaN transistor. Control and monitori...

  19. Charge collection in silicon strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraner, H.W.; Beuttenmuller, R.; Ludlam, T.; Hanson, A.L.; Jones, K.W.; Radeka, V.; Heijne, E.H.M.

    1982-11-01

    The use of position sensitive silicon detectors as very high resolution tracking devices in high energy physics experiments has been a subject of intense development over the past few years. Typical applications call for the detection of minimum ionizing particles with position measurement accuracy of 10 μm in each detector plane. The most straightforward detector geometry is that in which one of the collecting electrodes is subdivided into closely spaced strips, giving a high degree of segmentation in one coordinate. Each strip may be read out as a separate detection element, or, alternatively, resistive and/or capacitive coupling between adjacent strips may be exploited to interpolate the position via charge division measrurements. With readout techniques that couple several strips, the numer of readout channels can, in principle, be reduced by large factors without sacrificing the intrinsic position accuracy. The testing of individual strip properties and charge division between strips has been carried out with minimum ionizing particles or beams for the most part except in one case which used alphs particless scans. This paper describes the use of a highly collimated MeV proton beam for studies of the position sensing properties of representative one dimensional strip detectors

  20. Transfusion and blood donation in comic strips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefrère, Jean-Jacques; Danic, Bruno

    2013-07-01

    The representation of blood transfusion and donation of blood in the comic strip has never been studied. The comic strip, which is a relatively recent art, emerged in the 19th century before becoming a mass medium during the 20th century. We have sought, by calling on collectors and using the resources of Internet, comic strips devoted, wholly or in part, to the themes of transfusion and blood donation. We present some of them here in chronologic order, indicating the title, country of origin, year of publication, and names of authors. The theme of the superhero using transfusion to transmit his virtues or his powers is repeated throughout the 20th century in North American comic strips. More recently, comic strips have been conceived from the outset with a promotional aim. They perpetuate positive images and are directed toward a young readership, wielding humor to reduce the fear of venipuncture. Few comic strips denounce the abuse of the commercialization of products derived from the human body. The image of transfusion and blood donation given by the comic strips is not to be underestimated because their readership is primarily children, some of whom will become blood donors. Furthermore, if some readers are transfused during their lives, the impact of a memory more or less conscious of these childhood readings may resurface, both in hopes and in fears. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Rutting Performance of Cold-Applied Asphalt Repair Materials for Airfield Pavements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-23

    this study. Cold mix asphalt materials, further denoted cold mixes , were selected to reasonably represent available products on the market and were...pavement repair, primarily because of the small quantities involved and/or the unavailability of hot- mixed asphalt. These cold-applied mixtures have...poorer rutting resistance than hot mix asphalt because additives, often solvent, are required to provide adequate workability for them to be placed

  2. Mechanical Properties of Hot Mix Crumb Rubber Modified Asphalt Concrete Using Waste Tire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Nak Seok; Lee, Woo Yeol [Kyonggi University, Suwon (Korea)

    1998-06-30

    Wheel tracking and ravelling tests were conducted on the hot mix crumb rubber modified asphalt concrete using waste tire to evaluate the mechanical properties in comparison with conventional asphalt concrete. According to the test results, the modified product was superior to the conventional one by 50% in the resistance of permanent deformation and by 15% in the resistance of durability. The experimental results should recommend that the waste tire is positively recycled for asphalt concrete. (author). 11 refs., 6 tabs., 2 figs.

  3. Evaluation of factors that affect rutting resistance of asphalt mixes by orthogonal experiment design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilian Zou

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Rutting has been one of the major distresses observed on asphalt pavement in China, due to increasing traffic volume, heavy axle load, continuous hot weather, etc., especially in long-steep-slope section, bus stops, etc. Many factors would affect rutting resistance of asphalt pavement, including material properties, climatic condition, traffic volumes, speed, and axle types, and construction quality.The orthogonal experimental design method was used in this study to reduce the number of tests required, without comprising the validity of the test results. The testing variables and their levels were selected according to investigations and field test results. Effects of various factors on asphalt pavement rutting performance were evaluated, including the asphalt binders, mixture type (aggregate gradation, axle load, vehicle speed and temperature.In this study, the wheel tracking test was used to evaluate rutting performance, as represented by the parameter Dynamic Stability (DS, of the various asphalt mixes. Test results were analyzed using range analysis and analysis of variance (ANOVA. All four factors evaluated in this study had significant effects on pavement rutting performance. The ranking of the significance was asphalt mixture type, temperature, loading frequency, and tire-pavement contact pressure. Asphalt mixture type was the most important factor that affects rutting resistance. Within the asphalt mixtures, asphalt binder had significant effects on rutting performance of mixes more than aggregate gradation. Rutting resistance of SBS modified asphalt mixes was significantly better than neat asphalt mixes, and skeleton dense structure mixes were better than suspended dense structure mixes. Keywords: Asphalt mixes, Rutting resistance, Effect factor, Orthogonal experiment design

  4. Design Method for Proportion of Cement-Foamed Asphalt Cold Recycled Mixture

    OpenAIRE

    Li Junxiao; Fu Wei; Zang Hechao

    2018-01-01

    Through foaming experiment of Zhongtai AH-70 asphalt, the best foaming temperature water consumption and influence factors of foamed asphalt’s foaming features are determined; By designing the proportion of foamed asphalt cold in-place recycled mixture combined with the water stability experiment, for this mixture the best foamed asphalt addition is 3%, and proportion of the mixture is RAP: fine aggregate: cement=75:23:2. Using SEM technology, the mechanism of increasing on the intensity of f...

  5. Performance on Water Stability of Cement-Foamed Asphalt Cold Recycled Mixture

    OpenAIRE

    Li Junxiao; Fu Wei; Zang Hechao

    2018-01-01

    Through designing the mixture proportion of foamed asphalt cold in-place recycled mixture combined with the water stability experiment, it shows that the addition of cement can obviously improve foamed asphalt mixture’s water stability and the best cement admixture is between 1% ~ 2%; Using digital imaging microscope and SEM technology, the mechanism of increasing on the intensity of foamed asphalt mixture resulted by adding cement was analyzed. It revealed that the cement hydration products ...

  6. Removal of contaminated asphalt layers by using heat generating powder metallic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barinov, A.S.; Karlina, O.K.; Ojovan, M.I.

    1996-01-01

    Heat generating systems on the base of powder metallic fuel were used for the removal of contaminated asphalt layers. Decontamination of spots which had complex geometric form was performed. Asphalt layers with deep contamination were removed essentially all radionuclides being retained in asphalt residue. Only a small part (1 - 2 %) of radionuclides could pass to combustion slag. No radionuclides were detected in aerosol-gas phase during decontamination process

  7. Development of asphaltic mix with waste products use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pugin Konstantin Georgievich

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The trend of high growth of the vehicle fleet in Russia along with the positive impact on the socio-economic development of the country has a number of adverse consequences, one of which is the high accident rate on the roads. The paper considers modern way to provide the safe vehicles flow with the use of colored asphalt, which is a kind of hot asphalt and can have a variety of colors, which consists of coloring pigments. The conventional method of coloring the asphalt mix is produced by adding color rubble or pigmenting additives. The task, which was put forward, was the establishment of such road concrete mix, from which, without the use of primary materials and without increasing the consumption of bitumen, asphalt concrete road surfaces of acceptable strength could be obtained. As a pigment the dust of gas purification system of electrical furnace DSP - 60 of «Kamastal» plant, Perm, was used. The composition of the dust waste from the furnace consists of metal oxides and silicates. Dust-gas-cleaning is a fine powder with a high specific surface (1.2…2.5 thousand cm /g and bulk density of 3.7…4.2 g/cm . The powder color is dark brown. The density of the ready colored asphalt samples is 2.47...2.49 g/cm , and water saturation is 3.50…3.55 %. As a result of the research the diagrams of the dependence of road concrete mix’s water saturation from dust percentage and a diagram of dependence of concrete mixes’ durability from dust percentage at t = 20° and 50° C were built. After analyzing the obtained curves it can be concluded that the increase of the percentage of dust leads to increase of water saturation of road concrete mix and reduced strength. Thus, the developed asphalt concrete mix allows visually separating the lanes on the road, it has the relevant regulatory requirements durability and water resistance. This mixture corresponds to the type B mark III and can be used in regions I, II, and partly III of road-climatic zones

  8. MHD simulations of ram pressure stripping of a disc galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Martínez, Mariana; Gómez, Gilberto C.; Pérez-Villegas, Ángeles

    2018-05-01

    The removal of the interstellar medium (ISM) of disc galaxies through ram pressure stripping (RPS) has been extensively studied in numerous simulations. Nevertheless, the role of magnetic fields (MFs) on the gas dynamics in this process has been hardly studied, although the MF influence on the large-scale disc structure is well established. With this in mind, we present a 3D magnetohydrodynamic simulation of face-on RPS of a disc galaxy to study the impact of the galactic MF in the gas stripping. The main effect of including a galactic MF is a flared disc. When the intracluster medium wind hits this flared disc, oblique shocks are produced at the interaction interface, where the ISM is compressed, generating a gas inflow from large radii towards the central regions of the galaxy. This inflow is observed for {˜ } 150 {Myr} and may supply the central parts of the galaxy with material for star formation while the outskirts of the disc are being stripped of gas, thus the oblique shocks can induce and enhance the star formation in the remaining disc. We also observed that the MF alters the shape and structure of the swept gas, giving a smooth appearance in the magnetized case and clumpier and filamentary-like morphology in the hydro case. Finally, we estimated the truncation radius expected for our models using the Gunn-Gott criterion and found that that is in agreement with the simulations.

  9. Sexy ladies sexing ladies: women as consumers in strip clubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wosick-Correa, Kassia R; Joseph, Lauren J

    2008-01-01

    Recent shifts in the consumer base of the sex industry have involved greater female attendance in strip clubs. This article examines how strip clubs and dancers incorporate female patrons into a sexualized space traditionally designed for men by identifying three interactional processes: passing over, sidestaging, and tailoring. We suggest dancers pass over women because they perceive female patron behavior to include resistance to "buying the game" and spending patterns that diverge from male customers. Drawing on Goffman's dramaturgical analysis, we suggest the dynamic relationship between dancer and female patron involves what we term sidestaging, which refers to both dancers' disclosure and how the club's spatial organization inhibits the construction of women as customers through sharing gendered spaces, such as the bathroom. We argue that when a dancer tailors her lap dance for a female patron, she succeeds in acknowledging the female customer's sexual subjectivity and potential same-sex desires by providing an individualized avenue for exploring an erotic experience. Finally, we discuss data implications for understanding how same-sex desire and sexual identity operate in an environment that eroticizes the female form, and how the strip club becomes a potential space for engaging in same-sex eroticism that includes elements of play.

  10. Stripping voltammetry in environmental and food analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainina, K Z; Malakhova, N A; Stojko, N Y

    2000-10-01

    The review covers over 230 papers published mostly in the last 5 years. The goal of the review is to attract the attention of researchers and users to stripping voltammetry in particular, its application in environmental monitoring and analysis of foodstuffs. The sensors employed are impregnated graphite, carbon paste, thick film carbon/graphite and thin film metallic electrodes modified in-situ or beforehand. Hanging mercury drop electrodes and mercury coated glassy carbon electrodes are also mentioned. Strip and long-lived sensors for portable instruments and flow through systems are discussed as devices for future development and application of stripping voltammetry.

  11. Hardness of approximation for strip packing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adamaszek, Anna Maria; Kociumaka, Tomasz; Pilipczuk, Marcin

    2017-01-01

    Strip packing is a classical packing problem, where the goal is to pack a set of rectangular objects into a strip of a given width, while minimizing the total height of the packing. The problem has multiple applications, for example, in scheduling and stock-cutting, and has been studied extensively......)-approximation by two independent research groups [FSTTCS 2016,WALCOM 2017]. This raises a questionwhether strip packing with polynomially bounded input data admits a quasi-polynomial time approximation scheme, as is the case for related twodimensional packing problems like maximum independent set of rectangles or two...

  12. Impact of the Superpave hot mix asphalt properties on its permanent deformation behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qasim Zahra

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In Iraq, the severity of rutting has increased in asphalt pavements possibly due to the increase in truck axle loads, tyre pressure, and high pavement temperature in summer. As of late, Superpave has been accounted as an enhanced system for performance based design, analysis of asphalt pavement performance prediction for asphalt concrete mixes. In this research the development of permanent deformation in asphalt concrete under repeated loadings was investigated, Wheel-Tracking apparatus has been used in a factorial testing program during which 44 slab samples were tested to simulate actual pavement. The objectives of the present research include; investigating the main factors affecting rutting in asphalt concrete mixture, quantifying the effect of SBS polymer and steel reinforcement on asphalt concrete mixtures in addition to studying the effect of variables on the asphalt concrete mixes against moisture sensitivity. It has been determined that that increasing of compaction temperature from 110 to 150°C will decrease the permanent deformation by 20.5 and 15.6 percent for coarse and fine gradation control asphalt mixtures, respectively. While the permanent deformation decreases by 21.3 percent when the compaction temperature is increased from 110 to 150°C for coarse gradation SBS modified asphalt mixtures.

  13. Investigation of the Physical and Molecular Properties of Asphalt Binders Processed with Used Motor Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohyeldin Ragab

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we investigated the performance aspects of addition of used motor oils (UMO to neat and crumb rubber modified asphalts (CRMA and related that to the change of molecular size distribution of modified asphalt’s fractions; asphaltenes, saturates, naphthene aromatics, and polar aromatics. Based on the results of temperature sweep viscoelastic tests, addition of crumb rubber modifier (CRM alone or with UMO results in the formation of internal network within the modified asphalt. Based on the results of short and long term aged asphalts, the utilization of combination of UMO and CRM enhanced the aging behavior of asphalt. Bending beam rheometer was utilized to investigate the low temperature behavior of UMO modified asphalts. Based on those tests, the utilization of the UMO and CRM enhanced the low temperature properties of asphalts. Based on the results of the asphalt separation tests and the Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC analysis, it was found that saturates and naphthene aromatics are the two asphalt fractions that have similar molecular size fractions as those of UMO. However, UMO only shifts the molecular sizes of saturates after interaction with asphalt. Results also show that polar aromatics pose higher molecular size structures than UMO.

  14. The Variation Test and Extraction Equipment to Optimum Asphalt by Using Gasoline Solvent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soehardi, Fitridawati

    2017-12-01

    Based on the Binamarga Specification 2010 at third revision, the extraction test should be carried out using the specimen from the loose asphalt mixture extracted from the back of the finisher bitumen machine. The purpose of this research is to find out the result of pretest and posttest extraction asphalt content. The Extraction test using two equipment, they are Soklet and Centrifuge. The specimens was used AMP, Asphalt Finisher and Core, which involved gasoline solvent. Based on the asphalt level extraction test results, the appropriate equipment was used centrifuge with the level accuracy as requirement of Binamarga Specification 2010 at third revision and the level of ease used as equipment in the field study. The asphalt content obtained for AMP 5,51%, Asphalt Finisher5,46% and Core 5.34%. As for the socket asphalt content obtained is AMP 5.55%, Asphalt Finisher 5.50% and Core core 5. 41%. The extract test value of asphalt content decreased, so it can be formulated KA JMF value of Job mix used was 5.56% with the tolerance given according to Binamarga Specification 2010 at third revision is ± 0.30%. In accordance with the results obtained then the results of a centrifuge tool that matches and meets the requirements of time, accuracy of results and economic value.

  15. Application of minerals residues in the asphalt composition; Aplicacao de residuos minerais na composicao do asfalto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Roberto Carlos da C.; Seidl, Peter Rudolf [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica; Correia, Julio Cesar Guedes [Centro de Tecnologia Mineral - CETEM, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The performance of asphalt pavements depends mainly on the properties of their constituents: mineral aggregates and asphalt cement. The mineral aggregate represents about 95% in weight of asphalt mixtures having a significant influence on the properties and performance of these mixtures. Asphalt cement (CAP) corresponds to the smaller fraction but it is mainly responsible for adsorption on the mineral aggregates. The objective of this study was to evaluate the interaction between different CAPs with residues from granite saw wills in place of mineral aggregates that run up costs with extraction and processing in asphalt production. This way asphalt production costs as well as the environmental problems that are caused by mineral residue are reduced. Five different asphalt cements, referred to as A, B, C, D and E, and a granite residue were used in this work. The results indicated that the residue strongly absorbs all the CAPs that were studied; particularly CAP A, which is considered the most adequate for the production of asphalt from this residue. Preliminary tests this indicate that asphalt production can use mineral residues instead of mineral aggregates in its composition. (author)

  16. Investigation on the temperature of the asphalt-concrete facing of embankment dams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Adam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Asphalt concrete is a traditional material used for the constructions of upstream sealing of reservoir dams, particularly in upper reservoirs of pumped storage hydroelectric plants. The asphalt layer is often exposed to significant fluctuations of temperature caused, for example, by heating the facing from the sun and by its subsequent rapid cooling by water during reservoir periodical filling. To better understand the physical phenomena and behaviour of the facing in terms of vapour diffusion, the state of stress, etc., it is necessary to know temperature phenomena in the asphalt facing. This paper describes the measurement of temperature in the asphalt facing of the Dlouhe Strane pumped storage hydroelectric plant and its evaluation using 1D numerical model of heat flow in the asphalt concrete facing. Numerical simulation for selected load scenarios enabled the temperature phenomena that take place in the construction of the asphalt-concrete facing to be quantified. The analysis shows that during insolation, the asphalt facing is exposed to the significant temperature rise on its surface and also over its whole thickness. Similarly during frost weather the facing becomes frozen in its entire thickness. During the day cycle the temperature in the asphalt layers changes significantly. However, the temperature in the underlying rockfill dam body becomes steady approximately at the depth of 1.0 m. Keywords: Asphalt concrete facing, Temperature distribution analysis, Embankment dam

  17. Laboratory Study on the Fatigue Resistance of Asphaltic Concrete Containing Titanium Dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buhari Rosnawati

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the fatigue performance of modified asphalt mixture using Indirect Tensile Fatigue Test. Titanium Dioxide (TiO2 powder in a form of rutile was used for producing asphalt concrete with lower mixing and compaction temperature compared to conventional hot mix asphalt without reducing its physical and mechanical also resistance to fatigue. The characteristic of the asphalt and modified asphalt was evaluated using penetration test, softening test and rotational viscosity test. Titanium dioxide of 2%, 4%, 6%, 8% and 10% by weight of asphalt has been incorporated into unaged 80/100 asphalt mix in order to improvise its performance and to fulfill the objectives of this experimental study. As a result, TiO2 as an additive is potential to decrease the penetration and increasing the softening point of the asphalt. In terms of fatigue performance testing, addition TiO2 additive does help in improving the fatigue properties as it shows greater result than the control asphalt. In conclusion, TiO2 is great in improving fatigue properties.

  18. Laboratory Study on the Fatigue Resistance of Asphaltic Concrete Containing Titanium Dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhari, Rosnawati; Ezree Abdullah, Mohd; Khairul Ahmad, Mohd; Azhar Tajudin, Saiful; Khatijah Abu Bakar, Siti

    2018-03-01

    This study aims to evaluate the fatigue performance of modified asphalt mixture using Indirect Tensile Fatigue Test. Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) powder in a form of rutile was used for producing asphalt concrete with lower mixing and compaction temperature compared to conventional hot mix asphalt without reducing its physical and mechanical also resistance to fatigue. The characteristic of the asphalt and modified asphalt was evaluated using penetration test, softening test and rotational viscosity test. Titanium dioxide of 2%, 4%, 6%, 8% and 10% by weight of asphalt has been incorporated into unaged 80/100 asphalt mix in order to improvise its performance and to fulfill the objectives of this experimental study. As a result, TiO2 as an additive is potential to decrease the penetration and increasing the softening point of the asphalt. In terms of fatigue performance testing, addition TiO2 additive does help in improving the fatigue properties as it shows greater result than the control asphalt. In conclusion, TiO2 is great in improving fatigue properties.

  19. The Effect of SBS Polymer on the Dynamic Properties of Asphalt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Ziari

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Polymer application for the improvement and modification of the bitumen used in roads surfaces has expanded in recent decades. The roads engineers and constructors, therefore, have used the modified bitumen in asphalts helping in this way to increase roads and pavements service life and improving the durability of the roads and asphalts. The bitumen used in asphalt mixture constitutes only a low percentage of the weight of this mixture (between 4% and 6%, but even this small amount has a significant effect on asphalt performance. The polymers that are mostly used in promoting the bitumen specifications are polymer modifiers including: styrenebutadiene- styrene (SBS, as well as similar polymers such as styrene-butadiene-rubber (SBR, ethylene-vinylacetate (EVA and polyethylene (PE. Polymers as the most important family of bitumen modifiers are added to bitumen to improve bitumen performance and to increase its effectiveness. Among the existing polymers, SBS is considered as the best bitumen modifier. In this research, SBS as one of the elastomer-thermoplast modifiers was added in different weights (2%-5% to bitumen 60/70 in Isfahan Refinery and its effect on asphalt properties were investigated. Adding this polymer to bitumen improves the Marshall stability of sample asphalt, flow, module of rupture and asphalt content voids. However, it has a minor effect on asphalt special weight. Adding SBS would also lead to asphalt fatigue life.

  20. USE OF CRUMB RUBBER FROM USED CAR TIRES IN MINERAL ASPHALT MIXES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Plewa

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available With the development of the automotive industry the disposal of used tires is constantly growing problem. Storage of waste rubber is associated with a very long period of decomposition of rubber in the natural conditions. Simultaneously new technologies are developed every year, which in the future may significantly promote recycling of this type of materials. The crumb rubbery modification of the road bitumen is the one of the environmentally safe solutions of rubbery decomposition. Improvement of resistance of the crumb rubbery modification of the road asphalt mixtures is the very important ecological aspect of the future. The article presents the results of research on the fatigue life resistance of asphalt concretes AC16P and AC22P with asphalt-rubber binders. The above analyses have been based on the results of tests of fatigue life of mineral-rubber-asphalt mixes determined by the method of prismatic four-point bending (4PB-PR. Mineral-rubber -asphalt mixes have been diversified according to the amount of the additive of rubber fines in asphalt-rubber binder. On the basis of the test results have been proven improvements functional properties mineral-rubber-asphalt mixes compared with mineral-asphalt mixes with unmodified asphalt.

  1. Evaluation of rheological and thermic properties of neat and modified asphalt with a waste of LDPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Andrés Castro López

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The asphalt technology and modified asphalt mixtures has been widely used and studied, worldwide. Adding polymers to asphalt modifies mechanical, chemical and rheological properties, trying to improve behavior of the mixtures subjected to different environmental and load conditions. The paper report results from rheological and thermal characterization on conventional 60-70 asphalt cement and 60-70 asphalt cement modified by introducing a waste of low density polyethylene (LDPE. Method: Modification of the asphalt was performed by wet way in a proportion of LDPE/CA=5% with respect to the mass. Rheological (using DSR, Thermogravimetry (TGA and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC techniques were performed. Results and Conclusions: The modified asphalt develops a remarkable increase in stiffness and improvement of the performance grade at high temperatures of service. Additionally, the modified asphalt is more resistant to oxidation and aging processes due to heat. However, the asphalt modified showed a decrease in crack resistance at low and intermediate temperatures of service.

  2. Modification of Iraqi Asphalt 40/50 Properties Using Saw Dust (SD and Natural Rubber Latex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusul l M. Darwesh

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to enhance the fundamental properties for asphalt binder as those spec-ifications relate to performance of asphalt mixtures. In this paper studied the effect of add (2, 4 % SD in different sizes and (3, 5 and 7% Natural rubber latex to the straight asphalt 40/50 produced from Al-Dura refinery at 160C, it was added each additive separately and then added together to asphalt in same temperature, then tested physically and mechanically according to the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM, the result showed largely improvement.

  3. Experimental investigation of asphalt mixture containing Linz-Donawitz steel slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Groenniger

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Standard asphalt mixtures for road infrastructures consist of natural aggregate and bitumen. A number of research efforts have successfully investigated the possibility of replacing the conventional aggregate skeleton with industrial by-products such as slag originating from steel production process. However, little is known on the effect of steel slag on the mixtures performance properties such as resistance to low-temperature cracking and to permanent deformation, stiffness and fatigue. This paper presents a comprehensive investigation on the fundamental performance properties of different types of asphalt mixtures prepared with 100% LD slag aggregate and a conventional asphalt mixture containing natural Gabbro aggregate. Sophisticated testing methods were used to evaluate the key performance parameters for the set of asphalt mixtures investigated. In this study, low temperature cracking was addressed through thermal stress restrained specimen tests. Penetration tests and cyclic compression tests were used to evaluate the response of asphalt binder and asphalt mixture to permanent deformation due repeated loading, respectively. The cyclic indirect tensile test was selected for investigating both stiffness properties and fatigue resistance. For this purpose the complex stiffness modulus was measured to quantify material stiffness under different temperature and loading conditions providing information on the visco-elasto-plastic material behavior. Fatigue tests were used to determine the progressive and localized material damage caused by cyclic loading. The experimental results indicate that asphalt mixtures prepared with LD slag are suitable for asphalt pavement construction and that in most cases they perform better than conventional asphalt mixtures prepared with Gabbro aggregate.

  4. The Effect of Aging on the Cracking Resistance of Recycled Asphalt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Mohammadafzali

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fatigue cracking is an important concern when a high percentage of Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP is used in an asphalt mixture. The aging of the asphalt binder reduces its ductility and makes the pavement more susceptible to cracking. Rejuvenators are often added to high-RAP mixtures to enhance their performance. The aging of a rejuvenated binder is different from virgin asphalt. Therefore, the effect of aging on a recycled asphalt mixture can be different from its effect on a new one. This study evaluated the cracking resistance of 100% recycled asphalt binders and mixtures and investigated the effect of aging on this performance parameter. The cracking resistance of the binder samples was tested by a Bending Beam Rheometer. An accelerated pavement weathering system was used to age the asphalt mixtures and their cracking resistance was evaluated by the Texas Overlay Test. The results from binder and mixture tests mutually indicated that rejuvenated asphalt has a significantly better cracking resistance than virgin asphalt. Rejuvenated mixtures generally aged more rapidly, and the rate of aging was different for different rejuvenators.

  5. Spray rolling aluminum alloy strip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McHugh, Kevin M.; Delplanque, J.-P.; Johnson, S.B.; Lavernia, E.J.; Zhou, Y.; Lin, Y

    2004-10-10

    Spray rolling combines spray forming with twin-roll casting to process metal flat products. It consists of atomizing molten metal with a high velocity inert gas, cooling the resultant droplets in flight and directing the spray between mill rolls. In-flight convection heat transfer from atomized droplets teams with conductive cooling at the rolls to rapidly remove the alloy's latent heat. Hot deformation of the semi-solid material in the rolls results in fully consolidated, rapidly solidified product. While similar in some ways to twin-roll casting, spray rolling has the advantage of being able to process alloys with broad freezing ranges at high production rates. This paper describes the process and summarizes microstructure and tensile properties of spray-rolled 2124 and 7050 aluminum alloy strips. A Lagrangian/Eulerian poly-dispersed spray flight and deposition model is described that provides some insight into the development of the spray rolling process. This spray model follows droplets during flight toward the rolls, through impact and spreading, and includes oxide film formation and breakup when relevant.

  6. The Panda Strip Asic: Pasta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, A.

    2018-01-01

    PASTA is the 64 channel front-end chip, designed in a 110 nm CMOS technology to read out the strip sensors of the Micro Vertex Detector (MVD) of the PANDA experiment. This chip provides high resolution timestamp and deposited charge information by means of the time-over-threshold technique. Its working principle is based on a predecessor, the TOFPET ASIC, that was designed for medical applications. A general restructuring of the architecture was needed, in order to meet the specific requirements imposed by the physics programme of PANDA, especially in terms of radiation tolerance, spatial constraints, and readout in absence of a first level hardware trigger. The first revision of PASTA is currently under evaluation at the Forschungszentrum Jülich, where a data acquisition system dedicated to the MVD prototypes has been developed. This paper describes the main aspect of the chip design, gives an overview of the data acquisition system used for the verification, and shows the first results regarding the performance of PASTA.

  7. Dynamic underground stripping demonstration project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newmark, R.L.

    1992-04-01

    LLNL is collaborating with the UC Berkeley College of Engineering to develop and demonstrate a system of thermal remediation techniques for rapid cleanup of localized underground spills. Called dynamic stripping to reflect the rapid and controllable nature of the process, it will combine steam injection, direct electrical heating, and tomographic geophysical imaging in a cleanup of the LLNL gasoline spill. In the first eight months of the project, a Clean Site engineering test was conducted to prove the field application of the techniques. Tests then began on the contaminated site in FY 1992. This report describes the work at the Clean Site, including design and performance criteria, test results, interpretations, and conclusions. We fielded 'a wide range of new designs and techniques, some successful and some not. In this document, we focus on results and performance, lessons learned, and design and operational changes recommended for work at the contaminated site. Each section focuses on a different aspect of the work and can be considered a self-contained contribution

  8. 10CFR61 waste form conformance program for asphalted radwaste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobran, M.J.; Guarini, W.J.

    1987-01-01

    With the enactment of Title 10, Code of Federal Regulation, Part 61, ''Licensing Requirements for Land Disposal of Radioactive Waste'' came the imposition of new requirements on licensees who dispose of radioactive waste via shallow land burial. Specifically, 10CFR61 both imposed a waste classification system requiring segregation of waste according to hazard and established waste performance characteristics required to enhance stability of the burial site. In order to provide licensees with guidance regarding implementation of applicable requirements of 10CFR61, the NRC low level Waste Licensing Branch issued two Technical Positions. To demonstrate compliance of asphalted radwaste produced with oxidized asphalt with 10CFR61 criteria and the NRC's Technical Position, five utilities combined resources. The five utilities sponsoring the program were Public Service Electric and Gas Company, Niagara Mohawk Power Company, Detroit Edison Company, New Hampshire Yankee, and Consumers Power Comany

  9. Decontamination by shotblasting of radioactivity deposited on an asphalt road

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warming, L.

    1987-01-01

    Long-lived fission products may be deposited in the environment after a serious reactor accident. From previous experiments it is known that if firehosing is to be used for decontamination it has to be done soon after the deposition. It is therefore worthwhile to study another decontamination method. An experimental study has been conducted of how well shotblasting can remove contamination from an asphalt road. In shotblasting a thin layer of the surface is loosened by the impact of small steel balls, and in the same procedure the surface dust is vacuumed up and the steel balls recovered. The contaminant was 86 Rb, which behaves as caesium. As reference, the weathering of identical contamination on an asphalt road, a concrete road and a road covered with small concrete stones was studied concurrently. (author)

  10. Effects of laboratory heating, cyclic pore pressure, and cyclic loading on fracture properties of asphalt mixture [summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Asphalt pavement ages continuously, beginning with production and construction and thoughout its service life. "Aging" refers to many changes in asphalt properties over time that generally result in increased pavement damage. Because aging is often a...

  11. Quality of bitumens in asphalt hot-mixes with emphasis on the durability of constructed premix surfacings.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Assen, EJ

    1992-08-01

    Full Text Available time. Asphalt technologists' ultimate quest is for performance-related specifications that will ensure the procurement of quality bitumens which could produce asphalts with desirable performance during construction, and which will resist physical...

  12. Rutting resistance of asphalt mixture with cup lumps modified binder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffie, E.; Hanif, W. M. M. Wan; Arshad, A. K.; Hashim, W.

    2017-11-01

    Rutting is the most common pavement distress in pavement structures which occurs mainly due to several factors such as increasing of traffic volume, climatic conditions and also due to construction design errors. This failure reduced the service life of the pavement, reduced driver safety and increase cost of maintenance. Polymer Modified Binder has been observed for a long time in improving asphalt pavement performance. Research shows that the use of polymer in bituminous mix not only improve the resistance to rutting but also increase the life span of the pavement. This research evaluates the physical properties and rutting performance of dense graded Superpave-designed HMA mix. Two different types of dense graded Superpave HMA mix were developed consists of unmodified binder mix (UMB) and cup lumps rubber (liquid form) modified binder mix (CLMB). Natural rubber polymer modified binder was prepared from addition of 8 percent of cup lumps into binder. Results showed that all the mixes passed the Superpave volumetric properties criteria which indicate that these mixtures were good with respect to durability and flexibility. Furthermore, rutting results from APA rutting test was determined to evaluate the performance of these mixtures. The rutting result of CLMB demonstrates better resistance to rutting than those prepared using UMB mix. Addition of cup lumps rubber in asphalt mixture was found to be significant, where the cup lumps rubber has certainly improves the binder properties and enhanced its rutting resistance due to greater elasticity offered by the cup lumps rubber particles. It shows that the use of cup lumps rubber can significantly reduce the rut depth of asphalt mixture by 41% compared to the minimum rut depth obtained for the UMB mix. Therefore, it can be concluded that the cup lumps rubber is suitable to be used as a modifier to modified binder in order to enhance the properties of the binder and thus improves the performance of asphalt mixes.

  13. Moisture damage susceptibility of asphalt mixtures: Experimental characterization and modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Varveri, A.

    2017-01-01

    A well-functioning, long-lasting and safe highway infrastructure network ensures the mobility of people and facilitates the transport of goods, promoting thus environmental, economic, and social sustainability. The development of sustainable highway infrastructure requires, among other activities, the construction of pavement systems with enhanced durability. Moisture damage in asphalt pavements is associated with inferior performance, unexpected failures and reduced service life. All of thes...

  14. Recycling of rubber tires in asphalt paving materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piggott, M.R.; Woodhams, R.T.

    1979-01-01

    It has been known that the addition of rubber to asphalt used in paving will produced markedly superior road surfaces. Partly because of cost and because of the nonconventional paving techniques necessary, rubber has been largely ignored as a practical paving additive except in special cases. However, the large accumulation of old tires existing today provides a ready source for suitable rubber. If ground into a fine powder, this rubber can be mixed in a conventional pug mill along with sand, stone and asphalt to produce a hot mix which can be aplied in the normal manner without any special techniques. The extra cost of such modification is only 1% of a typical paving contract, whereas the advantages include lower maintenance cost, more durable road surface, and elimination of unwanted waste tires. This report has been prepared to assist civic and other authorities in the development of improved road surfacing formulations through the reuse of old tires. It includes the results of paving trials in Toronto and laboratory evaluations. These tests show that the addition of powdered rubber to asphalt paving materials markedly improves the durability and crack resistance, particularly at low temperatures. Additives in the rubber impart good strength retention in the presence of moisture. The toughness increases with age due to a slow interaction of the rubber with the asphalt which is accompanied by an increase in viscosity. As a result, performance is also enhanced at high temperatures and helps to minimize pavement distortions due to hot weather and traffic. 16 refs., 18 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Evaluation of Different Mineral Filler Aggregates for Asphalt Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasilewska, Marta; Małaszkiewicz, Dorota; Ignatiuk, Natalia

    2017-10-01

    Mineral filler aggregates play an important role in asphalt mixtures because they fill voids in paving mix and improve the cohesion of asphalt binder. Limestone powder containing over 90% of CaCO3 is the most frequently used type of filler. Waste material from the production of coarse aggregate can be successfully used as a mineral filler aggregate for hot asphalt concrete mixtures as the limestone powder replacement. This paper presents the experimental results of selected properties of filler aggregates which were obtained from rocks with different mineral composition and origin. Five types of rocks were used as a source of the mineral filler aggregate: granite, gabbro, trachybasalt, quartz sandstone and rocks from postglacial deposits. Limestone filler was used in this study as the reference material. The following tests were performed: grading (air jet sieving), quality of fines according to methylene blue test, water content by drying in a ventilated oven, particle density using pyknometer method, Delta ring and ball test, Bitumen Number, fineness determined as Blaine specific surface area. Mineral filler aggregates showed significant differences when they were mixed with bitumen and stiffening effect in Delta ring and ball test was evaluated. The highest values were achieved when gabbro and granite fillers were used. Additionally, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analysis of grain shape and size was carried out. Significant differences in grain size and shape were observed. The highest non-homogeneity in size was determined for quartz sandstone, gabbro and granite filler. Their Blaine specific surface area was lower than 2800 cm2/g, while for limestone and postglacial fillers with regular and round grains it exceeded 3000 cm2/g. All examined mineral filler aggregates met requirements of Polish National Specification WT-1: 2014 and could be used in asphalt mixtures.

  16. Comparative limnology of strip-mine lakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parsons, J D

    1964-01-01

    Lakes were classified according to chemical properties. The concentration of the ferric iron oxides was responsible for a reddish-black turbidity which, in turn, played a major role in the thermal stratification of red strip-mine lakes. Owing to the lack of measurable turbidity and as a result of selective absorption of visible solar radiation, other strip-mine lakes appeared blue in color. The annual heat budget and the summer heat budget are essentially equivalent under saline conditions. Regardless of the physical and chemical conditions of the strip-mine lakes, heat income was a function of the circulating water mass. The progressive oxidation and precipitation of the iron oxides is the key to the classification of strip-mine lakes.

  17. Buffer Strips for Riparian Zone Management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1991-01-01

    This study provides a review of technical literature concerning the width of riparian buffer strips needed to protect water quality and maintain other important values provided by riparian ecosystem...

  18. INJECTION CARBON STRIPPING FOIL ISSUES IN THE SNS ACCUMULATOR RING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BEEBE-WANG, J.; LEE, Y.Y.; RAPARIA, D.; WEI, J.

    2001-01-01

    We are reporting the results of studies on issues related to the injection stripping foil in the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) accumulator ring. The problems related to foil heating and foil lifetime, such as current density distribution and temperature distribution in the foil, are investigated. The impact of injection errors on the beam losses at the foil is studied. The particle traversal rate and the beam losses due to scattering in the foil are summarized. Finally, SNS end-to-end simulation results of the foil-missing rate, the foil-hitting rate and the maximum foil temperature are presented

  19. Deuteron stripping reactions using dirac phenomenology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawk, E. A.; McNeil, J. A.

    2001-04-01

    In this work deuteron stripping reactions are studied using the distorted wave born approximation employing dirac phenomenological potentials. In 1982 Shepard and Rost performed zero-range dirac phenomenological stripping calculations and found a dramatic reduction in the predicted cross sections when compared with similar nonrelativistic calculations. We extend the earlier work by including full finite range effects as well as the deuteron's internal D-state. Results will be compared with traditional nonrelativistic approaches and experimental data at low energy.

  20. Flexible strip supercapacitors for future energy storage

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, R-R; Xu, Y-M; Harrison, D; Fyson, J; Qiu, F-L; Southee, D

    2015-01-01

    Flexible strip supercapacitors are developed and their electrochemical properties are characterized. Activated carbon is used as the electrode material and it is found to have a good porous structure which provides a large surface area for energy storage. Furthermore, this activated carbon performs well. The manufacturing processes for the supercapacitors are described in detail and the preparation process has good reproducibility. The strip supercapacitors are combined in series and parallel...

  1. The charge collection in silicon strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehringer, T.; Hubbeling, L.; Weilhammer, P.; Kemmer, J.; Koetz, U.; Riebesell, M.; Belau, E.; Klanner, R.; Lutz, G.; Neugebauer, E.; Seebrunner, H.J.; Wylie, A.

    1983-02-01

    The charge collection in silicon detectors has been studied, by measuring the response to high-energy particles of a 20μm pitch strip detector as a function of applied voltage and magnetic field. The results are well described by a simple model. The model is used to predict the spatial resolution of silicon strip detectors and to propose a detector with optimized spatial resolution. (orig.)

  2. LYCORIS - A Large Area Strip Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Krämer, U; Stanitzki, M; Wu, M

    2018-01-01

    The LYCORIS Large Area Silicon Strip Telescope for the DESY II Test Beam Facility is presented. The DESY II Test Beam Facility provides elec- tron and positron beams for beam tests of up to 6 GeV. A new telescope with a large 10 × 20 cm2 coverage area based on a 25 μm pitch strip sensor is to be installed within the PCMAG 1 T solenoid. The current state of the system is presented.

  3. Prediction of Asphalt Creep Compliance Using Artificial Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zofka A.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Creep compliance of the hot-mix asphalt (HMA is a primary input of the pavement thermal cracking prediction model in the recently developed Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide (M-EPDG in the US. The HMA creep compliance is typically determined from the Indirect Tension (IDT tests and requires complex experimental setup. On the other hand, creep compliance of asphalt binders is determined from a relatively simple three- point bending test performed in the Bending Beam Rheometer (BBR device. This paper discusses a process of training an Artificial Neural Network (ANN to correlate the creep compliance values obtained from the IDT with those from an innovative approach of testing HMA beams in the BBR. In addition, ANNs are also trained to predict HMA creep compliance from the creep compliance of asphalt binder and vice versa using the BBR setup. All trained ANNs exhibited a very high correlation of 97 to 99 percent between predicted and measured values. The binder creep compliance curves built on the ANN-predicted values also exhibited good correlation with those obtained from laboratory experiments. However, the simulation of trained ANNs on the independent dataset produced a significant deviation from the expected values which was most likely caused by the differences in material composition, such as aggregate type and gradation, presence of recycled additives, and binder type.

  4. Microstructural and rheological analysis of fillers and asphalt mastics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geber, R; Simon, A; Kocserha, I; Buzimov, A

    2017-01-01

    Pavements are made of different grades of mineral aggregates and organic binder. The aggregates are sorted in different sizes and different amount which are mixed together with bitumen. The finest mineral fraction (d<0.063 mm) is called filler. This component has an important role in asphalt mixture - it fills the gaps between the aggregates and if mixed with bitumen (which is called asphalt mastics) it sticks the larger particles together. Particle size, microstructure and surface properties of fillers highly affect the cohesion with bitumen, therefore the aim of our research was to investigate the microstructure of mineral fillers (limestone, dolomite) which are used in Hungarian road constructions with the use of different techniques (particle size distribution, scanning electronmicroscopy tests, mercury intrusion porosimetry, BET specific surface tests, determination of hydrophobicity). After the tests of fillers, asphalt mastics were prepared and rheological examinations were obtained. These examinations served to observe the interaction and the effect of fillers. The stiffening effect of fillers and the causes of rutting were also investigated. Based on our results, it can be stated that particle size, hydrophobic properties and the amount of fillers highly affect the rheological properties of mastics. (paper)

  5. Evaluation of Colemanite Waste as Aggregate Hot Mix Asphalt Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihat MOROVA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study usability of waste colemanite which is obtained after cutting block colemanite for giving proper shape to blocks as an aggregate in hot mix asphalt. For this aim asphalt concrete samples were prepared with four different aggregate groups and optimum bitumen content was determined. First of all only limestone was used as an aggregate. After that, only colemanite aggregate was used with same aggregate gradation. Then, the next step of the study, Marshall samples were produced by changing coarse and fine aggregate gradation as limestone and colemanite and Marshall test were conducted. When evaluated the results samples which produced with only limestone aggregate gave the maximum Marshall Stability value. When handled other mixture groups (Only colemanite, colemanite as coarse aggregate-limestone as fine aggregate, colemanite as fine aggregate-limestone as coarse aggregate all groups were verified specification limits. As a result, especially in areas where there is widespread colemanite waste, if transportation costs did not exceed the cost of limestone, colemanite stone waste could be used instead of limestone in asphalt concrete mixtures as fine aggregate

  6. Representative volume element of asphalt pavement for electromagnetic measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terhi Pellinen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The motivation for this study was to investigate the representative volume element (RVE needed to correlate the nondestructive electromagnetic (EM measurements with the conventional destructive asphalt pavement quality control measurements. A large pavement rehabilitation contract was used as the test site for the experiment. Pavement cores were drilled from the same locations where the stationary and continuous Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR measurements were obtained. Laboratory measurements included testing the bulk density of cores using two methods, the surface-saturated dry method and determining bulk density by dimensions. Also, Vector Network Analyzer (VNA and the through specimen transmission configuration were employed at microwave frequencies to measure the reference dielectric constant of cores using two different footprint areas and therefore volume elements. The RVE for EM measurements turns out to be frequency dependent; therefore in addition to being dependent on asphalt mixture type and method of obtaining bulk density, it is dependent on the resolution of the EM method used. Then, although the average bulk property results agreed with theoretical formulations of higher core air void content giving a lower dielectric constant, for the individual cores there was no correlation for the VNA measurements because the volume element seizes deviated. Similarly, GPR technique was unable to capture the spatial variation of pavement air voids measured from the 150-mm drill cores. More research is needed to determine the usable RVE for asphalt.

  7. Quantitative comparison of 3 enamel-stripping devices in vitro: how precisely can we strip teeth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johner, Alexander Marc; Pandis, Nikolaos; Dudic, Alexander; Kiliaridis, Stavros

    2013-04-01

    In this in-vitro study, we aimed to investigate the predictability of the expected amount of stripping using 3 common stripping devices on premolars. One hundred eighty extracted premolars were mounted and aligned in silicone. Tooth mobility was tested with Periotest (Medizintechnik Gulden, Modautal, Germany) (8.3 ± 2.8 units). The selected methods for interproximal enamel reduction were hand-pulled strips (Horico, Hapf Ringleb & Company, Berlin, Germany), oscillating segmental disks (O-drive-OD 30; KaVo Dental, Biberach, Germany), and motor-driven abrasive strips (Orthofile; SDC Switzerland, Lugano-Grancia, Switzerland). With each device, the operator intended to strip 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, or 0.4 mm on the mesial side of 15 teeth. The teeth were scanned before and after stripping with a 3-dimensional laser scanner. Superposition and measurement of stripped enamel on the most mesial point of the tooth were conducted with Viewbox software (dHal Software, Kifissia, Greece). The Wilcoxon signed rank test and the Kruskal-Wallis test were applied; statistical significance was set at alpha ≤ 0.05. Large variations between the intended and the actual amounts of stripped enamel, and between stripping procedures, were observed. Significant differences were found at 0.1 mm of intended stripping (P ≤ 0.05) for the hand-pulled method and at 0.4 mm of intended stripping (P ≤ 0.001 to P = 0.05) for all methods. For all scenarios of enamel reduction, the actual amount of stripping was less than the predetermined and expected amount of stripping. The Kruskal-Wallis analysis showed no significant differences between the 3 methods. There were variations in the stripped amounts of enamel, and the stripping technique did not appear to be a significant predictor of the actual amount of enamel reduction. In most cases, actual stripping was less than the intended amount of enamel reduction. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights

  8. Study of normal and shear material properties for viscoelastic model of asphalt mixture by discrete element method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Huan; Pettinari, Matteo; Stang, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the viscoelastic behavior of asphalt mixture was studied by using discrete element method. The dynamic properties of asphalt mixture were captured by implementing Burger’s contact model. Different ways of taking into account of the normal and shear material properties of asphalt mi...

  9. A Comparative Life Cycle Assessment of Hot Mixes Asphalt Containing Bituminous Binder Modified with Waste and Virgin Polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oliveira dos Santos, Joao Miguel; Cerezo, Veronique; Soudani, Khedoudja; Bressi, Sara

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a life cycle assessment undertaken to compare the potential environmental impacts associated with the use of asphalt surface mixtures produced with polymer modified bitumen with those of a conventional asphalt surface mixture. Seven types of hot mix asphalt

  10. Modelling of Asphalt Concrete Stiffness in the Linear Viscoelastic Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurek, Grzegorz; Iwański, Marek

    2017-10-01

    Stiffness modulus is a fundamental parameter used in the modelling of the viscoelastic behaviour of bituminous mixtures. On the basis of the master curve in the linear viscoelasticity range, the mechanical properties of asphalt concrete at different loading times and temperatures can be predicted. This paper discusses the construction of master curves under rheological mathematical models i.e. the sigmoidal function model (MEPDG), the fractional model, and Bahia and co-workers’ model in comparison to the results from mechanistic rheological models i.e. the generalized Huet-Sayegh model, the generalized Maxwell model and the Burgers model. For the purposes of this analysis, the reference asphalt concrete mix (denoted as AC16W) intended for the binder coarse layer and for traffic category KR3 (5×105 controlled strain mode. The fixed strain level was set at 25με to guarantee that the stiffness modulus of the asphalt concrete would be tested in a linear viscoelasticity range. The master curve was formed using the time-temperature superposition principle (TTSP). The stiffness modulus of asphalt concrete was determined at temperatures 10°C, 20°C and 40°C and at loading times (frequency) of 0.1, 0.3, 1, 3, 10, 20 Hz. The model parameters were fitted to the rheological models using the original programs based on the nonlinear least squares sum method. All the rheological models under analysis were found to be capable of predicting changes in the stiffness modulus of the reference asphalt concrete to satisfactory accuracy. In the cases of the fractional model and the generalized Maxwell model, their accuracy depends on a number of elements in series. The best fit was registered for Bahia and co-workers model, generalized Maxwell model and fractional model. As for predicting the phase angle parameter, the largest discrepancies between experimental and modelled results were obtained using the fractional model. Except the Burgers model, the model matching quality was

  11. Asphalt Pavement Aging and Temperature Dependent Properties Using Functionally Graded Viscoelastic Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Eshan V.

    2009-01-01

    Asphalt concrete pavements are inherently graded viscoelastic structures. Oxidative aging of asphalt binder and temperature cycling due to climatic conditions being the major cause of non-homogeneity. Current pavement analysis and simulation procedures dwell on the use of layered approach to account for these non-homogeneities. The conventional…

  12. Influence of limestone fillers on combustion characteristics of asphalt mortar for pavements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ke, Wu; Kai, Zhu; Wu, Hao

    2014-01-01

    Asphalt materials will be ignited and release significant toxic fumes within tunnel fires. Thus, combustion characteristics of asphalt materials used in road tunnel should be studied in order to limit such an adverse effect. In the present work we study the influence of limestone fillers on combu...

  13. Engineering characterisation of epoxidized natural rubber-modified hot-mix asphalt.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramez A Al-Mansob

    Full Text Available Road distress results in high maintenance costs. However, increased understandings of asphalt behaviour and properties coupled with technological developments have allowed paving technologists to examine the benefits of introducing additives and modifiers. As a result, polymers have become extremely popular as modifiers to improve the performance of the asphalt mix. This study investigates the performance characteristics of epoxidized natural rubber (ENR-modified hot-mix asphalt. Tests were conducted using ENR-asphalt mixes prepared using the wet process. Mechanical testing on the ENR-asphalt mixes showed that the resilient modulus of the mixes was greatly affected by testing temperature and frequency. On the other hand, although rutting performance decreased at high temperatures because of the increased elasticity of the ENR-asphalt mixes, fatigue performance improved at intermediate temperatures as compared to the base mix. However, durability tests indicated that the ENR-asphalt mixes were slightly susceptible to the presence of moisture. In conclusion, the performance of asphalt pavement can be enhanced by incorporating ENR as a modifier to counter major road distress.

  14. Influence of superplasticizer on the rheology of fresh cement asphalt paste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianwei Peng

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cement asphalt (CA paste is an organic–inorganic composite material of cement and asphalt emulsion. Its complicated rheological behavior affects its site application in high speed railway. Superplasticizers (SPs are usually used to improve the construction properties of fresh CA mortar. However, the principle of SPs acting on the rheology of CA paste is seldom studied. In this paper, the effects of polycarboxylate (PCA and naphthalenesulfonate (PNS on the rheological properties of CA pastes, asphalt emulsions (both anionic and cationic and cement pastes were studied, respectively from the viewpoint of adsorption and zeta potential. Centrifugation method was used to determine the adsorption of asphalt onto cement particle, electroacoustic method was employed to study the zeta potential of cement particles of concentrated paste, and optical microscopy was used to observe the dispersion of particles. The results suggest that both PCA and PNS can decrease the yield stress and apparent viscosity of CA pastes. The effect of SPs on the rheology of CA paste can be explained by two reasons. First, PNS can adsorb on both asphalt and cement surface, change the zeta potential and then decrease their yield stress and viscosity, while PCA only adsorb on cement surface. Second, the competitive adsorption of SPs and asphalt prevents asphalt from adsorbing on cement surface and then more asphalt droplets are released into aqueous solution, thereby enhancing the particle dispersion.

  15. Volumetric Analysis and Performance of Hot Mix Asphalt with Variable Rap Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshad Ahmad Kamil

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Incorporating Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP to the asphalt concrete mixture for highway construction offer many benefits including energy consumption, conservation of natural resources and preservation of the environment to associated emissions. This paper presents a study on performance of Hot Mix Asphalt with variable RAP content. The study is carried out to evaluate the Marshall Properties and Performance of RAP-Asphalt mixes using conventional asphaltic concrete mix AC14. Marshall Mix Design Method was used to produce control mix (0% RAP and RAP-Asphalt mixes samples which consist of 15% RAP, 25% RAP and 35% RAP in accordance with Specifications for Road Works of Public Works Department, Malaysia. The Marshall Properties analysis was performed to ensure compliance with Marshall Requirements, The resilient modulus test was performed to measure the stiffness of the mixes while Modified Lottman test was conducted to evaluate the moisture susceptibility of these mixes. The results obtained showed that there were no substantial difference in Marshall Properties, moisture susceptibility and indirect tensile strength between RAP-Asphalt mixes with the control mix. The test results indicated that recycled mixes performed as good as the performance of conventional HMA in terms of moisture susceptibility and resilient modulus. It is recommended that further research be carried out for asphalt mixes containing more than 35% of RAP material.

  16. On the combined effect of moisture diffusion and cyclic pore pressure generation in asphalt concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Varveri, A.; Scarpas, A.; Collop, A.; Erkens, S.M.J.G.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a new moisture conditioning protocol which attempts to distinguish the contributions of long- and short-term moisture damage, i.e. moisture diffusion and cyclic pore pressure generation, in asphalt mixtures is presented. The capability of the proposed protocol to rank various asphalt

  17. Preparation and Properties of Asphalt Binders Modified by THFS Extracted From Direct Coal Liquefaction Residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Ji

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to study the preparation and viscoelastic properties of asphalt binder modified by tetrahydrofuran soluble fraction (THFS extracted from direct coal liquefaction residue. The modified asphalt binders, which blended with SK-90 (control asphalt binder and 4%, 6%, 8% and 10% THFS (by weight of SK-90, were fabricated. The preparation process for asphalt binder was optimized in terms of the orthogonal array test strategy and gray correlation analysis results. The properties of asphalt binder were measured by applying Penetration performance grade and Superpave performance grade specifications. In addition, the temperature step and frequency sweep test in Dynamic Shear Rheometer were conducted to predict the rheological behavior, temperature and frequency susceptibility of asphalt binder. The test results suggested the optimal preparation process, such as 150 °C shearing temperature, 45 min shearing time and 4000 rpm shearing rate. Subsequently, the addition of THFS was beneficial in increasing the high-temperature properties but decreased the low-temperature properties and resistance to fatigue. The content analysis of THFS showed the percentage of 4~6% achieved a balance in the high-and-low temperature properties of asphalt binder. The asphalt binder with higher THFS content exhibited higher resistance to rutting and less sensitivity to frequency and temperature.

  18. Performance characterizations of asphalt binders and mixtures incorporating silane additive ZycoTherm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Mohd Rosli Mohd; Hamzah, Meor Othman; Yee, Teh Sek

    2017-10-01

    Experimental works were conducted to evaluate the properties of asphalt binders and mixtures produced using a relatively new silane additive, named ZycoTherm. In this study, 0.1wt% ZycoTherm was blended with asphalt binder to enable production of asphalt mixture at lower than normal temperatures, as well as improve mix workability and compactability. Asphalt mixture performances towards pavement distresses in tropical climate region were also investigated. The properties of control asphalt binders (60/70 and 80/10 penetration grade) and asphalt binders incorporating 0.1% ZycoTherm were reported based on the penetration, softening point, rotational viscosity, complex modulus and phase angle. Subsequently, to compare the performance of asphalt mixture incorporating ZycoTherm with the control asphalt mixture, cylindrical samples were prepared at recommended temperatures and air voids depending on the binder types and test requirements. The samples were tested for indirect tensile strength (ITS), resilient modulus, dynamic creep, Hamburg wheel tracking and moisture induced damage. From compaction data using the Servopak gyratory compactor, specimen prepared using ZycoTherm exhibit higher workability and compactability compared to the conventional mixture. From the mixture performance test results, mixtures prepared with ZycoTherm showed comparable if not better performance than the control sample in terms of the resistance to moisture damage, permanent deformation and cracking.

  19. 40 CFR Table 2 of Subpart Aaaaaaa... - Emission Limits for Asphalt Roofing Manufacturing (Coating) Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 14 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission Limits for Asphalt Roofing Manufacturing (Coating) Operations 2 Table 2 of Subpart AAAAAAA of Part 63 Protection of Environment... AAAAAAA of Part 63—Emission Limits for Asphalt Roofing Manufacturing (Coating) Operations For * * * 1...

  20. Grade determination of crumb rubber-modified performance graded asphalt binder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Due to particulates common in crumb rubber-modified asphalt binders, conventional PG grading using the Dynamic : Shear Rheometer (DSR) with a gap height of 1.0 mm may not be valid and in accordance with current specifications. : Asphalt binder testin...

  1. Use of rubber asphalt binder with graded aggregate for seal coats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    It has been known that incorporating rubber particles into asphalt can improve highway pavement performance. This paper describes a test program on pavement construction using asphalts containing recycled rubber. During the summer 1978, eight test sections were constructed in parts of the Saskatchewan road system to evaluate seal coats using rubber-asphalt as a binder membrane and a graded aggregate as protective cover. Test sections were chosen to represent typical road surface types and different states of repair for each type. These types included prime subgrade, cold-mix on subgrade, primed granular base course, asphaltic concrete on granular base, and full depth asphaltic concrete. Problems with construction materials, techniques, and equipment are discussed. Performance and economics were evaluated to determine whether low cost cold mix and current seal coat surfaces could be replaced successfully and economically by this method of construction. It was shown that use of reclaimed rubber for rubberized asphalt seal coats on Saskatechewan highways is a practical construction application. The economic justification for rubber asphalt seals will be determined after a full assessment of performance. Initial indications are that Saskatchewan graded aggregates are a suitable cover material for the rubberized asphalt membranes used in the trials. 8 refs., 16 figs., 7 tabs.

  2. Review of warm mix rubberized asphalt concrete : Towards a sustainable paving technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, H.; Liu, X.; Apostolidis, P.; Scarpas, Athanasios

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, transportation agencies and the general public alike are demanding increased considerations of sustainability in transport infrastructure. Warm mix asphalt (WMA) is developed for reducing energy consumptions and emissions in asphalt paving industry. In addition, the use of

  3. Investigation of the Asphalt Pavement Analyzer (APA) testing program in Nebraska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    The asphalt pavement analyzer (APA) has been widely used to evaluate hot-mix asphalt (HMA) rutting potential in mix : design and quality control-quality assurance (QC-QA) applications, because the APA testing and its data analyses are : relatively si...

  4. Evaluation of the performance of aggregate in hot-mix asphalt

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Komba, Julius J

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The overall performance of an asphalt mix is dependent on, amongst others, the properties of the constituent materials, which include aggregate, binder and filler. The aggregate for production of asphalt mixes is usually sourced from a quarry, which...

  5. The use of atomic force microscopy to evaluate warm mix asphalt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to use the Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) to examine the moisture susceptibility : and healing characteristics of Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA) and compare it with those of conventional Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA). To : this en...

  6. Use of warm mix asphalt pavement on Route 9, in Durham.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    A number of new technologies have been developed to lower the production and placement temperatures : of hot-mix asphalt (HMA). Generically, these technologies are referred to as warm-mix asphalt (WMA). : In Europe and to a lesser extent in North Ame...

  7. Use of warm mix asphalt pavement on Interstate 95, Carmel to Hampden, northbound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    A number of new technologies have been developed to lower the production and placement temperatures : of hot-mix asphalt (HMA). Generically, these technologies are referred to as warm-mix asphalt (WMA). : In Europe and to a lesser extent in North Ame...

  8. Modelling absorption in porous asphalt concrete for oblique incident sound waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezemer-Krijnen, Marieke; Wijnant, Ysbrand H.; de Boer, Andries; Sas, P; Moens, D.; Denayer, H.

    2014-01-01

    A numerical model to predict the sound absorption of porous asphalt has been developed. The approach is a combination between a microstructural approach and a finite element approach. The model used to describe the viscothermal properties of the air inside the pores of the asphalt is the low reduced

  9. Use of waste crushed glass for the production of hot-mix asphalt

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Anochie-Boateng, Joseph

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available presents the development and evaluation of a new asphalt concrete mix that utilizes a sustainable crushed glass as a replacement material of a natural aggregate. The ultimate goal is to produce a cost-effective asphalt wearing course with comparative...

  10. Investigation of using steel slag in hot mix asphalt for the surface course of flexible pavements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hien Q.; Lu, Dai X.; Le, Son D.

    2018-04-01

    The rapid development of heavy industry in Vietnam leads to the establishments of steel industry. Steel slag, a by-product of steelwork industry, under Vietnamese’s law, was considered as a deleterious solid waste which needed to be processed and landfilled. However, this has changed recently, and steel slag is now seen as a normal or non-deleterious solid waste, and has been studied for reuse in the construction industry. In this study, steel slag was used, as a replacement for mineral aggregate, in hot mix asphalt. Two hot mix asphalt mixtures with an equivalent nominal aggregate size of 12.5 (C12.5) and 19 mm (C19) were produced using steel slag. In addition, one conventional hot mix asphalt mixture of C19 was produced using mineral aggregate for comparison purpose. Investigation in laboratory condition and trial sections was carried out on Marshall tests, surface roughness, skid resistance, and modulus of the pavement before and after applying a new surface course of hot mix asphalt. The study showed that all steel slag asphalt mixtures passed the Marshall stability and flow test requirements. The skid resistance of steel slag hot mix asphalt mixtures for the surface course satisfied the Vietnamese specification for asphalt. Moreover, the pavement sections with the surface course of steel slag hot mix asphalt showed a considerable higher modulus than that of the conventional one. Only the roughness of the surface course paved with C19 did not pass the requirement of the specification.

  11. Investigation of self healing behaviour of asphalt mixes using beam on elastic foundation setup

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qiu, J.; Molenaar, A.A.A.; Van de Ven, M.F.C.; Wu, S.; Yu, J.

    2012-01-01

    Self healing of asphalt mixes is known for more than four decades. However, it is a complex phenomenon which depends on the duration of the rest period, temperature, crack size, etc. In order to quantify the self healing behaviour of asphalt mixes, a test setup was proposed in this research using an

  12. Monitoring hot mix asphalt temperature to improve homogeneity and pavement quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Huerne, Henderikus L.; Miller, Seirgei Rosario; Doree, Andries G.; Santagata, E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes how controlled compaction practices lead to better quality asphalt. Therefore, it is important that during compaction operations the mixture is at a suitable temperature in order to achieve the specified degree of compaction. The University of Twente’s Asphalt Paving Research

  13. Thermodynamics between RAP/RAS and virgin aggregates during asphalt concrete production : a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    In hot-mix asphalt (HMA) plants, virgin aggregates are heated and dried separately before being mixed with : RAP/RAS and virgin asphalt binder. RAP/RAS materials are not heated or dried directly by a burner to avoid : burning of aged binder coating o...

  14. Synthesis and Characterization of New ‎Copolymers as Asphalt Additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firyal M. ‎ A

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Rheological properties of asphalt S50  were improved by adding different prepared copolymers as additives with high homogeneity of asphalts  samples.  Three types of copolymers were prepared  Poly  (Indene –Co- maleic anhydride(A1 Poly (Acrylonitrile –Co- Maleic anhydride (A2 and Poly (Dipentine –Co-Maleic anhydride (A3, the cross linking of (A3 to (A3d. by using sulfur.              These copolymers  were designed by inserting Maleic anhydride as  rings  containing through backbone of polymer chains to be high potentially to react with water to protect the crack of pavement .And moisture with inhibit bonding of crack of pavement, Many factors should be considered when prepared the additives to enhanced performance to be convenience cost, beneficial thermal safety ,   extended life of the asphalt, preparing conditions which gave high thermal resistance with more stabilities, all these prepared copolymer have been characterized by FTIR and H-NMR spectroscopies .Intrinsic viscosities were calculated. softening point and penetration were observed for all asphalts blends which were  compared with the  asphalt samples, which gave high thermal resistance with more stabilities.                                          The results  showed high properties of these blends when  compared with the original asphalt. The physical properties of a specific polymers are determined by the sequence and chemical structure , When polymers are added to asphalt , the properties of the modified asphalt cement depend on polymer characteristic of asphalt and compatibility of polymer with asphalt. All these prepared copolymers were tested by softening points and penetration for all  asphalt blends which were compared with the asphalt sample. All the Improvements made by adding polymers to asphalt included the Increasing the viscosity of the binder service, the thermal susceptibility of the binder

  15. 76 FR 27005 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the Republic of Korea: Initiation and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-10

    ... typically examines several factors including, but not limited to: (1) Management; (2) production facilities; (3) supplier relationships; and (4) customer base. See Brass Sheet and Strip from Canada: Final... Saehan to TAMK resulted in little or no change in management, production facilities, supplier...

  16. Development of readout electronics for monolithic integration with diode strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosticka, B.J.; Wrede, M.; Zimmer, G.; Kemmer, J.; Hofmann, R.; Lutz, G.

    1984-03-01

    Parallel in - serial out analog readout electronics integrated with silicon strip detectors will bring a reduction of two orders of magnitude in external electronics. The readout concept and the chosen CMOS technology solve the basic problem of low noise and low power requirements. A hybrid solution is an intermediate step towards the final goal of monolithic integration of detector and electronics. (orig.)

  17. Proposed method of assembly for the BCD silicon strip vertex detector modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindenmeyer, C.

    1989-01-01

    The BCD Silicon strip Vertex Detector is constructed of 10 identical central region modules and 18 similar forward region modules. This memo describes a method of assembling these modules from individual silicon wafers. Each wafer is fitted with associated front end electronics and cables and has been tested to insure that only good wafers reach the final assembly stage. 5 figs

  18. Stress Regression Analysis of Asphalt Concrete Deck Pavement Based on Orthogonal Experimental Design and Interlayer Contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuntao; Feng, Jianhu; Wang, Hu; Hong, Shidi; Zheng, Supei

    2018-03-01

    A three-dimensional finite element box girder bridge and its asphalt concrete deck pavement were established by ANSYS software, and the interlayer bonding condition of asphalt concrete deck pavement was assumed to be contact bonding condition. Orthogonal experimental design is used to arrange the testing plans of material parameters, and an evaluation of the effect of different material parameters in the mechanical response of asphalt concrete surface layer was conducted by multiple linear regression model and using the results from the finite element analysis. Results indicated that stress regression equations can well predict the stress of the asphalt concrete surface layer, and elastic modulus of waterproof layer has a significant influence on stress values of asphalt concrete surface layer.

  19. Sustainable Performance of Iraqi Asphalt Base Course Using Recycled Glass as Aggregate Replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Athab Eedan Al-Jameel

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, a lot of waste glass produced through different sides of life. Applying sustainability has been widely used in different construction materials and flexible pavement was contained different recycled materials through different studies. Recycled glass, where it is nonmetallic and inorganic, it can neither be incinerated nor decomposed, so it may be difficult to reclaim, has been used as filler, fine and coarse aggregates in the asphalt base course. In this study, various standard asphalt tests, such as stability, flow, density and air voids, have been conducted on reference mix asphalt and mix asphalt with different percentages of recycled glass when it has been used as filler, fine and coarse aggregates in the base course. Generally, the results show good indication, especially when using 10% of the recycled glass instead of coarse aggregate with 40-50 asphalt grades. This percentage improves most characteristics such as strength retained index which indicates better performance than reference mix.  

  20. Road safety effects of porous asphalt: a systematic review of evaluation studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elvik, R.; Greibe, Poul

    2005-01-01

    of eighteen estimates of the effect of porous asphalt on accident rates. No clear effect on road safety of porous asphalt was found. All summary estimates of effect indicated very small changes in accident rates and very few were statistically significant at conventional levels. Studies that have evaluated...... of these changes in risk factors on accident occurrence cannot be predicted. On the whole, the research that has been reported so far regarding road safety effects of porous asphalt is inconclusive. The studies are not of high quality and the findings are inconsistent.......This paper presents a systematic review of studies that have evaluated the effects on road safety of porous asphalt. Porous asphalt is widely used on motorways in Europe, mainly in order to reduce traffic noise and increase road capacity. A meta-analysis was made of six studies, containing a total...

  1. Performance on Water Stability of Cement-Foamed Asphalt Cold Recycled Mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Junxiao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Through designing the mixture proportion of foamed asphalt cold in-place recycled mixture combined with the water stability experiment, it shows that the addition of cement can obviously improve foamed asphalt mixture’s water stability and the best cement admixture is between 1% ~ 2%; Using digital imaging microscope and SEM technology, the mechanism of increasing on the intensity of foamed asphalt mixture resulted by adding cement was analyzed. It revealed that the cement hydration products contained in the foamed asphalt mixture hydrolyzed into space mesh structure and wrapped up the aggregate particle, this is the main reason that the cement can enhance the mixture’s intensity as well as the water stability. This research provides reference for cement admixture’s formulation in the designing of foamed asphalt cold in-place recycled mixture.

  2. Design Method for Proportion of Cement-Foamed Asphalt Cold Recycled Mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Junxiao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Through foaming experiment of Zhongtai AH-70 asphalt, the best foaming temperature water consumption and influence factors of foamed asphalt’s foaming features are determined; By designing the proportion of foamed asphalt cold in-place recycled mixture combined with the water stability experiment, for this mixture the best foamed asphalt addition is 3%, and proportion of the mixture is RAP: fine aggregate: cement=75:23:2. Using SEM technology, the mechanism of increasing on the intensity of foamed asphalt mixture resulted by the addition of cement was analysed. This research provides reference for cement admixture’s formulation in the designing of foamed asphalt cold in-place recycled mixture.

  3. Performance of asphaltic concrete incorporating styrene butadiene rubber subjected to varying aging condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salah, Faisal Mohammed; Jaya, Ramadhansyah Putra; Mohamed, Azman; Hassan, Norhidayah Abdul; Rosni, Nurul Najihah Mad; Mohamed, Abdullahi Ali; Agussabti

    2017-12-01

    The influence of styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) on asphaltic concrete properties at different aging conditions was presented in this study. These aging conditions were named as un-aged, short-term, and long-term aging. The conventional asphalt binder of penetration grade 60/70 was used in this work. Four different levels of SBR addition were employed (i.e., 0 %, 1 %, 3 %, and 5 % by binder weight). Asphalt concrete mixes were prepared at selected optimum asphalt content (5 %). The performance was evaluated based on Marshall Stability, resilient modulus, and dynamic creep tests. Results indicated the improving stability and permanent deformation characteristics that the mixes modified with SBR polymer have under aging conditions. The result also showed that the stability, resilient modulus, and dynamic creep tests have the highest rates compared to the short-term aging and un-aged samples. Thus, the use of 5 % SBR can produce more durable asphalt concrete mixtures with better serviceability.

  4. Development of floating strip micromegas detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bortfeldt, Jonathan

    2014-04-28

    Micromegas are high-rate capable, high-resolution micro-pattern gaseous detectors. Square meter sized resistive strip Micromegas are foreseen as replacement of the currently used precision tracking detectors in the Small Wheel, which is part of the forward region of the ATLAS muon spectrometer. The replacement is necessary to ensure tracking and triggering performance of the muon spectrometer after the luminosity increase of the Large Hadron Collider beyond its design value of 10{sup 34} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} around 2020. In this thesis a novel discharge tolerant floating strip Micromegas detector is presented and described. By individually powering copper anode strips, the effects of a discharge are confined to a small region of the detector. This reduces the impact of discharges on the efficiency by three orders of magnitude, compared to a standard Micromegas. The physics of the detector is studied and discussed in detail. Several detectors are developed: A 6.4 x 6.4 cm{sup 2} floating strip Micromegas with exchangeable SMD capacitors and resistors allows for an optimization of the floating strip principle. The discharge behavior is investigated on this device in depth. The microscopic structure of discharges is quantitatively explained by a detailed detector simulation. A 48 x 50 cm{sup 2} floating strip Micromegas is studied in high energy pion beams. Its homogeneity with respect to pulse height, efficiency and spatial resolution is investigated. The good performance in high-rate background environments is demonstrated in cosmic muon tracking measurements with a 6.4 x 6.4 cm{sup 2} floating strip Micromegas under lateral irradiation with 550 kHz 20 MeV proton beams. A floating strip Micromegas doublet with low material budget is developed for ion tracking without limitations from multiple scattering in imaging applications during medical ion therapy. Highly efficient tracking of 20 MeV protons at particle rates of 550 kHz is possible. The reconstruction of the

  5. Development of floating strip micromegas detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bortfeldt, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Micromegas are high-rate capable, high-resolution micro-pattern gaseous detectors. Square meter sized resistive strip Micromegas are foreseen as replacement of the currently used precision tracking detectors in the Small Wheel, which is part of the forward region of the ATLAS muon spectrometer. The replacement is necessary to ensure tracking and triggering performance of the muon spectrometer after the luminosity increase of the Large Hadron Collider beyond its design value of 10 34 cm -2 s -1 around 2020. In this thesis a novel discharge tolerant floating strip Micromegas detector is presented and described. By individually powering copper anode strips, the effects of a discharge are confined to a small region of the detector. This reduces the impact of discharges on the efficiency by three orders of magnitude, compared to a standard Micromegas. The physics of the detector is studied and discussed in detail. Several detectors are developed: A 6.4 x 6.4 cm 2 floating strip Micromegas with exchangeable SMD capacitors and resistors allows for an optimization of the floating strip principle. The discharge behavior is investigated on this device in depth. The microscopic structure of discharges is quantitatively explained by a detailed detector simulation. A 48 x 50 cm 2 floating strip Micromegas is studied in high energy pion beams. Its homogeneity with respect to pulse height, efficiency and spatial resolution is investigated. The good performance in high-rate background environments is demonstrated in cosmic muon tracking measurements with a 6.4 x 6.4 cm 2 floating strip Micromegas under lateral irradiation with 550 kHz 20 MeV proton beams. A floating strip Micromegas doublet with low material budget is developed for ion tracking without limitations from multiple scattering in imaging applications during medical ion therapy. Highly efficient tracking of 20 MeV protons at particle rates of 550 kHz is possible. The reconstruction of the track inclination in a single

  6. Hanford Permanent Isolation Barrier Program: Asphalt technology data and status report - FY 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, H.D.; Romine, R.A.; Zacher, A.H.

    1994-09-01

    The asphalt layer within the Hanford Permanent Isolation Barrier (HPIB) is an important component of the overall design. This layer provides a RCRA equivalent backup to the overlying earthen layers in the unlikely event that these layers are not able to reduce the infiltration rate to less than 0.05 cm/yr. There is only limited amount of information on using asphalt for a moisture infiltration barrier over the long times required by the HPIB. Therefore, a number of activities are under way, as part of the Barrier Development Program, to obtain data on the performance of asphalt as a moisture barrier in a buried environment over a 1000-year period. These activities include (1) determining RCRA equivalency, (2) measurement of physical properties, (3) measurement of aging characteristics, and (4) relationship to ancient asphalt analogs. During FY 1994 progress was made on all of these activities. Studies were conducted both in the laboratory and on the prototype barrier constructed over the 216-B-57 crib in the 200 East Area on the Hanford Site. This report presents results obtained from the asphalt technology tasks during FY 1994. Also included are updates to planned activities for asphalt analogs and monitoring the asphalt test pad near the prototype barrier. Measurements of hydraulic conductivity on the HMAC portion of the prototype barrier show that the asphalt layers easily meet the RCRA standard of 1 {times} 10{sup -7} cm/s. In-place measurements using a new field falling head technique show an average of 3.66 {times} 10{sup -8} cm/s, while cores taken from the north end of the prototype and measured in a laboratory setup averaged 1.29 {times} 10{sup -9} cm/s. Measurements made on the fluid applied asphalt membrane (polymer-modified asphalt) show an extremely low permeability of less than 1 {times} 10{sup -11} cm/s.

  7. Hanford Permanent Isolation Barrier Program: Asphalt technology data and status report - FY 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, H.D.; Romine, R.A.; Zacher, A.H.

    1994-09-01

    The asphalt layer within the Hanford Permanent Isolation Barrier (HPIB) is an important component of the overall design. This layer provides a RCRA equivalent backup to the overlying earthen layers in the unlikely event that these layers are not able to reduce the infiltration rate to less than 0.05 cm/yr. There is only limited amount of information on using asphalt for a moisture infiltration barrier over the long times required by the HPIB. Therefore, a number of activities are under way, as part of the Barrier Development Program, to obtain data on the performance of asphalt as a moisture barrier in a buried environment over a 1000-year period. These activities include (1) determining RCRA equivalency, (2) measurement of physical properties, (3) measurement of aging characteristics, and (4) relationship to ancient asphalt analogs. During FY 1994 progress was made on all of these activities. Studies were conducted both in the laboratory and on the prototype barrier constructed over the 216-B-57 crib in the 200 East Area on the Hanford Site. This report presents results obtained from the asphalt technology tasks during FY 1994. Also included are updates to planned activities for asphalt analogs and monitoring the asphalt test pad near the prototype barrier. Measurements of hydraulic conductivity on the HMAC portion of the prototype barrier show that the asphalt layers easily meet the RCRA standard of 1 x 10 -7 cm/s. In-place measurements using a new field falling head technique show an average of 3.66 x 10 -8 cm/s, while cores taken from the north end of the prototype and measured in a laboratory setup averaged 1.29 x 10 -9 cm/s. Measurements made on the fluid applied asphalt membrane (polymer-modified asphalt) show an extremely low permeability of less than 1 x 10 -11 cm/s

  8. Superconducting nano-strip particle detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristiano, R; Ejrnaes, M; Casaburi, A; Zen, N; Ohkubo, M

    2015-01-01

    We review progress in the development and applications of superconducting nano-strip particle detectors. Particle detectors based on superconducting nano-strips stem from the parent devices developed for single photon detection (SSPD) and share with them ultra-fast response times (sub-nanosecond) and the ability to operate at a relatively high temperature (2–5 K) compared with other cryogenic detectors. SSPDs have been used in the detection of electrons, neutral and charged ions, and biological macromolecules; nevertheless, the development of superconducting nano-strip particle detectors has mainly been driven by their use in time-of-flight mass spectrometers (TOF-MSs) where the goal of 100% efficiency at large mass values can be achieved. Special emphasis will be given to this case, reporting on the great progress which has been achieved and which permits us to overcome the limitations of existing mass spectrometers represented by low detection efficiency at large masses and charge/mass ambiguity. Furthermore, such progress could represent a breakthrough in the field. In this review article we will introduce the device concept and detection principle, stressing the peculiarities of the nano-strip particle detector as well as its similarities with photon detectors. The development of parallel strip configuration is introduced and extensively discussed, since it has contributed to the significant progress of TOF-MS applications. (paper)

  9. Factors affecting hydrocarbon removal by air stripping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFarland, W.E.

    1992-01-01

    This paper includes an overview of the theory of air stripping design considerations and the factors affecting stripper performance. Effects of temperature, contaminant characteristics, stripping tower geometry and air/water ratios on removal performance are discussed. The discussion includes treatment of groundwater contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons and chlorinated solvents such as TCE and PCE. Control of VOC emissions from air strippers has become a major concern in recent years, due to more stringent restrictions on air quality in many areas. This paper includes an overview of available technology to control air emissions (including activated carbon adsorption, catalytic oxidation and steam stripping) and the effects of air emission control on overall efficiency of the treatment process. The paper includes an overview of the relative performance of various packing materials for air strippers and explains the relative advantages and disadvantages of comparative packing materials. Field conditions affecting selection of packing materials are also discussed. Practical guidelines for the design of air stripping systems are presented, as well as actual case studies of full-scale air stripping projects

  10. Properties isotropy of magnesium alloy strip workpieces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Р. Кавалла

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the issue of obtaining high quality cast workpieces of magnesium alloys produced by strip roll-casting. Producing strips of magnesium alloys by combining the processes of casting and rolling when liquid melt is fed continuously to fast rolls is quite promising and economic. In the process of sheet stamping considerable losses of metal occur on festoons formed due to anisotropy of properties of foil workpiece, as defined by the macro- and microstructure and modes of rolling and annealing. The principal causes of anisotropic mechanical properties of metal strips produced by the combined casting and rolling technique are the character of distribution of intermetallic compounds in the strip, orientation of phases of metal defects and the residual tensions. One of the tasks in increasing the output of fit products during stamping operations consists in minimizing the amount of defects. To lower the level of anisotropy in mechanical properties various ways of treating the melt during casting are suggested. Designing the technology of producing strips of magnesium alloys opens a possibility of using them in automobile industry to manufacture light-weight body elements instead of those made of steel.

  11. Area specific stripping factors for AGS. A method for extracting stripping factors from survey data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aage, H.K.; Korsbech, U. [Technical Univ. of Denmark (Denmark)

    2006-04-15

    In order to use Airborne Gamma-ray Spectrometry (AGS) for contamination mapping, for source search etc. one must to be able to eliminate the contribution to the spectra from natural radioactivity. This in general is done by a stripping technique. The parameters for performing a stripping have until recently been measured by recording gamma spectra at special calibration sites (pads). This may be cumbersome and the parameters may not be correct when used at low gamma energies for environmental spectra. During 2000-2001 DTU tested with success a new technique for Carborne Gamma-ray Spectrometry (CGS) where the spectra from the surveyed area (or from a similar area) were used for calculating the stripping parameters. It was possible to calculate usable stripping ratios for a number of low energy windows - and weak source signals not detectable by other means were discovered with the ASS technique. In this report it is shown that the ASS technique also works for AGS data, and it has been used for recent Danish AGS tests with point sources. (Check of calibration of AGS parameters.) By using the ASS technique with the Boden data (Barents Rescue) an exercise source was detected that has not been detected by any of the teams during the exercise. The ASS technique therefore seems to be better for search for radiation anomalies than any other method known presently. The experiences also tell that although the stripping can be performed correctly at any altitude there is a variation of the stripping parameters with altitude that has not yet been quite understood. However, even with the oddly variations the stripping worked as expected. It was also observed that one might calculate a single common set of usable stripping factors for all altitudes from the entire data set i.e. some average a, b and c values. When those stripping factors were used the stripping technique still worked well. (au)

  12. Stand-alone Cosmic Muon Reconstruction Before Installation of the CMS Silicon Strip Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, W.; Dragicevic, M.; Friedl, M.; Fruhwirth, R.; Hansel, S.; Hrubec, J.; Krammer, M.; Oberegger, M.; Pernicka, M.; Schmid, S.; Stark, R.; Steininger, H.; Uhl, D.; Waltenberger, W.; Widl, E.; Van Mechelen, P.; Cardaci, M.; Beaumont, W.; de Langhe, E.; de Wolf, E.A.; Delmeire, E.; Hashemi, M.; Bouhali, O.; Charaf, O.; Clerbaux, B.; Dewulf, J.-P.; Elgammal, S.; Hammad, G.; de Lentdecker, G.; Marage, P.; Vander Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Wickens, J.; Adler, V.; Devroede, O.; De Weirdt, S.; D'Hondt, J.; Goorens, R.; Heyninck, J.; Maes, J.; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Tavernier, S.; Van Lancker, L.; Van Mulders, P.; Villella, I.; Wastiels, C.; Bonnet, J.-L.; Bruno, G.; De Callatay, B.; Florins, B.; Giammanco, A.; Gregoire, G.; Keutgen, Th.; Kcira, D.; Lemaitre, V.; Michotte, D.; Militaru, O.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Quertermont, L.; Roberfroid, V.; Rouby, X.; Teyssier, D.; Daubie, E.; Anttila, E.; Czellar, S.; Engstrom, P.; Harkonen, J.; Karimaki, V.; Kostesmaa, J.; Kuronen, A.; Lampen, T.; Linden, T.; Luukka, P.-R.; Maenpaa, T.; Michal, S.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Ageron, M.; Baulieu, G.; Bonnevaux, A.; Boudoul, G.; Chabanat, E.; Chabert, E.; Chierici, R.; Contardo, D.; Della Negra, R.; Dupasquier, T.; Gelin, G.; Giraud, N.; Guillot, G.; Estre, N.; Haroutunian, R.; Lumb, N.; Perries, S.; Schirra, F.; Trocme, B.; Vanzetto, S.; Agram, J.-L.; Blaes, R.; Drouhin, F.; Ernenwein, J.-P.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Berst, J.-D.; Brom, J.-M.; Didierjean, F.; Goerlach, U.; Graehling, P.; Gross, L.; Hosselet, J.; Juillot, P.; Lounis, A.; Maazouzi, C.; Olivetto, C.; Strub, R.; Van Hove, P.; Anagnostou, G.; Brauer, R.; Esser, H.; Feld, L.; Karpinski, W.; Klein, K.; Kukulies, C.; Olzem, J.; Ostapchuk, A.; Pandoulas, D.; Pierschel, G.; Raupach, F.; Schael, S.; Schwering, G.; Sprenger, D.; Thomas, M.; Weber, M.; Wittmer, B.; Wlochal, M.; Beissel, F.; Bock, E.; Flugge, G.; Gillissen, C.; Hermanns, T.; Heydhausen, D.; Jahn, D.; Kaussen, G.; Linn, A.; Perchalla, L.; Poettgens, M.; Pooth, O.; Stahl, A.; Zoeller, M.H.; Buhmann, P.; Butz, E.; Flucke, G.; Hamdorf, R.; Hauk, J.; Klanner, R.; Pein, U.; Schleper, P.; Steinbruck, G.; Blum, P.; De Boer, W.; Dierlamm, A.; Dirkes, G.; Fahrer, M.; Frey, M.; Furgeri, A.; Hartmann, F.; Heier, S.; Hoffmann, K.-H.; Kaminski, J.; Ledermann, B.; Liamsuwan, T.; Muller, S.; Muller, Th.; Schilling, F.-P.; Simonis, H.-J.; Steck, P.; Zhukov, V.; Cariola, P.; De Robertis, G.; Ferorelli, R.; Fiore, L.; Preda, M.; Sala, G.; Silvestris, L.; Tempesta, P.; Zito, G.; Creanza, D.; De Filippis, N.; De Palma, M.; Giordano, D.; Maggi, G.; Manna, N.; My, S.; Selvaggi, G.; Albergo, S.; Chiorboli, M.; Costa, S.; Galanti, M.; Giudice, N.; Guardone, N.; Noto, F.; Potenza, R.; Saizu, M.A.; Sparti, V.; Sutera, C.; Tricomi, A.; Tuve, C.; Brianzi, M.; Civinini, C.; Maletta, F.; Manolescu, F.; Meschini, M.; Paoletti, S.; Sguazzoni, G.; Broccolo, B.; Ciulli, V.; D'Alessandro, R.; Focardi, E.; Frosali, S.; Genta, C.; Landi, G.; Lenzi, P.; Macchiolo, A.; Magini, N.; Parrini, G.; Scarlini, E.; Cerati, G.; Azzi, P.; Bacchetta, N.; Candelori, A.; Dorigo, T.; Kaminsky, A.; Karaevski, S.; Khomenkov, V.; Reznikov, S.; Tessaro, M.; Bisello, D.; De Mattia, M.; Giubilato, P.; Loreti, M.; Mattiazzo, S.; Nigro, M.; Paccagnella, A.; Pantano, D.; Pozzobon, N.; Tosi, M.; Bilei, G.M.; Checcucci, B.; Fano, L.; Servoli, L.; Ambroglini, F.; Babucci, E.; Benedetti, D.; Biasini, M.; Caponeri, B.; Covarelli, R.; Giorgi, M.; Lariccia, P.; Mantovani, G.; Marcantonini, M.; Postolache, V.; Santocchia, A.; Spiga, D.; Bagliesi, G.; Balestri, G.; Berretta, L.; Bianucci, S.; Boccali, T.; Bosi, F.; Bracci, F.; Castaldi, R.; Ceccanti, M.; Cecchi, R.; Cerri, C.; Cucoanes, A .S.; Dell'Orso, R.; Dobur, D.; Dutta, S.; Giassi, A.; Giusti, S.; Kartashov, D.; Kraan, A.; Lomtadze, T.; Lungu, G.A.; Magazzu, G.; Mammini, P.; Mariani, F.; Martinelli, G.; Moggi, A.; Palla, F.; Palmonari, F.; Petragnani, G.; Profeti, A.; Raffaelli, F.; Rizzi, D.; Sanguinetti, G.; Sarkar, S.; Sentenac, D.; Serban, A.T.; Slav, A.; Soldani, A.; Spagnolo, P.; Tenchini, R.; Tolaini, S.; Venturi, A.; Verdini, P.G.; Vos, M.; Zaccarelli, L.; Avanzini, C.; Basti, A.; Benucci, L.; Bocci, A.; Cazzola, U.; Fiori, F.; Linari, S.; Massa, M.; Messineo, A.; Segneri, G.; Tonelli, G.; Azzurri, P.; Bernardini, J.; Borrello, L.; Calzolari, F.; Foa, L.; Gennai, S.; Ligabue, F.; Petrucciani, G.; Rizzi, A.; Yang, Z.; Benotto, F.; Demaria, N.; Dumitrache, F.; Farano, R.; Borgia, M.A.; Castello, R.; Costa, M.; Migliore, E.; Romero, A.; Abbaneo, D.; Abbas, M.; Ahmed, I.; Akhtar, I.; Albert, E.; Bloch, C.; Breuker, H.; Butt, S.; Buchmuller, O.; Cattai, A.; Delaere, C.; Delattre, M.; Edera, L.M.; Engstrom, P.; Eppard, M.; Gateau, M.; Gill, K.; Giolo-Nicollerat, A.-S.; Grabit, R.; Honma, A.; Huhtinen, M.; Kloukinas, K.; Kortesmaa, J.; Kottelat, L.J.; Kuronen, A.; Leonardo, N.; Ljuslin, C.; Mannelli, M.; Masetti, L.; Marchioro, A.; Mersi, S.; Michal, S.; Mirabito, L.; Muffat-Joly, J.; Onnela, A.; Paillard, C.; Pal, I.; Pernot, J.F.; Petagna, P.; Petit, P.; Piccut, C.; Pioppi, M.; Postema, H.; Ranieri, R.; Ricci, D.; Rolandi, G.; Ronga, F.; Sigaud, C.; Syed, A.; Siegrist, P.; Tropea, P.; Troska, J.; Tsirou, A.; Vander Donckt, M.; Vasey, F.; Alagoz, E.; Amsler, Claude; Chiochia, V.; Regenfus, Christian; Robmann, P.; Rochet, J.; Rommerskirchen, T.; Schmidt, A.; Steiner, S.; Wilke, L.; Church, I.; Cole, J.; Coughlan, J.; Gay, A.; Taghavi, S.; Tomalin, I.; Bainbridge, R.; Cripps, N.; Fulcher, J.; Hall, G.; Noy, M.; Pesaresi, M.; Radicci, V.; Raymond, D.M.; Sharp, P.; Stoye, M.; Wingham, M.; Zorba, O.; Goitom, I.; Hobson, P.R.; Reid, I.; Teodorescu, L.; Hanson, G.; Jeng, G.-Y.; Liu, H.; Pasztor, G.; Satpathy, A.; Stringer, R.; Mangano, B.; Affolder, K.; Affolder, T.; Allen, A.; Barge, D.; Burke, S.; Callahan, D.; Campagnari, C.; Crook, A.; D'Alfonso, M.; Dietch, J.; Garberson, Jeffrey Ford; Hale, D.; Incandela, H.; Incandela, J.; Jaditz, S.; Kalavase, P.; Kreyer, S.; Kyre, S.; Lamb, J.; Mc Guinness, C.; Mills, C.; Nguyen, H.; Nikolic, M.; Lowette, S.; Rebassoo, F.; Ribnik, J.; Richman, J.; Rubinstein, N.; Sanhueza, S.; Shah, Y.; Simms, L.; Staszak, D.; Stoner, J.; Stuart, D.; Swain, S.; Vlimant, J.-R.; White, D.; Ulmer, K.A.; Wagner, S.R.; Bagby, L.; Bhat, P.C.; Burkett, K.; Cihangir, S.; Gutsche, O.; Jensen, H.; Johnson, M.; Luzhetskiy, N.; Mason, D.; Miao, T.; Moccia, S.; Noeding, C.; Ronzhin, A.; Skup, E.; Spalding, W.J.; Spiegel, L.; Tkaczyk, S.; Yumiceva, F.; Zatserklyaniy, A.; Zerev, E.; Anghel, I.; Bazterra, V.E.; Gerber, C.E.; Khalatian, S.; Shabalina, E.; Baringer, Philip S.; Bean, A.; Chen, J.; Hinchey, C.; Martin, C.; Moulik, T.; Robinson, R.; Gritsan, A.V.; Lae, C.K.; Tran, N.V.; Everaerts, P.; Hahn, K.A.; Harris, P.; Nahn, S.; Rudolph, M.; Sung, K.; Betchart, B.; Demina, R.; Gotra, Y.; Korjenevski, S.; Miner, D.; Orbaker, D.; Christofek, L.; Hooper, R.; Landsberg, G.; Nguyen, D.; Narain, M.; Speer, T.; Tsang, K.V.

    2009-01-01

    The subsystems of the CMS silicon strip tracker were integrated and commissioned at the Tracker Integration Facility (TIF) in the period from November 2006 to July 2007. As part of the commissioning, large samples of cosmic ray data were recorded under various running conditions in the absence of a magnetic field. Cosmic rays detected by scintillation counters were used to trigger the readout of up to 15% of the final silicon strip detector, and over 4.7 million events were recorded. This document describes the cosmic track reconstruction and presents results on the performance of track and hit reconstruction as from dedicated analyses.

  13. Analysis of 'Coma strip' galaxy redshift catalog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klypin, A.A.; Karachentsev, I.D.; Lebedev, V.S.

    1990-01-01

    We present results of the analysis of a galaxy redshift catalog made at the 6-m telescope by Karachentsev and Kopylov (1990. Mon. Not. R. astr. Soc., 243, 390). The catalog covers a long narrow strip on the sky (10 arcmin by 63 0 ) and lists 283 galaxies up to limiting blue magnitude m B = 17.6. The strip goes through the core of Coma cluster and this is called the 'Coma strip' catalog. The catalog is almost two times deeper than the CfA redshift survey and creates the possibility of studying the galaxy distribution on scales of 100-250 Mpc. Due to the small number of galaxies in the catalog, we were able to estimate only very general and stable parameters of the distribution. (author)

  14. Recent rubber crumb asphalt pavement projects in Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soleyman, H.R. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Pulles, B.C.M.; Treleaven, L.B. [EBA Engineering Consultants Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    Several countries around the world have been using rubber crumb (RC) for pavement applications for more than 20 years. The performance of asphalt pavements is enhanced by the use of recycled tires, which has the added advantage of solving the problem of tire disposal. In 2002, the Tire Recycling Management Association of Alberta (TRMA) and Alberta Transportation (AT) evaluated the feasibility and performance of an overlay using asphalt rubber (AR) pavement in Alberta. A partnership in the project was formed by AT, the City of Calgary, the City of Edmonton, and Strathcona County, where each one paved one section of a road with AR in conjunction with a section using conventional or other asphalt mixture types. The roads selected were: (1) 112 Avenue North West in Calgary, (2) 17 Street and Baseline Road in Strathcona County, (3) 137 Avenue in Edmonton, and (4) highway 630 in the vicinity of North Cooking Lake (Alberta Transportation). Two different AR pavement thicknesses were used to study the effects of overlay thicknesses on the performance of the overlay. The structural and functional factors were monitored before, during and after the construction of all sections. The preliminary evaluation of the application of AR in Alberta was presented, along with a summary of test results and performances of AR pavement sections. A full freeze-thaw cycle is required (Spring 2003) before the results of the analysis of the testing are known. The reduced thickness AR sections performed in a similar manner to those with full thickness AC sections. 10 refs., 5 tabs., 3 figs.

  15. Effect of crumb rubber on asphaltic binder chemistry and rheology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Cicero de S.; Tome, Luisa G.A.; Sant' ana, Hosiberto B.; Soares, Jorge B.; Soares, Sandra A. [University Federal of Ceara, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The use of the crumb rubber (CR) from scraps tires to modify asphalt binders (AB) at high temperature can improve significantly the performance grade, but the storage stability can be influenced after the mix of AB and CR or polymer. The major concern of asphalt binder with polymer and CR blends is their lack of stability during prolonged storage at high temperatures. The tendency to phase separation under quiescent conditions appears as an important limitation for the practical use of these blends. After the RTFOT and PAV process, the binder conventional and modified was analyzed in a Fourier Transform Infrared spectrometer (FTIR) for chemical characterization. After aging in RTFOT, the AB presented a larger degradation compared to the CR of RABC and RABC commercial. So, the crumb rubber contributed to the binder stability, acting as an antioxidant in the aging process. The dynamic mechanical properties of CR modify asphalts binder before and after graft has been characterized by use of dynamic shear rheometer (DSR) or advances rheology expanded system (ARES) of Rheometric Scientific. The difference in the viscoelastic parameters between the top and the bottom sections of the tube was measured. It has been found that the added content of CR has great effect on the rheological properties of the AB and its high temperature performance. It also has been confirmed that the RABC sample showed larger storage stability compared to the sample RABC commercial observed with viscoelastic parameters. As a consequence, the use CR and aromatic oil can be considered a suitable alternative for modification of binder in pavement. (author)

  16. Test strip and method for its use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    A test strip device is described which is useful in performing binding assays involving antigens, antibodies, hormones, vitamins, metabolites or pharmacological agents. The device is capable of application to analytical methods in which a set of sequential test reactions is involved and in which a minute sample size may be used. This test strip is particularly useful in radioimmunoassays. The use of the device is illustrated in radioimmunoassays for 1) thyroxine in serum, 2) the triiodothyronine binding capacity of serum and 3) folic acid and its analogues in serum. (U.K.)

  17. Stage- vs. Channel-strip Metaphor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelineck, Steven; Korsgaard, Dannie Michael; Büchert, Morten

    2015-01-01

    This study compares the stage metaphor and the channel strip metaphor in terms of performance. Traditionally, music mixing consoles employ a channels strip control metaphor for adjusting parameters such as volume and panning of each track. An alternative control metaphor, the so-called stage meta...... is surprisingly similar and thus we are not able to detect any significant difference in performance between the two interfaces. Qualitative data however, suggests that the stage metaphor is largely favoured for its intuitive interaction - confirming earlier studies....

  18. slice of LEP beamtube with getter strip

    CERN Multimedia

    1989-01-01

    A section of the LEP beam pipe. This is the chamber in which LEP's counter-rotating electron and positron beams travel. It is made of lead-clad aluminium. The beams circulate in the oval cross-section part of the chamber. In the rectangular cross-section part, LEP's innovative getter-strip vacuum pump is installed. After heating to purify the surface of the getter, the strip acts like molecular sticky tape, trapping any stray molecules left behind after the accelerator's traditional vacuum pumps have done their job.

  19. Comparative characteristics of polystyrene scintillation strips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gapienko, V.A.; Denisov, A.G.; Mel'nikov, E.A.

    1992-01-01

    Results are provided for a study of the main characteristics of polystyrene scintillation strips with a cross-section of 200 x 10 mm with two different scintillation-additive compositions: 1.5% p-terphenyl + 0.01% POPOP and 1.5% p-terphenyl + 0.01% DBP. The mean light-attenuation lengths are 180 cm and 260 cm, respectively, for strips with POPOP and DBP. The emittances of the polystyrene scintillators with DBP and POPOP additives have a ratio of 0.8:1.0 as recorded by an FEU-110 photomultiplier. 2 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  20. Wide Strip Casting Technology of Magnesium Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, W.-J.; Kim, J. J.; Kim, I. J.; Choo, D.

    Extensive investigations relating to the production of high performance and low cost magnesium sheet by strip casting have been performed for the application to automotive parts and electronic devices. Research on magnesium sheet production technology started in 2004 by Research Institute of Industrial Science and Technology (RIST) with support of Pohang Iron and Steel Company (POSCO). POSCO has completed the world's first plant to manufacture magnesium coil. Another big project in order to develop wide strip casting technology for the automotive applications of magnesium sheets was started in succession.

  1. Asset Stripping in a Mature Market Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klarskov Jeppesen, Kim; Møller, Ulrik Gorm

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to document a Danish fraud scheme, in which a large number of limited companies were stripped of their assets leaving them with nothing but tax debt, eventually causing the Danish Tax and Customs Administration to lose large sums. Furthermore, the purpose...... indicates that asset stripping may take place in mature market economies to the extent that perpetrators are able to circumvent the corporate governance system by giving lawyers, public accountants and banks incentives to act less critically towards dubious business transactions. Research limitations...

  2. Weathering and decontamination of radioactivity deposited on asphalt surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warming, L.

    1982-12-01

    Longlived fission products might be deposited in the environment after a serious reactor accident. At Risoe we have studied how danish weather conditions and fire hosing influence the decontamination of Rubidium 86 (representing Cesium 134 and 137) Barium-Lanthanum 140 and Ruthenium 103 deposited on asphalt surfaces. Measurements have been done at different types of roads and during all seasons including winter with snow and ice cover of the roads. The results from the first five experiments were used for calculating doses to the population in the land contamination (RISO-R-462). (author)

  3. D-FNN Based Modeling and BP Neural Network Decoupling Control of PVC Stripping Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-zhi Gao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available PVC stripping process is a kind of complicated industrial process with characteristics of highly nonlinear and time varying. Aiming at the problem of establishing the accurate mathematics model due to the multivariable coupling and big time delay, the dynamic fuzzy neural network (D-FNN is adopted to establish the PVC stripping process model based on the actual process operation datum. Then, the PVC stripping process is decoupled by the distributed neural network decoupling module to obtain two single-input-single-output (SISO subsystems (slurry flow to top tower temperature and steam flow to bottom tower temperature. Finally, the PID controller based on BP neural networks is used to control the decoupled PVC stripper system. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed integrated intelligent control method.

  4. The ties that bind? Galactic magnetic fields and ram pressure stripping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonnesen, Stephanie; Stone, James, E-mail: stonnes@astro.princeton.edu, E-mail: jstone@astro.princeton.edu [Department of Astrophysics, Princeton University, Peyton Hall, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2014-11-10

    One process affecting gas-rich cluster galaxies is ram pressure stripping (RPS), i.e., the removal of galactic gas through direct interaction with the intracluster medium (ICM). Galactic magnetic fields may have an important impact on the stripping rate and tail structure. We run the first magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of RPS that include a galactic magnetic field, using 159 pc resolution throughout our entire domain in order to resolve mixing throughout the tail. We find very little difference in the total amount of gas removed from the unmagnetized and magnetized galaxies, although a magnetic field with a radial component will initially accelerate stripped gas more quickly. In general, we find that magnetic fields in the disk lead to slower velocities in the stripped gas near the disk and faster velocities farther from the disk. We also find that magnetic fields in the galactic gas lead to larger unmixed structures in the tail. Finally, we discuss whether ram pressure stripped tails can magnetize the ICM. We find that the total magnetic energy density grows as the tail lengthens, likely through turbulence. There are μG-strength fields in the tail in all of our MHD runs, which survive to at least 100 kpc from the disk (the edge of our simulated region), indicating that the area-filling factor of magnetized tails in a cluster could be large.

  5. The Ties that Bind? Galactic Magnetic Fields and Ram Pressure Stripping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonnesen, Stephanie; Stone, James

    2014-11-01

    One process affecting gas-rich cluster galaxies is ram pressure stripping (RPS), i.e., the removal of galactic gas through direct interaction with the intracluster medium (ICM). Galactic magnetic fields may have an important impact on the stripping rate and tail structure. We run the first magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of RPS that include a galactic magnetic field, using 159 pc resolution throughout our entire domain in order to resolve mixing throughout the tail. We find very little difference in the total amount of gas removed from the unmagnetized and magnetized galaxies, although a magnetic field with a radial component will initially accelerate stripped gas more quickly. In general, we find that magnetic fields in the disk lead to slower velocities in the stripped gas near the disk and faster velocities farther from the disk. We also find that magnetic fields in the galactic gas lead to larger unmixed structures in the tail. Finally, we discuss whether ram pressure stripped tails can magnetize the ICM. We find that the total magnetic energy density grows as the tail lengthens, likely through turbulence. There are μG-strength fields in the tail in all of our MHD runs, which survive to at least 100 kpc from the disk (the edge of our simulated region), indicating that the area-filling factor of magnetized tails in a cluster could be large.

  6. Fabrication and properties of strip casting 4.5 wt% Si steel thin sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zu, Guoqing, E-mail: gz854@uowmail.edu.au [State Key Laboratory of Rolling and Automation, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); School of Mechanical, Materials and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Zhang, Xiaoming [State Key Laboratory of Rolling and Automation, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Zhao, Jingwei [School of Mechanical, Materials and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Wang, Yuqian [State Key Laboratory of Rolling and Automation, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Yan, Yi [School of Mechanical, Materials and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Li, Chengang; Cao, Guangming [State Key Laboratory of Rolling and Automation, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Jiang, Zhengyi [School of Mechanical, Materials and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia)

    2017-02-15

    Three 4.5 wt% Si steel thin sheets with different thicknesses were efficiently fabricated by twin-roll strip casting, warm rolling and cold rolling followed by final annealing. A comprehensive investigation from the workability of the as-cast strip to the magnetic property of the produces was performed to illustrate the superiority of the new materials. The results show that the as-cast strip, which has a much lower Vickers hardness than that of the 6.5 wt% Si steel, is suitable for rolling processing. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies confirm that no ordering phase exists in the as-cast strip. The cold-rolled thin sheets exhibit good surface quality without edge cracks. Furthermore, all the three 4.5 wt% Si steel thin sheets possess relative strong <100>//ND texture and present high magnetic inductions and low iron losses after finial annealing. - Highlights: • 4.5 wt% Si as-cast sheet with excellent workability was produced by strip casting. • Three 4.5 wt% Si thin sheets were effectively fabricated by warm and cold rolling. • The microstructure and macro-texture of the thin sheets were elucidated. • High magnetic inductions and low iron losses were achieved simultaneously.

  7. Development of high stability hot mix asphalt concrete with hybrid binder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiaki Hirato

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cost reduction of public works projects has been desired due to severe financial circumstances. Therefore, asphalt pavement has been requested to extend its life. Semi-flexible pavement or epoxy asphalt pavement, which has high rutting resistance and oil resistance, may be applied to the place where these performances ae demanded. However, special technique is required in manufacturing and construction. In addition, these materials have also raised a problem that they cannot be recycled. Meanwhile, conventional asphalt pavement has several drawbacks. It is vulnerable to rutting caused by traffic load and damage caused by petroleum oils such as gasoline or motor oil. The materials used in asphalt mixtures were studied for improving the durability of asphalt mixture. A high stability asphalt concrete was developed which has equal or superior performance to semi-flexible pavement and epoxy asphalt pavement. In this paper, the process of selecting the substance and the characteristics evaluation of the developed mixtures ae described. Furthermore, an inspection result as well as follow-up survey of the performance of the developed mixtures obtained from trial and actual construction is shown.

  8. A Study of Moisture Damage in Plastomeric Polymer Modified Asphalt Binder Using Functionalized AFM Tips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafiqul Tarefder

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, moisture damage in plastomeric polymer modified asphalt binder is investigated using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM with chemically functionalized AFM tips. Four different percentages of plastomeric polymers and two antistripping agents such as Kling Beta and Lime are used to modify a base asphalt binder. Chemical functional groups such as -COOH, -CH3, -NH3, and –OH, that are commonly present in plastomeric polymer modified asphalt system, are used to functionalize the AFM tips. The force distance mode of AFM is used to measure the adhesion forces between a modified asphalt sample surface and the functionalized AFM tips. This enables the measurement of adhesion within an asphalt binder system. It is shown that the adhesion force values in dry sample changed substantially from that in wet conditioned samples. It is evident from this study that plastomeric modification does not help reduce moisture damage in asphalt. The percentage change in adhesion forces due to moisture is about 20 nN for the lime modified samples, and about 50 nN for the Kling Beta modified samples. This indicates that lime is more effective than Kling Beta for reducing moisture damage in plastomeric polymer modified asphalt.

  9. Modification of local asphalt with epoxy resin to be used in pavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M.M. Abd El Rahman

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The durability of asphalt pavement is greatly influenced by the environmental changes during the year. In this paper, we prepared asphalt modified by mixing asphalt 60/70 with epoxidized natural rubber (ENR in different percentages (5, 10 and 15%, which was achieved using preformed peracetic acid (aqueous solution 59% at 60–80 °C, then molten cross-linker maleic anhydride (MA was added to modified asphalt until homogenous blends are achieved. Marshall test was used to evaluate the asphalt pavement performance depending on the curing time and hardener concentration. To measure marshall test, the pervious mixture was stirred with aggregate jop formula mix (JMF and 40% MA at 150–170 °C for 20 h and 1600 rpm. From the obtained data, it was found that asphalt mixed with 15% of ENR + 40% MA achieves a high stability (16,632 Newton, air voids of 2.5%, flow of 2.9 mm and mineral voids of 14.6%. While, the stability of the unmodified asphalt was (11,500 Newton, the flow 3.2 mm, the suitable air void value was 3.7% at 5.5% with the same conditions.

  10. Rutting and Fatigue Cracking Resistance of Waste Cooking Oil Modified Trinidad Asphaltic Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rean Maharaj

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of waste cooking oil (WCO on the performance characteristics of asphaltic materials indigenous to Trinidad, namely, Trinidad Lake Asphalt (TLA, Trinidad Petroleum Bitumen (TPB, and TLA : TPB (50 : 50 blend, was investigated to deduce the applicability of the WCO as a performance enhancer for the base asphalt. The rheological properties of complex modulus (G∗ and phase angle (δ were measured for modified base asphalt blends containing up to 10% WCO. The results of rheology studies demonstrated that the incremental addition of WCO to the three parent binders resulted in incremental decreases in the rutting resistance (decrease in G∗/sinδ values and increases in the fatigue cracking resistance (decrease in G∗sinδ value. The fatigue cracking resistance and rutting resistance for the TLA : TPB (50 : 50 blends were between those of the blends containing pure TLA and TPB. As operating temperature increased, an increase in the resistance to fatigue cracking and a decrease in the rutting resistance were observed for all of the WCO modified asphaltic blends. This study demonstrated the capability to create customized asphalt-WCO blends to suit special applications and highlights the potential for WCO to be used as an environmentally attractive option for improving the use of Trinidad asphaltic materials.

  11. Caltrans use of scrap tires in asphalt rubber products: a comprehensive review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiping Zhou

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The California Department of Transportation (Caltrans has been using scrap tire rubber in asphalt pavements since the 1970s in chip seals and the 1980s in rubberized hot mix asphalt(RHMA. Both the wet (field blend and dry processes were used in early trials. Caltrans has also used rubber modified binders containing both crumb rubber modifier and polymer modifier that could be manufactured at a refinery facility, a terminal blend wet process. Since the beginning of this century, Caltrans increased the use of scrap tire rubber in paving projects and invested considerable resources in developing technically sound, cost effective, and environmentally friendly strategies for using scrap tire rubber in roadway applications. By the end of year 2010, approximately 31%of all hot mix asphalt (HMA placed by Caltrans was rubberized HMA, roughly 1.2 million tons. Caltrans efforts in using asphalt rubber products were also demonstrated in its research and technology development. These included the construction of two full-scale field experiments, five warranty projects, and an accelerated pavement study using a heavy vehicle simulator. Additionally, terminal blend asphalt rubber and rubberized warm mix asphalts began to be experimented on trial basis. This paper provides a comprehensive review of Caltrans experience over four decades with asphalt rubber products. Current practices and future outlook are also discussed.

  12. The Potential of Heat Collection from Solar Radiation in Asphalt Solar Collectors in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beddu, Salmia; Talib, Siti Hidayah Abdul; Itam, Zarina

    2016-03-01

    The implementation of asphalt solar collectors as a means of an energy source is being widely studied in recent years. Asphalt pavements are exposed to daily solar radiation, and are capable of reaching up to 70°C in temperature. The potential of harvesting energy from solar pavements as an alternative energy source in replace of non-renewable energy sources prone to depletion such as fuel is promising. In Malaysia, the sun intensity is quite high and for this reason, absorbing the heat from sun radiation, and then utilizing it in many other applications such as generating electricity could definitely be impressive. Previous researches on the different methods of studying the effect of heat absorption caused by solar radiation prove to be quite old and inaffective. More recent findings, on the otherhand, prove to be more informative. This paper focuses on determining the potential of heat collection from solar radiation in asphalt solar collectors using steel piping. The asphalt solar collector model constructed for this research was prepared in the civil engineering laboratory. The hot mixed asphalt (HMA) contains 10% bitumen mixed with 90% aggregates of the total size of asphalt. Three stainless steel pipes were embedded into the interior region of the model according to the design criteria, and then put to test. Results show that harvesting energy from asphalt solar collectors proves highly potential in Malaysia due its the hot climate.

  13. Developing the elastic modulus measurement of asphalt concrete using the compressive strength test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiawan, Arief; Suparma, Latif Budi; Mulyono, Agus Taufik

    2017-11-01

    Elastic modulus is a fundamental property of an asphalt mixture. An analytical method of the elastic modulus is needed to determine the thickness of flexible pavement. It has a role as one of the input values on a stress-strain analysis in the finite element method. The aim of this study was to develop the measurement of the elastic modulus by using compressive strength testing. This research used a set of specimen mold tool and Delta Dimensi software to record strain changes occurring in the proving ring of compression machine and the specimens. The elastic modulus of the five types of aggregate gradation and 2 types of asphalt were measured at optimum asphalt content. Asphalt Cement 60/70 and Elastomer Modified Asphalt (EMA) were used as a binder. Manufacturing success indicators of the specimens used void-in-the-mix (VIM) 3-5 % criteria. The success rate of the specimen manufacturing was more than 76%. Thus, the procedure and the compressive strength test equipment could be used for the measurement of the elastic modulus. The aggregate gradation and asphalt types significantly affected the elastic modulus of the asphalt concrete.

  14. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Asphalt Pavement Construction: A Case Study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Feng; Sha, Aimin; Lin, Ruiyu; Huang, Yue; Wang, Chao

    2016-03-22

    In China, the construction of asphalt pavement has a significant impact on the environment, and energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from asphalt pavement construction have been receiving increasing attention in recent years. At present, there is no universal criterion for the evaluation of GHG emissions in asphalt pavement construction. This paper proposes to define the system boundaries for GHG emissions from asphalt pavement by using a process-based life cycle assessment method. A method for evaluating GHG emissions from asphalt pavement construction is suggested. The paper reports a case study of GHG emissions from a typical asphalt pavement construction project in China. The results show that the greenhouse gas emissions from the mixture mixing phase are the highest, and account for about 54% of the total amount. The second highest GHG emission phase is the production of raw materials. For GHG emissions of cement stabilized base/subbase, the production of raw materials emits the most, about 98%. The GHG emission for cement production alone is about 92%. The results indicate that any measures to reduce GHG emissions from asphalt pavement construction should be focused on the raw materials manufacturing stage. If the raw materials production phase is excluded, the measures to reduce GHG emissions should be aimed at the mixture mixing phase.

  15. PROSPECTS FOR APPLICATION OF COMPLEX-MODIFIED SAND ASPHALT CONCRETE IN ROAD CONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Yu. Alexandrov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers a possibility to use sand asphalt concrete as a material for protection of asphalt concrete and cement concrete road pavements against affection of external destructive factors. Advantages and disadvantages of sand asphalt concrete road pavements have been determined in the paper. The paper provides recommendations on improvement of sand asphalt concrete properties and contains an analysis of possible variants for usage of complex-modified sand asphalt concrete in the road construction. It has been noted that according to its potentially possible physical and mechanical properties activated quartz sand being micro-reinforced by dispersive industrial wastes is considered as an efficient component for creation of constructive layers in road asphalt concrete pavements. The paper reveals only specific aspects of the efficient application of quartz sand in road asphalt concrete. The subject of the paper loоks rather interesting for regions where there are no rock deposits for obtaining broken-stone ballast but there is rather significant spreading of local quarts sand. Its successful application is connected with the necessity to develop special equipment for physical and chemical activation of sand grain surface that permits strongly to increase an adhesive strength in the area of phase separation within the “bitumen–SiO2” system. The considered problem is a topical one and its solution will make it possible to local sand in a maximum way and partially to exclude application of broken stone in road construction.

  16. Influence of Diatomite and Mineral Powder on Thermal Oxidative Ageing Properties of Asphalt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongchun Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ageing of asphalt affects the performances of asphalt pavement significantly. Therefore, effects of diatomite and mineral powder on ageing properties of asphalt were investigated systematically in order to improve the antiageing property of mixture. Thin film oven test (TFOT was used to conduct the short term ageing in laboratory. Softening points, penetrations, force ductility, low temperature creep properties, and viscosities of asphalt mastics were tested before and after TFOT, respectively. Results indicated that percent retained penetration (PRP increased with the increasing of fillers. Increment of softening point (ΔT, ductility retention rate (DRR, deformation energy ageing index (JAI, and viscosity ageing index (VAI of asphalt mastics nonlinearly decreased with the increasing of fillers. Ageing of asphalt was reduced by diatomite and mineral powder. And the antiageing effect of diatomite was better than that of mineral powder as a result of its porous structure. It is suggested that the mineral powder could be reasonably replaced by diatomite in order to reduce thermal oxidative ageing of asphalt mixture. The optimal content of diatomite 12.8% is also suggested for engineering.

  17. Quantifying the environmental burdens of the hot mix asphalt (HMA pavements and the production of warm mix asphalt (WMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mithil Mazumder

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Asphalt pavement has significant environmental burdens throughout its life cycle. A life cycle assessment (LCA model is used to quantify the environmental burdens for material, construction, maintenance and use phases of hot mix asphalt (HMA pavement. Two peer reviewed journals have been used to collect all of the inventory loadings as an input for the LCA model and ten impact categories have been evaluated as output. The result of the inventory analysis is a summary of all inflows and outflows related to the “functional unit”. The result of each impact category is the total of all the individually characterized inventory loadings in each category. Each life cycle phase of HMA pavement has been quantified on these ten impact categories and a comparison provided among the phases to understand the percentage contribution to the environment. Human and eco toxicity values are higher for the material phase, whereas the rest of the impact categories are significant in the use phase. The material phase contributes 97% of the overall human toxicity in water from standpoint of asphalt pavements, whereas in the material phase the production of bitumen is responsible for 90% human and eco toxicity in terms of air based burden. As a solution, the life cycle inventory of WMA has been estimated and reduction only done in HMA production. From analysis, it was estimated that WMA provides a reduction of 29% on the acidification impact and 25% reduction on both fossil fuel consumption and photo oxidant formation impact of HMA. Keywords: Life cycle analysis, Environmental burdens, Inventories, HMA, Impacts, WMA

  18. Method of making steel strapping and strip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert D. Reilly

    2000-02-16

    The technical progress obtained for this time frame consisted of the awarding of two contracts for determination of metallurgical parameters for heat treatment of strapping and strip which are unavailable from current technology and/or published data in this field. The two contractors were Bricmont, Inc. and the Department of Materials Science and Engineering at the Technological Institute of Northwestern University, Evanston, IL. Phase 1 of the two stage contract with Bricmont, Inc. which provided a computer analysis of the cooling rates of a typical range of thickness' of strapping was completed. This study was developed for the purpose of determining the time parameters for quenching low carbon steels to a martensitic microstructure within the time frame of the design of the proposed process. It also provides design criteria for cooling to ambient for the total process. This data is required for Phase 2 of the Bricmont proposal which completes the design and specifications of the total heat treating and cooling system for the process. This becomes the basis for developing the cost and space requirements for this component of the production line. The authors do not intend to award Phase 2 until the work done at Northwestern University discussed hereafter is completed. On or about May 1, 1999 a contract for a project entitled ``Effects of Steel Composition and Quench Rate on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Strapping'' to be performed at the Department of Materials Science and Engineering was awarded. The delay in initiating this project was due to the legal interpretation and final agreement of the intellectual provisions of the award by the author's attorneys, Northwestern's attorneys and the legal representative in the Chicago office of the DOE. The work to date includes rapid quenching of a number of different steel compositions and microstructure on an existing drop quench test apparatus. It was initially assumed that this

  19. How to transform an asphalt concrete pavement into a solar turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García, Alvaro; Partl, Manfred N.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We create a system for harvesting energy from asphalt concrete. • We create an artificial porosity in the asphalt concrete. • We connect a chimney to this porosity. • Differences in temperature produce an air flow. • This air flow serves also for cooling down the pavement. - Abstract: Asphalt concrete can absorb a considerable amount of the incident solar radiation. For this reason asphalt roads could be used as solar collectors. There have been different attempts to achieve this goal. All of them have been done by integrating pipes conducting liquid, through the structure of the asphalt concrete. The problem of this system is that all pipes need to be interconnected: if one is broken, the liquid will come out and damage the asphalt concrete. To overcome these limitations, in this article, an alternative concept is proposed:parallel air conduits, where air can circulate will be integrated in the pavement structure. The idea is to connect these artificial pore volumes in the pavement to an updraft or to a downdraft chimney. Differences of temperature between the pavement and the environment can be used to create an air flow, which would allow wind turbines to produce an amount of energy and that would cool the pavement down in summer or even warm it up in winter. To demonstrate that this is possible, an asphalt concrete prototype has been created and basics calculations on the parameters affecting the system have been done. It has been found that different temperatures, volumes of air inside the asphalt and the difference of temperature between the asphalt concrete and the environment are critical to maximize the air flow through the pavement. Moreover, it has been found that this system can be also used to reduce the heat island effect

  20. Linear sweep anodic stripping voltammetry: Determination of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The aim of this work is to determine Cr(VI) in water resources by anodic stripping voltammetry using SPE-. AuNPs modified electrode .... surface area about 4 fold). 3.2 Optimization of Parameters ..... in water samples. The above system offers a.