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Sample records for aspects exfoliative cytology

  1. Raman spectroscopy and oral exfoliative cytology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Aditi; Shah, Nupur; Mahimkar, Manoj; Garud, Mandavi; Pagare, Sandeep; Nair, Sudhir; Krishna, C. Murali

    2014-03-01

    Early detection of oral cancers can substantially improve disease-free survival rates. Ex vivo and in vivo Raman spectroscopic (RS) studies on oral cancer have demonstrated the applicability of RS in identifying not only malignant and premalignant conditions but also cancer-field-effects: the earliest events in oral carcinogenesis. RS has also been explored for cervical exfoliated cells analysis. Exfoliated cells are associated with several advantages like non-invasive sampling, higher patient compliance, transportation and analysis at a central facility: obviating need for on-site instrumentation. Thus, oral exfoliative cytology coupled with RS may serve as a useful adjunct for oral cancer screening. In this study, exfoliated cells from healthy controls with and without tobacco habits, premalignant lesions (leukoplakia and tobacco-pouch-keratosis) and their contralateral mucosa were collected using a Cytobrush. Cells were harvested by vortexing and centrifugation at 6000 rpm. The cellular yield was ascertained using Neubauer's chamber. Cell pellets were placed on a CaF2 window and Raman spectra were acquired using a Raman microprobe (40X objective) coupled HE-785 Raman spectrometer. Approximately 7 spectra were recorded from each pellet, following which pellet was smeared onto a glass slide, fixed in 95% ethanol and subjected to Pap staining for cytological diagnosis (gold standard). Preliminary PC-LDA followed by leave-one-out cross validation indicate delineation of cells from healthy and all pathological conditions. A tendency of classification was also seen between cells from contralateral, healthy tobacco and site of premalignant lesions. These results will be validated by cytological findings, which will serve as the basis for building standard models of each condition.

  2. Raman exfoliative cytology for oral precancer diagnosis

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    Sahu, Aditi; Gera, Poonam; Pai, Venkatesh; Dubey, Abhishek; Tyagi, Gunjan; Waghmare, Mandavi; Pagare, Sandeep; Mahimkar, Manoj; Murali Krishna, C.

    2017-11-01

    Oral premalignant lesions (OPLs) such as leukoplakia, erythroplakia, and oral submucous fibrosis, often precede oral cancer. Screening and management of these premalignant conditions can improve prognosis. Raman spectroscopy has previously demonstrated potential in the diagnosis of oral premalignant conditions (in vivo), detected viral infection, and identified cancer in both oral and cervical exfoliated cells (ex vivo). The potential of Raman exfoliative cytology (REC) in identifying premalignant conditions was investigated. Oral exfoliated samples were collected from healthy volunteers (n=20), healthy volunteers with tobacco habits (n=20), and oral premalignant conditions (n=27, OPL) using Cytobrush. Spectra were acquired using Raman microprobe. Spectral acquisition parameters were: λex: 785 nm, laser power: 40 mW, acquisition time: 15 s, and average: 3. Postspectral acquisition, cell pellet was subjected to Pap staining. Multivariate analysis was carried out using principal component analysis and principal component-linear discriminant analysis using both spectra- and patient-wise approaches in three- and two-group models. OPLs could be identified with ˜77% (spectra-wise) and ˜70% (patient-wise) sensitivity in the three-group model while with 86% (spectra-wise) and 83% (patient-wise) in the two-group model. Use of histopathologically confirmed premalignant cases and better sampling devices may help in development of improved standard models and also enhance the sensitivity of the method. Future longitudinal studies can help validate potential of REC in screening and monitoring high-risk populations and prognosis prediction of premalignant lesions.

  3. Exfoliative liver cytology in Oreochromis mossambicus as a bio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of exfoliative cytology as a bio-assessment tool was evaluated to (1) identify and describe different cell types of normal liver cytology of Oreochromis mossambicus, (2) identify and describe changes in the cell types after exposure to cadmium and zinc, and (3) determine if non-imaging-guided fine-needle aspiration ...

  4. Role of imprint/exfoliative cytology in ulcerated skin neoplasms.

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    Ramakrishnaiah, Vishnu Prasad Nelamangala; Babu, Ravindra; Pai, Dinker; Verma, Surendra Kumar

    2013-12-01

    Imprint cytology is a method of studying cells by taking an imprint from the cut surface of a wedge biopsy specimen or from the resected margins of a surgical specimen. It is rapid, simple and fairly accurate. Exfoliative cytology is an offshoot from the imprint cytology where in cells obtained from the surface of ulcers, either by scrape or brush, are analyzed for the presence of malignant cells. We undertook this study to see the role of imprint/exfoliative cytology in the diagnosis of ulcerated skin neoplasm and to check the adequacy of resected margins intra-operatively. This was a prospective investigative study conducted from September 2003 to July 2005. All patients presenting to surgical clinic with ulcerated skin and soft tissue tumours were included in the study. A wedge biopsy obtained from the ulcer and imprint smears were taken from the cut surface. Exfoliative cytology was analyzed from the surface smears. Wedge biopsy specimen was sent for histopathological (HPE) examination. The cytology and HPE were analyzed by a separate pathologist. Imprint cytology was also used to check the adequacy of resected margins in case of wide excision. This was compared with final HPE. Total of 107 patients was included in the present study and 474 imprint smears were done, with an average of 4.43 slides per lesion. Out of 59 wide excision samples, 132 imprint smears were prepared for assessing resected margins accounting for an average of 2.24 slides per each excised lesion. On combining imprint cytology with exfoliative cytology the overall sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value were 90.38 %, 100 % and 90.38 % respectively. Only one out of 59 cases had a positive resected margin which was not picked by imprint cytology. Imprint cytology can be used for rapid and accurate diagnosis of various skin malignancies. It can also be used to check the adequacy of the resected margin intraoperatively.

  5. Applications of the oral scraped (exfoliative) cytology in oral cancer and precancer.

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    Acha, Amelia; Ruesga, María T; Rodríguez, María J; Martínez de Pancorbo, María A; Aguirre, José M

    2005-01-01

    Scraped (exfoliative) cytology is a simple and harmless procedure, which has been a controversial technique according to its real validity in oral pathology. Lately it has re-emerged due to its application in oral precancer and cancer as a diagnostic and predictive method as well as for monitoring patients. New diagnostic techniques have been developed, such as "brush biopsy" and multiple molecular studies using the cells collected. In this review we are going to analyse the more novel aspects related with the applications of the scraped or exfoliative cytology in oral precancerous and cancerous pathology, specially focusing on molecular studies and their diagnostic and prognostic implications.

  6. Unsatisfactory exfoliative anal cytology samples, 15-year experience with histologic, cytologic, and molecular follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khattab, Ruba; McMeekin, Emily; Taege, Alan J; Hekman, James M; Brainard, Jennifer A; Underwood, Dawn; Procop, Gary W; Sturgis, Charles D

    2018-02-01

    The incidence of anal carcinoma has risen in recent decades. Exfoliative cytology screening of selected high risk patients is performed in many centers. Unsatisfactory cytology results are frustrating to patients, clinicians, and laboratorians. The aim of this study is to ascertain outcomes of patients with non-diagnostic anal cytology. A retrospective review of anal cytology testing performed at the Cleveland Clinic between 01/01/2001 and 12/31/2015 was performed. All cases were received as liquid-based samples and processed as ThinPreps (Hologic, Marlborough, MA). Co-testing for HR-HPV DNA was performed using Hybrid Capture 2® (Qiagen, Germantown, MD) in the majority of patients. Of 1,276 ThinPrep anal cytology samples, 130 (10%) were deemed unsatisfactory. 77% of patients were HIV positive. 85% were males. Of the unsatisfactory cases, 116 (89%) were co-tested for HR-HPV DNA. Of those, 40 patients (34%) had a simultaneous positive HR-HPV DNA. Adequate follow up cytology within a one year and a two year period revealed that 18/130 (14%) and 26/130 (20%) of patients had ASC or SIL respectively. Histologic follow-up within one and two years showed 3 patients (2%) and 8 patients (6%) with HSIL or worse. High risk patients with unsatisfactory anal cytology are not "negative". At least one-third proved to be concomitantly HR-HPV DNA positive with one-fifth showing subsequent cytologic squamous abnormalities and with more than 5% being diagnosed with a high grade intraepithelial lesion within two years. Prompt repeat cytology and/or HR-HPV DNA is recommended for high risk patients with non-diagnostic cytology. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Oral tumors in dogs: clinical aspects, exfoliative cytology and histopathology Neoplasias orais em cães: avaliação dos aspectos clínicos, histopatologia e citologia esfoliativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Ronca Felizzola

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to establish the diagnosis and prognosis of tumors of the oral cavity, a comparative study was carried out in 130 dogs considering age, sex, breed, clinical aspects, exfoliative cytology as well as histopathology. Exfoliative cytology revealed: 100% negative for benign non-odontogenic tumors, 97.91% negative benign odontogenic tumors and 77.92% positive for malignant tumors. Histopathology showed: 59.23% malignant tumors (33.08% malignant melanoma, 9.23% squamous cell carcinoma, 5.38% osteosarcoma, 2.31% fibrosarcoma, 2.31% angiosarcoma, 1.54% malignant mesenchymal tumors, 1.54% malignant fibrohistiocytoma, 1.54% lymphoma, 0.77% leyomyosarcoma, 0.77%% epithelioid sarcoma and 0.77% angiofibrosarcoma; 36.92% benign odontogenic tumors (25.38% peripheral odontogenic fibroma, 10.0% ossifyng fibroma and 1.54% odontoma in addition to 3.85% benign non-odontogenic tumors (1.54% fibroma, 0.77% plasmocytoma, 0.77% pilomatrixoma and 0.77% giant tumor cells. These results permit us to conclude that exfoliative cytology was an efficient, safe, quick and noninvasive method and could be used for early evaluation of oral cancer.Objetivou-se o estudo comparativo em tumores de cavidade bucal de animais de espécie canina de acordo com sexo, faixa etária, raça, aspectos clínicos, citologia esfoliativa e histopatologia, para estabelecer diagnóstico dessas neoplasias, tendo sido utilizados 130 cães, encaminhados ao Hospital Veterinário (HOVET da Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia da Universidade de São Paulo. Os resultados obtidos na citologia esfoliativa foram: 100% de negativos para neoplasias benignas não odontogênicas; 97,91% de negativos para neoplasias benignas odontôgenicas e 77,92% de positivos para neoplasias malignas. Obtiveram-se os seguintes resultados no exame histopatológico: neoplasias malignas - 59,23% (melanoma 33,08%, carcinoma epidermóide 9,23%, osteossarcoma 5,38%, fibrossarcoma 2,31%, angiossarcoma 2

  8. Age estimation using exfoliative cytology and radiovisiography: A comparative study.

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    Nallamala, Shilpa; Guttikonda, Venkateswara Rao; Manchikatla, Praveen Kumar; Taneeru, Sravya

    2017-01-01

    Age estimation is one of the essential factors in establishing the identity of an individual. Among various methods, exfoliative cytology (EC) is a unique, noninvasive technique, involving simple, and pain-free collection of intact cells from the oral cavity for microscopic examination. The study was undertaken with an aim to estimate the age of an individual from the average cell size of their buccal smears calculated using image analysis morphometric software and the pulp-tooth area ratio in mandibular canine of the same individual using radiovisiography (RVG). Buccal smears were collected from 100 apparently healthy individuals. After fixation in 95% alcohol, the smears were stained using Papanicolaou stain. The average cell size was measured using image analysis software (Image-Pro Insight 8.0). The RVG images of mandibular canines were obtained, pulp and tooth areas were traced using AutoCAD 2010 software, and area ratio was calculated. The estimated age was then calculated using regression analysis. The paired t -test between chronological age and estimated age by cell size and pulp-tooth area ratio was statistically nonsignificant ( P > 0.05). In the present study, age estimated by pulp-tooth area ratio and EC yielded good results.

  9. The value of exfoliative cytology in the diagnostic of oral mucosa changes in diabetes mellitus.

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    Mirescu, Ştefan Claudiu; Păiş, Rodica; Stănoiu, Bogdan Petre; Di Natale, Luca; Şovrea, Alina Simona

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we performed microscopic qualitative analyses of the oral epithelium cytological smears in potential early phase of diabetes and in type 1 and 2 diabetic patients versus a healthy control group. The cytological assessment of the oral changes was realized on superficial and profound smears, from jugal and ventral tongue mucosa and it was based on the comparison between three staining methods [Papanicolaou, APT (polychrome tannin blue)-Dragan and Hematoxylin-Eosin (HE)]. Cytological changes of oral cells population were correlated with the type, duration and complications of diabetes. Oral flora was also evaluated. Irrespective the staining used, we found a clear dividing line between the control group and the real diabetic patients. In all diabetes cases (independently of the type of smear, harvest site, clinical form of disorder and present complications), cells presented alterations both at the level of cytoplasm and nucleus. Dyschromasia, cytolysis, different degrees of fatty degenerescence, binucleated cells, hyperchromasia, nuclear enlargement with modified nuclear÷cytoplasmic ratio, were the most frequent findings. There were no discrepancies in the cellular aspects of type 1 or 2 diabetic patients' smears or between the control group and the potential prediabetic status patients. Findings were interpreted as oral epithelium reactive changes induced by the disease. We concluded that exfoliative cytology alone is of low value as a diagnostic and prognostic tool in the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus (DM); it detects the reactive changes induced by the disease, but it makes no differences between DM types or degree of severity and does not allow by qualitative analysis alone to detect abnormalities in early diabetes.

  10. Exfoliative cytology of oral epithelial cells from patients with type 2 diabetes: cytomorphometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, César; Núñez-de-Mendoza, Camila

    2013-01-01

    This research objective is to identify cytomorphometrical changes using exfoliative cytology (EC) and later Papanicolaou (Pap) staining, for oral epithelial cells of patients with type 2 diabetes (DM2) (n = 30), while being compared to patients without the disease (n = 30). Additionally, we investigated an association between cellular changes and salivary flow levels; relationship that until now has not been reported. Results show that the cell diameter and the nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio was significantly higher compared to those patients without the disease (p ≤ 0.001 Student and Welch test). Decreased salivary flow was significantly associated with increased cell diameter and nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio (p ≤ 0.001 ANOVA with Tukey test). Evidence and clinical observations show that DM2 and decreased salivary flow are related to detectable cytomorphometrical changes in exfoliated cells, which may extend the horizon of this cytological technique.

  11. Pioneers of exfoliative cytology in the 19th century: the predecessors of George Papanicolaou.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamantis, A; Magiorkinis, E

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of our study was to summarize the knowledge on exfoliative cytology during the 19th century and to track down Papanicolaou's predecessors. A thorough study of texts, medical books and reports, together with a review of the available literature in PubMed, was undertaken. The study of cytological preparations as a diagnostic procedure can be traced back to the work of the famous French microscopist Alfred François Donné. However, the systematic study and the criteria for the diagnosis of malignant cells should be attributed to Johannes Müller. The increasing interest in the cytological examination of various fluids of the human body can be confirmed by a plethora of studies published during this period. By the end of the 19th century, the invention of new techniques in pathology, such as the introduction of cell block techniques, tissue sections and new staining methods which provided the opportunity to study surgical specimens in three dimensions, led to a decrease in the interest in exfoliative cytology, which was re-discovered by George Papanicolaou almost three decades later. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Raman spectral signatures of cervical exfoliated cells from liquid-based cytology samples

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    Kearney, Padraig; Traynor, Damien; Bonnier, Franck; Lyng, Fiona M.; O'Leary, John J.; Martin, Cara M.

    2017-10-01

    It is widely accepted that cervical screening has significantly reduced the incidence of cervical cancer worldwide. The primary screening test for cervical cancer is the Papanicolaou (Pap) test, which has extremely variable specificity and sensitivity. There is an unmet clinical need for methods to aid clinicians in the early detection of cervical precancer. Raman spectroscopy is a label-free objective method that can provide a biochemical fingerprint of a given sample. Compared with studies on infrared spectroscopy, relatively few Raman spectroscopy studies have been carried out to date on cervical cytology. The aim of this study was to define the Raman spectral signatures of cervical exfoliated cells present in liquid-based cytology Pap test specimens and to compare the signature of high-grade dysplastic cells to each of the normal cell types. Raman spectra were recorded from single exfoliated cells and subjected to multivariate statistical analysis. The study demonstrated that Raman spectroscopy can identify biochemical signatures associated with the most common cell types seen in liquid-based cytology samples; superficial, intermediate, and parabasal cells. In addition, biochemical changes associated with high-grade dysplasia could be identified suggesting that Raman spectroscopy could be used to aid current cervical screening tests.

  13. Micronucleus Assay in Exfoliated Buccal Epithelial Cells Using Liquid Based Cytology Preparations in Building Construction Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arul, P; Smitha, Shetty; Masilamani, Suresh; Akshatha, C

    2018-01-01

    Cytogenetic damage in exfoliated buccal epithelial cells due to environmental and occupational exposure is often monitored by micronucleus (MN) assay using liquid based cytology (LBC) preparations. This study was performed to evaluate MN in exfoliated buccal epithelial cells of building construction workers using LBC preparations. LBC preparations of exfoliated buccal epithelial cells from 100 subjects [50 building construction workers (cases) and 50 administrative staffs (controls)] was evaluated by May-Grunwald Giemsa, Hematoxylin and Eosin and Papanicolaou stains. Student's t test was used for statistical analysis and a P value of 5 years) and smokers and non-smokers of cases (P=0.001). However, there were meaningful differences regarding mean frequencies of MN between smokers, non-smokers, those with alcohol consumption or not in cases and controls using various stains (P=0.001). There was an increased risk of cytogenetic damage in building construction workers. However, evaluation of MN of exfoliated buccal epithelial cells in building construction workers serve as a minimally invasive biomarker for cytogenetic damage. LBC preparations can be applied for MN assay as it improves the quality of smears and cell morphology, decreases the confounding factors and reduces false positive results.

  14. Exfoliative Cytology in the Oral Mucosa of Patients with Fanconi Anaemia: A Morphometric Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Angela Naval Machado

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Patients with Fanconi anaemia (FA are prone to develop squamous cell carcinomas at an early age. Exfoliative cytology can be used to detect changes to the health of the oral mucosa. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate morphometrical and morphological changes using exfoliative cytology and to analyse and quantify the proliferative activity using silver nucleolar organiser regions (AgNOR in epithelial cells of the tongue in FA patients,after haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT. Methods: Oral smears were collected from the tongues of 20 FA children and adolescents after haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (FA and 20 healthy children (C using exfoliative cytology. The smears were stained using the Papanicolaou technique and silver impregnation. The cells were morphologically analysed and the nuclear area (NA, the cytoplasmic area (CA, and the nucleusto-cytoplasm area ratio (NA/CA were calculated. Results: Mean values for the FA and C groups were: NA (71.85 and 55.21μm.; p< 0.01; CA (2127.48 and 1441.61μm.; p< 0.01; NA/CA (0.03 and 0.04; p< 0.01, respectively. A significant increase in the NA and CA for the FA group (p< 0.01 was seen, and an alteration in the NA/CA ratio. No morphological differences were found between the groups. Class I smears were predominant in both groups. No differences were found between the groups for the mean values of AgNORs per nucleus. Conclusion: This study suggests that morphological changes occurred in the oral epithelium cells of children and adolescents with Fanconi anaemia when subjected to HSCT.

  15. Screening of Oral Potentially Malignant Disorders Using Exfoliative Cytology: A Diagnostic Modality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabiraj, A.

    2016-01-01

    Oral exfoliative cytology (OEC) has been implemented in the diagnosis of pathologic lesions for ages. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the cytomorphological features of some of the commonest potentially malignant disorders (leukoplakia, lichen planus, and oral sub mucous fibrosis) through a simple procedure and illustrate its importance in mass screening. Materials and Method. A total of 160 subjects with 25-50 years of age were included in the study. Among them, 40 were clinically diagnosed with oral leukoplakia, 40 were diagnosed with oral lichen planus, 40 were diagnosed with oral sub mucous fibrosis, and 40 were in the control group. The prepared smears were subjected to Papanicolaou stain and analyzed microscopically for the evaluation of the cytomorphological features. Results and Discussion. When analyzed microscopically, 36 (90%) out of the 40 oral leukoplakic lesions showed Class II cytological features whereas 4 (10%) revealed Class I features. Among 40 patients with oral lichen planus, 26 (65%) showed Class II features while the remaining 14 (35%) revealed Class I features. In 40 subjects with oral sub mucous fibrosis, 32 (80%) showed Class II features while the other 8 (20%) showed Class I features. All the 40 control subjects showed Class I features. Thus, OEC can be widely advocated as an addition to clinical conclusion and an adjunct to biopsy.

  16. Application of liquid-based cytology preparation in micronucleus assay of exfoliated buccal epithelial cells in road construction workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arul, P

    2017-01-01

    Asphalts are bitumens that consist of complex of hydrocarbon mixtures and it is used mainly in road construction and maintenance. This study was undertaken to evaluate the micronucleus (MN) assay of exfoliated buccal epithelial cells in road construction workers using liquid-based cytology (LBC) preparation. Three different stains (May-Grunwald Giemsa, hematoxylin and eosin, and Papanicolaou) were used to evaluate the frequency of MN in exfoliated buccal epithelial of 100 participants (fifty road construction workers and fifty administrative staff) using LBC preparation. Statistical analysis was performed with Student's t-test, and Proad construction exhibit a higher frequency of MN in exfoliated buccal epithelial cells and they are under the significant risk of cytogenetic damage. LBC preparation has potential application for the evaluation of frequency of MN. This technique may be advocated in those who are occupationally exposed to potentially carcinogenic agents in view of improvement in the smear quality and visualization of cell morphology.

  17. Efficacy of oral exfoliative cytology in diabetes mellitus patients: a light microscopic and confocal microscopic study.

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    Gopal, Deepika; Malathi, N; Reddy, B Thirupathi

    2015-03-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) has become a global problem. By monitoring the health status of these individuals, diabetic complications can be prevented. We aimed to analyze alterations in the morphology and cytomorphometry of buccal epithelial cells of type 2 DM patients using oral exfoliative cytology technique and determine its importance in public health screening, diagnosis and monitoring of diabetes mellitus. The study was carried out in 100 type 2 DM patients and 30 healthy individuals. Smears were taken from the right buccal mucosa and stained by the Papanicolaou technique. Staining with Acridine orange was carried out to view qualitative changes with confocal laser scanning microscope (LSM-510 Meta). The cytomorphometry was evaluated using IMAGE PRO PLUS 5.5 software with Evolution LC camera. All findings were statistically analyzed. The results showed that with increase in fasting plasma glucose levels, there is significant increase in nuclear area, decrease in cytoplasmic area, and increase in nuclear cytoplasmic ratio (p inclusion, candida and keratinization. In the present study, we found significant alterations in the cytomorphometry and cytomorphology of buccal epithelial cells of type 2 DM patients. This study supports and extends the view that these cellular changes can alert the clinician to the possibility of diabetes and aid in monitoring of diabetes throughout the lifetime of the patient.

  18. Exfoliative cytology of oral mucosa among smokers, opium addicts and non-smokers: a cytomorphometric study.

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    Hashemipour, Maryam Alsadat; Aghababaie, Mahbobeh; Mirshekari, Toraj Reza; Asadi-Shekaari, Majid; Tahmasbi-Arashlow, Mehrnaz; Tahmasbi-Arashlow, Farzad; Gandjalikhan Nassab, Sayed Amir Hossein

    2013-12-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate keratinization as well as nuclear and cytoplasmic changes of oral epithelial cells among smokers, opium addicts and non-smokers through exfoliative cytology technique. Smears of buccal mucosa and mouth floor were collected from 300 males (100 smokers, 100 opium addicts and 100 non-smokers). The nucleus and cytoplasm sizes were determined using image analysis software. Data was analyzed with Mann-Whitney test and Student's t-test on SPSS version 13 statistical software. Statistical significance was defined as P opium addicts and non-smokers in different age groups. The mean size of the nucleus compared to that of cytoplasm was significantly higher in smokers and opium addicts compared to non-smokers after correction for age. The results of this study indicate different rates of epithelial cell keratinization in oral cavity among smokers, opium addicts and non-smokers. Also, our results suggest a possible relationship between the number of cigarettes per day, daily opium consumption and an increase in the rate of cellular proliferation of oral mucosal cells. The present study indicated a decrease in cellular diameter as well as an increase in nuclear diameter and nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio in smears taken from both smokers and opium addicts compared to non-smokers.

  19. A multi-staining chip using hydrophobic valves for exfoliative cytology in cancer

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    Lee, Tae Hee; Bu, Jiyoon; Moon, Jung Eun; Kim, Young Jun; Kang, Yoon-Tae; Cho, Young-Ho; Kim, In Sik

    2017-07-01

    Exfoliative cytology is a highly established technique for the diagnosis of tumors. Various microfluidic devices have been developed to minimize the sample numbers by conjugating multiple antibodies in a single sample. However, the previous multi-staining devices require complex control lines and valves operated by external power sources, to deliver multiple antibodies separately for a single sample. In addition, most of these devices are composed of hydrophobic materials, causing unreliable results due to the non-specific binding of antibodies. Here, we present a multi-staining chip using hydrophobic valves, which is formed by the partial treatment of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA). Our chip consists of a circular chamber, divided into six equal fan-shaped regions. Switchable injection ports are located at the center of the chamber and at the middle of the arc of each fan-shaped zone. Thus, our device is beneficial for minimizing the control lines, since pre-treatment solutions flow from the center to outer ports, while six different antibodies are introduced oppositely from the outer ports. Furthermore, hydrophobic narrow channels, connecting the central region and each of the six fan-shaped zones, are closed by capillary effect, thus preventing the fluidic mixing without external power sources. Meanwhile, HEMA treatment on the exterior region results in hydrophobic-to-hydrophilic transition and prevents the non-specific binding of antibodies. For the application, we measured the expression of six different antibodies in a single sample using our device. The expression levels of each antibody highly matched the conventional immunocytochemistry results. Our device enables cancer screening with a small number of antibodies for a single sample.

  20. A multi-staining chip using hydrophobic valves for exfoliative cytology in cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Tae Hee; Bu, Jiyoon; Kim, Young Jun; Kang, Yoon-Tae; Cho, Young-Ho; Moon, Jung Eun; Kim, In Sik

    2017-01-01

    Exfoliative cytology is a highly established technique for the diagnosis of tumors. Various microfluidic devices have been developed to minimize the sample numbers by conjugating multiple antibodies in a single sample. However, the previous multi-staining devices require complex control lines and valves operated by external power sources, to deliver multiple antibodies separately for a single sample. In addition, most of these devices are composed of hydrophobic materials, causing unreliable results due to the non-specific binding of antibodies. Here, we present a multi-staining chip using hydrophobic valves, which is formed by the partial treatment of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA). Our chip consists of a circular chamber, divided into six equal fan-shaped regions. Switchable injection ports are located at the center of the chamber and at the middle of the arc of each fan-shaped zone. Thus, our device is beneficial for minimizing the control lines, since pre-treatment solutions flow from the center to outer ports, while six different antibodies are introduced oppositely from the outer ports. Furthermore, hydrophobic narrow channels, connecting the central region and each of the six fan-shaped zones, are closed by capillary effect, thus preventing the fluidic mixing without external power sources. Meanwhile, HEMA treatment on the exterior region results in hydrophobic-to-hydrophilic transition and prevents the non-specific binding of antibodies. For the application, we measured the expression of six different antibodies in a single sample using our device. The expression levels of each antibody highly matched the conventional immunocytochemistry results. Our device enables cancer screening with a small number of antibodies for a single sample. (paper)

  1. Exfoliative cytology in study of radiosensitivity of uterine cervical cancer, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukahara, Yoshiharu; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Tomita, Kazuhiko; Kotani, Toshio; Nakayama, Akiko

    1977-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the possibility of cytological judgment of radiosensitivity of uterine cervical cancer by comparison between pre- and post-irradiation smears given 1,000 rads by telecobalt external test irradiation. The estimation of radiation effects on nuclei and the cytological presumption of histological typing in pre-irradiation smears have brought about satisfactory results; agreement between histological and cytological judgements of radiosensitivity was about 96.8%. Cytological criteria of good sensitivity are as follows; Disparity in size of chromatin particles and irregular distribution. Irregularity of nuclear membrane with nuclear wrinkling with diminution of thickness of nuclear membrane. Mature squamous cell carcinoma without pearl formation. Those of poor sensitivity are as follows; Existence of many unchanged viable cells and less disturbances of chromatines. Existence of cells exibiting adenocarcinoma and carcinoma of intermediate type. Clusters of cyanophilic cells having lacy, indistinct cell borders. (auth.)

  2. [Frequency of cervical epithelial lesions reported in the Regional Laboratory of Exfoliative Cytology in Jalisco].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-López, Sergio; Martínez-Silva, María G; Hernández-Hernández, Dulce M; Aguilar-Lemarroy, Adriana; Jave-Suárez, Luis Felipe

    2015-01-01

    The Official Mexican Norm for the prevention, treatment and control of Cervical Cancer (CC) indicates that the Papanicolau (Pap) is the procedure for the detection of this neoplasia; therefore, it is of interest to know the prevalence of suspected cases by this technique in Mexican population. In this study, we show the diagnosed cases in the State of Jalisco, México. A retrospective study was made to the samples that arrived for their analysis to the Laboratorio Regional de Citología Exfoliativa (LARCE), of the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS) in Guadalajara, Jalisco. We considered all cases from January 2010 to December 2012. We analyzed 188 095 cases, from which 5.3 % had a diagnosis of low dysplasia, 0.18 % of moderated dysplasia and 0.05 % of high dysplasia. Microinvasive and invasive cancer showed a low frequency (0.03 %). The frequency of abnormal findings identified by vaginal cervical cytology is relatively low. The number of inadequate and limited samples for cytological assessment is high; there is a high proportion of women attending for the first time in life to cytology evaluation in older age groups.

  3. Cytological and reproductive aspects in the Caespitosa group of Paspalum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Toniolo Pozzobon

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Somatic chromosome numbers are reported for thirty four germplasm accessions of Paspalum, Caespitosa group, representing five different species. All five species have shown x=10 as the basic chromosome number. The diploid 2n=20 chromosome number was confirmed for P. chacoense and P. indecorum, as well as sexuality for the latter. This is the first report of the chromosome number and cytological behavior for P. ligulare (2n=20 and 40, P. pleostachyum (2n=20, 30 and 40 and P. redondense (2n=20 and 40. The present results document regular meiosis in diploid accessions, with primarily bivalent pairing at diakinesis and metaphase I. Polyploids of these species had irregular meiosis, with univalent, trivalent, and quadrivalent chromosome associations. Diploid accessions of P. pleostachyum and P. ligulare have shown a single meiotic embryo-sac, indicating sexual reproduction, while the triploid and one of the tetraploid accessions of P. pleostachyum have shown aposporic embryo-sacs of nucelar origin, and a few meiotic sacs, suggesting facultative apomixis. Identification of the new diploid accessions may prove useful for phylogenetic studies of Paspalum, as well as for breeding programs focusing on the forage potential of species of the Caespitosa group.

  4. BEHAVIOR AND CYTOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF Metarhizium anisopliae and Metarhizium flavoviride AFTER PASSAGE IN Chrysomya albiceps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Marlon Carneiro Feijó

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae and Metarhizium flavoviride var. flavoviride are entomopathogenic fungi with proved action against several species of insects. In this work, the behavior and cytology of the M. anisopliae var. anisopliae (PL43 and M. flavoviride var. flavoviride (CG291 were evaluated after the passage in eggs, larvae and adults Chrysomya albiceps, an important causer of secondary myiais. The experiment was carried out under an acclimatized environment's humidity and temperature of 60 ± 10% and 28 ± 1oC. The most expressive results of the biological parameters studied (percentage of germination, quantity of conidia, quantity and diameter of colonies were reached from re-isolated fungi of larvae. No significant differences were observed in the cytological aspects of the life cycle of the fungi post-passage in eggs, larvae and adults. These results suggest the possibility of the use of the fungi in the control of C. albiceps fly.

  5. Avaliação da resposta terapêutica nas alergias oculares por meio da citologia esfoliativa Evaluation of the therapeutic response in ocular allergies through exfoliative cytology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haroldo de Lucena Bezerra

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a resposta terapêutica das alergias oculares por meio da citologia esfoliativa de material obtido de raspado conjuntival. MÉTODO: Foi realizada citologia esfoliativa conjuntival mediante estudo prospectivo em quarenta e seis olhos de vinte e três pacientes com conjuntivite alérgica. Foram realizadas três colheitas: (1 na fase aguda (pré-tratamento, (2 após uso de corticosteróides (tratamento A e (3 após uso de estabilizador de membrana de mastócitos (tratamento B, e que foram submetidas à coloração pelo método de Giemsa. RESULTADOS: Dos vinte e três pacientes, cinco (21,7% eram do sexo feminino e dezoito (78,3% do sexo masculino, com média de 10,8 anos. Dezoito (78,3% apresentaram conjuntivite primaveril e cinco (21,7% ceratoconjuntivite atópica. Após análise estatística da citologia conjuntival, o número de células epiteliais degeneradas foi maior para os dois grupos de tratamento em relação à citologia pré-tratamento. A contagem de neutrófilos foi estatisticamente menor no grupo de tratamento A em relação ao tratamento B e pré-tratamento. Quanto aos eosinófilos, os dois tratamentos apresentaram distribuição percentual estatisticamente menor do que o pré-tratamento. O número de monócitos foi estatisticamente menor após o tratamento A do que o grupo B e o pré-tratamento. CONCLUSÃO: A citologia esfoliativa conjuntival mostrou-se um teste apropriado para avaliar a resposta terapêutica nas alergias oculares.PURPOSE: To evaluate the therapeutic response of ocular allergies through exfoliative cytology of conjunctival scrappings. METHOD: Conjunctival exfoliative cytology was performed through a prospective study in forty six eyes of twenty-three patients with clinical diagnosis of allergic conjunctivitis. Three scrappings were performed: (1 in the pre-treatment period, (2 after use of corticosteroids (treatment A and (3 after use of mast cell stabilizer (treatment B; in two types of smears

  6. Nannizziopsis guarroi infection in 2 Inland Bearded Dragons (Pogona vitticeps): clinical, cytologic, histologic, and ultrastructural aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Donne, Viviana; Crossland, Nicholas; Brandão, João; Sokolova, Yuliya; Fowlkes, Natalie; Nevarez, Javier G; Langohr, Ingeborg M; Gaunt, Stephen D

    2016-06-01

    Chrysosporium-related infections have been increasingly reported in reptiles over the last 2 decades. In this report, we describe clinical, cytologic, histopathologic, and ultrastructural aspects of Chrysosporium-related infection in 2 Inland Bearded Dragons (Pogona vitticeps). Case 1 was presented for an enlarging raised lesion over the left eye and multiple additional masses over the dorsum. Case 2 was submitted to necropsy by the referring veterinarian for suspected yellow fungus disease. Impression smears of the nodules in case 1 revealed granulomatous to pyogranulomatous inflammation and many septate, variably long, 4-10 μm wide, often undulated hyphae, and very rare conidia. Postmortem impression smears of the superficial lesions of case 2 contained large numbers of solitary conidia and arthroconidia and low numbers of hyphae with similar morphology to case 1. Histopathology of the 2 cases revealed severe, multifocal, chronic, ulcerative, nodular pyogranulomatous dermatitis, with myriad intralesional septate hyphae, and arthroconidia. Fungal culture and molecular sequencing in both cases indicated infection with Nannizziopsis guarroi. © 2016 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  7. Clinical and cytological aspects of fungal micro biota of the oral mucosa in the patients with oral carcinoma, during and before radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sampaio, M.C.C.; Birman, E.G.; Paula, C.R.

    1990-01-01

    The authors studied clinically lesions of the oral mucosa as well as control areas in patients with oral cancer, before and during radiotherapy, utilizing exfoliative cytology (Papanicolaou and PAS) and smears stained by Gram. A significant increase of yeasts during treatment was observed with predominance of filamentous forms as well as cytologic alterations. Clinically, well defined areas of candidosis of atrophic or pseudo membranous type were observed beside areas of mucositis. A great majority of the alterations were represented by white and red lesions, difficulting a clinical diagnosis. Symptomatology was negative before treatment and during treatment patients revealed a high number of complaints including burning sensation xerostomia and loss of taste among other symptoms. (author)

  8. Fine needle biopsy of thyroid nodules: correlations between cytology and gistology, technical aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Fedotov

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of comparative preoperative cytological and postoperative histological investigation of 3714 patients with thyroid nodules are presented. The causes of discrepancies are discussed and measures of their diminution are proposed. Great value of fine needle biopsy to differ thyroid nodules but follicular neoplasia into benign and malignant are determined. Its sensitivity in our clinics is 98.7% and specificity – 100%. Necessity of the of the second FNA if the first one is non informative is established.

  9. Chlamydia trachomatis in cervico vaginal smears of irradiated uteri: cytologic and immune cytochemical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, D.R.; Marziona, F.; Oyafuso, M.; Carvalho, M.I. de

    1989-01-01

    Cervico vaginal smears of women with uterine carcinoma treated with radiotherapy are analyzed in the present work. A series of such smears showed morphological changes suggestive of Chlamydia infection with the Papanicolaou stain. Confirmation of the presence of such agent was done using an avidin-biotin peroxidase technique. A higher prevalence of Chlamydia in the group of patients with carcinoma of the uterus treated with irradiation than in the population without ionizing treatment was verified. The presence of cells with radiotherapic changes infected by Chlamydia is a new finding in cytology. (author)

  10. Cytologic aspects of an interesting case of medullary thyroid carcinoma coexisting with Hashimoto′s thyroiditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bidish K Patel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Among primary thyroid neoplasms, papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC and primary thyroid lymphoma (PTL are known to coexist and are pathogenetically linked with Hashimoto′s thyroiditis (HT. However, HT occurring in association with medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC is rarely documented. We report here an interesting case. A 34-year-old female with a solitary thyroid nodule underwent fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC that was interpreted as "MTC with admixed reactive lymphoid cells, derived possibly from a pretracheal lymph node." Total thyroidectomy specimen showed "MTC with coexisting HT." At a later stage, a follow-up FNAC from the recurrent thyroid swelling showed features consistent with HT. As an academic exercise, the initial smears on which a diagnosis of MTC was offered were reviewed to look for evidence of coexisting HT that showed scanty and patchy aggregates of reactive lymphoid cells without Hόrthle cells. Our case highlights an unusual instance of MTC in concurrence with HT that can create a tricky situation for cytopathologists.

  11. Application of cytology and molecular biology in diagnosing premalignant or malignant oral lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrotra, Ravi; Gupta, Anurag; Singh, Mamta; Ibrahim, Rahela

    2006-01-01

    Early detection of a premalignant or cancerous oral lesion promises to improve the survival and the morbidity of patients suffering from these conditions. Cytological study of oral cells is a non-aggressive technique that is well accepted by the patient, and is therefore an attractive option for the early diagnosis of oral cancer, including epithelial atypia and squamous cell carcinoma. However its usage has been limited so far due to poor sensitivity and specificity in diagnosing oral malignancies. Lately it has re-emerged due to improved methods and it's application in oral precancer and cancer as a diagnostic and predictive method as well as for monitoring patients. Newer diagnostic techniques such as "brush biopsy" and molecular studies have been developed. Recent advances in cytological techniques and novel aspects of applications of scraped or exfoliative cytology for detecting these lesions and predicting their progression or recurrence are reviewed here. PMID:16556320

  12. [Epidemiological, clinical, cytologic and immunophenotypic aspects of acute leukemia in children: the experience at the hematology laboratory of IBN SINA University Hospital Center].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doumbia, Mariam; Uwingabiye, Jean; Bissan, Aboubacar; Rachid, Razine; Benkirane, Souad; Masrar, Azlarab

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe epidemiological, cytologic and immunophenotypic aspects of acute leukemias (AL) in children diagnosed at IBN SINA University Hospital Center and to determine the concordance between cytology and immunophenotyping results. This is a cross-sectional study conducted in the hematology laboratory of IBN SINA University Hospital Center between June 2012 and May 2014. Among the 104 cases with diagnosed AL, 52% were boys with a sex-ratio H/F= 1.32, the average age was 5.7 years. The distribution of different types of AL was: lymphoid AL (LAL) (74%), myeloid (AML) (20.2%), biphenotypic AL (BAL) (65.8%). Among the LALs, 78% were classified as B LAL and 22% as T LAL. Clinical signs were mainly presented with tumor syndrome (73.1%), fever (61%) and hemorrhagic syndrome (50%). The most common blood count abnormalities were: thrombopenia (89.4%), anemia (86.5%), hyperleukocytosis (79.8%). The rate of peripheral and bone marrow blasts was statistically higher for LAL than for AML and BAL (p <0.001). The rate of relapse and mortality was 21.2% and 16. 3% respectively. Concordance rate between the results of cytology and of immunophenotyping was 92.7% for LAL and 82.6% for AML. Diagnosis of AL is always based primarily on cytology. Immunophenotyping allowed us to make a better distinction between acute leukemias. The management of paediatric AL is a major health problem which requires specialized care centers.

  13. Urine Cytology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urine cytology Overview Urine cytology is a test to look for abnormal cells in your urine. It's used with other tests and procedures to diagnose ... bladder cancer. Your doctor might recommend a urine cytology test if you have blood in your urine ( ...

  14. Impression Cytology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevda Söker

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Impression cytology is fast, easy to perform, economical and non-invasive technique for the diagnosis of conjunctival eye diseases. Conjunctival impression cytology using cellulose acetate filter paper of the ocular surface epithelium with no side effects or contraindication. In this article, technique of conjunctival impression cytology is reviewed.

  15. Thermally exfoliated graphite oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prud'Homme, Robert K. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor); Abdala, Ahmed (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A modified graphite oxide material contains a thermally exfoliated graphite oxide with a surface area of from about 300 sq m/g to 2600 sq m/g, wherein the thermally exfoliated graphite oxide displays no signature of the original graphite and/or graphite oxide, as determined by X-ray diffraction.

  16. Unraveling the role of dark septate endophyte (DSE) colonizing maize (Zea mays) under cadmium stress: physiological, cytological and genic aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun-ling; Li, Tao; Liu, Gao-yuan; Smith, Joshua M; Zhao, Zhi-wei

    2016-02-25

    A growing body of evidence suggests that plant root-associated fungi such as dark septate endophytes (DSE) can help plants overcome many biotic and abiotic stresses, of great interest is DSE-plant metal tolerance and alleviation capabilities on contaminated soils. However, the tolerance and alleviation mechanisms involved have not yet been elucidated. In the current study, the regulation and physiological response of Zea mays to its root-associated DSE, Exophiala pisciphila was analyzed under increased soil Cd stress (0, 10, 50, 100 mg kg(-1)). Under Cd stress, DSE inoculation significantly enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes and low-molecular weight antioxidants, while also inducing increased Cd accumulation in the cell wall and conversion of Cd into inactive forms by shoot and root specific regulation of genes related to metal uptake, translocation and chelation. Our results showed that DSE colonization resulted in a marked tolerance to Cd, with a significant decrease in cadmium phytotoxicity and a significant increase in maize growth by triggering antioxidant systems, altering metal chemical forms into inactive Cd, and repartitioning subcellular Cd into the cell wall. These results provide comprehensive evidence for the mechanisms by which DSE colonization bioaugments Cd tolerance in maize at physiological, cytological and molecular levels.

  17. Unraveling the role of dark septate endophyte (DSE) colonizing maize (Zea mays) under cadmium stress: physiological, cytological and genic aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun-Ling; Li, Tao; Liu, Gao-Yuan; Smith, Joshua M.; Zhao, Zhi-Wei

    2016-02-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that plant root-associated fungi such as dark septate endophytes (DSE) can help plants overcome many biotic and abiotic stresses, of great interest is DSE-plant metal tolerance and alleviation capabilities on contaminated soils. However, the tolerance and alleviation mechanisms involved have not yet been elucidated. In the current study, the regulation and physiological response of Zea mays to its root-associated DSE, Exophiala pisciphila was analyzed under increased soil Cd stress (0, 10, 50, 100 mg kg-1). Under Cd stress, DSE inoculation significantly enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes and low-molecular weight antioxidants, while also inducing increased Cd accumulation in the cell wall and conversion of Cd into inactive forms by shoot and root specific regulation of genes related to metal uptake, translocation and chelation. Our results showed that DSE colonization resulted in a marked tolerance to Cd, with a significant decrease in cadmium phytotoxicity and a significant increase in maize growth by triggering antioxidant systems, altering metal chemical forms into inactive Cd, and repartitioning subcellular Cd into the cell wall. These results provide comprehensive evidence for the mechanisms by which DSE colonization bioaugments Cd tolerance in maize at physiological, cytological and molecular levels.

  18. Management of exfoliative glaucoma: challenges and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holló, Gábor; Katsanos, Andreas; Konstas, Anastasios Gp

    2015-01-01

    Exfoliative glaucoma is the most common type of secondary open-angle glaucoma worldwide. It is characterized by high intraocular pressure (IOP) and worse 24-hour IOP characteristics. In order to minimize progression, treatment of exfoliative glaucoma has to provide a low long-term mean IOP and good 24-hour IOP control. To achieve these goals, fixed-dose combination eye drops, argon and selective laser trabeculoplasty, and various forms of surgery (trabeculectomy, deep sclerectomy, viscocanalostomy, ab interno trabeculotomy, trabecular aspiration, and cataract surgery) all need to be considered during the long-term management of the disease. Since exfoliative glaucoma is a disease of the elderly, and is frequently associated with systemic vascular disease, interdisciplinary consultations are of great clinical importance. These management aspects and the current medical, laser, and surgical results are covered in this review, with a special focus on the needs of the general ophthalmologist.

  19. Formation of Exfoliation Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, S. J.

    2004-12-01

    The Earth's internal stresses interact with the topographic surface to affect many phenomena. Exfoliation joints, or sheeting joints, are widespread manifestations of this interaction. These opening-mode fractures form subparallel to the Earth's surface, bounding roughly concentric slabs of rock that resemble the layers of an onion. They occur worldwide in all major bedrock types, attain in-plane dimensions of hundreds of meters, exert a strong influence on groundwater flow, and help produce spectacular scenery, as in Yosemite National Park. The mechanism that causes them has been enigmatic. They are widely regarded as forming in response to "removal of overburden", but large fractures do not open in rocks merely by relieving a compressive stress. High fluid pressures, thermal effects, rock heterogeneity, and weathering also are rejected as primary causes of these fractures. Tensile stresses normal to the surface are required for large exfoliation fractures to open. Intriguingly, high surface-parallel compressive stresses are widely documented where exfoliation joints occur. Both numerical and analytical solutions for two-dimensional elastic bodies show that localized tensile stresses perpendicular to the ground surface must develop beneath certain topographies subject to strong compressive stresses parallel to the surface. This highly non-intuitive effect reflects the profound influence that topography can have on stresses near the surface of the Earth, and it can explain how exfoliation joints open. The theoretical results also indicate that exfoliation joint distributions could be used to infer the horizontal stresses near the Earth's surface.

  20. Bibliometric analysis of oral and maxillofacial cytology-related articles published in a cytology journal from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamim, Thorakkal

    2018-01-01

    There is a paucity of information about the oral and maxillofacial cytology-related articles published in a cytology journal. Journal of Cytology (JOC) is the official publication of Indian Academy of Cytologists. This study aimed to audit the oral and maxillofacial cytology-related articles published in JOC from 2007 to 2015 over a 9-year period. Bibliometric analysis of issues of JOC from 2007 to 2015 was performed using web-based search. The articles published were analyzed for type of article and individual topic of oral and maxillofacial cytology. The articles published were also checked for authorship trends. Of the total 93 published articles related to oral and maxillofacial cytology, original articles (43) and case reports (33) contribute the major share. The highest number of oral and maxillofacial cytology-related articles was published in 2014 with 17 articles and the least published year was 2010 with three articles. Among the oral and maxillofacial cytology-related articles published in JOC, diseases of salivary gland (26) followed by oral exfoliated cells (17), soft tissue tumors (7), round cell tumors (6) and spindle cell neoplasms (5) form the major attraction of the contributors. The largest numbers of published articles related to oral and maxillofacial cytology were received from Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh (5), and Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Aligarh (5). This paper may be considered as a baseline study for the bibliometric information regarding oral and maxillofacial cytology-related articles published in India.

  1. A model for blister exfoliation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deb, S.K.; Sood, D.K.

    1983-01-01

    We describe a mechanism for exfoliation of blisters by taking into account the temperature rise of the blister cover due to the incident beam heating. The rise in temperature is calculated by solving the time dependent heat conduction equation. The exfoliation is initiated either by a local melting or by the reduction of material strength due to the temperature rise leading to rupture of the blister skin by the pressure of the gas in the blister cavity. We propose two types of exfoliation: peripheral and non-peripheral, depending on the blister size. This model agrees well with the various experimental results reported on blister exfoliation. It is argued that this thermally assisted exfoliation of blisters may render the first wall erosion by high energy helium flux more serious than considered hitherto, in an actual fusion reactor system. (author)

  2. Recompressed exfoliated graphite articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhamu, Aruna; Shi, Jinjun; Guo, Jiusheng; Jang, Bor Z

    2013-08-06

    This invention provides an electrically conductive, less anisotropic, recompressed exfoliated graphite article comprising a mixture of (a) expanded or exfoliated graphite flakes; and (b) particles of non-expandable graphite or carbon, wherein the non-expandable graphite or carbon particles are in the amount of between about 3% and about 70% by weight based on the total weight of the particles and the expanded graphite flakes combined; wherein the mixture is compressed to form the article having an apparent bulk density of from about 0.1 g/cm.sup.3 to about 2.0 g/cm.sup.3. The article exhibits a thickness-direction conductivity typically greater than 50 S/cm, more typically greater than 100 S/cm, and most typically greater than 200 S/cm. The article, when used in a thin foil or sheet form, can be a useful component in a sheet molding compound plate used as a fuel cell separator or flow field plate. The article may also be used as a current collector for a battery, supercapacitor, or any other electrochemical cell.

  3. Cytological changes in oral epithelium due to Sudanese homemade alcoholic beverages

    OpenAIRE

    Awdah M. Al-hazimi; Shima Bushra Bakhet; Hussain Gadelkarim Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Introduction and Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the cytological changes in oral epithelium that might be induced by Sudanese homemade alcoholic beverages. Material and methods: Oral Exfoliative Cytology (OEFC) was applied to a case control study to assess the presence and severity of oral epithelial atypia (ET) in 300 subjects (150 alcohol abuse individuals (cases); 150 non-alcohol abuse individuals (controls)). All cases were using homemade alcoholic drinks, locally known as,...

  4. Comparison of RNA Extraction Methods for Molecular Analysis of Oral Cytology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Ghislaine Oliveira Alves

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective of work: The aim of this study was to compare three methods of RNA extraction for molecular analysis of oral cytology to establish the best technique, considering its concentration and purity for molecular tests of oral lesions such as real-time reverse transcriptase reaction. Material and methods: The sample included exfoliative cytology from the oral cavity mucosa of patients with no visible clinical changes, using Orcellex Rovers Brush®. The extraction of total RNA was performed using the following three techniques: 30 samples were extracted by Trizol® technique, 30 by the DirectzolTM RNA Miniprep system and 30 by the RNeasy mini Kit. The absorbance was measured by spectrophotometer to estimate the purity. The estimated RNA concentration was obtained by multiplying the value of A260 (ng/mL by 40. Statistical analysis of the obtained data was performed using GraphPad Prism 5.03 software with Student t, analysis of variance and Bonferroni tests, considering p ≤0.05. Results: Trizol® group revealed higher average concentration, followed by Direct-zolTM and Rneasy group. It was observed that the RNA Direct-zolTM group had the highest purity, followed by RNeasy and Trizol® groups, allowing for the two ratios. Conclusion: Considering all aspects, concentration, purity and time spent in the procedures, the Direct-zolTM group showed the best results.

  5. Vulval schwannoma: A cytological diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das Subhashish

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Schwannomas are the most common peripheral nerve sheath tumors, the frequent sites of involvement being the head and neck, the flexor aspect of the limbs, especially near the elbow, wrist, knee, and trunk. Involvement of the female genital tract is extremely rare. We present one such rare case of a solitary vulval schwannoma which was diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology in a 48 year-old female, and confirmed by histopathological examination.

  6. Flora vaginal e correlação com aspectos citológicos Vaginal flora and correlation with cytological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hygia Maria Nunes Guerreiro

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available Com a finalidade de esclarecer a patogenicidade de microorganismos que compõem a microflora vaginal, particularmente nas chamadas vaginites inespecíficas e de determinar o valor da citologia como método para identificação da flora vaginal, foram estudadas 97 pacientes, realizando cultura, exame direto a fresco, Gram e citologia do material cérvico-vaginal. Entre os microorganismos de importância clínica reconhecida, Gardnerella vaginalis foi o mais freqüentemente isolado, 48,4%, seguido de Trichomonas vaginalis, 10,3%, Candida albicans, 7,2% e Neisseria gonorrhoeae, 1,1%. Alterações citológicas indicativas de cervicite e/ou vaginite estiveram presentes na maioria dos casos de G.vaginalis, C.albicans e em todos os casos de T.vaginalis. Foi ressaltada a importância da avaliação semi-quantitativa dos microorganismos nos meios de cultura. Na avaliação da citologia como método diagnóstico para a microflora vaginal, foi observada que este foi o melhor dos métodos utilizados na identificação de T.vaginalis, tendo sido detectado cerca de 50% dos casos de C.albicans. No diagnóstico de G.vaginalis a citologia foi positiva em 48,9% dos casos, destacando-se que dos 31 casos positivos ao exame citológico, oito tiveram culturas negativas para G.vaginalis, embora tenham sido isolados nestes últimos: Haemophilus sp. ou Corynebacterium sp.This work is an attempt to throw more light on the pathogenicity of microorganisms of the vaginal flora, specially those of the so-called nonspecific vaginitis. An attempt is made to determine the value of cytology as a method for the identification of vaginal flora, by the study of microbiologic cultures, fresh and Gram stain direct exam and citology of the cervico-vaginal specimens of 97 patients. Among microorganisms with clinical significance, Gardnerella vaginalis was the most frequently isolated organism, 48,4%, followed by Trichomonas vaginalis, 10.3%, Candida albicans, 7.2% and Neisseria

  7. Standard guide for conducting exfoliation corrosion tests in aluminum alloys

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1992-01-01

    1.1 This guide differs from the usual ASTM standard in that it does not address a specific test. Rather, it is an introductory guide for new users of other standard exfoliation test methods, (see Terminology G 15 for definition of exfoliation). 1.2 This guide covers aspects of specimen preparation, exposure, inspection, and evaluation for conducting exfoliation tests on aluminum alloys in both laboratory accelerated environments and in natural, outdoor atmospheres. The intent is to clarify any gaps in existent test methods. 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The inch-pound units given in parentheses are for information only. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  8. Awareness on cytology procedure in oral cancer detection among undergraduates: An institutional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, Gayathri; Pathak, Rajeev; Pathak, Sunita; Raj, Amrita; Kumar, Amit; Katiyar, Anuradha

    2017-11-01

    The screening and the early detection of the premalignant and malignant lesions are the only means for controlling the oral cancer which is known to be one of the leading causes for mortality worldwide. Oral exfoliative cytology though not a substitute for biopsy can be a powerful tool for its early detection. Dental Surgeons can play a great role in this direction. The present study was undertaken to assess the self-reported knowledge and attitude regarding the early detection of oral cancer and exfoliative cytology among the undergraduates of Rama Dental College, Kanpur. A pretested questionnaire based cross sectional study consisting of twenty four questions was conducted among hundred randomly selected students from third year, final year and intern's batch. According to 73% of students biopsy was the special test done in oral cancer detection and only 59% had heard regarding oral cytology technique. Formalin was the fixative known for cytology smears among 61%. Significance of toluidine blue staining was not known by 62%. Seventy seven percent of students were not aware about classes of cytology reporting. Eighty six percent of students felt that the adequacy of training in cytology was lagging. This survey identified an existing gap in the knowledge among the dental students regarding cytology as a diagnostic aid in oral cancer detection. This emphasizes the need to provide training for undergraduates at clinical level on regular basis and also through CDE and oral can-cer detection workshops.

  9. Raman spectroscopic studies on exfoliated cells of oral and cervix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hole, Arti; Sahu, Aditi; Shaikh, Rubina; Tyagi, Gunjan; Murali Krishna, C.

    2018-01-01

    Visual inspection followed by biopsy is the standard procedure for cancer diagnosis. Due to invasive nature of the current diagnostic methods, patients are often non-compliant. Hence, it is necessary to explore less invasive and rapid methods for early detection. Exfoliative cytology is a simple, rapid, and less invasive technique. It is thus well accepted by patients and is suitable for routine applications in population screening programs. Raman spectroscopy (RS) has been increasingly explored for disease diagnosis in the recent past. In vivo RS has previously shown promise in management of both oral and cervix cancers. In vivo applications require on-site instrumentation and stringent experimental conditions. Hence, RS of less invasive samples like exfoliated cells has been explored, as this facilitates collection at multiple screening centers followed by analysis at a centralized facility. In the present study, efficacy of Raman spectroscopy in classification of 15 normal and 29 abnormal oral exfoliated cells specimens and 28 normal and 38 abnormal cervix specimens were explored. Spectra were acquired by Raman microprobe (HE 785, Horiba-Jobin-Yvon, France) from several areas to span the pellet. Spectral acquisition parameters were: microscopic objective: 40X, power: 40 mW, acquisition time: 15 s and average: 3. PCA and PC-LDA of pre-processed spectra was carried out on a 4-model system of normal and tumor of both cervix and oral specimens. Leave-one-out-cross-validation findings indicate 73 % correct classification. Findings suggest RS of exfoliated cells may serve as a patient-friendly, non-invasive, rapid and objective method for management of cervix and oral cancers.

  10. [Cytology in uropathological diagnostics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaisa, N T; Lindemann-Docter, K

    2015-11-01

    Cytology in uropathological diagnostics is mainly performed for oncological purposes. The assessment of malignancy by urothelial cell morphology is therefore decisive; however, cytology is only sensitive enough to detect high-grade tumor cells and the different low-grade tumors cannot be reliably diagnosed. Thus, the four-tier classification system of cytological findings (i.e. negative, atypical cells but significance uncertain, suspicious and positive) refers to high-grade tumor cells only. Furthermore, for valid cytological diagnostics not only the cytological specimen but also clinical information on cystoscopy findings and, if applicable, a biopsy should be evaluated together. In difficult differential diagnostic settings, e.g. differentiation between reactive versus neoplastic atypia or difficult to access lesions in the upper urinary tract, additional fluorescence in situ hybridization of cytological preparations might be helpful. At the moment there are no indications for further immunocytology or additional biomarker tests.

  11. Thermal influences on spontaneous rock dome exfoliation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Brian D.; Stock, Greg M.; Eppes, Martha C.; Lewis, Scott W.; Corbett, Skye C.; Smith, Joel B.

    2018-01-01

    Rock domes, with their onion-skin layers of exfoliation sheets, are among the most captivating landforms on Earth. Long recognized as integral in shaping domes, the exact mechanism(s) by which exfoliation occurs remains enigmatic, mainly due to the lack of direct observations of natural events. In August 2014, during the hottest days of summer, a granitic dome in California, USA, spontaneously exfoliated; witnesses observed extensive cracking, including a ~8000 kg sheet popping into the air. Subsequent exfoliation episodes during the following two summers were recorded by instrumentation that captured—for the first time—exfoliation deformation and stress conditions. Here we show that thermal cycling and cumulative dome surface heating can induce subcritical cracking that culminates in seemingly spontaneous exfoliation. Our results indicate that thermal stresses—largely discounted in dome formation literature—can play a key role in triggering exfoliation and therefore may be an important control for shaping domes worldwide.

  12. Cytology of Bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barger, Anne M

    2017-01-01

    Cytology of bone is a useful diagnostic tool. Aspiration of lytic or proliferative lesions can assist with the diagnosis of inflammatory or neoplastic processes. Bacterial, fungal, and protozoal organisms can result in significant osteomyelitis, and these organisms can be identified on cytology. Neoplasms of bone including primary bone tumors such as osteosarcoma, chondrosarcoma, fibrosarcoma, synovial cell sarcoma, and histiocytic sarcoma and tumors of bone marrow including plasma cell neoplasia and lymphoma and metastatic neoplasia can result in significant bone lysis or proliferation and can be diagnosed effectively with cytology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Liver Aspiration Cytology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-11-02

    Nov 2, 1974 ... S.A. MEDICAL. JOURNAL .... be the result of either an anatomical obstruction in the biliary system or of ... contour of these droplets indicates their canalicular origin. ..... terminology for cytological changes in the liver has not.

  14. Granite Exfoliation, Cosumnes River Watershed, Somerset, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crockett, I. Q.; Neiss-Cortez, M.

    2015-12-01

    In the Sierra Nevada foothills of California there are many exposed granite plutons within the greater Sierra Nevada batholith. As with most exposed parts of the batholith, these granite slabs exfoliate. It is important to understand exfoliation for issues of public safety as it can cause rock slides near homes, roads, and recreation areas. Through observation, measuring, and mapping we characterize exfoliation in our Cosumnes River watershed community.

  15. Hydrogen Selective Exfoliated Zeolite Membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsapatsis, Michael [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science; Daoutidis, Prodromos [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science; Elyassi, Bahman [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science; Lima, Fernando [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science; Iyer, Aparna [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science; Agrawal, Kumar [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science; Sabnis, Sanket [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science

    2015-04-06

    The objective of this project was to develop and evaluate an innovative membrane technology at process conditions that would be representative of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) advanced power generation with pre-combustion capture of carbon dioxide (CO2). This research focused on hydrogen (H2)-selective zeolite membranes that could be utilized to separate conditioned syngas into H2-rich and CO2-rich components. Both experiments and process design and optimization calculations were performed to evaluate the concept of ultra-thin membranes made from zeolites nanosheets. In this work, efforts in the laboratory were made to tackle two fundamental challenges in application of zeolite membranes in harsh industrial environments, namely, membrane thickness and membrane stability. Conventional zeolite membranes have thicknesses in the micron range, limiting their performance. In this research, we developed a method for fabrication of ultimately thin zeolite membranes based on zeolite nanosheets. A range of layered zeolites (MWW, RWR, NSI structure types) suitable for hydrogen separation was successfully exfoliated to their constituent nanosheets. Further, membranes were made from one of these zeolites, MWW, to demonstrate the potential of this group of materials. Moreover, long-term steam stability of these zeolites (up to 6 months) was investigated in high concentrations of steam (35 mol% and 95 mole%), high pressure (10 barg), and high temperatures (350 °C and 600 °C) relevant to conditions of water-gas-shift and steam methane reforming reactions. It was found that certain nanosheets are stable, and that stability depends on the concentration of structural defects. Additionally, models that represent a water-gas-shift (WGS) membrane reactor equipped with the zeolite membrane were developed for systems studies. These studies had the aim of analyzing the effect of the membrane reactor integration into IGCC plants

  16. Cytological analysis of the epithelial cells in patients with oral candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loss, Rafael; Sandrin, Rodrigo; França, Beatriz Helena Sottile; de Azevedo-Alanis, Luciana Reis; Grégio, Ana Maria Trindade; Machado, Maria Ângela Naval; de Lima, Antonio Adilson Soares

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate oral epithelial cells of the oral mucosa infected by Candida albicans using exfoliative cytology. Oral smears were collected from clinically normal-appearing mucosa by liquid-based exfoliative cytology of 60 individuals (30 patients with oral candidiasis and 30 healthy controls matched for age and gender) and analysed for morphologic and cytomorphometric technique. Morphologically, candida-infected epithelial cells exhibited nuclear enlargement, perinuclear rings, discrete orangeophilia, and cytoplasmic vacuoles. The cytomorphometric analysis demonstrated that the cytoplasmic area (CA) of the epithelial cells was diminished in patients undergoing candidiasis as compared to the non-infected controls. In addition, there was an augmentation in nuclear area (NA) and NA/CA area ratio. This study revealed that oral mucosa of patients undergoing candidal infection exhibited significant changes in the size and shape of the oral epithelial cells. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Exfoliation syndrome in Northern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idakwo U

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Ugbede Idakwo,1 Olusola Olawoye,2 Benedictus GK Ajayi,1 Robert Ritch3 1Eleta Eye Institute, Ibadan, Nigeria; 2Department of Ophthalmology, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria; 3Einhorn Clinical Research Center, Department of Ophthalmology, New York Eye and Ear Infirmary of Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA Purpose: To estimate the frequency of exfoliation syndrome (XFS and its association with ocular diseases in Northern Nigeria.Materials and methods: Consecutive patients who presented to the outpatient department of ECWA Eye Hospital Kano from February 2015 to May 2015 were included in the study. Each patient had a complete ophthalmic examination. The anterior segment examination included tonometry, gonioscopy, and detailed slit-lamp examination to assess for the presence or absence of exfoliation material, inflammatory cells, and other abnormal findings. Patients with exfoliation material on the anterior lens surface and/or pupillary margin in either or both eyes were considered to have XFS. Statistical analysis was performed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 16.0.Results: A total of 620 patients living in Northern Nigeria from the 6 geopolitical zones were examined. The majority of them (34.5% were indigenous Hausas. There was a male preponderance of 56.6%, while the mean age at presentation for examination in all age groups was 55.7±13.7 years. There were 9 patients with XFS; the frequency was 1.5%, with most of the patients being 70–80 years old. In patients who were ≥50 years, the frequency was 2.5%. Patients with XFS had a higher mean age of 68±4.9 years. The frequency of XFS among glaucoma patients was 4.4%, while among cataract patients it was 3.7%. No other associated ocular disease was found in the patients with XFS.Conclusion: This study shows that XFS does exist in Northern Nigeria, as was found in the South. The prevalence of XFS was, however, not reported in the Nigerian

  18. Separation medium containing thermally exfoliated graphite oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prud'homme, Robert K. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor); Herrera-Alonso, Margarita (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A separation medium, such as a chromatography filling or packing, containing a modified graphite oxide material, which is a thermally exfoliated graphite oxide with a surface area of from about 300 m.sup.2/g to 2600 m.sup.2/g, wherein the thermally exfoliated graphite oxide has a surface that has been at least partially functionalized.

  19. Ultrasound exfoliation of inorganic analogues of graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stengl, Václav; Henych, Jiří; Slušná, Michaela; Ecorchard, Petra

    2014-04-05

    High-intensity ultrasound exfoliation of a bulk-layered material is an attractive route for large-scale preparation of monolayers. The monolayer slices could potentially be prepared with a high yield (up to 100%) in a few minutes. Exfoliation of natural minerals (such as tungstenite and molybdenite) or bulk synthetic materials (including hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), hexagonal boron carbon nitride (h-BCN), and graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4)) in liquids leads to the breakdown of the 3D graphitic structure into a 2D structure; the efficiency of this process is highly dependent upon the physical effects of the ultrasound. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) were employed to verify the quality of the exfoliation. Herein, this new method of exfoliation with ultrasound assistance for application to mono- and bilayered materials in hydrophobic and hydrophilic environments is presented.

  20. Prevalence of micronuclei in exfoliated uterine cervical cells from patients with risk factors for cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis Campos, Lízia Maria Franco dos; Luz Dias, Francisca da; Antunes, Lusânia Maria Greggi; Murta, Eddie Fernando Candido

    2008-11-01

    Pap smears are the most common and inexpensive screening method for cervical cancer. We analyzed micronucleus prevalence in exfoliated cervical mucosa cells, to investigate associations between increased numbers of micronuclei and risk factors for cervical cancer. Analytical cross-sectional study, at Instituto de Pesquisa em Oncologia (IPON). Exfoliated cervical cells were obtained from 101 patients between September 2004 and November 2005. Patients' ages, habits (passive or active smoking, alcoholism and numbers of sexual partners), age at first sexual intercourse, contraceptive methods used, histories of sexually transmitted diseases, use of hormone replacement therapy, numbers of pregnancies and abortions, inflammatory cytology and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) were obtained. Cells were collected using Ayre spatulas, transferred to vials containing 0.9% saline solution for micronucleus tests and analyzed at 1000x magnification. The number of micronuclei in 1,000 epithelial cells per patient sample was counted. Comparisons between groups with active (7.9 +/- 7.8) and passive (7.2 +/- 10.6) smoking versus no smoking (3.7 +/- 5.1); with/without alcoholism (7.8 +/- 1.4 and 6.9 +/- 10.1); with/without inflammatory cytology (10.7 +/- 10.5 and 1.3 +/- 1.7); and with CIN I, II and III and no CIN (respectively 4.3 +/- 4.3, 10.6 +/- 5.3, 22.7 +/- 11.9 and 1.3 +/- 1.4) found elevated micronucleus prevalence (P < 0.05). We concluded that the prevalence of micronuclei in exfoliated uterine cervical cells was greater in patients with one or more risk factors for uterine cervical cancer than in patients without risk factors.

  1. Prevalence of micronuclei in exfoliated uterine cervical cells from patients with risk factors for cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lízia Maria Franco dos Reis Campos

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Pap smears are the most common and inexpensive screening method for cervical cancer. We analyzed micronucleus prevalence in exfoliated cervical mucosa cells, to investigate associations between increased numbers of micronuclei and risk factors for cervical cancer. DESIGN AND SETTING: Analytical cross-sectional study, at Instituto de Pesquisa em Oncologia (IPON. METHODS: Exfoliated cervical cells were obtained from 101 patients between September 2004 and November 2005. Patients' ages, habits (passive or active smoking, alcoholism and numbers of sexual partners, age at first sexual intercourse, contraceptive methods used, histories of sexually transmitted diseases, use of hormone replacement therapy, numbers of pregnancies and abortions, inflammatory cytology and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN were obtained. Cells were collected using Ayre spatulas, transferred to vials containing 0.9% saline solution for micronucleus tests and analyzed at 1000x magnification. The number of micronuclei in 1,000 epithelial cells per patient sample was counted. RESULTS: Comparisons between groups with active (7.9 ± 7.8 and passive (7.2 ± 10.6 smoking versus no smoking (3.7 ± 5.1; with/without alcoholism (7.8 ± 1.4 and 6.9 ± 10.1; with/without inflammatory cytology (10.7 ± 10.5 and 1.3 ± 1.7; and with CIN I, II and III and no CIN (respectively 4.3 ± 4.3, 10.6 ± 5.3, 22.7 ± 11.9 and 1.3 ± 1.4 found elevated micronucleus prevalence (P < 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that the prevalence of micronuclei in exfoliated uterine cervical cells was greater in patients with one or more risk factors for uterine cervical cancer than in patients without risk factors.

  2. Informatics applied to cytology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantanowitz Liron

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Automation and emerging information technologies are being adopted by cytology laboratories to augment Pap test screening and improve diagnostic accuracy. As a result, informatics, the application of computers and information systems to information management, has become essential for the successful operation of the cytopathology laboratory. This review describes how laboratory information management systems can be used to achieve an automated and seamless workflow process. The utilization of software, electronic databases and spreadsheets to perform necessary quality control measures are discussed, as well as a Lean production system and Six Sigma approach, to reduce errors in the cytopathology laboratory.

  3. Comparison of three sampling instruments, Cytobrush, Curette and OralCDx, for liquid-based cytology of the oral mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reboiras-López, M D; Pérez-Sayáns, M; Somoza-Martín, J M; Antúnez-López, J R; Gándara-Vila, P; Gayoso-Diz, P; Gándara-Rey, J M; García-García, A

    2012-01-01

    Exfoliative cytology of the oral cavity is a simple and noninvasive technique that permits the study of epithelial cells. Liquid-based cytology is an auxiliary diagnostic tool for improving the specificity and sensitivity of conventional cytology. The objective of our study was to compare the quality of normal oral mucosa cytology samples obtained using three different instruments, Cytobrush®, dermatological curette and Oral CDx® for liquid-based cytology. One hundred four cytological samples of oral cavity were analyzed. Samples were obtained from healthy volunteer subjects using all three instruments. The clinical and demographic variables were age, sex and smoking habits. We analyzed cellularity, quality of the preparation and types of cells in the samples. All preparations showed appropriate preparation quality. In all smears analyzed, cells were distributed uniformly and showed no mucus, bleeding, inflammatory exudate or artifacts. We found no correlation between the average number of cells and the type of instrument. The samples generally consisted of two types of cells: superficial and intermediate. No differences were found among the cytological preparations of these three instruments. We did not observe basal cells in any of the samples analyzed.

  4. Gastric washing by distilled water can reduce free gastric cancer cells exfoliated into the stomach lumen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohki, Atsuko; Abe, Nobutsugu; Yoshimoto, Eri; Hashimoto, Yoshikazu; Takeuchi, Hirohisa; Nagao, Gen; Masaki, Tadahiko; Mori, Toshiyuki; Ohkura, Yasuo; Sugiyama, Masanori

    2018-04-25

    Intragastric free cancer cells in patients with gastric cancer have rarely been studied. The purpose of this study was to investigate the detection rate of intragastric free cancer cells in gastric washes using two types of solutions during endoscopic examination. We further clarified risk factors affecting the presence of exfoliated free cancer cells. A total of 175 patients with gastric cancer were enrolled. Lactated Ringer's solution (N = 89) or distilled water (DW; N = 86) via endoscopic working channel was sprayed onto the tumor surface, and the resultant fluid was collected for cytological examination. We compared the cancer-cell positivity rate between the two (Ringer and DW) groups. We also tested the correlation between cancer-cell positivity and clinicopathological factors in the Ringer group to identify risk factors for the presence of exfoliated cancer cells. The cancer-cell positivity rate was significantly higher in the Ringer group than that in the DW group (58 vs 6%). Cytomorphology in the Ringer group was well maintained, but not in the DW group. The larger tumor size (≥ 20 mm) and positive lymphatic involvement were significant risk factors of exfoliated free cancer cells. Cancer cells can be highly exfoliated from the tumor surface into the gastric lumen by endoscopic irrigation in large gastric cancer with lymphatic involvement. Gastric washing by DW can lead to cytoclasis of free cancer cells; therefore, it may minimize the possibility of cancer-cell seeding in procedures carrying potential risks of tumor-cell seeding upon transluminal communication, such as endoscopic full-thickness resection and laparoscopy-endoscopy cooperative surgery.

  5. Exfoliation of two-dimensional zeolites in liquid polybutadienes

    KAUST Repository

    Sabnis, Sanket; Tanna, Vijesh A.; Li, Chao; Zhu, Jiaxin; Vattipalli, Vivek; Nonnenmann, Stephen S.; Sheng, Guan; Lai, Zhiping; Winter, H. Henning; Fan, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Layered zeolite precursors were successfully exfoliated by brief shearing or sonication with the assistance of commercially available telechelic liquid polybutadienes at room temperature. The exfoliated zeolite nanosheets can form a stable

  6. Liquid phase exfoliated graphene for electronic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukumaran, Sheena S.; Jinesh, K. B.; Gopchandran, K. G.

    2017-09-01

    Graphene dispersions were prepared using the liquid phase exfoliation method with three different surfactants. One surfactant was used from each of the surfactant types, anionic, cationic, and non-ionic; those used, were sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS), cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), respectively. Raman spectroscopy was used to investigate the number of layers and the nature of any defects present in the exfoliated graphene. The yield of graphene was found to be less with the non-ionic surfactant, PVP. The deconvolution of 2D peaks at ~2700 cm-1 indicated that graphene prepared using these surfactants resulted in sheets consisting of few-layer graphene. The ratio of intensity of the D and G bands in the Raman spectra showed that edge defect density is high for samples prepared with SDBS compared to the other two, and is attributed to the smaller size of the graphene sheets, as shown in the electron micrographs. In the case of the dispersion in PVP, it is found that the sizes of the graphene sheets are highly sensitive to the concentration of the surfactant used. Here, we have made an attempt to investigate the local density of states in the graphene sheets by measuring the tunnelling current-voltage characteristics. Graphene layers have shown consistent p-type behaviour when exfoliated with SDBS and n-type behaviour when exfoliated with CTAB, with a larger band gap for graphene exfoliated using CTAB. Hence, in addition to the known advantages of liquid phase exfoliation, we found that by selecting suitable surfactants, to a certain extent it is possible to tune the band gap and determine the type of majority carriers.

  7. Cytological indicators: Haematopoetic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fliedner, T.M.; Nothdurft, W.

    1986-01-01

    It is the aim of this paper, intended more as a general outline than a comprehensive review, to elucidate the most prominent events in the sequence of radiation induced cytological changes in the hemopoietic system taking its functional organisation and the cytokinetics of blood cell production into consideration. As could be shown, there are about ten different categories of quantitative and qualitative parameters based on methods ranging from stem cell determinations to tests for mature blood cell function that in principle are available for assessment of radiation damage to the bone marrow and that have been applied to men exposed to ionizing radiation. Some of these indicator systems have proven for a long period of time to be of essential value and to be quite feasible in practice under routine conditions. Considerable methodological progress, however, is needed for others before decisions about their practical applicability can be made. (orig.)

  8. Cytological diagnosis of xanthogranulomatous appendicitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajni Kaushik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Xanthogranulomatous reaction can occur in any organ but the most common sites are kidney and gallbladder. Xanthogranulomatous appendicitis (XA is a rare clinical entity. There are a few case reports of XA diagnosed on histopathology but none on cytology. Here we report a case of a 47-year-old lady who presented with acute abdomen and was found to have a mass lesion in the right iliac fossa. She was diagnosed with XA intraoperatively on imprint cytology that was subsequently confirmed on histopathological examination. Due to the rarity of XA itself and the use of imprint cytology for intraoperative diagnosis the case is being presented.

  9. Tire containing thermally exfoliated graphite oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prud'homme, Robert K. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A tire, tire lining or inner tube, containing a polymer composite, made of at least one rubber and/or at least one elastomer and a modified graphite oxide material, which is a thermally exfoliated graphite oxide with a surface area of from about 300 sq m/g to 2600 sq m/g.

  10. Ultrasound exfoliation of inorganic analogues of graphene

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štengl, Václav; Henych, Jiří; Slušná, Michaela; Ecorchard, Petra

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 9, APR (2014), s. 1-14 ISSN 1556-276X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-05146S Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : Ultrasound * Exfoliation * Graphene inorganic analogues Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.779, year: 2014

  11. Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia manifestating as exfoliative dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhir R

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available A 60-year-old patient reported with a history of redness and peeling of the skin, and sensations of chills and tightness of the skin of three months duration. Clinical examination revealed exfoliative dermatitis, generalised lymphadenopathy and hepatosplenomegely. A peripheral smear showed features of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia.

  12. Cytology of treated cervical carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Hideo

    1982-01-01

    The vaginal smear specimens of the patients who received operative therapy, irradiation or chemotherapy for cervical carcinoma were examined. Long-term follow-up vaginal cytology following treatment of cervical carcinoma is effective for the detection of local recurrence in an early stage. Serial cytology is also useful in evaluation of the effects of irradiation and chemotherapy for cervical carcinoma. Radiosensitive and prognostic significance of vaginal smears before and after radiation therapy was discussed. (author)

  13. Pilomatrixoma of the Arm: A Rare Case with Cytologic Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchika Gupta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pilomatrixoma, a benign skin appendageal tumor, is seen commonly in head and neck. Occurrence of pilomatrixoma in the upper extremities is not common and has been reported infrequently in the available literature. Only a few cases with preoperative aspiration cytology have been reported in the literature. A five-year-old girl underwent fine needle aspiration (FNA of a firm subcutaneous nodule on the lateral aspect of left arm. FNA smears showed scattered and few fragments of round to oval cells along with multinucleated giant cells. Few shadow cells were seen. A cytologic impression of pilomatrixoma was rendered, which was confirmed on histopathology. Pilomatrixoma, a common skin appendageal tumor in head and neck region, should be considered in the cytologic differential diagnoses of subcutaneous masses even in unusual locations like arm. The varied cytomorphology should be remembered to avoid misdiagnosis.

  14. Characterization of exfoliated/delamination kaolinite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Dewen; Li, Bin; Li, Yanfeng; Yu, Cui; Zhang, Bo; Fei, Huafeng

    2011-01-01

    A novel and facile approach for the preparation of exfoliated/delamination kaolinite was reported in this study. Kaolinite was mechanochemically activated by grinding with dimethylsulfoxide in a globe mill for different periods of time, and then the activated samples were treated for several hours at 120 o C to obtain the precursors of kaolinite. The resulting materials were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The experimental data indicated that the clay layers were well exfoliated/delamination under mechanochemical effect in a significantly short intercalation time. The expansion of the basal spacing (d 001 ) of raw kaolinite by 0.40 nm pointed out that the hydrogen bonds between adjacent kaolinite layers were partially broken as a result of the intercalation with dimethylsulfoxide.

  15. [Quality assurance of fine-needle aspiration cytology of the organized mammography screening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bak, Mihály; Konyár, Eva; Schneider, Ferenc; Bidlek, Mária; Szabó, Eva; Nyári, Tibor; Godény, Mária; Kásler, Miklós

    2010-08-08

    The National Public Health Program has established the organized mammography screening in Hungary. The aim of our study was to determine the quality assurance of breast aspiration cytology. Cytology results were rated to 5 categories (C1, C2, C3, C4 and C5). All cytology reports were compared with the final histology diagnosis. 1361 women had aspiration cytology diagnosis performed from a total of 47718 mammography non-negative lesions. There were 805 (59.1%) benign and 187 (13.7%) malignant alterations. Sensitivity was 91%, specificity 88%, positive predictive value 96.6% and negative predictive value turned to be 71% (pauditing values of fine needle aspiration cytology in our laboratory meet, or in certain aspects exceed the proposed minimum threshold values.

  16. Mechanical exfoliation of two-dimensional materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Enlai; Lin, Shao-Zhen; Qin, Zhao; Buehler, Markus J.; Feng, Xi-Qiao; Xu, Zhiping

    2018-06-01

    Two-dimensional materials such as graphene and transition metal dichalcogenides have been identified and drawn much attention over the last few years for their unique structural and electronic properties. However, their rise begins only after these materials are successfully isolated from their layered assemblies or adhesive substrates into individual monolayers. Mechanical exfoliation and transfer are the most successful techniques to obtain high-quality single- or few-layer nanocrystals from their native multi-layer structures or their substrate for growth, which involves interfacial peeling and intralayer tearing processes that are controlled by material properties, geometry and the kinetics of exfoliation. This procedure is rationalized in this work through theoretical analysis and atomistic simulations. We propose a criterion to assess the feasibility for the exfoliation of two-dimensional sheets from an adhesive substrate without fracturing itself, and explore the effects of material and interface properties, as well as the geometrical, kinetic factors on the peeling behaviors and the torn morphology. This multi-scale approach elucidates the microscopic mechanism of the mechanical processes, offering predictive models and tools for the design of experimental procedures to obtain single- or few-layer two-dimensional materials and structures.

  17. Edge orientations of mechanically exfoliated anisotropic two-dimensional materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Juntan; Wang, Yi; Li, Yinfeng; Gao, Huajian; Chai, Yang; Yao, Haimin

    2018-03-01

    Mechanical exfoliation is an approach widely applied to prepare high-quality two-dimensional (2D) materials for investigating their intrinsic physical properties. During mechanical exfoliation, in-plane cleavage results in new edges whose orientations play an important role in determining the properties of the as-exfoliated 2D materials especially those with high anisotropy. Here, we systematically investigate the factors affecting the edge orientation of 2D materials obtained by mechanical exfoliation. Our theoretical study manifests that the fractured direction during mechanical exfoliation is determined synergistically by the tearing direction and material anisotropy of fracture energy. For a specific 2D material, our theory enables us to predict the possible edge orientations of the exfoliated flakes as well as their occurring probabilities. The theoretical prediction is experimentally verified by examining the inter-edge angles of the exfoliated flakes of four typical 2D materials including graphene, MoS2, PtS2, and black phosphorus. This work not only sheds light on the mechanics of exfoliation of the 2D materials but also provides a new approach to deriving information of edge orientations of mechanically exfoliated 2D materials by data mining of their macroscopic geometric features.

  18. 42 CFR 493.1221 - Condition: Cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition: Cytology. 493.1221 Section 493.1221 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES....1221 Condition: Cytology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Cytology, the...

  19. Exfoliation syndrome: assembling the puzzle pieces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquale, Louis R; Borrás, Terete; Fingert, John H; Wiggs, Janey L; Ritch, Robert

    2016-09-01

    To summarize various topics and the cutting edge approaches to refine XFS pathogenesis that were discussed at the 21st annual Glaucoma Foundation Think Tank meeting in New York City, Sept. 19-20, 2014. The highlights of three categories of talks on cutting edge research in the field were summarized. Exfoliation syndrome (XFS) is a systemic disorder with a substantial ocular burden, including high rates of cataract, cataract surgery complications, glaucoma and retinal vein occlusion. New information about XFS is akin to puzzle pieces that do not quite join together to reveal a clear picture regarding how exfoliation material (XFM) forms. Meeting participants concluded that it is unclear how the mild homocysteinemia seen in XFS might contribute to the disarrayed extracellular aggregates characteristic of this syndrome. Lysyl oxidase-like 1 (LOXL1) variants are unequivocally genetic risk factors for XFS but exactly how these variants contribute to the assembly of exfoliation material (XFM) remains unclear. Variants in a new genomic region, CACNA1A associated with XFS, may alter calcium concentrations at the cell surface and facilitate XFM formation but much more work is needed before we can place this new finding in proper context. It is hoped that various animal model and ex vivo systems will emerge that will allow for proper assembly of the puzzle pieces into a coherent picture of XFS pathogenesis. A clear understanding of XFS pathogenesis may lead to 'upstream solutions' to reduce the ocular morbidity produced by XFS. © 2015 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Bacteriological, cytological and histopathological evaluation of the reproductive tract of slaughtered cows

    OpenAIRE

    Casarin, Julia B.S.; Martini, Ana P.; Trentin, Janislene M.; Fiorenza, Mariani F.; Pessoa, Gilson A.; Barros, Severo S.; Rubin, Mara I.B.

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Reproductive diseases, mainly endometritis, are important hurdles in cattle raising, In the current study we evaluated gross, bacteriological, cytological, and histological findings from selected sites of the genital from 23 slaughtered cows and tested whether there is an association between these findings and the probability of reaching a reliable diagnosis. The results from the examinations of macroscopic aspects of uterine secretions, the cytological, bacteriological, and histopa...

  1. PARATHYROID CYTOLOGY: A DIAGNOSTIC DILEMMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naval Kishore Bajaj

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Neck nodules are common in clinical practice which are accessible to Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC. Thyroid being the commonest organ to present as the nodular lesions. Parathyroid lesions can be incidentally encountered during FNA of a thyroid nodule Fine needle aspiration cytology is a safe economical and leading investigation in the diagnosis of neck nodules. Thyroid and parathyroid nodules are indistinguishable clinically. An attempt is made to familiarise the pathologist about the cytomorphological features of parathyroid nodules and simple approach to differentiate from thyroid nodules. MATERIALS AND METHODS It is a retrospective study conducted over a period of 5 years from 2011-2016. Twelve cases of histologically proven parathyroidal lesions are the subjects of study of which 4 cases were diagnosed as parathyroidal cyst and rest as parathyroid adenoma. All the cases underwent fine needle aspiration cytology under ultrasound guidance, Smears were made, stained by H & E and PAP staining method, the slides were reviewed by two cytopathologists. Biochemical and radiological findings were evaluated before giving definitive cytological diagnosis. RESULTS A total number of 12 cases which were histologically proven as parathyroidal lesion. Out of which 4 were cystic lesions which were excluded from the study. Rest of the 8 cases confirmed as parathyroid adenoma which had FNAC were evaluated. 5 cases had positive cytohistological correlation. Three out of 8 cases were diagnosed as papillary carcinoma of thyroid, Toxic nodular goitre and Hurthle cell neoplasm due to varied cytomorphology. CONCLUSION Parathyroidal lesions has got low sensitivity and specificity in cytology. The confident diagnosis of parathyroid neoplasm was made in conjunction with biochemical and advanced radiological imaging. In neck nodules which are asymptomatic and at abnormal locations, FNAC through its cytomorphological features has an edge in

  2. Exfoliation of two-dimensional zeolites in liquid polybutadienes

    KAUST Repository

    Sabnis, Sanket

    2017-06-16

    Layered zeolite precursors were successfully exfoliated by brief shearing or sonication with the assistance of commercially available telechelic liquid polybutadienes at room temperature. The exfoliated zeolite nanosheets can form a stable suspension in an organic solvent, providing exciting potential for the fabrication of zeolite membranes, composite materials and hierarchical zeolites.

  3. Cervical cytology biobanking in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbyn, Marc; Van Veen, Evert-Ben; Andersson, Kristin; Bogers, Johannes; Boulet, Gaëlle; Bergeron, Christine; von Knebel-Doeberitz, Magnus; Dillner, Joakim

    2010-01-01

    A cervical cytology biobank (CCB) is an extension of current cytopathology laboratory practice consisting in the systematic storage of Pap smears or liquid-based cytology samples from women participating in cervical cancer screening with the explicit purpose to facilitate future scientific research and quality audit of preventive services. A CCB should use an internationally agreed uniform cytology terminology, be integrated in a national or regional screening registry, and be linked to other registries (histology, cancer, vaccination). Legal and ethical principles concerning personal integrity and data safety must be respected strictly. Biobank-based studies require approval of ethical review boards. A CCB is an almost inexhaustible resource for fundamental and applied biological research. In particular, it can contribute to answering questions on the natural history of HPV infection and HPV-induced lesions and cancers, screening effectiveness, exploration of new biomarkers, and surveillance of the short- and long-term effects of the introduction of HPV vaccination. To understand the limitations of CCB, more studies are needed on the quality of samples in relation to sample type, storage procedures, and duration of storage.

  4. Surfactant mediated liquid phase exfoliation of graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Rekha; Kim, Sang Ouk

    2015-10-01

    Commercialization of graphene based applications inevitably requires cost effective mass production. From the early days of research on graphene, direct liquid phase exfoliation (LPE) of graphite has been considered as the most promising strategy to produce high-quality mono or few-layer graphene sheets in solvent dispersion forms. Substantial success has been achieved thus far in the LPE of graphene employing numerous solvent systems and suitable surfactants. This invited review article principally showcase the recent research progress as well as shortcomings of surfactant assisted LPE of graphene. In particular, a comprehensive assessment of the quality and yield of the graphene sheets produced by different categories of the surfactants are summarized. Future direction of LPE methods is also proposed for the eventual success of commercial applications.

  5. Preparation and characterization of exfoliated polyaniline/montmorillonite nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayanan, Binitha N.; Koodathil, Ranjana; Gangadharan, Tripti; Yaakob, Zahira; Saidu, Femina K.; Chandralayam, Soumini

    2010-01-01

    Transition metal ions were exchanged with the interlamellar cations of montmorillonite clays and polymerization of aniline was done within the layers. The delaminated clay layers upon ion exchange resulted in exfoliated polyaniline/clay nanocomposite formation which has profound effects on polymer structure, properties and electrical conduction mechanisms. Here we offer polyaniline (PANI)/montmorillonite exfoliated nanocomposite synthesized through a simple, cheap route which need not require complicated and less economical organophilic modification. The prepared composites were characterized using XRD, FTIR, and TG/DTA to prove exfoliation.

  6. Preparation and characterization of exfoliated polyaniline/montmorillonite nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narayanan, Binitha N., E-mail: binithann@yahoo.co.i [Department of Chemistry, Sree Neelakanta Government Sanskrit College, Pattambi, Palakkad 679306, Kerala (India); Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Koodathil, Ranjana; Gangadharan, Tripti [Department of Chemistry, Sree Neelakanta Government Sanskrit College, Pattambi, Palakkad 679306, Kerala (India); Yaakob, Zahira [Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Saidu, Femina K.; Chandralayam, Soumini [Department of Chemistry, Sree Neelakanta Government Sanskrit College, Pattambi, Palakkad 679306, Kerala (India)

    2010-04-15

    Transition metal ions were exchanged with the interlamellar cations of montmorillonite clays and polymerization of aniline was done within the layers. The delaminated clay layers upon ion exchange resulted in exfoliated polyaniline/clay nanocomposite formation which has profound effects on polymer structure, properties and electrical conduction mechanisms. Here we offer polyaniline (PANI)/montmorillonite exfoliated nanocomposite synthesized through a simple, cheap route which need not require complicated and less economical organophilic modification. The prepared composites were characterized using XRD, FTIR, and TG/DTA to prove exfoliation.

  7. Photodynamic diagnosis of bladder cancer in ex vivo urine cytology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, C. Y.; Ng, B. K.; Razul, S. Gulam; Olivo, Malini C.; Lau, Weber K. O.; Tan, P. H.; Chin, William

    2006-02-01

    Bladder cancer is the fourth common malignant disease worldwide, accounting for 4% of all cancer cases. In Singapore, it is the ninth most common form of cancer. The high mortality rate can be reduced by early treatment following precancerous screening. Currently, the gold standard for screening bladder tumors is histological examination of biopsy specimen, which is both invasive and time-consuming. In this study ex vivo urine fluorescence cytology is investigated to offer a timely and biopsy-free means for detecting bladder cancers. Sediments in patients' urine samples were extracted and incubated with a novel photosensitizer, hypericin. Laser confocal microscopy was used to capture the fluorescence images at an excitation wavelength of 488 nm. Images were subsequently processed to single out the exfoliated bladder cells from the other cells based on the cellular size. Intensity histogram of each targeted cell was plotted and feature vectors, derived from the histogram moments, were used to represent each sample. A difference in the distribution of the feature vectors of normal and low-grade cancerous bladder cells was observed. Diagnostic algorithm for discriminating between normal and low-grade cancerous cells is elucidated in this paper. This study suggests that the fluorescence intensity profiles of hypericin in bladder cells can potentially provide an automated quantitative means of early bladder cancer diagnosis.

  8. Internet-Based Cervical Cytology Screening System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilbur, David C; Crothers, Barbara A; Eichhorn, John H; Ro, Min S; Gelfand, Jeffrey A

    2007-01-01

    This project explores the combination of computerized automated primary screening of cervical cytology specimens in remote sites with interpretation of device-selected images transmitted via the Internet...

  9. Internet-Based Cervical Cytology Screening Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilbur, David C; Crothers, Barbara A; Eichhorn, John H; Ro, Min S; Gelfand, Jeffrey A

    2006-01-01

    This project explores the combination of computerized automated primary screening of cervical cytology specimens in remote sites with interpretation of device-selected images transmitted via the Internet...

  10. Using cytology to increase small animal practice revenue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Joanne

    2013-11-01

    Diagnostic cytology is a useful, noninvasive test with practical foundations in high-quality medicine and applications to practice building. Cytology will generate practice revenue whether assessed in-house or sent to a clinical pathologist. Thorough in-house evaluation is adequate in some cases, but expert opinion is important in many cases. Specimen slides should at least be reviewed in-house for assessment of cellularity and potential artifacts before submission to a reference laboratory. Reference laboratories also provide special stains and advanced molecular diagnostics to help further characterize many neoplastic processes, search for organisms, identify pigments, and address other important aspects of the lesion. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Cytological investigations in populations of D. melanogaster exposed to radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wienberg, J.

    1983-01-01

    The study described was carried out to investigate structural changes in the chromosomes of irradiated populations of D.melanogaster that can be analysed on the basis of cytological methods. It mainly dealt with two particular aspects of this subject: I. Different types of chromosomes (polytene chromosomes, mitotic and meiotic chromosomes) were used to examine whether and to which extent chromosomal variability would alter or remain unchanged under the influence of mutation. II. The prophase of the first division of female cells was analysed with respect to the role of resistance factor rar-2. In this connection, it was of interest whether the prophase of meiosis would show visible cytological changes in the interchromosomal structure that are caused by factor rar-2. (orig./MG) [de

  12. Genotoxic and histopathological biomarkers for assessing the effects of magnetic exfoliated vermiculite and exfoliated vermiculite in Danio rerio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cáceres-Vélez, Paolin Rocio; Fascineli, Maria Luiza; Koppe Grisolia, Cesar; Oliveira Lima, Emília Celma de; Sousa, Marcelo Henrique; Morais, Paulo César de; Bentes de Azevedo, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic exfoliated vermiculite is a synthetic nanocomposite that quickly and efficiently absorbs organic compounds such as oil from water bodies. It was developed primarily to mitigate pollution, but the possible adverse impacts of its application have not yet been evaluated. In this context, the acute toxicity of magnetic exfoliated vermiculite and exfoliated vermiculite was herein assessed by genotoxic and histopathological biomarkers in zebrafish (Danio rerio). DNA fragmentation was statistically significant for all groups exposed to the magnetic exfoliated vermiculite and for fish exposed to the highest concentration (200 mg/L) of exfoliated vermiculite, whereas the micronucleus frequency, nuclear abnormalities and histopathological alterations were not statistically significant for the fish exposed to these materials. In the intestinal lumen, epithelial cells and goblet cells, we found the presence of magnetic exfoliated vermiculite and exfoliated vermiculite, but no alterations or presence of the materials-test in the gills or liver were observed. Our findings suggest that the use of magnetic exfoliated vermiculite and exfoliated vermiculite during standard ecotoxicological assays caused DNA damage in D. rerio, whose alterations may be likely to be repaired, indicating that the magnetic nanoparticles have the ability to promote genotoxic damage, such as DNA fragmentation, but not mutagenic effects. - Highlights: • MEV is a synthetic nanocomposite that quickly and efficiently absorbs organic compounds such as oil from water bodies. • The use of MEV and EV during standard ecotoxicological assays caused DNA fragmentation in zebrafish. • The magnetic nanoparticles showed ability to promote genotoxic damage, but did not induce micronucleus in peripheral erythrocytes at 96 h of exposure. • The tested concentrations of MEV and EV do not cause significant histopathological alterations in the gills, liver and intestine of zebrafish.

  13. Genotoxic and histopathological biomarkers for assessing the effects of magnetic exfoliated vermiculite and exfoliated vermiculite in Danio rerio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cáceres-Vélez, Paolin Rocio; Fascineli, Maria Luiza; Koppe Grisolia, Cesar [Department of Genetics and Morphology, Institute of Biological Sciences, Brasília University, Brasília (Brazil); Oliveira Lima, Emília Celma de [Chemistry Institute, Federal University of Goiás, Goiânia (Brazil); Sousa, Marcelo Henrique [Green Nanotechnology Group, Faculty of Ceilândia, Brasília University, Brasília (Brazil); Morais, Paulo César de [Physics Institute, Brasília University, Brasília (Brazil); Huazhong University of Science and Technology, School of Automation, Wuhan 430074 (China); Bentes de Azevedo, Ricardo, E-mail: razevedo@unb.br [Department of Genetics and Morphology, Institute of Biological Sciences, Brasília University, Brasília (Brazil)

    2016-05-01

    Magnetic exfoliated vermiculite is a synthetic nanocomposite that quickly and efficiently absorbs organic compounds such as oil from water bodies. It was developed primarily to mitigate pollution, but the possible adverse impacts of its application have not yet been evaluated. In this context, the acute toxicity of magnetic exfoliated vermiculite and exfoliated vermiculite was herein assessed by genotoxic and histopathological biomarkers in zebrafish (Danio rerio). DNA fragmentation was statistically significant for all groups exposed to the magnetic exfoliated vermiculite and for fish exposed to the highest concentration (200 mg/L) of exfoliated vermiculite, whereas the micronucleus frequency, nuclear abnormalities and histopathological alterations were not statistically significant for the fish exposed to these materials. In the intestinal lumen, epithelial cells and goblet cells, we found the presence of magnetic exfoliated vermiculite and exfoliated vermiculite, but no alterations or presence of the materials-test in the gills or liver were observed. Our findings suggest that the use of magnetic exfoliated vermiculite and exfoliated vermiculite during standard ecotoxicological assays caused DNA damage in D. rerio, whose alterations may be likely to be repaired, indicating that the magnetic nanoparticles have the ability to promote genotoxic damage, such as DNA fragmentation, but not mutagenic effects. - Highlights: • MEV is a synthetic nanocomposite that quickly and efficiently absorbs organic compounds such as oil from water bodies. • The use of MEV and EV during standard ecotoxicological assays caused DNA fragmentation in zebrafish. • The magnetic nanoparticles showed ability to promote genotoxic damage, but did not induce micronucleus in peripheral erythrocytes at 96 h of exposure. • The tested concentrations of MEV and EV do not cause significant histopathological alterations in the gills, liver and intestine of zebrafish.

  14. Evaluation of a Direct Immunofluorescent Assay and/or Conjunctival Cytology for Detection of Canine Distemper Virus Antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanasiou, Labrini V; Kantere, Maria C; Kyriakis, Constantinos S; Pardali, Dimitra; Adamama Moraitou, Katerina; Polizopoulou, Zoe S

    2018-04-01

    Canine distemper is a common and potentially lethal multisystemic disease caused by the Canine distemper virus (CDV). We evaluated the diagnostic performance of direct immunofluorescent assay (FA) and cytology to detect CDV antigen in conjunctival cells compared with an established polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection assay used as a gold standard for CDV diagnosis. Samples were collected from 57 young dogs presenting with central nervous system signs compatible with distemper disease. Exfoliative epithelial cells were collected from the right and left conjunctiva of each animal using nylon-bristled cytobrushes for cytology and cotton swabs for FA and PCR. For the direct FA, samples were stained with anti-CDV polyclonal antiserum conjugated to fluorescein isothiocyanate and imaged using a fluorescent microscope. Out of 57 dogs tested, 19 were PCR positive (15 positive in direct FA and 4 positive in cytology, including one that was negative by PCR), whereas 37 dogs were negative in all methods. A good agreement was observed between the FA and PCR, with a κ-value of 0.833 (95% CI: 0.678-0.989). Meanwhile, there was poor agreement between cytology and PCR (κ-value of 0.164; 95% CI: -0.045 to 0.373) and a fair agreement between FA and cytology (κ-value of 0.231; 95% CI: -0.026 to 0.487). Our results indicated a poor performance of cytology for the detection of CDV antigen. In contrast, FA is a 100% specific and an adequately sensitive assay (sensitivity: 78.95%, negative likelihood ratio: 0.21, 95% CI: 0.09-0.50) for antemortem diagnosis of canine distemper.

  15. Surface Modification of Exfoliated Graphite Nano-Reinforcements, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Phase I results showed that two surface treatments, oxidative plasma and reactive finishes, are effective means of modifying the surface chemistry of exfoliated...

  16. Expansion and exfoliation of graphite to form graphene

    KAUST Repository

    Patole, Shashikan P.; Da Costa, Pedro M. F. J.

    2017-01-01

    Graphene production methods are described based on subjecting non- covalent graphite intercalated compounds, such as graphite bisulfate, to expansion conditions such as shocks of heat and/or microwaves followed by turbulence-assisted exfoliation

  17. Adhesive tape exfoliation: Why it works for graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohr, Jakob

    2015-03-01

    Single-crystal graphite can be cleaved by the use of an adhesive tape. This was also the initial route for obtaining graphene, a one-layer thick graphite slab. In this letter a few simple and fun considerations are presented in an attempt to shed some light on why this procedure is successful. In particular on the nature of the surprisingly small number of repetitive steps that are needed in order to obtain a single-layer slab. Two frameworks for exfoliation are investigated: parallel exfoliation involving repetitive simultaneous cleaving, the other, serial exfoliation, which involves the repetitive cleaving of a single chunk of graphite. For both cases, parallel and serial exfoliation, it is investigated how many generations of cleavages are needed. An approximate model with the probability distribution expressed as a simple closed form is presented and compared with the simulations.

  18. Group B streptococcus exploits vaginal epithelial exfoliation for ascending infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vornhagen, Jay; Armistead, Blair; Santana-Ufret, Verónica; Gendrin, Claire; Merillat, Sean; Coleman, Michelle; Quach, Phoenicia; Boldenow, Erica; Alishetti, Varchita; Leonhard-Melief, Christina; Ngo, Lisa Y; Whidbey, Christopher; Doran, Kelly S; Curtis, Chad; Waldorf, Kristina M Adams; Nance, Elizabeth; Rajagopal, Lakshmi

    2018-04-09

    Thirteen percent of pregnancies result in preterm birth or stillbirth, accounting for fifteen million preterm births and three and a half million deaths annually. A significant cause of these adverse pregnancy outcomes is in utero infection by vaginal microorganisms. To establish an in utero infection, vaginal microbes enter the uterus by ascending infection; however, the mechanisms by which this occurs are unknown. Using both in vitro and murine models of vaginal colonization and ascending infection, we demonstrate how a vaginal microbe, group B streptococcus (GBS), which is frequently associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, uses vaginal exfoliation for ascending infection. GBS induces vaginal epithelial exfoliation by activation of integrin and β-catenin signaling. However, exfoliation did not diminish GBS vaginal colonization as reported for other vaginal microbes. Rather, vaginal exfoliation increased bacterial dissemination and ascending GBS infection, and abrogation of exfoliation reduced ascending infection and improved pregnancy outcomes. Thus, for some vaginal bacteria, exfoliation promotes ascending infection rather than preventing colonization. Our study provides insight into mechanisms of ascending infection by vaginal microbes.

  19. What sampling device is the most appropriate for vaginal vault cytology in gynaecological cancer follow up?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lino, Del Pup; Vincenzo, Canzonieri; Diego, Serraino; Elio, Campagnutta

    2012-01-01

    In women with cancer-related hysterectomy, the vaginal vault cytology has a low efficacy - when performed by conventional methods – for the early detection of vaginal recurrence. The amount of exfoliated cells collected is generally low because of atrophy, and the vaginal vault corners can be so narrow that the commonly used Ayres spatula cannot often penetrate deeply into them. This prospective study aimed at identifying the advantages obtained in specimens collection using the cytobrush, as compared to the Ayres’s spatula. 141 gynaecologic cancer patients were studied to compare samplings collected with Ayre’s spatula or with cytobrush. In a pilot setting of 15 patients, vaginal cytology samples obtained by both Ayre’s spatula and cytobrush were placed at the opposite sites of a single slide for quali-quantitative evaluation. Thereafter, the remaining 126 consecutive women were assigned to either group A (spatula) or B (cytobrush) according to the order of entry. The same gynaecologist performed all the procedures. In all 15 pilot cases, the cytobrush seemed to collect a higher quantity of material. The comparative analysis of the two complete groups indicated that the cytobrush technique was more effective than the spatula one. The odds ratio (OR) for an optimal cytology using the cytobrush was 2.8 (95% confidence interval -C.I. 1.3–6.2; chi-square test, p=0.008). Vaginal vault cytology with cytobrush turned out to better perform than the traditional Ayre’s spatula to obtain an adequate sampling in gynecological cancer patients

  20. European Thyroid Association Guidelines regarding Thyroid Nodule Molecular Fine-Needle Aspiration Cytology Diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschke, Ralf; Cantara, Silvia; Crescenzi, Anna; Jarzab, Barbara; Musholt, Thomas J; Sobrinho Simoes, Manuel

    2017-07-01

    Molecular fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology diagnostics has the potential to address the inherent limitation of FNA cytology which is an indeterminate (atypia of undetermined significance/follicular lesion of undetermined significance follicular neoplasm) cytology. Because of the emerging role of molecular FNA cytology diagnostics, the European Thyroid Association convened a panel of international experts to review methodological aspects, indications, results, and limitations of molecular FNA cytology diagnostics. The panel reviewed the evidence for the diagnostic value of mutation panel assessment (including at least BRAF , NRAS , HRAS , KRAS , PAX8/PPARG , RET/PTC ) of targeted next generation sequencing and of a microarray gene expression classifier (GEC) test in the diagnostic assessment of an indeterminate cytology thyroid nodule. Moreover, possible surgical consequences of molecular FNA diagnostic results of thyroid nodules and the evidence that analysis of a molecular FNA diagnostic panel of somatic mutations or a microarray GEC test can alter the follow-up were reviewed. Molecular tests may help clinicians to drive patient care and the surgical decision if the analysis is performed in specialized laboratories. These molecular tests require standardization of performance characteristics and appropriate calibration as well as analytic validation before clinical interpretation.

  1. Abnormal cervical cytology and health care use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Maria Eiholm; Baillet, Miguel Vázquez-Prada; Dugué, Pierre-Antoine

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the long-term use of health care services in women with abnormal cytology results compared to women with normal cytology results. METHODS: We did a nationwide population-based study, using women aged 23 to 59years participating in the national organized...... cervical cancer screening program. We included a study population of 40,153 women with abnormal cytology (exposed) and 752,627 women with normal cytology (non-exposed). We retrieved data from the Danish Civil Registration System, the Danish Pathology Data Bank, the National Health Service, the National......" the cytology result and for the 5-year period "after" the result. RESULTS: During the "before" period exposed women had more contacts to GPs, more contacts to psychologists/psychiatrist, and more hospital admissions than non-exposed women. In both exposed and non-exposed women, health care use increased from...

  2. Chromosomal Damage and Apoptosis in Exfoliated Buccal Cells from Individuals with Oral Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dórea, Lavínia Tércia Magalhães; Meireles, José Roberto Cardoso; Lessa, Júlia Paula Ramos; Oliveira, Márcio Campos; de Bragança Pereira, Carlos Alberto; Polpo de Campos, Adriano; Cerqueira, Eneida de Moraes Macílio

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate cytological abnormalities indicative of chromosome damage (micronuclei) and apoptosis (karyorrhexis, pyknosis, and condensed chromatin) in exfoliated cells from the buccal mucosa of patients with oral cancer and control subjects. The sample included twenty individuals with oral cancer and forty individuals with normal buccal mucosa. Material was collected from the cheek epithelium in areas with lesions and areas without abnormalities. A minimum of one thousand cells was analyzed. Micronuclei were found significantly more frequently in cells collected from lesions than in cells from normal areas, independent of the presence/absence of cancer (P < 0.0001). They were also significantly more frequent in smokers and in mouthwash users (P < 0.0001). Apoptosis occurred significantly less frequently in individuals with oral cancer (P < 0.0001). These results show that oral cancer is associated with higher frequency of chromosomal damage and suggest that apoptosis is compromised in the buccal cells of individuals with this kind of neoplasia. PMID:22315605

  3. 42 CFR 493.1469 - Standard: Cytology general supervisor qualifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard: Cytology general supervisor... Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing High Complexity Testing § 493.1469 Standard: Cytology general supervisor qualifications. The cytology general supervisor must be qualified to supervise cytology services...

  4. 42 CFR 493.1471 - Standard: Cytology general supervisor responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard: Cytology general supervisor... Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing High Complexity Testing § 493.1471 Standard: Cytology general supervisor responsibilities. The technical supervisor of cytology may perform the duties of the cytology...

  5. [THE TECHNOLOGY "CELL BLOCK" IN CYTOLOGICAL PRACTICE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volchenko, N N; Borisova, O V; Baranova, I B

    2015-08-01

    The article presents summary information concerning application of "cell block" technology in cytological practice. The possibilities of implementation of various modern techniques (immune cytochemnical analysis. FISH, CISH, polymerase chain reaction) with application of "cell block" method are demonstrated. The original results of study of "cell block" technology made with gelatin, AgarCyto and Shadon Cyoblock set are presented. The diagnostic effectiveness of "cell block" technology and common cytological smear and also immune cytochemical analysis on samples of "cell block" technology and fluid cytology were compared. Actually application of "cell block" technology is necessary for ensuring preservation of cell elements for subsequent immune cytochemical and molecular genetic analysis.

  6. Controlling the properties of graphene produced by electrochemical exfoliation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, Mario; D Nguyễn, Tuân; Chiang, Wan-Yu; Hsieh, Ya-Ping

    2015-01-01

    The synthesis of graphene with controllable electronic and mechanical characteristics is of significant importance for its application in various fields ranging from drug delivery to energy storage. Electrochemical exfoliation of graphite has yielded graphene with widely varying behavior and could be a suitable approach. Currently, however the limited understanding of the exfoliation process obstructs targeted modification of graphene properties. We here investigate the process of electrochemical exfoliation and the impact of its parameters on the produced graphene. Using in situ optical and electrical measurements we determine that solvent intercalation is the required first step and the degree of intercalation controls the thickness of the exfoliated graphene. Electrochemical decomposition of water into gas bubbles causes the expansion of graphite and controls the functionalization and lateral size of the exfoliated graphene. Both process steps proceed at different time scales and can be individually addressed through application of pulsed voltages. The potential of the presented approach was demonstrated by improving the performance of graphene-based transparent conductors by 30times. (paper)

  7. In Situ Exfoliation of Graphene in Epoxy Resins: A Facile Strategy to Efficient and Large Scale Graphene Nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Zhang, Han; Crespo, Maria; Porwal, Harshit; Picot, Olivier; Santagiuliana, Giovanni; Huang, Zhaohui; Barbieri, Ettore; Pugno, Nicola M; Peijs, Ton; Bilotti, Emiliano

    2016-09-14

    Any industrial application aiming at exploiting the exceptional properties of graphene in composites or coatings is currently limited by finding viable production methods for large volumes of good quality and high aspect ratio graphene, few layer graphene (FLG) or graphite nanoplatelets (GNP). Final properties of the resulting composites are inherently related to those of the initial graphitic nanoparticles, which typically depend on time-consuming, resource-demanding and/or low yield liquid exfoliation processes. In addition, efficient dispersion of these nanofillers in polymer matrices, and their interaction, is of paramount importance. Here we show that it is possible to produce graphene/epoxy nanocomposites in situ and with high conversion of graphite to FLG/GNP through the process of three-roll milling (TRM), without the need of any additives, solvents, compatibilisers or chemical treatments. This readily scalable production method allows for more than 5 wt % of natural graphite (NG) to be directly exfoliated into FLG/GNP and dispersed in an epoxy resin. The in situ exfoliated graphitic nanoplatelets, with average aspect ratios of 300-1000 and thicknesses of 5-17 nm, were demonstrated to conferee exceptional enhancements in mechanical and electrical properties to the epoxy resin. The above conclusions are discussed and interpreted in terms of simple analytical models.

  8. Combined assessment (aspiration cytology and mammography) of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Combined assessment (aspiration cytology and mammography) of clinically suspicious breast masses. W.F. van Wyk, D Dent, E Anne Hacking, Genevieve Learmonth, R.E. Kottler, C Anne Gudgeon, A Tiltman ...

  9. The mechanisms of surface exfoliation in H and He implanted Si crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reboh, S.; Mattos, A.A.D. de; Schaurich, F.; Fichtner, P.F.P.; Beaufort, M.F.; Barbot, J.F.

    2011-01-01

    We report on the exfoliation mechanisms in light gas implanted Si. Microstructure characterization, extensive statistical analysis and solid mechanics theory show that exfoliation is caused by microcracks growing close to equilibrium pressure for high fluences. For lower fluences, cracks evolve at under-equilibrium pressure and exfoliation relies on a coalescence mechanism assisted by cleavage. This provides long-range, collective and efficient stress relief for clusters of cracks, causing enhancement of the exfoliation. The physical processes are independent of the irradiation energy.

  10. Expansion and exfoliation of graphite to form graphene

    KAUST Repository

    Patole, Shashikan P.

    2017-07-27

    Graphene production methods are described based on subjecting non- covalent graphite intercalated compounds, such as graphite bisulfate, to expansion conditions such as shocks of heat and/or microwaves followed by turbulence-assisted exfoliation to produce few-layer, high quality graphene flakes. Depending on the approach selected for the exfoliation step, free-flowing graphene powder, graphene slurry, or an aqueous graphene mixture can be obtained. Surfactants can aid in dispersion, and graphene inks can be formed. The parameters of the process are simple, efficient and low-cost enabling therefore the scale- up of production. Applications include electrodes and energy storage devices.

  11. Exfoliation and thermal transformations of Nb-substituted layered titanates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, H.; Sjåstad, Anja O.; Fjellvåg, Helmer

    2011-01-01

    Single-layer Nb-substituted titanate nanosheets of ca. 1 nm thickness were obtained by exfoliating tetrabutylammonium (TBA)-intercalated Nb-substituted titanates in water. AFM images and turbidity measurements reveal that the exfoliated nanosheets crack and corrugate when sonicated. Upon heating...... factors for increasing the transformation temperatures for conversion of the nanosheets to anatase and finally into rutile. It is further tempting to link the delay in crystallization to morphology limitations originating from the nanosheets. The present work shows that layered Nb-titanates...

  12. Friction anisotropy-driven domain imaging on exfoliated monolayer graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jin Sik; Kim, Jin-Soo; Byun, Ik-Su; Lee, Duk Hyun; Lee, Mi Jung; Park, Bae Ho; Lee, Changgu; Yoon, Duhee; Cheong, Hyeonsik; Lee, Ki Ho; Son, Young-Woo; Park, Jeong Young; Salmeron, Miquel

    2011-07-29

    Graphene produced by exfoliation has not been able to provide an ideal graphene with performance comparable to that predicted by theory, and structural and/or electronic defects have been proposed as one cause of reduced performance. We report the observation of domains on exfoliated monolayer graphene that differ by their friction characteristics, as measured by friction force microscopy. Angle-dependent scanning revealed friction anisotropy with a periodicity of 180° on each friction domain. The friction anisotropy decreased as the applied load increased. We propose that the domains arise from ripple distortions that give rise to anisotropic friction in each domain as a result of the anisotropic puckering of the graphene.

  13. Impression cytology diagnosis of ulcerative eyelid malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, S; Lyngdoh, A D; Pushker, N; Meel, R; Bajaj, M S; Chawla, B

    2015-02-01

    The utility of impression cytology in ocular diseases has predominantly been restricted to the diagnosis of dry eye, limbal stem cell deficiency and conjunctival neoplasias. Its role in malignant eyelid lesions remains largely unexplored. Although scrape cytology is more popular for cutaneous lesions, impression cytology, being non-traumatic, has an advantage in small and delicate areas such as the eyelid. The present study has been designed to evaluate its role in the diagnosis and management of malignant eyelid lesions. Thirty-two histopathologically proven malignant eyelid lesions diagnosed over a 2-year period, including 13 basal cell carcinomas, 11 sebaceous carcinomas, four squamous cell carcinomas, two malignant melanomas and two poorly differentiated carcinomas, formed the study group. The results of impression cytology were compared with those of histopathology in the study group and with an age- and sex-matched group of benign cases as controls. The sensitivity of impression cytology was 84% (27/32) for the diagnosis of malignancy and 28% (9/32) for categorization of the type of malignancy. Impression cytology is a simple, useful, non-invasive technique for the detection of malignant ulcerative eyelid lesions. It is especially useful as a follow-up technique for the detection of recurrences. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Flow cytometry in diagnostic cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, T J

    1998-01-01

    Flow cytometry (FCM) is a useful adjunct to cytologic examination, because the quantitative biochemical information it provides complements the morphologic information gained during visual examination. It aids in the interpretation of bladder washings, and is particularly useful for the assessment of lymphoid lesions, whether they originate from fine-needle aspiration, cerebrospinal fluid, or effusions. Optimal use of FCM frequently requires assessment of more than one parameter; simultaneous use of cell differentiation markers and nuclear DNA quantitation is often significantly more useful than either alone. Despite the utility of FCM, however, the potential for future development appears to be limited. Improvements in image cytometry allow reasonable assessment of ploidy and S-fraction to be made from specimens prepared on glass slides. Multiparameter measurements may also be accomplished with imaging techniques, which allow the further advantage of visual identification of cells with equivocal morphologic changes. The development of artificial intelligence methods for use with imaging technology has also significantly exceeded that of FCM. Finally, image cytometry is often more useful for samples with few cells. Other challenges are posed by immunocytochemical methods which compete with flow cytometry as tools for assessment of proliferation. Given the relatively high cost of FCM instrumentation, survival of FCM as an ancillary technique in cytopathology will require further technical refinements to offset the advantages currently associated with image cytometry and immunocytochemistry.

  15. Impression cytology in the evaluation of ocular surface tumors: review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeison de Nadai Barros

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Impression cytology (IC has been widely used as a method for evaluating the ocular surface and superficial cells layers in the diagnosis and follow-up after treatment of several ocular surface tumors of both epithelial and melanocytic origin. Information regarding this can be found in the English-language literature since 1992. Using either cellulose acetate or Biopore membranes for specimen collection, a high correlation has been found between IC and tissue histology. Compared with exfoliative cytology with spatula, IC is less traumatic to the patient’s eye, provides a precise location of the area being studied, and allows accurate observation of the cells the way they exist in vivo. The additional advantage of IC is the preservation of limbal stem cells responsible for continuous corneal epithelium renewal; these can be affected after incisional or excisional biopsy at the corneoscleral limbus, which is the most frequent site of appearance of tumors in the stratified epithelium. Treatment for ocular surface squamous neoplasia has historically included surgery, but nonsurgical interventions have also been adopted. Hence, in certain cases, ophthalmologists may prefer interventions less invasive than surgical biopsy such as of impression cytology for both initial diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of treatment for ocular surface lesions. Nevertheless, it should be considered that IC may be less helpful if the results conflict with the clinical picture or if the clinical diagnosis is uncertain and results are negative. In such cases, surgical biopsy is required for accurate diagnosis. The purpose of this review is to examine the published literature on the utilization of IC for the diagnosis and management of ocular surface tumors and to discuss the requirement for further investigation on the subject.

  16. Diagnostic p53 immunostaining of endobiliary brush cytology: preoperative cytology compared with the surgical specimen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tascilar, M.; Sturm, P. D.; Caspers, E.; Smit, M.; Polak, M. M.; Huibregtse, K.; Noorduyn, L. A.; Offerhaus, G. J.

    1999-01-01

    Endobiliary brush cytology is important in the distinction of malignant and benign causes of extrahepatic bile duct obstruction. The additional diagnostic value of p53 immunostaining on these cytology specimens was assessed. All patients with extrahepatic bile duct obstruction who underwent

  17. Automotive body panel containing thermally exfoliated graphite oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prud'Homme, Robert K. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor); Adamson, Douglas (Inventor); Abdala, Ahmed (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An automotive body panel containing a polymer composite formed of at least one polymer and a modified graphite oxide material, which is a thermally exfoliated graphite oxide with a surface area of from about 300 m.sup.2/g to 2600 m.sup.2/g.

  18. Exfoliative Dermatitis Due To Carbamazepine In An Epileptic Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghosh Sadhan Kr

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available A young epileptic girl of 17 years who was being treated with carbamazepine suddenly developed exanthematous skin eruption all over the body resulting in exfoliative dermatitis within 2 days of onset. The drug was withdrawn and the patient responded well with symptomatic treatment.

  19. Imprint cytology: A boon in tissue diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charusheela Rajesh Gore

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The technique of imprint cytology has provided great impetus to cytodiagnosis due to its simplicity, cost effectiveness, rapid results. It plays a significant role in the rapid diagnosis of the lesions. Objectives: To analyze the sensitivity and specificity of imprint cytology and thereby to evaluate its diagnostic utility. Materials and Methods: The prospective study was carried out in a tertiary care hospital. It included 105 cases. Both benign and malignant lesions from different organ systems were included in the study. Various techniques like touch imprints scrape cytology and squash preparations were used according to the nature of tissue sample. The cytodiagnosis was correlated with histopathological (HP diagnosis to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of imprint cytology. Results: Maximum lesions were of central nervous system (25.7% followed by breast, head, and neck. Imprint cytology diagnosis had sensitivity of 95.5% with 100% specificity for detection of benign and malignant lesions. Overall accuracy of detecting type of lesion was 98.1%. Total discordance with HP diagnosis was found in 1.9% of cases. Conclusion: The use of smear technique in intraoperative diagnosis provides a rapid and efficient means of pathological assessment which in experienced hand, is capable of obtaining a high degree of accuracy. Its use is highly recommended routinely.

  20. [Fine needle aspiration cytology of mammography screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engvad, B.; Laenkholm, A.V.; Schwartz, Thue W.

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In the year 2000 a quality assurance programme for the preoperative breast diagnostics was introduced in Denmark. The programme was based on the "European guidelines for quality assurance in breast cancer screening and diagnosis" where - among other measures - five cytological...... diagnostic classes were introduced. The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality assurance programme in a screening population to determine whether fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) as first choice remains a useful tool in the preoperative diagnostics, or if needle core biopsy should be the first...... of 66% of the 783 FNACs had a malignant cytology diagnosis, which in 99% of the cases turned out to be the correct diagnosis. Four lesions were false positives all of which represented benign proliferative breast diseases. The surgical procedures in these cases were either excisional biopsy...

  1. Prevalence of anal cytological abnormalities in women with positive cervical cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calore, Edenilson E; Giaccio, Claudia Maria Serafim; Nadal, Sidney R

    2011-05-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of cytological abnormalities of the anal mucosa in women with positive cervical cytology, but without macroscopic anal lesion. Ultimately we postulated if the anal mucosa may be a reservoir of HPV, which would allow the reinfection of cervix. Forty-nine patients with abnormal cervical cytology were selected for this work. In a period not exceeding one week of collecting cervix cytology, two swab specimens of the anal canal were also collected. Women diagnosed with cervical HSIL by Pap smear were referred for colposcopy with biopsy of the lesions, to confirm the cytologic diagnosis and ablation of the lesion. We demonstrated a high prevalence of anal squamous intraepithelial lesions in patients with cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions (29 of the total of 49 patients = 59.2%). Of the 20 cases of cervical LSIL, 11 (55%) had abnormal anal cytology. Of the 26 cases with cervical HSIL, 16 (61.5%) had abnormal anal cytology. So, there was a discrete higher prevalence of abnormal anal cytology in cases of high-grade cervical squamous lesions (cervical HSIL). These results help to support the hypothesis that the anal mucosa is a reservoir of HPV, which can be a source of re-infection for the cervix. However, there was no significant association between the practice of anal sex and the prevalence of anal cytological abnormalities. These facts are epidemiologically important for future programs for population eradication of cervical lesions related to HPV. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2011;39:323-327. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. 42 CFR 493.855 - Standard; Cytology: gynecologic examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard; Cytology: gynecologic examinations. 493... Complexity, Or Any Combination of These Tests § 493.855 Standard; Cytology: gynecologic examinations. To participate successfully in a cytology proficiency testing program for gynecologic examinations (Pap smears...

  3. 42 CFR 493.945 - Cytology; gynecologic examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cytology; gynecologic examinations. 493.945 Section... Nonwaived Testing Proficiency Testing Programs by Specialty and Subspecialty § 493.945 Cytology; gynecologic... gynecologic examinations (Pap smears) in cytology, a program must provide test sets composed of 10- and 20...

  4. Management of Cervical Cytology with HPV Test

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Dr. Stewart Massad, a professor in the Division of Gynecologic Oncology at Washington University in Saint Louis and a board member of the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Cancer Prevention (ASCCP), talks about ASCCP's 2006 Consensus Guidelines on the management of abnormal cervical cytology and histology.

  5. Orofacial pain and headaches associated with exfoliation glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noma, Noboru; Iwasa, Mayumi; Young, Andrew; Ikeda, Mariko; Hsu, Yung-Chu; Yamamoto, Maasa; Inoue, Kenji; Imamura, Yoshiki

    2017-12-01

    Exfoliation syndrome is the most common identifiable cause of open-angle glaucoma. The authors report a case of exfoliation glaucoma in a patient who had orofacial pain. A 77-year-old woman was treated at the orofacial pain clinic for left-sided facial pain and headaches of 7 months' duration. Her cataracts and open-angle glaucoma had been diagnosed approximately 3 years earlier. Her main symptoms were orofacial pain, eye redness, inflammation of the eyelids, and eyelid edema. Magnetic resonance imaging showed no evidence of intracranial or extracranial pathology. Hemicrania continua was considered as a possible diagnosis. Indomethacin was prescribed but did not affect her headaches. She then went to an ophthalmologist to rule out secondary headaches. Intraocular pressure was 13 millimeters of mercury in the right eye and 67 mm Hg in the left eye. The ophthalmologist made a diagnosis of exfoliation glaucoma, and the patient underwent surgical treatment for the glaucoma and cataracts. After surgery, she was free of symptoms, and intraocular pressure was 15 mm Hg in the left eye. During differential diagnosis, dentists need to consider intraoral and systemic conditions that can mimic odontogenic or orofacial pain disorders in the patient's medical history and that have a higher incidence associated with the patient's age. Copyright © 2017 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Intercalation and Exfoliation of Kaolinite with Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaochao Zuo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Kaolinite (Kaol was intercalated with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO and subsequently methanol (MeOH to prepare intercalation compounds Kaol-DMSO and Kaol-MeOH. Kaol-MeOH was used as an intermediate to synthesize Kaol-sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS intercalation compound (Kaol-SDS via displacement reaction. The ultrasonic exfoliation of Kaol-SDS produced a resultant Kaol-SDS-U. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, thermal analysis, scanning electronic microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and particle size analysis. The results revealed that the intercalation of sodium dodecyl sulfate into kaolinite layers caused an obvious increase of the basal spacing from 0.72–4.21 nm. The dehydroxylation temperature of Kaol-SDS was obviously lower than that of original kaolinite. During the intercalation process of sodium dodecyl sulfate, a few kaolinite layers were exfoliated and curled up from the edges of the kaolinite sheets. After sonication treatment, the kaolinite layers were further transformed into nanoscrolls, and the exfoliated resultant Kaol-SDS-U possessed a smaller particle size close to nanoscale.

  7. Accuracy of reading liquid based cytology slides using the ThinPrep Imager compared with conventional cytology: prospective study

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Assuncao, Jefferson; Irwig, Les; Macaskill, Petra; Chan, Siew F; Richards, Adele; Farnsworth, Annabelle

    2007-01-01

    Objective To compare the accuracy of liquid based cytology using the computerised ThinPrep Imager with that of manually read conventional cytology. Design Prospective study. Setting Pathology laboratory in Sydney, Australia. Participants 55 164 split sample pairs (liquid based sample collected after conventional sample from one collection) from consecutive samples of women choosing both types of cytology and whose specimens were examined between August 2004 and June 2005. Main outcome measures Primary outcome was accuracy of slides for detecting squamous lesions. Secondary outcomes were rate of unsatisfactory slides, distribution of squamous cytological classifications, and accuracy of detecting glandular lesions. Results Fewer unsatisfactory slides were found for imager read cytology than for conventional cytology (1.8% v 3.1%; Pcytology (7.4% v 6.0% overall and 2.8% v 2.2% for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia of grade 1 or higher). Among 550 patients in whom imager read cytology was cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 1 or higher and conventional cytology was less severe than grade 1, 133 of 380 biopsy samples taken were high grade histology. Among 294 patients in whom imager read cytology was less severe than cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 1 and conventional cytology was grade 1 or higher, 62 of 210 biopsy samples taken were high grade histology. Imager read cytology therefore detected 71 more cases of high grade histology than did conventional cytology, resulting from 170 more biopsies. Similar results were found when one pathologist reread the slides, masked to cytology results. Conclusion The ThinPrep Imager detects 1.29 more cases of histological high grade squamous disease per 1000 women screened than conventional cytology, with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 1 as the threshold for referral to colposcopy. More imager read slides than conventional slides were satisfactory for examination and more contained low grade cytological

  8. Positive detection of exfoliated colon cancer cells on linear stapler cartridges was associated with depth of tumor invasion and preoperative bowel preparation in colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikehara, Kishiko; Endo, Shungo; Kumamoto, Kensuke; Hidaka, Eiji; Ishida, Fumio; Tanaka, Jun-Ichi; Kudo, Shin-Ei

    2016-08-31

    The aim of this study was to investigate exfoliated cancer cells (ECCs) on linear stapler cartridges used for anastomotic sites in colon cancer. We prospectively analyzed ECCs on linear stapler cartridges used for anastomosis in 100 colon cancer patients who underwent colectomy. Having completed the functional end-to-end anastomosis, the linear stapler cartridges were irrigated with saline, which was collected for cytological examination and cytological diagnoses were made by board-certified pathologists based on Papanicolaou staining. The detection rate of ECCs on the linear stapler cartridges was 20 %. Positive detection of ECCs was significantly associated with depth of tumor invasion (p = 0.012) and preoperative bowel preparation (p = 0.003). There were no marked differences between ECC-positive and ECC-negative groups in terms of the operation methods, tumor location, histopathological classification, and surgical margins. Since ECCs were identified on the cartridge of the linear stapler used for anastomosis, preoperative mechanical bowel preparation using polyethylene glycol solution and cleansing at anastomotic sites using tumoricidal agents before anastomosis may be necessary to decrease ECCs in advanced colon cancer.

  9. Genetic damage in exfoliated cells from oral mucosa of individuals exposed to X-rays during panoramic dental radiographies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerqueira, E M M; Gomes-Filho, I S; Trindade, S; Lopes, M A; Passos, J S; Machado-Santelli, G M

    2004-08-08

    The genotoxic effects of X-ray emitted during dental panoramic radiography were evaluated in exfoliated cells from oral epithelium through a differentiated protocol of the micronucleus test. Thirty-one healthy individuals agreed to participate in this study and were submitted to this procedure for diagnosis purpose after being requested by the dentist. All of them answered a questionnaire before the examination. Cells were obtained from both sides of the cheek by gentle scrapping with a cervical brush, immediately before the exposure and after 10 days. Cytological preparations were stained according to Feulgen-Rossenbeck reaction and analyzed under light and laser scanning confocal microscopies. Micronuclei, nuclear projections (buds and broken eggs) and degenerative nuclear alterations (condensed chromatin, karyolysis and karyorrhexis) were scored. The frequencies of micronuclei, karyolysis and pycnosis were similar before and after exposure (P > 0.90), whereas the condensation of the chromatin and the karyorrhexis increased significantly after exposure (P structures are associated to the normal epithelium differentiation. The results suggest that the X-ray exposure during panoramic dental radiography induces a cytotoxic effect by increasing apoptosis. We also believe that the score of other nuclear alterations in addition to the micronucleus improves the sensitivity of genotoxic effects detection.

  10. p16/ki-67 dual-stain cytology in the triage of ASCUS and LSIL papanicolaou cytology: results from the European equivocal or mildly abnormal Papanicolaou cytology study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Dietmar; Bergeron, Christine; Denton, Karin J; Ridder, Ruediger

    2011-06-25

    The objective of this study was to analyze the diagnostic performance of a newly established immunocytochemical dual-stain protocol, which simultaneously detects p16(INK4a) and Ki-67 expression in cervical cytology samples, for identifying high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN2+) in women with Papanicolaou (Pap) cytology results categorized as atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) or low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL). Residual liquid-based cytology material from 776 retrospectively collected ASCUS/LSIL cases that were available from a recent study evaluating p16 cytology and HPV testing were subjected to p16/Ki-67 dual staining. The presence of 1 or more double-immunoreactive cell(s) was regarded as a positive test outcome, irrespective of morphology. Test results were correlated to histology follow-up. Sensitivity of p16/Ki-67 dual-stain cytology for biopsy-confirmed CIN2+ was 92.2% (ASCUS) and 94.2% (LSIL), while specificity rates were 80.6% (ASCUS) and 68.0% (LSIL), respectively. Similar sensitivity/specificity profiles were found for both age groups of women aged aged ≥30 years. Dual-stain cytology showed comparable sensitivity, but significantly higher specificity, when compared with human papillomavirus (HPV) testing. The results of this study show that p16/Ki-67 dual-stain cytology provided a high sensitivity for the detection of underlying CIN2+ in women with ASCUS or LSIL Pap cytology results, comparable to the rates previously reported for HPV testing and p16 single-stain cytology. However, the specificity of this morphology-independent interpretation of p16/Ki-67 dual-stain cytology testing was further improved compared with the earlier p16 single-stain cytology approach, which required morphology interpretation, and it is significantly higher when compared with HPV testing. Copyright © 2011 American Cancer Society.

  11. Sputum cytology of a metastatic postradiation sarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Toshio; Murakami, Itsuko; Awai, Seiji; Ogura, Yasuko; Morishita, Yumiko

    1981-01-01

    A female patient who died of apparent postradiation sarcoma in the inguinal region after irradiating a metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the same site was reported. For approximately 20 months, the patient had received a total of 6,600 and 9,600 Roentgen to the right para-aortic and inguinal areas, respectively. About 10 years later, she developed a sarcoma, namely a malignant fibrous histiocytoma. Sputum cytology demonstrated numerous giant cells with bizarre nuclei; subsequent chest films also presented apparent metastatic tumor shadows. The cellular characteristics and also rather low incidence of detection of nonepithelial malignant tumor by sputum cytology were briefly discussed, and ways of enhancing cytodiagnostic accuracy were proposed. (author)

  12. [Fine needle aspiration cytology of mammography screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engvad, B.; Laenkholm, A.V.; Schwartz, Thue W.

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In the year 2000 a quality assurance programme for the preoperative breast diagnostics was introduced in Denmark. The programme was based on the "European guidelines for quality assurance in breast cancer screening and diagnosis" where - among other measures - five cytological......-choice treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 767 women had FNAC performed from a total of 783 lesions at the Mammography Clinic, University Hospital Odense. All FNACs were compared with the final histology diagnosis. Nine statistical parameters were calculated according to the European guidelines. RESULTS: A total...... of 66% of the 783 FNACs had a malignant cytology diagnosis, which in 99% of the cases turned out to be the correct diagnosis. Four lesions were false positives all of which represented benign proliferative breast diseases. The surgical procedures in these cases were either excisional biopsy...

  13. Frequency of unsatisfactory cervical cytology smears in cancer screening of Japanese women: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosono, Satoyo; Terasawa, Teruhiko; Katayama, Takafumi; Sasaki, Seiju; Hoshi, Keika; Hamashima, Chisato

    2018-04-01

    The Bethesda system (TBS) has been used for cervical cytological diagnosis in Japan since 2008. Evaluation of specimen adequacy is the most important aspect of quality assurance and for precise diagnosis in TBS. A systematic review and meta-analysis were carried out to assess the unsatisfactory specimen rate in the primary cervical cancer screening setting in Japan. Ovid Medline and Ichushi-Web databases were searched from inception through to May 2017. Prospective and retrospective studies that reported the proportion of unsatisfactory specimens in healthy asymptomatic Japanese women in a cervical cancer screening program were eligible for inclusion; 17 studies were included in the meta-analysis. The random-effects model meta-analysis calculated summary estimates of the unsatisfactory rate of 0.60% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.18-1.96%; I 2 = 99%) for conventional cytology and 0.04% (95% CI, 0.00-0.35%; I 2 = 99%) for liquid-based cytology (LBC). However, comparative results between conventional and liquid-based cytology, based on four direct and nine comparative studies, showed no significant difference (summary odds ratio = 3.5 × 10 -2 favoring LBC [95% CI, 6.9 × 10 -4 -1.7]; I 2 = 98%). In the subgroup analyses and meta-regressions, use of non-cotton devices for conventional cytology and use of a particular platform for LBC were associated with lower unsatisfactory rates. Meta-regression also suggested chronological improvement in unsatisfactory rates for both tests. In Japanese cervical cancer screening programs, conventional cytology remains prevalent. Future research needs to focus on evaluating the impact of screening programs using LBC by comparing the accuracy, performance, and cost-effectiveness with conventional cytology in the Japanese population. © 2018 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  14. Management of Cervical Cytology with HPV Test

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-15

    Dr. Stewart Massad, a professor in the Division of Gynecologic Oncology at Washington University in Saint Louis and a board member of the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Cancer Prevention (ASCCP), talks about ASCCP's 2006 Consensus Guidelines on the management of abnormal cervical cytology and histology.  Created: 10/15/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  15. Fine needle aspiration cytology in leprosy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad PVS

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Laboratory diagnosis of leprosy by slit skin smear and skin biopsy is simple but both techniques have their own limitations. Slit skin smear is negative in paucibacillary cases whereas skin biopsy is an invasive technique. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC from skin lesions in leprosy with subsequent staining with May-Grunwald-Giemsa (MGG stain has been found useful. Aim: To evaluate the possible role of cytology in classifying leprosy patients. Methods: Seventy-five untreated cases of leprosy attending the outpatient department were evaluated. Smears were taken from their skin lesions and stained using the MGG technique. Skin biopsy was also done from the lesions, which was compared with cytology smears. Results: A correlation of clinical features with FNAC was noticed in 87.5% of TT, 92.1% of BT, 81% of BL, and 66% of LL cases. Correlation of clinical with histopathological diagnoses revealed 12.5% specificity in TT leprosy, 55.3% in BT, 52.4% in BL and 50% in LL, and 100% in neuritic and histoid leprosy cases. Both correlations were found to be statistically significant by paired t test analysis. Thus, it was possible to distinguish the tuberculoid types by the presence of epithelioid cells and the lepromatous types by the presence of lymphocytes and foamy macrophages. Conclusion: FNAC may be used to categorize the patients into paucibacillary and multibacillary types, but is not a very sensitive tool to classify the patients across the Ridley-Jopling spectrum.

  16. Routine Treatment of Cervical Cytological Cell Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, J.; Pötsch, B.; Gantschacher, M.; Templ, M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Diagnosis and treatment of vaginal and cervical cytological cell changes are described in European and national guidelines. The aim of this data collection was to evaluate the remission rates of PAP III and PAP III D cytological findings in patients over a period of 3–4 months. Method: The current state of affairs in managing suspicious and cytological findings (PAP III, and III D) in gynecological practice was assessed in the context of a data collection survey. An evaluation over a period of 24 months was conducted on preventative measures, the occurrence and changes to normal/suspect/pathological findings and therapy management (for suspicious or pathological findings). Results: 307 female patients were included in the analysis. At the time of the survey 186 patients (60.6 %) had PAP III and 119 (38.8 %) had PAP III D findings. The spontaneous remission rate of untreated PAP III patients was 6 % and that of untreated PAP III D patients was 11 %. The remission rates of patients treated with a vaginal gel were 77 % for PAP III and 71 % for PAP III D. Conclusion: A new treatment option was used in gynecological practice on patients with PAP III and PAP III D findings between confirmation and the next follow-up with excellent success. PMID:27761030

  17. Impact of Internet on Cytology Information Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luić, Ljerka; Molnar, Livia

    2016-01-01

    Internet technologies and services impose global information standards in the sphere of healthcare as a whole, which are then implied and applied in the domain of cytology laboratories. Web-based operations form a significant operating segment of any contemporary cytology laboratory as they enable operations by the use of technology, which is usually free of the restrictions imposed by the traditional way of business (geographic area and narrow localisation of activities). In their operations, almost all healthcare organisations currently create and use electronic data anddocuments, which can originate both inside and outside the organisation. An enormous amount of information thus used and exchanged may be processed timely and in a high-quality way only by integrated information systems, given three basic safety requirements: data confidentiality, integrity and availability. In the Republic of Croatia, integration of private and public healthcare information systems has been ongoing for several years but the private healthcare does not yet operate as an integrated system. Instead, each office operates using its own separate information system, i.e. This paper elaborates the argument that the sample private cytology laboratory possesses an IT system that meets current market and stakeholder needs of the healthcare sector in Croatia, given that private doctors' offices/polyclinics use IT technologies in their operations but make only partial use of Internet capacities in the segment of communication with their business associates and patients, implying the need to continue the research on a statistically relevant sample of EU countries.

  18. [Why is cytology a profession (branch), not a method? Ten rules for success of the cytology profession].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kardum-Skelin, Ika

    2011-09-01

    Clinical cytology is an interdisciplinary medical diagnostic profession that integrates clinical, laboratory and analytical fields along with final cytologist's expert opinion. Cytology involves nonaggressive, minimally invasive and simple for use procedures that are fully acceptable for the patient. Cytology offers rapid orientation, while in combination with additional technologies on cytologic smear analysis (cytochemistry, immunocytochemistry for cell marker analysis, computer image analysis) or sophisticated methods on cytologic samples (flow cytometry, molecular and cytogenetic analysis) it plays a major role in the diagnosis, subtyping and prognosis of malignant tumors. Ten rules for successful performance in cytology are as follows: 1) due knowledge of overall cytology (general cytologist); 2) inclusion in all stages of cytologic sample manipulation from sampling through reporting; 3) due knowledge of additional technologies to provide appropriate interpretation and/or rational advice in dubious cases; 4) to preserve dignity of the profession because every profession has its advantages, shortcomings and limitations; 5) to insist on quality control of the performance, individual cytologists and cytology team; 6) knowledge transfer to young professionals; 7) assisting fellow professionals in dubious cases irrespective of the time needed and fee because it implies helping the patient and the profession itself; 8) experience exchange with other related professionals to upgrade mutual understanding; 9) to prefer the interest of the profession over one's own interest; and 10) to love cytology.

  19. Staphylococcus hyicus exfoliative toxins selectively digest porcine desmoglein 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fudaba, Y.; Nishifuji, K.; Andresen, Lars Ole

    2005-01-01

    . Recently, genes for ExhA, ExhB, ExhC and ExhD were cloned. Exfoliative toxins produced by S. aureus have been shown to selectively cleave human or mouse desmoglein 1, a desmosomal adhesion molecule, that when inactivated results in blisters. In this study, we attempted to identify the molecular target...... that Exh selectively degrade porcine desmoglein 1. In vitro incubation of the recombinant extracellular domains of desmoglein I and desmoglein 3 of human, mouse or canine origin demonstrated that only mouse desmogleins 1 alpha and 1 beta were cleaved by ExhA and ExhC at high concentration. Furthermore...

  20. Cytological Results of Ultrasound-Guided Fine-Needle Aspiration Cytology for Thyroid Nodules: Emphasis on Correlation with Sonographic Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mi-Jung; Hong, Soon Won; Chung, Woung Youn; Kwak, Jin Young; Kim, Min Jung

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To compare the cytological results of ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (US-FNA) cytology of thyroid nodules to sonographic findings and determine whether US findings are helpful in the interpretation of cytological results. Materials and Methods Among the thyroid nodules that underwent US-FNA cytology, we included the 819 nodules which had a conclusive diagnosis. Final diagnosis was based on pathology from surgery, repeated FNA cytology or follow-up of more than one year. Cytological results were divided into five groups: benign, indeterminate (follicular or Hurthle cell neoplasm), suspicious for malignancy, malignant, and inadequate. US findings were categorized as benign or suspicious. Cytological results and US categories were analyzed. Results Final diagnosis was concluded upon in 819 nodules based on pathology (n=311), repeated FNA cytology (n=204) and follow-up (n=304), of which 634 were benign and 185 were malignant. There were 560 benign nodules, 141 malignant nodules, 49 nodules with inadequate results, 21 with indeterminate results, and 48 that were suspicious for malignancy. The positive and negative predictive values of the US categories were 59.1% and 97.0%, and those of the cytological results were 93.7% and 98.9%. The US categories were significantly correlated with final diagnosis in the benign (p=0.014) and suspicious for malignancy (pcytological result groups, but not in the inadequate and indeterminate cytological results groups. The false positive and negative rates of cytological results were 1.9% and 3.2%. Conclusion Sonographic findings can be useful when used alongside cytological results, especially in nodules with cytological results that are benign or suspicious for malignancy. PMID:21786450

  1. Percolation scaling in composites of exfoliated MoS2 filled with nanotubes and graphene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cunningham, G.; Lotya, M.; McEvoy, N.; Duesberg, G.S.; Schoot, van der P.P.A.M.; Coleman, J.N.

    2012-01-01

    Applications of films of exfoliated layered compounds in many areas will be limited by their relatively low electrical conductivity. To address this, we have prepared and characterised composites of a nano-conductor (nanotubes or graphene) embedded in a matrix of exfoliated MoS2 nanosheets. Solvent

  2. Typing and grading of cytological category C5 breast lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zafar, N.; Jamal, S.; Mamoon, N.; Luqman, M.; Anwar, M.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To determine the tumour type, cytological grade and nuclear grade on fine-needle aspiration smears in cytological category C5 breast lesions and compare them with histopathological findings. Subjects and Methods: Out of all patients referred to AFIP, Rawalpindi for fine-needle aspiration of breast masses, those adjudged C5 (malignant) were chosen for this study. History, clinical details and mammographic findings were noted. Aspirated smears were examined and an attempt was made to ascertain tumour type, cytological grade and nuclear grade. On excision of these lesions, the cytological findings were compared with those on paraffin-embedded histological sections. Results: A total of 71 patients were included in this study. Of these, 64 (90.14%) were cytologically diagnosed as ductal carcinoma, 4 (5.63%) lobular carcinoma, 2 (2.82%) mucinous carcinoma and 1 (1.41%) as medullary carcinoma. Seventy (98.60%) tumours were correctly typed on aspiration smears. Sixty-eight (95.77%) cases were cytologically graded with accuracy. Nuclear grading was even better on cytology and, excluding one malignant lymphoma, all 70 (100%) smears were assessed correctly. Conclusion: Overall efficiency of the tumour typing, cytological grading and nuclear grading on aspirated material turned out to be quite accurate. In expert hands, cytological examination can be of great help in pre-operative planning and in cases where tumour morphology in paraffin-embedded material has been distorted by neo-adjuvant therapy prior to excision. (author)

  3. Comparison of two preparatory techniques for urine cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhundee, J; Rigby, H S

    1990-01-01

    Two methods of preparation of urine for cytology were compared retrospectively. In method 1 cells in the urine were fixed after the preparation of the smear; in method 2 the cells were fixed before smear preparation. Urine cytology reports were correlated with subsequent histological analysis. The specificities of urine cytology using both methods were high (99%). The sensitivity using method 1 was 87%; using method 2 it was 65%. This difference was significant. The cell preparation technique therefore significantly changes the sensitivity of urine cytology. Cellular fixation after smear preparation is preferable to smear preparation after fixation. PMID:2266176

  4. Scanning laser polarimetry in eyes with exfoliation syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimopoulos, Antonios T; Katsanos, Andreas; Mikropoulos, Dimitrios G; Giannopoulos, Theodoros; Empeslidis, Theodoros; Teus, Miguel A; Holló, Gábor; Konstas, Anastasios G P

    2013-01-01

    To compare retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT) of normotensive eyes with exfoliation syndrome (XFS) and healthy eyes.
 Sixty-four consecutive individuals with XFS and normal office-time intraocular pressure (IOP) and 72 consecutive healthy controls were prospectively enrolled for a cross-sectional analysis in this hospital-based observational study. The GDx-VCC parameters (temporal-superior-nasal-inferior-temporal [TSNIT] average, superior average, inferior average, TSNIT standard deviation (SD), and nerve fiber indicator [NFI]) were compared between groups. Correlation between various clinical parameters and RNFLT parameters was investigated with Spearman coefficient. 
 The NFI, although within normal limits for both groups, was significantly greater in the XFS group compared to controls: the respective median and interquartile range (IQR) values were 25.1 (22.0-29.0) vs 15.0 (12.0-20.0), ppolarimetry-determined RNFLT was lower in XFS eyes with normal IOP. Therefore, close monitoring of RNFLT may facilitate early identification of those XFS eyes that convert to exfoliative glaucoma.

  5. Soluble, Exfoliated Two-Dimensional Nanosheets as Excellent Aqueous Lubricants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenling; Cao, Yanlin; Tian, Pengyi; Guo, Fei; Tian, Yu; Zheng, Wen; Ji, Xuqiang; Liu, Jingquan

    2016-11-30

    Dispersion in water of two-dimensional (2D) nanosheets is conducive to their practical applications in fundamental science communities due to their abundance, low cost, and ecofriendliness. However, it is difficult to achieve stable aqueous 2D material suspensions because of the intrinsic hydrophobic properties of the layered materials. Here, we report an effective and economic way of producing various 2D nanosheets (h-BN, MoS 2 , MoSe 2 , WS 2 , and graphene) as aqueous dispersions using carbon quantum dots (CQDs) as exfoliation agents and stabilizers. The dispersion was prepared through a liquid phase exfoliation. The as-synthesized stable 2D nanosheets based dispersions were characterized by UV-vis, HRTEM, AFM, Raman, XPS, and XRD. The solutions based on CQD decorated 2D nanosheets were utilized as aqueous lubricants, which realized a friction coefficient as low as 0.02 and even achieved a superlubricity under certain working conditions. The excellent lubricating properties were attributed to the synergetic effects of the 2D nanosheets and CQDs, such as good dispersion stability and easy-sliding interlayer structure. This work thus proposes a novel strategy for the design and preparation of high-performance water based green lubricants.

  6. A Nanoporous Carbon/Exfoliated Graphite Composite For Supercapacitor Electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosi, Memoria; Ekaputra, Muhamad P.; Iskandar, Ferry; Abdullah, Mikrajuddin; Khairurrijal

    2010-12-01

    Nanoporous carbon was prepared from coconut shells using a simple heating method. The nanoporous carbon is subjected to different treatments: without activation, activation with polyethylene glycol (PEG), and activation with sodium hydroxide (NaOH)-PEG. The exfoliated graphite was synthesized from graphite powder oxidized with zinc acetate (ZnAc) and intercalated with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and NaOH. A composite was made by mixing the nanoporous carbon with NaOH-PEG activation, the exfoliated graphite and a binder of PVA solution, grinding the mixture, and annealing it using ultrasonic bath for 1 hour. All of as-synthesized materials were characterized by employing a scanning electron microscope (SEM), a MATLAB's image processing toolbox, and an x-ray diffractometer (XRD). It was confirmed that the composite is crystalline with (002) and (004) orientations. In addition, it was also found that the composite has a high surface area, a high distribution of pore sizes less than 40 nm, and a high porosity (67%). Noting that the pore sizes less than 20 nm are significant for ionic species storage and those in the range of 20 to 40 nm are very accessible for ionic clusters mobility across the pores, the composite is a promising material for the application as supercapacitor electrodes.

  7. Rockfall triggering by cyclic thermal stressing of exfoliation fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Brian D.; Stock, Greg M.

    2016-01-01

    Exfoliation of rock deteriorates cliffs through the formation and subsequent opening of fractures, which in turn can lead to potentially hazardous rockfalls. Although a number of mechanisms are known to trigger rockfalls, many rockfalls occur during periods when likely triggers such as precipitation, seismic activity and freezing conditions are absent. It has been suggested that these enigmatic rockfalls may occur due to solar heating of rock surfaces, which can cause outward expansion. Here we use data from 3.5 years of field monitoring of an exfoliating granite cliff in Yosemite National Park in California, USA, to assess the magnitude and temporal pattern of thermally induced rock deformation. From a thermodynamic analysis, we find that daily, seasonal and annual temperature variations are sufficient to drive cyclic and cumulative opening of fractures. Application of fracture theory suggests that these changes can lead to further fracture propagation and the consequent detachment of rock. Our data indicate that the warmest times of the day and year are particularly conducive to triggering rockfalls, and that cyclic thermal forcing may enhance the efficacy of other, more typical rockfall triggers.

  8. Bladder wash cytology, quantitative cytology, and the qualitative BTA test in patients with superficial bladder cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Poel, H. G.; van Balken, M. R.; Schamhart, D. H.; Peelen, P.; de Reijke, T.; Debruyne, F. M.; Schalken, J. A.; Witjes, J. A.

    1998-01-01

    Two new methods for the detection of transitional tumor cells in bladder wash (karyometry: QUANTICYT) and voided urine material (BARD BTA test) were compared with bladder wash cytology for the prediction of histology and tumor recurrence. Bladder wash material and voided urine were sampled from 138

  9. Cytologic studies on irradiated gestric cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isono, S; Takeda, T; Amakasu, H; Asakawa, H; Yamada, S [Miyagi Prefectural Adult Disease Center, Natori (Japan)

    1981-06-01

    The smears of the biopsy and resected specimens obtained from 74 cases of irradiated gastric cancer were cytologically analyzed for effects of irradiation. Irradiation increased the amount of both necrotic materials and neutrophils in the smears. Cancer cells were decreased in number almost in inverse proportion to irradiation dose. Clusters of cancer cells shrank in size and cells were less stratified after irradiation. Irradiated cytoplasms were swollen, vacuolated and stained abnormally. Irradiation with less than 3,000 rads gave rise to swelling of cytoplasms in almost all cases. Nuclei became enlarged, multiple, pyknotic and/or stained pale after irradiation. Nuclear swelling was more remarkable in cancer cells of differentiated adenocarcinomas.

  10. Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology In Tumour Diagnosis | Obaseki ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC), a technique for obtaining cellular material for cytological examination and diagnosis using a 21- gauge or smaller needle, is performed using a 5, 10, or 20ml syringe either freehand or using special syringe holders. It allows a minimally invasive, rapid diagnosis of tissue samples but

  11. One-step exfoliation and surface modification of lamellar hydroxyapatite by intercalation of glucosamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Honglin [Research Institute for Biomaterials and Transportation, East China Jiaotong University, Nanchang, 330013 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072 (China); Li, Wei; Ji, Dehui [Research Institute for Biomaterials and Transportation, East China Jiaotong University, Nanchang, 330013 (China); Zuo, Guifu [Hebei Provincial Key Laboratory of Inorganic Nonmetallic Materials, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Hebei United University, Tangshan, 063009 (China); Xiong, Guangyao, E-mail: xiongguangyao@163.com [Research Institute for Biomaterials and Transportation, East China Jiaotong University, Nanchang, 330013 (China); Zhu, Yong [School of Chemical Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072 (China); Li, Lili; Han, Ming [Research Institute for Biomaterials and Transportation, East China Jiaotong University, Nanchang, 330013 (China); Wu, Caoqun [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072 (China); Wan, Yizao, E-mail: yzwantju@126.com [Research Institute for Biomaterials and Transportation, East China Jiaotong University, Nanchang, 330013 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072 (China)

    2016-04-15

    Effective exfoliation is crucial to the application of layered materials in many fields. Herein, we report a novel effective, scalable, and ecofriendly method for the exfoliation of lamellar HAp by glucosamine intercalation such that individual HAp nanoplates can be obtained. The as-exfoliated HAp nanoplates were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and thermogravimetric (TG) analysis. It is found that the glucosamine intercalation not only results in complete exfoliation of lamellar HAp but also introduces the glucosamine molecules onto the surface of individual HAp nanoplates, thus obtaining separated glucosamine-grafted HAp nanoplates (Glu-HAps). Results from MTT assay demonstrate that glucosamine grafting on HAp nanoplates greatly improves the cell growth and proliferation as compared to nongrafted HAp counterparts. - Highlights: • Glucosamine was used as intercalation agent to exfoliate lamellar hydroxyapatite. • Glucosamine was grafted onto the as-exfoliated nanoplate-like hydroxyapatite. • Exfoliation and surface grafting were accomplished in one step. • Glucosamine-grafted HAp showed improved biocompatibility over nongrafted one.

  12. Clay exfoliation and polymer/clay aerogels by supercritical carbon dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona eLongo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2 treatments of a montmorillonite (MMT intercalated with ammonium cations bearing two long hydrocarbon tails (organo-modified MMT, OMMT led to OMMT exfoliation, with loss of the long-range order in the packing of the hydrocarbon tails and maintenance of the long-range order in the clay layers. The intercalated and the derived exfoliated OMMT have been deeply characterized, mainly by X-ray diffraction analyses. Monolithic composite aerogels, with large amounts of both intercalated and exfoliated OMMT and including the nanoporous-crystalline δ form of syndiotactic polystyrene (s-PS, have been prepared, by scCO2 extractions of s-PS-based gels. Also for high OMMT content, the gel and aerogel preparation procedures occur without re-aggregation of the exfoliated clay, which is instead observed for other kinds of polymer processing. Aerogels with the exfoliated OMMT have more even dispersion of the clay layers, higher elastic modulus and larger surface area than aerogels with the intercalated OMMT. Extremely light materials with relevant transport properties could be prepared. Moreover, s-PS-based aerogels with exfoliated OMMT could be helpful for the handling of exfoliated clay minerals.

  13. Acetone improves the topographical homogeneity of liquid phase exfoliated few-layer black phosphorus flakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez Perez, Juan; Konya, Zoltan; Kukovecz, Akos

    2018-06-12

    Liquid phase exfoliation of 2D materials has issues related to the sorption of the solvent, the oxidation of the sample during storage, and the topographical inhomogeneity of the exfoliated material. N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP), a common solvent for black phosphorus (BP) exfoliation, has additional drawbacks like the formation of by-products during sonication and poor solvent volatility. Here we demonstrate an improvement in the topographical homogeneity (i.e. thickness and lateral dimensions) of NMP-exfoliated BP flakes after resuspension in acetone. The typical size of monolayers and bilayers stabilised in acetone was 99.8±27.4 nm and 159.1±57 nm, respectively. These standard deviations represent a threefold improvement over those of the NMP-exfoliated originals. Phosphorene can also be exfoliated directly in acetone by very long ultrasonication. The product suspension enjoys the same dimensional homogeneity benefits, which confirms that this effect is an intrinsic property of the acetone-BP system. The quality and stability of the exfoliated flakes was checked by XRD, TEM, electron diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. Thermal expansion coefficients of the A1g, B2g and A2g Raman modes were calculated for drop-casted samples as -0.01828 cm-1/K, -0.03056 cm-1/K and -0.03219 cm-1/K, respectively. The flakes withstand 20 minutes in O2 flow at 373 K without lattice distortion. . © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  14. Fine needle aspiration cytology of dermal cylindroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parikshaa Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we have described fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC of a rare case of dermal cylindroma. A 40-year-old female presented with a lateral mid-cervical swelling fixed to the skin. FNAC smears showed multiple clusters of small, round to oval cells with hyperchromatic nuclei, inconspicuous nucleoli and scant cytoplasm. In addition, the background showed deposits of basement membrane type material. This was dark magenta colored pinkish globular material. The globules were occasionally surrounded by the basal type of cells. Occasional cells with elongated nuclei were also noted. Cytological diagnosis of skin adnexal tumor possibly cylindroma was offered. Subsequent histopathology of the swelling showed sheets and clusters of cells in a jigsaw puzzle-like fashion. Deposition of abundant basement membrane-like material was noted in between the tumor cells. A diagnosis of cylindorma was offered. FNAC along with the subcutaneous location of the tumor and absence of primary salivary gland tumor may help to diagnose such rare case.

  15. Cytologic features of microcystic adnexal carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasis Sirikanjanapong

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Microcystic adnexal carcinoma (MAC is an uncommon skin neoplasm with a predilection location around the lips. It is characterized by cords and nests of neoplastic cells forming ductular or glandular structures that are embedded in dense collagenous stroma. An eighty-seven year old Caucasian female patient presented with a painless, slowly enlarging mass measuring 3.3 x 2.7 x 1.0 cm on the lower lip for approximately 6 months. The patient underwent 2 fine needle aspiration biopsies (FNAs. Smears made from both FNAs demonstrated similar features including low cellular smears, three dimensional cell clusters forming a glandular structure, round to oval cells with high N:C ratio, occasional cytoplasmic lumens, without distinct hyperchromasia, focal inconspicuous nucleoli, smooth regular nuclear membranes, abundant naked nuclei, occasional squamoid cells and focal acellular stromal fragments in the background. The cytologic differential diagnosis included skin adnexal carcinoma and low grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma arising in the minor salivary gland. The mass was subsequently excised. The diagnosis of microcystic adnexal carcinoma was made. We report cytologic features of MAC and also suggest that MAC can possibly be diagnosed by FNA with the appropriate clinical vignette and immunohistochemical profile..

  16. Cytological analysis of ginseng carpel development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Jeniffer; Kim, Yu-Jin; Xiao, Dexin; Sukweenadhi, Johan; Hu, Tingting; Kwon, Woo-Saeng; Hu, Jianping; Yang, Deok-Chun; Zhang, Dabing

    2017-09-01

    Panax ginseng Meyer, commonly known as ginseng, is considered one of the most important herbs with pharmaceutical values due to the presence of ginsenosides and is cultivated for its highly valued root for medicinal purposes. Recently, it has been recognized that ginseng fruit contains high contents of triterpene such as ginsenoside Re as pharmaceutical compounds. However, it is unclear how carpel, the female reproductive tissue of flowers, is formed during the three-year-old growth before fruit is formed in ginseng plants. Here, we report P. ginseng carpel development at the cytological level, starting from the initial stage of ovule development to seed development. The carpel of P. ginseng is composed of two free stigmas, two free styles, and one epigynous bilocular ovary containing one ovule in each locule. Based on our cytological study, we propose that the female reproductive development in P. ginseng can be classified into seven stages: early phase of ovule development, megasporogenesis, megagametogenesis, pre-fertilization, fertilization, post-fertilization, and seed development. We also describe the correlation of the female and male gametophyte development and compare morphological differences in carpel development between ginseng and other higher plants. One unique feature for ginseng seed development is that it takes 40 days for the embryo to develop to the early torpedo stage and that the embryo is small relative to the seed size, which could be a feature of taxonomic importance. This study will provide an integral tool for the study of the reproductive development and breeding of P. ginseng.

  17. Fine needle aspiration cytology of parapharyngeal tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mondal Palash

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Parapharyngeal tumors are rare and often pose diagnostic difficulties due to their location and plethora of presentations. Objectives: The study was undertaken to study the occurrence in the population and to evaluate the exact nature by fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC. Materials and Methods: A total of five hundred and six cases of lateral neck lesions were studied over three and half years. Of these 56 suspected parapharyngeal masses were selected by clinical and radiological methods. Cytopathology evaluation was done by fine needle aspiration cytology with computed tomography and ultrasonography guidance wherever necessary. Histopathology confirmation was available in all the cases. Results: On FNAC diagnosis could be established in 54 cases while in two cases the material was insufficient to establish a diagnosis. The tumors encountered were, pleomorphic adenoma (33, schwannoma (3, neurofibroma (11, paraganglioma (5, angiofibroma (1 and adenoid cystic carcinoma (1. Four false positives and two false negative cases were encountered. Overall sensitivity was 96%, with specificity of 99% and accuracy being 98.8%. Conclusions: With proper clinical and radiological assessment, FNAC can be extremely useful in diagnosing most of these lesions except a few which need histopathological and even immunohistochemical confirmation.

  18. Outcomes in cervical screening using various cytology technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barken, Sidsel S; Rebolj, Matejka; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2013-01-01

    of samples with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance or worse (≥ASCUS) by age and technology phase. We included 391 140 samples. The proportion of ≥ASCUS increased steadily from 3.8% in phase 1 to 6.0% in phase 5. This pattern varied considerably across age groups. In women aged 23-34 years......Unlike for human papillomavirus screening, little is known about the possible age-dependent variation in the outcomes of cervical cytology screening. The aim of our study was to describe age-related outcomes of five cytological technologies in a population-based screening program targeting women...... aged 23-59 years. All cervical cytology from women residing in Copenhagen has been analyzed in the laboratory of the Department of Pathology, Hvidovre University Hospital. We studied five technology phases: (1) conventional cytology with manual reading, (2) conventional cytology with 50% automatically...

  19. Engineering monolayer poration for rapid exfoliation of microbial membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyne, Alice; Pfeil, Marc-Philipp; Bennett, Isabel; Ravi, Jascindra; Iavicoli, Patrizia; Lamarre, Baptiste; Roethke, Anita; Ray, Santanu; Jiang, Haibo; Bella, Angelo; Reisinger, Bernd; Yin, Daniel; Little, Benjamin; Muñoz-García, Juan C; Cerasoli, Eleonora; Judge, Peter J; Faruqui, Nilofar; Calzolai, Luigi; Henrion, Andre; Martyna, Glenn J; Grovenor, Chris R M; Crain, Jason; Hoogenboom, Bart W; Watts, Anthony; Ryadnov, Maxim G

    2017-02-01

    The spread of bacterial resistance to traditional antibiotics continues to stimulate the search for alternative antimicrobial strategies. All forms of life, from bacteria to humans, are postulated to rely on a fundamental host defense mechanism, which exploits the formation of open pores in microbial phospholipid bilayers. Here we predict that transmembrane poration is not necessary for antimicrobial activity and reveal a distinct poration mechanism that targets the outer leaflet of phospholipid bilayers. Using a combination of molecular-scale and real-time imaging, spectroscopy and spectrometry approaches, we introduce a structural motif with a universal insertion mode in reconstituted membranes and live bacteria. We demonstrate that this motif rapidly assembles into monolayer pits that coalesce during progressive membrane exfoliation, leading to bacterial cell death within minutes. The findings offer a new physical basis for designing effective antibiotics.

  20. Covalent modification and exfoliation of graphene oxide using ferrocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avinash, M. B.; Subrahmanyam, K. S.; Sundarayya, Y.; Govindaraju, T.

    2010-09-01

    Large scale preparation of single-layer graphene and graphene oxide is of great importance due to their potential applications. We report a simple room temperature method for the exfoliation of graphene oxide using covalent modification of graphene oxide with ferrocene to obtain single-layer graphene oxide sheets. The samples were characterized by FESEM, HRTEM, AFM, EDAX, FT-IR, Raman and Mössbauer spectroscopic studies. HRTEM micrograph of the covalently modified graphene oxide showed increased interlayer spacing of ~2.4 nm due to ferrocene intercalation. The presence of single-layer graphene oxide sheets were confirmed by AFM studies. The covalently modified ferrocene-graphene oxide composite showed interesting magnetic behavior.Large scale preparation of single-layer graphene and graphene oxide is of great importance due to their potential applications. We report a simple room temperature method for the exfoliation of graphene oxide using covalent modification of graphene oxide with ferrocene to obtain single-layer graphene oxide sheets. The samples were characterized by FESEM, HRTEM, AFM, EDAX, FT-IR, Raman and Mössbauer spectroscopic studies. HRTEM micrograph of the covalently modified graphene oxide showed increased interlayer spacing of ~2.4 nm due to ferrocene intercalation. The presence of single-layer graphene oxide sheets were confirmed by AFM studies. The covalently modified ferrocene-graphene oxide composite showed interesting magnetic behavior. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Magnetic data; AFM images; TEM micrographs; and Mössbauer spectroscopic data. See DOI: 10.1039/c0nr00024h

  1. Usefulness of lavage cytology during endoscopic transpapillary catheterization into the gallbladder in the cytological diagnosis of gallbladder disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, Yoshiki; Okabe, Yoshinobu; Kawahara, Akihiko; Taira, Tomoki; Isida, Yusuke; Kaji, Ryouhei; Sata, Michio; Ureshino, Hiroki; Mikagi, Kazuhiro; Kinoshita, Hisafumi; Yasumoto, Makiko; Kusano, Hironori; Kage, Masayoshi; Yano, Hirohisa

    2009-06-01

    Many studies have reported methods of cell collection involving percutaneous transhepatic cholangiodrainage (PTCD) and fine-needle aspiration cytology for the diagnosis of gallbladder disease. However, few studies have described the use of a transpapillary approach, i.e., endoscopic transpapillary catheterization into the gallbladder (ETCG). In this study, we analyzed cells collected by ETCG to evaluate its usefulness in the cytological diagnosis of gallbladder disease. The subjects were 19 patients who had undergone ETCG for the diagnosis of gallbladder disease. Of these patients, 11 and 8 had gallbladder cancer and benign gallbladder disease, respectively. We also evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of PTCD cytology performed in 15 patients with gallbladder cancer.Specimens were cytologically diagnosed as normal or benign, indeterminate, suspected malignancy, malignant, and inadequate in 47% (9/19), 11% (2/19), 0% (0/19), 37% (7/19), and 5% (1/19) of patients, respectively. Specimens were diagnosed as malignant, indeterminate, normal or benign, and inadequate in 7, 2, 1, and 1, respectively, of the 11 patients diagnosed with gallbladder cancer. The sensitivity and specificity of ETCG cytology were 78 and 100%, respectively, whereas the diagnostic accuracy of PTCD cytology was 20% (3/15). None of the patients developed complications of ETCG. Despite its technical difficulty, ETCG for bile cytology allows the collection of adequate cell numbers from patients with benign disease or gallbladder cancer and facilitates a cytological diagnosis, making it a useful method for collecting cells. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Management of thyroid cytological material, pre-analytical procedures and bio-banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bode-Lesniewska, Beata; Cochand-Priollet, Beatrix; Straccia, Patrizia; Fadda, Guido; Bongiovanni, Massimo

    2018-06-09

    Thyroid nodules are common and increasingly detected due to recent advances in imaging techniques. However, clinically relevant thyroid cancer is rare and the mortality from aggressive thyroid cancer remains constant. FNAC (Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology) is a standard method for diagnosing thyroid malignancy and the discrimination of malignant nodules from goiter. As the examined nodules on thyroid FNAC are often small incidental findings, it is important to maintain a low rate of undetermined diagnoses requiring further clinical work up or surgery. The most important factors determining the accuracy of the cytological diagnosis and suitability for biobanking of thyroid FNACs are the quality of the sample and availability of adequate tissue for auxiliary studies. This article analyses technical aspects (pre-analytics) of performing thyroid FNACs, including image guidance and rapid on slide evaluation (ROSE), sample collection methods (conventional slides, liquid based methods (LBC), cell blocks) and storage (bio-banking). The spectrum of the special studies (immunocytochemistry on direct slides or LBC, immunohistochemistry on cell blocks and molecular methods) required for improving the precision of the cytological diagnosis of the thyroid nodules is discussed. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  3. In vivo cleansing efficacy of biodegradable exfoliating beads assessed by skin bioengineering techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitsongsermthon, J; Duangweang, K; Kreepoke, J; Tansirikongkol, A

    2017-11-01

    The plastic microbeads, used in many cleansers, will be banned in cosmetic and personal care products within 2017 since they are non-degradable and can disturb the living organisms in water reservoirs. Various choices of biodegradable beads are commercially available, but their efficacy has not been proven yet. This study aimed to compare the cleansing efficacy in dirt and sebum removal aspects of three types of exfoliating beads. The gel scrubs with polyethylene (PE) beads, mannan beads or wax beads, were formulated and evaluated for their stability. The in vivo evaluation was done in 38 healthy volunteers and the skin irritation, efficacy for dirt and sebum removal were measured by Mexameter ® , Colorimeter ® , and Sebumeter ® , respectively. The selected gel scrubs did not cause an irritation in any volunteers. The differences in dirt residues between before and after scrubbing were not statistically significant among three gel scrubs and the similar result was also reported in the sebum removal study. All gel scrubs demonstrated the comparable cleansing efficacy in term of dirt and sebum removal. Thus, mannan beads and wax beads may be replaced non-biodegradable PE beads to achieve the similar cleansing effect. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Covalent functionalization and passivation of exfoliated black phosphorus via aryl diazonium chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Christopher R.; Wood, Joshua D.; Wells, Spencer A.; Yang, Yang; Jariwala, Deep; Marks, Tobin J.; Schatz, George C.; Hersam, Mark C.

    2016-06-01

    Functionalization of atomically thin nanomaterials enables the tailoring of their chemical, optical and electronic properties. Exfoliated black phosphorus (BP)—a layered two-dimensional semiconductor—exhibits favourable charge-carrier mobility, tunable bandgap and highly anisotropic properties, but it is chemically reactive and degrades rapidly in ambient conditions. Here we show that covalent aryl diazonium functionalization suppresses the chemical degradation of exfoliated BP even after three weeks of ambient exposure. This chemical modification scheme spontaneously forms phosphorus-carbon bonds, has a reaction rate sensitive to the aryl diazonium substituent and alters the electronic properties of exfoliated BP, ultimately yielding a strong, tunable p-type doping that simultaneously improves the field-effect transistor mobility and on/off current ratio. This chemical functionalization pathway controllably modifies the properties of exfoliated BP, and thus improves its prospects for nanoelectronic applications.

  5. Packaging material and flexible medical tubing containing thermally exfoliated graphite oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prud'homme, Robert K. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A packaging material or flexible medical tubing containing a modified graphite oxide material, which is a thermally exfoliated graphite oxide with a surface area of from about 300 m.sup.2/g to 2600 m.sup.2/g.

  6. Exfoliated polypyrrole-organically modified montmorillonite clay nanocomposite as a potential adsorbent for Cr (VI) removal

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Setshedi, KZ

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Exfoliated polypyrrole-organically modified montmorillonite clay nanocomposite (PPy OMMT NC), was prepared as a potential adsorbent, via in situ polymerization of pyrrole monomer for adsorption of toxic Cr(VI) from aqueous solution. The WAXD...

  7. Production of High-quality Few-layer Graphene Flakes by Intercalation and Exfoliation

    KAUST Repository

    Alzahrani, Areej A.

    2017-01-01

    , the source material was a commercially available graphiteintercalated compound, also known as expandable graphite. Several exfoliation-inducing tools were investigated including the use of blenders, homogenizers, and ultrasonic processors. To aid

  8. Photoluminescence of MoS2 Prepared by Effective Grinding-Assisted Sonication Exfoliation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Yuan Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Exfoliation of bulk molybdenum disulfide (MoS2 using sonication in appropriate solvent is a promising route to large-scale preparation of few-layered or monolayered crystals. Grinding-assisted sonication exfoliation was used for preparing monolayered MoS2 nanosheets from natural mineral molybdenite. By controlling the sonication time, larger crystallites could be further exfoliated to smaller as well as thinner nanosheets without damaging their structures. The concentration of 1.6 mg mL−1 of final solution could be achieved. Several microscopic techniques like scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy were employed to evaluate the exfoliation results. Strong photoluminescence with the peak centered at 440 nm was also observed in the resulting dispersion which included several small lateral-sized (~3 nm nanostructures.

  9. Self-Assembled BN and BCN Quantum Dots Obtained from High Intensity Ultrasound Exfoliated Nanosheets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štengl, Václav; Henych, Jiří; Kormunda, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 6 (2014), s. 1106-1116 ISSN 1947-2935 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : Ultrasound * Exfoliation * BN * BCN * Quantum Dots Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.598, year: 2014

  10. Micromechanical exfoliation of two-dimensional materials by a polymeric stamp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, M C Ferraz da; Ribeiro, H B; Kessler, F; Souza, E A T de; Fechine, G J M

    2016-01-01

    In this work, an alternative technique to the traditional micromechanical exfoliation of two-dimensional materials is proposed, consisting of isolated flakes of graphite and molybdenum disulphide onto polymeric surfaces films. The set made up of polymer and flakes is fabricated by using a hot-press machine called polymeric stamp. The polymeric stamp was used to allocate flakes and also to allow the exfoliation process to take place just in one face of isolated flake. Optical microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy results showed that multilayers, bilayers and single layers of graphene and MoS 2 were obtained by using a polymeric stamp as tool for micromechanical exfoliation. These crystals were more easily found because the exfoliation process concentrates them in well-defined locations. The results prove the effectiveness of the method by embedding two-dimensional materials into polymers to fabricate fewer layers crystals in a fast, economic and clean way. (paper)

  11. Micromechanical exfoliation of two-dimensional materials by a polymeric stamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz da Costa, M. C.; Ribeiro, H. B.; Kessler, F.; de Souza, E. A. T.; Fechine, G. J. M.

    2016-02-01

    In this work, an alternative technique to the traditional micromechanical exfoliation of two-dimensional materials is proposed, consisting of isolated flakes of graphite and molybdenum disulphide onto polymeric surfaces films. The set made up of polymer and flakes is fabricated by using a hot-press machine called polymeric stamp. The polymeric stamp was used to allocate flakes and also to allow the exfoliation process to take place just in one face of isolated flake. Optical microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy results showed that multilayers, bilayers and single layers of graphene and MoS2 were obtained by using a polymeric stamp as tool for micromechanical exfoliation. These crystals were more easily found because the exfoliation process concentrates them in well-defined locations. The results prove the effectiveness of the method by embedding two-dimensional materials into polymers to fabricate fewer layers crystals in a fast, economic and clean way.

  12. Electromagnetic properties and performance of exfoliated graphite (EG) - thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) nanocomposites at microwaves

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Valentini, M.; Piana, Francesco; Pionteck, J.; Lamastra, F. R.; Nanni, F.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 114, 19 June (2015), s. 26-33 ISSN 0266-3538 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : exfoliated graphite * functional composites * nano composites Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 3.897, year: 2015

  13. Stereotaxic cytology of nonpalpable lesions detected at mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciatto, S.; Rosselli del Turco, M.; Bravetti, P.; Catarzi, S.

    1991-01-01

    The authors report on 791 consecutive cases undergoing stereotaxic cytology for non palpable lesions detected at mammography. Histologic diagnosis (malignant = 179, benign = 107) or mammographic folow-up after at least one year (benign = 275) was available in 561 cases. The overall inadequacy rate of stereotaxic cytology was 0.21, and dependent on lesion type (benign = 0.25, malignant = 0.13 p<0.001) and on sampling operator experience (range 0.17-0.31, p<0.001). Sensitivity (dubious+positive, after exclusion of inadequates) was 0.83 and dependent on histologic type (infiltrating = 0.87, intraductal = 0.68). Specificity (negative/benign, after exclusion of inadequates) was 0.96. Stereotaxic cytology helped in reducing the number of unnecessary beningn biopsies and the biopsy ratio was 0.6 benign to 1 malignant biopsy. In cases with moderate suspicion at mammography the radiologist felt reassured by negative cytology and advised mammographic control rather than surgical biopsy. Cytology was determinant in advising surgical biopsy in 9 cancer cases whereas the absence of cytologic positivity contributed to diagnostic delay in 2 cancer cases. Overall, stereotaxic cytology allowed a relevant reduction of unnecessary benign biopsies and should be routinely employed in the diagnostic work-up of nonpalpable lesions detected at mammography

  14. Preoperative diagnosis of pelvic actinomycosis by clinical cytology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsuda K

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Katsuya Matsuda,1 Hisayoshi Nakajima,2 Khaleque N Khan,1 Terumi Tanigawa,1 Daisuke Hamaguchi,1 Michio Kitajima,1 Koichi Hiraki,1 Shingo Moriyama,3 Hideaki Masuzaki11Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, 2Department of Health Sciences, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, 3Shimabara Maternity Clinic, Nagasaki, JapanBackground: The purpose of this work was to investigate whether clinical cytology could be useful in the preoperative diagnosis of pelvic actinomycosis.Methods: This study involved the prospective collection of samples derived from the endometrium and the uterine cervix, and retrospective data analysis. Nine patients with clinically diagnosed pelvic actinomycosis were enrolled. The clinical and hematological characteristics of patients were recorded, and detection of actinomyces was performed by cytology, pathology, and bacteriological culture of samples and by imprint intrauterine contraceptive device (IUD cytology.Results: The detection rate of actinomyces was 77.7% by combined cervical and endometrial cytology, 50.0% by pathology, and 11.1% by bacterial culture.Conclusion: The higher detection rate of actinomyces by cytology than by pathology or bacteriology suggests that careful cytological examination may be clinically useful in the preoperative diagnosis of pelvic actinomycosis.Keywords: actinomycosis, cytology, pathology, intrauterine contraceptive device, pelvic inflammatory disease

  15. Fine needle aspiration cytology of cervicofacial actinomycosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatesh Kusuma

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Actinomycosis is a chronic infection caused by Actinomyces israelii, usually seen in immunocompromised patients or in the background of tissue injury. Cervicofacial actinomycosis presenting as a fixed jaw swelling in an elderly individual can mimic malignancy and pose a diagnostic dilemma. We report here a case of cervicofacial actinomycosis diagnosed by fine needle aspiration, along with a review of the relevant literature. A 60 year-old man presented with a gradually increasing 6 x 5 cm swelling in the left side of his jaw. The swelling was fixed, without any apparent sinus or abscess. Fine needle aspiration was diagnostic as it revealed colonies of actinomyces surrounded by polymorphs and chronic inflammatory cells. The histopathological study of the excised specimen confirmed the cytological findings. Fine needle aspiration is an effective tool in the diagnosis of actinomycosis although its documentation is rare. Difficulties in the management can be avoided by early diagnosis using the fine needle aspiration technique.

  16. Genotoxicity assessment data for exfoliated buccal cells exposed to mobile phone radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.M. de Oliveira

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Healthy mobile phone users aged 18–30 y.o. provided exfoliated buccal cells samples from the right and left inner cheeks. A total of 2000 cells per subject were screened for the presence of micronuclei as a sign of genotoxic damage, according to the mobile phone use profile of each user. Keywords: Electromagnetic fields, Mobile phones, Genotoxicity, Micronuclei, Exfoliated buccal cells, Feulgen stain

  17. Fine needle aspiration biopsy of pancreas. Cytological assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coufal, L.; Heger, L.

    1987-01-01

    The benefits are presented of cytological examination of bioptical material from the pancreas using computerized tomography (CT) or ultrasound. The case is presented of one patient who had repeatedly undergone endoscopy with no results. Only cytological examination of material sampled using fine needle aspiration under CT control helped to immediately diagnose the process. The cytological finding correlated with the histological examination of material later taken during surgery. The problems are discussed of the differential diagnosis of tumors of the pancreas. (author). 5 figs., 9 refs

  18. WS{sub 2} nanosheets based on liquid exfoliation as effective electrocatalysts for hydrogen evolution reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Guan-Qun [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao 266580 (China); College of Science, China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao 266580 (China); Liu, Yan-Ru; Hu, Wen-Hui [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao 266580 (China); Dong, Bin, E-mail: dongbin@upc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao 266580 (China); College of Science, China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao 266580 (China); Li, Xiao; Chai, Yong-Ming; Liu, Yun-Qi [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao 266580 (China); Liu, Chen-Guang, E-mail: cgliu@upc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao 266580 (China)

    2015-11-01

    WS{sub 2} nanosheets (WS{sub 2} NSs) as electrocatalysts for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) have been prepared based on liquid exfoliation in dimethyl-formamide (DMF) via a direct dispersion and ultrasonication method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) shows the decreasing crystalline of the exfoliated WS{sub 2} (E-WS{sub 2}). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) show that the as prepared E-WS{sub 2} consists of a few two-dimensional nanosheets, with large wrinkles on the surface. Electrochemical measurements show an excellent activity and stability of the E-WS{sub 2}, with a low overpotential of 80 mV and high current density (10 mA cm{sup −2}, at η = 205 mV), which indicates that through the process of exfoliation in DMF, both the dispersion and the amount of active sites have been improved greatly. Therefore, DMF is a promising alternative for exfoliating two-dimensional nanomaterials for highly efficient HER electrocatalysts. - Highlights: • A facile exfoliation process in DMF has been used to prepare E-WS{sub 2} for HER. • E-WS{sub 2} shows the better electrocatalytic activity than bulk WS{sub 2}. • DMF provides a promising alternative for enhancing exfoliation of 2D materials.

  19. WS_2 nanosheets based on liquid exfoliation as effective electrocatalysts for hydrogen evolution reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Guan-Qun; Liu, Yan-Ru; Hu, Wen-Hui; Dong, Bin; Li, Xiao; Chai, Yong-Ming; Liu, Yun-Qi; Liu, Chen-Guang

    2015-01-01

    WS_2 nanosheets (WS_2 NSs) as electrocatalysts for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) have been prepared based on liquid exfoliation in dimethyl-formamide (DMF) via a direct dispersion and ultrasonication method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) shows the decreasing crystalline of the exfoliated WS_2 (E-WS_2). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) show that the as prepared E-WS_2 consists of a few two-dimensional nanosheets, with large wrinkles on the surface. Electrochemical measurements show an excellent activity and stability of the E-WS_2, with a low overpotential of 80 mV and high current density (10 mA cm"−"2, at η = 205 mV), which indicates that through the process of exfoliation in DMF, both the dispersion and the amount of active sites have been improved greatly. Therefore, DMF is a promising alternative for exfoliating two-dimensional nanomaterials for highly efficient HER electrocatalysts. - Highlights: • A facile exfoliation process in DMF has been used to prepare E-WS_2 for HER. • E-WS_2 shows the better electrocatalytic activity than bulk WS_2. • DMF provides a promising alternative for enhancing exfoliation of 2D materials.

  20. Controlling the number of graphene sheets exfoliated from graphite by designed normal loading and frictional motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seungjun; Lu, Wei

    2014-01-01

    We use molecular dynamics to study the exfoliation of patterned nanometer-sized graphite under various normal loading conditions for friction-induced exfoliation. Using highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) as well as both amorphous and crystalline SiO 2 substrate as example systems, we show that the exfoliation process is attributed to the corrugation of the HOPG surface and the atomistic roughness of the substrate when they contact under normal loading. The critical normal strain, at which the exfoliation occurs, is higher on a crystalline substrate than on an amorphous substrate. This effect is related to the atomistic flatness and stiffness of the crystalline surface. We observe that an increase of the van der Waals interaction between the graphite and the substrate results in a decrease of the critical normal strain for exfoliation. We find that the magnitude of the normal strain can effectively control the number of exfoliated graphene layers. This mechanism suggests a promising approach of applying designed normal loading while sliding to pattern controlled number of graphene layers or other two-dimensional materials on a substrate surface.

  1. Preparation of Cytology Samples: Tricks of the Trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, A Russell

    2017-01-01

    General principles and techniques for collection, preparation, and staining of cytologic samples in the general practice setting are reviewed. Tips for collection of digital images are also discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Two cytological methods for screening for cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirschner, B.; Simonsen, K.; Junge, J.

    2008-01-01

    -based cytology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 2002, the Department of Pathology, Hvidovre Hospital changed over from the conventional Papanicolaou smear screening method to SurePath liquid-based cytology. This article is based on a retrospective comparison on data from the population screening programme for cervical...... cancer in the Municipality of Copenhagen. RESULTS: The number of tests with the diagnosis of "normal cells" decreased 1% after the conversion to liquid-based cytology, whilst the number of tests with "atypical cells" and "cells suspicious for malignancy" increased by 64.3% and 41.2% respectively...... of cervical precancerous lesions with liquid-based cytology. Follow-up histology showed no increase of false positive tests, whilst the share of tests which were "unsatisfactory for evaluation" decreased significantly. Overall, the liquid-based technique would seem to have several advantages compared...

  3. Role of cytologic grading in prognostication of invasive breast carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Nazoora

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Evaluation of cytologic features is indispensable in the preoperative diagnosis and grading of infiltrating ductal breast carcinoma (CA in fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC material and this method can also provide additional information regarding intrinsic features of the tumor as well as its prognosis. Aim: This study has been done to evaluate comparatively the cytologic and histomorphologic grading of infiltrating ductal carcinoma of breast with specific reference to lymph node metastasis and its role in prognostication. Materials and Methods: Forty three patients who underwent FNAC and mastectomy for infiltrating ductal carcinoma were cytologically and histologically graded (employing Robinson′s cytologic grading system and Elston′s modification of Bloom-Richardson system, respectively. Statistical analysis was done employing ′z′ test and c2 test to compare the two grading system and to examine the degree of correlation between the cytologic and histologic grades. Multiple regression analysis was done to assess the significance of every cytologic and histologic parameter. All 43 cases, graded cyto-histologically were also evaluated for presence or absence of metastasis to the regional lymph nodes employing c2 test. Results: With histologic grade taken as the standard, cytology was found to be fairly comparable, for grading breast carcinoma (overall sensitivity 89.1%, specificity 100%. Further comparison of the two grading systems by Z-test showed that difference between the cytologic and histologic grading was insignificant in all the three grade (p > 0.05. Of the six parameters studied, cell dissociation, nucleoli and chromatin pattern were the most influential features (p < 0.001. The statistically significant difference (p < 0.001 was found in incidences of axillary lymph node metastatic rate in three cytologic grades (15.4% in grade I vs. 83.3% in grade III as well. Conclusions: Apart from being simple and

  4. Study of novel carbon fiber composite used exfoliated carbon fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toyoda, Masahiro [Oita Univ., 700 Dannoharu, Oita 870-1192 (Japan)], E-mail: toyoda22@cc.oita-u.ac.jp; Kohara, Ryotaro; Tsumura, Tomoki [Oita Univ., 700 Dannoharu, Oita 870-1192 (Japan); Mutoh, Hiroyuki; Sakai, Mototsugu [Toyohashi Univ. of Tech., Toyohashi 441-8580 (Japan)

    2009-04-15

    One of the applications for carbon nanotubes (CNTs), CNT composite has been studied to reinforce of polymer. However, CNTs have not shown enough reinforced effect, because of poor dispersibility of itself and low purification. These characteristics are connected with the lowering mechanical strength in CNT's reinforced polymer composite. On the other hand, exfoliated carbon fibers (ExCFs) prepared through electrochemical processing were found to have unique morphology such as nanometer or sub-micrometer sized fibrils and well dispersibility. Fabrication of composite using its ExCFs was investigated. ExCFs changed in nanometer-sized fibrils by using ultrasonication and CNTs dispersed by using ultrasonication were compounded with polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) in situ process through polymerization, and then their mechanical properties were examined. Flexural strength and elasticity of PMMA composite reinforced by ExCFs increased 166 and 171% respectively at addition of only 2.0 wt.% comparison with bulk PMMA. There was no significant aggregation in fracture surface, and homogeneous dispersion of ExCFs throughout the PMMA matrix was recognized. It was better than that of PMMA composite reinforced by CNTs. Homogeneous dispersion might be strongly related to mechanical properties. ExCFs might be expected to be applied to nano-composite instead of CNTs.

  5. Phonon shift in chemically exfoliated WS2 nanosheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Abdus Salam; Pal, Suman Kalyan

    2018-04-01

    We have synthesized few layer WS2 nanosheets in a low boiling point solvent. Few layer of WS2 sheets are characterized by various techniques such as UV-visible and Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). UV-Vis absorption spectra confirm the well dispersed in isopropyl alcohol. SEM and TEM images indicate the sheet like morphology of WS2. Atomic force microscopy image and room temperature Raman spectroscopy confirm the exfoliation of few layer (4-5 layer) of WS2. Further, Raman spectroscopy was used as a meteorology tool to determine the temperature co-efficient. We have systematically investigated the temperature dependent Raman spectroscopic behavior of few layer WS2. Our results depict the softening of the Raman modes E12g in plane vibration and A1g out of plane vibration with increasing the temperature from 77 K to 300 K. Softening of the Raman modes could be explained in terms of the double resonance which is active in the layered materials. The observed temperature coefficients for two Raman peaks E12g and A1g, are - 0.022 cm-1 and -0.009 cm-1, respectively.

  6. Exfoliation syndrome and exfoliation glaucoma-associated LOXL1 variations are not involved in pigment dispersion syndrome and pigmentary glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Kollu Nageswara; Ritch, Robert; Dorairaj, Syril K; Kaur, Inderjeet; Liebmann, Jeffrey M; Thomas, Ravi; Chakrabarti, Subhabrata

    2008-07-09

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the LOXL1 gene have been implicated in exfoliation syndrome (XFS) and exfoliation glaucoma (XFG). We have shown that these SNPs are not associated with the primary glaucomas such as primary open-angle (POAG) glaucoma and primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG). To further establish the specificity of LOXL1 SNPs for XFS and XFG, we determined whether these SNPs were involved in pigment dispersion syndrome (PDS) and pigmentary glaucoma (PG). Three SNPs of LOXL1 (rs1048661, rs3825942, and rs2165241) were screened in a cohort of 78 unrelated and clinically well characterized glaucoma cases comprising of PG (n=44) and PDS (n=34) patients as well as 108 ethnically matched normal controls of Caucasian origin. The criteria for diagnosis of PDS/PG were Krukenberg spindle, hyperpigmentation of the trabecular meshwork, and wide open angle. Transillumination defects were detected by infrared pupillography, and the presence of a Zentmayer ring was considered as a confirmatory sign. All three SNPs were genotyped in cases and controls by resequencing the genomic region of LOXL1 harboring these variants and were further confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based restriction digestions. Haplotypes were generated from the genotype data, and the linkage disequilibrium (LD) and haplotype analysis were done with Haploview software that uses the expectation maximization (EM) algorithm. The LOXL1 SNPs showed no significant association with PDS or PG. There was no significant difference in the frequencies of the risk alleles of rs1048661 ('G' allele; p=0.309), rs3825942 ('G' allele' p=0.461), and rs2165241 ('T' allele; p=0.432) between PG/PDS cases and controls. Similarly, there was no involvement of the XFS/XFG-associated haplotypes, 'G-G' (p=0.643; [OR=1.08, 95%CI, 0.59-1.97]) and 'T-G' (p=0.266; [OR=1.35, 95%CI, 0.70-2.60]), with the PDS/PG phenotypes. The risk haplotype 'G-G' was observed in ~55% of the normal controls. There was no

  7. Endometrial cytology in the female cat (Felis catus) during diestrus

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Riquelme, Alfonso; Arias Ruiz, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to describe and quantify cytological findings in the cat’s endometrium (Felis catus). Twenty genital tracts were obtained by ovariohysterectomy. To establish the status of the estrous cycle, vaginal cytology was evaluated and ovarian structures were recorded, resulting that all females were in the luteal phase. According to the presence of corpora lutea and follicles, a classification of the luteal phase was proposed: early diestrus: corpora lutea and follicles of...

  8. Cytological study of DNA content and nuclear morphometric analysis for aid in the diagnosis of high-grade dysplasia within oral leukoplakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xi; Xiao, Xuan; Wu, Wenyan; Shen, Xuemin; Zhou, Zengtong; Liu, Wei; Shi, Linjun

    2017-09-01

    To quantitatively examine the DNA content and nuclear morphometric status of oral leukoplakia (OL) and investigate its association with the degree of dysplasia in a cytologic study. Oral cytobrush biopsy was carried out to obtain exfoliative epithelial cells from lesions before scalpel biopsy at the same location in a blinded series of 70 patients with OL. Analysis of nuclear morphometry and DNA content status using image cytometry was performed with oral smears stained with the Feulgen-thionin method. Nuclear morphometric analysis revealed significant differences in DNA content amount, DNA index, nuclear area, nuclear radius, nuclear intensity, sphericity, entropy, and fractal dimension (all P content analysis identified 34 patients with OL (48.6%) with DNA content abnormality. Nonhomogeneous lesion (P = .018) and high-grade dysplasia (P = .008) were significantly associated with abnormal DNA content. Importantly, the positive correlation between the degree of oral dysplasia and DNA content status was significant (P = .004, correlation coefficient = 0.342). Cytology analysis of DNA content and nuclear morphometric status using image cytometry may support their use as a screening and monitoring tool for OL progression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The British Society for Clinical Cytology Certificate of Competence in Cytology Screening: a report of the first 3 years' experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGoogan, E; Chapman, P A

    1992-01-01

    In 1988 the Department of Health (DOH) recognized the cytology screener grade of laboratory staff. Cytology screeners have a 2 year training period after which they must sit a 'competence examination'. The British Society for Clinical Cytology offers an examination to meet the DOH specification. It consists of a written paper, a practical screening test, a spot test and a short viva voce. The screening test is paramount and candidates who miss a dyskaryotic smear cannot be successful. In the first 3 years there have been 22 examinations, 294 candidates and a pass rate of 76%. The majority of candidates were Cytology Screeners of 2-3 years experience but significant numbers of Medical Laboratory Scientific Officers (MLSOs) and senior MLSOs also chose to sit the examination.

  10. Exfoliated MoS2 nanosheets as efficient catalysts for electrochemical hydrogen evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Shanshan; Yang, Zhe; Zhang, Chao; Liu, Zhenyan; Tjiu, Weng Weei; Phang, In Yee; Zhang, Zheng; Pan, Jisheng; Liu, Tianxi

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: An efficient electrocatalyst for hydrogen evolution has been developed based on exfoliation of bulk MoS 2 crystals via a direct dispersion and ultrasonication method. Drop-casting method is used to fabricate the exfoliated MoS 2 nanosheets modified glass carbon electrode (E-MoS 2 /GCE) with various loadings. The E-MoS 2 /GCE with electrode loading of 48 μg cm −1 exhibits high catalytic activity for hydrogen evolution with a low overpotential (−0.12 V) and a high current density (1.26 mA cm −2 , at η = 150 mV). -- Highlights: • Two-dimensional MoS 2 nanosheets have been obtained by exfoliation of bulk MoS 2 crystals. • Exfoliated MoS 2 nanosheets show high electrocatalytic activity for H 2 production. • This study provides a new approach for renewable and economic H 2 production. -- Abstract: An efficient electrocatalyst for hydrogen evolution has been developed based on liquid exfoliation of bulk MoS 2 via a direct dispersion and ultrasonication method. Transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy measurements show that the exfoliated MoS 2 consists of two-dimensional nanosheets. The exfoliated MoS 2 nanosheets modified glass carbon electrode (E-MoS 2 /GCE) with various loadings is fabricated via a drop-casting method. The electrocatalytic activity of E-MoS 2 /GCE toward hydrogen evolution reaction is examined using linear sweep voltammetry. It is shown that the E-MoS 2 /GCE with an electrode loading of 48 μg cm −2 exhibits a high catalytic activity for hydrogen evolution with a low overpotential (−0.12 V) and a high current density (1.26 mA cm −2 , at η = 150 mV)

  11. Demonstration of different endocervical staining methods and their usefulness in the diagnosis of the chlamydial infection in exfoliated cells advantages and disadvantages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmutović, Sabina; Beslagić, Edina; Hamzić, Sadeta; Aljicević, Mufida

    2004-02-01

    Microscopic demonstration of chlamydial inclusions within cells offered the first laboratory procedure supporting the clinical diagnosis of chlamydial infection. Our aim is to evaluate the usefulness of different endocervical staining methods in diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection within exfoliated cells of the endocervix. The cytological test for the detection of chlamydial inclusions in genital tract infection, though not as sensitive and specific as isolation in the cell culture monolayers, is still of the diagnostic value. The present study discusses the collection of clinical smears for microscopic examination, their preparation; fixation and staining of slides by a variety of staining methods that have been used to detect Chlamydia in clinical smears and biopsies. Most of these methods such as Giemsa stain, Papanicolaou, iodine, and immunofluorescence (IF) using monoclonal antibodies, are based on the combination of dyes designed to obtain optimum differentiation of the various structures. The utilization of different endocervical smear stains together with the clinical information can be used to identify women at high risk for CT infection.

  12. An audit of cervicovaginal cytology in a teaching hospital: Are atypical glandular cells under-recognised on cytological screening?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crasta Julian

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cervical cytology screening for carcinoma of the cervix in India is mainly opportunistic in nature and is practiced mainly in urban centres. The effectiveness of cervical cytology screening depends on various factors. The quality of cervicovaginal cytology service is assessed by various quality indices and by cyto-histology correlation, which is the most important quality assurance measure. Aims: To describe the cervical cytology diagnoses, estimate the quality indices, and evaluate the discrepant cases on cytohistological correlation. Settings and Design: Retrospective observational study from a tertiary care centre in South India. Materials and Methods: Using a database search, all the cervicovaginal cytology reported during the period of 2002-2006 was retrieved and various diagnoses were described. The data was analysed to assess the quality indices. The cytohistologically discrepant cases were reviewed. Results: A total of 10,787 cases were retrieved, of which 98.14% were labeled negative and 1.36% were unsatisfactory for evaluation. A few (0.81% of the cases were labeled as squamous intraepithelial lesions and 0.38% as atypical squamous cells. The ASCUS: SIL ratio was 0.5. Cytohistological correlation revealed a total of ten cases with significant discrepancy. The majority of these were carcinomas that were misdiagnosed as atypical glandular cells. These cytology smears and the subsequent biopsies were reviewed to elucidate the reasons for the discrepancies. Conclusions: The cervical cytology service at our centre is well within the accepted standards. An increased awareness of cytological features, especially of glandular lesions, a good clinician-laboratory communication and a regular cytohistological review would further improve the diagnostic standards.

  13. An audit of cervicovaginal cytology in a teaching hospital: Are atypical glandular cells under-recognised on cytological screening?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crasta, Julian A; Chaitra, V; Simi, Cm; Correa, Marjorie

    2009-04-01

    Cervical cytology screening for carcinoma of the cervix in India is mainly opportunistic in nature and is practiced mainly in urban centres. The effectiveness of cervical cytology screening depends on various factors. The quality of cervicovaginal cytology service is assessed by various quality indices and by cyto-histology correlation, which is the most important quality assurance measure. To describe the cervical cytology diagnoses, estimate the quality indices, and evaluate the discrepant cases on cytohistological correlation. Retrospective observational study from a tertiary care centre in South India. Using a database search, all the cervicovaginal cytology reported during the period of 2002-2006 was retrieved and various diagnoses were described. The data was analysed to assess the quality indices. The cytohistologically discrepant cases were reviewed. A total of 10,787 cases were retrieved, of which 98.14% were labeled negative and 1.36% were unsatisfactory for evaluation. A few (0.81%) of the cases were labeled as squamous intraepithelial lesions and 0.38% as atypical squamous cells. The ASCUS: SIL ratio was 0.5. Cytohistological correlation revealed a total of ten cases with significant discrepancy. The majority of these were carcinomas that were misdiagnosed as atypical glandular cells. These cytology smears and the subsequent biopsies were reviewed to elucidate the reasons for the discrepancies. The cervical cytology service at our centre is well within the accepted standards. An increased awareness of cytological features, especially of glandular lesions, a good clinician-laboratory communication and a regular cytohistological review would further improve the diagnostic standards.

  14. Metastatic urachal carcinoma in bronchial brush cytology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima Zahra Aly

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Urachal carcinoma is rare comprising less than 1% of all bladder carcinomas. Metastases of urachal carcinoma have been reported to meninges, brain, ovary, lung, and maxilla. Cytologic features of metastatic urachal carcinoma have not been previously reported. We present a case of metastatic urachal adenocarcinoma in bronchial brushings and review the use of immunohistochemistry in its diagnosis. A 47-year-old female was seen initially in 2007 with adenocarcinoma of the bladder dome for which she underwent partial cystectomy. She presented in 2011 with a left lung mass and mediastinal adenopathy. Bronchoscopy showed an endobronchial lesion from which brushings were obtained. These showed numerous groups of columnar cells with medium sized nuclei and abundant cytoplasm. The cells were positive for CK20 and CDX2 and negative for CK7. The cytomorphological findings were similar to those in the previous resection specimen and concurrent biopsy. This is the first case report of bronchial brushings containing metastatic urachal carcinoma. No specific immunohistochemical profile is available for its diagnosis. The consideration of a second primary was a distinct possibility in this case due to the lapse of time from primary resection, absence of local disease, and lack of regional metastases.

  15. Human Papillomavirus Assays and Cytology in Primary Cervical Screening of Women Aged 30 Years and Above

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; Bonde, Jesper; Preisler, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    In women aged ≥30 years, Human Papillomavirus testing will replace cytology for primary cervical screening. We compared Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2), cobas, CLART, and APTIMA HPV assays with cytology on 2869 SurePath samples from women undergoing routine screening at 30-65 years in Copenhagen, Denmark....... Women with cytological abnormalities were managed according to routine recommendations, with 92% completeness. Those with cytology-normal/HPV-positive samples (on any of the four assays) were invited for repeated cytology and HPV testing in 1.5 year, and 58% had additional testing. HPV testing detected...... more ≥CIN3 than cytology (HC2: 35, cobas, CLART: 37, APTIMA: 34, cytology: 31), although statistically the differences were not significant. Cobas and CLART detected significantly more ≥CIN2 than cytology (cobas, CLART: 49, cytology: 39). The proportion of women with false-positive test results...

  16. Structure, temperature and frequency dependent electrical conductivity of oxidized and reduced electrochemically exfoliated graphite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radoń, Adrian; Włodarczyk, Patryk; Łukowiec, Dariusz

    2018-05-01

    The article presents the influence of reduction by hydrogen in statu nascendi and modification by hydrogen peroxide on the structure and electrical conductivity of electrochemically exfoliated graphite. It was confirmed that the electrochemical exfoliation can be used to produce oxidized nanographite with an average number of 25 graphene layers. The modified electrochemical exfoliated graphite and reduced electrochemical exfoliated graphite were characterized by high thermal stability, what was associated with removing of labile oxygen-containing groups. The presence of oxygen-containing groups was confirmed using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. Influence of chemical modification by hydrogen and hydrogen peroxide on the electrical conductivity was determined in wide frequency (0.1 Hz-10 kHz) and temperature range (-50 °C-100 °C). Material modified by hydrogen peroxide (0.29 mS/cm at 0 °C) had the lowest electrical conductivity. This can be associated with oxidation of unstable functional groups and was also confirmed by analysis of Raman spectra. The removal of oxygen-containing functional groups by hydrogen in statu nascendi resulted in a 1000-fold increase in the electrical conductivity compared to the electrochemical exfoliated graphite.

  17. Graphene prepared by one-pot solvent exfoliation as a highly sensitive platform for electrochemical sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Can; Cheng, Qin [Key Laboratory for Large-Format Battery Materials and System, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Wu, Kangbing, E-mail: kbwu@hust.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Large-Format Battery Materials and System, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Wu, Gang [Materials Physics and Applications Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Li, Qing, E-mail: qing_li_2@brown.edu [Materials Physics and Applications Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • Graphene was prepared by one-step solvent exfoliation as superior electrode material. • Compared with RGO, prepared graphene exhibited stronger signal enhancement. • A widespread and highly-sensitive electrochemical sensing platform was constructed. - Abstract: Graphene was easily obtained via one-step ultrasonic exfoliation of graphite powder in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone. Scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Raman and particle size measurements indicated that the exfoliation efficiency and the amount of produced graphene increased with ultrasonic time. The electrochemical properties and analytical applications of the resulting graphene were systematically studied. Compared with the predominantly-used reduced graphene oxides, the obtained graphene by one-step solvent exfoliation greatly enhanced the oxidation signals of various analytes, such as ascorbic acid (AA), dopamine (DA), uric acid (UA), xanthine (XA), hypoxanthine (HXA), bisphenol A (BPA), ponceau 4R, and sunset yellow. The detection limits of AA, DA, UA, XA, HXA, BPA, ponceau 4R, and sunset yellow were evaluated to be 0.8 μM, 7.5 nM, 2.5 nM, 4 nM, 10 nM, 20 nM, 2 nM, and 1 nM, which are much lower than the reported values. Thus, the prepared graphene via solvent exfoliation strategy displays strong signal amplification ability and holds great promise in constructing a universal and sensitive electrochemical sensing platform.

  18. New insight of high temperature oxidation on self-exfoliation capability of graphene oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuhang; Zeng, Jie; Han, Di; Wu, Kai; Yu, Bowen; Chai, Songgang; Chen, Feng; Fu, Qiang

    2018-05-01

    The preparation of graphene oxide (GO) via Hummers method is usually divided into two steps: low temperature oxidation at 35 °C (step I oxidation) and high temperature oxidation at 98 °C (step II oxidation). However, the effects of these two steps on the exfoliation capability and chemical structure of graphite oxide remain unclear. In this study, both the functional group content of graphite oxide and the entire evolution of interlayer spacing were investigated during the two steps. Step I oxidation is a slowly inhomogeneous oxidation step to remove unoxidized graphite flakes. The prepared graphite oxide can be easily self-exfoliated but contains a lot of organic sulfur. During the first 20 min of step II oxidation, the majority of organic sulfur can be efficiently removed and graphite oxide still remains a good exfoliation capability due to sharp increasing of carboxyl groups. However, with a longer oxidation time at step II oxidation, the decrease of organic sulfur content is slowed down apparently but without any carboxyl groups forming, then graphite oxide finally loses self-exfoliation capability. It is concluded that a short time of step II oxidation can produce purer and ultralarge GO sheets via self-exfoliation. The pure GO is possessed with better thermal stability and liquid crystal behavior. Besides, reduced GO films prepared from step II oxidation show better mechanical and electric properties after reducing compared with that obtained only via step I oxidation.

  19. Mechanisms of nanoclay-enhanced plastic foaming processes: effects of nanoclay intercalation and exfoliation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Anson; Wijnands, Stephan F. L.; Kuboki, Takashi; Park, Chul B., E-mail: park@mie.utoronto.ca [University of Toronto, Microcellular Plastics Manufacturing Laboratory, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering (Canada)

    2013-08-15

    The foaming behaviors of high-density polypropylene-nanoclay composites with intercalated and exfoliated nanoclay particles blown with carbon dioxide were examined via in situ observation of the foaming processes in a high-temperature/high-pressure view-cell. The intercalated nanoclay particles were 300-600 nm in length and 50-200 nm in thickness, while the exfoliated nanoclay particles were 100-200 nm in length and 1 nm in thickness. Contrary to common belief, it was discovered that intercalated nanoclay yielded higher cell density than exfoliated nanoclay despite its lower particle density. This was attributed to the higher tensile stresses generated around the larger and stiffer intercalated nanoclay particles, which led to increase in supersaturation level for cell nucleation. Also, the coupling agent used to exfoliate nanoclay would increase the affinity between polymer and surface of nanoclay particles. Consequently, the critical work needed for cell nucleation would be increased; pre-existing microvoids, which could act as seeds for cell nucleation, were also less likely to exist. Meanwhile, exfoliated nanoclay had better cell stabilization ability to prevent cell coalescence and cell coarsening. This investigation clarifies the roles of nanoclay in plastic foaming processes and provides guidance for the advancement of polymer nanocomposite foaming technology.

  20. Ex situ integration of iron oxide nanoparticles onto the exfoliated expanded graphite flakes in water suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jović Nataša

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid structures composed of exfoliated expanded graphite (EG and iron oxide nanocrystals have been produced by an ex situ process. The iron oxide nanoparticles coated with meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA, or poly(acrylic acid (PAA were integrated onto the exfoliated EG flakes by mixing their aqueous suspensions at room temperature under support of 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropylcarbodiimide (EDC and N-hydroxysuccin-nimide (NHS. EG flakes have been used both, naked and functionalized with branched polyethylenimine (PEI. Complete integration of two constituents has been achieved and mainteined stable for more than 12 months. No preferential spatial distribution of anchoring sites for attachement of iron oxide nanoparticles has been observed, regardless EG flakes have been used naked or functionalized with PEI molecules. The structural and physico-chemical characteristics of the exfoliated expanded graphite and its hybrids nanostructures has been investigated by SEM, TEM, FTIR and Raman techniques. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 45015

  1. Synthesis and Thermal Conductivity of Exfoliated Hexagonal Boron Nitride/Alumina Ceramic Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Ching-cheh; Hurst, Janet; Santiago, Diana; Lizcano, Maricela; Kelly, Marisabel

    2017-01-01

    Exfoliated hexagonal boron nitride (hBN)/alumina composite can be fabricated by following the process of (1) heating a mixture of hBN, AlCl3, and NaF in nitrogen for intercalation; (2) heating the intercalated product in air for exfoliation and at the same time converting the intercalate (AlCl3) into Al2O3, (3) rinsing the oxidized product, (4) coating individual exfoliated hBN platelets that contain Al2O3 with new layers of aluminum oxide, and finally, (5) hot pressing the product into the composite. The composite thus obtained has a composition of approximately 60 percent by weight hBN and 40 percent by weight alumina. Its in-plane and through-plane thermal conductivity were measured to be 86 and 18 watts per meter Kelvin, respectively, at room temperature.

  2. Epoxy based nanocomposites with fully exfoliated unmodified clay: mechanical and thermal properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Binghai; Zhang, Xiaohong; Gao, Jianming; Song, Zhihai; Qi, Guicun; Liu, Yiqun; Qiao, Jinliang

    2010-09-01

    The unmodified clay has been fully exfoliated in epoxy resin with the aid of a novel ultrafine full-vulcanized powdered rubber. Epoxy/rubber/clay nanocomposites with exfoliated morphology have been successfully prepared. The microstructures of the nanocomposites were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. It was found that the unmodified clay was fully exfoliated and uniformly dispersed in the resulting nanocomposite. Characterizations of mechanical properties revealed that the impact strength of this special epoxy/rubber/clay nanocomposite increased up 107% over the neat epoxy resin. Thermal analyses showed that thermal stability of the nanocomposite was much better than that of epoxy nanocomposite based on organically modified clay.

  3. Discrepant HPV/cytology cotesting results: Are there differences between cytology-negative versus HPV-negative cervical intraepithelial neoplasia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracht, Jessica M; Davis, Antoinette D; Fasciano, Danielle N; Eltoum, Isam-Eldin A

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this study was to compare cervical high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions subcategorized as cervical intraepithelial neoplasia-3 (CIN-3)-positive after a negative cytology result but positive for high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) testing to those with a negative HR-HPV test but positive cytology (atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance [ASCUS]-positive/HPV-negative) and to assess reasons for discrepancies. The authors retrospectively analyzed women who underwent screening with cytology and HPV testing from 2010 through 2013. After a review of surgical specimens and cytology, discrepancies were classified as sampling or interpretation error. Clinical and pathologic findings were compared. In total, 15,173 women (age range, 25-95 years; 7.1% were aged ASCUS-positive/HPV-positive, 11 that tested negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy (NILM)/HPV-positive, 10 that tested ASCUS-positive/HPV-negative, 3 that tested NILM/HPV-negative, and 5 tests that were unsatisfactory. There was no significant difference between NILM/HPV-positive and ASCUS-positive/HPV-negative CIN-3 in terms of size, time to occurrence, the presence of a cytopathic effect, screening history, race, or age. Six of 11 NILM/HPV-positive cases were reclassified as ASCUS, indicating an interpreting error of 55% and a sampling error of 45%. No ASCUS-positive/HPV-negative cases were reclassified. Seven cases of CIN-3 with positive cytology were HPV-negative. There are no significant clinical or pathologic differences between NILM/HPV-positive and ASCUS-positive/HPV-negative CIN-3-positive specimens. Cytologic sampling or interpretation remains the main reason for discrepancies. However, HPV-negative CIN-3 with positive cytology exists and may be missed by primary HPV screening. Cancer Cytopathol 2017;125:795-805. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  4. Urethroscopy and urethral cytology in men with external genital condyloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fralick, R A; Malek, R S; Goellner, J R; Hyland, K M

    1994-03-01

    To develop guidelines as to which asymptomatic male patients with genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection need further evaluation of the urethra, we studied two screening methods: urethroscopy and voided urethral cytology. In a four-year period, 135 asymptomatic men underwent complete screening for HPV infection. They were evaluated because of HPV-related genital disease in their female sex partners or visible genital lesions, or both. Of the 135 patients, 21 (16%) had no clinical, subclinical, cytologic, or urethroscopic evidence of disease, and 114 (84%) had biopsy-proven HPV infection. Of these 114 patients, only 14 (12.3%) had intraurethral condyloma. All of these 14 patients had current or historical evidence of meatal or perimeatal "sentinel" lesions. They constituted 29.8 percent of 47 such patients with sentinel lesions. In 5 patients (4%), results of voided urine cytology were positive for condyloma cells, but only 1 of these had visible intraurethral disease. Of the 14 patients with urethral disease, only 1 (7%) had positive results of urine cytology. These observations suggest that any asymptomatic male patient undergoing screening for condyloma acuminatum who has a history of or demonstrable subclinical or grossly visible perimeatal or meatal HPV infection should undergo urethroscopy and that voided urine cytology is not a reliable or cost-effective test for the detection of visible intraurethral disease.

  5. Desmoplastic small round cell tumour: Cytological and immunocytochemical features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filho Adhemar

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT is a rare and highly aggressive neoplasm. The cytological diagnosis of these tumors can be difficult because they show morphological features quite similar to other small round blue cells tumors. We described four cases of DSRCT with cytological sampling: one obtained by fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB and three from serous effusions. The corresponding immunocytochemical panel was also reviewed. Methods Papanicolaou stained samples from FNAB and effusions were morphologically described. Immunoreaction with WT1 antibody was performed in all cytological samples. An immunohistochemical panel including the following antibodies was performed in the corresponding biopsies: 34BE12, AE1/AE3, Chromogranin A, CK20, CK7, CK8, Desmin, EMA, NSE, Vimentin and WT1. Results The smears showed high cellularity with minor size alteration. Nuclei were round to oval, some of them with inconspicuous nucleoli. Tumor cells are clustered, showing rosette-like feature. Tumor cells in effusions and FNA were positive to WT1 in 3 of 4 cytology specimens (2 out 3 effusions and one FNA. Immunohistochemical reactions for vimentin, NSE, AE1/AE3 and WT1 were positive in all cases in tissue sections. Conclusion The use of an adjunct immunocytochemical panel coupled with the cytomorphological characteristics allows the diagnosis of DSRCT in cytological specimens.

  6. Role of scrape cytology in the intraoperative diagnosis of tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolte Sachin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Rapid diagnosis of surgically removed specimens has created many controversies and a single completely reliable method has not yet been developed. Histopathology of a paraffin section remains the ultimate gold standard in tissue diagnosis. Frozen section is routinely used by the surgical pathology laboratories for intraoperative diagnosis. The use of either frozen section or cytological examination alone has an acceptable rate (93-97% of correct diagnosis, with regard to interpretation of benign versus malignant. Aim : To evaluate the utility of scrape cytology for the rapid diagnosis of surgically removed tumors and its utilisation for learning cytopathology. Materials and Methods : 75 surgically removed specimens from various organs and systems were studied. Scrapings were taken from each specimen before formalin fixation and stained by modified rapid Papanicolaou staining. Results : Of the 75 cases studied, 73 could be correctly differentiated into benign and malignant tumors, with an accuracy rate of 97.3%. Conclusions : Intraoperative scrape cytology is useful for intraoperative diagnosis of tumor, where facilities for frozen section are not available. The skill and expertise developed by routinely practicing intraoperative cytology can be applied to the interpretation of fine needle aspirate smears. Thus, apart from its diagnostic role, intraoperative cytology can become a very useful learning tool in the field of cytopathology.

  7. Cytologic atypia in the contralateral unaffected breast is related to parity and estrogen-related genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monahan, Denise A; Wang, Jun; Lee, Oukseub; Revesz, Elizabeth; Taft, Nancy; Ivancic, David; Hansen, Nora M; Bethke, Kevin P; Zalles, C; Khan, Seema A

    2016-12-01

    The contralateral unaffected breast (CUB) of women with unilateral breast cancer provides a model for the study of breast tissue-based risk factors. Using random fine needle aspiration (rFNA), we have investigated hormonal and gene expression patterns related to atypia in the CUBs of newly diagnosed breast cancer patients. 83 women underwent rFNA of the CUB. Cytologic analysis was performed using the Masood Score (MS), atypia was defined as MS > 14. RNA was extracted using 80% of the sample. The expression of 20 hormone related genes was quantified using Taqman Low Density Arrays. Statistical analysis was performed using 2-tailed t tests and linear regression. Cytological atypia was more frequent in multiparous women (P = 0.0392), and was not associated with any tumor-related features in the affected breast. Masood Score was higher with shorter interval since last pregnancy (R = 0.204, P = 0.0417), higher number of births (R = 0.369, P = 0.0006), and estrogen receptor (ER) negativity of the index cancer (R = -0.203, P = 0.065). Individual cytologic features were associated with aspects of parity. Specifically, anisonucleosis was correlated with shorter interval since last pregnancy (R = 0.318, P = 0.0201), higher number of births (R = 0.382, P = 0.0004), and ER status (R = -0.314, P = 0.0038). Eight estrogen-regulated genes were increased in atypical samples (P breast cancer development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Time-dependent study of the exfoliation process of carbon nanotubes in aqueous dispersions by using UV-visible spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grossiord, N.; Regev, O.; Loos, J.; Meuldijk, J.; Koning, C.E.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we demonstrate that the sonication-driven exfoliation of aggregates and bundles of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) in an aqueous surfactant solution can be easily monitored by UV-vis spectroscopy. The different stages of the exfoliation process were directly visualized by

  9. Liquid-Phase Exfoliation of Phosphorene: Design Rules from Molecular Dynamics Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sresht, Vishnu; Pádua, Agílio A H; Blankschtein, Daniel

    2015-08-25

    The liquid-phase exfoliation of phosphorene, the two-dimensional derivative of black phosphorus, in the solvents dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), dimethylformamide (DMF), isopropyl alcohol, N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone, and N-cyclohexyl-2-pyrrolidone is investigated using three molecular-scale "computer experiments". We modeled solvent-phosphorene interactions using an atomistic force field, based on ab initio calculations and lattice dynamics, that accurately reproduces experimental mechanical properties. We probed solvent molecule ordering at phosphorene/solvent interfaces and discovered that planar molecules such as N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone preferentially orient parallel to the interface. We subsequently measured the energy required to peel a single phosphorene monolayer from a stack of black phosphorus and analyzed the role of "wedges" of solvent molecules intercalating between phosphorene sheets in initiating exfoliation. The exfoliation efficacy of a solvent is enhanced when either molecular planarity "sharpens" this molecular wedge or strong phosphorene-solvent adhesion stabilizes the newly exposed phosphorene surfaces. Finally, we examined the colloidal stability of exfoliated flakes by simulating their aggregation and showed that dispersion is favored when the cohesive energy between the molecules in the solvent monolayer confined between the phosphorene sheets is high (as with DMSO) and is hindered when the adhesion between these molecules and phosphorene is strong; the molecular planarity in solvents like DMF enhances the cohesive energy. Our results are consistent with, and provide a molecular context for, experimental exfoliation studies of phosphorene and other layered solids, and our molecular insights into the significant role of solvent molecular geometry and ordering should complement prevalent solubility-parameter-based approaches in establishing design rules for effective nanomaterial exfoliation media.

  10. Large-scale exfoliation of inorganic layered compounds in aqueous surfactant solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Ronan J.; King, Paul J.; Lotya, Mustafa; Wirtz, Christian; Khan, Umar; De, Sukanta; O' Neill, Arlene; Coleman, Jonathan N. [School of Physics, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2 (Ireland); CRANN, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Duesberg, Georg S. [CRANN, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2 (Ireland); School of Chemistry, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Grunlan, Jaime C.; Moriarty, Gregory [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Chen, Jun [Intelligent Polymer Research Institute, ARC Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science, AIIM Facility, University of Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Wang, Jiazhao [Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, ARC Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science, University of Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Minett, Andrew I. [Laboratory for Sustainable Technology, School of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Nicolosi, Valeria [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom)

    2011-09-08

    A method to exfoliate MoS{sub 2} in large quantities in surfactant-water solutions is described. The layered material tends to be exfoliated as dispersions of thin, relatively defect-free flakes with lateral sizes of hundreds of nanometers. This method can be extended to a range of other layered compounds. The dispersed flakes can be mixed with nanotubes or graphene to greate functional hybrid materials. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  11. Urea-assisted liquid-phase exfoliation of natural graphite into few-layer graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Dandan; Liu, Qinfu; Wang, Xianshuai; Qiao, Zhichuan; Wu, Yingke; Xu, Bohui; Ding, Shuli

    2018-05-01

    The mass production of graphene with high quality is desirable for its wide applications. Here, we demonstrated a facile method to exfoliate natural graphite into graphene in organic solvent by assisting of urea. The exfoliation of graphite may originate from the "molecular wedge" effect of urea, which can intercalate into the edge of natural graphite, thus facilitating the production of graphene dispersion with a high concentration up to 1.2 mg/mL. The obtained graphene is non-oxidized with negligible defects. Therefore, this approach has great promise in bulk production of graphene with superior quality for a variety of applications.

  12. One-Pot Exfoliation of Graphite and Synthesis of Nanographene/Dimesitylporphyrin Hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal, M. Mar; Pérez, Emilio M.

    2015-01-01

    A simple one-pot process to exfoliate graphite and synthesize nanographene-dimesitylporphyrin hybrids has been developed. Despite the bulky mesityl groups, which are expected to hinder the efficient π–π stacking between the porphyrin core and graphene, the liquid-phase exfoliation of graphite is significantly favored by the presence of the porphyrins. Metallation of the porphyrin further enhances this effect. The resulting graphene/porphyrin hybrids were characterized by spectroscopy (UV-visible, fluorescence, and Raman) and microscopy (STEM, scanning transmission electron microscopy). PMID:25984598

  13. Influence of Retrogression and Re-aging on the Exfoliation Corrosion Behavior of AA 7085 Sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnan, Ajay; Raja, V. S. [Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai (India); Mukhopadhyay, A. K. [Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Hyderabad (India)

    2016-08-15

    An attempt has been made to understand the influence of retrogression and re-aging (RRA) on the exfoliation corrosion behaviour of AA 7085 alloy in comparison with the peak aged condition (PA). Immersion tests using ASTM G34 and studies involving electrochemical impedance spectroscopy showed that the RRA treated alloy provided higher resistance to exfoliation corrosion than the PA treated alloy. The improved resistance was attributed to the enhanced Cu content and the discontinuous nature of the grain boundary precipitate, which was revealed through transmission electron microscopy.

  14. Exfoliation Propensity of Oxide Scale in Heat Exchangers Used for Supercritical CO2 Power Cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabau, Adrian S [ORNL; Shingledecker, John P. [Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI); Kung, Steve [Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI); Wright, Ian G. [WrightHT, Inc.; Nash, Jim [Brayton Energy, LLC, Hampton, NH

    2016-01-01

    Supercritical CO2 (sCO2) Brayton cycle systems offer the possibility of improved efficiency in future fossil energy power generation plants operating at temperatures of 650 C and above. As there are few data on the oxidation/corrosion behavior of structural alloys in sCO2 at these temperatures, modeling to predict the propensity for oxide exfoliation is not well developed, thus hindering materials selection for these novel cycles. The ultimate goal of this effort is to provide needed data on scale exfoliation behavior in sCO2 for confident alloy selection. To date, a model developed by ORNL and EPRI for the exfoliation of oxide scales formed on boiler tubes in high-temperature, high-pressure steam has proven useful for managing exfoliation in conventional steam plants. A major input provided by the model is the ability to predict the likelihood of scale failure and loss based on understanding of the evolution of the oxide morphologies and the conditions that result in susceptibility to exfoliation. This paper describes initial steps taken to extend the existing model for exfoliation of steam-side oxide scales to sCO2 conditions. The main differences between high-temperature, high-pressure steam and sCO2 that impact the model involve (i) significant geometrical differences in the heat exchangers, ranging from standard pressurized tubes seen typically in steam-producing boilers to designs for sCO2 that employ variously-curved thin walls to create shaped flow paths for extended heat transfer area and small channel cross-sections to promote thermal convection and support pressure loads; (ii) changed operating characteristics with sCO2 due to the differences in physical and thermal properties compared to steam; and (iii) possible modification of the scale morphologies, hence properties that influence exfoliation behavior, due to reaction with carbon species from sCO2. The numerical simulations conducted were based on an assumed sCO2 operating schedule and several

  15. Mechanistic examination of pre-exfoliating confinement of surface-active polystyrene nanobeads within pristine clay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khvan, Svetlana; Kim, Junkyung; Lee, Sang-Soo

    2007-02-01

    Hydrophobic polymer (PS) nanoparticles preformed through an emulsifier-free emulsion polymerization method were successfully incorporated into a gallery of pristine sodium montmorillonite via interfacial cation exchange. The polymer beads confined between clay nanosheets were capable of (1) preventing the silicate layers from restacking and (2) maintaining the exfoliated state of clay. The increase in the abundance of surface groups promoted adsorption of the nanobeads onto the silicate surface and eventually led to the establishment of strong polymer-clay interactions. These findings suggest that, on the basis of the obtained pre-exfoliated clay masterbatch, the presence of strong polymer-clay interactions could improve the mechanical performance of nanocomposites.

  16. Optimization of the size and yield of graphene oxide sheets in the exfoliation step

    OpenAIRE

    Botas, Cristina; Pérez, A.M. (Ana); Álvarez, Patricia; Santamaría, Ricardo; Granda, Marcos; Blanco, Clara; Menéndez, Rosa

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we demonstrate that the yield and size of the graphene oxide sheets (GO) obtained by sonication of graphite oxide (GrO) can be optimized not only by selecting the appropriate exfoliation conditions but also as a function of the crystalline structure of the parent graphite. A larger crystal size in the parent graphite favors GrO exfoliation and yields larger sheets in shorter sonication times, independently of the oxygen content of the GrO. A maximum yield of GO is obtained in al...

  17. Preparation and Characterization of EG-Chitosan Nanocomposites via Direct Exfoliation: A Green Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Demitri

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, free-standing expanded graphite chitosan (EG-chitosan nanocomposite films have been prepared using a novel green and simple preparation method, starting from a commercial expandable graphite (GIC. The in situ exfoliation of GIC by a solvent-free sonication method was monitored as a function of the process parameters using X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, dynamic light scattering (DLS and UV-visible transmittance (UV-VIS analyses. The optimal process parameters were selected in order to obtain an efficient dispersion of EG in chitosan solutions. The effective EG amount after the in situ exfoliation was also determined by thermogravimetric analyses.

  18. Ultrasound guided aspiration cytology of neck mass except thyroid mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Myeong Jin; Lee, Jong Tae; Yoo, Hyung Sik; Suh, Jung Ho; Park, Cheong Soo; Lee, Gwang Gil

    1988-01-01

    Results of ultrasound guided aspiration cytology of extrathyroidal neck masses of 73 patients were reviewed. Included cases were 23 malignant lesions; 16 metastatic tumors, 4 lymphomas, 3 salivary gland tumors and 50 benign lesions: 24 tuberculous lymphadenites, 15 abscess, 3 benign lymph node hyperplasias, etc. There were one case of false negative and none of false positive result for malignancy. In two cases of malignancy, insufficient cellular material was obtained. In one case of lymphoma, and a benign lymph node hyperplasia, it was difficult to distinguish between benignancy and malignancy on cytologic smear. For the malignant lesions, sensitivity was 83%, specificity was 98%, and overall accuracy was 93%. There were none who had suffered adverse effect from the procedure. Ultrasound guided aspiration cytology seems to be simple, accurate and safe diagnostic modality for neck masses especially in condition that malignancy can not be excluded

  19. Incisional endometriosis: diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veda, P; Srinivasaiah, M

    2010-07-01

    Incisional endometriosis (IE) is a rare entity reported in 0.03-1.08% of women following obstetric or gynecologic surgeries. Most cases reported in literature have appeared after cesarean sections and were often clinically mistaken for hernia, abscess, suture granuloma or lipoma. We hereby report a case of IE following a second trimester hysterotomy, which was diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). Our patient was 26 years old, presenting with a mass over anterior abdominal wall, associated with incapacitating pain during each menstrual cycle. FNAC showed epithelial cells, stromal cells and hemosiderin laden macrophages. Based on the typical history, clinical and cytological features, the diagnosis of IE was established. Wide surgical excision was done and the resulting rectus sheath defect was repaired. Patient was followed for 6 months during which time she was symptom free. This article also reviews the spectrum of cytological features and the rare possibility of malignant transformation that can occur in IE.

  20. Fine-needle cytology of breast lesions seen on mammograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, R.A.; Ridlen, M.S.; Dowlatshahi, K.; Jokich, P.M.; Bibbo, M.

    1989-01-01

    Stereotactic fine-needle aspiration of nonpalpable breast lesions is operator dependent. The authors have analyzed 250 biopsies at our institution (comparing aspiration cytology with surgical biopsy) for sensitivity, false-negative, and insufficient-sample rates of three different interpreters. Needle aspiration as an alternative to biopsy or a follow-up for lesions of low mammographic suspicion would have resulted in detection of most, but not all, cancers. Over 40 additional biopsies would have been needed to detect each missed cancer. Eighty percent of surgical biopsies would have been needed to detect each missed cancer. Eighty percent of surgical biopsies for low-suspicion lesions could be avoided. Aspiration cytologic series should report separately insufficient samples and LCIS, and should use a consistent threshold for interpreting cytologic results

  1. Role of cytology in screening, staging and follow-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischnaller, M.

    1986-01-01

    Cytology has become an integral component in the battery of diagnostic tools for a rational diagnosis of tumors. When all materials obtainable with sophisticated methods are utilized, almost every pulmonary lesion can be defined micromorphologically. In urgent cases instant staining techniques will permit a 'stat diagnosis'. The characterization of a tumor cell by cytology with accurate typing and grading offers preliminary information for subsequent staging efforts. Bronchial cancer may be both of the single-cell and of the mixed-cell type with the more aggressive cell elements determining the metastasising potential and prognosis. Sampling for cytology is devoid of risks and does not make any special demands on the patients; it can safely be repeated for follow-up studies; it helps to detect tumor regrowths or secondaries at an early stage during postoperative follow-up programs and to monitor treatment-related cellular changes. (Author)

  2. Sonography and cytology in the evaluation of salivary gland masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gozzi, G.; Bazzochi, M.; Vasciaveo, A.; Bassini, A.; Bellis, G.B.; Di Bonito, L.

    1991-01-01

    The contribution of the combined use of US and cytology is evaluated in the diagnosis of masses in yhe salivary glands and adjacent structures. US had 87.2% sensitivity in locating the mass; its accuracy in defining both phisical structure and benign/malignant nature of the lesion was 91% and 74% respectively. Thus US, after demonstrating a lesion, does not always allow the exact definition of its characteristic. In many of these cases, other imaging modalities do not help either. In our series of cases, cytology allowed an unquestionable diagnosis to be made in 87.2% of cases, and the combined use of US and cytology rose the figure to 97%. The only limitation is the evaluation of the deep extent of large masses: in such cases CT or, if available, MR imaging are recommended

  3. Should fine needle aspiration cytology in breast assessment be abandoned?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litherland, Janet C.

    2002-01-01

    Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) has been used extensively in the U.K. for the diagnosis of breast lesions over the past 15 years. More recently, large gauge needle biopsy has been used to address many of the problems which have been encountered with fine needle aspiration. This paper reviews the evolution of the use of these procedures and the advantages and disadvantages of each. In considering whether to abandon the use of fine needle aspiration cytology in breast assessment, each individual unit should make a decision based upon their own audited results. However, even if FNAC is retained, it is important to be able to complement cytological diagnosis with core biopsy as there are indisputable advantages, e.g. in the diagnosis of mammographically detected microcalcification. As always, a multi-disciplinary approach is ultimately essential for effective patient management. Litherland, J.C. (2002)

  4. Contributions of cytology examination and methods in lung cancer diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jerse, M.; Tercelj, M.

    2006-01-01

    Background. Lung cancer (LC) is still the leading cause of cancer death according to published data worldwide and confirmed also by the data obtained from the central Cancer Registry of Slovenia. Early detection of LC has an important impact on the long-term survival rate of the patients. In spite of a great advance in imaging technology for a better visualization and early detection of the neoplasms and a variety of screening tests, only cytopathology examination finally define the neoplastic lesion. Methods. To evaluate the contribution of cytology examination in the diagnosis of LC we studied the cytology diagnoses, comparing them with histology reports in patients, who underwent the diagnostic procedure under suspicion of the LC during last 2 years. Results. Of a total 772 patients, in 241 patients cancer was microscopically confirmed. The most frequent diagnoses were adenocarcinoma (36.9%), squamous cell carcinoma (26.6%), and small cell carcinoma (SCLC) (12.9%). There were 22% of neoplasms classified as non-small cell carcinomas (NSCLC). From the clinician point of view considering the therapy it is very important to distinguish NSCLC from SCLC. And in our study the cytology-histology correlation between these two major types of carcinoma was almost 100%. Based only on cytology, 68 (28.2%) patients received microscopic diagnosis of malignoma, and the specimens for this group of patients were obtained mostly from transbronchial or transthoracic fine needle aspiration biopsies. Conclusions. Cytology is of great diagnostic value, a reliable and relatively non-invasive method for patients. Cytology specimens should be taken in cases where it is not possible to obtain samples for histology. (author)

  5. Common Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization Applications in Cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savic, Spasenija; Bubendorf, Lukas

    2016-12-01

    - Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a well-established method for detection of genomic aberrations in diagnostic, prognostic, and predictive marker testing. - To review common applications of FISH in cytology. - The published literature was reviewed. - Cytology is particularly well suited for all kinds of FISH applications, which is highlighted in respiratory tract cytology with an increasing demand for predictive FISH testing in lung cancer. Fluorescence in situ hybridization is the gold standard for detection of predictive anaplastic lymphoma kinase gene (ALK) rearrangements, and the same evaluation criteria as in histology apply to cytology. Several other gene rearrangements, including ROS proto-oncogene 1 receptor tyrosine kinase (ROS1), are becoming clinically important and share the same underlining cytogenetic mechanisms with ALK. MET amplification is one of the most common mechanisms of acquired resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors and can be targeted by crizotinib. As genomic aberrations are a hallmark of malignant cells, FISH is a valuable objective ancillary diagnostic tool. In urinary tract cytology, atypical urothelial cells equivocal for malignancy are a common diagnostic dilemma and multitarget FISH can help clarify such cells. Diagnosis of malignant mesothelioma remains one of the most challenging fields in effusion cytology, and ancillary FISH is useful in establishing the diagnosis. Fluorescence in situ hybridization is a morphology-based technique, and the prerequisite for reliable FISH results is a targeted evaluation of the cells in question (eg, cancer or atypical cells). Cytopathologists and cytotechnicians should therefore be involved in molecular testing in order to select the best material and to provide their morphologic expertise.

  6. Scientific issues related to the cytology proficiency testing regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prey Marianne

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The member organizations of the Cytology Education and Technology Consortium believe there are significant flaws in current cytology proficiency testing regulations. The most immediate needed modifications include lengthening the required testing interval, utilizing stringently validated and continuously monitored slides, changing the grading scheme, and changing the focus of the test from the individual to laboratory level testing. Integration of new computer-assisted and located-guided screening technologies into the testing protocols is necessary for the testing protocol to be compliant with the law.

  7. Cytological effect of nitrogen ion implantation into Stevia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Mei; Wang Cailian; Chen Qiufang; Lu Ting; Shu Shizhen

    1997-01-01

    Dry seeds of Stevia were implanted by 35∼150 keV nitrogen ion with various doses. The cytological effect on M 1 was studied. The results showed that nitrogen ion beam was able to induce variation on chromosome structure in root tip cells. The rate of cells with chromosome aberration was increased with the increased with the increase of ion beam energy and dose. However, there was no significant linear regression relationship between ion dose and aberration rate. The cytological effect of nitrogen ion implantation was lower than that of γ-rays

  8. Clinical and cytological definition of endometrial cancer during radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titova, V.A.; Titova, N.P.

    1981-01-01

    The state of primary tumor in 45 patients with adenocarcinoma of the endometrium, stage 1-3, during concomitant radical radio-and hormonotherapy according to the data of hysterocervicography, hysterometry and cytohistology have been studied. Contact irradiation was performed in single fractions of 9.5-10.0 Gy per week. The time course of primary uterine tumor regression was observed with regard to various radiation dose levels in accordance with cytological data. The cytological method is regarded as an important quantitative criterion in the evaluation of radio- and hormonotherapeutic efficacy of inoperable endometrial cancer [ru

  9. Diagnostic efficacy of smear cytology and Robinson’s cytological grading of canine mammary tumors with respect to histopathology, cytomorphometry, metastases and overall survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czopowicz, Michał; Gruk-Jurka, Anna; Wojtkowska, Agata; Sapierzyński, Rafał; Jurka, Piotr

    2018-01-01

    Cytology is a simple, rapid, and inexpensive method used for pre-operative diagnosis of canine mammary tumors (CMTs) in veterinary practice. Studies related to human breast cancer showed the Robinson’s grading system—established for invasive ductal carcinoma, not otherwise specified (IDC, NOS) and used on cytological material—to not only closely correspond to the histopathological grading but also be helpful in assessing prognosis and selecting most suitable treatments before surgery. The objectives of this study were: to evaluate the accuracy of cytological diagnosis and cytological Robinson’s grading system compared to the histopathological examination of CMTs; to compare of cytological features and cytomorphometric parameters with tumor behavior, as well as cytological and histological grading; and to determine an association of the Robinson’s grading system and cytological background details with metastases, and patients’ survival. We report substantial diagnostic accuracy in detecting simple types and high grade tumors. Cytological diagnosis of tumor behavior showed relatively low sensitivity and specificity compared to human studies, and this might be caused by the heterogeneous morphology of CMTs. The presence of mucosecretory material and extracellular matrix was not significantly associated with tumor behavior. We report a positive correlation between both grading systems and cytological features (included in Robinson’s grading), the presence of necrotic debris, inflammation, and red blood cells. A negative correlation was determined only for the presence of extracellular matrix. The univariate and multivariate analyses confirmed a significantly higher risk of developing metastasis and shorter overall survival for dogs with tumors of grade 2 or 3 on cytology. In addition, these tumors were the most common cause of CMT-related deaths in dogs. Taken together, our findings suggest that the Robinson’s method of cytological grading applied for

  10. 42 CFR 493.1467 - Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; cytology general supervisor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... testing; cytology general supervisor. 493.1467 Section 493.1467 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE....1467 Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; cytology general supervisor. For the subspecialty of cytology, the laboratory must have a general supervisor who meets the qualification...

  11. Diagnostic performance of dual-staining cytology for cervical cancer screening: A systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjalma, Wiebren A A

    2017-03-01

    Cervical cancer screening saves lives. Secondary prevention in cervical cancer screening relies on the results of primary cytology and/or HPV testing. However, primary screening with cytology has a low sensitivity, and HPV screening has a low specificity. This means that either cancers are missed, or women are over-treated. To improve performance outcomes, the concept of dual-stain cytology (CINtec ® PLUS Cytology test) has been introduced. In this approach, additional staining with p16/Ki-67 is performed in cases where cytology results are abnormal (LSIL or ASCUS) and/or HPV-positive. Another way to describe this approach might be "diagnostic" cytology. In order to assess the value of this "diagnostic cytology", a systematic literature review was conducted of dual-stain cytology performance across multiple studies until May 2016. In a Belgian screening population (women age 25-65 years), dual-stain cytology was significantly more sensitive (66%) and slightly less specific (-1.0%) than cytology. In the population referred to colposcopy or with abnormal cytology (ASCUS, LSIL), dual-staining showed a significantly higher increase in specificity, and a slightly lower sensitivity than HPV testing. Specificity gains resulted in fewer false positives and an increase in the number of correct referrals to colposcopy. Dual-staining with p16/Ki-67 cytology is an attractive biomarker approach for triage in cervical cancer screening. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Cytological diagnosis of adamantinoma of long bone in a 78-year-old man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mimi Gangopadhyay

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A clinicohistopathological study of a rare case of adamantinoma of long bone in a 78-year-old patient is presented. The cytological features when evaluated in conjunction with clinical and radiologic features are sufficiently diagnostic. The primary knowledge of its existence and knowledge of its cytological features are important for a correct preoperative cytological diagnosis.

  13. Exfoliation of Threading Dislocation-Free, Single-Crystalline, Ultrathin Gallium Nitride Nanomembranes

    KAUST Repository

    Elafandy, Rami T.; Cha, Dong Kyu; Majid, Mohammed Abdul; Ng, Tien Khee; Ooi, Boon S.; Zhao, Lan

    2014-01-01

    -efficiency, low-cost, GaN-based heterostructure devices. For the first time, the chemical exfoliation of completely TD-free, single-crystalline, ultrathin (tens of nanometers) GaN nanomembranes is demonstrated using UV-assisted electroless chemical etching

  14. Ultrathin Topological Insulator Bi 2 Se 3 Nanoribbons Exfoliated by Atomic Force Microscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Hong, Seung Sae; Kundhikanjana, Worasom; Cha, Judy J.; Lai, Keji; Kong, Desheng; Meister, Stefan; Kelly, Michael A.; Shen, Zhi-Xun; Cui, Yi

    2010-01-01

    Ultrathin topological insulator nanostructures, in which coupling between top and bottom surface states takes place, are of great intellectual and practical importance. Due to the weak van der Waals interaction between adjacent quintuple layers (QLs), the layered bismuth selenide (Bi2Se 3), a single Dirac-cone topological insulator with a large bulk gap, can be exfoliated down to a few QLs. In this paper, we report the first controlled mechanical exfoliation of Bi2Se3 nanoribbons (>50 QLs) by an atomic force microscope (AFM) tip down to a single QL. Microwave impedance microscopy is employed to map out the local conductivity of such ultrathin nanoribbons, showing drastic difference in sheet resistance between 1-2 QLs and 4-5 QLs. Transport measurement carried out on an exfoliated (>5 QLs) Bi2Se3 device shows nonmetallic temperature dependence of resistance, in sharp contrast to the metallic behavior seen in thick (>50 QLs) ribbons. These AFM-exfoliated thin nanoribbons afford interesting candidates for studying the transition from quantum spin Hall surface to edge states. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  15. Gas storage cylinder formed from a composition containing thermally exfoliated graphite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prud'Homme, Robert K. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A gas storage cylinder or gas storage cylinder liner, formed from a polymer composite, containing at least one polymer and a modified graphite oxide material, which is a thermally exfoliated graphite oxide with a surface area of from about 300 m(exp 2)/g to 2600 m(exp 2)2/g.

  16. Heterocyclic aramid nanoparticle-assisted graphene exfoliation for fabrication of pristine graphene-based composite paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mo, Yao; Liu, Qi; Fan, Jinchen, E-mail: Jinchen.fan@shiep.edu.cn; Shi, Penghui; Min, Yulin, E-mail: ahaqmylin@126.com; Xu, Qunjie [Shanghai University of Electric Power, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Materials Protection and Advanced Materials in Electric Power, College of Environmental and Chemical Engineering (China)

    2015-07-15

    Mechanically strong, electrically conductive, and flexible pristine graphene-based composite paper was prepared based on heterocyclic aramid nanoparticle-assisted liquid-phase exfoliation of graphite. The macroscopic heterocyclic aramid yarns were split and assembled into heterocyclic aramid nanoparticles with the size of ∼30 nm by deprotonation in dimethylsulfoxide in the presence of potassium hydroxide. The obtained heterocyclic aramid nanoparticles dimethylsulfoxide dispersion was used as good medium solvent for highly efficiency liquid-phase exfoliation of graphite. The results demonstrated that the concentration of exfoliated graphene can facile reaches ∼2.72 mg/mL after direct sonication of 7 h with assist of heterocyclic aramid nanoparticles. After exfoliation, the self-assembled pristine graphene-based composite paper was fabricated by vacuum-assisted filtration. Due to the introduction of heterocyclic aramid nanoparticles, the self-assembled pristine graphene/heterocyclic aramid nanoparticles composite paper exhibited good mechanical property with tensile strength of ∼129.7 MPa, meantime, has a high electrical conductivity of ∼1.42 × 10{sup 4} S/m.

  17. High-yield exfoliation of graphene using ternary-solvent strategy for detecting volatile organic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shao-Lin; Zhang, Zhijun; Yang, Woo-Chul

    2016-01-01

    Despite the great progress in the theory and experimental verification we made in past decade, the practical application of graphene is still hindered by the lack of efficient, economical, scalable, ease-processing exfoliation method. Herein, we propose a facile, low-cost, and efficient liquid-phase exfoliation process using low boiling-temperature solvent mixture to fabricate few-layer graphene in large scale. The Hansen solubility parameter theory was applied to help optimize the composition of solvent mixture. Aqueous-based ternary-solvent mixture, for the first time, was adapted to exfoliate graphene. We demonstrate that the exfoliation efficiency using ternary-solvent mixture surpasses that from binary-solvent approach. The final product concentration after optimization was over 260 μg/ml. The concentrated graphene dispersion was used to fabricate gas sensor for detecting volatile organic gases. Taking advantage of large surface area, large number of adsorption sites, and well-preserved basal plane, the mass-produced graphene nanosheets exhibited promising sensing potential toward ethanol and methanol vapors.

  18. Production of exfoliative toxin by isolates of Staphylococcus hyicus from different countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Lars Ole

    2005-01-01

    A total of 218 isolates of Staphylococcus hyicus from pigs in eight countries (Belgium, Croatia, Germany, Japan, Korea, Slovenia, the UK and the USA) and 44 isolates from other animals in Belgium, India, Japan and the USA were examined for the genes encoding the exfoliative toxins ExhA, ExhB, Exhc...

  19. Synthesis of SnSe nanosheets by hydrothermal intercalation and exfoliation route and their photoresponse properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Xiaohui; Qi, Xiang, E-mail: xqi@xtu.edu.cn; Shen, Yongzhen; Xu, Guanghua; Li, Jun; Li, Zhenqing; Huang, Zongyu; Zhong, Jianxin

    2016-12-15

    Two dimensional Tin Selenide (SnSe) nanosheets (NSs) have been prepared via a facile hydrothermal intercalation and exfoliation route. Morphological test verifies high yield of SnSe NSs with good quality. Additional X-ray diffraction pattern and Raman spectra are carried out and confirm the exfoliated SnSe nanosheet is pure and well crystalized. AFM measurement, along with the SEM images and Raman shifts, reveals few-layers SnSe nanosheet has been successfully obtained after hydrothermal intercalation and exfoliation route. Photoelectrochemical tests also demonstrate the photocurrent density of SnSe NSs is greatly improved compare to that of bulk SnSe. Photocurrent density of exfoliated SnSe NSs can achieve 16 μA/cm{sup 2} when the applied potential is 0.8 V, which is nearly four times higher than that of bulk SnSe. This work demonstrates that the two-dimensional SnSe NSs may have a great potential application in photovoltaic devices.

  20. Synthesis of SnSe nanosheets by hydrothermal intercalation and exfoliation route and their photoresponse properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, Xiaohui; Qi, Xiang; Shen, Yongzhen; Xu, Guanghua; Li, Jun; Li, Zhenqing; Huang, Zongyu; Zhong, Jianxin

    2016-01-01

    Two dimensional Tin Selenide (SnSe) nanosheets (NSs) have been prepared via a facile hydrothermal intercalation and exfoliation route. Morphological test verifies high yield of SnSe NSs with good quality. Additional X-ray diffraction pattern and Raman spectra are carried out and confirm the exfoliated SnSe nanosheet is pure and well crystalized. AFM measurement, along with the SEM images and Raman shifts, reveals few-layers SnSe nanosheet has been successfully obtained after hydrothermal intercalation and exfoliation route. Photoelectrochemical tests also demonstrate the photocurrent density of SnSe NSs is greatly improved compare to that of bulk SnSe. Photocurrent density of exfoliated SnSe NSs can achieve 16 μA/cm"2 when the applied potential is 0.8 V, which is nearly four times higher than that of bulk SnSe. This work demonstrates that the two-dimensional SnSe NSs may have a great potential application in photovoltaic devices.

  1. Mobilization of dust and exfoliation of erosion product films in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martynenko, Yu. V.; Nagel, M. Yu.

    2012-01-01

    The mobilization of dust (i.e., detachment and removal of dust grains from a substrate) and the exfoliation of a film of erosion products in tokamaks have been studied theoretically. The following mechanisms of dust mobilization have been taken into account: (i) sharp heating (thermal shock) as a result of, e.g., plasma disruption and edge instabilities; (ii) substrate vibrations; and (iii) gas and plasma flow (wind) action. The most effective mobilization takes place under the action of sharp heating. Power fluxes that are characteristic of edge instabilities can mobilize dust grains with dimensions within or even greater than 0.1–1 μm. The velocities of detached grains reach ν ∼ 100 m/s for heavy grains and up to ν ∼ 300 m/s for the light ones. Conditions favoring the exfoliation of a film of erosion products are determined. It is shown that exfoliation under the action of edge instabilities can take place at a film thickness of h > 1 μm. Under the action of thermal-shock-induced stresses, the exfoliated film flakes with a size ranging from fractions of a millimeter to several centimeters break into pieces.

  2. Mobilization of dust and exfoliation of erosion product films in tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martynenko, Yu. V.; Nagel, M. Yu. [National Research Centre Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation)

    2012-04-15

    The mobilization of dust (i.e., detachment and removal of dust grains from a substrate) and the exfoliation of a film of erosion products in tokamaks have been studied theoretically. The following mechanisms of dust mobilization have been taken into account: (i) sharp heating (thermal shock) as a result of, e.g., plasma disruption and edge instabilities; (ii) substrate vibrations; and (iii) gas and plasma flow (wind) action. The most effective mobilization takes place under the action of sharp heating. Power fluxes that are characteristic of edge instabilities can mobilize dust grains with dimensions within or even greater than 0.1-1 {mu}m. The velocities of detached grains reach {nu} {approx} 100 m/s for heavy grains and up to {nu} {approx} 300 m/s for the light ones. Conditions favoring the exfoliation of a film of erosion products are determined. It is shown that exfoliation under the action of edge instabilities can take place at a film thickness of h > 1 {mu}m. Under the action of thermal-shock-induced stresses, the exfoliated film flakes with a size ranging from fractions of a millimeter to several centimeters break into pieces.

  3. Heterocyclic aramid nanoparticle-assisted graphene exfoliation for fabrication of pristine graphene-based composite paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mo, Yao; Liu, Qi; Fan, Jinchen; Shi, Penghui; Min, Yulin; Xu, Qunjie

    2015-01-01

    Mechanically strong, electrically conductive, and flexible pristine graphene-based composite paper was prepared based on heterocyclic aramid nanoparticle-assisted liquid-phase exfoliation of graphite. The macroscopic heterocyclic aramid yarns were split and assembled into heterocyclic aramid nanoparticles with the size of ∼30 nm by deprotonation in dimethylsulfoxide in the presence of potassium hydroxide. The obtained heterocyclic aramid nanoparticles dimethylsulfoxide dispersion was used as good medium solvent for highly efficiency liquid-phase exfoliation of graphite. The results demonstrated that the concentration of exfoliated graphene can facile reaches ∼2.72 mg/mL after direct sonication of 7 h with assist of heterocyclic aramid nanoparticles. After exfoliation, the self-assembled pristine graphene-based composite paper was fabricated by vacuum-assisted filtration. Due to the introduction of heterocyclic aramid nanoparticles, the self-assembled pristine graphene/heterocyclic aramid nanoparticles composite paper exhibited good mechanical property with tensile strength of ∼129.7 MPa, meantime, has a high electrical conductivity of ∼1.42 × 10 4  S/m.

  4. Exfoliation of the tungsten fibreform nanostructure by unipolar arcing in the LHD divertor plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokitani, M.; Kajita, S.; Masuzaki, S.; Hirahata, Y.; Ohno, N.; Tanabe, T.; LHD Experiment Group

    2011-10-01

    The tungsten nanostructure (W-fuzz) created in the linear divertor simulator (NAGDIS) was exposed to the Large Helical Device (LHD) divertor plasma for only 2 s (1 shot) to study exfoliation/erosion and microscopic modifications due to the high heat/particle loading under high magnetic field conditions. Very fine and randomly moved unipolar arc trails were clearly observed on about half of the W-fuzz area (6 × 10 mm2). The fuzzy surface was exfoliated by continuously moving arc spots even for the very short exposure time. This is the first observation of unipolar arcing and exfoliation of some areas of the W-fuzz structure itself in a large plasma confinement device with a high magnetic field. The typical width and depth of each arc trail were about 8 µm and 1 µm, respectively, and the arc spots moved randomly on the micrometre scale. The fractality of the arc trails was analysed using a box-counting method, and the fractal dimension (D) of the arc trails was estimated to be D ≈ 1.922. This value indicated that the arc spots moved in Brownian motion, and were scarcely influenced by the magnetic field. One should note that such a large scale exfoliation due to unipolar arcing may enhance the surface erosion of the tungsten armour and act as a serious impurity source for fusion plasmas.

  5. Hole-doping of mechanically exfoliated graphene by confined hydration layers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bollmann, Tjeerd Rogier Johannes; Antipina, L.Y.; Temmen, M.; Reichling, M.; Sorokin, P.B.

    2015-01-01

    By the use of non-contact atomic force microscopy (NC-AFM) and Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM), we measure the local surface potential of mechanically exfoliated graphene on the prototypical insulating hydrophilic substrate of CaF2(111). Hydration layers confined between the graphene and the

  6. Exfoliation of the tungsten fibreform nanostructure by unipolar arcing in the LHD divertor plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokitani, M.; Masuzaki, S.; Kajita, S.; Hirahata, Y.; Ohno, N.; Tanabe, T.

    2011-01-01

    The tungsten nanostructure (W-fuzz) created in the linear divertor simulator (NAGDIS) was exposed to the Large Helical Device (LHD) divertor plasma for only 2 s (1 shot) to study exfoliation/erosion and microscopic modifications due to the high heat/particle loading under high magnetic field conditions. Very fine and randomly moved unipolar arc trails were clearly observed on about half of the W-fuzz area (6 x 10 mm 2 ). The fuzzy surface was exfoliated by continuously moving arc spots even for the very short exposure time. This is the first observation of unipolar arcing and exfoliation of some areas of the W-fuzz structure itself in a large plasma confinement device with a high magnetic field. The typical width and depth of each arc trail were about 8 μm and 1 μm, respectively, and the arc spots moved randomly on the micrometre scale. The fractality of the arc trails was analysed using a box-counting method, and the fractal dimension (D) of the arc trails was estimated to be D ∼ 1.922. This value indicated that the arc spots moved in Brownian motion, and were scarcely influenced by the magnetic field. One should note that such a large scale exfoliation due to unipolar arcing may enhance the surface erosion of the tungsten armour and act as a serious impurity source for fusion plasmas. (letter)

  7. Electrospray painted article containing thermally exfoliated graphite oxide and method for their manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkut, Sibel (Inventor); Prud'Homme, Robert K. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A painted polymer part containing a conductive polymer composition containing at least one polymer and a modified graphite oxide material, which is a thermally exfoliated graphite oxide with a surface area of from about 300 sq m/g to 2600 sq m/g, wherein the painted polymer part has been electrospray painted.

  8. Imidazolium Ionic Liquid Mediates Black Phosphorus Exfoliation while Preventing Phosphorene Decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaban, Vitaly V; Fileti, Eudes Eterno; Prezhdo, Oleg V

    2017-06-27

    Forthcoming applications in electronics and optoelectronics make phosphorene a subject of vigorous research efforts. Solvent-assisted exfoliation of phosphorene promises affordable delivery in industrial quantities for future applications. We demonstrate, using equilibrium, steered and umbrella sampling molecular dynamics, that the 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate [EMIM][BF 4 ] ionic liquid is an excellent solvent for phosphorene exfoliation. The presence of both hydrophobic and hydrophilic moieties, as well as substantial shear viscosity, allows [EMIM][BF 4 ] simultaneously to facilitate separation of phosphorene sheets and to protect them from getting in direct contact with moisture and oxygen. The exfoliation thermodynamics is moderately unfavorable, which indicates that an external stimulus is necessary. Unexpectedly, [EMIM][BF 4 ] does not coordinates phosphorene by π-electron stacking with the imidazole ring. Instead, the solvation proceeds via hydrophobic side chains, while polar imidazole rings form an electrostatically stabilized protective layer. The simulations suggest that further efforts in solvent engineering for phosphorene exfoliation should concentrate on use of weakly coordinating ions and grafting groups that promote stronger dispersion interactions and on elongation of nonpolar chains.

  9. Sequential structural and optical evolution of MoS2 by chemical synthesis and exfoliation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ju Hwan; Kim, Jungkil; Oh, Si Duck; Kim, Sung; Choi, Suk-Ho

    2015-06-01

    Various types of MoS2 structures are successfully obtained by using economical and facile sequential synthesis and exfoliation methods. Spherically-shaped lumps of multilayer (ML) MoS2 are prepared by using a conventional hydrothermal method and were subsequently 1st-exfoliated in hydrazine while being kept in autoclave to be unrolled and separated into five-to-six-layer MoS2 pieces of several-hundred nm in size. The MoS2 MLs are 2nd-exfoliated in sodium naphthalenide under an Ar ambient to finally produce bilayer MoS2 crystals of ~100 nm. The sequential exfoliation processes downsize MoS2 laterally and reduce its number of layers. The three types of MoS2 allotropes exhibit particular optical properties corresponding to their structural differences. These results suggest that two-dimensional MoS2 crystals can be prepared by employing only chemical techniques without starting from high-pressure-synthesized bulk MoS2 crystals.

  10. Two-dimensional materials from high-throughput computational exfoliation of experimentally known compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mounet, Nicolas; Gibertini, Marco; Schwaller, Philippe; Campi, Davide; Merkys, Andrius; Marrazzo, Antimo; Sohier, Thibault; Castelli, Ivano Eligio; Cepellotti, Andrea; Pizzi, Giovanni; Marzari, Nicola

    2018-02-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials have emerged as promising candidates for next-generation electronic and optoelectronic applications. Yet, only a few dozen 2D materials have been successfully synthesized or exfoliated. Here, we search for 2D materials that can be easily exfoliated from their parent compounds. Starting from 108,423 unique, experimentally known 3D compounds, we identify a subset of 5,619 compounds that appear layered according to robust geometric and bonding criteria. High-throughput calculations using van der Waals density functional theory, validated against experimental structural data and calculated random phase approximation binding energies, further allowed the identification of 1,825 compounds that are either easily or potentially exfoliable. In particular, the subset of 1,036 easily exfoliable cases provides novel structural prototypes and simple ternary compounds as well as a large portfolio of materials to search from for optimal properties. For a subset of 258 compounds, we explore vibrational, electronic, magnetic and topological properties, identifying 56 ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic systems, including half-metals and half-semiconductors.

  11. Preparation and characterization of self-assembly hydrogels with exfoliated montmorillonite nanosheets and chitosan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Zhao, Yunliang; Yi, Hao; Chen, Tianxing; Kang, Shichang; Li, Hongqiang; Song, Shaoxian

    2018-01-01

    Novel montmorillonite-nanosheet/chitosan (MMTNS/CS) hydrogels fabricated via the self-assembly of exfoliated MMTNS and CS chains were investigated. The exfoliation of MMTNS, self-assembly mechanism and structure of MMTNS/CS hydrogels were characterized by an atomic force microscope, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, Fourier transform infrared spectroscope, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscope and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analyzer, respectively. The results indicated that MMT could be easily exfoliated to nanosheets with a thickness of 1 ˜ 5 nm in aqueous solution by an ultrasonic base upon interlayer hydration. The formation mechanism of the self-assembly hydrogels was due to the hydrogen bond (-OH ··· +NH3-) and electrostatic interaction between the MMTNS and CS. The MMTNSs were connected consecutively by CS in-plane to form a huge slice. The porous structure of the hydrogels was controllable by adjusting the MMTNS/CS mass ratio. The hydrogels could be used as adsorbents for sewage treatments, carriers for drugs, microorganisms and catalyzers due to their controllable porous structure and tremendous specific surface area which were derived from the completely exfoliated MMTNS.

  12. Fabrication of two-dimensional nanosheets via water freezing expansion exfoliation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Chen; Wang, Tailin; Wu, Yongzhong; Ma, Fukun; Zhao, Gang; Hao, Xiaopeng

    2014-01-01

    Layered materials, if exfoliated effectively, will exhibit several unique properties, offering great potential for diverse applications. To this end, in this study, we develop a novel, universal, and environmentally friendly method named as ‘water freezing expansion exfoliation’ for producing two-dimensional nanosheets. This method exploits the expansion in the volume of water upon freezing. When the water freezing expansion condition is reproduced in layered materials, the layers exfoliate to overcome the van der Waals force between them. The expansion process is performed by repeated cycling between 4 °C and −20 °C to effectively exfoliate layered materials of graphite, hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), MoS 2 and WS 2 . Systematic characterization of the samples thus obtained using electron microscopy and optical studies substantiate the formation of thin flakes (graphene, h-BN, MoS 2 , and WS 2 nanosheets). The method demonstrated in this study is cost-effective and does not demand sophisticated equipment and stringent high temperature conditions. Given this general applicability, this method holds great promise for exfoliating layered materials that are sensitive to elevated temperature. (paper)

  13. Isocyanate toughening of pCBT/organoclay nanocomposites with exfoliated structure and enhanced mechanical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Abt

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cyclic butylene terephthalate (CBT® is an interesting matrix material for the preparation of nanocomposites due to its very low, water-like melt viscosity which favours clay exfoliation. Nevertheless, polymerized CBT (pCBT is inherently brittle. This paper reports the preparation of isocyanate-toughened nanocomposites made from CBT and organo-modified montmorillonite. The role of the organoclay as reinforcement and the polymeric isocyanate (PMDI as toughening agent on the properties of pCBT was studied. The organoclay increased the stiffness and strength by up to 20% whereas the PMDI improved the deformation behaviour. However, the PMDI did not affect the degree of clay dispersion or exfoliation and flocculated-intercalated structures were observed. The compatibility between the pCBT matrix and clay was further increased by preparing PMDI-tethered intercalated organoclay. The modified organoclay then exfoliated during ring-opening polymerization and yielded true pCBT/clay nanocomposites. This work demonstrates that reactive chain extension of CBT with a polyfunctional isocyanate is an effective method to obtain toughened pCBT nanocomposites. Moreover, isocyanates can enhance the compatibility between pCBT and nanofiller as well as the degree of exfoliation.

  14. Ultrathin Topological Insulator Bi 2 Se 3 Nanoribbons Exfoliated by Atomic Force Microscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Hong, Seung Sae

    2010-08-11

    Ultrathin topological insulator nanostructures, in which coupling between top and bottom surface states takes place, are of great intellectual and practical importance. Due to the weak van der Waals interaction between adjacent quintuple layers (QLs), the layered bismuth selenide (Bi2Se 3), a single Dirac-cone topological insulator with a large bulk gap, can be exfoliated down to a few QLs. In this paper, we report the first controlled mechanical exfoliation of Bi2Se3 nanoribbons (>50 QLs) by an atomic force microscope (AFM) tip down to a single QL. Microwave impedance microscopy is employed to map out the local conductivity of such ultrathin nanoribbons, showing drastic difference in sheet resistance between 1-2 QLs and 4-5 QLs. Transport measurement carried out on an exfoliated (>5 QLs) Bi2Se3 device shows nonmetallic temperature dependence of resistance, in sharp contrast to the metallic behavior seen in thick (>50 QLs) ribbons. These AFM-exfoliated thin nanoribbons afford interesting candidates for studying the transition from quantum spin Hall surface to edge states. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  15. High-quality graphene flakes exfoliated on a flat hydrophobic polymer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedrinazzi, Paolo; Caridad, José M.; Mackenzie, David M. A.

    2018-01-01

    the environment of the graphene flake is completely changed, by encapsulating preselected flakes between hexagonal boron nitride layers. The exfoliation of clean, pristine graphene layers directly on flat polymer substrates enables high performance, supported, and non-encapsulated graphene devices for flexible...

  16. Decolorizing of azo dye Reactive red 24 aqueous solution using exfoliated graphite and H2O2 under ultrasound irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mei; Li, Ji-Tai; Sun, Han-Wen

    2008-07-01

    At its natural pH (6.95), the decolorization of Reactive red 24 in ultrasound, ultrasound/H2O2, exfoliated graphite, ultrasound/exfoliated graphite, exfoliated graphite/H2O2 and ultrasound/exfoliated graphite/H2O2 systems were compared. An enhancement was observed for the decolorization in ultrasound/exfoliated graphite/H2O2 system. The effect of solution pH, H2O2 and exfoliated graphite dosages, and temperature on the decolorization of Reactive red 24 was investigated. The sonochemical treatment in combination with exfoliated graphite/H2O2 showed a synergistic effect for the decolorization of Reactive red 24. The results indicated that under proper conditions, there was a possibility to remove Reactive red 24 very efficient from aqueous solution. The decolorization of other azo dyes (Reactive red 2, Methyl orange, Acid red 1, Acid red 73, Acid red 249, Acid orange 7, Acid blue 113, Acid brown 75, Acid green 20, Acid yellow 42, Acid mordant brown 33, Acid mordant yellow 10 and Direct green 1) was also investigated, at their natural pH.

  17. Fine needle aspiration cytology of chondroblastoma of the fibula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Malukani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chondroblastoma is a rare benign cartilaginous tumor typically seen in long bones, especially femur, tibia and proximal humerus. Extracortical soft tissue invasion or metastasis is rarely seen. We report here a unique case of chondroblastoma of the fibula with extracortical soft tissue invasion. Differential diagnosis on cytology is discussed.

  18. Cytological Determination Of The Estrus Cycle In Guinea Pigs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cytologic study was carried out to determine the Estrus cycle in 5 female guinea pigs of reproductive age, for a period of 28 days in the Animal House of the College of Medicine, University of Nigeria, Enugu Campus, Enugu. Vaginal smears were collected from the animals and made on clean grease-free slides, fixed in ...

  19. Guided fine needle aspiration cytology of retroperitoneal masses - Our experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mimi Gangopadhyay

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Early pathological classification of retroperitoneal masses is important for pin-point diagnosis and timely management. Aims : This study was done to evaluate the usefulness and drawbacks of guided fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC of retroperitoneal masses covering a period of two years with an intention to distinguish between neoplastic and non-neoplastic lesions and to correlate with histologic findings. Materials and Methods : FNAC was done under radiological guidance in all cases using long needle fitted with disposable syringe. Appropriate staining was done and cytology was correlated with histology which was taken as the gold standard for comparison. Results : Fifty-one patients who presented with retroperitoneal masses were studied. Forty-four lesions were malignant cytologically and 7 were inflammatory (tuberculous. According to radiological and cytologic findings, we classified our cases into four groups: renal tumors, retroperitoneal lymphadenopathy, germ cell tumors, soft tissue tumors. Except for cases of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL and metastatic lesions, we had sensitivity and specificity of 100%. In NHL the sensitivity and specificity were both 50%. In cases of metastatic adenocarcinoma, the sensitivity and specificity were 84.6% and 81.8%, respectively. Conclusions : Ignoring the pitfalls, guided FNAC is still an inexpensive and reliable method of early diagnosis of retroperitoneal lesions.

  20. DIAGNOSTIC VALUE OF CYTOLOGICAL EXAMINATION OF PLEURAL FLUID IN TUBERCULOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iffat Jamal

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Tuberculosis is a worldwide health problem with highest incidence in developing countries like India. It involves a large number of organs including lungs, pleural lymph nodes, genital sytem, gastrointestinal tract, etc. In resource poor countries, cytological examination of pleural fluid serves as a rapid, effective, economical and easy method of diagnosing tubercuolus pleural effusions, which can be correlated with other newer ancillary techniques. MATERIALS AND METHODS The present study was conducted on 100 patients coming to Patna Medical College and Hospital, Patna, over a period of two years from August 2012 to September 2014 with clinical complaints of cough, fever and chest pain with a clinical diagnosis of tuberculous pleural effusion. RESULTS Pleural tapping was done and detailed cytological examination of pleural fluid was done and its findings were correlated with gross, biochemical and microbiological findings. Both wet fixed (Giemsa stained and air-dried slides (Papanicolaou stained were prepared and microscopic examination was done. Special stains like Ziehl-Neelsen stain (ZN stain for acid-fast bacilli was also performed for confirmation. CONCLUSION Cytological smears revealed predominance of lymphocytes. Mesothelial cells were absent or nearly absent. Eosinophils followed mesothelial cell pattern and were absent in a relatively large number of cases. This technique is safe, reliable, cost-effective and can be used for diagnostic purposes. It is also less traumatic as compared to pleural biopsy. Cytological examination when combined with other newer diagnostic test increases the chances of accurate diagnosis of tuberculous pleural effusion.

  1. Value of urine cytology in screening patients with prostatitis syndromes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de la Rosette, J. J.; Hubregtse, M. R.; Wiersma, A. M.; Debruyne, F. M.

    1993-01-01

    We reviewed the results of urine cytology examination of 206 patients with a diagnosis of prostatitis syndromes in the period 1985-1991. The urine samples showed an incidence of 20.4% for slight to moderate atypia and 6.3% for severe atypia. In these patients, cystoscopy, bladder biopsies and

  2. Cost effectiveness of fine needle aspiration cytology for breast masses

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The total cost for FNAC and histopathology as well as cost saving between FNAC and histopathology for the 110 patients were calculated. Result: The total cost for FNAC procedure and cytological evaluation of each smear was one thousand, seven hundred naira (N1,700.00 = US$11). The total cost for open surgical ...

  3. Prevalence of cervical cytology abnormalities among HIV infected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To establish the prevalence of cervical cytology abnormalities, determine the correlation between CD4+ cell count and abnormal Pap smear, determine the correlation between WHO-HIV staging and abnormal pap smear among HIV infected women attending HIV clinic at Rwanda Military Hospital. Design: ...

  4. Diagnostic accuracy of fine needle aspiration cytology in patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To estimate the sensitivity and specificity of FNAC in detecting malignancy for thyroid disease using histopathology ... thyroid carcinoma being the most predominant type and colloid goiter was the most predominant benign thyroid disease. The sensitivity ..... tic accuracy of fine needle aspiration cytology in thyroid.

  5. Prostate cancer detection: Fusion of cytological and textural features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kien Nguyen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A computer-assisted system for histological prostate cancer diagnosis can assist pathologists in two stages: (i to locate cancer regions in a large digitized tissue biopsy, and (ii to assign Gleason grades to the regions detected in stage 1. Most previous studies on this topic have primarily addressed the second stage by classifying the preselected tissue regions. In this paper, we address the first stage by presenting a cancer detection approach for the whole slide tissue image. We propose a novel method to extract a cytological feature, namely the presence of cancer nuclei (nuclei with prominent nucleoli in the tissue, and apply this feature to detect the cancer regions. Additionally, conventional image texture features which have been widely used in the literature are also considered. The performance comparison among the proposed cytological textural feature combination method, the texture-based method and the cytological feature-based method demonstrates the robustness of the extracted cytological feature. At a false positive rate of 6%, the proposed method is able to achieve a sensitivity of 78% on a dataset including six training images (each of which has approximately 4,000x7,000 pixels and 1 1 whole-slide test images (each of which has approximately 5,000x23,000 pixels. All images are at 20X magnification.

  6. Prostate cancer detection: Fusion of cytological and textural features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Kien; Jain, Anil K; Sabata, Bikash

    2011-01-01

    A computer-assisted system for histological prostate cancer diagnosis can assist pathologists in two stages: (i) to locate cancer regions in a large digitized tissue biopsy, and (ii) to assign Gleason grades to the regions detected in stage 1. Most previous studies on this topic have primarily addressed the second stage by classifying the preselected tissue regions. In this paper, we address the first stage by presenting a cancer detection approach for the whole slide tissue image. We propose a novel method to extract a cytological feature, namely the presence of cancer nuclei (nuclei with prominent nucleoli) in the tissue, and apply this feature to detect the cancer regions. Additionally, conventional image texture features which have been widely used in the literature are also considered. The performance comparison among the proposed cytological textural feature combination method, the texture-based method and the cytological feature-based method demonstrates the robustness of the extracted cytological feature. At a false positive rate of 6%, the proposed method is able to achieve a sensitivity of 78% on a dataset including six training images (each of which has approximately 4,000×7,000 pixels) and 1 1 whole-slide test images (each of which has approximately 5,000×23,000 pixels). All images are at 20X magnification.

  7. Addressing the challenges of practicing breast cytology in a tertiary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-01-08

    Jan 8, 2011 ... Breast cancer accounted for 23.3% of all cancers in women in Kenya during the ... for an early and rapid diagnosis (2). Facilities for doing .... yse the cause/s which could have led to diagnostic error. (pitfall) in cytology with ...

  8. Malignant atypical cell in urine cytology: a diagnostic dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kakkar Nandita

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims The aim of this study was to find out the characteristic morphology of malignant atypical cells which were missed on routine cytology of urine. Materials and methods In this retrospective study, we examined detailed cytomorphology of 18 cases of atypical urinary cytology which were missed on routine examination and were further proved on histopathology as transitional cell carcinoma (TCC of bladder. The cytological features of these cases were compared with 10 cases of benign urine samples. Results There were 11 cases of high grade TCC and 7 cases of low grade TCC on histopathology of the atypical urine samples. Necrosis in the background and necrosed papillae were mostly seen in malignant atypical cells. The comet cells and cells with India ink nuclei (single cells with deep black structure-less nuclei were only observed in malignant atypical cells. The most consistent features in malignant atypical cells were: i high nuclear and cytoplasmic (N/C ratio ii nuclear pleomorphism iii nuclear margin irregularity iv hyperchromasia and v chromatin abnormalities Conclusion The present study emphasizes that nuclear features such as high N/C ratio, hyperchromasia and chromatin abnormalities are particularly useful for assessing the malignant atypical cells. Other cytological features such as comet cells and cells with India ink nuclei are also helpful for diagnosis but have limited value because they are less frequently seen.

  9. A Cross Section Study to Correlate Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADMIN

    Background: Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) is cheap, simple, quick, minimally invasive procedure that is widely used for preoperative diagnosis of Parotid tumours. Methods: Twenty five patients were prospectively studied over a two-year period at four major hospitals in Zambia. FNAC was done using a 10cc syringe ...

  10. Fine needle aspiration cytology of breast lumps with histopathologic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    diagnosis of palpable breast lesions, in recent years two types of minimally invasive .... negative predictive value of FNAC as a diagnostic pro- cedure for the entire ... The earliest large scale use of Fine Needle aspiration. Cytology FNAC as a ...

  11. Biochemical and cytological analysis of five cultivars of Cicer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-03-12

    Mar 12, 2014 ... variability and relatedness, seed storage protein analysis represents a valid alternative to ... Indian Institute of Pulse Research, Kanpur (U.P.) India. During the present study, five accessions were used for biochemical and cytological analysis. The details of five ... using pestle and mortar. 500 ml of protein ...

  12. How do young and senior cytopathologists interact with digital cytology?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rosaria Giovagnoli

    Full Text Available Today thanks to the technological advances in information technology the scenario of utilization of digital cytology has radically changed. New competitive systems, such as client-server architectures are now available in digital cytology. Their application in telemedicine should be investigated. A new interactive tool designed for the final destination user (the cytopathologist has been proposed. Taking into account the different expertise of the subjects of the study, the investigation was focused both on the senior cytopathologist and on the younger student pathologist. The methodology was tested on 10 students of a Master in cytopathology and on 3 senior cytopathologists. The study showed that the use of digital cytology applications is effective and feasible for telediagnosis. In particular, the study on younger and senior expert investigators showed that, although they interacted with the novel technology of the virtual slide in a different manner, all of them reached the objective of a "correct diagnosis". This investigation, in consideration of the effectiveness of the digital cytology, also showed other indirect and tangible cost-beneft and quantitative advantages. In particular for the learning methodologies for the students of the Master itself and for the biomedical personnel involved in diagnosis.

  13. How do young and senior cytopathologists interact with digital cytology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovagnoli, Maria Rosaria; Giarnieri, Enrico; Carico, Elisabetta; Giansanti, Daniele

    2010-01-01

    Today thanks to the technological advances in information technology the scenario of utilization of digital cytology has radically changed. New competitive systems, such as client-server architectures are now available in digital cytology. Their application in telemedicine should be investigated. A new interactive tool designed for the final destination user (the cytopathologist) has been proposed. Taking into account the different expertise of the subjects of the study, the investigation was focused both on the senior cytopathologist and on the younger student pathologist. The methodology was tested on 10 students of a Master in cytopathology and on 3 senior cytopathologists. The study showed that the use of digital cytology applications is effective and feasible for telediagnosis. In particular, the study on younger and senior expert investigators showed that, although they interacted with the novel technology of the virtual slide in a different manner, all of them reached the objective of a "correct diagnosis". This investigation, in consideration of the effectiveness of the digital cytology, also showed other indirect and tangible cost-beneft and quantitative advantages. In particular for the learning methodologies for the students of the Master itself and for the biomedical personnel involved in diagnosis.

  14. Cytological diagnostic of lymphadenitis tuberculosis by eosinophilic material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delyuzar; Amir, Z.; Kusumawati, L.

    2018-03-01

    AFB sputum and chest X-ray are used to identify patients with pulmonary TB. For extrapulmonary TB, fine needle aspiration cytology is needed, even though occasionally found not atypical feature in the form of eosinophilic material with dark brown particles, suspected as TB. This research was to show that eosinophilic material with dark brown particles is accurate as new criteria for the cytological diagnosis of TB. By performing fine needle aspiration biopsy stained with Giemsa, if an eosinophilic material with dark brown particles was encountered, we continued with Ziehl-Neelsen AFB stain and confirmed with PCR. To assess accuracy, we used a diagnostic test to evaluate sensitivity and specificity of eosinophilic material with dark brown particles by using AFB and PCR as the gold standard. The sensitivity and specificity of cytological diagnosis in tuberculosis of eosinophilic material with dark brown particles were 93.65% and 70.99%, respectively if confirmed with AFB. On the other hand, if confirmed with PCR using Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA, the sensitivity and specificity were 98.95% and 96.79%, respectively. In conclusion, eosinophilic masses with dark brown particles is accurate as new criteria of TB diagnostic cytology with high sensitivity and specificity confirmed with AFB and PCR test.

  15. Discordance Rate between Thyroid Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Discordance Rate between Thyroid Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology and Histopathologic Diagnosis. Wondwossen Ergete, Daniel Abebe. Abstract. Fine Needle Aspiration (FNA) of the thyroid is a low cost procedure, which can give an accurate diagnosis promptly. The objective of this study was to assess the diagnostic ...

  16. Superhydrophilic graphite surfaces and water-dispersible graphite colloids by electrochemical exfoliation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yueh-Feng [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National Central University, Jhongli, 320 Taiwan (China); Chen, Shih-Ming; Lai, Wei-Hao [Materials and Chemical Research Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Chutung, Hsinchu, 31040 Taiwan (China); Sheng, Yu-Jane [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, 106 Taiwan (China); Tsao, Heng-Kwong [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Department of Physics, National Central University, Jhongli, 320 Taiwan (China)

    2013-08-14

    Superhydrophilic graphite surfaces and water-dispersible graphite colloids are obtained by electrochemical exfoliation with hydrophobic graphite electrodes. Such counterintuitive characteristics are caused by partial oxidation and investigated by examining both graphite electrodes and exfoliated particles after electrolysis. The extent of surface oxidation can be explored through contact angle measurement, scanning electron microscope, electrical sheet resistance, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, zeta-potential analyzer, thermogravimetric analysis, UV-visible, and Raman spectroscopy. The degree of wettability of the graphite anode can be altered by the electrolytic current and time. The water contact angle declines generally with increasing the electrolytic current or time. After a sufficient time, the graphite anode becomes superhydrophilic and its hydrophobicity can be recovered by peeling with adhesive tape. This consequence reveals that the anodic graphite is oxidized by oxygen bubbles but the oxidation just occurs at the outer layers of the graphite sheet. Moreover, the characteristics of oxidation revealed by UV peak shift, peak ratio between D and G bands, and negative zeta-potential indicate the presence of graphite oxide on the outer shell of the exfoliated colloids. However, thermogravimetric analysis for the extent of decomposition of oxygen functional groups verifies that the amount of oxygen groups is significantly less than that of graphite oxide prepared via Hummer method. The structure of this partially oxidized graphite may consist of a graphite core covered with an oxidized shell. The properties of the exfoliated colloids are also influenced by pH of the electrolytic solution. As pH is increased, the extent of oxidation descends and the thickness of oxidized shell decreases. Those results reveal that the degree of oxidation of exfoliated nanoparticles can be manipulated simply by controlling pH.

  17. On the exfoliating polymeric cellular dosage forms for immediate drug release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaesi, Aron H; Saka, Nannaji

    2016-06-01

    The most prevalent pharmaceutical dosage forms at present-the oral immediate-release tablets and capsules-are granular solids. Though effective in releasing drug rapidly, development and manufacture of such dosage forms are fraught with difficulties inherent to particulate processing. Predictable dosage form manufacture could be achieved by liquid-based processing, but cast solid dosage forms are not suitable for immediate drug release due to their resistance to fluid percolation. To overcome this limitation, we have recently introduced cellular dosage forms that can be readily prepared from polymeric melts. It has been shown that open-cell structures comprising polyethylene glycol 8000 (PEG 8k) excipient and a drug exfoliate upon immersion in a dissolution medium. The drug is then released rapidly due to the large specific surface area of the exfoliations. In this work, we vary the molecular weight of the PEG excipient and investigate its effect on the drug release kinetics of structures with predominantly open-cell topology. We demonstrate that the exfoliation rate decreases substantially if the excipient molecular weight is increased from 12 to 100kg/mol, which causes the drug dissolution time to increase by more than a factor of ten. A model is then developed to elucidate the exfoliation behavior of cellular structures. Diverse transport processes are considered: percolation due to capillarity, diffusion of dissolution medium through the cell walls, and viscous flow of the saturated excipient. It is found that the lower exfoliation rate and the longer dissolution time of the dosage forms with higher excipient molecular weight are primarily due to the greater viscosity of the cell walls after fluid penetration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. [Factors associated with abnormal cervical cytology in pregnant women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ling; Zou, Li-ying; Wu, Yu-mei; Zhang, Wei-yuan

    2010-02-01

    To investigate the risk factors associated with abnormal cervical cytology findings in pregnant women. From Sep. 2007 to Sep. 2008, 12,112 pregnant women who underwent their antenatal examinations at 12-36 gestational weeks in Beijing Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital were enrolled in this study. They were all excluded from the following pathologic obstetrics factors including threatened abortion, premature rupture of membranes or placental previa. Thinprep cytology test (TCT) were given at their first examination, meanwhile, a personal clinic file was established to record her occupation, education, address, family income, nationality, age of first intercourse, number of sex partners, contraception, marriage and pregnancy, current gynecologic diseases, family history of gynecologic tumors, history of gynecologic diseases and smoking and result of pelvic examination. Those risk factors leading to abnormal cervical cytology were analyzed. The complete clinical data were collected from 11 906 cases (98.30%, 11,906/12,112). It was found that 10,354 women were shown with normal TCT result, however, 1134 women (9.52%, 1134/11,906) with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS), 112 women (0.94%, 112/11,906) with atypical glandular cells of undetermined significance (AGUS), 229 women (1.92%, 229/11,906) with low grade squamous intraepithelial (LSIL), 74 women (0.62%, 74/11,906) with high grade squamous intraepithelial (HSIL). Multiple factorial non-conditioned logistic regression analysis showed that age of first sexual intercourse (OR(ASCUS) = 2.90, OR(AGUS) = 7.32), number of sex partners (OR(ASCUS) = 1.49, OR(AGUS) = 2.02), number of abortion (OR(ASCUS) = 1.68, OR(AGUS) = 3.50) were correlated with ASCUS and AGUS. In LSIL group and HSIL group, age of first sexual intercourse (OR(LSIL) = 6.34, OR(HSIL) = 9.26), number of sex partners (OR(LSIL) = 1.69, OR(HSIL) = 1.65), number of abortion (OR(LSIL) = 1.53, OR(HSIL) = 5.33), smoking (OR(LSIL) = 1

  19. Seasonal changes in nasal cytology in mite-allergic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gelardi M

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Matteo Gelardi,1 Diego G Peroni,2 Cristoforo Incorvaia,3 Nicola Quaranta,1 Concetta De Luca,1 Salvatore Barberi,4 Ilaria Dell'Albani,5 Massimo Landi,6 Franco Frati,5 Olivier de Beaumont7 1Otolaryngology Unit, Department of Neuroscience and Sensory Organs, University of Bari, Bari, Italy; 2Department of Pediatrics, University of Verona, Verona, Italy; 3Allergy/Pulmonary Rehabilitation, ICP Hospital, Milan, Italy; 4Department of Pediatrics, San Paolo Hospital, Milan, Italy; 5Medical and Scientific Department, Stallergenes, Milan, Italy; 6Department of Pediatrics, National Healthcare System, ASL TO1, Turin, Italy; 7Medical Affairs Department, Stallergenes, Antony, France Background: House dust mites (HDMs are a major cause of allergic rhinitis (AR and asthma worldwide. Recent studies suggested that the allergen load presents seasonal modifications, giving rise to seasonal variation in nasal inflammation and symptoms. The aim of this study was to evaluate by nasal cytology whether nasal inflammation in mite-allergic patients changes with the seasons of the year. Methods: The study included 16 patients (seven males and nine females, mean age 38.1 years with persistent AR caused by monosensitization to HDMs. Nasal cytology was performed in all patients once monthly for 1 year. Results: Nasal cytology showed that the cells most commonly detected in the nasal mucosa were neutrophils. During the period from October to April, a peak in the number of neutrophils and also the presence of significant numbers of eosinophils, mast cells, and lymphocytes/plasma cells were found, which shows the occurrence of more intense inflammation during these months. Conclusion: Nasal cytology provides useful data in detecting nasal inflammation and its association with the clinical stage of AR. The seasonal variations in nasal cytology are likely to be induced by the fluctuations in the HDM allergen that have been uncovered in recent investigations. Keywords: allergens

  20. Cytological features of myxomatous fibroadenoma of the breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Rin; Tanaka, Maki; Yokoyama, Toshiro; Nonaka, Yasuhide; Mizushima, Yasuko; Kawahara, Akihiko; Yoshida, Tomoko; Ito, Tsutomu; Yamaguchi, Miki; Kage, Masayoshi; Yano, Hirohisa

    2012-04-01

    Fibroadenoma (FA) is a benign tumor that must be differentiated from carcinomas. FAs often exhibit myxedematous changes (myxomatous FA, M-FA). We previously reported on the clinical significance of M-FA. M-FA and (mucinous) carcinoma share clinical findings, rapid growth and a relatively large size, a high-depth/width (D/W) ratio, a relatively round shape, and posterior echo enhancement with internal hyperechogenicity on ultrasonography (US). Next, a biopsy is required for differential diagnosis. In this study, we evaluated the diagnostic significance of the cytological findings of M-FA with US findings. Among 13 FAs that were diagnosed by cytology, we compared (i) a group of six mucinous carcinomas with acellular mucin and a D/W ratio ≥ 0.7 (a suspicious factor for malignancy) with a group with a D/W ratio of <0.7, and (ii) the frequency of metachromasia on Giemsa stain between M-FAs and non-M-FAs among eight FA cases confirmed by histology. (i) FA lesions (7 of 13) showed metachromasia with Giemsa staining significantly more frequently than did mucinous carcinoma (0/6) (Fisher's exact test, P < 0.044). FA lesions with a D/W ratio ≥ 0.7 (6/7) showed metachromasia significantly more frequently than did FA with a D/W ratio <0.7 (1/6) (Fisher's exact test, P < 0.029). Among eight FA cases confirmed by histology, M-FA cases (6/6) demonstrated metachromasia significantly more frequently than non-M-FA cases (0/2) (P < 0.036). M-FA cytologically exhibits marked metachromasia on Giemsa staining. Combining cytological examination and understanding the clinical features of M-FA may allow us to choose cytological examination as a first-line diagnostic method for tumor-forming lesions. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Thyroid Cytology in India: Contemporary Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Shipra; Jain, Deepali

    2017-11-01

    Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is a screening test for triaging thyroid nodules, aiding in subsequent clinical management. However, the advantages have been overshadowed by the multiplicity of reporting systems and a wide range of nomenclature used. The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology (TBSRTC) was formulated in 2007, to give the world a uniform thyroid cytology reporting system, facilitating easy interpretation by the clinicians. Here, we review the status of thyroid FNAC in India in terms of various reporting systems used including a meta-analysis of the previously published data. An extensive literature search was performed using internet search engines. The reports with detailed classification system used in thyroid cytology were included. The meta-analysis of published data was compared with the implied risk of malignancy by TBSRTC. More than 50 studies were retrieved and evaluated. TBSRTC is currently the most widely used reporting system with different studies showing good efficacy and interobserver concordance. Ancillary techniques have, as of now, limited applicability and acceptability in thyroid cytology in India. Twenty-eight published articles met the criteria for inclusion in the meta-analysis. When compared with TBSRTC recommendations, the meta-analysis showed a higher risk of malignancy for categories I and III. Thyroid FNAC is practiced all over India. TBSRTC has found widespread acceptance, with most institutions using this system for routine thyroid cytology reporting. However, reasons for a high malignancy risk for categories I and III need to be looked into. Various possible contributing factors are discussed in the review.

  2. Agreement Between Cytology and Histopathology for Regional Lymph Node Metastasis in Dogs With Melanocytic Neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Janet A; Matz, Brad M; Christopherson, Pete W; Koehler, Jey W; Cappelle, Kelsey K; Hlusko, Katelyn C; Smith, Annette

    2017-07-01

    Melanocytic neoplasms are common in dogs and frequently occur within the oral cavity or in haired skin. The behavior of melanocytic neoplasms is variable and depends on tumor location, size, and histopathologic features. This study compared cytopathology and histopathology of 32 lymph nodes from 27 dogs diagnosed with melanocytic neoplasms. Agreement between the original cytology report, cytology slide review, original histopathology report, and histopathology slide review was determined for each lymph node. A subset of lymph nodes was subjected to immunohistochemistry (Melan-A) and additional histochemical stains/techniques (Prussian blue, bleach) to assist in differentiation of melanocytes and melanophages. Agreement ranged from slight to fair for each of the variables evaluated with weighted kappa (κ w ) or kappa (κ) analysis (original cytology vs cytology review κ w = 0.24; original cytology vs original histopathology κ w = 0.007; original cytology vs histopathology review κ w = 0.23; cytology review vs original histopathology κ w = 0.008; cytology review vs histopathology review κ w = 0.006; and original histopathology vs histopathology review κ = 0.18). The diagnoses (metastatic, equivocal, or negative for metastasis) of the original report and slide review for both cytology and histopathology were not significantly correlated with survival in this population of patients. Overall, agreement between cytology and histopathology was poor even with a single clinical or anatomic pathologist performing slide review. Consensus between routine cytology and histopathology for staging of lymph nodes in patients with melanocytic neoplasms is poor and does not correlate with survival.

  3. UroVysion compared with cytology and quantitative cytology in the surveillance of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moonen, P.M.J.; Merkx, G.F.M.; Peelen, P.; Karthaus, H.F.M.; Smeets, D.F.C.M.; Witjes, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The multitarget fluorescence in situ hybridization probe set Vysis UroVysion, consisting of probes for chromosomes 3, 7, and 17 and for the 9p21 band, was studied to evaluate its value in the follow-up of patients with bladder cancer. The results were compared with conventional cytology

  4. Cervical cancer incidence after normal cytological sample in routine screening using SurePath, ThinPrep, and conventional cytology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rozemeijer, Kirsten; Naber, Steffie K; Penning, Corine

    2017-01-01

    of histo- and cytopathology in the Netherlands (PALGA), January 2000 to March 2013.Population Women with 5 924 474 normal screening samples (23 833 123 person years).Exposure Use of SurePath or ThinPrep versus conventional cytology as screening test.Main outcome measure 72 month cumulative incidence...

  5. Fine-needle aspiration cytology as a diagnostic modality for cysticercosis: A clinicocytological study of 137 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja Kala

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Fine-needle aspiration cytology in cysticercosis is a low-cost outpatient procedure. The cytological diagnosis is quite straightforward in cases where the actual parasite structures are identified in the smears. In other cases, a cytological diagnosis of suspicious of cysticercosis can be given if the cytological findings suggest the same.

  6. [Implementation of cytology images classification--the Bethesda 2001 System--in a group of screened women from Podlaskie region--effect evaluation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zbroch, Tomasz; Knapp, Paweł Grzegorz; Knapp, Piotr Andrzej

    2007-09-01

    Increasing knowledge concerning carcinogenesis within cervical epithelium has forced us to make continues modifications of cytology classification of the cervical smears. Eventually, new descriptions of the submicroscopic cytomorphological abnormalities have enabled the implementation of Bethesda System which was meant to take place of the former Papanicolaou classification although temporarily both are sometimes used simultaneously. The aim of this study was to compare results of these two classification systems in the aspect of diagnostic accuracy verified by further tests of the diagnostic algorithm for the cervical lesion evaluation. The study was conducted in the group of women selected from general population, the criteria being the place of living and cervical cancer age risk group, in the consecutive periods of mass screening in Podlaski region. The performed diagnostic tests have been based on the commonly used algorithm, as well as identical laboratory and methodological conditions. Performed assessment revealed comparable diagnostic accuracy of both analyzing classifications, verified by histological examination, although with marked higher specificity for dysplastic lesions with decreased number of HSIL results and increased diagnosis of LSILs. Higher number of performed colposcopies and biopsies were an additional consequence of TBS classification. Results based on Bethesda System made it possible to find the sources and reasons of abnormalities with much greater precision, which enabled causing agent treatment. Two evaluated cytology classification systems, although not much different, depicted higher potential of TBS and better, more effective communication between cytology laboratory and gynecologist, making reasonable implementation of The Bethesda System in the daily cytology screening work.

  7. Thermal monitoring of a granitic exfoliation sheet and cliff in Yosemite Valley, California (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerin, Antoine; Matasci, Battista; Collins, Brian D.; Stock, Greg M.; Derron, Marc-Henri; Jaboyedoff, Michel

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, new remote sensing techniques such as Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS) and Infrared Thermography (IRT) have been used in parallel for rock weathering and weakness detection in slope stability analysis. Nevertheless, the effects of thermal stresses on rock face deformation are still poorly quantified, especially for steep and inaccessible cliffs. To better understand how daily temperature fluctuations influence the behavior of exfoliation joints (i.e., fractures separating exfoliation sheets), we monitored a granitic exfoliation sheet in detail using TLS and IRT over a several day period and also compiled a single TLS-IRT thermal panorama of a larger nearby granitic cliff composed of hundreds to thousands of similar exfoliation sheets. The exfoliation sheet had been previously instrumented for 3.5 years beginning in May 2010 using crackmeters and temperature sensors (Collins and Stock, 2010 and 2012), thereby providing an important baseline to compare our IRT measurements. For several consecutive days, a series of infrared thermal images (collected every 20 min.) of the exfoliation flake (19 m by 4 m by 0.1 m) was taken with a long range IRISYS IRI 4040 thermal imager, as well as several ground-based LiDAR scans, collected at 4 mm point spacing. These pictures were draped on the TLS triangular meshes to quantify the lateral propagation of temperature during the warming and cooling periods. The evolution of vertical and horizontal temperature profiles was also investigated. Results show that the sheet edge undergoes the most significant temperature changes and that warming takes place from the inside part to the border of the flake; conversely cooling takes place from the outside-inwards. Furthermore, the comparison of point clouds indicates a maximum crack aperture of over 1 cm occurring in the afternoon (12:00 to 15:00), when temperatures are at their maximum. The thermal panoramic image of the cliff (600 m wide by 300 m tall) was created using over

  8. Differential Diagnosis of Nodular Goiter by Aspiration Cytology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koh, Suk Man; Lee, Houn Young; Han, Bong Heon; Kim, Sam Young; Ro, Heung Kyu

    1982-01-01

    113 patients with nodular goiter were studied cytologically by needle aspiration for differential diagnosis at the department of internal medicine, Chungnam National University Hospital since October 1980 till July 1981, and the final diagnosis taken from biopsies were compared with the cytologic method on the 44 cases who received operation. The results were obtained as follows: 1. Among the 113 cases of total patients, male were 15 cases (13.3%) and female were 98 cases (86.7%) and the sex ratio (M : F) was 1 : 6.5. The peak age incidence was in the third decade followed by forth and second decades. 2. The findings of cytological diagnosis in 113 cases showed benign adenoma in 69 cases (61.1%), subacute and chronic thyroiditis in 22 cases (19.5%), papillary carcinoma in 15 cases (13.3%) and follicular carcinoma in 7 cases (6.2%), respectively, and 48 cases (69.6%) of the adenomas and 2 cases (9.1%) of papillary carcinomas showed combined cystic degeneration of the nodules. 3. The diameter of the nodules by palpation revealed within 2-5 cm in 88 cases (77.9%) out of 113 cases, below 2 cm in 17 cases and over 5 cm in 8 cases and there were no significant relationship between the size of the nodule and disease entity. 4. The findings of thyroid scintigram using 131 I in 113 cases of nodular goiter showed 'cold nodule' in 111 cases (98.2%) and normal scan (radioactivity) in 2 cases (1.8%) which showed adenoma in cytology and there was no cases with h ot nodule'. 5. The thyroid functions of the 113 cases revealed as euthyroidism in 108 cases (95.6%), hypothyroidism in 2 cases (2.7%) in adenomas but there was no evidence that the nodules of the above 3 cases were the reason of hyperthyroidism. 6. In 44 operated cases, the histological diagnosis revealed 23 cases of adenoma out of 27 cases (85.2%) who were diagnosed as adenoma by cytology and 15 cases of malignancy out of 17 cases (88.2%), and the overall diagnostic accuracy of aspiration cytology was 86.4%.

  9. Creating high yield water soluble luminescent graphene quantum dots via exfoliating and disintegrating carbon nanotubes and graphite flakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Liangxu; Zhang, Shaowei

    2012-10-21

    We have developed an effective method to exfoliate and disintegrate multi-walled carbon nanotubes and graphite flakes. With this technique, high yield production of luminescent graphene quantum dots with high quantum yield and low oxidization can be achieved.

  10. High-yield exfoliation of tungsten disulphide nanosheets by rational mixing of low-boiling-point solvents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajedi-Moghaddam, Ali; Saievar-Iranizad, Esmaiel

    2018-01-01

    Developing high-throughput, reliable, and facile approaches for producing atomically thin sheets of transition metal dichalcogenides is of great importance to pave the way for their use in real applications. Here, we report a highly promising route for exfoliating two-dimensional tungsten disulphide sheets by using binary combination of low-boiling-point solvents. Experimental results show significant dependence of exfoliation yield on the type of solvents as well as relative volume fraction of each solvent. The highest yield was found for appropriate combination of isopropanol/water (20 vol% isopropanol and 80 vol% water) which is approximately 7 times higher than that in pure isopropanol and 4 times higher than that in pure water. The dramatic increase in exfoliation yield can be attributed to perfect match between the surface tension of tungsten disulphide and binary solvent system. Furthermore, solvent molecular size also has a profound impact on the exfoliation efficiency, due to the steric repulsion.

  11. Reliable Exfoliation of Large-Area High-Quality Flakes of Graphene and Other Two-Dimensional Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuan; Sutter, Eli; Shi, Norman N; Zheng, Jiabao; Yang, Tianzhong; Englund, Dirk; Gao, Hong-Jun; Sutter, Peter

    2015-11-24

    Mechanical exfoliation has been a key enabler of the exploration of the properties of two-dimensional materials, such as graphene, by providing routine access to high-quality material. The original exfoliation method, which remained largely unchanged during the past decade, provides relatively small flakes with moderate yield. Here, we report a modified approach for exfoliating thin monolayer and few-layer flakes from layered crystals. Our method introduces two process steps that enhance and homogenize the adhesion force between the outermost sheet in contact with a substrate: Prior to exfoliation, ambient adsorbates are effectively removed from the substrate by oxygen plasma cleaning, and an additional heat treatment maximizes the uniform contact area at the interface between the source crystal and the substrate. For graphene exfoliation, these simple process steps increased the yield and the area of the transferred flakes by more than 50 times compared to the established exfoliation methods. Raman and AFM characterization shows that the graphene flakes are of similar high quality as those obtained in previous reports. Graphene field-effect devices were fabricated and measured with back-gating and solution top-gating, yielding mobilities of ∼4000 and 12,000 cm(2)/(V s), respectively, and thus demonstrating excellent electrical properties. Experiments with other layered crystals, e.g., a bismuth strontium calcium copper oxide (BSCCO) superconductor, show enhancements in exfoliation yield and flake area similar to those for graphene, suggesting that our modified exfoliation method provides an effective way for producing large area, high-quality flakes of a wide range of 2D materials.

  12. Cytology-based treatment decision in primary lung cancer: is it accurate enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakr, Lama; Roll, Patrice; Payan, Marie-José; Liprandi, Agnès; Dutau, Hervé; Astoul, Philippe; Robaglia-Schlupp, Andrée; Loundou, Anderson; Barlesi, Fabrice

    2012-03-01

    Accurate distinction of lung cancer types has become increasingly important as recent trials have shown differential response to chemotherapy among non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) subtypes. Cytological procedures are frequently used but their diagnostic accuracy has been previously questioned. However, new endoscopic and cytological techniques might have improved cytological accuracy in comparison with prior findings. The aim of this study was to reassess cytological accuracy for diagnosis of lung cancer subtypes. A retrospective chart review of subjects who underwent fiberoptic bronchoscopy (FOB) for suspicion of lung cancer in 2007-2008, was undertaken. Reports of bronchoscopically derived cytological specimens were compared to those of histological material. Endoscopic findings and specific investigational techniques were taken into account. A total of 467 FOB with both cytological and histological diagnostic techniques were performed in 449 subjects. Patients consisted of 345 men and 104 women (median age, 65 yrs). Cytology proved malignancy in 157 patients. Cytologically diagnosed carcinomas were classified into squamous cell carcinoma (SqCC) in 56, adenocarcinoma (ADC) in 6, small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) in 12, non-small cell lung carcinoma not otherwise specified (NSCLC-NOS) in 71, and unclassified carcinoma in 12. Cytology correlated fairly with biopsy specimens, as agreement was observed in 83% of SCLC, 100% of ADC, 74% of SqCC and 8% of NSCLC-NOS. Interestingly, 61% of cytologically identified NSCLC-NOS were classified as ADC by histology. Cytological accuracy improved in case of an endobronchial lesion, mainly for SqCC. These results indicate that cytological accuracy remains fair with regard to diagnosis of squamous and non-squamous lung cancer subtypes. Improvement of cytological accuracy is expected however with novel diagnostic strategies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Synthesis and Exfoliation of Discotic Zirconium Phosphates to Obtain Colloidal Liquid Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yi-Hsien; Wang, Xuezhen; Shinde, Abhijeet; Cheng, Zhengdong

    2016-01-01

    Due to their abundance in natural clay and potential applications in advanced materials, discotic nanoparticles are of interest to scientists and engineers. Growth of such anisotropic nanocrystals through a simple chemical method is a challenging task. In this study, we fabricate discotic nanodisks of zirconium phosphate [Zr(HPO4)2·H2O] as a model material using hydrothermal, reflux and microwave-assisted methods. Growth of crystals is controlled by duration time, temperature, and concentration of reacting species. The novelty of the adopted methods is that discotic crystals of size ranging from hundred nanometers to few micrometers can be obtained while keeping the polydispersity well within control. The layered discotic crystals are converted to monolayers by exfoliation with tetra-(n)-butyl ammonium hydroxide [(C4H9)4NOH, TBAOH]. Exfoliated disks show isotropic and nematic liquid crystal phases. Size and polydispersity of disk suspensions is highly important in deciding their phase behavior. PMID:27284765

  14. Studies on incorporation of exfoliated bentonitic clays in polyurethane foams for increasing flame retardancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quagliano, J; García, Irma Gavilán

    2012-01-01

    In this contribution we report the results of studying the incorporation of exfoliated bentonitic clays into polyurethane foams. A suspension in water of a sodium bentonite from Argentine Patagonia was interchanged with cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) for 4 h at 80°C, rendering an exfoliated clay, which is nanometric in only one dimension. This nanoclay, when dispersed in the polyurethane, resulted in the same fire retardancy rating (UL-94) than when polyurethane was treated with a commercial nanoclay. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) at low augmentations of polyurethane samples treated with the synthethized nanoclay (2,5% w/w) showed no differences respect to untreated polyurethane, except for the irregularity of void edges.

  15. Morphological, viscoelastic and mechanical characterization of polypropylene/exfoliated graphite nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Creusa Iara Ferreira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The viscoelastic, mechanical and morphological properties of polypropylene/exfoliated graphite nanocomposites with different contents of nanofiller were investigated. According to transmission electron microscopy results, the nanofiller particles were homogeneously dispersed in the matrix. The rheological properties indicated that incorporation of graphite improved the matrix stiffness and had a reinforcing effect. Exfoliated graphite had a weak interaction with the polypropylene. The behavior of the nanocomposites was similar to that of polypropylene in terms of the interfacial detachment inferred from the transmission electron microscopy images and of their G' (storage and G'' (loss moduli, and viscosity. The mechanical properties of the nanocomposites compared to the matrix improved significantly for the flexural and storage moduli with little loss of impact strength.

  16. Glycerin Borax Treatment of Exfoliative Cheilitis Induced by Sodium Lauryl Sulfate: a Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thongprasom, Kobkan

    2016-06-01

    This paper reports on the results of a case study of a 19-year-old female who presented to the Oral Medicine clinic with a chief complaint of scaly and peeling lips. The lesions had persisted on her lips for more than 7 years and were refractory to previous treatment. Her physician's diagnosis was contact dermatitis. We diagnosed this patient as having exfoliative cheilitis (EC). A patch test using the toothpaste containing sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) was positive and the patient discontinued using it. Instead, she started using a toothpaste not containing SLS. One year after treating her lesions with hydrogen peroxide mouthwash 1% and glycerin borax, a gradual improvement was observed until returning to normal. Glycerin borax was safe, low cost and simple to use in treatment of refractory exfoliative cheilitis. SLS may have been a precipitating factor in EC in this case.

  17. Glycerin Borax Treatment of Exfoliative Cheilitis Induced by Sodium Lauryl Sulfate: a Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobkan Thongprasom

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the results of a case study of a 19-year-old female who presented to the Oral Medicine clinic with a chief complaint of scaly and peeling lips. The lesions had persisted on her lips for more than 7 years and were refractory to previous treatment. Her physician’s diagnosis was contact dermatitis. We diagnosed this patient as having exfoliative cheilitis (EC. A patch test using the toothpaste containing sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS was positive and the patient discontinued using it. Instead, she started using a toothpaste not containing SLS. One year after treating her lesions with hydrogen peroxide mouthwash 1% and glycerin borax, a gradual improvement was observed until returning to normal. Glycerin borax was safe, low cost and simple to use in treatment of refractory exfoliative cheilitis. SLS may have been a precipitating factor in EC in this case.

  18. Performance of Liquid Phase Exfoliated Graphene As Electrochemical Double Layer Capacitors Electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffstutler, Jacob; Wasala, Milinda; Richie, Julianna; Winchester, Andrew; Ghosh, Sujoy; Kar, Swastik; Talapatra, Saikat

    2014-03-01

    We will present the results of our investigations of electrochemical double layer capacitors (EDLCs) or supercapacitors (SC) fabricated using liquid-phase exfoliated graphene. Several electrolytes, such as aqueous potassium hydroxide KOH (6M), ionic 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate [BMIM][PF6], and ionic 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate[BMP][FAP] were used. These EDLC's show good performance compared to other carbon nanomaterials based EDLC's devices. We found that the liquid phase exfoliated graphene based devices possess specific capacitance values as high as 262 F/g, when used with ionic liquid electrolyte[BMP][FAP], with power densities (~ 454 W/kg) and energy densities (~ 0.38Wh/kg). Further, these devices indicated rapid charge transfer response even without the use of any binders or specially prepared current collectors. A detailed electrochemical impedance spectroscopy analysis in order to understand the phenomenon of charge storage in these materials will be presented.

  19. Morphological, viscoelastic and mechanical characterization of polypropylene/exfoliated graphite nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Creusa Iara; Oliveira, Ricardo Vinicius Bof de; Mauler, Raquel Santos, E-mail: raquel.mauler@ufrgs.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (PGCIMAT/IQ/UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Bianchi, Otavio [Universidade de Caxias do Sul (PGMAT/CCET/UCS), RS (Brazil); Oviedo, Mauro Alfredo Soto [Braskem S/A, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The viscoelastic, mechanical and morphological properties of polypropylene/exfoliated graphite nanocomposites with different contents of nanofiller were investigated. According to transmission electron microscopy results, the nanofiller particles were homogeneously dispersed in the matrix. The rheological properties indicated that incorporation of graphite improved the matrix stiffness and had a reinforcing effect. Exfoliated graphite had a weak interaction with the polypropylene. The behavior of the nanocomposites was similar to that of polypropylene in terms of the interfacial detachment inferred from the transmission electron microscopy images and of their G' (storage) and G' (loss) moduli, and viscosity. The mechanical properties of the nanocomposites compared to the matrix improved significantly for the flexural and storage moduli with little loss of impact strength. (author)

  20. Anion-exchange membranes derived from quaternized polysulfone and exfoliated layered double hydroxide for fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Wan; Liang, Na; Peng, Pai; Qu, Rong; Chen, Dongzhi; Zhang, Hongwei, E-mail: hanqiujiang@163.com

    2017-02-15

    Layered double hydroxides (LDH) are prepared by controlling urea assisted homogeneous precipitation conditions. Morphology and crystallinity of LDHs are confirmed by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope. After LDHs are incorporated into quaternized polysulfone membranes, transmission electron microscope is used to observe the exfoliated morphology of LDH sheets in the membranes. The properties of the nanocomposite membranes, including water uptake, swelling ratio, mechanical property and ionic conductivity are investigated. The nanocomposite membrane containing 5% LDH sheets shows more balanced performances, exhibiting an ionic conductivity of 2.36×10{sup −2} S cm{sup −1} at 60 °C. - Graphical abstract: Anion-exchange membrane based on quaternized polysulfone and exfoliated layered double hydroxide is optically transparent and has good ionic properties.

  1. Mechanical behaviour of cyclic olefin copolymer/exfoliated graphite nanoplatelets nanocomposites foamed through supercritical carbon dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Biani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A cycloolefin copolymer matrix was melt mixed with exfoliated graphite nanoplatelets (xGnP and the resulting nanocomposites were foamed by supercritical carbon dioxide. The density of the obtained foams decreased with the foaming pressure. Moreover, xGnP limited the cell growth during the expansion process thus reducing the cell diameter (from 1.08 to 0.22 mm with an XGnP amount of 10 wt% at 150 bar and increasing the cell density (from 12 to 45 cells/mm2 with a nanofiller content of 10 wt% at 150 bar. Electron microscopy observations of foams evidenced exfoliation and orientation of the nanoplatelets along the cell walls. Quasi-static compressive tests and tensile creep tests on foams clearly indicated that xGnP improved the modulus (up to a factor of 10 for a xGnP content of 10 wt% and the creep stability.

  2. Evaluation of the capacity of heavy metal adsorption in exfoliated vermiculite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, J.F.; Silva, P.S.; Hanken, R.B.L.; Raposo, C.M.O.

    2009-01-01

    Many groups from modern society have seen with attention the issues of pollutants, generally present in nature, those same that have caused irreversible damages to the environment. The Vermiculite, a phyllosilicate, with t-o-t structure, have high interlamelar charge, has been studied as cationic exchanger, whose application when exfoliated, are increased. This work has the objective of evaluate the absorption capacity of chromium (III), in different concentrations, in high, slim and medium concentrations of exfoliated vermiculites. The results obtained from the characterization by spectroscopy in infrared and by diffraction of x-ray from prepared solids showed important variations in the quantity of adsorbed metal in order the size of the concentrated particles. (author)

  3. Orientation and the extent of exfoliation of clay on scratch damage in polyamide 6 nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dasari, Aravind; Yu Zhongzhen; Mai Yiuwing; Kim, Jang-Kyo

    2008-01-01

    The major objectives of this work are to understand the effects of organoclay, its extent of exfoliation and orientation, and indenter geometry on the scratch characteristics of polyamide 6/organoclay nanocomposites. Two different organically treated clays are used for this purpose and their structural parameters in a polyamide 6 matrix quantified. It is shown that, while the material properties are important for scratching resistance, they are not the only determinants of the scratch performance of materials. Further, despite proving beneficial to scratch resistance, in terms of residual depth, the presence (and exfoliation) of organoclay promotes the formation of brittle cracks during scratching. But with no organoclay layers, plastic flow controls the scratch damage in neat polyamide 6 with large residual depths. Factors such as orientation of clay layers and variations of indenter tip geometry also exert dominant effects on scratch penetration resistance and damage. Additionally, significant plastic flow and rotation of organoclay layers from the original configuration are observed underneath the sliding indenter

  4. Morphological, viscoelastic and mechanical characterization of polypropylene/exfoliated graphite nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Creusa Iara; Oliveira, Ricardo Vinicius Bof de; Mauler, Raquel Santos, E-mail: raquel.mauler@ufrgs.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (PGCIMAT/IQ/UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Bianchi, Otavio [Universidade de Caxias do Sul (PGMAT/CCET/UCS), RS (Brazil); Oviedo, Mauro Alfredo Soto [Braskem S/A, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The viscoelastic, mechanical and morphological properties of polypropylene/exfoliated graphite nanocomposites with different contents of nanofiller were investigated. According to transmission electron microscopy results, the nanofiller particles were homogeneously dispersed in the matrix. The rheological properties indicated that incorporation of graphite improved the matrix stiffness and had a reinforcing effect. Exfoliated graphite had a weak interaction with the polypropylene. The behavior of the nanocomposites was similar to that of polypropylene in terms of the interfacial detachment inferred from the transmission electron microscopy images and of their G' (storage) and G' (loss) moduli, and viscosity. The mechanical properties of the nanocomposites compared to the matrix improved significantly for the flexural and storage moduli with little loss of impact strength. (author)

  5. Large-strain Soft Sensors Using Elastomers Blended with Exfoliated/Fragmented Graphite Particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sungmin; Nam, Gyungmok; Kim, Jonghun; Yoon, Sang-Hee [Inha Univ., Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    An elastic polymer (e.g., PDMS) blended with EFG particles is a promising conductive composite for fabricating soft sensors that can detect an object's deformation up to or more than 50 %. Here, we develop large-strain, sprayable soft sensors using a mixture of PDMS and EFG particles, which are used as a host elastomer and electrically conductive particles, respectively. A solution for a conductive composite mixture is prepared by the microwave-assisted graphite exfoliation, followed by ultrasonication-induced fragmentation of the exfoliated graphite and ultrasonic blending of PDMS and EFG. Using the prepared solutions for composite and pure PDMS, 1-, 2-, and 3-axis soft sensors are fabricated by airbrush stencil technique where composite mixture and pure PDMS are materials for sensing and insulating layers, respectively. We characterize the soft strain sensors after investigating the effect of PDMS/EFG wt % on mechanical compliance and electrical conductance of the conductive composite.

  6. Strongly luminescent monolayered MoS2 prepared by effective ultrasound exfoliation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Štengl, Václav; Henych, Jiří

    2013-04-21

    Intense ultrasound in a pressurized batch reactor was used for preparation of monolayered MoS2 nanosheets from natural mineral molybdenite. Exfoliation of bulk MoS2 using ultrasound is an attractive route to large-scale preparation of monolayered crystals. To evaluate the quality of delamination, methods like X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and microscopic techniques (TEM and AFM) were employed. From single- or few-layered products obtained from intense sonication, MoS2 quantum dots (MoSQDs) were prepared by a one-pot reaction by refluxing exfoliated nanosheets of MoS2 in ethylene glycol under atmospheric pressure. The synthesised MoSQDs were characterised by photoluminescence spectroscopy and laser-scattering particle size analysis. Our easy preparation leads to very strongly green luminescing quantum dots.

  7. Studies of physicochemical properties of graphite oxide and thermally exfoliated/reduced graphene oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drewniak Sabina Elżbieta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the experimental research studies was to determine some electrical properties of graphite oxide and thermally exfoliated/reduced graphene oxide. The authors tried to interpret the obtained physicochemical results. For that purpose, both resistance measurements and investigation studies were carried out in order to characterize the samples. The resistance was measured at various temperatures in the course of composition changes of gas atmospheres (which surround the samples. The studies were also supported by such methods as: scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Raman spectroscopy (RS, atomic force microscopy (AFM and thermogravimetry (TG. Moreover, during the experiments also the elemental analyses (EA of the tested samples (graphite oxide and thermally exfoliated/reduced graphene oxide were performed.

  8. An ultrahigh pressure homogenization technique for easily exfoliating few-layer phosphorene from bulk black phosphorus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Qing-Qing; Zhou, Hua-Jing; Ning, Ping; Lian, Pei-Chao; Wang, Bo; He, Liang; Chai, Xin-Sheng

    2018-05-01

    We have developed an easy and efficient method for exfoliating few-layer sheets of black phosphorus (BP) in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone, using ultra-high pressure homogenization (UPH). The BP was first exfoliated into sheets that were a few atomic layers thick, using a homogenizer for only 30 min. Next, a double centrifugation procedure was used to separate the material into few-layer nanosheets that were examined by X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. The results show that the products are specimens of phosphorene that are only a few-layer thick.

  9. Sulfuric acid intercalated-mechanical exfoliation of reduced graphene oxide from old coconut shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islamiyah, Wildatun; Nashirudin, Luthfi; Baqiya, Malik A.; Cahyono, Yoyok; Darminto

    2018-04-01

    We report a fecile preparation of reduced grapheme oxide (rGO) from an old coconut shell by rapid reduction of heating at 400°C, chemical exfoliation using H2SO4 and HCl intercalating and mechanical exfoliation using ultrasonication. The produced samples consist of random stacks of nanometer-sized sheets. The dispersions prepared from H2SO4 had broader size distributions and larger particle sizes than the that from HCl. An average size of rGO in H2SO4 and HCl is respectively 23.62 nm and 570.4 nm. Furthermore, sample prepared in H2SO4 exhibited a high electronical conductivity of 1.1 × 10-3 S/m with a low energy gap of 0.11 eV.

  10. Properties of spray-deposited liquid-phase exfoliated graphene films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, Maria Gabriela C.; Dela Vega, Ma. Shanlene D. C.; Vasquez, Magdaleno R., Jr.

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we demonstrate the feasibility of spray-depositing exfoliated graphene on flexible polyimide (PI) and rigid (soda lime glass) substrates for optoelectronic applications. The water contact angles of the substrates increased by 13% (for PI) and 49% (for glass) when the surfaces are pretreated with hexamethyldisiloxane, which significantly improved the adhesion of the films. Raman spectral analyses confirmed a minimum of 15 and a maximum of 23 layers of exfoliated graphene deposited on the substrates. After deposition, the films were exposed to 13.56 MHz radio-frequency plasma containing an admixture of argon and nitrogen gases. Plasma treatment modified the electrical properties with a response analogous to that of a rectifier. A 39% increase in transmittance in the visible region was also observed especially for glass substrates after plasma treatment without a significant change in film electrical conductivity.

  11. Synthesis, characterization and photocatalytic performance of chemically exfoliated MoS2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhakar Vattikuti, S. V.; Shim, Jaesool

    2018-03-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) layered structure transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) has gained huge attention and importance for photocatalytic energy conversion because of their unique properties. Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) nanosheets were synthesized via one-pot method and exfoliated in (dimethylformamide) DMF solution. Subsequent exfoliated MoS2 nanosheets (e-MoS2) were used as photocatalysts for degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) pollutant under solar light irradiation. The e-MoS2 nanosheets exhibited excellent photocatalytic activity than that of pristine MoS2, owing to high specific surface area with enormous active sites and light absorption capacity. In addition, e-MoS2 demonstrated remarkable photocatalytic stability.

  12. Progress and problems in the cytology of Ceratitis capitata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedo, D.G.

    1989-01-01

    In recent years of cytological work with Ceratitis capitata has expanded rapidly in concert with increased interest in the application of genetics and molecular biology in the control of this species. Previous studies using mitotic chromosomes produced essential basic karyotypic data but resulted in a confused situation in which several chromosome nomenclature systems were in use. The need for better cytological methods and a standardization of nomenclature was recognised by the IAEA which recommended a system based on that used for Drosophila melanogaster. Polytene chromosome analysis was soon available with the development of techniques for preparing chromosome squashes from male pupal orbital trichogen cells and larval salivary glands. The application of chromosome banding techniques quickly provided detailed morphological information on mitotic chromosomes, particularly the sex chromosomes, and mapping of chromosome rearrangement break-points on newly prepared polytene chromosome maps commenced. This report describes recent unpublished results and offers comments on the still unresolved nomenclature problems in C. capitata

  13. Automated quantitative cytological analysis using portable microfluidic microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagannadh, Veerendra Kalyan; Murthy, Rashmi Sreeramachandra; Srinivasan, Rajesh; Gorthi, Sai Siva

    2016-06-01

    In this article, a portable microfluidic microscopy based approach for automated cytological investigations is presented. Inexpensive optical and electronic components have been used to construct a simple microfluidic microscopy system. In contrast to the conventional slide-based methods, the presented method employs microfluidics to enable automated sample handling and image acquisition. The approach involves the use of simple in-suspension staining and automated image acquisition to enable quantitative cytological analysis of samples. The applicability of the presented approach to research in cellular biology is shown by performing an automated cell viability assessment on a given population of yeast cells. Further, the relevance of the presented approach to clinical diagnosis and prognosis has been demonstrated by performing detection and differential assessment of malaria infection in a given sample. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Study of surface exfoliation on 6H-SiC induced by H{sub 2}{sup +} implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, L. [Department of Physics, School of Science, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou 730050 (China); Li, B.S., E-mail: b.s.li@impcas.ac.cn [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2017-03-01

    The effect of lattice damage generated by the H{sub 2}{sup +}-implantation on exfoliation efficiency in 6H-SiC wafers is investigated. <0001> 6H-SiC wafers were implanted with 134 keV H{sub 2}{sup +} ions to ion fluences from 1.5×10{sup 16} to 5×10{sup 16} H{sub 2}{sup +} cm{sup −2} and subsequently annealed at temperatures from 973 K to 1373 K. The samples were studied by a combination of optical microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Only after 1373 K annealing for 15 min, blisters and exfoliation occur on the H{sub 2}{sup +}-implanted sample surface. With increasing the implantation fluences from 1.5×10{sup 16} to 3.75×10{sup 16} H{sub 2}{sup +} cm{sup −2}, the exfoliation mean size decreases, while the exfoliation density increases. For the highest fluence of 5×10{sup 16} H{sub 2}{sup +} cm{sup −2}, seldom exfoliations occur on the sample surface. Microstructure analysis shows that exfoliation efficiency is largely controlled by the H{sub 2}{sup +}-implantation-induced lattice damage. The depth of the microcrack is related to the implantation fluence. The effect of implantation fluence on dislocation loops, platelet nucleation and growth is investigated.

  15. Laminated exfoliated graphite composite-metal compositions for fuel cell flow field plate or bipolar plate applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhamu, Aruna; Shi, Jinjun; Guo, Jiusheng; Jang, Bor Z

    2014-05-20

    An electrically conductive laminate composition for fuel cell flow field plate or bipolar plate applications. The laminate composition comprises at least a thin metal sheet having two opposed exterior surfaces and a first exfoliated graphite composite sheet bonded to the first of the two exterior surfaces of the metal sheet wherein the exfoliated graphite composite sheet comprises: (a) expanded or exfoliated graphite and (b) a binder or matrix material to bond the expanded graphite for forming a cohered sheet, wherein the binder or matrix material is between 3% and 60% by weight based on the total weight of the first exfoliated graphite composite sheet. Preferably, the first exfoliated graphite composite sheet further comprises particles of non-expandable graphite or carbon in the amount of between 3% and 60% by weight based on the total weight of the non-expandable particles and the expanded graphite. Further preferably, the laminate comprises a second exfoliated graphite composite sheet bonded to the second surface of the metal sheet to form a three-layer laminate. Surface flow channels and other desired geometric features can be built onto the exterior surfaces of the laminate to form a flow field plate or bipolar plate. The resulting laminate has an exceptionally high thickness-direction conductivity and excellent resistance to gas permeation.

  16. Thyroid Fine-Needle Aspiration Cytology Practice in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Jin Cha

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We reviewed the current status of thyroid fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC in Korea. Thyroid aspiration biopsy was first introduced in Korea in 1977. Currently, radiologists aspirate the thyroid nodule under the guidance of ultrasonography, and cytologic interpretation is only legally approved when a cytopathologist makes the diagnosis. In 2008, eight thyroid-related societies came together to form the Korean Thyroid Association. The Korean Society for Cytopathology and the endocrine pathology study group of the Korean Society for Pathologists have been updating the cytologic diagnostic guidelines. The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology was first introduced in 2009, and has been used by up to 94% of institutions by 2016. The average diagnosis rates are as follows for each category: I (12.4%, II (57.9%, III (10.4%, IV (2.9%, V (3.7%, and VI (12.7%. The malignancy rates in surgical cases are as follows for each category: I (28.7%, II (27.8%, III (50.6%, IV (52.3%, V (90.7%, and VI (100.0%. Liquid-based cytology has been used since 2010, and it was utilized by 68% of institutions in 2016. The categorization of thyroid lesions into “atypia of undetermined significance” or “follicular lesion of undetermined significance” is necessary to draw consensus in our society. Immunocytochemistry for galectin-3 and BRAF is used. Additionally, a molecular test for BRAF in thyroid FNACs is actively used. Core biopsies were performed in only 44% of institutions. Even the institutions that perform core biopsies only perform them for less than 3% of all FNACs. However, only 5% of institutions performed core biopsies up to three times more than FNAC.

  17. Diagnostic accuracy of fine needle aspiration cytology in hepatic tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazir, R.T.; Sharif, M.A.; Iqbal, M.; Amin, M.S.

    2010-01-01

    To determine the diagnostic accuracy of fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in liver masses to isolate malignant from benign tumours and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) from metastatic tumours. Study Design: Cross-sectional, observational. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Histopathology, Combined Military Hospital, Peshawar, from June 2004 to June 2005. Methodology: All the patients with liver masses confirmed by ultrasonography, irrespective of age and gender, were included. Patients with inflammatory lesions were excluded from the study. Selected patients underwent fine-needle aspiration under ultrasound guidance followed by needle biopsy. The cytological slides were stained by haematoxylin and eosin (H and E) stain, while Papanicolaou's stain was employed in selective cases. Needle biopsy fragments were fixed in formalin followed by paraffin embedding and staining with H and E stain. Sensitivity and specificity of FNAC in the diagnosis of liver masses was determined using histological diagnosis on liver biopsy as gold standard. Results: There were one hundred subjects. The mean age at presentation was 55 +- 12 years with male to female ratio of 1.7:1. Cytological diagnosis in 19 cases was benign/non-neoplastic and 81 was malignant. Out of the latter, 49 (60.49%) were HCC and 32 (39.51%) were metastatic tumours on cytology. The overall sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of FNAC in the diagnosis of malignant lesions was 95.2%, 100% and 96% respectively using histological diagnosis on liver biopsy as gold standard. Sensitivity of FNAC to differentiate HCC from metastatic tumours in liver was 96% while specificity was 100% having a diagnostic accuracy of 97.5%. The discrepancy in cyto-histological comparison was mainly seen in well differentiated and poorly-differentiated HCCs. Conclusion: FNAC of the liver masses is a simple, safe, accurate, economical screening test without significant morbidity that can be used to identify the vast majority of

  18. Cell bioprocessing in space - Applications of analytical cytology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, P.; Hymer, W. C.; Goolsby, C. L.; Hatfield, J. M.; Morrison, D. R.

    1988-01-01

    Cell bioprocessing experiments in space are reviewed and the development of on-board cell analytical cytology techniques that can serve such experiments is discussed. Methods and results of experiments involving the cultivation and separation of eukaryotic cells in space are presented. It is suggested that an advanced cytometer should be developed for the quantitative analysis of large numbers of specimens of suspended eukaryotic cells and bioparticles in experiments on the Space Station.

  19. US Diagnosis for Thyroid Nodules with an Indeterminate Cytology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Jong Geun; Kim, Dong Wook [Busan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Tae Woo [Saegyaero Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    We wanted to assess the diagnostic efficacy of thyroid ultrasound (US) for evaluating thyroid nodules with indeterminate cytology. Among 1865 nodules in 1278 patients who received a prospective US diagnosis of their thyroid nodule(s) and who subsequently underwent US-guided fine-needle aspiration, 130 nodules with indeterminate cytology were enrolled in the study. Each thyroid nodule was prospectively classified by a single radiologist into 1 of 5 diagnostic categories: 'benign', 'probably benign', 'indeterminate', 'suspicious for malignancy' and 'malignant.' The solid nodules were classified using all 5 categories and the partially cystic nodules classified using 4 categories ('indeterminate' was omitted). We calculated the diagnostic efficacy of thyroid US by comparing the US diagnoses with the pathology results. Of 130 nodules with indeterminate cytology (130/1865, 7.0%), 62 nodules were surgically removed. Nineteen nodules were assigned to the indeterminate category on US. The malignantly rate of the US-indeterminate category was 56.5% (35/62). The sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive values were 81.0%, 81.8%, 81.0%, 81.8% and 81.4%, respectively, when US-indeterminate nodules were excluded. There was no significant difference of diagnostic efficacy when these nodules were reclassified as malignant, but there was a significant difference of diagnostic efficacy when these nodules were reclassified as benign. Our US classification may be a feasible method for managing thyroid nodules with indeterminate cytology

  20. Role of FNA cytology in the management of carcinoma breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tariq, G.R.; Haleem, A.; Zaidi, A.H.; Afzal, M.; Abbasi, S.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the utility and role of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in essential surgical management of carcinoma breast. Patients and Methods: The study included one hundred cases of carcinoma of breast-97 females and 3 males, confirmed on histopathological examination and surgically treated at PNS Shifa, CMH Pano Aqil and PNS Rahat. FNA cytology was the primary tool of investigation in all. The benefit of the procedure was evaluated considering the ease of the procedure, cost, safety, reliability as screening procedure and its effect on sparing the patients from excision or incision biopsy and thus additional anesthesia. Results: Sensitivity of the procedure was 78%, specificity 100%, predictive value 100% and overall diagnostic accuracy 72%. Out of 78 cases, diagnosed as positive for malignancy on FNAC and later confirmed by histopathological examination, 58 underwent frozen section examination followed by definitive surgery (modified radical mastectomy). Remaining 20 cases underwent additional core biopsy. Out of these, 12 cases underwent definitive surgery without frozen section and 8 patients underwent frozen section examination followed by definitive surgery. A single case required general anesthesia (GA) while the patients undergoing core biopsy required a local anesthesia (LA) as well. Cases remaining undiagnosed by FNA-cytology (22 cases) required either an excision biopsy (17 cases) or incision biopsy (5 cases) under GA followed by definitive surgery, thus requiring general anesthesia twice during the management. Conclusion: FNA-cytology can positively affect the surgical management of carcinoma breast. It can be utilized to select the patients for frozen selection examination and can thus spare the patients from additional procedure of excision or incision biopsy under separate anesthesia. It may be adopted as a routine procedure in surgical outpatient. (author)

  1. Elastomeric Nanocomposite Based on Exfoliated Graphene Oxide and Its Characteristics without Vulcanization

    OpenAIRE

    Nasser Abdullah Habib; Buong Woei Chieng; Norkhairunnisa Mazlan; Umer Rashid; Robiah Yunus; Suraya Abdul Rashid

    2017-01-01

    Rubber nanocomposites have emerged as one of the advanced materials in recent years. The aim of this work was to homogeneously disperse graphene oxide (GO) sheets into Nitrile Butadiene Rubber (NBR) and investigate the characteristics of GO/NBR nanocomposite without vulcanization. A suitable solvent was found to dissolve dry NBR while GO was exfoliated completely in an aqueous base solution using sonication. GO was dispersed into NBR at different loadings by solution mixing to produce unvulca...

  2. Economic analysis of human papillomavirus triage, repeat cytology, and immediate colposcopy in management of women with minor cytological abnormalities in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostensson, Ellinor; Fröberg, Maria; Hjerpe, Anders; Zethraeus, Niklas; Andersson, Sonia

    2010-10-01

    To assess the cost-effectiveness of using human papillomavirus testing (HPV triage) in the management of women with minor cytological abnormalities in Sweden. An economic analysis based on a clinical trial, complemented with data from published meta-analyses on accuracy of HPV triage. The study takes perspective of the Swedish healthcare system. The Swedish population-based cervical cancer screening program. A decision analytic model was constructed to evaluate cost-effectiveness of HPV triage compared to repeat cytology and immediate colposcopy with biopsy, stratifying by index cytology (ASCUS = atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance, and LSIL = low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion) and age (23-60 years, cytological abnormalities. Today, immediate colposcopy with biopsy is a cost-effective alternative compared to HPV triage and repeat cytology.

  3. CytometryML: a markup language for analytical cytology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leif, Robert C.; Leif, Stephanie H.; Leif, Suzanne B.

    2003-06-01

    Cytometry Markup Language, CytometryML, is a proposed new analytical cytology data standard. CytometryML is a set of XML schemas for encoding both flow cytometry and digital microscopy text based data types. CytometryML schemas reference both DICOM (Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine) codes and FCS keywords. These schemas provide representations for the keywords in FCS 3.0 and will soon include DICOM microscopic image data. Flow Cytometry Standard (FCS) list-mode has been mapped to the DICOM Waveform Information Object. A preliminary version of a list mode binary data type, which does not presently exist in DICOM, has been designed. This binary type is required to enhance the storage and transmission of flow cytometry and digital microscopy data. Index files based on Waveform indices will be used to rapidly locate the cells present in individual subsets. DICOM has the advantage of employing standard file types, TIF and JPEG, for Digital Microscopy. Using an XML schema based representation means that standard commercial software packages such as Excel and MathCad can be used to analyze, display, and store analytical cytometry data. Furthermore, by providing one standard for both DICOM data and analytical cytology data, it eliminates the need to create and maintain special purpose interfaces for analytical cytology data thereby integrating the data into the larger DICOM and other clinical communities. A draft version of CytometryML is available at www.newportinstruments.com.

  4. Cytological observation of solanum pimpinellifolium l. microspore development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu, H.; Rylosona, J.S.

    2015-01-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is one of the most important horticultural crops worldwide, and has also been adapted as a model plant in a wide range of research disciplines. However, stamen development in tomato is less known than other model species, such as Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa L. (rice). In order to understand tomato flower development in more detail, the key goal of this study was to establish a precise correlation between visual morphological features and cytological events. To this end, we characterized a wild tomato species, S. pimpinellifolium (accession LA1585), to define stamen developmental stages using semi-thin sectioning. Based on distinct stages of flower development, S. pimpinellifolium anther/stamen development was divided into ten stages, and characteristic morphological and cytological features in stamens at each developmental stage were identified. In this way, flower characteristics and microspore development were correlated. In addition, specific cytological key events in S. pimpinellifolium were compared with those in A. thaliana and rice at corresponding stages, as well as with those in domesticated tomato (S. lycopersicum L.), and the differences are discussed. (author)

  5. Update on Molecular Testing for Cytologically Indeterminate Thyroid Nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishino, Michiya; Nikiforova, Marina

    2018-04-01

    - Approximately 15% to 30% of thyroid nodules that undergo fine-needle aspiration are classified as cytologically indeterminate, presenting management challenges for patients and clinicians alike. During the past several years, several molecular tests have been developed to reduce the diagnostic uncertainty of indeterminate thyroid fine-needle aspirations. - To review the methodology, clinical validation, and recent peer-reviewed literature for 4 molecular tests that are currently marketed for cytologically indeterminate thyroid fine-needle aspiration specimens: Afirma, ThyroSeq, ThyGenX/ThyraMIR, and RosettaGX Reveal. - Peer-reviewed literature retrieved from PubMed search, data provided by company websites and representatives, and authors' personal experiences. - The 4 commercially available molecular tests for thyroid cytology offer unique approaches to improve the risk stratification of thyroid nodules. Familiarity with data from the validation studies as well as the emerging literature about test performance in the postvalidation setting can help users to select and interpret these tests in a clinically meaningful way.

  6. Classification of breast cancer cytological specimen using convolutional neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żejmo, Michał; Kowal, Marek; Korbicz, Józef; Monczak, Roman

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents a deep learning approach for automatic classification of breast tumors based on fine needle cytology. The main aim of the system is to distinguish benign from malignant cases based on microscopic images. Experiment was carried out on cytological samples derived from 50 patients (25 benign cases + 25 malignant cases) diagnosed in Regional Hospital in Zielona Góra. To classify microscopic images, we used convolutional neural networks (CNN) of two types: GoogLeNet and AlexNet. Due to the very large size of images of cytological specimen (on average 200000 × 100000 pixels), they were divided into smaller patches of size 256 × 256 pixels. Breast cancer classification usually is based on morphometric features of nuclei. Therefore, training and validation patches were selected using Support Vector Machine (SVM) so that suitable amount of cell material was depicted. Neural classifiers were tuned using GPU accelerated implementation of gradient descent algorithm. Training error was defined as a cross-entropy classification loss. Classification accuracy was defined as the percentage ratio of successfully classified validation patches to the total number of validation patches. The best accuracy rate of 83% was obtained by GoogLeNet model. We observed that more misclassified patches belong to malignant cases.

  7. [Sequential monitoring of renal transplant with aspiration cytology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfro, R C; Gonçalves, L F; de Moura, L A

    1998-01-01

    To evaluate the utility of kidney aspiration cytology in the sequential monitorization of acute rejection in renal transplant patients. Thirty patients were submitted to 376 aspirations. The clinical diagnoses were independently established. The representativity of the samples reached 82.7%. The total corrected increment index and the number of immunoactivated cells were higher during acute rejection as compared to normal allograft function, acute tubular necrosis, and cyclosporine nephrotoxicity. The parameters to the diagnosis of acute rejection were sensitivity: 71.8%, specificity: 87.3%, positive predictive value: 50.9%, negative predictive value: 94.9% and accuracy 84.9%. The false positive results were mainly related to cytomegalovirus infection or to the administration of OKT3. In 10 out of 11 false negative results incipient immunoactivation was present alerting to the possibility of acute rejection. Kidney aspiration cytology is a useful tool for the sequential monitorization of acute rejection in renal transplant patients. The best results are reached when the results of aspiration cytology are analyzed with the clinical data.

  8. Supercritical fluid extraction of bi & multi-layer graphene sheets from graphite by using exfoliation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, Gauravi; Dave, Bhoomi; Khanna, Sakshum

    2018-05-01

    In recent times, researchers have turned to explore the possibility of using Supercritical Fluid (SCFs) system to penetrate into the inert-gaping of graphite and exfoliate it into a number of layer graphene sheets. The supercritical fluid holds excellent wetting surfaces with low interfacial tension and high diffusion coefficients. Although SCFs exfoliation approach looks promising to developed large scale & low-cost graphene sheet but has not received much attention. To arouse interest and reflection on this approach, this review is organized to summarize the recent progress in graphene production by SCF technology. Here we present the simplest route to obtained layers of graphene sheets by intercalating and exfoliating graphite using supercritical CO2 processing. The layers graphene nano-sheets were collected in dichloromethane (DCM) solution which prevents the restocking of sheets. The obtained graphene sheets show the desired characteristics and thus can be used in physical, chemical and biological sciences. Thus this method provides an effortless and eco-friendly approach for the synthesis of layers of graphene sheets.

  9. Environmental Synthesis of Few Layers Graphene Sheets Using Ultrasonic Exfoliation with Enhanced Electrical and Thermal Properties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monir Noroozi

    Full Text Available In this paper, we report how few layers graphene that can be produced in large quantity with low defect ratio from exfoliation of graphite by using a high intensity probe sonication in water containing liquid hand soap and PVP. It was founded that the graphene powder obtained by this simple exfoliation method after the heat treatment had an excellent exfoliation into a single or layered graphene sheets. The UV-visible spectroscopy, FESEM, TEM, X-ray powder diffraction and Raman spectroscopy was used to analyse the graphene product. The thermal diffusivity of the samples was analysed using a highly accurate thermal-wave cavity photothermal technique. The data obtained showed excellent enhancement in the thermal diffusivity of the graphene dispersion. This well-dispersed graphene was then used to fabricate an electrically conductive polymer-graphene film composite. The results demonstrated that this low cost and environmental friendly technique allowed to the production of high quality layered graphene sheets, improved the thermal and electrical properties. This may find use in the wide range of applications based on graphene.

  10. Paper Electrodes Coated with Partially-Exfoliated Graphite and Polypyrrole for High-Performance Flexible Supercapacitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leping Huang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Flexible paper electrodes for supercapacitors were prepared with partially-exfoliated graphite and polypyrrole as the active materials. Graphite was coated on paper with pencil drawing and then electrochemically exfoliated using the cyclic voltammetry (CV technique to obtain the exfoliated graphite (EG-coated paper (EG-paper. Polypyrrole (PPy doped with β-naphthalene sulfonate anions was deposited on EG-paper through in-situ polymerization, leading to the formation of PPy-EG-paper. The as-prepared PPy-EG-paper showed a high electrical conductivity of 10.0 S·cm−1 and could be directly used as supercapacitor electrodes. The PPy-EG-paper electrodes gave a remarkably larger specific capacitance of 2148 F∙g−1 at a current density of 0.8 mA∙cm−2, compared to PPy-graphite-paper (848 F∙g−1. The capacitance value of PPy-EG-paper could be preserved by 80.4% after 1000 charge/discharge cycles. In addition, the PPy-EG-paper electrodes demonstrated a good rate capability and a high energy density of 110.3 Wh∙kg−1 at a power density of 121.9 W∙kg−1. This work will pave the way for the discovery of efficient paper-based electrode materials.

  11. Exfoliated graphite/titanium dioxide nanocomposites for photodegradation of eosin yellow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ndlovu, Thabile, E-mail: atkuvarega@gmail.com [University of Swaziland, Department of Chemistry, Private Bag 4, Kwaluseni (Swaziland); Kuvarega, Alex T.; Arotiba, Omotayo A. [University of Johannesburg, Department of Applied Chemistry, P.O. Box 17011, Doornfontein 2028, Johannesburg (South Africa); Sampath, Srinivasan [Indian Institute of Science, Department of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Bangalore 560012 (India); Krause, Rui W. [Rhodes University, Department of Chemistry, P.O. Box 94, Grahamstown 6140 South Africa (South Africa); Mamba, Bhekie B., E-mail: bmamba@uj.ac.za [University of Johannesburg, Department of Applied Chemistry, P.O. Box 17011, Doornfontein 2028, Johannesburg (South Africa)

    2014-05-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Preparation of exfoliated graphite (EG) from natural graphite. • Sol–gel anchoring of TiO{sub 2} on exfoliated graphite. • High adsorption and photoactivity was observed for the EG-TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite. • Mechanism of enhancement was proposed. - Abstract: An improved photocatalyst consisting of a nanocomposite of exfoliated graphite and titanium dioxide (EG-TiO{sub 2}) was prepared. SEM and TEM micrographs showed that the spherical TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles were evenly distributed on the surface of the EG sheets. A four times photocatalytic enhancement was observed for this floating nanocomposite compared to TiO{sub 2} and EG alone for the degradation of eosin yellow. For all the materials, the reactions followed first order kinetics where for EG-TiO{sub 2}, the rate constant was much higher than for EG and TiO{sub 2} under visible light irradiation. The enhanced photocatalytic activity of EG-TiO{sub 2} was ascribed to the capability of graphitic layers to accept and transport electrons from the excited TiO{sub 2}, promoting charge separation. This indicates that carbon, a cheap and abundant material, can be a good candidate as an electron attracting reservoir for photocatalytic organic pollutant degradation.

  12. Swelling, intercalation, and exfoliation behavior of layered ruthenate derived from layered potassium ruthenate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, Katsutoshi; Kato, Hisato; Sato, Jun; Sugimoto, Wataru; Takasu, Yoshio

    2009-01-01

    The intercalation chemistry of a layered protonic ruthenate, H 0.2 RuO 2.1 .nH 2 O, derived from a layered potassium ruthenate was studied in detail. Three phases with different hydration states were isolated, H 0.2 RuO 2.1 .nH 2 O (n=∼0, 0.5, 0.9), and its reactivity with tetrabutylammonium ions (TBA + ) was considered. The layered protonic ruthenate mono-hydrate readily reacted with TBA + , affording direct intercalation of bulky tetrabutylammonium ions into the interlayer gallery. Fine-tuning the reaction conditions allowed exfoliation of the layered ruthenate into elementary nanosheets and thereby a simplified one-step exfoliation was achieved. Microscopic observation by atomic force microscopy and transmission electron microscopy clearly showed the formation of unilamellar sheets with very high two-dimensional anisotropy, a thickness of only 1.3±0.1 nm. The nanosheets were characterized by two-dimensional crystallites with the oblique cell of a=0.5610(8) nm, b=0.5121(6) nm and γ=109.4(2) o on the basis of in-plane diffraction analysis. - Graphical abstract: Layered protonic ruthenate derived from a potassium form was directly reacted with bulky tetrabutylammonium ions to trigger exfoliation into nanosheets as long as it is highly hydrated.

  13. Chemical exfoliation and optical characterization of threading-dislocation-free gallium-nitride ultrathin nanomembranes

    KAUST Repository

    Elafandy, Rami T.

    2014-11-13

    Semiconductor nanostructures have generated tremendous scientific interests as well as practical applications stemming from the engineering of low dimensional physics phenomena. Unlike 0D and 1D nanostructures, such as quantum dots and nanowires, respectively, 2D structures, such as nanomembranes, are unrivalled in their scalability for high yield manufacture and are less challenging in handling with the current transfer techniques. Furthermore, due to their planar geometry, nanomembranes are compatible with the current complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology. Due to these superior characteristics, there are currently different techniques in exfoliating nanomembranes with different crystallinities, thicknesses and compositions. In this work we demonstrate a new facile technique of exfoliating gallium nitride (GaN) nanomembranes with novel features, namely with the non-radiative cores of their threading-dislocations (TDs) being etched away. The exfoliation process is based on engineering the gallium vacancy (VGa) density during the GaN epitaxial growth with subsequent preferential etching. Based on scanning and transmission electron microscopies, as well as micro-photoluminescence measurements, a model is proposed to uncover the physical processes underlying the formation of the nanomembranes. Raman measurements are also performed to reveal the internal strain within the nanomembranes. After transferring these freely suspended 25 nm thin GaN nanomembranes to other substrates, we demonstrate the temperature dependence of their bandgap by photoluminescence technique, in order to shed light on the internal carrier dynamics. © (2014) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.

  14. Black tea assisted exfoliation using a kitchen mixer allowing one-step production of graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Zulhelmi; Farhana Abu Kassim, Nurul; Hannifa Abdullah, Abu; Sakinah Zainal Abidin, Anis; Sameha Ismail, Fadwa; Yusoh, Kamal

    2017-07-01

    A kitchen mixer is one of the possible tools for the exfoliation of graphene. While organic solvents such as NMP or DMF are suitable for the exfoliation of graphite, the majority are toxic and dangerously harmful when exposed to humans and the environment. Therefore, an alternative solvent must be proposed for green and sustainable production of graphene. In this initial work, we have developed a new synthesis method for graphene through the direct exfoliation of graphite in commercial black tea. We found that our maximum yield concentration of graphene is Y  =  0.032 mg ml-l after 15 min of mixing. From the data of Raman, the level of defects in our produced graphene is suggested as being very minor (I D/I G  =  0.17), despite possible graphene functionalization by oxygen groups in tea. Incorporation of our graphene into PMMA results in shifting the onset temperature from 300 °C to 326 °C, which impressively validates the potential of the produced graphene as a thermal reinforcement material for polymer composites.

  15. Exfoliation of graphene with an industrial dye: teaching an old dog new tricks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlierf, Andrea; Cha, Kitty; Schwab, Matthias Georg; Samorı, Paolo; Palermo, Vincenzo

    2014-12-01

    We describe the exfoliation, processing and inclusion in polymer composites of few-layers graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) by using the molecule indanthrone blue sulphonic acid sodium salt (IBS), a very common industrial dyestuff and intermediate for liquid crystal preparation. We show how IBS can be used to successfully exfoliate graphite into few-layers graphene yielding highly stable dispersions in water. To demonstrate that the method is suitable for applications in composites, these graphene-organic hybrids are processed into a commercial commodity polymer (polyvinyl alcohol, PVA), enhancing its electrical bulk conductivity by ten orders of magnitude by adding as few as 3% of GNP. We attribute the good performance of IBS in dispersing GNPs in water to its amphiphilic nature and the tendency to self-assemble through π-π interaction of its large aromatic core with the graphene surface. The molecule studied here, unlike many specialty organic surfactants or solvents commonly known to exfoliate graphene, is already used as a blue pigment dispersant additive in the industrial production of polymers and thus does not need to be removed from the final product.

  16. Exfoliation of graphite into graphene in aqueous solutions of inorganic salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvez, Khaled; Wu, Zhong-Shuai; Li, Rongjin; Liu, Xianjie; Graf, Robert; Feng, Xinliang; Müllen, Klaus

    2014-04-23

    Mass production of high-quality graphene sheets is essential for their practical application in electronics, optoelectronics, composite materials, and energy-storage devices. Here we report a prompt electrochemical exfoliation of graphene sheets into aqueous solutions of different inorganic salts ((NH4)2SO4, Na2SO4, K2SO4, etc.). Exfoliation in these electrolytes leads to graphene with a high yield (>85%, ≤3 layers), large lateral size (up to 44 μm), low oxidation degree (a C/O ratio of 17.2), and a remarkable hole mobility of 310 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1). Further, highly conductive graphene films (11 Ω sq(-1)) are readily fabricated on an A4-size paper by applying brush painting of a concentrated graphene ink (10 mg mL(-1), in N,N'-dimethylformamide). All-solid-state flexible supercapacitors manufactured on the basis of such graphene films deliver a high area capacitance of 11.3 mF cm(-2) and an excellent rate capability of 5000 mV s(-1). The described electrochemical exfoliation shows great promise for the industrial-scale synthesis of high-quality graphene for numerous advanced applications.

  17. Exfoliated graphite/titanium dioxide nanocomposites for photodegradation of eosin yellow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ndlovu, Thabile; Kuvarega, Alex T.; Arotiba, Omotayo A.; Sampath, Srinivasan; Krause, Rui W.; Mamba, Bhekie B.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Preparation of exfoliated graphite (EG) from natural graphite. • Sol–gel anchoring of TiO 2 on exfoliated graphite. • High adsorption and photoactivity was observed for the EG-TiO 2 nanocomposite. • Mechanism of enhancement was proposed. - Abstract: An improved photocatalyst consisting of a nanocomposite of exfoliated graphite and titanium dioxide (EG-TiO 2 ) was prepared. SEM and TEM micrographs showed that the spherical TiO 2 nanoparticles were evenly distributed on the surface of the EG sheets. A four times photocatalytic enhancement was observed for this floating nanocomposite compared to TiO 2 and EG alone for the degradation of eosin yellow. For all the materials, the reactions followed first order kinetics where for EG-TiO 2 , the rate constant was much higher than for EG and TiO 2 under visible light irradiation. The enhanced photocatalytic activity of EG-TiO 2 was ascribed to the capability of graphitic layers to accept and transport electrons from the excited TiO 2 , promoting charge separation. This indicates that carbon, a cheap and abundant material, can be a good candidate as an electron attracting reservoir for photocatalytic organic pollutant degradation

  18. Exfoliation of graphene with an industrial dye: teaching an old dog new tricks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlierf, Andrea; Palermo, Vincenzo; Cha, Kitty; Georg Schwab, Matthias; Samorı, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    We describe the exfoliation, processing and inclusion in polymer composites of few-layers graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) by using the molecule indanthrone blue sulphonic acid sodium salt (IBS), a very common industrial dyestuff and intermediate for liquid crystal preparation. We show how IBS can be used to successfully exfoliate graphite into few-layers graphene yielding highly stable dispersions in water. To demonstrate that the method is suitable for applications in composites, these graphene-organic hybrids are processed into a commercial commodity polymer (polyvinyl alcohol, PVA), enhancing its electrical bulk conductivity by ten orders of magnitude by adding as few as 3% of GNP. We attribute the good performance of IBS in dispersing GNPs in water to its amphiphilic nature and the tendency to self-assemble through π–π interaction of its large aromatic core with the graphene surface. The molecule studied here, unlike many specialty organic surfactants or solvents commonly known to exfoliate graphene, is already used as a blue pigment dispersant additive in the industrial production of polymers and thus does not need to be removed from the final product. (paper)

  19. Some cytologic aspects of ionizing radaiation and electron treatment effect of potatoes tubers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Totadze, L.Eh.; Svanidze, S.S.

    1982-01-01

    Effect of ionizing radiation and electron treatment on the microstructure of potatoe tubers of the Majestic sort has been studied. The potatoe is subjected to alternating current and Co 60 gamma-radiation treatment (with the doses 5000 rad, 10000, 15000, 20000, 25000 and 30000 rad). A supposition is made that the pass of alternating current at the voltage of 60 V, current intensity 1 mA and the exposure of 5 min through potatoe tuber causes certain cytoplasmatic changes in somatic cells manifested in the increase of tuber rest period. During potatoe tuber treatment with Co 60 γ-radiation a direct correlation between irradiation doses and degradation of somatic cells is observed

  20. Newly developed liquid-based cytology. TACAS™: cytological appearance and HPV testing using liquid-based sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubushiro, Kaneyuki; Taoka, Hideki; Sakurai, Nobuyuki; Yamamoto, Yasuhiro; Kurasaki, Akiko; Asakawa, Yasuyuki; Iwahara, Minoru; Takahashi, Kei

    2011-09-01

    Cell profiles determined by the thin-layer advanced cytology assay system (TACAS™), a liquid-based cytology technique newly developed in Japan, were analyzed in this study. Hybrid capture 2 (HC-2) was also performed using the liquid-based samples prepared by TACAS to ascertain its ability to detect human papillomavirus (HPV). Cell collection samples from uterine cervix were obtained from 359 patients and examined cytologically. A HC-2 assay for HPV was carried out in the cell specimens. All specimens were found to show background factors such as leukocytes. After excluding the 5 unsatisfactory cases from the total 354 cases, 82 cases (23.2%) were positive and 272 cases (76.8%) were negative for HPV. Cell specimens from 30 HPV-positive cases and 166 HPV-negative cases were subjected to 4 weeks of preservation at room temperature. Then, when subsequently re-assayed, 28 cases (93.3%) in the former group were found to be HPV positive and 164 cases (98.8%) in the latter group were found to be HPV negative. These results supported the excellent reproducibility of TACAS for HPV testing. A reasonable inference from the foregoing analysis is that TACAS may be distinguished from other liquid-based cytological approaches, such as ThinPrep and SurePath, in that it can retain the cell backgrounds. Furthermore, this study raises the possibility that cell specimens prepared using TACAS could be preserved for at least 4 weeks prior to carrying out a HC-2 assay for HPV.

  1. Assessment of the Utility of Cytology and Flow Cytometry of Cerebrospinal Fluid Samples in Clinical Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Anna S; Giorgadze, Tamara; Tam, Wayne; Chadburn, Amy

    2018-01-01

    We sought to assess the utility and limitations of both flow cytometry (FC) and cytology for the analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in a practical clinical setting. A total of 393 consecutive CSF samples from 171 patients submitted for both cytomorphologic and FC assessments were analyzed. Both FC and cytology findings were negative for malignancy in 315/393 samples (80%), and either positive (POS) or suspicious/atypical (SUSP/AT) in 7% of samples. This resulted in high agreement between FC and cytology (87%). Minor discrepancies were present in 4% of the cases. In 28 samples, an abnormal population was detected by FC but not by cytology. FC and cytology are important complementary methods for analyzing CSF samples. In cases where cytology is SUSP/AT and FC is inconclusive or negative, additional specimens should be submitted for immunostaining, cytogenetics, and/or molecular studies. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Impact of technology on cytology outcome in cervical cancer screening of young and older women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, J; Lynge, E; Franzmann, M

    2014-01-01

    in a third laboratory using manually read conventional cytology continually. Data were collected from the Danish National Health Care Registers. For each laboratory, we compared proportions of abnormal cytology defined as atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance or worse (ASCUS+) by age......Little is known about age-dependent variation in outcomes of cervical cytology with modern technologies. This population-based study evaluated age-dependent changes after routine implementation of ThinPrep and SurePath technology in two independent laboratories, and controlled for time trends...... and technology phase. The study included 489,960 cytological samples with no recent abnormality from women aged 23-59 years, routinely screened between 1998 and 2007. Implementation of SurePath liquid-based cytology (LBC) was followed by an increase in abnormal cytology in women aged 23-29 years from 4.6 to 6...

  3. Ionic Liquid-Modified Thermosets and Their Nanocomposites: Dispersion, Exfoliation, Degradation, and Cure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Throckmorton, James A.

    This dissertation explores the application of a room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) to problems in the chemistry, processing, and modification of thermosetting polymers. In particular, the solution properties and reaction chemistry of 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium dicyanamide (EMIM-DCN) are applied to problems of nanoparticle dispersion and processing, graphite exfoliation, cyanate ester (CE) cure, and the environmental degradation of CEs. Nanoparticle Dispersion: Nanocomposite processing can be simplified by using the same compound as both a nanoparticle solvent and an initiator for polymerization. This dual-function molecule can be designed both for solvent potential and reaction chemistry. EMIM-DCN, previously shown by our lab to act as an epoxy initiator, is used in the synthesis of silica and acid expanded graphite composites. These composites are then characterized for particle dispersion and physical properties. Individual particle dispersion of silica nanocomposites is shown, and silica nanocomposites at low loading show individual particle dispersion and improved modulus and fracture toughness. GNP nanocomposites show a 70% increase in modulus along with a 10-order of magnitude increase in electrical conductivity at 6.5 vol%, and an electrical percolation threshold of 1.7 vol%. Direct Graphite Exfoliation By Laminar Shear: This work presents a laminar-shear alternative to chemical processing and chaotic flow-fields for the direct exfoliation of graphite and the single-pot preparation of nanocomposites. Additionally, we develop the theory of laminar flow through a 3-roll mill, and apply that theory to the latest developments in the theory of graphite interlayer shear. The resulting nanocomposite shows low electrical percolation (0.5 vol%) and low thickness (1-3 layer) graphite/graphene flakes. Additionally, the effect of processing conditions by rheometry and comparison with solvent-free conditions reveal the interactions between processing and matrix

  4. Indication and Usefulness of Bile Juice Cytology for Diagnosis of Gallbladder Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Itsuki

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. We examined the effectiveness of bile juice cytology for distinguishing between benign and malignant gallbladder lesions of the protruding type with various sampling points, sampling methods, and macroscopic forms in order to discuss the effectiveness of the endoscopic transpapillary gallbladder drainage (ETGD cytology. Methods. We studied 162 cases of patients with a lesion localized within the gallbladder. At first, we examined the effectiveness for diagnosis of ETBD cytology using ERC and then that of the first ETGD cytology after placing the ETGD. Next, we examined the diagnostic effectiveness of the washed ETGD cytology by using the ETGD. Finally, we examined complications. Results. In the final diagnoses, we identified 33 cases of adenocarcinoma, 10 cases of adenoma, 63 cases of ADM, 35 cases of nonneoplastic polyp, and 21 cases of chronic cholecystitis. It was found that the sensitivity of ETBD cytology was 3.6% and that of ETGD cytology was 59.1%. In the comparison of diagnostic effectiveness of cytologic diagnosis using samples of bile juice from the gallbladder collected by different methods, the sensitivities were 38.9% and 73.3% for the first and washed ETGD cytologies, respectively. In the comparison of the diagnostic effectiveness of gallbladder bile juice cytology using samples collected for different forms of lesion and by different methods, the sensitivities were 38.9% and 73.3%, respectively, for the first and washed ETGD cytologies for flat gallbladder wall thickening, while it was impossible to diagnose for lesions of GB polyp. Conclusion. For diagnosis of gallbladder cancer, we consider that the ETGD cytology should be taken into consideration for lesions of flat gallbladder wall thickening, for which it is difficult to distinguish between benign and malignant lesions.

  5. The combined application of radiology, nuclear medicine and fine needle aspiration biopsy cytology (FNAB)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardozo, P.L.; Ruis, I.A.M.

    1980-01-01

    The combination of diagnostic cytology and diagnostic radiology, including intervention radiology, is a logical one. Radiology can visualize lesions which cannot be found otherwise and under its guidance cytology can obtain a direct and usually diagnostic proof of the true nature of the process with minimal inconvenience and risk for the patient. A survey of the combination of cytology and radiological procedures in the diagnosis work-up is outlined. (Auth.)

  6. The diagnostic significance of endoscopic cytology in evaluating pancreatic and biliary lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Nilüfer ONAK KANDEMİR; Banu DOĞAN GÜN; Sibel BEKTAŞ; Figen BARUT1; Burak BAHADIR; Gamze YURDAKAN; Şükrü Oğuz ÖZDAMAR; Gamze MOCAN KUZEY

    2007-01-01

    Cytology is a widely performed technique in evaluating biliary and pancreatic ductal lesions. The contribution of cytological methods to the diagnosis of the disorders causing biliary stricture, and biopsy diagnoses of the cases were evaluated together with clinical follow-up outcomes and the results presented in this study.From January 2005 to December 2006, in Zonguldak Karaelmas University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Gastroenterology, 20 biliary endoscopic brush cytology and 2 exfo...

  7. Informed cytology for triaging HPV-positive women: substudy nested in the NTCC randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Christine; Giorgi-Rossi, Paolo; Cas, Frederic; Schiboni, Maria Luisa; Ghiringhello, Bruno; Dalla Palma, Paolo; Minucci, Daria; Rosso, Stefano; Zorzi, Manuel; Naldoni, Carlo; Segnan, Nereo; Confortini, Massimo; Ronco, Guglielmo

    2015-02-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV)-based screening needs triage. In most randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on HPV testing with cytological triage, cytology interpretation has been blind to HPV status. Women age 25 to 60 years enrolled in the New Technology in Cervical Cancer (NTCC) RCT comparing HPV testing with cytology were referred to colposcopy if HPV positive and, if no cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) was detected, followed up until HPV negativity. Cytological slides taken at the first colposcopy were retrieved and independently interpreted by an external laboratory, which was only aware of patients' HPV positivity. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive (PPV) and negative (NPV) predictive values were computed for histologically proven CIN2+ with HPV status-informed cytology for women with a determination of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) or more severe. All statistical tests were two-sided. Among HPV-positive women, informed cytology had cross-sectional sensitivity, specificity, PPV and 1-NPV for CIN2+ of 85.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 76.6 to 92.1), 65.9% (95% CI = 63.1 to 68.6), 16.2% (95% CI = 13.0 to 19.8), and 1.7 (95% CI = 0.9 to 2.8), respectively. Cytology was also associated with subsequent risk of newly diagnosed CIN2+ and CIN3+. The cross-sectional relative sensitivity for CIN2+ vs blind cytology obtained by referring to colposcopy and following up only HPV positive women who had HPV status-informed cytology greater than or equal to ASCUS was 1.58 (95% CI = 1.22 to 2.01), while the corresponding relative referral to colposcopy was 0.95 (95% CI = 0.86 to 1.04). Cytology informed of HPV positivity is more sensitive than blind cytology and could allow longer intervals before retesting HPV-positive, cytology-negative women. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  8. Role of imprint cytology in intra operative diagnosis of thyroid lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anila, K R; Krishna, G

    2014-07-01

    Intra-operative imprint cytology is an important diagnostic modality in the diagnosis of thyroid lesions. A correct intra-operative diagnosis helps eliminate the need for second surgery. To study diagnostic accuracy of imprint cytology and to compare the imprint cytology results with that of the corresponding paraffin section diagnosis in thyroidectomy cases. This is a prospective study of 84 patients who have undergone thyroidectomies over a period of one year at the Department of Surgery, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India. The intraoperative imprint cytology smears were stained by Papanicolaou method. The imprint cytology interpretation was later compared with the paraffin section diagnosis. Of the 84 patients using haematoxylin and eosin stained histopathology sections as the gold standard, the diagnostic sensitivity of imprint cytology was 75% and specificity was 100%. Positive predictive value was 100%. Negative predictive value was 98.74%. Imprint cytology has high sensitivity and specificity in diagnosing lesions of the thyroid. The problems faced were in diagnosing follicular carcinomas and differentiating low grade lymphoma from lymphocytic thyroiditis. Imprint cytology is a simple, reliable diagnostic technique. It has high sensitivity and specificity in intra-operative diagnosis of lesions of thyroid. In spite of the advent of newer diagnostic modalities like frozen sections, imprint cytology still holds its unique position in the current perspective.

  9. Keratosis reduces sensitivity of anal cytology in detecting anal intraepithelial neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElNaggar, Adam C; Santoso, Joseph T; Xie, Huiwen Bill

    2012-02-01

    To identify factors that may contribute to poor sensitivity of anal cytology in contrast to the sensitivity of anoscopy in heterosexual women. We analyzed 324 patients with biopsy confirmed diagnosis of genital intraepithelial neoplasia (either vulva, vaginal, or cervical) from 2006 to 2011 who underwent both anal cytology and anoscopy. Cytology, anoscopy, and biopsy results were recorded. Biopsy specimens underwent independent analysis for quality of specimen. Also, biopsy specimens were analyzed for characteristics that may contribute to correlation, or lack thereof, between anal cytology and anoscopic directed biopsy. 133 (41%) patients had abnormal anoscopy and underwent directed biopsy. 120 patients with normal anal cytology had anoscopy directed biopsies, resulting in 58 cases of AIN (sensitivity 9.4%; 0.039-0.199). This cohort was noted to have extensive keratosis covering the entire dysplastic anal lesion. 18 patients yielded abnormal anal cytology. Of these patients, 13 had anoscopic directed biopsies revealing 6 with AIN and absent keratosis (specificity 88.6%; 0.78-0.95). The κ statistic for anal cytology and anoscopy was -0.0213 (95% CI=-0.128-0.086). Keratosis reduces the sensitivity of anal cytology. Furthermore, anal cytology poorly correlates with anoscopy in the detection of AIN (κ statistic=-0.0213). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Ultrasonography-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology of Cervical Lymphadenopathy: Comparative Study of the Cytological Adequacy Using of 21- and 23- Gauge Needles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beak, Jin Wook; KIm, Dong Wook; Kim, Bo Mi

    2011-01-01

    To assess the difference in the cytological adequacy of ultrasonography (US)-guided fine needle aspiration cytology (US-FNAC) for cervical lymphadenopathy using 21 and 23 gauge needles. US-FNACs were separately performed on two cervical lymph nodes and in each patient using 21 gauge (group A) and 23 gauge (group B) needles, respectively. We used 4 grade classifications for the cytological analysis of each slide and compared the cytological adequacy of US-FNAC for cervical lymphadenopathy in the two groups. We performed US-FNACs on 58 cervical lymph nodes from 29 patients, with a cytological adequacy of 69.0%. The number of adequate cytological results was 19 (65.5%) in group A and 21 (72.4%) in group B, and the diagnostic adequacy did not differ significantly between the two groups (Mann-Whitney test, p = 0.574). There was no statistically significant difference in the cytological adequacy of US-FNAC for cervical lymphadenopathy according using of 21 and 23 gauge needles.

  11. Differentiating between endocervical glandular neoplasia and high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions in endocervical crypts: cytological features in ThinPrep and SurePath cervical cytology samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiryayi, Sakinah A; Marshall, Janet; Rana, Durgesh N

    2009-05-01

    A recent audit at our institution revealed a higher number of cases diagnosed as endocervical glandular neoplasia on ThinPrep (TP) cervical cytology samples (9 cases) as opposed to SurePath (SP) (1 case), which on histology showed only high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) with endocervical crypt involvement (CI). We attempted to ascertain the reasons for this finding by reviewing the available slides of these cases, as well as slides of cases diagnosed as glandular neoplasia on cytology and histology; cases diagnosed as high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) on cytology which had CIN with CI on histology and cases with mixed glandular and squamous abnormalities diagnosed both cytologically and histologically. Single neoplastic glandular cells and short pseudostratified strips were more prevalent in SP than TP with the cell clusters in glandular neoplasia 3-4 cells thick, in contrast to the dense crowded centre of cell groups in HSIL with CI. The cells at the periphery of groups can be misleading. Cases with HSIL and glandular neoplasia have a combination of the features of each entity in isolation. The diagnosis of glandular neoplasia remains challenging and conversion from conventional to liquid based cervical cytology requires a period of learning and adaptation, which can be facilitated by local audit and review of the cytology slides in cases with a cytology-histology mismatch. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Hashimoto thyroiditis is more frequent than expected when diagnosed by cytology which uncovers a pre-clinical state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staii Anca

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our Thyroid-Multidisciplinary Clinic is a large referral site for thyroid diseases. Thyroid biopsies are mainly performed for thyroid cancer screening. Yet, Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT is being too frequently diagnosed. The prevalence of HT is reported as 0.3-1.2% or twice the prevalence of type 1 diabetes. However, the prevalence of HT confirmed by cytology is still uncertain. To evaluate different aspects of thyroid physiopathology including prevalence of Hashimoto's, a database of clinical features, ultrasound images and cytology results of patients referred for FNA of thyroid nodules was prospectively developed. Methods We retrospectively studied 811 consecutive patients for whom ultrasound guided thyroid FNA biopsies were performed at our clinic over 2.5 year period (Mar/2006-Sep/2008. Results The analysis of our database revealed that from 761 patients, 102 (13.4% had HT, from whom 56 (7.4% were euthyroid or had sub-clinical (non-hypothyroid disease, and 46 (6% were clinically hypothyroid. Conclusions This is the first study to show such a high prevalence of HT diagnosed by ultrasound-guided FNA. More strikingly, the prevalence of euthyroid HT, appears to be >5% similar to that of type 2 diabetes. Based on our results, there might be a need to follow up on cytological Hashimoto's to monitor for thyroid failure, especially in high risk states, like pregnancy. The potential risk for thyroid cancer in patients with biopsy-proven inflammation of thyroid epithelium remains to be established prospectively. However, it may explain the increased risk for thyroid cancer observed in patients with elevated but within normal TSH.

  13. Hashimoto thyroiditis is more frequent than expected when diagnosed by cytology which uncovers a pre-clinical state

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Our Thyroid-Multidisciplinary Clinic is a large referral site for thyroid diseases. Thyroid biopsies are mainly performed for thyroid cancer screening. Yet, Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT) is being too frequently diagnosed. The prevalence of HT is reported as 0.3-1.2% or twice the prevalence of type 1 diabetes. However, the prevalence of HT confirmed by cytology is still uncertain. To evaluate different aspects of thyroid physiopathology including prevalence of Hashimoto's, a database of clinical features, ultrasound images and cytology results of patients referred for FNA of thyroid nodules was prospectively developed. Methods We retrospectively studied 811 consecutive patients for whom ultrasound guided thyroid FNA biopsies were performed at our clinic over 2.5 year period (Mar/2006-Sep/2008). Results The analysis of our database revealed that from 761 patients, 102 (13.4%) had HT, from whom 56 (7.4%) were euthyroid or had sub-clinical (non-hypothyroid) disease, and 46 (6%) were clinically hypothyroid. Conclusions This is the first study to show such a high prevalence of HT diagnosed by ultrasound-guided FNA. More strikingly, the prevalence of euthyroid HT, appears to be >5% similar to that of type 2 diabetes. Based on our results, there might be a need to follow up on cytological Hashimoto's to monitor for thyroid failure, especially in high risk states, like pregnancy. The potential risk for thyroid cancer in patients with biopsy-proven inflammation of thyroid epithelium remains to be established prospectively. However, it may explain the increased risk for thyroid cancer observed in patients with elevated but within normal TSH. PMID:21172028

  14. Preparation of Graphene Sheets by Electrochemical Exfoliation of Graphite in Confined Space and Their Application in Transparent Conductive Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Wei, Can; Zhu, Kaiyi; Zhang, Yu; Gong, Chunhong; Guo, Jianhui; Zhang, Jiwei; Yu, Laigui; Zhang, Jingwei

    2017-10-04

    A novel electrochemical exfoliation mode was established to prepare graphene sheets efficiently with potential applications in transparent conductive films. The graphite electrode was coated with paraffin to keep the electrochemical exfoliation in confined space in the presence of concentrated sodium hydroxide as the electrolyte, yielding ∼100% low-defect (the D band to G band intensity ratio, I D /I G = 0.26) graphene sheets. Furthermore, ozone was first detected with ozone test strips, and the effect of ozone on the exfoliation of graphite foil and the microstructure of the as-prepared graphene sheets was investigated. Findings indicate that upon applying a low voltage (3 V) on the graphite foil partially coated with paraffin wax that the coating can prevent the insufficiently intercalated graphite sheets from prematurely peeling off from the graphite electrode thereby affording few-layer (graphene sheets in a yield of as much as 60%. Besides, the ozone generated during the electrochemical exfoliation process plays a crucial role in the exfoliation of graphite, and the amount of defect in the as-prepared graphene sheets is dependent on electrolytic potential and electrode distance. Moreover, the graphene-based transparent conductive films prepared by simple modified vacuum filtration exhibit an excellent transparency and a low sheet resistance after being treated with NH 4 NO 3 and annealing (∼1.21 kΩ/□ at ∼72.4% transmittance).

  15. Design of amine modified polymer dispersants for liquid-phase exfoliation of transition metal dichalcogenide nanosheets and their photodetective nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jinseong; Hahnkee Kim, Richard; Yu, Seunggun; Babu Velusamy, Dhinesh; Lee, Hyeokjung; Park, Chanho; Cho, Suk Man; Jeong, Beomjin; Sol Kang, Han; Park, Cheolmin

    2017-12-01

    Liquid-phase exfoliation (LPE) of transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) nanosheets is a facile, cost-effective approach to large-area photoelectric devices including photodetectors and non-volatile memories. Non-destructive exfoliation of nanosheets using macromolecular dispersing agents is beneficial in rendering the TMD nanocomposite films suitable for mechanically flexible devices. Here, an efficient LPE of molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) with an amine modified poly(styrene-co-maleic anhydride) co-polymer (AM-PSMA) is demonstrated, wherein the maleic anhydrides were converted into maleic imides with primary amines using N-Boc-(CH2) n -NH2. The exfoliation of nanosheets was facilitated through Lewis acid-base interaction between the primary amine and transition metal. The results demonstrate that the exfoliation depends upon both the fraction of primary amines in the polymer chain and their distance from the polymer backbone. Under optimized conditions of primary amine content and its distance from the backbone, AM-PSMA gave rise to a highly concentrated MoS2 nanosheet suspension that was stable for over 10 d. Exfoliation of several other TMDs was also achieved using the optimized AM-PSMA, indicating the scope of AM-PSMA applications. Furthermore, a flexible composite film of AM-PSMA and MoS2 nanosheets fabricated by vacuum-assisted filtration showed excellent photoconductive performances including a high I on/I off ratio of 102 and a fast photocurrent switching of 300 ms.

  16. The management of women with abnormal cervical cytology in pregnancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Flannelly, Grainne

    2010-02-01

    The management of women with abnormal cytology in pregnancy represents both a diagnostic and a therapeutic challenge for colposcopists. The emphasis should be on diagnosis and confirmation of cervical precancer (Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) or Adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS), thus excluding invasive cancer). Following an initial assessment, careful follow-up is essential. This must include colposcopy and take into account the physiological changes of the cervix during pregnancy and the puerperium. The management of women with invasive cancer diagnosed during pregnancy depends on the gestation at diagnosis and requires careful assessment and multidisciplinary planning.

  17. Role of cytology in early diagnosis of cerebrotendinous xanthomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shreosee Roy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis is a rare autosomal recessive lipid storage disease characterized by widespread tissue deposition of two neutral sterols, cholestenol and cholesterol, resulting in tendinous xanthomas, juvenile cataracts, progressive neurological defects, and premature death from arteriosclerosis. Because it is a treatable cause of cerebellar ataxia and dementia, its early diagnosis is desirable. Here, we have reported the case of an 11-year-old boy with this disorder who was diagnosed based on the cytological findings of fine needle aspiration and clinical features.

  18. Lymph nodes cytology in HIV seropositive cases with haematological alterations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelima Tirumalasetti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Lymphadenopathy and haematological alterations are the earliest manifestations with other associated opportunistic infections and malignancies. Hence, there is a need for simple investigations like fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC for evaluation of HIV lymphadenopathy and a haemogram to interpret the haematological alterations. This study was undertaken to analyze the cytological patterns of lymph node lesions in HIV/AIDS patients, to compare with available clinico-pathological and haematological parameters to segregate lymphadenopathy cases for further evaluation. Methods: In the present study, 129 HIV seropositive patients were included. Lymph node aspirates were stained routinely with hematoxylin and eosin and Ziehl-Neelsen (Z-N stains. Special stains and cultures were done in selected patients. Peripheral smears were taken from all the patients and CD4 counts were recorded. Tuberculous lymphadenitis was further categorized. Acid fast bacilli (AFB grading was done on Z-N positive smears. Each lesion was compared with CD4 counts, WHO clinical staging and haematological picture. Results: Cytological diagnosis in 129 patients included tuberculous (n=54, 41.9%, reactive lymphadenopathy (n=46, 35.6%, suppurative (n=16, 12.4% lymphadenitis, non-Hodgkin′s lymphoma (n=4, 3.1%, and Hodgkin′s lymphoma, secondary deposits, other granulomatous lesions, and cryptoccocal lymphadenitis in one patient each. The predominant cytomorphological pattern in tuberculous lymphadenitis was caseous necrosis + epithelioid granuloma formation (51.85%. Grade 2+ Z-N grading was noted in 62.96 per cent of AFB positive smears. CD4 counts showed a descending pattern with progression of WHO clinical staging. Cytopenia was more common in WHO clinical stage IV disease. Interpretation & conclusions: Lymph node cytology was found to be a useful tool for segregating lymphadenopathy cases for further evaluation and for identification of

  19. Organization aspect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grefen, P.W.P.J.; Mehandjiev, N.; Mehandjiev, N.; Grefen, P.W.P.J.

    2010-01-01

    Following the BOAT framework discussed in Chapter 1, this chapter describes the organization aspect of the CrossWork approach. It shows how the business requirements identified in the previous chapter can be fulfilled by dynamic organization structures and business processes in Networks of

  20. Increased frequency of micronucleated exfoliated cells among humans exposed in vivo to mobile telephone radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manoj Kumar Sharma; Abhay Singh Yadav

    2007-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The health concerns have been raised following the enormous increase in the use of wireless mobile telephones through out the world. This investigation had been taken, with the motive to find out whether mobile phone radiations cause any in vivo effects on the frequency of micronucleated exfoliated cells in the exposed subjects. A total of 109 subjects including 85 regular mobile phone users (exposed) and 24 non-users (controls) had participated in this study. Exfoliated cells were obtained by swabbing the buccal-mucosa from exposed as well as sex-age-matched controls. One thousand exfoliated cells were screened from each individual for nuclear anomalies including micronuclei (MN), karyolysis (KL), karyorrhexis (KH), broken egg (BE) and bi-nucleated (BN) cells. The average daily duration of exposure to mobile phone radiations is 61.26 minutes with an overall average duration of exposure in term of years is 2.35 years in exposed subjects along with the 9.84±0.745 MNC (micronucleated cells) and 10.72±0.889 TMN (total micronuclei) as compared to zero duration of exposure along with average 3.75±0.774 MNC and 4.00±0.808 TMN in controls. The means are significantly different in case MNC and TMN at 0.01% level of significance. For all other nuclear anomalies (KL, KH, BE and BN cells) the means are found statistically nonsignificant. A positive correlation was found in the frequency of MNC and TMN with respect to duration of exposure time.

  1. Fabrication of single phase 2D homologous perovskite microplates by mechanical exfoliation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junze; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Yingjun; Wang, Haizhen; Lin, Gaoming; Xiong, Xuan; Zhou, Weihang; Luo, Hongmei; Li, Dehui

    2018-04-01

    The two-dimensional (2D) Ruddlesden-Popper type perovskites have attracted intensive interest for their great environmental stability and various potential optoelectronic applications. Fundamental understanding of the photophysical and electronic properties of the 2D perovskites with pure single phase is essential for improving the performance of the optoelectronic devices and designing devices with new architectures. Investigating the optical and electronic properties of these materials with pure single phase is required to obtain pure single phase 2D perovskites. Here, we report on an alternative approach to fabricate (C4H9NH3)2(CH3NH3) n-1Pb n I3n+1 microplates with pure single n-number perovskite phase for n  >  2 by mechanical exfoliation. Micro-photoluminescence and absorption spectroscopy studies reveal that the as-synthesized 2D perovskite plates for n  >  2 are comprised by dominant n-number phase and small inclusions of hybrid perovskite phases with different n values, which is supported by excitation power dependent photoluminescence. By mechanical exfoliation method, 2D perovskite microplates with the thickness of around 20 nm are obtained, which surprisingly have single n-number perovskite phase for n  =  2-5. In addition, we have demonstrated that the exfoliated 2D perovskite microplates can be integrated with other 2D layered materials such as boron nitride, and are able to be transferred to prefabricated electrodes for photodetections. Our studies not only provide a strategy to prepare 2D perovskites with a single n-number perovskite phase allowing us to extract the basic optical and electronic parameters of pure phase perovskites, but also demonstrate the possibility to integrate the 2D perovskites with other 2D layered materials to extend the device’s functionalities.

  2. Service quality of diagnostic fine needle aspiration cytology in a tertiary care hospital of lahore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizvi, Z.; Usmani, R.A.; Zahra, T.; Rasool, H.; Rizvi, A.

    2017-01-01

    Quality of any service is the most important aspect for the manufacturer as well as the consumer. The primary objective of any nation's health system is to provide supreme quality health care services to its patients. The objective of this study was to assess the quality of diagnostic fine needle aspiration cytology service in a tertiary care hospital. As Patient's perspectives provide valuable information on quality of process, therefore, patient's perception in terms of satisfaction with the service was measured. Methods: In this cross sectional analytical study, 291 patients undergoing fine needle aspiration cytology in Mayo Hospital were selected by systematic sampling technique. Information regarding satisfaction of patients with four dimensions of service quality process, namely procedure, sterilization, conduct and competency of doctor was collected through interview on questionnaire. The questionnaire was developed on SERVQUAL model, a measurement tool, for quality assessment of services provided to patients. All items were assessed on 2- point likert scale (0=dissatisfied, 1=satisfied). Frequencies and percentages of satisfied and dissatisfied patients were recorded for each item and all items in each dimension were scored. If the percentage of sum of all item scores of a dimension was =60, the dimension was 'good quality'. Whereas <60% was 'poor quality' dimension. Data was analysed using epi-info-3.5.1. Fisher test was applied to check statistical significance. (p-value <0.05) Results: Out of the 4 dimensions of service quality process, Procedure (48.8%), Sterilization (51.5%) and practitioner conduct (50.9%) were perceived as 'poor' by the patients. Only practitioner competency (67.4%) was perceived as 'good'. Comparison of dimensions of service quality scoring with overall level of patient satisfaction revealed that all 4 dimensions were significantly related to patient dissatisfaction (p<.05) Conclusion: The study suggests that service quality of

  3. Mechanical exfoliation of epitaxial graphene on Ir(111) enabled by Br2 intercalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbig, Charlotte; Kaiser, Markus; Bendiab, Nedjma; Schumacher, Stefan; Förster, Daniel F; Coraux, Johann; Meerholz, Klaus; Michely, Thomas; Busse, Carsten

    2012-08-08

    We show here that Br(2) intercalation is an efficient method to enable exfoliation of epitaxial graphene on metals by adhesive tape. We exemplify this method for high-quality graphene of macroscopic extension on Ir(111). The sample quality and the transfer process are monitored using low-energy electron diffraction (LEED), scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Raman spectroscopy. The developed process provides an opportunity for preparing graphene of strictly monatomic thickness and well-defined orientation including the transfer to poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) foil.

  4. Production of graphene by exfoliation of graphite in a volatile organic solvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Eun-Young; Choi, Won San; Lee, Young Boo; Noh, Yong-Young

    2011-01-01

    The production of unfunctionalized and nonoxidized graphene by exfoliation of graphite in a volatile solvent, 1-propanol, is reported. A stable homogeneous dispersion of graphene was obtained by mild sonication of graphite powder and subsequent centrifugation. The presence of a graphene monolayer was observed by atomic force microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The solvent, 1-propanol, from the deposited dispersion was simply and quickly removed by air drying at room temperature, without the help of high temperature annealing or vacuum drying, which shortens production time and does not leave any residue of the solvent in the graphene sheets.

  5. Hydrazine-Assisted Liquid Exfoliation of MoS2 for Catalytic Hydrodeoxygenation of 4-Methylphenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guoliang; Ma, Hualong; Teixeira, Ivo; Sun, Zhenyu; Xia, Qineng; Hong, Xinlin; Tsang, Shik Chi Edman

    2016-02-24

    A simple but effective method to exfoliate bulk MoS2 in a range of solvents is presented for the preparation of colloid flakes consisted of one to a few molecular layers by application of ultrasonic treatment in N2 H4 . Their high yield in solution and exposure of more active surface sites allows the synthesis of corresponding solid catalysts with remarkably high activity in hydrodeoxygenation of 4-methylphenol and this method can also be applied to other two dimensional materials. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Liftoff process for exfoliation of thin film photovoltaic devices and back contact formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haight, Richard A.; Hannon, James B.; Oida, Satoshi

    2018-04-03

    A method for forming a back contact on an absorber layer in a photovoltaic device includes forming a two dimensional material on a first substrate. An absorber layer including Cu--Zn--Sn--S(Se) (CZTSSe) is grown over the first substrate on the two dimensional material. A buffer layer is grown on the absorber layer on a side opposite the two dimensional material. The absorber layer is exfoliated from the two dimensional material to remove the first substrate from a backside of the absorber layer opposite the buffer layer. A back contact is deposited on the absorber layer.

  7. Interlayer catalytic exfoliation realizing scalable production of large-size pristine few-layer graphene

    OpenAIRE

    Geng, Xiumei; Guo, Yufen; Li, Dongfang; Li, Weiwei; Zhu, Chao; Wei, Xiangfei; Chen, Mingliang; Gao, Song; Qiu, Shengqiang; Gong, Youpin; Wu, Liqiong; Long, Mingsheng; Sun, Mengtao; Pan, Gebo; Liu, Liwei

    2013-01-01

    Mass production of reduced graphene oxide and graphene nanoplatelets has recently been achieved. However, a great challenge still remains in realizing large-quantity and high-quality production of large-size thin few-layer graphene (FLG). Here, we create a novel route to solve the issue by employing one-time-only interlayer catalytic exfoliation (ICE) of salt-intercalated graphite. The typical FLG with a large lateral size of tens of microns and a thickness less than 2?nm have been obtained b...

  8. Turbulence-assisted shear exfoliation of graphene using household detergent and a kitchen blender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varrla, Eswaraiah; Paton, Keith R.; Backes, Claudia; Harvey, Andrew; Smith, Ronan J.; McCauley, Joe; Coleman, Jonathan N.

    2014-09-01

    To facilitate progression from the lab to commercial applications, it will be necessary to develop simple, scalable methods to produce high quality graphene. Here we demonstrate the production of large quantities of defect-free graphene using a kitchen blender and household detergent. We have characterised the scaling of both graphene concentration and production rate with the mixing parameters: mixing time, initial graphite concentration, rotor speed and liquid volume. We find the production rate to be invariant with mixing time and to increase strongly with mixing volume, results which are important for scale-up. Even in this simple system, concentrations of up to 1 mg ml-1 and graphene masses of >500 mg can be achieved after a few hours mixing. The maximum production rate was ~0.15 g h-1, much higher than for standard sonication-based exfoliation methods. We demonstrate that graphene production occurs because the mean turbulent shear rate in the blender exceeds the critical shear rate for exfoliation.To facilitate progression from the lab to commercial applications, it will be necessary to develop simple, scalable methods to produce high quality graphene. Here we demonstrate the production of large quantities of defect-free graphene using a kitchen blender and household detergent. We have characterised the scaling of both graphene concentration and production rate with the mixing parameters: mixing time, initial graphite concentration, rotor speed and liquid volume. We find the production rate to be invariant with mixing time and to increase strongly with mixing volume, results which are important for scale-up. Even in this simple system, concentrations of up to 1 mg ml-1 and graphene masses of >500 mg can be achieved after a few hours mixing. The maximum production rate was ~0.15 g h-1, much higher than for standard sonication-based exfoliation methods. We demonstrate that graphene production occurs because the mean turbulent shear rate in the blender exceeds

  9. Histopathology-like categories based on endometrial imprint cytology in dysfunctional uterine bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxi, Seema N; Panchal, Nirav S

    2015-01-01

    Cytology of the endometrium is an underused technique in diagnostic pathology. It has been used in the past for endometrial hyperplasia and carcinoma. Only few studies have used cytology in the diagnosis of dysfunctional uterine bleeding (DUB). Endometrial imprint cytology has been rarely used except for application of immunocytochemistry in diagnosis of endometrial carcinoma. The present study was conducted to evaluate whether it is possible to assign histopathology-like diagnosis by imprint cytology and also to evaluate its usefulness in the assessment of patients of dysfunctional uterine bleeding of low clinical suspicion. Imprint smears were made from 93 curettage materials during a study of DUB. Blinded analysis of imprint smears was performed by using McKenzie's criteria and some criteria devised for the requirements of this study. Results of cytology were correlated with histopathology. Statistical analysis was carried out by GraphpadInStat Demo. Majority of the patterns classifiable in histopathology could also be classified in this study on imprint cytology. The overall sensitivity and specificity of cytology in the detection of endometrial patterns in DUB patients were 91.23% and 83.87%, respectively, although the sensitivities and specificities differ according to the phase of endometrium. Histopathology-like categories can be assigned on imprint smears in the diagnosis of DUB. Endometrial imprint cytology can be helpful in centers where histopathology laboratories are not available and even in well-established institutes. It is possible to improve the sensitivity and specificity with better imprinting techniques.

  10. Cytologic follow-up of patients with invasive cervical carcinoma treated by radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muram, D.; Curry, R.H.; Drouin, P.

    1982-01-01

    In an 11-year study done at the Ottawa Civic Hospital, cytologic assessment of 323 patients treated by radiotherapy for invasive cervical carcinoma was reviewed. The value and limitations of gynecologic cytology in the follow-up of these patients are discussed

  11. Urine cytology in the evaluation of urological malignancy revisited: is it still necessary?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Falebita, Opeyemi Adegboyega

    2012-01-31

    OBJECTIVE: We aim to determine if urine cytology was still necessary as a routine part of the evaluation for the presence of urological malignancy and to evaluate its cost effectiveness. METHODS: Urine cytology reports over a 6-year period (2000-2005) were retrieved from our institution\\'s pathology department database. Patients with urine cytology positive for malignant cells were identified. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of these patients for age, sex, flexible cystoscopy and radiological imaging results. The cost of urine cytology was retrieved from the pathology department. RESULTS: There were a total of 2,568 urine cytological examinations. Of these, 25 were positive for malignant cells. There were 19 male (76%) and 6 female (24%) patients with a mean age of 72 years (range: 49-97). In 21 patients with positive cytology, a bladder tumor was identified at flexible cystoscopy and\\/or imaging studies. For a positive cytology yield of 1%, EUR 210,000 was spent. CONCLUSIONS: Routine urine cytology was not cost effective and did not add to the diagnostic yield beyond cystoscopy and diagnostic imaging. It may be omitted in the initial evaluation of urological malignancy.

  12. New diagnostic reporting format for endometrial cytology based on cytoarchitectural criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanoh, K; Norimatsu, Y; Hirai, Y; Takeshima, N; Kamimori, A; Nakamura, Y; Shimizu, K; Kobayashi, T K; Murata, T; Shiraishi, T

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to develop a new reporting format for endometrial cytology that would standardize the diagnostic criteria and the terminology used for reporting. Methods: In previous studies, cytoarchitectural criteria were found to be useful for the cytological assessment of endometrial lesions. To apply these criteria, an appropriate cytological specimen is imperative. In this article, the requirements of an adequate endometrial cytological specimen for the new diagnostic criteria are first discussed. Then, the diagnostic criteria, standardized on a combination of conventional and cytoarchitectural criteria, are presented. Third, terminology that could be used, not only for reporting the histopathological diagnosis, but also for providing better guidance for the gynaecologist to determine further clinical action, is introduced. The proposed reporting format was investigated using endometrial cytology of 58 cases that were cytologically underestimated or overestimated compared to the histopathological diagnosis made on the subsequent endometrial biopsy or surgical specimens. Results: Of the 58 cases, 12 were reassessed as being unsatisfactory for evaluation. Among the remaining 46 cases, 25 of the 27 cases, which had been underestimated and subsequently diagnosed as having endometrial carcinoma or a precursor stage on histopathological examination,were reassessed as recommended for endometrial biopsy. On the other hand, 19 cases overestimated by cytology were all reassessed as not requiring biopsy. Conclusions: The reporting format for endometrial cytology proposed in this article may improve diagnostic accuracy and reduce the number of patients managed inappropriately. PMID:18657157

  13. Evaluation of fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology in the diagnosis of thyroid nodules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holleman, F.; Hoekstra, J. B.; Ruitenberg, H. M.

    1995-01-01

    FNA cytology of 112 patients with thyroid nodules seen in a 5-year period in a general hospital setting, and the histology obtained from the 53 operated patients, were retrospectively analysed. The inadequacy rate of FNA cytology was 11%, sensitivity was 84% (16/19), specificity was 52% (15/29),

  14. Role of biliary tract cytology in the evaluation of extrahepatic cholestatic jaundice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Mamta; Pai, Radha R.; Dileep, Devi; Gopal, Sandeep; Shenoy, Suresh

    2013-01-01

    Background: Endoscopic evaluation is critical in assessing the cause of obstructive jaundice. Cytological techniques including bile aspiration and biliary brushings have become the initial diagnostic modality. Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the role of endoscopic biliary tract cytology as a diagnostic tool in the evaluation of extrahepatic cholestatic jaundice. Materials and Methods: A total of 56 biliary tract specimens including 34 bile aspirations and 22 biliary brushings from 41 consecutive patients who had presented with obstructive jaundice and underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) were assessed by cytological examination. The smears prepared were analyzed for standard cytological features. Results: Cytologic diagnosis was adenocarcinoma in 13 (31.7%) cases, atypical in 2 (4.9%), reactive in 3 (7.3%) and benign changes in 19 (46.3%) cases. 4 (9.8%) cases were non-diagnostic. Serum bilirubin was significantly elevated in the malignant group. Biliary stricture was the most common finding on ERCP (68.3%). On cytological examination, presence of solitary, intact atypical cells, enlarged nuclei, irregular nuclear membrane, coarse chromatin and nucleoli were important cytologic criteria for differentiating malignant from benign biliary specimens. Conclusions: Regular use of bile cytology and brushings during ERCP evaluation of extrahepatic cholestatic jaundice is invaluable in obtaining a morphologic diagnosis. A systematic approach, use of strict cytomorphologic criteria and inclusion of significant atypia as malignant diagnosis may improve the sensitivity. PMID:24130407

  15. Screening for cervical cancer precursors with p16/Ki-67 dual-stained cytology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ikenberg, Hans; Bergeron, Christine; Schmidt, Dietmar

    2013-01-01

    Pap cytology is known to be more specific but less sensitive than testing for human papillomavirus (HPV) for the detection of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN2+). We assessed whether p16/Ki-67 dual-stained cytology, a biomarker combination indicative of transforming HPV infections...

  16. Ultrahigh-throughput exfoliation of graphite into pristine ‘single-layer’ graphene using microwaves and molecularly engineered ionic liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Michio; Saito, Yusuke; Park, Chiyoung; Fukushima, Takanori; Aida, Takuzo

    2015-09-01

    Graphene has shown much promise as an organic electronic material but, despite recent achievements in the production of few-layer graphene, the quantitative exfoliation of graphite into pristine single-layer graphene has remained one of the main challenges in developing practical devices. Recently, reduced graphene oxide has been recognized as a non-feasible alternative to graphene owing to variable defect types and levels, and attention is turning towards reliable methods for the high-throughput exfoliation of graphite. Here we report that microwave irradiation of graphite suspended in molecularly engineered oligomeric ionic liquids allows for ultrahigh-efficiency exfoliation (93% yield) with a high selectivity (95%) towards ‘single-layer’ graphene (that is, with thicknesses oligomeric ionic liquids up to ~100 mg ml-1, and form physical gels in which an anisotropic orientation of graphene sheets, once induced by a magnetic field, is maintained.

  17. The sexual phase of the diatom Pseudo-nitzschia multistriata: cytological and time-lapse cinematography characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalco, Eleonora; Amato, Alberto; Ferrante, Maria Immacolata; Montresor, Marina

    2016-11-01

    Pseudo-nitzschia is a thoroughly studied pennate diatom genus for ecological and biological reasons. Many species in this genus, including Pseudo-nitzschia multistriata, can produce domoic acid, a toxin responsible for amnesic shellfish poisoning. Physiological, phylogenetic and biological features of P. multistriata were studied extensively in the past. Life cycle stages, including the sexual phase, fundamental in diatoms to restore the maximum cell size and avoid miniaturization to death, have been well described for this species. P. multistriata is heterothallic; sexual reproduction is induced when strains of opposite mating type are mixed, and proceeds with cells producing two functionally anisogamous gametes each; however, detailed cytological information for this process is missing. By means of confocal laser scanning microscopy and nuclear staining, we followed the nuclear fate during meiosis, and using time-lapse cinematography, we timed every step of the sexual reproduction process from mate pairing to initial cell hatching. The present paper depicts cytological aspects during gametogenesis in P. multistriata, shedding light on the chloroplast behaviour during sexual reproduction, finely describing the timing of the sexual phases and providing reference data for further studies on the molecular control of this fundamental process.

  18. Acute cytologic changes of adenocarcinoma of uterine body by radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, Kahori; Katoh, Tomoyasu; Teshima, Hideo; Arai, Yuji; Satoh, Hisashi; Hirai, Yasuo; Tsuzuku, Masafumi; Yamauchi, Kazuhiro; Hasumi, Katsuhiko [Cancer Institute Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-11-01

    Initial radiotherapy for patients with endometrial cancer with complications is rare. The purpose of this study was to identify the acute cytologic changes in endometrial cancer induced by irradiation. From 1985 to 1997, 21 patients with endometrial cancer received initial radiotherapy. We reviewed ten cases of them cytologically from which we were able to estimate the acute changes in cancer cells. As the dose of irradiation increased, wrinkled edge of nuclei, cytoplasmic vacuolation, and coarse granular chromatin were diffusely observed. Nuclear swelling and giant cell formation appeared in a scattered manner. Compared with histologic specimens, we could observe intra-nuclear changes more clearly on the endometrial smear. We could also observe a decrease in large clusters and a significant increase in small clusters with degeneration when cancer nests collapse in histologic specimens. We found that the cellular changes of endometrial cancer by irradiation generally resemble that of squamous cell cancer. We recommend complete full dose irradiation before assessing the prognosis of patients with endometrial cancer because radiosensitivity can be very variable. (author)

  19. Sexual polyploidization in plants--cytological mechanisms and molecular regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Storme, Nico; Geelen, Danny

    2013-05-01

    In the plant kingdom, events of whole genome duplication or polyploidization are generally believed to occur via alterations of the sexual reproduction process. Thereby, diploid pollen and eggs are formed that contain the somatic number of chromosomes rather than the gametophytic number. By participating in fertilization, these so-called 2n gametes generate polyploid offspring and therefore constitute the basis for the establishment of polyploidy in plants. In addition, diplogamete formation, through meiotic restitution, is an essential component of apomixis and also serves as an important mechanism for the restoration of F1 hybrid fertility. Characterization of the cytological mechanisms and molecular factors underlying 2n gamete formation is therefore not only relevant for basic plant biology and evolution, but may also provide valuable cues for agricultural and biotechnological applications (e.g. reverse breeding, clonal seeds). Recent data have provided novel insights into the process of 2n pollen and egg formation and have revealed multiple means to the same end. Here, we summarize the cytological mechanisms and molecular regulatory networks underlying 2n gamete formation, and outline important mitotic and meiotic processes involved in the ectopic induction of sexual polyploidization. © 2013 Ghent University. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  20. Histopathological and cytological correlation of tumors of breast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushma Yalavarthi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background :0 With the advent of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC, the approach to diagnosis and management of breast lesions has been revolutionized. Its accuracy in many situations can approach that of histopathology in providing an unequivocal diagnosis. Aim :0 The aim of this study is to examine the cytological details in aspirated smears from lumps in the breast and to evaluate the role of FNAC in improving the quality of diagnosis by comparing with histopathological features. Materials and Methods: Over a period of 2 years, 334 aspirations, including 16 bilateral were performed. Suppurative and inflammatory lesions and gynecomastia were excluded from the total aspirates. A total of 56 cases were followed-up by histopathologic examination. Results: Cytohistologic correlation was 73.68%, 42.85%, 94.44% for fibroadenoma, fibrocystic disease and duct cell carcinoma respectively. False positives were observed in proliferative lesions. No false negative cases observed. The sensitivity of the fine needle aspiration (FNA procedure was 100%, specificity, 88.5% and the predictive value of a positive result was 84%. Conclusion: Proliferative lesions may be misinterpreted as malignancy in FNA without complete clinical and mammographic details.

  1. Computational model for squamous cells characterization during cervical smear cytology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Eduardo Martínez Abaunza

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the work done by the Biomedical Engineering Research Group (GIIB, and the Structural, Functional and Clinical Pathology Research Group of the Industrial University of Santander (UIS, with Autonomous University of Bucaramanga (UNAB, was to construct a computational model allowing squamous cells characterization of cervical smear cytology to classify them as being either normal or abnormal cells. Slides containing the cell samples were colleted by the pathologist and the images were digitalized by a video-camera coupled to a microscope and connected to a frame acquisition device. Three thresholding algorithms were used, in image segmentation, allowing cell nuclei detection; manual thresholding was used when these algorithms failed to detect cytoplasm. Cell texture was described by the distribution of histogram in each color level, and the borders using Fourier descriptors. The results of the first phase are presented, implementing them in classifying and identifying normal cells. Later stages will involve characterizing each cells stage initially classified as presenting some reactive change or due to infection, to distinguish the reactive cells of intraepithelial lesion cells. Key words: image processing, mathematical morphology, cervical smear cytology, dysplasia, cancer of cervix.

  2. Acute cytologic changes of adenocarcinoma of uterine body by radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Kahori; Katoh, Tomoyasu; Teshima, Hideo; Arai, Yuji; Satoh, Hisashi; Hirai, Yasuo; Tsuzuku, Masafumi; Yamauchi, Kazuhiro; Hasumi, Katsuhiko

    1998-01-01

    Initial radiotherapy for patients with endometrial cancer with complications is rare. The purpose of this study was to identify the acute cytologic changes in endometrial cancer induced by irradiation. From 1985 to 1997, 21 patients with endometrial cancer received initial radiotherapy. We reviewed ten cases of them cytologically from which we were able to estimate the acute changes in cancer cells. As the dose of irradiation increased, wrinkled edge of nuclei, cytoplasmic vacuolation, and coarse granular chromatin were diffusely observed. Nuclear swelling and giant cell formation appeared in a scattered manner. Compared with histologic specimens, we could observe intra-nuclear changes more clearly on the endometrial smear. We could also observe a decrease in large clusters and a significant increase in small clusters with degeneration when cancer nests collapse in histologic specimens. We found that the cellular changes of endometrial cancer by irradiation generally resemble that of squamous cell cancer. We recommend complete full dose irradiation before assessing the prognosis of patients with endometrial cancer because radiosensitivity can be very variable. (author)

  3. Electrochemical Exfoliation of Graphite in Aqueous Sodium Halide Electrolytes toward Low Oxygen Content Graphene for Energy and Environmental Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munuera, J M; Paredes, J I; Enterría, M; Pagán, A; Villar-Rodil, S; Pereira, M F R; Martins, J I; Figueiredo, J L; Cenis, J L; Martínez-Alonso, A; Tascón, J M D

    2017-07-19

    Graphene and graphene-based materials have shown great promise in many technological applications, but their large-scale production and processing by simple and cost-effective means still constitute significant issues in the path of their widespread implementation. Here, we investigate a straightforward method for the preparation of a ready-to-use and low oxygen content graphene material that is based on electrochemical (anodic) delamination of graphite in aqueous medium with sodium halides as the electrolyte. Contrary to previous conflicting reports on the ability of halide anions to act as efficient exfoliating electrolytes in electrochemical graphene exfoliation, we show that proper choice of both graphite electrode (e.g., graphite foil) and sodium halide concentration readily leads to the generation of large quantities of single-/few-layer graphene nanosheets possessing a degree of oxidation (O/C ratio down to ∼0.06) lower than that typical of anodically exfoliated graphenes obtained with commonly used electrolytes. The halide anions are thought to play a role in mitigating the oxidation of the graphene lattice during exfoliation, which is also discussed and rationalized. The as-exfoliated graphene materials exhibited a three-dimensional morphology that was suitable for their practical use without the need to resort to any kind of postproduction processing. When tested as dye adsorbents, they outperformed many previously reported graphene-based materials (e.g., they adsorbed ∼920 mg g -1 for methyl orange) and were useful sorbents for oils and nonpolar organic solvents. Supercapacitor cells assembled directly from the as-exfoliated products delivered energy and power density values (up to 15.3 Wh kg -1 and 3220 W kg -1 , respectively) competitive with those of many other graphene-based devices but with the additional advantage of extreme simplicity of preparation.

  4. Electrolytic exfoliation of graphite in water with multifunctional electrolytes: en route towards high quality, oxide-free graphene flakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munuera, J M; Paredes, J I; Villar-Rodil, S; Ayán-Varela, M; Martínez-Alonso, A; Tascón, J M D

    2016-02-07

    Electrolytic--usually referred to as electrochemical--exfoliation of graphite in water under anodic potential holds enormous promise as a simple, green and high-yield method for the mass production of graphene, but currently suffers from several drawbacks that hinder its widespread adoption, one of the most critical being the oxidation and subsequent structural degradation of the carbon lattice that is usually associated with such a production process. To overcome this and other limitations, we introduce and implement the concept of multifunctional electrolytes. The latter are amphiphilic anions (mostly polyaromatic hydrocarbons appended with sulfonate groups) that play different relevant roles as (1) an intercalating electrolyte to trigger exfoliation of graphite into graphene flakes, (2) a dispersant to afford stable aqueous colloidal suspensions of the flakes suitable for further use, (3) a sacrificial agent to prevent graphene oxidation during exfoliation and (4) a linker to promote nanoparticle anchoring on the graphene flakes, yielding functional hybrids. The implementation of this strategy with some selected amphiphiles even furnishes anodically exfoliated graphenes of a quality similar to that of flakes produced by direct, ultrasound- or shear-induced exfoliation of graphite in the liquid phase (i.e., almost oxide- and defect-free). These high quality materials were used for the preparation of catalytically efficient graphene-Pt nanoparticle hybrids, as demonstrated by model reactions (reduction of nitroarenes). The multifunctional performance of these electrolytes is also discussed and rationalized, and a mechanistic picture of their oxidation-preventing ability is proposed. Overall, the present results open the prospect of anodic exfoliation as a competitive method for the production of very high quality graphene flakes.

  5. Superior performance of liquid-based versus conventional cytology in a population-based cervical cancer screening program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beerman, H.; van Dorst, E. B. L.; Kuenen-Boumeester, V.; Hogendoorn, P. C. W.

    Objective. Liquid-based cytology may offer improvements over conventional cytology for cervical cancer screening. The two cytology techniques were compared in a group of 86,469 women who participated in a population-based screening program. Using a nation-wide pathology database containing both

  6. Cervical cytology and the diagnosis of cervical cancer in older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landy, Rebecca; Castanon, Alejandra; Dudding, Nick; Lim, Anita Wey Wey; Hollingworth, Antony; Hamilton, Willie; Sasieni, Peter D

    2015-12-01

    Most non-screen-detected cervical cancers are advanced stage. We assess the potential for cytology to expedite diagnosis when used outside of routine call and recall screening for cervical cancer. Two cohorts of women with cytology that did not appear to have been taken as part of routine screening, nested within a census of cervical cytology, in England between April 2007 and March 2010 were studied: 93,322 women aged 40-69 at first cytology, and 14,668 women aged ≥70. The diagnostic performance of high grade cervical squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) or worse cytology was estimated. We also estimated case-fatality from stage distribution in women aged ≥66 with and without cytology in the year prior to diagnosis. There were 259 cancers diagnosed in women aged 40-69 at first cytology, and 78 in women aged ≥70. The sensitivity of cytology ≥ HSIL for cancer was 89% and 83% respectively, and the number of women needed to test to identify one cancer was 404 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 355-462) and 226 (95% CI: 177-292) respectively. Women aged ≥66 with cytology within a year of diagnosis had earlier stage cancers than those without, corresponding to a 17-22% reduction in case fatality. Cervical cytology is an excellent identifier of cancer among women tested outside routine screening call and recall. Its use as a triage tool, for instance in women with vague gynaecological symptoms, could facilitate earlier stage diagnosis and reduce cervical cancer mortality. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Accuracy of routine cytology and immunocytochemistry in preoperative diagnosis of oral amelanotic melanomas in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przeździecki, Rafał; Czopowicz, Michał; Sapierzyński, Rafał

    2015-12-01

    Amelanotic melanomas are one of the most common oral malignancies. The cytologic and histopathologic differentiation between amelanotic melanoma, sarcoma, and poorly differentiated carcinoma is often difficult or even impossible. The aim of this study was to assess the reliability of routine cytology and immunocytochemistry in preoperative diagnosis of canine oral amelanotic melanoma. Cytologic preparations from undifferentiated canine oral tumors were stained with Giemsa and by immunocytochemistry (ICC) using anti-cytokeratin, anti-vimentin, and anti-Melan A antibodies. The final cytologic diagnosis (including ICC) was compared to the final diagnosis based on histopathology and immunohistochemistry (IHC) results, and sensitivity and specificity of cytologic examination were determined. Final cytologic diagnoses of 38 cases agreed well with the histopathologic/immunohistochemical diagnoses, thus both specificity and sensitivity of combined routine cytology and ICC were 100% (95% confidence interval 90.8-100%). Of 32 oral tumors, diagnosis of amelanotic melanoma, sarcoma, and carcinoma was made using routine cytology and ICC. In 4 of 6 aspirates taken from lymph nodes, a preliminary diagnosis of metastatic amelanotic melanoma corresponded with the final diagnosis. Both sensitivity and specificity of routine cytology in diagnosis of amelanotic melanomas were considered moderate (66.7% and 85.7%, respectively). In conclusion, routine cytology is a reliable diagnostic method for canine oral amelanotic melanoma and metastatic amelanotic melanoma, and ICC, using anti-cytokeratin, anti-vimentin, and anti-Melan A antibodies, is an excellent supporting method for presurgical diagnosis of poorly differentiated oral malignancies in dogs. © 2015 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  8. Exfoliation on stainless steel and inconel produced by 0.8-4 MeV helium ion bombardment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paszti, F.; Mezey, G.; Pogany, L.; Fried, M.; Manuaba, A.; Kotai, E.; Lohner, T.; Pocs, L.

    1982-11-01

    Trying to outline the energy dependence of surface deformations such as exfoliation and flaking on candidate CTR first-wall materials, stainless steel and two types of inconels were bombarded by 0.8, 1 and 4 MeV helium ions. All the bombarded spots could be characterized by by large exfoliations covering almost the total implanted area. No spontaneous rupture was observed except on one type of inconel where flaking took place right after reaching the critical dose. After mechanical opening of the formations, similar inner morphology was found as in our previous studies on gold. (author)

  9. Environmentally benign graphite intercalation compound composition for exfoliated graphite, flexible graphite, and nano-scaled graphene platelets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhamu, Aruna; Jang, Bor Z.

    2014-06-17

    A carboxylic-intercalated graphite compound composition for the production of exfoliated graphite, flexible graphite, or nano-scaled graphene platelets. The composition comprises a layered graphite with interlayer spaces or interstices and a carboxylic acid residing in at least one of the interstices, wherein the composition is prepared by a chemical oxidation reaction which uses a combination of a carboxylic acid and hydrogen peroxide as an intercalate source. Alternatively, the composition may be prepared by an electrochemical reaction, which uses a carboxylic acid as both an electrolyte and an intercalate source. Exfoliation of the invented composition does not release undesirable chemical contaminants into air or drainage.

  10. Differentiation and distribution of three types of exfoliative toxin produced by Staphylococcus hyicus from pigs with exudative epidermitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Lars Ole

    1998-01-01

    were antigenically distinct. The three toxins were designated ExhA, ExhB and ExhC. From 60 diseased pigs, each representing an outbreak of exudative epidermitis, a total of 584 isolates of S. hl icus were phage typed and tested for production of exfoliative toxin. ExhA-, ExhB- and ExhC-producing S....... hyicus isolates were found in 12 (20%), 20 (33%) and 11 (18%); respectively, of the 60 pig herds investigated. Production of the different types of exfoliative toxin was predominantly associated with certain phage groups. However. toxin production was found in all of the six phage groups defined...

  11. Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS and exfoliative cheilitis in elderly psoriasis sufferer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Hardiyanti Nurhasanah

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis (RAS is a disorder in the oral cavity, with a characterized symptom as ulceration, recurrent and very painfull. The etiology is idiopathic, with multifactorial predisposition. Exfoliative cheilitis is a persistent lesion on the lip, with a characterized cracking and desquamative, with crustae and inflammation. An elderly male (72 yrs suffered with ulcer on his oral cavity, cracking lips and pain on both of his cheeks, skin, since 5 years ago. The pain is recurrent. On the clinical examination, there were some desquamation, both on the skin and vermilion border, whether on the inner lips (labial fold mucosa, there were ulcers with diameter about 1 cm. The laboratory test was within normal limits, except the LED was 40 mm/hour (n:<15. The diagnosis was Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis (RAS for the ulcer and Exfoliative cheilitis for the cracking lips. The treatment he received was a gargle liquid, topical corticosteroid and supplement. The skin’s disorder was revered to the skin and genital disease department, for further management. As a dental general practioner, had to be very careful and familiar for every changes that may be occur both in the outer or inner oral cavity. Other disorder that need refferal, had to be done with team work, to the colleague from the right connection.

  12. Synchronous exfoliation and assembly of graphene on 3D Ni(OH)2 for supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Liguo; Zheng, Maojun; Liu, Shaohua; Li, Qiang; You, Yuxiu; Wang, Faze; Ma, Li; Shen, Wenzhong

    2016-11-08

    Nowadays, new approaches to fabricate high-performance electrode materials are of vital importance in the renewable energy field. Here, we present a facile synthesis procedure of 3D Ni(OH) 2 /graphene hybrids for supercapacitors via synchronous electrochemical-assisted exfoliation and assembly of graphene on 3D Ni(OH) 2 networks. With the assistance of an electric field, the electrochemically exfoliated high-quality graphene can be readily, uniformly assembled on the surfaces of 3D Ni(OH) 2 . When serving as electrode materials for supercapacitors, the resulting 3D Ni(OH) 2 /graphene composites exhibited excellent specific capacitance (263 mF cm -2 at 2 mA cm -2 ), remarkable rate capability and super-long cycle life (retention of 94.1% even after 10 000 continuous charge-discharge cycles), which may be attributed to their highly porous, stable 3D architecture as well as uniform, firm anchoring of ultrathin graphene on their surfaces. Therefore, our approach provides a facile strategy for the large-scale synthesis of high-quality graphene based composites towards various applications.

  13. Exfoliated graphite with graphene flakes as potential candidates for TL dosimeters at high gamma doses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Morales, A; López-González, E; Rueda-Morales, G; Ortega-Cervantez, G; Ortiz-Lopez, J

    2018-06-06

    Graphite powder (GP) subjected to microwave radiation (MWG) results in exfoliation of graphite particles into few-layered graphene flakes (GF) intermixed with partially exfoliated graphite particles (PEG). Characterization of MWG by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Raman spectroscopy reveal few-layer GF with sizes ranging from 0.2 to 5 µm. Raman D, G, and 2D (G') bands characteristic of graphitic structures include evidence of the presence of bilayered graphene. The thermoluminescent (TL) dosimetric properties of MWG are evaluated and can be characterized as a gamma-ray sensitive and dose-resistant material with kinetic parameters (activation energy for the main peak located at 400 and 408 K is 0.69 and 0.72 eV) and threshold dose (~1 kGy and 5 kGy respectively). MWG is a low-Z material (Z eff = 6) with a wide linear range of TL dose-response (0.170-2.5 kGy) tested at doses in the 1-20 kGy range with promising results for applications in gamma-ray dosimetry. Results obtained in gamma irradiated MWG are compared with those obtained in graphite powder samples (GP) without microwave treatment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Exfoliation and reassembly of cobalt oxide nanosheets into a reversible lithium-ion battery cathode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, Owen C; Abouimrane, Ali; An, Zhi; Palmeri, Marc J; Brinson, L Catherine; Amine, Khalil; Nguyen, SonBinh T

    2012-04-10

    An exfoliation-reassembly-activation (ERA) approach to lithium-ion battery cathode fabrication is introduced, demonstrating that inactive HCoO(2) powder can be converted into a reversible Li(1-x) H(x) CoO(2) thin-film cathode. This strategy circumvents the inherent difficulties often associated with the powder processing of the layered solids typically employed as cathode materials. The delamination of HCoO(2) via a combination of chemical and mechanical exfoliation generates a highly processable aqueous dispersion of [CoO(2) ](-) nanosheets that is critical to the ERA approach. Following vacuum-assisted self-assembly to yield a thin-film cathode and ion exchange to activate this material, the generated cathodes exhibit excellent cyclability and discharge capacities approaching that of low-temperature-prepared LiCoO(2) (~83 mAh g(-1) ), with this good electrochemical performance attributable to the high degree of order in the reassembled cathode. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Characterizing edge and stacking structures of exfoliated graphene by photoelectron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, Fumihiko; Ishii, Ryo; Matsuda, Hiroyuki; Morita, Makoto; Kitagawa, Satoshi; Koh, Shinji; Daimon, Hiroshi; Matsushita, Tomohiro

    2013-01-01

    The two-dimensional C 1s photoelectron intensity angular distributions (PIADs) and spectra of exfoliated graphene flakes and crystalline graphite were measured using a focused soft X-ray beam. Suitable graphene samples were selected by thickness characterization using Raman spectromicroscopy after transferring mechanically exfoliated graphene flakes onto a 90-nm-thick SiO 2 film. In every PIAD, a Kagomé interference pattern was observed, particularly clearly in the monolayer graphene PIAD. Its origin is the overlap of the diffraction rings formed by an in-plane C-C bond honeycomb lattice. Thus, the crystal orientation of each sample can be determined. In the case of bilayer graphene, PIAD was threefold-symmetric, while those of monolayer graphene and crystalline graphite were sixfold-symmetric. This is due to the stacking structure of bilayer graphene. From comparisons with the multiple scattering PIAD simulation results, the way of layer stacking as well as the termination types in the edge regions of bilayer graphene flakes were determined. Furthermore, two different C 1s core levels corresponding to the top and bottom layers of bilayer graphene were identified. A chemical shift to a higher binding energy by 0.25 eV for the bottom layer was attributed to interfacial interactions. (author)

  16. CVD growth of graphene under exfoliated hexagonal boron nitride for vertical hybrid structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Min; Jang, Sung Kyu; Song, Young Jae; Lee, Sungjoo

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: We have demonstrated a novel yet simple method for fabricating graphene-based vertical hybrid structures by performing the CVD growth of graphene at an h-BN/Cu interface. Our systematic Raman measurements combined with plasma etching process indicate that a graphene film is grown under exfoliated h-BN rather than on its top surface, and that an h-BN/graphene vertical hybrid structure has been fabricated. Electrical transport measurements of this h-BN/graphene, transferred on SiO2, show the carrier mobility up to approximately 2250 cm 2 V −1 s −1 . The developed method would enable the exploration of the possibility of novel hybrid structure integration with two-dimensional material systems. - Abstract: We have demonstrated a novel yet simple method for fabricating graphene-based vertical hybrid structures by performing the CVD growth of graphene at an h-BN/Cu interface. Our systematic Raman measurements combined with plasma etching process indicate that a graphene film is grown under exfoliated h-BN rather than on its top surface, and that an h-BN/graphene vertical hybrid structure has been fabricated. Electrical transport measurements of this h-BN/graphene, transferred on SiO 2 , show the carrier mobility up to approximately 2250 cm 2 V −1 s −1 . The developed method would enable the exploration of the possibility of novel hybrid structure integration with two-dimensional material systems

  17. Homogeneously dispersed CeO2 nanoparticles on exfoliated hexaniobate nanosheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Thalles M. F.; Strayer, Megan E.; Ghosh, Anupama; Silva, Alexandre; Ferreira, Odair P.; Fujisawa, Kazunori; Alves da Cunha, Jose R.; Abreu, Guilherme J. P.; Terrones, Mauricio; Mallouk, Thomas E.; Viana, Bartolomeu C.

    2017-12-01

    Hexaniobate nanosheets derived from the parent compound K4Nb6O17 have been decorated with CeO2 nanoparticles by ion exchange with aqueous cerium (IV) solution. Very homogeneous CeO2 nanoparticle decoration of the hexaniobate sheets can be achieved by this method and the resulting composites may absorb visible light. HRTEM images show that ∼3.0 nm diameter CeO2 nanoparticles adhere to hexaniobate nanosheets that are exfoliated and then restacked prior to Ce deposition. The interfacial interaction between CeO2 nanoparticles and nanosheets would be due to an electrostatic attraction mechanism. Raman and XRD measurements have given strong evidence that CeO2 nanoparticles have fluorite structure. EDS, FTIR and XPS results suggest almost complete exchange of TBA+ and K+ by Ce4+. Cerium ion exchange on the acid exchanged parent compound, H2.9K1.1Nb6O17, revealed that the extent of Ce ion exchange is much greater in case of nanosheets, which may be rationalized by the larger surface area available after exfoliation. XPS measurements show that the ratio of Ce4+/Ce3+ is around 4.4, in agreement with the formation of fluorite structure (CeO2). Thus, these CeO2 nanoparticle/nanosheet composites may be useful for catalytic processes.

  18. Non-isothermal cure and exfoliation of tri-functional epoxy-clay nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Shiravand

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The non-isothermal cure kinetics of polymer silicate layered nanocomposites based on a tri-functional epoxy resin has been investigated by differential scanning calorimetry. From an analysis of the kinetics as a function of the clay content, it can be concluded that the non-isothermal cure reaction can be considered to consist of four different processes: the reaction of epoxy groups with the diamine curing agent; an intra-gallery homopolymerisation reaction which occurs concurrently with the epoxy-amine reaction; and two extra-gallery homopolymerisation reactions, catalysed by the onium ion of the organically modified clay and by the tertiary amines resulting from the epoxy-amine reaction. The final nanostructure displays a similar quality of exfoliation as that observed for the isothermal cure of the same nanocomposite system. This implies that the intra-gallery reaction, which is responsible for the exfoliation, is not significantly inhibited by the extra-gallery epoxy-amine cross-linking reaction.

  19. In vivo exfoliating efficacy of biodegradable beads and the correlation with user's satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitsongsermthon, J; Kreepoke, J; Duangweang, K; Tansirikongkol, A

    2018-02-01

    By the end of 2017, non-biodegradable microbeads will be prohibited in USA, UK and Europe, due to their environmental issue. There are biodegradable beads available, but their effect on skin desquamation has not been evaluated yet. This study aimed to understand the skin renewal time, moisturizing effect and user's satisfaction of gel scrubs containing different exfoliating beads. Gel scrubs, containing polyethylene, mannan or wax beads, were used in this study. The stratum corneum turnover time (SCTT) and skin hydration were evaluated by dansyl chloride staining technique and Corneometer ® , respectively. The self-assessment was also performed after a 3-week home use trial. The SCTTs of three different gel scrubs were not significantly different. A numerical increase in the skin hydration level was found in all groups. Satisfaction scores for the appearance and usability attributes were similar, but scores for improvement in the skin hydration and skin smoothness were higher in the gel scrubs with mannan or wax beads. All three gel scrubs provided a similar effect on the SCTT and skin hydration, but gel scrubs with mannan or wax beads were more favorable. Thus, these two biodegradable exfoliating beads may be good substitutes in scrubbing products. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Blistering and exfoliation of 304 stainless steel studied by SEM and RBS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, M.; Emmoth, B.; Whitton, J.L.

    1981-01-01

    Blistering and exfoliation induced by helium irradiation have been studied in polycrystalline stainless steel with the aim of measuring flake or blister skin thicknesses for different implantation energies in the keV region. The authors present measurements of skin thicknesses determined both by direct SEM observations and RBS techniques. The results of the RBS studies show for all implantation energies used that the thickness measured in target atoms/unit area of a flake equals the calculated implantation range with an accuracy of about 10%. Conversely, the SEM measurements show that swelling gives rise to a geometrical skin thickness much greater than the corresponding implantation range. Thus from the SEM and RBS data swelling as a function of the implantation energy is obtained and the linear relative swelling is shown to be strongly dependent on the energy. In addition a comparison between the skin thickness of blisters and flakes has been made for the same material. Blisters were observed at low implantation temperatures and room temperature while exfoliation occurs at elevated temperatures. The result of this comparison is that within the experimental accuracy the flake and blister thicknesses are the same. (Auth.)

  1. Phonon and thermal properties of exfoliated TaSe{sub 2} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Z.; Jiang, C.; Renteria, J. [Nano-Device Laboratory, Department of Electrical Engineering, Bourns College of Engineering, University of California–Riverside, Riverside, California 92521 (United States); Pope, T. R.; Tsang, C. F.; Stickney, J. L.; Salguero, T. T., E-mail: salguero@uga.edu, E-mail: balandin@ee.ucr.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia 30602 (United States); Goli, P. [Materials Science and Engineering Program, Bourns College of Engineering, University of California–Riverside, Riverside, California 92521 (United States); Balandin, A. A., E-mail: salguero@uga.edu, E-mail: balandin@ee.ucr.edu [Nano-Device Laboratory, Department of Electrical Engineering, Bourns College of Engineering, University of California–Riverside, Riverside, California 92521 (United States); Materials Science and Engineering Program, Bourns College of Engineering, University of California–Riverside, Riverside, California 92521 (United States)

    2013-11-28

    We report on the phonon and thermal properties of thin films of tantalum diselenide (2H-TaSe{sub 2}) obtained via the “graphene-like” mechanical exfoliation of crystals grown by chemical vapor transport. The ratio of the intensities of the Raman peak from the Si substrate and the E{sub 2g} peak of TaSe{sub 2} presents a convenient metric for quantifying film thickness. The temperature coefficients for two main Raman peaks, A{sub 1g} and E{sub 2g}, are −0.013 and −0.0097 cm{sup −1}/{sup o}C, respectively. The Raman optothermal measurements indicate that the room temperature thermal conductivity in these films decreases from its bulk value of ∼16 W/mK to ∼9 W/mK in 45-nm thick films. The measurement of electrical resistivity of the field-effect devices with TaSe{sub 2} channels shows that heat conduction is dominated by acoustic phonons in these van der Waals films. The scaling of thermal conductivity with the film thickness suggests that the phonon scattering from the film boundaries is substantial despite the sharp interfaces of the mechanically cleaved samples. These results are important for understanding the thermal properties of thin films exfoliated from TaSe{sub 2} and other metal dichalcogenides, as well as for evaluating self-heating effects in devices made from such materials.

  2. Phonon and thermal properties of exfoliated TaSe2 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Z.; Jiang, C.; Renteria, J.; Pope, T. R.; Tsang, C. F.; Stickney, J. L.; Salguero, T. T.; Goli, P.; Balandin, A. A.

    2013-01-01

    We report on the phonon and thermal properties of thin films of tantalum diselenide (2H-TaSe 2 ) obtained via the “graphene-like” mechanical exfoliation of crystals grown by chemical vapor transport. The ratio of the intensities of the Raman peak from the Si substrate and the E 2g peak of TaSe 2 presents a convenient metric for quantifying film thickness. The temperature coefficients for two main Raman peaks, A 1g and E 2g , are −0.013 and −0.0097 cm −1 / o C, respectively. The Raman optothermal measurements indicate that the room temperature thermal conductivity in these films decreases from its bulk value of ∼16 W/mK to ∼9 W/mK in 45-nm thick films. The measurement of electrical resistivity of the field-effect devices with TaSe 2 channels shows that heat conduction is dominated by acoustic phonons in these van der Waals films. The scaling of thermal conductivity with the film thickness suggests that the phonon scattering from the film boundaries is substantial despite the sharp interfaces of the mechanically cleaved samples. These results are important for understanding the thermal properties of thin films exfoliated from TaSe 2 and other metal dichalcogenides, as well as for evaluating self-heating effects in devices made from such materials

  3. Phonon and thermal properties of exfoliated TaSe2 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Z.; Jiang, C.; Pope, T. R.; Tsang, C. F.; Stickney, J. L.; Goli, P.; Renteria, J.; Salguero, T. T.; Balandin, A. A.

    2013-11-01

    We report on the phonon and thermal properties of thin films of tantalum diselenide (2H-TaSe2) obtained via the "graphene-like" mechanical exfoliation of crystals grown by chemical vapor transport. The ratio of the intensities of the Raman peak from the Si substrate and the E2g peak of TaSe2 presents a convenient metric for quantifying film thickness. The temperature coefficients for two main Raman peaks, A1g and E2g, are -0.013 and -0.0097 cm-1/oC, respectively. The Raman optothermal measurements indicate that the room temperature thermal conductivity in these films decreases from its bulk value of ˜16 W/mK to ˜9 W/mK in 45-nm thick films. The measurement of electrical resistivity of the field-effect devices with TaSe2 channels shows that heat conduction is dominated by acoustic phonons in these van der Waals films. The scaling of thermal conductivity with the film thickness suggests that the phonon scattering from the film boundaries is substantial despite the sharp interfaces of the mechanically cleaved samples. These results are important for understanding the thermal properties of thin films exfoliated from TaSe2 and other metal dichalcogenides, as well as for evaluating self-heating effects in devices made from such materials.

  4. Exfoliation approach for preparing high conductive reduced graphite oxide and its application in natural rubber composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wipatkrut, Pattharaporn [Department of Chemical Technology, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Poompradub, Sirilux, E-mail: sirilux.p@chula.ac.th [Department of Chemical Technology, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Center for Petroleum, Petrochemical and Advanced Material, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • Graphite waste was exfoliated by oxidation and chemical and thermal reduction. • The obtained graphene-T was a single layer sheet with a high electrical conductivity. • Graphene-T incorporation at 5 phr improved the electrical conductivity of NR. • Graphene-T incorporation at 5–25 phr improved the mechanical properties of NR. - Abstract: High conductivity reduced graphite oxide (RGO) was prepared by exfoliation of graphite waste from the metal smelting industry. To improve the surface properties of the RGO, the graphite oxide obtained based on Hummers’ method was reduced by L-ascorbic acid to give RGOV, which was then subjected to thermal reduction to obtain RGOT. The residual oxygen-containing groups in RGOV were almost completely removed by the thermal reduction and the conjugated graphene networks were restored in RGOT. The effect of the RGOT content in natural rubber (NR) on the cure, electrical and mechanical properties of the NR-RGOT (NG) composites was evaluated. The electrical conductivity of NR was increased by the inclusion of RGOT at a percolation threshold of 5 phr, with an electrical conductivity of 8.71 × 10{sup −6} S/m. The mechanical properties, i.e., the modulus, tensile strength and hardness, of NG were comparable with those of conductive carbon black filled NR ones.

  5. Assessing the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon anisotropic potential with application to the exfoliation energy of graphite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totton, Tim S; Misquitta, Alston J; Kraft, Markus

    2011-11-24

    In this work we assess a recently published anisotropic potential for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules (J. Chem. Theory Comput. 2010, 6, 683-695). Comparison to recent high-level symmetry-adapted perturbation theory based on density functional theory (SAPT(DFT)) results for coronene (C(24)H(12)) demonstrate the transferability of the potential while highlighting some limitations with simple point charge descriptions of the electrostatic interaction. The potential is also shown to reproduce second virial coefficients of benzene (C(6)H(6)) with high accuracy, and this is enhanced by using a distributed multipole model for the electrostatic interaction. The graphene dimer interaction energy and the exfoliation energy of graphite have been estimated by extrapolation of PAH interaction energies. The contribution of nonlocal fluctuations in the π electron density in graphite have also been estimated which increases the exfoliation energy by 3.0 meV atom(-1) to 47.6 meV atom(-1), which compares well to recent theoretical and experimental results.

  6. Controllable Edge Oxidation and Bubbling Exfoliation Enable the Fabrication of High Quality Water Dispersible Graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Suyun; Sun, Jing; Yang, Siwei; He, Peng; Wang, Gang; Di, Zengfeng; Ding, Guqiao; Xie, Xiaoming; Jiang, Mianheng

    2016-09-26

    Despite significant progresses made on mass production of chemically exfoliated graphene, the quality, cost and environmental friendliness remain major challenges for its market penetration. Here, we present a fast and green exfoliation strategy for large scale production of high quality water dispersible few layer graphene through a controllable edge oxidation and localized gas bubbling process. Mild edge oxidation guarantees that the pristine sp 2 lattice is largely intact and the edges are functionalized with hydrophilic groups, giving rise to high conductivity and good water dispersibility at the same time. The aqueous concentration can be as high as 5.0 mg mL -1 , which is an order of magnitude higher than previously reports. The water soluble graphene can be directly spray-coated on various substrates, and the back-gated field effect transistor give hole and electron mobility of ~496 and ~676 cm 2 V -1 s -1 , respectively. These results achieved are expected to expedite various applications of graphene.

  7. Morphological and electrical properties of epoxy-based composites reinforced with exfoliated graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamberti, Patrizia; Spinelli, Giovanni, E-mail: gspinelli@unisa.it; Tucci, Vincenzo [Department of Information and Electrical Engineering and Applied Mathematics University of Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II, Fisciano (Italy); Guadagno, Liberata; Raimondo, Marialuigia; Vertuccio, Luigi [Department of Industrial Engineering University of Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II, Fisciano (Italy)

    2016-05-18

    An experimental study has been carried out to prepare and characterize epoxy/amine-based composites filled with different percentages of partially exfoliated graphite (i.e. pEG) particles having an exfoliation degree of 56% in order to analyze the effect of the filler amounts on the electrical properties of the resulting nanocomposites. Moreover, in order to fully investigate the direct relationship between the physical properties of the employed filler and the results of the electrical characterization, a structural and morphological characterization of the pEG samples is carried out by means of various type of analysis such as X-ray diffraction patterns, micro-Raman and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) images. The DC electrical characterization reveals a percolation thresholds (EPT) that falls in the range [2–3] wt% and an electrical conductivity of about 0.66 S/m at the highest filler loading (6.5 wt%). From the analysis of the percolative curve it is possible to derive the percolation law parameters and in particular the critical exponent t, whose value (i.e. 1.2) reflects an effective 2D organization of the percolating structure consistent with the type of filler used (2-dimensional). Finally, an extensive analysis concerning the electrical properties in the frequency domain has been carried out in order to evaluate the effectiveness of pEG-loaded composites in terms of electromagnetic interference compatibility (EMC) and their applicability as radar absorbers materials (RAMs).

  8. Controllable Edge Oxidation and Bubbling Exfoliation Enable the Fabrication of High Quality Water Dispersible Graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Suyun; Sun, Jing; Yang, Siwei; He, Peng; Wang, Gang; di, Zengfeng; Ding, Guqiao; Xie, Xiaoming; Jiang, Mianheng

    2016-09-01

    Despite significant progresses made on mass production of chemically exfoliated graphene, the quality, cost and environmental friendliness remain major challenges for its market penetration. Here, we present a fast and green exfoliation strategy for large scale production of high quality water dispersible few layer graphene through a controllable edge oxidation and localized gas bubbling process. Mild edge oxidation guarantees that the pristine sp2 lattice is largely intact and the edges are functionalized with hydrophilic groups, giving rise to high conductivity and good water dispersibility at the same time. The aqueous concentration can be as high as 5.0 mg mL-1, which is an order of magnitude higher than previously reports. The water soluble graphene can be directly spray-coated on various substrates, and the back-gated field effect transistor give hole and electron mobility of ~496 and ~676 cm2 V-1 s-1, respectively. These results achieved are expected to expedite various applications of graphene.

  9. Direct synthesis of hydrophobic graphene-based nanosheets via chemical modification of exfoliated graphene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jigang; Wang, Yongsheng; He, Dawei; Liu, Zhiyong; Wu, Hongpeng; Wang, Haiteng; Zhao, Yu; Zhang, Hui; Yang, Bingyang; Xu, Haiteng; Fu, Ming

    2012-08-01

    Hydrophobic graphene-based material at the nanoscale was prepared by treatment of exfoliated graphene oxide with organic isocyanates. The lipophilic modified graphene oxide (LMGO) can then be exfoliated into the functionalized graphene nanoplatelets that can form a stable dispersion in polar aprotic solvents. AFM image shows the thickness of LMGO is approximately 1 nm. Characterization of LMGO by elemental analysis suggested that the chemical treatment results in the functionalization of the carboxyl and hydroxyl groups in GO via formation of amides and carbamate esters, respectively. The degree of GO functionalization can be controlled via either the reactivity of the isocyanate or the reaction time. Then we investigated the thermal properties of the SPFGraphene by using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), the TGA curve shows a greater weight loss of approximately 20% occurred indicating removal of functional groups from the LMGO sheets and an obvious exothermic peak at 176 degrees can be observed from 150 to 250 degrees. We also compared the structure of graphene oxide with the structure of chemical treated graphene oxide by FT-IR spectroscopy. The morphology and microstructure of the LMGO nanosheets were also characterized by SEM and XRD. Graphene can be used to fabricate a wide range of simple electronic devices such as field-effect transistors, resonators, quantum dots and some other extensive industrial manufacture such as super capacitor, li ion battery, solar cells and even transparent electrodes in device applications.

  10. Single-layered graphene oxide nanosheet/polyaniline hybrids fabricated through direct molecular exfoliation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guan-Liang; Shau, Shi-Min; Juang, Tzong-Yuan; Lee, Rong-Ho; Chen, Chih-Ping; Suen, Shing-Yi; Jeng, Ru-Jong

    2011-12-06

    In this study, we used direct molecular exfoliation for the rapid, facile, large-scale fabrication of single-layered graphene oxide nanosheets (GOSs). Using macromolecular polyaniline (PANI) as a layered space enlarger, we readily and rapidly synthesized individual GOSs at room temperature through the in situ polymerization of aniline on the 2D GOS platform. The chemically modified GOS platelets formed unique 2D-layered GOS/PANI hybrids, with the PANI nanorods embedded between the GO interlayers and extended over the GO surface. X-ray diffraction revealed that intergallery expansion occurred in the GO basal spacing after the PANI nanorods had anchored and grown onto the surface of the GO layer. Transparent folding GOSs were, therefore, observed in transmission electron microscopy images. GOS/PANI nanohybrids possessing high conductivities and large work functions have the potential for application as electrode materials in optoelectronic devices. Our dispersion/exfoliation methodology is a facile means of preparing individual GOS platelets with high throughput, potentially expanding the applicability of nanographene oxide materials. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  11. Abnormal Multiple Charge Memory States in Exfoliated Few-Layer WSe2 Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mikai; Wang, Yifan; Shepherd, Nathan; Huard, Chad; Zhou, Jiantao; Guo, L J; Lu, Wei; Liang, Xiaogan

    2017-01-24

    To construct reliable nanoelectronic devices based on emerging 2D layered semiconductors, we need to understand the charge-trapping processes in such devices. Additionally, the identified charge-trapping schemes in such layered materials could be further exploited to make multibit (or highly desirable analog-tunable) memory devices. Here, we present a study on the abnormal charge-trapping or memory characteristics of few-layer WSe 2 transistors. This work shows that multiple charge-trapping states with large extrema spacing, long retention time, and analog tunability can be excited in the transistors made from mechanically exfoliated few-layer WSe 2 flakes, whereas they cannot be generated in widely studied few-layer MoS 2 transistors. Such charge-trapping characteristics of WSe 2 transistors are attributed to the exfoliation-induced interlayer deformation on the cleaved surfaces of few-layer WSe 2 flakes, which can spontaneously form ambipolar charge-trapping sites. Our additional results from surface characterization, charge-retention characterization at different temperatures, and density functional theory computation strongly support this explanation. Furthermore, our research also demonstrates that the charge-trapping states excited in multiple transistors can be calibrated into consistent multibit data storage levels. This work advances the understanding of the charge memory mechanisms in layered semiconductors, and the observed charge-trapping states could be further studied for enabling ultralow-cost multibit analog memory devices.

  12. An investigation into graphene exfoliation and potential graphene application in MEMS devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fercana, George; Kletetschka, Gunther; Mikula, Vilem; Li, Mary

    2011-02-01

    The design of microelectromecanical systems (MEMS) and micro-opto-electromechanical systems (MOEMS) are often materials-limited with respect to the efficiency and capability of the material. Graphene, a one atom thick honeycomb lattice of carbon, is a highly desired material for MEMS applications. Relevant properties of graphene include the material's optical transparency, mechanical strength, energy efficiency, and electrical and thermal conductivity due to its electron mobility. Aforementioned properties make graphene a strong candidate to supplant existing transparent electrode technology and replace the conventionally used material, indium-tin oxide. In this paper we present preliminary results on work toward integration of graphene with MEMS structures. We are studying mechanical exfoliation of highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) crystals by repeatedly applying and separating adhesive materials from the HOPG surface. The resulting graphene sheets are then transferred to silicon oxide substrate using the previously applied adhesive material. We explored different adhesive options, particularly the use of Kapton tape, to improve the yield of graphene isolation along with chemical cross-linking agents which operate on a mechanism of photoinsertion of disassociated nitrene groups. These perfluorophenyl nitrenes participate in C=C addition reactions with graphene monolayers creating a covalent binding between the substrate and graphene. We are focusing on maximizing the size of isolated graphene sheets and comparing to conventional exfoliation. Preliminary results allow isolation of few layer graphene (FLG) sheets (ntechnology to be used in future deep space telescopes.

  13. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia: a case report with premature teeth exfoliation and bone resorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelopoulou, Matina V; Kontogiorgos, Elias; Emmanouil, Dimitris

    2015-06-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is an inherited autosomal recessive disorder characterized by insufficient production of cortisol. The aim of this case report was to present a child with CAH, premature exfoliation of primary teeth and accelerated eruption of his permanent teeth related to bone resorption. A 4.5-year-old Caucasian boy with CAH and long-term administration of glucocorticoids was referred for dental restoration. Clinical examination revealed primary molars with worn stainless steel crowns, severe attrition of the upper canines, and absence of the upper incisors. Before the completion of treatment, abnormal mobility of the first upper primary molars and the lower incisors was detected, and a few days later the teeth exfoliated prematurely. Histologic examination revealed normal tooth structure. Alkaline phosphatase and blood cells values were normal. Eruption of the permanent dentition was also accelerated. Tooth mobility was noticed in the permanent teeth as soon as they erupted, along with bone destruction. Examination revealed an elevated level of receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand and lower-than-normal osteoprotegerin and vitamin D levels. The patient was treated with vitamin D supplements, and his teeth have been stable ever since. CAH is a serious chronic disorder appearing in children with accelerated dental development and possibly premature loss of primary teeth. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  14. Correlation of MRI and CSF cytology in the diagnosis of medulloblastoma spinal metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, S.K.; Ditchfield, M.R.; Waters, K.

    1998-01-01

    Background. Medulloblastoma frequently spreads to involve the spinal cord, which significantly reduces patient survival and determines whether chemotherapy is utilised and the dose of irradiation to the neuraxis. Staging is usually achieved by MRI of the spine and/or cytology of CSF, both methods having their limitations. Objective. To determine whether there is a correlation between CSF cytology and the demonstration of spinal metastases by MRI and whether CSF cytology is useful when spinal MRI is equivocal. Materials and methods. All cases of medulloblastoma diagnosed at our hospital between 1992 and 1997 were identified. Of 26 cases, 11 presentations (age range 4 months to 12 years) had both CSF cytology (either from the cisterna magna or lumbar puncture) and spinal MRI. The MR studies were reviewed for the presence of metastases and the CSF cytology for the presence of tumour cells. Results. We found 100 % correlation between MRI and CSF cytology for samples taken by lumbar puncture (four negative and three positive on both investigations). No correlation was demonstrated when CSF samples were taken from the cisterna magna. Conclusions. Our data suggest that lumbar CSF cytology may be useful when the MRI is equivocal for the presence of metastatic involvement of the spine by medulloblastoma. (orig.)

  15. Cytology in the diagnosis of cervical cancer in symptomatic young women: a retrospective review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Anita Ww; Landy, Rebecca; Castanon, Alejandra; Hollingworth, Antony; Hamilton, Willie; Dudding, Nick; Sasieni, Peter

    2016-12-01

    Cervical cancer in young women presents a diagnostic challenge because gynaecological symptoms are common but underlying disease is rare. To explore the potential for using cytology as a diagnostic aid for cervical cancer in young women. Retrospective review of primary care records and cytology data from the national cervical screening database and national audit of cervical cancers. Four datasets of women aged 20-29 years in England were examined: primary care records and national screening data from an in-depth study of cervical cancers; cytology from the national audit of cervical cancers; whole-population cytology from the national screening database; and general-population primary care records from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink. The authors explored the sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV) of symptomatic cytology (earliest cytology. Cytology has value beyond screening, and could be used as a diagnostic aid for earlier detection of cervical cancer in young women with gynaecological symptoms by ruling in urgent referral. © British Journal of General Practice 2016.

  16. Diagnostic accuracy of lymphoma established by fine-needle aspiration cytological biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delyuzar; Amir, Z.; Suryadi, D.

    2018-03-01

    Based on Globocan data in 2012, it is estimated that about 14,495 Indonesians suffer from lymphoma, both Hodgkin’s lymphoma, and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Some areas of specialization still doubt the accuracy of cytology diagnosis of fine needle aspiration biopsy.This study is a diagnostic test with a cross sectional analytic design to see how the cytology diagnostic accuracy of fine needle aspiration aspirate in lymphoma. It was in Department of Anatomical Pathology Faculty of Medicine USU, Haji Adam Malik Hospital, Dr.Pirngadi hospital, or private clinic in Medan. Peripheral cytology technique biopsy of fine needle aspiration on lymph node subsequently stained with Giemsa, when the cytology of lymphoma is obtained and confirmed by histopathologic examination. Cytology and histopathologic examination will be tested by Diagnostic Test and assessed for its sensitivity and specificity. The diagnostic of lymphoma cytology provides 93.33% sensitivity and 92.31% specificity when confirmed by histopathological examination. Positive predictive value and negative predictive value of 96.55% and 85.71% respectively. In conclusion, the cytology of fine needle aspiration biopsy is accurate enough to be used as a diagnostic tool, so it is advisable to establish a lymphoma diagnosis to perform a needle aspiration biopsy examination.

  17. Cytological Sampling Versus Forceps Biopsy During Percutaneous Transhepatic Biliary Drainage and Analysis of Factors Predicting Success

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tapping, C. R.; Byass, O. R.; Cast, J. E. I., E-mail: james.cast@hey.nhs.uk [Hull Royal Infirmary, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom)

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: To assess the accuracy of cytological sampling and forceps biopsy in obstructing biliary lesions and to identify factors predictive of success. Methods: Consecutive patients (n = 119) with suspected malignant inoperable obstructive jaundice treated with percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage during 7 years were included (60 male; mean age 72.5 years). All patients underwent forceps biopsy plus cytological sampling by washing the forceps device in cytological solution. Patient history, procedural and pathological records, and clinical follow-up were reviewed. Statistical analysis included chi-square test and multivariate regression analysis. Results: Histological diagnosis after forceps biopsy was more successful than cytology: Sensitivity was 78 versus 61%, and negative predictive value was 30 versus 19%. Cytology results were never positive when the forceps biopsy was negative. The cytological sample was negative and forceps sample positive in 2 cases of cholangiocarcinoma, 16 cases of pancreatic carcinoma, and 1 case of benign disease. Diagnostic accuracy was predicted by low bilirubin (p < 0.001), aspartate transaminase (p < 0.05), and white cell count (p {<=} 0.05). Conclusions: This technique is safe and effective and is recommended for histological diagnosis during PTBD in patients with inoperable malignant biliary strictures. Diagnostic yield is greater when bilirubin levels are low and there is no sepsis; histological diagnosis by way of forceps biopsy renders cytological sampling unnecessary.

  18. [Correlation of hybrid II capture cytologic exam in diagnosis of cervical lesions related to HPV].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saturnino, Ana Conceição Ribeiro Dantas; Diniz, Veruska Cassandra; Sisenando, Herbert Ary Arzabe Anteza Costa Nóbrega; de Souza, Eroisa Maria Conceição Oliveira; de Paiva, Magnus Sérgio Martins; de Brito, Maria Helena Marques Fonseca; Ramos, Eleni Souto Nóbrega

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present study was confront the results of the cytological examination with hybrid capture II in the diagnosis of induced cervical intraepithelial lesion-HPV, correlating the cytological findings with biomoleculares. The research was carried through in a group of 160 sexually active women who had espontaneamente looked its gynecologists for consultation of routine, having been submitted to the collection of cervicovaginal material for cytology and for examination of hybrid capture II in the Centro de Patologia Clínica and the Hospital e Maternidade Promater, in the city of the Natal-RN. The results had shown to relatively high numbers of positive cases for HPV using hybrid capture II (41.87%) and the cytology (23.75%). The agreement between the two studied methods relatively was raised (59.38%). It was evident also that the viruses with high oncogênico potential had presented found in the compatible cytology with Lesion of low risk (11.88%), followed of Lesion of high risk (NIC II and III); already the viruses with low oncogênico potential were more associates the Lesion of low risk (6.25%), followed of Lesion of high risk. The cytology, exactly with its limitations, is an important method in the detention of attributable patologias to the HPV, emphasizing that the molecular method comes to complement it and to consolidate the cytological findings.

  19. Cytological effects of some new mutagens on rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Cailian; Chen Qiufang; Jin Wei

    2002-01-01

    Air-dried seeds of five rice varieties were carried by recoverable satellite (RS) for space mutation and were irradiated by synchronous irradiation (soft X-rays), protons and nitrogen ions. The cytological effects were compared with that of γ-irradiation. The results indicated that all the mutagens were able to induce variation on chromosome structure in root tip cells. The space environment had a stimulating mitotic effect on root tip cells. Other mutagens had inhibiting mitotic actions. The rates of micronuclei induced by synchronous irradiation and other mutagens were higher than that by γ-rays; and the rates of chromosomal bridge were lower. Furthermore, the radiosensitivity of five varieties varied with different mutagens

  20. Virtual microscopy and digital cytology: state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giansanti, Daniele; Grigioni, Mauro; D'Avenio, Giuseppe; Morelli, Sandra; Maccioni, Giovanni; Bondi, Arrigo; Giovagnoli, Maria Rosaria

    2010-01-01

    The paper approaches a new technological scenario relevant for the introduction of the digital cytology (D-CYT) in the health service. A detailed analysis of the state of the art on the status of the introduction of D-CYT in the hospital and more in general in the dispersed territory has been conducted. The analysis was conducted in a form of review and was arranged into two parts: the first part focused on the technological tools needed to carry out a successful service (client server architectures, e-learning, quality assurance issues); the second part focused on issues oriented to help the introduction and evaluation of the technology (specific training in D-CYT, health technology assessment in-routine application, data format standards and picture archiving computerized systems (PACS) implementation, image quality assessment, strategies of navigation, 3D-virtual-reality potentialities). The work enlightens future scenarios of actions relevant for the introduction of the technology.

  1. Virtual microscopy and digital cytology: state of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Giansanti

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper approaches a new technological scenario relevant for the introduction of the digital cytology (D-CYT in the health service. A detailed analysis of the state of the art on the status of the introduction of D-CYT in the hospital and more in general in the dispersed territory has been conducted. The analysis was conducted in a form of review and was arranged into two parts: the first part focused on the technological tools needed to carry out a successful service (client server architectures, e-learning, quality assurance issues; the second part focused on issues oriented to help the introduction and evaluation of the technology (specific training in D-CYT, health technology assessment in-routine application, data format standards and picture archiving computerized systems (PACS implementation, image quality assessment, strategies of navigation, 3D-virtual-reality potentialities. The work enlightens future scenarios of actions relevant for the introduction of the technology.

  2. Cytological assay of micronucleus induction by radiation in oral cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattathiri, V.N.; Bindu, L.; Remani, P.; Chandralekha, B.; Davis, C.A.; Krishnan Nair, M.

    1996-01-01

    A study was conducted to analyze the dose-response relationship of micronucleus (MN) induction by radiation in eighty-three patients with oral cancers. Serial scrape smears were taken before treatment and after delivery of various fractions of a course of radical radiotherapy. The smears were stained with Giemsa's stain and frequency of micronucleated cells (MNC) evaluated. Before treatment 70.5% of tumours showed MNC, the mean value being 4.18 MNC/1000 cells. The frequency of MNC, increased with increasing dose of radiation. As regards relation to treatment duration, there was initially a slight increase, followed by rapid increase and then a plateauing. Radiosensitive and resistant tumours showed differing pattern of change. The MN test by serial cytological assay has potential as a tool to understand the dynamics of radiation induced cell death and predict radiosensitivity. (author). 4 refs., 5 figs

  3. Does imprint cytology improve the accuracy of transrectal prostate needle biopsy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayar, Hamide; Bulut, Burak Besir; Bahar, Abdulkadir Yasir; Bahar, Mustafa Remzi; Seringec, Nurten; Resim, Sefa; Çıralık, Harun

    2015-02-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of imprint cytology of core needle biopsy specimens in the diagnosis of prostate cancer. Between December 24, 2011 and May 9, 2013, patients with an abnormal DRE and/or serum PSA level of >2.5 ng/mL underwent transrectal prostate needle biopsy. Samples with positive imprint cytology but negative initial histologic exam underwent repeat sectioning and histological examination. 1,262 transrectal prostate needle biopsy specimens were evaluated from 100 patients. Malignant imprint cytology was found in 236 specimens (18.7%), 197 (15.6%) of which were confirmed by histologic examination, giving an initial 3.1% (n = 39) rate of discrepant results by imprint cytology. Upon repeat sectioning and histologic examination of these 39 biopsy samples, 14 (1.1% of the original specimens) were then diagnosed as malignant, 3 (0.2%) as atypical small acinar proliferation (ASAP), and 5 (0.4%) as high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN). Overall, 964 (76.4%) specimens were negative for malignancy by imprint cytology. Seven (0.6%) specimens were benign by cytology but malignant cells were found on histological evaluation. On imprint cytology examination, nonmalignant but abnormal findings were seen in 62 specimens (4.9%). These were all due to benign processes. After reexamination, the accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, false-positive rate, false-negative rate of imprint preparations were 98.1, 96.9, 98.4, 92.8, 99.3, 1.6, 3.1%, respectively. Imprint cytology is valuable tool for evaluating TRUS-guided core needle biopsy specimens from the prostate. Use of imprint cytology in combination with histopathology increases diagnostic accuracy when compared with histopathologic assessment alone. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Voided urine versus bladder washing cytology for detection of urothelial carcinoma: which is better?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Anna Krarup; Jensen, Jørgen Bjerggaard

    2017-08-01

    Cytology is recommended as part of the follow-up of high-grade non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). However, currently there are no solid guideline recommendations regarding the use of voided urine versus bladder washing for cytology as part of the diagnosis or follow-up of NMIBC. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the cytological outcome was equal regarding the two techniques. The authors reviewed all outpatient flexible cystoscopies carried out in their department in 2013. Patient records in the registry of pathology were examined and those with simultaneous urine and bladder washing cytology were included. Previous urothelial disease and positive histology within 3 months after the cystoscopy were registered. A total of 1458 patients had both voided urine and bladder washing cytology and were included in the study, of whom 643 (44%) had a history of urothelial disease. An equal outcome of urine and bladder washing cytology was found in 1447 patients (99.2%). For the remaining 11 patients, only four patients underwent further examinations based on cytology findings in addition to what had already been planned after cystoscopy. Of the included patients, 100 (6.9%) had a positive histological outcome within 3 months. In most patients, no relevant difference between voided urine and bladder washing cytology was observed. Therefore, if cytology is indicated, it is recommended to use the test that is most readily available locally. The additional gain in using both urine and bladder wash is minimal, and can therefore be discarded.

  5. Current Cytology Practices in Korea: A Nationwide Survey by the Korean Society for Cytopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Ji Oh

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Limited data are available on the current status of cytology practices in Korea. This nationwide study presents Korean cytology statistics from 2015. Methods A nationwide survey was conducted in 2016 as a part of the mandatory quality-control program by the Korean Society for Cytopathology. The questionnaire was sent to 208 medical institutions performing cytopathologic examinations in Korea. Individual institutions were asked to submit their annual cytology statistical reports and gynecologic cytology-histology correlation data for 2015. Results Responses were obtained from 206 medical institutions including 83 university hospitals, 87 general hospitals, and 36 commercial laboratories. A total of 8,284,952 cytologic examinations were performed in 2015, primarily in commercial laboratories (74.9%. The most common cytology specimens were gynecologic samples (81.3%. Conventional smears and liquid-based cytology were performed in 6,190,526 (74.7% and 2,094,426 (25.3% cases, respectively. The overall diagnostic concordance rate between cytologic and histologic diagnoses of uterine cervical samples was 70.5%. Discordant cases were classified into three categories: category A (minimal clinical impact, 17.4%, category B (moderate clinical impact, 10.2%, and category C (major clinical impact, 1.9%. The ratio of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance to squamous intraepithelial lesion was 1.6 in university hospitals, 2.9 in general hospitals, and 4.9 in commercial laboratories. Conclusions This survey reveals the current status and trend of cytology practices in Korea. The results of this study can serve as basic data for the establishment of nationwide cytopathology policies and quality improvement guidelines in Korean medical institutions.

  6. Cytologic diagnosis: expression of probability by clinical pathologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, Mary M; Hotz, Christine S

    2004-01-01

    Clinical pathologists use descriptive terms or modifiers to express the probability or likelihood of a cytologic diagnosis. Words are imprecise in meaning, however, and may be used and interpreted differently by pathologists and clinicians. The goals of this study were to 1) assess the frequency of use of 18 modifiers, 2) determine the probability of a positive diagnosis implied by the modifiers, 3) identify preferred modifiers for different levels of probability, 4) ascertain the importance of factors that affect expression of diagnostic certainty, and 5) evaluate differences based on gender, employment, and experience. We surveyed 202 clinical pathologists who were board-certified by the American College of Veterinary Pathologists (Clinical Pathology). Surveys were distributed in October 2001 and returned by e-mail, fax, or surface mail over a 2-month period. Results were analyzed by parametric and nonparametric tests. Survey response rate was 47.5% (n = 96) and primarily included clinical pathologists at veterinary schools (n = 58) and diagnostic laboratories (n = 31). Eleven of 18 terms were used "often" or "sometimes" by >/= 50% of respondents. Broad variability was found in the probability assigned to each term, especially those with median values of 75 to 90%. Preferred modifiers for 7 numerical probabilities ranging from 0 to 100% included 68 unique terms; however, a set of 10 terms was used by >/= 50% of respondents. Cellularity and quality of the sample, experience of the pathologist, and implications of the diagnosis were the most important factors affecting the expression of probability. Because of wide discrepancy in the implied likelihood of a diagnosis using words, defined terminology and controlled vocabulary may be useful in improving communication and the quality of data in cytology reporting.

  7. Interobserver reproducibility of the Paris system for reporting urinary cytology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa Long

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Paris System for Reporting Urinary Cytology represents a significant improvement in classification of urinary specimens. The system acknowledges the difficulty in cytologically diagnosing low-grade urothelial carcinomas and has developed categories to deal with this issue. The system uses six categories: unsatisfactory, negative for high-grade urothelial carcinoma (NHGUC, atypical urothelial cells, suspicious for high-grade urothelial carcinoma, high-grade urothelial carcinoma, other malignancies and a seventh subcategory (low-grade urothelial neoplasm. Methods: Three hundred and fifty-seven urine specimens were independently reviewed by four cytopathologists unaware of the previous diagnoses. Each cytopathologist rendered a diagnosis according to the Paris System categories. Agreement was assessed using absolute agreement and weighted chance-corrected agreement (kappa. Disagreements were classified as low impact and high impact based on the potential impact of a misclassification on clinical management. Results: The average absolute agreement was 65% with an average expected agreement of 44%. The average chance-corrected agreement (kappa was 0.32. Nine hundred and ninety-nine of 1902 comparisons between rater pairs were in agreement, but 12% of comparisons differed by two or more categories for the category NHGUC. Approximately 15% of the disagreements were classified as high clinical impact. Conclusions: Our findings indicated that the scheme recommended by the Paris System shows adequate precision for the category NHGUC, but the other categories demonstrated unacceptable interobserver variability. This low level of diagnostic precision may negatively impact the applicability of the Paris System for widespread clinical application.

  8. Service Quality Of Diagnostic Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology In A Tertiary Care Hospital Of Lahore (Process Measure As Patient's Perspective).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Zainab; Usmani, Rabia Arshed; Rizvi, Amna; Wazir, Salim; Zahra, Taskeen; Rasool, Hafza

    2017-01-01

    Quality of any service is the most important aspect for the manufacturer as well as the consumer. The primary objective of any nation's health system is to provide supreme quality health care services to its patients. The objective of this study was to assess the quality of diagnostic fine needle aspiration cytology service in a tertiary care hospital. As Patient's perspectives provide valuable information on quality of process, therefore, patient's perception in terms of satisfaction with the service was measured. In this cross sectional analytical study, 291 patients undergoing fine needle aspiration cytology in Mayo Hospital were selected by systematic sampling technique. Information regarding satisfaction of patients with four dimensions of service quality process, namely "procedure, sterilization, conduct and competency of doctor" was collected through interview on questionnaire. The questionnaire was developed on SERVQUAL model, a measurement tool, for quality assessment of services provided to patients. All items were assessed on 2- point likert scale (0=dissatisfied, 1=satisfied). Frequencies and percentages of satisfied and dissatisfied patients were recorded for each item and all items in each dimension were scored. If the percentage of sum of all item scores of a dimension was ≥60, the dimension was 'good quality'. Whereas quality' dimension. Data was analysed using epi-info-3.5.1. Fisher test was applied to check statistical significance. (p-value service quality process, Procedure (48.8%), Sterilization (51.5%) and practitioner conduct (50.9%) were perceived as 'poor' by the patients. Only practitioner competency (67.4%) was perceived as 'good'. Comparison of dimensions of service quality scoring with overall level of patient satisfaction revealed that all 4 dimensions were significantly related to patient dissatisfaction (pservice quality of therapeutic and diagnostic procedures in public hospitals should be routinely monitored from the patients

  9. Behaviour of the surface hydroxide groups of exfoliated kaolinite in the gas phase and during water adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Táborosi, Attila; Szilágyi, Róbert K

    2016-02-14

    The chemical and physical properties, and thus the reactivity of phylloaluminosilicates can be tailored by intercalation, delamination, and exfoliation processes. In going from the periodic crystalline to the molecular exfoliated phase, surface defects and modifications gain importance as each face of the phylloaluminosilicate comes in direct contact with the external chemical environment. In this work, we extend our earlier studies on the molecular cluster modelling of exfoliated kaolinite sheets by evaluating the positions and orientations of surface hydroxide groups and bridging oxide anions, as the sites of reactivity. The previous focus on the inner chemical environment of a single kaolinite layer is shifted to the surface exposed octahedral aluminium-hydroxide and tetrahedral silicon-oxide sheets. The combination of semi-empirical, ab initio wave function, and density functional calculations unanimously support the amphoteric nature of the surface hydroxide groups with respect to H-bonding donor/acceptor capabilities. To a lesser extent, we observe the same for the bridging oxide anions. This is in contrast to the crystalline phase, which manifests only donor orientation for maintaining an inter-layer H-bond network. These results suggest that both electrophilic and nucleophilic characteristics of the octahedral and tetrahedral sheets need to be considered during intercalation and concomitant exfoliation of the kaolinite sheets.

  10. Speciation of arsenic in exfoliated urinary bladder epithelial cells from individuals exposed to arsenic in drinking water

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hernández-Zavala, A.; Valenzuela, O.L.; Matoušek, Tomáš; Drobná, Z.; Dědina, Jiří; Garcia-Vargas, G.G.; Thomas, D. J.; Del Razo, L.M.; Stýblo, M.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 116, č. 12 (2008), s. 1656-1660 ISSN 0091-6765 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400310507 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : arsenic species * drinking water * exfoliated human urinary bladder epithelial cells Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 6.123, year: 2008

  11. Interfacial-Bonding-Regulated CO Oxidation over Pt Atoms Immobilized on Gas-Exfoliated Hexagonal Boron Nitride

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Xin; Zhu, Hongdan; Linguerri, Roberto; Han, Yu; Chambaud, Gilberte; Meng, Changgong

    2017-01-01

    We compared the electronic structure and CO oxidation mechanisms over Pt atoms immobilized by both B-vacancies and N-vacancies on gas-exfoliated hexagonal boron nitride. We showed that chemical bonds are formed between the B atoms associated

  12. Genetic association study of exfoliation syndrome identifies a protective rare variant at LOXL1 and five new susceptibility loci

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aung, Tin; Ozaki, Mineo; Lee, Mei Chin

    2017-01-01

    Exfoliation syndrome (XFS) is the most common known risk factor for secondary glaucoma and a major cause of blindness worldwide. Variants in two genes, LOXL1 and CACNA1A, have previously been associated with XFS. To further elucidate the genetic basis of XFS, we collected a global sample of XFS c...

  13. Facile and Green Production of Impurity-Free Aqueous Solutions of WS2 Nanosheets by Direct Exfoliation in Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Long; Liu, Yi-Tao; Xie, Xu-Ming; Ye, Xiong-Ying

    2016-12-01

    To obtain 2D materials with large quantity, low cost, and little pollution, liquid-phase exfoliation of their bulk form in water is a particularly fascinating concept. However, the current strategies for water-borne exfoliation exclusively employ stabilizers, such as surfactants, polymers, or inorganic salts, to minimize the extremely high surface energy of these nanosheets and stabilize them by steric repulsion. It is worth noting, however, that the remaining impurities inevitably bring about adverse effects to the ultimate performances of 2D materials. Here, a facile and green route to large-scale production of impurity-free aqueous solutions of WS 2 nanosheets is reported by direct exfoliation in water. Crucial parameters such as initial concentration, sonication time, centrifugation speed, and centrifugation time are systematically evaluated to screen out an optimized condition for scaling up. Statistics based on morphological characterization prove that substantial fraction (66%) of the obtained WS 2 nanosheets are one to five layers. X-ray diffraction and Raman characterizations reveal a high quality with few, if any, structural distortions. The water-borne exfoliation route opens up new opportunities for easy, clean processing of WS 2 -based film devices that may shine in the fields of, e.g., energy storage and functional nanocomposites owing to their excellent electrochemical, mechanical, and thermal properties. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. In situ growth of capping-free magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles on liquid-phase exfoliated graphene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsoufis, T.; Syrgiannis, Z.; Akhtar, N.; Prato, M.; Katsaros, F.; Sideratou, Z.; Kouloumpis, A.; Gournis, D.; Rudolf, P.

    2015-01-01

    We report a facile approach for the in situ synthesis of very small iron oxide nanoparticles on the surface of high-quality graphene sheets. Our synthetic strategy involved the direct, liquid-phase exfoliation of highly crystalline graphite (avoiding any oxidation treatment) and the subsequent

  15. Cytological and histological correlation of granular cell tumor in a series of three cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soutrik Das

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Granular cell tumor (GCT is an uncommon soft tissue tumor characterized by proliferation of cells with granular eosinophilic cytoplasm. We came across three such tumors, one in the tongue, one in the chest wall, and one in the right deltoid region, which were referred for fine-needle aspiration cytology. On cytological examination, the first two cases were diagnosed as GCT, and the mass in deltoid region was suggestive of proliferative myositis. The cytological details of these cases are discussed. The excision biopsies of the first two cases and Tru-cut biopsy of the deltoid mass confirmed the diagnosis of GCT.

  16. Galactography paper in the handling of patient with secretion for the nipple: Comparison with cytology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez C, Aurelio; Ortiz U, Jaime Eduardo; Patino P, Jairo Hernando; Diaz G, Constanza

    1993-01-01

    It was done galactography and cytology in 30 patients with spontaneous secretion through the nipple. The haematic secretion was the most frequent (43.3%). the fibrocystic changes were the most common case of diagnosed telorrea by the two methods (60% by galactography and 56.7% by cytology), which coincide in the papilloma diagnose in 50% of the cases and in the 70,6% in the non-tumoral benign pathology diagnose. The galactography continues being the elected method to evaluate the patients with haematic secretion, keeping the cytology as a complementary exam

  17. Subtyping of nonsmall cell lung cancer on cytology specimens: Reproducibility of cytopathologic diagnoses on sparse material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haukali, O. S.; Henrik, H.; Olsen, Karen Ege

    2014-01-01

    Cytologic examination of fine-needle aspiration (material is increasingly used in diagnosing lung cancer. High interobserver agreement in distinguishing small-cell lung cancer from nonsmall-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) on cytologic material has been demonstrated. Because of new treatment......, cytoscrape (CS) can convert cytologic material into tissue fragments useful for IHC. The purpose of this study was to test the reproducibility of pulmonary malignant diagnoses, in particular distinction between subgroups of NSCLC, based on smeared material and IHC on CS. A consecutive series of May...

  18. Significance of chest CT for localization of lung cancer detected by sputum cytology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriya, Hiroshi; Hashimoto, Naoto; Shibuya, Hiroko

    1998-01-01

    This paper discusses the method of localization of cancer detected by sputum cytology. Of the malignancies detected by sputum cytology, about 40% consisted of cancers in upper respiratory tract and lung cancers located peripherally beyond the range of optimal bronchoscopic visibility. Thus, in cases with positive sputum cytology, the otorhinolaryngeal examination and chest CT are necessary. And, it is often difficult to localize cancers by bronchofiberscopy and these examinations, so careful follow-up is necessary in cases, in which localization is not confirmed. (author)

  19. Rosette forming glioneuronal tumor of the fourth ventricle in squash cytology smear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amita Radhakrishnan Nair

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rosette forming glioneuronal tumor (RGNT is a recently recognized and extremely rare glioneuronal tumor occurring in the fourth ventricle. It is crucial for the cytopathologist to be aware of this entity as it can be easily mistaken for more common neoplasms occurring at this site. We present here the cytology of such a rare case of RGNT that was misdiagnosed as ependymoma. The varying cytological features of this entity, as well as the common diagnostic difficulties encountered in cytology, are highlighted in this report.

  20. Stabilization of antioxidant gallate in layered double hydroxide by exfoliation and reassembling reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansy, Kanakappan Mickel; Lee, Ji-Hee; Piao, Huiyan; Choi, Goeun; Choy, Jin-Ho

    2018-06-01

    As for the stabilization of chemically sensitive bioactive molecule in this study, gallic acid (GA) with antioxidant property was intercalated into interlayer space of layered double hydroxide (LDH), which was realized by exfoliation and reassembling reaction. At first, the pristine nitrate-type Zn2Al-LDH in solid state was synthesized via co-precipitation followed by the hydrothermal treatment at 80 °C for 6 h, and then exfoliated in formamide to form a colloidal solution of exfoliated LDH nanosheets, and finally reassembled in the presence of GA to prepare GA intercalated LDH (GA-LDH) desired, where the pH was adjusted to 8.0 in order to deprotonate GA to form gallate anion. According to the XRD analysis, GA-LDH showed well-developed (00l) diffraction peaks with a basal spacing of 1.15 nm, which was estimated to be larger than that of the pristine LDH (0.88 nm), indicating that gallate molecules were incorporated into LDH layers with perpendicular orientation. From the FT-IR spectra it was found that gallic acid was completely deprotonated into gallate, and stabilized in between LDH lattices via electrostatic interaction. The content of GA in GA-LDH was determined to be around 23 wt% by UV-vis spectroscopic study, which was also confirmed by HPLC analysis. According to the in-vitro release of GA out of GA-LDH in PBS solution (pH 7.4) at 4 °C, GA was sustainably released from GA-LDH nanohybrid up to 86% within 72 h. The antioxidant property of GA-LDH was almost the same with that of intact GA which was examined by DPPH. The photostability of GA-LDH under UV light irradiation was immensely enhanced compared to intact GA. It is, therefore, concluded that the present GA-LDH nanohybrid can be considered as an excellent antioxidant material with high chemical- and photo-stabilities, and controlled release property.

  1. Access Of Women In Jail To Cytological Exam: A Quantitative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Aurília Ferreira Macêdo Maximino

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Goal: to know the access of women prisoners to cytological examination. Method: exploratory-descriptive quantitative study, carried out at the Maria Júlia Maranhão Female Rehabilitation Center, in the city of João Pessoa/PB. The study population was of all closed regimens, and the minimum sample was 168 (one hundred and sixty-eight. Data collection was formalized through approval by the Research Ethics Committee of the Faculdade de Enfermagem Nova Esperança (FACENE, CAAE: 18363713.8.0000.5179, besides the official referral of the Coordination of the Course to said prison. The present study respected the ethical aspects recommended by Resolution CNS 466/12, in art. III, of the ethical aspects, which deals with the involvement with human beings in research, as well as Resolution COFEN 311/2007, which deals with the code of ethics of nursing professionals.   Results and Discussion: data from the survey show that 33% of study participants were between the ages of 18 and 25; 58% reported being single; 48% have Incomplete Elementary Education; 39% with the profession of domestic; 48% have a family income of one minimum wage; 58% have one to two years imprisonment; 74% inflicted the drug trafficking article; 67% mentioned working in general prison services.   Conclusion: it is concluded that the participants of the research report having knowledge about the exam, but their answers do not correspond to the true meaning of the exam, showing the lack of knowledge, information, assistance and abandonment in which they live.   Descriptors: Women. Papanicolaou Test. Prisoners. Nursing.

  2. The potential of liquid-based cytology in lymph node cytological evaluation: the role of morphology and the aid of ancillary techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, E D; Martini, M; Straccia, P; Bizzarro, T; Fadda, G; Larocca, L M

    2016-02-01

    Our aim was to evaluate the feasibility and diagnostic accuracy of liquid-based cytology (LBC) on lymph node fine needle aspiration (FNA). FNA may fulfil a challenging role in the evaluation of the majority of primary (benign and malignant) diagnoses as well as metastatic lymph node lesions. Although the morphological features may be quite easily recognized, cytological samples with a scant cellular component may raise some issues. We appraised 263 cytological lymph nodes from different body regions analysed between January and December 2013, including 137 male and 126 female patients, and processed with LBC. The cytological diagnoses included 160 benign and 103 malignant lesions. We reported 35 benign and 73 malignant lesions from 108 with surgical follow-up. The latter malignant series included 68 metastatic lesions, four suspicious for malignancy and one inadequate sample. The cytological diagnoses were supported by 62 conclusive immunocytochemical and 28 molecular analyses. Of the 108 cases, we documented 35 true negatives, 72 true positives, one false negative and no false positives, resulting in 98.6% sensitivity, 100% specificity, 99% diagnostic accuracy, 97.2% negative predictive value and 100% positive predictive value. FNA represents the first diagnostic tool in lymph node management and a reliable approach in order to avoid an excision biopsy. Furthermore, LBC is a feasible method for ancillary tests for which methanol-fixed samples are suitable, such as immunocytochemistry and molecular analysis. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Oleic acid-assisted exfoliated few layer graphene films as counter electrode in dye-sensitized solar cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Jincheng; Wang, Yinjie; Sun, Darren Delai

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Few layer graphene was obtained by liquid exfoliation in oleic acid (OLA). ► The concentration of exfoliated few layer graphene is as high as 1.3 mg/mL. ► OLA-assisted graphite (OLA-G) film has high catalytic activity. ► A power conversion efficiency of 3.56% can be gained by DSSCs with the counter electrode of OLA-G film. - Abstract: We have demonstrated a facile sonication method to exfoliate graphite into few layer graphene with a high concentration of 1.3 mg/mL in oleic acid (OLA). The exfoliations of natural graphite in oleylamine (OA) and trioctylphosphine (TOP) are investigated as a comparison. The few layer graphene dispersion in OLA and the graphite nanoparticles in OA are confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation. The exfoliated graphene dispersion in OLA (OLA-G) and graphite dispersion in OA (OA-G) are fabricated into a film on the FTO substrate by the doctor-blading method. The morphology and catalytic activity in the redox couple regeneration of all the graphite films are examined by field emission scanning electron microscopy and cyclic voltammograms. The OLA-G films on FTO glass with few layer graphene flakes shows better catalytic activity than the OA-G films. The energy conversion efficiency of the cell with the OLA-G film as counter electrode reached 3.56%, which is 70% of dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) with the sputtering-Pt counter electrode under the same experimental condition.

  4. Charge transfer in carbon composites based on fullerenes and exfoliated graphite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezkin, V. I.

    2017-07-01

    Kinetic processes have been studied in composites based on fullerenes and exfoliated graphite at the initial proportions of components from 1: 16 to 16: 1 in mass. The samples are produced by heat treatment of initial dispersed mixtures in vacuum in the diffusion-adsorption process, their further cold pressing, and annealing. It is shown that the annealing almost does not influence the conduction mechanisms and only induces additional structural defects acting as electron traps. As a whole, the results obtained at the noted proportions of components make it possible to consider the material as a compensated metallic system with a structural disorder in which the charge transfer at temperatures from 4.2 K to room temperature is controlled by quantum interference phenomena. At low temperatures, the effect of a weak localization is observed, and the electron-electron interactions take place at medium and high temperatures.

  5. Exfoliated graphite/titanium dioxide nanocomposites for photodegradation of eosin yellow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndlovu, Thabile; Kuvarega, Alex T.; Arotiba, Omotayo A.; Sampath, Srinivasan; Krause, Rui W.; Mamba, Bhekie B.

    2014-05-01

    An improved photocatalyst consisting of a nanocomposite of exfoliated graphite and titanium dioxide (EG-TiO2) was prepared. SEM and TEM micrographs showed that the spherical TiO2 nanoparticles were evenly distributed on the surface of the EG sheets. A four times photocatalytic enhancement was observed for this floating nanocomposite compared to TiO2 and EG alone for the degradation of eosin yellow. For all the materials, the reactions followed first order kinetics where for EG-TiO2, the rate constant was much higher than for EG and TiO2 under visible light irradiation. The enhanced photocatalytic activity of EG-TiO2 was ascribed to the capability of graphitic layers to accept and transport electrons from the excited TiO2, promoting charge separation. This indicates that carbon, a cheap and abundant material, can be a good candidate as an electron attracting reservoir for photocatalytic organic pollutant degradation.

  6. Ferroelectric field-effect transistors based on solution-processed electrochemically exfoliated graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidler, Jonas; Yang, Sheng; Feng, Xinliang; Müllen, Klaus; Asadi, Kamal

    2018-06-01

    Memories based on graphene that could be mass produced using low-cost methods have not yet received much attention. Here we demonstrate graphene ferroelectric (dual-gate) field effect transistors. The graphene has been obtained using electrochemical exfoliation of graphite. Field-effect transistors are realized using a monolayer of graphene flakes deposited by the Langmuir-Blodgett protocol. Ferroelectric field effect transistor memories are realized using a random ferroelectric copolymer poly(vinylidenefluoride-co-trifluoroethylene) in a top gated geometry. The memory transistors reveal ambipolar behaviour with both electron and hole accumulation channels. We show that the non-ferroelectric bottom gate can be advantageously used to tune the on/off ratio.

  7. Aqueous Exfoliation of Graphite into Graphene Assisted by Sulfonyl Graphene Quantum Dots for Photonic Crystal Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Minxiang; Shah, Smit A; Huang, Dali; Parviz, Dorsa; Yu, Yi-Hsien; Wang, Xuezhen; Green, Micah J; Cheng, Zhengdong

    2017-09-13

    We investigate the π-π stacking of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with graphene surfaces, showing that such interactions are general across a wide range of PAH sizes and species, including graphene quantum dots. We synthesized a series of graphene quantum dots with sulfonyl, amino, and carboxylic functional groups and employed them to exfoliate and disperse pristine graphene in water. We observed that sulfonyl-functionalized graphene quantum dots were able to stabilize the highest concentration of graphene in comparison to other functional groups; this is consistent with prior findings by pyrene. The graphene nanosheets prepared showed excellent colloidal stability, indicating great potential for applications in electronics, solar cells, and photonic displays which was demonstrated in this work.

  8. Weak antilocalization effect in exfoliated black phosphorus revealed by temperature- and angle-dependent magnetoconductivity

    KAUST Repository

    Hou, Zhipeng

    2018-01-10

    Recently, there have been increasingly debates on whether there exists a surface resonance state (SRS) in black phosphorus (BP), as suggested by recent angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) results. To resolve this issue, we have performed temperature- and angle-dependent magnetoconductivity measurements on exfoliated, high-quality BP single crystals. A pronounced weak-antilocalization (WAL) effect was observed within a narrow temperature range of 8 - 16 K, with the electrical current flowing parallel to the cleaved ac-plane (along the a- or c-axis) and the magnetic field along the b-axis. The angle-dependent magnetoconductivity and the Hikami-Larkin-Nagaoka (HLN) model-fitted results have revealed that the observed WAL effect shows surface-bulk coherent features, which supports the existence of SRS in black phosphorus.

  9. Method of producing exfoliated graphite, flexible graphite, and nano-scaled graphene platelets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhamu, Aruna; Shi, Jinjun; Guo, Jiusheng; Jang, Bor Z.

    2010-11-02

    The present invention provides a method of exfoliating a layered material (e.g., graphite and graphite oxide) to produce nano-scaled platelets having a thickness smaller than 100 nm, typically smaller than 10 nm. The method comprises (a) dispersing particles of graphite, graphite oxide, or a non-graphite laminar compound in a liquid medium containing therein a surfactant or dispersing agent to obtain a stable suspension or slurry; and (b) exposing the suspension or slurry to ultrasonic waves at an energy level for a sufficient length of time to produce separated nano-scaled platelets. The nano-scaled platelets are candidate reinforcement fillers for polymer nanocomposites. Nano-scaled graphene platelets are much lower-cost alternatives to carbon nano-tubes or carbon nano-fibers.

  10. Weak antilocalization effect in exfoliated black phosphorus revealed by temperature- and angle-dependent magnetoconductivity

    KAUST Repository

    Hou, Zhipeng; Gong, Chen; Wang, Yue; Zhang, Qiang; Yang, Bingchao; Zhang, Hongwei; Liu, Enke; Liu, Zhongyuan; Zeng, Zhongming; Wu, Guangheng; Wang, Wenhong; Zhang, Xixiang

    2018-01-01

    Recently, there have been increasingly debates on whether there exists a surface resonance state (SRS) in black phosphorus (BP), as suggested by recent angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) results. To resolve this issue, we have performed temperature- and angle-dependent magnetoconductivity measurements on exfoliated, high-quality BP single crystals. A pronounced weak-antilocalization (WAL) effect was observed within a narrow temperature range of 8 - 16 K, with the electrical current flowing parallel to the cleaved ac-plane (along the a- or c-axis) and the magnetic field along the b-axis. The angle-dependent magnetoconductivity and the Hikami-Larkin-Nagaoka (HLN) model-fitted results have revealed that the observed WAL effect shows surface-bulk coherent features, which supports the existence of SRS in black phosphorus.

  11. Ambipolar thermoelectric power of chemically-exfoliated RuO2 nanosheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeongmin; Yoo, Somi; Moon, Hongjae; Kim, Se Yun; Ko, Dong-Su; Roh, Jong Wook; Lee, Wooyoung

    2018-01-01

    The electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient of RuO2 nanosheets are enhanced by metal nanoparticle doping using Ag-acetate solutions. In this study, RuO2 monolayer and bilayer nanosheets exfoliated from layered alkali metal ruthenates are transferred to Si substrates for device fabrication, and the temperature dependence of their conductivity and Seebeck coefficients is investigated. For pristine RuO2 nanosheets, the sign of the Seebeck coefficient changes with temperature from 350-450 K. This indicates that the dominant type of charge carrier is dependent on the temperature, and the RuO2 nanosheets show ambipolar carrier transport behavior. By contrast, the sign of the Seebeck coefficient for Ag nanoparticle-doped RuO2 nanosheets does not change with temperature, indicating that the extra charge carriers from metal nanoparticles promote n-type semiconductor behavior.

  12. Facile method for liquid-exfoliated graphene size prediction by UV-visible spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ismail, Zulhelmi, E-mail: helmie83@hotmail.com [Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, 26600 Pekan, Pahang (Malaysia); Yusoh, Kamal, E-mail: kamal@ump.edu.my [Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Natural Resources, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Lebuhraya Tun Razak, 26300 Kuantan, Pahang (Malaysia)

    2016-07-19

    In this work, an application of UV spectroscopy for facile prediction of liquid –exfoliated graphene size is discussed. Dynamic light scattering method was used to estimate the graphene flake size ( whilst UV spectroscopy measurement was carried out for extinction coefficient value (ε) determination. It was found that the value of (ε) decreased gradually as the graphene size was further reduced after intense sonication time (7h). This observation showed the influence of sonication time on electronic structure of graphene. A mathematical equation was derived from log-log graph for correlation between () and (ε) value. Both values can be expressed in a single equation as ( = (3.4 × 10{sup −2}) ε{sup 1.2}).

  13. Gas-exfoliated porous monolayer boron nitride for enhanced aerobic oxidative desulfurization performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yingcheng; Wu, Peiwen; Chao, Yanhong; He, Jing; Li, Hongping; Lu, Linjie; Jiang, Wei; Zhang, Beibei; Li, Huaming; Zhu, Wenshuai

    2018-01-01

    Hexagonal boron nitride has been regarded to be an efficient catalyst in aerobic oxidation fields, but limited by the less-exposed active sites. In this contribution, we proposed a simple green liquid nitrogen gas exfoliation strategy for preparation of porous monolayer nanosheets (BN-1). Owing to the reduced layer numbers, decreased lateral sizes and artificially-constructed pores, increased exposure of active sites was expected, further contributed to an enhanced aerobic oxidative desulfurization (ODS) performance up to ˜98% of sulfur removal, achieving ultra-deep desulfurization. This work not only introduced an excellent catalyst for aerobic ODS, but also provided a strategy for construction of some other highly-efficient monolayer two-dimensional materials for enhanced catalytic performance.

  14. Exfoliation of graphite into graphene in polar solvents mediated by amphiphilic hexa-peri-hexabenzocoronene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabe, Ryota; Feng, Xinliang; Adachi, Chihaya; Müllen, Klaus

    2014-11-01

    A water-soluble surfactant consisting of hexa-peri-hexabenzocoronene (HBC) as hydrophobic aromatic core and hydrophilic carboxy substituents was synthesized. It exhibited a self-assembled nanofiber structure in the solid state. Profiting from the π interactions between the large aromatic core of HBC and graphene, the surfactant mediated the exfoliation of graphite into graphene in polar solvents, which was further stabilized by the bulky hydrophilic carboxylic groups. A graphene dispersion with a concentration as high as 1.1 mg L(-1) containing 2-6 multilayer nanosheets was obtained. The lateral size of the graphene sheets was in the range of 100-500 nm based on atomic force microscope (AFM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) measurements. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Selective exfoliation of single-layer graphene from non-uniform graphene grown on Cu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Jae-Young; Lee, Jae-Hyun; Jang, Hyeon-Sik; Whang, Dongmok; Joo, Won-Jae; Hwang, SungWoo

    2015-01-01

    Graphene growth on a copper surface via metal-catalyzed chemical vapor deposition has several advantages in terms of providing high-quality graphene with the potential for scale-up, but the product is usually inhomogeneous due to the inability to control the graphene layer growth. The non-uniform regions strongly affect the reliability of the graphene in practical electronic applications. Herein, we report a novel graphene transfer method that allows for the selective exfoliation of single-layer graphene from non-uniform graphene grown on a Cu foil. Differences in the interlayer bonding energy are exploited to mechanically separate only the top single-layer graphene and transfer this to an arbitrary substrate. The dry-transferred single-layer graphene showed electrical characteristics that were more uniform than those of graphene transferred using conventional wet-etching transfer steps. (paper)

  16. Hole-doping of mechanically exfoliated graphene by confined hydration layers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tjeerd R. J. Bollmann[1,2; Liubov Yu. Antipina[3,4; Matthias Temmen[2; Michael Reichling[2; Pavel B. Sorokin[5

    2015-01-01

    By the use of non-contact atomic force microscopy (NC-AFM) and Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM), we measure the local surface potential of mechanically exfoliated graphene on the prototypical insulating hydrophilic substrate of CAF2(111). Hydration layers confined between the graphene and the CaF2 substrate, resulting from the graphene's preparation under ambient conditions on the hydrophilic substrate surface, are found to electronically modify the graphene as the material's electron density transfers from graphene to the hydration layer. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations predict that the first 2 to 3 water layers adjacent to the graphene hole-dope the graphene by several percent of a unit charge per unit cell.

  17. Percolation transition in carbon composite on the basis of fullerenes and exfoliated graphite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezkin, V. I.; Popov, V. V.

    2018-01-01

    The electrical conductivity of a carbon composite on the basis of C60 fullerenes and exfoliated graphite is investigated in the range of relative contents of components from 0 to 100%. The samples are obtained by the thermal treatment of the initial dispersed mixtures in vacuum in the diffusion-adsorption process and their further cold pressing. The resistivity of the samples gradually increases with an increase in the fraction of fullerenes, and a sharp transition from the conductive state to the dielectric one is observed after achieving certain concentrations of C60. The interpretation of the results within the percolation theory makes it possible to evaluate the percolation threshold (expressed as a relative content of graphite) as equal to 4.45 wt % and the critical conductivity index as equal to 1.85 (which is typical for three-dimensional twocomponent disordered media including those having pores).

  18. The period between exfoliation of primary teeth and the emergence of permanent successors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyström, M; Peck, L

    1989-02-01

    The dates of natural exfoliation of primary teeth and of clinical eruption of their successors were recorded in 141 children, a total of 660 teeth. The aim of this investigation was to study the length of the period between these two developmental events. In the mandible, the mean length of the toothless period for the central incisor was 2 weeks and that for the lateral incisors and canines 6 weeks. In the maxilla, the corresponding period was 6 weeks for the central incisor and over 4 months for the lateral incisor and the canine. The mean length of the toothless period was shortest, 0-6 days, between the primary molars and the succeeding premolars. Individual variation was great. No difference was detected between the sexes. In some cases the length of the toothless period for the maxillary lateral incisors and for the canines in both jaws exceeded one year. This was associated with crowding, which caused the premature loss of primary teeth.

  19. CVD growth of graphene under exfoliated hexagonal boron nitride for vertical hybrid structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Min [SKKU Advanced Institute of Nanotechnology (SAINT) (Korea, Republic of); Center for Human Interface Nanotechnology (HINT) (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Sung Kyu [SKKU Advanced Institute of Nanotechnology (SAINT) (Korea, Republic of); Song, Young Jae [SKKU Advanced Institute of Nanotechnology (SAINT) (Korea, Republic of); Department of Physics, Sungkyunkwan University (SKKU), Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sungjoo, E-mail: leesj@skku.edu [SKKU Advanced Institute of Nanotechnology (SAINT) (Korea, Republic of); Center for Human Interface Nanotechnology (HINT) (Korea, Republic of); College of Information and Communication Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University (SKKU), Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    Graphical abstract: We have demonstrated a novel yet simple method for fabricating graphene-based vertical hybrid structures by performing the CVD growth of graphene at an h-BN/Cu interface. Our systematic Raman measurements combined with plasma etching process indicate that a graphene film is grown under exfoliated h-BN rather than on its top surface, and that an h-BN/graphene vertical hybrid structure has been fabricated. Electrical transport measurements of this h-BN/graphene, transferred on SiO2, show the carrier mobility up to approximately 2250 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1}. The developed method would enable the exploration of the possibility of novel hybrid structure integration with two-dimensional material systems. - Abstract: We have demonstrated a novel yet simple method for fabricating graphene-based vertical hybrid structures by performing the CVD growth of graphene at an h-BN/Cu interface. Our systematic Raman measurements combined with plasma etching process indicate that a graphene film is grown under exfoliated h-BN rather than on its top surface, and that an h-BN/graphene vertical hybrid structure has been fabricated. Electrical transport measurements of this h-BN/graphene, transferred on SiO{sub 2}, show the carrier mobility up to approximately 2250 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1}. The developed method would enable the exploration of the possibility of novel hybrid structure integration with two-dimensional material systems.

  20. Production of High-quality Few-layer Graphene Flakes by Intercalation and Exfoliation

    KAUST Repository

    Alzahrani, Areej A.

    2017-11-30

    Graphene, a two-dimensional nanomaterial, has been given much attention since it was first isolated in 2004. Driving this intensive research effort are the unique properties of this one atom thick sheet of carbon, in particular its electrical, thermal and mechanical properties. While the technological applications proposed for graphene abound, its low-cost production in large scales is still a matter of interrogation. Simple methods to obtain few-layered graphene flakes of high structural quality are being investigated with the exfoliation of graphite taking a prominent place in this arena. From the many suggested approaches, the most promising involve the use of liquid media assisted by intercalants and shear forces acting on the basal layers of graphite. In this thesis, it is discussed how a novel method was developed to produce flakes with consistent lateral dimensions that are also few-layered and retain the expected structural and chemical characteristics of graphene. Here, the source material was a commercially available graphiteintercalated compound, also known as expandable graphite. Several exfoliation-inducing tools were investigated including the use of blenders, homogenizers, and ultrasonic processors. To aid in this process, various solvents and intercalants were explored under different reactive conditions. The more efficient approach in yielding defect-free thin flakes was the use of thermally expanded graphite in boiling dimethylformamide followed by ultrasonic processing and centrifugation. In parallel, a method to fraction the flakes as a function of their lateral size was developed. Ultimately, it was possible to obtain samples of graphene flakes with a lateral dimension of a few micrometers (<5 μm) and thickness of 1-3 nm (i.e. <10 layers).

  1. The value of fine needle aspiration and cytologic examination of impalpable complicated breast cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tez, Selda; Dener, Cenap; Köktener, Aslý; Caydere, Muzaffer; Tez, Mesut

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the utility of fine needle aspiration--FNA and cytologic analysis of impalpable complicated breast cysts. We rewieved the imaging findings, aspiration, cytology and biopsy results and followup imaging findings of 246 complicated cysts in 166 women retrospectively. FNA was performed in 169 out of the 246 complicated cysts. Thirtyone lesions were followed-up with US. Surgical biopsy was performed from five lesions. No malignant cells (137 cysts), insufficient cellular material (17 cysts), atypical cells (4 cysts) were seen in cytological examination of the aspirates. None of these lesions were found to represent malignancy at the time of surgical excision and during follow-up. Impalpable complicated breast cysts may be classified as probably benign and can be managed with follow-up imaging studies instead of intervention. Routine cytologic examination is unnecessary if the fluid is not bloody (Tab. 2, Ref. 18). Full Text (Free, PDF) www.bmj.sk.

  2. Diagnostic Value of Processing Cytologic Aspirates of Renal Tumors in Agar Cell (Tissue) Blocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smedts, F.; Schrik, M.; Horn, T.

    2010-01-01

    smears were prepared after each aspiration for conventional cytology and the remaining aspirate was processed for the improved agar microbiopsy (AM) method. Conventional cytology slides, AM slides and surgical specimens were diagnosed separately, after which the diagnoses were compared....... Immunohistochemistry was performed as required on the AM sections. Surgical specimens served as the gold standard. Results In 53% of conventional cytologic smears, the cellular yield was sufficient to render a correct diagnosis. In 12% the diagnosis was incorrect, in 21% only a differential diagnosis could be fin......-initiated, and in 14% too few diagnostic cells were present in the conventional smears for cytologic diagnosis. It was, however, possible to correctly diagnose histologic sections from 97% of AM tissue blocks. In 11 cases this was facilitated with immunochemistry. In only 1 case did the AM tissue block contain too few...

  3. Endobiliary brush biopsy: Intra- and interobserver variation in cytological evaluation of brushings from bile duct strictures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adamsen, S; Olsen, M; Jendresen, MB

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Obtaining cytological specimens by wire-guided endobiliary brushing at the time of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is a convenient way to reach a diagnosis. Sensitivity for malignant disease is generally around 50% and specificity around 100%. The present study...... was designed to assess the reproducibility of the cytological examination. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Samples were obtained from 55 consecutive patients with biliary duct strictures that eventually turned out to be caused by malignant disease in 41 patients (73%). The cytology specimens were evaluated twice...... in different random order with an interval of at least 4 months by two pathologists blinded to the final diagnoses. Suitability for diagnosis (suitable, suboptimal or unsuitable) and cytologic diagnosis (benign, atypical, suspicious for malignancy and malignant cells) were registered. Kappa analysis...

  4. Significance of cytology in the evaluation of radiation therapy for cancer of the uterine cervix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukahara, Yoshiharu; Kato, Junzo; Nakayama, Akiko; Fukamatsu, Yoshito; Shiozawa, Isao; Tomita, Kazuhiko; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Fukuta, Toru.

    1986-01-01

    Cytologic and histologic diagnoses were made on 184 patients with cancer of the uterine cervix treated with radiation therapy. In 125 patients examined at the 8th day after completion of external irradiation, 73 and 52 patients were cytologically positive and negative, respectively, for persistent cancer. Histologically, 74 and 51 patients were positive and negative, respectively. Fifty-eight and 36 patients showed an agreement between the two procedures for positive and negative findings, respectively. In 159 patients examined at the 8th day after both external and intracavitary irradiation, 17 were cytologically diagnosed as positive and 142 as negative: histologically, 53 were positive and 106 were negative. Thirteen and 102 patients showed an agreement between the procedures for positive and negative findings, respectively. Using histological findings as the standard, false negative cases of cytology increased after doing intracavitary irradiation than after external irradiation (25 % vs 13 %). (Namekawa, K.)

  5. Radiological and cytological detection of renal pelvic transitional-cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paeivaensalo, M.; Merikanto, J.; Myllylae, V.; Hellstroem, P.; Kallionen, M.; Jalovaara, P.; Oulu Univ.; Oulu Univ.

    1990-01-01

    We evaluated US, CT, intraveneous urography, arteriography, retrograde pyelography and urine cytology results in a series of 23 patients with renal pelvic transitional-cell carcinomas, 14 of whom underwent US, 17 i.v. urography, 8 CT, 15 arteriography, 9 retrograde pyelography, and 17 patients urine cytology. A tumour was identified in 5 patients (36%) at US, in 11 patients (61%) at urography, in 7 (88%) at CT, in 10 patients (67%) at arteriography, and in 8 (89%) at retrograde pyelography. Urine cytology was assessed as showing changes consistent with Papanicolaou class III-V in 15 (88%) of 17 patients. When renal pelvic cancer is suspected, intravenous urography should be performed as the initial radiological examination and followed by CT, which may also identify tumour spread. Arteriography and retrograde pyelography are sometimes complementary investigations. Repeated urinary cytology is mandatory. Our results show that US alone is unreliable in detecting renal pelvic cancer. (orig.) [de

  6. Comparison of human papillomavirus DNA tests, liquid-based cytology and conventional cytology for the early detection of cervix uteri cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girianelli, Vania R; Thuler, Luiz Claudio S; Szklo, Moyses; Donato, Alexandre; Zardo, Lucilia M G; Lozana, José A; Almeida Neto, Olimpio F; Carvalho, Aurenice C L; Matos, Jorge H; Figueiredo, Valeska

    2006-12-01

    To compare the performance of human papillomavirus DNA tests (samples collected by a healthcare professional and self-collected) and liquid-based cytology with conventional cytology in the detection of cervix uteri cancer and its precursor lesions. A cross-sectional study was carried out in 1777 women living in poor communities in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Eligibility criteria included ages 25-59 years and not having had a Papanicolau test within at least 3 years prior to the study. Cytology (conventional or liquid-based) and human papillomavirus DNA (collected by a healthcare professional or self-collected) tests were performed using samples collected in a single visit. Women with abnormalities in at least one test and a systematic sample of 70 women with negative test results were referred to a colposcopic examination. Test readings were double-masked, and the outcome of interest was high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion or worse. The pathology report was used as the gold standard. The prevalence of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion or worse was 2.0%. Human papillomavirus DNA test collected by a health professional alone or combined with conventional cytology had the highest sensitivity (91.4 and 97.1%, respectively). The highest specificity was found for conventional cytology (91.6%) and for a human papillomavirus DNA test collected by a healthcare professional (90.2%). On the basis of only test performance, the use of human papillomavirus DNA tests, alone or combined with cytology, would seem to be recommended. Its population-wide implementation, however, is conditional on a cost-effectiveness analysis.

  7. [Cytologic diagnosis of adenoid cystic carcinoma of salivary glands and distinction from basal cell adenoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Y P; Zhang, Y; Tian, C; Xing, L; Liu, H G

    2018-04-08

    Objective: To describe the cytologic features of adenoid cystic carcinoma (ADCC) of salivary glands, and to identify distinguishing cytologic features of ADCC and basal cell adenoma (BCA). Methods: A retrospective review of cytology smears of 30 cases of ADCC and 12 cases of BCA of salivary glands were performed. All cases were collected from Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University from January 2010 to January 2017. Except for 2 aspirate smears of ADCC, all were touch imprint smears. All cases had further histological confirmation. Results: Neoplastic ductal cells of ADCC were arranged in three-dimensional clusters, sheets and singles. Hyaline globules were found in most cases (20/30, 66.7%). The nuclei were round to oval, showing varying degrees of nuclear atypia. These included (1) the nuclei were hyperchromatic, demonstrating coarse or slightly coarse, irregularly distributed chromatin; (2) the nuclei were slightly large and vary in size; (3) appearance of the nuclei had a different degree of irregularity (often mild). Nucleoli were common seen (21/30, 70.0%), and were prominent in some cases. Mitosis and necrosis were rare. Cytologically, BCA showed cell arrangements and nuclear features overlapped with those of ADCC. The cytologic difference between these two tumors included: (1) the tumor cells presented rarely in singles; (2) hyaline globules were very uncommon (1/12) in BCA; (3) nuclei of BCA were hypochromatic or slightly hyperchromatic, homogeneous and uniform in appearance and size, overall without nuclear atypia and they were smaller and slender then those of ADCC and (4) individual cells of BCA showed relatively abundant cytoplasm. Conclusions: The cytologic features of ADCC and BCA both overlap and different from each other. Most cases can be diagnosed by cytologic examination. The presence of hyaline globules is an important diagnostic clue of ADCC, although not pathognomonic. Nuclear atypia of neoplastic ductal cells is an essential

  8. Integration of tablet technologies in the e-laboratory of cytology: a health technology assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giansanti, Daniele; Pochini, Marco; Giovagnoli, Maria Rosaria

    2014-10-01

    Although tablet systems are becoming a powerful technology, particularly useful in every application of medical imaging, to date no one has investigated the acceptance and performance of this technology in digital cytology. The specific aims of the work were (1) to design a health technology assessment (HTA) tool to assess, in terms of performance and acceptance, the introduction of tablet technologies (wearable, portable, and non portable) in the e-laboratories of cytology and (2) to test the tool in a first significant application of digital cytology. An HTA tool was proposed operating on a domain of five dimensions of investigation comprising the basic information of the product of digital cytology, the perceived subjective quality of images, the assessment of the virtual navigation on the e-slide, the assessment of the information and communication technologies features, and the diagnostic power. Six e-slides regarding studies of cervicovaginal cytology digitalized by means of an Aperio ( www.aperio.com ) scanner and uploaded onto the www.digitalslide.it Web site were used for testing the methodology on three different network connections. Three experts of cytology successfully tested the methodology on seven tablets found suitable for the study in their own standard configuration. Specific indexes furnished by the tool indicated both a high degree of performance and subjective acceptance of the investigated technology. The HTA tool thus could be useful to investigate new tablet technologies in digital cytology and furnish stakeholders with useful information that may help them make decisions involving the healthcare system. From a global point of view the study demonstrates the feasibility of using the tablet technology in digital cytology.

  9. Yield of Cytology Surveillance After High-Grade Vulvar Intraepithelial Neoplasia or Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroki, Lindsay M; Frolova, Antonina I; Wu, Ningying; Liu, Jingxia; Powell, Matthew; Thaker, Premal H; Massad, L Stewart

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate the risk of high-grade cervical and vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN/VAIN 2+) and cancer among women treated surgically for high-grade vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (HGVIN) and vulvar cancer. We performed a retrospective cohort study of women who underwent surgery for HGVIN/vulvar cancer between 2006 and 2010. Univariate and multivariate analyses using stepwise selection were used to identify correlates of abnormal cytology after treatment for VIN and vulvar cancer. Among 191 women under surveillance for a median of 3.7 years who underwent treatment for HGVIN/vulvar cancer, primary vulvar lesions included VIN 2 (10, 5%), VIN 3 (102, 53%), and carcinoma (79, 41%). During follow-up, 71 (37%) had abnormal cytology, including 47 (25%) low grade, 23 (12%) high grade, and 1 (0.5%) carcinoma. Subsequent risk for VAIN 2+ was 11% (6/57) after previous hysterectomy and 8% for CIN 2+ (10/124) with intact cervix. Overall risk for CIN 3+ was 5%. Correlates of high-grade cytology after treatment for HGVIN/vulvar cancer included nonwhite race (odds ratio [OR] = 3.3, 95% CI = 1.50-7.36), immunodeficiency (OR = 4.2, 95% CI = 1.76-9.94), and previous abnormal cytology (OR = 2.7, 95% CI = 1.29-5.78). Stepwise multivariate analysis revealed immunosuppression as the only significant correlate of high-grade cytology after vulvar treatment (adjusted OR = 3.7, 95% CI = 1.26-10.83). Women with HGVIN/cancer should have cervical/vaginal cytology before vulvar surgery. Those with a negative cervical or vaginal cytology result should undergo cytology testing at 1- to 3-year intervals, based on the threshold for CIN 3+ set forth by the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology.

  10. Cytological changes and conjunctival hyperemia in relation to sensory eye irritation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hempel-Jørgensen, Anne; Kjærgaard, Søren K.; Mølhave, Lars

    1998-01-01

    irritation and possible physiological/pathological changes in the mucosal membranes in relation to studies of indoor air. Two studies (study 1 and study 2) were conducted to investigate changes in conjunctival hyperemia and conjunctival fluid cytology for subjects exposed to volatile organic compounds (VOCs...... and conjunctival fluid was sampled before and after exposure. Moreover, the perceived irritation intensities were registered continuously during exposure. Overall, perceived irritation intensity and conjunctival hyperemia increased with increasing exposure concentrations, whereas cytological changes...

  11. Impact of technology on cytology outcome in cervical cancer screening of young and older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rask, J; Lynge, E; Franzmann, M; Hansen, B; Hjortebjerg, A; Rygaard, C; Schledermann, D; Wåhlin, A; Rebolj, M

    2014-05-01

    Little is known about age-dependent variation in outcomes of cervical cytology with modern technologies. This population-based study evaluated age-dependent changes after routine implementation of ThinPrep and SurePath technology in two independent laboratories, and controlled for time trends in a third laboratory using manually read conventional cytology continually. Data were collected from the Danish National Health Care Registers. For each laboratory, we compared proportions of abnormal cytology defined as atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance or worse (ASCUS+) by age and technology phase. The study included 489,960 cytological samples with no recent abnormality from women aged 23-59 years, routinely screened between 1998 and 2007. Implementation of SurePath liquid-based cytology (LBC) was followed by an increase in abnormal cytology in women aged 23-29 years from 4.6 to 6.1%, relative proportion (RP): 1.31 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.08-1.61], and a decrease in women aged 45-59 years from 2.9 to 2.0%, RP: 0.71 (95% CI: 0.60-0.83). Implementation of ThinPrep LBC was followed by a decrease in abnormal cytology both in women aged 23-29 years from 7.7 to 6.8%, RP: 0.89 (95% CI: 0.78-1.02) and in women aged 45-59 years from 3.4 to 1.0%, RP: 0.30 (95% CI: 0.24-0.37). With implementation of imaging-assisted reading, regardless of the brand of technology, the proportion of abnormality increased by around 30% in all age groups (range from 19 to 41%). In the laboratory with unchanged technology no trends in abnormality proportions were observed. The impact of LBC implementation on cytological abnormality proportions varied considerably across age groups. © 2013 UICC.

  12. Imprint cytology on microcalcifications excised by Vacuum-Assisted Breast Biopsy: A rapid preliminary diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drouveli Theodora

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate imprint cytology in the context of specimens with microcalcifications derived from Vacuum-Assisted Breast Biopsy (VABB. Patients and methods A total of 93 women with microcalcifications BI-RADS 3 and 4 underwent VABB and imprint samples were examined. VABB was performed on Fischer's table using 11-gauge Mammotome vacuum probes. A mammogram of the cores after the procedure confirmed the excision of microcalcifications. For the application of imprint cytology, the cores with microcalcifications confirmed by mammogram were gently rolled against glass microscope slides and thus imprint smears were made. For rapid preliminary diagnosis Diff-Quick stain, modified Papanicolaou stain and May Grunwald Giemsa were used. Afterwards, the core was dipped into a CytoRich Red Collection fluid for a few seconds in order to obtain samples with the use of the specimen wash. After the completion of cytological procedures, the core was prepared for routine histological study. The pathologist was blind to the preliminary cytological results. The cytological and pathological diagnoses were comparatively evaluated. Results According to the pathological examination, 73 lesions were benign, 15 lesions were carcinomas (12 ductal carcinomas in situ, 3 invasive ductal carcinomas, and 5 lesions were precursor: 3 cases of atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH and 2 cases of lobular neoplasia (LN. The observed sensitivity and specificity of the cytological imprints for cancer were 100% (one-sided, 97.5% CI: 78.2%–100%. Only one case of ADH could be detected by imprint cytology. Neither of the two LN cases was detected by the imprints. The imprints were uninformative in 11 out of 93 cases (11.8%. There was no uninformative case among women with malignancy. Conclusion Imprint cytology provides a rapid, accurate preliminary diagnosis in a few minutes. This method might contribute to the diagnosis of early breast cancer and possibly attenuates

  13. Automated Cervical Screening and Triage, Based on HPV Testing and Computer-Interpreted Cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kai; Hyun, Noorie; Fetterman, Barbara; Lorey, Thomas; Raine-Bennett, Tina R; Zhang, Han; Stamps, Robin E; Poitras, Nancy E; Wheeler, William; Befano, Brian; Gage, Julia C; Castle, Philip E; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Schiffman, Mark

    2018-04-11

    State-of-the-art cervical cancer prevention includes human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination among adolescents and screening/treatment of cervical precancer (CIN3/AIS and, less strictly, CIN2) among adults. HPV testing provides sensitive detection of precancer but, to reduce overtreatment, secondary "triage" is needed to predict women at highest risk. Those with the highest-risk HPV types or abnormal cytology are commonly referred to colposcopy; however, expert cytology services are critically lacking in many regions. To permit completely automatable cervical screening/triage, we designed and validated a novel triage method, a cytologic risk score algorithm based on computer-scanned liquid-based slide features (FocalPoint, BD, Burlington, NC). We compared it with abnormal cytology in predicting precancer among 1839 women testing HPV positive (HC2, Qiagen, Germantown, MD) in 2010 at Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC). Precancer outcomes were ascertained by record linkage. As additional validation, we compared the algorithm prospectively with cytology results among 243 807 women screened at KPNC (2016-2017). All statistical tests were two-sided. Among HPV-positive women, the algorithm matched the triage performance of abnormal cytology. Combined with HPV16/18/45 typing (Onclarity, BD, Sparks, MD), the automatable strategy referred 91.7% of HPV-positive CIN3/AIS cases to immediate colposcopy while deferring 38.4% of all HPV-positive women to one-year retesting (compared with 89.1% and 37.4%, respectively, for typing and cytology triage). In the 2016-2017 validation, the predicted risk scores strongly correlated with cytology (P < .001). High-quality cervical screening and triage performance is achievable using this completely automated approach. Automated technology could permit extension of high-quality cervical screening/triage coverage to currently underserved regions.

  14. Malignant peritoneal cytology in stage I endometrial adenocarcinoma: the effect of progesterone therapy (a preliminary report).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piver, M S; Lele, S B; Gamarra, M

    1988-01-01

    From February 1982-June 1986, 25 consecutive patients with surgical stage I endometrial adenocarcinoma (no evidence of metastasis at surgery or occult cervical or adnexal involvement on histopathologic review) and malignant peritoneal cytologic washings were treated with progesterone therapy. Twenty-two patients have undergone a second look laparoscopy and repeat cytologic washings, one of those also underwent a third look laparoscopy. Two patients refused second look laparoscopy, and in a third patient laparoscopy was medically contraindicated; all three have no evidence of disease (NED) at 15, 46, and 64 months respectively and are off therapy. Of the 22 patients who underwent second look laparoscopy, 21 (95%) had no macroscopic evidence of recurrent endometrial carcinoma and repeat negative peritoneal cytology; 1 patient (5%) had persistent malignant peritoneal cytology but was NED at third look laparoscopy one year later. All 25 patients are off progesterone therapy and remain clinically NED from 12-64 months. Although progesterone therapy for malignant peritoneal cytology resulted in a 100% reversal of malignant peritoneal cytology to normal in the 22 patients who underwent second or third look laparoscopy and all 25 patients remain clinically NED, the true value of progesterone therapy can only be ascertained by a randomized trial of progesterone versus no therapy.

  15. Optimization of fecal cytology in the dog: comparison of three sampling methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frezoulis, Petros S; Angelidou, Elisavet; Diakou, Anastasia; Rallis, Timoleon S; Mylonakis, Mathios E

    2017-09-01

    Dry-mount fecal cytology (FC) is a component of the diagnostic evaluation of gastrointestinal diseases. There is limited information on the possible effect of the sampling method on the cytologic findings of healthy dogs or dogs admitted with diarrhea. We aimed to: (1) establish sampling method-specific expected values of selected cytologic parameters (isolated or clustered epithelial cells, neutrophils, lymphocytes, macrophages, spore-forming rods) in clinically healthy dogs; (2) investigate if the detection of cytologic abnormalities differs among methods in dogs admitted with diarrhea; and (3) investigate if there is any association between FC abnormalities and the anatomic origin (small- or large-bowel diarrhea) or the chronicity of diarrhea. Sampling with digital examination (DE), rectal scraping (RS), and rectal lavage (RL) was prospectively assessed in 37 healthy and 34 diarrheic dogs. The median numbers of isolated ( p = 0.000) or clustered ( p = 0.002) epithelial cells, and of lymphocytes ( p = 0.000), differed among the 3 methods in healthy dogs. In the diarrheic dogs, the RL method was the least sensitive in detecting neutrophils, and isolated or clustered epithelial cells. Cytologic abnormalities were not associated with the origin or the chronicity of diarrhea. Sampling methods differed in their sensitivity to detect abnormalities in FC; DE or RS may be of higher sensitivity compared to RL. Anatomic origin or chronicity of diarrhea do not seem to affect the detection of cytologic abnormalities.

  16. Prevalence of intraepithelial lesion in cervical screening cytology in a First-level Care Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solís, José Gabriel; Briones-Torres, Tomás Iván

    2018-01-01

    Cervical cancer represents the second leading cause of malignant neoplasm mortality in women globally. Cervical cytology is the most important screening study. It is therefore of interest to know the prevalence of cytological alterations in the Mexican population. In this study the objective was to calculate the prevalence of intraepithelial lesion in cervical screening cytology. An observational, descriptive and cross-sectional study was developed; the sample was 379 patients from 21 to 64 years of age; we included patients who underwent cervical screening cytology registered in the Detección Oportuna de Cáncer Cervicouterino (DOC-CACU) program database. A descriptive analysis of the data was performed. A prevalence of intraepithelial lesion of 4.49% was found. The 3.17% corresponded to LIEBG and 1.32% to LIEAG. No reports of invasive carcinoma were found. Of these patients, 64.71% corresponded to the age group from 41 to 60 years. 52.94% had had their last cytology in the previous 3 years or more and 35.29% were in postmenopause. A prevalence consistent with what was described in the literature was found. More than half of the affected patients had their last cytology in the previous 3 or more years and corresponded to the age group from 41 to 60 years. A high proportion of patients were in postmenopause.

  17. Telomerase Activity Detected by Quantitative Assay in Bladder Carcinoma and Exfoliated Cells in Urine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Fedriga

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Early diagnosis is one of the most determining factors for patient survival. The detection of telomerase activity is a potentially promising tool in the diagnosis of bladder and other types of cancer due to the high expression of this enzyme in tumor cells. We carried out a quantitative evaluation of telomerase activity in urine samples in an attempt to determine a cut-off capable of identifying cancer patients. Telomerase activity was quantified by fluorescence TRAP assay in urine from 50 healthy volunteers and in urine and bioptic tumor samples from 56 previously untreated bladder cancer patients and expressed in arbitrary enzymatic units (AEU. Telomerase activity in urine ranged from 0 to 106 AEU (median 0 in healthy donors and from 0 to 282 AEU (median 87 in patients with cancer. A telomerase expression higher than the cut off value determined by receiver operating characteristic (ROC analysis was observed in 78% of cases, regardless of tumor grade and in 71% (15/21 of cases of nonassessable or negative cytology. The quantitative analysis of telomerase activity in urine enabled us to define cut-off values characterized by different sensitivity and specificity. Cytologic and telomerase determination, used sequentially, enabled us to detect about 90% of tumors.

  18. A flexible and transparent graphene/ZnO nanorod hybrid structure fabricated by exfoliating a graphite substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Gwang-Hee; Baek, Seong-Ho; Cho, Chang-Hee; Park, Il-Kyu

    2014-09-01

    We demonstrate the fabrication of a graphene/ZnO nanorod (NR) hybrid structure by mechanical exfoliation of ZnO NRs grown on a graphite substrate. We confirmed the existence of graphene sheets on the hybrid structure by analyzing the Raman spectra and current-voltage (I-V) characteristics. The Raman spectra of the exfoliated graphene/ZnO NR hybrid structure show G and 2D band peaks that are shifted to lower wavenumbers, indicating that the exfoliated graphene layer exists under a significant amount of strain. The I-V characteristics of the graphene/ZnO NR hybrid structure show current flow through the graphene layer, while no current flow is observed on the ZnO NR/polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) composite without graphene, thereby indicating that the few-layer graphene was successfully transferred onto the hybrid structure. A piezoelectric nanogenerator is demonstrated by using the fabricated graphene/ZnO NR hybrid structure. The nanogenerator exhibits stable output voltage up to 3.04 V with alternating current output characteristics.We demonstrate the fabrication of a graphene/ZnO nanorod (NR) hybrid structure by mechanical exfoliation of ZnO NRs grown on a graphite substrate. We confirmed the existence of graphene sheets on the hybrid structure by analyzing the Raman spectra and current-voltage (I-V) characteristics. The Raman spectra of the exfoliated graphene/ZnO NR hybrid structure show G and 2D band peaks that are shifted to lower wavenumbers, indicating that the exfoliated graphene layer exists under a significant amount of strain. The I-V characteristics of the graphene/ZnO NR hybrid structure show current flow through the graphene layer, while no current flow is observed on the ZnO NR/polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) composite without graphene, thereby indicating that the few-layer graphene was successfully transferred onto the hybrid structure. A piezoelectric nanogenerator is demonstrated by using the fabricated graphene/ZnO NR hybrid structure. The nanogenerator

  19. High-efficiency exfoliation of layered materials into 2D nanosheets in switchable CO2/Surfactant/H2O system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Nan; Xu, Qun; Xu, Shanshan; Qi, Yuhang; Chen, Meng; Li, Hongxiang; Han, Buxing

    2015-11-01

    Layered materials present attractive and important properties due to their two-dimensional (2D) structure, allowing potential applications including electronics, optoelectronics, and catalysis. However, fully exploiting the outstanding properties will require a method for their efficient exfoliation. Here we present that a series of layered materials can be successfully exfoliated into single- and few-layer nanosheets using the driving forces coming from the phase inversion, i.e., from micelles to reverse micelles in the emulsion microenvironment built by supercritical carbon dioxide (SC CO2). The effect of variable experimental parameters including CO2 pressure, ethanol/water ratio, and initial concentration of bulk materials on the exfoliation yield have been investigated. Moreover, we demonstrate that the exfoliated 2D nanosheets have their worthwhile applications, for example, graphene can be used to prepare conductive paper, MoS2 can be used as fluorescent label to perform cellular labelling, and BN can effectively reinforce polymers leading to the promising mechanical properties.

  20. Role of cytological grading in the management of breast lump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehmood, A.; Ahmed, M.; Jamal, S.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the fine needle aspiration (FNA) smears of the breast lumps using the cytological evaluation system (C1 to C5) as practiced in the National Breast Screening Programme in the UK. Results: A total of 75 patients of lump breast were included in the project. The age range was 13-75 years with a peak incidence in the 3rd decade. There were 70 (93.3%) females and 5 (6.6%) male cases. Of the total 75 cases, 7 were designated C1, 45 C2, 5 C3, 7 C4 and 11 C5. In surgical biopsies, all the 45 cases designated as C2 proved to be benign with fibroadenoma and fibrocystic change as predominant lesions. All 11 designated C5 proved to be malignant; whereas, of the 5 cases labeled as C3, 4 were benign and one was malignant and out of seven C4 cases, 5 came out as malignant and 2 proved benign. Conclusion: the fine needle aspiration of lump breast has a sensitivity of 94.1%, specificity of 96.0% and accuracy of 95.5%. The C1-C5 grading system is practical, flexible, and gives room for expression of opinion by cytopathologist and easily interpreted by clincians. (author)

  1. Integrating a FISH imaging system into the cytology laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denice Smith G

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We have implemented an interactive imaging system for the interpretation of UroVysion fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH to improve throughput, productivity, quality control and diagnostic accuracy. We describe the Duet imaging system, our experiences with implementation, and outline the financial investment, space requirements, information technology needs, validation, and training of cytotechnologists needed to integrate such a system into a cytology laboratory. Before purchasing the imaging system, we evaluated and validated the instrument at our facility. Implementation required slide preparation changes, IT modifications, development of training programs, and revision of job descriptions for cytotechnologists. A darkened room was built to house the automated scanning station and microscope, as well as two imaging stations. IT changes included generation of storage for archival images on the LAN, addition of external hard drives for back-up, and changes to cable connections for communication between remote locations. Training programs for cytotechnologists, and pathologists/fellows/residents were developed, and cytotechnologists were integrated into multiple steps of the process. The imaging system has resulted in increased productivity for pathologists, concomitant with an expanded role of cytotechnologists in multiple critical steps, including FISH, scan setup, reclassification, and initial interpretation.

  2. Fine needle aspiration cytology: sensitivity and specificity in thyroid lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musani, M.A.; Khan, F.A.; Malik, S.; Khambaty, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Thyroid enlargement is one of the common problems in patients presenting at outpatients department of ENT particularly in females. Thyroid nodules are common, thyroid cancer is uncommon and the most common way for it to present is as a solitary thyroid nodule. This study was conducted to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) in thyroid diseases. Method: This prospective analytic study was conducted at ENT Department of Karachi Medical and Dental College/Abbasi Shaheed Hospital during year 2004-8. One hundred and five cases were enrolled who underwent thyroid surgery after complete evaluation by history, clinical examination, Thyroid profile, Thyroid Scintigraphy, Ultrasound neck and FNAC. In cases which were revealed malignant by FNAC, CT scan were done to see the extent of disease and neck node status. Surgery was done in all cases and specimens sent for histopathology. Results: Male to female ratio of the patients was 1:8.5. Most common lesion was benign nodule (96). Malignant lesions were 9 in FNAC. In histopathology, the benign nodules were 92, and malignant cases were 13. Sensitivity of FNAC was 61.53% and specificity was 98.9%. Conclusion: FNAC in Thyroid has high sensitivity and specificity. (author)

  3. Acute human parvovirus b19 infection: cytologic diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharada Raju, Rane; Nalini Vinayak, Kadgi; Madhusudan Bapat, Vishnuprasad; Preeti Balkisanji, Agrawal; Shaila Chandrakant, Puranik

    2014-09-01

    Human parvovirus B19 is highly tropic to human bone marrow and replicates only in erythroid progenitor cells. It is causative agent of transient aplastic crisis in patients with chronic haemolytic anemia. In immunocompromised patients persistent parvovirus B19 infection may develop and it manifests as pure red cell aplasia and chronic anaemia. Bone marrow is characterised morphologically by giant pronormoblast stage with little or no further maturation. We encountered a case of 6 year old HIV positive male child presented with pure red cell aplasia due to parvovirus B19 infection. Bone marrow aspiration cytology revealed giant pronormoblast with prominent intranuclear inclusions led to suspicion of parvovirus B19 infection which was confirmed by DNA PCR. This case is presented to report classical morphological features of parvovirus B19 infection rarely seen on bone marrow examination should warrant the suspicion of human parvovirus B19 infection in the setting of HIV positive patient with repeated transfusions and confirmation should be done by PCR.

  4. Diagnostic performance of cytology for assessment of hepatic lipid content in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, M M; Yao, B; Ríos, C; Wong, C; Mann, S; McArt, J A A; Nydam, D V; Leal Yepes, F A; Viesselmann, L; Geick, A; Goldin, K; Jordan, A; Behling-Kelly, E

    2018-02-01

    The objective of our study was to characterize the diagnostic performance of cytology for assessing hepatic lipid content (HLC) in dairy cows by comparing microscopic evaluation of lipid vacuolation in touch imprint slide preparations of liver biopsies with quantitative measurement of triglyceride concentration ([TG]; mg/mg of wet weight) in paired biopsy samples. Our study also sought to compare the diagnostic performance of liver cytology, plasma nonesterified fatty acid concentration ([NEFA]), and plasma β-hydroxybutyrate concentration ([BHB]) derived from a measurement performed on whole blood, for assessing HLC. Chemical extraction of TG from liver tissue remains the gold standard for quantifying HLC, largely because available blood tests, although useful for detecting some types of pathology, such as increased lipid mobilization, ketosis, or hepatocellular injury, are nonspecific as to etiology. Veterinary practitioners can sample bovine liver for cytological evaluation in a fast, minimally invasive, and inexpensive manner. Thus, if highly predictive of HLC, cytology would be a practical diagnostic tool for dairy veterinarians. In our study, liver biopsy samples from Holstein cows (219 samples from 105 cows: 52 from cows 2 to 20 d prepartum, 105 from cows 0 to 10 d in milk, 62 from cows 18 to 25 d in milk) were used to prepare cytology slides and to quantify [TG] using the Folch extraction method followed by the Hantzch condensation reaction and spectrophotometric measurement. An ordinal scale (0-4) based on amount of hepatocellular cytoplasm occupied by discrete clear vacuoles was used by 3 blinded, independent observers to rank HLC in Wright-Giemsa-stained slides. Interobserver agreement in cytology scoring was good. Corresponding plasma [NEFA] and [BHB] measurements were available for 187 and 195 of the 219 samples, respectively. Liver [TG] correlated more strongly with cytology score than with NEFA or BHB, and receiver operating characteristic curve

  5. Potentiation of cigarette smoking and radiation: evidence from a sputum cytology survey among uranium miners and controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Band, P.; Feldstein, M.; Saccomanno, G.; Watson, L.; King, G.

    1980-01-01

    To assess the effect of cigarette smoking and of exposure to radon daughters, a prospective survey consisting of periodic sputum cytology evaluation was initiated among 249 underground uranium miners and 123 male controls. Sputum cytology specimens showing moderate atypia, marked atypia, or cancer cells were classified as abnormal. As compared to control smokers, miners who smoke had a significantly higher incidence of abnormal cytology (P = 0.025). For miner smokers, the observed frequencies of abnormal cytology were linearly related to cumulative exposure to radon daughters and to the number of years of uranium mining. A statistical model relating the probability of abnormal cytology to the risk factors was investigated using a binary logistic regression. The estimated frequency of abnormal cytology was significantly dependent, for controls, on the duration of cigarette smoking, and for miners, on the duration of cigarette smoking and of uranium mining

  6. Prevalence and distribution of cervical high-risk human papillomavirus and cytological abnormalities in women living with HIV in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsson, Kristina; Storgaard, Merete; Katzenstein, Terese L

    2016-01-01

    and cytological abnormalities in WLWH compared with WGP in Denmark. Predictors of HPV and cytological abnormalities were estimated in WLWH. METHODS: WLWH consecutively enrolled in the Study on HIV, cervical Abnormalities and infections in women in Denmark (SHADE) in 2011 and were examined for cervical HPV...... and cytological abnormalities. WLWH were matched on age and prior cytological findings with WGP from an earlier study. HIV demographics were retrieved from the nationwide Danish HIV Cohort Study. Logistic regression was used to estimate predictors of hrHPV and cytological abnormalities. RESULTS: Of 334 included...... (adjusted OR 2.05 (95 % CI 1.03-4.10)) and CD4 Cytological abnormalities were prevalent in 10.4 % vs. 5.2 % (p = 0.0003) of WLWH and WGP. In WLWH with hrHPV, short duration of HAART predicted cervical dysplasia (adjusted OR per year 0.83 (95 % CI 0...

  7. Patterns of repeated anal cytology results among HIV-positive and HIV-negative men who have sex with men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilary A. Robbins

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Men who have sex with men (MSM are at increased risk for anal cancer. In cervical cancer screening, patterns of repeated cytology results are used to identify low- and high-risk women, but little is known about these patterns for anal cytology among MSM. Methods: We analyzed Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS data for MSM who were offered anal cytology testing annually (HIV-positive or every 2 years (HIV-negative for 4 years. Results: Following an initial negative (normal cytology, the frequency of a second negative cytology was lower among HIV-positive MSM with CD4 ≥ 500 (74% or CD4 < 500 (68% than HIV-negative MSM (83% (p < 0.001. After an initial abnormal cytology, the frequency of a second abnormal cytology was highest among HIV-positive MSM with CD4 < 500 (70% compared to CD4 ≥ 500 (53% or HIV-negative MSM (46% (p = 0.003. Among HIV-positive MSM with at least three results, 37% had 3 consecutive negative results; 3 consecutive abnormal results were more frequent among CD4 < 500 (22% than CD4 ≥ 500 (10% (p = 0.008. Conclusions: More than one-third of HIV-positive MSM have consistently negative anal cytology over three years. Following abnormal anal cytology, a repeated cytology is commonly negative in HIV-negative or immunocompetent HIV-positive men, while persistent cytological abnormality is more likely among HIV-positive men with CD4 < 500. Keywords: Anal cancer, Anal cytology, HIV, MSM, Anal cancer screening

  8. Sulfur-doped graphene via thermal exfoliation of graphite oxide in H2S, SO2, or CS2 gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poh, Hwee Ling; Šimek, Petr; Sofer, Zdeněk; Pumera, Martin

    2013-06-25

    Doping of graphene with heteroatoms is an effective way to tailor its properties. Here we describe a simple and scalable method of doping graphene lattice with sulfur atoms during the thermal exfoliation process of graphite oxides. The graphite oxides were first prepared by Staudenmaier, Hofmann, and Hummers methods followed by treatments in hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide, or carbon disulfide. The doped materials were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, combustible elemental analysis, and Raman spectroscopy. The ζ-potential and conductivity of sulfur-doped graphenes were also investigated in this paper. It was found that the level of doping is more dramatically influenced by the type of graphite oxide used rather than the type of sulfur-containing gas used during exfoliation. Resulting sulfur-doped graphenes act as metal-free electrocatalysts for an oxygen reduction reaction.

  9. Powder, paper and foam of few-layer graphene prepared in high yield by electrochemical intercalation exfoliation of expanded graphite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Liqiong; Li, Weiwei; Li, Peng; Liao, Shutian; Qiu, Shengqiang; Chen, Mingliang; Guo, Yufen; Li, Qi; Zhu, Chao; Liu, Liwei

    2014-04-09

    A facile and high-yield approach to the preparation of few-layer graphene (FLG) by electrochemical intercalation exfoliation (EIE) of expanded graphite in sulfuric acid electrolyte is reported. Stage-1 H2SO4-graphite intercalation compound is used as a key intermediate in EIE to realize the efficient exfoliation. The yield of the FLG sheets (papers made of the FLG flakes retain excellent conductivity (≈24,500 S m(-1)). Three-dimensional (3D) graphene foams with light weight are fabricated from the FLG flakes by the use of Ni foams as self-sacrifice templates. Furthermore, 3D graphene/Ni foams without any binders, which are used as supercapacitor electrodes in aqueous electrolyte, provide the specific capacitance of 113.2 F g(-1) at a current density of 0.5 A g(-1), retaining 90% capacitance after 1000 cycles. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. A "Tandem" Strategy to Fabricate Flexible Graphene/Polypyrrole Nanofiber Film Using the Surfactant-Exfoliated Graphene for Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Kewei; Chao, Yunfeng; Chou, Shulei; Wang, Caiyun; Zheng, Tian; Gambhir, Sanjeev; Wallace, Gordon G

    2018-06-19

    The surfactant-assisted liquid-phase exfoliation of expanded graphite can produce graphene sheets in large quantities with minimal defects. However, it is difficult to completely remove the surfactant from the final product, thus affecting the electrochemical properties of the produced graphene. In this article, a novel approach to fabricate flexible graphene/polypyrrole film was developed: using surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide as a template for growth of polypyrrole nanofibers (PPyNFs) instead of removal after the exfoliation process; followed by a simple filtration method. The introduction of PPyNF not only increases the electrochemical performance, but also ensures flexibility. This composite film electrode offers a capacitance up to 161 F g -1 along with a capacitance retention rate of over 80% after 5000 cycles.

  11. Salt-assisted direct exfoliation of graphite into high-quality, large-size, few-layer graphene sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Liyong; Li, Mingjian; Tao, Xiaoming; Xie, Zhuang; Zhou, Xuechang; Raju, Arun P A; Young, Robert J; Zheng, Zijian

    2013-08-21

    We report a facile and low-cost method to directly exfoliate graphite powders into large-size, high-quality, and solution-dispersible few-layer graphene sheets. In this method, aqueous mixtures of graphite and inorganic salts such as NaCl and CuCl2 are stirred, and subsequently dried by evaporation. Finally, the mixture powders are dispersed into an orthogonal organic solvent solution of the salt by low-power and short-time ultrasonication, which exfoliates graphite into few-layer graphene sheets. We find that the as-made graphene sheets contain little oxygen, and 86% of them are 1-5 layers with lateral sizes as large as 210 μm(2). Importantly, the as-made graphene can be readily dispersed into aqueous solution in the presence of surfactant and thus is compatible with various solution-processing techniques towards graphene-based thin film devices.

  12. Investigation of exfoliation joints in Navajo sandstone at the Zion National Park and in granite at the Yosemite National Park by tectonofractographic techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahat, D.; Grossenbacher, K.; Karasaki, K.

    1995-04-01

    Tectonofractographic techniques have been applied to the study of joint exfoliation in the Navajo sandstone at Zion National Park and in the granite at Yosemite National Park. New types of fracture surface morphologies have been observed which enabled the discerning of incipient joints and consequent fracture growth in these rocks. Incipient jointing in the sandstone is mostly manifested by elliptical and circular fractures (meters to tens meters across) initiating from independent origins. They interfere with each other and grow to larger circular fractures producing exfoliation surfaces up to hundreds of meters across. Less frequently, series of large concentric undulations demonstrate the propagation of a large fracture front producing exfoliation from an individual origin. One such fracture front reveals refraction of undulations at a layer boundary. Certain en echelon fringes surround the joint mirror plane with well defined rims of en echelons and hackles which enable the determination of the tensile fracture stress, {sigma}f. Arches in Zion National Park are ubiquitous in shape and size, revealing stages in their evolution by a mechanical process, which was associated with exfoliation, but independent of local faulting. Exfoliation and arching mostly occurred on vertical surfaces of N-NNW and NE sets of prominent joints, but there are also deviations from this general trend. In Yosemite National Park large exfoliations (hundreds of meters in size) developed on the El Capitan cliff by the interaction and merging of many previous smaller incipient joints that vary in size from meters to tens of meter.

  13. Evaluation of Cytology for Diagnosing Avian Pox in Wild Turkeys ( Meleagris gallopavo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydock, Kira; Brown, Holly; Nemeth, Nicole; Poulson, Rebecca; Casalena, Mary Jo; Johnson, Joshua B; Brown, Justin

    2018-03-01

    Avian pox virus is a common cause of proliferative skin disease in wild turkeys ( Meleagris gallopavo); however, other etiologies may produce grossly indistinguishable lesions. Common methods for diagnosing avian pox include histopathology, virus isolation, and PCR. While these methods are sufficient in most cases, each has their limitations. Cytology is a cost-effective and rapid approach that may be useful when traditional diagnostics are not feasible. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of cytology relative to histopathology and PCR for avian pox diagnosis in wild turkeys. Fifty wild turkeys were submitted for necropsy due to nodular skin lesions on unfeathered skin of the head. Of these, five had similar skin lesions on the unfeathered legs and 26 had plaques on the mucosa of the oropharynx or esophagus. Representative skin, oropharyngeal, and esophageal lesions from all birds were examined with cytology and histopathology. Skin lesions on the head of each bird were also tested for avian pox virus via PCR. Histopathology and PCR were equally sensitive in diagnosing avian pox from skin lesions on the head. There were no significant differences between cytologic and histopathologic diagnosis of avian pox from skin lesions on the head (sensitivity = 97.4%, specificity = 100.0%), legs (sensitivity = 75.0%, specificity = 100.0%), or from lesions in the oropharynx and esophagus (sensitivity of 62.5%). Similarly, there were no significant differences between PCR and cytology for diagnosis of pox viral skin lesions of the head. Relative to PCR detection of avian pox virus, cytology had a sensitivity of 90.0% and a specificity of 90.0%. These results suggest that cytology is a useful tool for diagnosis of avian pox in wild turkeys.

  14. Review of available scientific and technical evidence regarding liquid-based cytology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Frutos Pérez-Surio

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Cervical cancer can be prevented by early diagnosis and treatment of patients with abnormal results, thus decreasing their incidence and mortality. In contrast to conventional techniques (Papanicolau, diagnostic techniques have been developed based on the preservation of the sample in a stabilizing solution (liquid-based cytology. The different methods of liquid-based cytology used in the screening of cervical cancer against the Papanicolau technique are evaluated. Material and methods. A systematic review of the literature has been performed (2010-2015. The search was developed by including MeSH terms as cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and papilloma virus infection in the MedLine, Embase, Cochrane Library, CRD, LILACS and IBECS databases. Inclusion criteria were adult women screened for cervical cancer using liquid-based cytology techniques, compared with conventional methods. Results. 464 references were found related to the reliability-precision of the test, of which 13 were included in the report. A health technology assessment report was conducted in 2013 by the Agency for Health Technology Assessment of Andalusia (AETSA. The quality of the studies was moderate and moderate-low. AETSA found studies that included more than 700,000 women between 14 and 90 years old, who were screened by liquid-based cytology, compared to the conventional one. Studies have shown that liquid-based cytology techniques reduce the percentage of unsatisfactory samples compared to conventional ones. The analysis of detection of cellular abnormalities and diagnostic validity indexes showed significant differences when comparing both methods. Conclusions. The studies analyzed presented methodological limitations. Hence, the results should be interpreted with caution. Liquid-based cytology did not present greater diagnostic capacity than conventional methods, but it reduced, with statistically significant results, the number of samples unsatisfactory

  15. The importance of sputum cytology in the diagnosis of lung lancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhary, M.K.; Younus, M.; Rehman, A.U.; Zafar, S.F.; Bukhari, S.M.H.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Worldwide lung cancer is the leading cause of death. The incidence of lung cancer is increasing in developing countries like Pakistan. Mortality is more than 90 % in diagnosed cases and it is directly related to the stage of disease so it is important to diagnose at an early stage. Sputum cytology is a definite way to diagnose lung cancer. It is cost effective, non-invasive, does not need any instrumentation and free of investigating complications. Objective: To study the role of sputum cytology in the diagnosis of lung cancer. Study Setting: This study was conducted at the Institute of Chest Medicine, Mayo Hospital - A tertiary care hospital affiliated with King Edward Medical University, Lahore. Study Design: Cross sectional evidence based study. Materials and Methods: Ninety seven patients (80 males, 17 females) with radiological suspicion of malignancy were included in the study. Three Consecutive morning sputum samples were collected after deep coughing. Two smears were made of each specimen and stained with Haematoxylin and Eosin and papanicolaou. All the specimens were examined by a consultant cytohistopathologist. Results: A total of 97 patients (80 males and 17 females) with clinical and radiological suspicion of lung cancer were included in the study. The patient's ages ranged between 50 - 83 years with mean age of 66.5 +- 14.5 years. Sputum cytology was positive in 46 (45.3%) patients. Amongst males 41 (51.25%) have positive cytology, while in females 5 (29.41%) have positive sputum cytology. Out of 46 patients with positive cytology 37 (80.43%) patients (33 males and 04 females) have non small cell carcinomas while 09 (19.56%) patients (08 males and 01 female) have small cell carcinoma. Conclusion: Sputum cytology is a definite way of lung cancer detection. It is cost effective, non invasive and free of investigating complications. (author)

  16. Evaluation of brushing cytology in the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori gastritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Ahmad Mostaghni

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Helicobacter pylori (HP is the cause of the most common infection in the world. It has been recognized as the major cause of peptic ulcer and an important risk factor for gastric malignancy. A variety of reliable methods are available for detecting HP during upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Rapid urease test (RUT is the cheapest method and histology is the most expensive brush cytology is faster and cheaper than histology. Methods: The brushing cytology materials were obtained from the antrum of the stomach in 109 patients who suffered from dyspepsia and were candidates for endoscopy. The RUT and histology with hematoxylin-eosin staining were also performed on each patient separately. The infection status for each patient was established by a concordance of two test results. Results: Seventy-eight of 100 patients (78% were diagnosed as positive for Helicobacter pylori organisms using brushing cytology. The sensitivity and specificity of brushing cytology were 96% and 72% respectively. Sensitivity of brush cytology (96% was higher than RUT (77.4%, and RUT was more specific than histology (100% vs 90%. Conclusion: Gastric brushing cytology provides an accurate, inexpensive and easy technique in the rapid detection of Helicobacter pylori infection. When additional information about the severity of mucosal damage or the presence of cell atypias is not necessary, histologic examination can be omitted, and a cost effective strategy for assessing HP status might consist of taking antral biopsies, the former for RUT and performing brush cytology slide, which should be stained and examined only when the RUT result is negative.

  17. Relative Performance of HPV and Cytology Components of Cotesting in Cervical Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffman, Mark; Kinney, Walter K; Cheung, Li C; Gage, Julia C; Fetterman, Barbara; Poitras, Nancy E; Lorey, Thomas S; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Befano, Brian; Schussler, John; Katki, Hormuzd A; Castle, Philip E

    2018-05-01

    The main goal of cervical screening programs is to detect and treat precancer before cancer develops. Human papillomavirus (HPV) testing is more sensitive than cytology for detecting precancer. However, reports of rare HPV-negative, cytology-positive cancers are motivating continued use of both tests (cotesting) despite increased testing costs. We quantified the detection of cervical precancer and cancer by cotesting compared with HPV testing alone at Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC), where 1 208 710 women age 30 years and older have undergone triennial cervical cotesting since 2003. Screening histories preceding cervical cancers (n = 623) and precancers (n = 5369) were examined to assess the relative contribution of the cytology and HPV test components in identifying cases. The performances of HPV testing and cytology were compared using contingency table methods, general estimating equation models, and nonparametric statistics; all statistical tests were two-sided. HPV testing identified more women subsequently diagnosed with cancer (P < .001) and precancer (P < .001) than cytology. HPV testing was statistically significantly more likely to be positive for cancer at any time point (P < .001), except within 12 months (P = .10). HPV-negative/cytology-positive results preceded only small fractions of cases of precancer (3.5%) and cancer (5.9%); these cancers were more likely to be regional or distant stage with squamous histopathology than other cases. Given the rarity of cancers among screened women, the contribution of cytology to screening translated to earlier detection of at most five cases per million women per year. Two-thirds (67.9%) of women found to have cancer during 10 years of follow-up at KPNC were detected by the first cotest performed. The added sensitivity of cotesting vs HPV alone for detection of treatable cancer affected extremely few women.

  18. Comprehensive cytological characterization of the Gossypium hirsutum genome based on the development of a set of chromosome cytological markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenbo Shan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Cotton is the world's most important natural fiber crop. It is also a model system for studying polyploidization, genomic organization, and genome-size variation. Integrating the cytological characterization of cotton with its genetic map will be essential for understanding its genome structure and evolution, as well as for performing further genetic-map based mapping and cloning. In this study, we isolated a complete set of bacterial artificial chromosome clones anchored to each of the 52 chromosome arms of the tetraploid cotton Gossypium hirsutum. Combining these with telomere and centromere markers, we constructed a standard karyotype for the G. hirsutum inbred line TM-1. We dissected the chromosome arm localizations of the 45S and 5S rDNA and suggest a centromere repositioning event in the homoeologous chromosomes AT09 and DT09. By integrating a systematic karyotype analysis with the genetic linkage map, we observed different genome sizes and chromosomal structures between the subgenomes of the tetraploid cotton and those of its diploid ancestors. Using evidence of conserved coding sequences, we suggest that the different evolutionary paths of non-coding retrotransposons account for most of the variation in size between the subgenomes of tetraploid cotton and its diploid ancestors. These results provide insights into the cotton genome and will facilitate further genome studies in G. hirsutum.

  19. Comprehensive cytological characterization of the Gossypium hirsutum genome based on the development of a set of chromosome cytological markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenbo; Shan; Yanqin; Jiang; Jinlei; Han; Kai; Wang

    2016-01-01

    Cotton is the world’s most important natural fiber crop. It is also a model system for studying polyploidization, genomic organization, and genome-size variation. Integrating the cytological characterization of cotton with its genetic map will be essential for understanding its genome structure and evolution, as well as for performing further genetic-map based mapping and cloning. In this study, we isolated a complete set of bacterial artificial chromosome clones anchored to each of the 52 chromosome arms of the tetraploid cotton Gossypium hirsutum. Combining these with telomere and centromere markers, we constructed a standard karyotype for the G. hirsutum inbred line TM-1. We dissected the chromosome arm localizations of the 45 S and 5S r DNA and suggest a centromere repositioning event in the homoeologous chromosomes AT09 and DT09. By integrating a systematic karyotype analysis with the genetic linkage map, we observed different genome sizes and chromosomal structures between the subgenomes of the tetraploid cotton and those of its diploid ancestors. Using evidence of conserved coding sequences, we suggest that the different evolutionary paths of non-coding retrotransposons account for most of the variation in size between the subgenomes of tetraploid cotton and its diploid ancestors. These results provide insights into the cotton genome and will facilitate further genome studies in G. hirsutum.

  20. A common variant mapping to CACNA1A is associated with susceptibility to exfoliation syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aung, Tin; Ozaki, Mineo; Mizoguchi, Takanori

    2015-01-01

    Exfoliation syndrome (XFS) is the most common recognizable cause of open-angle glaucoma worldwide. To better understand the etiology of XFS, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 1,484 cases and 1,188 controls from Japan and followed up the most significant findings in a further ......-wide significance for XFS and provide insight into the biology and pathogenesis of the disease....