WorldWideScience

Sample records for aspects surrounding medicine

  1. Behavioural aspects surrounding medicine purchases from pharmacies in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmerton L

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to produce current data regarding behavioural aspects of non-prescription (over-the-counter medicine purchases, in light of changes in the pharmaceutical market and increasing provision of professional services in pharmacies.Methods: Data were collected in 15 community pharmacies in South-East Queensland, Australia, over 540 hours in five days in August, 2006. The method, previously validated, involved documentation of both observational and interview data. Fifteen trained researchers were stationed in a selected pharmacy each to unobtrusively observe all eligible sales of non-prescription medicines, and, where possible, interview the purchasers post-sale. Non-response was supplemented by observational data and recall by the salesperson. The data included details of the purchase and purchasing behaviour, while new questions addressed issues of topical importance, including customers’ privacy concerns. A selection of the analyses is reported here.Results: In total, 3470 purchases were documented (135-479 per pharmacy, with customers of 67.5% of purchases (74.7% excluding an outlier pharmacy participating in the survey. Customers averaged 1.2 non-prescription medicines per transaction. Two-thirds (67.2% of customers were female, and 38.8% of the customers were aged 31-45 years. Analgesics and respiratory medicines accounted for two-thirds of the sales data (33.4% and 32.4%, respectively. Intended-brand purchases comprised 71% of purchases (2004/2824; in-store substitution then occurred in 8.8% of these cases, mainly following recommendations by pharmacy staff. Medicines intended for self-use comprised 62.9% of purchases (1752/2785. First-time purchases (30.8%, 799/2594 were more commonly influenced by pharmacy staff than by advertising.Conclusions: This study used validated methods adapted to a changing marketplace, thus providing data that both confirm and add to knowledge surrounding medicine purchases. Despite the

  2. Unique aspect of Tibetan medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakpa, Tenzing

    2014-01-01

    Tibetan medicine is known as the knowledge of healing in the Four Tantras, the main medical text studied by Tibetan doctors. In the 8th century, King Trisong Deutsen (718-785 CE) invited eminent physicians from India, China, Persia, East Turkestan, Mongolia, and Nepal for the First International Medical Symposium in Samye, Tibet and ordered his personal physician Elder Yuthog Yonten Gonpo (708-833 CE), who lived 125 years, and participated in this conference to summarize. By combining all the information available and presented during this symposium, he compiled the Four Tantras. He established the Tanadug medical school at Menlung in Kongpo, Southern Tibet in 763 CE, and worked for the propagation of Tibetan medicine. He is considered an emanation of Medicine Buddha, who is a symbol of mental and physical well being. In his left hand, the Medicine Buddha clasps a begging bowl with long-life nectar, signifying immortality, and in his right, the Chebulic myrobalan (Haritaki), a symbol of good health. Chebulic myrobalan, Belleric myrobalan, and Emblic myrobalan are together called the "3 Fruits" and are common ingredients in Tibetan medicines. Prof. Omura, Y of NY Medical College evaluated these "3 Fruits" and found that one of them available as a "Haritaki," had the highest normal cell telomere increasing effect by optimal dose, with improvement of circulation all over the body, which in turn inhibits cancer activity. He considered Tibetan medicine to be the most advanced medicine in the world before the 19th Century with its well-organized systematic method as described by colorful Tibetan medical paintings by Sangye Gyamtso (1653-1705 CE). During a typical diagnosis, the physician examines the patients' tongue, radial arteries for pulse beats by the index, middle, and ring fingers of both hands and the urine for features like color, vapor, and bubbles, etc.

  3. [Ethical aspects of palliative medicine].

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    Rehmann-Sutter, C; Lehnert, H

    2016-10-01

    The aim of palliative medicine is to adequately care for and attend to patients suffering from life-threatening and incurable medical conditions according to their needs. This implies that for these patients it is not a matter of dealing with diseases that can be treated separately but with their existence in the face of their approaching death. This article investigates which ethical questions are currently prioritized for discussion in palliative medicine. Review of the current medical and ethical literature and own reflections with a relational ethics approach that puts patient wishes at the centre of attention. Palliative medicine is not a "luxury medicine" but has to be considered as primary care to which every person is entitled. If there is a need for improvement of care, promoting it is an ethical obligation. In this respect the question of a "good death" is extremely complex. The term is connected to the ethics of a good life and includes the dimensions of happiness-suffering as well as meaning-futility; therefore, the best possible treatment of symptoms, most of all pain is just as important as recognizing subjective questions of meaning. Dealing with the wishes of patients, including possible wishes to die, are the starting point for elaborating palliative care measures. It is concerned with finding the right point in time for each patient individually, in their best interests and according to their wishes, at which dying should no longer be held back but for their own benefit the patient should be accompanied and supported during dying. In the current construction of palliative medicine, including its normative configuration within the law and medical ethics, the criteria which are essential for the quality of life up to death are being discussed.

  4. Medicolegal aspects of sports medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggess, Blake R; Bytomski, Jeffrey R

    2013-06-01

    Legal issues in sports medicine are rapidly developing and establishing an important body of jurisprudence that defines the legal rights and duties of all those involved with protecting the health and safety of athletes. The law makes important distinctions between the relevant duty of care owed to high-school, college, and professional athletes because of the differing legal relationships that arise out of athletic participation at different levels of competition. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Chemical engineering aspects in medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chmiel, H.

    1981-04-01

    Many basic chemical engineering processes are based on transport processes due, for example, to differences in temperature, pressure, and concentration. Such transport processes abound in the healthy circulatory system. Thus, metabolic processes supply the human body with the necessary warmth. The heart serves as a blood pump to provide optimal blood pressure in all vessels. Highly complex membranes in the kidneys ensure the efficient detoxification of the blood. It is therefore natural that the chemical engineer be involved in the solution of a number of biomedical engineering problems that come up in the field of medicine. Some typical tasks are: the characterization of the flow properties of biological fluids; research on the interaction between blood and foreign substances of the purpose of finding materials suitable for temporary or permanent use in the body and the development of blood pumps and artifical substitutes for the lungs, the liver, and the kidneys.

  6. Pharmacotherapeutic Aspects of Space Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putcha, Lakshmi

    2004-01-01

    produced by any drug depend upon rates of absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination of the drug; space flight-induced changes in blood flow and the function of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, liver, or kidneys may alter these processes. Another important aspect of clinical efficacy of medications in space is the stability of pharmaceuticals. As the U.S. space program is moving toward extended Space Shuttle flights and beyond, to space station missions and planetary explorations, understanding how space flight affects organ systems and clinical pharmacology is necessary to optimize pharmacotherapeutics in space and ensure adequate safety and health of crewmembers.

  7. Herbal medicine: biomolecular and clinical aspects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Benzie, Iris F. F; Wachtel-Galor, Sissi

    2011-01-01

    "Responding to the increased popularity of herbal medicines and other forms of complementary or alternative medicine in countries around the world, this reference reviews and evaluates various safety...

  8. Herbal medicine: biomolecular and clinical aspects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Benzie, Iris F. F; Wachtel-Galor, Sissi

    2011-01-01

    .... With over 3,550 current references, the book highlights the role of herbal medicine in national health care while providing case studies of widely used herbal remedies and their effects on human...

  9. Medicine, media communication and ethical aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masic, Izet

    2010-01-01

    On World Press Freedom Day (3rd of May 2009) details of the Frida Haus ranking list of press freedom in countries around the world were officially disclosed. Bosnia and Herzegovina is ranked at 98 place, and in the region better ranked is only Montenegro, which is located between 78 and 80 place along with Botswana and Eastern Timor. Top rated is Iceland with 9 points and on the last place is North Korea, with 98 points. Almost every profession has its deontology/ethical principles. However, medicine and the media are specifically targeted by public controversy with regard to the consequences of their responsibilities for the individual and the overall population. Until twenty years ago, the media were the main social system or a reflection of the social system and dominated the field of public communication, which implicitly reflected in the organization, operation and effects of companies, corporations, etc. as the overall social system, increasing the gross national product and its various categories enabled boom. Medicine and health represent to a wide range of people, perhaps, the most interesting source of information, and probably there isn't a person that once was not interested in quality professional and verified information regarding some of their medical condition or overall health status. It is estimated that today there are more than a million Web sites on health and diseases, which means that the availability of health information for users is better today than ever before. However, it is important to patients and users of web sites with health information to learn how to properly use them, and learn to assess whether the information published on this site are of reliable quality, which depends on the authors who put the information on the web site, their topicality, simplicity in use and especially the diversity of the medical content of these web pages. It is the Internet that allows the revolution in relation patient-health care- health services

  10. Animals and their products utilized as medicines by the inhabitants surrounding the Ranthambhore National Park, India

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    Jaroli DP

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The present ethnozoological study describes the traditional knowledge related to the use of different animals and animal-derived products as medicines by the inhabitants of villages surrounding the Ranthambhore National Park of India (Bawaria, Mogya, Meena, which is well known for its very rich biodiversity. The field survey was conducted from May to July 2005 by performing interviews through structured questionnaires with 24 informants (16 men and 8 women, who provided information regarding therapeutic uses of animals. A total of 15 animals and animal products were recorded and they are used for different ethnomedical purposes, including tuberculosis, asthma, paralysis, jaundice, earache, constipation, weakness, snake poisoning. The zootherapeutic knowledge was mostly based on domestic animals, but some protected species like the collared dove (Streptopelia sp., hard shelled turtle (Kachuga tentoria, sambhar (Cervus unicolor were also mentioned as important medicinal resources. We would suggest that this kind of neglected traditional knowledge should be included into the strategies of conservation and management of faunistic resources in the investigated area.

  11. Some spatial-demographic aspects of daily interaction of Belgrade and surroundings

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    Stamenković Srboljub Đ.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Belgrade as the capital of the Republic of Serbia represents, among others, one of the leading metropolises of Southeastern Europe and Balkan Peninsula. Its gravitation impacts-convergent and divergent, exceed to a great extent the borders of mother country. On basis of available data, by the census of 2002, it is for certain that 134,415 migrants - workers, pupils and students are moving daily to Belgrade and from Belgrade towards closer and broader surroundings, but mass of convergent daily migration is larger (120,585 migrants or 89.7% than mass of divergent daily movements (13,830 migrants or 10.3%. Daily urban system of Belgrade includes considerable area of many diverse kinds and types of settlements wherefrom the city receives daily migrants and wherein it gives the migrants daily.

  12. [Practical aspects of taking measurements of electromagnetic fields in the surrounding of overhead transmission lines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szuba, Marek

    2009-01-01

    Identification of electromagnetic fields in the vicinity of high voltage overhead transmission lines requires taking measurements and determining, on their basis, the maximum values of electric (Emax) and magnetic (Hmax) field strength, as well as the width of the area with electric field strength exceeding 1 kV/m. Measurements should be carried out in the places, where the distance between phase wires and the ground is smallest, and their results converted to conditions expected at the most disadvantageous parameters of the work of line in terms of their effect on the environment. This requires taking into consideration the maximum voltage of the transmission line, as well as the highest acceptable temperature of wires. In a single-circuit line, convertion of the measured values to expected maximum values of Emax and Hmax is not difficult, although it requires knowledge of cross-profiles in spans, in which measurements were taken. However, recounting the values of magnetic field strength produced by two-circuit lines creates a serious problem. Since in the majority of cases, the measurements in the surrounding of two-circuit lines are carried out at asymmetrical currents in both circuits, converting their results to symmetrical currents of the lines is practically impossible. Therefore, the results of the measurements of magnetic field strength carried out at the asymmetrical current of a two-circuit line cannot provide the basis for assessing the possibility of exceeding the allowable value of magnetic field intensity determined in the binding regulations. Such an assessment can only be done on the basis of the results of relevant calculations.

  13. Perceptions and practices of pharmaceutical wholesalers surrounding counterfeit medicines in a developing country: a baseline survey.

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    Khan, Mohiuddin H; Akazawa, Manabu; Dararath, Eav; Kiet, Heng B; Sovannarith, Tey; Nivanna, Nam; Yoshida, Naoko; Kimura, Kazuko

    2011-11-11

    Recent investigations by the Ministry of Health of Cambodia suggest that counterfeit medicines have been introduced into the pharmaceutical market in tampered packaging. To further explore this possibility, an interview survey was conducted at the wholesaler level to investigate the medicinal supply chain in Cambodia. Managing executives of 62 (83.8%) registered wholesalers of modern medicines in Cambodia were interviewed in 2009 on their knowledge of, perception on, and practices related to counterfeiting issues through a semi-structured questionnaire. According to our findings, 12.9% of the wholesalers had encountered counterfeit medicine. However, they demonstrated a variety of perceptions regarding this issue. A majority (59.7%) defined counterfeit medicines as medicines without registration, while other definitions included medicines that were fraudulently manufactured, medicines without a batch/lot number, those containing harmful ingredients or a reduced amount of active ingredients, and expired medicines. Additionally, 8.1% responded that they did not know what counterfeit medicines were.During procurement, 66.1% of the wholesalers consider whether the product is registered in Cambodia, while 64.5% consider the credibility and quality of the products and 61.3% consider the reputation of the manufacturers. When receiving a consignment, 80.6% of wholesalers check the intactness of medicines, 72.6% check the specification and amount of medicines, 71% check Cambodian registration, 56.5% check that the packaging is intact, 54.8% check batch and lot numbers, 48.4% check the dates of manufacture and expiration, and 9.7% check analytical certificates.Out of 62 wholesalers, 14.5% had received medicines that arrived without packages or were separated from their packaging and had to be repacked before distribution. Significant statistical association was found between wholesalers who received medicines separately from their packs/containers and who consider their

  14. Perceptions and practices of pharmaceutical wholesalers surrounding counterfeit medicines in a developing country: a baseline survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Mohiuddin H

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent investigations by the Ministry of Health of Cambodia suggest that counterfeit medicines have been introduced into the pharmaceutical market in tampered packaging. To further explore this possibility, an interview survey was conducted at the wholesaler level to investigate the medicinal supply chain in Cambodia. Methods Managing executives of 62 (83.8% registered wholesalers of modern medicines in Cambodia were interviewed in 2009 on their knowledge of, perception on, and practices related to counterfeiting issues through a semi-structured questionnaire. Results According to our findings, 12.9% of the wholesalers had encountered counterfeit medicine. However, they demonstrated a variety of perceptions regarding this issue. A majority (59.7% defined counterfeit medicines as medicines without registration, while other definitions included medicines that were fraudulently manufactured, medicines without a batch/lot number, those containing harmful ingredients or a reduced amount of active ingredients, and expired medicines. Additionally, 8.1% responded that they did not know what counterfeit medicines were. During procurement, 66.1% of the wholesalers consider whether the product is registered in Cambodia, while 64.5% consider the credibility and quality of the products and 61.3% consider the reputation of the manufacturers. When receiving a consignment, 80.6% of wholesalers check the intactness of medicines, 72.6% check the specification and amount of medicines, 71% check Cambodian registration, 56.5% check that the packaging is intact, 54.8% check batch and lot numbers, 48.4% check the dates of manufacture and expiration, and 9.7% check analytical certificates. Out of 62 wholesalers, 14.5% had received medicines that arrived without packages or were separated from their packaging and had to be repacked before distribution. Significant statistical association was found between wholesalers who received medicines separately

  15. Cardiovascular aspects of geriatric medicines in traditional Persian medicine; a review of phytochemistry and pharmacology.

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    Zarshenas, Mohammad M; Jamshidi, Sahar; Zargaran, Arman

    2016-10-15

    Geriatrics are a group of patients over 65 years and with multiple comorbidities and different functional impairments. Apart from decline in body mass, presence of exhaustion and general fatigue, an aged person may also suffer from various disorders. Approximately, around 30% of geriatric subjects have significant cardiovascular ailments. Apart from the intensive management of cardiovascular aspects in elderly, monitoring of the complementary cardiac medicine in those people should be received more attention. There are many management lines for a cardio-geriatric condition in Traditional Persian Medicine (TPM). Accordingly, this paper aimed to deal with those medicaments as well as evidence-based clinical aspects and phytochemistry. By searching through main pharmaceutical manuscripts of Persian medicine during 10th-18th centuries (A.D.), concurrently, natural medicines for geriatrics and remedies for cardiovascular ailments were derived. On the other side, related phytochemical and pharmacological aspects of those remedies were highlighted. In all, 38 cardiovascular and 34 geriatric medicaments were found in those manuscripts. Antihyperlipidemic and cholesterol lowering activities of those medicines were the most reported activities in current medicine. However, other pharmacological reports were related to hypotensive, coagulant, cardio-protective and cardiotonic activities. In regard of the chemical composition, medicaments were mainly of polyphenols and flavonoids and also most of the employed extracts and fractions were yielded from polar or semi-polar solvents. With reference to these findings, flavonoid-rich medicaments from Persian medicine may be selected as considerable herbs for geriatrics with cardiovascular ailments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. An ethnobotanical study on medicinal plants in Espiye and its surrounding (Giresun-Turkey).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polat, Rıdvan; Cakilcioglu, Ugur; Kaltalioğlu, Kaan; Ulusan, Musa Denizhan; Türkmen, Zafer

    2015-04-02

    This paper provides significant ethnobotanical information on medicinal plants in Espiye in the Black Sea Region. Recording such data calls for urgency. This is the first ethnobotanical study in which statistical calculations about plants are carried out by means of FIC method in Northern (Espiye-Giresun) part of Turkey. This study aims to identify the wild plants collected for medicinal purposes by locals of Espiye which is located in the Black Sea Region of Turkey, and to identify the uses and local names of these wild plants. A field study had been carried out for a period of approximately 2 years (2012-2014). During this period, information about medicinal use of 55 wild and 15 cultivated plants were collected. Demographic characteristics of participants, names of the local plants, their utilized parts and preparation methods were investigated and recorded. Through face-to-face interviews, we identified and recorded demographic characteristics of the respondents. We interviewed 128 persons who are over the age of 29. The plant taxa were collected within the scope of the study; and herbarium materials were prepared. In addition, the relative significance value of the taxa was determined, and informant consensus factor (FIC) was calculated for the medicinal plants included in the study. We have found out in the literature review of the plants included in our study that 70 plant taxa are already used for medicinal purposes while 3 plants are not available among the records in the literature. The most common families are Asteraceae, Rosaceae, Lamiaceae, Malvaceae, and Ericaceae. We include in our study and report for the first time the medicinal uses of Alchemilla crinita Buser, Stachys sylvatica L., and Thymus leucotrichus Hal. var. leucotrichus Hal. Names of local plants in Turkey vary especially due to vernaculars. The plants that the locals of Espiye use are called with the same or different local names in various parts of Anatolia. We found out that locals

  17. Ethical and regulatory issues surrounding African traditional medicine in the context of HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyika, Aceme

    2007-04-01

    It has been estimated that more than 80% of people in Africa use traditional medicine (TM). With the HIV/AIDS epidemic claiming many lives in Africa, the majority of people affected rely on TM mainly because it is relatively affordable and available to the poor populations who cannot afford orthodox medicine. Whereas orthodox medicine is practiced under stringent regulations and ethical guidelines emanating from The Nuremburg Code, African TM seems to be exempt from such scrutiny. Although recently there have been calls for TM to be incorporated into the health care system, less emphasis has been placed on ethical and regulatory issues. In this paper, an overview of the use of African TM in general, and for HIV/AIDS in particular, is given, followed by a look at: (i) the relative laxity in the application of ethical standards and regulatory requirements with regards to TM; (ii) the importance of research on TM in order to improve and demystify its therapeutic qualities; (iii) the need to tailor-make intellectual property laws to protect traditional knowledge and biodiversity. A framework of partnerships involving traditional healers' associations, scientists, policy makers, patients, community leaders, members of the communities, and funding organizations is suggested as a possible method to tackle these issues. It is hoped that this paper will stimulate objective and constructive debate that could enhance the protection of patients' welfare.

  18. Ethnobotanical study on medicinal plants in Geçitli and its surrounding (Hakkari-Turkey).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaval, Idris; Behçet, Lütfi; Cakilcioglu, Ugur

    2014-08-08

    This paper provides significant ethnobotanical information on medicinal plants in the Geçitli Township in the Eastern Anatolia Region. Recording such data calls for urgency this is the first ethnobotanical study in which statistical calculations about plants are carried out by means of the FIC method in Eastern (Hakkari) part of Turkey. Aim of the study This study aims to identify the wild plants collected for medicinal purposes by locals of Geçitli which is located in the Eastern Anatolia Region of Turkey, and to identify the uses and local names of these wild plants. A field study had been carried out for a period of approximately 2 years (2008-2010). During this period, 70 plants taxa and one mushroom were collected. Demographic characteristics of participants, names of the local plants, their utilized parts and preparation methods were investigated and recorded. The plant taxa were collected within the scope of the study; and herbarium materials were prepared. In addition, the relative significance value of the taxa was determined, and informant consensus factor (FIC) was calculated for the medicinal plants included in the study. We have found out in the literature review of the plants included in our study that 70 plant taxa and one mushroom are already used for medicinal purposes while 11 plants are not available among the records in the literature. The most common families are Asteraceae, Apiaceae, Lamiaceae, Rosaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, and Malvaceae. We include in our study and report for the first time the medicinal uses of Alchemilla hessii Rothm., Cirsium pubigerum (Desf.) DC. var. spinosum Pet., Diplotaenia cachrydifolia Boiss., Euphorbia macrocarpa Boiss. & Buhse, Galium consanguineum Boiss., Inula helenium L. subsp. vanensis Grierson, Johrenia dichotoma DC. subsp. sintenisii Bornm., Pelargonium quercetorum Agnew, Rosa heckeliana Tratt. subsp. vanheurckiana (Crĕp.) Ö. Nilsson, Salix aegyptiaca L., Taraxacum montanum (C.A. Mey.) DC. Names of

  19. Medicinal aspects of opium as described in Avicenna's Canon of Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydari, Mojtaba; Hashempur, Mohammad Hashem; Zargaran, Arman

    2013-01-01

    Throughout history, opium has been used as a base for the opioid class of drugs used to suppress the central nervous system. Opium is a substance extracted from the opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.). Its consumption and medicinal application date back to antiquity. In the medieval period, Avicenna, a famous Persian scholar (980-1037 AD) described poppy under the entry Afion of his medical encyclopedia Canon of Medicine. Various effects of opium consumption, both wanted and unwanted are discussed in the encyclopedia. The text mentions the effects of opioids such as analgesic, hypnotic, antitussive, gastrointestinal, cognitive, respiratory depression, neuromuscular disturbance, and sexual dysfunction. It also refers to its potential as a poison. Avicenna describes several methods of delivery and recommendations for doses of the drug. Most of opioid effects described by Avicenna have subsequently been confirmed by modern research, and other references to opium use in medieval texts call for further investigation. This article highlights an important aspect of the medieval history of medicine.

  20. Systematic Instruction in Interpretive Aspects of Laboratory Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Patrick C. J.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    It is increasingly important for physicians to develop competence in ordering and interpreting laboratory tests. The goals, organization, instructional approaches, and assessment of a course offering systematic instruction in laboratory medicine are described. (Editor/LBH)

  1. A survey of ethical issues surrounding supply of information to members of the public by hospital pharmacy medicines information centres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, Simon; Brown, David; Astbury, Sarah

    2002-04-01

    To examine ways in which medicines information pharmacists approach ethical dilemmas encountered in information supply, to appreciate the factors affecting any observed variation in responses, and to identify and training deficits among medicines information (MI) pharmacists in this area. A questionnaire was circulated to all medicines information pharmacists working in the hospital pharmacy service in the United Kingdom. The survey presented ten realistic scenarios involving requests for information on a variety of topics from 'lay' callers. Respondents were asked to identify any perceived ethical dilemmas presented by the scenarios and to indicate their preferred replies. Details on training given or received in this area were also requested. The overall response rate was 151 of 286 questionnaires mailed (52.8%), representing 137 discrete DI centres throughout the UK. Postgraduate clinical qualifications were possessed by 71% of respondents. Just 32 (21.2%) indicated that they gave training on ethical issues surrounding information supply while 57 (37.1%) said they had received such training. Over half (54.3%) had neither received nor delivered training on ethical issues. Of the 32 who said they gave training, 21 had received training themselves. Only 4 (2.6%) said they had a protocol in place for dealing with enquiries from members of the public. There was considerable variation in how respondents thought the scenarios might be resolved, emphasising the varying levels of appreciation of the issues and lack of a uniform approach to management. An interesting dichotomy emerged between liberal and conservative approaches. Liberal pharmacists clearly believed that all MI data is in the public domain and should be produced and evaluated on request because patients have a "right" to it. The conservative pharmacists had a more protective attitude toward the patient and believed that patients should not be given information by MI pharmacists directly; rather that it

  2. PHARMACOLOGICAL AND MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY ASPECTS OF CANNABIS COMPOUNDS

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    T. Cotelea

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The current communication includes a general overview of the scientific interest and medicianl chemistry aspects of Cannabis compounds. It relates to metabolism, pharmacological action and phisico-chemical analysis of these compounds, as well as of some isomers differing in spatial arrangement of functional groups.

  3. Residential Surrounding Greenness, Self-Rated Health and Interrelations with Aspects of Neighborhood Environment and Social Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orban, Ester; Sutcliffe, Robynne; Dragano, Nico; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Moebus, Susanne

    2017-04-01

    Previous research suggests that green environments positively influence health. Several underlying mechanisms have been discussed; one of them is facilitation of social interaction. Further, greener neighborhoods may appear more aesthetic, contributing to satisfaction and well-being. Aim of this study was to analyze the association of residential surrounding greenness with self-rated health, using data from 4480 women and men aged 45-75 years that participated in the German population-based Heinz Nixdorf Recall study. We further aimed to explore the relationships of greenness and self-rated health with the neighborhood environment and social relations. Surrounding greenness was measured using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) within 100 m around participants' residence. As a result, we found that with higher greenness, poor self-rated health decreased (adjusted OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.82-0.98; per 0.1 increase in NDVI), while neighborhood satisfaction (1.41, 1.23-1.61) and neighborhood social capital (1.22, 1.12-1.32) increased. Further, we observed inverse associations of neighborhood satisfaction (0.70, 0.52-0.94), perceived safety (0.36, 0.22-0.60), social satisfaction (0.43, 0.31-0.58), and neighborhood social capital (0.53, 0.44-0.64) with poor self-rated health. These results underline the importance of incorporating green elements into neighborhoods for health-promoting urban development strategies.

  4. Short Course on Cardiopulmonary Aspects of Aerospace Medicine. Addendum

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-05-01

    ventricular response during atrial fibrillation was relatively slow. In clinical cardiology , this is sometimes a sign of AV nodal disease , but in...OF CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE IN AVIATORS - A STRATIFIED BAYESIAN APPROACH 2 VALVULAR AND CONGENITAL HEART DISEASE IN TIlE AVIATOR 3 AEROMEDICAL ASPECTS...an acute catastrophy. They either had an infarct or they died. We have found angiogrpahic coronary disease in a lot of aviators before they have any

  5. [Theoretical viewpoints in psychosomatic medicine. The historical and current aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazet, P

    1984-03-22

    Everyday cases, clinical experience, and some experimental data show that emotional life has significant and varied expressions in the body: behaviours expressed somatically, "functional" visceral disorders, and even "organic" diseases. To explain these findings, various theoretical concepts have been or are currently put forward. Taking the basic hypothesis of psychosomatics, i.e. the notion of a psyche-soma functional unit, as a starting point, the author considers these main concepts under three different lightings, which are related to the methodologic conditions under which facts are studied: 1) the physiologic approach, which underscores the significance of psychophysiologic interactions, emphasizes either the results of conditioning or those of emotions, according to the case; stress is considered under this angle; 2) the psychological approach, according to the point of view, emphasizes the following notions: life event, subjective experience, personality profile, specific conflict, conversion or regression, defective mentalization; 3) the sociologic and ecologic approach focuses on the relationships between the individual and his surroundings and gives predominance to the notion of environment factors. After a few considerations on the concept of disease and the notion of etiologic multideterminism it is recalled that therapeutic effectiveness stems from the ability to take into account both bodily and psychic distress.

  6. Legal and ethical aspects of ghostwriting in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wnukiewicz-Kozłowska, Agata

    2011-02-01

    Ghostwriting in medicine represents a highly significant problem in both legal and ethical terms, and particularly in recent years owing to a sudden increase in the practice. The main goal in this paper is to present the legal and ethical rules connected with the ghostwriting phenomenon. The problem is presented in the context of international, European and Polish law. From a legal perspective the issues bound up with ghostwriting are those of the notion and authorship of a work, authors' rights (both moral rights and copyright), the content of these rights and their nature, as well as the question of the transfer of such rights. From the point of view of ethics there arises a need for reflection on honesty, accuracy and credibility as defined both generally and scientifically.

  7. Nutritional and medicinal aspects of D-amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Mendel; Levin, Carol E

    2012-05-01

    This paper reviews and interprets a method for determining the nutritional value of D-amino acids, D-peptides, and amino acid derivatives using a growth assay in mice fed a synthetic all-amino acid diet. A large number of experiments were carried out in which a molar equivalent of the test compound replaced a nutritionally essential amino acid such as L-lysine (L-Lys), L-methionine (L-Met), L-phenylalanine (L-Phe), and L-tryptophan (L-Trp) as well as the semi-essential amino acids L-cysteine (L-Cys) and L-tyrosine (L-Tyr). The results show wide-ranging variations in the biological utilization of test substances. The method is generally applicable to the determination of the biological utilization and safety of any amino acid derivative as a potential nutritional source of the corresponding L-amino acid. Because the organism is forced to use the D-amino acid or amino acid derivative as the sole source of the essential or semi-essential amino acid being replaced, and because a free amino acid diet allows better control of composition, the use of all-amino-acid diets for such determinations may be preferable to protein-based diets. Also covered are brief summaries of the widely scattered literature on dietary and pharmacological aspects of 27 individual D-amino acids, D-peptides, and isomeric amino acid derivatives and suggested research needs in each of these areas. The described results provide a valuable record and resource for further progress on the multifaceted aspects of D-amino acids in food and biological samples.

  8. Safety aspects of the bicycle traffic and the needs of cyclists in the City of Zagreb and its surrounding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sindik Joško

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The goals of this study were: to determine the possibility of forecasting for the preferences of cycling on the basis of all relevant factors Zagreb cycling (1 and to determine the differences between the participants in all the relevant factors in Zagreb cycling, by gender, in relation to membership in the Association "Trad Union of bicyclists", type of cycling and part of the city where cyclists live (2. Over 3000 members of the Association and cyclists who are not members of the Association ("average" cyclist are tested, using conveniently assembled questionnaire. It turned out that latent dimensions of the sub-questionnaires well represented themes: barriers to cycling, the role of the City in bicycle traffic, the purpose of using bicycle accident during bicycle traffic. People who are more inclined to participate in city traffic riding, often believe that the City should significantly improve conditions for cycling, tend to safer driving and more negative estimate lack of road cycling conditions in Zagreb. Women and members of the Union of cyclists often feel that the City should improve conditions for cycling and negatively evaluate the existing conditions of cycling, more often use the bike for different purposes and had frequent accidents bicycle. In the northern part of the city, Samobor, Zaprešić and Sesvete, Dugo Selo and Ivanja Reka participants were assessed to have the most adverse road conditions for cycling, while the wider center of Zagreb currently has the most favorable conditions for cycling. The results provide the guidance for improving the safety of the cycling in Zagreb and its surrounding, for taking constructive social actions at the state level and on the local-community level, as well as in the broader context of sustainable development.

  9. ETHICAL ASPECTS OF APPLICATION THE GENOMIC MEDICINE IN SPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Vitošević

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Today's level of knowledge of molecular biology and genetics is able to change the established belief that genetic predisposition is a good natural gift. The application of gene therapy in healthy individuals in order to increase sports performance is considered as manipulation and gene doping, which is actually believed that it could be a precursor to a broader notion of human "genetic enhancement" of physical characteristics such as strength, intelligence, social behavior and general improving the quality of life by genetic make-ap. In this sense, gene doping can have a significant and long-term impact on health and society in general and requires a more detailed ethical analysis and the implementation of preventive measures. The paper discusses the manipulation of genomic medicine in sport in terms of basic ethical principles and represents academic contributions to the study of the prevention, detection and control of this type of doping. Sport can and should keep the leading position in the scale of moral values in society through ethical arguments based on the balance of equality, rights and responsibilities. We cannot prevent the evolution of the sport, but we can and must direct this evolution in a better direction.

  10. [Psychological aspects in surgery--surgical aspects in psychology: psychosomatic medicine in routine practice?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hontschik, B

    1999-01-01

    Medicine appears to have reached a standstill, in particular surgery: While progress in apparative diagnostics and therapy, e.g. by ultrasound, endoscopy, laparoscopy, and arthroscopy, has reached in some areas "breathtaking speed", the parties concerned-surgeons and patients-lose in reserve air to breathe: no time for any profound consideration, no chance for in-depth talking before surgical procedures are performed, no training for giving real support after surgery. Do we see a brand of surgery which feels responsible only for a human machine without soul? Meanwhile discussions have begun inside medicine in general about a change of paradigms, ways of thinking, the model of the world. Surgery can even make substantial contributions to this change of paradigms. Surgery for the human machine? Psychosomatic ways of thinking are first seen not applicable for surgery. Substantial anxiety exists to take notice of each other. Three concrete examples from everyday practice in surgery demonstrate, how psychosomatic thinking can change and enrich surgical practice: From the area of indications reflections about appendectomy, from the operative-surgical area the phenomenon of self-destructive behaviour, from the restitutive area experiences in treatment of osteomyelitis. Back to the interpersonal area! Psychosomatics must be recognised as a way of thinking and be integrated as such into surgery. A so-called "integrated surgery" will arise. The examples demonstrate also, that it is not some anonymous surgical medicine, which must and can change, but that only the individual surgeon as a concrete person can bring back his work into the interpersonal area.

  11. The role of veterinarians in equestrian sport: a comparative review of ethical issues surrounding human and equine sports medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Madeleine L H

    2013-09-01

    Veterinarians have a key role in providing medical care for sports horses during and between competitions, but the standard client:veterinarian relationship that exists in companion and production animal medicine is distorted by the involvement of third parties in sports medicine, resulting in distinct ethical dilemmas which warrant focused academic attention. By comparing the existing literature on human sports medicine, this article reviews the ethical dilemmas which face veterinarians treating equine athletes, and the role of regulators in contributing to or resolving those dilemmas. Major ethical dilemmas occur both between and during competitions. These include conflicts of responsibility, conflicts between the need for client confidentiality and the need to share information in order to maximise animal welfare, and the need for an evidence base for treatment. Although many of the ethical problems faced in human and equine sports medicine are similar, the duty conferred upon a veterinarian by the licensing authority to ensure the welfare of animals committed to his or her care requires different obligations to those of a human sports medicine doctor. Suggested improvements to current practice which would help to address ethical dilemmas in equine sports medicine include an enhanced system for recording equine injuries, the use of professional Codes of Conduct and Codes of Ethics to establish acceptable responses to common ethical problems, and insistence that treatment of equine athletes is evidence-based (so far as possible) rather than economics-driven. Copyright © 2013 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. [Gender medicine. Sex- and gender-specific aspects of clinical medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kautzky-Willer, A

    2014-09-01

    Gender medicine studies sex- and gender-based differences in the development and prevention of diseases, the awareness and presentation of symptoms, and the effectiveness of therapy. Gender medicine is part of personalized medicine, considering differences in biological and psychosocial factors individually. There are differences in genes, chromosomes, hormones, and metabolism as well as differences in culture, environment, and society. Lifelong interactions between physical and psychosocial factors will influence the health and ill-health of men and women in different ways. Epigenetic modifications provide evidence of the impact of environment and lifestyle during vulnerable phases on biological processes, effecting future generations. Maternal lifestyle and environmental factors during pregnancy can impact the health of offspring in later life already in utero in a sex-specific way. Pain, stress, and coping styles differ between men and women. Women experience more dramatic physical changes during their lifetime, which are associated with specific burdens and psychosocial alterations. Women with multiple roles and responsibilities suffering from stress develop depression more frequently. However, men are often not diagnosed and treated appropriately in cases of depression or osteoporosis, diseases that are typically considered "female." There are prominent differences between men and women in medicine regarding the immune system, inflammation, and noncommunicable diseases such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. Women experience more often autoimmune diseases and suffer more frequently from (chronic) pain, neurodegenerative changes, and functional disabilities. Men have shorter life expectancy but relatively more healthy years of life, which is in greater part ascribed to psychosocial determinants. State-of-the-art clinical medicine comprises individual risk factors based on sex- and gender-sensitive health programs in order to

  13. Learning perceptual aspects of diagnosis in medicine via eye movement modeling examples on patient video cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jarodzka, Halszka; Balslev, Thomas; Holmqvist, Kenneth; Nyström, Marcus; Scheiter, Katharina; Gerjets, Peter; Eika, Berit

    2010-01-01

    Jarodzka, H., Balslev, T., Holmqvist, K., Nyström, M., Scheiter, K., Gerjets, P., & Eika, B. (2010). Learning perceptual aspects of diagnosis in medicine via eye movement modeling examples on patient video cases. In S. Ohlsson & R. Catrambone (Eds.), Proceedings of the 32nd Annual Conference of the

  14. Learning perceptual aspects of diagnosis in medicine via eye movement modeling examples on patient video cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jarodzka, Halszka; Balslev, Thomas; Holmqvist, Kenneth; Nyström, Marcus; Scheiter, Katharina; Gerjets, Peter; Eika, Berit

    2010-01-01

    Jarodzka, H., Balslev, T., Holmqvist, K., Nyström, M., Scheiter, K., Gerjets, P., & Eika, B. (2010, August). Learning perceptual aspects of diagnosis in medicine via eye movement modeling examples on patient video cases. Poster presented at the 32nd Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science

  15. Internal radiation therapy: a neglected aspect of nuclear medicine in the molecular era

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Yansong

    2015-01-01

    Abstract With increasing evidence, internal radiation therapy, also known as brachytherapy, has become a neglected aspect of nuclear medicine in the molecular era. In this paper, recent developments regarding internal radiation therapy, including developments in radioiodine-131 (131I) and thyroid, radioimmunotherapy (RIT) for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), and radiopharmaceuticals for bone metastases. Relevant differences and status of their applications in China were mentioned as well. These mo...

  16. Pharmacological and Medicinal Aspects of the Verses Containing Fig (At-tin in Holy Quran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Rameshrad

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Holy Quran, the last religious reference book, describes the importance of various plants in different chapters (Sura. Herbs have always been the principal form of traditional medicine in some countries. In this review article, the authors attempted to describe the impact of one of the Quranic plants (fig from medicinal aspects. This is a review article that was conducted using verses, regarding At-tin, which were gathered from Holy Quran and internet database. The electronic search of the scientific literature was mainly conducted on ‘PubMed’. One chapter of Holy Quran has been named "At-tin", which shows the importance of this fruit. Pharmacological aspects of fig, both in traditional and modern medicine, prove its benefits in many disorders. Different parts of this plant have been used to treat various disorders such as infections, diabetes, gastric problems, inflammation, and cancer. Among the various medical uses of fig, anticancer activity has the most considerable effect. Scientists of the current century have just realized some properties and applications of fig in medicine. Fourteen centuries ago, Holy Quran indicated the importance of ""

  17. Personalized Medicine in a New Genomic Era: Ethical and Legal Aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoaib, Maria; Rameez, Mansoor Ali Merchant; Hussain, Syed Ather; Madadin, Mohammed; Menezes, Ritesh G

    2017-08-01

    The genome of two completely unrelated individuals is quite similar apart from minor variations called single nucleotide polymorphisms which contribute to the uniqueness of each and every person. These single nucleotide polymorphisms are of great interest clinically as they are useful in figuring out the susceptibility of certain individuals to particular diseases and for recognizing varied responses to pharmacological interventions. This gives rise to the idea of 'personalized medicine' as an exciting new therapeutic science in this genomic era. Personalized medicine suggests a unique treatment strategy based on an individual's genetic make-up. Its key principles revolve around applied pharmaco-genomics, pharmaco-kinetics and pharmaco-proteomics. Herein, the ethical and legal aspects of personalized medicine in a new genomic era are briefly addressed. The ultimate goal is to comprehensively recognize all relevant forms of genetic variation in each individual and be able to interpret this information in a clinically meaningful manner within the ambit of ethical and legal considerations. The authors of this article firmly believe that personalized medicine has the potential to revolutionize the current landscape of medicine as it makes its way into clinical practice.

  18. Ethno-medicinal study of plants used for treatment of human ailments, with residents of the surrounding region of forest fragments of Paraná, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolson, Mônica; Hefler, Sonia Marisa; Hefler, Sonia Regina; Dall'Oglio Chaves, Elisiane Inês; Gasparotto Junior, Arquimedes; Cardozo Junior, Euclides Lara

    2015-02-23

    This study aims to document the traditional knowledge on the use of medicinal plants in the neighborhood of the protected area "Parque Estadual da Cabeça do Cachorro", a fragment of seasonal semideciduous forests. This vegetation is intensely fragmented and disturbed; despite its importance there are few records of the traditional knowledge of medicinal species. Twenty-four residents in the neighborhood of the protected area "Parque Estadual da Cabeça do Cachorro" were interviewed. The residents were questioned about preparation techniques, recommended doses, ways of administration and healing properties of various parts of the plants and were invited to walk through the park to collect in situ some species of plants. The recognized medicinal species were identified and traditional knowledge was systematized. Quantitative indices (Informant Consensus Factor - FIC and Use Value - UV) were calculated. 115 species of medicinal plants belonging to 54 botanical families were cited. Asteraceae (n=14), Fabaceae (n=11), Myrtaceae (n=6), Bignoniaceae, Solanaceae and Verbenaceae (n=5) were the most species-rich. The highest use values were calculated for Achyrocline satureioides, Aristolochia triangularis and Bauhinia forficata (0.63). Moreover, the informants consensus about usages of medicinal plants ranges from 0.024 to 0.663, which shows high level of agreements among the informants for gastro-intestinal and respiratory system diseases. Furthermore, for the first time, new traditional medicinal uses of Asteraceae (Chromolaena pedunculosa Hook. & Arn.), Commelinaceae (Tradescantia fluminensis Vell.) and Polypodiaceae (Microgramma vacciniifolia Langsd. & Fisch.) species were reported. Present study revealed that the residents of the surrounding region of forest fragments of Paraná are rich in ethno-medicinal knowledge and rely on plant-based remedies for common health problems. As in many parts of Brazil knowledge of the past is combined with new knowledge that has

  19. Sociological aspects of medicine and population unbalanced relationships in contemporary Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T V Semina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers sociological aspects of one of the most complex and urgent problems of the contemporary Russian society - the growing imbalance of social relationships between patients and doctors. Undoubtedly, in medicine each group - doctors and patients - is an element of poorly structured social network and an integral part of all types of interaction in the prevention and treatment of various diseases. This system of relationships is institutionalized and complex in itself, but social and economic processes can complicate or facilitate its functioning. Unfortunately, the growth of social differentiation in the Russian society in the last decades had a negative impact on all spheres of life including healthcare. Under given conditions and social stratification trends each group - doctors and patients - has developed specific value orientations as a kind of professional and personal quintessence of the current fundamental values. In particular, dissatisfaction with the financial situation in the light of work efforts and high level of education explains why doctors consider their social status inadequate and are forced to satisfy their material needs with the help of illegal means. The author proposes some measures to reduce the imbalance of medicine and society relationships in the contemporary Russian society, which suggest changing traditional models of healthcare and conflict management through the purposeful influence on the subject and object of the unbalanced relationships.

  20. [The historical aspect: the first 10 years of the Danish Medicines Agency--and the 50 years that came before].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overø, Jens

    2008-01-01

    In 1997, the office for administration regarding medicines and pharmacies was separated from the Danish Board of Health and organised as the Danish Medicines Agency (Laegemiddelstyrelsen). This Agency celebrated its 10 years anniversary by publishing a book, "Staten og laegemidlerne" (The state and the medicines), describing various aspects of the official control of medicines. The book chapters focus mainly on the latest 25-50 years, because the earlier periods from the 16th century and onwards have been thoroughly described previously, whereas more recent developments are more sparsely discussed in the literature. The present article emphasises the importance of keeping knowledge of the historical development alive. Many aspects of present day regulation only make sense with knowledge of what came before.

  1. Medicinal importance, pharmacological activities, and analytical aspects of aloin: A concise report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanika Patel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural products such as pure phytoconstituents and plant extracts offer limitless opportunities for the new drug development due to its unmatched chemical diversity. Plants play an important role in the medicinal preparations for both preventive and curative purpose. Some of the currently available drugs i.e. aspirin, digitalis, anti-malarial (quinine and anti-cancer (vincristine, vinblastine were derived from the plant sources. Aloin (C21H22O9, a yellow colour compound is a mixture of two diastereoisomers, aloin A and aloin B. Aloin is an anthrone C-glucoside having molecular weight 418, and it is the main phytoconstituents of aloes. Aloin is used for various pharmacological purposes such as laxative agent. It is also used as ingredients of various laxative pharmaceutical preparations. So far, varieties of analytical methods have been developed for the estimation of aloin in aloes product, which are mainly based on HPLC and TLC techniques. In the present review, pharmacological activities and analytical aspects of aloin were highlighted along with some useful tissue culture techniques. This review could be helpful to the researcher for the investigation of new molecule from aloin in the future.

  2. Ethnomedicinal, Phytochemical and Ethnopharmacological Aspects of Four Medicinal Plants of Malvaceae Used in Indian Traditional Medicines: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmeet Kaur Abat

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The ethnomedicinal values of plants form the basis of the herbal drug industry. India has contributed its knowledge of traditional system medicines (Ayurveda and Siddha to develop herbal medicines with negligible side effects. The World Health Organization has also recognized the benefits of drugs developed from natural products. Abutilon indicum, Hibiscus sabdariffa, Sida acuta and Sida rhombifolia are ethnomedicinal plants of Malvaceae, commonly used in Indian traditional system of medicines. Traditionally these plants were used in the form of extracts/powder/paste by tribal populations of India for treating common ailments like cough and cold, fever, stomach, kidney and liver disorders, pains, inflammations, wounds, etc. The present review is an overview of phytochemistry and ethnopharmacological studies that support many of the traditional ethnomedicinal uses of these plants. Many phytoconstituents have been isolated from the four ethnomedicinal plants and some of them have shown pharmacological activities that have been demonstrated by in vivo and/or in vitro experiments. Ethnomedicinal uses, supported by scientific evidences is essential for ensuring safe and effective utilization of herbal medicines.

  3. The Microbial Quality Aspects and Decontamination Approaches for the Herbal Medicinal Plants and Products: An in-Depth Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghisleni, Daniela Dal Molim; Braga, Marina de Souza; Kikuchi, Irene Satiko; Braşoveanu, Mirela; Nemţanu, Monica R; Dua, Kamal; Pinto, Terezinha de Jesus Andreoli

    2016-01-01

    The present review article provides an overview of the published literature concerning microbial quality of medicinal plants and products and their decontamination methods. It is important to analyze different aspects regarding the cultivation, growing, harvesting, storage, manufacturing, and decontamination of medicinal plant products. Herbal medicinal plants bear a massive microbial load leading to contamination and mycotoxin, which needs to be considered, and properly controlled using suitable sterilization and decontamination methods. The main focus of this review is on the definition, advantages, disadvantages and applications of decontamination methods, particularly to show that one must consider the characteristics of the initial sample to be decontaminated. The effects of various methods (ozone, plasma, irradiation) on medicinal herbs and products treated for microbiological decontamination are dependent on factors related to microbial load (i.e., nature and amount of initial contamination), herb/product matrix (i.e., complexity of chemical composition, physical state - solid or liquid) and treatment conditions (i.e., time, irradiation dose, absence or presence of oxygen). In addition, it is important to accept some loss of the chemical compounds, while decreasing microbial load to acceptable limits according to official herbal pharmacopoeias and literature, thus ensuring a final product with quality, safety and therapeutic efficacy. The conclusion, which comes from this contribution, is that herbal medicine has more contaminants than a chemically welldefined drug, thus, good manufacturing practices should be followed.

  4. [Medicinal plants in France, between pharmacy and herb trade: historical and legislative aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, H

    2015-09-01

    Medicinal plants are registered on the French Pharmacopoeia in its successive editions, the first dated 1818. The edition which is currently in force, the XIth (2012), comprises two plant lists drawn up by a working group of experts belonging to the ANSM: List A (medicinal plants traditionally used [365 plants]) and list B (medicinal plants with the ratio benefit/risk's evaluation negative [123 plants]). Moreover, a list of medicinal plants with non exclusive therapeutic use has been established. This last list is composed of 147 plants which are thus liberated from the pharmaceutical monopoly, in application of decrees n(o) 2008-839 and 2008-841 dated August 22nd 2008. Medicinal plants are a matter, in France, from pharmaceutical monopoly, which means that they can only be dispensed to public in pharmacy, according to article L. 4211-1/5° of the Public Health Code, except however for a certain number of plants "liberated" from this monopoly. Nevertheless, besides officinal pharmacists, herbalists who obtained their diploma as far as 1941, were habilitated to deliver medicinal plants, even non "liberated", on condition that they are not registered on a list of venomous substances nor classified among the stupefacients, according to the article L. 4211-7 of Public Health Code. Concerning plants for herbal teas, which should be differentiated from herbal teas classified among the herbal medicines, they can be delivered in mixtures form, which are considered as officinal preparations, according to the new French Pharmacopoeia monography of August 1st 2013. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. [Neurological aspects described in The treasure of medicines for all illnesses by Gregorio López].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carod-Artal, F J; Vázquez-Cabrera, C B

    Latin American medicine in the 16th century produced the first collections of herbs with native plants from the New World. Treatises on popular therapies appeared, which included gallenic remedies as well as incorporating autochthonous plants. We review the main neurological diseases and their treatments described in The Treasure of Medicines for All Illnesses by Gregorio Lopez (1542-1596). Some critics claim that his work was an enumeration of empirical prescriptions, sometimes with a magico-religious influence, which was extended in successive reprints. Yet, this manuscript is probably the first treatise on therapeutics written by a European in the New World to describe the native remedies employed in the treatment of diseases. In the section entitled Remedies in alphabetical order the following neurological ailments and appropriate remedies to treat them are described: abscess, apoplexy, brain, chilling, cramp, gota coral or epilepsy, headache, melancholy, memory, migraine, nerves, palsy, paralysis, sciatica, stupor and vertigo. The list of diseases is very complete and includes syndromes ranging from fevers, colics and bruises to phthisis, scabs or burns. The copy of the manuscript in the Vatican contains a final section on Indian medicines, which includes a list of medicinal plants used at that time, with the names given in Nahuatl language. Headaches, epilepsy and conditions affecting the peripheral nerves were the neurological pathologies that were described at greatest length in The Treasure of Medicines for All Illnesses, and for which a greater number of natural prescriptions were compiled.

  6. PERSONALIZED MEDICINE AS AN UPDATED MODEL OF NATIONAL HEALTH-CARE SYSTEM.PART 1. STRATEGIC ASPECTS OF INFRASTRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Suchkov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the key problems of the transition of the national health-care system to a new platform of personalized medicine and, in particular, pediatrics. The first part, published in this issue, analyzes the most important of the necessary aspects of the infrastructure of the new model. Evidence is given of the extreme urgency of introducing a new model of predictive, preventive and personalized medicine (PPPM. The result of implementation should be breakthrough success in solving many epidemiological, diagnostic, curative, preventive, social and economic problems. It is emphasized that neonatology and pediatrics are the most important link in this paradigm. When considering the potential architectonics of the model, important characteristics of its main segments are revealed. Diagnostic principles (genotyping, targeting, and dynamic screening of biomarkers and arsenal (genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, mathematical modeling tools, etc. of personalized medicine are presented. Attention is focused on the need to create information (global, regional and target-specific banks that are necessary for monitoring individual health. The need to create a new social decision-making mechanism for selecting a preventive protocol that minimizes the risks of the disease or prevents its development is discussed. Four categories of basic programs of medical and social support of persons from the risk category are considered. The necessary conditions for translating these programs into practice are presented. The main tasks and problems of developing the principles for the preparation of preventive-prophylactic and protocols of medical rehabilitation for personalized medicine were discussed. 

  7. Medicinal significance, pharmacological activities, and analytical aspects of ricinine: A concise report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanika Patel

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Ricinine (3-cyano-4-methoxy-N-methyl-2-pyridone is an alkaloid present in leaves and seeds of castor plant i.e. Ricinus communis. It can cause vomiting, convulsions, hypotension, liver and kidney damage and several other complications in human. Ricinine presents mainly in young plant and it is the only cyano-substituted pyridine compounds occurred naturally. Ricinine also found in some other plants such as Piper nigrum, Discocleidion rufescens, Aparisthmium cordatum and Nicotiana tabacum. Accidental and intended Ricinus communis intoxications in humans and animals have been known for centuries. In the present review, we summarize the information regarding its medicinal uses, pharmacological activities, analytical techniques and intended and unintended poisoning cases in humans and animals. This review will be beneficial for the researcher in the field of herbal medicine and other allied sciences.

  8. Aspects of Mathematical Modelling Applications in Science, Medicine, Economics and Management

    CERN Document Server

    Hosking, Roger J

    2008-01-01

    The construction of mathematical models is an essential scientific activity. Mathematics has long been associated with developments in the exact sciences and engineering, but more recently mathematical modelling has been used to investigate complex systems that arise in many other fields. The contributors to this book demonstrate the application of mathematics to modern research topics in ecology and environmental science, health and medicine, phylogenetics and neural networks, theoretical chemistry, economics and management.

  9. Medicinal importance, pharmacological activities, and analytical aspects of aloin: A concise report

    OpenAIRE

    Kanika Patel; Dinesh K. Patel

    2013-01-01

    Natural products such as pure phytoconstituents and plant extracts offer limitless opportunities for the new drug development due to its unmatched chemical diversity. Plants play an important role in the medicinal preparations for both preventive and curative purpose. Some of the currently available drugs i.e. aspirin, digitalis, anti-malarial (quinine) and anti-cancer (vincristine, vinblastine) were derived from the plant sources. Aloin (C21H22O9), a yellow colour compound is a mixture of tw...

  10. Aspects of healthcare computer networks security in the education of students of medicine and healthcare management

    OpenAIRE

    Mircheva, Iskra

    2001-01-01

    Preserving privacy and confidentiality of medical data has always been a fundamental question in medicine and healthcare. Information technologies state even greater requirements to medical data security, especially when, as expected, medical data should be transferred between the different healthcare providers using specialized or public computer networks. The presented paper outlines some basic requirements to healthcare networks security, with which the future medical specialists should ...

  11. Randomised trials in context: practical problems and social aspects of evidence-based medicine and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Warren; Raman, Sujatha; Turner, Andrew

    2015-09-01

    Randomised trials can provide excellent evidence of treatment benefit in medicine. Over the last 50 years, they have been cemented in the regulatory requirements for the approval of new treatments. Randomised trials make up a large and seemingly high-quality proportion of the medical evidence-base. However, it has also been acknowledged that a distorted evidence-base places a severe limitation on the practice of evidence-based medicine (EBM). We describe four important ways in which the evidence from randomised trials is limited or partial: the problem of applying results, the problem of bias in the conduct of randomised trials, the problem of conducting the wrong trials and the problem of conducting the right trials the wrong way. These problems are not intrinsic to the method of randomised trials or the EBM philosophy of evidence; nevertheless, they are genuine problems that undermine the evidence that randomised trials provide for decision-making and therefore undermine EBM in practice. Finally, we discuss the social dimensions of these problems and how they highlight the indispensable role of judgement when generating and using evidence for medicine. This is the paradox of randomised trial evidence: the trials open up expert judgment to scrutiny, but this scrutiny in turn requires further expertise.

  12. Public health aspects of the family medicine concepts in South eastern europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masic, Izet; Hadziahmetovic, Miran; Donev, Doncho; Pollhozani, Azis; Ramadani, Naser; Skopljak, Amira; Pasagic, Almir; Roshi, Enver; Zunic, Lejla; Zildzic, Muharem

    2014-08-01

    Family medicine as a part of the primary health care is devoted to provide continuous and comprehensive health care to the individuals and families regardless of age, gender, types of diseases and affected system or part of the body. Special emphasis in such holistic approach is given to the prevention of diseases and health promotion. Family Medicine is the first step/link between doctors and patients within patients care as well as regular inspections/examinations and follow-up of the health status of healthy people. Most countries aspire to join the European Union and therefore adopting new regulations that are applied in the European Union. The aim of this study is to present the role and importance of family medicine, or where family medicine is today in 21 Century from the beginning of development in these countries. The study is designed as a descriptive epidemiological study with data from 10 countries of the former Communist bloc, Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Montenegro, Macedonia, Kosovo, Albania, Bulgaria, Romania, Czech Republic, Slovakia and Hungary, just about half of them are members of the EU. We examined the following variables: socio-organizational indicators, health and educational indicators and health indicators. The data used refer to 2002 and as a source of data are used official data from reference WebPages of family medicine doctors associations, WONCA website (EURACT, EQuiP, EGPRN), WebPages of Bureau of Statistics of the countries where the research was conducted as well as the Ministries of Health. Results indicates that the failures and shortcomings of health care organizations in Southeast Europe. Lack of money hinders the implementation of health care reform in all mentioned countries, the most of them that is more oriented to Bismarck financing system. Problems in the political, legal and economic levels are obstacles for efficient a problem reconstructing health care system toward family medicine and primary

  13. PARONYMY IN THE SUBLANGUAGE OF MEDICINE (LINGUISTIC AND LINGUO-DIDACTIC ASPECTS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieliaieva, O; Lysanets, Yu; Havrylieva, K; Znamenska, I; Rozhenko, I; Nikolaieva, N

    2017-10-01

    The present paper examines the phenomenon of paronymy in the sublanguage of medicine. The study of paronyms plays an important role in the development of terminological competence of future specialists in the field of medicine and healthcare. The authors emphasize the need to pay due attention to terminological paronyms when compiling teaching manuals and developing didactic materials in Latin for students of medical universities. The urgency of organizing the work with these lexical units is determined, on the one hand, by the propaedeutic objective - minimization of difficulties that students may encounter in dealing with special terminology in the process of educational and professional communication; on the other hand, the study of paronyms is aimed at expanding the active and passive vocabulary of medical students. The objective of the research is to systematize paronyms in the international medical terminology, to develop the cycle of training assignments and methodological recommendations for organizing the work with this group of lexical units, and minimizing errors in oral and written speech of medical students. The authors have justified the methodological algorithm for the proposed cycle of tasks: presentation of the basic paronymic pairs, learning the vocabulary, control of mastering the material, creation of didactic conditions for correction and propaedeutics of speech errors; revision of the material. The proposed cycle of educational tasks is aimed at improving the lexical, grammatical, word-building, spelling knowledge, skills and abilities, as well as expanding and enriching the vocabulary of future medical professionals. The study may be of interest to specialists in the field of translation and terminology studies, professional linguo-didactics. The prospects for study consist in further in-depth research of the phenomenon of paronymy in the sublanguage of medicine and comprehensive analysis of other lexico-semantic relationships, the practical

  14. Ion beam treatment of polymers application aspects from medicine to space

    CERN Document Server

    Kondyurin, Alexey; McKenzie, David

    2010-01-01

    Polymer materials are used in different fields of industries, from microelectronice to medicine. Ion beam implantation is method of surface modification when surface properties must be significantly changed and bulk properties of material must be saved. Ion Beam Treatment of Polymers contains results of polymer investigations and techniques development in the field of polymer modification by high energy ion beams. This book is intended for specialists in polymer science who have interest to use an ion beam treatment for improvement of polymer properties, for specialists in physics who search

  15. Legal aspects of biobanking as key issues for personalized medicine & translational exploitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minssen, Timo; Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen

    2014-01-01

    This perspective article, which has is cuyrrently undergoing peer review by the medical journal “Personalized Medicine”, deals with the legal aspects of biobanking and points towards the concerns, interest, and choices that should be considered when establishing and operating a biobank. It focuses...... the particular significance of biobanks for the development of PM and translational innovation. The next part describes the inherently complex, dynamic and heterogeneous environment in which legal challenges to biobanking and the regulation of biomedicine must be considered. Based on our finding we then sketch...

  16. Cancer rehabilitation in Austria--aspects of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maehr, Bruno; Keilani, Mohammad; Wiltschke, Christoph; Hassler, Marco; Licht, Thomas; Marosi, Christine; Huetterer, Elisabeth; Cenik, Fadime; Crevenna, Richard

    2016-02-01

    In Austria, cancer rehabilitation is an important issue in the management of cancer patients. Survival rates and survival time of cancer patients are increasing, and cancer rehabilitation is an important part in the treatment and care of cancer patients with the goal to improve functional status, quality of life, and (social) participation. Today, in Austria there are approximately 600 beds for inpatient rehabilitation. The field of outpatient rehabilitation will maybe be expanded after evaluating the existing pilot projects. Beside other specialities, the field of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation (PM&R) plays an important role in cancer rehabilitation. In cancer rehabilitation, especially activating modalities from PM&R such as exercise are very important and well-accepted parts to improve functional status, quality of life, and participation of patients.

  17. Medicinal significance, pharmacological activities, and analytical aspects of solasodine: A concise report of current scientific literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanika Patel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Alkaloids are well known phytoconstituents for their diverse pharmacological properties. Alkaloids are found in all plant parts like roots, stems, leaves, flowers, fruits and seeds. Solasodine occurs as an aglycone part of glycoalkloids, which is a nitrogen analogue to sapogenins. Solanaceae family comprises of a number of plants with variety of natural products of medicinal significance mainly steroidal lactones, glycosides, alkaloids and flavanoids. It is a steroidal alkaloid based on a C27 cholestane skeleton. Literature survey reveals that solasodine has diuretic, anticancer, antifungal, cardiotonic, antispermatogenetic, antiandrogenic, immunomodulatory, antipyretic and various effects on central nervous system. Isolation and quantitative determination was achieved by several analytical techniques. Present review highlights the pharmacological activity of solasodine, with its analytical and tissue culture techniques, which may be helpful to the researchers to develop new molecules for the treatment of various disorders in the future.

  18. Pulmonary thromboembolic disease – clinical and etiological aspects in internal medicine department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazilu Laura

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pulmonary embolism (PE represents the third most frequent vascular disease following acute myocardial ischemic disease and stroke. It is a common and potentially lethal disease. Aim: We observed etiological spectrum, clinical aspects and diagnostic tests for patients with PE. Material and methods: Retrospective observational study that included 53 patients diagnosed with PE between 01.01.2009- 31.12.2013. We followed epidemiological aspects, risk factors, clinical manifestations and methods for positive diagnosis. Results: 53 patients which represents 0.66% from the patients admitted in our department (n=8,011, were diagnosed with PE. The main risk factor for PE was malignancy (n=16. Twenty patients with PE presented deep venous thrombosis (DVT and 12 patients arterial thrombosis (AT. Main clinical syndromes of patients with PE were pulmonary infarction (n=32, isolated dyspnea (n=11 and circulatory collapse (n=10. A lot of paraclinical investigation sustained positive diagnosis,mainly by high performance techniques. Four cases were diagnosed postmortem.

  19. Legal aspects of the risks raised by nanotechnologies in the field of medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirot-Mazères, Isabelle

    2011-01-01

    The major breakthroughs achieved in nanotechnologies open new avenues in the field of healthcare--aid to diagnosis, upgrading medical treatment efficacy, development of regenerative medicine--but they are also associated with risks, hence the increasing need of legislation. So far very little research work has been conducted on this technology whose applications are still limited and whose potential hazards are not yet clearly apprehended. The more and more frequent uses of nanoparticles in medical imaging and in current research projects dealing with tissue engineering or RFID raises the following question: is the current legislative framework relevant in light of the specificities of nano-objects? The challenge is twofold: the legal approach must encompass the nanometric element itself as a "legal object" but it must include the use of nanotechnologies and their final aims. There is still some degree of uncertainty concerning the innocuity of nanoparticles so that the use of nanoelements in aid to medical diagnosis and in clinical trials must take into account and anticipate the potential harmful effects on patients and on biomedical research teams. But due to the fact that a clear understanding of nanoparticles as specific objects with new features is still missing, the existing regulations on chemical substances, medicinal products, medical devices or cosmetics do not seem to be appropriate. So considering nanoparticles as "singular" legal objects is a prerequisite requiring an approach based on the precautionary principle. Misusing nanotechnologies in the medical field is also a cause for great concern. Threats on individual freedom and on private life as well as on human identity are real and they raise recurring questions. The possible deviations in the use of these techniques, the temptations to "trespass the limits" are also common to info technologies and to biotechnologies but the threats triggered by the nanotechnologies are enhanced by the

  20. ATTITUDE AND KNOWLEDGE OF MEDICAL STUDENTS ON PRACTICAL ASPECTS OF FORENSIC MEDICINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihal

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study explored medical students’ knowledge and attitude on the medico - legal autopsy demonstrations which formed part of their training in Forensic Medicine. 300 students of 2010, 2011 and 2012 batch of college were obtained by asking them to answer a questionnaire on the subject. The students were asked to respond anonymously to a questionnaire which dealt with their views on the autopsy practice, the knowledge of the procedure, attitude and perception towards medico legal autopsy. In present study majority of the students were aware of the situations where medico legal postmortem examination is mandatory as per Indian law and taking out of viscera for chemical analysis and histo - pathological examination for the purpose of medico - legal autopsy. 96% of the students agreed that autopsy is necessary in medical education. 37.95% of the students were very uncomfortable on the first exposure to postmortem examination. This study showed that medical students appreciate the medico - legal autopsy demonstration as a learning experience.

  1. Role of sport medicine professionals in addressing psychosocial aspects of sport-injury rehabilitation: professional athletes' views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvinen-Barrow, Monna; Massey, William V; Hemmings, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Research from the sport medicine professional's (SMP's) perspective indicates that SMPs are often required to address psychosocial aspects of injuries during treatment. However, only a few authors have investigated injured athletes' experiences with these concerns. To explore injured professional athletes' views on the role of SMPs in the psychosocial aspects of sport-injury rehabilitation. Design : Qualitative study. Professional association football and rugby union clubs. Ten professional, male football (n = 4; 40%) and rugby union (n = 6; 60%) players (age = 22.4 ± 3.4 years). Data Collection and Analysis : We collected data using a semistructured interview guide, and the data were then transcribed and analyzed following the interpretative phenomenological analysis guidelines. We peer reviewed and triangulated the established emergent themes to establish trustworthiness. Athletes in our study viewed injuries as "part and parcel" of their sports. Despite normalizing sport injuries, athletes reported frequent feelings of frustration and self-doubt throughout the rehabilitation process. However, athletes' perceived the role of SMPs in injury rehabilitation as addressing physical concerns; any intervention aimed at psychosocial outcomes (eg, motivation, confidence) needed to be subtle and indirect. The SMPs working with injured athletes need to understand the psychosocial principles that underpin athletes' sport-injury processes and the effect psychosocial reactions can have on athletes. Moreover, SMPs must understand the self-regulatory processes that may take place throughout injury rehabilitation and be able to apply psychological principles in natural and subtle ways to aid athletes' self-regulatory abilities.

  2. Preparation and use of plant medicines for farmers' health in Southwest Nigeria: socio-cultural, magico-religious and economic aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oguntade Adegboyega E

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Agrarian rural dwellers in Nigeria produce about 95% of locally grown food commodities. The low accessibility to and affordability of orthodox medicine by rural dwellers and their need to keep healthy to be economically productive, have led to their dependence on traditional medicine. This paper posits an increasing acceptance of traditional medicine country-wide and advanced reasons for this trend. The fact that traditional medicine practitioners' concept of disease is on a wider plane vis-à-vis orthodox medicine practitioners' has culminated in some socio-cultural and magico-religious practices observed in preparation and use of plant medicines for farmers' health management. Possible scientific reasons were advanced for some of these practices to show the nexus between traditional medicine and orthodox medicine. The paper concludes that the psychological aspect of traditional medicine are reflected in its socio-cultural and magico-religious practices and suggests that government should fund research into traditional medicine to identify components of it that can be integrated into the national health system.

  3. Does admission to a specialist geriatric medicine ward lead to improvements in aspects of acute medical care for older patients with dementia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Robert; O'Shea, Emma; de Siún, Ana; O'Neill, Desmond; Gallagher, Paul; Timmons, Suzanne; Kennelly, Sean

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this study is to clarify if admission to a specialist geriatric medicine ward leads to improvements in aspects of acute medical care for patients with dementia. We analysed combined data involving 900 patients from the Irish and Northern Irish audits of dementia care. Data on baseline demographics, admission outcomes, clinical aspects of care, multidisciplinary assessment and discharge planning processes were collected. Less than one-fifth of patients received their inpatient care on a specialist geriatric medicine ward. Patients admitted to a geriatric medicine ward were less likely to undergo a formal assessment of mobility compared with those in non-geriatric wards (119/143 (83%) vs 635/708 (90%), odds ratio (OR) = 0.57 (0.35 to 0.94)) and were more likely to receive newly prescribed antipsychotic medication during the admission (27/54 (50%) vs 95/2809 (36%), OR = 1.95 (1.08 to 3.51)). Patients admitted to a geriatric medicine ward were more likely to have certain aspects of discharge planning initiated, including completion of a single plan for discharge (78/118 (66%) vs 275/611 (45%), OR = 2.38 (1.58 to 3.60)). Surgical wards performed more poorly on certain aspects including having a named discharge co-ordinator (32/71, 45%) and documentation of decisions regarding resuscitation status (18/95, 19%). Relatively low numbers of patients with dementia received care on a specialist geriatric medicine ward. There appears to be a more streamlined discharge planning process in place on these wards, but they did not perform as well as one would expect in certain areas, such as compliance with multidisciplinary assessment and antipsychotic prescribing. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Practices Surrounding Event Photos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vyas, Dhaval; Nijholt, Antinus; van der Veer, Gerrit C.; Kotzé, P.; Marsden, G.; Lindgaard, G.; Wesson, J.; Winckler, M.

    Sharing photos through mobile devices has a great potential for creating shared experiences of social events between co-located as well as remote participants. In order to design novel event sharing tools, we need to develop indepth understanding of current practices surrounding these so called

  5. Strategic aspects of higher education reform to cultivate specialists in diagnostic and biopharma industry as applicable to Predictive, Preventive and Personalized Medicine as the Medicine of the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studneva, М; Mandrik, M; Song, Sh; Tretyak, E; Krasnyuk, I; Yamada, Y; Tukavin, A; Ansari, A; Kozlov, I; Reading, C; Ma, Y; Krapfenbauer, K; Svistunov, A; Suchkov, S

    2015-01-01

    Predictive, Preventive and Personalized Medicine as the Medicine of the Future represents an innovative model for advanced healthcare and robust platform for relevant industrial branches for diagnostics and pharmaceutics. However, rapid market penetration of new medicines and technologies demands the implementation of reforms not only in the spheres of biopharmaceutical industries and healthcare, but also in education. Therefore, the problem of the fundamental, modern preparation of specialists in bioengineering and affiliated fields is becoming particularly urgent, and it requires significant revision of training programs of higher education practice into current medical universities. Modernization and integration of widely accepted medical and teaching standards require consolidation of both the natural sciences and medical sciences that may become the conceptual basis for a university medical education. The main goal of this training is not simply to achieve advanced training and expansion of technological skills, but to provide development of novel multifaceted approaches to build academic schools for future generations.

  6. The sociocultural aspects, professional characteristics, and motivational factors of the first fellows of the European committee of sexual medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbanas, Goran; Reisman, Yacov; Andrews, Shalini

    2015-06-01

    After a century of development in the field of sexology and decades of attempts to establish the field of sexual medicine, the first examination that led to the qualification as Fellows of the European Committee of Sexual Medicine (FECSM) was held in December 2012. This study aims to describe the first European specialists in sexual medicine, their clinical practice, motivation, and professional self-identification. A web-based survey of the first FECSM on demographic data, data on the practices of their work (gender of clients, setting, and time frame), and reasons for entering the sexual medicine (five-point Likert rating of motives and open question on other reasons) was conducted. Gender, religion, specialty, region, and their association with professional practices of the first FECSM. The first FECSM have a wide range of experience in the field of sexual medicine (0-30 years) and were mainly men (79%) and urologists (56%). Only 15.5% had other qualifications related to sexual medicine and 60% self-identified as sexual medicine specialists. Only a small proportion of the professional time was dedicated to the practice of sexual medicine. The primary speciality influenced the gender of their patients seen, setting of work (couple vs. individuals), and time spent with patients. Only a minority managed sexual problems in women; hypoactive sexual desire is treated by 41% of FECSM and dyspareunia by 17%. The participants were motivated by the pleasure of knowing new things and desire to understand and to help patients, whereas prestige, finances, and own sex lives are less important. The first FECSM are very diverse in terms of age, culture, religion, and primary specialty. Their practice is strongly influenced by their primary specialty, and this needs to be taken into account in future development of the speciality. © 2015 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  7. Surround 3-Dimensional Scanner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karbowski Krzysztof

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes original 3-dimensional structured light scanner used for medical application. Scanner kinematics is similar to the gantry mechanism of computed tomography apparatus. The unique feature of the presented scanner is a glass table for capturing image of a human body part. The scanner can acquire an object through the table. It gives the chance for surround scanning of the human body, using only one scanning head, without changing the body position. It is more cost effective scanner solution than multihead scanner configuration.

  8. Natural medicines from plant source used for therapy of diabetes mellitus: An overview of its pharmacological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DK Patel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants play an important role in the treatment of diabetes mellitus, especially in the developing countries due to their cost effectiveness. Diabetes mellitus, a metabolic disorder, is becoming a serious threat to mankind health. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus is expected to reach up to 4.4% in the world by 2030. Among all type of diabetes, type 2 diabetes is main complication. Currently available treatment options in modern medicine have several adverse effects. Therefore, there is a need to develop safe and effective treatment modalities for diabetes. In this regard, plants provide the best option for search of desired safe and effective medications. Since ancient times, plants have been an exemplary source of medicine. Various plants have been found to possess significant anti-diabetic property after their preclinical and clinical evaluation. This present review presents the profiles of plants with hypoglycaemic properties reported in the literature from 2009 to 2011. Use of these plants may delay the development of diabetic complications and can correct the metabolic abnormalities through variety of mechanisms. Moreover, during the past few years many phytoconstituents responsible for anti-diabetic effects have been isolated from plants. Since this review has been presented in a very interactive manner showing geographical region of availability, parts of plant used, mechanism of action and phytoconstituents responsible for particular action, it will be of great importance to intrested readers to easily identify and go for further research on the plant oftheir interest.

  9. USE OF ALTERNATIVE AND COMPLEMENTARY MEDICINE IN PATIENTS WITH MALIGNANT DISEASES IN HIGH-VOLUME CANCER CENTER AND FUTURE ASPECTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kust, Davor; Šamija, Ivan; Marić-Brozić, Jasmina; Svetec, Branka; Miletić, Marija; Mamić, Gordana; Bolanča, Ante; Kusić, Zvonko; Fröbe, Ana

    2016-12-01

    Usage of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is steadily increasing over the last decades, gaining medical, economic and sociological importance. The aim of the present study was to assess the use of complementary and alternative therapies in cancer patients. A cross-sectional, descriptive survey design was used to collect data through an anonymous questionnaire. A total of 267 patients were included in the study. The prevalence of CAM use among cancer patients in this study was 60.3%. It was found that 61 heterogeneous CAM therapies were used, the most popular among patients being naturopathy/folk medicine. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, independent predictors of CAM use were high income, divorced status, female sex and younger age. In conclusion, considering the fact that a large proportion of patients used at least one CAM approach, we need to continue our efforts to improve the patient-oncologist communication in order to deliver most reliable information to patients and to better understand the possible standard medicine-CAM interactions. According to results of the latest studies, CAM therapies that help manage pain, nausea, fatigue, anxiety, and other symptoms should be integrated into the patient overall care.

  10. Binaural Rendering in MPEG Surround

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breebaart, Jeroen; Villemoes, Lars; Kjörling, Kristofer

    2008-12-01

    This paper describes novel methods for evoking a multichannel audio experience over stereo headphones. In contrast to the conventional convolution-based approach where, for example, five input channels are filtered using ten head-related transfer functions, the current approach is based on a parametric representation of the multichannel signal, along with either a parametric representation of the head-related transfer functions or a reduced set of head-related transfer functions. An audio scene with multiple virtual sound sources is represented by a mono or a stereo downmix signal of all sound source signals, accompanied by certain statistical (spatial) properties. These statistical properties of the sound sources are either combined with statistical properties of head-related transfer functions to estimate "binaural parameters" that represent the perceptually relevant aspects of the auditory scene or used to create a limited set of combined head-related transfer functions that can be applied directly on the downmix signal. Subsequently, a binaural rendering stage reinstates the statistical properties of the sound sources by applying the estimated binaural parameters or the reduced set of combined head-related transfer functions directly on the downmix. If combined with parametric multichannel audio coders such as MPEG Surround, the proposed methods are advantageous over conventional methods in terms of perceived quality and computational complexity.

  11. Binaural Rendering in MPEG Surround

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristofer Kjörling

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes novel methods for evoking a multichannel audio experience over stereo headphones. In contrast to the conventional convolution-based approach where, for example, five input channels are filtered using ten head-related transfer functions, the current approach is based on a parametric representation of the multichannel signal, along with either a parametric representation of the head-related transfer functions or a reduced set of head-related transfer functions. An audio scene with multiple virtual sound sources is represented by a mono or a stereo downmix signal of all sound source signals, accompanied by certain statistical (spatial properties. These statistical properties of the sound sources are either combined with statistical properties of head-related transfer functions to estimate “binaural parameters” that represent the perceptually relevant aspects of the auditory scene or used to create a limited set of combined head-related transfer functions that can be applied directly on the downmix signal. Subsequently, a binaural rendering stage reinstates the statistical properties of the sound sources by applying the estimated binaural parameters or the reduced set of combined head-related transfer functions directly on the downmix. If combined with parametric multichannel audio coders such as MPEG Surround, the proposed methods are advantageous over conventional methods in terms of perceived quality and computational complexity.

  12. "Where Does the Circle End?": Representation as a Critical Aspect of Reflection in Teaching Social and Behavioral Sciences in Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlin, Michael J; Richards, Boyd F; Cunningham, Hetty; Desai, Urmi; Lewis, Owen; Mutnick, Andrew; Nidiry, Mary Anne J; Saha, Prantik; Charon, Rita

    2015-12-01

    This paper describes a reflective learning program within a larger curriculum on behavioral and social science that makes use of close reading, written representation of experience, discussion, and textual response. This response may in turn lead to further reflection, representation, and response in a circular pattern. A unique feature of this program is that it pays attention to the representation itself as the pivotal activity within reflective learning. Using the narrative methods that are the hallmark of this program, faculty writings were analyzed to characterize the essential benefits that derive from these practices. In the context of a faculty development seminar on the teaching of behavioral and social sciences in medical curricula, a group of 15 faculty members wrote brief narratives of reflective learning experiences in which they had made use of the methods described above. Their responses were submitted to iterative close reading and discussion, and potential themes were identified. Four themes emerged: writing as attention to self, writing as attention to other, writing as reader/writer contract, and writing as discovery. In each instance, writing provides a new or deepened perspective, and in each case, the dividends for the writer are amplified by the narrative skills of those who read, listen, and respond. The narrative pedagogy described and modeled herein provides a potentially promising approach to teaching the social, cultural, behavioral, and interpersonal aspects of medical education and practice. Future research will deepen our understanding of the benefits and limitations of this pedagogy and expand our appreciation of its applications.

  13. Adverse effects of immunotherapy. Clinical aspects, radiological and nuclear medicine results; Unerwuenschte Wirkungen der Immuntherapie. Klinik, radiologische und nuklearmedizinische Befunde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widmann, G.; Plaickner, J.; Jaschke, W. [Medizinische Universitaet Innsbruck, Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiologie, Innsbruck (Austria); Nguyen, V.A. [Medizinische Universitaet Innsbruck, Universitaetsklinik fuer Dermatologie, Venerologie und Allergologie, Innsbruck (Austria)

    2017-10-15

    The increasing use of immunotherapy in oncology increases the need for radiologic evaluation of frequent and severe immune-related adverse events. Determination of the incidence and manifestation of radiologic and nuclear medicine findings of immune-related adverse events. Literature review of clinical and imaging findings of immune-related adverse events induced by the immune checkpoint inhibitors ipilimumab, nivolumab and pembrolizumab. Findings are illustrated with pictorial examples and contrasted to other relevant differential diagnoses. The most frequent imaging manifestations are colitis, hepatitis, pancreatitis, hypophysitis, pneumonitis, arthritis and sarcoid-like lymphadenopathy. Severe to life-threatening complications may result from colitis, pneumonitis and hypophysitis. A clear differentiation from other autoimmune diseases and discrimination of immune-related and infectious pulmonary findings can be very difficult and need close multidisciplinary collaboration. Knowledge of clinical and imaging findings of adverse events induced by immunotherapy is essential for timely and adequate therapeutic decisions. In addition to staging and follow-up imaging, identification and monitoring of immune-related adverse events adds to the radiologic responsibility in oncologic care. (orig.) [German] Mit zunehmendem Einsatz von Immuntherapien in der Onkologie steigt die Bedeutung der radiologischen Beurteilung haeufiger und schwerwiegender immunbedingter Nebenwirkungen. Inzidenz und Manifestation radiologischer und nuklearmedizinischer Befunde der immunbedingten Nebenwirkungen. Literaturuebersicht zu Klinik und bildgebenden Befunden immunbedingter Nebenwirkungen der Immuncheckpointinhibitoren Ipilimumab, Nivolumab und Pembrolizumab. Veranschaulichung mit Bildbeispielen und Gegenuebergestellung mit anderen relevanten Differenzialdiagnosen. Die haeufigsten bildgebenden Manifestationen sind Kolitis, Hepatitis, Pankreatitis, Hypophysitis, Pneumonitis, Arthritis und die

  14. [Direct costs and clinical aspects of adverse drug reactions in patients admitted to a level 3 hospital internal medicine ward].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribiño, Gabriel; Maldonado, Carlos; Segura, Omar; Díaz, Jorge

    2006-03-01

    Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) occur frequently in hospitals and increase costs of health care; however, few studies have quantified the clinical and economic impact of ADRs in Colombia. These impacts were evaluated by calculating costs associated with ADRs in patients hospitalized in the internal medicine ward of a Level 3 hospital located in Bogotá, Colombia. In addition, salient clinical features of ADRs were identified and characterized. Intensive follow-ups for a cohort of patients were conducted for a five month period in order to detect ADRs; different ways to classify them, according to literature, were considered as well. Information was collected using the INVIMA reporting format, and causal probability was evaluated with the Naranjo algorithm. Direct costs were calculated from the perspective of payer, based on the following costs: additional hospital stay, medications, paraclinical tests, additional procedures, patient displacement to intermediate or intensive care units, and other costs. Of 836 patients admitted to the service, 268 adverse drug reactions were detected in 208 patients (incidence proportion 25.1%, occurence rate 0.32). About the ADRs found, 74.3% were classified as probable, 92.5% were type A, and 81.3% were moderate. The body system most often affected was the circulatory system (33.9%). Drugs acting on the blood were most frequently those ones associated with adverse reactions (37.6%). The costs resulting from medical care of adverse drug reactions varied from COL dollar 93,633,422 (USD dollar 35,014.92) to COL dollar 122,155,406 (USD dollar 45,680.94), according to insurance type, during the study period. Adverse drug reactions have a significant negative health and financial impact on patient welfare. Because of the substantial resources required for their medical care and the significant proportion of preventable adverse reactions, active programs of institutional pharmacovigilance are highly recommended.

  15. Medicinal Plants in the Broad-Leaf Mixed Coniferous Forest of Tshothang Chiwog, Bhutan: Floristic Attributes, Vegetation Structure, Ethnobotany, and Socioeconomic Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngawang Jamba

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Himalayan Kingdom of Bhutan, located in one of the global biodiversity hotspots, is endowed with abundant floral wealth, including a wide array of medicinal plants (MPs. However, over-exploitation of these resources is widespread, and only a few studies have assessed the richness and diversity of Bhutanese forests and in particular about the MP resources. A vegetation survey was conducted in Tshothang Chiwog, south-eastern Bhutan to characterize the floristic structure of the broad-leaf mixed coniferous forests with a special focus on MPs. A questionnaire survey involving 40 farmers was also conducted to assess the ethnobotanical and socioeconomic aspects of MP extraction. A total of 157 plant species (38 trees, 19 shrubs, 85 herbs and ferns, and 15 climbers, representing 74 families and 137 genera were identified from the study area, of which 69 species (14 trees, 10 shrubs, 38 herbs and ferns, and seven climbers, belonging to 41 families and 69 genera were medicinally important. The most species-rich families of medicinal plants were: Asteraceae (eight spp., Apiaceae (four spp., Polygonaceae, Brassicaceae, Zingiberaceae, and Urticaceae (three species each. Herbaceous flora exhibited the highest diversity (Simpson diversity index, D = 0.97 and Shannon-Weiner index, H′ = 5.82, followed by trees and shrubs (D = 0.95 and 0.92 and H′ = 4.86 and 3.97, respectively. All but one herb showed abundance-to-frequency ratio (A/F ≥0.05, signifying a contagious distribution pattern (large aggregated distribution. Girth class distribution of trees followed an inverse J-shaped pattern. Results of the ethnobotanic study documented 55 MPs. MP collection, as reported by the interviewees, generally improved the socioeconomic status of the people of Tshothang Chiwog. Apart from improving the livelihood security of the local people, aspects relating to health care and culture are also important. Respondents were also concerned about the declining MP wealth

  16. Cultural aspects and mythologies surrounding menstruation and abnormal uterine bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Delfin A; Haththotuwa, Rohana; Fraser, Ian S

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this chapter is to present an overview of how menstruation, a normal bodily function, was and is perceived in various ethnic groups and cultures in the world, from ancient mythology, historical, or traditional practices to contemporary belief systems. Mythical tales about menstruation abound in the legends and prehistory of ancient cultures. These tales characterize menstrual blood variously as sacred, a gift from the gods, or a punishment for sin, but it is almost always magical and powerful. In contrast, most world religions view menstruation, with varying degrees of severity, as a major problem, a sign of impurity and uncleanliness, and therefore, menstruating women are isolated, prohibited from polluting the holy places, and shunned. Many of these myths and cultural misperceptions persist to the present day, reflected in a wide range of negative attitudes toward menstruation, which can have serious and direct implications for reproductive health. In view of the increasingly globalized nature of current clinical practice, it is crucial that health care providers are familiar with existing cultural and social views and attitudes toward the menstrual function. The ultimate goal is to be able to provide women culturally sensitive and medically appropriate therapies for their menstrual disorders. This biocultural approach to menstruation management is desirable in contemporary medical practice. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Surround articulation. II. Lightness judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirillo, J A

    1999-04-01

    It has been hypothesized that to achieve color constancy, lightness judgments require an estimate of the illuminant. A companion paper [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 793 (1999)] suggests that surround articulation enhances the likelihood that a global luminance edge will be interpreted as being due to changes in illumination rather than in reflectance. Articulation is the process of adding equally spaced incremental and decremental patches within a surround while preserving the surround's space-average luminance. Such a process results in lightness judgments that correlate perfectly with equal local ratio matches. For decrements, lightness constancy does not require articulation. These findings help explain why Arend and Goldstein [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4, 2281 (1987)] obtained color constancy with complex Mondrian surrounds but not with simple center surrounds.

  18. ADMINISTRATIVE AND ORGANIZATIONAL ASPECTS OF FUNCTIONING OF THE SYSTEM OF AVAILABILITY NARCOTIC AND PSYCHOTROPIC MEDICINAL PREPARATIONS FOR PATIENTS WHO NEED THEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Kaminskaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances still remain indispensable in medicine. One of the top priorities of health care is to ensure the required availability of this group of drugs. The development of an effective system which can ensure crucially important availability of narcotic and psychotropic agents to people who need them for medical purposes must rely on the identification and analysis of the nature and specificity of the problems related to them as well as the ways of solving these problems. ThePurpose of the Study was to explore the constituents of the system ensuring medicinal availability of narcotic and psychotropic agents and to identify the factors hindering the availability of this group of medicinal agents.Materials and Methods. The study involved the systematic review analysis of the scientific publications and guidance  documents regulating various aspects of activities involving the turnover of controlled drugs, and the results of surveys and interviews in which medical and pharmaceutical professionals were engaged. The study employed the methods of content analysis, logical and functional analysis, etc.Results and Discussion. The system of narcotic and psychotropic drug (NPD availability for patients who need them is currently going through reforms which have been conditioned by low accessibilty of these drugs when used for medical purposes. Those engaged in the drug supply system including medical and pharmaceutical professionals point out that excessive bureaucratization of the system of NPD supply and availability, complexity of documentation and paperwork reporting thedrug flow, costliness of these activities, and strict liability account for low availability of such drugs. To ensure the rights of the citizens to relieve pain due to diseases or medical interventions, a number of changes in the laws and regulations have been made. They have simplified the requirements for NPD

  19. Aspects and progresses of the Program for Regulatory Inspection of Nuclear Medicine in Brazil; Aspectos e progressos do Programa de Inspecao Regulatoria em Servicos de Medicina Nuclear do Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Carlos Eduardo Gonzalez Ribeiro

    2004-07-01

    This work aims to show the advances in the Nuclear Medicine auditing field performed by the Nuclear Medicine Group of the Division of Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicine of the Inst. of Radiation Protection and Dosimetry. The main aspects observed during the auditing are presented as well as the evolution of the non-conformities. It is shown that the occurrence of these non-conformities decreases year by year, primarily as a function of the severity of the auditing and the consciousness of the personal of Nuclear Medicine Services. Results point clearly to the importance of the coercion actions to guarantee a radiation protection level in compliance with the standards established by the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission. (author)

  20. First Do No Harm: An Analysis of the Risk Aspects and Side Effects of Clinical Holistic Medicine Compared With Standard Psychiatric Biomedical Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Ventegodt

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical holistic medicine (CHM is short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy (STPP complemented with bodywork and philosophical exercises, to be more efficient in treating patients with severe mental and physical illness. STPP has already been found superior to psychiatric treatment as usual (TAU and thus able to compete with psychiatric standard treatment as the treatment of choice for all non-organic mental illnesses; we have found the addition of bodywork and philosophy of life to STPP to accelerate the process of existential healing and recovery (salutogenesis. In this paper we compare the side effects, suicidal risk, problems from implanted memory and implanted philosophy of CHM with psychopharmacological treatment. Method: Qualitative and quantitative comparative review. Results: In all aspects of risks, harmfulness, and side effects, we have been considering, CHM was superior to the standard psychiatric treatment. The old principle of “first do no harm“ is well respected by CHM, but not always by standard psychiatry. CHM seems to be able to heal the patient, while psychopharmacological drugs can turn the patient into a chronic, mentally ill patient for life. Based on the available data CHM seems another alternative to patients with mental illness. There seem to be no documentation at all for CHM being dangerous, harmful, having side effects of putting patients at risk for suicide. As CHM uses spontaneous regression there is no danger for the patient developing psychosis as, according to some experts, has been seen with earlier intensive psychodynamic methods. CHM is an efficient, safe and affordable cure for a broad range of mental illnesses.

  1. [Epidemiological, clinical, therapeutic and evolutive aspects of Basedow-Graves disease in the Depatment of Internal Medicine at CHU Aristide Le Dantec, Dakar (Senegal)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diagne, Nafissatou; Faye, Atoumane; Ndao, Awa Cheikh; Djiba, Boundia; Kane, Baidy Sy; Ndongo, Souhaibou; Pouye, Abdoulaye

    2016-01-01

    Basedow-Graves disease is an autoimmune affection characterized by the association of thyrotoxicosis with variable frequency events such as goiter, ophthalmopathy and pretibial myxedema. Its diagnosis is often easy, while its management remains difficult. A simple medical treatment exposes patient to recurrence risk. In Senegal and Sub-Saharan Africa few studies have focused on Basedow-Graves disease. This study aims to describe the epidemiological, clinical, therapeutic and evolutionary aspects of Basedow-Graves disease at a Hospital in Dakar. This was a retrospective study conducted from 1 January 2010 to 31 December 2013 in the Department of Internal Medicine at the Aristide Le Dantec University Hospital. During this period, 108 patients receiving outpatient treatment for Basedow-Graves disease were included out of a total of 834 patients receiving outpatient treatment. The diagnosis was made on the basis of clinical, biological and immunological signs. One hundred and eight patients suffering from Basedow-Graves disease were included out of a total of 834 consultations. Sex ratio was 7.3 and the average age was 34.6 years. The main reasons for consultation were: palpitations and weight loss in 46.3% and 39.8% of cases respectively. Thyrotoxicosis syndrome was found in 93.5% of patients, goiter was found in 87% of patients and exophthalmos in 78.7% of patients. The main complication was cardiothyreosis found in 11.1% of patients. All patients underwent antithyroid synthetic drugs treatment. The evolution was favorable in 19,4% of cases. Disease recurrence was observed in 57% of cases and in 23.1% of patients were lost to follow-up. Basedow-Graves disease is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism, The patient's clinical picture is dominated by manifestations related to hypermetabolism. This study highlights that thyroidectomy isn't the first-line of treatment if we consider the high number of recurrences after medical treatment.

  2. Visual surround suppression in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibber, Marc S; Anderson, Elaine J; Bobin, Tracy; Antonova, Elena; Seabright, Alice; Wright, Bernice; Carlin, Patricia; Shergill, Sukhwinder S; Dakin, Steven C

    2013-01-01

    Compared to unaffected observers patients with schizophrenia (SZ) show characteristic differences in visual perception, including a reduced susceptibility to the influence of context on judgments of contrast - a manifestation of weaker surround suppression (SS). To examine the generality of this phenomenon we measured the ability of 24 individuals with SZ to judge the luminance, contrast, orientation, and size of targets embedded in contextual surrounds that would typically influence the target's appearance. Individuals with SZ demonstrated weaker SS compared to matched controls for stimuli defined by contrast or size, but not for those defined by luminance or orientation. As perceived luminance is thought to be regulated at the earliest stages of visual processing our findings are consistent with a suppression deficit that is predominantly cortical in origin. In addition, we propose that preserved orientation SS in SZ may reflect the sparing of broadly tuned mechanisms of suppression. We attempt to reconcile these data with findings from previous studies.

  3. Traditional Indian customs surrounding birth A review | Chalmers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since 1960, only a few studies have been made of traditional custOIns surrounding birth in Indian culture. Very few of these have described customs followed by Indians in South Africa. A review of these publications is presented here. Customs described include religious, social and psychological aspects of behaviour in ...

  4. Opportunity's Surroundings on Sol 1818

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,818th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's surface mission (March 5, 2009). South is at the center; north at both ends. The rover had driven 80.3 meters (263 feet) southward earlier on that sol. Tracks from the drive recede northward in this view. The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and lighter-toned bedrock. This view is presented as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  5. Generic and biosimilar medicines: quid?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Simoens

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Once intellectual property protection, data and marketing exclusivity of reference medicines have expired, generic medicines and biosimilar medicines can enter the off-patent market. This market entry is conditional on the approval of marketing authorization, pricing and reimbursement. Given that there tends to be confusion surrounding generic and biosimilar medicines, this Editorial introduces basic concepts related to generic and biosimilar medicines and presents the different studies and articles included in this supplement dedicated to generic and biosimilar medicines.

  6. Dendrimers in Medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Linping; Ficker, Mario; Christensen, Jørn Bolstad

    2015-01-01

    Dendrimers are three-dimensional macromolecular structures originating from a central core molecule and surrounded by successive addition of branching layers (generation). These structures exhibit a high degree of molecular uniformity, narrow molecular weight distribution, tunable size and shape ...... as challenging issues surrounding the future development of dendrimer-based medicines....

  7. Opportunity's Surroundings on Sol 1798

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this 180-degree view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,798th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's surface mission (Feb. 13, 2009). North is on top. The rover had driven 111 meters (364 feet) southward on the preceding sol. Tracks from that drive recede northward in this view. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about 1 meter (about 40 inches). The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and lighter-toned bedrock. This view is presented as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  8. Safety aspects of Chinese herbal medicine in pregnancy-re-evaluation of experimental data of two animal studies and the clinical experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiebrecht, Axel; Gaus, Wilhelm; Becker, Simon; Hummelsberger, Josef; Kuhlmann, Kirsten

    2014-10-01

    Chinese herbal medicine is an increasingly popular worldwide medical therapy which also has an impact in pregnancy. However, the question of its drug safety during pregnancy remains unresolved. Potential problems include teratogenicity, abortion, perinatal toxicity, pre- and postnatal developmental abnormalities, and eventually an increased risk for carcinomas in the offspring. Standard Materia Medica textbooks contain unreliable information when it comes to risks during pregnancy. Wang and co-workers conducted an experimental study (WS) on mice in which they investigated the effects of 17 Chinese medicinals regarding embryotoxicity and fetotoxicity. All these drugs seemed to exhibit multiple significant toxic effects. Another study by Li and co-workers (LS) investigated the reproductive toxicity of Atractylodis macrocephalae Rhizoma in mice, rats and rabbits. They described an increased pre- and postnatal mortality and, at high doses, congenital malformations. In an attempt to identify the risks of the tested medicinals during pregnancy, we analysed these two experimental studies and compared their results with possible safety data for humans from two reviews of clinical studies on threatened miscarriage (AR and CR). We re-evaluated WS and LS in relation to accordance with internationally accepted rules, equivalence to human dose, biometric accuracy, plausibility, and coherence. Eligible studies of the two reviews on threatened miscarriage were evaluated for specific pregnancy risks concerning the 17 medicinals tested in WS and LS. We found that WS does not conform to international ICH guidelines and includes many inconsistencies, implausibilities and several severe biometrical flaws. It reported a total of 364 significant events out of which 145 false significant results are expected. The data-handling pointed to irregularities. Analysis of LS exhibited also many inconsistencies. The results regarding congenital malformations were statistically insignificant and

  9. Reduced surround inhibition in musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hae-Won; Kang, Suk Y; Hallett, Mark; Sohn, Young H

    2012-06-01

    To investigate whether surround inhibition (SI) in the motor system is altered in professional musicians, we performed a transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) study in 10 professional musicians and 15 age-matched healthy non-musicians. TMS was set to be triggered by self-initiated flexion of the index finger at different intervals ranging from 3 to 1,000 ms. Average motor evoked potential (MEP) amplitudes obtained from self-triggered TMS were normalized to average MEPs of the control TMS at rest and expressed as a percentage. Normalized MEP amplitudes of the abductor digiti minimi (ADM) muscles were compared between the musicians and non-musicians with the primary analysis being the intervals between 3 and 80 ms (during the movement). A mixed-design ANOVA revealed a significant difference in normalized ADM MEPs during the index finger flexion between groups, with less SI in the musicians. This study demonstrated that the functional operation of SI is less strong in musicians than non-musicians, perhaps due to practice of movement synergies involving both muscles. Reduced SI, however, could lead susceptible musicians to be prone to develop task-specific dystonia.

  10. Physical aspects of quality assurance in nuclear medicine and radiotherapy, regulatory approach of the National Nuclear Safety Center; Aspectos fisicos de garantia de calidad en medicina nuclear y radioterapia. Enfoque regulatorio del centro Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez C, D.; Fuente P, A. de la; Quevedo G, J.R.; Lopez F, Y. [CNSN, Calle 28 No. 504 e/5 y 7, Ave. Miramar, La Habana (Cuba); Varela C, C. [CCEEM, Calle 4 No. 455 e/19 y 21, Ave. Vedado, La Habana (Cuba)]. e-mail: cruz@orasen.co.cu

    2006-07-01

    The physical aspects of the quality guarantee in Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy its are of cardinal importance to guarantee the quality of the diagnoses and treatments that are carried out to the patients in this type of services. The OIEA, the OMS and other scientific and professional organizations have contributed significantly to the elaboration of recommendations, Protocols, etc. applicable in the quality control programs and safety of the Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy departments. In spite of the great effort developed in this sense the Installation of the programs of quality control and safety of the Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy departments can fail if the same ones are not based in three decisive elements that are: the existence of national regulations, the existence of the infrastructure required for it and the existence of enough qualified personnel to develop this programs. The present work shows the regulatory focus that on this topic, it has followed the National Center of Nuclear Safety of Cuba (CNSN). The same left of strengthen all the existent Synergies in the different organizations of the country and it went in two fundamental directions: installation of the regulatory requirements that govern this activity and the Authorization of a Cuban Entity, specialized in carrying out audits to the quality control and safety programs of the Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy departments. After 4 work years in this direction, the results confirm the validity of the experience developed by the CNSN, at the moment all the services of Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy of Cuba possess quality control and safety programs, these programs are annually Auditing by an Authorized entity by the CNSN and the Inspectors of the Regulatory Authority, control, during the inspections, the one execution of the established requirements in the national regulations. The work developed so far can serve, modestly, of reference to others countries of Latin America that

  11. Regulatory Issues Surrounding Merchant Interconnection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuijlaars, Kees-Jan; Zwart, Gijsbert [Office for Energy Regulation (DTe), The Hague (Netherlands)

    2003-11-01

    We discussed various issues concerning the regulatory perspective on private investment in interconnectors. One might claim that leaving investment in transmission infrastructure to competing market parties is more efficient than relying on regulated investment only (especially in the case of long (DC) lines connecting previously unconnected parts of the grids, so that externalities from e.g. loop flows do not play a significant role). We considered that some aspects of interconnection might reduce these market benefits. In particular, the large fixed costs of interconnection construction may lead to significant under investment (due to both first mover monopoly power and the fact that part of generation cost efficiencies realised by interconnection are not captured by the investor itself, and remain external to the investment decision). Second, merchant ownership restricts future opportunities for adaptation of regulation, as would be required e.g. for introduction of potentially more sophisticated methods of congestion management or market splitting. Some of the disadvantages of merchant investment may be mitigated however by a suitable regulatory framework, and we discussed some views in this direction. The issues we discussed are not intended to give a complete framework, and detailed regulation will certainly involve many more specific requirements. Areas we did not touch upon include e.g. the treatment of deep connection costs, rules for operation and maintenance of the line, and impact on availability of capacity on other interconnections.

  12. [Medicinal cannabis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Meersch, H; Verschuere, A P; Bottriaux, F

    2006-01-01

    Pharmaceutical grade cannabis is available to Dutch patients from public pharmacies in the Netherlands. The first part of this paper reviews the pharmaceutical and pharmacological properties of medicinal cannabis. Detailed information about its composition and quality, potential applications, methods of administration, adverse reactions, drug interactions and safety during pregnancy or breastfeeding are given. The second part deals with the legal aspects of dispensing medicinal cannabis through pharmacies in view of the Belgian and Dutch legislation. The last part discusses the present Belgian regulation about the possession of cannabis.

  13. Metrological aspects in estimating of radiation dose in patients of nuclear medicine; Aspectos metrologicos na estimativa da dose efetiva de pacientes em medicina nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruzzarin, Anelise

    2015-06-01

    In order to investigate the performance of routine measurements in nuclear medicine services, LNMRI/IRD has been conducting, since 1998, a comparison program of activity measurements of radiopharmaceuticals administered to patients in nuclear medicine. Correction factors are determined from the result of performance analysis in order to determine with better accuracy the activity to be administered to the patients. The present study shows how the correction factor is determined by the ratio between the measurement of the activity at the nuclear medicine center and the activity determined by the LNMRI, which is adopted as reference. It is essential that the dose calibrator be calibrated with standards traceable to national metrology laboratories, so that the activity administered to the patient is neither greater nor smaller than the appropriate value. The corrected values of the activities can be used to calculate with greater accuracy the effective doses received by the patients as well as the risk of cancer. Information related to radiopharmaceuticals and administered activities, type of exams and patient data of three Brazilian hospitals were collected for 1496 adults and 134 children submitted to diagnostic exams employing {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 131}I. Results showed up to a considerable difference between the administered activity and the corrected activity until 30% and 13% above the reference value, respectively, for the {sup 131}I and {sup 99m}Tc was detected. The consequences of these differences were not very critical in this study since the activity measured in dose calibrator before administration was lower than the corrected activity, thus causing a lower effective dose in patients. However, this reduction in activity may result in problems in obtaining the image and consequently, failure diagnosis, delaying correct diagnosis. On the other hand, the overestimation would be worse, mainly in therapeutic applications, because an unnecessarily high absorbed

  14. Transfusion Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smit Sibinga CT

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Cees Th. Smit Sibinga ID Consulting, Zuidhorn, The NetherlandsTransfusion Medicine is a bridging science, spanning the evidence-based practice at the bedside with the social sciences in the community.     Transfusion Medicine starts at the bedside. Surprisingly, only recently that has become rediscovered with the development of ‘patient blood management’ and ‘patient centered’ approaches to allow the growth of an optimal and rational patient care through supportive hemotherapy – safe and effective, affordable and accessible.1    Where transfusion of blood found its origin in the need of a patient, it has drifted away for a long period of time from the bedside and has been dominated for almost a century by laboratory sciences. At least the first ten editions of the famous and well reputed textbook Mollison’s Blood Transfusion in Clinical Medicine contained only a fraction on the actual bedside practice of transfusion medicine and did not focus at all on patient blood management.2    This journal will focus on all aspects of the transfusion chain that immediately relate to the bedside practice and clinical use of blood and its components, and plasma derivatives as integral elements of a human transplant tissue. That includes legal and regulatory aspects, medical, ethical and cultural aspects, pure science and pathophysiology of disease and the impact of transfusion of blood, as well as aspects of the epidemiology of blood transfusion and clinical indications, and cost-effectiveness. Education through timely and continued transfer of up to date knowledge and the application of knowledge in clinical practice to develop and maintain clinical skills and competence, with the extension of current educational approaches through e-learning and accessible ‘apps’ will be given a prominent place.

  15. Nominal aspect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    1991-01-01

    In a general way the notion 'aspect' can be defined as the way in which a property or relation is represented in some dimension. Two kinds of aspect can be distinguished: verbal and nominal aspect. The study of verbal aspect has a long tradition, but nominal aspect has only been introduced recently......, at least in the sense in which it is used here (Rijkhoff 1989b, 1990a, 1990b). After a brief look at the more familiar verbal aspects, each of the nominal aspects is discussed in some detail. Then the relevance of nominal aspect will be considered in connection with (i) certain 'number markers' (which...... will be analysed as nominal aspect markers below), (ii) noun-incorporation, and (iii) predicate nouns....

  16. Glucocorticoides: paradigma de medicina traslacional. De lo molecular al uso clínico Glucocorticoids: examples of translational medicine; from molecular aspects to bedside

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor A. Serra

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Los glucocorticoides o corticosteroides son fármacos antiinflamatorios, antialérgicos e inmunosupresores derivados del cortisol o hidrocortisona, hormona producida por la corteza adrenal. Su uso terapéutico fuera de la endocrinología data de la observación hecha por el reumatólogo Philip Hench quien, suponiendo que los pacientes con artritis reumatoidea tenían un déficit adrenal, inyectó en algunos cortisona, molécula de reciente producción industrial. El resultado obtenido fue tan contundente que se toma como ejemplo de la medicina traslacional. En la actualidad, los glucocorticoides figuran entre las drogas más usadas y, paralelamente, más temidas. Así, el objetivo de esta revisión es señalar los aspectos destacados de su farmacología para su uso racional en la práctica clínica.Glucocorticoids are anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressant and anti-allergic drugs derived from hydrocortisone. Their widespread use was originated from Hench's observations in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. These drugs are examples of translational medicine and they can be envisaged as one of the most prescribed and feared drugs. The objective of this review is to highlight their pharmacological properties and thus, allow a more suitable prescription.

  17. Local Computation of Lightness on Articulated Surrounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masataka Sawayama

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Lightness of a grey target on a uniform light (or dark surround changes by articulating the surround (articulation effect. To elucidate the processing of lightness underlying the articulation effect, the present study introduced transparency over a dark surround and investigated its effects on lightness of the target. The transparency was produced by adding a contiguous external field to the dark surround while keeping local stimulus configuration constant. Results showed that the target lightness did not change on the articulated surround when a dark transparent filter was perceived over the target, although it did on the uniform surround. These results suggest that image decomposition into a transparent filter and an underlying surface does not necessarily change lightness of the surface if the surface is articulated. Moreover, the present study revealed that articulating the surround does not always enhance lightness contrast; it can reduce the contrast effect when the target luminance is not the highest within the surround. These findings are consistent with the theoretical view that lightness perception on articulated surfaces is determined locally within a spatially limited region, and they also place a constraint on how the luminance distribution within the limited region is scaled.

  18. From evidence-based to hope-based medicine? Ethical aspects on conditional market authorization of and early access to new cancer drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandman, Lars; Liliemark, Jan

    2017-08-01

    There is a strong patient demand for early access to potentially beneficial cancer drugs. In line with this authorization agencies like the European Medicines Agency are providing drugs with conditional market authorisation based on positive interim analyses. This implies that drugs are used with insecure evidence of efficacy and adverse side-effects. Several authors have pointed to ethical problems with such a system but up to date no indepth ethical analysis of this system is found which is the aim of this article. Drawing of the four generally accepted principles of medical ethics: beneficence, nonmaleficence, respect for autonomy and justice the ethical pros and cons of conditional market authorisation are analysed. From the perspective of beneficence and non-maleficence it is found that the main problem is not risk of adverse side-effects to patients, but rather risk of less beneficial outcomes than what can be expected which could change incentives for patients' choice of treatment. This is also related to the extent to which patients might make an autonomous choice, especially taking into account problematic psychological attitudes and biases in medical decision-making. However, the main problem is related to justice and an equitable distribution of scarce health-care resources given the opportunity cost of drugs treatment. When using resources on cancer treatments which later might be found to be less efficacious than was first expected, other patients (in and outside the cancer field) are deprived of potentially more beneficial treatments even though their needs might be equally or more severe. At the same time, demanding more evidence has an ethical cost to patients in terms of depriving them of potential benefits in terms of reduced mortality and morbidity. In order to handle these ethical conflicts further research and analyses are required and it is suggested that pricing strategies and information requirements are alternatives to be further explored

  19. Submarine Medicine Team

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Submarine Medicine Team conducts basic and applied research on biomedical aspects of submarine and diving environments. It focuses on ways to optimize the health...

  20. Nuclear medicine physics

    CERN Document Server

    De Lima, Joao Jose

    2011-01-01

    Edited by a renowned international expert in the field, Nuclear Medicine Physics offers an up-to-date, state-of-the-art account of the physics behind the theoretical foundation and applications of nuclear medicine. It covers important physical aspects of the methods and instruments involved in modern nuclear medicine, along with related biological topics. The book first discusses the physics of and machines for producing radioisotopes suitable for use in conventional nuclear medicine and PET. After focusing on positron physics and the applications of positrons in medicine and biology, it descr

  1. Explaining preferences for home surroundings and locations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Skifter Andersen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on a survey carried out in Denmark that asked a random sample of the population about their preferences for home surroundings and locations. It shows that the characteristics of social surroundings are very important and can be divided into three independent dimensions: avoiding social nuisances, preferring social homogeneity and living close to one’s social network and place of origin. The study shows that most people have many detailed preferences, whereas some have very few. This confirms an earlier theory that some people are very connected to certain places with given characteristics and thus do not have priorities regarding home surroundings and locations. For others, mostly young people and singles, home is just a place to sleep and relax, whereas life is lived elsewhere. For this group, there are only preferences for location and there are few specific preferences for surroundings.

  2. Induced radioactivity in a 4 MW target and its surroundings

    CERN Document Server

    Agosteo, Stefano; Otto, Thomas; Silari, Marco

    2003-01-01

    An important aspect of a future CERN Neutrino Factory is the material activation arising from a 2.2 GeV, 4 MW proton beam striking a mercury target. An estimation of the hadronic inelastic interactions and the production of residual nuclei in the target, the magnetic horn, the decay tunnel, the surrounding rock and a downstream dump was performed by the Monte Carlo hadronic cascade code FLUKA. The aim was both to assess the dose equivalent rate to be expected during maintenance work and to evaluate the amount of residual radioactivity, which will have to be disposed of after the facility has ceased operation.

  3. An Aspect of the History of Medicine in Ancient Korea as Examined through Silla Buddhist Monks'Annotations on the "Chapter on Eliminating Disease"in the Sutra of Golden Light (Suvarnabhāsa-sūtra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Chaekun; Jeon, Jongwook; Shin, Dongwon

    2016-12-01

    theory centering on the yin-yang and five phases (wuxing). In accordance with East Asia's theory of the seasonal five phases, Wonhyo sought to explain aspects of Indian medicine, e.g., changes in the four great elements (catvāri mahā-bhūtāni) of earth, water, fire, and wind according to seasonal factors and their effect on the internal organs; patterns of diseases such as wind (vāta)-induced disease, bile (pitta)-induced disease, phlegm (śleṣman)-induced disease, and a combination (saṃnipāta) of these three types of diseases; pathogenesis due to the indigestion of food, as pathological mechanisms centering on the theory of the mutual overcoming (xiangke) of the five phases including the five viscera (wuzang), five flavors (wuwei), and five colors (wuse). They existed in the text contents on Indian medicine, which could not be explicated well with the existing medical knowledge based on the theory of the five phases. Consequently, he boldly modified the theory of the five phases in his own way for such passages, thus attempting a reconciliation, or harmonization of disputes (hwajaeng), of the two medical systems. Such an attempt was even bolder than those by earlier annotators, and Wonhyo's annotations came to be accepted by later annotators as one persuasive explanation as well. In the case of Gyeongheung and Seungjang, who obtained and examined the ten-volume edition, a new classical Chinese translation produced following Wonhyo's death, annotated the "Chapter on Eliminating Disease" based on their outstanding proficiency in Sanskrit and knowledge of new Indian and Buddhist medicine. This fact signifies that knowledge of the eight arts of Ayurvedic medicine in India was introduced into Silla around the early 8th century. The medical knowledge of Wonhyo, Gyeongheung, and Seungjang demonstrates that intellectual circles in contemporary Silla were arenas in which not only traditional East Asian medicine as represented by works such as the Inner Canon of the

  4. Clinical Space Medicine Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baisden, Denise L.; Billica, Roger (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The practice of space medicine is diverse. It includes routine preventive medical care of astronauts and pilots, the development of inflight medical capability and training of flight crews as well as the preflight, inflight, and postflight medical assessment and monitoring. The Johnson Space Center Medical Operations Branch is a leader in the practice of space medicine. The papers presented in this panel will demonstrate some of the unique aspects of space medicine.

  5. Mountain medicin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Bjørn; Hjuler, Kasper Fjellhaugen

    2016-01-01

    Travelling to high altitudes is an increasingly popular form of recreational holiday. Individual medical advice may be essential for certain groups of individuals such as patients with chronic disorders, pregnant women or children. This is the second part in a series of two articles on mountain...... medicine. The first part covered high-altitude physiology and medical aspects of objective alpine dangers and the increased exposure to ultraviolet radiation. This part covers altitude sickness, fluid balance, nutrition, and precautions for patients with pre-existing medical conditions, pregnant women...

  6. Nuclear Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Parents/Teachers Resource Links for Students Glossary Nuclear Medicine What is nuclear medicine? What are radioactive tracers? ... funded researchers advancing nuclear medicine? What is nuclear medicine? Nuclear medicine is a medical specialty that uses ...

  7. Enhancement of Afterimage Colors by Surrounding Contours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takao Sato

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Presenting luminance contours surrounding the adapted areas in test phase enhances color afterimages in both duration and color appearance. The presence of surrounding contour is crucial to some color phenomenon such as van Lier's afterimage, but the contour-effect itself has not been seriously examined. In this paper, we compared the contour-effect to color afterimages and to actually colored patches to examine the nature of color information subserving color-aftereffect. In the experiment, observers were adapted for 1 sec to a small colored square (red, green, yellow, or blue presented on a gray background. Then, a test field either with or without surrounding contour was presented. Observers matched the color of a test-patch located near the afterimage to the color of afterimage. It was found that the saturation of negative afterimage was almost doubled by the presence of surrounding contours. There was no effect of luminance contrast or polarity of contours. In contrast, no enhancement of saturation by surrounding contours was observed for actually colored patches even though the colors of patches were equalized to that of afterimage without contours. This dissociation in the contour-effect demonstrates the crucial difference between the color information for aftereffects and for ordinary bottom-up color perception.

  8. Effectively Communicating the Uncertainties Surrounding Ebola Virus Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilianski, Andy; Evans, Nicholas G

    2015-10-01

    The current Ebola virus outbreak has highlighted the uncertainties surrounding many aspects of Ebola virus virology, including routes of transmission. The scientific community played a leading role during the outbreak-potentially, the largest of its kind-as many of the questions surrounding ebolaviruses have only been interrogated in the laboratory. Scientists provided an invaluable resource for clinicians, public health officials, policy makers, and the lay public in understanding the progress of Ebola virus disease and the continuing outbreak. Not all of the scientific communication, however, was accurate or effective. There were multiple instances of published articles during the height of the outbreak containing potentially misleading scientific language that spurred media overreaction and potentially jeopardized preparedness and policy decisions at critical points. Here, we use articles declaring the potential for airborne transmission of Ebola virus as a case study in the inaccurate reporting of basic science, and we provide recommendations for improving the communication about unknown aspects of disease during public health crises.

  9. Essential travel medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Zuckerman, Jane N; Leggat, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This 1st edition of Essential Travel Medicine provides an excellent concise introduction to the specialty of Travel Medicine. This core text will enable health care practitioners particularly those new to the clinical practice of Travel Medicine, to gain a fundamental understanding of the diverse and complex issues which can potentially affect the health of the many millions of people who undertake international travel. Jane N Zuckerman is joined by Gary W Brunette from CDC and Peter A Leggat from Australia as Editors. Leading international specialists in their fields have contributed authoritative chapters reflecting current knowledge to facilitate best clinical practice in the different aspects of travel medicine. The aim of Essential Travel Medicine is to provide a comprehensive guide to Travel Medicine as well as a fundamental knowledge base to support international undergraduate and postgraduate specialty training programmes in the discipline of Travel Medicine. The 1st edition of Essential Travel ...

  10. [Otorhinolaryngological aspects of high altitude medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mees, K; Olzowy, B

    2008-04-01

    The World Health Organisation estimates that about 40 million tourists every year climb to high (2,500-5,300 m) and extremely high altitudes (5,300-8,850 m). Thus altitude sickness and other health risks are increasing accordingly and so this fact requires clarification and advice for tourists in order to reduce the risks. That applies to the otolaryngologist, too. The non-traumatic health risks all result from the atmospheric conditions at high altitudes, in particular due to the lower atmospheric pressure. The partial pressure of oxygen (pO2), the temperature and the partial pressure of water vapour decrease continuously with increasing altitude and at the summit of the highest mountain on earth, Mt. Everest, the pO2 is reduced by two-thirds, from 212 to about 70 hPa. The temperature drops on average 6.5 degrees C per 1,000 m and at -20 degrees C 1 m3 of air contains at most just about 1 g of water vapour. The shortage of oxygen above 2500 m cannot be compensated for at once. Respiratory alcalosis, followed by hyperventilation, improves the alveolar loading of red blood cells (RBC) with oxygen, however, it also reduces the ventilatory drive from the central CO2-chemosensors as well from the peripheral O2-chemosensors located in the carotid bodies. Not until the alcalosis has been balanced by a renal secretion of bicarbonate, does the pO2-driven ventilatory stimulus normalize and the relative increase of RBC as a result of altitude diuresis improve and complete the acclimatisation. Up to an altitude of 4,000 m this adaptation takes several days to one week and up to 5,000 m up to 2 weeks. If acclimatisation has not taken place or has been insufficient, acute mountain sickness may develop. It is a harmless disorder, although it noticeably affects people physically and mentally and in some rare cases it might even develop into a life-threatening high-altitude edema in the brain or in the lung. Hematocrit values of up to 58 or even 60% at great altitudes are quite usual. Up to an altitude of 7,500 m the distortion product signals of the otoacustic emissions decrease not only between 1,000 and 1,500 Hz, but also between 3,000 and 4,000 Hz. The reduction of the inner ear signals, however, is reversible and disappears after descent. For the vestibular organ high altitudes do not mean a risk, either. 70% of all infections suffered by trekkers and climbers affect the upper airways. The cold, dry mountain air damages the mucociliary apparatus and thus leads a disposition towards acute recurrences in climbers suffering from chronic inflammations of the tonsils, the paranasal sinuses and the middle ear. In the oxygen-poor air these recurrences do not heal at all, or only very slowly, but also often tend to have a rather more complicated course.

  11. Comparative Analysis of Termiteria and Surrounding Soil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Magashi

    2013-06-01

    Jun 1, 2013 ... Variations in the properties of termitaria and their surrounding soil properties within the University of ... and animals. Keywords: AAS, Heavy metals, Makurdi, Soils, Termites. INTRODUCTION. Termites are eusocial insects that live in colonies composed of individuals from ... Also, termite's effects resulted in.

  12. Agroforestry practice in villages surrounding Nyamure former ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cntaganda

    Abstract. An assessment of fuel wood situation and the contribution of agroforestry and woodlot resources to the supply of household fuel wood requirements were carried out in ten villages surrounding Nyamure former refugee camp, Nyanza District in the Southern. Province. A total of 158 households were surveyed in ...

  13. Agroforestry practice in villages surrounding Nyamure former ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An assessment of fuel wood situation and the contribution of agroforestry and woodlot resources to the supply of household fuel wood requirements were carried out in ten villages surrounding Nyamure former refugee camp, Nyanza District in the Southern Province. A total of 158 households were surveyed in February ...

  14. Surround-gated vertical nanowire quantum dots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Weert, M.H.M.; Den Heijer, M.; Van Kouwen, M.P.; Algra, R.E.; Bakkers, E.P.A.M.; Kouwenhoven, L.P.; Zwiller, V.

    2010-01-01

    We report voltage dependent photoluminescence experiments on single indium arsenide phosphide (InAsP) quantum dots embedded in vertical surround-gated indium phosphide (InP) nanowires. We show that by tuning the gate voltage, we can access different quantum dot charge states. We study the

  15. Religion's relationship with social boundaries surrounding gender ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the religious persuasion on the social boundaries surrounding gender. Gender has been a contentious issue that is associated with segregation, marginalization and differentiation between men and women. In the light of this, scholars' views on the subject matter were considered. Thus, this indicates ...

  16. Identification of β-SiC surrounded by relatable surrounding diamond ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. It is difficult to detect β-SiC using micro-Raman scattering, if it is surrounded by carbon medium. Here, β-SiC is identified in the presence of a relatable surrounding diamond medium using subtle, but discernible Raman surface phonons. In this study, diamond/β-SiC nanocomposite thin film system is considered in ...

  17. Identification of β-SiC surrounded by relatable surrounding diamond ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this study, diamond/-SiC nanocomposite thin film system is considered in which nanosized -SiC crystallites are surrounded by a relatable nanodiamond medium that leads to the appearance of a weak Raman surface phonon band at about 855 cm-1. Change in the nature of the surrounding material structure and its ...

  18. Towards an integrated approach to health and medicine in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batisai, Kezia

    2016-12-01

    This article frames the intersections of medicine and humanities as intrinsic to understanding the practice of health care in Africa. Central to this manuscript, which draws on empirical findings on the interplay between HIV and AIDS and alternative medicine in Zimbabwe is the realisation that very limited research has been undertaken to examine 'HIV/AIDS patient behaviour' with respect to choice of therapy on the continent [Bene, M. & Darkoh, M. B. K. (2014). The Constraints of Antiretroviral Uptake in Rural Areas: The Case of Thamaga and Surrounding Villages, Botswana. Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS, 11(1), 167-177. doi: 10.1080/17290376.2014.972057 ; Chavunduka, G. (1998). Professionalisation of Traditional Medicine in Zimbabwe, Harare, Jongwe Printers; O'Brien, S. & Broom, A. (2014). HIV in (and out of) the Clinic: Biomedicine, Traditional Medicine and Spiritual Healing in Harare. Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS, 11(1), 94-104. doi: 10.1080/17290376.2014.938102 ]. As such, a social approach to health-seeking behaviour questions how decisions about alternative therapies including herbal remedies, traditional healing and faith healing are made. The paper unpacks the realities around how people living with HIV and AIDS - who span different age groups and profess various religious backgrounds, faced with an insurmountable health challenge against a background of limited resources and no cure for the virus - often experience shifts in health-seeking behaviour. Grappling with seemingly simple questions about 'when, where and how to seek medical attention', the paper provides pointers to therapy choices and health-seeking behaviour; and it serves as a route into deeper and intense healthcare practice explorations. In conclusion, the paper proposes that medicine and the humanities should engage seriously with those social aspects of HIV and AIDS which call for an integrated approach to healthcare practice in Africa. If combined, medicine and the humanities

  19. Stratigraphy and tectonics of Permo-Triassic basins in the Netherlands and surrounding areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geluk, M.C.

    2005-01-01

    This thesis addresses different aspects of the geological development during the Permian and Triassic (300 to 200 Ma) of the Netherlands and surrounding areas. The study area encompasses the Southern Permian Basin (SPB), a large intracratonic basin stretched out from the United Kingdom in the west

  20. Spirit's Surroundings on 'West Spur,' Sol 305

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This 360-degree panorama shows the terrain surrounding NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit as of the rover's 305th martian day, or sol, (Nov. 11, 2004). At that point, Spirit was climbing the 'West Spur' of the 'Columbia Hills.' The rover had just finished inspecting a rock called 'Lutefisk' and was heading uphill toward an area called 'Machu Picchu.' Spirit used its navigational camera to take the images combined into this mosaic. The rover's location when the images were taken is catalogued as the mission's site 89, position 205. The view is presented here as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  1. Explaining preferences for home surroundings and locations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans Skifter

    2011-01-01

    : avoiding social nuisances, preferring social homogeneity and living close to one’s social network and place of origin. The study shows that most people have many detailed preferences, whereas some have very few. This confirms an earlier theory that some people are very connected to certain places...... with given characteristics and thus do not have priorities regarding home surroundings and locations. For others, mostly young people and singles, home is just a place to sleep and relax, whereas life is lived elsewhere. For this group, there are only preferences for location and there are few specific...

  2. Opportunity's Surroundings on Sol 1818 (Vertical)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,818th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's surface mission (March 5, 2009). South is at the center; north at both ends. This view is presented as a vertical projection with geometric seam correction. North is at the top. The rover had driven 80.3 meters (263 feet) southward earlier on that sol. Tracks from the drive recede northward in this view. The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and lighter-toned bedrock.

  3. Opportunity's Surroundings on Sol 1818 (Polar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,818th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's surface mission (March 5, 2009). South is at the center; north at both ends. This view is presented as a polar projection with geometric seam correction. North is at the top. The rover had driven 80.3 meters (263 feet) southward earlier on that sol. Tracks from the drive recede northward in this view. The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and lighter-toned bedrock.

  4. Towards Semantic Understanding of Surrounding Vehicular Maneuvers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristoffersen, Miklas Strøm; Dueholm, Jacob Velling; Satzoda, Ravi K.

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes the use of multiple low-cost visual sensors to obtain a surround view of the ego-vehicle for semantic understanding. A multi-perspective view will assist the analysis of naturalistic driving studies (NDS), by automating the task of data reduction of the observed sequences...... is tested on ten sequences of real-world data collected on U. S. highways. The results show the potential use of multiple low-cost visual sensors for semantic understanding around the ego-vehicle....

  5. [Plato and medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira-Batista, Rodrigo; Schramm, Fermin Roland

    2004-01-01

    Medicine and philosophy are branches of knowledge that had decisive influence on each other in the time of Ancient Greece, shaping the development of both. A landmark of this interrelationship was the thought of the philosopher Plato (427-347 A. C.), considered the greatest thinker in Western tradition. The text discusses how Platonic reflection reached into the most varied aspects of medicine in the philosopher's days.

  6. Maimonides’ Appreciation for Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Gesundheit

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Moses Maimonides, the illustrious medieval rabbi and philosopher, dedicated the last decade of his life primarily to medicine. His strong interest in medicine was an integral component of his religious-philosophical teachings and world view. In this paper various sources from his rabbinic writings are presented that explain Maimonides’ motivation regarding and deep appreciation for medicine: (A The physician fulfills the basic biblical obligation to return lost objects to their owner, for with his knowledge and experience the physician can restore good health to his sick fellow human being; (B medicine provides a unique opportunity to practice imitatio dei, as it reflects the religious duty to maintain a healthy life-style; (C as an important natural science, medicine offers tools to recognize, love, and fear God. These three aspects address man’s relationship and obligation towards his fellow-man, himself and God. Biographical insights supported by additional sources from Maimonides’ writings are discussed.

  7. Opportunity's Surroundings After Sol 1820 Drive (Polar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,820th to 1,822nd Martian days, or sols, of Opportunity's surface mission (March 7 to 9, 2009). This view is presented as a polar projection with geometric seam correction. North is at the top. The rover had driven 20.6 meters toward the northwest on Sol 1820 before beginning to take the frames in this view. Tracks from that drive recede southwestward. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about 1 meter (about 40 inches). The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and small exposures of lighter-toned bedrock.

  8. Opportunity's Surroundings on Sol 1798 (Vertical)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this 180-degree view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,798th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's surface mission (Feb. 13, 2009). North is on top. This view is presented as a vertical projection with geometric seam correction. The rover had driven 111 meters (364 feet) southward on the preceding sol. Tracks from that drive recede northward in this view. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about 1 meter (about 40 inches). The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and lighter-toned bedrock.

  9. Opportunity's Surroundings on Sol 1798 (Polar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this 180-degree view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,798th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's surface mission (Feb. 13, 2009). North is on top. This view is presented as a polar projection with geometric seam correction. The rover had driven 111 meters (364 feet) southward on the preceding sol. Tracks from that drive recede northward in this view. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about 1 meter (about 40 inches). The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and lighter-toned bedrock.

  10. Opportunity's Surroundings After Sol 1820 Drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,820th to 1,822nd Martian days, or sols, of Opportunity's surface mission (March 7 to 9, 2009). South is at the center; north at both ends. The rover had driven 20.6 meters toward the northwest on Sol 1820 before beginning to take the frames in this view. Tracks from that drive recede southwestward. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about 1 meter (about 40 inches). The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and small exposures of lighter-toned bedrock. This view is presented as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  11. Aerospace Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, Vince

    2015-01-01

    NASA Aerospace Medicine overview - Aerospace Medicine is that specialty area of medicine concerned with the determination and maintenance of the health, safety, and performance of those who fly in the air or in space.

  12. What are the ethical aspects surrounding intensive care unit admission in patients with cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigaud, Jean-Philippe; Large, Audrey; Meunier-Beillard, Nicolas; Gélinotte, Stéphanie; Declercq, Pierre-Louis; Ecarnot, Fiona; Dargent, Auguste; Quenot, Jean-Pierre

    2017-12-01

    Improvements in living conditions and increasing life expectancy have combined to result in ever older patients being admitted to hospital. In parallel, the increasing incidence of cancer, along with the improved efficacy of anti-cancer therapies has led to greater needs for intensive care among cancer patients. The objectives underpinning the management of cancer patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) are to achieve a return to a clinical status that would allow the patient to be either, transferred back to the original unit, or discharged from the hospital with an acceptable quality of life, and where warranted, pursuit of cancer therapy. The relevance of ICU admission should be assessed systematically for patients with active cancer. The decision needs to be made taking into account the expected benefit for the patient, the life-support therapies that are possible with discussion about a care project, and also considering the future quality of life and the short and long-term prognosis. Anticipating the question of potential ICU admission should help protect the patient against both inappropriate refusal of intensive care, and inappropriate admission to the ICU that might only lead to unreasonable therapeutic obstinacy. The intensive care physician has a major role to play in helping the cancer patient to develop an appropriate and flexible healthcare project. Anticipating the question of ICU admission in advance, as well as a close alliance between the oncologist and the intensive care physician are the two keys to the success of a healthcare project focused on the patient.

  13. Jos Journal of Medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jos Journal of Medicine is a peer-reviewed journal and editorially independent publication of the Association of Resident Doctors of Jos University Teaching Hospital. It seeks to provide a forum for the dissemination of research, review articles and information in all aspects of medical sciences among medical professionals ...

  14. Annals of Nigerian Medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Annals of Nigerian Medicine is an editorially independent publication by the Association of Resident Doctors of the Ahmadu Bello University Teaching hospital Zaria, Nigeria. the journal is multidisciplinary and provides a forum for the dissemination of research finding, reviews, theories and information on all aspects of ...

  15. Drug discovery and design: medical aspects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Matsoukas, J; Mavromoustakos, T

    2002-01-01

    ... the role of membranes in drug activity and formulation. The book continues with the third part that covers the conformational analysis of bioactive drugs. The final part mainly touches aspects of the molecular targets and drug design. This part is actually broader in scope and covers biological aspects of medicinal chemistry. The logic of classificatio...

  16. Applications of electrochemistry in medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Schlesinger, Mordechay

    2013-01-01

    Medical Applications of Electrochemistry, a volume of the series Modern Aspects of Electrochemistry, illustrates the interdisciplinary nature of modern science by indicating the many current issues in medicine that are susceptible to solution by electrochemical methods. This book also suggests how personalized medicine can develop.

  17. Opportunity's Surroundings on Sol 1798 (Stereo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11850 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11850 NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this stereo 180-degree view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,798th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's surface mission (Feb. 13, 2009). North is on top. This view combines images from the left-eye and right-eye sides of the navigation camera. It appears three-dimensional when viewed through red-blue glasses with the red lens on the left. The rover had driven 111 meters (364 feet) southward on the preceding sol. Tracks from that drive recede northward in this view. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about 1 meter (about 40 inches). The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and lighter-toned bedrock. This view is presented as a cylindrical-perspective projection with geometric seam correction.

  18. The lithosphere-asthenosphere Italy and surroundings

    CERN Document Server

    Panza, G F; Chimera, G; Pontevivo, A; Raykova, R

    2003-01-01

    The velocity-depth distribution of the lithosphere-asthenosphere in the Italian region and surroundings is imaged, with a lateral resolution of about 100 km, by surface wave velocity tomography and non-linear inversion. Maps of the Moho depth, of the thickness of the lithosphere and of the shear-wave velocities, down to depths of 200 km and more, are constructed. A mantle wedge, identified in the uppermost mantle along the Apennines and the Calabrian Arc, underlies the principal recent volcanoes, and partial melting can be relevant in this part of the uppermost mantle. In Calabria a lithospheric doubling is seen, in connection with the subduction of the Ionian lithosphere. The asthenosphere is shallow in the Southern Tyrrhenian Sea. High velocity bodies, cutting the asthenosphere, outline the Adria-lonian subduction in the Tyrrhenian Sea and the deep-reaching lithospheric root in the Western Alps. Less deep lithospheric roots are seen in the Central Apennines. The lithosphere-asthenosphere properties delineat...

  19. Opportunity's Surroundings After Sol 1820 Drive (Stereo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11841 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11841 NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,820th to 1,822nd Martian days, or sols, of Opportunity's surface mission (March 7 to 9, 2009). This view combines images from the left-eye and right-eye sides of the navigation camera. It appears three-dimensional when viewed through red-blue glasses with the red lens on the left. The rover had driven 20.6 meters toward the northwest on Sol 1820 before beginning to take the frames in this view. Tracks from that drive recede southwestward. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about 1 meter (about 40 inches). The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and small exposures of lighter-toned bedrock. This view is presented as a cylindrical-perspective projection with geometric seam correction.

  20. Opportunity's Surroundings on Sol 1818 (Stereo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11846 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11846 NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,818th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's surface mission (March 5, 2009). South is at the center; north at both ends. This view combines images from the left-eye and right-eye sides of the navigation camera. It appears three-dimensional when viewed through red-blue glasses with the red lens on the left. The rover had driven 80.3 meters (263 feet) southward earlier on that sol. Tracks from the drive recede northward in this view. The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and lighter-toned bedrock. This view is presented as a cylindrical-perspective projection with geometric seam correction.

  1. Heart failure - medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHF - medicines; Congestive heart failure - medicines; Cardiomyopathy - medicines; HF - medicines ... You will need to take most of your heart failure medicines every day. Some medicines are taken once ...

  2. Arts and Medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Azmeh, Zeina Hazem; Du, Xiangyun

    2018-01-01

    The paper describes the design, delivery and student engagement with a course on Medicine and the Arts offered at a College of Medicine in a Middle Eastern country. The paper shows how the course tries to provide students with the knowledge, skills and attitudes to develop an appreciation...... for the Arts, and an understanding of their connection to medicine. Literature shows that such an understanding contributes to sharpening students’ social skills, highlighting focus on the humane aspects of medical practice, and linking professional and ethical behavior with an understanding of human essence...... to disease, death and dying, pain, empathy, and influence the way in which they practice medicine, manage their own emotions, and communicate with patients. 2) Honed their critical thinking skills, creative aptitudes and emotional intelligence. 3) Helped them appreciate the move beyond the binaries that have...

  3. Therapeutic aspects of Tulsi unraveled: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen Srinivas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of the paper was to review the diverse pharmaceutical aspects of Tulsi. Materials and Methods: Several publications and books were electronically searched in google using the keywords “Tulsi as a medicine,” “Tulsi as a medicinal plant,” “Medicinal properties of Ocimum sanctum,” and “Tulsi in dentistry.” The search was limited to articles and books in the English literature. To prepare a thorough review on the therapeutic aspects of Tulsi, the contents were screened between the year 1985 to 2015 by going through the title and abstracts, and further shortlisting articles for full text reading. Conclusion: The present review revealed that Tulsi has an extensive array of medicinal uses, as evidenced by various studies conducted, but its use in allopathic medicine is still limited because of the lack of clinical trials on humans.

  4. Integrating anticipated nutrigenomics bioscience applications with ethical aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lévesque, Lise; Ozdemir, Vural; Gremmen, Bart; Godard, Béatrice

    2008-03-01

    Nutrigenomics is a subspecialty of nutrition science which aims to understand how gene-diet interactions influence individuals' response to food, disease susceptibility, and population health. Yet ethical enquiry into this field is being outpaced by nutrigenomics bioscience. The ethical issues surrounding nutrigenomics face the challenges of a rapidly evolving field which bring forward the additional dimension of crossdisciplinary integrative research between social and biomedical sciences. This article outlines the emerging nutrigenomics definitions and concepts and analyzes the existing ethics literature concerning personalized nutrition and presents "points to consider" over ethical issues regarding future nutrigenomics applications. The interest in nutrigenomics coincides with a shift in emphasis in medicine and biosciences toward prevention of future disease susceptibilities rather than treatment of already established disease. Hence, unique ethical issues emerge concerning the extent to which nutrigenomics can alter our relation to food, boundaries between health and disease, and the folklore of medical practice. Nutrigenomics can result in new social values, norms, and responsibilities for both individuals and societies. Nutrigenomics is not only another new application of "-omics" technologies in the context of gene-diet interactions. Nutrigenomics may fundamentally change the way we perceive human illness while shifting the focus and broadening the scope of health interventions from patients to healthy individuals. In resource- and time-limited healthcare settings, this creates unique ethical dilemmas and distributive justice issues. Ethical aspects of nutrigenomics applications should be addressed proactively, as this new science develops and increasingly coalesces with other applications of genomics in medicine and public health.

  5. The Relationship between Traditional Chinese Medicine and Modern Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jingcheng

    2013-01-01

    The essence of the traditional Chinese medicine has always been the most advanced and experienced therapeutic approach in the world. It has knowledge that can impact the direction of future modern medical development; still, it is easy to find simple knowledge with mark of times and special cultures. The basic structure of traditional Chinese medicine is composed of three parts: one consistent with modern medicine, one involuntarily beyond modern medicine, and one that needs to be further evaluated. The part that is consistent with modern medicine includes consensus on several theories and concepts of traditional Chinese medicine, and usage of several treatments and prescriptions of traditional Chinese medicine including commonly used Chinese herbs. The part that is involuntarily beyond modern medicine contains several advanced theories and important concepts of traditional Chinese medicine, relatively advanced treatments, formula and modern prescriptions, leading herbs, acupuncture treatment and acupuncture anesthesia of traditional Chinese medicine that affect modern medicine and incorporates massage treatment that has been gradually acknowledged by modern therapy. The part that needs to be further evaluated consists not only the knowledge of pulse diagnosis, prescription, and herbs, but also many other aspects of traditional Chinese medicine.

  6. The Relationship between Traditional Chinese Medicine and Modern Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingcheng Dong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The essence of the traditional Chinese medicine has always been the most advanced and experienced therapeutic approach in the world. It has knowledge that can impact the direction of future modern medical development; still, it is easy to find simple knowledge with mark of times and special cultures. The basic structure of traditional Chinese medicine is composed of three parts: one consistent with modern medicine, one involuntarily beyond modern medicine, and one that needs to be further evaluated. The part that is consistent with modern medicine includes consensus on several theories and concepts of traditional Chinese medicine, and usage of several treatments and prescriptions of traditional Chinese medicine including commonly used Chinese herbs. The part that is involuntarily beyond modern medicine contains several advanced theories and important concepts of traditional Chinese medicine, relatively advanced treatments, formula and modern prescriptions, leading herbs, acupuncture treatment and acupuncture anesthesia of traditional Chinese medicine that affect modern medicine and incorporates massage treatment that has been gradually acknowledged by modern therapy. The part that needs to be further evaluated consists not only the knowledge of pulse diagnosis, prescription, and herbs, but also many other aspects of traditional Chinese medicine.

  7. Numerous dilemmas surrounding the 1917 nickel coins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantelić Svetlana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Law on Extraordinary Loans Amounting to 200 Million Dinars and the Minting of Silver and Nickel Coins in 1916 was the legal basis for minting the 5-, 10-, and 20-para nickel coins of the Kingdom of Serbia featuring the year 1917 as their minting year. Some authors believe that these coins were minted in the Minting House in Paris, whereas the others agree that they were certainly minted in France, but in a still unidentified minting house. There are authors who in recent reference literature underline the possibility of their minting in the USA Gorham Company, in Providence, Rhode Island. These coins had all the characteristics of the nickel coins of the Kingdom of Serbia from 1883, 1884, 1904 and 1912. Although, according to the Law, the Minister of Finance was authorized to mint 10 million dinars of these nickel coins, only 5 million pieces in each denomination were actually minted, in the total nominal value of just 1,750,000 dinars. The general opinion is that after the war only a small amount of these nickel coins reached Serbia, because the ships transporting the Serbian coins from the minting house sank on their way. The only varying aspect in this explanation is the location from which the ships were sailing towards Corfu, i.e. from the USA or from France. These coins stopped being legal tender as of 30 November 1931.

  8. Herbal Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for its scent, flavor, or therapeutic properties. Herbal medicines are one type of dietary supplement. They are ... and fresh or dried plants. People use herbal medicines to try to maintain or improve their health. ...

  9. Diabetes Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetes means your blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels are too high. If you can't control your diabetes with wise food choices and physical activity, you may need diabetes medicines. The kind of medicine you take depends ...

  10. [SPORT MEDICINE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantini, Naama; Mann, Gideon

    2016-06-01

    Sports Medicine is a relatively new subject in medicine and includes a variety of medical and paramedical fields. Although sports medicine is mistakenly thought to be mainly for sports professionals/athletes, it actually encompasses the entire population, including the active and non-active healthy populations, as well as the sick. Sports medicine also engages amateur sportsmen and strives to promote physical activity and quality of life in the general population. Hence, the field involves all ages from childhood to old age, aiming to preserve and support every person at every age. Sports medicine, which started developing in the 19th century, is today a specialty, primary or secondary, in many countries, while in others it is a fellowship or under the jurisdiction of local or sports authorities. In Israel, the field exists since the 1950's and is advanced. The Sports Medicine Society founded a 3-year course of continued education in sport medicine as part of the Tel-Aviv University Faculty of Medicine. Later on, a fellowship in general Sports Medicine and in Orthopedic Sports Medicine were developed within the Israel Medical Association. A year ago, Israel formally became a member of the global "Exercise is Medicine" foundation, and under this title promotes education for health care providers on exercise prescription. The understanding of the importance of physical activity and fitness as part of a healthy lifestyle is increasing in Israel, as well as the number of amateur athletes, and the profession of sports medicine takes a big part in this process.

  11. Enhanced sources of acoustic power surrounding AR11429

    OpenAIRE

    Donea, Alina; Hanson, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Multi-frequency power maps of the local acoustic oscillations show acoustic enhancements (\\acoustic-power halos") at high frequencies surrounding large active region. Computational seismic holography reveals a high-frequency \\acoustic-emission halo", or \\seismic glory" surrounding large active regions. In this study, we have applied computational seismic holography to map the seismic seismic source density surrounding AR 11429. Studies of HMI/SDO Doppler data, shows that the "acoustic halos" ...

  12. Ancient medicine--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuskin, Eugenija; Lipozencić, Jasna; Pucarin-Cvetković, Jasna; Mustajbegović, Jadranka; Schachter, Neil; Mucić-Pucić, Branka; Neralić-Meniga, Inja

    2008-01-01

    Different aspects of medicine and/or healing in several societies are presented. In the ancient times as well as today medicine has been closely related to magic, science and religion. Various ancient societies and cultures had developed different views of medicine. It was believed that a human being has two bodies: a visible body that belongs to the earth and an invisible body of heaven. In the earliest prehistoric days, a different kind of medicine was practiced in countries such as Egypt, Greece, Rome, Mesopotamia, India, Tibet, China, and others. In those countries, "medicine people" practiced medicine from the magic to modern physical practices. Medicine was magical and mythological, and diseases were attributed mostly to the supernatural forces. The foundation of modern medicine can be traced back to ancient Greeks. Tibetan culture, for instance, even today, combines spiritual and practical medicine. Chinese medicine developed as a concept of yin and yang, acupuncture and acupressure, and it has even been used in the modern medicine. During medieval Europe, major universities and medical schools were established. In the ancient time, before hospitals had developed, patients were treated mostly in temples.

  13. Teacher Leadership: Everyday Practices Surrounding Work- Related Stress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chiweshe Nigel

    2015-01-01

    This interpretivist study contributes to our scholarly understanding of how everyday practices surrounding work-related stress in education affect teacher leadership and successful learning outcomes...

  14. Aspects and Polymorphism in AspectJ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenz, David Harel; Ernst, Erik

    2003-01-01

    -oriented programming (AOP). In AOP, pieces of crosscutting behavior are extracted from the base code and localized in aspects, losing as a result their polymorphic capabilities while introducing new and unexplored issues. In this paper, we explore what kinds of polymorphism AOP languages should support, using AspectJ...... as the basis for the presentation. The results are not exclusive to AspectJ---aspectual polymorphism may make aspects in any comparable AOSD language more expressive and reusable across programs, while preserving safety....

  15. Medicine's Missing Dimension

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Kenneth H.

    2010-01-01

    In medicine we tend to restrict practice to using a purely intellectual understanding grounded in science to conceptualize patients and their illnesses. This approach is radically different from the experientially rich healing practices found throughout the world that presumably date to the beginning of humanity. Shamanistic healing is often typified as involving magical thinking and communication with beings other than human. These aspects of traditional healing are difficult to merge with s...

  16. [Sport as a profession: medical and social aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izmerov, N F

    2011-01-01

    The author analyses possible use of methods and achievements of industrial medicine in solving problems of acme in sports. The article covers theoretic, methodologic and practical basis for possible integration of industrial medicine and sports medicine. Mechanisms of such interdisciplinary integration include current legal basis, scientific research (mostly, concept of occupational risk, norm and pathology concept, doctrine of preventive medicine, etc), practical experience accumulated in this country and abroad. Some aspects of public health preservation in contemporary Russia are also tackled.

  17. [The role of disease and Medicine in the life and work of Marcel Proust].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Marcelo

    2009-03-01

    Marcel Proust is one of the greatest French writers of the XX century and of all times. In bis supreme work 'In Search of lost Time", Proust demonstrated a great knowledge of medicine and specifically neurology. He ivas surrounded by doctors in his family and himself carne in touch with many brilliant neurologists as Babinski and Sollier due to bis asthma, wrongly considered as a manifestation of his "neurasthenia". He used as a literary tool the concept of emotional memory which is the basis of bis work. Nearly a century after Proust began the elaboration of bis masterpiece, this paper reviews important medical aspects of bis life and the influence that medicine had on bis work.

  18. Generic - equivalent drugs use in internal and general medicine patients: distrust, confusion, lack of certainties or of knowledge? Part 2. Misconceptions, doubts and critical aspects when using generic drugs in the real world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Nardi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A lot of issues have been raised to argue that equivalent drugs may not work as well or at least the same as what the drug industry likes to call innovator products. Many doubts and biases are also reported in connection with the use of generic drugs. Doctors are mostly concerned about their efficacy, their tolerability, the quality and amount of active ingredients, their formulation or excipients, their packaging, their pharmaceutical form and their palatability. We describe the differences between prescribability (equivalence when prescribing a drug to a patient for the first time and switchability (interchangeability of drugs for a patient already in treatment considering the notions of average bioequivalence, population bioequivalence and individual bioequivalence as well as the usefulness of the U.S. Orange Book in the assessment of bioequivalence. Other key issues deserve attention, such as: duplicate applications for medicinal products, different salt forms, formulations used in the development of each medicinal product and excipients, product quality. Clinicians in collaboration with pharmacists and research pharmacologists have to find solutions for unanswered questions and unsolved doubts, by developing targeted studies, communication tools and shared guidelines.

  19. Comparative Analysis of Termiteria and Surrounding Soil Properties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative Analysis of Termiteria and Surrounding Soil Properties in the University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Nigeria. IS Eneji, R Sha'Ato, SE Ejembi. Abstract. Variations in the properties of termitaria and their surrounding soil properties within the University of Agriculture Makurdi were investigated using routine soil analysis ...

  20. The bird species of pandam wildlife park and the surrounding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the bird species abundance and diversity of the Pandam wildlife park and the surrounding farmlands. The effect of time of day as well as vegetation variables on bird species diversity in the park and surrounding farmlands was also conducted. 10 transects in each study site were surveyed twice ...

  1. HIV behavioural surveillance among refugees and surrounding host ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We used a standardised behavioural surveillance survey (BSS), modified to be directly relevant to populations in conflict and post-conflict settings as well as to their surrounding host populations, to survey the populations of a refugee settlement in south-western Uganda and its surrounding area. Two-stage probability ...

  2. [Expedition medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donlagić, Lana

    2009-01-01

    Expedition and wildeness medicine is a term that combines rescue medicine, sport medicine as well as more specific branches as polar or high altitude medicine. It is being intensively studied both at the reaserch institutes and on expeditions. Ophtalmologists are concentrated on the reaserch of HARH (High Altitude Retinal Hemorrhage), neurologists on HACE reaserch (High Altitude Cerebral Edema), psychologists are developing tests to decsribe cognitive functions and many physicians are being trained to work in extreme enviroment. The result of all this effort are numerous new findings in pathophysiology and therapy of altitude illness, increased security on expedition and further development of expeditionism.

  3. Herbal Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Menu Diseases and Conditions Tests and Procedures Recipes Nutrition Information Prevention Guidelines ... Prostate Cancer: Herbal Supplements Topic Index - Complementary and Alternative Medicine ...

  4. Exploring the Knowledge and Perception of Generic Medicines among Final Year Undergraduate Medical, Pharmacy, and Nursing Students in Sierra Leone: A Comparative Cross-Sectional Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Bai James

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Most low-income nations have national medicine policy that emphasized the use of generic medicines in the public health sector. However, the use of generics is often debatable as there are concerns over its efficacy, quality, and safety compared to their branded counterparts. This study was conducted to compare the knowledge and perception of generic medicines among final year undergraduate medical, pharmacy, and nursing students in Sierra Leone. We conducted a questionnaire-based cross-sectional study among these students at the College of Medicine and Allied Health Sciences University of Sierra Leone. Out of the 62 students, only two (2/62, 3.2% knew about the acceptable bioequivalence limit. At least half of respondents in all three groups agreed that all generics are therapeutically equivalent to their innovator brand. At least half of the medicine (21/42, 50% and nursing (6/9, 66.6% students, compared to pharmacy students (5/11, 45.5%, believed that higher safety standards are required for proprietary medicines than for generic medicines. Most of them agreed that they need more information on the safety, quality, and efficacy aspects of generics (59/62, 95.2%. All three groups of healthcare students, despite variations in their responses, demonstrated a deficiency in knowledge and misconception regarding generic medicines. Training on issues surrounding generic drugs in healthcare training institutions is highly needed among future healthcare providers in Sierra Leone.

  5. Vulnerable Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochner, Arthur P.

    2009-01-01

    In "Narrative Medicine: Honoring the Stories of Illness," Rita Charon paints an original and humane portrait of what it can mean to be a doctor, to live a life immersed in sickness and dedicated to wellness. Charon drops the veil, inviting readers to look at the secret, subjective, emotional face of medicine, a zone of self-censored feelings and…

  6. [Evolutionary medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wjst, M

    2013-12-01

    Evolutionary medicine allows new insights into long standing medical problems. Are we "really stoneagers on the fast lane"? This insight might have enormous consequences and will allow new answers that could never been provided by traditional anthropology. Only now this is made possible using data from molecular medicine and systems biology. Thereby evolutionary medicine takes a leap from a merely theoretical discipline to practical fields - reproductive, nutritional and preventive medicine, as well as microbiology, immunology and psychiatry. Evolutionary medicine is not another "just so story" but a serious candidate for the medical curriculum providing a universal understanding of health and disease based on our biological origin. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Proposing local trees diversity for rehabilitation of degraded lowland areas surrounding springs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SOEJONO

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Soejono, Budiharta S, Arisoesilaningsih E. 2013. Proposing local trees diversity for rehabilitation of degraded lowland areas surrounding water spring. Biodiversitas 14: 37-42. This study was aimed to propose alternative trees diversity for rehabilitation of degraded lowland area surrounding spring. Data were collected by vegetation analysis of three sampling sites (1st. Cowek, 2nd Gajahrejo, 3rd Parerejo to determine density, frequency, dominancy, diversity index and Important Value Index (IVI. The lists of plants in three sites were then compiled into an integrated list and used as reference for developing questionnaire. The questionnaire was then distributed to respondents who were chosen randomly. We recorded their preferences of tree species in rehabilitation program based on socio-economical and ecological aspects. Selected species were then proposed as alternative plants for rehabilitation of degraded spring area based on landscape topography and remaining vegetation coverage. The results showed that species diversity of Moracecae family was the highest than other families. In term of ecological aspect, Ficus racemosa, Artocarpus elasticus, Bambusa blumeana, Dendrocalamus asper, Gigantochloa atter, Ficus benjamina, Syzygium samarangensis and Ficus virens showed high Important Value Index. On the other hand, based on socio-economic aspects, Ficus benjamina, Artocarpus elasticus, Artocarpus altilis, Artocarpus altilis “Seedless”, Durio zbethinus, Ficus drupacea, Pangium edule, Ficus varigata, Michelia champaca, Aleurites moluccana and Ficus racemosa were the most preferred species by local community. Based on topography and vegetation coverage, spring surrounding areas were were classified into four: steep and open, flat and open, steep and dense, and flat and dense. Therefore among of 120 species found in all sampling sites, there were respectively 63.3%, 95%, 25% and 44.16% species to be proposed and planted for rehabilitation in the

  8. Aspects of peripheral thyroid hormone metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.H. Otten (Marten Henk)

    1984-01-01

    textabstractThe research into thyroid function has a long history. The recognition of goiter as pathology of the thyroid gland dates back to the ancient world of Rome and Greece and possibly even to the early history of chinese medicine. In an excellent review of the historical aspects of the

  9. Surrounding Moving Obstacle Detection for Autonomous Driving Using Stereo Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Sun

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Detection and tracking surrounding moving obstacles such as vehicles and pedestrians are crucial for the safety of mobile robotics and autonomous vehicles. This is especially the case in urban driving scenarios. This paper presents a novel framework for surrounding moving obstacles detection using binocular stereo vision. The contributions of our work are threefold. Firstly, a multiview feature matching scheme is presented for simultaneous stereo correspondence and motion correspondence searching. Secondly, the multiview geometry constraint derived from the relative camera positions in pairs of consecutive stereo views is exploited for surrounding moving obstacles detection. Thirdly, an adaptive particle filter is proposed for tracking of multiple moving obstacles in surrounding areas. Experimental results from real-world driving sequences demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed framework.

  10. Nuclear medicine in cancer diagnosis and therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernov, V.; Zeltchan, R.; Medvedeva, A.; Sinilkin, I.; Bragina, O.

    2017-09-01

    Early cancer diagnosis remains one of the most actual problems of medicine, since it allows using the most effective methods of cancer treating. Unlike most diagnostic methods used in oncology, the methods of nuclear medicine allow assessing not so much the anatomic changes in the organ as the disturbance of metabolic processes in tumors and surrounding tissues. The authors describe the main radiopharmaceuticals used for diagnose and radiotherapy of malignant tumors.

  11. Herbal Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... resources Diseases and Conditions Acupuncture Art, Dance, and Music Ayurveda Biofeedback Body Movement Chinese Medicine Electromagnetic Therapy ... American word for "rough" (referring to its root structure). It is generally used for menopausal conditions, painful ...

  12. Medicinal cannabis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Murnion, Bridin

    2015-01-01

    .... The Regulator of Medicinal Cannabis Bill 2014 is under consideration in Australia to address this. Nabiximols is the only cannabinoid on the Australian Register of Therapeutic Goods at present, although cannabidiol has been recommended for inclusion in Schedule 4.

  13. Forest Fragments Surrounded by Sugar Cane Are More Inhospitable to Terrestrial Amphibian Abundance Than Fragments Surrounded by Pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Eveline Ribeiro D’Anunciação

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been increasing interest in matrix-type influence on forest fragments. Terrestrial amphibians are good bioindicators for this kind of research because of low vagility and high philopatry. This study compared richness, abundance, and species composition of terrestrial amphibians through pitfall traps in two sets of semideciduous seasonal forest fragments in southeastern Brazil, according to the predominant surrounding matrix (sugar cane and pasture. There were no differences in richness, but fragments surrounded by sugar cane had the lowest abundance of amphibians, whereas fragments surrounded by pastures had greater abundance. The most abundant species, Rhinella ornata, showed no biometric differences between fragment groups but like many other amphibians sampled showed very low numbers of individuals in fragments dominated by sugar cane fields. Our data indicate that the sugar cane matrix negatively influences the community of amphibians present in fragments surrounded by this type of land use.

  14. Nigerian Journal of Postgraduate Medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We are interested in contributions that illuminates or advance medical science or practices extending all aspects of medicine. Contributions may be in the form of review articles, case reports, clinical practice materials, letter to the Editor, short communication commentaries, and viewpoints. Articles on socio-economic, ...

  15. Mary Slessor Journal of Medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Mary Slessor Journal of Medicine (MJSM) publishes original research papers, review articles, case reports and short communications on any aspect of health and tropical diseases. All papers are refereed by independent assessors. Vol 9, No 1 (2009). DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ...

  16. [Reflection on treatment of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome by integrative medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dan-Ni

    2012-02-01

    The current situation of Chinese medicine and Western medicine treatment of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has made the integrative medicine treatment of AIDS an important treatment strategy. Integrative medicine treatment of AIDS has made certain achievements in clinical research, basic research, and other aspects. It has good mass foundation and curative efficacy, as well as insufficiency. I hope integrative medicine can be brought into full play in the treatment of AIDS and make breakthrough progress.

  17. Aerospace Medicine Talk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Richard S.

    2015-01-01

    The presentation is next Sunday, May 10th. It will be to the Civil Aviation Medical Association, for 2 hours at Disney World in Orlando. It is a high level talk on space medicine, including history, the role of my office, human health risks of space flight, general aspects of space medicine practice, human health risk management (including integrated activities of medical operations and the Human Research Program, and thoughts concerning health risks for long duration exploration class space missions. No proprietary data or material will be used, all is readily available in the public sector. There is also a short (30 min) talk on Monday at the CAMA lunch. There we will describe the Visual Impairment and Intracranial Pressure syndrome, with possible etiologies and plans for research (already selected studies). Again, nothing proprietary will be discussed.

  18. Teleophthalmology in preventive medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Michelson, Georg

    2014-01-01

    This book provides an up-to-date overview of the clinical applications, methods, and technologies of teleophthalmology within the field of preventive medicine. The ability of novel methods to detect the initial signs of neurodegenerative diseases on the basis of alterations in the retina is reviewed, and detailed attention is paid to the role of teleophthalmology in screening for vision-threatening diseases such as diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, and age-related macular degeneration. A major part of the book is devoted to novel imaging methods and the latest information technologies, including advanced mobile communication and Web 2.0 applications in teleophthalmology. In addition, the initial projects of an interdisciplinary cooperation in preventive medicine are described. All of the authors are experienced in the scientific and practical aspects of teleophthalmology, including e-learning, and have produced a book that will meet the needs of all medical care providers interested in using teleophthalmology.

  19. Psychological aspects of pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorczyca, Rafał; Filip, Rafał; Walczak, Ewa

    2013-01-01

    Pain is defined "an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage, or described in terms of such damage". Pain is a sensation of the body, and is always an unpleasant emotional experience. The role of psychology is auxiliary and supplemental to medicine. This is an aid addressed to the patient, physician and patient's caregivers: professional caregivers, family members and significant others. At each stage of the diagnostic and therapeutic process, psychology offers help, both from the cognitive and practical aspects. The objective of the article is to present important psychological aspects of studies concerning pain, and the psychological methods and techniques of pain treatment. Pain is the leading reason for patients seeking medical care and is one of the most disabling, burdensome, and costly conditions. Pain accompanies many diseases, each one of which generates unique/separate diagnostic, therapeutic and research problems. DEPRESSION AND RELATED PSYCHICAL DISORDERS: There is a significant relationship between depression and pain symptoms, as well as between pain and suicidal thoughts. Patients with a long history of pain disorders also have increased depression and anxiety symptoms, as well as suicidal thoughts. Patients with more severe depression and anxiety symptoms also have an increase in pain problems. The intensity of pain correlates with the intensity of psychopathological symptoms - both with mood lowering and with anxiety symptoms and worry. Active pain coping strategies strive to function in spite of pain, or to distract oneself from pain, are associated with adaptive functioning. Passive strategies involve withdrawal or relinquishing control to an external force or agent and are related to greater pain and depression. Pain catastrophizing is a negatively distorted perception of pain as awful, horrible and unbearable. Catastrophizing is strongly associated with depression and pain. Studies in which

  20. Historical aspects of human presence in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harsch, V.

    2007-02-01

    Purpose: This paper presents the development of human presence in Space from its beginnings. Study hypotheses were based on historical findings on scientific, medical, cultural, and political aspects of manned Space flight due to the different attitudes of Space minded nations and organizations. Impacts of aerospace medicine on the advances of biomedical sciences will be touched upon, as well as the historical development of aviation and Space medical achievements which are described briefly and visions for future developments are given. Methods: An overview was gained by literature-study, archives research and oral history taking. Results: Aviation Medicine evolved parallel to Man's ability to fly. War-triggered advancements in aviation brought mankind to the edge of space-equivalent conditions within a few decades of the first motor-flight, which took place in the USA in 1903 [V. Harsch, Aerospace medicine in Germany: from the very beginnings, Aviation and Space Environment Medicine 71 (2000) 447-450 [1

  1. Exerting the Role of Journal of International Translational Medicine in Translational Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YE Zhen-hua

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available As a new branch of medicine with unlimited prospect, Translational Medicine has been rapidly developed over the past decades and gained global attention. Translational Medicine can be vividly described as “bench to bedside (B2B” model which focuses on the integration of multiple aspects, especially the basic medicine and clinical medicine, and has a great potential in treating many severe diseases and improving human health. Medical journals are carriers for medical information and play a great role in the development of medicines, and Journal of International Translational Medicine (JITM is just a journal emerging at the right moment and specialized in translational medicine. With professionalized attitude and internationalized requirements, JITM is committed to promote the development of Translational Medicine.

  2. Radiation protection in nuclear medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattsson, Soeren [Lund Univ., Skane Univ. Hospital Malmoe (Sweden). Medical Radiation Physics; Hoeschen, Christoph (eds.) [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen Deutsches Forschungszentrum fuer Gesundheit und Umwelt GmbH, Neuherberg (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    Addresses all aspects of radiation protection in nuclear medicine. Covers current technologies and principles. An ideal textbook for students and a ready source of information for nuclear medicine specialists and medical physics experts. One of a series of three books on the fundamentals of modern nuclear medicine (physics, safety, and imaging). This book explains clearly and in detail all aspects of radiation protection in nuclear medicine. After an introductory chapter on the general role of radiation protection, measurement quantities and units are discussed, and detectors and dosimeters, described. Radiation biology and radiation dosimetry are then addressed, with the inclusion of a chapter specifically devoted to biology and dosimetry for the lens of the eye. Discussion of radiation doses to patients and to embryos, fetuses, and children forms a central part of the book. Phantom models, biokinetic models, calculations, and software solutions are all considered, and a further chapter focuses on quality assurance and reference levels. Occupational exposure also receives detailed attention. Exposure resulting from the production, labeling, and injection of radiopharmaceuticals and from contact with patients is discussed and shielding calculations are explained. The book closes by considering exposure of the public and summarizing the ''rules of thumb'' for radiation protection in nuclear medicine. This is an ideal textbook for students and a ready source of useful information for nuclear medicine specialists and medical physics experts.

  3. Practical Aspects of Finite Element Method Applications in Dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grbović Aleksandar

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of numerical methods, such as finite element method (FEM, has been widely adopted in solving structural problems with complex geometry under external loads when analytical solutions are unachievable. Basic idea behind FEM is to divide the complex body geometry into smaller and simpler domains, called finite elements, and then to formulate solution for each element instead of seeking a solution for the entire domain. After finding the solutions for all elements they can be combined to obtain a solution for the whole domain. This numerical method is mostly used in engineering, but it is also useful for studying the biomechanical properties of materials used in medicine and the influence of mechanical forces on the biological systems. Since its introduction in dentistry four decades ago, FEM became powerful tool for the predictions of stress and strain distribution on teeth, dentures, implants and surrounding bone. FEM can indicate aspects of biomaterials and human tissues that can hardly be measured in vivo and can predict the stress distribution in the contact areas which are not accessible, such as areas between the implant and cortical bone, denture and gingiva, or around the apex of the implant in trabecular bone. Aim of this paper is to present - using results of several successful FEM studies - the usefulness of this method in solving dentistry problems, as well as discussing practical aspects of FEM applications in dentistry. Some of the method limitations, such as impossibility of complete replication of clinical conditions and need for simplified assumptions regarding loads and materials modeling, are also presented. However, the emphasis is on FE modelling of teeth, bone, dentures and implants and their modifications according to the requirements. All presented studies have been carried out in commercial software for FE analysis ANSYS Workbench.

  4. Travel medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aw, Brian; Boraston, Suni; Botten, David; Cherniwchan, Darin; Fazal, Hyder; Kelton, Timothy; Libman, Michael; Saldanha, Colin; Scappatura, Philip; Stowe, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To define the practice of travel medicine, provide the basics of a comprehensive pretravel consultation for international travelers, and assist in identifying patients who might require referral to travel medicine professionals. Sources of information Guidelines and recommendations on travel medicine and travel-related illnesses by national and international travel health authorities were reviewed. MEDLINE and EMBASE searches for related literature were also performed. Main message Travel medicine is a highly dynamic specialty that focuses on pretravel preventive care. A comprehensive risk assessment for each individual traveler is essential in order to accurately evaluate traveler-, itinerary-, and destination-specific risks, and to advise on the most appropriate risk management interventions to promote health and prevent adverse health outcomes during travel. Vaccinations might also be required and should be personalized according to the individual traveler’s immunization history, travel itinerary, and the amount of time available before departure. Conclusion A traveler’s health and safety depends on a practitioner’s level of expertise in providing pretravel counseling and vaccinations, if required. Those who advise travelers are encouraged to be aware of the extent of this responsibility and to refer all high-risk travelers to travel medicine professionals whenever possible. PMID:25500599

  5. Microdevices in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polla, D L; Erdman, A G; Robbins, W P; Markus, D T; Diaz-Diaz, J; Rizq, R; Nam, Y; Brickner, H T; Wang, A; Krulevitch, P

    2000-01-01

    The application of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) to medicine is described. Three types of biomedical devices are considered, including diagnostic microsystems, surgical microsystems, and therapeutic microsystems. The opportunities of MEMS miniaturization in these emerging disciplines are considered, with emphasis placed on the importance of the technology in providing a better outcome for the patient and a lower overall health care cost. Several case examples in each of these areas are described. Key aspects of MEMS technology as it is applied to these three areas are described, along with some of the fabrication challenges.

  6. Aspects, Dependencies, and Interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chitchyan, R; Fabry, J.; Bergmans, Lodewijk; Südholt, M.; Consel, C.

    2007-01-01

    For Aspect-Oriented Software Development (AOSD) the topic of Aspects, Dependencies and Interactions is of high importance across the whole range of development activities – from requirements engineering through to language design. Aspect interactions must be adequately addressed all across the

  7. Discovering Early Aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baniassad, E.; Clements, P.; Araujo, J.; Moreira, A; Rashid, A.; Tekinerdogan, B.

    2006-01-01

    Traditionally, aspect-oriented software development (AOSD) has focused on the software life cycle's implementation phase: aspects are identified and captured mainly in code. But aspects are evident earlier in the life cycle, such as during requirements gathering and architecture development.

  8. Sasang Constitutional Medicine and Traditional Chinese Medicine: A Comparative Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junghee Yoo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sasang constitutional medicine (SCM is a holistic typological constitution medicine which balances psychological, social, and physical aspects of an individual to achieve wellness and increase longevity. SCM has the qualities of preventative medicine, as it emphasizes daily health management based on constitutionally differentiated regimens and self-cultivation of the mind and body. This review's goal is to establish a fundamental understanding of SCM and to provide a foundation for further study. It compares the similarities and differences of philosophical origins, perspectives on the mind (heart, typological systems, pathology, and therapeutics between SCM and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM. TCM is based on the Taoist view of the universe and humanity. The health and longevity of an individual depends on a harmonious relationship with the universe. On the other hand, SCM is based on the Confucian view of the universe and humanity. SCM focuses on the influence of human affairs on the psyche, physiology, and pathology.

  9. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging ... the limitations of Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch ...

  10. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging uses small amounts ... Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging ...

  11. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging uses small amounts ... Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging ...

  12. General Nuclear Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z General Nuclear Medicine Nuclear medicine imaging uses small amounts of radioactive ... of General Nuclear Medicine? What is General Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging ...

  13. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging uses ... limitations of Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of ...

  14. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging uses small ... of Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical ...

  15. Evidence, discovery and justification: the case of evidence-based medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaeta, Rodolfo; Gentile, Nelida

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop some thoughts on philosophical issues surrounding evidence-based medicine (EBM), especially related to its epistemological dimensions. After considering the scope of several philosophical concepts that are relevant to the discussion, and drawing some distinctions among different aspects of EBM, we evaluate the status of EBM and suggest that EBM is mainly a meta-methodology. Then, we outline an evaluation of the thesis that EBM is a 'new paradigm' in the practice of medicine. We argue that EBM does not seem to have arisen in the way Kuhn imagined paradigms to arise but as a conscious, deliberate proposal, more as programme than as a reality. Furthermore, there is something paradoxical about appealing to evidence or to the best evidence as a way of promoting a new paradigm. For the proposal seems to assume that there is something that by its own virtue is the best evidence for a given time. But this idea would have been rejected by Kuhn. If EBM involves a genuine new alternative in the field of medicine and shows a way in which the discipline will endure henceforth, this indicates that it is not what Kuhn once called a 'paradigm' and even, paradoxically, it is good evidence that scientific paradigms do not exist, at least in medicine. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Device and method for imaging of non-linear and linear properties of formations surrounding a borehole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Paul A; Tencate, James A; Le Bas, Pierre-Yves; Guyer, Robert; Vu, Cung Khac; Skelt, Christopher

    2013-10-08

    In some aspects of the disclosure, a method and an apparatus is disclosed for investigating material surrounding the borehole. The method includes generating within a borehole an intermittent low frequency vibration that propagates as a tube wave longitudinally to the borehole and induces a nonlinear response in one or more features in the material that are substantially perpendicular to a longitudinal axis of the borehole; generating within the borehole a sequence of high frequency pulses directed such that they travel longitudinally to the borehole within the surrounding material; and receiving, at one or more receivers positionable in the borehole, a signal that includes components from the low frequency vibration and the sequence of high frequency pulses during intermittent generation of the low frequency vibration, to investigate the material surrounding the borehole.

  17. Trado-modern medicine and growth in Nigeria: consequences of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Traditional medicine is becoming increasingly popular across the world. However, its growth potentials have been understudied and poorly appreciated due to existing global political economy of health and many surrounding informal processes. This article therefore investigated the developments of traditional medicine in ...

  18. History of evidence-based medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger L Sur

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This essay reviews the historical circumstances surrounding the introduction and evolution of evidence-based medicine. Criticisms of the approach are also considered. Weaknesses of existing standards of clinical practice and efforts to bring more certainty to clinical decision making were the foundation for evidence-based medicine, which integrates epidemiology and medical research. Because of its utility in designing randomized clinical trials, assessing the quality of the literature, and applying medical research at the bedside, evidence-based medicine will continue to have a strong influence on everyday clinical practice.

  19. Eccrine syringofibroadenoma surrounding a squamous cell carcinoma: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lele, S M; Gloster, E S; Heilman, E R; Chen, P C; Chen, C K; Anzil, A P; Pozner, J N; Reardon, M J

    1997-03-01

    A 91-year-old man presented with a 9.0 x 7.0 cm exophytic mass on the dorsum of the right foot, surrounded by a scaling hyperkeratotic plaque-like lesion that had been present for many years. He had similar long-standing hyperkeratotic plaque-like lesions on both legs. Histopathologic examination of the exophytic mass revealed a well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma surrounded by an eccrine syringofibroadenoma (ESFA). Histochemistry, immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy support this diagnosis. To our knowledge, this is the only reported case of ESFA being intimately associated with a malignant neoplasm.

  20. AspectKE*

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Fan; Masuhara, Hidehiko; Aotani, Tomoyuki

    2010-01-01

    Enforcing security policies to distributed systems is difficult, in particular, when a system contains untrusted components. We designed AspectKE*, a distributed AOP language based on a tuple space, to tackle this issue. In AspectKE*, aspects can enforce access control policies that depend...... on future behavior of running processes. One of the key language features is the predicates and functions that extract results of static program analysis, which are useful for defining security aspects that have to know about future behavior of a program. AspectKE* also provides a novel variable binding...

  1. [Costing nuclear medicine diagnostic procedures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markou, Pavlos

    2005-01-01

    To the Editor: Referring to a recent special report about the cost analysis of twenty-nine nuclear medicine procedures, I would like to clarify some basic aspects for determining costs of nuclear medicine procedure with various costing methodologies. Activity Based Costing (ABC) method, is a new approach in imaging services costing that can provide the most accurate cost data, but is difficult to perform in nuclear medicine diagnostic procedures. That is because ABC requires determining and analyzing all direct and indirect costs of each procedure, according all its activities. Traditional costing methods, like those for estimating incomes and expenses per procedure or fixed and variable costs per procedure, which are widely used in break-even point analysis and the method of ratio-of-costs-to-charges per procedure may be easily performed in nuclear medicine departments, to evaluate the variability and differences between costs and reimbursement - charges.

  2. Biomedical informatics and translational medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkar Indra

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Biomedical informatics involves a core set of methodologies that can provide a foundation for crossing the "translational barriers" associated with translational medicine. To this end, the fundamental aspects of biomedical informatics (e.g., bioinformatics, imaging informatics, clinical informatics, and public health informatics may be essential in helping improve the ability to bring basic research findings to the bedside, evaluate the efficacy of interventions across communities, and enable the assessment of the eventual impact of translational medicine innovations on health policies. Here, a brief description is provided for a selection of key biomedical informatics topics (Decision Support, Natural Language Processing, Standards, Information Retrieval, and Electronic Health Records and their relevance to translational medicine. Based on contributions and advancements in each of these topic areas, the article proposes that biomedical informatics practitioners ("biomedical informaticians" can be essential members of translational medicine teams.

  3. Complementary medicines in medicine: Conceptualising terminology among Australian medical students using a constructivist grounded theory approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeman, Kate; Robinson, Anske; McKenna, Lisa

    2015-02-01

    Terminology around the use of complementary medicines (CM) within medical discourse is ambiguous. Clear collective discourse within the medical context is required. This study reports the findings of a Constructivist Grounded Theory Method study used to explore medical students' conceptualisation of terminology and associated value components around CMs as evidenced within their discourse community. The results show that terminology surrounding CMs within medicine is politically charged and fraught with value judgements. Terms used to describe CMs were considered, many of which were deemed problematic. Categorisation of specific medicines was also deemed inappropriate in certain contexts. Conceptualisation of CM terminology, categorisation and value implications, discriminated between levels of evidence for CMs and provided insights into the social change of medicine towards emergence of an evidence-based integrative approach. The results show that terminology surrounding CM is a social construct consistent with fluid conceptualisation and operationalisation in different social contexts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Medicinal Mushrooms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindequist, U.; Won Kim, H.; Tiralongo, E.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.

    2014-01-01

    Since beginning of mankind nature is the most important source of medicines. Bioactive compounds produced by living organisms can be used directly as drugs or as lead compounds for drug development. Besides, the natural material can be used as crude drug for preparation of powder or extracts. Plants

  5. Oral medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Correspondence to: P Botha (p.mbotha@mweb. co.za). Clinical setting. The causes of oral signs and symptoms could include medicine side-effects, trauma, autoimmune disease, nutritional deficiency, fungal infection (Fig. 1), premalignant disease (Fig. 2), oral carcinoma (Fig. 3), or sequelae of cancer treatment. What is.

  6. Travel Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Daniel T; LaRocque, Regina C; Ryan, Edward T

    2018-01-02

    International travel can result in new illness or exacerbate existing conditions, and primary care clinicians have the opportunity to provide both pre- and posttravel health care. Providers should be familiar with destination-specific disease risks, be knowledgeable about travel and routine vaccines, be prepared to prescribe chemoprophylaxis and self-treatment regimens, and be aware of travel medicine resources.

  7. Personalized medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtzen, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    engineered anti-TNF-alpha antibody constructs now constitute one of the heaviest medicinal expenditures in many countries. All currently used TNF antagonists may dramatically lower disease activity and, in some patients, induce remission. Unfortunately, however, not all patients respond favorably, and safety...

  8. Ayurvedic Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lead poisoning in pregnant women who used Ayurvedic medications from India—New York City, 2011-2012. MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 2012; 61(33):641–646. Chopra A, Doiphode VV. Ayurvedic medicine. Core concept, therapeutic principles, and current relevance. . Medical Clinics of ...

  9. Medicinal Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillipson, J. David

    1997-01-01

    Highlights the demand for medicinal plants as pharmaceuticals and the demand for health care treatments worldwide and the issues that arise from this. Discusses new drugs from plants, anticancer drugs, antiviral drugs, antimalarial drugs, herbal remedies, quality, safety, efficacy, and conservation of plants. Contains 30 references. (JRH)

  10. A 500 PARSEC HALO SURROUNDING THE GALACTIC GLOBULAR NGC 1851

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olszewski, Edward W.; Saha, Abhijit; Knezek, Patricia; Subramaniam, Annapurni; de Boer, Thomas; Seitzer, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Using imaging that shows 4 mag of main-sequence stars, we have discovered that the Galactic globular cluster NGC 1851 is surrounded by a halo that is visible from the tidal radius of 700 arcsec (41 pc) to more than 4500 arcsec (> 250 pc). This halo is symmetric and falls in density as a power law of

  11. Influence of surroundings on photorefractive effect in lithium niobate crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarjanyi, Norbert, E-mail: tarjanyi@fyzika.uniza.sk [Department of Physics, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, University of Zilina, Univerzitna 1, Zilina, 01026 (Slovakia); Turek, Ivan [Berlinska 4, Zilina, 01008 (Slovakia)

    2012-11-01

    In the paper results of the investigation of the influence of electric properties of the environment surrounding LiNbO{sub 3} crystals on photorefractive effect induced in these crystals by Gaussian Ar{sup +} laser beam with various intensities are presented. We show spatial and temporal dependences of changes of the refractive index obtained experimentally in LiNbO{sub 3}: Fe and LiNbO{sub 3}: Fe:Mn samples surrounded by media with different electric conductivities and different permittivities (water, air, water solution of CaCl{sub 2}). The space and time dependences of the refractive index changes induced by the Ar{sup +} laser beam are observed by means of the Mach-Zehnder interferometer using light from HeNe laser. The experimentally obtained results are in a good agreement with those following from numerical calculations using the manifold mirroring method. The agreement between calculated and experimental results indicates that the polarization charge at the photorefractive crystal/surrounding medium boundary significantly influences the photorefractive process in the crystal. The experimentally observed slow spontaneous decrease of the refractive index change in a sample placed into a slightly conducting medium (air) after switching off the beam also indicates that the polarization charge in the sample's surroundings affects the photorefraction.

  12. Placental vascular responses are dependent on surrounding tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøgger, Torbjørn Halle

    . Materials and methods. From fresh born placentas, stem villi arteries were carefully dissected. The artery branches were divided. The surrounding tissue was removed from one end and was left untouched in the other end.Then, using wire myography, they were investigated in terms of contractility...

  13. Acrylate in Phaeocystis colonies does not affect the surrounding bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordkamp, DJB; Gieskes, WWC; Gottschal, JC; Forney, LJ; van Rijssel, M

    Acrylate accumulates to concentrations of 1.3-6.5 mM in the mucus of Phaeocystis colonies and may have an effect on the surrounding bacterial community, either as an inhibitor or as a carbon source. Both in the held and in the laboratory, effects of acrylate on bacterial growth and on its

  14. Smart Signs: Showing the way in Smart Surroundings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lijding, M.E.M.; Benz, H.P.; Meratnia, Nirvana; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    This paper presents a context-aware guidance and messaging system for large buildings and surrounding venues. Smart Signs are a new type of electronic door- and way-sign based on wireless sensor networks. Smart Signs present in-situ personalized guidance and messages, are ubiquitous, and easy to

  15. Review of Ordered Anarchy: Jasay and his Surroundings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aschwin de Wolf

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Anthony de Jasay is among the most important social thinkers of our time. His oeuvre offers a sustained critique of government and its defenders. In the book Ordered Anarchy: Jasay and His Surroundings, colleagues and friends pay tribute to the man in the form of an inspiring collection of essays.

  16. Polluted Alamuyo River: Impacts on surrounding wells, microbial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Polluted Alamuyo River: Impacts on surrounding wells, microbial attributes and toxic effects on Allium cepa root cells. ... High microbial load was observed in river water samples compared to the well water samples throughout the sampling periods with overall highest value observed at Late Rainy Season upstream water ...

  17. Linking disadvantaged housing areas to the surrounding city

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stender, Marie

    Several disadvantaged social housing areas in Denmark are currently undergo-ing thorough physical refurbishments, aiming to integrate them better with the surrounding city. The ambition is to attract new users and residents by opening up the borders of the area and establish attractive, new...

  18. Cachexia and herbal medicine: perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Hajime; Asakawa, Akihiro; Amitani, Haruka; Nakamura, Norifumi; Inui, Akio

    2012-01-01

    Kampo, a form of traditional herbal medical practice, has become a substance of interest for scientific research. Although earlier clinical reports concerning Kampo are abundant, the scientific investigation of Kampo has a very short history. However, the process of acquiring quantifiable clinical trial evidence on herbal medicine is now clearly underway. The development of multi-component herbal medicines capable of targeting multiple sites could be useful both for future drug discovery and for the potential management of complex diseases. Additionally, mechanistic studies and the identification of active compounds could lead to new discoveries in the biological and biomedical sciences. Modern translational research on herbal medicines beyond basic science and clinical perspectives will contribute to the development of new medicines. This review covers the translational aspects of herbal medicine with a focus on cancer anorexiacachexia. The review gives perspective on a new horizon for herbal medicine from a scientific point of view and a basis for the further development of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for patients.

  19. [Falsified medicines in parallel trade].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muckenfuß, Heide

    2017-11-01

    The number of falsified medicines on the German market has distinctly increased over the past few years. In particular, stolen pharmaceutical products, a form of falsified medicines, have increasingly been introduced into the legal supply chain via parallel trading. The reasons why parallel trading serves as a gateway for falsified medicines are most likely the complex supply chains and routes of transport. It is hardly possible for national authorities to trace the history of a medicinal product that was bought and sold by several intermediaries in different EU member states. In addition, the heterogeneous outward appearance of imported and relabelled pharmaceutical products facilitates the introduction of illegal products onto the market. Official batch release at the Paul-Ehrlich-Institut offers the possibility of checking some aspects that might provide an indication of a falsified medicine. In some circumstances, this may allow the identification of falsified medicines before they come onto the German market. However, this control is only possible for biomedicinal products that have not received a waiver regarding official batch release. For improved control of parallel trade, better networking among the EU member states would be beneficial. European-wide regulations, e. g., for disclosure of the complete supply chain, would help to minimise the risks of parallel trading and hinder the marketing of falsified medicines.

  20. Modeling grating contrast discrimination dippers: The role of surround suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, Michelle P S; Chirimuuta, Mazviita; Tolhurst, David J

    2017-10-01

    We consider the role of nonlinear inhibition in physiologically realistic multineuronal models of V1 to predict the dipper functions from contrast discrimination experiments with sinusoidal gratings of different geometries. The dip in dipper functions has been attributed to an expansive transducer function, which itself is attributed to two nonlinear inhibitory mechanisms: contrast normalization and surround suppression. We ran five contrast discrimination experiments, with targets and masks of different sizes and configurations: small Gabor target/small mask, small target/large mask, large target/large mask, small target/in-phase annular mask, and small target/out-of-phase annular mask. Our V1 modeling shows that the results for small Gabor target/small mask, small target/large mask, large target/large mask configurations are easily explained only if the model includes surround suppression. This is compatible with the finding that an in-phase annular mask generates only little threshold elevation while the out-of-phase mask was more effective. Surrounding mask gratings cannot be equated with surround suppression at the receptive-field level. We examine whether normalization and surround suppression occur simultaneously (parallel model) or sequentially (a better reflection of neurophysiology). The Akaike Criterion Difference showed that the sequential model was better than the parallel, but the difference was small. The large target/large mask dipper experiment was not well fit by our models, and we suggest that this may reflect selective attention for its uniquely larger test stimulus. The best-fit model replicates some behaviors of single V1 neurons, such as the decrease in receptive-field size with increasing contrast.

  1. Encompassing Sexual Medicine within Psychiatry: Pros and Cons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segraves, Robert Taylor

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This article examines the positive and negative aspects of psychiatry encompassing sexual medicine within its purview. Methods: MEDLINE searches for the period between 1980 to the present were performed with the terms "psychiatry," "sexual medicine," and "sexual dysfunction." In addition, sexual medicine texts were reviewed for chapters…

  2. Exotic pet medicine I. Snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, E R

    1993-11-01

    Of the 6,000 extant species of reptiles, approximately 2500 are snakes. Several dozen species of snakes have become popular in the pet trade, and to meet the increased demand, more and more species are being bred in captivity. Along with this popularity comes the need for more sound veterinary expertise. Although much biomedical information on snakes exists in the literature and can be found in texts on reptile medicine, few reviews have tried to consolidate the literature on this subject. The purpose of this article is to bring together information on the most pertinent aspects of snake medicine and disease.

  3. The Peak of the Pyramid: Women in Dentistry, Medicine and Veterinary Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Amber B.; Shapiro, Eileen C.

    This paper examines: (1) selected aspects of the current status of women at the top of the hierarchies in the three health professions of dentistry, medicine, and veterinary medicine, and (2) some of the effects of the changing structure of the health care system on the present and future roles of the women in each of these professions. Besides…

  4. Teaching Humanities in Medicine: The University of Massachusetts Family Medicine Residency Program Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silk, Hugh; Shields, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Humanities in medicine (HIM) is an important aspect of medical education intended to help preserve humanism and a focus on patients. At the University of Massachusetts Family Medicine Residency Program, we have been expanding our HIM curriculum for our residents including orientation, home visit reflective writing, didactics and a department-wide…

  5. Transfusion medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murawski, K.; Peetoom, F.

    1986-01-01

    These proceedings contain 24 selections, including papers presented at the conference of American Red Cross held in May 1985, on the Subject of transfusion medicine. Some of the titles are: Fluosol/sup R/-DA in Radiation Therapy; Expression of Cloned Human Factor VIII and the Molecular Basis of Gene Defects that Cause Hemophilia; DNA-Probing Assay in the Detection of Hepatitis B Virus Genome in Human Peripheral Blood Cells; and Monoclonal Antibodies: Convergence of Technology and Application.

  6. Haptic medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Cindy; Mason, Earl

    2009-01-01

    The paper introduces haptic medicine--healthcare based on loving touch for healing and preventing disease. We describe the effects of loving touch (a square inch of our skin has over 1000 nerves) on the body, brain and mind. We describe two web-based health education and media projects. The first, HYPERLINK "http://www.21stcenturymed.org" www.21stcenturymed.org is a place for health practitioners to start learning about touch and resources. The second project, Humans Without Borders, is a multi-lingual self help education website for everyday people. Teaching materials for these projects are based on our previous work with a form of haptic medicine known as psychophysiophilosophy with patients at Stanford Hospital, Kaiser Permanente and Lucille Packard Children's Hospital. We describe psychophysiophilosophy, relate motherly love to recent discoveries in neurosciences and give hints on ways to increase motherly love in each of us. We present a plan for moving into the future by re-introducing haptic medicine into our daily lives through self-help and as an adjunct for current physician practice. There is an exercise in self-help for the reader and an appendix of recent clinical research with profound benefits on the use of human touch for over 40 conditions.

  7. Kinetic theory of plasma sheaths surrounding electron-emitting surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, J P; Hershkowitz, N; Kaganovich, I D; Wang, H; Raitses, Y; Barnat, E V; Weatherford, B R; Sydorenko, D

    2013-08-16

    A one-dimensional kinetic theory of sheaths surrounding planar, electron-emitting surfaces is presented which accounts for plasma electrons lost to the surface and the temperature of the emitted electrons. It is shown that ratio of plasma electron temperature to emitted electron temperature significantly affects the sheath potential when the plasma electron temperature is within an order of magnitude of the emitted electron temperature. The sheath potential goes to zero as the plasma electron temperature equals the emitted electron temperature, which can occur in the afterglow of an rf plasma and some low-temperature plasma sources. These results were validated by particle in cell simulations. The theory was tested by making measurements of the sheath surrounding a thermionically emitting cathode in the afterglow of an rf plasma. The measured sheath potential shrunk to zero as the plasma electron temperature cooled to the emitted electron temperature, as predicted by the theory.

  8. Trajectories and Maneuvers of Surrounding Vehicles with Panoramic Camera Arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dueholm, Jacob Velling; Kristoffersen, Miklas Strøm; Satzoda, Ravi K.

    2016-01-01

    of drive on US highways. The multiperspective tracker is tested in each view as well as for the ability to associate vehicles bet-ween views with a 92% recall score. A case study of vehicles approaching from the rear shows certain patterns in behavior that could potentially influence the ego-vehicle.......Vision-based research for intelligent vehicles have traditionally focused on specific regions around a vehicle, such as a front looking camera for, e.g., lane estimation. Traffic scenes are complex and vital information could be lost in unobserved regions. This paper proposes a framework that uses...... four visual sensors for a full surround view of a vehicle in order to achieve an understanding of surrounding vehicle behaviors. The framework will assist the analysis of naturalistic driving studies by automating the task of data reduction of the observed trajectories. To this end, trajectories...

  9. Circuits and Mechanisms for Surround Modulation in Visual Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelucci, Alessandra; Bijanzadeh, Maryam; Nurminen, Lauri; Federer, Frederick; Merlin, Sam; Bressloff, Paul C

    2017-07-25

    Surround modulation (SM) is a fundamental property of sensory neurons in many species and sensory modalities. SM is the ability of stimuli in the surround of a neuron's receptive field (RF) to modulate (typically suppress) the neuron's response to stimuli simultaneously presented inside the RF, a property thought to underlie optimal coding of sensory information and important perceptual functions. Understanding the circuit and mechanisms for SM can reveal fundamental principles of computations in sensory cortices, from mouse to human. Current debate is centered over whether feedforward or intracortical circuits generate SM, and whether this results from increased inhibition or reduced excitation. Here we present a working hypothesis, based on theoretical and experimental evidence, that SM results from feedforward, horizontal, and feedback interactions with local recurrent connections, via synaptic mechanisms involving both increased inhibition and reduced recurrent excitation. In particular, strong and balanced recurrent excitatory and inhibitory circuits play a crucial role in the computation of SM.

  10. Integrative Medicine in Head and Neck Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matovina, Chloe; Birkeland, Andrew C; Zick, Suzanna; Shuman, Andrew G

    2017-02-01

    Objective Complementary and alternative medicine, or integrative medicine, has become increasingly popular among patients with head and neck cancer. Despite its increasing prevalence, many patients feel uncomfortable discussing such therapies with their physicians, and many physicians are unaware and underequipped to evaluate or discuss their use with patients. The aim of this article is to use recent data to outline the decision making inherent to integrative medicine utilization among patients with head and neck cancer, to discuss the ethical implications inherent to balancing integrative and conventional approaches to treatment, and to highlight available resources to enhance head and neck cancer providers' understanding of integrative medicine. Data Sources Randomized controlled trials involving integrative medicine or complementary and alternative medicine treatment for cancer patients. Review Methods Trials were drawn from a systematic PubMed database search categorized into cancer prevention, treatment, and symptom management. Conclusions Integrative medicine is gaining popularity for the management of cancer and is most commonly used for symptom management. A number of randomized controlled trials provide data to support integrative therapies, yet physicians who treat head and neck cancer may be faced with ethical dilemmas and practical barriers surrounding incorporation of integrative medicine. Implications for Practice In the management of head and neck cancer, there is an increasing demand for awareness of, dialogue about, and research evaluating integrative medicine therapies. It is important for otolaryngologists to become aware of integrative therapy options, their risks and benefits, and resources for further information to effectively counsel their patients.

  11. Belief and Attitudes surrounding Childhood Autism in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Manu, Naomi

    2012-01-01

    Autism is a life-long invisible impairment with an unknown etiology. Current literature shows an increase in the diagnosis of autism worldwide. This qualitative study explores the attitudes and beliefs which surround childhood autism in Ghana. In-depth interviews were conducted with four (4) parents whose children have autism and three (3) key informants; a Religious Leader, a Health Worker and an Administrator of a Special school in Accra, Ghana. A semi-structured interview guide was used fo...

  12. Tissue reaction surrounding miniscrews for orthodontic anchorage: An animal experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Shih-Hsuan Chen

    2012-03-01

    Results and conclusions: (1 Tissue surrounding roots damaged by a miniscrew showed a significant inflammatory response. (2 Root resorption was occasionally observed after 3 weeks following insertion of a miniscrew even if the miniscrew was not in direct contact with the root. (3 Root repair was noted with a cementoblast lining along the resorption surface at as early as 3 weeks after miniscrew insertion. Alveolar bone filled in the lesion when the root damage was large so that the contour of the alveolar bone followed that of the damaged root, with the width of the periodontal ligament space being maintained. (4 Stable miniscrews were mainly those which did not contact adjacent roots, and for which the surrounding tissue showed only a small inflammatory response with some extent of direct bone contact around the miniscrew. On the contrary, most of the failed miniscrews were those which had direct contact with adjacent roots, and which exhibited severe tissue inflammation and were covered by thick layers of soft tissue. Failure was detected 3 weeks after insertion. Surprisingly, the epithelial lining surrounding the miniscrews might not have spontaneously resolved 6 weeks after screw removal. Persistent infection in the sinus tract was noted, and this would require attention.

  13. Enhanced sources of acoustic power surrounding AR 11429

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donea, Alina; Hanson, Christopher

    2013-06-01

    Multi-frequency power maps of the local acoustic oscillations show acoustic enhancements ("acoustic-power halos") at high frequencies surrounding large active region. Computational seismic holography reveals a high-frequency "acoustic-emission halo", or "seismic glory" surrounding large active regions. In this study, we have applied computational seismic holography to map the seismic seismic source density surrounding AR 11429. Studies of HMI/SDO Doppler data, shows that the "acoustic halos" and the "seismic glories" are prominent at high frequencies 5-8 mHz. We investigate morphological properties of acoustic-power and acoustic emission halos around an active region to see if they are spatially correlated. Details about the local magnetic field from vectormagnetograms of AR 11429 are included. We identify a 15" region of seismic deficit power (dark moat) shielding the white-light boundary of the active region. The size of the seismic moat is related to region of intermediate magnetic field strength. The acoustic moat is circled by the halo of enhanced seismic amplitude as well as enhanced seismic emission. Overall, the results suggest that features are related. However, if we narrow the frequency band to 5.5 - 6.5 mHz, we find that the seismic source density dominates over the local acoustic power, suggesting the existence of sources that emit more energy downward into the solar interior than upward toward the solar surface.

  14. Declarative Aspect Composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagy, I.; Bergmans, Lodewijk; Aksit, Mehmet

    2004-01-01

    Aspect-oriented languages provide means to attach certain program units (e.g. advice, filters) to a given set of join points. It is possible that not just a single , but several units need to execute at the same join point. Aspects that specify the insertion of these units are said to "share" the

  15. Aspects, Dependencies and Interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanen, F.; Chitchyan, R; Bergmans, Lodewijk; Fabry, J.; Sudholt, M.; Mehner, K.; Cebulla, M.

    2008-01-01

    The topics on aspects, dependencies and interactions are among the key remaining challenges to be tackled by the Aspect-Oriented Software Development (AOSD) community to enable a wide adoption of AOSD technology. This second workshop, organized and supported by the AOSD-Europe project, aimed to

  16. Aspect-Oriented Programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmans, Lodewijk; Videira Lopes, Cristina; Moreira, Ana; Demeyer, Serge

    1999-01-01

    Aspect-oriented programming is a promising idea that can improve the quality of software by reduce the problem of code tangling and improving the separation of concerns. At ECOOP'97, the first AOP workshop brought together a number of researchers interested in aspect-orientation. At ECOOP'98, during

  17. Aspects of Biodiversity and Fish Production in The Kukobila Wetland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to provide baseline data on aspects of biodiversity and fish production in the Kukobila wetland. The objectives were to: identify the major animal and plant species of economic importance to the surrounding communities; identify fishing gears used and (iii) assess fish species diversity and ...

  18. Malaria: Entomological Aspect | Eluwa | Orient Journal of Medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preamble: “Of all the ills that afflict mankind few have taken a higher toll than malaria”1. Known vectors: Of the three generae in the mosquito tribe Anophilini, only the genus Anopheles contains species of medical importance. Of the 400 species or so of Anopheles known, few members are established as sole transmitters of ...

  19. NIR Raman spectroscopy in medicine and biology: results and aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrader, B.; Dippel, B.; Erb, I.; Keller, S.; Löchte, T.; Schulz, H.; Tatsch, E.; Wessel, S.

    1999-05-01

    Analyses of biomaterial by 'classical' Raman spectroscopy with excitation in the visible range has not been possible since the fluorescence of many essential constituents of all animal and plant cells and tissues overlays the Raman spectra completely. Fluorescence, however, is virtually avoided, when Raman spectra are excited with the Nd : YAG laser line at 1064 nm. Within seven dissertations we explored different fields of potential applications to medical diagnostics. Identification and qualification of tissues and cells is possible. Tumors show small but significant differences to normal tissues; in order to develop a reliable tool for tumor diagnostics more research is necessary, especially a collection of reference spectra in a data bank is needed. Raman spectra of biomineralization structures in teeth and bones show pathological tissues as well as the development of new mineralized structures. NIR Raman spectra of flowers, leaves, and fruit show, without special preparation, their constituents: alkaloids, the essential oils, natural dyes, flavors, spices and drugs. They allow application to taxonomy, optimizing plant breeding and control of food.

  20. Kynurenines and PACAP in Migraine: Medicinal Chemistry and Pathogenetic Aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajti, Janos; Szok, Delia; Nagy-Grocz, Gabor; Tuka, Bernadett; Petrovics-Balog, Anna; Toldi, Jozsef; Vecsei, Laszlo

    2017-01-01

    Migraine is a highly disabling neurovascular primary headache disorder, with its exact pathomechanism being still unrevealed. The current leading hypotheses are based on the sensitization and activation of the trigeminovascular system. To review the literature with focus on the effects of kynurenines (L-kynurenine and kynurenic acid) and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide on the regulation of the trigeminovascular system. A literature search was conducted to identify preclinical and clinical publications (198 references) by using the keywords 'kynurenines', 'pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide', and 'migraine' in the database of MEDLINE/PubMed up to 10 September 2016 for topical review. Additional filters used included 'review', 'systematic review', 'original article', and 'English language'. L-kynurenine and kynurenic acid act on the glutamatergic system at the level of the second-order nociceptive neurons in the trigeminal nucleus caudalis. Pituitary adenylate cyclase- activating polypeptide is released from the peripheral nerve endings of the trigeminal pseudounipolar neurons and causes vasodilation and mast cell degranulation, leading to consequent peripheral sensitization of the dural nociceptors. Centrally released pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide in the trigeminal nucleus caudalis results in the central sensitization of the second-order neurons. The sensitization process leads to the characteristic features of migraine. L-kynurenine, kynurenic acid, and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide may have fundamental roles in the initiation of migraine headache attacks. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  1. The cavity structure effect in medicine: the physical aspect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldyreva, Liudmila B

    2013-01-01

    In 1893 the German scientist Oskar Korschelt was granted a patent for using cavity structures (CS) for therapeutic purposes. In the end of the 20th century in Russia Victor Grebennikov also studied possibilities of using CS in curing various diseases. Korschelt used artificial CSs made of copper chains or plates. Grebennikov used mainly natural CS, e.g., empty bee combs. The main features of the CS effect are: the therapeutic efficacy of a CS depends on its orientation with respect to the biological object and on the material the CS is made of. It does not depend on the presence of acoustic or electromagnetic screens. The CS influence on the target biological object may not cease after removal of the CS, i.e. there is an after-effect. It is shown in the paper that it is possible to explain the effects of CSs on biological objects under the assumption that the physical vacuum has the properties of superfluid (3)He-B. The effects may be due to spin supercurrents being present in CSs. CSs differ from bodies of other form in that the cavity is 'filled' with spin supercurrents. The properties of the supercurrents are like those of the spin supercurrents between spin structures in superfluid (3)He-B. © 2013 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  2. Andrological aspects of physical exercise and sport medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Luigi, Luigi; Romanelli, Francesco; Sgrò, Paolo; Lenzi, Andrea

    2012-10-01

    Appropriate physical activity is one of the bases of healthy lifestyle. In fact, physical exercise and playing sport may be associated with both improvements and injury to both general and reproductive health. A biologically normal testosterone secretion appears fundamental in males to guarantee both a physiological exercise adaptation and safe sport participation. The reproductive system is highly sensitive to the effects of exercise-related stress and the reproductive hormones may both increase and decrease after different acute or chronic exercises. Exercise and sport participation may positively or negatively influence andrological health status depending on the type, intensity and duration of performed physical activity and on individual health status. In addition, prohibited substances administration (e.g. androgenic-anabolic steroids, and so forth) in competitive and non-competitive athletes represents the main cause of iatrogenic andrological diseases. Preventing and treating andrological problems in active healthy and unhealthy individuals is as important as promoting a correct lifestyle. Physicians need to be educated on the relationships between the male reproductive system and sport participation and on the great role of the pre-participation physical examination in the prevention of andrological diseases.

  3. Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Parents - or Other Adults Complementary and Alternative Medicine KidsHealth > For Teens > Complementary and Alternative Medicine Print ... replacement. continue How Is CAM Different From Conventional Medicine? Conventional medicine is based on scientific knowledge of ...

  4. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are the limitations of Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a ... top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? Children's (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging is ...

  5. Medicines by Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Science Education > Medicines By Design Medicines By Design Spotlight Nature's Medicine Cabinet A Medicine's Life Inside ... Free Booklet | Feedback | More Publications | Search Publications Social Media Links Bookmark & Share Free Subscriptions Twitter Facebook Instagram ...

  6. Regional model simulation of the hydrometeorological effects of the Fucino Lake on the surrounding region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Tomassetti

    Full Text Available The drainage of the Fucino Lake of central Italy was completed in 1873, and this possibly caused significant climatic changes over the Fucino basin. In this paper we discuss a set of short-term triple-nested regional model simulations of the meteorological effects of the Fucino Lake on the surrounding region. We find that the model simulates realistic lake-breeze circulations and their response to background winds. The simulations indicate that the lake affects the temperature of the surrounding basin in all seasons and precipitation in the cold season, when cyclonic perturbations move across the region. Some effects of the lake also extend over areas quite far from the Fucino basin. Our results support the hypothesis that the drainage of the lake might have significantly affected the climate of the lake basin. However, longer simulations and further development in some aspects of the model are needed, in order to provide a more statistically robust evaluation of the simulated lake-effects.

    Key words. Hydrology (anthropogenic effects – Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (climatology; mesoscale meteorology

  7. Catastrophe medicine; Medecine de catastrophe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebreton, A. [Service Technique de l`Energie Electrique et des Grands Barrages (STEEGB), (France)

    1996-12-31

    The `Catastrophe Medicine` congress which took place in Amiens (France) in December 5 to 7 1996 was devoted to the assessment and management of risks and hazards in natural and artificial systems. The methods of risk evaluation and prevision were discussed in the context of dams accidents with the analysis of experience feedbacks and lessons gained from the organisation of emergency plans. Three round table conferences were devoted to the importance of psychological aspects during such major crises. (J.S.)

  8. -p ADVERB-VERB SUFFIX IN KIRIM TATARIAN DIALECT FROM ESKISEHIR AND SURROUNDINGS / ESKISEHIR VE YÖRESI KIRIM TATAR AĞZINDA -p ZARF-FIIL EKI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Arzu S. Ertane BAYDAR

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, -p adverb-verb suffix used in Kırım Tatarian accent inEskisehir and surroundings was researched all aspects and its vocal structureand functions were presented with rich samples; the meanings of the samplesin Turkish are shown in paranthesis.

  9. INTERACTIONS OF THE INFRARED BUBBLE N4 WITH ITS SURROUNDINGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hong-Li; Li, Jin-Zeng; Yuan, Jing-Hua; Huang, Maohai; Huang, Ya-Fang; Zhang, Si-Ju [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 20A Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100012 (China); Wu, Yuefang [Department of Astronomy, Peking University, 100871 Beijing (China); Liu, Tie [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute 776, Daedeokdae-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Dubner, G.; Paron, S.; Ortega, M. E. [1Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio (IAFE, CONICET-UBA), CC 67, Suc. 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Molinari, Sergio [Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali—IAPS, Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica—INAF, via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Zavagno, Annie; Samal, Manash R., E-mail: hlliu@nao.cas.cn [Aix Marseille Universit, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d’Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR 7326, F-13388, Marseille (France)

    2016-02-10

    The physical mechanisms that induce the transformation of a certain mass of gas in new stars are far from being well understood. Infrared bubbles associated with H ii regions have been considered to be good samples for investigating triggered star formation. In this paper we report on the investigation of the dust properties of the infrared bubble N4 around the H ii region G11.898+0.747, analyzing its interaction with its surroundings and star formation histories therein, with the aim of determining the possibility of star formation triggered by the expansion of the bubble. Using Herschel PACS and SPIRE images with a wide wavelength coverage, we reveal the dust properties over the entire bubble. Meanwhile, we are able to identify six dust clumps surrounding the bubble, with a mean size of 0.50 pc, temperature of about 22 K, mean column density of 1.7 × 10{sup 22} cm{sup −2}, mean volume density of about 4.4 × 10{sup 4} cm{sup −3}, and a mean mass of 320 M{sub ⊙}. In addition, from PAH emission seen at 8 μm, free–free emission detected at 20 cm, and a probability density function in special regions, we could identify clear signatures of the influence of the H ii region on the surroundings. There are hints of star formation, though further investigation is required to demonstrate that N4 is the triggering source.

  10. Spirit's Surroundings on 'West Spur,' Sol 305 (Vertical)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This 360-degree panorama shows the terrain surrounding NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit as of the rover's 305th martian day, or sol, (Nov. 11, 2004). At that point, Spirit was climbing the 'West Spur' of the 'Columbia Hills.' The rover had just finished inspecting a rock called 'Lutefisk' and was heading uphill toward an area called 'Machu Picchu.' Spirit used its navigational camera to take the images combined into this mosaic. The rover's location when the images were taken is catalogued as the mission's site 89, position 205. The view is presented here as a vetical projection with geometric seam correction.

  11. Spirit's Surroundings on 'West Spur,' Sol 305 (Polar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This 360-degree panorama shows the terrain surrounding NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit as of the rover's 305th martian day, or sol, (Nov. 11, 2004). At that point, Spirit was climbing the 'West Spur' of the 'Columbia Hills.' The rover had just finished inspecting a rock called 'Lutefisk' and was heading uphill toward an area called 'Machu Picchu.' Spirit used its navigational camera to take the images combined into this mosaic. The rover's location when the images were taken is catalogued as the mission's site 89, position 205. The view is presented here as a polar projection with geometric seam correction.

  12. Current leakage for low altitude satellites. [to surrounding plasma sheath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccoy, J. E.; Konradi, A.; Garriott, O. K.

    1979-01-01

    Ionospheric plasma densities exceeding 1,000,000 per cu cm exist around satellites in low earth orbit. Operation of large solar arrays at high voltage may drive substantial leakage currents through this surrounding plasma. Power losses exceeding solar cell output have been observed for small arrays biased above +2,000 V. Estimates of these effects for very large power systems are developed. Recent large scale (10 meter) lab tests are reported. Estimates based on calculations of space charge limited sheath dimensions are identified as a good working model, leading to projected power losses for large arrays increasing much more slowly than for small arrays.

  13. The science and questions surrounding chronic traumatic encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Vin Shen; Madden, Christopher J; Bailes, Julian E; Hunt Batjer, H; Lonser, Russell R

    2016-04-01

    Recently, the pathobiology, causes, associated factors, incidence and prevalence, and natural history of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) have been debated. Data from retrospective case series and high-profile media reports have fueled public fear and affected the medical community's understanding of the role of sports-related traumatic brain injury (TBI) in the development of CTE. There are a number of limitations posed by the current evidence that can lead to confusion within the public and scientific community. In this paper, the authors address common questions surrounding the science of CTE and propose future research directions.

  14. Mutual seismic interaction between tunnels and the surrounding granular soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ahmed Abdel-Motaal

    2014-12-01

    Study results show that the maximum exerted straining actions in tunnel lining are directly proportional to the relative stiffness between tunnel and surrounding soil (lining thickness and soil shear modulus. Moreover, it is highly affected by the peak ground acceleration and the tunnel location (embedment depth. A comprehensive study is performed to show the effect of tunnel thickness and tunnel diameter on both the induced bending moment and lining deformation. In general, it is concluded that seismic analysis should be considered in regions subjected to peak ground acceleration greater than 0.15g.

  15. Foundational aspects of security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chatzikokolakis, Konstantinos; Mödersheim, Sebastian Alexander; Palamidessi, Catuscia

    2014-01-01

    This Special Issue of the Journal of Computer Security focuses on foundational aspects of security, which in recent years have helped change much of the way we think about and approach system security.......This Special Issue of the Journal of Computer Security focuses on foundational aspects of security, which in recent years have helped change much of the way we think about and approach system security....

  16. Reproductive medicine and the concept of 'quality'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlberg, Ayo

    2008-01-01

    Selection in reproductive medicine today relies on normative assessments of what ‘good life’ consists of. This paper explores the terms under which such assessments are made by focusing on three particular concepts of ‘quality’: quality of life, biological quality and population quality. It is su......Selection in reproductive medicine today relies on normative assessments of what ‘good life’ consists of. This paper explores the terms under which such assessments are made by focusing on three particular concepts of ‘quality’: quality of life, biological quality and population quality....... It is suggested that the apparently conflicting hypes, hopes and fears that surround reproductive medicine can co-circulate because of the different forms of normative assessment that these concepts allow. To ensure clarity in bioethical deliberations about selection, it is necessary to highlight how...... these differing forms of assessment are mobilized and invoked in practices of and debates about reproductive medicine. Udgivelsesdato: November...

  17. Medicinal cannabis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murnion, Bridin

    2015-12-01

    A number of therapeutic uses of cannabis and its derivatives have been postulated from preclinical investigations. Possible clinical indications include spasticity and pain in multiple sclerosis, cancer-associated nausea and vomiting, cancer pain and HIV neuropathy. However, evidence is limited, may reflect subjective rather than objective outcomes, and is not conclusive. Controversies lie in how to produce, supply and administer cannabinoid products. Introduction of cannabinoids therapeutically should be supported by a regulatory and educational framework that minimises the risk of harm to patients and the community. The Regulator of Medicinal Cannabis Bill 2014 is under consideration in Australia to address this. Nabiximols is the only cannabinoid on the Australian Register of Therapeutic Goods at present, although cannabidiol has been recommended for inclusion in Schedule 4.

  18. Microbial communities associated with ferromanganese nodules and the surrounding sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin John Tully

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The formation and maintenance of deep-sea ferromanganese/polymetallic nodules still remains a mystery 140 years after their discovery. The wealth of rare metals concentrated in these nodules has spurred global interest in exploring the mining potential of these resources. The prevailing theory of abiotic formation has been called into question and the role of microbial metabolisms in nodule development is now an area of active research. To understand the community structure of microbes associated with nodules and their surrounding sediment, we performed targeted sequencing of the V4 hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene from three nodules collected from the central South Pacific. Results have shown that the microbial communities of the nodules are significantly distinct from the communities in the surrounding sediments, and that the interiors of the nodules harbor communities different from the exterior. This suggests not only differences in potential metabolisms between the nodule and sediment communities, but also differences in the dominant metabolisms of interior and exterior communities. We identified several operational taxonomic units (OTUs unique to both the nodule and sediment environments. The identified OTUs were assigned putative taxonomic identifications, including two OTUs only found associated with the nodules, which were assigned to the α-Proteobacteria. Finally, we explored the diversity of the most assigned taxonomic group, the Thaumarchaea MG-1, which revealed novel OTUs compared to previous research from the region and suggests a potential role as a source of fixed carbon for ammonia oxidizing archaea in the environment.

  19. REMOTE SENSING EFFICIENCY FOR URBAN ANALYSIS OF MECCA AND SURROUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Imam

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Situated in the southwest of Saudi Arabia, Mecca is considered the spiritual capital of one and a half billion worldwide Muslims. The city is visited by millions of pilgrims every year. It has undergone significant changes in land cover (LC since the government first embarked on a series of ambitious development projects 20 years ago to accommodate the growing number of pilgrims and citizens. The main objective of our study is to detect, identify, analyze and measure the evolving land cover and urban morphology composition from multi-temporal satellite images. To characterize the morphological change during a period of twenty years, four satellite images, acquired in 1998 by Landsat TM and in 2003, 2008 and 2013 by Landsat ETM+, were classified into five main categories: Urban, Street, Soil and Vegetation. In addition, DEM has been extracted and included as Mountain. Change detection (CD analysis is applied using post-classification comparison and GIS. As part of the study, morphological index, such as, Entropy is included for better understanding of urban structures behaviour. Mecca and its surroundings show a noticeable increase in urban and vegetation cover. Urban cover (UC changes were divided into five radial directions: Northeast, Southeast, Southwest, East, and Northwest. These changes are influenced by mountain ranges surrounding the city and the highways. These revelations can play a significant role towards future planning and development activities, which may further promote urban growth.

  20. Remote Sensing Efficiency for Urban Analysis of Mecca and Surrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imam, Ayman; Alhaddad, Bahaa; Roca, Josep

    2016-06-01

    Situated in the southwest of Saudi Arabia, Mecca is considered the spiritual capital of one and a half billion worldwide Muslims. The city is visited by millions of pilgrims every year. It has undergone significant changes in land cover (LC) since the government first embarked on a series of ambitious development projects 20 years ago to accommodate the growing number of pilgrims and citizens. The main objective of our study is to detect, identify, analyze and measure the evolving land cover and urban morphology composition from multi-temporal satellite images. To characterize the morphological change during a period of twenty years, four satellite images, acquired in 1998 by Landsat TM and in 2003, 2008 and 2013 by Landsat ETM+, were classified into five main categories: Urban, Street, Soil and Vegetation. In addition, DEM has been extracted and included as Mountain. Change detection (CD) analysis is applied using post-classification comparison and GIS. As part of the study, morphological index, such as, Entropy is included for better understanding of urban structures behaviour. Mecca and its surroundings show a noticeable increase in urban and vegetation cover. Urban cover (UC) changes were divided into five radial directions: Northeast, Southeast, Southwest, East, and Northwest. These changes are influenced by mountain ranges surrounding the city and the highways. These revelations can play a significant role towards future planning and development activities, which may further promote urban growth.

  1. Medicina por Imágenes: la visión globalizada. Parte IV: La visión de la gestión, administración de recursos, ciencia y tecnología Image Based Medicine: the global vision. Part IV: Management, science and technology aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Carestia

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available La visión globalizada del diagnóstico por imágenes es una puesta al día, creemos que necesaria, de los caracteres más relevantes de esta bellísima disciplina. Está dirigida a quienes todavía no han decidido su camino y están finalizando sus carreras de grado -médica o técnica-, pero también a aquellos que ya han comenzado la residencia; y quizá también para quienes habiendo recorrido ya un largo trayecto, conservan un espíritu crítico y una mirada joven. A la luz del nuevo milenio, y cuando se han cumplido veinticinco años de su reconocimiento como especialidad por parte de la comunidad médica de nuestro país, los autores examinamos esta visión que no se conforma con la mirada unilateral del radiólogo sino que busca también la proveniente de otros saberes y ciencias. Por ello, se incluye una aproximación desde el derecho -sobre un tema puntual-, se tratan los aspectos educacionales y se incorpora la mirada desde el área técnica, la perspectiva de la filosofía y la bioética y las visiones desde la psicología, desde la gestión de los recursos humanos y los aspectos de ciencia y tecnología, entre otras.The global vision of diagnostic imaging is a necessary update, we think, of the most relevant characters of this beautiful discipline. It is directed to those advanced students of Medicine and Radiology Technique career who have not yet decided their future activity but also to the already graduated who are just beginning their residence training programs; and maybe to those who keep a critical spirit and a young glance, in spite of the chronological age. At daybreak of the millennium and when we are assisting to the twenty five anniversary of its origin and recognition as a new speciality inside the medical community in our country, we the authors, have selected not only the unique vision of the radiologist but also the vision of other fields of knowledge and sciences. So because of this we develop the legal view on one

  2. Cardiopulmonary Aspects in Aerospace Medicine (Les Aspects Cardiopulmonaires en Medecine Aerospatiale)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-01

    suddenly. He had stopped taking shown to improve survival in certain patients with Amiodarone 5 months before. In seven patients, coronary artery...cessation of smoking and maintenance and women smokers. Rate of CHD events was halved of a regular exercise program reduce CHD risk in those who stopped ...2 consecutive years. Recurrent failure are unusual and late. respiratory infection is increasingly common as the disease progresses. Stopping smoking

  3. Lasers in veterinary medicine: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Kenneth E.

    1994-09-01

    As in other facets of medical science, the use of lasers in veterinary medicine is a relatively new phenomenon. Economic aspects of the profession as well as questionable returns on investment have limited laser applications primarily to the academic community, research institutions, and specialty practices. As technology improves and efficacy is proven, costs should decrease and allow further introduction of laser surgical and diagnostic devices into the mainstream of clinical veterinary medicine.

  4. Bioethics and Emergency Medicine: problems and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Mori

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Before examining the specific problems of emergency medicine, the article identifies the cardinal points for orientation in bioethics, in the conviction that the knowledge of the basic aspects of the subject allow the reader to make more conscious and suitable choices. The questions of moral relativism and the consequences of the biomedical revolution are addressed in detail in order to support the argument for a new ethical base for healthcare in general and for emergency medicine.

  5. Medicine's missing dimension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kenneth H

    2010-01-01

    In medicine we tend to restrict practice to using a purely intellectual understanding grounded in science to conceptualize patients and their illnesses. This approach is radically different from the experientially rich healing practices found throughout the world that presumably date to the beginning of humanity. Shamanistic healing is often typified as involving magical thinking and communication with beings other than human. These aspects of traditional healing are difficult to merge with science, the backbone of our medical practice. However, we can also describe traditional healing as meeting patients beyond the conventional self and beyond conceptual filters to directly face sickness and death in a larger context. There are a variety of traditions for learning to live our lives in this larger context, including contemplative religious practices and secular mindfulness practice. Although self discipline, effort and courage are likely to be required to take these paths, they can transform the practice of medicine into a richer experience. Using Zen Buddhism as an example of a contemplative spiritual approach, I will explore how it is possible to preserve a respectful relationship to science while engaging in healing as what the African Bushmen called "a life thing, a death thing".

  6. Medicinal applications of fullerenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakry, Rania; Vallant, Rainer M; Najam-ul-Haq, Muhammad; Rainer, Matthias; Szabo, Zoltan; Huck, Christian W; Bonn, Günther K

    2007-01-01

    Fullerenes have attracted considerable attention in different fields of science since their discovery in 1985. Investigations of physical, chemical and biological properties of fullerenes have yielded promising information. It is inferred that size, hydrophobicity, three-dimensionality and electronic configurations make them an appealing subject in medicinal chemistry. Their unique carbon cage structure coupled with immense scope for derivatization make them a potential therapeutic agent. The study of biological applications has attracted increasing attention despite the low solubility of carbon spheres in physiological media. The fullerene family, and especially C60, has appealing photo, electrochemical and physical properties, which can be exploited in various medical fields. Fullerene is able to fit inside the hydrophobic cavity of HIV proteases, inhibiting the access of substrates to the catalytic site of enzyme. It can be used as radical scavenger and antioxidant. At the same time, if exposed to light, fullerene can produce singlet oxygen in high quantum yields. This action, together with direct electron transfer from excited state of fullerene and DNA bases, can be used to cleave DNA. In addition, fullerenes have been used as a carrier for gene and drug delivery systems. Also they are used for serum protein profiling as MELDI material for biomarker discovery. In this review we report the aspects of medicinal applications of fullerenes. PMID:18203430

  7. Medicinal applications of fullerenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakry, Rania; Vallant, Rainer M; Najam-ul-Haq, Muhammad; Rainer, Matthias; Szabo, Zoltan; Huck, Christian W; Bonn, Günther K

    2007-01-01

    Fullerenes have attracted considerable attention in different fields of science since their discovery in 1985. Investigations of physical, chemical and biological properties of fullerenes have yielded promising information. It is inferred that size, hydrophobicity, three-dimensionality and electronic configurations make them an appealing subject in medicinal chemistry. Their unique carbon cage structure coupled with immense scope for derivatization make them a potential therapeutic agent. The study of biological applications has attracted increasing attention despite the low solubility of carbon spheres in physiological media. The fullerene family, and especially C60, has appealing photo, electrochemical and physical properties, which can be exploited in various medical fields. Fullerene is able to fit inside the hydrophobic cavity of HIV proteases, inhibiting the access of substrates to the catalytic site of enzyme. It can be used as radical scavenger and antioxidant. At the same time, if exposed to light, fullerene can produce singlet oxygen in high quantum yields. This action, together with direct electron transfer from excited state of fullerene and DNA bases, can be used to cleave DNA. In addition, fullerenes have been used as a carrier for gene and drug delivery systems. Also they are used for serum protein profiling as MELDI material for biomarker discovery. In this review we report the aspects of medicinal applications of fullerenes.

  8. Nanotechnology in respiratory medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omlor, Albert Joachim; Nguyen, Juliane; Bals, Robert; Dinh, Quoc Thai

    2015-05-29

    Like two sides of the same coin, nanotechnology can be both boon and bane for respiratory medicine. Nanomaterials open new ways in diagnostics and treatment of lung diseases. Nanoparticle based drug delivery systems can help against diseases such as lung cancer, tuberculosis, and pulmonary fibrosis. Moreover, nanoparticles can be loaded with DNA and act as vectors for gene therapy in diseases like cystic fibrosis. Even lung diagnostics with computer tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) profits from new nanoparticle based contrast agents. However, the risks of nanotechnology also have to be taken into consideration as engineered nanomaterials resemble natural fine dusts and fibers, which are known to be harmful for the respiratory system in many cases. Recent studies have shown that nanoparticles in the respiratory tract can influence the immune system, can create oxidative stress and even cause genotoxicity. Another important aspect to assess the safety of nanotechnology based products is the absorption of nanoparticles. It was demonstrated that the amount of pulmonary nanoparticle uptake not only depends on physical and chemical nanoparticle characteristics but also on the health status of the organism. The huge diversity in nanotechnology could revolutionize medicine but makes safety assessment a challenging task.

  9. The pattern and degree of capsular fibrous sheaths surrounding cochlear electrode arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishai, Reuven; Herrmann, Barbara S; Nadol, Joseph B; Quesnel, Alicia M

    2017-05-01

    An inflammatory tissue reaction around the electrode array of a cochlear implant (CI) is common, in particular at the electrode insertion region (cochleostomy) where mechanical trauma often occurs. However, the factors determining the amount and causes of fibrous reaction surrounding the stimulating electrode, especially medially near the perimodiolar location, are unclear. Temporal bone (TB) specimens from patients who had undergone cochlear implantation during life with either Advanced Bionics (AB) Clarion ™ or HiRes90K™ (Sylmar, CA, USA) devices that have a half-band and a pre-curved electrode, or Cochlear ™ Nucleus (Sydney, Australia) device that have a full-band and a straight electrode were evaluated. The thickness of the fibrous tissue surrounding the electrode array of both types of CI devices at both the lower (LB) and upper (UB) basal turns of the cochlea was quantified at three locations: the medial, inferior, and superior aspects of the sheath. Fracture of the osseous spiral lamina and/or marked displacement of the basilar membrane were interpreted as evidence of intracochlear trauma. In addition, post-operative word recognition scores, duration of implantation, and post-operative programming data were evaluated. Seven TBs from six patients implanted with AB devices and five TBs from five patients implanted with Nucleus devices were included. A fibrous capsule around the stimulating electrode array was present in all twelve specimens. TBs implanted with AB device had a significantly thicker fibrous capsule at the medial aspect than at the inferior or superior aspects at both locations (LB and UB) of the cochlea (Wilcoxon signed-ranks test, p  0.05). Nine of fourteen (64%) basal turns of the cochlea (LB and UB of seven TBs) implanted with AB devices demonstrated intracochlear trauma compared to two of ten (20%) basal turns of the cochlea (LB and UB of five TBs) with Nucleus devices, (Fisher exact test, p < 0.05). There was no significant

  10. Optimising AspectJ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avgustinov, Pavel; Christensen, Aske Simon; Hendren, Laurie

    2005-01-01

    AspectJ, an aspect-oriented extension of Java, is becoming increasingly popular. However, not much work has been directed at optimising compilers for AspectJ. Optimising AOP languages provides many new and interesting challenges for compiler writers, and this paper identifies and addresses three...... such challenges. First, compiling around advice efficiently is particularly challenging. We provide a new code generation strategy for around advice, which (unlike previous implementations) both avoids the use of excessive inlining and the use of closures. We show it leads to more compact code, and can also....... We present new techniques to minimise or eliminate the overhead of cflow using both intra- and inter-procedural analyses. Third, we have addressed the general problem of how to structure an optimising compiler so that traditional analyses can be easily adapted to the AOP setting. We have implemented...

  11. Requirements Engineering and Aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yijun; Niu, Nan; González-Baixauli, Bruno; Mylopoulos, John; Easterbrook, Steve; Do Prado Leite, Julio Cesar Sampaio

    A fundamental problem with requirements engineering (RE) is to validate that a design does satisfy stakeholder requirements. Some requirements can be fulfilled locally by designed modules, where others must be accommodated globally by multiple modules together. These global requirements often crosscut with other local requirements and as such lead to scattered concerns. We explore the possibility of borrowing concepts from aspect-oriented programming (AOP) to tackle these problems in early requirements. In order to validate the design against such early aspects, we propose a framework to trace them into coding and testing aspects. We demonstrate the approach using an open-source e-commerce platform. In the conclusion of this work, we reflect on the lessons learnt from the case study on how to fit RE and AOP research together.

  12. MAPPING THE SURROUNDINGS AS A REQUIREMENT FOR AUTONOMOUS DRIVING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Steininger

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by the hype around driverless cars and the challenges of the sensor integration and data processing, this paper presents a model for using a XBox One Microsoft Kinect stereo camera as sensor for mapping the surroundings. Today, the recognition of the environment of the car is mostly done by a mix of sensors like LiDAR, RADAR and cameras. In the case of the outdoor delivery challenge Robotour 2016 with model cars in scale 1:5, it is our goal to solve the task with one camera only. To this end, a three-stage approach was developed. The test results show that our approach can detect and locate objects at a range of up to eight meters in order to incorporate them as barriers in the navigation process.

  13. Thermodynamic stability of black holes surrounded by quintessence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Meng-Sen; Zhao, Ren; Ma, Ya-Qin

    2017-06-01

    We study the thermodynamic stabilities of uncharged and charged black holes surrounded by quintessence (BHQ) by means of effective thermodynamic quantities. When the state parameter of quintessence ω _q is appropriately chosen, the structures of BHQ are something like that of black holes in de Sitter space. Constructing the effective first law of thermodynamics in two different ways, we can derive the effective thermodynamic quantities of BHQ. Especially, these effective thermodynamic quantities also satisfy Smarr-like formulae. It is found that the uncharged BHQ is always thermodynamically unstable due to negative heat capacity, while for the charged BHQ there are phase transitions of the second order. We also show that there are several differences on the thermodynamic properties and critical behaviors of BHQ between the two ways we employed.

  14. Spirit's Surroundings on 'West Spur,' Sol 305 (3-D)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 2 This 360-degree stereo panorama shows the terrain surrounding NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit as of the rover's 305th martian day, or sol, (Nov. 11, 2004). At that point, Spirit was climbing the 'West Spur' of the 'Columbia Hills.' The rover had just finished inspecting a rock called 'Lutefisk' and was heading uphill toward an area called 'Machu Picchu.' Spirit used its navigational camera to take the images combined into this mosaic. The rover's location when the images were taken is catalogued as the mission's site 89, position 205. The stereo-anaglyph view presented here is a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction. Figure 1 is the left-eye view of a stereo pair and Figure 2 is the right-eye view of a stereo pair.

  15. A Study of the Flow Field Surrounding Interacting Line Fires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor Maynard

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of converging fires often leads to significant changes in fire behavior, including increased flame length, angle, and intensity. In this paper, the fluid mechanics of two adjacent line fires are studied both theoretically and experimentally. A simple potential flow model is used to explain the tilting of interacting flames towards each other, which results from a momentum imbalance triggered by fire geometry. The model was validated by measuring the velocity field surrounding stationary alcohol pool fires. The flow field was seeded with high-contrast colored smoke, and the motion of smoke structures was analyzed using a cross-correlation optical flow technique. The measured velocities and flame angles are found to compare reasonably with the predicted values, and an analogy between merging fires and wind-blown flames is proposed.

  16. Progress and controversy surrounding vaccines against Lyme disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Mark S; Edelman, Robert

    2003-10-01

    Less than 20 years elapsed between the 1982 report of the identification and isolation of Borrelia burgdorferi and the licensure and marketing in the USA of a prophylactic vaccine against this pathogen. However, the manufacturer removed the vaccine from the market under 4 years after its release. The low demand undoubtedly was the result of limited efficacy, need for frequent boosters, the high price of the vaccine, exclusion of children, fear of vaccine-induced musculoskeletal symptoms and litigation surrounding the vaccine. Second-generation polyvalent outer surface protein (Osp)C vaccines may overcome some of these concerns but the precise antigenic components required for efficacy are uncertain. The development of the next generation of Lyme disease vaccines is in its infancy.

  17. Wave rectification in plasma sheaths surrounding electric field antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, M. H.; Carlson, C. W.; Mcfadden, J. P.; Clemmons, J. H.; Ergun, R. E.; Mozer, F. S.

    1994-01-01

    Combined measurements of Langmuir or broadband whistler wave intensity and lower-frequency electric field waveforms, all at 10-microsecond time resolution, were made on several recent sounding rockets in the auroral ionosphere. It is found that Langmuir and whistler waves are partically rectified in the plasma sheaths surrounding the payload and the spheres used as antennas. This sheath rectification occurs whenever the high frequency (HF) potential across the sheath becomes of the same order as the electron temperature or higher, for wave frequencies near or above the ion plasma frequency. This rectification can introduce false low-frequency waves into measurements of electric field spectra when strong high-frequency waves are present. Second harmonic signals are also generated, although at much lower levels. The effect occurs in many different plasma conditions, primarily producing false waves at frequencies that are low enough for the antenna coupling to the plasma to be resistive.

  18. Ozone bioindication in Barcelona and surrounding area of Catalonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribas, A.; Penuelas, J. [Univ. Autonoma de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain). Ecophysiology Unit of CSIC

    2002-07-01

    A field study was conducted from July to September 2000 to assess ozone (O{sub 3}) phytotoxicity in Barcelona and surrounding areas of Catalonia (NE Spain) by using tobacco plants Bel-W3 and Populus nigra 'Brandaris' as bioindicators. The study was conducted simultaneously at eight sites where ozone concentrations and meteorological variables were continuously monitored. The ozone levels correlated well with ozone injury on the Bel-W3 cultivar, especially at stations established in the urban area of Barcelona, and in the first months of summer. In the second half of summer plants showed a decreasing efficiency in its biomonitoring capacity. The behaviour of Populus as bioindicator or biomonitor was less satisfactory. For both species it is necessary to improve cultivation conditions since water deficits seem to play an important role in bioindication in the Mediterranean region. (orig.)

  19. Controversies surrounding critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creedon, Jamie M Burkitt

    2015-01-01

    To describe the controversies surrounding critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency (CIRCI) and the use of hydrocortisone in critically ill patients, and to present published diagnostic and therapeutic strategies in companion veterinary species. Critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency may be due to hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysfunction, alterations in cortisol-plasma protein binding, target cell enzymatic changes, changes in glucocorticoid receptor (GR) function, or a combination of these or other factors present during critical illness. Appropriate tests to diagnose CIRCI are unknown. The diagnosis in people is currently based on response to treatment with hydrocortisone. There is currently no consensus on appropriate diagnostic feature(s) in veterinary species. Low-dose hydrocortisone is the treatment of choice for patients with CIRCI. If the patient survives the critical illness, prognosis for resolution of CIRCI and hydrocortisone dependence is very good. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2014.

  20. Seismic anisotropy surrounding South China Sea and its geodynamic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Mei; Le, Khanh Phon; Yang, Ting

    2013-12-01

    Several mechanisms have been proposed for the opening of the South China Sea. Here, we use SKS splitting analysis to investigate the mantle flow surrounding the South China Sea. We use a total of 23 seismic stations and 87 events. We applied spectral analysis and cluster analysis to find a stable splitting solution for each event. The main conclusions are: (1) In northern Vietnam, the NW-SE fast direction is parallel to the absolute plate motion as well as GPS observations with splitting times larger than 1 s, indicating a coupled lithosphere and mantle. In contrast, in southern Vietnam, the NE-SW fast direction suggests that the lithosphere and asthenosphere are decoupled. (2) The fast directions beneath the South China Block and central Taiwan are NE-SW and NS respectively, both parallel to surface deformations with splitting times greater than 1 s, indicating that mantle flow and surface deformation are related. (3) The observed NW-SE fast directions beneath Hainan Island reflect the India-Eurasia collision, and show no signatures of an upwelling mantle plume directly underneath Hainan Island. This implies that Hainan Island is tectonically closely related to the Red River Fault, not the South China Block. (4) In Borneo, the observed NE-SW direction is parallel to the Palawan Trench, consistent with flow associated with the inactive proto-South China Sea subduction system. The SKS splitting observations surrounding South China Sea cannot be explained by a single geologic process, with either the collision-driven extrusion model or the slab pull model fitting the data presented here.

  1. Quasars Probing Quasars: the Circumgalactic Medium Surrounding z ~ 2 Quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Marie; Quasars Probing Quasars survey

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the circumgalactic medium--the gaseous halo surrounding a galaxy, is an integral part to understanding galaxy evolution. The z ~ 2-3 universe is interesting as this is when the star formation rate and AGN activity peak. My thesis concludes the decade-long Quasars Probing Quasars survey designed for studying massive galaxy formation and quasar feedback. I use background quasar sightlines that pass close to foreground quasars to study the circumgalactic medium of quasar-host galaxies in absorption. My sample of 149 quasar pairs involve spectra taken with 17 different optical and near IR instruments. I present results on the statistical and physical properties of the circumgalactic medium. The circumgalactic medium is enriched even beyond the virial radius. The alpha/Fe abundance ratio is enhanced, suggesting enrichment from core-collapse supernovae. The cool gas mass within the virial radius is enough to fuel star formation for another Gyr, and may account for 1/3 of the baryonic budget of the galaxy halo. The ionization state increases with projected distance from the quasar, which implies the quasar does not dominate the ionizing radiation flux. However, detection of fluorescent Lyman-alpha emission and NV absorption imply these transverse absorbers are partially illuminated by the quasar. In one peculiar case, the absorbing clump has density >100 cm^-3 and sub-parsec size. The average absorption in the circumgalactic medium exhibits large velocity widths, and is asymmetric about the systemic redshift of the galaxies. The widths are consistent with gravitational motions and Hubble flow, and outflows are not required to explain them. The asymmetry can be explained if the ionizing radiation from the quasar is anisotropic or intermittent and the gas is not in inflow. My results pose challenges for cosmological hydrodynamic simulations to produce a substantial cool gas reservoir surrounding quasars, that is also enriched and shows extreme kinematics.

  2. How A Black Hole Lights Up Its Surroundings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-10-01

    How do the supermassive black holes that live at the centers of galaxies influence their environments? New observations of a distant active galaxy offer clues about this interaction.Signs of CoevolutionPlot demonstrating the m-sigma relation, the empirical correlation between the stellar velocity dispersion of a galactic bulge and the mass of the supermassive black hole at its center. [Msigma]We know that the centers of active galaxies host supermassive black holes with masses of millions to billions of suns. One mystery surrounding these beasts is that they are observed to evolve simultaneously with their host galaxies for instance, an empirical relationship is seen between the growth of a black hole and the growth of its host galaxys bulge. This suggests that there must be a feedback mechanism through which the evolution of a black hole is linked to that of its host galaxy.One proposed source of this coupling is the powerful jets emitted from the poles of these supermassive black holes. These jets are thought to be produced as some of the material accreting onto the black hole is flung out, confined by surrounding gas and magnetic fields. Because the jets of hot gas and radiation extend outward through the host galaxy, they provide a means for the black hole to influence the gas and dust of its surroundings.In our current model of a radio-loud active galactic nuclei,a region of hot, ionized gas the narrow-line region lies beyond the sphere of influence of the supermassive black hole. [C.M. Urry and P. Padovani]Clues in the Narrow-Line RegionThe region of gas thought to sit just outside of the black holes sphere of influence (at a distance of perhaps a thousand to a few thousand light-years) is known as the narrow line region so named because we observe narrow emission lines from this gas. Given its hot, ionized state, this gas must somehow be being pummeled with energy. In the canonical picture, radiation from the black hole heats the gas directly in a process

  3. Benchmarking: applications to transfusion medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apelseth, Torunn Oveland; Molnar, Laura; Arnold, Emmy; Heddle, Nancy M

    2012-10-01

    Benchmarking is as a structured continuous collaborative process in which comparisons for selected indicators are used to identify factors that, when implemented, will improve transfusion practices. This study aimed to identify transfusion medicine studies reporting on benchmarking, summarize the benchmarking approaches used, and identify important considerations to move the concept of benchmarking forward in the field of transfusion medicine. A systematic review of published literature was performed to identify transfusion medicine-related studies that compared at least 2 separate institutions or regions with the intention of benchmarking focusing on 4 areas: blood utilization, safety, operational aspects, and blood donation. Forty-five studies were included: blood utilization (n = 35), safety (n = 5), operational aspects of transfusion medicine (n = 5), and blood donation (n = 0). Based on predefined criteria, 7 publications were classified as benchmarking, 2 as trending, and 36 as single-event studies. Three models of benchmarking are described: (1) a regional benchmarking program that collects and links relevant data from existing electronic sources, (2) a sentinel site model where data from a limited number of sites are collected, and (3) an institutional-initiated model where a site identifies indicators of interest and approaches other institutions. Benchmarking approaches are needed in the field of transfusion medicine. Major challenges include defining best practices and developing cost-effective methods of data collection. For those interested in initiating a benchmarking program, the sentinel site model may be most effective and sustainable as a starting point, although the regional model would be the ideal goal. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Remembering our roots: eponyms in sports medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popkin, Charles A; Gundry, Cooper R; Larson, Christopher M; Murnaghan, M Lucas

    2013-07-01

    For as long as athletes have been competing, injuries from competition have resulted. Sports medicine has a rich and storied history with significant contributors from many different countries and civilizations. Over time, we have honored the contributions of important figures in sports medicine with the use of eponyms. However, the continued use of eponyms in medicine has been called into question by a number of authors. They cite inaccuracies in definition and context, lack of descriptive value, and the possible celebration of unsavory characters. However, eponyms are pervasive in the medical literature. They bring color and character and allow us to honor those who came before us. Furthermore, eponyms can hide some distressing aspects of a disease. This review of eponyms in sports medicine provides an opportunity to celebrate our predecessors, recognize the international flavor of sports medicine, and promote accurate use of eponyms for the future.

  5. World Workshop on Oral Medicine VI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brailo, Vlaho; Firriolo, Francis John; Tanaka, Takako Imai

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the current scope and status of Oral Medicine-specific software (OMSS) utilized to support clinical care, research, and education in Oral Medicine and to propose a strategy for broader implementation of OMSS within the global Oral Medicine community. STUDY DESIGN......: An invitation letter explaining the objectives was sent to the global Oral Medicine community. Respondents were interviewed to obtain information about different aspects of OMSS functionality. RESULTS: Ten OMSS tools were identified. Four were being used for clinical care, one was being used for research, two......-orientated technology designed for clinical training in Oral Medicine. Easy access to patient data was the most commonly reported advantage. Difficulty of use and poor integration with other software was the most commonly reported disadvantage. CONCLUSIONS: The OMSS presented in this paper demonstrate how information...

  6. Complementary and Integrative Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medical treatments that are not part of mainstream medicine. When you are using these types of care, it may be called complementary, integrative, or alternative medicine. Complementary medicine is used together with mainstream medical ...

  7. Medicines in Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... developing 85 medicines for Alzheimer's. Report Medicines in Development for Arthritis 2014 Report America’s biopharmaceutical research companies are developing 92 innovative new medicines to help the millions of Americans affected ...

  8. Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Your Parents - or Other Adults Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse KidsHealth > For Teens > Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse ... resfriado Why Do People Use Cough and Cold Medicines to Get High? There's an ingredient in many ...

  9. Depression - stopping your medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000570.htm Depression - stopping your medicines To use the sharing features ... prescription medicines you may take to help with depression, anxiety, or pain. Like any medicine, there are ...

  10. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... What are the limitations of Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is ... this time is PET/MRI. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? Children's ( ...

  11. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... previous nuclear medicine exam. top of page What are the limitations of Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine procedures can be time consuming. It can take several hours to days ...

  12. Diagnostic aspects of gonorrhoea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Stolz (Ernst)

    1974-01-01

    textabstractIn 1971 an investigation into the epidemiological, clinical, bacteriological and therapeutic aspects of gonorrhoea was started in collaboration with the Bacteriological Laboratory of the University Hospital/Medical Faculty Rotterdam. Jn the framework of this investigation, the data were

  13. [Psychosocial aspects of halitosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongh, A. de; Baat, C. de; Horstman, M.

    2012-01-01

    Using a representative sample from the Dutch population, some psychosocial aspects of halitosis were examined. The results of the survey showed that almost 90% of the Dutch population aged 16 years and older were regularly faced with halitosis. Forty percent reported to be exposed to someone with

  14. Sociological Aspects of Deafness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    World Federation of the Deaf, Rome (Italy).

    Nine conference papers treat the sociological aspects of deafness. Included are "Individuals Being Deaf and Blind and Living with a Well Hearing Society" by A. Marx (German Federal Republic), "A Deaf Man's Experiences in a Hearing World" by A. B. Simon(U.S.A.), "Problem of Text Books and School Appliances for Vocational…

  15. Theoretical Aspects of Translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, Juliane M.

    This study attempts to bring some clarification into the concept of translation, especially into the theoretical problems presented by the difficulties of translation. The following aspects of the question are treated: (1) translation in the past and present, including the controversy over translation as an art or a science, the relevance of…

  16. Obstetric medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Balbi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Obstetric assistance made major advances in the last 20 years: improved surgical technique allows quicker caesarean sections, anaesthesiology procedures such as peripheral anaesthesia and epidural analgesia made safer operative assistance, remarkably reducing perioperative morbidity and mortality, neonatology greatly improved the results of assistance to low birth weight newborns. A new branch of medicine called “obstetric medicine” gained interest and experience after the lessons of distinguished physicians like Michael De Swiet in England. All together these advances are making successful pregnancies that 20 years ago would have been discouraged or even interrupted: that’s what we call high risk pregnancy. High risk of what? Either complications of pregnancy on pre-existing disease or complications of pre-existing disease on pregnancy. Nowadays, mortality in pregnancy has a medical cause in 80% of cases in Western countries (Confidential Enquiry on Maternal Deaths, UK, 2004. DISCUSSION The background is always changing and we have to take in account of: increase of maternal age; widespread use of assisted fertilization techniques for treatment of infertility; social feelings about maternity desire with increasing expectations from medical assistance; immigration of medically “naive” patients who don’t know to have a chronic disease, but apt and ready to conceive; limited knowledge of feasibility of drug use in pregnancy which may induce both patients and doctors to stopping appropriate drug therapy in condition of severe disease. Preconception counseling, planning the pregnancy, wise use of drugs, regular follow-up throughout the pregnancy and, in selected cases, preterm elective termination of pregnancy may result in excellent outcome both for mother and foetus. CONCLUSIONS Highly committed and specifically trained physicians are required to counsel these patients and to plan their treatment before and during pregnancy.

  17. Systems biology, connectivity and the future of medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greef, J. van der

    2005-01-01

    The concept of systems-based strategies in medicine is emerging, with systems pathology guiding an understanding of the multidimensional aspects of disease system fingerprints and systems pharmacology providing insight into dynamic system responses upon (multiple) drug perturbations. Knowledge of

  18. A historical overview of traditional medicine practices and policy in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    The health and drug policies of the Ethiopian Ministry of Health recognize the ... enhance and develop the beneficial aspects of traditional medicine including relevant research to .... clear eye sight, a good memory, as well as a large family.

  19. IDENTIFICATION AND CULTIVATION OF MEDICINAL PLANTS MENTIONED IN AYURVEDIC CLASSICS*

    OpenAIRE

    Mooss, N.S.

    1982-01-01

    The author deals with some of the general aspects of the identifcation and cultivation of medicinal plants as well as the collection and preservation of their raw products mentioned in ancient classical Ayurvedic texts

  20. Alternative medicine studies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2011-01-01

    A peer-reviewed, open-access journal about alternative medicine systems including acupuncture, anthroposophic medicine, ayurveda, chiropractic, herbalism and natural products, homeopathy, naturopathy...

  1. Medicines for sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzodiazepines; Sedatives; Hypnotics; Sleeping pills; Insomnia - medicines; Sleep disorder - medicines ... are commonly used to treat allergies. While these sleep aids are not addictive, your body becomes used ...

  2. Medicines for osteoporosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Teriparatide (Forteo); Denosumab (Prolia); Low bone density - medicines; Osteoporosis - medicines ... when: A bone density test shows you have osteoporosis, even if you have not had a fracture ...

  3. Future of medicine: models in predictive diagnostics and personalized medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regierer, Babette; Zazzu, Valeria; Sudbrak, Ralf; Kühn, Alexander; Lehrach, Hans

    2013-01-01

    Molecular medicine is undergoing fundamental changes driving the whole area towards a revolution in modern medicine. The breakthrough was generated the fast-developing technologies in molecular biology since the first draft sequence of the human genome was published. The technological advances enabled the analysis of biological samples from cells and organs to whole organisms in a depth that was not possible before. These technologies are increasingly implemented in the medical and health care system to study diseases and refine diagnostics. As a consequence, the understanding of diseases and the health status of an individual patient is now based on an enormous amount of data that can only be interpreted in the context of the body as a whole. Systems biology as a new field in the life sciences develops new approaches for data integration and interpretation. Systems medicine as a specialized aspect of systems biology combines in an interdisciplinary approach all expertise necessary to decipher the human body in all its complexity. This created new challenges in the area of information and communication technologies to provide the infrastructure and technology needed to cope with the data flood that will accompany the next generation of medicine. The new initiative 'IT Future of Medicine' aims at driving this development even further and integrates not only molecular data (especially genomic information), but also anatomical, physiological, environmental, and lifestyle data in a predictive model approach-the 'virtual patient'-that will allow the clinician or the general practitioner to predict and anticipate the optimal treatment for the individual patient. The application of the virtual patient model will allow truly personalized medicine.

  4. Psychosocial aspects of rehabilitation in sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covassin, Tracey; Beidler, Erica; Ostrowski, Jennifer; Wallace, Jessica

    2015-04-01

    When an athlete is injured, the primary focus of the sports medicine team is to treat the physical effects of the injury. However, many injured athletes experience negative psychological responses that should also be addressed throughout the rehabilitation process. Sports medicine professions should use psychosocial skills to help decrease the negative consequences of the injury, such as fear of reinjury, anxiety, depression, and adherence to rehabilitation. These psychosocial skills include goal setting, imagery, relaxation techniques, motivation, and self-talk. This article addresses the negative consequences of injury, psychosocial skills used to aid in the rehabilitation process, and clinical implications of the psychological aspects of rehabilitation in sport. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Tomography images of the Alpine roots and surrounding upper mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plomerova, Jaroslava; Babuska, Vladislav

    2017-04-01

    Teleseismic body-wave tomography represents powerful tool to study regional velocity structure of the upper mantle and to image velocity anomalies, such as subducted lithosphere plates in collisional zones. In this contribution, we recapitulate 3D models of the upper mantle beneath the Alps, which developed at a collision zone of the Eurasian and African plates. Seismic tomography studies indicate a leading role of the rigid mantle lithosphere that functioned as a major stress guide during the plate collisions. Interactions of the European lithosphere with several micro-plates in the south resulted in an arcuate shape of this mountain range on the surface and in a complicated geometry of the Alpine subductions in the mantle. Early models with one bended lithosphere root have been replaced with more advanced models showing two separate lithosphere roots beneath the Western and Eastern Alps (Babuska et al., Tectonophysics 1990; Lippitsch et al., JGR 2003). The standard isotropic velocity tomography, based on pre-AlpArray data (the currently performed passive seismic experiment in the Alps and surroundings) images the south-eastward dipping curved slab of the Eurasian lithosphere in the Western Alps. On the contrary, beneath the Eastern Alps the results indicate a very steep northward dipping root that resulted from the collision of the European plate with the Adriatic microplate. Dando et al. (2011) interpret high-velocity heterogeneities at the bottom of their regional tomographic model as a graveyard of old subducted lithospheres. High density of stations, large amount of rays and dense ray-coverage of the volume studied are not the only essential pre-requisites for reliable tomography results. A compromise between the amount of pre-processed data and the high-quality of the tomography input (travel-time residuals) is of the high importance as well. For the first time, the existence of two separate roots beneath the Alps has been revealed from carefully pre

  6. [Ecological protection of medicinal woody plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiufeng

    2003-09-01

    Medicinal woody plants, especially medicinal tall trees, play a same important role in forest structure, ecological balance and timber production as other tree species in forest, and due to their additional medicinal values overuse of these trees is more intensive than others. Many medicinal materials are destructively obtained from plants such as roots or bark used as medicinal materials. The contradiction between the utilization and protection of medicinal woody plants becomes more and more incisive. In the present paper, based on the analysis of the utilized situation and specialty of medicinal woody plants, the trouble between the plants protection and utilization was observed, the method to solve it and the fundamental research work needs to be developed were discussed. The following aspects of researches were suggested to be conducted: (a) study on the distribution in organs, seasonal and age variations, and correlation with environmental factors of principal medicinal compositions in mature trees to clear the optimum of harvest and cultivation conditions; (b) study on the distribution in organs, seasonal and age variations, and correlation with environmental factors of principal medicinal compositions in saplings, especially the time course of the variation in medicinal compositions and biomass to achieve the optimal tree ages for the balance between biomass and production of medicinal products during saplings development; (c) study on the influence and regulation of environmental factors on medicinal compounds production in woody plants to look for the optimal cultivated conditions for optimizing the accumulation of biomass and medicinal chemicals; (d) further study on the regulatory mechanism of the induced production of main medicinal compositions by ecological factors at protein (key enzyme) and gene level to accumulate fundamental data for the enhancement of quality and quantity, and approach of new accesses to medicinal products using biological

  7. Do preventive medicine physicians practice medicine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Paul; Lushniak, Boris D

    2018-02-14

    As some preventive medicine physicians have been denied medical licenses for not engaging in direct patient care, this paper attempts to answer the question, "Do preventive medicine physicians practice medicine?" by exploring the requirements of licensure, the definition of "practice" in the context of modern medicine, and by comparing the specialty of preventive medicine to other specialties which should invite similar scrutiny. The authors could find no explicit licensure requirement for either a certain amount of time in patient care or a number of patients seen. No physicians board certified in Public Health and General Preventive Medicine sit on any state medical boards. The authors propose that state medical boards accept a broad standard of medical practice, which includes the practice of preventive medicine specialists, for licensing purposes. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Fluid Production Induced Stress Analysis Surrounding an Elliptic Fracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, Harshad Rajendra

    Hydraulic fracturing is an effective technique used in well stimulation to increase petroleum well production. A combination of multi-stage hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling has led to the recent boom in shale gas production which has changed the energy landscape of North America. During the fracking process, highly pressurized mixture of water and proppants (sand and chemicals) is injected into to a crack, which fractures the surrounding rock structure and proppants help in keeping the fracture open. Over a longer period, however, these fractures tend to close due to the difference between the compressive stress exerted by the reservoir on the fracture and the fluid pressure inside the fracture. During production, fluid pressure inside the fracture is reduced further which can accelerate the closure of a fracture. In this thesis, we study the stress distribution around a hydraulic fracture caused by fluid production. It is shown that fluid flow can induce a very high hoop stress near the fracture tip. As the pressure gradient increases stress concentration increases. If a fracture is very thin, the flow induced stress along the fracture decreases, but the stress concentration at the fracture tip increases and become unbounded for an infinitely thin fracture. The result from the present study can be used for studying the fracture closure problem, and ultimately this in turn can lead to the development of better proppants so that prolific well production can be sustained for a long period of time.

  9. Dead discs, unstable discs and the stars they surround

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D’Angelo Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Strong stellar magnetic fields significantly alter the behaviour of surrounding accretion discs. Recent work has demonstrated that at low accretion rates a large amount of mass can remain confined in the disc, contrary to the standard assumption that the magnetic field will expel the disc in an outflow (the “propeller regime”. These “dead discs” often become unstable, causing cycles of accretion onto the central star. Here I present the main predictions of this model, and argue that it provides a good explanation for the peculiar behaviour seen in several accreting sources with strong magnetic fields. I will focus in particular on three accreting millisecond X-ray pulsars: SAX J1808.4-3658, NGC 6440 X-2 and IGR J00291+5934. These sources all show low-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations consistent with a variable accretion rate, as well as unusual outburst patterns that suggest gas is confined in the inner disc regions during quiescence.

  10. Beliefs and practices surrounding postpartum period among Myanmar women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sein, Kyi Kyi

    2013-11-01

    to examine the postpartum beliefs and practices among young women (15-24 years) both quantitative and qualitative approaches were used: a cross-sectional comparative study using a semi-structured questionnaire and focus group discussions (FGDs). Kyimyindaing Township in the western district of Yangon, Myanmar. young women (15-24 years) who had experience of at least one live birth were included. A total of 196 women for a quantitative survey and 31 women for FGDs were recruited. postpartum beliefs and practices at the last childbirth were explored by a pretested semi-structured questionnaire and four FGDs (two in urban and two in rural areas). The survey questionnaire covered socio-demographic data, food and behavioural restrictions and observances during the last postpartum period and underlying reasons for those practices. Majority of participants followed the traditional postpartum practices regardless of the area of residence and education level. Notion of 'dirty lochia' was identified. traditional beliefs and practices surrounding post partum were highly prevalent among young women. Variation in degree and duration of adherence to postpartum taboos was noted. These beliefs and practices were imparted and perpetuated by women's close social network. the findings point out the importance of awareness of postpartum beliefs and practices among health staff for providing culturally sensitive health care and gaining better co-operation and mutual understanding in giving health care. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Preliminary Analysis of Slope Stability in Kuok and Surrounding Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewandra Bagus Eka Putra

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The level of slope influenced by the condition of the rocks beneath the surface. On high level of slopes, amount of surface runoff and water transport energy is also enlarged. This caused by greater gravity, in line with the surface tilt from the horizontal plane. In other words, topsoil eroded more and more. When the slope becomes twice as steep, then the amount of erosion per unit area be 2.0 - 2.5 times more. Kuok and surrounding area is the road access between the West Sumatra and Riau which plays an important role economies of both provinces. The purpose of this study is to map the locations that have fairly steep slopes and potential mode of landslides. Based on SRTM data obtained,  the roads in Kuok area has a minimum elevation of + 33 m and a maximum  + 217.329 m. Rugged road conditions with slope ranging from 24.08 ° to 44.68 ° causing this area having frequent landslides. The result of slope stability analysis in a slope near the Water Power Plant Koto Panjang, indicated that mode of active failure is toppling failure or rock fall and the potential zone of failure is in the center part of the slope.

  12. Tuning structure and mobility of solvation shells surrounding tracer additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmer, James; Jain, Avni; Bollinger, Jonathan A; van Swol, Frank; Truskett, Thomas M

    2015-03-28

    Molecular dynamics simulations and a stochastic Fokker-Planck equation based approach are used to illuminate how position-dependent solvent mobility near one or more tracer particle(s) is affected when tracer-solvent interactions are rationally modified to affect corresponding solvation structure. For tracers in a dense hard-sphere fluid, we compare two types of tracer-solvent interactions: (1) a hard-sphere-like interaction, and (2) a soft repulsion extending beyond the hard core designed via statistical mechanical theory to enhance tracer mobility at infinite dilution by suppressing coordination-shell structure [Carmer et al., Soft Matter 8, 4083-4089 (2012)]. For the latter case, we show that the mobility of surrounding solvent particles is also increased by addition of the soft repulsive interaction, which helps to rationalize the mechanism underlying the tracer's enhanced diffusivity. However, if multiple tracer surfaces are in closer proximity (as at higher tracer concentrations), similar interactions that disrupt local solvation structure instead suppress the position-dependent solvent dynamics.

  13. Mercury's interior, surface, and surrounding environment latest discoveries

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, Pamela Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    This SpringerBrief details the MESSENGER Mission, the findings of which present challenges to widely held conventional views and remaining mysteries surrounding the planet. The work answers the question of why Mercury is so dense, and the implications from geochemical data on its planetary formation. It summarizes imaging and compositional data from the terrestrial planet surface processes and explains the geologic history of Mercury.  It also discusses the lack of southern hemisphere coverage. Our understanding of the planet Mercury has been in a transitional phase over the decades since Mariner 10. The influx of new data from the NASA MESSENGER Mission since it was inserted into the orbit of Mercury in March of 2011 has greatly accelerated that shift. The combined compositional data of relatively high volatiles (S, K), relatively low refractories (Al, Ca), and low crustal iron, combined with an active, partially molten iron rich core, has major implications for Mercury and Solar System formation. From a s...

  14. Global structure of static spherically symmetric solutions surrounded by quintessence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Miguel; Ganguly, Apratim; Gannouji, Radouane; Leon, Genly; Saridakis, Emmanuel N.

    2017-06-01

    We investigate all static spherically symmetric solutions in the context of general relativity surrounded by a minimally-coupled quintessence field, using dynamical system analysis. Applying the 1  +  1  +  2 formalism and introducing suitable normalized variables involving the Gaussian curvature, we were able to reformulate the field equations as first order differential equations. In the case of a massless canonical scalar field we recovered all known black hole results, such as the Fisher solution, and we found that apart from the Schwarzschild solution all other solutions are naked singularities. Additionally, we identified the symmetric phase space which corresponds to the white hole part of the solution and in the case of a phantom field, we were able to extract the conditions for the existence of wormholes and define all possible classes of solutions such as cold black holes, singular spacetimes and wormholes such as the Ellis wormhole, for example. For an exponential potential, we found that the black hole solution which is asymptotically flat is unique and it is the Schwarzschild spacetime, while all other solutions are naked singularities. Furthermore, we found solutions connecting to a white hole through a maximum radius, and not a minimum radius (throat) such as wormhole solutions, therefore violating the flare-out condition. Finally, we have found a necessary and sufficient condition on the form of the potential to have an asymptotically AdS spacetime along with a necessary condition for the existence of asymptotically flat black holes.

  15. A nebula of gases from Io surrounding Jupiter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krimigis, Stamatios M; Mitchell, Donald G; Hamilton, Douglas C; Dandouras, Jannis; Armstrong, Thomas P; Bolton, Scott J; Cheng, Andrew F; Gloeckler, George; Hsieh, K C; Keath, Edwin P; Krupp, Norbert; Lagg, Andreas; Lanzerotti, Louis J; Livi, Stefano; Mauk, Barry H; McEntire, Richard W; Roelof, Edmond C; Wilken, Berend; Williams, Donald J

    2002-02-28

    Several planetary missions have reported the presence of substantial numbers of energetic ions and electrons surrounding Jupiter; relativistic electrons are observable up to several astronomical units (au) from the planet. A population of energetic (>30[?]keV) neutral particles also has been reported, but the instrumentation was not able to determine the mass or charge state of the particles, which were subsequently labelled energetic neutral atoms. Although images showing the presence of the trace element sodium were obtained, the source and identity of the neutral atoms---and their overall significance relative to the loss of charged particles from Jupiter's magnetosphere---were unknown. Here we report the discovery by the Cassini spacecraft of a fast (>103[?]km[?]s-1) and hot magnetospheric neutral wind extending more than 0.5[?]au from Jupiter, and the presence of energetic neutral atoms (both hot and cold) that have been accelerated by the electric field in the solar wind. We suggest that these atoms originate in volcanic gases from Io, undergo significant evolution through various electromagnetic interactions, escape Jupiter's magnetosphere and then populate the environment around the planet. Thus a 'nebula' is created that extends outwards over hundreds of jovian radii.

  16. Dilemmas surrounding passive euthanasia--a Malaysian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talib, Norchaya

    2005-09-01

    In western societies where the principle of autonomy is jealously guarded, perhaps active euthanasia is more often the focus of public concern and debates rather than any other forms of euthanasia. However due to the advance in technology and its corresponding ability in prolonging life, in Malaysia passive euthanasia presents more of a dilemma. For those concerned and involved with end of life decision-making, it is generally agreed that this is an area fraught with not only medical but legal and ethical issues. In Malaysia where the society is not homogenous but is multi-cultural and multi-religious, in addition to medical, legal and ethical issues, religious principles and cultural norms further impact and play significant roles in end of life decision-making. This paper seeks to identify the issues surrounding the practice of passive euthanasia in Malaysia. It will be shown that despite applicable legal provisions, current practice of the medical profession combined with religious and cultural values together affect decision-making which involves the withholding and/or withdrawing of life-saving treatment.

  17. Democratizing rendering for multiple viewers in surround VR systems

    KAUST Repository

    Schulze, Jürgen P.

    2012-03-01

    We present a new approach for how multiple users\\' views can be rendered in a surround virtual environment without using special multi-view hardware. It is based on the idea that different parts of the screen are often viewed by different users, so that they can be rendered from their own view point, or at least from a point closer to their view point than traditionally expected. The vast majority of 3D virtual reality systems are designed for one head-tracked user, and a number of passive viewers. Only the head tracked user gets to see the correct view of the scene, everybody else sees a distorted image. We reduce this problem by algorithmically democratizing the rendering view point among all tracked users. Researchers have proposed solutions for multiple tracked users, but most of them require major changes to the display hardware of the VR system, such as additional projectors or custom VR glasses. Our approach does not require additional hardware, except the ability to track each participating user. We propose three versions of our multi-viewer algorithm. Each of them balances image distortion and frame rate in different ways, making them more or less suitable for certain application scenarios. Our most sophisticated algorithm renders each pixel from its own, optimized camera perspective, which depends on all tracked users\\' head positions and orientations. © 2012 IEEE.

  18. Issues surrounding lethal injection as a means of capital punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanelli, Frank; Whisman, Tyler; Fink, Joseph L

    2008-12-01

    Lethal injection as a method of state-sanctioned capital punishment was initially proposed in the United States in 1977 and used for the first time in 1982. Most lethal injection protocols use a sequential drug combination of sodium thiopental, pancuronium bromide, and potassium chloride. Lethal injection was originally introduced as a more humane form of execution compared with existing mechanical methods such as electrocution, toxic gassing, hanging, or firing squad. Lethal injection has not, however, been without controversy. Several states are considering whether lethal injection meets constitutional scrutiny forbidding cruel and unusual punishment. Recently in the case of Ralph Baze and Thomas C. Bowling, Petitioners, v John D. Rees, Commissioner, Kentucky Department of Corrections et al, the United States Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of the lethal injection protocol as carried out in the Commonwealth of Kentucky. Most of the debate has surrounded the dosing and procedures used in lethal injection and whether the drug combinations and measures for administering the drugs truly produce a timely, pain-free, and fail-safe death. Many have also raised issues regarding the "medicalization" of execution and the ethics of health care professionals' participation in any part of the lethal injection process. As a result of all these issues, the future of lethal injection as a means of execution in the United States is under significant scrutiny. Outcomes of ongoing legislative and judicial reviews might result in cessation of lethal injection in totality or in alterations involving specific drug combinations or administration procedures.

  19. [Neurosis as a mental disease--controversies surrounding insurance certification].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabłoński, Christian; Kobek, Mariusz; Kowalczyk-Jabłońska, Dorota

    2011-01-01

    In the years 2008-2009, experts from the Department of Forensic Medicine in Katowice issued a dozen of expert opinions on the nature of the neurosis, addressing the question whether neurosis is a mental disease as understood under the general insurance conditions or whether neurosis is a mental disease as such. All the submitted cases involved policemen who had been diagnosed as neurotic and were refused insurance payments since the insurance company claimed payments could not have been effected due to the diagnosis of mental disease, meaning neurosis in the discussed cases. The plaintiffs invoked the fact that medical terminology describes such states as "mental disorders". In the article, the authors present the adopted model of opinionating, make an attempt at explaining the controversy and discuss the subtleties of medical terminology and the core differences between the terms "mental disorder" and "mental disease" as employed in medico-legal opinionating in such cases.

  20. Behavioural aspects of terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leistedt, Samuel J

    2013-05-10

    Behavioural and social sciences are useful in collecting and analysing intelligence data, understanding terrorism, and developing strategies to combat terrorism. This article aims to examine the psychopathological concepts of terrorism and discusses the developing roles for behavioural scientists. A systematic review was conducted of studies investigating behavioural aspects of terrorism. These studies were identified by a systematic search of databases, textbooks, and a supplementary manual search of references. Several fundamental concepts were identified that continue to influence the motives and the majority of the behaviours of those who support or engage in this kind of specific violence. Regardless of the psychological aspects and new roles for psychiatrists, the behavioural sciences will continue to be called upon to assist in developing better methods to gather and analyse intelligence, to understand terrorism, and perhaps to stem the radicalisation process. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Delusion disorder: Neuropsychological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leposavić Ivana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies concerned with neuropsychological aspect of delusions, were mainly focused on specific forms of this disorder. Comparatively small number of investigations were concerned with cognitive deficiencies accompanying the delusions. The substance of this study includes the detection of neuropsychological disfunctions in patients with persistent delusion disorder, and in tracing of these cognitive distortions to appropriate brain regions. Besides, characteristics of attribution style in these patients are analysed, from the aspect of their connections with unadjusted localized input for their reasoning system. The investigation is designed as a comparative study. The sample includes: a group of patients with persistent delusion disorder; a group of patients with paranoid schizophrenia; a group of healthy individuals. The participants have been tested by a neuropsychological battery that represents the following cognitive functions: attention, memory, vizuospatial and vizuoconstruction organization, executive ability, verbal divergent thinking. Projective Rorschach's method was used for estimation of attribution style.

  2. ROBOTIC SURGERY: BIOETHICAL ASPECTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    SIQUEIRA-BATISTA, Rodrigo; SOUZA, Camila Ribeiro; MAIA, Polyana Mendes; SIQUEIRA, Sávio Lana

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: The use of robots in surgery has been increasingly common today, allowing the emergence of numerous bioethical issues in this area. Objective: To present review of the ethical aspects of robot use in surgery. Method: Search in Pubmed, SciELO and Lilacs crossing the headings "bioethics", "surgery", "ethics", "laparoscopy" and "robotic". Results: Of the citations obtained, were selected 17 articles, which were used for the preparation of the article. It contains brief presentation on robotics, its inclusion in health and bioethical aspects, and the use of robots in surgery. Conclusion: Robotic surgery is a reality today in many hospitals, which makes essential bioethical reflection on the relationship between health professionals, automata and patients. PMID:28076489

  3. Access to Medicines : Common problems, common solutions?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stephens, P.N.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis investigates four cross-cutting controversies in access to medicinesaspects of pharmaceutical R&D, equity, generics policy and scale up. Chapter 2 describes the state of pharmaceutical research and development (R&D). It finds that failure rates remain high with the probability of

  4. [Airway anatomy : Relevant structures in emergency medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, M; Wree, A

    2017-09-01

    The subject of this article is the anatomy of the respiratory tract with an emphasis on the larynx. A differentiation is made between the upper and lower airways according to topographical and functional aspects, the limits of which are marked by the lower section of the larynx. The focus is on the anatomy of the structures involved, which are relevant for emergency medicine.

  5. International Journal of Medicine and Biomedical Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The International Journal of Medicine and Biomedical Research (IJMBR) is a peer-reviewed scholarly journal by Michael Joanna Publications. It publishes data and information, useful to researchers in all aspects of Clinical and Basic Medical Sciences including Anatomical Sciences, Biochemistry, Dentistry, Genetics, ...

  6. Medicine and the Renaissance world of learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siraisi, Nancy G

    2004-01-01

    This article considers aspects of the relation of medicine with other learned disciplines during the sixteenth century and presents some examples of the contribution of medical authors of that period to such diverse fields as natural philosophy, physiognomy, alchemy, travel writing, the art of memory, and the study of antiquities.

  7. Aspects of Social Phobia

    OpenAIRE

    Marteinsdóttir, Ína

    2003-01-01

    Social phobia is a disabling, lifelong disorder characterised by fear in social settings. The aim of the present study was to gain more knowledge about diagnostic, neurobiologic and epidemiologic aspects of social phobia. Thirty-two individuals were assessed by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I and II psychiatric disorders, the Karolinska Scales of Personality and the Temperament and Character Inventory. Social phobia was accompanied by concurrent axis I disorders in about 2...

  8. Rectenna session: Micro aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutmann, R. J.

    1980-01-01

    Two micro aspects of rectenna design are discussed: evaluation of the degradation in net rectenna RF to DC conversion efficiency due to power density variations across the rectenna (power combining analysis) and design of Yagi-Uda receiving elements to reduce rectenna cost by decreasing the number of conversion circuits (directional receiving elements). The first of these involves resolving a fundamental question of efficiency potential with a rectenna, while the second involves a design modification with a large potential cost saving.

  9. Aspects of B physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaillard, M.K.

    1987-10-14

    Various aspects of weak decays are commented on. Probing of the standard model and of phenomena beyond the standard model are discussed, followed by a theoretical view of B mesons and some experimental observations on B mesons. The point is made that any data on B decay would be interesting in that it would provide powerful new constraints in analyses of the standard model and extensions thereof. (LEW)

  10. Criminal Aspects of Pornography

    OpenAIRE

    Svoboda, Filip

    2015-01-01

    Criminal Aspects of Pornography Summary The main purpose of this thesis is to introduce the phenomenon of pornography in terms of criminal law, to point out flaws in the current relevant criminal legislation in the Czech Republic and to propose a possible solution in a form of potential legislative changes. The thesis is composed of five chapters. The first chapter deals with definition issue of vague legal term of "pornography" and other related terms ("child pornography", "hardcore pornogra...

  11. Psychosocial Aspects of Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Amy R

    2016-01-01

    This article is the sixth in a series of the comorbidities of childhood obesity and reviews psychosocial aspects with a focus on weight-based victimization and discrimination stemming from weight bias and stigma. Outcomes from these bullying and discriminatory experiences are pervasive and impact youth across all settings, including school. Lastly, this article provides recommendations on how to reduce bias and stigma to better serve these students in the school environment. © 2015 The Author(s).

  12. ROBOTIC SURGERY: BIOETHICAL ASPECTS

    OpenAIRE

    SIQUEIRA-BATISTA, Rodrigo; SOUZA, Camila Ribeiro; MAIA, Polyana Mendes; SIQUEIRA, Sávio Lana

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: The use of robots in surgery has been increasingly common today, allowing the emergence of numerous bioethical issues in this area. Objective: To present review of the ethical aspects of robot use in surgery. Method: Search in Pubmed, SciELO and Lilacs crossing the headings "bioethics", "surgery", "ethics", "laparoscopy" and "robotic". Results: Of the citations obtained, were selected 17 articles, which were used for the preparation of the article. It contains br...

  13. Electrochemical kinetics theoretical aspects

    CERN Document Server

    Vetter, Klaus J

    1967-01-01

    Electrochemical Kinetics: Theoretical Aspects focuses on the processes, methodologies, reactions, and transformations in electrochemical kinetics. The book first offers information on electrochemical thermodynamics and the theory of overvoltage. Topics include equilibrium potentials, concepts and definitions, electrical double layer and electrocapillarity, and charge-transfer, diffusion, and reaction overvoltage. Crystallization overvoltage, total overvoltage, and resistance polarization are also discussed. The text then examines the methods of determining electrochemical reaction mechanisms

  14. THE WINERY ECOLOGICAL ASPECTS

    OpenAIRE

    Крусір, Г. В.

    2015-01-01

    The issues of wineries solid waste analysis as the environmental aspects of the wineries, as well as reducing the burden on the environment through the use of wineries solid wastes as secondary raw material for the new product obtaining are considered. The results of the wineries solid waste analysis as a valuable raw material for feed additive obtaining are given. It is proved that the dominant substance of marc and crests chemical composition are carbohydrates, namely cellulose.

  15. Analyzing the discourse surrounding Autism in the New York Times using an ableism lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alshaba Billawala

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The topic of Autism is highly within academic literature (over 20000 articles in the database PubMed of US National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health and the public domain (79 Million hits in Google.  Newspapers also show a great interest in autism.  However despite the prevalence of autism coverage very little media analysis has been performed. We present here an analysis of the coverage of autism in the New York Times from the time the term autism first appeared (1973 to 2012.   Ability expectations and preferences are one dynamic through which members of a group judge others, themselves and their lives. Ability preferences and judgments are at the root of many rules of behaviours and customs. Ableism was one lens through which we analyzed the discourse surrounding autism in the NYT.  We found that readers that rely on the NYT as a primary source of information get very limited information about what autism is and what factors are associated with autism and they are heavily exposed to a medical narrative. We suggest that the negative, medical narrative adds to the problems people with autism face.   Keywords: autism; perception; media; New York Times; language; ableism

  16. A review of associated controversies surrounding glucocorticoid use in veterinary emergency and critical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aharon, Maya A; Prittie, Jennifer E; Buriko, Kate

    2017-05-01

    To review the literature in human and veterinary medicine regarding the indications for, efficacy of, and controversies surrounding glucocorticoid (GC) administration in the emergency and critical care (ECC) setting, and to provide an overview of the most commonly used synthetic GC formulations. Synthetic GCs vary in GC and mineralocorticoid potency, hypothalamic pituitary axis suppression, duration of action, route of administration, and clinical indication for use. Some of the GC compounds commonly used in human and veterinary ECC include hydrocortisone, prednisone, methylprednisolone, and dexamethasone. GCs are used in human and veterinary ECC for a variety of disorders including anaphylaxis, acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome, septic shock, and spinal cord injury. Evidence for morbidity or mortality benefit with administration of GC within these populations exists; however, data are sparse and often conflicting. Routine use of GC in some conditions such as trauma, hemorrhagic shock, and traumatic brain injury is likely contraindicated. GC use has been associated with hyperglycemia, pneumonia, urinary tract infection, gastrointestinal ulceration, or increased mortality in some populations. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2017.

  17. Incentive for a shift from modern scientific medicine to integrative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agishi, Tetsuzo

    2006-01-01

    Medicine has been evaluated in recent years both quantitatively and qualitatively. Contemporary medicine has been assumed to be conceptually based on modern science. However, there is a problem that quantity and quality are hard to evaluate using only scientific parameters. It is, therefore, the aim of this article to emphasize that the quantity and quality of medicine need to be evaluated not only from the standpoint of modern scientific medicine but also in terms of integrative medicine. Integrative medicine is postulated to be comprehensive in its fundamental doctrine, emphasizing a holistic approach including technical, artistic, social, religious, philosophical, and ethical elements. However, in evaluating carefully and seriously actual performance, it was noted that contemporary medicine has been giving greater emphasis to aspects of integrative medicine where increasing concern is paid to patients' personal preferences, as indicated by their quality of life. An incentive for a shift from exclusively scientific to integrative medicine, which started as early as the 1970s, is revival emotion toward a prime modality of medicine.

  18. Considering patient experience and evidence-based choice of medicines in medicines optimisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Gerri; Bellerby, Ann; Kitching, Mike

    2017-06-14

    Medicines optimisation can be used by healthcare professionals to support patients to gain maximum benefit from their medicines, with two of the main principles being understanding the patient experience and ensuring medicines choice is evidence-based. Non-adherence is a significant issue in medicines management. Relational aspects of the patient experience, such as empathetic two-way communication between the healthcare professional and patient, the provision of clear information and shared decision-making, can have a positive influence on whether patients take their medicines as intended. In practice, the degree of influence exerted by evidence-based guidelines may result in tensions between the healthcare professional's choice of medicines and the patient's experience, while the prevalence of multimorbidity may mean that some patients are prescribed medicines from several clinical guidelines. This raises issues in relation to patient morbidity and safety, including the potential for issues with polypharmacy and an increased risk of adverse drug reactions. Medication review is an important tool for identifying the patient's medication burden, and deprescribing - the planned reduction of medicines that may no longer be effective - is emerging as a strategy to reduce polypharmacy. Further progress is required to increase patient involvement in the development of guidance for medicines management to enhance the quality of patient care, particularly in relation to their values and preferences. Similarly, further research is necessary to identify how patients make decisions about their medicines use.

  19. Epigenetic Mechanisms of Integrative Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riya R. Kanherkar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Since time immemorial humans have utilized natural products and therapies for their healing properties. Even now, in the age of genomics and on the cusp of regenerative medicine, the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM approaches represents a popular branch of health care. Furthermore, there is a trend towards a unified medical philosophy referred to as Integrative Medicine (IM that represents the convergence of CAM and conventional medicine. The IM model not only considers the holistic perspective of the physiological components of the individual, but also includes psychological and mind-body aspects. Justification for and validation of such a whole-systems approach is in part dependent upon identification of the functional pathways governing healing, and new data is revealing relationships between therapies and biochemical effects that have long defied explanation. We review this data and propose a unifying theme: IM’s ability to affect healing is due at least in part to epigenetic mechanisms. This hypothesis is based on a mounting body of evidence that demonstrates a correlation between the physical and mental effects of IM and modulation of gene expression and epigenetic state. Emphasis on mapping, deciphering, and optimizing these effects will facilitate therapeutic delivery and create further benefits.

  20. Medicinal smoke reduces airborne bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nautiyal, Chandra Shekhar; Chauhan, Puneet Singh; Nene, Yeshwant Laxman

    2007-12-03

    This study represents a comprehensive analysis and scientific validation of our ancient knowledge about the effect of ethnopharmacological aspects of natural products' smoke for therapy and health care on airborne bacterial composition and dynamics, using the Biolog microplate panels and Microlog database. We have observed that 1h treatment of medicinal smoke emanated by burning wood and a mixture of odoriferous and medicinal herbs (havan sámagri=material used in oblation to fire all over India), on aerial bacterial population caused over 94% reduction of bacterial counts by 60 min and the ability of the smoke to purify or disinfect the air and to make the environment cleaner was maintained up to 24h in the closed room. Absence of pathogenic bacteria Corynebacterium urealyticum, Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens, Enterobacter aerogenes (Klebsiella mobilis), Kocuria rosea, Pseudomonas syringae pv. persicae, Staphylococcus lentus, and Xanthomonas campestris pv. tardicrescens in the open room even after 30 days is indicative of the bactericidal potential of the medicinal smoke treatment. We have demonstrated that using medicinal smoke it is possible to completely eliminate diverse plant and human pathogenic bacteria of the air within confined space.

  1. Epigenetic Mechanisms of Integrative Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanherkar, Riya R.; Stair, Susan E.; Bhatia-Dey, Naina; Mills, Paul J.; Chopra, Deepak

    2017-01-01

    Since time immemorial humans have utilized natural products and therapies for their healing properties. Even now, in the age of genomics and on the cusp of regenerative medicine, the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) approaches represents a popular branch of health care. Furthermore, there is a trend towards a unified medical philosophy referred to as Integrative Medicine (IM) that represents the convergence of CAM and conventional medicine. The IM model not only considers the holistic perspective of the physiological components of the individual, but also includes psychological and mind-body aspects. Justification for and validation of such a whole-systems approach is in part dependent upon identification of the functional pathways governing healing, and new data is revealing relationships between therapies and biochemical effects that have long defied explanation. We review this data and propose a unifying theme: IM's ability to affect healing is due at least in part to epigenetic mechanisms. This hypothesis is based on a mounting body of evidence that demonstrates a correlation between the physical and mental effects of IM and modulation of gene expression and epigenetic state. Emphasis on mapping, deciphering, and optimizing these effects will facilitate therapeutic delivery and create further benefits. PMID:28316635

  2. Evidence-based medicine in general practice specialty training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwolsman, S.E.

    2012-01-01

    Aio’s huisartsgeneeskunde hebben adequate kennis ten aanzien van evidence-based medicine (geneeskunde op basis van bewijs). In de huisartspraktijk is evidence-based gedrag vaak niet direct zichtbaar, maar artsen kunnen wel aangeven op welk aspect van evidence-based medicine de voorgeschreven

  3. Mind-Body Practices in Integrative Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niko Kohls

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Mind-Body practices have become increasingly popular as components of psychotherapeutic and behavior medicine interventions. They comprise an array of different methods and techniques that use some sort of mental-behavioral training and involve the modulation of states of consciousness in order to influence bodily processes towards greater health, well-being and better functioning. Mind-body practices may thus be interpreted as the salutogenetic mirror image of psychosomatic medicine, where psychophysiological and health consequences of specific psychological states are studied, such as stress arousal, psychological trauma or depression. This contribution examines the empirical evidence of the most common mind-body techniques with regard to their salutogenetic potential. We concisely discuss some aspects of the mind-body problem, before we consider some historical aspects and achievements of psychosomatic medicine. We then turn to some prominent mind-body practices and their application, as well as the empirical database for them.

  4. TRADITIONAL CHINESE HERBAL MEDICINE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ZHU, YP; WOERDENBAG, HJ

    1995-01-01

    Herbal medicine, acupuncture and moxibustion, and massage and the three major constituent parts of traditional Chinese medicine. Although acupuncture is well known in many Western countries, Chinese herbal medicine, the mos important part of traditional Chinese medicine, is less well known in the

  5. Scientific and medical aspects of human reproductive cloning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee on Science

    2002-01-01

    ...), and the Institute of Medicine (IOM). It is a result of work done by the Panel on Scientific and Medical Aspects of Human Cloning, a joint panel of the Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy (COSEPUP) and the Board on Life Sciences (BLS). The members of the panel responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard ...

  6. Experimental wound healing aspects of Jasminum grandiflorum Linn

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experimental wound healing aspects of Jasminum grandiflorumLinn: a preclinical study. M Arun, S Satish, P Anima. Abstract. Background: Jasminum grandiflorum is an important shrub of family Oleaceae and ancient literature mentions its various medicinal uses especially its efficacy in wound healing. To substantiate its ...

  7. Perivascular cells for regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisan, Mihaela; Corselli, Mirko; Chen, William C W; Péault, Bruno

    2012-12-01

    Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC) are currently the best candidate therapeutic cells for regenerative medicine related to osteoarticular, muscular, vascular and inflammatory diseases, although these cells remain heterogeneous and necessitate a better biological characterization. We and others recently described that MSC originate from two types of perivascular cells, namely pericytes and adventitial cells and contain the in situ counterpart of MSC in developing and adult human organs, which can be prospectively purified using well defined cell surface markers. Pericytes encircle endothelial cells of capillaries and microvessels and express the adhesion molecule CD146 and the PDGFRβ, but lack endothelial and haematopoietic markers such as CD34, CD31, vWF (von Willebrand factor), the ligand for Ulex europaeus 1 (UEA1) and CD45 respectively. The proteoglycan NG2 is a pericyte marker exclusively associated with the arterial system. Besides its expression in smooth muscle cells, smooth muscle actin (αSMA) is also detected in subsets of pericytes. Adventitial cells surround the largest vessels and, opposite to pericytes, are not closely associated to endothelial cells. Adventitial cells express CD34 and lack αSMA and all endothelial and haematopoietic cell markers, as for pericytes. Altogether, pericytes and adventitial perivascular cells express in situ and in culture markers of MSC and display capacities to differentiate towards osteogenic, adipogenic and chondrogenic cell lineages. Importantly, adventitial cells can differentiate into pericyte-like cells under inductive conditions in vitro. Altogether, using purified perivascular cells instead of MSC may bring higher benefits to regenerative medicine, including the possibility, for the first time, to use these cells uncultured. © 2012 The Authors Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine © 2012 Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Integrative Medicine in Preventive Medicine Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jani, Asim A.; Trask, Jennifer; Ali, Ather

    2016-01-01

    During 2012, the USDHHS’s Health Resources and Services Administration funded 12 accredited preventive medicine residencies to incorporate an evidence-based integrative medicine curriculum into their training programs. It also funded a national coordinating center at the American College of Preventive Medicine, known as the Integrative Medicine in Preventive Medicine Education (IMPriME) Center, to provide technical assistance to the 12 grantees. To help with this task, the IMPriME Center established a multidisciplinary steering committee, versed in integrative medicine, whose primary aim was to develop integrative medicine core competencies for incorporation into preventive medicine graduate medical education training. The competency development process was informed by central integrative medicine definitions and principles, preventive medicine’s dual role in clinical and population-based prevention, and the burgeoning evidence base of integrative medicine. The steering committee considered an interdisciplinary integrative medicine contextual framework guided by several themes related to workforce development and population health. A list of nine competencies, mapped to the six general domains of competence approved by the Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education, was operationalized through an iterative exercise with the 12 grantees in a process that included mapping each site’s competency and curriculum products to the core competencies. The competencies, along with central curricular components informed by grantees’ work presented elsewhere in this supplement, are outlined as a roadmap for residency programs aiming to incorporate integrative medicine content into their curricula. This set of competencies adds to the larger efforts of the IMPriME initiative to facilitate and enhance further curriculum development and implementation by not only the current grantees but other stakeholders in graduate medical education around integrative medicine

  9. Morphological Segregation in the Surroundings of Cosmic Voids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricciardelli, Elena; Tamone, Amelie [Laboratoire d’Astrophysique, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), 1290 Sauverny (Switzerland); Cava, Antonio [Observatoire de Genève, Université de Genève, 51 Ch. des Maillettes, 1290 Versoix (Switzerland); Varela, Jesus, E-mail: elena.ricciardelli@epfl.ch [Centro de Estudios de Física del Cosmos de Aragón (CEFCA), Plaza San Juan 1, E-44001 Teruel (Spain)

    2017-09-01

    We explore the morphology of galaxies living in the proximity of cosmic voids, using a sample of voids identified in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7. At all stellar masses, void galaxies exhibit morphologies of a later type than galaxies in a control sample, which represent galaxies in an average density environment. We interpret this trend as a pure environmental effect, independent of the mass bias, due to a slower galaxy build-up in the rarefied regions of voids. We confirm previous findings about a clear segregation in galaxy morphology, with galaxies of a later type being found at smaller void-centric distances with respect to the early-type galaxies. We also show, for the first time, that the radius of the void has an impact on the evolutionary history of the galaxies that live within it or in its surroundings. In fact, an enhanced fraction of late-type galaxies is found in the proximity of voids larger than the median void radius. Likewise, an excess of early-type galaxies is observed within or around voids of a smaller size. A significant difference in galaxy properties in voids of different sizes is observed up to 2 R {sub void}, which we define as the region of influence of voids. The significance of this difference is greater than 3 σ for all the volume-complete samples considered here. The fraction of star-forming galaxies shows the same behavior as the late-type galaxies, but no significant difference in stellar mass is observed in the proximity of voids of different sizes.

  10. Morphological Segregation in the Surroundings of Cosmic Voids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricciardelli, Elena; Cava, Antonio; Varela, Jesus; Tamone, Amelie

    2017-09-01

    We explore the morphology of galaxies living in the proximity of cosmic voids, using a sample of voids identified in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7. At all stellar masses, void galaxies exhibit morphologies of a later type than galaxies in a control sample, which represent galaxies in an average density environment. We interpret this trend as a pure environmental effect, independent of the mass bias, due to a slower galaxy build-up in the rarefied regions of voids. We confirm previous findings about a clear segregation in galaxy morphology, with galaxies of a later type being found at smaller void-centric distances with respect to the early-type galaxies. We also show, for the first time, that the radius of the void has an impact on the evolutionary history of the galaxies that live within it or in its surroundings. In fact, an enhanced fraction of late-type galaxies is found in the proximity of voids larger than the median void radius. Likewise, an excess of early-type galaxies is observed within or around voids of a smaller size. A significant difference in galaxy properties in voids of different sizes is observed up to 2 R void, which we define as the region of influence of voids. The significance of this difference is greater than 3σ for all the volume-complete samples considered here. The fraction of star-forming galaxies shows the same behavior as the late-type galaxies, but no significant difference in stellar mass is observed in the proximity of voids of different sizes.

  11. GIANT Hα NEBULA SURROUNDING THE STARBURST MERGER NGC 6240

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Michitoshi [Hiroshima Astrophysical Science Center, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Yagi, Masafumi; Komiyama, Yutaka; Kashikawa, Nobunari [Optical and Infrared Astronomy Division, National Astronomical Observatory, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Ohyama, Youichi [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, 11F of Astronomy-Mathematics Building, AS/NTU No.1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 10617, Taiwan, R.O.C. (China); Tanaka, Hisashi [Department of Physical Science, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Okamura, Sadanori, E-mail: yoshidam@hiroshima-u.ac.jp [Department of Advanced Sciences, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Hosei University, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8584 (Japan)

    2016-03-20

    We revealed the detailed structure of a vastly extended Hα-emitting nebula (“Hα nebula”) surrounding the starburst/merging galaxy NGC 6240 by deep narrow-band imaging observations with the Subaru Suprime-Cam. The extent of the nebula is ∼90 kpc in diameter and the total Hα luminosity amounts to L{sub Hα} ≈ 1.6 × 10{sup 42} erg s{sup −1}. The volume filling factor and the mass of the warm ionized gas are ∼10{sup −4}–10{sup −5} and ∼5 × 10{sup 8} M{sub ⊙}, respectively. The nebula has a complicated structure, which includes numerous filaments, loops, bubbles, and knots. We found that there is a tight spatial correlation between the Hα nebula and the extended soft-X-ray-emitting gas, both in large and small scales. The overall morphology of the nebula is dominated by filamentary structures radially extending from the center of the galaxy. A large-scale bipolar bubble extends along the minor axis of the main stellar disk. The morphology strongly suggests that the nebula was formed by intense outflows—superwinds—driven by starbursts. We also found three bright knots embedded in a looped filament of ionized gas that show head-tail morphologies in both emission-line and continuum, suggesting close interactions between the outflows and star-forming regions. Based on the morphology and surface brightness distribution of the Hα nebula, we propose the scenario that three major episodes of starburst/superwind activities, which were initiated ∼10{sup 2} Myr ago, formed the extended ionized gas nebula of NGC 6240.

  12. Rain Simulation for the Test of Automotive Surround Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasirlioglu, Sinan; Riener, Andreas; Doric, Igor

    2017-04-01

    The WHO Global Health Observatory data indicates that over 1.25 million people die in traffic accidents annually. To save lives, car manufacturers spend lot of efforts on the development of novel safety systems aiming to avoid or mitigate accidents and provide maximum protection for vehicle occupants as well as vulnerable road users. All the safety features mainly rely on data from surround sensors such as radar, lidar and camera and intelligent vehicles today use these environmental data for instant decision making and vehicle control. As already small errors in sensor data measurements could lead to catastrophes like major injuries or road traffic fatalities, it is of utmost importance to ensure high reliability and accuracy of sensors and safety systems. This work focuses on the influence of environmental factors such as rain conditions, as it is known that rain drops scatter the electromagnetic waves. The result is incorrect measurements with a direct negative impact on environment detection. To identify potential problems of sensors under varying environmental conditions, systems are today tested in real-world settings with two main problems: First, tests are time-consuming and second, environmental conditions are not reproducible. Our approach to test the influence of weather on automotive sensors is to use an indoor rain simulator. Our artificial rain maker, installed at CARISSMA (Center of Automotive Research on Integrated Safety Systems and Measurement Area), is parametrized with rain characteristics measured in the field using a standard disdrometer. System behavior on artificial rain is compared and validated with natural rainfall. With this simulator it is finally possible to test environmental influence at various levels and under reproducible conditions. This saves lot of efforts required for the test process itself and furthermore has a positive impact on the reliability of sensor systems due to the fact that test driven development is enabled.

  13. Personalized laboratory medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pazzagli, M.; Malentacchi, F.; Mancini, I.

    2015-01-01

    Developments in "omics" are creating a paradigm shift in Laboratory Medicine leading to Personalised Medicine. This allows the increasing in diagnostics and therapeutics focused on individuals rather than populations. In order to investigate whether Laboratory Medicine is able to implement new...... diagnostic tools and expertise and commands proper state-of-the-art knowledge about Personalized Medicine and Laboratory Medicine in Europe, the joint Working Group "Personalized Laboratory Medicine" of the EFLM and ESPT societies compiled and conducted the Questionnaire "Is Laboratory Medicine ready...... for the era of Personalized Medicine?". 48 laboratories from 18 European countries participated at this survey. The answers of the participating Laboratory Medicine professionals indicate that they are aware that Personalized Medicine can represent a new and promising health model. Whereas they are aware...

  14. Army Medicine and the Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    1964-01-01

    AD-A278s444 . DTIC SELECTAPR 05 1994D AR14Y I4EDICMN AND THE LAW Colonel Haurice Levinft, JAGC br p~~tleaiC ees =’do -.016 its d~stdbtaoz~is MTC...The Federal Tort Claims Act, copyright, 1963. b. Consent to Medical Procedures, copyright 1963. c. Hypnosis in the Law , copyright 1964. d. Blood...Tort Claims Act, copyright 1963. b. Forensic Pathology and the Law , copyright 1964. c. Some Legal Aspects of Military Preventive Medicine, copyright

  15. AspectJ in action practical aspect-oriented programming

    CERN Document Server

    Laddad, Ramnivas

    2003-01-01

    A guide to aspect-oriented programming and the AspectJ language, this book provides code examples that enable quick implementation of functionality in a system. Thorough introductions to AOP and AspectJ will help developers learn or advance their knowledge of AspectJ. Examples of everyday situations in which AspectJ solutions can be applied, such as logging, policy enforcement, resource pooling, business logic, thread-safety, authentication and authorization, and transaction management are provided. In addition, design patterns and idioms are covered, as is business rule implementation. The latest technologies, such as JEES, JAAS, and log4j, are explained and connected with AspectJ.

  16. Sleep Medicine Textbook

    OpenAIRE

    Bassetti, Claudio; Dogas, Zoran; Peigneux, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    The Sleep Medicine Textbook provides comprehensive, all-in-one educational material (550 pages) structured around the Catalogue of knowledge and skills for sleep medicine (Penzel et al. 2014, Journal of Sleep Research). Written by experts in the field and published by the ESRS, it provides an European approach to sleep medicine education, and represents the knowledge-base for the ESRS-endorsed sleep medicine examinations.The book is available at http://www.esrs.eu/esrs/sleep-medicine-textbook...

  17. [Current organization of disaster medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julien, Henri

    2013-12-01

    The concept of disaster medicine, derivedfrom medical management of casualties caused by terrorist attacks or earthquakes, began to be taught in medical school in 1982. It adapts military intervention tactics to civilian practices, and differentiates major disasters (in which preformed teams are sent to the scene) from disasters with limited effects (predefined plans form the backbone of the rescue organization). Management of blast and crush syndromes, triage, care of numerous burn victims, on-site amputation, necrotomy, medicopsychological support, mass decontamination, and rescue management are some of the aspects with which physicians should be familiar. Predefined intervention teams and ad hoc materials have been created to provide autonomous logistic support. Regulations, ethical aspects and managerial methods still need to be refined, and research and teaching must be given a new impetus.

  18. Fractal aspects of hadrons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deppman Airton

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The non extensive aspects of pT distributions obtained in high energy collisions are discussed in relation to possible fractal structure in hadrons, in the sense of the thermofractal structure recently introduced. The evidences of self-similarity in both theoretical and experimental works in High Energy and in Hadron Physics are discussed, to show that the idea of fractal structure of hadrons and fireballs have being under discussion for decades. The non extensive self-consistent thermodynamics and the thermofractal structure allow one to connect non extensivity to intermittence and possibly to parton distribution functions in a single theoretical framework.

  19. [Cutaneous hemangioma: clinical aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanova, D; Norat, F; Bardot, J; Magalon, G

    2006-01-01

    Infantile cutaneous hemangioma is a benign vascular tumour present at 10% of the infants. It forms part of the group of the vascular tumours in the classification of International Society for Vascular Anomalies (ISSVA). Clinical diagnosis is easy in its triphasic typical form with a phase of sometimes brutal postnatal growth, a phase of stabilization and a phase of slow secondary regression. Classically, it is presented in the form of a mass or stains cutaneous red, of a subcutaneous mass or, generally, of a mixed form associating the two aspects.

  20. Aspects of Insider Threats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Probst, Christian W.; Hunker, Jeffrey; Gollmann, Dieter

    2010-01-01

    The insider threat has received considerable attention, and is often cited as the most serious security problem. It is also considered the most difficult problem to deal with, because an “insider” has information and capabilities not known to external attackers. The difficulty in handling...... the insider threat is unsurprising under those circumstances; if one cannot define a problem precisely, how can one approach a solution, let alone know when the problem is solved? This chapter presents some aspects of insider threats, collected at an inter-disciplinary workshop in 2008....

  1. Knockout reactions: experimental aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortina Gil, D. [Santiago de Compostela Univ. (Spain)

    2007-07-01

    The availability of radioactive beams has given rise to intense activity in the field of direct reactions. The removal of one(two)-nucleon (referred to as nucleon knockout in this text) from a fast exotic projectile has been extensively investigated. This lecture provides a general overview of the experimental results achieved using this technique. The sensitivity of the method to different experimental aspects is illustrated with a few examples. Special attention is given to the application of nucleon-knockout reactions as a general purpose spectroscopic tool. (author)

  2. Analytic aspects of convexity

    CERN Document Server

    Colesanti, Andrea; Gronchi, Paolo

    2018-01-01

    This book presents the proceedings of the international conference Analytic Aspects in Convexity, which was held in Rome in October 2016. It offers a collection of selected articles, written by some of the world’s leading experts in the field of Convex Geometry, on recent developments in this area: theory of valuations; geometric inequalities; affine geometry; and curvature measures. The book will be of interest to a broad readership, from those involved in Convex Geometry, to those focusing on Functional Analysis, Harmonic Analysis, Differential Geometry, or PDEs. The book is a addressed to PhD students and researchers, interested in Convex Geometry and its links to analysis.

  3. [Toxic fungi in Buenos Aires City and surroundings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Gonzalo M; Iannone, Leopoldo; Novas, María V; Carmarán, Cecilia; Romero, Andrea I; López, Silvia E; Lechner, Bernardo E

    2013-01-01

    In Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales,Universidad de Buenos Aires there is a service called Servicio de Identificación de Hongos Tóxicos, directed by researchers of the Program of Medicinal Plants and Fungi Involved in Biological Degradation (PROPLAME-PRHIDEB, CONICET) that assist hospitals and other health establishments, identifying the different samples of fungi and providing information about their toxicity, so that patients can receive the correct treatment. The objective of the present study was to analyze all the cases received from 1985 to 2012. This analysis permitted the confection of a table identifying the most common toxic species. The information gathered revealed that 47% of the patients were under 18 years of age and had eaten basidiomes; the remaining 53% were adults who insisted that they were able to distinguish edible from toxic mushrooms. Chlorophyllum molybdites turned out to be the main cause of fungal intoxication in Buenos Aires, which is commonly confused with Macrolepiota procera, an edible mushroom. In the second place Amanita phalloides was registered, an agaric known to cause severe symptoms after a long period of latency (6-10 hours), and which can lead to hepatic failure even requiring a transplant to prevent severe internal injuries or even death, is not early and correctly treated.

  4. Anthropoaesthetics as an aspect of anthropoecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldeyeva, Natalya I; Zubov, Alexander A

    2005-07-01

    The source of activity of every individual or group is to a great extent determined by the necessity of interaction with other individuals or groups (Afanasiev, 1990), i.e. with the diversity of anthropological surroundings. This manifests itself in the participation of individuals in the organization of their ecosystems, including the ethnocultural and physical conditions of life (Sukharev, 1998). Therefore it is possible to single out certain ecological aspects of perception of anthropological specificity of the surrounding population by an individual (group), leaning upon the definition of anthropoecology as a discipline, studying the laws of interaction between human communities and the system of natural, social and other factors, (Anthropological dictionary, 2004) as well as the coevolution of humans with their environment, in the process of adaptation (Lisseyev, 2001). At the same time it is usually emphasized that the ecological approach is best of all realized on the base of the principle of reciprocity of development of an individual and the surrounding reality, on the perception of the objects of this reality (including other people) with due regard to the reasons for the preference and corresponding values orientation. This represents the subject of ecological psychology (Sergeyenko, 2002; Pavlenko, 2002). In this context the relations between the individual and the environment (autoecology) as well as between the individual and a group (sinecology) are considered (Lisseyev, 2001). The study of the aesthetic perception of anthropological types by individuals belonging to different ethnoterritorial and age groups is the subject matter of a special branch of physical anthropology-anthropoaesthetics, which studies the peculiarities of the aesthetic preference of human facial features in modern populations, analyzing the dependence of human perception on the anthropological environment (Haldeyeva, 2004).

  5. Sand fly fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae) from the Goytacazes National Forest and surrounding areas of southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    das Virgens, Thieres Marassati; Rezende, Helder Ricas; de Souza Pinto, Israel; Falqueto, Aloísio

    2015-06-01

    Most studies of the sand fly fauna in southeastern Brazil are conducted in the peridomiciliary environment of leishmaniasis endemic regions. Therefore, to increase the knowledge about diversity and richness of sand fly conservation areas, we describe here the sand fly fauna from the National Forest of Goytacazes (NFG), state of Espírito Santo, Brazil, and its surroundings areas. We also used sand fly fauna records from eight conservations units within the state of Espírito Santo to understand the similarity and relationships among them. The sand flies were simultaneously collected from June, 2008 to May, 2009 in two different environments: a preserved environment represented by the NFG and a modified environment represented by a peridomicile. To establish the similarity among the conservation units, we used a method very similar to parsimony analysis of endemism. We collected 2,466 sand fly specimens belonging to 13 species. Pressatia choti and Nyssomyia intermedia were the most abundant sand fly species. Ny. intermedia is a known vector of Leishmania braziliensis and epidemiological surveillance must be conducted in the area. We discuss aspects regarding the diversity of sand flies as well as the risk of transmission of Leishmania parasites in the area. We also provide for the first time a hypothesis of similarity relationships among conservation units within the state of Espírito Santo. © 2015 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  6. [Issues surrounding the preservation and subsequent use of transsexual persons' gametes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouannet, Pierre

    2014-03-01

    Some transsexual persons wish to have their gametes frozen before gender transition, in order to preserve their fertility. This measure should be carried out, in strict compliance with the law, in case of orchidectomy, oophorectomy or hysterectomy However, as hormonal treatments do not irreversibly alter gonadal function, the reproductive capacity of trans-sexual persons can be maintained by avoiding surgical sterilization. There is therefore no obvious medical indication for cryopreserving gametes or germinal tissue in the absence of surgical sterilization. Moreover, the use of such cryopreserved gametes would, in principle, be considered mainly by a same-sex couple, something that French law currently prohibits. Regardless of these legal aspects, the issues surrounding the use of cryopreserved gametes, and its consequences, must not be ignored. If transsexual persons who are already parents may find ways of managing the change in both their personal and parental identity, the use of gametes stored prior to gender transition raises issues of identity whose consequences are difficult to assess, especially for the future child. Cryopreservation of gametes or germinal tissue cannot be undertaken without first considering whether their potential use is in keeping with what is, at present, medically and legally possible. In any case, it is up the physician to decide, on a case by case basis, whether or not to implement cryopreservation, taking into account the situation of the persons who request the procedure and their plans for parenthood.

  7. Persian Medicine in the World of Research; Review of Articles on Iranian Traditional Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeini, Reihaneh; Gorji, Narjes

    2016-05-01

    Due to negligence, Persian (Iranian) traditional medicine has had a weak presence in the world of research for a long time. However, in recent years, a variety of activates by research and faculty centers have created awareness and a platform to introduce and promote Persian medicine to the world. The aim of this study is to present and analyze scientific achievements of Persian medicine in the world of research. Articles were collected from PubMed database using keywords such as "Persian medicine", "Persian traditional medicine", "Iranian medicine", and "Iranian traditional medicine". All data were classified based on the type of research (review, intervention, case reports, etc.), the field of study (neurology, cardiovascular, metabolic, historical studies, etc.), publication year, and journal type. A total of 501 articles were identified until the end of 2015, comprising of 222 reviews and 219 interventional (108 animal, 57 clinical and 54 cellular). Most studies were on neurology (20.1%), gastroenterology (14.5%), and cardiovascular diseases (10.4%). The publications in 2015 and 2014 had the highest hit rate with 139 and 132 articles, respectively, with 1:2 publication ratio between foreign and Iranian journals. The most published articles, both foreign and Iranian, were in "Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine" and "Iranian Red Crescent Medicine" journals. The contribution of foreign authors was 5%. The primary focus of the articles was on "Basic concepts of Persian medicine", "Healthy lifestyle according to Persian medicine", and "Historical aspects", by 3.1%, 2.9%, and 6.7%, respectively. During the last 2 years, the number of articles published in Persian (Iranian) medicine, particularly clinical studies had significant growth in comparison with the years before. The tendency of foreign researchers to use the keywords "Iranian" or "Persian" medicine is notable. This research was only based on the designated keyword and other keywords were

  8. [Journey to what is essentially invisible: pysochosocial aspects of disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turabián, J L; Pérez-Franco, B

    2014-03-01

    Physicians may be well equipped for the biological aspects of disease, but not for its psychosocial dimensions, an issue that has been absent in family medicine. The psychosocial aspects of the disease are the factors involved in how patients react to the disease, play a role in the expression of symptoms and disease, and have implications on the lives of patients. Moreover, the biological effects (specific) and psychosocial effects (non-specific) are not simply additive but interactive. Physicians should be aware of this hidden, essentially invisible patient psychosocial morbidity, and must incorporate bio-psychosocial interventions into routine medical care to be more effective. In addition, to consider these aspects in the context of care contributes to the distinctive elements of family medicine. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  9. Circumstances surrounding dying in the paediatric intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plötz Frans B

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Death is inevitable in the paediatric intensive care unit (PICU. We aimed to describe the circumstances surrounding dying in a PICU. Method The chart records of all patients less than 18 years of age who died at the PICU between January first 2000 and July first 2005 were retrospectively analyzed. Information regarding sex, age, length of stay, admission, diagnosis, and the way a patient died was registered. Post mortem information regarding natural versus unnatural death, autopsy and donation was obtained. Non-survivors were allocated in five groups: do-not-resuscitate (DNR, withholding and/or withdrawal of therapy (W/W, failed cardiopulmonary resuscitation (failed CPR, brain death (BD, and terminal organ failure (TOF. Results During the study period 87 (4.4% of the 1995 admitted patients died. Non-survivors were more often admitted during the day (54% and the week (68%. W/W was found in 27.6%, TOF in 26.4%, BD in 23.0%, failed CPR in 18.4%, and DNR in 4.6%. Forty-three percent died in the first two days, of which BD (40.5% and failed CPR (37.8% were most common. Seventy-five children (86% died due to a natural cause. Autopsy permission was obtained in 19 of 54 patients (35%. The autopsies confirmed the clinical diagnosis in 11 patients, revealed new information in 5 patients, and in 3 patients the autopsy did not provide additional information. Nine patients were medically suitable for organ donation and 24 patients for tissue donation, whereas consent was only obtained in 2 cases in both groups. Conclusion We observed that 43% of the patients died within the first two days of admission due to BD and failed CPR, whereas after 4 days most patients died after W/W. Autopsy remains an useful tool to confirm clinical diagnoses or to provide new information. Only a small percentage of the deceased children is suitable for organ donation.

  10. Multicultural Aspects in Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders (FGIDs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xiucai; Francisconi, Carlos F; Fukudo, Shin; Gerson, Mary-Joan; Kang, Jin-Yong; Schmulson W, Max J; Sperber, Ami D

    2016-02-15

    Cross-cultural factors are important in functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs). In the setting of FGIDs, the aims of this review were to: 1) engender interest in global aspects; 2) gain a clearer understanding of culture, race and ethnicity and their effect on patient care and research; 3) facilitate cross-cultural clinical and research competency; and 4) improve and foster the quality and conduct of cross-cultural, multinational research. Cultural variables are inevitably present in the physician-patient context. Food and diets, which differ among cultural groups, are perceived globally as related to or blamed for symptoms. From an individual perspective, biological aspects, such as genetics, the microbiome, environmental hygiene, cytokines and the nervous system, which are affected by cultural differences, are all relevant. Of equal importance are issues related to gender, symptom reporting and interpretation, and family systems. From the physician's viewpoint, understanding the patient's explanatory model of illness, especially in a cultural context, affects patient care and patient education in a multicultural environment. Differences in the definition and use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine and other issues related to healthcare services for the FGIDs are also a relevant cross-cultural issue. This paper highlights the importance of cross-cultural competence in clinical medicine and research. Copyright © 2016 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Recent highlights of experimental research for inhibiting tumor growth by using Chinese medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xi-ran; Han, Shu-yan; Li, Ping-ping

    2015-10-01

    To give an overview of contemporary experimental research using Chinese medicine (CM) for the treatment of cancer. As an integral part of mainstream medicine in the People's Republic of China, CM emphasizes improvements in holistic physical condition instead of merely killing tumor cells, which is consistent with the current medical model that advocates patient-oriented treatment. Great progress has been made in experimental research, and the principle aspects include anti-tumor angiogenesis, inducing apoptosis and differentiation, reversing multidrug resistance, and improving immune function. As a current hot topic in cancer research, tumor microenvironment (TME) highlights the mutual and interdependent interaction between tumor cells and their surrounding tissues, and the CM treatment concept bears a striking resemblance to it. To date, primary points of TME include extracellular matrix remodeling, inflammation, hypoxia, and angiogenesis, but trials using CM with a focus on TME are rare. Despite considerable recent development, experimental research on CM for solving cancer issues appears insufficient. Greater efforts in this field are urgently needed.

  12. Psychosocial aspects of strabismus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jablan Branka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Binocular vision is characterized by a harmonious relation between sensory and motor systems of both eyes. This relation enables directing visual axes toward the observed object simultaneously, fusing images from two eyes, and the sense of threedimensionality. Motility and binocular vision disorders occur in manifest and latent strabismus. The irregular position of eyes in strabismus is perceived by most people as an esthetic defect. Also, psychosocial consequences and the importance of treating strabismus are very superficially explained in this context. Bearing in mind the results of recent researches, which indicate that individuals of all ages with strabismus face different difficulties in psychosocial functioning, we believe that this issue in our surroundings should be dealt with. Strabismus leads to forming prejudices which usually have a negative impact on socialization and employment opportunities. Timely treatment of strabismus has a positive influence on the functionality of binocular vision, building self-esteem and self-satisfaction, being accepted by typically developing population, the quality and quantity of social interaction. The aim of this paper is to present the relation between strabismus and psychosocial reactions with regard to the available literature. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179025: Kreiranje Protokola za procenu edukativnih potencijala dece sa smetnjama u razvoju kao kriterijuma za izradu individualnih obrazovnih programa i br. 179017: Socijalna participacija osoba sa intelektualnom ometenošću

  13. Cognitive Aspects of Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joormann, Jutta; Gotlib, Ian H.

    2012-01-01

    Depression is a prevalent and impairing psychiatric disorder that affects how we feel and how we think about ourselves and the world around us. Cognitive theories of depression have long posited that various thought processes are involved in the development, maintenance, and recurrence of depressive episodes. Contemporary research has utilized experimental procedures to examine cognitive processes in depressed individuals as well as the nature of the relation of these processes to the emotion dysregulation that is central to the disorder. For example, investigators have assessed the ways in which depression alters aspects of information processing, including attention and perception, interpretation, and memory processes; this research has generated relatively consistent findings. In addition, researchers have attempted to identify and elucidate the cognitive mechanisms that may link these biases in information processing to emotion dysregulation in depression. These mechanisms include inhibitory processes and deficits in working memory, ruminative responses to negative mood states, and the inability to use positive and rewarding stimuli to regulate negative mood. Results of these investigations converge on the formulation that depression is associated with increased elaboration of negative information, difficulties in cognitive control when processing this information, and difficulties disengaging from this information. Research examining cognitive aspects of depression not only enhances our understanding of this common and costly disorder, but also has implications for the treatment of depression and for future investigations of the biological foundations of this disorder. PMID:23240069

  14. Regulatory aspects on nanomedicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainz, Vanessa; Conniot, João; Matos, Ana I; Peres, Carina; Zupancic, Eva; Moura, Liane; Silva, Liana C; Florindo, Helena F; Gaspar, Rogério S

    2015-12-18

    Nanomedicines have been in the forefront of pharmaceutical research in the last decades, creating new challenges for research community, industry, and regulators. There is a strong demand for the fast development of scientific and technological tools to address unmet medical needs, thus improving human health care and life quality. Tremendous advances in the biomaterials and nanotechnology fields have prompted their use as promising tools to overcome important drawbacks, mostly associated to the non-specific effects of conventional therapeutic approaches. However, the wide range of application of nanomedicines demands a profound knowledge and characterization of these complex products. Their properties need to be extensively understood to avoid unpredicted effects on patients, such as potential immune reactivity. Research policy and alliances have been bringing together scientists, regulators, industry, and, more frequently in recent years, patient representatives and patient advocacy institutions. In order to successfully enhance the development of new technologies, improved strategies for research-based corporate organizations, more integrated research tools dealing with appropriate translational requirements aiming at clinical development, and proactive regulatory policies are essential in the near future. This review focuses on the most important aspects currently recognized as key factors for the regulation of nanomedicines, discussing the efforts under development by industry and regulatory agencies to promote their translation into the market. Regulatory Science aspects driving a faster and safer development of nanomedicines will be a central issue for the next years. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Palliative sedation: ethical aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miccinesi, Guido; Caraceni, Augusto; Maltoni, Marco

    2017-07-12

    Palliative sedation (PS), the medical act of decreasing a patient's awareness to relieve otherwise intractable suffering, is considered by some commentators to be controversial because of its consequences on residual survival and/or quality of life, and to be inappropriate for treating pure existential suffering. We will argue that PS must be always proportional, i.e. controlling refractory symptoms while keeping the loss of personal values (communication, affective relationships, care relationship) as low as possible, and that imminence of death is necessary too, from an ethical point of view, if a deep and continuous sedation (DCS) is proposed. Moreover, in case of pure existential suffering DCS should only be considered after repeated trials of respite sedation. The use of progressive consent and advance care planning to share the decision with the patient and to involve the family in the decision process as much as the patient desires is another ethical aspect to be pursued. Producing, implementing and sustaining guidelines at the higher scientific and professional level promise to help in improving both clinical and ethical aspects of the practice of PS.

  16. Neurological aspects of grief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Adriana C; de Oliveira Ribeiro, Natalia P; de Mello Schier, Alexandre R; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Paes, Flavia; Nardi, Antonio E; Machado, Sergio; Pessoa, Tamires M

    2014-01-01

    Despite grief being a universal experience and the increased scientific attention paid to grief and bereavement in recent years, studies that seek to better understand the role of the neurological aspects of grief are still scarce. We found 5 studies that discussed the relationship between the neurological aspects of grief due to the death of a loved one. All studies showed an activation of common areas, i.e., the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), prefrontal cortex (PFC), insula and amygdala. These findings could indicate that there is a group of areas working together and responding to generate the symptomatology of grief. Because grief is a universal experience, it is essential that the necessary and effective support can be provided to those who experience the loss of someone considered important in their lives, and this requires understanding grief's manifestation, its differential diagnosis in reference to other clinical conditions, mainly psychiatric ones, and adequate forms of intervention and treatment when necessary. Proper understanding and support can help prevent the emergence of more serious health problems.

  17. The impact of ancient Greek medicine in India: the birth of Unani medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulakou-Rebelakou, Effie; Karamanou, Marianna; George, Androutsos

    2015-01-01

    Unani Medicine, also called "Unani-tibb", has a long and impressive record in India based on the grecoarabic medicine and teachings of Hippocrates, Galen and Arab physicians. Its main principle is the maintenance of equilibrium among the various aspects of the body, made up of four elements, different temperaments, simple and compound organs, and four humours. The main bibliographic sources concerning the impact of ancient Greek medicine in India and the principles of Unani Medicine have been investigated and analysed. The assimilation of Hippocratic principles in a country with a different philosophy and worldview was successful. The ancient Greek medical system enriched with local elements encountered a large response to the Indian people and to the physicians. Nowadays Unani medicine is not only popular in India where several Unani practitioners are registered but it enjoys a worldwide upsurge of interest.

  18. Chandra Uncovers New Evidence For Event Horizons Surrounding Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    SAN DIEGO -- Astronomers have used NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory to study some of the darkest black holes yet observed. Their work strongly confirms the reality of the "event horizon," the one-way membrane around black holes predicted by Einstein's theory of relativity. The findings were presented today at the American Astronomical Society meeting by Drs. Michael Garcia, Jeffrey McClintock, Ramesh Narayan, and Stephen Murray of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics and Dr. Paul Callanan of University College, Cork, Ireland. With results that fundamentally differ from earlier black hole studies, Garcia and his colleagues have shown that some recently discovered black holes are not only ultra-dense, but actually possess event horizons that "vacuum up" energy from their surroundings. "It is a bit odd to say we've discovered something by seeing almost nothing at all -- less than the smile of the Cheshire cat, so to speak," said Garcia, lead author on a paper submitted to the Astrophysical Journal, "but, in essence, this is what we have done." Using data from Chandra and previous X-ray satellites like ROSAT, the Chandra team studied a dozen "X-ray novas," so named because they occasionally erupt as brilliant X-ray sources then settle into decades of dormancy. The great outpouring of X rays is due to a stream of gas that is pulled from the surface of a Sun-like companion star onto a compact object, either a black hole or a neutron star. By comparing the energy output from the dormant X-ray novas, the team discovered that the sources with black holes emitted only one percent as much energy while dormant as did the X-ray novae with neutron stars. "The most straightforward explanation of these observations is that the black hole candidates we have studied have event horizons that swallow just about all of the energy that surrounds them," said Murray. "Indeed, one could even say that this work shows why black holes deserve to be called ‘black.’" "The event

  19. HUBBLE FINDS THOUSANDS OF GASEOUS FRAGMENTS SURROUNDING DYING STAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Resembling a bizarre setting from a science fiction movie, dramatic images sent back by NASA's Hubble Space Telescope have surprised astronomers by uncovering thousands of gigantic tadpole-shaped objects surrounding a dying star. Dubbed 'cometary knots' because their glowing heads and gossamer tails superficially resemble comets, they are probably the result of a dying star's final outbursts. Though ground-based telescopic observations have hinted at such objects, they have not previously been seen in such abundance, say researchers. The knots were detected by Hubble astronomer C. Robert O'Dell and graduate student Kerry P. Handron of Rice University in Houston, Texas, while exploring the Helix nebula, a ring of glowing gases blown off the surface of a sunlike star late in its life. O'Dell expects the gaseous knots, which are each several billion miles across, will eventually dissipate and vanish into the cold emptiness of interstellar space. However, he speculates that if the objects contract to form permanent solid bodies, they may contribute to a fraction (less than ten percent) of the missing mass of our galaxy, simply because of their sheer abundance around a typical dying star. (This so-called dark matter is a known source of gravity that affects the motions of stars in the galaxy). The mysterious 'space pods' came into view as O'Dell used Hubble's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 to survey the Helix nebula, located 450 light-years away in the constellation Aquarius and the closest planetary nebula to Earth -- so close that its angular size is almost half that of the full Moon. The most visible cometary knots all lie along the inner edge of the ring, at a distance of trillions of miles from the central star. Their comet-like tails, each stretching a hundred billion miles, form a radial pattern around the star like the spokes on a wagon wheel. Though previous ground-based observations show a spoke pattern in the Helix, and some structure, O'Dell emphasizes that

  20. [Smart Medicine and Healthcare].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yen-Chiao Angel; Chen, Li-Chin

    2017-08-01

    Innovation and rapid technological development in Smart Medicine or Smart Healthcare impact profoundly on many aspects of healthcare. It is believed that Health Information Technology (HIT) has the potential to improve integration between care providers, reduce administrative costs and burdens, reduce medical errors, and improve care quality and patient outcomes. However, issues such as interoperability, compatibility, and integration are critical to effectively integrating hardware and software in order to fully realize the benefits of HIT. High-end medical devices and equipment, including medical carts / mobile computer carts and wireless physiological and biomedical monitoring devices, should also be integrated into the hospital information system. Furthermore, the Data, Information, Knowledge, and Wisdom Hierarchy (DIKW) has been gaining popularity in the development of Nursing Information Systems (NIS) since 2013. To create a DIKW-based information system, data must first be defined and analyzed and then transformed into meaningful information. Eventually, this information is transformed into an intelligent system. For example, if evidence-based nursing research results / findings are integrated into the NIS to guide clinical practice, patient outcomes, patient safety, and healthcare quality will be greatly enhanced.

  1. [The Essenes and medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottek, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    The Essenes were a Jewish sect, which flourished around the first century. We have limited our study to hygienic and medical aspects, as documented in the works of Josephus Flavius, Philo of Alexandria, and Pliny the Elder; Josephus and Philo were personally in contact with these sectarian Jews. We have described the regimen of life of these communities, who lived in strictly organised fashion, their meals taken in common, their bathing in cold water, their clothing, the Sabbath rest, the lavatories, and more. Most Essenes remained single, they adopted however small children, and educated them in accordance to their principles. There was no private property, but old people and sick residents were taken care of by the community. The Essenes, as well as the Therapeuts described by Philo, were knowledgeable in medical lore, they treasured old books and studied the virtues of medicinal plants. There is no clear-cut consensus whether the Essenes, the Therapeuts, and the Qumran residents were one and the same sect, or whether they were similar sub-sects. The calm, strictly regulated and frugal way of life of the Essenes enabled them to attain old age, often beyond 100 years.

  2. Chinese materia medica used in medicinal diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Fang; Chen, Yalin; Tan, Xiaolei; Ma, Yunyun; Peng, Yong

    2017-07-12

    diets and at medicinal diet restaurants. Some of the similarities shared by these 4 species include an extensive history of use (>2000 years); a sweet flavour; and antioxidant, antidiabetic, antilipemic and cardioprotective effects. The 10 most commonly consumed CMM possess various biological effects that are currently target the most frequent health problems for the majority of the population. The development of medicinal diet restaurants has certain regional restrictions and is associated with the local climate environment and dietary culture. The data revealed by this study provided useful information for commercial exploitation of medicinal diets and their components and serve as a basis for further studies on various aspects of medicinal diets. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Interdisciplinary aspects of turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Kupka, Friedrich

    2008-01-01

    What do combustion engines, fusion reactors, weather forecast, ocean flows, our sun, and stellar explosions in outer space have in common? Of course, the physics and the length and time scales are vastly different in all cases, but it is also well known that in all of them, on some relevant length scales, the material flows that govern the dynamical and/or secular evolution of the systems are chaotic and often unpredictable: they are said to be turbulent. The interdisciplinary aspects of turbulence are brought together in this volume containing chapters written by experts from very different fields, including geophysics, astrophysics, and engineering. It covers several subjects on which considerable progress was made during the last decades, from questions concerning the very nature of turbulence to some practical applications. These subjects include: a basic introduction into turbulence, statistical mechanics and nonlinear dynamics, turbulent convection in stars, atmospheric turbulence in the context of nume...

  4. Formal aspects of resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana-Maria Drigă

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of resilience has represented during the recent years a leading concern both in Romania, within the European Union and worldwide. Specialists in economics, management, finance, legal sciences, political sciences, sociology, psychology, grant a particular interest to this concept. Multidisciplinary research of resilience has materialized throughout the time in multiple conceptualizations and theorizing, but without being a consensus between specialists in terms of content, specificity and scope. Through this paper it is intended to clarify the concept of resilience, achieving an exploration of the evolution of this concept in ecological, social and economic environment. At the same time, the paper presents aspects of feedback mechanisms and proposes a formalization of resilience using the logic and mathematical analysis.

  5. Technological Aspects: High Voltage

    CERN Document Server

    Faircloth, D.C.

    2013-12-16

    This paper covers the theory and technological aspects of high-voltage design for ion sources. Electric field strengths are critical to understanding high-voltage breakdown. The equations governing electric fields and the techniques to solve them are discussed. The fundamental physics of high-voltage breakdown and electrical discharges are outlined. Different types of electrical discharges are catalogued and their behaviour in environments ranging from air to vacuum are detailed. The importance of surfaces is discussed. The principles of designing electrodes and insulators are introduced. The use of high-voltage platforms and their relation to system design are discussed. The use of commercially available high-voltage technology such as connectors, feedthroughs and cables are considered. Different power supply technologies and their procurement are briefly outlined. High-voltage safety, electric shocks and system design rules are covered.

  6. Aspects, Wrappers and Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filman, Robert E.

    2003-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides information on Object Infrastructure Framework (OIF), an Aspect-Oriented Programming (AOP) system. The presentation begins with an introduction to the difficulties and requirements of distributed computing, including functional and non-functional requirements (ilities). The architecture of Distributed Object Technology includes stubs, proxies for implementation objects, and skeletons, proxies for client applications. The key OIF ideas (injecting behavior, annotated communications, thread contexts, and pragma) are discussed. OIF is an AOP mechanism; AOP is centered on: 1) Separate expression of crosscutting concerns; 2) Mechanisms to weave the separate expressions into a unified system. AOP is software engineering technology for separately expressing systematic properties while nevertheless producing running systems that embody these properties.

  7. CUSTOMER LOYALTY THEORETICAL ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita IŠORAITĖ

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Customer loyalty - is a voluntary user solution for a long time to build relationships with the company. Loyalty is the user's desire for a long time to continue their relationship with a particular company, because loyal customers are those who purchase goods/services of the company from time to time. Loyalty can be treated as a customer desire, willingness to be a regular customer for a long time, buying and using the goods of the chosen companies by recommending them to friends and colleagues. Loyalty can be seen as a multi-dimension, covering behavioral and positional components, where positional aspect reflects customers' approach to business, while the behavioral dimension reveals a frequent and regular shopping, purchase quantity, size, range, availability, etc.

  8. Psychiatric aspects of burn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalal P

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Burn injuries and their subsequent treatment cause one of the most excruciating forms of pain imaginable. The psychological aspects of burn injury have been researched in different parts of the world, producing different outcomes. Studies have shown that greater levels of acute pain are associated with negative long-term psychological effects such as acute stress disorder, depression, suicidal ideation, and post-traumatic stress disorder for as long as 2 years after the initial burn injury. The concept of allostatic load is presented as a potential explanation for the relationship between acute pain and subsequent psychological outcomes. A biopsychosocial model is also presented as a means of obtaining better inpatient pain management and helping to mediate this relationship.

  9. Legal Aspects of Telepathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Dierks

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In some legal surroundings telepathology is considered a breach of registrational barriers. The recommendation of the G 8 states in Europe for required legislation in telemedicine suggests to recognise that the localization of the remote health care professional defines the site not only of licensure but also of liability. This approach must be considered helpful, since it can solve many problems brought about by the doubtful results of private international law and conventions like the European Union (EU and Lugano Convention. Under today's conditions in private international law it must be considered essential to agree upon a choice of law and stipulate a court of jurisdiction when doing telepathology. However, the opposing aims of insuring the patients claims and avoiding jurisdictions that exceed the local expectations of the medical professional must be reconciled. Data protection and data security are other crucial topics that require attention. Generally speaking, the principles of minimum data exchange, anonymity, pseudonymity and cryptography must be established as a basis for all telepathology procedures. Only when personal data is needed, its use can be legitimated. Written consent of the patient is advised. To guarantee a cross‐border security level the regulations of the EU‐Data Protection Directive need to be transformed into national law. In practise, cross‐border dataflow shall only take place where the security level can be maintained even within the other country. Finally, reimbursement questions must be answered to establish a sound economical basis for telepathology. The spatial distance between the participants may yield the question, whether the service has been rendered to an extent necessary and sufficient for reimbursement. If reimbursement takes place on a cross‐border or cross‐regional level, severe disturbances of the health systems can occur. Regulation schemes or treaties need therefore to be developed to

  10. ROBOTIC SURGERY: BIOETHICAL ASPECTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira-Batista, Rodrigo; Souza, Camila Ribeiro; Maia, Polyana Mendes; Siqueira, Sávio Lana

    2016-01-01

    The use of robots in surgery has been increasingly common today, allowing the emergence of numerous bioethical issues in this area. To present review of the ethical aspects of robot use in surgery. Search in Pubmed, SciELO and Lilacs crossing the headings "bioethics", "surgery", "ethics", "laparoscopy" and "robotic". Of the citations obtained, were selected 17 articles, which were used for the preparation of the article. It contains brief presentation on robotics, its inclusion in health and bioethical aspects, and the use of robots in surgery. Robotic surgery is a reality today in many hospitals, which makes essential bioethical reflection on the relationship between health professionals, automata and patients. A utilização de robôs em procedimentos cirúrgicos tem sido cada vez mais frequente na atualidade, o que permite a emergência de inúmeras questões bioéticas nesse âmbito. Apresentar revisão sobre os aspectos éticos dos usos de robôs em cirurgia. Realizou-se revisão nas bases de dados Pubmed, SciELO e Lilacs cruzando-se os descritores "bioética", "cirurgia", "ética", "laparoscopia" e "robótica". Do total de citações obtidas, selecionou-se 17 artigos, os quais foram utilizados para a elaboração do artigo. Ele contém breve apresentação sobre a robótica, sua inserção na saúde e os aspectos bioéticos da utilização dos robôs em procedimentos cirúrgicos. A cirurgia robótica é uma realidade, hoje, em muitas unidades hospitalares, o que torna essencial a reflexão bioética sobre as relações entre profissionais da saúde, autômatos e pacientes.

  11. [Anti-aging medicine, a science-based, essential medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertoghe, T; Lhermitte, M C; Poutet, B; Godefroit, C; Privé, D; Baneth, E; Everard, B; Hertoghe, T; Guery, G; Gadomski, A; Walraevens, A; Résimont, S; Wechoko, L; Seny, E; Vollon, K; Claeys, B

    2015-01-01

    Anti-aging medicine is booming. It enters more and more in the programs of universities. Its hormone and nutritional tests and therapies rely on numerous scientific studies, including double-blind placebo-controlled randomized studies. Its methods are often innovative to obtain more information or benefits with greater safety. The fundamental purpose of anti-aging medicine is to optimize health and the quality of life, and through this, make the physical appearance more youthful. Well-chosen and well-dosed these treatments should not increase the risk of age-related diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular diseases, but on the contrary decrease it by the preventive aspect of the treatments. Opponents to anti-aging medicine fail in collecting valid scientific arguments. Their insistence on maintaining a society of elderly people looking and feeling as elderly people rather than actively participating in searching for ways to attenuate aging is harmful to all who follow them, to themselves in the first place.

  12. Balancing personalized medicine and personalized care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornetta, Kenneth; Brown, Candy Gunther

    2013-03-01

    The current description of personalized medicine by the National Institutes of Health is "the science of individualized prevention and therapy." Although physicians are beginning to see the promise of genetic medicine coming to fruition, the rapid pace of sequencing technology, informatics, and computer science predict a revolution in the ability to care for patients in the near future. The enthusiasm expressed by researchers is well founded, but the expectations voiced by the public do not center on advancing technology. Rather, patients are asking for personalized care: a holistic approach that considers physical, mental, and spiritual well-being. This perspective considers psychological, religious, and ethical challenges that may arise as the precision of preventive medicine improves. Psychological studies already highlight the barriers to single gene testing and suggest significant barriers to the predictive testing envisioned by personalized medicine. Certain religious groups will likely mount opposition if they believe personalized medicine encourages embryo selection. If the technology prompts cost-containment discussions, those concerned about the sanctity of life may raise ethical objections. Consequently, the availability of new scientific developments does not guarantee advances in treatment because patients may prove unwilling to receive and act on personalized genetic information. This perspective highlights current efforts to incorporate personalized medicine and personalized care into the medical curriculum, genetic counseling, and other aspects of clinical practice. Because these efforts are generally independent, the authors offer recommendations for physicians and educators so that personalized medicine can be implemented in a manner that meets patient expectations for personalized care.

  13. Herbal medicinal oils in traditional Persian medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamedi, Azadeh; Zarshenas, Mohammad M; Sohrabpour, Maryam; Zargaran, Arman

    2013-09-01

    In Iran, conventional production methods of herbal oils are widely used by local practitioners. Administration of oils is rooted in traditional knowledge with a history of more than 3000 years. Scientific evaluation of these historical documents can be valuable for finding new potential use in current medicine. The current study (i) compiled an inventory of herbal oils used in ancient and medieval Persia and (ii) compared the preparation methods and therapeutic applications of ancient times to current findings of medicinal properties in the same plant species. Information on oils, preparation methods and related clinical administration was obtained from ancient Persian documents and selected manuscripts describing traditional Persian medicine. Moreover, we investigated the efficacy of medicinal plant species used for herbal oils through a search of the PubMed, Scopus and Google Scholar databases. In Iran, the application of medicinal oils date back to ancient times. In medieval Persian documents, 51 medicinal oils produced from 31 plant species, along with specific preparation methods, were identified. Flowers, fruits and leaves were most often used. Herbal oils have been traditionally administered via oral, topical and nasal routes for gastrointestinal, musculoskeletal, and neural diseases, respectively. According to current investigations, most of the cited medicinal plant species were used for their anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties. Medicinal oils are currently available in Iranian medicinal plant markets and are prepared using traditional procedures for desirable clinical outcomes. Other than historical clarification, the present study provides data on clinical applications of the oils that should lead to future opportunities to investigate their potential medicinal use.

  14. Advancing pig cloning technologies towards application in regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagashima, H; Matsunari, H; Nakano, K; Watanabe, M; Umeyama, K; Nagaya, M

    2012-08-01

    Regenerative medicine is expected to make a significant contribution by development of novel therapeutic treatments for intractable diseases and for improving the quality of life of patients. Many advances in regenerative medicine, including basic and translational research, have been developed and tested in experimental animals; pigs have played an important role in various aspects of this work. The value of pigs as a model species is being enhanced by the generation of specially designed animals through cloning and genetic modifications, enabling more sophisticated research to be performed and thus accelerating the clinical application of regenerative medicine. This article reviews the significant aspects of the creation and application of cloned and genetically modified pigs in regenerative medicine research and considers the possible future directions of the technology. We also discuss the importance of reproductive biology as an interface between basic science and clinical medicine. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Nanoparticles: nanotoxicity aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlastou, Elena; Gazouli, Maria; Ploussi, Agapi; Platoni, Kalliopi; Efstathopoulos, Efstathios P.

    2017-11-01

    The giant steps towards Nanosciences dictate the need to gain a broad knowledge about not only beneficial but also noxious properties of Nanomaterials. Apart from the remarkable advantages of Nanoparticles (NPs) in medicine and industry, there have been raised plenty of concerns about their potential adverse effects in living organisms and ecosystems as well. Without a doubt, it is of critical importance to ensure that NPs medical and industrial applications are accompanied by the essential safety so that the balance will be tilted in favor of the profits that society will earn. However, the evaluation of NPs toxic effects remains a great challenge for the scientific community due to the wealth of factors that Nanotoxicity depends on. Size, surface area, dosing, shape, surface coating and charge and bulk material are the basic parameters under investigation to assess the risk involved in NPs usage. Our purpose is to highlight NPs physical and chemical properties responsible for induced toxicity, describe the mechanisms that take place in their interaction with cells and organs and finally report the potential harmful consequences that may result from the innovative applications of Nanomaterials.

  16. Women Physicians: Choosing a Career in Academic Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Nicole J.; Navarro, Anita M.; Grover, Amelia C.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Despite recent efforts to understand the complex process of physician career development, the medical education community has a poor understanding of why, how, and when women physicians embark on a career in academic medicine. Method In 2010, the authors phone-interviewed women physicians in academic medicine regarding why, how, and when they chose an academic medicine career. Project investigators first individually and then collectively analyzed transcripts to identify themes in the data. Results Through analyzing the transcripts of the 53 interviews, the investigators identified five themes related to why women choose careers in academic medicine: fit, aspects of the academic health center environment, people, exposure, and clincial medicine. They identified five themes related to how women make the decision to enter academic medicine: change in specialty, dissatisfaction with former career, emotionality, parental influence, and decision-making styles. The authors also identified four themes regarding when women decide to enter academic medicine: as a practicing phyisican, fellow, resident, or medical student. Conclusions Choosing a career in academic medicine is greatly influenced by the environment in which one trains and by people—be they faculty, mentors, role models, or family. An interest in teaching is a primary reason women choose a career in academic medicine. Many women physicians entering acadmic medicine chose this after or during fellowship, which is when they became more aware of academic medicine as a possible career. For many women, choosing academic medicine was not necessarily an active, planned decision; rather it was serendipitous or circumstantial. PMID:22104052

  17. Women physicians: choosing a career in academic medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Nicole J; Navarro, Anita M; Grover, Amelia C

    2012-01-01

    Despite recent efforts to understand the complex process of physician career development, the medical education community has a poor understanding of why, how, and when women physicians embark on careers in academic medicine. In 2010, the authors phone-interviewed women physicians in academic medicine regarding why, how, and when they chose academic medicine careers. Project investigators first individually and then collectively analyzed transcripts to identify themes in the data. Through analyzing the transcripts of the 53 interviews, the investigators identified five themes related to why women choose careers in academic medicine: fit, aspects of the academic health center environment, people, exposure, and clinical medicine. They identified five themes related to how women make the decision to enter academic medicine: change in specialty, dissatisfaction with former career, emotionality, parental influence, and decision-making styles. The authors also identified four themes regarding when women decide to enter academic medicine: as a practicing physician, fellow, resident, or medical student. Choosing a career in academic medicine is greatly influenced by the environment in which one trains and by people-be they faculty, mentors, role models, or family. An interest in teaching is a primary reason women choose a career in academic medicine. Many women physicians entering academic medicine chose to do so after or during fellowship, which is when they became more aware of academic medicine as a possible career. For many women, choosing academic medicine was not necessarily an active, planned decision; rather, it was serendipitous or circumstantial.

  18. Herbal Medicine - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Herbal Medicine URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Herbal Medicine - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  19. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... child is taking as well as vitamins and herbal supplements and if he or she has any ... What are the limitations of Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine procedures can be time consuming. It ...

  20. Alternative and Integrative Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for e-updates Please leave this field empty Alternative & Integrative Medicine SHARE Home > Treatment and Care > Treatments Listen Alternative medicine is a term used to define therapies other ...

  1. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... MRI. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? Children's (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging ... at birth) or that develop during childhood. Physicians use nuclear medicine imaging to evaluate organ systems, including ...

  2. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... nuclear medicine procedures are able to pinpoint molecular activity within the body, they offer the potential to ... otherwise, your child may resume his/her normal activities after the nuclear medicine scan. If the child ...

  3. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... bones. liver and gallbladder. gastrointestinal tract. heart. lungs. brain. thyroid. Nuclear medicine scans are typically used to ... A radiologist or other physician who has specialized training in nuclear medicine will interpret the images and ...

  4. Images in medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-10-20

    . 1Department of Internal Medicine, General Hospital of Larissa, Larissa, Greece. &Corresponding author: Theocharis Koufakis, Department of Internal Medicine, General Hospital of Larissa, Larissa, Greece. Key words: Still´s ...

  5. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... function of the thyroid gland. top of page How does the nuclear medicine procedure work? With ordinary ... area of your child's body. top of page How is the procedure performed? Nuclear medicine imaging is ...

  6. Sports Medicine Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Allan J.

    1978-01-01

    Includes a general discussion of sports medicine including exercise and conditioning techniques, prevention of illness and injury, treatment of and rehabilitation after sports injury, and the future of sports medicine. (BB)

  7. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Because nuclear medicine procedures are able to pinpoint molecular activity within the body, they offer the potential ... or imaging device that produces pictures and provides molecular information. In many centers, nuclear medicine images can ...

  8. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of page How does the nuclear medicine procedure work? With ordinary x-ray examinations, an image is ... with other imaging techniques, such as CT or MRI. However, nuclear medicine scans are more sensitive than ...

  9. Giving Medicine to Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Articulos en Espanol Giving Medicine to Children Share Tweet ... right medicine and the right amount More in Articulos en Espanol Alimentos y Bebidas Cosméticos Dispositivos ...

  10. Doctor of osteopathic medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to practice in any specialty of medicine. However, osteopathic physicians receive an additional 300 to 500 hours in the study of hands-on manual medicine and the body's musculoskeletal system. Osteopathic physicians hold to the principle that a patient's ...

  11. Managing Your Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... workload of the heart. Antithrombotics (Anti-platelet/anti-coagulant medicines): These medicines are used to prevent blood ... preferred platform: Digi-Edition | iOS | Android | Kindle Fire | PDF Popular Articles 1 Understanding Blood Pressure Readings 2 ...

  12. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tell your doctor about your child’s recent illnesses, medical conditions, medications and allergies. Depending on the type ... Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging that uses small amounts of radioactive material ...

  13. Use Medicines Safely

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... chances of side effects from medicines by carefully following the directions on the medicine label or from your pharmacist, ... too much or don’t use them correctly. Following the directions on the Drug Facts label will lower your ...

  14. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of page What are some common uses of the procedure? Children's (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging is performed ... the thyroid gland. top of page How does the nuclear medicine procedure work? With ordinary x-ray ...

  15. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... body. jaundice in newborns and older children. epilepsy . location, anatomy and function of the thyroid gland. top ... Epilepsy Images related to Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Videos related to Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Sponsored by ...

  16. Integrative medicine or infiltrative pseudoscience?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ben; Forbes, Thomas L; Byrne, John

    2018-01-02

    Evidence-based medicine, first described in 1992, offers a clear, systematic, and scientific approach to the practice of medicine. Recently, the non-evidence-based practice of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has been increasing in the United States and around the world, particularly at medical institutions known for providing rigorous evidence-based care. The use of CAM may cause harm to patients through interactions with evidence-based medications or if patients choose to forego evidence-based care. CAM may also put financial strain on patients as most CAM expenditures are paid out-of-pocket. Despite these drawbacks, patients continue to use CAM due to media promotion of CAM therapies, dissatisfaction with conventional healthcare, and a desire for more holistic care. Given the increasing demand for CAM, many medical institutions now offer CAM services. Recently, there has been controversy surrounding the leaders of several CAM centres based at a highly respected academic medical institution, as they publicly expressed anti-vaccination views. These controversies demonstrate the non-evidence-based philosophies that run deep within CAM that are contrary to the evidence-based care that academic medical institutions should provide. Although there are financial incentives for institutions to provide CAM, it is important to recognize that this legitimizes CAM and may cause harm to patients. The poor regulation of CAM allows for the continued distribution of products and services that have not been rigorously tested for safety and efficacy. Governments in Australia and England have successfully improved regulation of CAM and can serve as a model to other countries. Copyright © 2017 Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh (Scottish charity number SC005317) and Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Boundary layer suction through rectangular orifices: effects of aspect ratio and orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Buren, T.; Smits, A. J.; Amitay, M.

    2017-07-01

    The flow field generated by suction through a rectangular orifice within a laminar boundary layer is investigated using stereoscopic particle image velocimetry. For orifice aspect ratios of 6, 12, and 18, the impact of suction on the surrounding flow field appears to be self-similar, scaling with aspect ratio and suction velocity. Changing the orifice pitch angle had almost no impact on the surrounding boundary layer, but, as expected, changing the skew angle significantly altered the extent of the suction impact on the flow field.

  18. Herbal medicines: old and new concepts, truths and misunderstandings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Carmona

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Men have been using herbal medicines for thousands of years. The advantages of this type of therapeutics include good availability, local cultural aspects, individual preferences, the increasing demand for natural and organic products, and the already validated synergistic effects of herbal medicines. However, ethically, the scope and limits of these drugs need to be established not only by ethnopharmacological evidences but also by scientific investigations, which confirm the therapeutic effects. With this study, we propose to discuss the possible advantages of using herbal medicines instead of purified compounds, the truth and myths about herbal medicines, drug discovery, and the implications for medical education and health care.

  19. Introduction to Integrative Medicine in the Primary Care Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ring, Melinda; Mahadevan, Rupa

    2017-06-01

    Integrative Medicine has been described as "healing oriented medicine that takes account of the whole person (body, mind, and spirit) including all aspects of lifestyle. It emphasizes therapeutic relationships and makes use of all appropriate therapies, both conventional and alternative." National surveys consistently report that approximately one-third of adults and 12% of children use complementary and integrative medicine approaches. Although there are barriers to primary care professionals engaging in discussions about lifestyle change and complementary and integrative medicine options, there is also great potential to impact patient well-being. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. THE MEDICINE OF YESTERDAY

    OpenAIRE

    Sforza, Mario

    2005-01-01

    This article escribes family and popular medicine in the region of the Lake Como at the time of the Second World War. It also describes new developments in herbal medicine and the vertiginous evolution of medicine in the last fifty years.

  1. Annals of African Medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Annals of African Medicine is published by the Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital, Sokoto, Nigeria and the Annals of African Medicine Society. The Journal is intended to serve as a medium for the publication of research findings in the broad field of Medicine in Africa and other developing countries, and ...

  2. Is Marijuana Medicine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home » Publications » DrugFacts » Marijuana as Medicine Marijuana as Medicine Email Facebook Twitter Revised April 2017 What is ... isn’t the marijuana plant an FDA-approved medicine? The FDA requires carefully conducted studies (clinical trials) ...

  3. Workflow in nuclear medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laet, G D; Naudts, J; Vandevivere, J

    2001-01-01

    This paper discusses a workflow management system for nuclear medicine. It augments the more conventional PACS with automatic transfer of studies along the chain of activities making up an examination in nuclear medicine. A prototype system has been designed, built, and installed in a department of nuclear medicine, active in a network of hospitals.

  4. Performing Narrative Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langellier, Kristin M.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author weaves narrative medicine and performance together to consider what might it mean to call narrative medicine a performance. To name narrative medicine as performance is to recognize the texts and bodies, the stories and selves, that participate in its practice--patients' and physicians' embodied stories as well as the…

  5. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... medicine refers to imaging examinations done in babies, young children and teenagers. Nuclear medicine imaging procedures are noninvasive ... exams at the same time. An emerging imaging technology, but not readily available at ... procedure? Children's (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging is performed to help ...

  6. [Psychosocial aspects of halitosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jongh, A; de Baat, C; Horstman, M

    2012-09-01

    Using a representative sample from the Dutch population, some psychosocial aspects of halitosis were examined. The results of the survey showed that almost 90% of the Dutch population aged 16 years and older were regularly faced with halitosis. Forty percent reported to be exposed to someone with halitosis at least once a week, men significantly more frequently than women. Although less strongly than body odour, halitosis was reported as being one of the most severe 'let-downs' in social interactions. The greater the social distance between subjects, the less likely is the chance that a person's attention will be drawn to halitosis experienced. When it comes to an unknown person, the chance was no more than 7%, suggesting that it is problematic to draw a person's attention to the presence of halitosis. Considering the potential social consequences of halitosis is it important that dentists and dental hygienists draw patients' attention to the presence of halitosis, when this is the case, thereby encouraging them to seek adequate treatment.

  7. Strategic Aspects of Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Edward; Hammerstein, Peter; Hess, Nicole

    Rarely do human behavioral scientists and scholars study language, music, and other forms of communication as strategies—a means to some end. Some even deny that communication is the primary function of these phenomena. Here we draw upon selections of our earlier work to briefly define the strategy concept and sketch how decision theory, developed to explain the behavior of rational actors, is applied to evolved agents. Communication can then be interpreted as a strategy that advances the "fitness interests" of such agents. When this perspective is applied to agents with conflicts of interest, deception emerges as an important aspect of communication. We briefly review costly signaling, one solution to the problem of honest communication among agents with conflicts of interest. We also explore the subversion of cooperative signals by parasites and by plants defending themselves against herbivores, and we touch on biases in human gossip. Experiments with artificial embodied and communicating agents confirm that when there are conflicts of interest among agents, deception readily evolves. Finally, we consider signaling among super-organisms and the possible implications for understanding human music and language.

  8. Electrical aspects of rainout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenkilde, C.E.

    1981-11-23

    Rainout commonly denotes the aggregate of phenomena associated with precipitation scavenging of radioactivity from a cloud of nuclear debris that is within a natural rain cloud. (In contrast, the term, washout, is applicable when the nuclear cloud is below the rain cloud and the term, fallout, commonly denotes the direct gravitational settling of contaminated solid material from a nuclear cloud.) Nuclear debris aerosols may be scavenged within natural clouds by a variety of different physical processes which may involve diffusion, convection, impaction, nucleation, phoresis, turbulence, and/or electricity among others. Processes which involve electrical aspects are scrutinized for their susceptibility to the intimate presence of the radioactive-cloud environment. This particular choice of electrical processes is not accidental. Nearly all of the listed processes were examined earlier by Williams. His rough estimates suggested that electrical effects, and to a lesser extent turbulence, could enhance the scavenging of those submicron aerosols which reside in the size-range that bridges the minimum in the scavenging rate coefficient which is commonly called the Greenfield gap. This minimum in the scavenging-rate coefficient is created by the simultaneous reduction of scavenging via diffusion and the reduction of scavenging via inertial impaction. However, Williams omitted the specific influence of a radioactive environment. This report aims to remedy this omission.

  9. HISTORICAL ASPECTS OF PHALLOPLASTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. Kyzlasov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Reconstruction of the penis in transgender operations, amputation of the penis, congenital deformities and anomalies of the penis was and remains today an important issue in plastic surgery of the urogenital region. The only method to restore the penis is phalloplasty. In general, over the past decades, generations of clinicians have different ways and flaps for total fallouretheral reconstruction. Thus was formulated the characteristics of an ideal flap for the formation of neophallos, which should be safe, sensitive, without hair, and with long leg. However, despite the fact that the characteristics of a perfect flap, nowadays there is no “gold standard” in the formation of neophallos, as phalloplasty is a fairly complicated surgery, and the choice of method depends on many factors. The choice of methodology is determined by the plastics surgeon and to each patient is individual, depends on the etiology of the disease and the possibility of choosing the form of the donor’s transplant. This article presents a literature review devoted to the historical aspects of phalloplasty. In the article, in chronological order reflected the evolution of the different forming methods neofallos, phallourethrоplasty, describes their advantages and disadvantages.

  10. Applied aspects of chronoergohygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffuri, E; Costa, G

    1986-01-01

    Chronoergohygiene defines a field of study set on optimizing the work timing compared to the desiderata of human physiology in order to improve the working conditions. Production systems follow their own laws with a timing resulting from economic, technological and natural factors; this timing could contrast with che chronological variables of the person 'involved'. Important aspects to be considered in this regard concern: a energy expense and nutrition, in relation to the mechanization and automation of the working tasks, sociocultural models, individual behaviors in eating habits; b. work performance, with particular reference to the modifications during the life-span and the rhythmic variations in the circadian period; c. toxicologic risks, considering problems of chronokinetics of the toxic agent and of 'chronoesthesia' of the body functions and apparatuses; d. work and social organization, with special reference to shift work, work pace and commuting. The research for a dynamic evaluation of the human-machine interaction in time and into forms of chronological compatibility between man and work organization should optimize industrial hygiene.

  11. Psychiatric Aspects of Infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hacer Sezgin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Infertility can be defined as a crisis with cultural, religious, and class related aspects, which coexists with medical, psychiatric, psychological, and social problems. Relation between psychiatric and psychological factors stem from a mutual interaction of both. Family is an important institution in maintaining human existence and raising individuals in line with society's expectations. Fertility and reproduction are seen as universal functions unique to women with raising children as the expected result of the family institution. Incidence of infertility has increased recently and can become a life crisis for a couple. Even though not being able to have a child affects both sexes emotionally, women feel greater amounts of stress, pressure, anxiety, and depression.Consequences of infertility arise from short and long-term devastating effects on both individual's physical and mental health, and marital system. Many studies focus on infertility related psychological and psychiatric disorders (depression, anxiety, grief, marital conflict, gender differences, relation between the causes of infertility and psychopathology, the effects of psychiatric evaluation and intervention -when necessaryon the course of infertility treatment, pregnancy rates, and childbirth. The most important underlying causes of high levels of stress and anxiety that infertile women experience are the loss of maternity, reproduction, sense of self, and genetic continuity. In this review article is to investigate the relationship between medically unexplained symptoms and psychiatric symptoms. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(2.000: 165-185

  12. Gestational surrogacy: Psychosocial aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás Ruiz-Robledillo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Innovation in assisted reproductive technologies together with increased infertility and new family structures are increasing the use of gestational surrogacy as a means to have children. Before, during and after the process, it is necessary to study the psychosocial characteristics of triad members: the gestational surrogate, intended parents, and offspring. Research has indicated positive adaptation to the process and benefits for all members of the triad. Altruism is the main motivation of surrogates. Notably, psychological well-being has been found to be higher in individuals who have become parents through surrogacy than in those who have used egg donation or have followed a natural process of conception. Moreover, no differences in psychosocial characteristics have been observed in the offspring, compared with children born through natural conception or egg donation. Results highlight the positive aspects of surrogacy. Future research should investigate psychosocial factors that modulate the process, acting as risk and protective factors for well-being of the triad members, and identify the optimal profiles of surrogates for the process to be a success.

  13. Cultural aspects of suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharajh, Hari D; Abdool, Petal S

    2005-09-08

    Undefined cultural factors cannot be dismissed and significantly contribute to the worldwide incidence of death by suicide. Culture is an all embracing term and defines the relationship of an individual to his environment. This study seeks to investigate the effect of culture on suicide both regionally and internationally. Culture-bound syndrome with suicidal behaviours specific to a particular culture or geographical region are discussed. Opinions are divided as to the status of religious martyrs. The law itself is silent on many aspects of suicidal behaviour and despite decriminalization of suicide as self-murder, the latter remains on the statutes of many developing countries. The Caribbean region is of concern due to its steady rise in mean suicide rate, especially in Trinidad and Tobago where socio-cultural factors are instrumental in influencing suicidal behaviour. These include transgenerational cultural conflicts, psycho-social problems, media exposure, unemployment, social distress, religion and family structure. The methods used are attributed to accessibility and lethality. Ingestion of poisonous substances is most popular followed by hanging. The gender differences seen with regard to suicidality can also be attributed to gender related psychopathology and psychosocial differences in help-seeking behaviour. These are influenced by the cultural environment to which the individual is exposed. Culture provides coping strategies to individuals; as civilization advances many of these coping mechanisms are lost unclothing the genetic predisposition of vulnerable groups. In the management of suicidal behaviour, a system of therapeutic re-culturation is needed with an emphasis on relevant culture- based therapies.

  14. Study and Application on Stability Classification of Tunnel Surrounding Rock Based on Uncertainty Measure Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hujun He

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on uncertainty measure theory, a stability classification and order-arranging model of surrounding rock was established. Considering the practical engineering geologic condition, 5 factors that influence surrounding rock stability were taken into account and uncertainty measure function was obtained based on the in situ data. In this model, uncertainty influence factors were analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively based on the real situation; the weight of index was given based on information entropy theory; surrounding rock stability level was judged based on credible degree recognition criterion; and surrounding rock was ordered based on order-arranging criterion. Furthermore, this model was employed to evaluate 5 sections surrounding rock in Dongshan tunnel of Huainan. The results show that uncertainty measure method is reasonable and can have significance for surrounding rock stability evaluation in the future.

  15. Impact of medicine-related information on medicine purchase and use by literate consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thawani, Vijay R; Gharpure, Kunda J; Sontakke, Smita D

    2014-01-01

    To measure impact of information, education, and communication intervention (IEC) on rational medicine use, purchase, and stocking behavior. This was a pre- and post-design, interventional study. Base data were collected in first visit, using pre tested questionnaire from 500 respondents, who were of either gender, English speaking, at least graduates, permanent residents, and willing to participate. IEC was framed based on problems identified from this data. First intervention was handouts distributed in the second visit, containing information on cost saving in medicine purchase. Second intervention was a lecture session on medicine prices, rational use of medicines, and tips on saving on medicine purchase. Five articles about medicine use and price differences were published in the local newspaper, over 10 days, formed third intervention. After 1 month, post-intervention data was collected using same instrument with some additional questions. Results were analyzed by Chi-square test using Graph Pad prism Version 3.0. Awareness about price variation, self-medication, expiry period, generic and brand quality increased post-intervention. Attitudes toward new, costly, brands, injections, sharing and reusing old prescriptions changed post-intervention. Behavioral changes in stocking habits, adherence to doctors' advice, getting cash memo, comparing prices, reading labels, were seen post-intervention. People carry false notions about medicines which influence their use and habits. This intervention successfully changed behavior and could bring awareness on many aspects of medicine use.

  16. Mind-Body Medicine Practices in Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Visitor Information RePORT NIH Fact Sheets Home > Mind-Body Medicine Practices in Complementary and Alternative Medicine Small Text Medium Text Large Text Mind-Body Medicine Practices in Complementary and Alternative Medicine YESTERDAY ...

  17. [Mind-body medicine as a part of German integrative medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobos, G; Altner, N; Lange, S; Musial, F; Langhorst, J; Michalsen, A; Paul, A

    2006-08-01

    Mind-body medicine (MBM) as a holistic approach to health and healing has been shaped by research into stress physiology and stress psychology, by psychoneuro(endocrino)immunology and by Antonovsky's salutogenetic paradigm. MBM seeks to acknowledge physical, psychological as well as social and spiritual aspects of human beings. MBM constitutes one of the traditions, which the emerging field of integrative medicine in Germany draws upon, others being mainstream medicine, traditional European naturopathy and non-European methods like traditional Chinese medicine. The article outlines historical aspects of MBM, gives a brief review of research evidence, and introduces clinical MBM institutes in Germany. Especially the Clinic and Chair of Complementary and Integrative Medicine, Alfried Krupp von Bohlen und Halbach Foundation at the University Duisburg-Essen has been integrating MBM into the concept of integrative medicine. Considering that a growing number of health issues arises due to maladaptive lifestyles, MBM is being identified as a development that supports a shift from increasingly expensive treatments to more cost-effective preventive approaches.

  18. Business aspects and sustainability for healthgrids - an expert survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Stefan; Semler, Sebastian C; Breitner, Michael H

    2009-01-01

    Grid computing initiatives in medicine and life sciences are under pressure to prove their sustainability. While some first business model frameworks were outlined, few practical experiences were considered. This gap has been narrowed by an international survey of 33 grid computing experts with biomedical and non-biomedical background on business aspects. The experts surveyed were cautiously optimistic about a sustainable implementation of grid computing within a mid term timeline. They identified marketable application areas, stated the underlying value proposition, outlined trends and specify critical success factors. From a general perspective of their answers, they provided a stable basis for a road map of sustainable grid computing solutions for medicine and life sciences.

  19. The historic and national aspects of medical ethics and deontology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prikhoda Igor' Viktorovich

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Researches of problems of medical ethics and deontology in activity of the medical worker presented. Historical and national aspects of the delivered problem are considered. They open diversity and complexity of realization of problems of formation of the person of the medical worker. The humanism in medicine makes its ethical basis and morals. The humanism serves moral development of the person of the medical worker. Without humanism the medicine loses the right on existence. Its scientific and professional principles conflict to its basic purpose - to serve the person.

  20. Medicinal cannabis: moving the debate forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton-Howes, Giles; McBride, Sam

    2016-11-18

    There has been increased interest in cannabis as a medicine both nationally and internationally. Internationally, cannabis is accepted as a medication for a variety of purposes in a variety of legal guises and this, associated with anecdotes of the utility of cannabis as medication has led for calls for it to be 'medicalised' in New Zealand. This viewpoint discusses the issues associated with this approach to accessing cannabis and some of the difficulties that may be associated with it. It is important doctors are at the forefront of the debate surrounding medicalised cannabis. Recommendations as to the ongoing debate are offered.

  1. INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION: PSYCHOLINGUISTIC ASPECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitrofanova, I.I.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article considers language as the organization of the speech of any person in any situation, without which it is impossible to characterize the internal structure of the speech stream. Language is exactly a system of guidelines necessary for the activity in the social world. Communication is primarily nothing but as a way of making one or another correction in the image of the interlocutor’s world. In order for a language to serve as a means of communication, it must have a single or a similar understanding of reality behind it. Conversely, the unity of understanding the reality and the unity of coherence presuppose the possibility of adequate communication. A mandatory component of communication is the communicative act, that is, the act of sharing information between people. The speech, i.e. the natural sound language is an important means of conveying information that defines this aspect of the communication process as verbal communication. The idea of dialogue as the space, in which the exchange of information takes place, is defined as initial. Essentially, it is the dialogue that in this case acts as the backbone principle in dealing with problems of language. It is here that the essence of social and psychological transition to the analysis of communication is most visibly concentrated. An individual essentially "lives" in the world of Another person’s worlds, and studying the words of this person, he or she studies the "world" of Another person. Thus, the dialogue is not merely the interaction (verbal with another person, but, ultimately, the interaction with the world of culture.

  2. Cultural Aspects of Suicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari D. Maharajh

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Undefined cultural factors cannot be dismissed and significantly contribute to the worldwide incidence of death by suicide. Culture is an all embracing term and defines the relationship of an individual to his environment. This study seeks to investigate the effect of culture on suicide both regionally and internationally. Culture-bound syndrome with suicidal behaviours specific to a particular culture or geographical region are discussed. Opinions are divided as to the status of religious martyrs. The law itself is silent on many aspects of suicidal behaviour and despite decriminalization of suicide as self-murder, the latter remains on the statutes of many developing countries. The Caribbean region is of concern due to its steady rise in mean suicide rate, especially in Trinidad and Tobago where socio-cultural factors are instrumental in influencing suicidal behaviour. These include transgenerational cultural conflicts, psycho-social problems, media exposure, unemployment, social distress, religion and family structure. The methods used are attributed to accessibility and lethality. Ingestion of poisonous substances is most popular followed by hanging. The gender differences seen with regard to suicidality can also be attributed to gender related psychopathology and psychosocial differences in help-seeking behaviour. These are influenced by the cultural environment to which the individual is exposed. Culture provides coping strategies to individuals; as civilization advances many of these coping mechanisms are lost unclothing the genetic predisposition of vulnerable groups. In the management of suicidal behaviour, a system of therapeutic re-culturation is needed with an emphasis on relevant culture- based therapies.

  3. Understanding Community-Based Rehabilitation and the role of physical and rehabilitation medicine: a discussion paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seijas, Vanessa; Lugo, Luz H; Cano, Blanca; Escobar, Luz M; Quintero, Carlos; Nugraha, Boya; Gutenbrunner, Christoph

    2016-12-19

    Community Based Rehabilitation (CBR) is an accepted model to improve the delivery of rehabilitation in the community. It includes the access to health care, education, labor and accessible environments. The role of Specialists in Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine in this strategy (SPRM) is not very well defined. On the occasion of the international consultation for the WHO Action Plan for persons with disabilities, a discussion about the meaning of CBR and the role of SPRM on CBR has occurred among the International Society of Physical and Rehabilitation medicine (ISPRM) members. The following major questions were identified; what is CBR? What is the role of Specialists in Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (SPMR) in CBR? A review of the literature and a discussion among experts was held to answer these questions. It is of major importance to distinguish between the two concepts of CBR: The first one is the policy or management strategy of CBR that was developed by WHO about 30 years ago. The second one is the provision of basic rehabilitation services offered at the community level. CBR strategy must also addresses the need for optimal access to specialized rehabilitation services and will have a key role in the design and building of so-called "Basic Rehabilitation Services". The authors proposed a scheme, which integrates all relevant aspects surrounding the concept of CBR; levels of care rehabilitation services and the roles proposed for SPRM. In addition, the convention for the rights of persons with disabilities and the conceptual framework of the ICF was taken into account.

  4. Comparison of Socioeconomic Factors between Surrounding and Non-Surrounding Areas of the Qinghai–Tibet Railway before and after Its Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shicheng Li

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available As the world’s highest railway, and the longest highland railway, the Qinghai–Tibet Railway (QTR has been paid considerable attention by researchers. However, most attention has been paid to the ecological and environmental issues affecting it, and sustainable ecological, social, and economic development-related studies of the QTR are rare. In this study, by analyzing the passenger traffic, freight traffic, passenger-kilometers, and freight-kilometers of the QTR for the period 1982–2013 and the transport structure of the Tibetan Plateau (TP for 1990–2013, the evolutionary process of the transport system in the TP following the construction of the QTR has been revealed. Subsequently, by comparing Gross Domestic Product (GDP, population, industrial structure, and urbanization level at the county and 1 km scales between surrounding and non-surrounding areas of the QTR, the differences in socioeconomic performance before and after its construction were detected. The results show that (1 in the TP, the highway-dominated transport system will break up and an integrated and sustainable transport system will form; (2 at the county scale, the annual growth rates of GDP of counties surrounding the QTR were greater than those of non-surrounding counties for the period 2000–2010. At the 1 km scale, following the opening of the completed line, the GDP of surrounding areas had a greater growth rate than before; (3 analysis at the county and 1 km scales indicated that population was not aggregated into the surrounding areas of the QTR in the period 2000–2010; (4 in terms of industrial structure, the proportion of primary industry decreased continuously, while the proportion of secondary and tertiary industries increased overall in the period 1984–2012. The QTR had no obvious impact on changes in the urbanization level of its surrounding areas.

  5. Catalogue of knowledge and skills for sleep medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penzel, Thomas; Pevernagie, Dirk; Dogas, Zoran; Grote, Ludger; de Lacy, Simone; Rodenbeck, Andrea; Bassetti, Claudio; Berg, Søren; Cirignotta, Fabio; d'Ortho, Marie-Pia; Garcia-Borreguero, Diego; Levy, Patrick; Nobili, Lino; Paiva, Teresa; Peigneux, Philippe; Pollmächer, Thomas; Riemann, Dieter; Skene, Debra J; Zucconi, Marco; Espie, Colin

    2014-04-01

    Sleep medicine is evolving globally into a medical subspeciality in its own right, and in parallel, behavioural sleep medicine and sleep technology are expanding rapidly. Educational programmes are being implemented at different levels in many European countries. However, these programmes would benefit from a common, interdisciplinary curriculum. This 'catalogue of knowledge and skills' for sleep medicine is proposed, therefore, as a template for developing more standardized curricula across Europe. The Board and The Sleep Medicine Committee of the European Sleep Research Society (ESRS) have compiled the catalogue based on textbooks, standard of practice publications, systematic reviews and professional experience, validated subsequently by an online survey completed by 110 delegates specialized in sleep medicine from different European countries. The catalogue comprises 10 chapters covering physiology, pathology, diagnostic and treatment procedures to societal and organizational aspects of sleep medicine. Required levels of knowledge and skills are defined, as is a proposed workload of 60 points according to the European Credit Transfer System (ECTS). The catalogue is intended to be a basis for sleep medicine education, for sleep medicine courses and for sleep medicine examinations, serving not only physicians with a medical speciality degree, but also PhD and MSc health professionals such as clinical psychologists and scientists, technologists and nurses, all of whom may be involved professionally in sleep medicine. In the future, the catalogue will be revised in accordance with advances in the field of sleep medicine. © 2013 European Sleep Research Society.

  6. Is propolis safe as an alternative medicine?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Graça Miguel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Propolis is a resinous substance produced by honeybees as defense against intruders. It has relevant therapeutic properties that have been used since ancient times. Nowadays, propolis is of increasing importance as a therapeutic, alone or included in many medicines and homeopathic products or in cosmetics. Propolis is produced worldwide and honeybees use the flora surrounding their beehives for its production. Therefore its chemical composition may change according to the flora. The phenolic and volatile fractions of propolis have been revised in the present study, as well as some of the biological properties attributed to this natural product. An alert is given about the need to standardize this product, with quality control. This has already been initiated by some authors, mainly in the propolis from the poplar-type. Only this product can constitute a good complementary and alternative medicine under internationally acceptable quality control.

  7. Issues surrounding the administration of a credit course for medical students: survey of US academic health sciences librarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jolene Michelle

    2004-07-01

    For librarians developing a credit course for medical students, the process often involves trial and error. This project identified issues surrounding the administration of a credit course, so that librarians nationally can rely more upon shared knowledge of common practices and less upon trial and error. A questionnaire was sent to the education services librarian at each medical school listed in the 2000 AAMC Data Book. A second questionnaire was sent to those librarians who did not return the first one. Of the 125 librarians surveyed, 82 returned the questionnaire. Of those 82, only 11 offered a credit course for medical students, though 19 more were in the process of developing one. Data were gathered on the following aspects of course administration: credit course offerings, course listing, information learned to administer the course, costs associated with the course, relationships with other departments on campus, preparation for teaching and grading, and evaluation of the course. Because of small number of respondents offering a credit course and institutional variations, making generalizations about issues surrounding the administration of a credit course is difficult. The article closes with a list of recommendations for librarians planning to develop a course.

  8. Emotional aspects of infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibel, M M; Taymor, M L

    1982-02-01

    The psychologic aspects of infertility in men and women are reviewed, neuroendocrinologic factors thought to affect reproduction physiologically are described, and awareness of the stresses that infertility places on a couple's relationship is encouraged. Studies have found infertile women to be more neurotic, dependent, and anxious than fertile women, experiencing conflict over their femininity and fear associated with reproduction. In contrast to these reports, a double blind study could not determine the difference in the psychologic makeup of women who were infertile because of demonstrated somatic causes and those women in whom no somatic cause could be found and who were considered infertile on an emotional etiologic basis. Other studies have similarly come to negative conclusions regarding the relationship between psychologic factors and infertility. The 1st set of studies failed to consider the stress that infertility itself places on the couple. Emotional factors may negatively affect fertility in the male. Up to 10% of infertile males have had improvement in their semen analysis after cessation of all treatment for a prolonged period of time. The concept that emotional stress might lead to oligospermia was further supported in a report describing testicular biopsies obtained from men awaiting sentencing after raping and impregnating women. A more obvious effect of the emotional stress infertility places on the male is the occurrence of impotence. It has been estimated that up to 10% of infertilty may be partially or completely explained on the basis of male sexual dysfunction. The gradual unraveling of the complexities of neuroendocrinology have permitted increased understanding of the role that stress might play in infertility. Catecholamines, prolactin, adrenal steroids, endorphins, and serotonin all affect ovulation and in turn are all affected by stress. Such stress might result from infertility or habitual abortion. Infertility is frequently

  9. [Medical aspects of fasting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrankapetanović, F

    1997-01-01

    Fasting (arabic-savm) was proclaimed through islam, and thus it is an obligation for Holly Prophet Muhammad s.a.v.s.-Peace be to Him-in the second year after Hijra (in 624 after Milad-born of Isa a.s.). There is a month of fasting-Ramadan-each lunar (hijra) year. So, it was 1415th fasting this year. Former Prophets have brought obligative messages on fasting to their people; so there are also certain forms of fasting with other religions i.e. with Catholics, Jews, Orthodox. These kinds of fasting above differ from muslim fasting, but they also appear obligative. All revelations have brought fasting as obligative. From medical point of view, fasting has two basical components: psychical and physical. Psychical sphere correlate closely with its fundamental ideological message. Allah dz.s. says in Quran: "... Fasting is obligative for you, as it was obligative to your precedents, as to avoid sins; during very few days (II, II, 183 & 184)." Will strength, control of passions, effort and self-discipline makes a pure faithfull person, who purify its mind and body through fasting. Thinking about The Creator is more intensive, character is more solid; and spirit and will get stronger. We will mention the hadith saying: "Essaihune humus saimun!" That means: "Travellers at the Earth are fasters (of my ummet)." The commentary of this hadith, in the Collection of 1001 hadiths (Bin bir hadis), number 485, says: "There are no travelling dervishs or monks in islam; thus there is no such a kind of relligousity in islam. In stead, it is changed by fasting and constant attending of mosque. That was proclaimed as obligation, although there were few cases of travelling in the name of relligousity, like travelling dervishs and sheichs." In this paper, the author discusses medical aspects of fasting and its positive characteristics in the respect of healthy life style and prevention of many sicks. The author mentions positive influence of fasting to certain system and organs of human

  10. Neuro magnetic stimulation: Engineering aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mutawaly, Nafia

    . The motor responses of the thenar muscle were then recorded. The study results show that the biphasic stimulating pulse is more effective than the monophasic pulse, as has been concluded by other researchers. However, the effective stimulating point, or virtual cathode of the coil, was found to be not simply 3 to 4 cm from the coil center as had been reported. In fact, the study shows that the site of the virtual cathode is affected by the current amplitude and the degree of inhomogeneity of the tissues surrounding the nerve. Furthermore, reversing the coil current direction results in a different level of stimulation but does not affect the virtual cathode position. In summary, the research presented in this thesis covers theoretical concepts, experimental aspects, and human studies related to neuro magnetic stimulation. The results of the experiment and the study are consistent with the theoretical analysis. The proposed coil design is novel and offers promise for a better coil system for magnetic nerve stimulation. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  11. [Ethical aspects of forensic psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muysers, Jutta

    2014-07-01

    Ethical aspects of forensic psychiatry disclose a tension between complementary and conflicting issues. The field of tension extends from offenders and their criminal offence to experts, therapists and conditions of inpatient treatment. In addition, there are legal and political aspects as well as aspects concerning the public, the victims and their next of kins and finally the media. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Lanthanide luminescence. Photophysical, analytical and biological aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haenninen, Pekka; Haermae, Harri (eds.) [Turku Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Cell Biology and Anatomy

    2011-07-01

    Lanthanides have fascinated scientists for more than two centuries now, and since efficient separation techniques were established roughly 50 years ago, they have increasingly found their way into industrial exploitation and our everyday lives. Numerous applications are based on their unique luminescent properties, which are highlighted in this volume. It presents established knowledge about the photophysical basics, relevant lanthanide probes or materials, and describes instrumentation-related aspects including chemical and physical sensors. The uses of lanthanides in bioanalysis and medicine are outlined, such as assays for in vitro diagnostics and research. All chapters were compiled by renowned scientists with a broad audience in mind, providing both beginners in the field and advanced researchers with comprehensive information on on the given subject. (orig.)

  13. The Prediabetic Period: Review of Clinical Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Youl Rhee

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Hyperglycemia that does not satisfy the diagnostic criteria for diabetes mellitus (DM is generally called prediabetes (preDM. The global prevalence of preDM has been increasing progressively in the past few decades, and it has been established that preDM status is a strong risk factor for DM and cardiovascular disease. Currently, preDM status is classified into two subtypes: impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance. Currently, preDM is not regarded as an independent clinical entity, but only as a risk factor for others. In this article, we review various clinical aspects of preDM in terms of the working definition, changes in criteria over the years, epidemiology, and pathophysiological characteristics, and its clinical significance in current medicine.

  14. [Three aspects of the medical ethos].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraga, Michael; Marion-Veyron, Régis; Stiefel, Friedrich; Bourquin, Céline

    2016-02-10

    For many years, a major focus of interest has been the patient, in the context of a constantly changing society and increasingly complex medical practices. We propose to shift this focus on the physician, who is entangled in a similar, but less evident way. In these three articles, we explore, in succession, the lived experience of the contemporary physician, the ethos which brings together the medical community, and the education of the future physician, using research projects currently under way within the Service of Liaison Psychiatry at Lausanne University Hospital. Here, we describe three aspects of the medical ethos shaping medicine and the physicians: pragmatism, scientific rationality, and the individualistic embodiment of clinical practice.

  15. A parallel curriculum in lifestyle medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pojednic, Rachele; Frates, Elizabeth

    2017-02-01

    Less than 50 per cent of US primary care doctors routinely provide guidance to their patients on lifestyle behaviours such as diet, physical activity or weight control, despite the prediction by the World Health Organization that by 2020, two-thirds of disease worldwide will be the result of poor lifestyle choices. This gap in patient-clinician dialogue is perhaps the result of a lack of structured training in medical school surrounding the components of lifestyle medicine. Although Harvard Medical School does have a required course in nutrition, there are no requirements for the other components of lifestyle medicine, including physical activity, behaviour change and self-care. Since 2009 Harvard Medical School has addressed this absence in the curriculum by developing a student-led, faculty member-advised, parallel curriculum in lifestyle medicine. Medical student participants were invited to take part in anonymous questionnaires between 2009 and 2013, which gathered data about personal ability and attitude in counselling patients on lifestyle behaviours, as well as subjective data on the curriculum content and applications to effective medical practice. Less than 50 per cent of US primary care doctors routinely provide guidance to their patients on lifestyle behaviours IMPLICATION: Each year, students have pointed to a lack of lifestyle medicine knowledge because of a gap in the traditional curriculum surrounding topics such as physical activity, nutrition and behaviour-change strategies, and indicated that the inclusion of this knowledge and these skills was an important component of medical education. Although participation is currently voluntary, this is the first such curriculum of this type and addresses a critical gap in undergraduate medical education. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Quality criteria for electronic publications in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, S; Auhuber, T; Schrader, U; Klar, R

    1998-01-01

    This paper defines "electronic publications in medicine (EPM)" as computer based training programs, databases, knowledge-based systems, multimedia applications and electronic books running on standard platforms and available by usual distribution channels. A detailed catalogue of quality criteria as a basis for development and evaluation of EPMs is presented. The necessity to raise the quality level of electronic publications is stressed considering aspects of domain knowledge, software engineering, media development, interface design and didactics.

  17. Current Genetic Testing Tools in Neonatal Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Lalani, Seema R.

    2017-01-01

    With the growing understanding of the magnitude of genetic diseases in newborns and equally rapid advancement of tools used for genetic diagnoses, healthcare providers must have a sufficient knowledge base to both recognize and evaluate genetic diseases in the neonatal period. Genetic assessment has become an essential aspect of medicine, and professionals need to know when genetic evaluation is indispensable. Much progress has been made in recent years in utilizing massively parallel sequenc...

  18. Personalized Medicine and Human Genetic Diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Yi-Fan; Goldstein, David B.; Angrist, Misha; Cavalleri, Gianpiero

    2014-01-01

    Human genetic diversity has long been studied both to understand how genetic variation influences risk of disease and infer aspects of human evolutionary history. In this article, we review historical and contemporary views of human genetic diversity, the rare and common mutations implicated in human disease susceptibility, and the relevance of genetic diversity to personalized medicine. First, we describe the development of thought about diversity through the 20th century and through more mo...

  19. Extended family medicine training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, Steve; Ross, Shelley; Lawrence, Kathrine; Archibald, Douglas; Mackay, Maria Palacios; Oandasan, Ivy F.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To examine trends in family medicine training at a time when substantial pedagogic change is under way, focusing on factors that relate to extended family medicine training. Design Aggregate-level secondary data analysis based on the Canadian Post-MD Education Registry. Setting Canada. Participants All Canadian citizens and permanent residents who were registered in postgraduate family medicine training programs within Canadian faculties of medicine from 1995 to 2013. Main outcome measures Number and proportion of family medicine residents exiting 2-year and extended (third-year and above) family medicine training programs, as well as the types and numbers of extended training programs offered in 2015. Results The proportion of family medicine trainees pursuing extended training almost doubled during the study period, going from 10.9% in 1995 to 21.1% in 2013. Men and Canadian medical graduates were more likely to take extended family medicine training. Among the 5 most recent family medicine exit cohorts (from 2009 to 2013), 25.9% of men completed extended training programs compared with 18.3% of women, and 23.1% of Canadian medical graduates completed extended training compared with 13.6% of international medical graduates. Family medicine programs vary substantially with respect to the proportion of their trainees who undertake extended training, ranging from a low of 12.3% to a high of 35.1% among trainees exiting from 2011 to 2013. Conclusion New initiatives, such as the Triple C Competency-based Curriculum, CanMEDS–Family Medicine, and Certificates of Added Competence, have emerged as part of family medicine education and credentialing. In acknowledgment of the potential effect of these initiatives, it is important that future research examine how pedagogic change and, in particular, extended training shapes the care family physicians offer their patients. As part of that research it will be important to measure the breadth and uptake of

  20. Stoichiometry of Calcium Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Gabriel

    2005-01-01

    The topic of calcium supplement and its effects on human lives is presented in the way of questions to the students. It enables the students to realize the relevance of chemistry outside the classroom surrounding.

  1. The Effect of Integrated Hearing Protection Surround Levels on Sound Localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Carmichael, E.L., Harris, F.P., Story, B.H.: Effects of binaural electronic hearing protectors on localization and response time to sounds in the horizontal...The effect of integrated hearing protection surround levels on sound localization Sharon M. Abel, Craig Burrell, Douglas...The effect of integrated hearing protection surround levels on sound localization Sharon M. Abel, Craig

  2. 75 FR 82407 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Testing Successful Health Communications Surrounding...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-30

    ... Successful Health Communications Surrounding Aging-Related Issues From the National Institute on Aging (NIA... number. Proposed Collection: Title: Testing successful health communications surrounding aging-related.../development of health messages and communications strategies; Pre-test health messages and outreach strategies...

  3. 3DCRT for posterior fossa: Sparing of surrounding organs at risk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... adequate coverage of the target volume while sparing of the cochlea and other surrounding organs at risk (OARs) at same time inevitable. Aim of the work: To compare the coverage of posterior fossa and the dose to surrounding OARs including non-posterior fossa brain, pituitary, cochlea, eyes, optic nerves, optic chiasm, ...

  4. Surround modulation characteristics of local field potential and spiking activity in primary visual cortex of cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Li, Bing

    2013-01-01

    In primary visual cortex, spiking activity that evoked by stimulus confined in receptive field can be modulated by surround stimulus. This center-surround interaction is hypothesized to be the basis of visual feature integration and segregation. Spiking output has been extensively reported to be surround suppressive. However, less is known about the modulation properties of the local field potential (LFP), which generally reflects synaptic inputs. We simultaneously recorded spiking activity and LFP in the area 17 of anesthetized cats to examine and compare their modulation characteristics. When the stimulus went beyond the classical receptive field, LFP exhibited decreased power along the gamma band (30-100 Hz) in most of our recording sites. Further investigation revealed that suppression of the LFP gamma mean power (gLFP) depended on the angle between the center and surround orientations. The strongest suppression was induced when center and surround orientations were parallel. Moreover, the surround influence of the gLFP exhibited an asymmetric spatial organization. These results demonstrate that the gLFP has similar but not identical surround modulation properties, as compared to the spiking activity. The spatiotemporal integration of LFP implies that the oscillation and synchronization of local synaptic inputs may have important functions in surround modulation.

  5. Different surrounding landscapes may result in different fish assemblages in East African seagrass beds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorenbosch, M.; Grol, M.G.G.; Nagelkerken, I.; Velde, G. van der

    2006-01-01

    Few studies have considered how seagrass fish assemblages are influenced by surrounding habitats. This information is needed for a better understanding of the connectivity between tropical coastal ecosystems. To study the effects of surrounding habitats on the composition, diversity and densities of

  6. Varieties of Quest and the Religious Openness Hypothesis within Religious Fundamentalist and Biblical Foundationalist Ideological Surrounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Watson

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available According to the Religious Openness Hypothesis, the religious and psychological openness of American Christians is obscured by a defensive ghettoization of thought associated with a Religious Fundamentalist Ideological Surround and can be discovered instead within a Biblical Foundationalist Ideological Surround. A test of this claim examined Religious Fundamentalism, Biblical Foundationalism, Quest, and Multidimensional Quest Scales in 432 undergraduates. Christian Religious Reflection, Religious Schema, and Religious Orientation measures clarified these two ideological surrounds. Partial correlations controlling for Biblical Foundationalism described a Religious Fundamentalist Ideological Surround that more strongly rejected Quest and that more generally displayed a failure to integrate faith with intellect. Partial correlations controlling for Religious Fundamentalism revealed a Biblical Foundationalist Ideological Surround that was more open to Quest and that offered numerous demonstrations of an ability to unite faith with intellect. These data supplemented previous investigations in demonstrating that Christianity and other traditional religions have ideological resources for promoting a faithful intellect.

  7. Heart Palpitation From Traditional and Modern Medicine Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ershadifar, Tabassom; Minaiee, Bagher; Gharooni, Manouchehr; Isfahani, Mohammad Mahdi; Nikbakht Nasrabadi, Alireza; Nazem, Esmaiel; Gousheguir, Ashraf Aldin; Kazemi Saleh, Davod

    2014-01-01

    Background: Palpitation is a sign of a disease and is very common in general population. For this purpose we decided to explain it in this study. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to describe the palpitation in both modern and traditional medicine aspect. It may help us to diagnose and cure better because the traditional medicine view is holistic and different from modern medicine. Materials and Methods: We addressed some descriptions to the articles of traditional medicine subjects which have published recently. Palpitation in modern medicine was extracted from medical books such as Braunwald, Harrison and Guyton physiology and some related articles obtained from authentic journals in PubMed and Ovid and Google scholar between1990 to 2013. Results: According to modern medicine, there are many causes for palpitation and in some cases it is cured symptomatically. In traditional medicine view, palpitation has been explained completely and many causes have been described. Its aspect is holistic and it cures causatively. The traditional medicine scientists evaluated the body based on Humors and temperament. Temperament can be changed to dis-temperament in diseases. Humors are divided in 4 items: sanguine, humid or phlegm, melancholy and bile. Palpitation is a disease, it is heart vibration and is caused by an abnormal substance in the heart itself or its membrane or other adjacent organs that would result in the heart suffering. Conclusions: Our data of this article suggests that causes of palpitation in the aspect of traditional medicine are completely different from modern medicine. It can help us to approach and treat this symptom better and with lower side effects than chemical drugs. According to this article we are able to detect a new approach in palpitation. PMID:24719741

  8. Ethics in sports medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Warren R; George, Michael S; Churchill, Larry; Spindler, Kurt P

    2007-05-01

    Physicians have struggled with the medical ramifications of athletic competition since ancient Greece, where rational medicine and organized athletics originated. Historically, the relationship between sport and medicine was adversarial because of conflicts between health and sport. However, modern sports medicine has emerged with the goal of improving performance and preventing injury, and the concept of the "team physician" has become an integral part of athletic culture. With this distinction come unique ethical challenges because the customary ethical norms for most forms of clinical practice, such as confidentiality and patient autonomy, cannot be translated easily into sports medicine. The particular areas of medical ethics that present unique challenges in sports medicine are informed consent, third parties, advertising, confidentiality, drug use, and innovative technology. Unfortunately, there is no widely accepted code of sports medicine ethics that adequately addresses these issues.

  9. Cholinergic enhancement reduces orientation-specific surround suppression but not visual crowding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna A. Kosovicheva

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Acetylcholine (ACh reduces the spatial spread of excitatory fMRI responses in early visual cortex and the receptive field sizes of V1 neurons. We investigated the perceptual consequences of these physiological effects of ACh with surround suppression and crowding, two tasks that involve spatial interactions between visual field locations. Surround suppression refers to the reduction in perceived stimulus contrast by a high-contrast surround stimulus. For grating stimuli, surround suppression is selective for the relative orientations of the center and surround, suggesting that it results from inhibitory interactions in early visual cortex. Crowding refers to impaired identification of a peripheral stimulus in the presence of flankers and is thought to result from excessive integration of visual features. We increased synaptic ACh levels by administering the cholinesterase inhibitor donepezil to healthy human subjects in a placebo-controlled, double-blind design. In Exp. 1, we measured surround suppression of a central grating using a contrast discrimination task with three conditions: 1 surround grating with the same orientation as the center (parallel, 2 surround orthogonal to the center, or 3 no surround. Contrast discrimination thresholds were higher in the parallel than in the orthogonal condition, demonstrating orientation-specific surround suppression (OSSS. Cholinergic enhancement reduced thresholds only in the parallel condition, thereby reducing OSSS. In Exp. 2, subjects performed a crowding task in which they reported the identity of a peripheral letter flanked by letters on either side. We measured the critical spacing between the target and flanking letters that allowed reliable identification. Cholinergic enhancement had no effect on critical spacing. Our findings suggest that ACh reduces spatial interactions in tasks involving segmentation of visual field locations but that these effects may be limited to early visual cortical

  10. Clinical aspects of tendon healing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C.H.M. van der Meulen (Jacques)

    1974-01-01

    textabstractWe know that healing of a tendon wound takes place by an invasion of fibreblasts from the surrounding tissues; the tendon itself has no intrinsic healing capacity. lt was Potenza (1962) who proved that a traumatic suture of the tendons within their sheath is followed by disintegration of

  11. Practical aspects of cervical cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tillaart, Sabrina Ada Hendrika Maria van den

    2013-01-01

    The thesis describes studies on practical aspects of cervical cancer, concering surgical considerations, and aspects of tumour behaviour and tumour spread. The thesis comprises studies on: the comparison of nerve-sparing and non-nerve-sparing radical hysterectomy for cervical cancer; a new surgical

  12. Tense and Aspect in English

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen-Nielsen, Niels

    2013-01-01

    In the 1990's the author cooperated with Carl Bache on a grammar of English. It turned out that the views they had previously arrived at individually on tense and aspect could be combined by operating with a fused system involving four ordered choices resulting in sixteen tense-aspect forms...

  13. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... variety of diseases, including many types of cancers, heart disease, gastrointestinal, endocrine, neurological disorders and other abnormalities within the body. Because nuclear medicine procedures are ...

  14. Personalized medicine in psychiatry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wium-Andersen, Ida Kim; Vinberg, Maj; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2017-01-01

    Background: Personalized medicine is a model in which a patient’s unique clinical, genetic, and environmental characteristics are the basis for treatment and prevention.  Aim, method, and results: This review aims to describe the current tools, phenomenological features, clinical risk factors......, and biomarkers used to provide personalized medicine. Furthermore, this study describes the target areas in which they can be applied including diagnostics, treatment selection and response, assessment of risk of side-effects, and prevention.  Discussion and conclusion: Personalized medicine in psychiatry....... The discussion proposes possible solutions to narrow this gap and to move psychiatric research forward towards personalized medicine....

  15. Music and medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatella Lippi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Donatella Lippi1, Paolo Roberti di Sarsina2, John Patrick D’Elios11History of Medicine, Department of Anatomy, Histology, and Forensic Medicine, University of Florence, Florence, Italy; 2Health Local Unit, Department of Mental Health, Bologna, ItalyAbstract: Healing sounds have always been considered in the past an important aid in medical practice, and nowadays, medicine has confirmed the efficacy of music therapy in many diseases. The aim of this study is to assess the curative power of music, in the frame of the current clinical relationship.Keywords: history of medicine, medical humanities, healing music

  16. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... heart disease, gastrointestinal, endocrine, neurological disorders and other abnormalities within the body. Because nuclear medicine procedures are able to pinpoint molecular activity ...

  17. Aspects of facial contrast decrease with age and are cues for age perception

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Porcheron, Aurélie; Mauger, Emmanuelle; Russell, Richard

    2013-01-01

    .... Age perception relies on cues that are correlated with age, such as wrinkles. Here we report that aspects of facial contrast-the contrast between facial features and the surrounding skin-decreased with age in a large sample of adult Caucasian females...

  18. [Herbal medicines alternative to synthetical medicines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, A M; Schilcher, H; Loew, D

    2013-12-16

    Herbal pharmaceuticals in medical practice are similarly used as chemically well defined drugs. Like other synthetical drugs, they are subject to pharmaceutical legislature (AMG) and EU directives. It is to differentiate between phytopharmaceuticals with effectiveness of proven indications and traditional registered herbal medicine. Through the Health Reform Act January 2004 and the policy of the Common Federal Committee (G-BA)on the contractual medical care from March 2009--with four exceptions--Non-prescription Phytopharmaka of the legal Health insurance is no longer (SHI) refundable and must be paid by the patients. The result is that more and more well-established preparations disappear from the market. This article gives an overview of practical relevant indications for herbal medicines, which according to its licensing status, the scientific assessment by the Cochrane Collaboration and the Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG) and evidence-based Medicine (EBM)/ meta-analyzes as an alternative to synthetics can be used.

  19. Disposal of radioactive waste. Some ethical aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streffer, Christian

    2014-07-01

    The threat posed to humans and nature by radioactive material is a result of the ionizing radiation released during the radioactive decay. The present use of radioactivity in medicine research and technologies produces steadily radioactive waste. It is therefore necessary to safely store this waste, particularly high level waste from nuclear facilities. The decisive factors determining the necessary duration of isolation or confinement are the physical half-life times ranging with some radionuclides up to many million years. It has therefore been accepted worldwide that the radioactive material needs to be confined isolated from the biosphere, the habitat of humans and all other organisms, for very long time periods. Although it is generally accepted that repositories for the waste are necessary, strong public emotions have been built up against the strategies to erect such installations. Apparently transparent information and public participation has been insufficient or even lacking. These problems have led to endeavours to achieve public acceptance and to consider ethical acceptability. Some aspects of such discussions and possibilities will be taken up in this contribution. This article is based on the work of an interdisciplinary group. The results have been published in 'Radioactive Waste - Technical and Normative Aspects of its Disposal' by C. Streffer, C.F. Gethmann, G. Kamp et al. in 'Ethics of Sciences and Technology Assessment', Volume 38, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011.

  20. Nuclear Medicine in Pediatric Cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanesi, Ornella; Stellin, Giovanni; Zucchetta, Pietro

    2017-03-01

    Accurate cardiovascular imaging is essential for the successful management of patients with congenital heart disease (CHD). Echocardiography and angiography have been for long time the most important imaging modalities in pediatric cardiology, but nuclear medicine has contributed in many situations to the comprehension of physiological consequences of CHD, quantifying pulmonary blood flow symmetry or right-to-left shunting. In recent times, remarkable improvements in imaging equipments, particularly in multidetector computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, have led to the progressive integration of high resolution modalities in the clinical workup of children affected by CHD, reducing the role of diagnostic angiography. Technology has seen a parallel evolution in the field of nuclear medicine, with the advent of hybrid machines, as SPECT/CT and PET/CT scanners. Improved detectors, hugely increased computing power, and new reconstruction algorithms allow for a significant reduction of the injected dose, with a parallel relevant decrease in radiation exposure. Nuclear medicine retains its distinctive capability of exploring at the tissue level many functional aspects of CHD in a safe and reproducible way. The lack of invasiveness, the limited need for sedation, the low radiation burden, and the insensitivity to body habitus variations make nuclear medicine an ideal complement of echocardiography. This is particularly true during the follow-up of patients with CHD, whose increasing survival represent a great medical success and a challenge for the health system in the next decades. Metabolic imaging using 18FDG PET/CT has expanded its role in the management of infection and inflammation in adult patients, particularly in cardiology. The same expansion is observed in pediatric cardiology, with an increasing rate of studies on the use of FDG PET for the evaluation of children with vasculitis, suspected valvular infection or infected prosthetic devices. The

  1. [Intensive care medicine -- update 2005].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flohé, S; Lendemans, S; Schmitz, D; Waydhas, C

    2006-06-01

    This manuscript gives a review about important studies addressing problems in intensive care medicine that have been published in journals focussing on critical care medicine and surgery in 2005. Only clinical studies are included in this review, mostly meta-analyses, randomized controlled trials and a few important or interesting observational studies. In addition to describing major results a critical appraisal of each study is undertaken, which, however, is neither comprehensive nor complete. It is merely intended to address some important aspects for the reader who should be stimulated to go deeper into one or the other topic or study. The publication of the new CPR-guidelines of the American Heart Association and the European Resuscitation Council as well as the newly developed SAPS III score to predict intensive care unit outcome are among the outstanding topics. Several randomized trials and meta-analyses deal with aspects of drug therapy of septic patients. Some important and relevant findings have been reported with respect to the efficiency of the open-lung concept, non-invasive ventilation, the use of heat and moisture exchanger filters compared to active humidifiers and of closed systems for endotracheal suctioning. The role of immuno-nutrition in adults and children as well as of early enteral nutrition can be defined more clearly. Whether corticosteroids should be used in the treatment of severe traumatic brain injury can be definitely answered now. There are some new insights reported into the management of patients infected or contaminated with MRSA in the intensive care unit. Last but not least an impressive study shows that not only the newest therapeutic developments but the stringent use of the already known treatment options may result in dramatic improvements of patient outcome.

  2. Insurance systems and reimbursement concerning research and development of regenerative medicine in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Kiyoshi; Miyata, Toshio; Sawa, Yoshiki

    2017-03-01

    In Japan, the Act on the Safety of Regenerative Medicine and the Pharmaceuticals, Medical Devices and Other Therapeutic Products Act were enacted in November 2014, creating a new framework for clinical research and products related to regenerative medicine. Together with these regulatory frameworks, new insurance procedures were created for handling regenerative medicine in Japan. For developing regenerative medicine in Japan, understanding medical insurance greatly influences funding and venture success, particularly in the stages between clinical research and market launch. The study aimed to identify the issues and examples surrounding Japan's present medical insurance system, especially for regenerative medicine. We believe that building stronger insurance systems for regenerative medicine is essential for internationally aligning and harmonizing the progress of regenerative medicine.

  3. NMR clinical imaging and spectroscopy: Its impact on nuclear medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-02-02

    This is a collection of four papers describing aspects of past and future use of nuclear magnetic resonance as a clinical diagnostic tool. The four papers are entitled (1) What Does NMR Offer that Nuclear Medicine Does Not? by Jerry W. Froelich, (2) Oncological Imaging: Now, Future and Impact Jerry W. Froelich, (3) Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/Spectroscopic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine: Past, Present and Future by H. Cecil Charles, and (4) MR Cardiology: Now, Future and Impact by Robert J. Herfkens.

  4. NMR clinical imaging and spectroscopy: Its impact on nuclear medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-02-02

    This is a collection of four papers describing aspects of past and future use of nuclear magnetic resonance as a clinical diagnostic tool. The four papers are entitled (1) What Does NMR Offer that Nuclear Medicine Does Not by Jerry W. Froelich, (2) Oncological Imaging: Now, Future and Impact Jerry W. Froelich, (3) Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/Spectroscopic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine: Past, Present and Future by H. Cecil Charles, and (4) MR Cardiology: Now, Future and Impact by Robert J. Herfkens.

  5. Characterization of the Capsule Surrounding Smooth and Textured Tissue Expanders and Correlation with Contracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Kuriyama, MD

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background:. Capsular contracture is a common complication after breast augmentation surgery. This study pathologically evaluated the soft-tissue response to surface modifications in both smooth and textured tissue expander prostheses. Methods:. Smooth tissue expanders and textured tissue expanders in 5 cases each were used for breast reconstruction after mastectomy. Histological samples were harvested from the capsules when the tissue expanders were replaced by silicone implants. Collagen orientation and cellular responses were assessed histologically. Capsular contracture was evaluated using the Baker classification 6 months and 2 years after the removal of the tissue expander. Results:. The capsules surrounding the smooth tissue expanders tended to produce more contracture than those surrounding the textured tissue expanders. The collagen architecture of the capsules of the smooth tissue expanders showed random orientation with fragmentation. Conversely, the capsules of the textured tissue expanders showed parallel orientation with collagen bundles of almost normal structure. Significantly more fibrils of elastin and myofibroblasts were found in the capsules surrounding the smooth tissue than in those surrounding the textured ones. Conclusions:. The collagen fibers surrounding the smooth tissue expanders could be cracked during expansion, which may lead to scarring and contracture. Conversely, the collagen orientation surrounding the textured tissue expanders was excellent. Moreover, the increase in elastic fibers and myofibroblasts in the capsules surrounding the smooth tissue expanders may be associated with in vivo contraction patterns. Therefore, the surface type of tissue expanders affects capsular contraction after replacement with definitive implants.

  6. Postherpetic Neuralgia: Practical Experiences Return to Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Avijgan

    2017-06-01

    In traditional medicine (TM, PHN is mostly due to incomplete heat and damp clearing in liver and spleen meridians, qi and toxic pathogens stagnation, accumulation of yin (blood stagnation in microcapillary, internal fire, and heat and obstruction of meridians. Acupuncture works based on the eradication of wind, clearing of heat, and destroying of damp by regulating qi and blood movement. In clinics, several methods of TM are used to relief PHN, such as simultaneous needling, surrounding needling, acupuncture, electro acupuncture, moxibustion, wet cupping or hijamat, and herbal medicine. In this review, we discussed all these methods and their role in reducing PHN and pain.

  7. Empathic surroundings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mihelj, M.; van den Broek, Egon

    2008-01-01

    In his new book (2007), Marvin Minsky states that Artificial Intelligence (AI) needs empathy to become truly smart, as is illustrated through human-human interaction. The latter also holds for Virtual Reality (VR), where the interest increases to unravel the emotional state of users has to be

  8. Aspect-Oriented Design with Reusable Aspect Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kienzle, Jörg; Al Abed, Wisam; Fleurey, Franck; Jézéquel, Jean-Marc; Klein, Jacques

    The idea behind Aspect-Oriented Modeling (AOM) is to apply aspect-oriented techniques to (software) models with the aim of modularizing crosscutting concerns. This can be done within different modeling notations, at different levels of abstraction, and at different moments during the software development process. This paper demonstrates the applicability of AOM during the software design phase by presenting parts of an aspect-oriented design of a crisis management system. The design solution proposed in this paper is based on the Reusable Aspect Models (RAM) approach, which allows a modeler to express the structure and behavior of a complex system using class, state and sequence diagrams encapsulated in several aspect models. The paper describes how the model of the "create mission" functionality of the server backend can be decomposed into 23 inter-dependent aspect models. The presentation of the design is followed by a discussion on the lessons learned from the case study. Next, RAM is compared to 8 other AOM approaches according to 6 criteria: language, concern composition, asymmetric and symmetric composition, maturity, and tool support. To conclude the paper, a discussion section points out the features of RAM that specifically support reuse.

  9. Automobile Optimal Driving Control Using Surrounding Information Based on Model Predictive Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dongmei; Xia, Yang; Ogawa, Masatoshi; Ogai, Harutoshi; Kawabe, Taketoshi

    In this paper, an optimal driving control system based on model predictive control (MPC) is developed for the purpose of processing more surrounding information which is essential for improving the current intelligent driving assistance and further dealing with traffic issues caused by automobiles. The proposed system provides a method of calculating a desirable driving path based on surrounding traffic environments. The performance of this system is evaluated through simulations which are carried out with introduction of surrounding information such as traffic jams, traffic signal changes, and fuel consumption. Simulation results reveal that the proposed system as a driving assist system has a potential of finding optimal driving paths for drivers.

  10. Surround inhibition of mammalian AII amacrine cells is generated in the proximal retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, S A; Xin, D

    2000-03-15

    1. Intracellular recordings were obtained from neurons in the superfused retina-eyecup preparation of the rabbit under dark-adapted conditions. Neurotransmitter agonists and antagonists were applied exogenously via the superfusate to dissect the synaptic pathways pharmacologically and thereby determine those pathways responsible for the generation of the on-centre/off-surround receptive fields of AII amacrine cells. 2. Application of the metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist, APB, reversibly blocked both the on-centre and off-surround responses of AII cells. These data were consistent with the idea that both the centre- and surround-mediated responses are derived from inputs from the presynaptic rod bipolar cells. 3. Whereas rod bipolar cells showed on-receptive fields approximately 100 microm across, we found no evidence for an antagonistic off-surround response using light stimuli which effectively elicited the off-surrounds of AII amacrine cells. These results indicated that the surrounds of AII cells are not derived from rod bipolar cell inputs. 4. Application of the ionotropic glutamate receptor antagonists CNQX or DNQX enhanced the on-centre responses of AII cells but attenuated the off-surround responses. These data indicated that the centre- and surround-mediated responses could not both be derived from signals crossing the rod bipolar-to-AII cell synapse. 5. Application of the glycine antagonist, strychnine, had only minor and variable effects on AII cell responses. However, the GABA antagonists picrotoxin and bicuculline enhanced the on-centre response but attenuated or completely blocked the off-surround response of AII cells. The GABA antagonists had no effect on the responses of horizontal cells indicating that their effects on AII cell responses reflected actions on inner retinal circuitry rather than feedback circuitry in the outer plexiform layer. 6. Application of the voltage-gated sodium channel blocker TTX enhanced the on-centre responses of

  11. Ethnoveterinary Medicine: The prospects of integrating medicinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therefore, the use of medicinal plant products would be a rational alternative to synthetic drugs. Ethnobotanical surveys carried out in many parts of Kenya have revealed a lot of plants being used in animal disease management. Specific plant extracts have been identified and screened by many researchers for their ...

  12. Diversity in Medicinal Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta, David

    2018-01-08

    The wide world of medicinal chemistry: We look back at our activities in 2017, particularly the expansion of the journal's scope to nanomedicine and why we need a more inclusive medicinal chemistry journal. Additionally, we look at upcoming special issues and developments for ChemPubSoc Europe in 2018. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Medicines from Marine Invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies-Coleman, Mike

    2011-01-01

    Few of us realise that the oceans of the world are a relatively untapped reservoir of new natural product-derived medicines to combat the many diseases that plague humanity. We explore the role that an unremarkable sea snail and sea squirt are playing in providing us with new medicines for the alleviation of chronic pain and cancer respectively.…

  14. [Opening medicine containers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glerup, E; Dengsø, H

    1990-07-09

    In connection with self-administration of medicine for patients with rheumatoid arthritis, patients with weak hands and elderly patients in general, the design of many medicine containers makes them awkward to handle for the patients. In this investigation 12 different medicine containers were tested. The 12 containers represent the antirheumatic medicine containers available on the market in Denmark in 1988. Sixty patients participated in the investigation. Thirty had rheumatoid arthritis and 30 had normal hand function. The age range was 40-85 years The patients had the choice between five possible answers concerning each container. In all patients, grip strength was measured. The patients with rheumatoid arthritis were classified in four functional classes, and pulpa-vola distance end thumb--5th MCP point distance were measured. The opening mechanisms of 29% of the antirheumatic medicine containers are unacceptable; these are plastic containers with a "push-off" top and suppository packs. 46%--(containers with screw cap or pressure dispensing) are considered acceptable. For 25% (tablet and capsule blister packs) the patients' estimate varied. It is important that medicine containers can be opened by the patients without difficulty, so that they do not present a hindrance to a correct intake of medicine or result in an unnecessary admission to hospital. The results of this investigation show that it is of continuous importance to encourage the production of medicine containers that comply with the requirements of the patients.

  15. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging ...

  16. PACS in nuclear medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Keon Wook [National Cancer Center, Koyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-12-01

    PACS (Picture Archiving and Communication System) is being rapidly spread and installed in many hospitals, but most of the system do not include nuclear medicine field. Although additional costs of hardware for nuclear medicine PACS is low, the complexity in developing viewing software and little market have made the nuclear medicine PACS not popular. Most PACS utilize DICOM 3.0 as standard format, but standard format in nuclear medicine has been Interfile. Interfile should be converted into DICOM format if nuclear images are to be stored and visualized in most PACS. Nowadays, many vendors supply the DICOM option in gamma camera and PET. Several hospitals in Korea have already installed nucler PACS with DICOM, but only the screen captured images are supplied. Software for visualizing pseudo-color with color lookup tables and expressing with volume view should be developed to fulfill the demand of referring physicians and nuclear medicine physicians. PACS is going to integrate not only radiologic images but also endoscopic and pathologic images. Web and PC based PACS is now a trend and is much compatible with nuclear medicine PACS. Most important barrier for nuclear medicine PACS that we encounter is not a technical problem, but indifference of investor such as administrator of hospital or PACS. Now it is time to support and invest for the development of nuclear medicine PACS.

  17. Technology in respiratory medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Repro

    Respiratory medicine is the subspecialty in medicine which requires the most regu- lar and precise evaluation of physiological function for complete assessment of the patient. The very nature of respiratory physiology requires the availability of a range of technological devices. Physiological measurements that may be.

  18. Therapeutic aspects of Tulsi unraveled: A review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Srinivas, Naveen; Sali, Ketki; Bajoria, AtulA

    2016-01-01

    .... Materials and Methods: Several publications and books were electronically searched in google using the keywords "Tulsi as a medicine," "Tulsi as a medicinal plant," "Medicinal properties of Ocimum sanctum," and "Tulsi in dentistry...

  19. Personalized medicine: reality and reality checks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeder, J Steven; Spielberg, Stephen P

    2009-05-01

    The evolving era of pharmacogenomics and personalized medicine is greeted with optimism by many, but this sentiment is not universally shared. The existence of diametrically opposed opinions concerning the potential benefits and obstacles facing the widespread implementation of genomic medicine should stimulate discussion and guide the design of studies to establish the value of interventions targeted at the level of individual patients. One of the more controversial aspects of personalized medicine is whether the anticipated benefits will be realized at an acceptable cost. Recently released analyses suggest that the returns on investment depend on the particular scenario and are different for different stakeholders. On the other hand, cost is only one of the challenges regarding implementation of personalized medicine. Among these are the development of universal standards for managing genomic information in electronic medical records, improvement in the collection and interpretation of clinical phenotype data, and new strategies to educate practitioners and patients/consumers. The reality is that personalized medicine is upon us; open discourse and periodic reality checks will be necessary as we confront it.

  20. Foucault and modern medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peerson, A

    1995-06-01

    Modernity as a concept or ideal, resulting from the age of Enlightenment and the French Revolution gave hope of a better future and new possibilities. To be modern means an 'enlightened' individual and society, welcoming change and development. In this paper, I will discuss Foucault's analysis (1973) of problematics in medicine in eighteenth century France. Three themes prominent in the text are: 'the birth of the clinic', 'the clinical gaze' and the power-knowledge relationship. Three problematics identified in modern medicine by Foucault and which are particularly relevant to twentieth century medicine are: (i) the extension of the clinical gaze from the individual body to the wider population; (ii) the increasing medical intervention and use of technology in fundamental life processes; and (iii) the relationship between society and medicine. I will argue that Foucault's analysis is fraught with ambiguities. It is useful, however, for establishing an explanation for medicine today and for presenting a particular interpretation of modernity.