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Sample records for asian soybean rust

  1. Fighting Asian soybean rust

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    Caspar eLangenbach

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Phakopsora pachyrhizi is a biotrophic fungus provoking Asian soybean rust (SBR disease. SBR poses a major threat to global soybean production. Though several resistance genes provided soybean immunity to certain P. pachyrhizi races, the pathogen swiftly overcame this resistance. Therefore, fungicides are the only current means to control SBR. However, insensitivity to fungicides is soaring in P. pachyrhizi and, therefore, alternative measures are needed for SBR control. In this article, we discuss the different approaches for fighting SBR and their potential, disadvantages, and advantages over other measures. These encompass conventional breeding for SBR resistance, transgenic approaches, exploitation of transcription factors, secondary metabolites, and antimicrobial peptides, RNAi/HIGS, and biocontrol strategies. It seems that an integrating approach exploiting different measures is likely to provide the best possible means for the effective control of SBR.

  2. A pigeonpea gene confers resistance to Asian soybean rust in soybean.

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    Kawashima, Cintia G; Guimarães, Gustavo Augusto; Nogueira, Sônia Regina; MacLean, Dan; Cook, Doug R; Steuernagel, Burkhard; Baek, Jongmin; Bouyioukos, Costas; Melo, Bernardo do V A; Tristão, Gustavo; de Oliveira, Jamile Camargos; Rauscher, Gilda; Mittal, Shipra; Panichelli, Lisa; Bacot, Karen; Johnson, Ebony; Iyer, Geeta; Tabor, Girma; Wulff, Brande B H; Ward, Eric; Rairdan, Gregory J; Broglie, Karen E; Wu, Gusui; van Esse, H Peter; Jones, Jonathan D G; Brommonschenkel, Sérgio H

    2016-06-01

    Asian soybean rust (ASR), caused by the fungus Phakopsora pachyrhizi, is one of the most economically important crop diseases, but is only treatable with fungicides, which are becoming less effective owing to the emergence of fungicide resistance. There are no commercial soybean cultivars with durable resistance to P. pachyrhizi, and although soybean resistance loci have been mapped, no resistance genes have been cloned. We report the cloning of a P. pachyrhizi resistance gene CcRpp1 (Cajanus cajan Resistance against Phakopsora pachyrhizi 1) from pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) and show that CcRpp1 confers full resistance to P. pachyrhizi in soybean. Our findings show that legume species related to soybean such as pigeonpea, cowpea, common bean and others could provide a valuable and diverse pool of resistance traits for crop improvement.

  3. REVIEW - Advances on molecular studies of the interaction soybean - Asian rust

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    Aguida Maria Alves Pereira Morales

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Effective management practices are essential for controlling rust outbreaks. The main control methodused is the application of fungicides, which increases substantially the cost of production and is harmful to theenvironment. Prevention is still the best way to avoid more significant losses in soybean yields. Alternatives,such as planting resistant varieties to the fungus, are also important. The use of resistant or tolerant varietiesis the most promising method for controlling Asian soybean rust. Recently, five dominant genes resistant to soybean rust were described: Rpp1, Rpp2, Rpp3, Rpp4 and Rpp5. However, little is known about the molecular interaction among soybean plant and soybean rust and on the molecular pathway triggered by pathogen recognition. Understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in defense responses is of primary importance for planning strategies to control stress and, consequently, to increase plant adaptation to limiting conditions

  4. REVIEW - Advances on molecular studies of the interaction soybean - Asian rust

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    Aguida Maria Alves Pereira Morales; Aluízio Borém; Graham, Michelle A; Ricardo Vilela Abdelnoor

    2012-01-01

    Effective management practices are essential for controlling rust outbreaks. The main control methodused is the application of fungicides, which increases substantially the cost of production and is harmful to theenvironment. Prevention is still the best way to avoid more significant losses in soybean yields. Alternatives,such as planting resistant varieties to the fungus, are also important. The use of resistant or tolerant varietiesis the most promising method for controlling Asian soybean ...

  5. FLUXAPYROXAD IN THE ASIAN SOYBEAN RUST CONTROL IN THE CERRADO BIOME

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    RAFAEL MENEZES SILVA DE FREITAS

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The etiologic agent of the Asian soybean rust is the Phakopsora pachyrhizi, which causes a reduction in the photosynthetic leaf area and, consequently, in the crop yield. Chemical control is one of the main measures for its management. The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficacy and selectivity of the fluxapyroxad fungicide on controlling the Asian soybean rust, under the edaphoclimatic conditions of the Cerrado biome. The experiment was conducted in an area under no-tillage system, in the Agricultural Research Center, Rio Verde, Goias, Brazil, during the 2012/2013 crop season, using the cultivar NA7337. A randomized block experimental design was used, with twelve treatments and four replications. The treatments consisted of applications of fluxapyroxad (FX, pyraclostrobin (PT, epoxiconazole (EX and metconazole (MZ. The average severity of the disease in the plants reached 37% in the Control. All treatments with fungicides differed from the Control. Treatments 9, 10, 11 and 12 provided the greatest rates of soybean rust control. The treatments 10, 11 and 12 had the highest thousand grain weights, and the yields of the treatments 2, 3 and 11, despite higher than the Control, were lower than the treatments 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 and 12, which had statistically equal yields. The increasing in yield, compared to the Control, ranged from 10.05% (pyraclostrobin, epoxiconazole + pyraclostrobin + mineral oil to 30.55% (pyraclostrobin, pyraclostrobin + fluxapyroxad + mineral oil and pyraclostrobin + metconazole + mineral oil. The highest rates of soybean rust control were presented by fungicides containing fluxapyroxad.

  6. Modeling landscape-scale pathogen spillover between domesticated and wild hosts: Asian soybean rust and kudzu.

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    Fabiszewski, Anna M; Umbanhowar, James; Mitchell, Charles E

    2010-03-01

    Many emerging pathogens infect both domesticated and wild host species, creating the potential for pathogen transmission between domesticated and wild populations. This common situation raises the question of whether managing negative impacts of disease on a focal host population (whether domesticated, endangered, or pest) requires management of only the domesticated host, only the wild host, or both. To evaluate the roles of domesticated and wild hosts in the dynamics of shared pathogens, we developed a spatially implicit model of a pathogen transmitted by airborne spores between two host species restricted to two different landscape patch types. As well as exploring the general dynamics and implications of the model, we fully parameterized our model for Asian soybean rust, a multihost infectious disease that emerged in the United States in 2004. The rust fungus Phakopsora pachyrhizi infects many legume species, including soybeans (Glycine max) and the nonnative invasive species kudzu (Pueraria montana var. lobata). Our model predicts that epidemics are driven by the host species that is more abundant in the landscape. In managed landscapes, this will generally be the domesticated host. However, many pathogens overwinter on a wild host, which acts as the source of initial inoculum at the start of the growing season. Our model predicts that very low local densities of infected wild hosts, surviving in landscape patches separate from the domesticated host, are sufficient to initiate epidemics in the domesticated host, such that managing epidemics by reducing wild host local density may not be feasible. In contrast, managing to reduce pathogen infection of a domesticated host can reduce disease impacts on wild host populations.

  7. Control of Asian soybean rust with mancozeb, a multi-site fungicide

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    Luís Henrique Carregal Pereira da Silva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available An experiment conducted in the field the action of mancozeb, a fungicide of multi-site action was tested, to control soybean rust caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi. Its performance was compared to that of the mixture cyproconazole (DMI + azoxystrobin (QoI. The soybean cultivar NA 7337 RR was used with a population of 400,000 plants/ha cultivated in 20m2 plots. Treatments consisted of mancozeb levels (1.5 and 2.0 kg/ha applied four, six and eight times. The DMI + QoI mixture was applied three times at 0.3 L/ha + Nimbus. Rust severity was assessed six times in the plots and data were integrated as the area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC. The plots were harvested and grain yield was expressed as kg/ha. Data on AUDPC and yield were subjected to analysis of variance and means compared according to Turkey's test (p = 0.005. Treatments with mancozeb were superior to DMI + QoI mixture both for rust control and grain yield. Four applications of 2.0 k/ha mancozeb were more efficient than three applications of the mixture used as standard. Mancozeb has the potential to be added to fungicide mixtures in the establishment of soybean rust anti-resistance strategy.

  8. Transcriptomic and metabolomic analyses identify a role for chlorophyll catabolism and phytoalexin during Medicago nonhost resistance against Asian soybean rust.

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    Ishiga, Yasuhiro; Uppalapati, Srinivasa Rao; Gill, Upinder S; Huhman, David; Tang, Yuhong; Mysore, Kirankumar S

    2015-08-12

    Asian soybean rust (ASR) caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi is a devastating foliar disease affecting soybean production worldwide. Understanding nonhost resistance against ASR may provide an avenue to engineer soybean to confer durable resistance against ASR. We characterized a Medicago truncatula-ASR pathosystem to study molecular mechanisms of nonhost resistance. Although urediniospores formed appressoria and penetrated into epidermal cells of M. truncatula, P. pachyrhizi failed to sporulate. Transcriptomic analysis revealed the induction of phenylpropanoid, flavonoid and isoflavonoid metabolic pathway genes involved in the production of phytoalexin medicarpin in M. truncatula upon infection with P. pachyrhizi. Furthermore, genes involved in chlorophyll catabolism were induced during nonhost resistance. We further characterized one of the chlorophyll catabolism genes, Stay-green (SGR), and demonstrated that the M. truncatula sgr mutant and alfalfa SGR-RNAi lines showed hypersensitive-response-like enhanced cell death upon inoculation with P. pachyrhizi. Consistent with transcriptomic analysis, metabolomic analysis also revealed the accumulation of medicarpin and its intermediate metabolites. In vitro assay showed that medicarpin inhibited urediniospore germination and differentiation. In addition, several triterpenoid saponin glycosides accumulated in M. truncatula upon inoculation with P. pachyrhizi. In summary, using multi-omic approaches, we identified a correlation between phytoalexin production and M. truncatula defense responses against ASR.

  9. Essential oils from Hyptis marrubioides, Aloysia gratissima and Cordia verbenacea reduce the progress of Asian soybean rust

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    André Costa da Silva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of essential oils derived from Hyptis marrubioides, Aloysia gratissima and Cordia verbenacea for controlling Asian soybean rust. The inhibitory activities of the essential oils (applied in a concentration range of 0.05 - 2% on the germination of Phakopsora pachyrhizi urediniospores were investigated using in vitro assays. The curative and eradicating properties of the oils (applied in a concentration range of 0.05 - 0.5% were studied under greenhouse conditions using the P. pachyrhizi-susceptible soybean cultivar MG/BR 46 (Conquista. Scanning electron microscopy was employed to investigate the effects of the essential oils on the morphology of the P. pachyrhizi urediniospores. The treatment with the essential oils at all concentrations tested led to the total inhibition of spore germination in vitro. The curative application of the essential oils reduced the disease severity, expressed as the area under the disease-progress curves, by 33 to 41%, whereas the commercial fungicide (pyraclostrobin + epoxyconazole employed as a positive control reduced the severity by 61%. The treatment of infected plants with the essential oils resulted in morphological alterations in the fungal structures that were similar to those produced by the commercial fungicide, namely, a shrivelling of the urediniospores, appressoria, germ tubes and paraphyses.

  10. Presence of Fungicides Used to Control Asian Soybean Rust in Streams in Agricultural Areas in the United States

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    Sandstrom, M. W.; Battaglin, W. A.

    2007-05-01

    Concentrations of 11 fungicides were measured in stream samples during 2 years in agricultural areas in the United States that grow predominantly corn and soybean. The fungicides are registered for control of Asian Soybean Rust (ASR), which entered the United States in 2004. Many of these fungicides were registered under an emergency exemption because evaluation of environmental risks related to their widespread use on soybeans had not been completed. Some of these fungicides are considered moderately to highly toxic to fish and aquatic invertebrates. We developed a solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry method for determining the fungicides at low concentrations (ng/L). Stream samples were collected 2 to 4 times at study areas during the late spring through fall season when fungicides are applied. Six fungicides registered for control of ASR (Phakospora pachyrhizi) in 2005 were measured in streams in Alabama, Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Mississippi during August-November, 2005. One or more fungicides were detected in 8 of the 12 streams sampled. Azoxystrobin, pyraclostrobin, propiconazole, tebuconazole, and myclobutanil were found in at least one of the 40 samples collected, while chlorothalonil was not found. Azoxystrobin was detected most frequently, in 35 percent of the samples. In 2006, five additional fungicides registered for use in control of ASR were included in the analytical method. One or more of the fungicides (azoxystrobin, pyraclostrobin, trifloxystrobin, metconazole, propiconazole, tebuconazole, tetraconazole, myclobutanil) were detected in 12 of the 16 streams sampled from areas in the South and Midwest during May-September, 2006. Azoxystrobin was detected most frequently (40 percent of the samples) and the highest concentration was 1.1 μg/L in a small predominantly cotton and soybean watershed. The highest concentrations of azoxystrobin were measured prior to the spread of ASR in 2006, and the detections

  11. Inheritance and genetic mapping of resistance to Asian soybean rust in cultivar TMG 803

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    Éder Matsuo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the inheritance and identified microsatellite markers linked to the resistance gene to Phakopsora pachyrhizi in soybean cultivar TMG 803. Hybridization between the cultivars TMG 803 and BRS Valiosa RR was performed to obtain F1 progenies and the F2 population. The response of the parents ‘TMG 803’ and ‘BRS Valiosa RR’ to P. pachyrhizi was, respectively, resistant and susceptible, and among the 116 F2 plants, 93 were resistant and 23 susceptible, under natural infection and field conditions. It was found that the resistance of cultivar TMG 803 is controlled by one gene with complete dominance, mapped as resistance locus Rpp4 of linkage group G. Of the 16 tested, one microsatellite marker, sc21_3420, was completely linked to the resistance gene (distance 0.0cM and the favorable allelic form was present in cultivar TMG 803, which may therefore be useful in assisted selection in segregating populations.

  12. Evaluation of Soybean Germplasm for Resistance to Soybean Rust in Vietnam

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    Soybean rust, caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi Sydow, is a severe foliar disease of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] that occurs throughout most soybean producing regions of the world. Soybean rust may be managed with fungicides, but the utilization of soybean cultivars that are resistant to the path...

  13. Genetic analysis of resistance to soybean rust disease | Kiryowa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soybean rust (Phakopsora pachyrhizi Sydow.) causes the most damage of all the pathogens known to attack soybean (Glycine max. Merril). A study was conducted in Uganda to estimate the magnitude of genetic parameters controlling soybean rust resistance and to estimate narrow sense heritability of the resistance.

  14. Relación entre Incidencia y Severidad de la Roya Asiática de la Soya Causada por Phakopsora pachyrhizi Sydow & Sydow Relationship Between Incidence and Severity of Asian Soybean Rust Caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi Sydow & Sydow

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    Felipe Rafael Garcés Fiallos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Se relaciona la incidencia con la severidad de la roya asiática de la soya, donde los valores generados por las ecuaciones pueden ser usados en cualquier estudio de este patosistema, proporcionando una herramienta para evaluar la incidencia como también la severidad. Se generaron gradientes de la enfermedad mediante el uso de fungicidas y momentos de aplicación, de manera preventiva y curativa. El experimento de campo con el cultivar Nidera 5909 RG, fue distribuido en bloques completos al azar. La intensidad de la roya asiática fue medida en los estratos inferior, medio y superior de la planta, a través de diferentes conteos de incidencia (porcentaje y severidad (lesiones cm-2, urédias cm-2 y porcentaje en folíolos. Las regresiones realizadas, presentaron una correlación significativa entre incidencia y severidad a 1% de probabilidad. Con los datos obtenidos, el evaluador puede escoger el método de cuantificación mas razonable o confiable a su criterio para otros trabajos de investigación o aplicar un determinado control de la enfermedad, utilizando las ecuaciones lineales generadas, facilitando el trabajo de cuantificar la roya asiática, bien se busque medir la incidencia (% o el número de lesiones cm-2, urédias cm-2 o severidad (%.Incidence is related to severity of the Asian soybean rust, where values generated by the equations can be used in any study of this pathosystem, providing a tool to evaluate incidence as well severity. Gradients of the disease were generated by means of the use of fungicides and moments of application, in a preventive and curative way. The field experiment with the cultivar Nidera RG 5909, was distributed in a randomized complete block. The intensity of Asian rust layers was measured in the lower, middle and top of the plant, through various counts of incidence (percentage and severity (lesions cm-2, uredinia cm-2 and percentage in leaflets. The regressions showed a significant correlation between

  15. Responding to the soybean rust epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soybean rust (Phakopsora pachyrhizi Sydow), a major threat to soybean production, is a new pathogen on the African continent, where it is increasingly threatening soybean production. The fungus is highly variable, and this complicates most disease management strategies. Most research on soybean rust, ...

  16. Efeito do número de aplicações de fungicidas no controle da ferrugem asiática da soja = Effect of the number of fungicide applications on the control of Asian soybean rust

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    Hélio Bandeira Barros

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito do número de aplicações foliares de fungicidas no controle da ferrugem asiática, em cultivares de soja. O experimento foi conduzido na safra de 2003/04, em Viçosa, Estado de Minas Gerais. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram: testemunha sem aplicação, uma aplicação realizada no estádio R5, duas aplicações (R4 e R6 e três aplicações (R4, R5 e R6, utilizando-se a mistura de fungicidas (pyraclostrobin + epoxiconazole e carbendazin. Após a analise de variância e teste de médias, verificaram-se reduções significativas de 91,6 e 97,5% naseveridade de ferrugem asiática e de 100 e 86,8% na porcentagem de desfolha, no tratamento de três aplicações (R4, R5 e R6 da mistura dos fungicidas (pyraclostrobin + epoxiconazole, nas cultivares Vencedora e Conquista, respectivamente. Houve retardamento do ciclo, redução na porcentagem de abortamento de vagens e aumento no massa de 100 sementes nos tratamentos com aplicações de fungicidas em ambas as variedades. Altas produtividades foram obtidas nos tratamentos com três aplicações da mistura de fungicidas (pyraclostrobin + epoxiconazole, não sendo, entretanto, verificadas diferenças significativas entre os tratamentos com uma, duas ou três aplicações do fungicida carbendazin.This work aimed to evaluate the effect of the number of leafapplications of fungicides on the control of the Asian soybean rust. The experiment was carried out at the 2003/04 cropping season, in Viçosa, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The experimental design was a randomized block design, consisting of four replicates. The following treatments: control without application, one application at stage R5; two applications at R4 and R6; and three applications at R4, R5 and R6. The fungicides pyraclostrobin + epoxiconazole and carbendazin. After it analyzes her of variance and test of averages, it was

  17. Óleos essenciais no controle da ferrugem asiática da soja Phakopsora pachyrhizi Syd. & P. Syd. Essential oils used in the control of asian soybean rust Phakopsora pachyrhizi Syd. & P. Syd.

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    Regiane Medice

    2007-02-01

    de soja.The objective of this work was evaluating the potential of essential oils in the control of the Asian soybean rust caused by plant pathogen P. pachyrhizi. The experiment was carried out in two stages. In the first, in Petri dishes contends 10 mL of agar-water medium and essential oils from Corymbia citriodora,Cymbopogon nardus, Azadirachta indica or Thymus vulgaris in the concentrations of 1%, 0.5%, 1% and 0.3%, respectively for each oil, 100µL of urediniospores were added in the concentration of 5mg/mL of water, incubated by 4 hours for 25ºC and appraised the germination. In second trail in green house, the oils, in the same concentrations, were applied in soybean plants (cultivars MG/BR46 (Conquista and Suprema 7 days before and 15 and 30 days after the inoculation. The appraised parameters were presence and number of uredia for cm² of foliar area. It was also collected leaflets to preparation of samples to Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. It was possible to verify that the oils in the used concentrations inhibited 100% the urediniospores germination in medium agar-water. In green house it was observed that all the oils delayed the evolution of the disease when compared with the control, and the severity of the disease was reduced in average from 34.6 to 60.7% on the cultivar MG/BR46 (Conquista and from 45.7 to 62.3% on the cultivar Suprema in relation to the control. In the SEM it was observed that the urediniospores were withered, on soybean plants where T. vulgaris oil was spread. For the other treatments it was just observed reduction in the size of the uredias. We can infer that the used essential oils have potential to reduce the attack of the P. pachyrhizi, agent of the Asian soybean rust.

  18. Effect of solar radiation on severity of soybean rust.

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    Young, Heather M; George, Sheeja; Narváez, Dario F; Srivastava, Pratibha; Schuerger, Andrew C; Wright, David L; Marois, James J

    2012-08-01

    Soybean rust (SBR), caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi, is a damaging fungal disease of soybean (Glycine max). Although solar radiation can reduce SBR urediniospore survival, limited information is available on how solar radiation affects SBR progress within soybean canopies. Such information can aid in developing accurate SBR prediction models. To manipulate light penetration into soybean canopies, structures of shade cloth attenuating 30, 40, and 60% sunlight were constructed over soybean plots. In each plot, weekly evaluations of severity in lower, middle, and upper canopies, and daily temperature and relative humidity were recorded. Final plant height and leaf area index were also recorded for each plot. The correlation between amount of epicuticular wax and susceptibility of leaves in the lower, middle, and upper canopies was assessed with a detached leaf assay. Final disease severity was 46 to 150% greater in the lower canopy of all plots and in the middle canopy of 40 and 60% shaded plots. While daytime temperature within the canopy of nonshaded soybean was greater than shaded soybean by 2 to 3°C, temperatures recorded throughout typical evenings and mornings of the growing season in all treatments were within the range (10 to 28.5°C) for SBR development as was relative humidity. This indicates temperature and relative humidity were not limiting factors in this experiment. Epicuticular wax and disease severity in detached leaf assays from the upper canopy had significant negative correlation (P = 0.009, R = -0.84) regardless of shade treatment. In laboratory experiments, increasing simulated total solar radiation (UVA, UVB, and PAR) from 0.15 to 11.66 MJ m(-2) increased mortality of urediniospores from 2 to 91%. Variability in disease development across canopy heights in early planted soybean may be attributed to the effects of solar radiation not only on urediniospore viability, but also on plant height, leaf area index, and epicuticular wax, which influence

  19. Progress of Asian soybean rust and airborne urediniospores of Phakopsora pachyrhizi in southern Brazil Progresso de ferrugem asiática da soja e quantificação de urediósporos de Phakopsora pachyrhizi no ar, na região sul do Brasil

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    Jefferson Fernandes do Nascimento

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Asian soybean rust, caused by the fungus Phakopsora pachyrhizi, was reported at epidemic levels in 2003/2004 and is the main soybean disease in Brazil. The aim of this study was to investigate the spread of Asian soybean rust and to quantify airborne urediniospores in the region of Campo Mourão, Paraná State, Brazil. Three experiments were conducted under field conditions during the 2007/08 and 2008/09 crop seasons. Using the disease gradient method, provided by the application of increasing levels of the fungicide tebuconazole, four Asian soybean rust epidemics at different intensities were obtained in each experiment. To quantify the urediniospores, weathercock-type spore collectors were installed during and between the two crop seasons. Disease progress curves were plotted for each epidemic, and maximum severity was estimated. The curves were fit to the logistic model, which provided higher coefficients of determination and more randomly distributed residuals plotted over time. Analyses of the area under the disease progress curve showed that the largest epidemics occurred in the 2007/2008 crop season and that the progress rates were higher for severity, even among plants protected with the fungicide. The number of urediniospores collected in the air was related to the presence of soybean plants in the cultivated crops. The quantity of urediniospores was also positively correlated to the disease severity and incidence, as well as to cumulative rainfall and favorable days for P. Pachyrhizi infection.A ferrugem asiática, causada por Phakopsora pachyrhizi, relatada em nível epidêmico em 2003/04, é a principal doença na cultura as soja no Brasil. Este trabalho teve como objetivos estudar o progresso da ferrugem-asiática da soja e quantificar os urediniósporos no ar na região de Campo Mourão no Estado do Paraná, região Sul do Brasil. Três experimentos foram instalados em condições de campo, nas safras 2006/07 e 2007/08. Utilizando

  20. Label-Free Detection of Soybean Rust Spores using Photonic Crystal Biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean rust, caused by the fungus Phakopsora pachyrhizi, is one of the most devastating foliar diseases affecting soybeans grown worldwide. The disease was reported for the first time in the United States in 2004. Early spore detection, prior to the appearance of visible symptoms, is critical to ef...

  1. Image processing methods for quantitatively detecting soybean rust from multispectral images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean rust, caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi, is one of the most destructive diseases for soybean production. It often causes significant yield loss and may rapidly spread from field to field through airborne urediniospores. In order to implement timely fungicide treatments for the most effective c...

  2. Host range of Phakopsora pachyrhizi, the causal agent of soybean rust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phakopsora pachyrhizi, the causal organism of soybean rust, was first described in 1903 from leaves of Glycine max subsp. soja, or wild soybean, in Japan. Since that time, there have been numerous reports of the pathogen on various leguminous species around the world, first in Asia, followed by Aust...

  3. Resistance to the soybean rust pathogen (Phakopsora Pachyrhizi) in common bean cultivar CNC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean rust (SBR), caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi, is a new disease in the Americas that has moved swiftly from one country to another. P. pachyrhizi was first reported on soybeans in Paraguay (2001) and soon after in Brazil and Argentina (2002), Bolivia (2003), Uruguay and the USA, (2004), and M...

  4. Identificação e validação de marcadores microssatélites ligados ao gene Rpp5 de resistência à ferrugem-asiática-da-soja Identification and validation of microsatellite markers linked to the Rpp5 gene conferring resistance to Asian soybean rust

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    Thaiza Galhardo Silva Morceli

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar novos marcadores microssatélites, ligados ao gene Rpp5 de resistência à ferrugem-da-soja, e validar os marcadores previamente mapeados, para que possam ser utilizados em programas de seleção assistida por marcadores moleculares (SAM. Para tanto, uma população F2 com 100 indivíduos, derivada do cruzamento entre a PI 200526 e a cultivar Coodetec 208, suscetível à ferrugem, foi artificialmente infectada e avaliada quanto à sua reação de resistência à ferrugem. Marcadores microssatélites foram testados nos genitores e em dois "bulks" contrastantes, para a identificação de marcadores ligados. Dois novos marcadores, potencialmente associados à resistência, foram testados em plantas individuais, e se constatou que eles estão ligados ao gene Rpp5 e estão presentes no grupo de ligação N da soja. A eficiência de seleção foi determinada em relação a todos os marcadores ligados ao gene Rpp5, e a combinação entre os marcadores Sat_275+Sat_280 foi de 100%.The main objective of this work was to identify new microsatellite markers, linked to the Rpp5 resistance gene to Asian soybean rust, and to validate previously mapped markers for use in marker-assisted selection (MAS programs. To this end, a F2 population with 100 individuals, derived from crossing between PI 200526 and cultivar Coodetec 208, susceptible to rust, was artificially infected and evaluated for its reaction of resistance to rust. Microsatellite markers were tested on parents and in the two contrasting bulks to identifying linked markers. Two new markers, potentially associated with resistance, were tested in individual plants, and they were found to be linked to gene Rpp5 and to be present in the N linkage group of soybean. The selection efficiencies were determined for all markers linked to gene Rpp5, and the combination of the markers Sat_275+Sat_280 was 100%.

  5. Efeito do tratamento de sementes com fungicidas e acibenzolar-S-methyl no controle da ferrugem asiática e crescimento de plântulas em cultivares de soja Effect of seed treatment with fungicides and acibenzolar-S-methyl in soybean cultivars on Asian rust control and seedlings growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Debona

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available A influência de acibenzolar-S-methyl (ASM, e fungicidas aplicados via tratamento de sementes sobre a ferrugem asiática bem como o crescimento de plântulas de soja foi avaliada em experimento conduzido em casa de vegetação em delineamento inteiramente casualizado com três repetições, utilizando as cultivares de soja 'Agiara', 'M-soy 8000' e 'M-soy 8080'. Os tratamentos foram três doses de ASM (0,05; 0,1 e 0,2 g de i.a. por kg de sementes, ASM (na dose de 0,1 g de i.a. por kg de sementes combinado aos fungicidas flutriafol, pyraclostrobin e azoxystrobin, e a aplicação isolada destes, além de uma testemunha tratada com água. Os resultados mostraram redução da Área Abaixo da Curva de Progresso da Ferrugem (AACPF com o aumento da dose de ASM nas três cultivares de soja. A utilização isolada do ASM em diferentes doses proporcionou uma redução da AACPF além de apresentar, na maioria dos casos, um efeito sinérgico com os fungicidas, aumentando a eficiência de controle quando comparada às aplicações isoladas. Com exceção do ASM na menor dosagem, todos os tratamentos apresentaram controle superior a 77 % comparados à testemunha. Em geral, o tratamento de sementes com ASM e fungicidas resultou numa redução da massa seca (MS em relação à testemunha. A utilização de ASM associado a fungicidas na tentativa de atrasar a infecção da ferrugem asiática da soja nos períodos iniciais da cultura constitui-se em uma alternativa viável para redução do inóculo inicial, entretanto possíveis efeitos fitotóxicos devem ser considerados.The influence of acibenzolar-S-methyl (ASM and fungicides ASM in different doses provided reduction of AUPRC as well as it applied as seed treatment on Asian rust control as well as on growth presented synergism with the fungicides, increasing the control of soybean seedlings were evaluated in a completely randomized efficiency when compared to single applications. Except for ASM experiment with

  6. Putative Rust Fungal Effector Proteins in Infected Bean and Soybean Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Bret; Campbell, Kimberly B; Beard, Hunter S; Garrett, Wesley M; Islam, Nazrul

    2016-05-01

    The plant-pathogenic fungi Uromyces appendiculatus and Phakopsora pachyrhizi cause debilitating rust diseases on common bean and soybean. These rust fungi secrete effector proteins that allow them to infect plants, but their effector repertoires are not understood. The discovery of rust fungus effectors may eventually help guide decisions and actions that mitigate crop production loss. Therefore, we used mass spectrometry to identify thousands of proteins in infected beans and soybeans and in germinated fungal spores. The comparative analysis between the two helped differentiate a set of 24 U. appendiculatus proteins targeted for secretion that were specifically found in infected beans and a set of 34 U. appendiculatus proteins targeted for secretion that were found in germinated spores and infected beans. The proteins specific to infected beans included family 26 and family 76 glycoside hydrolases that may contribute to degrading plant cell walls. There were also several types of proteins with structural motifs that may aid in stabilizing the specialized fungal haustorium cell that interfaces the plant cell membrane during infection. There were 16 P. pachyrhizi proteins targeted for secretion that were found in infected soybeans, and many of these proteins resembled the U. appendiculatus proteins found in infected beans, which implies that these proteins are important to rust fungal pathology in general. This data set provides insight to the biochemical mechanisms that rust fungi use to overcome plant immune systems and to parasitize cells.

  7. Efeito de fungicidas sistêmico e protetores aplicados em diferentes estádios fenológicos no controle da ferrugem asiática da soja Effect of protectant and systemic fungicides applied at different growth stages on the control of soybean asian rust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge da Silva Júnior

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, verificar o efeito dos fungicidas oxicloreto de cobre, tiofanato metílico, tiofanato metílico + clorotalonil e clorotalonil em diferentes estádios fenológicos V6, R1, R5, V6 + R1, V6 + R5 e R1 + R5 no controle da ferrugem asiática da soja. O estudo foi conduzido na área experimental do Departamento de Agricultura da Universidade Federal de Lavras. Observou-se efeito significativo de controle da ferrugem asiática para todos os fungicidas avaliados. A aplicação de pyraclostrobin + epoxiconazole em R1 proporcionou o controle efetivo da doença, não diferindo estatisticamente de V6 + R1 e R1 + R5. As aplicações em R5 e V6 + R5 apresentaram elevada severidade, no entanto, com rendimento de grãos semelhante a aplicações do mesmo fungicida nos estádios R1, V6 + R1 e R1 + R5.The aim of this work was to verify the effect of the fungicides dicopper chloride trihydroxide, thiophanate methyl, chlorothalonil+thiophanate methyl, chlorothalonil, and pyraclostrobin+epoxiconazole applied at the stages V6, R1, R5, V6+R1, V6+R5, R1+R5 on the control of the Asian rust and on the agronomic characteristics of the soybean. The experiment was carried out at the experimental area of the Agriculture Department, Federal University of Lavras, Lavras MG, Brazil. Significant effects were observed for all fungicides on Asian rust control, in comparison with the control. The treatments with fungicide sprays pyraclostrobin + epoxiconazole at the growth stage R1 provided the effective control of the disease, no significant differences were observed between V6 + R1 and R1 + R5. The sprays at R5 and V6 + R5 showed high disease severity however, with grain yield similar to the applications of the same fungicide at the stages R1, V6 + R1 and R1 + R5.

  8. Meteorological factors and Asian soybean rust epidemics: a systems approach and implications for risk assessment Fatores meteorológicos e as epidemias de ferrugem asiática: uma abordagem sistêmica e implicações na avaliação de risco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Medeiros Del Ponte

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Favorable meteorological and environmental conditions are critical components that affect Asian soybean rust (ASR, caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi, the most damaging fungal disease of soybean. In this review, we used available knowledge on the effect of meteorological factors affecting the disease to construct a systems-based approach to understand the risk of ASR epidemics. The systems approach is based on a hierarchical framework where relevant environmental factors that affect the key stages of the ASR disease cycle are identified and this included both aerobiological and epidemiological components. The formal framework we used examined the following epidemic characteristics: spore release, spore dispersal, spore deposition, infection efficiency, latent period and spore production. It provided the ability to identify the most important meteorological-related factors along with relevant knowledge gaps from which the implications for disease forecasting were described. This is new information that can be used as a guide for further epidemiological research and especially to develop and improve upon both local and regional risk models.Condições meteorológicas e ambientais são componentes críticos nas epidemias de ferrugem asiática da soja (FAS, doença causada pelo fungo Phakopsora pachyrhizi e que causa o maior dano na cultura da soja. Nesta revisão, o conhecimento sobre o efeito de fatores meteorológicos que influenciam nas epidemias foi usado para construir uma abordagem sistêmica para compreender o risco de epidemias de FAS. Esta é baseada em uma estrutura hierárquica onde os fatores relevantes que afetam os estágios chave no ciclo da doença foram delineados, incluindo os componentes aerobiológicos e epidemiológicos. As seguintes características epidemiológicas foram avaliadas: liberação de esporos, dispersão de esporos, deposição de esporos, eficiência de infecção, período latente e produção de esporos. O

  9. Quantificação da ferrugem asiática e aspectos nutricionais de soja suprida com silício em solução nutritiva Quantification of Asian rust and nutritional aspects of soybean due to the use of silicon supplied via nutrient solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Maria de Lima

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Para quantificar a severidade da ferrugem, os teores de clorofilas a e b e os carotenóides e também a nutrição em plantas de soja supridas com silício, implantou-se um experimento em blocos casualizados com 6 tratamentos e 4 repetições. Os tratamentos consistiram em doses de silicato de potássio (0 mg/L, 56 mg/L, 112 mg/L, 168 mg/L, 224 mg/L e 280 mg/L. As plantas foram inoculadas no estádio V4. Nove dias após a inoculação, iniciaram-se as avaliações semanais do número de lesões de ferrugem da soja/cm² de área foliar, no total de cinco. Ao final do experimento, os dados foram integrados ao longo do tempo, obtendo-se a área abaixo da curva do número de lesões/cm² (AACNL. Após o término das avaliações, determinou-se a quantidade de clorofilas a e b, carotenóides e lignina das folhas das plantas de soja com as doses crescentes de silício. Os teores de macro e micronutrientes da parte aérea das plantas também foram analisados. Observou-se redução da AACNL com aumento das doses de silício na solução nutritiva. A AACNL reduziu, enquanto que os teores de fósforo, cálcio, enxofre e zinco, de clorofila b, carotenóides e lignina, na parte aérea, aumentaram com a adição de silício.Aiming to quantify the severity of Asian rust, the content of the chlorophylls a and b and carotenoids as well some nutritional aspects of soybean plants supplied with silicon in the form of soluble potassium silicate solution an experiment was carried out in a random block design with 6 treatments and four replicates. Treatments comprised potassium six silicate doses (0 mg/L, 56 mg/L, 112 mg/L, 168 mg/L, 224 mg/L and 280 mg/L. Plants were inoculated at the V4 stage and evaluated for rust severity five times starting at the 9th day after inoculation weekly. The severity data were integrated with time obtaining the area under the number lesions progress curve (AUNLC. At the end of experiment, shoots from plants that received increasing

  10. The effect of the 'Hyuuga' soybean lesion type and canopy severity on yield loss in the presence of soybean rust (Phakopsora pachyrhizi)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean rust, caused by the fungal pathogen Phakopsora pachyrhizi, occurs in many areas of the world and is a destructive foliar disease. Susceptible soybean leaves exhibit a “TAN” reaction characterized by lesions with abundant urediniospores, while resistant reactions involve either an immune resp...

  11. First Report of Soybean Rust, Caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi, on Kudzu (Pueraria montana var. lobata) in Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean rust, caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi, was first observed on soybean (Glycine max) in the continental United States in Louisiana in 2004, and on kudzu (Pueraria montana var. lobata) in the United States in 2005. Kudzu is a leguminous weed that is prevalent in the southern United States with ...

  12. Spray nozzles and time of fungicide application on Asian soybean rust controlPontas de pulverização e horários de aplicação no controle químico de ferrugem asiática da soja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackeline Matos do Nascimento

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Spray nozzles were evaluated at two different spraying times (14h and 17h 30m, in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil regarding Asian soybean rust control (Phakopsora pachyrhizi Sidow. Four spray nozzles were evaluated: deflector plain tips, double deflector plain tips, extended range flat spray tips and double plain tips. A commercial formulation of epoxiconazole and pyraclostrobin (0,5 L ha-1 was sprayed in the plots. Soybean leaves were collected at the top, middle and lower canopy, for assessment of the number of lesions and uredinias. In addition, leaf area affected by P. pachyrhizi was estimated. Plots sprayed with double deflector plain tips had lower uredinia counts in the lower canopy compared to the other tips tested. Sprays done early in the afternoon with double deflector plain nozzles had lower uredinia counts compared to the other treatments. Smaller defoliation and greater a-thousand grain mass were detected in plots sprayed with fungicide using a double deflector plain tip compared to the deflector plain nozzle. Soybean yield was not affected by nozzles and time of fungicide spray.O trabalho foi desenvolvido em Dourados-MS, com o objetivo de estudar o efeito de pontas de pulverização e horários de aplicação de fungicida no controle químico da ferrugem asiática da soja (Phakopsora pachyrhizi Sidow. Avaliaram-se quatro pontas de pulverização: jato plano defletor, jato plano defletor duplo, já to plano de faixa ampliada, jato plano duplo. As aplicações ocorreram nos horários de 14h e 17h 30min com pulverizador costal à pressão constante. O fungicida utilizado foi uma formulação comercial de epoxiconazol e piraclostrobina (0,5 L ha-1. Foram coletados folíolos nos terços superior, médio e inferior para avaliação do número de lesões, urédias, e área foliar lesionada. Menor número de urédias no terço inferior foi observado em plantas que receberam aplicação de fungicida às 14h via ponta jato plano defletor duplo

  13. Controle químico da ferrugem asiática da soja em função de ponta de pulverização e de volume de calda Soybean asian rust control influenced by spray volumes and spray nozzles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Arantes Rodrigues da Cunha

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available As pontas de pulverização são um dos componentes mais importantes dos pulverizadores hidráulicos para aplicação de agrotóxicos. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o controle químico da ferrugem asiática e a deposição da calda fungicida aplicada na cultura da soja, em função de diferentes volumes de aplicação e de tipos de ponta de pulverização. O ensaio foi conduzido no delineamento em blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições, em esquema bifatorial (4 x 2 + 1: quatro tipos de ponta de pulverização (jato plano padrão, jato plano de pré-orifício, jato plano de indução de ar e jato plano duplo de indução de ar, dois volumes de aplicação (115 e 160L ha-1 e um tratamento adicional, que não recebeu fungicida (testemunha. Realizou-se a semeadura direta da cultivar "Emgopa 313" (ciclo tardio, avaliando-se, após a aplicação do fungicida tebuconazole com as diferentes pontas e volumes, a deposição de calda no dossel da cultura, a severidade da ferrugem e a produtividade. Constatou-se que, apesar de o volume de calda de 160L ha-1 e de a utilização da ponta de jato plano padrão terem proporcionado maior uniformidade de distribuição da calda fungicida nas plantas, não houve influência do tipo de ponta de pulverização e do volume de aplicação no controle da ferrugem e na produtividade da cultura da soja. O fungicida tebuconazole propiciou bom controle da ferrugem, refletindo na produtividade de grãos, que foi, em média, 41% superior à obtida na testemunha.The spray nozzles are one of the most important components of pesticide hydraulic sprayers. This study aimed at evaluating the chemical control of the rust and the deposition of fungicide sprayed on soybean concerning different nozzles, and application volumes. A randomized complete-block design with four replications was used, in a factorial model (4 x 2 + 1: four spray nozzles (standard flat fan, pre-orifice flat fan, air induction flat fan and

  14. Soybean rust resistance sources and inheritance in the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, T L P O; Dessaune, S N; Moreira, M A; Barros, E G

    2014-07-25

    Soybean rust (SBR), caused by the fungus Phakopsora pachyrhizi, has been reported in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars and elite lines that were infected under controlled and natural field conditions in South Africa, the United States, Argentina, and Brazil. Although SBR is currently not a top priority problem for the common bean crop, many bean breeders are concerned about this disease because of the high severity and virulence diversity of P. pachyrhizi and its broad host range. In this study, a set of 44 P. vulgaris genotypes were tested for resistance to P. pachyrhizi; these genotypes included resistance sources to several fungal common bean diseases, carioca-, black- and red-seeded Brazilian cultivars, and elite lines that were developed by the main common bean breeding programs in Brazil. Twenty-four SBR resistance sources were identified. They presented the reddish-brown (RB) lesion type, characterizing resistance reactions. In addition to the RB lesion type, the PI181996 line presented the lowest disease severity mean score, considering its associated standard error value. For this reason, it was crossed with susceptible lines to study the inheritance of resistance. The results support the hypothesis that resistance to SBR in PI181996 is monogenic and dominant. We propose that this SBR resistance gene, the first to be identified and characterized in common bean, might be designated as Pkp-1.

  15. Utilização de glifosato para o controle de ferrugem da soja Glyphosate application on soybean rust control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Moreira Soares

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de glifosato sobre a germinação de esporos de Phakopsora pachyrhizi e no controle da ferrugem da soja, aplicado preventiva e erradicativamente, em condições controladas. A germinação de esporos foi avaliada tendo-se vertido, em meio de cultura, soluções de esporos com diferentes concentrações do glifosato (0, 100, 1.000, 10.000 e 20.000 ppm e fungicidas. Para avaliar o controle da ferrugem, plantas foram pulverizadas com glifosato, com variação da dose e do momento, tendo-se medido a severidade da doença. Houve efeito do produto sobre os esporos do fungo, o que reduziu sua germinação. As pulverizações em plantas, em casa de vegetação, mostraram um efeito do produto sobre a ferrugem, quando aplicado preventivamente, porém com período de proteção curto e fungitoxicidade inferior à do fungicida tebuconazole. O uso do glifosato, avaliado nesse ensaio, não deve ser visto como medida de manejo de ferrugem, e não interfere nas práticas habituais de controle da ferrugem da soja.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of glyphosate on the germination of Phakopsora pachyrhizi spores, and on soybean rust control; applications were either preventive or eradicative under controlled conditions. The germination of spores was evaluated by pouring spores solutions on culture medium, with different concentrations of glyphosate (0, 100, 1,000, 10,000 and 20,000 ppm and fungicides. For the rust control evaluation, plants were sprayed with glyphosate, varying doses and moments, and estimating the disease severity. The product reduced spores germination. Plants sprayed in greenhouse conditions, showed effect of the product on rust, when applied preventively, but with short protection period and lower fungus toxicity than tebuconazole fungicide. The use of glyphosate, evaluated in this trial, must not be taken as a rust management measure, and should not interfere in usual

  16. Soybean production in eastern and southern Africa and threat of yield loss due to soybean rust caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murithi, H.M.; Beed, F.; Tukamuhabwa, P.; Thomma, B.P.H.J.; Joosten, M.H.A.J.

    2016-01-01

    Soybean is a major source of oil and proteins worldwide. The demand for soybean has increased in Africa, driven by the growing feed industry for poultry, aquaculture and home consumption in the form of processed milk, baked beans and for blending with maize and wheat flour. Soybean, in addition

  17. Marcadores RAPD para detecção de resistência à ferrugem-asiática-da-soja RAPD markers for detection soybean rust resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Marchi Costa

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste trabalho foram confirmar a herança da resistência da PI 459025 (Rpp4 à ferrugem-asiática-da-soja e identificar marcadores moleculares do tipo RAPD, ligados a este gene de resistência, em populações de soja. Pelo cruzamento dos genitores contrastantes PI 459025 x Coodetec 208 obteve-se uma população, cujas populações das gerações F2 e F2:3 foram artificialmente infectadas e avaliadas quanto à reação ao fungo Phakopsora pachyrhizi, pelo tipo de lesão (RB - resistente e TAN - suscetível. Com os resultados da avaliação fenotípica, dois "bulks" foram obtidos com DNA de plantas homozigóticas resistentes e suscetíveis, respectivamente, pela análise de "bulks" segregantes. De 600 iniciadores RAPD aleatórios, foram identificados três com fragmentos polimórficos entre os "bulks" e parentais contrastantes quanto à resistência. Pela análise do qui-quadrado, confirmaram-se: a herança monogênica, com dominância completa quanto à resistência ao patógeno, e a segregação 3:1 para a presença de banda dos três marcadores. Os três marcadores são ligados respectivamente a 5,1, 6,3 e 14,7 cM de distância do loco de resistência, em fase de repulsão no grupo de ligação G, o que foi confirmado pela utilização do marcador microssatélite Satt288. Estes marcadores são promissores na seleção assistida para resistência à ferrugem-asiática-da-soja.The objectives of this work were to confirm the PI 459025 inheritance of resistance (Rpp4 to Asian soybean rust pathogen and to detect RAPD markers linked to this resistance gene in soybean populations. Through the cross of the distint parental lines PI 459025 x Coodetec 208, a population was obtained, whose F2 and F2:3 generations had their populations artificially infected and evaluated for the reaction to Phakopsora pachyrhizi, by lesion type classification (RB - resistant and TAN - susceptible. Using the phenotypic results, the bulked segregant analysis

  18. Glyphosate inhibits rust diseases in glyphosate-resistant wheat and soybean

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Paul C. C.; Baley, G. James; Clinton, William P.; Bunkers, Greg J.; Alibhai, Murtaza F.; Paulitz, Timothy C.; Kidwell, Kimberlee K.

    2005-01-01

    Glyphosate is a broad-spectrum herbicide used for the control of weeds in glyphosate-resistant crops. Glyphosate inhibits 5-enolpyruvyl shikimate 3-phosphate synthase, a key enzyme in the synthesis of aromatic amino acids in plants, fungi, and bacteria. Studies with glyphosate-resistant wheat have shown that glyphosate provided both preventive and curative activities against Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici and Puccinia triticina, which cause stripe and leaf rusts, respectively, in wheat. ...

  19. genetic analysis of resistance to soybean rust disease abstract résumé

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Makerere University, P. O. Box 7062, Kampala, Uganda .... pollinating crops like soybean depends on the .... Resistant. UG5. -. Uganda. Resistant. Kabanyolo 1. Mutant of Clark 63. Uganda. Susceptible. Nam 1. Hales x P1307-861. Colombia. Susceptible. Wondersoya.

  20. Analysis of the complete mitochondrial genome sequences of the soybean rust pathogens phakopsora pachyrhizi and p. meibomiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Christine L; Buitrago, Martha Lucia Posada; Boore, Jeffrey L; Frederick, Reid D

    2010-01-01

    The mitochondrial (mt) genomes of two soybean rust pathogens, Phakopsora pachyrhizi and P. meibomiae, have been sequenced. The mt genome of P. pachyrhizi is a circular 31 825-bp molecule with a mean GC content of 34.6%, while P. meibomiae possesses a 32 520-bp circular molecule with a mean GC content of 34.9%. Both mt genomes contain the genes encoding ATP synthase subunits 6, 8 and 9 (atp6, atp8 and atp9), cytochrome oxidase subunits I, II and III (cox1, cox2 and cox3), apocytochrome b (cob), reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide ubiquinone oxidoreductase subunits (nad1, nad2, nad3, nad4, nad4L, nad5 and nad6), the large and small mt ribosomal RNA genes, one ORF coding for a ribosomal protein (rps3), and a set of 24 tRNA genes that recognize codons for all amino acids. The order of the protein-coding genes and tRNA is identical in the two Phakopsora species, and all genes are transcribed from the same DNA strand clockwise. Introns were identified in the cox1, cob and mnl genes of both species, with three of the introns having ORFs with motifs similar to the LAGLIDADG endonucleases of other fungi. Phylogenetic analysis of the 14 shared protein-coding genes agrees with commonly accepted fungal taxonomy.

  1. Fungicidas no controle da ferrugem asiática (Phakopsora pachyrhizi e produtividade da soja Fungicides on the control of soybean rust (Phakopsora pachyrhizi and soybean yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Moreira Soares

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, avaliou-se o efeito de fungicidas no desenvolvimento da ferrugem asiática, causada pelo fungo Phakopsora pachyrhizi, e na produtividade da soja. Os fungicidas foram pulverizados quando as plantas estavam no estádio de desenvolvimento R4. Utilizou-se a cultivar Fepagro-RS 10 e delineamento blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições e dez tratamentos. A avaliação da severidade da doença foi feita 30 dias após a pulverização, utilizando-se uma escala de notas de 0 a 5, considerando-se a porcentagem da área foliar infectada. Os tratamentos com os fungicidas azoxystrobin, difenoconazole + propiconazole, fluquinconazole, myclobutanil, pyraclostrobin + epoxiconazole, tebuconazole e trifloxistrobina + propiconazole, controlaram o patógeno em relação à testemunha, mostrando notas médias de severidade igual ou inferior a 2 e não diferiram entre si. O tratamento com difenoconazole (nota 3,05 controlou o patógeno, mas com nota inferior ao tratamento com carbendazin (nota 3,85 e à testemunha (nota 4,5. Todos os tratamentos mostraram produtividades superiores à testemunha, variando entre 14,5% e 27,3%. O peso de cem sementes foi superior ao da testemunha para todos os tratamentos (11,8% a 14,4%, com exceção do carbendazin (5,2%.This work was done in order to evaluated the fungicides effect on the control of soybean rust caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi, as well as their effect on yield. The fungicides were sprayed when the plants were at the growth stage R4. The cultivar used was Fepagro-RS 10. The experimental design used was a randomized blocks replicated four times and with ten treatments. The disease severity evaluation was done 30 days after spraying using a scale of notes (0 to 5, measuring the infected leaf area. The treatments with the fungicides azoxystrobin, difenoconazole + propiconazole, fluquinconazole, myclobutanil, pyraclostrobin + epoxiconazole, tebuconazole and trifloxystrobina + propiconazole controlled the

  2. White pine blister rust in Korea, Japan and other Asian regions: comparisons and implications for North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.-S. Kim; N. B. Klopfenstein; Y. Ota; S. K. Lee; K.-S. Woo; S. Kaneko

    2010-01-01

    This article briefly reviews the history of white pine blister rust, attributed to Cronartium ribicola, and addresses current research and management issues in South Korea, Japan and other regions of eastern Asia (China, Russia and Himalaya). For each region, the distribution, damage, aecial hosts, telial hosts and management of C. ribicola and other blister rust fungi...

  3. Management of soybean rust with fungicides for seed treatment and foliar applicationManejo de ferrugem da soja com fungicidas em tratamento de sementes e aplicação foliar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Godinho de Araújo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Soybean is an important crop in the economical agriculture of Brazil and it has productive potential compromised by a variety of diseases affecting the crop such as soybean rust (Phakopsora pachyrhizi. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of incorporating fluquinconazole into the soybean seed treatment in the management of the disease, associated with spray of different fungicides on leaves. The work consisted of two trials side by side on the field. The first trial consisted of several fungicides used to control soybean rust (azoxistrobin, cyproconazole, trifloxystrobin, tebuconazole and prothioconazole and seed treatment with carbendazim + thiram, and fluquinconazole. The second trail was identical to the first, but without the use of fluquinconazole. The experiment was carried out into two localities – Goiânia (GO and Senador Canedo (GO. In both experiments, fungicides applied on leaves were effective controlling soybean rust, however the incorporation of fluquinconazole on the soybean seed treatment did not increase the control of the disease since neither it delayed the onset of the disease nor significantly increased the productivity of the crop. A soja é uma das principais culturas de exploração econômica no Brasil, mas tem seu potencial produtivo comprometido por uma série de doenças que afetam a cultura. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência da incorporação de fluquinconazol ao tratamento de semente de soja, no manejo da ferrugem asiática (Phakopsora pachyrhizi, associado a diferentes fungicidas na parte aérea. O trabalho constou de dois ensaios dispostos lado a lado no campo. O primeiro ensaio constou de vários fungicidas empregados no controle de ferrugem asiática da soja (azoxistrobina, ciproconazol, trifloxistrobina, tebuconazol e protioconazol e de tratamento das sementes com carbendazim + thiram e fluquinconazol. O segundo ensaio foi idêntico ao primeiro, mas sem a utiliza

  4. Distribuição e identificação de Phakopsora pachyrhizi, agente causal da ferrugem da soja no estado de Minas Gerais Identification and distribution of Phakopsora pachyrhizi causal agente of the Asian rust in the Minas Gerais State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Ferreira Cunha Sousa

    2007-06-01

    guide the planning control measures. The molecular characterization based on PCR has been showing as useful tool to satisfy that need. In this study 86 samples of leaves infected by Phakopsora from the main areas producing soybean in the State of Minas Gerais (Triângulo, Alto Paranaíba, Noroeste, Sudoeste and Sul were used. The extraction of DNA was made by the method of CTAB. For the polimerase chain reaction, specific primers were used for each species, been primer Ppm1/Ppa2 specific for P. pachyrhizi and Ppm1/Pme2 specific for P. meibomiae. The results showed that the 86 samples belonged to the species P. pachyrhizi, agent causal of the "Asian" rust. In other words, there was the production of bands specific from the group primer Ppm1/Ppa2 with approximate size of 141 pairs of bases. These results show that the species Phakopsora present in 100% of the areas analyzed in the State of Minas Gerais was P. pachyrhizi. This information is important to guide futures breeding programs for resistance to the agent of soybean rust in the State.

  5. Toxicity of commonly used insecticides in sweet corn and soybean to multicolored Asian lady beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvan, T L; Koch, R L; Hutchison, W D

    2005-06-01

    Use of insecticides with low toxicity to natural enemies is an important component of conservation biological control. In this study, we evaluated the toxicity of insecticides used in sweet corn, Zea mays L., and soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr., to the multicolored Asian lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas), under laboratory and field conditions. Field experiments conducted in sweet corn in 2003 and 2004 and in soybean in 2003, showed that H. axyridis was the most abundant predator. In sweet corn, densities of H. axyridis larvae in plots treated with spinosad or indoxacarb were generally higher than in plots treated with chlorpyrifos, carbaryl, bifenthrin, and A-cyhalothrin. In soybean, densities of H. axyridis larvae in plots treated with chlorpyrifos were higher than in plots treated with lambda-cyhalothrin. Laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate the acute toxicity of insecticides to eggs, first and third instars, pupae, and adults. Spinosad, followed by indoxacarb, were the least toxic insecticides for all life stages of H. axyridis. Conventional insecticides showed high toxicity to H. axyridis when applied at field rates under laboratory conditions. Overall, first instars were most susceptible to the insecticides tested, followed by third instars and adults, eggs, and pupae. Our results suggest that spinosad, and to a lesser extent indoxacarb, offer reduced toxicity to H. axyridis and would be beneficial for conservation biological control in agricultural systems where H. axyridis is abundant.

  6. Curative and eradicant action of fungicides to control Phakopsora pachyrhizi in soybean plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erlei Melo Reis

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Experiments were carried out in a growth chamber and laboratory to quantify the curative and eradicant actions of fungicides in Asian soybean rust control. The experiments were conducted with the CD 214 RR cultivar, assessing the following fungicides, separately or in association, chlorothalonil, flutriafol, cyproconazole + trifloxystrobin, epoxiconazole + pyraclostrobin, cyproconazole + azoxystrobin, and cyproconazole + picoxystrobin. The fungicides were applied at four (curative and nine days after inoculation (eradicant treatment. Treatments were evaluated according to the density of lesions and uredia/cm2, and the eradicant treatment was assessed based on the necrosis of lesions/uredia and on uredospore viability. Except for the fungicide chlorothalonil, there was curative action of latent/virtual infections by the fungicides. Penetrant fungicides that are absorbed have curative and eradicant action to soybean rust.

  7. Silicato de potássio, acibenzolar-S-metil e fungicidas no controle da ferrugem da soja Potassium silicate, acibenzolar-S-methyl and fungicides on the control of soybean rust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique da Silva Silveira Duarte

    2009-11-01

    ência intermediária no controle da ferrugem. O tratamento 6 foi o mais eficiente no controle da doença por resultar nos menores valores da AACPF e Ymax para os terços inferior, médio e superior, além de uma produtividade significativamente maior em relação aos demais tratamentos.Soybean production can be affected by the occurrence of several diseases. Among them, the rust, caused by the fungus Phakopsora pachyrhizi, has been outstanding. Nowadays, new strategies to control soybean rust need to be searched. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of potassium silicate (KSi, acibenzolar-S-methyl and some fungicides on the control of soybean rust. An experiment was carried out under field conditions in a randomized complete block design with 10 treatments and three replications. The cultivar 'Monarca' was used because it is susceptible to rust. The treatments used were: T1 - control (plants sprayed with water; T2 - KSi (1.2kg ha-1; T3 - KSi (2.4kg ha-1; T4 - KSi (3.6kg ha-1; T5 - KSi (4.8kg ha-1; T6 - tebuconazol (125g de a.i. ha-1; T7 - potassium cloride (61.72g L-1; T8 - mancozeb (2400g de a.i. ha-1; T9 - mancozeb (2400g de a.i. ha-1 + KSi (1.2kg ha-1 and T10 - acibenzolar-S-methyl (125g de a.i. ha-1. Plants from the two lateral lines were inoculated with a suspension of 5x10(5 uredospores/mL at the V4 growth stage to produce inoculum to infect plants at the two central lines. Plants were sprayed with the products that constituted the treatments T2, T3, T4, T5, T7, T8, and T9 at V5, R1, R4, and R5.4 growth stages; and the treatments T6 and T10 at R1, R4, and R5.4 growth stages. Plants were sprayed using a costal sprayer in a volume of 200L ha-1. A total of five disease severity evaluations at the low, medium and high part of the plant canopy were done using a diagrammatic scale ranging from 0.6 to 78.5%. Data were used to calculate the area under rust progress curve (AURPC. There was no effect of the KSi rates on AURPC and final disease severity (Ymax at the

  8. Rust essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Balbaert, Ivo

    2015-01-01

    This book is intended for software developers interested in systems level and application programming, and are looking for a quick entry into using Rust and understanding the core features of the framework. It is assumed that you have a basic understanding of Java, C#, Ruby, Python or JavaScript.

  9. Rust Converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-11-01

    phosphate and a ferric tannate , respectively, forming an adherent substrate which may then be coated with a bituminous coating. The ensuing experiments...pre-corroded substrate. Phosphoric acid and tannic acid based rust con- verters chemically change the composition of the ferrous oxide to a ferric ...resistance (reverse)." Steel Structures Painting Council, Surface Preparation, Specification No. 2 (SSPC-SP2), "Hand Tool Cleaning" Tests performed on

  10. Wheat Rust Toolbox Related to New Initiatives on Yellow Rust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jens Grønbech; Lassen, Poul

    A wheat rust toolbox was developed in the frame of the Borlaug Global Rust Initiative (BGRI) to support the early warning and monitoring of stem rust on a global scale. The toolbox consists of a number of databases and web applications for data management, quality control, dissemination and display......-report/en/). The Wheat rust toolbox is one of several International research platforms hosted by Aarhus University, and it uses the same ICT framework and databases as EuroWheat (www.eurowheat.org) and EuroBlight (www.EuroBlight.net). The Wheat Rust Toolbox will also serve the Global Rust Reference Centre (GRRC) as well...... as several other Institutions and information platforms in the Durable Rust Resistance in Wheat project under the BGRI. From the outset the databases and information tools were developed to handle all three rust types. The EuroWheat platform already contains data on yellow rust pathotypes from Europe (1993...

  11. Genome-wide annotation of the soybean WRKY family and functional characterization of genes involved in response to Phakopsora pachyrhizi infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bencke-Malato, Marta; Cabreira, Caroline; Wiebke-Strohm, Beatriz; Bücker-Neto, Lauro; Mancini, Estefania; Osorio, Marina B; Homrich, Milena S; Turchetto-Zolet, Andreia Carina; De Carvalho, Mayra C C G; Stolf, Renata; Weber, Ricardo L M; Westergaard, Gastón; Castagnaro, Atílio P; Abdelnoor, Ricardo V; Marcelino-Guimarães, Francismar C; Margis-Pinheiro, Márcia; Bodanese-Zanettini, Maria Helena

    2014-09-10

    Many previous studies have shown that soybean WRKY transcription factors are involved in the plant response to biotic and abiotic stresses. Phakopsora pachyrhizi is the causal agent of Asian Soybean Rust, one of the most important soybean diseases. There are evidences that WRKYs are involved in the resistance of some soybean genotypes against that fungus. The number of WRKY genes already annotated in soybean genome was underrepresented. In the present study, a genome-wide annotation of the soybean WRKY family was carried out and members involved in the response to P. pachyrhizi were identified. As a result of a soybean genomic databases search, 182 WRKY-encoding genes were annotated and 33 putative pseudogenes identified. Genes involved in the response to P. pachyrhizi infection were identified using superSAGE, RNA-Seq of microdissected lesions and microarray experiments. Seventy-five genes were differentially expressed during fungal infection. The expression of eight WRKY genes was validated by RT-qPCR. The expression of these genes in a resistant genotype was earlier and/or stronger compared with a susceptible genotype in response to P. pachyrhizi infection. Soybean somatic embryos were transformed in order to overexpress or silence WRKY genes. Embryos overexpressing a WRKY gene were obtained, but they were unable to convert into plants. When infected with P. pachyrhizi, the leaves of the silenced transgenic line showed a higher number of lesions than the wild-type plants. The present study reports a genome-wide annotation of soybean WRKY family. The participation of some members in response to P. pachyrhizi infection was demonstrated. The results contribute to the elucidation of gene function and suggest the manipulation of WRKYs as a strategy to increase fungal resistance in soybean plants.

  12. The genome sequence and effector complement of the flax rust pathogen Melampsora lini.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemri, Adnane; Saunders, Diane G O; Anderson, Claire; Upadhyaya, Narayana M; Win, Joe; Lawrence, Gregory J; Jones, David A; Kamoun, Sophien; Ellis, Jeffrey G; Dodds, Peter N

    2014-01-01

    Rust fungi cause serious yield reductions on crops, including wheat, barley, soybean, coffee, and represent real threats to global food security. Of these fungi, the flax rust pathogen Melampsora lini has been developed most extensively over the past 80 years as a model to understand the molecular mechanisms that underpin pathogenesis. During infection, M. lini secretes virulence effectors to promote disease. The number of these effectors, their function and their degree of conservation across rust fungal species is unknown. To assess this, we sequenced and assembled de novo the genome of M. lini isolate CH5 into 21,130 scaffolds spanning 189 Mbp (scaffold N50 of 31 kbp). Global analysis of the DNA sequence revealed that repetitive elements, primarily retrotransposons, make up at least 45% of the genome. Using ab initio predictions, transcriptome data and homology searches, we identified 16,271 putative protein-coding genes. An analysis pipeline was then implemented to predict the effector complement of M. lini and compare it to that of the poplar rust, wheat stem rust and wheat stripe rust pathogens to identify conserved and species-specific effector candidates. Previous knowledge of four cloned M. lini avirulence effector proteins and two basidiomycete effectors was used to optimize parameters of the effector prediction pipeline. Markov clustering based on sequence similarity was performed to group effector candidates from all four rust pathogens. Clusters containing at least one member from M. lini were further analyzed and prioritized based on features including expression in isolated haustoria and infected leaf tissue and conservation across rust species. Herein, we describe 200 of 940 clusters that ranked highest on our priority list, representing 725 flax rust candidate effectors. Our findings on this important model rust species provide insight into how effectors of rust fungi are conserved across species and how they may act to promote infection on their

  13. The genome sequence and effector complement of the flax rust pathogen Melampsora lini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnane eNemri

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Rust fungi cause serious yield reductions on crops, including wheat, barley, soybean, coffee, and represent real threats to global food security. Of these fungi, the flax rust pathogen Melampsora lini has been developed extensively over the past 80 years as a model to understand the molecular mechanisms that underpin pathogenesis. During infection, M. lini secretes virulence effectors to promote disease. The number of these effectors, their function and their degree of conservation across rust fungal species is unknown. To assess this, we sequenced and assembled de novo the genome of M. lini isolate CH5 into 21,130 scaffolds spanning 189 Mbp (scaffold N50 of 31 kbp. Global analysis of the DNA sequence revealed that repetitive elements, primarily retrotransposons, make up at least 45% of the genome. Using ab initio predictions, transcriptome data and homology searches, we identified 16,271 putative protein-coding genes. An analysis pipeline was then implemented to predict the effector complement of M. lini and compare it to that of the poplar rust, wheat stem rust and wheat stripe rust pathogens to identify conserved and species-specific effector candidates. Previous knowledge of four cloned M. lini avirulence effector proteins and two basidiomycete effectors was used to optimise parameters of the effector prediction pipeline. Markov clustering based on sequence similarity was performed to group effector candidates from all four rust pathogens. Clusters containing at least one member from M. lini were further analysed and prioritized based on features including expression in isolated haustoria and infected leaf tissue and conservation across rust species. Herein, we describe 200 of 940 clusters that ranked highest on our priority list, representing 725 flax rust candidate effectors. Our findings on this important model rust species provide insight into how effectors of rust fungi are conserved across species and how they may act to promote

  14. Número de gerações de um percevejo e seu parasitoide e da severidade da ferrugem asiática em soja, simulados em cenários de clima e manejo no norte do RS Number of generations of a stink bug and its parasitoid and severity of soybean rust, simulated under climate and crop management scenarios in northern RS State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Vitória Chevarria

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se simular o número de gerações do percevejo Euschistus heros e seu parasitoide Telenomus podisi e da severidade da ferrugem causada por Phakopsora pachyrhizi na cultura da soja em função da data de semeadura, cultivar e momento de ocorrência desses organismos. A simulação foi feita em dois locais representativos de duas importantes regiões produtoras de soja no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Modelos bioclimáticos dos insetos e da doença foram integrados a um modelo de simulação da cultura da soja (DSSAT e rodados para uma série temporal de dados meteorológicos diários para Passo Fundo (52 anos e Santa Rosa (34 anos. Independente do grupo de maturação, quanto mais antecipada foi a data da semeadura e o estádio de ocorrência de E. heros na cultura, maior o número de gerações (de 2 a 3 até a maturação fisiológica da soja. Para T. podisi, um maior número de gerações (5 a 6 foi simulado para semeadura antecipada e cultivares de ciclo tardio. Para a ferrugem asiática não foram observadas tendências de redução nos níveis médios de severidade com o uso de práticas preconizadas, como plantio antecipado e cultivares de grupos mais precoces de maturação.The objective of this study was to simulate the number of generations of a soybean insect pest (Euschistus heros and its parasitoid (Telenomus podisi and a fungal disease (soybean rust caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi as influenced by sowing date, cultivar and time of occurrence of the pest and the disease. Bioclimatic models that predict development of the organisms and severity of the disease were integrated into a crop simulation model of soybean (DSSAT that predicted phenological stages of the crop for scenarios of sowing data and cultivar maturity group in a long time series of daily meteorological data to Passo Fundo and Santa Rosa, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. The results showed that regardless of the maturity group, the earlier the sowing date and

  15. Efeito de herbicidas e fungicidas nas curvas de progresso e quantificação de danos causados pela ferrugem asiática da soja Effect of herbicides and fungicides on progress curves and damage quantification caused by soybean rust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Mitsuyuki Tsumanuma

    2010-07-01

    regions around the world, where great losses were observed. Many variables are studied in the quantification of damage such as area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC, healthy leaf area absorption (HAA, healthy leaf area duration (HAD, in addition to disease progress curves. The present research aimed to evaluate the effect of several herbicides and fungicides on the progress of the disease and its implications for variables related to healthy leaf area and yield. The treatments were evaluated in two cultivars (MG/BR-46 Conquista e BRS Valiosa RR: 1. Control; 2. Control with herbicides; 3. Herbicides and pyraclostrobin (V4 + pyraclostrobin+ epoxiconazole (R2 and R5.1, 4. Herbicides and pyraclostrobin (V4 + epoxiconazole (R2 and R5.1. 5. Herbicides (V4 + pyraclostrobin + epoxiconazole (R2 and R5.1. The herbicides used in MG/BR-46 Conquista were sethoxydim, bentazon and chlorimuron-ethyl; in BRS Valiosa RR, glyphosate was used. The logistic was the model that best adapted to the mean severity ratings and the disease progress curve. At the bottom of canopy, position more favorable to this disease, the logistic model with variable rate was the model that better explain the data. The spraying of strobilurin's group associated with triazole (pyraclostrobin + epoxiconazole reduced the rate of asian rust development, in relation to the group of ergosterol biosynthesis inhibitors fungicide (epoxiconazole. The pyraclostrobin + epoxiconazole influenced the variables AUDPC, HAA and HAD, and these can be considered suitable to quantify damage caused by this disease. In MG/BR-46 Conquista, the herbicides action affects temporarily the leaf area, affecting indirectly the HAA and HAD variables.

  16. First report of Phakopsora pachyrhizi on soybean in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    American soybean rust, caused by Phakopsora meibomiae, has been reported to occur in several legume species in the tropical regions of Central and South America. In Costa Rica, this pathogen was initially reported as P. pachyrhizi; however, to our knowledge P. pachyrhizi has not been detected in the...

  17. Anti-rust product poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... agents Hydrocarbons Hydrochloric acid Nitrites Oxalic acid Phosphoric acid ... red blood cells) Too much or too little acid in the blood, which ... anti-rust products come from inhaling the substance. LUNGS AND ...

  18. Potassium silicate and calcium silicate on the resistance of soybean to Phakopsora pachyrhizi infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda Cruz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The control of Asian Soybean Rust (ASR, caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi, has been difficult due to the aggressiveness of the pathogen and the lack of resistant cultivars. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of spray of potassium silicate (PS and soil amendment with calcium silicate (CS on soybean resistance to ASR. The PS solution was sprayed to leaves 24 hours prior to fungal inoculation while CS was amended to the soil at thirty-five days before sowing. The infection process of P. pachyrhizi was investigated by scanning electron microscopy. The uredia on leaves of plants sprayed with PS were smaller and more compact than those observed on the leaves of plants grown in soil amended with CS or in soil non-amended with CS (control treatment. On leaves of plants from the control treatment, uredia produced many urediniospores at 9 days after inoculation, and the ASR severity was 15, 8 and 9%, respectively, for plants from control, PS and CS treatments. In conclusion, the spray of PS contributed to reduce the number of uredia per cm² of leaf area and both PS spray and CS resulted in lower ASR symptoms.

  19. Soybean proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Zahed; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2014-01-01

    Soybean, the world's most widely grown seed legume, is an important global source of vegetable oil and protein. Though, complete draft genome sequence of soybean is now available, but functional genomics studies remain in their infancy, as this agricultural legume species exhibits genetic constrains like genome duplications and self-incompatibilities. The techniques of proteomics provide much powerful tool for functional analysis of soybean. In the present review, an attempt has been made to summarize all significant contributions in the field of soybean proteomics. Special emphasis is given to subcellular proteomics in response to abiotic stresses for better understanding molecular basis of acquisition of stress tolerance mechanism. Detailed protocols of protein extraction, solubilization, fractionation of subcellular organelle, and proteins identification are explained for soybean proteomics. All this information would not only enrich us in understanding the plants response to environmental stressors but would also enable us to design genetically engineered stress tolerant soybean.

  20. Inducers of resistance and silicon on the activity of defense enzymes in the soybean-Phakopsora pachyrhizi interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda Antunes da Cruz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the effect of jasmonic acid (JA, Acibenzolar-S-Methyl (ASM and calcium silicate (a source of soluble silicon, Si, on the potentiation of soybean resistance to Asian soybean rust (ASR. The ASR severity was significantly reduced on plants sprayed with ASM or supplied with Si in comparison to plants sprayed with JA or deionized water. For chitinases (CHI, significant differences in activity between non-inoculated and inoculated plants sprayed with deionized water or with ASM occurred at 72 hours after inoculation (hai, at 24 and 72 hai when sprayed with JA and at 141 hai when supplied with Si. For β-1,3-glucanases (GLU, significant differences in activity between non-inoculated and inoculated plants sprayed with deionized water occurred at 24, 48 and 141 hai, but not until 72 for plants sprayed with ASM. For phenylalanine ammonia-lyases (PAL, significant differences in activity between non-inoculated and inoculated plants occurred only for plants sprayed with ASM at 72 and 141 hai. In conclusion, the ASR symptoms can be mild on plants sprayed with ASM or supplied with Si and that this amelioration likely involved the defense enzymes.

  1. Raffinose-Series Oligosaccharides in Soybean Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Švejstil R.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Soybean foods forming a substantial part of Asian diet have still more expanded into European diet. Raffinose-series oligosaccharides (RSO are important constituents of soya beans and they can be found also in soybean products. These oligosaccharides can be considered potentially prebiotic for their capability of influencing the composition of the host’s intestinal microbiota. The aim of the present paper was to determine the oligosaccharide content in various soybean products. Enzymatic assay has been used for the determination of oligosaccharides. RSO have been found in all tested samples and their content varied from 0.66 g per 100 g in soybean beverage to 5.59 g per 100 g in first clear soybean flour. Generally, the highest content of RSO has been detected in soybean flour in the average amount of 4.83 g per 100 g. There was no statistically significant difference observed in the amount of oligosaccharides in all four types of soybean flour (P < 0.01. Considerably high amounts of RSO have been found in sweet soybean bars and textured soy protein. Foods as soybean flour and soybean bar ‘Sójový suk’ seem to be effective natural sources of prebiotic oligosaccharides for humans.

  2. First report of Puccinia psidii caused rust-disease epiphytotic on the invasive shrub Rhodomyrtus tomentosa in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Aiton) Hassk. (downy-rose myrtle, Family: Myrtaceae) of south Asian origin is an invasive shrub that has formed monotypic stands in Florida. During the winter and spring of 2010-2012, a rust disease of epiphytotic proportion was observed on young foliage, stem terminals and i...

  3. First report of Puccinia psidii caused rust disease epiphytotic on the invasive shrub Rhodomyrtus tomentosa in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. B. Rayamajhi; P. D. Pratt; N. B. Klopfenstein; A. L. Ross-Davis; L. Rodgers

    2013-01-01

    Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Aiton) Hassk. (downy-rose myrtle, family: Myrtaceae), of South Asian origin, is an invasive shrub that has formed monotypic stands in Florida (3). During the winter and spring of 2010 through 2012, a rust disease of epiphytotic proportion was observed on young foliage, stem terminals, and immature fruits of this shrub in natural areas of Martin...

  4. Allelic variation at loci controlling stripe rust resistance in spring wheat

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-08-20

    Aug 20, 2014 ... Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) rusts have been one of the main yield limiting factors in wheat cultivation throughout the world. Three kinds of rust diseases that attack wheat crop are leaf (brown) rust, stripe (yellow) rust and stem (black) rust. Leaf rust is caused by Puccinia triticina f.sp. tritici; stripe rust is ...

  5. 77 FR 46339 - Chrysanthemum White Rust Regulatory Status and Restrictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-03

    ... Chrysanthemum White Rust Regulatory Status and Restrictions AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service... chrysanthemum white rust (CWR) outbreaks and the importation of plant material that is a host of CWR... filamentous rust fungus and obligate parasite that is the causal agent of chrysanthemum white rust (CWR), an...

  6. Rust-Bio: a fast and safe bioinformatics library

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Köster (Johannes)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractWe present Rust-Bio, the first general purpose bioinformatics library for the innovative Rust programming language. Rust-Bio leverages the unique combination of speed, memory safety and high-level syntax offered by Rust to provide a fast and safe set of bioinformatics algorithms and data

  7. Progresso temporal da ferrugem e redução sobre a área foliar e os componentes do rendimento de grãos em soja Temporal progress of rust and reduced leaf area and yield components in soybean grain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Rafael Garcés Fiallos

    2011-04-01

    em experimento de campo com 64 parcelas (2.7 x 5 m da cultivar Glycine max L. (Nidera 5909 RG, estabelecida em 05/12/09. Para gerar gradientes de doença utilizaram-se dois fungicidas (tebuconazol e epoxiconazol + piraclostrobina, em uma, duas ou três aplicações em estádios fonológicos diferentes. A doença foi quantificada por número de lesões e urédias, posteriormente convertido para severidade (%. Quantificou-se também o índice de área foliar ao final do enchimento de grãos e os componentes do rendimento após a colheita. A severidade média final da ferrugem superou 50%. As diferenças em severidade entre os estratos da planta foram influenciadas pela quantidade inicial de doença, uma vez que as taxas de progresso, determinadas pelos modelos logístico e de Gompertz, foram semelhantes entre os estratos (0.13 a 0.14 para o logístico e 0.10 a 0.11 para Gompertz. O índice de área foliar (IAF foi de apenas 1.96 nas plantas não tratadas, contra 4.40 no tratamento com quatro aplicações de epoxiconazol + piraclostrobina. Programas de controle iniciados em estádio fonológico V9, com duas ou três aplicações, diferiram da testemunha em IAF. O número de legumes e grãos por planta, assim como grãos por legume não variaram entre os tratamentos. Só houve diferença no peso de grãos do estrato superior, quando os fungicidas foram aplicados duas ou três vezes a partir de estádio fonológico V9.The harvest of the year 2009-10 of soybean crop in Southern Brazil occurred under higher intensity of soybean rust (Phakopsora pachyrhizi Sydow y Sydow, which allowed studies on disease progress and crop reduction. A field experiment with 64 plots (2.7 x 5 m of the cultivar Glycine max L. (Nidera 5909 RG sown on 5/Dec/2009 was used for the evaluations. Disease gradients were obtained by spraying the fungicides tebuconazol or epoxiconazol + pyraclostrobin once, twice or three times, at different plant growth stages. Disease progress was assessed as number of

  8. Tracking the footsteps of an invasive plant pathogen: Intercontinental phylogeographic structure of the white-pine-blister-rust fungus, Cronartium ribicola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryce A. Richardson; Mee-Sook Kim; Ned B. Klopfenstein; Yuko Ota; Kwan Soo Woo; Richard C. Hamelin

    2009-01-01

    Presently, little is known about the worldwide genetic structure, diversity, or evolutionary relationships of the white-pineblister-rust fungus, Cronartium ribicola. A collaborative international effort is underway to determine the phylogeographic relationships among Asian, European, and North American sources of C. ribicola and...

  9. Molecular and genetic study of wheat rusts

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nicholas Le Maitre

    The effect of selection can be reduced by several methods. ... sition of the current and future rust population. In order to ... pathogen population structure, population genetic studies ..... The lack of diversity is probably due to reasons simi-.

  10. substitution line for resistance to stripe rust

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2011-08-19

    2D) substitution line for resistance to stripe rust. MENGPING LEI, GUANGRONG LI, SUFEN ZHANG, CHENG LIU and ZUJUN YANG. ∗. School of Life Science and Technology, University of Electronic Science and Technology ...

  11. Een oase van rust op de boerderij

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noorduyn, L.

    2010-01-01

    Rust is wat consumenten zoeken op een boerderij. Of ze er nou producten kopen of gaan boerengolfen. Dat komt naar voren uit onderzoek van Wageningen UR naar de beleving van consumenten die een boerderij bezoeken

  12. 75 FR 29191 - Black Stem Rust; Additions of Rust-Resistant Varieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-25

    ... by a fungus that reduces the quality and yield of infected wheat, oat, barley, and rye crops. In... to the list of rust-resistant Mahonia species or cultivars. The nursery and floriculture industries... determined to be rust-resistant. The introduction and spread of plant pests can result in damage to crops and...

  13. Mapping of stripe rust resistance gene in an Aegilops caudata ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PUNEET INDER TOOR

    Abstract. A pair of stripe rust and leaf rust resistance genes was introgressed from Aegilops caudata, a nonprogenitor diploid species with the CC genome, to cultivated wheat. Inheritance and genetic mapping of stripe rust resistance gene in backcross- recombinant inbred line (BC-RIL) population derived from the cross of a ...

  14. 77 FR 65840 - Chrysanthemum White Rust Regulatory Status and Restrictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-31

    ... Chrysanthemum White Rust Regulatory Status and Restrictions AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service... whether and how we should amend our process for responding to domestic chrysanthemum white rust (CWR... chrysanthemum white rust (CWR) outbreaks and the importation of plant material that is a host of CWR. CWR is an...

  15. Aspects of durable resistance in wheat to yellow rust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Danial, D.L.

    1994-01-01

    In Kenya, the number of virulence factors of the yellow rust populations showed a considerable increase and a wide variability. Selecting for complete to near complete resistance to yellow rust and other cereal rust diseases, was followed by a rapid erosion of resistance.

    Partial

  16. Development of RAPD based markers for wheat rust resistance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rust diseases are the major cause of low yield of wheat in Pakistan. Wheat breeders all over the world as well as in Pakistan are deriving rust resistance genes from alien species like Triticum ventricosum and introducing them in common wheat (Triticum aestivum). One such example is the introgression of rust resistance ...

  17. Molecular and genetic study of wheat rusts | Le Maitre | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Puccinia triticina, Puccinia graminis and Puccinia striiformis cause leaf, stem and yellow rust, respectively. Wheat rusts can cause losses as high as 70%. The rusts ability to evolve fungicide resistance has resulted in the use of resistant cultivars as the primary method of control. Breeding resistant cultivars is a long process ...

  18. Development of wheat germplasm for stem rust resistance in eastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum) rust outbreak is the primary production constraint in Eastern Africa. Ethiopia, Kenya and Uganda are hot spots for the epidemic of rusts, due to higher rates of evolution of new pathogen races, especially of the virulent stem rust (Puccinia graminis) race, Ug99. The objective of this study was to ...

  19. The Big Rust and the Red Queen: Long-Term Perspectives on Coffee Rust Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCook, Stuart; Vandermeer, John

    2015-09-01

    Since 2008, there has been a cluster of outbreaks of the coffee rust (Hemileia vastatrix) across the coffee-growing regions of the Americas, which have been collectively described as the Big Rust. These outbreaks have caused significant hardship to coffee producers and laborers. This essay situates the Big Rust in a broader historical context. Over the past two centuries, coffee farmers have had to deal with the "curse of the Red Queen"-the need to constantly innovate in the face of an increasing range of threats, which includes the rust. Over the 20th century, particularly after World War II, national governments and international organizations developed a network of national, regional, and international coffee research institutions. These public institutions played a vital role in helping coffee farmers manage the rust. Coffee farmers have pursued four major strategies for managing the rust: bioprospecting for resistant coffee plants, breeding resistant coffee plants, chemical control, and agroecological control. Currently, the main challenge for researchers is to develop rust control strategies that are both ecologically and economically viable for coffee farmers, in the context of a volatile, deregulated coffee industry and the emergent challenges of climate change.

  20. Amino acid uptake in rust fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struck, Christine

    2015-01-01

    The plant pathogenic rust fungi colonize leaf tissue and feed off their host plants without killing them. Certain economically important species of different genera such as Melampsora, Phakopsora, Puccinia, or Uromyces are extensively studied for resolving the mechanisms of the obligate biotrophy. As obligate parasites rust fungi only can complete their life cycle on living hosts where they grow through the leaf tissue by developing an extended network of intercellular hyphae from which intracellular haustoria are differentiated. Haustoria are involved in key functions of the obligate biotrophic lifestyle: suppressing host defense responses and acquiring nutrients. This review provides a survey of rust fungi nitrogen nutrition with special emphasis on amino acid uptake. A variety of sequences of amino acid transporter genes of rust fungi have been published; however, transport activity of only three in planta highly up-regulated amino acid permeases have been characterized. Functional and immunohistochemical investigations have shown the specificity and localization of these transporters. Sequence data of various genome projects allowed identification of numerous rust amino acid transporter genes. An in silico analysis reveals that these genes can be classified into different transporter families. In addition, genetic and molecular data of amino acid transporters have provided new insights in the corresponding metabolic pathways. PMID:25699068

  1. Amino acid uptake in rust fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine eStruck

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The plant pathogenic rust fungi colonize leaf tissue and feed off their host plants without killing them. Certain economically important species of different genera such as Melampsora, Phakopsora, Puccinia or Uromyces are extensively studied for resolving the mechanisms of the obligate biotrophy. As obligate parasites rust fungi only can complete their life cycle on living hosts where they grow through the leaf tissue by developing an extended network of intercellular hyphae from which intracellular haustoria are differentiated. Haustoria are involved in key functions of the obligate biotrophic lifestyle: suppressing host defense responses and acquiring nutrients. This review provides a survey of rust fungi nitrogen nutrition with special emphasis on amino acid uptake. A variety of sequences of amino acid transporter genes of rust fungi have been published; however, transport activity of only three in planta highly up-regulated amino acid permeases have been characterized. Functional and immunohistochemical investigations have shown the specificity and localization of these transporters. Sequence data of various genome projects allowed identification of numerous rust amino acid tranporter genes. An in silico analysis reveals that these genes can be classified into different transporter families. In addition, genetic and molecular data of amino acid transporters have provided new insights in the corresponding metabolic pathways.

  2. Leaf Rust of Wheat: Pathogen Biology, Variation and Host Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Kolmer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rusts are important pathogens of angiosperms and gymnosperms including cereal crops and forest trees. With respect to cereals, rust fungi are among the most important pathogens. Cereal rusts are heteroecious and macrocyclic requiring two taxonomically unrelated hosts to complete a five spore stage life cycle. Cereal rust fungi are highly variable for virulence and molecular polymorphism. Leaf rust, caused by Puccinia triticina is the most common rust of wheat on a worldwide basis. Many different races of P. triticina that vary for virulence to leaf rust resistance genes in wheat differential lines are found annually in the US. Molecular markers have been used to characterize rust populations in the US and worldwide. Highly virulent races of P. triticina are selected by leaf rust resistance genes in the soft red winter wheat, hard red winter wheat and hard red spring wheat cultivars that are grown in different regions of the US. Cultivars that only have race-specific leaf rust resistance genes that are effective in seedling plants lose their effective resistance and become susceptible within a few years of release. Cultivars with combinations of race non-specific resistance genes have remained resistant over a period of years even though races of the leaf rust population have changed constantly.

  3. Identification of Green Rust in Groundwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Bo C.; Balic Zunic, Tonci; Dideriksen, Knud

    2009-01-01

    Green rust, a family of Fe(II),Fe(III) layered double hydroxides, is believed to be present in environments close to the Fe(II)/Fe(III) transition zone. Attempts to identify members of this family in nature have proven difficult because the material is oxidized after only a few minutes exposure t...

  4. Phylogenetic studies in Ravenelia esculenta and related rust fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Gandhe, K. R.; Kuvalekar, Aniket

    2007-01-01

    Ravenelia esculenta Naras. and Thium. is a rust fungus, which infects mostly thorns, inflorescences, flowers and fruits of Acacia eburnea Willd. Aecial stages of the rust produce hypertrophy in infected parts. DNA of the rust fungus was isolated from aeciospores by ‘freeze thaw’ method. 18S rDNA was amplified and sequenced by automated DNA sequencer. BLAST of the sequence at NCBI retrieved 96 sequences producing significant alignments. Multiple sequence alignment of these sequences was done b...

  5. Genomic Prediction of Genetic Values for Resistance to Wheat Rusts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Ornella

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Durable resistance to the rust diseases of wheat ( L. can be achieved by developing lines that have race-nonspecific adult plant resistance conferred by multiple minor slow-rusting genes. Genomic selection (GS is a promising tool for accumulating favorable alleles of slow-rusting genes. In this study, five CIMMYT wheat populations evaluated for resistance were used to predict resistance to stem rust ( and yellow rust ( using Bayesian least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO (BL, ridge regression (RR, and support vector regression with linear or radial basis function kernel models. All parents and populations were genotyped using 1400 Diversity Arrays Technology markers and different prediction problems were assessed. Results show that prediction ability for yellow rust was lower than for stem rust, probably due to differences in the conditions of infection of both diseases. For within population and environment, the correlation between predicted and observed values (Pearson’s correlation [ρ] was greater than 0.50 in 90% of the evaluations whereas for yellow rust, ρ ranged from 0.0637 to 0.6253. The BL and RR models have similar prediction ability, with a slight superiority of the BL confirming reports about the additive nature of rust resistance. When making predictions between environments and/or between populations, including information from another environment or environments or another population or populations improved prediction.

  6. Expression of a synthetic rust fungal virus cDNA in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Bret; Campbell, Kimberly B; Garrett, Wesley M

    2016-01-01

    Mycoviruses are viruses that infect fungi. Recently, mycovirus-like RNAs were sequenced from the fungus Phakopsora pachyrhizi, the causal agent of soybean rust. One of the RNAs appeared to represent a novel mycovirus and was designated Phakopsora pachyrhizi virus 2383 (PpV2383). The genome of PpV2383 resembles Saccharomyces cerevisiae virus L-A, a double-stranded (ds) RNA mycovirus of yeast. PpV2383 encodes two major, overlapping open reading frames with similarity to gag (capsid protein) and pol (RNA-dependent RNA polymerase), and a -1 ribosomal frameshift is necessary for the translation of a gag-pol fusion protein. Phylogenetic analysis of pol relates PpV2383 to members of the family Totiviridae, including L-A. Because the obligate biotrophic nature of P. pachyrhizi makes it genetically intractable for in vivo analysis and because PpV2383 is similar to L-A, we synthesized a DNA clone of PpV2383 and tested its infectivity in yeast cells. PpV2383 RNA was successfully expressed in yeast, and mass spectrometry confirmed the translation of gag and gag-pol fusion proteins. There was, however, no production of PpV2383 dsRNA, the evidence of viral replication. Neither the presence of endogenous L-A nor the substitution of the 5' and 3' untranslated regions with those from L-A was sufficient to rescue replication of PpV2383. Nevertheless, the proof of transcription and translation from the clone in vivo are steps toward confirming that PpV2383 is a mycovirus. Further development of a surrogate biological system for the study of rust mycoviruses is necessary, and such research may facilitate biological control of rust diseases.

  7. Polyamines in soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L C

    1972-07-01

    Putrescine, spermidine, and spermine were three main polyamines isolated from soybeans and partially characterized. Occurrence of polyamines in soybeans was established by separating trichloroacetic acid extracts of soybeans by cationic exchange column chromatography, identification with thin layer chromatography, paper electrophoresis, mass spectral analysis, reactions with ninhydrin and Dragendorff reagents, and spectrophotometric characteristics. Soybeans contained a minimum of 29.0 micrograms of polyamines per gram of full-fat flour. The alcohol-soluble fraction of soybeans contained polyamines also. Resting seeds contained spermidine in higher concentration than either putrescine or spermine. Spermine appeared to be present in lowest concentration. Preliminary experiments suggested that some polyamines were possibly in bound forms.

  8. Climate change impacts on coffee rust disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonsi, W. M. V.; Koga-Vicente, A.; Pinto, H. S.; Alfonsi, E. L., Sr.; Coltri, P. P.; Zullo, J., Jr.; Patricio, F. R.; Avila, A. M. H. D.; Gonçalves, R. R. D. V.

    2016-12-01

    Changes in climate conditions and in extreme weather events may affect the food security due to impacts in agricultural production. Despite several researches have been assessed the impacts of extremes in yield crops in climate change scenarios, there is the need to consider the effects in pests and diseases which increase losses in the sector. Coffee Arabica is an important commodity in world and plays a key role in Brazilian agricultural exports. Although the coffee crop has a world highlight, its yield is affected by several factors abiotic or biotic. The weather as well pests and diseases directly influence the development and coffee crop yield. These problems may cause serious damage with significant economic impacts. The coffee rust, caused by the fungus Hemileia vastarix,is among the diseases of greatest impact for the crop. The disease emerged in Brazil in the 70s and is widely spread in all producing regions of coffee in Brazil, and in the world. Regions with favorable weather conditions for the pathogen may exhibit losses ranging from 30% to 50% of the total grain production. The evaluation of extreme weather events of coffee rust disease in futures scenarios was carried out using the climatic data from CMIP5 models, data field of coffee rust disease incidence and, incubation period simulation data for Brazilian municipalities. Two Regional Climate Models were selected, Eta-HadGEM2-ES and Eta-MIROC5, and the Representative Concentration Pathways 8.5 w/m2 was adopted. The outcomes pointed out that in these scenarios the period of incubation tends to decrease affecting the coffee rust disease incidence, which tends to increase. Nevertheless, the changing in average trends tends to benefit the reproduction of the pathogen. Once the temperature threshold for the disease reaches the adverse conditions it may be unfavorable for the incidence.

  9. Asian Ginseng

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... senticosus) is not related to true ginseng. In traditional Chinese medicine, Asian ginseng was used as a ... recommend against its use by infants, children, and women who are pregnant or breastfeeding. The most common ...

  10. Coprecipitation of Arsenate and Arsenite with Green Rust Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this experiment were to evaluate the extent and nature of arsenic co-precipitation with green rusts and to examine the influence of arsenic incorporation on the mineralogy of formed solid phases. Stoichiometric green rusts were obtained by coprecipitation of fe...

  11. An economic evaluation of fusiform rust protection research

    Science.gov (United States)

    F.W. Cubbage; John M. Pye; T.P. Holmes; J.E. Wagner

    2000-01-01

    Fusiform rust is a widespread and damaging disease of loblolly pine (P. taeda) and slash pine (P. elliottii) in the South. Research has identified families of these pines with improved genetic resistance to the disease, allowing production and planting of resistant seedlings in areas at risk. This study compared the cost of fusiform rust research to the simulated...

  12. Genetic studies in wheat for leaf rust resistance ( Puccinia recondita ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic studies in wheat for leaf rust resistance (Puccinia recondita). F Hussain, M Ashraf, MA Hameed, N Hussain, RA Sial. Abstract. Leaf rust is a major disease of wheat crop in the world as a whole. This study was undertaken to find the genetic effects of adult plant leaf resistance in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

  13. Wheat rusts in the United States in 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2016, wheat stripe rust caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. graminis was widespread throughout the United States. Cool temperatures and abundant rainfall in the southern Great Plains allowed stripe rust to become widely established and spread throughout the Great Plains and eastern United State...

  14. Interacting genes in the pine-fusiform rust forest pathosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    H.V. Amerson; T.L. Kubisiak; S.A. Garcia; G.C. Kuhlman; C.D. Nelson; S.E. McKeand; T.J. Mullin; B. Li

    2005-01-01

    Fusiform rust (FR) disease of pines, caused by Cronartium quercuum f.sp. fusiforme (Cqf), is the most destructive disease in pine plantations of the southern U. S. The NCSU fusiform rust program, in conjunction with the USDA-Forest Service in Saucier, MS and Athens, GA, has research underway to elucidate some of the genetic interactions in this...

  15. Stem rust seedling resistance genes in Ethiopian wheat cultivars ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stem rust caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici is one of the major biotic limiting factors for wheat production in Ethiopia. Host plant resistance is the best option to manage stem rust from its economic and environmental points of view. Wheat cultivars are released for production without carrying race specific tests against ...

  16. Marker-assisted pyramiding of Thinopyrumderived leaf rust ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-03-20

    Mar 20, 2017 ... Key words: Wheat, leaf rust, molecular marker, gene pyramiding,marker assisted selection. Abstract. The study was undertaken to pyramid two effective leaf rust resistance genes (Lr19 and Lr24) derived from Thinopyrum(syn.Agropyron), in the susceptible but agronomically superior wheat cultivar HD2733 ...

  17. Mapping of stripe rust resistance gene in an Aegilops caudata ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Inheritance and genetic mapping of stripe rust resistance gene in backcrossrecombinant inbred line (BC-RIL) population derived from the cross of a wheat–Ae. caudata introgression line (IL) T291-2(pau16060) with wheat cv. PBW343 is reported here. Segregation of BC-RILs for stripe rust resistance depicted a single major ...

  18. Pathological and molecular characterizations of slow leaf rusting in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sundeep

    2012-10-18

    Oct 18, 2012 ... Leaf rust caused by Puccinia triticina, is a globally important fungal disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em. Thell), resulting in significant yield losses, sometimes up to 40% worldwide. In this study we investigated slow rusting resistance at pathological and molecular level. Fifteen (15) wheat genotypes ...

  19. Transfer of stripe rust resistance from Aegilops variabilis to bread ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In terms of area, the bread wheat producing regions of China comprise the largest area in the world that is constantly threatened by stripe rust epidemics. Consequently, it is important to exploit new adultplant resistance genes in breeding. This study reports the transfer of stripe rust resistance from Aegilops variabilis to ...

  20. stem rust seedling resistance genes in ethiopian wheat cultivars

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    Stem rust caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici is one of the major biotic limiting factors for wheat production in Ethiopia. Host plant resistance is the best option to manage stem rust from its economic and environmental points of view. Wheat cultivars are released for production without carrying race specific tests against ...

  1. leaf and stripe rust resistance among ethiopian grown wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADMIN

    ABSTRACT: Ethiopian grown wheat varieties and lines were studied to identify germplasm sources possessing resistance to leaf rust caused by Puccinia triticina and stripe rust (P. striiformis). Sixty-four lines were included of which 38 were bread wheat (Triticum aestivum, 2n=6x=42, AABBDD) and 26 durum wheat (T.

  2. Progress on introduction of rust resistance genes into confection sunflower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunflower rust (Puccinia helianthi) emerged as a serious disease in the last few years. Confection sunflower is particularly vulnerable to the disease due to the lack of resistance sources. The objectives of this project are to transfer rust resistance genes from oil sunflower to confectionery sunfl...

  3. Computer simulation of white pine blister rust epidemics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geral I. McDonald; Raymond J. Hoff; William R. Wykoff

    1981-01-01

    A simulation of white pine blister rust is described in both word and mathematical models. The objective of this first generation simulation was to organize and analyze the available epidemiological knowledge to produce a foundation for integrated management of this destructive rust of 5-needle pines. Verification procedures and additional research needs are also...

  4. Characterization of stem rust resistance gene Sr2 in Indian wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stem rust or black rust is one of the most important diseases of wheat worldwide. In India, central, peninsular and southern hill zones are particularly prone to stem rust where favourable environmental conditions exist. The recent emergence of wheat stem rust race Ug99 (TTKSK) and related strains threatens global wheat ...

  5. Characterization of stem rust resistance gene Sr2 in Indian wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SONY

    2013-05-01

    May 1, 2013 ... Stem rust or black rust is one of the most important diseases of wheat worldwide. In India, central, peninsular and southern hill zones are particularly prone to stem rust where favourable environmental conditions exist. The recent emergence of wheat stem rust race Ug99 (TTKSK) and related strains.

  6. Soybean diseases in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Marcinkowska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Field observations on the occurrence of soybean diseases were undertaken in the southern and central regions of Poland in the period 1976-1980. Most prevalent were foliage diseases caused by Peronospora manshurica, Pseudomonas syrinqae pv. glycinea and soybean mosaic virus (SMV. Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Ascochyta sojaecola were reported as pathogens of local importance. The following pathogenic fungi: Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium culmorum, F. oxysporum and Rhizoctonia solani were also isolated from soybean.

  7. A greenhouse-based inoculation protocol for fungi causing crown rust and stem rust diseases of Kentucky bluegrass turf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusts are destructive fungal diseases that can cause severe thinning and unattractive discoloration of kentucky bluegrass (KBG; Poa pratensis L.). Currently, turfgrass breeding programs rely on field evaluations to screen KBG germplasm for rust resistance; methods that are expensive, labor intensive...

  8. A green method of diaphragm spring's anti-rusting with high quality and efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xinming; Hua, Wenlin

    2017-10-01

    This paper introduces a green method of diaphragm spring's anti-rusting, which is of high quality, high efficiency and low consumption. It transforms the phosphating way of anti-rusting to physical anti-rusting that directly coat anti-rusting oil on the surface of the spring, and transforms the manual-oiling or oil-immersion to fully-automatically ultrasonic oiling. Hence, this method will completely change the way of diaphgragm spring's anti-rusting.

  9. Rust fungi on Annonaceae: the genus Sphaerophragmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beenken, Ludwig; Berndt, Reinhard

    2010-01-01

    Seven species of the rust genus Sphaerophragmium occur on members of the tropical plant family Annonaceae. Uropyxis gerstneri is recombined to S. gerstneri. A new species, S. xylopiae, is described from Xylopia acutiflora. The host plant of S. boanense is identified as Mitrella sp. Sphaerophragmium pulchrum is transferred to Dicheirinia. The anatomy of telia with teliospores and parasitizing mycelium is described and illustrated in detail. A new type of M-haustorium, which emanates laterally from intracellular hypha, is detected in S. monodorae. An identification key is given.

  10. Soybean Production Lesson Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Keith R.

    These lesson plans for teaching soybean production in a secondary or postsecondary vocational agriculture class are organized in nine units and cover the following topics: raising soybeans, optimum tillage, fertilizer and lime, seed selection, pest management, planting, troubleshooting, double cropping, and harvesting. Each lesson plan contains…

  11. Polyamines in Soybeans 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L. C.

    1972-01-01

    Putrescine, spermidine, and spermine were three main polyamines isolated from soybeans and partially characterized. Occurrence of polyamines in soybeans was established by separating trichloroacetic acid extracts of soybeans by cationic exchange column chromatography, identification with thin layer chromatography, paper electrophoresis, mass spectral analysis, reactions with ninhydrin and Dragendorff reagents, and spectrophotometric characteristics. Soybeans contained a minimum of 29.0 micrograms of polyamines per gram of full-fat flour. The alcohol-soluble fraction of soybeans contained polyamines also. Resting seeds contained spermidine in higher concentration than either putrescine or spermine. Spermine appeared to be present in lowest concentration. Preliminary experiments suggested that some polyamines were possibly in bound forms. Images PMID:16658112

  12. Incorporation of Monovalent Cations in Sulfate Green Rust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, B. C.; Dideriksen, K.; Katz, A.

    2014-01-01

    Green rust is a naturally occurring layered mixed-valent ferrous-ferric hydroxide, which can react with a range of redox-active compounds. Sulfate-bearing green rust is generally thought to have interlayers composed of sulfate and water. Here, we provide evidence that the interlayers also contain...... with water showed that Na+ and K+ were structurally fixed in the interlayer, whereas Rb+ and Cs+ could be removed, resulting in a decrease in the basal layer spacing. The incorporation of cations in the interlayer opens up new possibilities for the use of sulfate green rust for exchange reactions with both...

  13. SOYBEAN.APHID.SD.2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infestations by soybean aphid (SA) can reduce soybean yield. Thus, SA-resistant soybean may be useful in reducing infestations and limiting yield loss. Expression of resistance was characterized among 746 soybean accessions in 56 growth chamber tests at the North Central Agricultural Research Labo...

  14. RESEARCH ON THE RUST FUNGI DURING THE TWENTIETH CENTURY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staples, Richard C.

    2000-01-01

    Interest in the rust fungi derives from their success as plant pathogens. For example, the epidemic on coffee had serious economic and social impacts on diverse cultures. During the century, research on the rust germling shifted from a study of germling development, including a search for the signals that induce differentiation, to an examination of the genes expressed during host colonization. Research on host resistance was most influenced by Stakman, who studied the genetics and epidemiology of rust disease. His innovations enabled Flor to propose the gene-for-gene hypothesis, a concept that stimulated development of resistant crops, and led to research that gradually shifted during the century to an examination of the molecular basis of rust genetics.

  15. Mapping of quantitative adult plant field resistance to leaf rust and stripe rust in two European winter wheat populations reveals co-location of three QTL conferring resistance to both rust pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buerstmayr, Maria; Matiasch, Lydia; Mascher, Fabio; Vida, Gyula; Ittu, Marianna; Robert, Olivier; Holdgate, Sarah; Flath, Kerstin; Neumayer, Anton; Buerstmayr, Hermann

    2014-09-01

    We detected several, most likely novel QTL for adult plant resistance to rusts. Notably three QTL improved resistance to leaf rust and stripe rust simultaneously indicating broad spectrum resistance QTL. The rusts of wheat (Puccinia spp.) are destructive fungal wheat diseases. The deployment of resistant cultivars plays a central role in integrated rust disease management. Durability of resistance would be preferred, but is difficult to analyse. The Austrian winter wheat cultivar Capo was released in the 1989 and grown on a large acreage during more than two decades and maintained a good level of quantitative leaf rust and stripe rust resistance. Two bi-parental mapping populations: Capo × Arina and Capo × Furore were tested in multiple environments for severity of leaf rust and stripe rust at the adult plant stage in replicated field experiments. Quantitative trait loci associated with leaf rust and stripe rust severity were mapped using DArT and SSR markers. Five QTL were detected in multiple environments associated with resistance to leaf rust designated as QLr.ifa-2AL, QLr.ifa-2BL, QLr.ifa-2BS, QLr.ifa-3BS, and QLr.ifa-5BL, and five for resistance to stripe rust QYr.ifa-2AL, QYr.ifa-2BL, QYr.ifa-3AS, QYr.ifa-3BS, and QYr.ifa-5A. For all QTL apart from two (QYr.ifa-3AS, QLr.ifa-5BL) Capo contributed the resistance improving allele. The leaf rust and stripe rust resistance QTL on 2AL, 2BL and 3BS mapped to the same chromosome positions, indicating either closely linked genes or pleiotropic gene action. These three multiple disease resistance QTL (QLr.ifa-2AL/QYr.ifa-2AL, QLr.ifa.2BL/QYr.ifa-2BL, QLr.ifa-3BS/QYr.ifa.3BS) potentially contribute novel resistance sources for stripe rust and leaf rust. The long-lasting resistance of Capo apparently rests upon a combination of several genes. The described germplasm, QTL and markers are applicable for simultaneous resistance improvement against leaf rust and stripe rust.

  16. Moessbauer Characterization of Rust Obtained in an Accelerated Corrosion Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, K. E.; Morales, A. L.; Arroyave, C. E.; Barrero, C. A. [Universidad de Antioquia, Grupo de Corrosion y Proteccion, Departamento de Ingenieria de Materiales (Colombia); Cook, D. C. [Old Dominion University, Department of Physics (United States)

    2003-06-15

    We have performed drying-humectation cyclical processes (CEBELCOR) on eight A36 low carbon steel coupons in NaCl solutions containing 1x10{sup -2} M and 1x10{sup -1} M concentrations. The main purpose of these experiments is to contribute to the understanding of the conditions for akaganeite formation. Additionally, and with the idea to perform a complete characterization of the rust, this work also considers the formation of other iron oxide phases. The corrosion products were characterized by Moessbauer spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques. Gravimetric analysis demonstrates that the coupons presented high corrosion rates. Magnetite/maghemite was common in the rust stuck to the steel surface, whereas akaganeite was present only in traces. In the rust collected from the solutions, i.e., the rust that goes away from the metal surface easily, a magnetite/maghemite was not present and akaganeite showed up in larger quantities. These results support the idea that high concentrations of Cl{sup -} ions are required for the akaganeite formation. We concluded that akaganeite is not easily bonded to the rust layer; this may lead to the formation of a less protective rust layer and to higher corrosion rates.

  17. Evaluation of soybean germplasm conserved in NIAS genebank and development of mini core collections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaga, Akito; Shimizu, Takehiko; Watanabe, Satoshi; Tsubokura, Yasutaka; Katayose, Yuichi; Harada, Kyuya; Vaughan, Duncan A.; Tomooka, Norihiko

    2012-01-01

    Genetic variation and population structure among 1603 soybean accessions, consisted of 832 Japanese landraces, 109 old and 57 recent Japanese varieties, 341 landrace from 16 Asian countries and 264 wild soybean accessions, were characterized using 191 SNP markers. Although gene diversity of Japanese soybean germplasm was slight lower than that of exotic soybean germplasm, population differentiation and clustering analyses indicated clear genetic differentiation among Japanese cultivated soybeans, exotic cultivated soybeans and wild soybeans. Nine hundred ninety eight Japanese accessions were separated to a certain extent into groups corresponding to their agro-morphologic characteristics such as photosensitivity and seed characteristics rather than their geographical origin. Based on the assessment of the SNP markers and several agro-morphologic traits, accessions that retain gene diversity of the whole collection were selected to develop several soybean sets of different sizes using an heuristic approach; a minimum of 12 accessions can represent the observed gene diversity; a mini-core collection of 96 accession can represent a major proportion of both geographic origin and agro-morphologic trait variation. These selected sets of germplasm will provide an effective platform for enhancing soybean diversity studies and assist in finding novel traits for crop improvement. PMID:23136496

  18. Relationship between the specific surface area of rust and the electrochemical behavior of rusted steel in a wet-dry acid corrosion environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Zhao, Qing-he; Li, Shuan-zhu

    2017-01-01

    The relationship between the specific surface area (SSA) of rust and the electrochemical behavior of rusted steel under wet-dry acid corrosion conditions was investigated. The results showed that the corrosion current density first increased and then decreased with increasing SSA of the rust during the corrosion process. The structure of the rust changed from single-layer to double-layer, and the γ-FeOOH content decreased in the inner layer of the rust with increasing corrosion time; by contrast, the γ-FeOOH content in the outer layer was constant. When the SSA of the rust was lower than the critical SSA corresponding to the relative humidity during the drying period, condensed water in the micropores of the rust could evaporate, which prompted the diffusion of O2 into the rust and the following formation process of γ-FeOOH, leading to an increase of corrosion current density with increasing corrosion time. However, when the SSA of the rust reached or exceeded the critical SSA, condensate water in the micro-pores of the inner layer of the rust could not evaporate which inhibited the diffusion of O2 and decreased the γ-FeOOH content in the inner rust, leading to a decrease of corrosion current density with increasing corrosion time.

  19. Identification of QTL conferring resistance to stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. hordei) and leaf rust (Puccinia hordei) in barley using nested association mapping (NAM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatter, Thomas; Maurer, Andreas; Perovic, Dragan; Kopahnke, Doris; Pillen, Klaus; Ordon, Frank

    2018-01-01

    The biotrophic rust fungi Puccinia hordei and Puccinia striiformis are important barley pathogens with the potential to cause high yield losses through an epidemic spread. The identification of QTL conferring resistance to these pathogens is the basis for targeted breeding approaches aiming to improve stripe rust and leaf rust resistance of modern cultivars. Exploiting the allelic richness of wild barley accessions proved to be a valuable tool to broaden the genetic base of resistance of barley cultivars. In this study, SNP-based nested association mapping (NAM) was performed to map stripe rust and leaf rust resistance QTL in the barley NAM population HEB-25, comprising 1,420 lines derived from BC1S3 generation. By scoring the percentage of infected leaf area, followed by calculation of the area under the disease progress curve and the average ordinate during a two-year field trial, a large variability of resistance across and within HEB-25 families was observed. NAM based on 5,715 informative SNPs resulted in the identification of twelve and eleven robust QTL for resistance against stripe rust and leaf rust, respectively. Out of these, eight QTL for stripe rust and two QTL for leaf rust are considered novel showing no overlap with previously reported resistance QTL. Overall, resistance to both pathogens in HEB-25 is most likely due to the accumulation of numerous small effect loci. In addition, the NAM results indicate that the 25 wild donor QTL alleles present in HEB-25 strongly differ in regard to their individual effect on rust resistance. In future, the NAM concept will allow to select and combine individual wild barley alleles from different HEB parents to increase rust resistance in barley. The HEB-25 results will support to unravel the genetic basis of rust resistance in barley, and to improve resistance against stripe rust and leaf rust of modern barley cultivars.

  20. Genetic analysis and location of gene for resistance to stripe rust in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2013-08-06

    yellow) rust. It is very important to clarify its genetic character of resistance to stripe rust and to develop the molecular markers linked to resistance genes. The NIL Taichung. 29*6/Strubes Dickkopf, which was obtained by ...

  1. Wheat Rust Information Resources - Integrated tools and data for improved decision making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hodson, David; Hansen, Jens Grønbech; Lassen, Poul

    Wheat rusts present an ever-changing global threat to the worlds wheat crop. Emergence of virulent new races in one region has implications for other regions, due to wind-borne or human-borne movements. Therefore informed decision making regarding control and mitigation of wheat rusts requires...... an integrated set of datasets on both pathogen and host at the global scale. The Global Cereal Rust Monitoring System (GCRMS), created under the Durable Rust resistance in Wheat (DRRW) project, represents a unique and increasingly comprehensive resource of rust information. A suite of tools are now available...... giving access to an unprecedented set of data for rust surveys, alternate hosts (barberry), rust pathotypes, trap nurseries and resistant cultivars. Standardized protocols for data collection have permitted the development of a comprehensive data management system, named the Wheat Rust Toolbox...

  2. Stability of soybean aphid resistance in soybean across different temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    The soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura, is the most important insect pest posing a threat to soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr., grain production in the United States. Soybean cultivars with resistance are currently being deployed to aid in management of the pest. Temperature has been reported to ...

  3. Nutritional value of raw soybeans, extruded soybeans, roasted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experimental diets were a control containing 27.4 % alfalfa silage, 22.5% corn silage, and 50.1% concentrate, and four diets with either tallow, raw soybean, extruded soybean, or roasted soybean added to provide 1.93% supplemental fat. Dry matter and NEL intakes were similar among treatments, while cows fed fat diets ...

  4. QTL mapping of adult-plant resistance to stripe rust in wheat line P9897

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stripe rust (or yellow rust), caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst), is a devastating fungal disease of common wheat. Wheat line P9897 showed adult-plant resistance (APR) to stripe rust for several years. To map resistance quantitative trait loci (QTL), F2:3 lines from a cross of P9897...

  5. Using hierarchical clustering of secreted protein families to classify and rank candidate effectors of rust fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rust fungi are obligate biotrophic pathogens causing considerable damage on crop plants. P. graminis f. sp. tritici, the causal agent of wheat stem rust, and M. larici-populina, the poplar rust pathogen, have strong deleterious impact on wheat and poplar wood production, respectively. The recently r...

  6. Introgression of a leaf rust resistance gene from Aegilops caudata to ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. alien introgression; molecular mapping; leaf rust; Puccinia triticina; Triticum aestivum; Aegilops caudata. Abstract. Rusts are the most important biotic constraints limiting wheat productivity worldwide. Deployment of cultivars with broad spectrum rust resistance is the only environmentally viable option to combat ...

  7. Identification of leaf rust resistant gene Lr10 in Pakistani wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leaf (brown) rust is the major disease of wheat in Pakistan and other countries. The disease is more effectively controlled when several rust resistance genes are pyramided into a single line. Molecular survey was conducted to screen 25 Pakistan wheat germplasm for the presence of leaf rust resistance gene Lr10 using ...

  8. Duplications and losses in gene families of rust pathogens highlight putative effectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amanda L. Pendleton; Katherine E. Smith; Nicolas Feau; Francis M. Martin; Igor V. Grigoriev; Richard Hamelin; C.Dana Nelson; J.Gordon Burleigh; John M. Davis

    2014-01-01

    Rust fungi are a group of fungal pathogens that cause some of the world’s most destructive diseases of trees and crops . A shared characteristic among rust fungi is obligate biotrophy, the inability to complete a lifecycle without a host. This dependence on a host species likely affects patterns of gene expansion, contraction, and innovation within rust pathogen...

  9. Weather and Climate Indicators for Coffee Rust Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, S.; Imbach, P. A.; Avelino, J.; Anzueto, F.; del Carmen Calderón, G.

    2014-12-01

    Coffee rust is a disease that has significant impacts on the livelihoods of those who are dependent on the Central American coffee sector. Our investigation has focussed on the weather and climate indicators that favoured the high incidence of coffee rust disease in Central America in 2012 by assessing daily temperature and precipitation data available from 81 weather stations in the INSIVUMEH and ANACAFE networks located in Guatemala. The temperature data were interpolated to determine the corresponding daily data at 1250 farms located across Guatemala, between 400 and 1800 m elevation. Additionally, CHIRPS five day (pentad) data has been used to assess the anomalies between the 2012 and the climatological average precipitation data at farm locations. The weather conditions in 2012 displayed considerable variations from the climatological data. In general the minimum daily temperatures were higher than the corresponding climatology while the maximum temperatures were lower. As a result, the daily diurnal temperature range was generally lower than the corresponding climatological range, leading to an increased number of days where the temperatures fell within the optimal range for either influencing the susceptibility of the coffee plants to coffee rust development during the dry season, or for the development of lesions on the coffee leaves during the wet season. The coffee rust latency period was probably shortened as a result, and farms at high altitudes were impacted due to these increases in minimum temperature. Factors taken into consideration in developing indicators for coffee rust development include: the diurnal temperature range, altitude, the environmental lapse rate and the phenology. We will present the results of our study and discuss the potential for each of the derived weather and climatological indicators to be used within risk assessments and to eventually be considered for use within an early warning system for coffee rust disease.

  10. Postulation of rust resistance genes in Nordic spring wheat genotypes and identification of widely effective sources of resistance against the Australian rust flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randhawa, Mandeep; Bansal, Urmil; Lillemo, Morten; Miah, Hanif; Bariana, Harbans

    2016-11-01

    Wild relatives, landraces and cultivars from different geographical regions have been demonstrated as the sources of genetic variation for resistance to rust diseases. This study involved assessment of diversity for resistance to three rust diseases among a set of Nordic spring wheat cultivars. These cultivars were tested at the seedling stage against several pathotypes of three rust pathogens in the greenhouse. All stage stem rust resistance genes Sr7b, Sr8a, Sr12, Sr15, Sr17, Sr23 and Sr30, and leaf rust resistance genes Lr1, Lr3a, Lr13, Lr14a, Lr16 and Lr20 were postulated either singly or in different combinations among these cultivars. A high proportion of cultivars were identified to carry linked rust resistance genes Sr15 and Lr20. Although 51 cultivars showed variation against Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst) pathotypes used in this study, results were not clearly contrasting to enable postulation of stripe rust resistance genes in these genotypes. Stripe rust resistance gene Yr27 was postulated in four cultivars and Yr1 was present in cultivar Zebra. Cultivar Tjalve produced low stripe rust response against all Pst pathotypes indicating the presence either of a widely effective resistance gene or combination of genes with compensating pathogenic specificities. Several cultivars carried moderate to high level of APR to leaf rust and stripe rust. Seedling stem rust susceptible cultivar Aston exhibited moderately resistant to moderately susceptible response, whereas other cultivars belonging to this class were rated moderately susceptible or higher. Molecular markers linked with APR genes Yr48, Lr34/Yr18/Sr57, Lr68 and Sr2 detected the presence of these genes in some genotypes.

  11. Young Asian Dutch constructing Asianness: Understanding the role of Asian popular culture

    OpenAIRE

    Kartosen, R.A.

    2016-01-01

    This doctoral thesis is about young Asian Dutch, panethnic Asian identities and identifications, and Asian/Asian Dutch popular culture. It addresses several pressing questions, including: why do young Asian Dutch, who were born and/or raised in the Netherlands, identify as Asian and construct Asian identities? What is the content or meaning of these Asian identities and identifications young Asian Dutch imagine? And how do these relate to young Asian Dutch’ Dutch and homeland identities and i...

  12. Soybean Nitrogen Fixing Attributes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reproductive unit and nitrogen fixing attributes (Carruthers er. al., 2000). In combination with various lupin and forages, these authors showed that soybean grain yield was decreased by most treatments. In order to limit over population and pollution risks, low nitrogen fertilizer agricultural systems are likely to be advocated.

  13. (FIE) gene from soybean

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. NJ TONUKARI

    2012-04-17

    Apr 17, 2012 ... Harb. Protoc. doi:10.1101/pdb.prot4666. Xu H, Li Y, Yan Y, Wang K, Gao Y, Hu Y (2010). Genome-scale identification of Soybean BURP domain-containing genes and their expression under stress treatments. BMC Plant Biol. 10: 197. Yadegari R, Kinoshita T, Lotan O, Cohen G, Katz A, Choi Y, Nakashima.

  14. ON SOYBEAN QUALITY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (GLDB), an agency that supplies seeds to farmers, uses spike-tooth and rasp-bar power. ,threshers for soybean threshing. There are reports that the rasp-bar type causes more damage to the beans, especially at low moisture - content (me) of 10% wet basis. But no reliable journal of science and technology, volume 24 no.

  15. Soybean allergen detection methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mona H; Holzhauser, Thomas; Bisson, Caroline

    2008-01-01

    Soybean containing products are widely consumed, thus reliable methods for detection of soy in foods are needed in order to make appropriate risk assessment studies to adequately protect soy allergic patients. Six methods were compared using eight food products with a declared content of soy...

  16. Transgenic soybeans and soybean protein analysis: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, Savithiry; Luthria, Devanand; Bae, Hanhong; Lakshman, Dilip; Mitra, Amitava

    2013-12-04

    To meet the increasing global demand for soybeans for food and feed consumption, new high-yield varieties with improved quality traits are needed. To ensure the safety of the crop, it is important to determine the variation in seed proteins along with unintended changes that may occur in the crop as a result various stress stimuli, breeding, and genetic modification. Understanding the variation of seed proteins in the wild and cultivated soybean cultivars is useful for determining unintended protein expression in new varieties of soybeans. Proteomic technology is useful to analyze protein variation due to various stimuli. This short review discusses transgenic soybeans, different soybean proteins, and the approaches used for protein analysis. The characterization of soybean protein will be useful for researchers, nutrition professionals, and regulatory agencies dealing with soy-derived food products.

  17. short communication sources of stem rust resistance in ethiopian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    SHORT COMMUNICATION. SOURCES OF STEM RUST RESISTANCE IN ETHIOPIAN TETRAPLOID. WHEAT ACCESSIONS ... 1Department of Plant Sciences, Alemaya University, P. O. Box 138, Dire Dawa, Ethiopia. 2Southern Agricultural Research Institute, P. O. Box 06, Awassa, Ethiopia. (Received 20 May, 2005; ...

  18. White pines, Ribes, and blister rust: a review and synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian W. Geils; Kim E. Hummer; Richard S. Hunt

    2010-01-01

    For over a century, white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola) has linked white pines (Strobus) with currants and gooseberries (Ribes) in a complex and serious disease epidemic in Asia, Europe, and North America. Because of ongoing changes in climate, societal demands for forests and their amenities, and scientific advances in genetics and proteomics, our current...

  19. Resistance of three interspecific white pine hybrids to blister rust

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Z. Callaham

    1962-01-01

    Three white pine hybrids exposed to infection by white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola Fischer) since 1946 have inherited the relative resistance of their parental species. The hybrids were produced from controlled pollinations in 1940 and 1941 at the Institute of Forest Genetics, Placerville, Calif. Twelve seedlings of each hybrid were...

  20. Genetic studies in wheat for leaf rust resistance (Puccinia recondita)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-04-18

    Apr 18, 2011 ... 3Plant Breeding institute, University of Sydney, Camden, NSW, Australia. .... leaf rust at the beginning of the culms elongation stage of plant growth. Fresh inoculum was collected from spreader rows, while plots were inoculated by spraying and dusting. ... modified Cobb scale method (Peterson et al., 1948).

  1. Mapping of stripe rust resistance gene in an Aegilops caudata ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anonymous 2013 The package of practices for crops of Punjab, rabi. 2013–14. Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, India. Bansal M., Kaur S., Dhaliwal H., Chhuneja P., Bariana H. and. Bansal U. 2016 Introgression of linked rust resistance genes Lr76 and Yr70 from Aegilops umbellulata to wheat chromosome 5DS.

  2. Control of Bean Rust using Antibiotics Produced by Bacillus and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antibiotic culture filtrates produced by Bacillus (CA5) and Streptomyces spp. were tested for translocation and persistence when applied on snap beans inoculated with rust (Uromyces appendiculatus) in greenhouse pot experiments. The antibiotics were applied on the first trifoliate leaves and translocation was assessed as ...

  3. Identification of pathogen avirulencegenes in the fusiform rust pathosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    John M. Davis; Katherine E. Smith; Amanda Pendleton; Jason A. Smith; C. Dana Nelson

    2012-01-01

    The Cronartium quercuum f.sp. fusiforme (Cqf) whole genome sequencing project will enable identification of avirulence genes in the most devastating pine fungal pathogen in the southeastern United States. Amerson and colleagues (unpublished) have mapped nine fusiform rust resistance genes in loblolly pine,...

  4. Control of Bean Rust using Antibiotics Produced by Bacillus and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL

    ABSTRACT: Antibiotic culture filtrates produced by Bacillus (CA5) and Streptomyces spp. were tested for translocation and persistence when applied on snap beans inoculated with rust (Uromyces appendiculatus) in greenhouse pot experiments. The antibiotics were applied on the first trifoliate leaves and translocation was ...

  5. Reductive and sorptive properties of sulfate green rust (GRSO4)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedel, Sorin

    The Fe(II), Fe(III) hydroxide containing sulfate in its structure, called sulfate green rust (GRSO4), can effectively reduce and convert contaminants to less mobile and less toxic forms. However, the ability of GRSO4 to remove positively charged species from solution, via sorption, is very limited...

  6. Association of Faba Bean Rust ( Uromyces viciae-fabae ) with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... stage and field management practices. The mean incidence of the disease varied from 44.6% in Bedeno to 98% in Tullo, while severity of the disease varied from 12.7% in Bedeno to 65% in Gorogutu and Kurfachale districts. Logistic regression analysis for the association of rust incidence and severity with environmental ...

  7. Blister rust control in the management of western white pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth P. Davis; Virgil D. Moss

    1940-01-01

    The forest industry of the western white pine region depends on the production of white pine as a major species on about 2,670,000 acres of commercial forest land. Continued production of this species and maintenance of the forest industry at anything approaching its present level is impossible unless the white pine blister rust is controlled. Existing merchantable...

  8. Sources of stem rust resistance in Ethiopian tetraploid wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stem or black rust of wheat caused by the fungus Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici Ericks and Henn (Pgt) is an important disease on wheat worldwide. Pgt is an obligate biotroph, heteroceous in its life cycle and heterothallic in mating type. Seedlings of 41 emmer (Triticum dicoccum), 56 durum (T. durum) wheat accessions were ...

  9. White pines, Ribes, and blister rust: integration and action

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. S. Hunt; B. W. Geils; K. E. Hummer

    2010-01-01

    The preceding articles in this series review the history, biology and management of white pine blister rust in North America, Europe and eastern Asia. In this integration, we connect and discuss seven recurring themes important for understanding and managing epidemics of Cronartium ribicola in the white pines (five-needle pines in subgenus Strobus). Information and...

  10. Induced resistance and gene expression in wheat against leaf rust ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    uvp

    2013-05-15

    May 15, 2013 ... Key words: Wheat leaf rust, induced resistance, priming, gene expression, immunoblotting, crude Agapanthus africanus extract. ... agents, including several synthetic and natural plant activators (Garcia-Brugger et al., ... priming and direct defence activation (van Hulten et al.,. 2006). The identification of new ...

  11. Coffee Leaf Rust Epidemics ( Hemileia vastatrix ) in Montane Coffee ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thirty coffee trees were selected from each forest (three sites within a forest) coffee population to record incidence (percent rusted leaves), severity (percent leaf area damaged) and sporulated lesion density (number of lesion per leaf, SLD) from selected six branches per tree. An average of 10-12 leaves per branch was ...

  12. White pine blister rust in the interior Mountain West

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly Burns; Jim Blodgett; Dave Conklin; Brian Geils; Jim Hoffman; Marcus Jackson; William Jacobi; Holly Kearns; Anna Schoettle

    2010-01-01

    White pine blister rust is an exotic, invasive disease of white, stone, and foxtail pines (also referred to as white pines or five-needle pines) in the genus Pinus and subgenus Strobus (Price and others 1998). Cronartium ribicola, the fungus that causes WPBR, requires an alternate host - currants and gooseberries in the genus Ribes and species of Pedicularis...

  13. White pine blister rust resistance research in Minnesota and Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew David; Paul Berrang; Carrie Pike

    2012-01-01

    The exotic fungus Cronartium ribicola causes the disease white pine blister rust on five-needled pines throughout North America. Although the effects of this disease are perhaps better known on pines in the western portion of the continent, the disease has also impacted regeneration and growth of eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L. ...

  14. Young Asian Dutch constructing Asianness: Understanding the role of Asian popular culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kartosen, R.A.

    2016-01-01

    This doctoral thesis is about young Asian Dutch, panethnic Asian identities and identifications, and Asian/Asian Dutch popular culture. It addresses several pressing questions, including: why do young Asian Dutch, who were born and/or raised in the Netherlands, identify as Asian and construct Asian

  15. Umami taste components and their sources in Asian foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajeb, P; Jinap, S

    2015-01-01

    Umami, the fifth basic taste, is the inimitable taste of Asian foods. Several traditional and locally prepared foods and condiments of Asia are rich in umami. In this part of world, umami is found in fermented animal-based products such as fermented and dried seafood, and plant-based products from beans and grains, dry and fresh mushrooms, and tea. In Southeast Asia, the most preferred seasonings containing umami are fish and seafood sauces, and also soybean sauces. In the East Asian region, soybean sauces are the main source of umami substance in the routine cooking. In Japan, the material used to obtain umami in dashi, the stock added to almost every Japanese soups and boiled dishes, is konbu or dried bonito. This review introduces foods and seasonings containing naturally high amount of umami substances of both animal and plant sources from different countries in Asia.

  16. Host status of false brome grass to the leaf rust fungus Puccinia brachypodii and the stripe rust fungus P. Striiformis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barbieri, M.; Marcel, T.C.; Niks, R.E.

    2011-01-01

    Purple false brome grass (Brachypodium distachyon) has recently emerged as a model system for temperate grasses and is also a potential model plant to investigate plant interactions with economically important pathogens such as rust fungi. We determined the host status of five Brachypodium species

  17. Changing Asian American Stereotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador-Burris, Juanita

    1978-01-01

    Social science literature on stereotypes is reviewed. Negative stereotypes of Asian Americans are examined and their relationship to Asian American political and economic status and self image is discussed. Specific actions to counter these stereotypes are advocated. (GC)

  18. Obesity and Asian Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Asian American > Obesity Obesity and Asian Americans Non-Hispanic whites are 60% ... youthonline . [Accessed 08/18/2017] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY People who are overweight are more likely to ...

  19. Glaucoma in Asian Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Involved News About Us Donate In This Section Glaucoma In Asian Populations email Send this article to ... lower than in their Asian counterparts. Normal Tension Glaucoma affects Japanese Japanese populations, however, have a substantially ...

  20. Asian Australian Literatures

    OpenAIRE

    Madsen, Deborah Lea

    2007-01-01

    This article offers an overview of the range of Asian-Australian writers, within the context of changing historical and political conditions, as well as the complexity of defining a single category of literature written by Australians of Asian heritage. Such a category is difficult to define in strictly nationalistic terms as ‘Asian Australian literature’: where Australian literature is the controlling noun and ‘Asian’ functions as an adjective. Some Asian Australian writers are Australian-bo...

  1. In situ hybridization for the detection of rust fungi in paraffin embedded plant tissue sections

    OpenAIRE

    Ellison, Mitchell A.; McMahon, Michael B.; Bonde, Morris R.; Palmer, Cristi L.; Luster, Douglas G

    2016-01-01

    Background Rust fungi are obligate pathogens with multiple life stages often including different spore types and multiple plant hosts. While individual rust pathogens are often associated with specific plants, a wide range of plant species are infected with rust fungi. To study the interactions between these important pathogenic fungi and their host plants, one must be able to differentiate fungal tissue from plant tissue. This can be accomplished using the In situ hybridization (ISH) protoco...

  2. Fine Mapping of Ur-3, a Historically Important Rust Resistance Locus in Common Bean

    OpenAIRE

    Hurtado-Gonzales, Oscar P.; Giseli Valentini; Gilio, Thiago A. S.; Martins, Alexandre M; Qijian Song; Pastor-Corrales, Marcial A.

    2016-01-01

    Bean rust, caused by Uromyces appendiculatus, is a devastating disease of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) in the Americas and Africa. The historically important Ur-3 gene confers resistance to many races of the highly variable bean rust pathogen that overcome other rust resistance genes. Existing molecular markers tagging Ur-3 for use in marker-assisted selection produce false results. Here, we describe the fine mapping of the Ur-3 locus for the development of highly accurate markers linked ...

  3. SOYBEAN PRODUCTION AND ECONOMIC OF INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulistiya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Indonesian soybean production almost never moved, even tended to decrease. Indonesia does not have a specific area of land for planting soybeans. Soybean are generally just a byproduct of plant or land filling vacant after farmers grow rice. In addition soybean price fluctuations that affect tofu and tempe entrepreneurs, it turns soybean farmers are often losers. Policy biased to the consumer sector than soybean production, cause national soybean production declining. The decrease occurred primarily because of the narrowing of soybean plantation land owned by farmers, this happens because soy is less interesting than the business side so that the farmers based on rationality, farmers prefer the other commodities, especially rice. Increasing decline in domestic soybean production resulted in the growing dependence on imports which would deplete foreign exchange. Procurement policies of national soybean stocks through imports is easy to do but its adverse implications for the development of domestic agricultural production, especially soybeans, very bad.

  4. Inhibitive Performance of a Rust Converter on Corrosion of Mild Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, X. D.; Cheng, Y. F.; Fan, W.; Vladimir, C.; Volha, V.; Alla, T.

    2014-11-01

    In this work, a rust converter consisting of two steps of processing solutions was prepared to convert iron rust of the steel surface into a protective conversion film. The performance of the converter was evaluated in both neutral and acidic solutions by various electrochemical measurements, including potentiodynamic polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and surface characterization. The effect of temperature was investigated. It was found that the rust converter is able to effectively convert the iron rust into a conversion film, serving as a barrier layer to block corrosive species from reaching the steel surface.

  5. Effect of stripe rust on the yield response of wheat to nitrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakhesh Devadas

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen (N is the most important fertiliser element determining the productivity of wheat. N nutrition is known to affect the level of stripe rust infection, with higher N associated with increased disease severity. Stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, is a major yield-limiting disease of wheat in Australia. This paper describes experiments designed to investigate the agronomic response to the interaction of various levels of N application and stripe rust severity in wheat varieties differing in response. Experimental plots were established in crop seasons 2006 and 2007 on the Liverpool Plains of northern NSW, Australia. Yield, biomass, grain protein content (GPC and harvest index (HI data were recorded. Increased rates of N increased the severity of stripe rust during grain filling. N application also increased yield and GPC in all varieties in both years. Stripe rust reduced the yield of the rust-susceptible wheat varieties, and GPC and proportion of added N recovered in the grain were also reduced in one year but not the other. It was evident from our experiment that stripe rust caused yield loss accompanied by either no change or reduction in GPC, indicating that the total amount of N entering the grain was reduced by stripe rust. The effects of stripe rust on N yield are most likely associated with reduced uptake of N during grain filling.

  6. An analysis of the risk of introduction of additional strains of the rust puccinia psidii Winter ('Ohi'a Rust) to Hawai'i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loope, Lloyd; La Rosa, Anne Marie

    2010-01-01

    In April 2005, the rust fungus Puccinia psidii (most widely known as guava rust or eucalyptus rust) was found in Hawai'i. This was the first time this rust had been found outside the Neotropics (broadly-defined, including subtropical Florida, where the rust first established in the 1970s). First detected on a nursery-grown 'ohi'a plant, it became known as ''ohi'a rust'in Hawai'i. The rust spread rapidly and by August 2005 had been found throughout the main Hawaiian Islands. The rust probably reached Hawai'i via the live plant trade or via the foliage trade. In Hawai'i, the rust has infected three native plant species and at least eight non-native species. Effects have been substantial on the endangered endemic plant Eugenia koolauensis and the introduced rose apple, Syzygium jambos. Billions of yellow, asexual urediniospores are produced on rose apple, but a complete life cycle (involving sexual reproduction) has not yet been observed. The rust is autoecious (no alternate host known) on Myrtaceae. The strain introduced into Hawai'i is found sparingly on 'ohi'a (Metrosideros polymorpha), the dominant tree of Hawai'i's forests, with sporadic damage detected to date. The introduction of a rust strain that causes widespread damage to 'ohi'a would be catastrophic for Hawai'i's native biodiversity. Most imports of material potentially contaminated with rust are shipped to Hawai'i from Florida and California (from which P. psidii was reported in late 2005 by Mellano, 2006). Florida is known to have multiple strains. The identity of the strain or strains in California is unclear, but one of them is known to infect myrtle, Myrtus communis, a species commonly imported into Hawai'i. It is important to ecosystem conservation and commercial forestry that additional rust strains or genotypes be prevented from establishing in Hawai'i. The purpose of this analysis of risk is to evaluate the need for an interim rule by the Hawai'i Department of Agriculture to regulate plant

  7. EVALUATION OF MEDIUM- MATURING SOYBEAN

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A field experiment was carried out to determine the nitrogen fixation ability of some soybean ex- perimental lines and to determine the ... pheric N to usable forms live in symbiotic asso- ciation with the roots. Like most tropical leg~ umcs ... fixing crop, the soybean, and a. non-fixing refer- ence crop ( Martenson and Ljunggren, ...

  8. SCREENING SOYBEAN GENOTYPES FOR PROMISCUOUS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    2016-02-25

    Feb 25, 2016 ... The current low soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill) yields in Sub-Saharan Africa can be alleviated by developing promiscuous genotypes. The research trend in Africa is towards developing promiscuous varieties for less labour and high yields in soybean production. A greenhouse experiment was conducted ...

  9. What can the programming language Rust do for astrophysics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Cuaresma, Sergi; Bolmont, Emeline

    2017-06-01

    The astrophysics community uses different tools for computational tasks such as complex systems simulations, radiative transfer calculations or big data. Programming languages like Fortran, C or C++ are commonly present in these tools and, generally, the language choice was made based on the need for performance. However, this comes at a cost: safety. For instance, a common source of error is the access to invalid memory regions, which produces random execution behaviors and affects the scientific interpretation of the results. In 2015, Mozilla Research released the first stable version of a new programming language named Rust. Many features make this new language attractive for the scientific community, it is open source and it guarantees memory safety while offering zero-cost abstraction. We explore the advantages and drawbacks of Rust for astrophysics by re-implementing the fundamental parts of Mercury-T, a Fortran code that simulates the dynamical and tidal evolution of multi-planet systems.

  10. Protective, curative and eradicative activities of fungicides against grapevine rust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francislene Angelotti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The protective, eradicative and curative activities of the fungicides azoxystrobin, tebuconazole, pyraclostrobin+metiram, and ciproconazole against grapevine rust, were determined in greenhouse. To evaluate the protective activity, leaves of potted ´Niagara´ (Vitis labrusca vines were artificially inoculated with an urediniospore suspension of Phakopsora euvitis four, eight or forteen days after fungicidal spray; and to evaluate the curative and eradicative activities, leaves were sprayed with fungicides two, four or eight days after inoculation. Disease severity was assessed 14 days after each inoculation. All tested fungicides present excellent preventive activity against grapevine rust; however, tebuconazole and ciproconazole provide better curative activity than azoxystrobin and pyraclostrobin+metiram. It was observed also that all tested fungicides significantly reduced the germination of urediniospore produced on sprayed leaves.

  11. Katome: de novo DNA assembler implemented in rust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Łukasz; Nowak, Robert M.; Kuśmirek, Wiktor

    2017-08-01

    Katome is a new de novo sequence assembler written in the Rust programming language, designed with respect to future parallelization of the algorithms, run time and memory usage optimization. The application uses new algorithms for the correct assembly of repetitive sequences. Performance and quality tests were performed on various data, comparing the new application to `dnaasm', `ABySS' and `Velvet' genome assemblers. Quality tests indicate that the new assembler creates more contigs than well-established solutions, but the contigs have better quality with regard to mismatches per 100kbp and indels per 100kbp. Additionally, benchmarks indicate that the Rust-based implementation outperforms `dnaasm', `ABySS' and `Velvet' assemblers, written in C++, in terms of assembly time. Lower memory usage in comparison to `dnaasm' is observed.

  12. Airflow resistance in soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenghe, R. N.; Nimkar, P. M.; Shirkole, S. S.; Shinde, K. J.

    2012-04-01

    Resistance of material to airflow is an important factor to consider in the design of a dryer or an aeration system. The airflow resistance of soybean was determined with the modified airflow resistance apparatus. It was found that pressure drop increased with increase in airflow rate, bulk density, bed depth and decreased with moisture content. Modified Shedd equation, Hukill and Ives equation and modified Ergun equation were examined for pressure drop prediction. Airflow resistance was accurately described by modified Shedd equation followed by Hukill and Ives equation and modified Ergun equation. The developed statistical model comprised of airflow rate, moisture content and bulk density could fit pressure drop data reasonably well.

  13. RESEARCH ARTICLE Genetics and mapping of a new leaf rust ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    3BL with SSR markers Xgwm114 and Xgwm547 flanking the gene at a distance of 28.3 cM and 6 cM, respectively. Based on nature of resistance and the chromosomal location, it is inferred that Selection G12 carries a new gene for leaf rust resistance, tentatively named as. LrSelG12. Key words:Wheat; alienintrogression ...

  14. Phylogenetic studies in Ravenelia esculenta and related rust fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhe, K R; Kuvalekar, Aniket

    2007-09-01

    Ravenelia esculenta Naras. and Thium. is a rust fungus, which infects mostly thorns, inflorescences, flowers and fruits of Acacia eburnea Willd. Aecial stages of the rust produce hypertrophy in infected parts. DNA of the rust fungus was isolated from aeciospores by 'freeze thaw' method. 18S rDNA was amplified and sequenced by automated DNA sequencer. BLAST of the sequence at NCBI retrieved 96 sequences producing significant alignments. Multiple sequence alignment of these sequences was done by ClustalW. Phylogenetic analysis was done by using MEGA 3.1. UPGMA Minimum Evolution tree with bootstrap value of 1000 replicates was constructed using these sequences. From phylogenetic tree it is observed that Ravenelia esculenta and the genus Gymnosporangium share a common ancestry, though Ravenelia esculenta is autoecious on angiosperm and the genus Gymnosporangium is heteroecious with pycnia, aecia on angiosperm and uredia, telia on gymnosperm. Two major clades are recognized which are based on the nature of aecial host (gymnosperm or angiosperm). These clades were also showing shift from pteridophytes to angiosperms as telial hosts. The tree can be interpreted in the other way also where there is separation of 14 families of Uredinales depending upon nature of teliospores, nature of aeciospores and structure of pycnia. These studies determine the phylogenetic position of Ravenelia esculenta among other rust fungi besides broad separation of Uredinales into two clades. These studies also show that there is phylogenetic correlation between molecular and morphological data. This is first report of DNA sequencing and phylogenetic positioning in genus Ravenelia from India.

  15. The pine-oak rusts: How forest tree species connect

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. R. Vogler

    2008-01-01

    The pine-oak rust fungi, which live out their lives as pathogens on pines and oaks, have multiple spore states and complex life cycles. Because they can be severe pathogens of pines, much of what we know about them depends on how damaging they are to management of pine forests for timber, recreation, and ecosystem values. Widely distributed in North America, they are...

  16. 7 CFR 1220.127 - Soybean products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Soybean products. 1220.127 Section 1220.127... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.127 Soybean products. The term...

  17. 7 CFR 1220.614 - Soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Soybeans. 1220.614 Section 1220.614 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures To Request a Referendum Definitions § 1220.614 Soybeans. Soybeans means all...

  18. 7 CFR 1220.128 - Soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Soybeans. 1220.128 Section 1220.128 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.128 Soybeans. The term...

  19. Assessment of imperfect detection of blister rust in whitebark pine within the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Wilson J.; Irvine, Kathryn M.

    2017-01-01

    We examined data on white pine blister rust (blister rust) collected during the monitoring of whitebark pine trees in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (from 2004-2015). Summaries of repeat observations performed by multiple independent observers are reviewed and discussed. These summaries show variability among observers and the potential for errors being made in blister rust status. Based on this assessment, we utilized occupancy models to analyze blister rust prevalence while explicitly accounting for imperfect detection. Available covariates were used to model both the probability of a tree being infected with blister rust and the probability of an observer detecting the infection. The fitted model provided strong evidence that the probability of blister rust infection increases as tree diameter increases and decreases as site elevation increases. Most importantly, we found evidence of heterogeneity in detection probabilities related to tree size and average slope of a transect. These results suggested that detecting the presence of blister rust was more difficult in larger trees. Also, there was evidence that blister rust was easier to detect on transects located on steeper slopes. Our model accounted for potential impacts of observer experience on blister rust detection probabilities and also showed moderate variability among the different observers in their ability to detect blister rust. Based on these model results, we suggest that multiple observer sampling continue in future field seasons in order to allow blister rust prevalence estimates to be corrected for imperfect detection. We suggest that the multiple observer effort be spread out across many transects (instead of concentrated at a few each field season) while retaining the overall proportion of trees with multiple observers around 5-20%. Estimates of prevalence are confounded with detection unless it is explicitly accounted for in an analysis and we demonstrate how an occupancy model can be used

  20. Reference Genes in the Pathosystem Phakopsora pachyrhizi/ Soybean Suitable for Normalization in Transcript Profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Hirschburger

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Phakopsora pachyrhizi is a devastating pathogen on soybean, endangering soybean production worldwide. Use of Host Induced Gene Silencing (HIGS and the study of effector proteins could provide novel strategies for pathogen control. For both approaches quantification of transcript abundance by RT-qPCR is essential. Suitable stable reference genes for normalization are indispensable to obtain accurate RT-qPCR results. According to the Minimum Information for Publication of Quantitative Real-Time PCR Experiments (MIQE guidelines and using algorithms geNorm and NormFinder we tested candidate reference genes from P. pachyrhizi and Glycine max for their suitability in normalization of transcript levels throughout the infection process. For P. pachyrhizi we recommend a combination of CytB and PDK or GAPDH for in planta experiments. Gene expression during in vitro stages and over the whole infection process was found to be highly unstable. Here, RPS14 and UbcE2 are ranked best by geNorm and NormFinder. Alternatively CytB that has the smallest Cq range (Cq: quantification cycle could be used. We recommend specification of gene expression relative to the germ tube stage rather than to the resting urediospore stage. For studies omitting the resting spore and the appressorium stages a combination of Elf3 and RPS9, or PKD and GAPDH should be used. For normalization of soybean genes during rust infection Ukn2 and cons7 are recommended.

  1. InIdentification and characterization of pathotypes in Puccinia horiana, a rust pathogen of Chrysanthemum x morifolium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Backer, de M.; Alaei, H.; Bockstaele, van E.; Roldan-Ruiz, I.; Lee, van der T.; Maes, M.; Heungens, K.

    2011-01-01

    Puccinia horiana is the causal agent of chrysanthemum white rust or Japanese rust. This microcyclic autoecious rust has a quarantine status and can cause major damage in the commercial production of Chrysanthemum x morifolium. Given the international and often trans-continental production of

  2. Detection of genetically modified soybean in crude soybean oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolić, Zorica; Vasiljević, Ivana; Zdjelar, Gordana; Ðorđević, Vuk; Ignjatov, Maja; Jovičić, Dušica; Milošević, Dragana

    2014-02-15

    In order to detect presence and quantity of Roundup Ready (RR) soybean in crude oil extracted from soybean seed with a different percentage of GMO seed two extraction methods were used, CTAB and DNeasy Plant Mini Kit. The amplifications of lectin gene, used to check the presence of soybean DNA, were not achieved in all CTAB extracts of DNA, while commercial kit gave satisfactory results. Comparing actual and estimated GMO content between two extraction methods, root mean square deviation for kit is 0.208 and for CTAB is 2.127, clearly demonstrated superiority of kit over CTAB extraction. The results of quantification evidently showed that if the oil samples originate from soybean seed with varying percentage of RR, it is possible to monitor the GMO content at the first stage of processing crude oil. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of orange rust on sugarcane breeding program at canal Point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orange rust of sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids), caused by Puccinia kuehnii (W. Krüger) E.J. Butler, appeared in the Western Hemisphere ten years ago. Orange rust substantially reduces yields in susceptible sugarcane genotypes. Majority of the commercial cultivars were susceptible at the time of o...

  4. Detection of wheat stem rust race RRTTF in Ecuador in 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat stem rust is a devastating disease that has incited numerous severe epidemics resulting in extreme yield losses over the past century. Stem rust infection in plots of wheat line UC11075, known to carry the Sr38 resistance gene, was severe in February 2016 in a nursery at the Instituto Nacional...

  5. A new rust disease on wild coffee (Psychotria nervosa) caused by Puccinia mysuruensis sp. nov

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psychotria nervosa, commonly called wild coffee (Rubiaceae) is an important ethno-medicinal plant in India. In 2010 a new rust disease of P. nervosa was observed in three regions of Mysore District, Karnataka (India) with disease incidence ranging from 58% to 63%. Typical symptoms of rust disease we...

  6. Real-time PCR detection of Puccinia chrysanthemi causing brown rust of chrysanthemum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fungi responsible for rust diseases are among the most challenging organisms to identify, as many identification keys are based on host identity. In the U.S., numerous rust fungi are quarantine-significant plant pathogens. As such, accurate identification is crucial to prevent the inadvertent introd...

  7. Rust urine after intense hand drumming is caused by extracorpuscular hemolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobal, Diego; Olascoaga, Alicia; Moreira, Gabriela; Kurdián, Melania; Sanchez, Fernanda; Roselló, Maria; Alallón, Walter; Martinez, Francisco Gonzalez; Noboa, Oscar

    2008-07-01

    During Carnival, groups of > or =60 drummers go drumming with their hands and marching for periods of 2 to 4 h. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency and type of urinary abnormalities after candombe drumming and to evaluate possible pathogenic mechanisms. For analysis of pathogenic mechanisms, a group of individuals were prospectively evaluated before and after candombe drumming. Candombe drummers were recruited in January 2006, 1 wk before prolonged drumming. After clinical evaluation, urine and blood samples were obtained before and immediately after drumming. Forty-five healthy individuals (four women and 41 men), median age 31 yr (14 to 56), were evaluated. Predrumming urine and plasma samples were obtained for 30 individuals. Nineteen (42%) of 45 had a previous history of rust urine emission temporally related with candombe drumming. After drumming, 18 of 26 showed urine abnormalities; six of 26 showed rust urine, eight of 26 had microhematuria, and seven of 26 had proteinuria >1 g/L. The candombe drummers who showed rust urine after heavy drumming presented significantly higher levels of lactate dehydrogenase and total bilirubin when compared with those without urine abnormalities. Haptoglobin was significantly lower in the rust urine group. Fragmented red cells were observed in the blood smear of individuals with rust urine. Rust urine after drumming was associated with previous episodes of rust urine and glucosuria. Taken together, these data confirm that rust urine is caused by extracorpuscular hemolysis.

  8. Effective genes for resistance to stripe rust and virulence of Puccinia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effective genes for resistance to stripe rust and virulence of Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici in Pakistan. H Bux, M Ashraf, X Chen, S Mumtaz. Abstract. Virulence patterns of wheat stripe rust were studied under the field conditions across four environmentally different locations: Quaid-i-Azam University (Islamabad), Pirsabak ...

  9. Genome-wide association mapping of crown rust resistance in oat elite germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oat crown rust, caused by Puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae, is a major constraint to oat production in many parts of the world. In this first comprehensive multi-environment genome-wide association map of oat crown rust, we used 2,972 SNPs genotyped on 631 oat lines for association mapping of quantit...

  10. Effect of fungicide on the development of wheat stem rust and yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stem rust caused by Puccinia graminis f.sp tritici Erik. & E. Henn. is a highly destructive disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). The effects of fungicide application on stem rust (Puccinia graminis tritici) epidemics and yield of three bread wheat varieties varying in reaction to the disease were studied in two major wheat ...

  11. Preliminary evaluation of daylily cultivars for rust resistance in a landscaping setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    A large, established landscape collection of 575 newer cultivars was evaluated for daylily rust which had not been sprayed with fungicides to prevent infection during 2013. The warm, damp summer of 2013 was ideal for spread of daylily rust. A total of 119 of the 575 cultivars received a median ratin...

  12. Differential response by Melaleuca quinquenervia trees to attack by the rust fungus Puccinia psidii in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melaleuca quinquenervia (melaleuca, paperbark tree) is an exotic invasive tree in Florida, Hawaii, and some Caribbean islands. Puccinia psidii (guava rust-fungus) is a Neotropical rust fungus, reported to attack many species in the Myrtaceae and one genus in the Heteropyxidaceae, both members of the...

  13. Abnormal germling development by brown rust and powdery mildew on cer barley mutants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rubiales, D.; Ramirez, M.C.; Carver, T.L.W.; Niks, R.E.

    2001-01-01

    The barley leaf rust fungus forms appressoria over host leaf stomata and penetrates via the stomatal pore. High levels of avoidance to leaf rust fungi have been described in some wild accessions of Hordeum species where a prominent wax layer on the stomata inhibits triggering of fungal appressorium

  14. Bulked fusiform rust inocula and Fr gene interactions in loblolly pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fikret Isik; Henry Amerson; Saul Garcia; Ross Whetten; Steve. McKeand

    2012-01-01

    Fusiform rust disease in loblolly (Pinus taeda L.) and slash (Pinus elliottii Engelm. var elliottii) pine plantations in the southern United States causes multi-million dollar annual losses. The disease is endemic to the region. The fusiform rust fungus (Cronartium quercuum sp.

  15. Genetics of adult plant stripe rust resistance in CSP44, a selection ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wheat line CSP44, a selection from an Australian bread wheat cultivar Condor, has shown resistance to stripe rust in India since the last twenty years. Seedlings and adult plants of CSP44 showed susceptible infection types against stripe rust race 46S119 but displayed average terminal disease severity of 2.67 on adult ...

  16. Screening conventional fungicides...control of blister rust on sugar pine in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarence R. Quick

    1967-01-01

    After 5 years, 4 of 14 fungicides tested showed varying pr of development into satisfactory direct control of blister rust. Little promise of systemic control was found. Trees treated were second-growth sugar pine in a mixed conifer forest in eastern Shasta County, California, where blister rust has been intensifying for many years. Most trees received basal-stem...

  17. Wheat stem rust in South Africa: Current status and future research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . In South Africa, stem rust caused by Puccinia graminis Pers. f. sp. tritici. Eriks. & E. Henn. (Pgt) is an important disease of wheat. Records of stem rust occurrence in South Africa date back to the late 1720's, when it was first discovered in the ...

  18. Genetics of leaf and stripe rust resistance in a bread wheat cultivar ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Leaf rust caused by Puccinia triticina (=P. recondita Rober- age ex Desmaz f. sp. tritici Eriks and E. Henn.) and stripe rust caused by P. striiformis Westend f. sp. tritici are the major foliar diseases of wheat, resulting in yield loss all over the world (Eversmeyer and Browder 1974; Kolmer 1996). The wheat cultivars become ...

  19. Genetic analysis and location of gene for resistance to stripe rust in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Strubes Dickkopf is the sixth differential in the world set for wheat stripe (yellow) rust. It is very important to clarify its genetic character of resistance to stripe rust and to develop the molecular markers linked to resistance genes. The NIL Taichung 29*6/Strubes Dickkopf, which was obtained by Strubes Dickkopf as the gene ...

  20. Introgression of a leaf rust resistance gene from Aegilops caudata to ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Rusts are the most important biotic constraints limiting wheat productivity worldwide. Deployment of cultivars with broad spectrum rust resistance is the only environmentally viable option to combat these diseases. Identification and introgression of novel sources of resistance is a continuous process to combat the ...

  1. Identification of rust resistance genes Lr10 and Sr9a in Pakistani ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) rusts are the most widespread and destructive among all other diseases of wheat because of their wide distribution, and their capacity to form new races that can attack previously resistant cultivars which result in serious yield losses. Stem rust caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici and leaf of ...

  2. Using Bayleton (Triadimefon) to Control Fusiform Rust in Pine Tree Nurseries

    Science.gov (United States)

    G.A. Snow; S.J. Rowan; J.P. Jones; W. D. Kelley; J.G. Mexal

    1979-01-01

    Bayletor® was field-tested for fusiform rust control at eight pine tree nurseries during the spring of 1978. Four to six foliar sprays of this systemic fungicide were as effective as ferbam sprayed 16 to 36 times. Seed treatment with Bayleton reduced infection levels but did not significantly improve rust control in plots sprayed with Bayleton. At high rates, Bayleton...

  3. Resistance to white pine blister rust in Pinus flexilis and P

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anna W. Schoettle; Richard A. Sniezko; Angelia Kegley; Jerry Hill; Kelly S. Burns

    2010-01-01

    The non-native fungus Cronartium ribicola, that causes white pine blister rust (WPBR), is impacting or threatening limber pine, Pinus flexilis, and Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine, Pinus aristata. In the Southern Rockies, where the rust invasion is still expanding, we have the opportunity to be proactive and prepare the landscape for invasion. Genetic...

  4. Genetics of leaf rust resistance in the hard red winter wheat cultivars Santa Fe and Duster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaf rust caused by Puccinia triticina is a common and important disease of hard red winter wheat in the Great Plains of the United States. The hard red winter wheat cultivars 'Santa Fe' and 'Duster' have had effective leaf rust resistance since their release in 2003 and 2006, respectively. Both cul...

  5. Unveiling common responses of Medicago truncatula to appropriate and inappropriate rust species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Carlota eVaz Patto

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the nature of effective defense mechanisms in legumes to pathogens of remotely related plant species. Some rust species are among pathogens with broad host range causing dramatic losses in various crop plants. To understand and compare the different host and nonhost resistance responses of legume species against rusts, we characterized the reaction of the model legume Medicago truncatula to one appropriate (Uromyces striatus and two inappropriate (U. viciae-fabae and U. lupinicolus rusts. We found that similar pre and post-haustorial mechanisms of resistance appear to be operative in M. truncatula against appropriate and inappropriate rust fungus. The appropriate U. striatus germinated better on M. truncatula accessions then the inappropriate U. viciae-fabae and U. lupinicolus, but once germinated, germ tubes of the three rusts had a similar level of success in finding stomata and forming an appressoria over a stoma. However responses to different inappropriate rust species also showed some specificity, suggesting a combination of non specific and specific responses underlying this legume nonhost resistance to rust fungi. Further genetic and expression analysis studies will contribute to the development of the necessary molecular tools to use the present information on host and nonhost resistance mechanisms to breed for broad-spectrum resistance to rust in legume species.

  6. Biology and pathology of Ribes and their implications for management of white pine blister rust

    Science.gov (United States)

    P. J. Zambino

    2010-01-01

    Ribes (currants and gooseberries) are telial hosts for the introduced and invasive white pine blister rust fungus, Cronartium ribicola. Knowledge of wild and introduced Ribes helps us understand the epidemiology of blister rust on its aecial hosts, white pines, and develop disease control and management strategies. Ribes differ by species in their contribution to...

  7. Evaluation of Snap Bean Genotypes Combining Rust Resistance and Heat Tolerance Traits in East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    The major biotic and abiotic constraints to snap bean production in East Africa include diseases such as common bean rust (caused by Uromyces appendiculatus) and high ambient temperatures that cause heat stress. Rust resistant snap beans that perform well under both cool and hot agro-ecological cond...

  8. Barberry rust survey – developing tools for diagnosis, analysis and data management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Annemarie Fejer; Hansen, Jens Grønbech; Hovmøller, Mogens Støvring

    a rust survey was initiated. The aim was to 1) develop a surveillance protocol 2) develop molecular diagnostic tools for identifying Puccinia spp. from aecial samples, and 3) develop a data management and display system of results as part of the Wheat Rust ToolBox (http....... arrhenatheri and P. striiformoides on barberry species. Survey and DNA sample maps with species designation were displayed in the Wheat Rust ToolBox. The future aim is to integrate barberry rust survey data based on molecular diagnostics and infection assays from research groups world-wide in order to gain......Barberry (Berberis spp.) may serve as alternate host of several Puccinia species including Puccinia graminis and P. striiformis causing stem and yellow rust on cereals and grasses, respectively. In order to study the importance of barberry in the epidemiology of Puccinia species in the CWANA region...

  9. Production of Aflatoxin on Soybeans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, S. K.; Venkitasubramanian, T. A.

    1975-01-01

    Probable factors influencing resistance to aflatoxin synthesis in soybeans have been investigated by using cultures of Aspergillus parasiticus NRRL 3240. Soybeans contain a small amount of zinc (0.01 μg/g) bound to phytic acid. Autoclaving soybeans at 15 pounds (6803.88 g) for 15 min increases the aflatoxin production, probably by making zinc available. Addition of zinc to both autoclaved and nonautoclaved soybeans promotes aflatoxin production. However, addition of varying levels of phytic acid at a constant concentration of zinc depresses aflatoxin synthesis with an increase in the added phytic acid. In a synthetic medium known to give good yields of aflatoxin, the addition of phytic acid (10 mM) decreases aflatoxin synthesis. PMID:1171654

  10. Osteoporosis and Asian American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Breadcrumb Home Osteoporosis Osteoporosis and Asian American Women Osteoporosis and Asian American Women Asian American women are ... Are Available? Resources For Your Information What Is Osteoporosis? Osteoporosis is a condition in which the bones ...

  11. Screening and incorporation of rust resistance from Allium cepa into bunching onion (Allium fistulosum) via alien chromosome addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wako, Tadayuki; Yamashita, Ken-ichiro; Tsukazaki, Hikaru; Ohara, Takayoshi; Kojima, Akio; Yaguchi, Shigenori; Shimazaki, Satoshi; Midorikawa, Naoko; Sakai, Takako; Yamauchi, Naoki; Shigyo, Masayoshi

    2015-04-01

    Bunching onion (Allium fistulosum L.; 2n = 16), bulb onion (Allium cepa L. Common onion group), and shallot (Allium cepa L. Aggregatum group) cultivars were inoculated with rust fungus, Puccinia allii, isolated from bunching onion. Bulb onions and shallots are highly resistant to rust, suggesting they would serve as useful resources for breeding rust resistant bunching onions. To identify the A. cepa chromosome(s) related to rust resistance, a complete set of eight A. fistulosum - shallot monosomic alien addition lines (MAALs) were inoculated with P. allii. At the seedling stage, FF+1A showed a high level of resistance in controlled-environment experiments, suggesting that the genes related to rust resistance could be located on shallot chromosome 1A. While MAAL, multi-chromosome addition line, and hypoallotriploid adult plants did not exhibit strong resistance to rust. In contrast to the high resistance of shallot, the addition line FF+1A+5A showed reproducibly high levels of rust resistance.

  12. Emerging Asian Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trezise, Philip H.

    What we can expect in the future from the miracle economies of Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, and Hong Kong, whether they pose a threat to the older industrial states of Western Europe and North American, and whether China is to be the next emerging Asian economy are discussed. The amazing economic recovery of these East Asian countries…

  13. Yellow Rust Epidemics Worldwide Were Caused by Pathogen Races from Divergent Genetic Lineages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Sajid; Rodriguez-Algaba, Julian; Thach, Tine; Sørensen, Chris K.; Hansen, Jens G.; Lassen, Poul; Nazari, Kumarse; Hodson, David P.; Justesen, Annemarie F.; Hovmøller, Mogens S.

    2017-01-01

    We investigated whether the recent worldwide epidemics of wheat yellow rust were driven by races of few clonal lineage(s) or populations of divergent races. Race phenotyping of 887 genetically diverse Puccinia striiformis isolates sampled in 35 countries during 2009–2015 revealed that these epidemics were often driven by races from few but highly divergent genetic lineages. PstS1 was predominant in North America; PstS2 in West Asia and North Africa; and both PstS1 and PstS2 in East Africa. PstS4 was prevalent in Northern Europe on triticale; PstS5 and PstS9 were prevalent in Central Asia; whereas PstS6 was prevalent in epidemics in East Africa. PstS7, PstS8 and PstS10 represented three genetic lineages prevalent in Europe. Races from other lineages were in low frequencies. Virulence to Yr9 and Yr27 was common in epidemics in Africa and Asia, while virulence to Yr17 and Yr32 were prevalent in Europe, corresponding to widely deployed resistance genes. The highest diversity was observed in South Asian populations, where frequent recombination has been reported, and no particular race was predominant in this area. The results are discussed in light of the role of invasions in shaping pathogen population across geographical regions. The results emphasized the lack of predictability of emergence of new races with high epidemic potential, which stresses the need for additional investments in population biology and surveillance activities of pathogens on global food crops, and assessments of disease vulnerability of host varieties prior to their deployment at larger scales. PMID:28676811

  14. Yellow Rust Epidemics Worldwide Were Caused by Pathogen Races from Divergent Genetic Lineages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajid Ali

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigated whether the recent worldwide epidemics of wheat yellow rust were driven by races of few clonal lineage(s or populations of divergent races. Race phenotyping of 887 genetically diverse Puccinia striiformis isolates sampled in 35 countries during 2009–2015 revealed that these epidemics were often driven by races from few but highly divergent genetic lineages. PstS1 was predominant in North America; PstS2 in West Asia and North Africa; and both PstS1 and PstS2 in East Africa. PstS4 was prevalent in Northern Europe on triticale; PstS5 and PstS9 were prevalent in Central Asia; whereas PstS6 was prevalent in epidemics in East Africa. PstS7, PstS8 and PstS10 represented three genetic lineages prevalent in Europe. Races from other lineages were in low frequencies. Virulence to Yr9 and Yr27 was common in epidemics in Africa and Asia, while virulence to Yr17 and Yr32 were prevalent in Europe, corresponding to widely deployed resistance genes. The highest diversity was observed in South Asian populations, where frequent recombination has been reported, and no particular race was predominant in this area. The results are discussed in light of the role of invasions in shaping pathogen population across geographical regions. The results emphasized the lack of predictability of emergence of new races with high epidemic potential, which stresses the need for additional investments in population biology and surveillance activities of pathogens on global food crops, and assessments of disease vulnerability of host varieties prior to their deployment at larger scales.

  15. The role of green rust in the environment: a review O papel do green rust no ambiente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia H. G. Chaves

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Iron(II-iron(III hydroxy-salts known as green rusts (GRs initially were identified and studied as corrosion products of steel and iron. Recently they were discovered as minerals present in hydromorphic soils and sediments. Different studies have suggested that GRs, due to their high reactivity, play an important role in the fate and transport of many contaminants in suboxic soils, sediments and aquifers where microbial reduction rates are limited by low carbon content. Also, GRs have considerable potential for applications such as water-purification processes and gas adsorbents. However, as GRs are only a transient state during the reduction of ferric iron and are converted to more stable forms, it is still necessary to continue studies about their behavior.Hidróxidos de ferro (II-ferro(III conhecidos como "green rust" (GR, inicialmente foram identificados e estudados como sendo os produtos provenientes da corrosão do aço e do ferro. Recentemente esses hidróxidos foram encontrados na forma mineral em solos hidromórficos e em sedimentos. Devido a sua alta reatividade, muitos trabalhos têm mostrado que esses hidróxidos desempenham um importante papel no destino e transporte de muitos contaminantes em solos subóxicos, sedimentos e aqüíferos, onde a taxa de redução microbiana é limitada pelo baixo conteúdo de carbono. Os "green rusts" também podem ser utilizados nos processos de purificação de águas e como adsorventes de gases. Entretanto, como GR são considerados uma fase transitória durante a redução do íon férrico e são, rapidamente, convertidos para formas mais estáveis, é necessário que os estudos sobre seu comportamento continuem.

  16. Disease Control Efficacy of the Extract of Magnolia officinalis against Perilla and Zoysiagrass Rusts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi-Young Yoon

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Rusts are plant diseases caused by pathogenic fungi of the order Pucciniales. Rusts can affect a variety of plants. Development of new effective and environmentally benign agents against rusts is of great interest. In this study, we investigated the disease control efficacy of the emulsion concentrate (EC10 and wettable powder (WP20 type formulations of the extract of Magnolia officinalis (Magjia90; containing honokiol and magnolol at 90% against rust diseases of perilla and zoysiagrass in fields. The treatment of EC10 and WP20 of Magjia90 showed control values of 47.9% to 69.6% and Magjia90-WP20 reduced more effectively the development of rust symptoms on perilla plants than Magjia90-EC10. Magjia90-WP20 also highly suppressed zoysiagrass rust with control values of 65.7% to 80.5%. On the other hand, no harmful effect of Magjia90- EC10 and Magjia90-WP20 was observed on the perilla and zoysiagrass plants tested. The results strongly indicate that the extract of M. officinalis (Magjia90 can be used as a natural fungicide for the control of rust diseases.

  17. Factors contributing to seasonal fluctuations in rust severity on Ribes missouriense caused by Cronartium ribicola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomb, Maria; Upper, Christen D; Rouse, Douglas I

    2010-10-01

    Cronartium ribicola, causal agent of white pine blister rust, is a macrocyclic heteroecious rust that cycles between white pines and members of the genus Ribes, which are typically wild plants in North America. To improve predictability of inoculum available for infection of ecologically and commercially important white pines, this research was conducted to identify the factors that influence the development and persistence of uredinia and telia on Ribes in their natural habitats. Numbers of infectious C. ribicola rust lesions (with potentially sporulating rust sori) on tagged Ribes missouriense plants in the woods fluctuated during the season. Changes in numbers of infectious rust lesions were related to rain that occurred 13 days earlier. In field experiments, supplemental leaf wetness provided for 2 days on Ribes shoots resulted in the development of rust lesions more frequently than on control shoots. Viable inoculum and susceptible hosts were present, and the environment was the limiting factor for disease development. Lesion necrosis and leaf abscission contributed to decreases in numbers of infectious rust lesions. Higher lesion density was significantly related to earlier leaf abscission. Telial fruiting bodies occurred in low numbers from early June throughout the remainder of the season.

  18. Soybean Disease Monitoring with Leaf Reflectance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bajwa, Sreekala; Rupe, John; Mason, Johnny

    2017-01-01

    .... Soybean cyst nematode (SCN) and sudden death syndrome (SDS) are two common soybean diseases that are extremely difficult to detect in the early stages under mild to moderate infestation levels...

  19. Clinical characteristics of soybean allergy in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ballmer-Weber, Barbara K; Holzhauser, Thomas; Scibilia, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    Soybean is a relevant allergenic food, but little is known about individual threshold doses in soy allergy.......Soybean is a relevant allergenic food, but little is known about individual threshold doses in soy allergy....

  20. Spectral Detection of Soybean Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and Confounding Insecticide Effects in Soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Tavvs Micael

    Soybean aphid, Aphis glycines (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is the primary insect pest of soybean in the northcentral United States. Soybean aphid may cause stunted plants, leaf discoloration, plant death, and decrease soybean yield by 40%. Sampling plans have been developed for supporting soybean aphid management. However, growers' perception about time involved in direct insect counts has been contributing to a lower adoption of traditional pest scouting methods and may be associated with the use of prophylactic insecticide applications in soybean. Remote sensing of plant spectral (light-derived) responses to soybean aphid feeding is a promising alternative to estimate injury without direct insect counts and, thus, increase adoption and efficiency of scouting programs. This research explored the use of remote sensing of soybean reflectance for detection of soybean aphids and showed that foliar insecticides may have implications for subsequent use of soybean spectral reflectance for pest detection. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  1. Strategies for Wheat Stripe Rust Pathogenicity Identified by Transcriptome Sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana P Garnica

    Full Text Available Stripe rust caused by the fungus Puccinia striiformis f.sp. tritici (Pst is a major constraint to wheat production worldwide. The molecular events that underlie Pst pathogenicity are largely unknown. Like all rusts, Pst creates a specialized cellular structure within host cells called the haustorium to obtain nutrients from wheat, and to secrete pathogenicity factors called effector proteins. We purified Pst haustoria and used next-generation sequencing platforms to assemble the haustorial transcriptome as well as the transcriptome of germinated spores. 12,282 transcripts were assembled from 454-pyrosequencing data and used as reference for digital gene expression analysis to compare the germinated uredinospores and haustoria transcriptomes based on Illumina RNAseq data. More than 400 genes encoding secreted proteins which constitute candidate effectors were identified from the haustorial transcriptome, with two thirds of these up-regulated in this tissue compared to germinated spores. RT-PCR analysis confirmed the expression patterns of 94 effector candidates. The analysis also revealed that spores rely mainly on stored energy reserves for growth and development, while haustoria take up host nutrients for massive energy production for biosynthetic pathways and the ultimate production of spores. Together, these studies substantially increase our knowledge of potential Pst effectors and provide new insights into the pathogenic strategies of this important organism.

  2. QTL analysis of crown rust resistance in perennial ryegrass under conditions of natural and artificial infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schejbel, Britt; Jensen, Louise Friis Bach; Xing, Yongzhong

    2007-01-01

    Crown rust is an economically devastating disease of perennial ryegrass. Both artificial crown rust inoculations, with the possibility of several selection cycles in one year, as well as marker-assisted selection can be used for more efficient breeding of new resistant cultivars. The objective...... as well as by artificial pathogen inoculations using a detached leaf assessment. The broad sense heritability values for the field, detached leaf and combined assays were 0.42, 0.56, and 0.64, respectively, indicating a good potential for selection for crown rust resistance. A total of six QTLs were...

  3. The effect of nitrogen application on the development of rusts on wheat varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Haggag

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of four different levels of nitrogen fertilization on the severity of rusts on three local Egyptian wheat varieties have been investigated. Nitrogen fertilizer was at the rates 0, 40, 60, and 80 kg nitrogen per feddan. Data obtained indicated that resistance of the varieties did not change while percent severity of postules on susceptible, moderately susceptible and moderately resistant varieties was increased as the level of nitrogen fertilization increased. Heavy doses of nitrogen promoted the size and frequency of postules and hence the rust growth and predisposed the plants to higher infection with rusts.

  4. Impact of ectomycorrhizal colonization and rust infection on the secondary metabolism of poplar (Populus trichocarpa x deltoides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfabel, Cornelia; Eckhardt, Kai-Uwe; Baum, Christel; Struck, Christine; Frey, Pascal; Weih, Martin

    2012-11-01

    Fungal colonization can significantly affect the secondary metabolism of the host plants. We tested the impact of a common below-ground symbiosis, i.e., ectomycorrhiza formation, on poplar leaf chemical components that are involved in the defence against a common disease, i.e., rust fungi, in N-deficient soil. A rust-susceptible poplar clone (Populus trichocarpa × deltoides 'Beaupré') was (a) non-associated with ectomycorrhizal fungus (EM) Hebeloma mesophaeum (Pers.) Quélet MÜN and non-infected with rust fungus Melampsora larici-populina Kleb. (isolate 98AG31), (b) associated with EM, (c) inoculated with rust fungus and (d) associated with EM and inoculated with rust fungus. Poplar leaves were analysed by photometric and mass spectrometric techniques (liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), pyrolysis-field ionization mass spectrometry (Py-FIMS)). Both rust infection and mycorrhiza formation led to increased proportions of condensed tannins in relation to total phenolics (13% in the control, 18-19% in the fungal treatments). In contrast, salicylic acid concentration (6.8 µg g(-1) in the control) was higher only in the rust treatments (17.9 and 25.4 µg g(-1) with rust infection). The Py-FIMS analysis revealed that the rust-infected treatments were significantly separated from the non-rust-infected treatments on the basis of six flavonoids and one lipid. The relative abundance of these components, which have known functions in plant defence, was decreased after rust infection of non-mycorrhizal plants, but not in mycorrhizal plants. The results indicate that the ectomycorrhizal formation compensated the rust infection by a decrease in the flavonoid syntheses. The study provides new evidence for an interactive response of mycorrhizal colonization and infection with rust fungi in the metabolism of poplar.

  5. Asian Art on Display

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borggreen, Gunhild Ravn

    2010-01-01

    Med udgangspunkt i seminaret Visualising Asian Modernity diskuteres forholdet mellem antropologi og samtidskunst i lyset af hvorledes asiatisk kunst fremvises og formidles i vestlig og dansk sammenhæng....

  6. Profile: Asian Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and diabetes. Asian Americans also have a high prevalence of the following conditions and risk factors: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, hepatitis B, HIV/AIDS, smoking, tuberculosis, and liver ...

  7. Central Asian Republic Info

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — CAR Info is designed and managed by the Central Asian Republic Mission to fill in the knowledge and reporting gaps in existing agency systems for that Mission. It...

  8. The South Asian genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John C Chambers

    Full Text Available The genetic sequence variation of people from the Indian subcontinent who comprise one-quarter of the world's population, is not well described. We carried out whole genome sequencing of 168 South Asians, along with whole-exome sequencing of 147 South Asians to provide deeper characterisation of coding regions. We identify 12,962,155 autosomal sequence variants, including 2,946,861 new SNPs and 312,738 novel indels. This catalogue of SNPs and indels amongst South Asians provides the first comprehensive map of genetic variation in this major human population, and reveals evidence for selective pressures on genes involved in skin biology, metabolism, infection and immunity. Our results will accelerate the search for the genetic variants underlying susceptibility to disorders such as type-2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease which are highly prevalent amongst South Asians.

  9. The Asian Face Lift

    OpenAIRE

    Bergeron, Léonard; Chen, Yu-Ray

    2009-01-01

    The face-lift procedure (rhytidectomy) is increasingly popular in Asia. There is extensive literature on different techniques in Western patients. Cultural and anthropomorphologic differences between Asian and Caucasians require the adaptation of current techniques to obtain a satisfactory outcome for both the patient and the surgeon. This article therefore attempts to define important differences between Asians and Caucasians in terms of signs of facial aging, perception of beauty, and surgi...

  10. Evolution of Akaganeite in Rust Layers Formed on Steel Submitted to Wet/Dry Cyclic Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haigang Xiao

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of akaganeite in rust layers strongly impacts the atmospheric corrosion behavior of steel during long-term exposure; however, the factors affecting the evolution of akaganeite and its mechanism of formation are vague. In this work, wet-dry cyclic corrosion tests were conducted to simulate long-term exposure. Quantitative X-ray diffraction analysis was employed to analyze variations in the relative amounts of akaganeite; scanning electron microscopy and electron probe microanalysis were used to study the migration of relevant elements in the rust layer, which could help elucidate the mechanism of akaganeite evolution. The results indicate that the fraction of akaganeite tends to decrease as the corrosion process proceeded, which is a result of the decrease in the amount of soluble chloride available and the ability of the thick rust layer to block the migration of relevant ions. This work also explores the location of akaganeite formation within the rust layer.

  11. Yr32 for resistance to stripe (yellow) rust present in the wheat cultivar Carstens V

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, L.; Afshari, F.; Christiansen, M.J.

    2004-01-01

    Stripe or yellow rust of wheat, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, is an important disease in many wheat-growing regions of the world. A number of major genes providing resistance to stripe rust have been used in breeding, including one gene that is present in the differential tester...... Carstens V. The objective of this study was to locate and map a stripe rust resistance gene transferred from Carstens V to Avocet S and to use molecular tools to locate a number of genes segregating in the cross Savannah/Senat. One of the genes present in Senat was predicted to be a gene that is present...... in Carstens V. For this latter purpose, stripe rust response data from both seedling and field tests on a doubled haploid population consisting of 77 lines were compared to an available molecular map for the same lines using a non-parametric quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis. Results obtained in Denmark...

  12. A dynamic, web-based resource to identify rust fungi (Pucciniales in southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alistair R. McTaggart

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Rust fungi (Pucciniales are some of the most important plant pathogens that cause diseases of agricultural and tree crops. There are approximately 8,000 described species worldwide. The rust fungi of South Africa were extensively studied by Ethel M. Doidge (1887 – 1965, who listed 468 species. Many nomenclatural and taxonomic changes, together with the discovery of new species and incursions of exotic species, have subsequently outdated Doidge’s monograph. To address this problem, we have developed an interactive Lucid key for the identification of 50 species of rust fungi in 17 genera from countries in southern Africa. The key is dynamic and may be updated in real-time. The Lucid key provides a platform to progressively provide descriptions and images for all rust fungi in southern Africa. Plant pathologists and mycologists are invited to participate in the development of this resource.

  13. Life cycle and genetic diversity of willow rusts (Melampsora spp. in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Ciszewska-Marciniak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper is a review of classical and recent studies on willow rusts in Europe, with special reference to short rotation coppice willows used for biomass production, such as common osier willow (Salix viminalis L.. The review presents the taxonomic classification of rust fungi from the genus Melampsora spp. We present a list of telial hosts (genus Salix as well as aecial hosts for different rust species. The life cycle of this fungal pathogen is described in detail from the epidemiological and genetic point of view. The DNA polymorphism of M. lariciepitea, the rust species most responsible for severe yield losses of plant biomass, is characterised based on RAPD, AFLP and RFLP-PCR methods.

  14. Molecular tagging of a novel rust resistance gene R(12) in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, L; Hulke, B S; Gulya, T J; Markell, S G; Qi, L L

    2013-01-01

    Sunflower production in North America has recently suffered economic losses in yield and seed quality from sunflower rust (Puccinia helianthi Schwein.) because of the increasing incidence and lack of resistance to new rust races. RHA 464, a newly released sunflower male fertility restorer line, is resistant to both of the most predominant and most virulent rust races identified in the Northern Great Plains of the USA. The gene conditioning rust resistance in RHA 464 originated from wild Helianthus annuus L., but has not been molecularly marked or determined to be independent from other rust loci. The objectives of this study are to identify molecular markers linked to the rust resistance gene and to investigate the allelism of this gene with the unmapped rust resistance genes present in HA-R6, HA-R8 and RHA 397. Virulence phenotypes of seedlings for the F(2) population and F(2:3) families suggested that a single dominant gene confers rust resistance in RHA 464, and this gene was designated as R(12). Bulked segregant analysis identified ten markers polymorphic between resistant and susceptible bulks. In subsequent genetic mapping, the ten markers covered 33.4 cM of genetic distance on linkage group 11 of sunflower. A co-dominant marker CRT275-11 is the closest marker distal to R(12) with a genetic distance of 1.0 cM, while ZVG53, a dominant marker linked in the repulsion phase, is proximal to R(12) with a genetic distance of 9.6 cM. The allelism test demonstrated that R(12) is not allelic to the rust resistance genes in HA-R6, HA-R8 and RHA 397, and it is also not linked to any previously mapped rust resistance genes. Discovery of the R(12) novel rust resistance locus in sunflower and associated markers will potentially support the molecular marker-assisted introgression and pyramiding of R(12) into sunflower breeding lines.

  15. 16 CFR 23.10 - Misuse of “corrosion proof,” “noncorrosive,” “corrosion resistant,” “rust proof,” “rust resistant...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... INDUSTRIES § 23.10 Misuse of “corrosion proof,” “noncorrosive,” “corrosion resistant,” “rust proof,” “rust resistant,” etc. (a) It is unfair or deceptive to: (1) Use the terms “corrosion proof,” “noncorrosive... the product will be immune from rust and other forms of corrosion during the life expectancy of the...

  16. Genetics and mapping of a new leaf rust resistance gene in Triticum ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    AMIT KUMAR SINGH

    The leaf rust resistance gene was mapped to chromosome 3BL with SSR markers Xgwm114 and Xgwm547 flanking the gene at a distance of 28.3 cM and 6 cM, respectively. Based on the nature of resistance and chromosomal location, it is inferred that. Selection G12 carries a new gene for leaf rust resistance, tentatively ...

  17. Identification of Putative Coffee Rust Mycoparasites via Single-Molecule DNA Sequencing of Infected Pustules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Timothy Y; Marino, John A; Perfecto, Ivette; Vandermeer, John

    2015-11-13

    The interaction of crop pests with their natural enemies is a fundament to their control. Natural enemies of fungal pathogens of crops are poorly known relative to those of insect pests, despite the diversity of fungal pathogens and their economic importance. Currently, many regions across Latin America are experiencing unprecedented epidemics of coffee rust (Hemileia vastatrix). Identification of natural enemies of coffee rust could aid in developing management strategies or in pinpointing species that could be used for biocontrol. In the present study, we characterized fungal communities associated with coffee rust lesions by single-molecule DNA sequencing of fungal rRNA gene bar codes from leaf discs (≈28 mm(2)) containing rust lesions and control discs with no rust lesions. The leaf disc communities were hyperdiverse in terms of fungi, with up to 69 operational taxonomic units (putative species) per control disc, and the diversity was only slightly reduced in rust-infected discs, with up to 63 putative species. However, geography had a greater influence on the fungal community than whether the disc was infected by coffee rust. Through comparisons between control and rust-infected leaf discs, as well as taxonomic criteria, we identified 15 putative mycoparasitic fungi. These fungi are concentrated in the fungal family Cordycipitaceae and the order Tremellales. These data emphasize the complexity of diverse fungi of unknown ecological function within a leaf that might influence plant disease epidemics or lead to the development of species for biocontrol of fungal disease. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  18. Identification of Putative Coffee Rust Mycoparasites via Single-Molecule DNA Sequencing of Infected Pustules

    OpenAIRE

    James, Timothy Y.; Marino, John A.; Perfecto, Ivette; Vandermeer, John

    2016-01-01

    The interaction of crop pests with their natural enemies is a fundament to their control. Natural enemies of fungal pathogens of crops are poorly known relative to those of insect pests, despite the diversity of fungal pathogens and their economic importance. Currently, many regions across Latin America are experiencing unprecedented epidemics of coffee rust (Hemileia vastatrix). Identification of natural enemies of coffee rust could aid in developing management strategies or in pinpointing s...

  19. Using hierarchical clustering of secreted protein families to classify and rank candidate effectors of rust fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Diane G O; Win, Joe; Cano, Liliana M; Szabo, Les J; Kamoun, Sophien; Raffaele, Sylvain

    2012-01-01

    Rust fungi are obligate biotrophic pathogens that cause considerable damage on crop plants. Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, the causal agent of wheat stem rust, and Melampsora larici-populina, the poplar leaf rust pathogen, have strong deleterious impacts on wheat and poplar wood production, respectively. Filamentous pathogens such as rust fungi secrete molecules called disease effectors that act as modulators of host cell physiology and can suppress or trigger host immunity. Current knowledge on effectors from other filamentous plant pathogens can be exploited for the characterisation of effectors in the genome of recently sequenced rust fungi. We designed a comprehensive in silico analysis pipeline to identify the putative effector repertoire from the genome of two plant pathogenic rust fungi. The pipeline is based on the observation that known effector proteins from filamentous pathogens have at least one of the following properties: (i) contain a secretion signal, (ii) are encoded by in planta induced genes, (iii) have similarity to haustorial proteins, (iv) are small and cysteine rich, (v) contain a known effector motif or a nuclear localization signal, (vi) are encoded by genes with long intergenic regions, (vii) contain internal repeats, and (viii) do not contain PFAM domains, except those associated with pathogenicity. We used Markov clustering and hierarchical clustering to classify protein families of rust pathogens and rank them according to their likelihood of being effectors. Using this approach, we identified eight families of candidate effectors that we consider of high value for functional characterization. This study revealed a diverse set of candidate effectors, including families of haustorial expressed secreted proteins and small cysteine-rich proteins. This comprehensive classification of candidate effectors from these devastating rust pathogens is an initial step towards probing plant germplasm for novel resistance components.

  20. Using hierarchical clustering of secreted protein families to classify and rank candidate effectors of rust fungi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane G O Saunders

    Full Text Available Rust fungi are obligate biotrophic pathogens that cause considerable damage on crop plants. Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, the causal agent of wheat stem rust, and Melampsora larici-populina, the poplar leaf rust pathogen, have strong deleterious impacts on wheat and poplar wood production, respectively. Filamentous pathogens such as rust fungi secrete molecules called disease effectors that act as modulators of host cell physiology and can suppress or trigger host immunity. Current knowledge on effectors from other filamentous plant pathogens can be exploited for the characterisation of effectors in the genome of recently sequenced rust fungi. We designed a comprehensive in silico analysis pipeline to identify the putative effector repertoire from the genome of two plant pathogenic rust fungi. The pipeline is based on the observation that known effector proteins from filamentous pathogens have at least one of the following properties: (i contain a secretion signal, (ii are encoded by in planta induced genes, (iii have similarity to haustorial proteins, (iv are small and cysteine rich, (v contain a known effector motif or a nuclear localization signal, (vi are encoded by genes with long intergenic regions, (vii contain internal repeats, and (viii do not contain PFAM domains, except those associated with pathogenicity. We used Markov clustering and hierarchical clustering to classify protein families of rust pathogens and rank them according to their likelihood of being effectors. Using this approach, we identified eight families of candidate effectors that we consider of high value for functional characterization. This study revealed a diverse set of candidate effectors, including families of haustorial expressed secreted proteins and small cysteine-rich proteins. This comprehensive classification of candidate effectors from these devastating rust pathogens is an initial step towards probing plant germplasm for novel resistance components.

  1. Laura: Soybean variety lacking Kunitz trypsin inhibitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srebrić Mirjana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Grain of conventional soybean varieties requires heat processing to break down trypsin inhibitor's activity before using as food or animal feed. At the same time, protein denaturation and other qualitative changes occur in soybean grain, especially if the temperature of heating is not controlled. Two types of trypsin inhibitor were found in soybean grain the Kunitz trypsin inhibitor and the Bowman-Birk inhibitor. Mature grain of soybean Laura is lacking Kunitz trypsin inhibitor. Grain yield of variety Laura is equal to high yielding varieties from the maturity group I, where it belongs. Lacking of Kunitz-trypsin inhibitor makes soybean grain suitable for direct feeding in adult non ruminant animals without previous thermal processing. Grain of variety Laura can be processed for a shorter period of time than conventional soybeans. This way we save energy, and preserve valuable nutritional composition of soybean grain, which is of interest in industrial processing.

  2. SOYBEAN - MOLECULAR ASPECTS OF BREEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Sudarić

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The book Soybean: Molecular Aspects of Breeding focuses recent progress in our understanding of the genetics and molecular biology of soybean. This book is divided into four parts and contains 22 chapters. Part I, Molecular Biology and Biotechnology focuses advances in molecular biology and laboratory procedures that have been developed recently to manipulate DNA. Part II, Breeding for abiotic stress covers proteomics approaches form as a powerful tool for investigating the molecular mechanisms of the plant responses to various types of abiotic stresses. Part III, Breeding for biotic stress addresses issues related to application of molecular based strategies in order to increase soybean resistance to various biotic factors. Part IV, Recent Technology reviews recent technologies into the realm of soybean monitoring, processing and product use. While the information accumulated in this book is of primary interest for plant breeders, valuable insights are also offered to agronomists, molecular biologists, physiologists, plant pathologists, food scientists and students. The book is a result of efforts made by many experts from different countries (USA, Japan, Croatia, Serbia, China, Canada, Malawi, Iran, Hong Kong, Brasil, Mexico.

  3. Development of Separator for Soybeans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de H.C.P.; Rijpma, P.J.; Owaa, J.S.E.

    1997-01-01

    A simple and effective separator for soybeans was developed for small-scale farmers in Uganda, to clean the seeds from foreign material, chaff, broken beans etc. as demanded by local and world markets. It will help to avoid losses during post-harvest time and to reduce human drudgery of cleaning the

  4. Agriculture Education. Soybeans and Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuttgart Public Schools, AR.

    This curriculum guide is designed for group instruction of secondary students enrolled in one or two semester-long courses in agricultural education. The guide presents units of study in the following areas: (1) soybeans, (2) rice, and (3) orientation. Each of the 17 units of instruction follows a typical format: terminal objective, specific…

  5. A summary of information on the rust Puccinia psidii Winter (guava rust) with emphasis on means to prevent introduction of additional strains to Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loope, Lloyd

    2010-01-01

    The neotropical rust fungus Puccinia psidii(P. psidii) was originally described from the host common guava in its native Brazil but has been found since on hosts throughout the myrtle family (Myrtaceae), including a dramatic host jump to nonnative Eucalyptus plantations. Most rust fungi are able to live only on a very narrow range of host species. P. psidii is unusual both for having a broad host range and for the intensity of its damage to susceptible young growth. This rust first got a foothold in the United States in Florida more than three decades ago. The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) has since considered it a nonactionable, nonreportable pest. Hawaii and Florida are the only two states with native species in the myrtle family. Over a period of 30 years, this rust has done little damage to any of the scattered native Myrtaceae in Florida, although the host range of the rust has gradually grown to about 30 mostly nonnative species in the family, apparently because of increasing genetic variety of the rust by repeated introductions. However, Florida’s native Myrtaceae are among the roughly 1,100 neotropical species that are largely resistant to P. psidii. The 3,000 species of non-neotropical Myrtaceae of the Pacific, Australia, Asia, and Africa are expected to prove much more vulnerable to P. psidii. Little is known about the genetics or genetic strains of P. psidii, although existing literature shows that there are numerous strains that have differential ability to infect suites of host plants.

  6. Nutritional value of raw soybeans, extruded soybeans, roasted soybeans and tallow as fat sources in early lactating dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Moosavi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Thirty multiparous Holstein cows (29.8 ± 4.01days in milk; 671.6 ± 31.47 kg of body weight were used in a completely randomized design to compare nutritional value of four fat sources including tallow, raw soybeans, extruded soybeans and roasted soybeans for 8 weeks. Experimental diets were a control containing 27.4 % alfalfa silage, 22.5% corn silage, and 50.1% concentrate, and four diets with either tallow, raw soybean, extruded soybean, or roasted soybean added to provide 1.93% supplemental fat. Dry matter and NEL intakes were similar among treatments, while cows fed fat diets had significantly (P<0.05 high NEL intakes when compared to control with no fat. Supplemental fat, whether tallow or full fat soybeans increased milk production (1.89-2.45 kg/d; P<0.01 and FCM production (1.05-2.79; P<0.01. Milk fat yield and percentage of cows fed fat-supplemented diets were significantly (P<0.01 and P<0.05 respectively higher than control. Between fat-supplemented diets, roasted soybean caused highest milk fat yield and extruded soybean caused lowest milk fat yield. There was no significant effect of supplemental fat on the milk protein and lactose content and yield. Feed efficiency of fat-supplemented diets was significantly (P<0.01 higher than control. Body weight, body weight change and BCS (body condition score of cows, as well as energy balance and energy efficiency were similar between treatments. In conclusion, while there was no significant effect of fat sources on production response of cows, fat originating from heat-treated soybean help to minimize imported RUP (rumen undegradable protein sources level as fish meal in comparison with tallow and raw soybean oil. In the Current study, there was no statistical significance among nutritional values of oil from extruded soybeans and roasted soybeans.

  7. Evidence for Increased Aggressiveness in a Recent Widespread Strain of Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici Causing Stripe Rust of Wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milus, Eugene A; Kristensen, Kristian; Hovmøller, Mogens S

    2009-01-01

    Stripe rust (yellow rust) of wheat, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, has become more severe in eastern United States, Australia, and elsewhere since 2000. Recent research has shown that this coincided with a global spread of two closely related strains that were similar based...... regimes for latent period, lesion length, lesion width, lesion area, and spore production on adult plants of a susceptible wheat cultivar with no known genes for resistance to stripe rust. "New" isolates (since 2000) were significantly more aggressive than "old" isolates (before 2000) for all variables...... that wheat rust fungi can adapt to warmer temperatures and cause severe disease in previously unfavorable environments...

  8. A 2014 nationwide survey of the distribution of Soybean mosaic virus (SMV), Soybean yellow mottle mosaic virus (SYMMV) and Soybean yellow common mosaic virus (SYCMV) major viruses in South Korean soybean fields, and changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2014 symptomatic soybean samples were collected throughout Korea, and were tested for the most important soybean viruses found in Korea, namely Soybean mosaic virus (SMV), Soybean yellow common mosaic virus (SYCMV), and Soybean yellow mottle mosaic virus (SYMMV). SYMMV was most commonly detected,...

  9. 7 CFR 1220.313 - Qualified State Soybean Boards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Qualified State Soybean Boards. 1220.313 Section 1220... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN... Soybean Boards. The following State soybean promotion organizations shall be Qualified State Soybean...

  10. Development of Heterodera glycines on Soybean Damaged by Soybean Looper and Stem Canker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russin, J S; Layton, M B; Boethel, D J; McGawley, E C; Snow, J P; Berggren, G T

    1989-01-01

    Short-term greenhouse studies with soybean (Glycine max cv. Bragg) were used to examine interactions between the soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines) and two other common pests of soybean, the stem canker fungus (Diaporthe phaseolorum var. caulivora) and the soybean looper (Pseudoplusia includens), a lepidopterous defoliator. Numbers of cyst nematode juveniles in roots and numbers of cysts in soil and roots were reduced on plants with stem cankers. Defoliation by soybean looper larvae had the opposite effect; defoliation levels of 22 and 64% caused stepwise increases in numbers of juveniles and cysts in both roots and soil, whereas numbers of females in roots decreased. In two experiments, stem canker length was reduced 40 and 45% when root systems were colonized by the soybean cyst nematode. The absence of significant interactions among these pests indicates that the effects of soybean cyst nematode, stem canker, and soybean looper on plant growth and each other primarily were additive.

  11. Mental Health and Asian Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Asian American > Mental Health Mental Health and Asian Americans Suicide was the 9th leading ... Americans is half that of the White population. MENTAL HEALTH STATUS Serious psychological distress among adults 18 years ...

  12. Aspergillus Associated with Meju, a Fermented Soybean Starting Material for Traditional Soy Sauce and Soybean Paste in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Seung-Beom

    2015-01-01

    Aspergillus is an important fungal genus used for the fermentation of Asian foods; this genus is referred to as koji mold in Japan and China. A. oryzae, A. sojae, and A. tamari are used in the production of miso and shoyu in Japan, but a comprehensive taxonomic study of Aspergillus isolated from Meju, a fermented soybean starting material for traditional soy sauce and soybean paste in Korea, has not been conducted. In this study, various Aspergillus species were isolated during a study of the mycobiota of Meju, and the aspergilli were identified based on phenotypic characteristics and sequencing of the β-tubulin gene. Most strains of Aspergillus were found to belong to the following sections: Aspergillus (n = 220), Flavi (n = 213), and Nigri (n = 54). The most commonly identified species were A. oryzae (n = 183), A. pseudoglaucus (Eurotium repens) (n = 81), A. chevalieri (E. chevalieri) (n = 62), A. montevidensis (E. amstelodami) (n = 34), A. niger (n = 21), A. tamari (n = 15), A. ruber (E. rubrum) (n = 15), A. proliferans (n = 14), and A. luchuensis (n = 14); 25 species were identified from 533 Aspergillus strains. Aspergillus strains were mainly found during the high temperature fermentation period in the later steps of Meju fermentation. PMID:26539037

  13. Artificial Selection for Determinate Growth Habit in Soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Determinacy is an agronomically important trait associated with the domestication in soybean (Glycine max). Most soybean cultivars are classifiable into indeterminate and determinate growth habit, while Glycine soja, the wild progenitor of soybean, is indeterminate. Indeterminate (Dt1) and determina...

  14. McGISH identification and phenotypic description of leaf rust and yellow rust resistant partial amphiploids originating from a wheat × Thinopyrum synthetic hybrid cross.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruppa, Klaudia; Türkösi, Edina; Mayer, Marianna; Tóth, Viola; Vida, Gyula; Szakács, Éva; Molnár-Láng, Márta

    2016-11-01

    A Thinopyrum intermedium × Thinopyrum ponticum synthetic hybrid wheatgrass is an excellent source of leaf and stem rust resistance produced by N.V.Tsitsin. Wheat line Mv9kr1 was crossed with this hybrid (Agropyron glael) in Hungary in order to transfer its advantageous agronomic traits into wheat. As the wheat parent was susceptible to leaf rust, the transfer of resistance was easily recognizable in the progenies. Three different partial amphiploid lines with leaf rust resistance were selected from the wheat/Thinopyrum hybrid derivatives by multicolour genomic in situ hybridization. Chromosome counting on the partial amphiploids revealed 58 chromosomes (18 wheatgrass) in line 194, 56 (14 wheatgrass) in line 195 and 54 (12 wheatgrass) in line 196. The wheat chromosomes present in these lines were identified and the wheatgrass chromosomes were characterized by fluorescence in situ hybridization using the repetitive DNA probes Afa-family, pSc119.2 and pTa71. The 3D wheat chromosome was missing from the lines. Molecular marker analysis showed the presence of the Lr24 leaf rust resistance gene in lines 195 and 196. The morphological traits were evaluated in the field during two consecutive seasons in two different locations.

  15. Effect of white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola) and rust-resistance breeding on genetic variation in western white pine Pinus monticola)

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. -S. Kim; S. J. Brunsfeld; G. I. McDonald; N. B. Klopfenstein

    2003-01-01

    Western white pine (Pinus monticola) is an economically and ecologically important species from western North America that has declined over the past several decades mainly due to the introduction of blister rust (Cronartium ribicola) and reduced opportunities for regeneration. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) was used...

  16. Soybean improvement: Achievements and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burton Joseph W.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Soybean is a major source of vegetable protein and oil in the world. Worldwide demand continues to be high and production has more than doubled in the past 20 years to a total of 264.2 million metric tons in 2011 (National Agricultural Statistics Service 2012. Much of this increase has been due to increased planting in Argentina and Brazil. But, there have been genetic gains as well. We now have powerful genetic tools and these will be useful in gene discovery and in developing selectable markers for those genes. But for traits that are quantitative and multigenic, marker assisted selection may not be practical. We are facing unprecedented changes in our climate which will require resourceful use of the new genetic tools along with standard plant breeding methodology to maintain soybean productivity and quality.

  17. Scrolling and Strolling, Asian Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Joan

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a lesson on Asian cultures. Asian cultures demonstrate respect for nature through their art. Students learned how to use Asian brush techniques and designs to create scrolls. They also learned how to write Haiku, a three-line form of poetry that uses a pattern of syllables.

  18. Newly identified resistance to soybean aphid (Aphis glycines) in soybean plant introduction lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Host-plant resistance is potentially efficacious in managing the soybean aphid (SA, Aphis glycines Matsumura), a major invasive pest in northern soybean-production regions of North America. However, development of aphid-resistant soybean has been complicated by the presence of virulent SA biotypes,...

  19. Characterization and genetics of multiple soybean aphid biotype resistance in five soybean plant introductions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) is the most important soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] insect pest in the USA. The objectives of this study were to characterize the resistance expressed in the five plant introductions (PIs) to four soybean aphid biotypes, determine the mode of resistance in...

  20. A STUDY ON WEED CONTROL IN SOYBEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. TJITROSEMITO

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Two field experiments on weed control in soybeans were carried out at BIOTROP, Bogor, Indonesia from February to June, 1989. The critical period for weed control was found to be between 20 - 40 days after planting of soybean (c. v. Wilis grown at a planting distance of 40 x 10 cm. It did not coincide with the fastest growth in terms of trifoliate leaf number. Further studies were suggested to understand the physiological growth of soybean related to weed control. Pendimethalin at 660- 1320 g a.e./ha applied one day after sowing did not cause any phytotoxic effect to soybean and had good weed control performance.

  1. Asian American Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Every racial or ethnic group has specific health concerns. Differences in the health of groups can result from Genetics Environmental factors Access to care Cultural factors On this page, you'll find links to health issues that affect Asian Americans.

  2. Diabetes in Asians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Jung Rhee

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of diabetes is increasing globally, particularly in Asia. According to the 2013 Diabetes Atlas, an estimated 366 million people are affected by diabetes worldwide; 36% of those affected live in the Western Pacific region, with a significant proportion in East Asia. The reasons for this marked increase in the prevalence of diabetes can be extrapolated from several distinct features of the Asian region. First, the two most populated countries, China and India, are located in Asia. Second, Asians have experienced extremely rapid economic growth, including rapid changes in dietary patterns, during the past decades. As a result, Asians tend to have more visceral fat within the same body mass index range compared with Westerners. In addition, increased insulin resistance relative to reduced insulin secretory function is another important feature of Asian individuals with diabetes. Young age of disease onset is also a distinctive characteristic of these patients. Moreover, changing dietary patterns, such as increased consumption of white rice and processed red meat, contributes to the deteriorated lifestyle of this region. Recent studies suggest a distinctive responsiveness to novel anti-diabetic agents in Asia; however, further research and efforts to reverse the increasing prevalence of diabetes are needed worldwide.

  3. Asian fungal fermented food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nout, M.J.R.; Aidoo, K.E.

    2010-01-01

    In Asian countries, there is a long history of fermentation of foods and beverages. Diverse micro-organisms, including bacteria, yeasts and moulds, are used as starters, and a wide range of ingredients can be made into fermented foods. The main raw materials include cereals, leguminous seeds,

  4. HIV Among Asians

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention VIH En Español Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... Email Updates on HIV Syndicated Content Website Feedback HIV Among Asians in the United States Format: Select ...

  5. Malaysian Cinema, Asian Film

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heide, van der William

    2002-01-01

    This title series departs from traditional studies of national cinema by accentuating the intercultural and intertextual links between Malaysian films and Asian (as well as European and American) film practices. Using cross-cultural analysis, the author characterizes Malaysia as a pluralist society

  6. Resistance in Salix against willow leaf rust caused by Melampsora epitea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Leif [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Ecology and Crop Production Science

    2000-07-01

    Cultivation of Salix in short rotation forests (SRF), as a source of renewable energy is a relatively recent phenomenon in Sweden. As all other crops under intensive cultivation, Salix are attacked by pests. The economically most important disease is leaf rust caused by Melampsora epitea. For successful plant breeding of new sustainable rust resistant clones, it is important to have knowledge of the inheritance of resistance and the mechanisms underlying rust resistance. Species hybridisation is one technique used in plant breeding, hence the inheritance pattern of rust resistance in hybrids of two species, S. viminalis and S. dasyclados, selected for the purpose, was studied in greenhouse as well as under field conditions. The study in greenhouse showed that hybrids acquire intermediate rust resistance compared to pure species. Plants of same hybrids in field proved to be more resistant than their parental species. Observations in field also showed that abiotic factors such as weather tend to play a significant role in expression of inheritance pattern. It was further indicated that the interaction between rust and Salix might be race-specific. Metabolic changes in Salix, induced by the pathogen in incompatible and compatible interactions were studied in terms of peroxidase and chitinase activity which were measured in S. viminalis inoculated with rust of two different pathotypes of M. epitea rust. Peroxidase activity revealed an earlier response from plants in the incompatible interactions compared to compatible interactions. Records of the chitinase accumulation showed absence of one basic isoform of chitinase in the incompatible interaction. These results demonstrated physiological differences between incompatible and compatible interactions, and gave further indication toward occurrence of race-specific interactions in this pathosystem. Further, with use of molecular biology techniques, a gene designated svpk1, was cloned and partially characterised. The gene

  7. Characterization and Mapping of Leaf Rust and Stripe Rust Resistance Loci in Hexaploid Wheat Lines UC1110 and PI610750 under Mexican Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caixia Lan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Growing resistant wheat varieties is a key method of minimizing the extent of yield losses caused by the globally important wheat leaf rust (LR and stripe rust (YR diseases. In this study, a population of 186 F8 recombinant inbred lines (RILs derived from a cross between a synthetic wheat derivative (PI610750 and an adapted common wheat line (cv. “UC1110” were phenotyped for LR and YR response at both seedling and adult plant stages over multiple seasons. Using a genetic linkage map consisting of single sequence repeats and diversity arrays technology markers, in combination with inclusive composite interval mapping analysis, we detected a new LR adult plant resistance (APR locus, QLr.cim-2DS, contributed by UC1110. One co-located resistance locus to both rusts, QLr.cim-3DC/QYr.cim-3DC, and the known seedling resistance gene Lr26 were also mapped. QLr.cim-2DS and QLr.cim-3DC showed a marginally significant interaction for LR resistance in the adult plant stage. In addition, two previously reported YR APR loci, QYr.ucw-3BS and Yr48, were found to exhibit stable performances in rust environments in both Mexico and the United States and showed a highly significant interaction in the field. Yr48 was also observed to confer intermediate seedling resistance against Mexican YR races, thus suggesting it should be re-classified as an all-stage resistance gene. We also identified 5 and 2 RILs that possessed all detected YR and LR resistance loci, respectively. With the closely linked molecular markers reported here, these RILs could be used as donors for multiple resistance loci to both rusts in wheat breeding programs.

  8. Genetic analysis of seedling resistance to crown rust in five diploid oat (Avena strigosa) accessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, A L; Park, R F

    2016-02-01

    Crown rust, caused by Puccinia coronata Corda f. sp. avenae Eriks., is a serious menace in oats, for which resistance is an effective means of control. Wild diploid oat accessions are a source of novel resistances that first need to be characterised prior to introgression into locally adapted oat cultivars. A genetic analysis of resistance to crown rust was carried out in three diverse diploid oat accessions (CIav6956, CIav9020, PI292226) and two cultivars (Saia and Glabrota) of A. strigosa. A single major gene conditioning resistance to Australian crown rust pathotype (Pt) 0000-2 was identified in each of the three accessions. Allelism tests suggested that these genes are either the same, allelic, or tightly linked with less than 1 % recombination. Similarly, a single gene was identified in Glabrota, and possibly two genes in Saia; both cultivars previously reported to carry two and three crown rust resistance genes, respectively. The identified seedling resistance genes could be deployed in combination with other resistance gene(s) to enhance durability of resistance to crown rust in hexaploid oat. Current diploid and hexaploid linkage maps and molecular anchor markers (simple sequence repeat [SSR] and diversity array technology [DArT] markers) should facilitate their mapping and introgression into hexaploid oat.

  9. Composition and structure of an iron-bearing, layered double hydroxide (LDH) - Green rust sodium sulphate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, B. C.; Balic-Zunic, T.; Petit, P. O.

    2009-01-01

    (III)(3)(SO4)(2)(OH)(18)center dot 12H(2)O, space group P-3, a = 9.528(6) angstrom, c = 10.968(8) angstrom and Z = 1. Green rust sodium sulphate, GR(Na,SO4) crystallizes in thin, hexagonal plates. Particles range from less than 50 nm to 2 mu m in diameter and are 40 nm thick or less. The material is redox......Mixed-valent Fe(II),Fe(III)-layered hydroxide, known as green rust, was synthesized from slightly basic, sodium sulphate solutions in an oxygen-free glove box. Solution conditions were monitored with pH and Eh electrodes and optimized to ensure a pure sulphate green-rust phase. The solid...... was characterised using Mossbauer spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The composition of the solution from which the green rust precipitated was established by mass and absorption spectroscopy. The sulphate form of green rust is composed of brucite-like layers...

  10. Resistance Potential of Bread Wheat Genotypes Against Yellow Rust Disease Under Egyptian Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amer F. Mahmoud

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Yellow rust (stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, is one of the most destructive foliar diseases of wheat in Egypt and worldwide. In order to identify wheat genotypes resistant to yellow rust and develop molecular markers associated with the resistance, fifty F₈ recombinant inbred lines (RILs derived from a cross between resistant and susceptible bread wheat landraces were obtained. Artificial infection of Puccinia striiformis was performed under greenhouse conditions during two growing seasons and relative resistance index (RRI was calculated. Two Egyptian bread wheat cultivars i.e. Giza-168 (resistant and Sakha-69 (susceptible were also evaluated. RRI values of two-year trial showed that 10 RILs responded with RRI value >6 2 <6. However, only 7 RILs showed RRI value <2. Five RILs expressed hypersensitive type of resistance (R against the pathogen and showed the lowest Average Coefficient of Infection (ACI. Bulked segregant analysis (BSA with eight simple sequence repeat (SSR, eight sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP and sixteen random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD markers revealed that three SSR, three SRAP and six RAPD markers were found to be associated with the resistance to yellow rust. However, further molecular analyses would be performed to confirm markers associated with the resistance and suitable for marker-assisted selection. Resistant RILs identified in the study could be efficiently used to improve the resistance to yellow rust in wheat.

  11. Genetics and mapping of stem rust resistance to Ug99 in the wheat cultivar Webster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiebert, Colin W; Fetch, Thomas G; Zegeye, Taye

    2010-06-01

    New races of wheat stem rust, namely TTKSK (Ug99) and its variants, pose a threat to wheat production in the regions where they are found. The accession of the wheat cultivar Webster (RL6201) maintained at the Cereal Research Centre in Winnipeg, Canada, shows resistance to TTKSK and other races of stem rust. The purpose of this study was to study the inheritance of seedling resistance to stem rust in RL6201 and genetically map the resistance genes using microsatellite (SSR) markers. A population was produced by crossing the stem rust susceptible line RL6071 with Webster. The F(2) and F(3) were tested with TPMK, a stem rust race native to North America. The F(3) was also tested with TTKSK. Two independently assorting genes were identified in RL6201. Resistance to TPMK was conferred by Sr30, which was mapped with microsatellites on chromosome 5DL. The second gene, temporarily designated SrWeb, conferred resistance to TTKSK. SrWeb was mapped to chromosome 2BL using SSR markers. Comparison with previous genetic maps showed that SrWeb occupies a locus near Sr9. Further analysis will be required to determine if SrWeb is a new gene or an allele of a previously identified gene.

  12. Immobilization of chromate in hyperalkaline waste streams by green rusts and zero-valent iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Christine M; Burke, Ian T; Ahmed, Imad A M; Shaw, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    Zero-valent iron (ZVI) and green rusts can be used as reductants to convert chromium from soluble, highly toxic Cr(VI) to insoluble Cr(III). This study compared the reduction rates of Cr(VI) by ZVI and two carbonate green rust phases in alkaline/hyperalkaline solutions. Batch experiments were carried out with synthetic chromate solutions at pH 7.7-12.3 and a chromite ore processing residue (COPR) leachate (pH approximately 12.2). Green rust removes chromate from high pH solutions (pH 10-12.5) very rapidly (<400 s). Chromate reduction rates for both green rust phases were consistently higher than for ZVI throughout the pH range studied; the surface area normalized rate constants were two orders of magnitude higher in the COPR leachate solution at pH 12.2. The performances of both green rusts were unaffected by changes in pH. In contrast, ZVI exhibited a marked decline in reduction rate with increasing pH to become almost ineffective above pH12.

  13. Protection Against Common Bean Rust Conferred by a Gene-Silencing Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Bret; Campbell, Kimberly B

    2017-08-01

    Rust disease of the dry bean plant, Phaseolus vulgaris, is caused by the fungus Uromyces appendiculatus. The fungus acquires its nutrients and energy from bean leaves using a specialized cell structure, the haustorium, through which it secretes effector proteins that contribute to pathogenicity by defeating the plant immune system. Candidate effectors have been identified by DNA sequencing and motif analysis, and some candidates have been observed in infected leaves by mass spectrometry. To assess their roles in pathogenicity, we have inserted small fragments of genes for five candidates into Bean pod mottle virus. Plants were infected with recombinant virus and then challenged with U. appendiculatus. Virus-infected plants expressing gene fragments for four of five candidate effectors accumulated lower amounts of rust and had dramatically less rust disease. By contrast, controls that included a fungal gene fragment for a septin protein not expressed in the haustorium died from a synergistic reaction between the virus and the fungus. The results imply that RNA generated in the plant moved across the fungal haustorium to silence effector genes important to fungal pathogenicity. This study shows that four bean rust fungal genes encode pathogenicity determinants and that the expression of fungal RNA in the plant can be an effective method for protecting bean plants from rust.

  14. RAPD markers linked to a block of genes conferring rust resistance to the common bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faleiro Fábio Gelape

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Rust, caused by the fungus Uromyces appendiculatus, may cause a significant loss to common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. yield. RAPD markers tightly linked to the resistance genes may be used in breeding programs to aid the development of rust-resistant bean cultivars. In this sense, the objective of the present work was to identify RAPD markers linked to a rust resistance gene block present in the cultivar Ouro Negro. Two hundred and fourteen F2 individuals from a cross between the resistant cultivar Ouro Negro and the susceptible cultivar US Pinto 111 were inoculated with a mixture of eight races of U. appendiculatus. The segregation ratio obtained suggested that resistance is monogenic and dominant. Bulked segregant analysis was used in conjunction with the RAPD technique to search for markers linked to rust resistance genes. Two molecular markers flanking the rust resistance gene block were identified, one at 5.8 ± 1.6 cM (OX11(630 and the other at 7.7 ± 1.7 cM (OF10(1,050 of the gene. Simulated indirect selection efficiency in the F2 population using the two markers was 100%. The molecular markers identified in this work are currently being used for the selection of disease-resistant plants in the commom bean breeding program of the Federal University of Viçosa.

  15. Potential Overwintering Locations of Soybean Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) Colonizing Soybean in Ohio and Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, Michael S; Hogg, David B

    2015-04-01

    Soybean aphids, Aphis glycines Matsumura, depend on long-distance, wind-aided dispersal to complete their life cycle. Despite our general understanding of soybean aphid biology, little is explicitly known about dispersal of soybean aphids between winter and summer hosts in North America. This study compared genotypic diversity of soybean aphids sampled from several overwintering locations in the Midwest and soybean fields in Ohio and Wisconsin to test the hypothesis that these overwintering locations are sources of the soybean colonists. In addition, air parcel trajectory analyses were used to demonstrate the potential for long-distance dispersal events to occur to or from these overwintering locations. Results suggest that soybean aphids from overwintering locations along the Illinois-Iowa border and northern Indiana-Ohio are potential colonists of soybean in Ohio and Wisconsin, but that Ohio is also colonized by soybean aphids from other unknown overwintering locations. Soybean aphids in Ohio and Wisconsin exhibit a small degree of population structure that is not associated with the locations of soybean fields in which they occur, but that may be related to specific overwintering environments, multiple introductions to North America, or spatial variation in aphid phenology. There may be a limited range of suitable habitat for soybean aphid overwintering, in which case management of soybean aphids may be more effective at their overwintering sites. Further research efforts should focus on discovering more overwintering locations of soybean aphid in North America, and the relative impact of short- and long-distance dispersal events on soybean aphid population dynamics. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Morphology of germlings of urediniospores and its value for the identification and classification of grass rust fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swertz, C.A.

    1994-01-01

    The identification and classification of grass rust fungi is often difficult since most traditionally used morphological characters are quantitative and subjective. Besides, when using the host range as a taxonomic criterion, it is important to realize that a rust fungus may have jumped to

  17. Discovery of a novel stem rust resistance allele in durum wheat that exhibits differential reactions to Ug99 isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat stem rust, caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici Erikss. & E. Henn, can incur yield losses on susceptible cultivars of durum wheat, Triticum turgidum ssp. durum (Desf.) Husnot. Though several durum cultivars possess the stem rust resistance gene Sr13, additional genes in durum wheat effec...

  18. Frequency and distribution of the brown rust resistance gene Bru1 and implications for the Louisiana sugarcane breeding programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown rust, caused by the fungus Puccinia melanocephala, is an important disease of sugarcane posing an increasing threat to sugarcane industries worldwide. A major gene, Bru1, has been shown to contribute a significant proportion of brown rust resistance in multiple sugarcane industries. The recent...

  19. White pine blister rust resistance of 12 western white pine families at three field sites in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard A. Sniezko; Robert Danchok; Jim Hamlin; Angelia Kegley; Sally Long; James Mayo

    2012-01-01

    Western white pine (Pinus monticola Douglas ex D. Don) is highly susceptible to the non-native, invasive pathogen Cronartium ribicola, the causative agent of white pine blister rust. The susceptibility of western white pine to blister rust has limited its use in restoration and reforestation throughout much of western North...

  20. Targeted introgression of a wheat stem rust resistance gene by DNA marker-assisted chromosome engineering genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    In wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), stem rust resistance gene Sr39, derived from Aegilops speltoides Tausch, is highly resistant to multiple stem rust races including TTKSK (Ug99). However, the gene has not been used in wheat breeding because of linkage drag associated with the large 2S chromosome segm...

  1. Screening for Sugarcane Brown Rust in the First Clonal Stage of the Canal Point Sugarcane Breeding Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duli Zhao

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. brown rust (caused by Puccinia melanocephala Syd. & P. Syd. was first reported in the United States in 1978 and is still one of the great challenges for sugarcane production. A better understanding of sugarcane genotypic variation in response to brown rust will help optimize breeding and selection strategies for disease resistance. Brown rust ratings were scaled from non-infection (0 to severe infection (4 with intervals of 0.5 and routinely recorded for genotypes in the first clonal selection stage of the Canal Point sugarcane breeding program in Florida. Data were collected from 14,272 and 12,661 genotypes and replicated check cultivars in 2012 and 2013, respectively. Mean rust rating, % infection, and severity in each family and progeny of female parent were determined, and their coefficients of variation (CV within and among families (females were estimated. Considerable variation exists in rust ratings among families or females. The families and female parents with high susceptibility or resistance to brown rust were identified and ranked. The findings of this study can help scientists to evaluate sugarcane crosses and parents for brown rust disease, to use desirable parents for crossing, and to improve genetic resistance to brown rust in breeding programs.

  2. QTL mapping provides evidence for lack of association of the avoidance of leaf rust in Hordeum chilense with stomata density

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaz Patto, M.C.; Rubiales, D.; Martin, A.; Hernandez, P.; Lindhout, W.H.; Niks, R.E.; Stam, P.

    2003-01-01

    In cereals, rust fungi are among the most harmful pathogens. Breeders usually rely on short-lived hypersensitivity resistance. As an alternative, "avoidance" may be a more durable defence mechanism to protect plants to rust fungi. In Hordeum chilense avoidance is based on extensive wax covering of

  3. Genetic mapping of stem rust resistance to Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici race TRTTF in the Canadian wheat cultivar 'Harvest'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stem rust, caused by Puccinia graminis Pers.:Pers. f. sp. tritici Eriks. & E. Henn.(Pgt), is a destructive disease of wheat that can be controlled by deploying effective stem rust resistance (Sr) genes. Highly virulent races of Pgt in Africa have been detected and characterized. These include race T...

  4. Tracking the distribution of Puccinia psidii genotypes that cause rust disease on diverse myrtaceous trees and shrubs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amy L. Ross-Davis; Rodrigo N. Graca; Acelino C. Alfenas; Tobin L. Peever; Jack W. Hanna; Janice Y. Uchida; Rob D. Hauff; Chris Y. Kadooka; Mee-Sook Kim; Phil G. Cannon; Shigetou Namba; Nami Minato; Sofia Simeto; Carlos A. Perez; Min B. Rayamajhi; Mauricio Moran; D. Jean Lodge; Marcela Arguedas; Rosario Medel-Ortiz; M. Armando Lopez-Ramirez; Paula Tennant; Morag Glen; Ned B. Klopfenstein

    2014-01-01

    Puccinia psidii Winter (Basidiomycota, Uredinales) is a biotrophic rust fungus that was first reported in Brazil from guava in 1884 (Psidium guajava; Winter 1884) and later from eucalypt in 1912 (Joffily 1944). Considered to be of neotropical origin, the rust has also been reported to infect diverse myrtaceous hosts elsewhere in South America, Central America, the...

  5. Distribution and frequency of Bru1, a major brown rust resistance gene, in the sugarcane world collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown rust, caused by Puccinia melanocephala, is an important disease of sugarcane worldwide. Molecular markers for a major brown rust resistance gene, Bru1, were used to screen a total of 1,282 clones in the World Collection of Sugarcane and Related Grasses (WCSRG) to determine the distribution and...

  6. Targeting gene combinations for broad spectrum rust resistance in heat tolerant snap beans developed for tropical environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Common bean rust disease, caused by Uromyces appendiculatus, and heat stress, caused by high ambient temperature, constrain snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) production in many areas in tropical and temperate zones. Bean rust and heat stress often occur within the same production regions, such ...

  7. Identification of nine pathotype-specific genes conferring resistance to fusiform rust in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry Amerson; C. Dana Nelson; Thomas L. Kubisiak; E.George Kuhlman; Saul Garcia

    2015-01-01

    Nearly two decades of research on the host-pathogen interaction in fusiform rust of loblolly pine is detailed. Results clearly indicate that pathotype-specific genes in the host interacting with pathogen avirulence cause resistance as defined by the non-gall phenotype under favorable environmental conditions for disease development. In particular, nine fusiform rust...

  8. Nitrate reduction by green rusts modified with trace metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jeongyun; Batchelor, Bill; Won, Chanhee; Chung, Jinwook

    2012-02-01

    A kinetic study of nitrate reduction by green rust (GR), a group of layered Fe(II)-Fe(III) hydroxide solids, was performed using a batch reactor system. The reduction rate of nitrate by GRs was affected by the anion content in the interlayer of GRs. GR containing F(-) (GR-F) showed the fastest reduction rate while GR-SO(4) showed 9 times slower reaction rate than GR-F. The addition of 1mM Pt or Cu to GR that contained 85 mM Fe(II) improved the reduction kinetics of nitrate by up to 200 times. Pt was an effective activating agent for all GRs. The sequential step reaction model that we proposed appropriately simulated the experimental data. The fastest nitrate reduction by GR-F with Pt was achieved at pH 9 among 7.5 to 11. At that condition, 1mM nitrate transformed completely into ammonium within 23 min. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Pressurized water extraction of isoflavones by experimental design from soybean flour and Soybean Protein Isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moras, Benjamin; Rey, Stéphane; Vilarem, Gérard; Pontalier, Pierre-Yves

    2017-01-01

    A Doehlert experimental design was conducted and surface response methodology was used to determine the effect of temperature, contact time and solid liquid ratio on isoflavone extraction from soybean flour or Soybean Protein Isolate in pressurized water system. The optimal conditions conducted gave an extraction yield of 85% from soybean flour. For Soybean Protein Isolate compared to soybean flour, the isoflavone extraction yield is 61%. This difference could be explained by higher aglycon content, while aglycon appears to be the least extracted isoflavone by pressurized water. The solid liquid ratio in the ASE cell was the overriding factor in obtaining high yields with both soybean products, while temperature has less influence. A high temperature causes conversion of the malonyls-glucosides and glucosides isoflavone derivatives into glucosides or aglycons forms. pressurized water extraction showed a high solubilization of protein material up to 95% of inserted Soybean Protein Isolate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Durability of resistance to rust in sunflower: Implications for resistance breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Llamas José María

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower rust is caused by Puccinia helianthi Schw. and is an important disease in Argentina, Australia, Canada, Egypt, Israel, Turkey, USA and the former USSR. Sunflower rust is a macrocyclic, heterothallic and autoecious fungus, surviving mainly in plant debris in soil in the form of teliospores. New races of P. helianthi are continuously evolving and overcoming resistance genes, resulting in a continuous threat for the crop. The deployment of hybrids with simple resistances has exacerbated this problem. Combination of the appropriate R-genes could result in a resistance more difficult to overcome. The identification and characterization of new durable sources of sunflower rust resistance is a high priority for both researchers and industry. There is a possibility of breeding for high coumarin content to improve resistance at early stages of fungal development.

  11. Soybean peptide: optimal preparatory conditions, chemical and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the optimal condition for preparing soybean peptide from soybean isolates using digestive enzyme systems, comprising pepsin, trypsin and α-chymotrypsin set at different pH and temperatures. It was evaluated for closeness of characteristics to the control peptide (a TEK® oligopeptide, designated ...

  12. Screening soybean genotypes for promiscuous symbiotic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The current low soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill) yields in Sub-Saharan Africa can be alleviated by developing promiscuous genotypes. The research trend in Africa is towards developing promiscuous varieties for less labour and high yields in soybean production. A greenhouse experiment was conducted at Makerere ...

  13. Soybean Yield Determinants and Response to Rhizobial

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    komla

    promiscuous soybean cultivar (TGx 1448-. 2E) released by IITA out-yields the farmer variety (Samsoy-2) by over one tonne ha" is preferred due to its high vegetative biomass, good groundcover to reduce weed, high. Nz—fixation and low-level soil P tolerance. The soybean cultivar which also fixes up to 70% of its required N ...

  14. Divergence of flowering genes in soybean

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Soybean genome sequences were blasted with Arabidopsis thaliana regulatory genes involved in photoperiod-dependent flowering. This approach enabled the identification of 118 genes involved in the flowering pathway. Two genome sequences of cultivated (Williams 82) and wild (IT182932) soybeans were employed to ...

  15. Efficacy of plant extracts in controlling wheat leaf rust disease caused by Puccinia triticina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser M. Shabana

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of eight plant extracts (garlic, clove, garden quinine, Brazilian pepper, anthi mandhaari, black cumin, white cedar and neem in controlling leaf rust disease of wheat was investigated in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, all treatments inhibited spore germination by more than 93%. Neem extract recorded 98.99% inhibition of spore germination with no significant difference from the fungicide Sumi-8 (100%. Under greenhouse conditions, seed soaking application in neem extract (at concentration of 2 ml/L resulted in 36.82% reduction in the number of pustules/leaf compared with the untreated control. Foliar spraying of plant extracts on wheat seedlings decreased the number of pustules/leaf. Foliar spraying of plant extracts four days after inoculation led to the highest resistance response of wheat plants against leaf rust pathogen. Spray application of wheat seedlings with neem, clove and garden quinine extracts, four days after inoculation with leaf rust pathogen completely prevented rust development (100% disease control and was comparable with the fungicide Sumi-8. Foliar spray application of wheat plants at mature stage with all plant extracts has significantly reduced the leaf rust infection (average coefficient of infection, ACI compared with the untreated control and neem was the most effective treatment. This was reflected on grain yield components, whereas the 1000-kernel weight and the test weight were improved whether under one- or two-spray applications, with two-spray application being more effective in this regard. Thus, it could be concluded that plant extracts may be useful to control leaf rust disease in Egypt as a safe alternative option to chemical fungicides.

  16. Cultivar mixtures for the simultaneous management of multiple diseases: tan spot and leaf rust of wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, C M; Garrett, K A; Bowden, R L; Fritz, A K; Dendy, S P; Heer, W F

    2004-09-01

    ABSTRACT Because of differences in life histories between Puccinia triticina, a highly specialized, polycyclic, windborne pathogen with a shallow dispersal gradient, and Pyrenophora tritici-repentis, a residue-borne pathogen with a steep dispersal gradient, wheat mixtures are expected to be more effective at controlling leaf rust than tan spot. The objectives of this research were to determine the effect of two-cultivar mixtures with varying proportions and different pathogen resistance profiles on the severity of tan spot and leaf rust, to evaluate yield of the mixtures in the presence or absence of disease, and to directly compare the relative effectiveness of cultivar mixing for tan spot versus leaf rust. In a field experiment at two sites in Kansas over two growing seasons, winter wheat cvs. Jagger and 2145, which have differential resistance reactions to leaf rust and tan spot, each were planted in proportions of 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, and 1.00. Plots were inoculated with each pathogen alone, both pathogens, treated with a fungicide, or exposed to ambient conditions. For both diseases for all siteyears, severity decreased substantially on the susceptible cultivar as the proportion of that cultivar decreased in mixture. Mixtures were significantly more effective at reducing leaf rust than tan spot in three of four site-years. Mixtures generally yielded the same as the weighted mean of components in monoculture although, in two of three site-years, at least one fungicide-treated and one diseased mixture each yielded higher than expected values. Although this particular mixture produced only modest yield benefits, the potential for simultaneous reductions in tan spot and leaf rust was demonstrated.

  17. Genome-Wide Association Mapping of Stem Rust Resistance in Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad H. Sallam

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Stem rust was one of the most devastating diseases of barley in North America. Through the deployment of cultivars with the resistance gene Rpg1, losses to stem rust have been minimal over the past 70 yr. However, there exist both domestic (QCCJB and foreign (TTKSK aka isolate Ug99 pathotypes with virulence for this important gene. To identify new sources of stem rust resistance for barley, we evaluated the Wild Barley Diversity Collection (WBDC (314 ecogeographically diverse accessions of Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum for seedling resistance to four pathotypes (TTKSK, QCCJB, MCCFC, and HKHJC of the wheat stem rust pathogen (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, Pgt and one isolate (92-MN-90 of the rye stem rust pathogen (P. graminis f. sp. secalis, Pgs. Based on a coefficient of infection, the frequency of resistance in the WBDC was low ranging from 0.6% with HKHJC to 19.4% with 92-MN-90. None of the accessions was resistant to all five cultures of P. graminis. A genome-wide association study (GWAS was conducted to map stem rust resistance loci using 50,842 single-nucleotide polymorphic markers generated by genotype-by-sequencing and ordered using the new barley reference genome assembly. After proper accounting for genetic relatedness and structure among accessions, 45 quantitative trait loci were identified for resistance to P. graminis across all seven barley chromosomes. Three novel loci associated with resistance to TTKSK, QCCJB, MCCFC, and 92-MN-90 were identified on chromosomes 5H and 7H, and two novel loci associated with resistance to HKHJC were identified on chromosomes 1H and 3H. These novel alleles will enhance the diversity of resistance available for cultivated barley.

  18. Melampsora rust species on biomass willows in central and north-eastern Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubner, Ben; Wunder, Sebastian; Zaspel, Irmtraut; Zander, Matthias; Gloger, Jan; Fehrenz, Steffen; Ulrichs, Christian

    2014-11-01

    Melampsora willow rusts are the most important fungal pathogens in short rotation coppices of biomass willows. In the past, breeding programmes for rust resistant biomass willows concentrated on the distinction of races within the forma specialis Melampsora larici-epitea f. sp. larici-epitea typica that colonized Salix viminalis and related clones. In a new breeding program that is based on a wider range of willow species it is necessary to identify further Melampsora species and formae specialis that are pathogens of willow species other than S. viminalis. Therefore, three stock collections with Salix daphnoides, Salix purpurea, and other shrub willow species (including S. viminalis) species were sampled in north-eastern Germany. A fourth stock collection in central Germany contributed rusts of tree willows (Salix fragilis and Salix alba) and the large shrub Salix caprea. Out of 156 rust samples, 149 were successfully sequenced for ITS rDNA. A phylogenetic analysis combining Neighbour-Joining, Maximum-Likelihood and Bayesian analysis revealed six species: Melampsora ribesii-purpureae, Melampsora allii-salicis-albae, Melampsora sp. aff. allii-fragilis, Melampsora larici-pentandrae, Melampsora larici-caprearum, and Melampsora larici-epitea. The first four species were found exclusively on the expected hosts. Melampsora larici-caprearum had a wider host range comprising S. caprea and S. viminalis hybrids. Melampsora larici-epitea can be further differentiated into two formae speciales. The forma specialis larici-epitea typica (59 samples) colonized Salix viminalis clones, Salix purpurea, Salix×dasyclados, and Salix×aquatica. In contrast to this relatively broad host range, f. sp. larici-daphnoides (65 samples) was found exclusively on Salix daphnoides. With the distinction and identification of the rust species/formae speciales it is now possible to test for race-specific resistances in a more targeted manner within the determined pairings of rust and willow

  19. Fine Mapping of Ur-3, a Historically Important Rust Resistance Locus in Common Bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar P. Hurtado-Gonzales

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Bean rust, caused by Uromyces appendiculatus, is a devastating disease of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris in the Americas and Africa. The historically important Ur-3 gene confers resistance to many races of the highly variable bean rust pathogen that overcome other rust resistance genes. Existing molecular markers tagging Ur-3 for use in marker-assisted selection produce false results. Here, we describe the fine mapping of the Ur-3 locus for the development of highly accurate markers linked to Ur-3. An F2 population from the cross Pinto 114 (susceptible × Aurora (resistant with Ur-3 was evaluated for its reaction to four different races of U. appendiculatus. A bulked segregant analysis using the SNP chip BARCBEAN6K_3 placed the approximate location of Ur-3 in the lower arm of chromosome Pv11. Specific SSR and SNP markers and haplotype analysis of 18 sequenced bean varieties positioned Ur-3 in a 46.5 kb genomic region from 46.96 to 47.01 Mb on Pv11. We discovered in this region the SS68 KASP marker that was tightly linked to Ur-3. Validation of SS68 on a panel of 130 diverse common bean cultivars containing all known rust resistance genes revealed that SS68 was highly accurate and produced no false results. The SS68 marker will be of great value in pyramiding Ur-3 with other rust resistance genes. It will also significantly reduce time and labor associated with the current phenotypic detection of Ur-3. This is the first utilization of fine mapping to discover markers linked to rust resistance in common bean.

  20. Fine Mapping of Ur-3, a Historically Important Rust Resistance Locus in Common Bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado-Gonzales, Oscar P; Valentini, Giseli; Gilio, Thiago A S; Martins, Alexandre M; Song, Qijian; Pastor-Corrales, Marcial A

    2017-02-09

    Bean rust, caused by Uromyces appendiculatus, is a devastating disease of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) in the Americas and Africa. The historically important Ur-3 gene confers resistance to many races of the highly variable bean rust pathogen that overcome other rust resistance genes. Existing molecular markers tagging Ur-3 for use in marker-assisted selection produce false results. Here, we describe the fine mapping of the Ur-3 locus for the development of highly accurate markers linked to Ur-3 An F2 population from the cross Pinto 114 (susceptible) × Aurora (resistant with Ur-3) was evaluated for its reaction to four different races of U. appendiculatus A bulked segregant analysis using the SNP chip BARCBEAN6K_3 placed the approximate location of Ur-3 in the lower arm of chromosome Pv11. Specific SSR and SNP markers and haplotype analysis of 18 sequenced bean varieties positioned Ur-3 in a 46.5 kb genomic region from 46.96 to 47.01 Mb on Pv11. We discovered in this region the SS68 KASP marker that was tightly linked to Ur-3 Validation of SS68 on a panel of 130 diverse common bean cultivars containing all known rust resistance genes revealed that SS68 was highly accurate and produced no false results. The SS68 marker will be of great value in pyramiding Ur-3 with other rust resistance genes. It will also significantly reduce time and labor associated with the current phenotypic detection of Ur-3 This is the first utilization of fine mapping to discover markers linked to rust resistance in common bean. Copyright © 2017 Hurtado-Gonzales et al.

  1. South Asian Cluster

    OpenAIRE

    Ionel Sergiu Pirju

    2014-01-01

    This article aims at presenting the South Asian cluster composed of India, Indonesia, Iran and Malaysia, the intercultural values that characterizes it, the supported leadership style and tracing the main macroeconomic considerations which characterizes them. The research is synchronic, analysing the contemporary situation of these countries without reference to their evolution in time, by using the positivist paradigm that explains the reality at one point. It will be analysed th...

  2. Asian American Adolescent Identity

    OpenAIRE

    Ohm, Julie Juhye

    1999-01-01

    The formation of ego identity in Asian American late adolescents attending Virginia Tech was examined within the frameworks of Erikson's psychosocial theory and Berry, Trimble, and Olmedo's model of acculturation. Ego identity was measured using the Achieved sub-scale of the Revised Version of the Extended Objective Measure of Ego Identity Status, an instrument based on the theoretical constructs of Erikson. Ethnic identity was measured using the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure and America...

  3. Asian Media Productions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This work consists of 12 essays on different aspects of Asian media by Japanese, European, and American scholars, many of whom have themselves been involved in the production of media forms. Working in the fields of anthropology, media and cultural studies, and on the basis of hands-on research......, they have written a book on the social practices and cultural attitudes of people producing, reading, watching and listening to different kinds of media in Japan, China, Taiwan, Indonesia, Vietnam, Singapore and India....

  4. East Asian welfare regime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamson, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The paper asks if East Asian welfare regimes are still productivist and Confucian? And, have they developed public care policies? The literature is split on the first question but (mostly) confirmative on the second. Care has to a large, but insufficient extent, been rolled out in the region. Pol...... focusing on outcomes or causal links tend to suggest that legacies prevail, but there is (nearly) consensus that Confucianism exercises great influence in the whole region....

  5. Food type soybean cooking time: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deonisio Destro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Soybean is an extensive crop that produces more protein per hectare and, compared to other sources, has the lowest proteincost. This turns soybean into one of the basic foods with the potential to fight malnutrition and hunger in the planet. Even though itrepresents the fourth crop in grain production in the world (261 million tons year-1, most of its production is used as animal fodder.Currently, one of the greatest research challenges is to improve soybean production for human consumption. Cooking time is one theseveral characteristics that need improvement so that soybean can be used more extensively in our everyday diet. The objective of thiswork is to carry out a bibliographic review on the topic, to sensitize researchers in the area of soybean breeding about its importance.

  6. Perspectives in asian rhinoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Yong Ju; Yi, Jong Sook

    2014-04-01

    Asian patients present with relatively poorly developed dorsal and tip height and thicker skin, so augmentation rhinoplasty is the most commonly performed rhinoplasty procedure. Tip surgery using autologous cartilage followed by dorsal augmentation using an alloplastic implant material is the most widely performed surgical procedure for augmentation rhinoplasty on Asian patients. Cartilage tip grafting procedures, including shield grafting, multilayer tip grafting, onlay grafting, and modified vertical dome division, are key maneuvers for building up and providing better definition on a relatively poorly developed Asian tip. When performing primary cosmetic dorsal augmentation using alloplastic implants, the implant material should be selected according to the surgeon's experience, the pros and cons of available dorsal implant materials, and host factors such as skin thickness, associated deformities, and aesthetic goals. The costal cartilage is best reserved for difficult revisions, except in a limited number of primary cases who present with a very poorly developed nasal skeleton and thick skin. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  7. Potential impact of climate change on coffee rust over Mexico and Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon-Ezquerro, Maria del Carmen; Martinez-Lopez, Benjamin; Cabos Narvaez, William David; Sein, Dmitry

    2017-04-01

    In this work, some meteorological variables from a regional climate model are used to characterize the dispersion of coffee rust (a fungal disease) from Central America to Mexico, during the 20 Century. The climate model consists of the regional atmosphere model REMO coupled to the MPIOM global ocean model with increased resolution in the Atlantic Ocean. Lateral atmospheric and upper oceanic boundary conditions outside the coupled domain were prescribed using both ERA-40 and ERA-Interim reanalysis data. In addition to the historical simulation, a projection of the evolution of the coffee rust for the 21 Century was obtained from a REMO run using MPIESM data for the lateral forcing.

  8. Thua nao: Thai fermented soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekachai Chukeatirote

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Thua nao is a traditionally fermented food in Thailand. It is manufactured by fermenting cooked soybeans with naturally occurring microbes. There are also similar products including natto in Japan, kinema in India, and chongkukjang in Korea. In Thailand, thua nao is widely consumed, especially by people in the northern part. The product is generally regarded as a protein supplement and widely used as a condiment. Two major types of thua nao can be distinguished; fresh and dried forms. To date, scientific information on thua nao is scarce and thus this article aims to document the updated knowledge of Thai thua nao.

  9. Optimisation of wheat-sprouted soybean flour bread using response ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of sprouted soybean flour on wheat bread was studied. Sprouting significantly increased the vitamin C content of soybean flour from 2.0 mg kg-1 to 3.25 mg kg-1. The sprouted soybean flour resulted in increased loaf volume, a firmer, spongy and more elastic loaf. However, increasing the sprouted soybean flour ...

  10. 7 CFR 810.1601 - Definition of soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definition of soybeans. 810.1601 Section 810.1601... GRAIN United States Standards for Soybeans Terms Defined § 810.1601 Definition of soybeans. Grain that consists of 50 percent or more of whole or broken soybeans (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) that will not pass...

  11. 21 CFR 172.723 - Epoxidized soybean oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Epoxidized soybean oil. 172.723 Section 172.723... CONSUMPTION Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.723 Epoxidized soybean oil. Epoxidized soybean oil may be... reacting soybean oil in toluene with hydrogen peroxide and formic acid. (b) It meets the following...

  12. Improved Soybean Oil for Biodiesel Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tom Clemente; Jon Van Gerpen

    2007-11-30

    The goal of this program was to generate information on the utility of soybean germplasm that produces oil, high in oleic acid and low in saturated fatty acids, for its use as a biodiesel. Moreover, data was ascertained on the quality of the derived soybean meal (protein component), and the agronomic performance of this novel soybean germplasm. Gathering data on these later two areas is critical, with respect to the first, soybean meal (protein) component is a major driver for commodity soybean, which is utilized as feed supplements in cattle, swine, poultry and more recently aquaculture production. Hence, it is imperative that the resultant modulation in the fatty acid profile of the oil does not compromise the quality of the derived meal, for if it does, the net value of the novel soybean will be drastically reduced. Similarly, if the improved oil trait negative impacts the agronomics (i.e. yield) of the soybean, this in turn will reduce the value of the trait. Over the course of this program oil was extruded from approximately 350 bushels of soybean designated 335-13, which produces oil high in oleic acid (>85%) and low in saturated fatty acid (<6%). As predicted improvement in cold flow parameters were observed as compared to standard commodity soybean oil. Moreover, engine tests revealed that biodiesel derived from this novel oil mitigated NOx emissions. Seed quality of this soybean was not compromised with respect to total oil and protein, nor was the amino acid profile of the derived meal as compared to the respective control soybean cultivar with a conventional fatty acid profile. Importantly, the high oleic acid/low saturated fatty acids oil trait was not impacted by environment and yield was not compromised. Improving the genetic potential of soybean by exploiting the tools of biotechnology to improve upon the lipid quality of the seed for use in industrial applications such as biodiesel will aid in expanding the market for the crop. This in turn, may

  13. Effectors from Wheat Rust Fungi Suppress Multiple Plant Defense Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Sowmya R; Yin, Chuntao; Kud, Joanna; Tanaka, Kiwamu; Mahoney, Aaron K; Xiao, Fangming; Hulbert, Scot H

    2017-01-01

    Fungi that cause cereal rust diseases (genus Puccinia) are important pathogens of wheat globally. Upon infection, the fungus secretes a number of effector proteins. Although a large repository of putative effectors has been predicted using bioinformatic pipelines, the lack of available high-throughput effector screening systems has limited functional studies on these proteins. In this study, we mined the available transcriptomes of Puccinia graminis and P. striiformis to look for potential effectors that suppress host hypersensitive response (HR). Twenty small (acids), secreted proteins, with no predicted functions were selected for the HR suppression assay using Nicotiana benthamiana, in which each of the proteins were transiently expressed and evaluated for their ability to suppress HR caused by four cytotoxic effector-R gene combinations (Cp/Rx, ATR13/RPP13, Rpt2/RPS-2, and GPA/RBP-1) and one mutated R gene-Pto(Y207D). Nine out of twenty proteins, designated Shr1 to Shr9 (suppressors of hypersensitive response), were found to suppress HR in N. benthamiana. These effectors varied in the effector-R gene defenses they suppressed, indicating these pathogens can interfere with a variety of host defense pathways. In addition to HR suppression, effector Shr7 also suppressed PAMP-triggered immune response triggered by flg22. Finally, delivery of Shr7 through Pseudomonas fluorescens EtHAn suppressed nonspecific HR induced by Pseudomonas syringae DC3000 in wheat, confirming its activity in a homologous system. Overall, this study provides the first evidence for the presence of effectors in Puccinia species suppressing multiple plant defense responses.

  14. La Roya naranja de la caña de azúcar, una enfermedad emergente: su impacto y comparación con la roya marrón English Translation: Orange rust of sugarcane, an emerging disease: its impact and comparison to brown rust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarcane orange rust, caused by Puccinia kuehnii, was first detected in Florida in 2007, the first for Western Hemisphere. Subsequently, it has spread to the majority of sugarcane producing countries in the hemisphere. Orange rust is distinguished from brown rust its pustule size which is slightl...

  15. Latest NS varieties of soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidić Miloš

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Results obtained from a network of large-plot trials conducted in 2009 and several previous years have shown that there are a number of newly released NS cultivars of soybean that can be recommended for large-scale commercial growing. We have placed on the market a broad range of new cultivars differing in their growth period duration (maturity groups 000, 00, 0, I, II and other agronomic traits (growing requirements, chemical grain composition, etc.. For the next planting season, we have secured sufficient quantities of top quality seed of both our well-established cultivars and our new releases, including the new early varieties Alisa, Galina and Bečejka, the medium-maturing new cultivars Sava and Diva, and the late-maturing new cultivars Rubin and Idila. We will also have limited quantities of our latest releases available, the varieties Iskra (I, Victoria (I and Trijumf (II. We have recently registered four very early cultivars, Gracija (000, Julija (00, Mercur (00 and Prima (00, all of which are particularly suitable for growing soybean as the second crop. Our recommendation is that the new cultivars be introduced gradually to large-scale production and we are hoping they will become popular with the growers. .

  16. Adult plant leaf rust resistance derived from Toropi wheat is conditioned by Lr78 and three minor QTL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolmer, James; Bernardo, Amy; Bai, Guihua; Hayden, Matt; Chao, Shiaoman

    2017-10-09

    Leaf rust caused by Puccinia triticina is an important disease of wheat in many regions worldwide. Durable or long lasting leaf rust resistance has been difficult to achieve because populations of P. triticina are highly variable for virulence to race-specific resistance genes, and respond to selection by resistance genes in released wheat cultivars. The wheat cultivar Toropi, developed and grown in Brazil, was noted to have long lasting leaf rust resistance that was effective only in adult plants. The objectives of this study were to determine the chromosome location of the leaf rust resistance genes derived from Toropi in two populations of recombinant inbred lines in a partial Thatcher wheat background. In the first population, a single gene with major effects on chromosome 5DS that mapped 2.2 cM distal to IWA6289, strongly reduced leaf rust severity in all three years of field plot tests. This gene for adult plant leaf rust resistance was designated as Lr78. In the second population, QTL with small effects on chromosomes 1BL, 3BS, and 4BS were found. These QTL expressed inconsistently over four years of field plot tests. The adult plant leaf rust resistance derived from Toropi involved a complex combination of QTL with large and small effects.

  17. Using Landscape Genetics Simulations for Planting Blister Rust Resistant Whitebark Pine in the US Northern Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landguth, Erin L.; Holden, Zachary A.; Mahalovich, Mary F.; Cushman, Samuel A.

    2017-01-01

    Recent population declines to the high elevation western North America foundation species whitebark pine, have been driven by the synergistic effects of the invasive blister rust pathogen, mountain pine beetle (MPB), fire exclusion, and climate change. This has led to consideration for listing whitebark pine (WBP) as a threatened or endangered species under the Endangered Species Act, which has intensified interest in developing management strategies for maintaining and restoring the species. An important, but poorly studied, aspect of WBP restoration is the spatial variation in adaptive genetic variation and the potential of blister rust resistant strains to maintain viable populations in the future. Here, we present a simulation modeling framework to improve understanding of the long-term genetic consequences of the blister rust pathogen, the evolution of rust resistance, and scenarios of planting rust resistant genotypes of whitebark pine. We combine climate niche modeling and eco-evolutionary landscape genetics modeling to evaluate the effects of different scenarios of planting rust-resistant genotypes and impacts of wind field direction on patterns of gene flow. Planting scenarios showed different levels for local extirpation of WBP and increased population-wide blister rust resistance, suggesting that the spatial arrangement and choice of planting locations can greatly affect survival rates of whitebark pine. This study presents a preliminary, but potentially important, framework for facilitating the conservation of whitebark pine. PMID:28239390

  18. Genome-Wide Association Mapping Reveals Novel QTL for Seedling Leaf Rust Resistance in a Worldwide Collection of Winter Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genqiao Li

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Leaf rust of wheat ( L. is a major disease that causes significant yield losses worldwide. The short-lived nature of leaf rust resistance ( genes necessitates a continuous search for novel sources of resistance. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS on a panel of 1596 wheat accessions. The panel was evaluated for leaf rust reaction by testing with a bulk of Eriks. ( isolates collected from multiple fields of Oklahoma in 2013 and two predominant races in the fields of Oklahoma in 2015. The panel was genotyped with a set of 5011 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers. A total of 14 quantitative trait loci (QTL for leaf rust resistance were identified at a false discovery rate (FDR of 0.01 using the mixed linear model (MLM. Of these, eight QTL reside in the vicinity of known genes or QTL, and more studies are needed to determine their relationship with known loci. is a new QTL to bread wheat but is close to a locus previously identified in durum wheat [ L. subsp. (Desf. Husn.]. The other five QTL, including , , , , and , are likely novel loci for leaf rust resistance. The uneven distribution of the 14 QTL in the six subpopulations of the panel suggests that wheat breeders can enhance leaf rust resistance by selectively introgressing some of these QTL into their breeding materials. In addition, another 31 QTL were significantly associated with leaf rust resistance at a FDR of 0.05.

  19. Mycoflora of soybeans used for meju fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae-Ho; Kim, Seon-Hwa; Kwon, Soon-Wo; Lee, Jong-Kyu; Hong, Seung-Beom

    2013-06-01

    Diverse fungi are present in Korean traditional meju and they are known to play an important role in fermented soybean products. To determine the origin of the fungi in meju, we examined the mycoflora of soybeans from 10 traditional meju factories. The samples were untreated or treated with sodium hypochlorite, and placed on malt extract agar (MEA), dichloran 18% glycerol agar (DG18), and dichloran rose bengal chloramphenicol agar (DRBC) medium. A total of 794 fungal strains were isolated and they were identified as 41 genera and 86 species. From sodium hypochlorite untreated soybeans, the genera, Cladosporium (55%), Eurotium (51%), Fusarium (33%), Penicillium (22%), and Aspergillus (exclusion of Eurotium) (20%), were mainly isolated, and Eurotium herbariorum (22%), Eurotium repens (18%), Cladosporium tenuissimum (18%), F. fujikuroi (18%), Aspergillus oryzae/flavus (7%), and Penicillium steckii (6%) were the predominant species. In case of sodium hypochlorite-treated soybeans, Eurotium (31%) and Cladosporium (5%) were frequently isolated, but Aspergillus (excluding Eurotium), Penicillium and Fusarium which were frequently isolated from untreated soybeans, were rarely isolated. Eurotium herbariorum (21%), Eurotium repens (8%), and Cladosporium tenuissimum (3%) were the predominant species. Of the 41 genera and 86 species isolated from soybeans, 13 genera and 33 species were also found in meju. These results suggest that the fungi on soybeans may influence the mycoflora of meju.

  20. Mycoflora of Soybeans Used for Meju Fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae-Ho; Kim, Seon-Hwa; Kwon, Soon-Wo; Lee, Jong-Kyu

    2013-01-01

    Diverse fungi are present in Korean traditional meju and they are known to play an important role in fermented soybean products. To determine the origin of the fungi in meju, we examined the mycoflora of soybeans from 10 traditional meju factories. The samples were untreated or treated with sodium hypochlorite, and placed on malt extract agar (MEA), dichloran 18% glycerol agar (DG18), and dichloran rose bengal chloramphenicol agar (DRBC) medium. A total of 794 fungal strains were isolated and they were identified as 41 genera and 86 species. From sodium hypochlorite untreated soybeans, the genera, Cladosporium (55%), Eurotium (51%), Fusarium (33%), Penicillium (22%), and Aspergillus (exclusion of Eurotium) (20%), were mainly isolated, and Eurotium herbariorum (22%), Eurotium repens (18%), Cladosporium tenuissimum (18%), F. fujikuroi (18%), Aspergillus oryzae/flavus (7%), and Penicillium steckii (6%) were the predominant species. In case of sodium hypochlorite-treated soybeans, Eurotium (31%) and Cladosporium (5%) were frequently isolated, but Aspergillus (excluding Eurotium), Penicillium and Fusarium which were frequently isolated from untreated soybeans, were rarely isolated. Eurotium herbariorum (21%), Eurotium repens (8%), and Cladosporium tenuissimum (3%) were the predominant species. Of the 41 genera and 86 species isolated from soybeans, 13 genera and 33 species were also found in meju. These results suggest that the fungi on soybeans may influence the mycoflora of meju. PMID:23874133

  1. The influence of canopy density on willow leaf rust (Melampsora epitea) severity in willow short rotation coppice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toome, M.; Heinsoo, K.; Holm, B.; Luik, A. [Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Kreutzwaldi 1A, Tartu 51014 (Estonia)

    2010-08-15

    Willow short rotation coppice is used as a renewable energy source and also as a vegetation filter for purifying wastewater. Wastewater irrigation might change microclimatic conditions and increase the canopy density in plantations, which might decrease production due to leaf rust (Melampsora epitea). The aim of this study was to estimate the impact of the canopy density on rust abundance on willows. For that, we counted rust pustules on leaves of five different willow clones from dense and sparse areas in both the wastewater irrigated and control part of the plantation. The results demonstrated clear differences between clones; clone '81090' was very susceptible, '78183' susceptible, '78021' fairly tolerant and 'Tora' rust resistant. Clone 'Gudrun', which was previously reported resistant, had severe rust damages in Estonia. In the case of clones '78183' and '78021' there were significantly more rust pustules per leaf unit area at areas with denser canopy, which confirmed that higher plant density could result in biomass losses caused by leaf rust. No differences, however, were detected between dense and sparse areas of hybrid clone 'Gudrun', most probably because in this particular case leaves from upper canopy layer were used. There was a tendency detected that clones with a higher number of shoots per plant had more rust damages on their leaves, however, the correlation was not statistically confirmed. In conclusion, the impact of canopy density on rust abundance is clone-specific and significant in the case of clones on which infection starts from the lower part of the canopy. (author)

  2. South Asian Cluster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionel Sergiu Pirju

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at presenting the South Asian cluster composed of India, Indonesia, Iran and Malaysia, the intercultural values that characterizes it, the supported leadership style and tracing the main macroeconomic considerations which characterizes them. The research is synchronic, analysing the contemporary situation of these countries without reference to their evolution in time, by using the positivist paradigm that explains the reality at one point. It will be analysed the overall cluster with the existing interactions between the countries that composes it, while the article being one of information will avoid building recommendation, or new theories.

  3. Cultured cells of white pine show genetic resistance to axenic blister rust hyphae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diner, A M; Mott, R L; Amerson, H V

    1984-04-27

    Hypersensitive resistance to axenically cultured Cronartium ribicola was displayed by subcultured callus of Pinus lambertiana. Cellular resistance to a destructive rust disease can now be studied at the macromolecular level through use of cloned cells of both host and pathogen in a system amenable to emerging recombinant DNA technology.

  4. URS Brava – a new oat cultivar with partial resistance to crown rust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Federizzi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The cultivar URS Brava, obtained from a simple cross between the line ‘UFRGS 995078-2’ and the cultivar ‘URS 21’, shows high grain yield and stability, high grain quality, desirable agronomical traits and partial resistance to crown rust, caused by the fungus Puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae.

  5. Genetics of adult plant stripe rust resistance in CSP44, a selection ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    areas of temperate zones (Johnson 1988). Yield losses can be considerable, ranging from about 40 per cent to com- plete destruction of the crop depending upon the growth stage at which the disease attacks. Using diverse genes for resistance against stripe rust disease is the most eco- nomical and environmentally safe ...

  6. Mapping fusiform rust resistance genes within a complex mating design of loblolly pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tania Quesada; Marcio F.R. Resende Jr.; Patricio Munoz; Jill L. Wegrzyn; David B. Neale; Matias Kirst; Gary F. Peter; Salvador A. Gezan; C.Dana Nelson; John M. Davis

    2014-01-01

    Fusiform rust resistance can involve gene-for-gene interactions where resistance (Fr) genes in the host interact with corresponding avirulence genes in the pathogen, Cronartium quercuum f.sp. fusiforme (Cqf). Here, we identify trees with Fr genes in a loblolly pine population derived from a complex mating design challenged with two Cqf inocula (one gall and 10 gall...

  7. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) applications in white pine blister rust resistance screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sam Hendricks; Wendy Sutton; Jeffrey Stone; Richard Sniezko; Angelia Kegley; Anna Schoettle

    2011-01-01

    A goal of breeding programs for resistance to white pine blister rust is the development of multigenic resistance, even if the genetics and mechanisms of resistance may be imperfectly understood. The goal of multigenic resistance has prompted efforts to categorize host resistance reactions at increasingly finer scales, to identify heritable traits that may confer...

  8. First Report of Orange Rust of Sugarcane caused by Puccinia kuehnii in Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orange rust, Puccinia kuehnii (W. Krüger) E.J. Butler, is an important disease of sugarcane (complex hybrid of Saccharum L. species) that causes yield losses, and impacts breeding programs. Initially confined to the Asia-Oceania region (5), P. kuehnii was reported in Florida in June 2007 (2) and lat...

  9. Genetics of leaf and stripe rust resistance in a bread wheat cultivar ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 87; Issue 2. Genetics of leaf and stripe rust resistance in a bread wheat cultivar Tonichi. Satinder Kaur U. K. Bansal Renu Khanna R. G. Saini. Research Note Volume 87 Issue 2 August 2008 pp 191-194 ...

  10. Identification of markers associated with genes for rust resistance in lens culinaris medik

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentil rust caused by Uromyces vicia-fabae (Pers.) Schroet is one of the most important diseases of lentil in South Asia, North Africa and East Africa. This disease is usually observed during late flowering and early podding stages. Early infection accompanied by favorable environmental conditions c...

  11. Microsatellite DNA suggests regional structure in the fusiform rust fungus Cronartium quercuum f. sp fusiforme

    Science.gov (United States)

    T.L Kubisiak; J.H. Roberds; P.C. Spaine; R.L. Doudrick

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports results obtained from microsatellite DNA analysis of genetic structure for populations of the native fungus Cronartium quercuum f. sp fusiforme infecting loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) over much of this host's natural range. Mostly all fusiform rust galls formed under field conditions are...

  12. Identification of leaf rust resistant gene Lr10 in Pakistani wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-10

    Aug 10, 2011 ... been reported in many wheat producing countries in most years and periodic epidemics during the last century resulted in famine situation in many parts of the world. Allan et al. (1963) and Ali et al. (2007) have also reported the existence of association between rust infection and grain yield losses. To date ...

  13. Confocal microscopy of Spitzenkörper dynamics during growth and differentiation of rust fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijksterhuis, J

    The membrane-selective fluorescent dye FM4-64, N-(3-triethylammoniumpropyl)-4-(6-(4-(diethylamino)phenyl)hexatrienyl)py ridium dibromide, was used to stain the apical vesicle cluster within the specialized Spitzenkorper of the germ tube of the rust fungi Uromyces vignae and Puccinia graminis f. sp.

  14. Research on the biology of fusiform rust in the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauline. Spaine

    1998-01-01

    The incidence of fusiform rust has continued to be one of the major forest disease problems in the Southeastern United States. In the past, much of the research has concentrated on field studies with provenance selection and genetic breeding of pine families to increase resistance in the host. In the last 10 years, there has been an increased interest in the actual...

  15. Flavonoid Accumulation Plays an Important Role in the Rust Resistance of Malus Plant Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanfen Lu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Cedar-apple rust (Gymnosporangium yamadai Miyabe is a fungal disease that causes substantial injury to apple trees and results in fruit with reduced size and quality and a lower commercial value. The molecular mechanisms underlying the primary and secondary metabolic effects of rust spots on the leaves of Malus apple cultivars are poorly understood. Using HPLC, we found that the contents of flavonoid compounds, especially anthocyanin and catechin, were significantly increased in rust-infected symptomatic tissue (RIT. The expression levels of structural genes and MYB transcription factors related to flavonoid biosynthesis were one- to seven-fold higher in the RIT. Among these genes, CHS, DFR, ANS, FLS and MYB10 showed more than a 10-fold increase, suggesting that these genes were expressed at significantly higher levels in the RIT. Hormone concentration assays showed that the levels of abscisic acid (ABA, ethylene (ETH, jasmonate (JA and salicylic acid (SA were higher in the RIT and were consistent with the expression levels of McNCED, McACS, McLOX and McNPR1, respectively. Our study explored the complicated crosstalk of the signal transduction pathways of ABA, ETH, JA and SA; the primary metabolism of glucose, sucrose, fructose and sorbitol; and the secondary metabolism of flavonoids involved in the rust resistance of Malus crabapple leaves.

  16. Flavonoid Accumulation Plays an Important Role in the Rust Resistance of Malus Plant Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yanfen; Chen, Qi; Bu, Yufen; Luo, Rui; Hao, Suxiao; Zhang, Jie; Tian, Ji; Yao, Yuncong

    2017-01-01

    Cedar-apple rust (Gymnosporangium yamadai Miyabe) is a fungal disease that causes substantial injury to apple trees and results in fruit with reduced size and quality and a lower commercial value. The molecular mechanisms underlying the primary and secondary metabolic effects of rust spots on the leaves of Malus apple cultivars are poorly understood. Using HPLC, we found that the contents of flavonoid compounds, especially anthocyanin and catechin, were significantly increased in rust-infected symptomatic tissue (RIT). The expression levels of structural genes and MYB transcription factors related to flavonoid biosynthesis were one- to seven-fold higher in the RIT. Among these genes, CHS, DFR, ANS, FLS and MYB10 showed more than a 10-fold increase, suggesting that these genes were expressed at significantly higher levels in the RIT. Hormone concentration assays showed that the levels of abscisic acid (ABA), ethylene (ETH), jasmonate (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) were higher in the RIT and were consistent with the expression levels of McNCED, McACS, McLOX and McNPR1, respectively. Our study explored the complicated crosstalk of the signal transduction pathways of ABA, ETH, JA and SA; the primary metabolism of glucose, sucrose, fructose and sorbitol; and the secondary metabolism of flavonoids involved in the rust resistance of Malus crabapple leaves.

  17. Genetic variation in susceptibility to fusiform rust in seedlings from a wild population of loblolly pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohun B. Kinloch Jr.; Roy W. Stonecypher

    1969-01-01

    Striking genetic variation in susceptibility to fusiform rust was observed among SS controlled-pollinated (CP) and 48 wind-pollinated (WP) families from parent trees of loblolly pine selected at random in a natural forest stand in southwest Georgia. The mating design permitted statistical tests for estimating both additive and total genetic variance. WP families were...

  18. Strong partial resistance to white pine blister rust in sugar pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohun B. Kinloch, Jr.; Deems Burton; Dean A. Davis; Robert D. Westfall; Joan Dunlap; Detlev Vogler

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative resistance to white pine blister rust in 128 controlled- and open-pollinated sugar pine families was evaluated in a “disease garden”, where alternate host Ribes bushes were interplanted among test progenies. Overall infection was severe (88%), but with great variation among and within families: a 30-fold range in numbers of infections...

  19. Unravelling and managing fusiform rust disease: a model approach for coevolved forest tree pathosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CD Nelson; TL Kubisiak; HV Amerson

    2010-01-01

    Fusiform rust disease remains the most destructive disease in pine plantations in the southern United States. Our ongoing research is designed to identify, map, and clone the interacting genes of the host and pathogen. Several resistance (R) genes have been identified and genetically mapped using informative pine families and single-spore isolate inoculations. In...

  20. Heterogeneous nonmarket benefits of managing white pine bluster rust in high-elevation pine forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    James R. Meldrum; Patricia A. Champ; Craig A. Bond

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a nonmarket valuation study about benefits of managing the invasive disease white pine blister rust in highelevation forests in the Western United States. Results demonstrate that, on average, households in the Western United States are willing to pay $154 to improve the resiliency of these forests. Factor analysis shows that long-run protection...

  1. Civic Capacity in Educational Reform Efforts: Emerging and Established Regimes in Rust Belt Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Dana L.; Frick, William C.

    2011-01-01

    Using urban regime theory, the article examines two Rust Belt cities that tried to break the cycle of social reproduction in their communities by reforming their schools. The article contributes to the development of urban regime theory by comparing an "emerging" regime to an "established" regime. The comparison highlights the interdependent…

  2. Interrelations between citrus rust mite, Hirsutella thompsonii and greasy spot on citrus in Surinam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brussel, van E.W.

    1975-01-01

    Counts of citrus rust mite (Phyllocoptruta oleivora (Ashm.)) on leaves and fruit of citrus rose to a peak in the two dry seasons, the build up taking 4-5 weeks. It then decreased partly through infection by the entomogenous fungus

  3. Control of Fusiform Rust in Slash Pine with Bayleton (Triadimefon) Seed Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert C. Hare; Glenn A. Snow

    1983-01-01

    The Bayleton® seed treatment protects pine seedlings against fusiform rust for at least 4 weeks after sowing. If nurserymen use treated seed, no more than three foliar sprays are needed during the season. These can be timed to give maximum protection during the most hazardous period and adequate protection for the remainder of the infection season.

  4. Selection of loblolly pine varieties resistant to fusiform rust for commercial deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andy Benowicz; Robert J. Weir

    2012-01-01

    Benowicz, Andy; Weir, Robert J. 2013. Selection of loblolly pine varieties resistant to fusiform rust for commercial deployment . In: Sniezko, Richard A.; Yanchuk, Alvin D.; Kliejunas, John T.; Palmieri, Katharine M.; Alexander, Janice M.; Frankel, Susan J., tech. coords. Proceedings of the fourth international workshop on the genetics of host-parasite interactions in...

  5. Options for the management of white pine blister rust in the Rocky Mountain Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly S. Burns; Anna W. Schoettle; William R. Jacobi; Mary F. Mahalovich

    2008-01-01

    This publication synthesizes current information on the biology, distribution, and management of white pine blister rust (WPBR) in the Rocky Mountain Region. In this Region, WPBR occurs within the range of Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine (Pinus aristata), limber pine (P. flexilis), and whitebark pine (P. albicaulis...

  6. Monitoring white pine blister rust infection and mortality in whitebark pine in the Greater Yellowstone ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathie Jean; Erin Shanahan; Rob Daley; Gregg DeNitto; Dan Reinhart; Chuck Schwartz

    2011-01-01

    There is a critical need for information on the status and trend of whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE). Concerns over the combined effects of white pine blister rust (WPBR, Cronartium ribicola), mountain pine beetle (MPB, Dendroctonus ponderosae), and climate change prompted an interagency working group to design and implement...

  7. Prehaustorial resistance to the wheat leaf rust fungus, Puccinia triticina, in Triticum monococcum (s.s.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anker, C.C.; Niks, R.E.

    2001-01-01

    Diploid wheat, Triticum monococcum s.l., is a host for the wheat leaf rust fungus, Puccinia triticina. Some accessions have been reported to show a high degree of prehaustorial resistance. This is non-hypersensitivity resistance, which acts before the formation of haustoria by the pathogen. To

  8. Yellow Rust Epidemics Worldwide Were Caused by Pathogen Races from Divergent Genetic Lineages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ali, Sajid; Rodriguez Algaba, Julian; Thach, Tine

    2017-01-01

    We investigated whether the recent worldwide epidemics of wheat yellow rust were driven by races of few clonal lineage(s) or populations of divergent races. Race phenotyping of 887 genetically diverse Puccinia striiformis isolates sampled in 35 countries during 2009–2015 revealed...

  9. Virulence of wheat yellow rust races and resistance genes of wheat cultivars in Ecuador

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ochoa, J.B.; Danial, D.L.; Paucar, B.

    2007-01-01

    Virulence factors of the yellow rust, Puccinia striiformis, populations in bread wheat were studied in Ecuador between 1973 and 2004. The number of virulence factors has increased markedly from very few in the early seventies to 16 at the end of the 90s. Isolates belonging to race 0E0 seem to be the

  10. Genetics and mapping of a new leaf rust resistance gene in Triticum ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    AMIT KUMAR SINGH

    Abstract. A Triticum timopheevii-derived bread wheat line, Selection G12, was screened with 40 pathotypes of leaf rust pathogen,. Puccinia triticina at seedling stage and with two most commonly prevalent pathotypes 77-5 and 104-2 at adult plant stage. Selection G12 showed resistance at both seedling and adult plant ...

  11. Studies of the genetics of inheritance of stem rust resistance in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pgt race TTKSK (Ug99) has a wide virulence range with respect to currently grown wheat cultivars worldwide. Aspects of migration, mutation, recombination and selection in the pathogen have led to previously deployed stem rust resistance genes being ineffective. Race TTKSK has further evolved to acquire virulence for ...

  12. Identifying leaf rust resistance gene Lr19 in durum wheat using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leaf rust, caused by Puccinia triticina Eriks., is an important disease affecting durum wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum) worldwide, particularly in the Mediterranean region. The disease can be controlled through the use of plant host resistance. Based on seedling resistance tests of 103 durum genotypes against a bulk of ...

  13. A stochastic model simulating the spatiotemporal dynamics of yellow rust on wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lett, C.; Østergård, Hanne

    2000-01-01

    A stochastic model of the spatiotemporal dynamics of plant disease epidemics in monocultures is described and applied to the simulation of yellow rust on wheat (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici). The most sensitive parameters of the model are latent period, daily multiplication factor...

  14. Prehaustorial and posthaustorial resistance to wheat leaf rust in diploid wheat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anker, C.C.

    2001-01-01

    In modern wheat cultivars, resistance to wheat leaf rust, Puccinia triticina , is either based on hypersensitivity resistance or on partial resistance. Hypersensitivity resistance in wheat is monogenic, often complete and posthaustorial: it is induced after the

  15. Distribution of Ribes, an alternate host of white pine blister rust, in Colorado and Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holly S. J. Kearns; William R. Jacobi; Kelly S. Burns; Brian W. Geils

    2008-01-01

    Ribes (currants and gooseberries) are alternate hosts for Cronartium ribicola, the invasive fungus that causes blister rust of white pines (Pinus, subgenus Strobus) in the Rocky Mountain region of Colorado and Wyoming. The location, species, and density of Ribes can affect...

  16. Studies of the genetics of inheritance of stem rust resistance in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2013-05-22

    May 22, 2013 ... develop genetic populations for determining the inheritance of resistance to stem rust. F3 populations were evaluated at KARI ... effector molecule of the host plant could lead to a change from avirulent to virulent forms. ... understanding of the genetics of disease resistance and use of appropriate crosses in ...

  17. Severity of angular leaf spot and rust diseases on common beans in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Angular leaf spot and rust of common beans can be controlled using fungicides, resistant varieties, biological control and cultural practices such as intercropping, crop rotation, optimum plant spacing and use of soil amendments that promote soil health and plant nutrition. In Uganda, the use of fungicide is limited to common ...

  18. Histology of white pine blister rust in needles of resistant and susceptible eastern white pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joel A. Jurgens; Robert A. Blanchette; Paul J. Zambino; Andrew David

    2003-01-01

    White pine blister rust, Cronartium ribicola, has plagued the forests of North America for almost a century. Over past decades, eastern white pine (Pinus strobus) that appear to tolerate the disease have been selected and incorporated into breeding programs. Seeds from P. strobus with putative resistance were...

  19. The influence of white pine blister rust on seed dispersal in whitebark pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawn T. McKinney; Diana F. Tomback

    2007-01-01

    We tested the hypotheses that white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola J.C. Fisch.) damage in whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis Engelm.) stands leads to reduced (1) seed cone density, (2) predispersal seed survival, and (3) likelihood of Clark's Nutcracker (Nucifraga columbiana (Wilson, 1811)) seed...

  20. Harvest intensity and competition control impacts on loblolly pine fusiform rust incidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert J. Eaton; Paula Spaine; Felipe G. Sanchez

    2006-01-01

    The Long Term Soil Productivity experiment tests the effects of soil compaction, surface organic matter removal, and understory control on net primary productivity. An unintended consequence of these treatments may be an effect on the incidence of fusiform rust [Cronartium quercuum (Berk.) Miy. ex Shirai f. sp. fusiforme Burdsall et Snow]. Loblolly pine (Pinus...

  1. Sources of stem rust resistance in wheat-alien introgression lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stem rust, caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, is one of the most devastating diseases of wheat and the novel highly virulent race of TTKSK and its lineage are threatening wheat production worldwide. The objective of the study was to identify new sources of resistance in wheat-alien introgre...

  2. Protection against common bean rust conferred by a gene silencing method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rust disease of the dry bean plant, Phaseolus vulgaris, is caused by the fungus Uromyces appendiculatus. The fungus acquires its nutrients and energy from bean leaves using a specialized cell structure, the haustorium, through which it secretes effector proteins that contribute to pathogenicity by ...

  3. First Report of Garlic Rust Caused by Puccinia allii on Allium sativum in Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    In July 2010, Allium sativum, cultivar German Extra Hardy Porcelain plants showing foliar symptoms typical of rust infection were brought to the Plant Disease Clinic at the University of Minnesota by a commercial grower from Fillmore county Minnesota. Infected leaves showed circular to oblong lesio...

  4. Molecular mapping of a stripe rust resistance gene in wheat line C51

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Stripe rust, a major disease in areas where cool temperatures prevail, can strongly influence grain yield. To control this disease, breeders have incorporated seedling resistance genes from a variety of sources outside the primary wheat gene pool. The wheat line C51, introduced from the International Center for Agricultural ...

  5. Conservation of biodiversity in sugar pine: effects of the blister rust epidemic on genetic diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constance I. Millar; Bohun B. Kinloch; Robert D. Westfall

    1992-01-01

    Genetic diversity in sugar plne will be severely reduced by the blister rust pandemic predicted within the next 50 to 75 years. We model effects of the epidemic on genetic diversity at the stand and landscape levels for both natural and artificial regeneration. In natural stands, because natural frequencies of the dominant gene (R) for resistance are low, the most...

  6. Selection for resistance to white pine blister rust affects the abiotic stress tolerances of limber pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick J. Vogan; Anna W. Schoettle

    2015-01-01

    Limber pine (Pinus flexilis) mortality is increasing across the West as a result of the combined stresses of white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola; WPBR), mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae), and dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium cyanocarpum) in a changing climate. With the continued spread of WPBR, extensive mortality will continue with strong selection...

  7. Immunizations and Asians and Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Asian American > Immunizations Immunizations and Asians and Pacific Islanders Asian/Pacific Islander ... 35 months reached the Healthy People goal for immunizations for hepatitis B, MMR (measles-mumps-rubella), polio ...

  8. Proteomic characterization of the Rph15 barley resistance gene-mediated defence responses to leaf rust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Letizia

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leaf rust, caused by the biotrophic fungal pathogen Puccinia hordei, is one of the most important foliar disease of barley (Hordeum vulgare and represents a serious threat in many production regions of the world. The leaf rust resistance gene Rph15 is of outstanding interest for resistance breeding because it confers resistance to over 350 Puccinia hordei isolates collected from around the world. Molecular and biochemical mechanisms responsible for the Rph15 effectiveness are currently not investigated. The aim of the present work was to study the Rph15-based defence responses using a proteomic approach. Results Protein pattern changes in response to the leaf rust pathogen infection were investigated in two barley near isogenic lines (NILs, Bowman (leaf rust susceptible and Bowman-Rph15 (leaf rust resistant, differing for the introgression of the leaf rust resistance gene Rph15. Two infection time points, 24 hours and four days post inoculation (dpi, were analysed. No statistically significant differences were identified at the early time point, while at 4 dpi eighteen protein spots were significantly up or down regulated with a fold-change equal or higher than two in response to pathogen infection. Almost all the pathogen-responsive proteins were identified in the Bowman-Rph15 resistant NIL. Protein spots were characterized by LC-MS/MS analysis and found to be involved in photosynthesis and energy metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, protein degradation and defence. Proteomic data were complemented by transcriptional analysis of the respective genes. The identified proteins can be related to modulation of the photosynthetic apparatus components, re-direction of the metabolism to sustain defence responses and deployment of defence proteins. Conclusions The identification of leaf rust infection-modulated defence responses restricted to the resistant NIL support the hypothesis that basal defence responses of Bowman, but not the

  9. Appraisal of wheat germplasm for adult plant resistance against stripe rust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleem Kamran

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The resurgence of wheat stripe rust is of great concern for world food security. Owing to resistance breakdown and the appearance of new virulent high-temperature adapted races of Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst, many high yielding commercial varieties in the country lost their yield potential. Searching for new sources of resistance is the best approach to mitigate the problem. Quantitative resistance (partial or adult plant or durable resistance is reported to be more stable than race specific resistance. In the current perusal, a repertoire of 57 promising wheat lines along with the KLcheck line Morocco, developed through hybridisation and selection of local and international lines with International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT origin, were evaluated under natural field conditions at Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology (NIAB during the 2012−2013 and 2013−2014 time periods. Final rust severity (FRS, the area under the rust progress curve (AURPC, the relative area under the rust progress curve (rAURPC, and the coefficient of infection (CI were unraveled to infer the level of quantitative resistance. Final rust severity was recorded when the susceptible check exhibited 100% severity. There were 21 lines which were immune (no disease, 16 which were resistant, five moderately resistant, two resistant-to-moderately resistant, one moderately resistant-to-moderately susceptible, 5 moderately susceptible-to-susceptible, one moderately susceptible, and six exhibited a susceptible response. Nevertheless, 51 lines exhibited a high level of partial resistance while the three lines, NW-5-1212-1, NW-7-30-1, and NW-7-5 all showed a moderate level of partial resistance based on FRS, while 54 lines, on the basis of AURPC and rAURPC, were identified as conferring a high level of partial resistance. Moreover, adult plant resistance was conferred by 47 wheat lines, based on CI value. It was striking that, 13 immune lines

  10. Nutritive composition of soybean by-products and nutrient digestibility of soybean pod husk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sompong Sruamsiri

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Soybean by-products (soybean germ, soybean milk residue, soybean hull, soybean pod husk and soybean stem were subjected to proximate analysis, and in vitro digestibility of DM (IVDMD, ADF (IVADFD and NDF (IVNDFD were determined after digesting the by-products in buffered rumen fluid for 24 or 48 h in 2 ANKOMII Daisy Incubators using Completely Randomised Design. Four native cattle (body weight 210 + 13.5 kg were used to determine nutrient digestibility of soybean pod husk. They were randomly assigned by Cross-over Design to receive two roughage sources, i.e. guinea grass and guinea grass + soybean pod husk (60:40 DM basis, in two experimental periods. Guinea grass was harvested on the 35th day after the first cut of the year and used as green forage. Total collection method was used to determine the digestibility coefficients and digestibility by difference was used to calculate nutrient digestibility of soybean pod husk.The nutritive composition showed that soybean germ was highest in CP content (42.27% of DM and EE content (5.07% of DM but lowest in NDF and ADF content (20.09 and 21.53% of DM respectively. The average CP content of soybean straw, soybean stem and soybean pod husk was low (4.91, 4.67 and 5.04% respectively, while ADF content was high (42.76, 38.01 and 42.08% respectively. In vitro digestibility of DM (IVDMD, ADF (IVADFD and NDF (IVNDFD showed that all of them, except soybean stem, can be used as cattle feed, e.g. as supplemented feed or admixture in concentrate feed. Digestibility coefficients of guinea grass were higher in CP, CF and EE when compared to the other groups. The apparent digestibility of CP and CF were highly different (P0.05. The digestibility of nutrients (DM, OM, CP, CF, NFE, NDF and ADF of soybean pod husk were 53.81 + 4.3, 59.69 + 4.6, 42.38 + 3.8, 30.71 + 3.2, 50.74 + 4.3, 75.26 + 4.0, 45.78 + 3.7 and 30.53 + 4.2 % respectively. Soybean pod husk was higher in total digestible nutrients (TDN (51.87 + 3.3 vs

  11. Gene discovery in EST sequences from the wheat leaf rust fungus Puccinia triticina sexual spores, asexual spores and haustoria, compared to other rust and corn smut fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wynhoven Brian

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rust fungi are biotrophic basidiomycete plant pathogens that cause major diseases on plants and trees world-wide, affecting agriculture and forestry. Their biotrophic nature precludes many established molecular genetic manipulations and lines of research. The generation of genomic resources for these microbes is leading to novel insights into biology such as interactions with the hosts and guiding directions for breakthrough research in plant pathology. Results To support gene discovery and gene model verification in the genome of the wheat leaf rust fungus, Puccinia triticina (Pt, we have generated Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs by sampling several life cycle stages. We focused on several spore stages and isolated haustorial structures from infected wheat, generating 17,684 ESTs. We produced sequences from both the sexual (pycniospores, aeciospores and teliospores and asexual (germinated urediniospores stages of the life cycle. From pycniospores and aeciospores, produced by infecting the alternate host, meadow rue (Thalictrum speciosissimum, 4,869 and 1,292 reads were generated, respectively. We generated 3,703 ESTs from teliospores produced on the senescent primary wheat host. Finally, we generated 6,817 reads from haustoria isolated from infected wheat as well as 1,003 sequences from germinated urediniospores. Along with 25,558 previously generated ESTs, we compiled a database of 13,328 non-redundant sequences (4,506 singlets and 8,822 contigs. Fungal genes were predicted using the EST version of the self-training GeneMarkS algorithm. To refine the EST database, we compared EST sequences by BLASTN to a set of 454 pyrosequencing-generated contigs and Sanger BAC-end sequences derived both from the Pt genome, and to ESTs and genome reads from wheat. A collection of 6,308 fungal genes was identified and compared to sequences of the cereal rusts, Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici (Pgt and stripe rust, P. striiformis f. sp

  12. Stem rust (Puccinia graminis ssp. graminicola Urban its hosts and harmfulness in grasses grown for seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Prończuk

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Stem rust development on four species of grasses was studied in field experiments conducted at Radzików in 1997-2001. Population of Puccinia graminis ssp. graminicola from different hosts was characterised and their harmfulness for grass grown for seed was estimated. The materials for study were ecotypes and strains of Lolium perenne, Festuca rubra, Poa pratensis and Deschampsia caespitosa collected in breeding nursery and cultivars and strains of L.perenne, F.rubra, P.pratensis cultivated for seed. It was found that the changes in environmental conditions during last years influenced earlier occurrence of stem rust on grasses in Poland. All examined species were the host of P.graminis ssp. graminicola, however the period of infection of particular hosts were different. L.perenne and D.caespitosa were infected in early summer but F.rubra and P.pratensis in late summer or in the autumn. Morphological analysis of spores of P.graminis ssp. graminicola have shoved significant differences between populations obtained from L.perenne and D.caespitosa. Some differences were found between populations from F.rubra and P.pratensis also, but they need more study. Every year occurrence of stem rust on L.perenne and D.caespitosa and its relation with spring temperature in Radzików indicated that populations of patogen could overwinter in local turf. Incidental appearance of stem rust on F.rubra and P.pratensis in centre of Poland allowed to suppose that spores of these forms might be transfer by wind from other regions. The investigation revealed that stem rust can be dangerous for L.perenne grown for seed when infection occurs at flowering time. It has been established that infection of F.rubra and P.pratensis in autumn should not be disregarded. Damages of leaves by P.graminis ssp. graminicola substantially limited plant heading in the next year.

  13. Pushing the boundaries of resistance: insights from Brachypodium-rust interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melania eFigueroa

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The implications of global population growth urge transformation of current food and bioenergy production systems to sustainability. Members of the family Poaceae are of particular importance both in food security and for their applications as biofuel substrates. For centuries, rust fungi have threatened the production of valuable crops such as wheat, barley, oat and other small grains; similarly, biofuel crops can also be susceptible to these pathogens. Emerging rust pathogenic races with increased virulence and recurrent rust epidemics around the world point out the vulnerability of monocultures. Basic research in plant immunity, especially in model plants, can make contributions to understanding plant resistance mechanisms and improve disease management strategies. The development of the grass Brachypodium distachyon as a genetically tractable model for monocots, especially temperate cereals and grasses, offers the possibility to overcome the experimental challenges presented by the genetic and genomic complexities of economically valuable crop plants. The numerous resources and tools available in Brachypodium have opened new doors to investigate the underlying molecular and genetic bases of plant-microbe interactions in grasses and evidence demonstrating the applicability and advantages of working with B. distachyon is increasing. Importantly, several interactions between B. distachyon and devastating plant pathogens, such rust fungi, have been examined in the context of non-host resistance. Here, we discuss the use of B. distachyon in these various pathosystems. Exploiting B. distachyon to understand the mechanisms underpinning disease resistance to non-adapted rust fungi may provide effective and durable approaches to fend off these pathogens. The close phylogenetic relationship among Brachypodium spp. and grasses with industrial and agronomic value support harnessing this model plant to improve cropping systems and encourage its use in

  14. Resistance to recombinant stem rust race TPPKC in hard red spring wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klindworth, D L; Miller, J D; Williams, N D; Xu, S S

    2011-08-01

    The wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) stem rust (Puccinia graminis Pers.:Pers. f.sp. tritici Eriks. and Henn.) resistance gene SrWld1 conditions resistance to all North American stem rust races and is an important gene in hard red spring (HRS) wheat cultivars. A sexually recombined race having virulence to SrWld1 was isolated in the 1980s. Our objective was to determine the genetics of resistance to the race. The recombinant race was tested with the set of stem rust differentials and with a set of 36 HRS and 6 durum cultivars. Chromosomal location studies in cultivars Len, Coteau, and Stoa were completed using aneuploid analysis, molecular markers, and allelism tests. Stem rust differential tests coded the race as TPPKC, indicating it differed from TPMKC by having added virulence on Sr30 as well as SrWld1. Genes effective against TPPKC were Sr6, Sr9a, Sr9b, Sr13, Sr24, Sr31, and Sr38. Genetic studies of resistance to TPPKC indicated that Len, Coteau, and Stoa likely carried Sr9b, that Coteau and Stoa carried Sr6, and Stoa carried Sr24. Tests of HRS and durum cultivars indicated that five HRS and one durum cultivar were susceptible to TPPKC. Susceptible HRS cultivars were postulated to have SrWld1 as their major stem rust resistance gene. Divide, the susceptible durum cultivar, was postulated to lack Sr13. We concluded that although TPPKC does not constitute a threat similar to TTKSK and its variants, some cultivars would be lost from production if TPPKC became established in the field.

  15. Southeast Asian Refugee Parent Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakely, Mary M.

    This paper summarizes the findings of a descriptive research project conducted among Southeast Asian parents in an Oregon school district, and discusses the issue of fieldwork methodology among refugee populations. The district studied had a student population of 18,000 (kindergarten through grade 12), with Southeast Asian refugees accounting for…

  16. Additional Resources on Asian Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Corinne Maekawa; Lee, Sunny; Liang, Christopher T. H.; Alvarez, Alvin N.; McEwen, Marylu K.

    2002-01-01

    The authors identify Asian American associations and organizations, academic journals, periodicals, and media resources. Selected annotated resources on Asian American activism and politics, counseling and psychology, educational issues, gender and sexual orientation, history, policy reports, and racial and ethnic identity are also included.…

  17. The Asian Newspaper's Reluctant Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lent, John A., Ed.

    This book is composed of 19 articles written by both Asian and American scholars on the history and present conditions of newspapers in 15 Asian nations: China, Hong Kong, Japan, Korea, Taiwan, Australia, Burma, Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore, the Philippines, Thailand, South Vietnam, Ceylon, India, and Pakistan. Two overviews of the Asian…

  18. Analysis of soybean seed proteins using proteomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    This editorial elaborates on investigations consisting of different proteomics technologies and their application to biological sciences. In addition, different classes of soybean seed proteins are discussed. This information will be useful to scientists in obtaining a greater understanding of the...

  19. Mycoflora of Soybeans Used for Meju Fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Dae-Ho; Kim, Seon-Hwa; Kwon, Soon-Wo; Lee, Jong-Kyu; Hong, Seung-Beom

    2013-01-01

    Diverse fungi are present in Korean traditional meju and they are known to play an important role in fermented soybean products. To determine the origin of the fungi in meju, we examined the mycoflora of soybeans from 10 traditional meju factories. The samples were untreated or treated with sodium hypochlorite, and placed on malt extract agar (MEA), dichloran 18% glycerol agar (DG18), and dichloran rose bengal chloramphenicol agar (DRBC) medium. A total of 794 fungal strains were isolated and...

  20. Biological control of yellow rust of wheat (Puccinia striiformis) with Serenade®ASO (Bacillus subtilis strain QST713)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reiss, Antje; Jørgensen, Lise Nistrup

    2017-01-01

    Yellow rust (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici) is an important disease in wheat causing significant yield reductions, if not effectively controlled. The biofungicide Bacillus subtilis strain QST 713 suspension concentrate (Serenade®ASO) was investigated for its potential for yellow rust control...... in winter wheat field trials. Serenade®ASO reduced severity of yellow rust significantly, providing up to 60% control at BBCH growth stage 65–69, under moderate disease pressure. Under high disease pressure reductions were more variable and provided less than 30% control. An increase in the number......®ASO at three dose rates. This trial confirmed the lack of a clear dose response but showed that timing had a major impact on control, with the best control obtained at the day of inoculation. This study revealed that Serenade®ASO cannot stand alone in the control of yellow rust. More research is needed...

  1. Soybean in China: adaptating to the liberalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamet Jean-Paul

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Since 1978 and its opening, China has undergone a process of nutrition transition, animal products taking an increasing share. Anxious to ensure a certain level of food independence, Chinese authorities have developed national livestock production. The increase in volumes and the development of large scale breeding have increased the demand for commercial feed and thus soymeal. Meanwhile, edible oil consumption rose sharply, accentuating the demand for soybeans. To meet this demand, soybean imports were liberalized early, leading the country to become heavily dependent. China has indeed made the choice to maintain its independence in cereals at the expense of other grains, such as soybeans. Competition between corn and soybeans has turned in favor of the cereal, soybean production levelling off then regressing. China’s dependence extends to the crushing sector, controlled by foreign companies. Public supports in place, such as minimum prices, have resulted in increasing the price gap with imported products, leading to a reform of soybean policy in 2014.

  2. Chemical modification of soybean oil for lubricant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan Shijie; Mao Zongqiang [Tsinghua Univ., INET, BJ (China)

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents a series of structural modifications of soybean oils for lubricant. The reaction was monitored and products were confirmed by NMR and FTIR. The structural modification is carried out in four stages, (1) synthesis of soybean oil isooctyl ester from soybean oil; (2) synthesis of epoxy-soybean oil isooctyl ester from soybean oil isooctyl ester; (3) synthesis of hydroxylated products from epoxy soybean oil isooctyl ester with fatty acid; (4) esterification of the hydroxylated product with anhydride. Rheological behaviour of the products was measured. Pour points of the products (3) were observed as low as -24 C (lauric acid) and -15 C (isooctanoic acid) respectively. When the hydroxyl groups in the products were esterified with and acid anhydride, the pour points were became higher, which were -21 C (lauric acid) and -6 C (isooctanoic acid) without pour point depressant, and -27 C (lauric acid) and -24 C (isooctanoic acid) with 1% of pour point depressant respectively. The products have suitable viscosity and viscosity index, and the viscosity indices are all above 100. (orig.)

  3. Soybean growth and yield under cover crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila de Oliveira

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of cover crops in no-tillage systems can provide better conditions for the development of soybean plants with positive effects on grain yield and growth analysis techniques allow researchers to characterize and understand the behavior of soybean plants under different straw covers. Thus, the aim of this study was to characterize, using growth analysis, yield components and agronomic performance of soybean under common bean, Brachiaria brizantha and pearl millet straws. The experiment was performed on a soil under cerrado in the municipality of Santo Antônio de Goiás, GO. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design with three treatments (cover crops and five replications. Soybean grain yield was lower in the B. brizantha straw treatment (3,708 kg ha-1 than both in the pearl millet (4.772 kg ha-1 and common bean straw treatments (5,200 kg ha-1. The soybean growth analysis in B. brizantha, pearl millet and common bean allowed characterizing the variation in the production of dry matter of leaves, stems, pods and total and leaf area index that provided different grain yields. The cover crop directly affects the soybean grain yield.

  4. Control of virus diseases in soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, John H; Whitham, Steven A

    2014-01-01

    Soybean, one of the world's most important sources of animal feed and vegetable oil, can be infected by numerous viruses. However, only a small number of the viruses that can potentially infect soybean are considered as major economic problems to soybean production. Therefore, we consider management options available to control diseases caused by eight viruses that cause, or have the potential to cause, significant economic loss to producers. We summarize management tactics in use and suggest direction for the future. Clearly, the most important tactic is disease resistance. Several resistance genes are available for three of the eight viruses discussed. Other options include use of virus-free seed and avoidance of alternative virus hosts when planting. Attempts at arthropod vector control have generally not provided consistent disease management. In the future, disease management will be considerably enhanced by knowledge of the interaction between soybean and viral proteins. Identification of genes required for soybean defense may represent key regulatory hubs that will enhance or broaden the spectrum of basal resistance to viruses. It may be possible to create new recessive or dominant negative alleles of host proteins that do not support viral functions but perform normal cellular function. The future approach to virus control based on gene editing or exploiting allelic diversity points to necessary research into soybean-virus interactions. This will help to generate the knowledge needed for rational design of durable resistance that will maximize global production.

  5. Tagging and mapping of SSR marker for rust resistance gene in lentil (Lens culinaris Medikus subsp. culinaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikshit, H K; Singh, Akanksha; Singh, D; Aski, M; Jain, Neelu; Hegde, V S; Basandrai, A K; Basandrai, D; Sharma, T R

    2016-06-01

    Lentil, as an economical source of protein, minerals and vitamins, plays important role in nutritional security of the common man. Grown mainly in West Asia, North Africa (WANA) region and South Asia, it suffers from several biotic stresses such as wilt, rust, blight and broomrape. Lentil rust caused by autoecious fungus Uromyces viciae fabae (Pers.) Schroet is a serious lentil disease in Algeria, Bangladesh, Ethiopia, India, Italy, Morocco, Pakistan and Nepal. The disease symptoms are observed during flowering and early podding stages. Rust causes severe yield losses in lentil. It can only be effectively controlled by identifying the resistant source, understanding its inheritance and breeding for host resistance. The obligate parasitic nature of pathogen makes it difficult to maintain the pathogen in culture and to apply it to screen segregating progenies under controlled growth conditions. Hence, the use of molecular markers will compliment in identification of resistant types in different breeding programs. Here, we studied the inheritance of resistance to rust in lentil using F₁, F₂ and F₂:₃ from cross PL 8 (susceptible) x L 4149 (resistant) varieties. The phenotyping of lentil population was carried out at Sirmour, India. The result of genetic analysis revealed that a single dominant gene controls rust resistance in lentil genotype L 4149. The F2 population from this cross was used to tag and map the rust resistance gene using SSR and SRAP markers. Markers such as 270 SRAP and 162 SSR were studied for polymorphism and 101 SRAP and 33 SSRs were found to be polymorphic between the parents. Two SRAP and two SSR markers differentiated the resistant and susceptible bulks. SSR marker Gllc 527 was estimated to be linked to rust resistant locus at a distance of 5.9 cM. The Gllc 527 marker can be used for marker assisted selection for rust resistance; however, additional markers closer to rust resistant locus are required. The markers linked to the rust

  6. The Confucian Asian cluster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionel Sergiu Pirju

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Confucian Asian cluster consists of China, Hong Kong, Japan, Singapore, South Korea, and Taiwan. Confucian tradition countries were defined by achieving a consistent performance in the global economy, they still representing the major competitors in the EU and North American countries. Their progress is defined by a great national management that was able to influence beneficial management systems applied in organizations, these rules characterized by authority; aims to ensure the confidence in business. This article will present the intercultural values characterizing it, the leadership style and also tracing major macroeconomic considerations. The research is synchronic, analysing the contemporary situation of these countries, and the analysis will be interdisciplinary exploratory, identifying specific regional cultural elements.

  7. Infestation ratings database for soybean aphid on early-maturity wild soybean lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura; SA) is a major invasive pest of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] in northern production regions of North America. Although insecticides are currently the main method for controlling this pest, SA-resistant cultivars are being developed to sustainably manage ...

  8. Identificatoin and confirmation of resistance against soybean aphid (Aphis glycines) in eight wild soybean lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    The development and use of aphid-resistant soybean (Glycine max) cultivars has been complicated by the presence of multiple virulent biotypes of the soybean aphid (SA, Aphis glycines Matsumura). Ultimately, a variety of unique resistance sources may be needed to develop cultivars with a broad spectr...

  9. Rust Layer Formed on Low Carbon Weathering Steels with Different Mn, Ni Contents in Environment Containing Chloride Ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gui-qin FU

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The rusting evolution of low carbon weathering steels with different Mn, Ni contents under a simulated environment containing chloride ions has been investigated to clarify the correlation between Mn, Ni and the rust formed on steels. The results show that Mn contents have little impact on corrosion kinetics of experimental steels. Content increase of Ni both enhances the anti-corrosion performance of steel substrate and the rust. Increasing Ni content is beneficial to forming compact rust. Semi-quantitative XRD phase analysis shows that the quantity ratio of α/γ*(α-FeOOH/(γ-FeOOH+Fe3O4 decreases as Mn content increases but it increases as Ni content increases. Ni enhances rust layer stability but Mn content exceeding 1.06 wt.% is disadvantageous for rust layer stability. The content increase of Mn does not significantly alter the parameters of the polarization curve. However, as Ni contents increases, Ecorr has shifted to the positive along with decreased icorr values indicating smaller corrosion rate especially as Ni content increases from 0.42 wt.% to 1.50 wt.%.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.22.4.12844

  10. [Identification and classification of disease severity of wheat stripe rust using near infrared spectroscopy technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-long; Qin, Feng; Zhao, Long-lian; Li, Jun-hui; Ma, Zhan-hong; Wang, Hai-guang

    2015-02-01

    Wheat stripe rust caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, is an economically important disease in the world. It is of great significance to assess disease severity of wheat stripe rust quickly and accurately for monitoring and controlling the disease. In this study, wheat leaves infected with stripe rust pathogen under different severity levels were acquired through artificial inoculation in artificial climate chamber. Thirty wheat leaves with disease severity equal to 1%, 5%, 10%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% or 100% were picked out, respectively, and 30 healthy leaves were chosen as controls. A total of 270 wheat leaves were obtained and then their near infrared spectra were measured using MPA spectrometer. According to disease severity levels, 270 near infrared spectra were divided into 9 categories and each category included 30 spectra. From each category, 7 or 8 spectra were randomly chosen to make up the testing set that included 67 spectra. The remaining spectra were treated as the training set. A qualitative model for identification and classification of disease severity of wheat stripe rust was built using near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) technology combined with discriminant partial least squares (DPLS). The effects of different preprocessing methods of obtained spectra, ratios between training sets and testing sets, and spectral ranges on qualitative recognition results of the model were investigated. The optimal model based on DPLS was built using cross verification method in the spectral region of 4000-9000 cm(-1) when "centralization" was used as the preprocessing method of spectra and the spectra were divided into the training set and the testing set with the ratio equal to 3:1. Accuracy rate of the training set was 95.57% and accuracy rate of the testing set was 97.01%. The results showed that good recognition performance could be acquired using the model based on DPLS. The results indicated that the method using near infrared reflectance

  11. Kinetics of structural rust transformation in environments containing chloride and SO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valencia, A.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The behavior of the rusts produced on low carbon steel exposed in industrial atmospheres, at different distances from the sea, was studied by simulating the wetting-drying cycle in a CEBELCOR type apparatus. Coupons electrode potential was monitored and rust layer was analyzed by gravimetric techniques, optical microscopy and Mössbauer spectroscopy. A particular chloride/sulfur ratio in the atmosphere was found, for which there is a particular behavior in rust formation. For this ratio, corrosion rates were much less than expected. It is postulated a kinetic mechanism for rust layer formation as the origin of this special behavior. An electrode potential similar to that in a weathering steel was observed, this is reflected in the low corrosion rate obtained. The proposed kinetic mechanism for rust formation under these exposure conditions enables new research lines on layer formation and the development of protective rust for industrial marine atmospheres.Se estudió el comportamiento de las herrumbres de un acero de bajo carbono expuesto en la simulación de atmósferas industriales con diferentes distancias al mar, con del ciclo de humectación y secado en el ensayo CEBELCOR y en soluciones representativas de las atmósferas en cuestión. Se hizo seguimiento del potencial de electrodo de los cuerpos de prueba y se analizó la capa de productos de corrosión por técnicas gravimétricas, microscopía óptica y espectroscopia Mössbauer. Se determinó un valor de cloruros y sulfatos en la atmósfera que genera un comportamiento particular en la formación de la herrumbre, presentando velocidades de corrosión menores a las esperadas para el tenor de agentes agresivos, y se postuló un mecanismo cinético en la formación de la película como causante del fenómeno particular. Se observó un comportamiento del potencial próximo al de un acero autoprotector, que se refleja en una menor velocidad de corrosión. La propuesta del mecanismo cin

  12. Soybean aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) response to soybean plant defense: stress levels, tradeoffs, and cross-virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enders, Laramy; Bickel, Ryan; Brisson, Jennifer; Heng-Moss, Tiffany; Siegfried, Blair; Zera, Anthony; Miller, Nick

    2014-02-01

    A variety of management methods to control the soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) have been investigated since its invasion into North America in 2000, among them plant resistance has emerged as a viable option for reducing aphid damage to soybeans and preventing outbreaks. Plant resistance methods often use natural soybean plant defenses that impose stress on aphids by reducing fitness and altering behavior. Research efforts have heavily focused on identification and development of aphid resistant soybean varieties, leaving much unknown about soybean aphid response to stressful host plant defenses. In this study, we aimed to 1) evaluate lifetime fitness consequences and phenotypic variation in response to host plant-induced stress and 2) investigate whether trade-offs involving fitness costs and/or cross-virulence to multiple antibiotic soybean varieties exists. We compared aphid survival and reproduction during and after a short period of exposure to soybeans with the Rag2 resistance gene and measured aphid clonal variation in response to Rag2 soybeans. In addition, we measured the performance of Rag2 virulent and avirulent aphids on five soybean varieties with various forms of antibiotic resistance. Our results indicate that plant defenses impose high levels of stress and have long-term fitness consequences, even after aphids are removed from resistant plants. We identified one aphid clone that was able to colonize Rag2 among the seven clones tested, suggesting that virulent genotypes may be prevalent in natural populations. Finally, although we did not find evidence of cross-virulence to multiple antibiotic soybean varieties, our results suggest independent mechanisms of aphid virulence to Rag1 and Rag2 that may involve fitness costs.

  13. Racism and Asian American Student Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jennifer Y.

    2014-01-01

    This article provides a theoretical analysis and ethnographic account of Asian American student leadership in higher education. Existing literature highlights Asian and Asian American leadership styles as cultural differences. I shift the analysis from culture to racism in order to work toward a more socially just conception of Asian American…

  14. Lupus among Asians and Hispanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Emails Lupus among Asians and Hispanics Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... compared with white women. Signs and Symptom of Lupus Lupus can affect people of all ages. However, ...

  15. Asian American Health - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Asian American Health URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/asianamericanhealth.html Other topics A-Z Expand Section ...

  16. Evaluating the Allergic Risk of Genetically Modified Soybean

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kim, Sang-Ha; Kim, Hyun-Mi; Ye, Young-Min; Kim, Seung-Hyun; Nahm, Dong-Ho; Park, Hae-Sim; Ryu, Sang-Ryeol; Lee, Bou-Oung

    2006-01-01

    .... In order to assess whether genetic modification increases the allergenic risk of soybeans, the allergenicity and IgE-reactive components of wild-type and GM soybean extracts were compared in allergic...

  17. Benefits of Neonicotinoid Seed Treatments to Soybean Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read about EPA’s analysis of use of the neonicotinoid seed treatments for insect control in U.S. soybean production. EPA concludes that these seed treatments provide little or no overall benefits to soybean production in most situations.

  18. ENERGY AND FERTILIZATION VALUE OF SOYBEAN RESIDUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darko Kiš

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to determine the quantity and calorific value of biomass of the varieties investigated as well as the amount of nutrients in plowed biomass. Soybean varieties in the research were:“Tisa”, “Podravka”, Neoplanta”, “Ika” and “Vita”. Average yield of all examined soybean varieties was 3.06 t/ha. By using 80% soybean straw the best results showed variety Tisa with 48.97 GJ/ha or it is substitute for 1375.19 Nm3/ha of natural gas or 1194 t/ha of oil fuel. They are followed by Tisa, Neoplanta, Podravka, Ika and Vita. These are huge amounts of energy that can be used for soybean drying process and it can be used as energy source for other uses. The estimated fertilization value of harvest soybean leftovers are in the same level as fresh ow or horse manure. Namely, it represents 40% of fertilization value of composted farm manure.

  19. Genome Sequence of the Palaeopolyploid soybean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmutz, Jeremy; Cannon, Steven B.; Schlueter, Jessica; Ma, Jianxin; Mitros, Therese; Nelson, William; Hyten, David L.; Song, Qijian; Thelen, Jay J.; Cheng, Jianlin; Xu, Dong; Hellsten, Uffe; May, Gregory D.; Yu, Yeisoo; Sakura, Tetsuya; Umezawa, Taishi; Bhattacharyya, Madan K.; Sandhu, Devinder; Valliyodan, Babu; Lindquist, Erika; Peto, Myron; Grant, David; Shu, Shengqiang; Goodstein, David; Barry, Kerrie; Futrell-Griggs, Montona; Abernathy, Brian; Du, Jianchang; Tian, Zhixi; Zhu, Liucun; Gill, Navdeep; Joshi, Trupti; Libault, Marc; Sethuraman, Anand; Zhang, Xue-Cheng; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Nguyen, Henry T.; Wing, Rod A.; Cregan, Perry; Specht, James; Grimwood, Jane; Rokhsar, Dan; Stacey, Gary; Shoemaker, Randy C.; Jackson, Scott A.

    2009-08-03

    Soybean (Glycine max) is one of the most important crop plants for seed protein and oil content, and for its capacity to fix atmospheric nitrogen through symbioses with soil-borne microorganisms. We sequenced the 1.1-gigabase genome by a whole-genome shotgun approach and integrated it with physical and high-density genetic maps to create a chromosome-scale draft sequence assembly. We predict 46,430 protein-coding genes, 70percent more than Arabidopsis and similar to the poplar genome which, like soybean, is an ancient polyploid (palaeopolyploid). About 78percent of the predicted genes occur in chromosome ends, which comprise less than one-half of the genome but account for nearly all of the genetic recombination. Genome duplications occurred at approximately 59 and 13 million years ago, resulting in a highly duplicated genome with nearly 75percent of the genes present in multiple copies. The two duplication events were followed by gene diversification and loss, and numerous chromosome rearrangements. An accurate soybean genome sequence will facilitate the identification of the genetic basis of many soybean traits, and accelerate the creation of improved soybean varieties.

  20. Soil compaction and fertilization in soybean productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beutler Amauri Nelson

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil compaction and fertilization affect soybean development. This study evaluated the effects of soil compaction and fertilization on soybean (Glycine max cv. Embrapa 48 productivity in a Typic Haplustox under field conditions in Jaboticabal, SP, Brazil. A completely randomized design with a 5 x 2 factorial layout (compaction vs. fertilization, with four replications in each treatment, was employed. Each experimental unit (replicate consisted of a 3.6 m² useful area. After the soil was prepared by cultivation, an 11 Mg tractor passed over it a variable number of times to create five levels of compaction. Treatments were: T0= no compaction, T1= one tractor pass, T2= two, T4= four, and T6= six passes, and no fertilizer and fertilizer to give soybean yields of 2.5 to 2.9 Mg ha-1. Soil was sampled at depths of 0.02-0.05, 0.07-0.10, and 0.15-0.18 m to determine macro and microporosity, penetration resistance (PR, and bulk density (Db. After 120 days growing under these conditions, the plants were analyzed in terms of development (plant height, number of pods, shoot dry matter per plant and weight of 100 seeds and seed productivity per hectare. Soil compaction decreased soybean development and productivity, but this effect was decreased by soil fertilization, showing that such fertilization increased soybean tolerance to soil compaction.

  1. Bounds for Asian basket options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deelstra, Griselda; Diallo, Ibrahima; Vanmaele, Michèle

    2008-09-01

    In this paper we propose pricing bounds for European-style discrete arithmetic Asian basket options in a Black and Scholes framework. We start from methods used for basket options and Asian options. First, we use the general approach for deriving upper and lower bounds for stop-loss premia of sums of non-independent random variables as in Kaas et al. [Upper and lower bounds for sums of random variables, Insurance Math. Econom. 27 (2000) 151-168] or Dhaene et al. [The concept of comonotonicity in actuarial science and finance: theory, Insurance Math. Econom. 31(1) (2002) 3-33]. We generalize the methods in Deelstra et al. [Pricing of arithmetic basket options by conditioning, Insurance Math. Econom. 34 (2004) 55-57] and Vanmaele et al. [Bounds for the price of discrete sampled arithmetic Asian options, J. Comput. Appl. Math. 185(1) (2006) 51-90]. Afterwards we show how to derive an analytical closed-form expression for a lower bound in the non-comonotonic case. Finally, we derive upper bounds for Asian basket options by applying techniques as in Thompson [Fast narrow bounds on the value of Asian options, Working Paper, University of Cambridge, 1999] and Lord [Partially exact and bounded approximations for arithmetic Asian options, J. Comput. Finance 10 (2) (2006) 1-52]. Numerical results are included and on the basis of our numerical tests, we explain which method we recommend depending on moneyness and time-to-maturity.

  2. IPR 107 – Dwarf arabic coffee cultivar with resistance to coffee leaf rust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tumoru Sera

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available ‘IPR 107’ was derived from a cross between ‘IAPAR 59’ and ‘Mundo Novo IAC 376-4’. ‘IPR 107’ is a dwarf medium sizeplant with medium precocity in ripening and with complete resistance to rust races in this time. This cultivar presents superior qualityand high yield in many coffee regions.

  3. Major transcriptome reprogramming underlies floral mimicry induced by the rust fungus Puccinia monoica in Boechera stricta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana M Cano

    Full Text Available Pucciniamonoica is a spectacular plant parasitic rust fungus that triggers the formation of flower-like structures (pseudoflowers in its Brassicaceae host plant Boecherastricta. Pseudoflowers mimic in shape, color, nectar and scent co-occurring and unrelated flowers such as buttercups. They act to attract insects thereby aiding spore dispersal and sexual reproduction of the rust fungus. Although much ecological research has been performed on P. monoica-induced pseudoflowers, this system has yet to be investigated at the molecular or genomic level. To date, the molecular alterations underlying the development of pseudoflowers and the genes involved have not been described. To address this, we performed gene expression profiling to reveal 256 plant biological processes that are significantly altered in pseudoflowers. Among these biological processes, plant genes involved in cell fate specification, regulation of transcription, reproduction, floral organ development, anthocyanin (major floral pigments and terpenoid biosynthesis (major floral volatile compounds were down-regulated in pseudoflowers. In contrast, plant genes involved in shoot, cotyledon and leaf development, carbohydrate transport, wax biosynthesis, cutin transport and L-phenylalanine metabolism (pathway that results in phenylethanol and phenylacetaldehyde volatile production were up-regulated. These findings point to an extensive reprogramming of host genes by the rust pathogen to induce floral mimicry. We also highlight 31 differentially regulated plant genes that are enriched in the biological processes mentioned above, and are potentially involved in the formation of pseudoflowers. This work illustrates the complex perturbations induced by rust pathogens in their host plants, and provides a starting point for understanding the molecular mechanisms of pathogen-induced floral mimicry.

  4. Mapping genes for resistance to stripe rust in spring wheat landrace PI 480035.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinita Sthapit Kandel

    Full Text Available Stripe rust caused by Puccinia striiformis Westend. f. sp. tritici Erikks. is an economically important disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.. Hexaploid spring wheat landrace PI 480035 was highly resistant to stripe rust in the field in Washington during 2011 and 2012. The objective of this research was to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL for stripe rust resistance in PI 480035. A spring wheat, "Avocet Susceptible" (AvS, was crossed with PI 480035 to develop a biparental population of 110 recombinant inbred lines (RIL. The population was evaluated in the field in 2013 and 2014 and seedling reactions were examined against three races (PSTv-14, PSTv-37, and PSTv-40 of the pathogen under controlled conditions. The population was genotyped with genotyping-by-sequencing and microsatellite markers across the whole wheat genome. A major QTL, QYr.wrsggl1-1BS was identified on chromosome 1B. The closest flanking markers were Xgwm273, Xgwm11, and Xbarc187 1.01 cM distal to QYr.wrsggl1-1BS, Xcfd59 0.59 cM proximal and XA365 3.19 cM proximal to QYr.wrsggl1-1BS. Another QTL, QYr.wrsggl1-3B, was identified on 3B, which was significant only for PSTv-40 and was not significant in the field, indicating it confers a race-specific resistance. Comparison with markers associated with previously reported Yr genes on 1B (Yr64, Yr65, and YrH52 indicated that QYr.wrsggl1-1BS is potentially a novel stripe rust resistance gene that can be incorporated into modern breeding materials, along with other all-stage and adult-plant resistance genes to develop cultivars that can provide durable resistance.

  5. Characterization of non-host resistance in broad bean to the wheat stripe rust pathogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Yulin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-host resistance (NHR confers plant species immunity against the majority of microbial pathogens and represents the most robust and durable form of plant resistance in nature. As one of the main genera of rust fungi with economic and biological importance, Puccinia infects almost all cereals but is unable to cause diseases on legumes. Little is known about the mechanism of this kind of effective defense in legumes to these non-host pathogens. Results In this study, the basis of NHR in broad bean (Vicia faba L. against the wheat stripe rust pathogen, Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst, was characterized. No visible symptoms were observed on broad bean leaves inoculated with Pst. Microscopic observations showed that successful location of stomata and haustoria formation were significantly reduced in Pst infection of broad bean. Attempted infection induced the formation of papillae, cell wall thickening, production of reactive oxygen species, callose deposition and accumulation of phenolic compounds in plant cell walls. The few Pst haustoria that did form in broad bean cells were encased in reactive oxygen and callose materials and those cells elicited cell death. Furthermore, a total of seven defense-related genes were identified and found to be up-regulated during the Pst infection. Conclusions The results indicate that NHR in broad bean against Pst results from a continuum of layered defenses, including basic incompatibility, structural and chemical strengthening of cell wall, posthaustorial hypersensitive response and induction of several defense-related genes, demonstrating the multi-layered feature of NHR. This work also provides useful information for further determination of resistance mechanisms in broad bean to rust fungi, especially the adapted important broad bean rust pathogen, Uromyces viciae-fabae, because of strong similarity and association between NHR of plants to unadapted pathogens and basal

  6. Host specificity and genetic differentiation of Melampsora epitea (rust on willows)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurtado Pasten, Sergio [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Plant Pathology and Biocontrol Unit

    2001-07-01

    Rust caused by Melampsora epitea is considered the most serious and widespread disease on willows. When severe, rust can defoliate willows prematurely leading to serious yield losses and rootstock death. Studying the infection process, we found that M. epitea requires no specific recognition signals to germinate, grow, or penetrate the host stomata, regardless of whether interaction with the host plant is compatible or incompatible; instead, plant defense mechanisms are determined by substomatal events. Isolates of the Swedish rust population were classified (pathotyped) by their virulence patterns on a standard set of willow clones (willow differential). Thirty-seven pathotypes of M. epitea were identified and grouped into three formae speciales. For global monitoring of the virulence of M. epitea, an internationally useful naming system was proposed. Partly to confirm the value of such a naming system, the pathotype compositions of two distant M. epitea populations (from Sweden and Chile) were compared using the willow differential. The results indicated that long-distance inocula exchange likely plays an active role in the population dynamics and evolution of pathotype structure for M. epitea. To study the genetics underlying pathotype dynamics, molecular tools, such as AFLP, were used. The resulting dendrogram revealed no clustering based on geographic origin, and because geographic distance among pathogen populations correlated poorly with genetic distance, apparently geographically distant populations have developed collectively as a metapopulation instead of separately. However, the result shows that M. epitea has high levels of gene and genotypic variation within populations, which is consistent with the occurrence of sexual reproduction. The low between-population variation, despite variation in local selection pressures, accords with massive long-distance migration of rust spores.

  7. First report of the white pine blister rust pathogen, Cronartium ribicola, in Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. L. Fairweather; Brian Geils

    2011-01-01

    White pine blister rust, caused by Cronartium ribicola J.C. Fisch., was found on southwestern white pine (Pinus flexilis James var. reflexa Engelm., synonym P. strobiformis Engelm.) near Hawley Lake, Arizona (Apache County, White Mountains, 34.024°N, 109.776°W, elevation 2,357 m) in April 2009. Although white pines in the Southwest (Arizona and New Mexico) have been...

  8. A simulation model for epidemics of stem rust in ryegrass seed crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfender, W F; Upper, D

    2015-01-01

    A simulation model (STEMRUST_G, named for stem rust of grasses) was created for stem rust (caused by Puccinia graminis subsp. graminicola) in perennial ryegrass grown to maturity as a seed crop. The model has a daily time step and is driven by weather data and an initial input of disease severity from field observation. Key aspects of plant growth are modeled. Disease severity is modeled as rust population growth, where individuals are pathogen colonies (pustules) grouped in cohorts defined by date of initiation and plant part infected. Infections due to either aerial spread or within-plant contact spread are modeled. Pathogen cohorts progress through life stages that are modeled as disease cycle components (colony establishment, latent period, infectious period, and sporulation) affected by daily weather variables, plant growth, and fungicide application. Fungicide effects on disease cycle components are modeled for two commonly used active ingredients, applied preinfection or postinfection. Previously validated submodels for certain disease cycle components formed the framework for integrating additional processes, and the complete model was calibrated with field data from 10 stem rust epidemics. Discrepancies between modeled outcomes and the calibration data (log10[modeled]-log10[observed]) had a mean near zero but considerable variance, with 1 standard deviation=0.5 log10 units (3.2-fold). It appears that a large proportion of the modeling error variance may be due to variability in field observations of disease severity. An action threshold for fungicide application was derived empirically, using a constructed weather input file favorable for disease development. The action threshold is a negative threshold, representing a level of disease (latent plus visible) below which damaging levels of disease are unable to develop before the yield-critical crop stage. The model is in the public domain and available on the Internet.

  9. Breeding for common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) rust resistance in Brazil.

    OpenAIRE

    SOUZA, T. L. P. O.; FALEIRO, F. G.; DESSAUNE, S. N.; PAULA JUNIOR, T. J. de; MOREIRA, M. A.; E. G. BARROS

    2013-01-01

    Common bean is an economically, nutritionally, and socially important crop. It is grown in distinct regions and different seasons around the world by subsistence level farmers with low-technology input as well as by farmers that use high input technologies. One important factor that can limit the bean growing and drastically affect grain yields is the high number of destructive pathogens that attack and cause serious damage to the crop. Among them is bean rust, incited by the fungus Uromyces ...

  10. Modeling distribution and abundance of soybean aphid in soybean fields using measurements from the surrounding landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahlai, C A; Sikkema, S; Hallett, R H; Newman, J; Schaafsma, A W

    2010-02-01

    Soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) is a severe pest of soybean in central North America. Outbreaks of the aphid in Ontario are often spotty in distribution, with some geographical areas affected severely and others with few or no aphid populations occurring in soybean for the duration of the season. A. glycines spend summers on soybean and overwinter on buckthorn, a shrub that is widespread in southern Ontario and is commonly found in agricultural hedgerows and at the margins of woodlots. A. glycines likely use both short distance migratory flights from buckthorn and longer distance dispersal flights in the search for acceptable summer hosts. This study aims to model colonization of soybean fields by A. glycines engaged in early-season migration from overwintering hosts. Akaike's information criterion (AIC) was used to rank numerous competing linear and probit models using field parameters to predict aphid presence, colonization, and density. The variable that best modeled aphid density in soybean fields in the early season was the ratio of buckthorn density to field area, although dramatic differences in relationships between the parameters were observed between study years. This study has important applications in predicting areas that are at elevated risk of developing economically damaging populations of soybean aphid and which may act as sources for further infestation.

  11. Rape: an Asian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadesan, K

    2001-06-01

    Rape is one of the fastest growing violent crimes in many parts of the world. Rape laws have been amended in most countries in an attempt to cope with the proliferation of this crime. Even though the legal definition of rape and the procedural laws have been amended, rape remains a serious problem in both the developed and developing nations. In some countries the offence of rape carries severe punishment sometimes even the death sentence. In many jurisdictions the term 'sexual penetration' is being used instead of 'sexual intercourse'. Sexual penetration includes sexual intercourse, anal intercourse, cunnilingus, fellatio or any other intrusions involving any part of a human body or of any object into the genital or anal opening of a person's body. In many countries rape and other sexual offences have been replaced with a series of gender neutral and graded offences with appropriate punishments. Medical examination can provide independent, scientific, corroborative evidence that may be of value to the court in arriving at a judgement. Doctors should have a clear understanding of different rape laws in order to apprectiate the various issues involved. Special knowledge, skill and experience are essential to conduct a good-quality medical examination. There is a dearth of trained forensic physicians in many Asian countries. However, managing a rape victim (survivor) goes for beyond proving the case in a court of law. There should be an adequate rehabilitation programme available to the victims to help them cope.

  12. Effector-mining in the poplar rust fungus Melampsora larici populina secretome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecile eLorrain

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The poplar leaf rust fungus, Melampsora larici-populina has been established as a tree-microbe interaction model. Understanding the molecular mechanisms controlling infection by pathogens appears essential for durable management of tree plantations. In biotrophic plant parasites, effectors are known to condition host cell colonization. Thus, investigation of candidate secreted effector proteins is a major goal in the poplar-poplar rust interaction. Unlike oomycetes, fungal effectors do not share conserved motifs and candidate prediction relies on a set of a priori criteria established from reported bona fide effectors. Secretome prediction, genome-wide analysis of gene families and transcriptomics of M. larici-populina have led to catalogues of more than a thousand secreted proteins. Automatized effector mining pipelines hold great promise for rapid and systematic identification and prioritization of candidate secreted effector proteins for functional characterization. In this review, we report on and discuss the current status of the poplar rust fungus secretome and prediction of candidate effectors in this species.

  13. Occurrence of Rust on Peucedanum japonicum Caused by Puccinia jogashimensis in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sug-Ju Ko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available During July to November 2014, severe rust infection was consistently found on Peucedanum japonicum growing farm in Yeosu, Korea. The rust was observed mainly on lower leaf surfaces. Symptoms of typical plants included yellow-orange rust pustules were observed on the petiole and leaf surface with small yellowish to chlorotic lesions on the upper surface. No symptom was observed on flowers. Uredinia were occurred amphigenous on leaf surface, and occasionally caulicolous, scattered or loosely aggregate, rounded to oblong, 0.4 to 4 mm in diameter, covered by epidermis, then naked, surrounded by ruptured epidermis, pulverulent, and brown. Urediniospores were ovate-ellipsoid, ellipsoid or subglobose, light brown, 20 to 45 ×15 to 35 µm, walls 2 to 4 µm thick. The resulting sequences were deposited in GenBank with accession No. KT778808, KT778809, and KT778810, respectively. Since this was the first accession of 28S sequence Puccinia jogashimensis, there was no exact match in GenBank nucleotide database. On the basis of the morphological characteristics and phylogenetic analyses of 28S rDNA, the fungus was identified as P. jogashimensis. To our knowledge, this is the first confirmed report on the occurrence of P. jogashimensis on P. japonicum in Korea.

  14. On the Analysis of the Moessbauer Spectra of the Rust Converted by Tannic and Phosphoric Acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrero, C. A. [Universidad de Antioquia, Grupo de Estado Solido, Instituto de Fisica (Colombia); Rios, J. F. [Universidad de Antioquia, Grupo de Corrosion y Proteccion, Facultad de Ingenierias (Colombia); Morales, A. L. [Universidad de Antioquia, Grupo de Estado Solido, Instituto de Fisica (Colombia); Bohorquez, A.; Perez-Alcazar, G. [Universidad del Valle, Grupo de Metalurgia Fisica y Transiciones de Fase, Departamento de Fisica (Colombia)

    2003-06-15

    In previous work, we reported results on the action of rust converters based on a mixture of tannic and phosphoric acids, upon the rust formed on mild steel coupons. There, the rust before and after the application of converters were characterized by room-temperature Moessbauer spectroscopy, among other techniques. The present work is an extension of this one, and additional MS at 77 K, 130 K and 300 K for some samples are presented. Special emphasis is given to the methodology of analysis. Our results confirm previous findings that an important portion of the magnetite remains without conversion. New information was also derived: (i) the converters seem to affect more the magnetite octahedral (B) than the tetrahedral (A) sites; (ii) among the magnetite B sites, the Fe{sup 2+} is the most affected; (iii) at least 31% of magnetic goethite at 77 K is transformed by the converter; and (iv) the presence of an additional phase identified as ferrous phosphate, could be resolved unambiguously only at these lower temperatures.

  15. Neptunyl (NpO2+) interaction with green rust, GRNa,SO4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Bo C.; Geckeis, Horst; Marquardt, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Green rust (GR), a member of the Fe(II),Fe(III) layered double hydroxide mineral family, forms in groundwater and during steel corrosion. It has high surface area and is very reactive, especially for redox-sensitive elements such as some actinides. During neutron irradiation of nuclear fuel......, as are expected from radiolysis in a repository, the very mobile neptunyl-ion, NpO2+, would be the dominant aqueous neptunium species. In this work, we investigated the interaction of NpO2+ with green rust sodium sulphate (GRNa,SO4). The aim of the study was to define the processes involved, to determine...... the final redox speciation of Np, hence its potential mobility, and to characterise changes in the green rust. The GRNa,SO4 sorbed and reduced NpO2+ within minutes. Reduced Np(IV) was primarily found as precipitated nanoparticles at the edges of the GRNa,SO4 crystal platelets. The position of the particles...

  16. Obligate biotrophy features unraveled by the genomic analysis of rust fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duplessis, Sébastien; Cuomo, Christina A.; Lin, Yao-Cheng; Aerts, Andrea; Tisserant, Emilie; Veneault-Fourrey, Claire; Joly, David L.; Hacquard, Stéphane; Amselem, Joëlle; Cantarel, Brandi L.; Chiu, Readman; Coutinho, Pedro M.; Feau, Nicolas; Field, Matthew; Frey, Pascal; Gelhaye, Eric; Goldberg, Jonathan; Grabherr, Manfred G.; Kodira, Chinnappa D.; Kohler, Annegret; Kües, Ursula; Lindquist, Erika A.; Lucas, Susan M.; Mago, Rohit; Mauceli, Evan; Morin, Emmanuelle; Murat, Claude; Pangilinan, Jasmyn L.; Park, Robert; Pearson, Matthew; Quesneville, Hadi; Rouhier, Nicolas; Sakthikumar, Sharadha; Salamov, Asaf A.; Schmutz, Jeremy; Selles, Benjamin; Shapiro, Harris; Tanguay, Philippe; Tuskan, Gerald A.; Henrissat, Bernard; Van de Peer, Yves; Rouzé, Pierre; Ellis, Jeffrey G.; Dodds, Peter N.; Schein, Jacqueline E.; Zhong, Shaobin; Hamelin, Richard C.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Szabo, Les J.; Martin, Francis

    2011-01-01

    Rust fungi are some of the most devastating pathogens of crop plants. They are obligate biotrophs, which extract nutrients only from living plant tissues and cannot grow apart from their hosts. Their lifestyle has slowed the dissection of molecular mechanisms underlying host invasion and avoidance or suppression of plant innate immunity. We sequenced the 101-Mb genome of Melampsora larici-populina, the causal agent of poplar leaf rust, and the 89-Mb genome of Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, the causal agent of wheat and barley stem rust. We then compared the 16,399 predicted proteins of M. larici-populina with the 17,773 predicted proteins of P. graminis f. sp tritici. Genomic features related to their obligate biotrophic lifestyle include expanded lineage-specific gene families, a large repertoire of effector-like small secreted proteins, impaired nitrogen and sulfur assimilation pathways, and expanded families of amino acid and oligopeptide membrane transporters. The dramatic up-regulation of transcripts coding for small secreted proteins, secreted hydrolytic enzymes, and transporters in planta suggests that they play a role in host infection and nutrient acquisition. Some of these genomic hallmarks are mirrored in the genomes of other microbial eukaryotes that have independently evolved to infect plants, indicating convergent adaptation to a biotrophic existence inside plant cells. PMID:21536894

  17. A putative amino acid transporter is specifically expressed in haustoria of the rust fungus Uromyces fabae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, M; Neef, U; Struck, C; Göttfert, M; Mendgen, K

    1997-05-01

    A cDNA library constructed from haustoria of the rust fungus Uromyces fabae was screened for clones that are differentially expressed in haustoria. One family of cDNAs (in planta-induced gene 2 [PIG2] was isolated and found to encode a protein with high homologies to fungal amino acid transporters. A cDNA clone containing the complete coding region of PIG2 and the corresponding genomic clone were isolated and sequenced, revealing the presence of 17 introns in the PIG2 gene. Expression of PIG2 mRNA appeared to be restricted to haustoria. With antibodies raised against synthetic peptides, the PIG2-encoded protein was found in membranes fractions of isolated haustoria but not of germinated rust spores. With immunofluorescence microscopy, the putative amino acid transporter was localized to plasma membranes of the haustorial bodies, but not detected in the haustorial neck, haustorial mother cells, or intercellular fungal hyphae growing within infected leaf tissue. These data present for the first time molecular evidence that the rust haustorium plays a special role in the uptake of nutrients from an infected host cell.

  18. Winter garlic rust (Puccinia spp. rate under organic and conventional production conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlajić Slobodan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to low requirements for fertilizers and pesticides, garlic is a valuable crop in organic systems, although production may be hampered by diverse pathogens. In recent years, garlic rust (Puccinia spp. has been increasingly present in our agro-ecological climate, developing into a significant problem for garlic production. The aim of the study was twofold: i to monitor winter garlic rust rate in organic and in conventional production, and ii to monitor genotype sensitivity to the pathogen in both production systems. Trials were conducted in 2012/2013 in Bački Petrovac, Serbia at the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops in Novi Sad, and included 30 genotypes planted in organic and conventional field, simultaneously. Disease severity was evaluated visually, using a scoring system between zero and five. Overall average infection intensity score in conventional plots was 1.18, and in organic plots 0.79. There was no statistically significant difference between infection intensity in conventional versus organic plots. Nevertheless, reactions of certain genotypes to the causal agents of rust differed across organic and conventional plots ranging from no apparent infection symptoms in organic to severe symptoms in conventional plots.

  19. Laboratory studies using naturally occurring "green rust" to aid metal mine water remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearcock, Jenny M; Perkins, William T; Pearce, Nicholas J G

    2011-06-15

    Green rust, an Fe (II) and (III) oxyhydroxy salt, can alter the aqueous oxidation state, mobility and toxicity, of inorganic contaminants and thus could have applications in water treatment. This paper discusses a series of stirred, open batch experiments designed to evaluate green rust, and its oxidised equivalent in this context comparing it to a ferrihydrite/goethite 'ochre'. Natural green rust was added to different mine waters as either a wet, reduced material or a dry, partially oxidised material. Experiments showed that the addition of either form accelerated the removal of potentially harmful elements from solution. Within one hour Fe, Al and Cu were completely removed from mine waters with initial concentrations of 80, 70 and 8.5mg/L, respectively, and Zn was reduced from 60 to mine water treatment, especially as it is able to remove problematic elements such as Al and Zn. The material is effective even after being dried and mostly oxidised. Changes to the pH and ORP of the mine waters and surface catalysis are the suggested mechanisms of accelerated removal of contaminants. Copyright © 2011 NERC. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Susceptibility levels and grouping of peach cultivars in relation to peach rust under field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselda Alves

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess susceptibility and classify peach cultivars in relation to rust (Tranzschelia discolor under field conditions. The study was conducted in an orchard during the 2007/08 and 2008/09 growing seasons and included the cultivars: Aurora 1, Chimarrita, Chiripá, Coral, Eldorado, Granada, Leonense, Maciel, Marli, Premier and Vanguarda. Several disease-related variables were evaluated, over a 10 day interval from September to February, based on estimates of disease incidence, severity and defoliation. The logistic model adequate fit to rust severity progress data (R2 > 0.90 in the two years. Principal component analysis (PCA using all data, irrespective of the year, identified area under the disease progress curve, initial inoculum and disease progress rate as the best variables to differentiate reactions to rust. When PCA analysis was conducted separately for each year, different disease-related variables were selected as a principal component, and cultivars were classified in three groups of susceptibility. There was inconsistency in the grouping of some cultivars, which was likely due to varying environmental conditions between the years. However, ‘Coral’ was consistently grouped in the low susceptibility group and ‘Chimarrita’ and ‘Granada’ in the high susceptibility group.

  1. Genomic Selection for Quantitative Adult Plant Stem Rust Resistance in Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica E. Rutkoski

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative adult plant resistance (APR to stem rust ( f. sp. is an important breeding target in wheat ( L. and a potential target for genomic selection (GS. To evaluate the relative importance of known APR loci in applying GS, we characterized a set of CIMMYT germplasm at important APR loci and on a genome-wide profile using genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS. Using this germplasm, we describe the genetic architecture and evaluate prediction models for APR using data from the international Ug99 stem rust screening nurseries. Prediction models incorporating markers linked to important APR loci and seedling phenotype scores as fixed effects were evaluated along with the classic prediction models: Multiple linear regression (MLR, Genomic best linear unbiased prediction (G-BLUP, Bayesian Lasso (BL, and Bayes Cπ (BCπ. We found the region to play an important role in APR in this germplasm. A model using linked markers as fixed effects in G-BLUP was more accurate than MLR with linked markers (-value = 0.12, and ordinary G-BLUP (-value = 0.15. Incorporating seedling phenotype information as fixed effects in G-BLUP did not consistently increase accuracy. Overall, levels of prediction accuracy found in this study indicate that GS can be effectively applied to improve stem rust APR in this germplasm, and if genotypes at linked markers are available, modeling these genotypes as fixed effects could lead to better predictions.

  2. Ricoseius loxocheles, a phytoseiid mite that feeds on coffee leaf rust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Cleber M; Ferreira, João A M; Oliveira, Rafael M; Santos, Francisco O; Pallini, Angelo

    2014-10-01

    One of the most important diseases of coffee plants is the coffee leaf rust fungus Hemileia vastatrix Berkeley and Broome (Uredinales). It can cause 30 % yield loss in some varieties of Coffea arabica (L.). Besides fungus, the coffee plants are attacked by phytophagous mites. The most common species is the coffee red mite, Oligonychus ilicis McGregor (Acari: Tetranychidae). Predatory mites of the Phytoseiidae family are well-known for their potential to control herbivorous mites and insects, but they can also develop and reproduce on various other food sources, such as plant pathogenic fungi. In a field survey, we found Ricoseius loxocheles (De Leon) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) on the necrotic areas caused by the coffee leaf rust fungus during the reproductive phase of the pathogen. We therefore assessed the development, survivorship and reproduction of R. loxocheles feeding on coffee leaf rust fungus and measured predation and oviposition of this phytoseiid having coffee red mite as prey under laboratory conditions. The mite fed, survived, developed and reproduced successfully on this pathogen but it was not able to prey on O. ilicis. Survival and oviposition with only prey were the same as without food. This phytoseiid mite does not really use O. ilicis as food. It is suggested that R. loxocheles is one phytoseiid that uses fungi as a main food source.

  3. Cryptosexuality and the Genetic Diversity Paradox in Coffee Rust, Hemileia vastatrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Carlos Roberto; Fernandes, Ronaldo C.; Carvalho, Guilherme Mendes Almeida; Barreto, Robert W.; Evans, Harry C.

    2011-01-01

    Background Despite the fact that coffee rust was first investigated scientifically more than a century ago, and that the disease is one of the major constraints to coffee production - constantly changing the socio-economic and historical landscape of the crop - critical aspects of the life cycle of the pathogen, Hemileia vastatrix, remain unclear. The asexual urediniospores are regarded as the only functional propagule: theoretically, making H. vastatrix a clonal species. However, the well-documented emergence of new rust pathotypes and the breakdown in genetic resistance of coffee cultivars, present a paradox. Methods and Results Here, using computer-assisted DNA image cytometry, following a modified nuclear stoichiometric staining technique with Feulgen, we show that meiosis occurs within the urediniospores. Stages of spore development were categorised based on morphology, from the spore-mother cell through to the germinating spore, and the relative nuclear DNA content was quantified statistically at each stage. Conclusions Hidden sexual reproduction disguised within the asexual spore (cryptosexuality) could explain why new physiological races have arisen so often and so quickly in Hemileia vastatrix. This could have considerable implications for coffee breeding strategies and may be a common event in rust fungi, especially in related genera occupying the same basal phylogenetic lineages. PMID:22102860

  4. Evaluation of Soybean Hulls in Grower Turkey Diets | Etuk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 42 day study was carried out to evaluate the effect of soybean hulls (SBH) in diets of grower turkeys. Four experimental turkey grower diets were formulated such that soybean hulls made up of 0.0 (control diet), 10.0, 20.0 and 30.0% of the diets respectively replacing maize and soybean meal. These diets were offered ...

  5. Energetic assessment of soybean biodiesel obtainment in West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-07-16

    Jul 16, 2014 ... This work presents the result of a research that aimed to assess soybean-based biodiesel production in .... and; is the Energetic Efficiency. In order to extract soybean oil, the energetic consumption was measured for the milling of 1 kg of soybean grains. The production ..... Ethanol production using corn,.

  6. 7 CFR 1220.122 - Qualified State Soybean Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Qualified State Soybean Board. 1220.122 Section 1220... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.122...

  7. 7 CFR 407.16 - Group risk plan for soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Group risk plan for soybean. 407.16 Section 407.16..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GROUP RISK PLAN OF INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 407.16 Group risk plan for soybean. The provisions of the Group Risk Plan for Soybeans for the 2000 and succeeding crop years are as follows: 1...

  8. 7 CFR 1220.228 - Qualified State Soybean Boards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Qualified State Soybean Boards. 1220.228 Section 1220... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Expenses and Assessments...

  9. Ruminal dry matter degradability of treated soybean meal as source ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to study rumen degradation of dry matter for treating soybean meal with black liquor as source of xylose and microwave radiation, an experiment in nylon bag technique was performed. Samples for treating soybean meal for 0, 2, 4, 8, 16, 24 and 48 h in the rumen of three Taleshi male cows were incubated. Soybean ...

  10. Assessing the genetic diversity of cultivars and wild soybeans using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Increasing the diversity of the soybean germplasm base could introduce new genes affecting agronomic traits. In this study, we demonstrated the differences of genetic diversity level among 40 soybean accessions of cultivars, landraces and wild soybeans collected in the Shanxi Agricultural University using 40 simple ...

  11. Sustainability performance of soybean and beef chains in Latin America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pashaei Kamali, F.

    2015-01-01

    Sustainability Performance of Soybean and Beef Chains in Latin America The objective of this thesis, was to analyze the sustainability performance of soybean and beef production chains in Latin America (LA). First identifying a set of sustainability issues of soybean and beef

  12. The mixed mating system of Impatiens capensis and infection by a foliar rust pathogen: patterns of resistance and fitness consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koslow, Jennifer M; Clay, Keith

    2007-11-01

    Outcrossing by hosts may offer protection from natural enemies adapted to parental genotypes by creating diverse progeny that differ from their parents through genetic recombination. However, past experimental work addressing the relationship between mating system and disease in offspring has given conflicting results, suggesting that outcrossing might also cause the dissolution of resistant genotypes. To determine if selfed progeny are more susceptible to disease caused by the heteroecious rust, Puccinia recondita, or if selfing preserves existing resistant genotypes, we used a factorial design to compare levels of infection of selfed and outcrossed progeny of Impatiens capensis, a woodland annual with a mixed mating system. We compared the level of host infection when exposed to three pathogen sources in the field: the sympatric rust population, and two allopatric rust populations. Outcrossed progeny exposed to sympatric rust had higher infection scores than selfed progeny exposed to the same rust, suggesting that outcrossing breaks up resistant genotypes. In addition, there was a trend for the rust to be more infective on sympatric rather than allopatric hosts. We also examined whether rust infection differentially alters the fitness of selfed and outcrossed progeny. Outcrossed plants that escaped infection had higher fitness, as measured by fruit production, than selfed plants, but there was no difference in fitness between infected selfed and infected outcrossed plants. Thus, outcrossing was advantageous in the absence of disease, but there was no fitness difference between selfed and outcrossed progeny in the presence of disease. In sum, our results indicate that interactions with pathogens can eliminate or reverse the advantage of outcrossing.

  13. Extraction of soybean oil from single cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasai, Naoya; Imashiro, Yusuke; Morita, Naofumi

    2003-10-08

    Single cells prepared from autoclaved soybeans and cellulase treatment of the cells were effective in digesting the cell walls of and extracting the oil from soybeans. The first cell wall of the soybean single cell was completely removed using cellulases; the thin and transparent second cell wall of the cell was swollen. Oil in the cell formed spherical or hemispherical oil drops, and oil leaking from the oil bodies was observed. The oil was almost retained within the second cell wall. Water-extractable substances were obtained at approximately >60% of the weight. Flotation of oil drops by centrifugation was easily done. Ambient n-hexane extraction was also possible; however, residual oil remained in the oil bodies. Protease or peptidase digested the structure of the oil bodies; however, separation of the oil and the hydrolysates was impossible. The oil from the oil bodies was obtained effectively (>85%) by pressing the single cells and/or cellulase-treated single cells.

  14. Globalizing land use transitions: the soybean acceleration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reenberg, Anette; Fenger, Nina Astrid

    2011-01-01

    This note presents the recent global development trends in soybean cultivation as derived from the FAO statistics. It focuses on the change over the course of the last thirty years, when significant new allocations of the global production have occurred, which have turned South America into a lea......This note presents the recent global development trends in soybean cultivation as derived from the FAO statistics. It focuses on the change over the course of the last thirty years, when significant new allocations of the global production have occurred, which have turned South America...... into a leading player on the global scale. It takes point of departure in a land change science approach and employs the notions of underlying and proximate drivers and teleconnections to characterize the process of land use change in relation to the accelerating use of land for soybean cultivation....

  15. Characterization and genetics of multiple soybean aphid biotype resistance in five soybean plant introductions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Curtis B; Shiao, Derek; Fox, Carolyn M; Hartman, Glen L

    2017-07-01

    Five soybean plant introductions expressed antibiosis resistance to multiple soybean aphid biotypes. Two introductions had resistance genes located in the Rag1, Rag2, and Rag3 regions; one introduction had resistance genes located in the Rag1, Rag2, and rag4 regions; one introduction had resistance genes located in the Rag1 and Rag2 regions; and one introduction had a resistance gene located in the Rag2 region. Soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) is the most important soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] insect pest in the USA. The objectives of this study were to characterize the resistance expressed in five plant introductions (PIs) to four soybean aphid biotypes, determine the mode of resistance inheritance, and identify markers associated with genes controlling resistance in these accessions. Five soybean PIs, from an initial set of 3000 PIs, were tested for resistance against soybean aphid biotypes 1, 2, 3, and 4 in choice and no-choice tests. Of these five PIs, PI 587663, PI 587677, and PI 587685 expressed antibiosis against all four biotypes, while PI 587972 and PI 594592 expressed antibiosis against biotypes 1, 2, and 3. F2 populations derived from PI 587663 and PI 587972 were evaluated for resistance against soybean aphid biotype 1, and populations derived from PIs 587677, 587685, and 594592 were tested against biotype 3. In addition, F2:3 plants were tested against biotypes 2 and 3. Genomic DNA from F2 plants was screened with markers linked to Rag1, Rag2, Rag3, and rag4 soybean aphid-resistance genes. Results showed that PI 587663 and PI 594592 each had three genes with variable gene action located in the Rag1, Rag2, and Rag3 regions. PI 587677 had three genes with variable gene action located in the Rag1, Rag2 and rag4 regions. PI 587685 had one dominant gene located in the Rag1 region and an additive gene in the Rag2 region. PI 587972 had one dominant gene located in the Rag2 region controlling antixenosis- or antibiosis-type resistance to soybean

  16. Physicochemical properties of soybean oil extracted from γ-irradiated soybeans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Myung-Woo; Kang, Il-Jun; Kwon, Joong-Ho; Hayashi, Yukako; Mori, Tomohiko

    1996-02-01

    Physicochemical properties of soybean oil extracted from γ-irradiated soybeans (0-10 kGy) were investigated. No significant changes were observed in the total lipid content, fatty acid composition, acid value, peroxide value and trans fatty acid content at different irradiation doses. A tendency toward increased induction period was observed as irradiation dose increased. At higher dose levels than 10 kGy, n-hexanal increased remarkably as dose levels increased, showing the possibility of a chemical index for over-dose irradiation in soybeans.

  17. Photosynthetic Response of Soybean Leaf to Wide Light-Fluctuation in Maize-Soybean Intercropping System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Xingdong; Zhou, Hongli; Zhu, Qian; Li, Chunhong; Zhang, Huijun; Wu, Jun-Jiang; Xie, Futi

    2017-01-01

    In maize-soybean intercropping system, soybean plants will be affected by the wide light-fluctuation, which resulted from the shading by maize plants, as the shading of maize the light is not enough for soybean in the early morning and late afternoon, but at noon, the light is strong as the maize shading disappeared. The objective of this study is to evaluate the photosynthetic response of soybean leaf to the wide light-fluctuation. The data of diurnal variation of photosynthetic characters showed that the photosynthetic rate of intercropped soybean was weaker than that of monocropped soybean. The chlorophyll content, ratio of chlorophyll a/b, and AQE (apparent quantum efficiency) were increased and Rd (dark respiration rate) was decreased for the more efficient interception and absorption of light and carbon gain in intercropping. δRo (The efficiency/probability with which an electron from the intersystem electron carriers was transferred to reduce end electron acceptors at the PSI acceptor side) and φRo (the quantum yield for the reduction of the end electron acceptors at the PSI acceptor side) in intercropped soybean leaf were lower compared to those in monocropped one, which showed that the acceptor side of PSI might be inhibited, and also it was the main reason that soybean plants showed a low photosynthetic capacity in intercropping. ψEo (the efficiency/probability with an electron moves further than QA-) in monocropping and intercropping decreased 5.8, and 35.7%, respectively, while φEo (quantum yield for electron transport) decreased 27.7 and 45.3% under the high radiation at noon, which suggested that the acceptor side of PSII was inhibited, while the NPQ became higher. These were beneficial to dissipate excess excitation energy in time, and protect the photosynthetic apparatus against photo-damage. The higher performance index on the absorption basis (PIABS) and lower δRo, φRo, ψEo, and φEo of intercropped soybeans compared to monocropping under

  18. Photosynthetic Response of Soybean Leaf to Wide Light-Fluctuation in Maize-Soybean Intercropping System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingdong Yao

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In maize-soybean intercropping system, soybean plants will be affected by the wide light-fluctuation, which resulted from the shading by maize plants, as the shading of maize the light is not enough for soybean in the early morning and late afternoon, but at noon, the light is strong as the maize shading disappeared. The objective of this study is to evaluate the photosynthetic response of soybean leaf to the wide light-fluctuation. The data of diurnal variation of photosynthetic characters showed that the photosynthetic rate of intercropped soybean was weaker than that of monocropped soybean. The chlorophyll content, ratio of chlorophyll a/b, and AQE (apparent quantum efficiency were increased and Rd (dark respiration rate was decreased for the more efficient interception and absorption of light and carbon gain in intercropping. δRo (The efficiency/probability with which an electron from the intersystem electron carriers was transferred to reduce end electron acceptors at the PSI acceptor side and φRo (the quantum yield for the reduction of the end electron acceptors at the PSI acceptor side in intercropped soybean leaf were lower compared to those in monocropped one, which showed that the acceptor side of PSI might be inhibited, and also it was the main reason that soybean plants showed a low photosynthetic capacity in intercropping. ψEo (the efficiency/probability with an electron moves further than QA- in monocropping and intercropping decreased 5.8, and 35.7%, respectively, while φEo (quantum yield for electron transport decreased 27.7 and 45.3% under the high radiation at noon, which suggested that the acceptor side of PSII was inhibited, while the NPQ became higher. These were beneficial to dissipate excess excitation energy in time, and protect the photosynthetic apparatus against photo-damage. The higher performance index on the absorption basis (PIABS and lower δRo, φRo, ψEo, and φEo of intercropped soybeans compared to

  19. The poplar Rust-Induced Secreted Protein (RISP inhibits the growth of the leaf rust pathogen Melampsora larici-populina and triggers cell culture alkalinisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin ePetre

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Plant cells secrete a wide range of proteins in extracellular spaces in response to pathogen attack. The poplar Rust-Induced Secreted Protein (RISP is a small cationic protein of unknown function that was identified as the most induced gene in poplar leaves during immune responses to the leaf rust pathogen Melampsora larici-populina, an obligate biotrophic parasite. Here, we combined in planta and in vitro molecular biology approaches to tackle the function of RISP. Using a RISP-mCherry fusion transiently expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves, we demonstrated that RISP is secreted into the apoplast. A recombinant RISP specifically binds to M. larici-populina urediniospores and inhibits their germination. It also arrests the growth of the fungus in vitro and on poplar leaves. Interestingly, RISP also triggers poplar cell culture alkalinisation and is cleaved at the C-terminus by a plant-encoded mechanism. Altogether our results indicate that RISP is an antifungal protein that has the ability to trigger cellular responses.

  20. TILLING to detect induced mutations in soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Jennifer L; Till, Bradley J; Laport, Robert G; Darlow, Margaret C; Kleffner, Justin M; Jamai, Aziz; El-Mellouki, Tarik; Liu, Shiming; Ritchie, Rae; Nielsen, Niels; Bilyeu, Kristin D; Meksem, Khalid; Comai, Luca; Henikoff, Steven

    2008-01-24

    Soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) is an important nitrogen-fixing crop that provides much of the world's protein and oil. However, the available tools for investigation of soybean gene function are limited. Nevertheless, chemical mutagenesis can be applied to soybean followed by screening for mutations in a target of interest using a strategy known as Targeting Induced Local Lesions IN Genomes (TILLING). We have applied TILLING to four mutagenized soybean populations, three of which were treated with ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) and one with N-nitroso-N-methylurea (NMU). We screened seven targets in each population and discovered a total of 116 induced mutations. The NMU-treated population and one EMS mutagenized population had similar mutation density (approximately 1/140 kb), while another EMS population had a mutation density of approximately 1/250 kb. The remaining population had a mutation density of approximately 1/550 kb. Because of soybean's polyploid history, PCR amplification of multiple targets could impede mutation discovery. Indeed, one set of primers tested in this study amplified more than a single target and produced low quality data. To address this problem, we removed an extraneous target by pretreating genomic DNA with a restriction enzyme. Digestion of the template eliminated amplification of the extraneous target and allowed the identification of four additional mutant alleles compared to untreated template. The development of four independent populations with considerable mutation density, together with an additional method for screening closely related targets, indicates that soybean is a suitable organism for high-throughput mutation discovery even with its extensively duplicated genome.

  1. TILLING to detect induced mutations in soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nielsen Niels

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Soybean (Glycine max L. Merr. is an important nitrogen-fixing crop that provides much of the world's protein and oil. However, the available tools for investigation of soybean gene function are limited. Nevertheless, chemical mutagenesis can be applied to soybean followed by screening for mutations in a target of interest using a strategy known as Targeting Induced Local Lesions IN Genomes (TILLING. We have applied TILLING to four mutagenized soybean populations, three of which were treated with ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS and one with N-nitroso-N-methylurea (NMU. Results We screened seven targets in each population and discovered a total of 116 induced mutations. The NMU-treated population and one EMS mutagenized population had similar mutation density (~1/140 kb, while another EMS population had a mutation density of ~1/250 kb. The remaining population had a mutation density of ~1/550 kb. Because of soybean's polyploid history, PCR amplification of multiple targets could impede mutation discovery. Indeed, one set of primers tested in this study amplified more than a single target and produced low quality data. To address this problem, we removed an extraneous target by pretreating genomic DNA with a restriction enzyme. Digestion of the template eliminated amplification of the extraneous target and allowed the identification of four additional mutant alleles compared to untreated template. Conclusion The development of four independent populations with considerable mutation density, together with an additional method for screening closely related targets, indicates that soybean is a suitable organism for high-throughput mutation discovery even with its extensively duplicated genome.

  2. RNA-seq data comparisons of wild soybean genotypes in response to soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hengyou Zhang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Soybean [Glycine max (L. Merr.] is an important crop rich in vegetable protein and oil, and is a staple food for human and animals worldwide. However, soybean plants have been challenged by soybean cyst nematode (SCN, Heterodera glycines, one of the most damaging pests found in soybean fields. Applying SCN-resistant cultivars is the most efficient and environmentally friendly strategy to manage SCN. Currently, soybean breeding and further improvement in soybean agriculture are hindered by severely limited genetic diversity in cultivated soybeans. G. soja is a soybean wild progenitor with much higher levels of genetic diversity compared to cultivated soybeans. In this study, transcriptomes of the resistant and susceptible genotypes of the wild soybean, Glycine soja Sieb & Zucc, were sequenced to examine the genetic basis of SCN resistance. Seedling roots were treated with infective second-stage juveniles (J2s of the soybean cyst nematode (HG type 2.5.7 for 3, 5, 8 days and pooled for library construction and RNA sequencing. The transcriptome sequencing generated approximately 245 million (M high quality (Q > 30 raw sequence reads (125 bp in length for twelve libraries. The raw sequence reads were deposited in NCBI sequence read archive (SRA database, with the accession numbers SRR5227314-25. Further analysis of this data would be helpful to improve our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of soybean-SCN interaction and facilitate the development of diverse SCN resistance cultivars.

  3. 77 FR 40529 - Soybean Promotion and Research: Amend the Order To Adjust Representation on the United Soybean Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-10

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1220 Soybean Promotion and Research: Amend the Order To Adjust Representation on the United Soybean Board AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing... the United Soybean Board (Board) to reflect changes in production levels that have occurred since the...

  4. 78 FR 1 - Soybean Promotion and Research: Amend the Order To Adjust Representation on the United Soybean Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-02

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1220 Soybean Promotion and Research: Amend the Order To Adjust Representation on the United Soybean Board AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This final rule adjusts the number of members on the United Soybean Board (Board) to reflect...

  5. Identification and potential use of a molecular marker for rust resistance in common bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miklas, P N; Stavely, J R; Kelly, J D

    1993-02-01

    The Up 2 gene of common bean (Phaseolus Vulgaris L.) is an important source of dominant genetic resistance to the bean rust pathogen [Uromyces appendiculatus (Pers. ex Pers.) Unger var 'appendiculatus' [syn U. Phaseoli (Reben) Wint.]. Up 2 in combination with other rust resistance genes may be used to obtain potentially stable genetic resistance. It is difficult, however, to combine rust resistance genes effective against a single race due to epistatic interactions that frequently occur between them. A strategy that employed bulked DNA samples formed separately from the DNA of three BC6F2 individuals with Up 2 and three without Up 2 as contrasting near-isogenic lines (NILs) was used to identify random amplified polymorphic DNA fragments (RAPDs) tightly linked to the Up 2 locus. Only 1 of 931 fragments amplified by 167 10-mer primers of arbitrary sequence in the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was polymorphic. The RAPD marker (OA141100) amplified by the 5'-TCTGTGCTGG-3' primer was repeatable and its presence and absence easy to score. No recombination was observed between OA141100 and the dominant Up 2 allele within a segregating BC6F2 population of 84 individuals. This result suggests that OA141100 and Up 2 are tightly linked. Andean and Mesoamerican bean germ plasm, with and without the Up 2 allele, were assayed for the presence of OA141100. Apparently, the marker is of Andean origin because all Andean lines, with or without the Up 2 allele, contained the marker, and the marker was absent in all Mesoamerican germ plasm except the lines to which Up-2 had been purposely transferred. These results suggest that OA141100 will be most useful for pyramiding Up 2 with other rust resistance genes into germ plasm of Mesoamerican origin where the marker does not traditionally exist. The use of bulked DNA samples may have concentrated resources toward the identification of RAPDs that were tightly linked to the target locus. Marker-based selection may provide an alternative to

  6. Recovery plan for Scots pine blister rust caused by Cronartium flaccidum (Alb. & Schwein.) G. Winter and Peridermium pini (Pers.) Lév. [syn. C. asclepiadeum (Willd.) Fr., Endocronartium pini (Pers.) Y. Hiratsuka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian W. Geils; Ned B. Klopfenstein; Mee-Sook Kim; Pauline Spaine; Bryce A. Richardson; Paul J. Zambino; Charles G. Shaw; James Walla; Russ Bulluck; Laura Redmond; Kent. Smith

    2009-01-01

    The sexually reproducing form of Scots pine blister rust, C. flaccidum, completes its life cycle alternating between pines of the subgenus Pinus and seed-plants of various families. Scots pine blister rust is also caused by a form of the rust that spreads directly from pine to pine and is named, Peridermium pini...

  7. Expression of apoplast-targeted plant defensin MtDef4.2 confers resistance to leaf rust pathogen Puccinia triticina but does not affect mycorrhizal symbiosis in transgenic wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rust diseases caused by Puccinia spp. pose a major threat to global wheat production. Puccinia triticina (Pt), an obligate basidiomycete biotroph, causes leaf rust disease which incurs yield losses of up to 50% in wheat. Historically, resistant wheat cultivars have been used to control leaf rust, bu...

  8. A transgenic, visual screenable marker for soybean seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanizay, Lisa; Jacobs, Thomas; Hancock, C Nathan

    2016-04-01

    Most soybean cultivars produce buff colored seeds due to a seed coat specific siRNA mechanism. This phenomenon is specifically limited to the seed coat and produces a strong visual effect, thus, a strategy to evade the silencing was used to produce a maternal transgenic marker for soybeans. Expression of a rice chalcone synthase transgene with little DNA sequence homology to the soybean siRNAs resulted in dark colored seed coats. This phenotype is the result of anthocyanin pigment production and does not appear to affect other tissues. This novel approach for producing an easily scored transgenic marker for soybean will facilitate high-throughput screening and analysis of transgenic soybean.

  9. Genetic mapping of rust resistance genes in confection sunflower line HA-R6 and oilseed line RHA 397.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, L; Gulya, T J; Markell, S G; Hulke, B S; Qi, L L

    2013-08-01

    Few widely effective resistance sources to sunflower rust, incited by Puccinia helianthi Schwein., have been identified in confection sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). The USDA inbred line HA-R6 is one of the few confection sunflower lines resistant to rust. A previous allelism test indicated that rust resistance genes in HA-R6 and RHA 397, an oilseed-type restorer line, are either allelic or closely linked; however, neither have been characterized nor molecularly mapped. The objectives of this study are (1) to locate the rust resistance genes in HA-R6 and RHA 397 on a molecular map, (2) to develop closely linked molecular markers for rust resistance diagnostics, and (3) to determine the resistance spectrum of two lines when compared with other rust-resistant lines. Two populations of 140 F2:3 families each from the crosses of HA 89, as susceptible parent, with HA-R6 and RHA 397 were inoculated with race 336 of P. helianthi in the greenhouse. The resistance genes (R-genes) in HA-R6 and RHA 397 were molecularly mapped to the lower end of linkage group 13, which encompasses a large R-gene cluster, and were designated as R 13a and R 13b, respectively. In the initial maps, SSR (simple sequence repeat) and InDel (insertion and deletion) markers revealed 2.8 and 8.2 cM flanking regions for R 13a and R 13b, respectively, linked with a common marker set of four co-segregating markers, ORS191, ORS316, ORS581, and ZVG61, in the distal side and one marker ORS464 in the proximal side. To identify new markers closer to the genes, sunflower RGC (resistance gene candidate) markers linked to the downy mildew R-gene Pl 8 and located at the same region as R 13a and R 13b were selected to screen the two F2 populations. The RGC markers RGC15/16 and a newly developed marker SUN14 designed from a BAC contig anchored by RGC251 further narrowed down the region flanking R 13a and R 13b to 1.1 and 0.1 cM, respectively. Both R 13a and R 13b are highly effective against all rust races

  10. Mammographic compression in Asian women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Susie; Abdul Aziz, Yang Faridah; Ng, Kwan Hoong

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To investigate: (1) the variability of mammographic compression parameters amongst Asian women; and (2) the effects of reducing compression force on image quality and mean glandular dose (MGD) in Asian women based on phantom study. Methods We retrospectively collected 15818 raw digital mammograms from 3772 Asian women aged 35–80 years who underwent screening or diagnostic mammography between Jan 2012 and Dec 2014 at our center. The mammograms were processed using a volumetric breast density (VBD) measurement software (Volpara) to assess compression force, compression pressure, compressed breast thickness (CBT), breast volume, VBD and MGD against breast contact area. The effects of reducing compression force on image quality and MGD were also evaluated based on measurement obtained from 105 Asian women, as well as using the RMI156 Mammographic Accreditation Phantom and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) slabs. Results Compression force, compression pressure, CBT, breast volume, VBD and MGD correlated significantly with breast contact area (pimage quality (p>0.05). Conclusions Force-standardized protocol led to widely variable compression parameters in Asian women. Based on phantom study, it is feasible to reduce compression force up to 32.5% with minimal effects on image quality and MGD. PMID:28419125

  11. Molecular characterization of a wheat -Thinopyrum ponticum partial amphiploid and its derived substitution line for resistance to stripe rust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Li-Jun; Li, Guang-Rong; Zeng, Zi-Xian; Chang, Zhi-Jian; Liu, Cheng; Yang, Zu-Jun

    2011-08-01

    Stripe rust (caused by Puccinia striiformis) occurs annually in most wheat-growing areas of the world. Thinopyrum ponticum has provided novel rust resistance genes to protect wheat from this fungal disease. Wheat - Th. ponticum partial amphiploid line 7430 and a substitution line X005 developed from crosses between wheat and 7430 were resistant to stripe rust isolates from China. Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) analysis using Pseudoroegneria spicata genomic DNA as a probe demonstrated that the partial amphiploid line 7430 contained ten J(s) and six J genome chromosomes, and line X005 had a pair of J(s)-chromosomes. Giemsa-C banding further revealed that both lines 7430 and X005 were absent of wheat chromosomes 6B. The EST based PCR confirmed that the introduced J(s) chromosomes belonging to linkage group 6, indicating that line X005 was a 6J(s)/6B substitution line. Both resistance observation and sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers displayed that the introduced chromosomes 6J(s) were responsible for the stripe rust resistances. Therefore, lines 7430 and X005 can be used as a donor in wheat breeding for stripe rust resistance.

  12. Susceptibility to Rust (Puccinia Sp. in Cultivars of Italian and Perennial Ryegrass Grown in Two Locations of Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Russi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A large set of foreign varieties of Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum and perennial ryegrass (L. perenne were evaluated for their response to natural rust infection in two Italian locations (Lodi in the north; Perugia in the centre of the country at three-year intervals in 2001, 2004 and 2007, to acquire information on novel germplasm for Italy and verify any spatial and temporal variation in the varietal response to the disease. Crown rust (caused by Puccinia coronata on Italian ryegrass and stem rust (caused by P. graminis on perennial rygrass were consistently recorded in appreciable amount (average susceptibility score > 2.0 on a 1-9 scale. Vice-versa, crown rust on perennial and stem rust on Italian ryegrass seldom affected appreciably the crop. Strong interactions of variety response (to the prevailing pathogen with locations and years of evaluation were observed in both ryegrasses. Subsequently, the repeatability of results between locations, or between years within locations, as measured by rank correlations of variety scores, was sometimes only moderate or low. However, despite such interactions, a few promising varieties were identified in each species with consistently low susceptibility across evaluation environments, which deserve further investigation for a possible direct utilisation, or as donors of useful genes for breeding purposes.

  13. Genome-Wide Association Mapping for Resistance to Leaf and Stripe Rust in Winter-Habit Hexaploid Wheat Landraces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Kertho

    Full Text Available Leaf rust, caused by Puccinia triticina (Pt, and stripe rust, caused by P. striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst, are destructive foliar diseases of wheat worldwide. Breeding for disease resistance is the preferred strategy of managing both diseases. The continued emergence of new races of Pt and Pst requires a constant search for new sources of resistance. Here we report a genome-wide association analysis of 567 winter wheat (Triticum aestivum landrace accessions using the Infinium iSelect 9K wheat SNP array to identify loci associated with seedling resistance to five races of Pt (MDCL, MFPS, THBL, TDBG, and TBDJ and one race of Pst (PSTv-37 frequently found in the Northern Great Plains of the United States. Mixed linear models identified 65 and eight significant markers associated with leaf rust and stripe rust, respectively. Further, we identified 31 and three QTL associated with resistance to Pt and Pst, respectively. Eleven QTL, identified on chromosomes 3A, 4A, 5A, and 6D, are previously unknown for leaf rust resistance in T. aestivum.

  14. Susceptibility of loblolly x slash pine interspecific F1 hybrids to tip moth infestation and fusiform rust infection in a south Mississippi planting

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.T. Highsmith; L.H. Lott; C.D. Nelson

    2005-01-01

    Tip moth damage and fusiform rust incidence among families of three loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) parent trees from Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas that were selected for southern pine bark beetle resistance and three slash pines (Pinus elliotti var. elliotti) selected for different levels of fusiform rust resistance, and five of their interspecific...

  15. Blister rust resistance among 19 families of whitebark pine, Pinus albicaulis, from Oregon and Washington – early results from an artificial inoculation trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelia Kegley; Richard A. Sniezko; Robert Danchok; Douglas P. Savin

    2012-01-01

    Whitebark pine is considered one of the most susceptible white pine species to white pine blister rust, the disease caused by the non-native pathogen Cronartium ribicola. High mortality from blister rust and other factors in much of the range in the United States and Canada have raised serious concerns about the future viability of this high-...

  16. Derivation of host and pathogen genotypes in the fusiform rust pathosystem on slash pine using a complimentary genetics model and diallel data

    Science.gov (United States)

    H.E. Stelzel; Robert L. Doudrick; Thomas L. Kubisiak

    1997-01-01

    Seedlings from 20, full-sib families five-parent slash pine diallel were inoculated using two, single urediniospore-derived cultures of the fusiform rust fungus on two different dates during the 1994 growing season. Presence or absence of fusiform rust galls was recorded for each inoculated seedling at nine months post-inoculation and percent infection levels for each...

  17. QTL-seq approach identified genomic regions and diagnostic markers for rust and late leaf spot resistance in groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rust and late leaf spot (LLS) are the two major foliar fungal diseases in groundnut, and their co-occurrence leads to yield loss up to 50–70% in addition to the deterioration of fodder quality. To identify candidate genomic regions controlling rust and LLS resistance, we deployed whole genome re-seq...

  18. Characterization of two adult-plant stripe rust resistance genes on chromosomes 3BS and 4BL in soft red winter wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, is an important foliar disease of soft red winter wheat (SRWW) in the eastern U.S. However, very few resistance genes have been characterized in the SRWW germplasm pool. The SRWW line VA96W-270 is known to be resistant to stripe rust race P...

  19. Natural resistance of soybean cultivars to the soybean looper larva Chrysodeixis includens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Wille, Paulo Eduardo; Pereira, Bruna Angelina; Wille, Cleiton Luiz; Restelatto, Samanta Souza; Boff, Mari Inês Carissimi; Franco, Cláudio Roberto

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: The objective of this work was to evaluate the natural resistance of soybean cultivars to Chrysodeixis includens. For this, four commercial soybean cultivars recommended for the Southern region of Brazil were used: BR 36, NA 5909 RG, BMX Turbo RR, and Benso 1RR. In the laboratory, larvae were subjected to the antixenosis feeding assay, in which they were free or not to choose among old leaves, new leaves, and pods. Neonate larvae were subjected to two antibiosis tests: in the first ...

  20. Potentials toward genetic engineering of drought-tolerant soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thao, Nguyen Phuong; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2012-12-01

    Soybean (Glycine max) is one of the most important crops in legume family. Soybean and soybean-based products are also considered as popular food for human and animal husbandry. With its high oil content, soybean has become a potential resource for the production of renewable fuel. However, soybean is considered one of the most drought-sensitive crops, with approximately 40% reduction of the yield in the worst years. Recent research progresses in elucidation of biochemical, morphological and physiological responses as well as molecular mechanisms of plant adaptation to drought stress in model plants have provided a solid foundation for translational genomics of soybean toward drought tolerance. In this review, we will summarize the recent advances in development of drought-tolerant soybean cultivars by gene transfer.

  1. Genetic architecture of wild soybean (Glycine soja) response to soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hengyou; Song, Qijian; Griffin, Joshua D; Song, Bao-Hua

    2017-12-01

    The soybean cyst nematode (SCN) is one of the most destructive pathogens of soybean plants worldwide. Host-plant resistance is an environmentally friendly method to mitigate SCN damage. To date, the resistant soybean cultivars harbor limited genetic variation, and some are losing resistance. Thus, a better understanding of the genetic mechanisms of the SCN resistance, as well as developing diverse resistant soybean cultivars, is urgently needed. In this study, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) was conducted using 1032 wild soybean (Glycine soja) accessions with over 42,000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to understand the genetic architecture of G. soja resistance to SCN race 1. Ten SNPs were significantly associated with the response to race 1. Three SNPs on chromosome 18 were localized within the previously identified quantitative trait loci (QTLs), and two of which were localized within a strong linkage disequilibrium block encompassing a nucleotide-binding (NB)-ARC disease resistance gene (Glyma.18G102600). Genes encoding methyltransferases, the calcium-dependent signaling protein, the leucine-rich repeat kinase family protein, and the NB-ARC disease resistance protein, were identified as promising candidate genes. The identified SNPs and candidate genes can not only shed light on the molecular mechanisms underlying SCN resistance, but also can facilitate soybean improvement employing wild genetic resources.

  2. Compositional differences in soybeans on the market: glyphosate accumulates in Roundup Ready GM soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bøhn, T; Cuhra, M; Traavik, T; Sanden, M; Fagan, J; Primicerio, R

    2014-06-15

    This article describes the nutrient and elemental composition, including residues of herbicides and pesticides, of 31 soybean batches from Iowa, USA. The soy samples were grouped into three different categories: (i) genetically modified, glyphosate-tolerant soy (GM-soy); (ii) unmodified soy cultivated using a conventional "chemical" cultivation regime; and (iii) unmodified soy cultivated using an organic cultivation regime. Organic soybeans showed the healthiest nutritional profile with more sugars, such as glucose, fructose, sucrose and maltose, significantly more total protein, zinc and less fibre than both conventional and GM-soy. Organic soybeans also contained less total saturated fat and total omega-6 fatty acids than both conventional and GM-soy. GM-soy contained high residues of glyphosate and AMPA (mean 3.3 and 5.7 mg/kg, respectively). Conventional and organic soybean batches contained none of these agrochemicals. Using 35 different nutritional and elemental variables to characterise each soy sample, we were able to discriminate GM, conventional and organic soybeans without exception, demonstrating "substantial non-equivalence" in compositional characteristics for 'ready-to-market' soybeans. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Divergence of flowering genes in soybean

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-10-15

    Oct 15, 2012 ... including flowering time, first flower, pod maturity, beginning of pod, reproductive period, and seed filling period. Among the genes overlapping the QTL regions, two LHY/CCA1 genes, GI and SFR6 contained amino acid changes. The recently duplicated sequence regions of the soybean genome were ...

  4. soybeans yoghurt production using starter culture from

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BSN

    respectively. Soybeans which has been considered a miracle bean by many people is the main. ,;ource of protein for all of the East Asia, particularly to the vegetarians. It has excellent nutritional properties which make it potentially invaluable as a food for correcting dietary madequacies of the average Nigerian. Furthermore ...

  5. Transformation of multiple soybean cultivars by infecting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    containing GFP reporter gene was conducted. The results indicated that the addition of thiol compounds (L-cysteine, dithiothreitol and sodium thiosulfate) in co-cultivation period increased the transformation efficiency of all four soybean cultivars, with Nannong 88-1 most increased up to 2.20%. Detection of GFP expression ...

  6. Organogel formation of soybean oil with waxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many waxes including plant waxes and animal waxes were evaluated for the gelation ability toward soybean oil (SBO) and compared with hydrogenated vegetable oils, petroleum waxes and commercial non-edible gelling agents to understand factors affecting the gelation ability of a gelator. Sunflower wax...

  7. Waxes as organogelator for soybean oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    This research reveals that a small amount of a food grade plant wax may replace a large amount of the hardstock containing trans-fat or saturated fat. Natural waxes including plant waxes and animal waxes were evaluated for the gelation ability toward soybean oil (SBO) and compared with hydrogenated ...

  8. Genetically modified soybean plants and their ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milošević Mirjana B.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Transgenic plants are developed by introgressing new genes using methods of molecular genetics and genetic engineering. The presence of these genes in plant genome is identified on the basis of specific oligonucleotides primers, and the use of PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction and DNA fragments multiplication. Genetically modified plants such as soybean constitute a newly created bioenergetic potential whose gene expression can cause disturbance of the biological balance ecosystem, soil structure and soil microbiological activity. Genetically modified plants may acquire monogenic or polygenic traits causing genetic and physiological changes in these plants, which may elicit a certain reaction of the environment including changes of microbiological composition of soil rhizosphere. The aim of introgressing genes for certain traits into a cultivated plant is to enhance its yield and intensify food production. There are more and more genetically modified plant species such as soybean, corn, potato, rice and others and there is a pressure to use them as human food and animal feed. Genetically modified soybean plants with introgressed gene for resistance to total herbicides, such as Round-up, are more productive than non-modified herbicide-sensitive soybeans.

  9. Automotive gear oil lubricant from soybean oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of lubricants that are based on renewable materials is rapidly increasing. Vegetable oils have good lubricity, wear protection and low volatility which are desired properties for automotive gear lubricant applications. Soybean oil is used widely in the lubricant industry due to its properti...

  10. Teaching Green Chemistry with Epoxidized Soybean Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcena, Homar; Tuachi, Abraham; Zhang, Yuanzhuo

    2017-01-01

    The synthesis of epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) provides students a vantage point on the application of green chemistry principles in a series of experiments. Qualitative tests review the reactions of alkenes, whereas spectroscopic analyses provide insight in monitoring functional group transformations.

  11. Effects of Soybean Cultivars on Soymilk Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziadekey, M.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Soymilk was prepared from twelve soybean cultivars grown under the same environmental conditions to evaluate their effects on soymilk characteristics. Significant correlations were observed between the Chemical composition of the seeds and the resultant soymilk. Soymilk solids were significantly affected by seed size and seed phosphorus contents. Cultivars with dark hilum produced soymilk with less attractive colour.

  12. Sudden death syndrome of soybean in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudden death syndrome (SDS) is one of the most common and widely spread root disease affecting soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] in Argentina where it is an economically important crop. This disease was first discovered in this country in 1992 in the Pampas Region, and the following year in Northwest...

  13. (RR) soybean cultivars estimated by phenotypic characteristics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-06-25

    Jun 25, 2014 ... The aim of this study was to estimate the genetic diversity in 74 RR soybean cultivars from different. Brazilian breeding programs. Analyzes were based on multivariate statistical techniques from phenotypic characteristics and microsatellite molecular markers (SSR). Ten agronomic traits were used.

  14. Comparison of soybean evapotranspirations measured by weighing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-07-26

    Jul 26, 2010 ... (ET) of agricultural crops is a basic tool to compute water balances and ..... Soybean crop inside the lysimeter was kept in the same condition of growth as the rest of the protection plot so that data will be as representative as possible. ... replacement of the soil into the lysimeter followed exact profile removal ...

  15. EVALUATION OF CASSAVA/SOYBEAN INTERCROPPING SYSTEM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of three cassava genotypes (NR 8212, TMS 91934 and TMS 30572) grown sole or intercropped with soybean were investigated in two field experiments in 2000/2001 and 2001/2002 cropping seasons at Umudike in the lowland humid forest zone of south-eastern Nigeria. The plant height, canopy diameter, ...

  16. Chrysodeixis includens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on soybean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plant resistance levels can be boosted to enable better pest management. The objective of this study was to evaluate resistance interaction between four soybean genotypes and three inducers resistant to integrated management of Chrysodeixis includens. The assays were performed in the entomology laboratory.

  17. [Endophytic bacterial diversity of wild soybean (Glycine soja) varieties with different resistance to soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yunpeng; Shi, Fengyu; Hamid, M Imran; Zhu, Yingbo

    2014-08-04

    The aim of this study was to investigate endophytic bacterial diversity of wild soybean varieties with different resistance to soybean cyst nematode(Heterodera glycines) , for deciphering the interactions of soybean cyst nematode with endophytic bacteria. After screening wild soybean varieties against race 3 of H. glycines, we investigated endophytic bacterial diversity in root tissues of wild soybean varieties with different resistance to H. glycines using 16S rDNA cloning library and amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis. Endophytic bacteria of wild soybean root belonged to 6 bacterial groups, the clones belonging to group Proteobacteria and Firmicutes were the endophyte dominants in wild soybean with 46.8% and 13.6% of total clones, respectively. Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Acidobacteria, Deincoccus-Thermus and Archaea were less represented. 18.8% of clone sequences were similar to those of uncultured bacteria in the environment. The bacterial diversity was higher in H. glycines-Resistant than -Susceptible wild soybean varieties, and the dominant group was different between H. glycines-Resistant and -Susceptible wild soybean varieties. Mesorhizobium tamadayense, Enterobacter ludwigii and Bacillus megaterium were the main bacterial groups in special operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of H. glycines-Resistant wild soybean variety. By 16S rDNA cloning library and amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis, the diversity of dominant group of endophytic bacteria in root tissues has difference among H. glycines-Resistant and -Susceptible wild soybean varieties.

  18. Intermedial Representations in Asian Macbeth-s

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, I-Chun; Wang, I-Chun

    2011-01-01

    In her article "Intermedial representations in Asian Macbeth-s" I-Chun Wang discusses three Asian versions of Macbeths that exemplify the cultural meanings through the interaction of landscape, body...

  19. Infant Mortality and Asians and Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AIDS Immunizations Infant Health & Mortality Mental Health Obesity Organ and Tissue Donation Stroke ... Mortality and Asians and Pacific Islanders Among Asian/Pacific Islanders, Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) is the fourth leading cause of ...

  20. Marker-assisted selection for leaf rust resistance genes Lr19 and Lr24 in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rajender; Datta, Dibendu; Priyamvada; Singh, Somvir; Tiwari, Ratan

    2004-01-01

    Leaf rust caused by Puccinia recondita f.sp. tritici is a wheat disease of worldwide importance. Wheat genotypes known to carry specific rust resistance genes and segregating lines that originated from various cross combinations and derived from distinct F2 lineage, so as to represent a diverse genetic background, were included in the present study for validation of molecular markers for Lr19 and Lr24. STS markers detected the presence of the leaf rust resistance gene Lr19 in a Thatcher NIL (Tc*Lrl9) and Inia66//CMH81A575 and of the gene Lr24 in the genotypes Arkan, Blue Boy II, Agent and CI 17907. Validation of molecular markers for Lr19 and Lr24 in parental lines, followed by successful detection of these genes in F3 lines from various cross combinations, was carried out. The molecular test corresponded well with the host-pathogen interaction test response of these lines.

  1. Identification of Nine Pathotype-Specific Genes Conferring Resistance to Fusiform Rust in Loblolly Pine (Pinus taeda L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry V. Amerson

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Nearly two decades of research on the host-pathogen interaction in fusiform rust of loblolly pine is detailed. Results clearly indicate that pathotype-specific genes in the host interacting with pathogen avirulence cause resistance as defined by the non-gall phenotype under favorable environmental conditions for disease development. In particular, nine fusiform rust resistance genes (Fr genes are described here including the specific methods to determine each and their localization on the reference genetic map of loblolly pine. Understanding how these and other apparent Fr genes in loblolly pine and other rust-susceptible pines impact resistance screening, parental and progeny selection, and family and clonal deployment is an important area in forest genetics research and operational tree breeding. The documentation of these Fr genes is a key piece of information towards gaining that understanding and ultimately improving breeding and deployment strategies.

  2. The U.S. Soybean Industry. Agricultural Economic Report Number 588.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaub, James; And Others

    This report describes the U.S. soybean industry from producers to consumers and provides a single source of economic and statistical information on soybeans. Highlights are as follows: U.S. soybean production has increased sevenfold since 1950, making soybeans the second highest valued crop after corn. Soybean production has risen in response to…

  3. Asian Black Carbon Influence on East Asian Summer Monsoons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, R.; Li, S.

    2012-04-01

    Since the black carbon (BC) emission in East and South Asia has increased significantly during the last decades of the 20th century, there is an ever growing concern about its impact on Asian monsoon. In this study we provide an in-depth analysis of the influence by performing several ensemble sensitive experiments with or without historical BC concentrations over East Asia, South Asia, and the combined East and South Asia in an atmospheric general circulation model, GFDL AM2.1. The results show that: (a) The East Asian summer climate is sensitive to the East Asian BC (EABC) concentrations in a sense that EABC contributes significantly to the frequently occurring north-drought and south-flood patterns in Eastern China. In detail, the large scale precipitation anomalies induced by EABC characterize more rainfalls over central/south China, East China Sea and southern Japan and less rainfall over northern China and the west Pacific region between 10° to 20°N. These anomalous precipitation patterns are mainly attributed to the EABC induced large scale circulation changes including the weakened Western Pacific Subtropical High (WPSH), anomalous ascent motions over central-southern China (centering over the Yangtze River valley (YRV)) and the subsequent descent motions over northern China and the South China Sea. These modeled results suggest that the EABC experiment reproduces the climate shift event of eastern China during the late 1970s, including intensified rainfall in the YRV and the weakened summer monsoonal circulation. (b) The anomalous results of South Asian BC (SABC) experiment signify a tri-polar precipitation response over East Asia, with a reduction from the YRV to East China Sea and southern Japan sandwiched with increases over a northern domain from northern China/ Korea to northern Japan and over southern China. As for southern China, particularly the YRV, the impact of SABC is to offset a fraction of intensified rainfall induced by local BC of East

  4. Teaching Asian American Students: Classroom Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Linda H.

    This study examined the unique learning styles of Asian-American students, noting different Asian immigrants' backgrounds and relating Asian cultures to children's learning. Data came from a literature review; interviews with 19 families from China, Hong Kong, Japan, Korea, and Taiwan who had a total of 33 children ages 6-21 years; and home and…

  5. New one-pot synthesis of Au and Ag nanoparticles using green rust reactive particle as a micro-reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayadi, Sondra; Perca, Cristian; Legrand, Ludovic

    2013-02-22

    A new, simple, and fast one-pot synthesis of supported Au or Ag nanoparticles is implemented, for which a reactive Fe(II)-bearing green rust inorganic particle is used as an individual micro-reactor acting as both the reducing agent and support for the resulting metal nanoparticles. The mechanism involves both the solid-state oxidation of the green rust support (sulfate or carbonate) and the reduction-precipitation of soluble metal precursor. The resulting nanohybrids have a platy inorganic part supporting about one to ten nanoparticles with sizes in the 20 to 120 nm range.

  6. A novel fungal hyperparasite of Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, the causal agent of wheat stripe rust.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gangming Zhan

    Full Text Available Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst, the causal fungus of wheat stripe rust, was previously reported to be infected by Lecanicillium lecanii, Microdochium nivale and Typhula idahoensis. Here, we report a novel hyperparasite on Pst. This hyperparasitic fungus was identified as Cladosporium cladosporioides (Fresen. GA de Vries based on morphological characteristics observed by light and scanning electron microscopy together with molecular data. The hyperparasite reduced the production and viability of urediniospores and, therefore, could potentially be used for biological control of wheat stripe rust.

  7. The Biochemistry, Chemistry and Physiology of the Isoflavones in Soybeans and their Food Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Abstract In this review of the chemistry, absorption, metabolism, and mechanisms of action of plant isoflavones, emphasis is placed on the isoflavones in soy and the food products derived from them. Soybeans have been part of food history in Asia for several millennia but did not reach the Americas and Europe until the eighteenth century. In the twentieth century, there was a tremendous increase in the cultivation of soybeans in the United States and more recently in South America. Soy foods have entered the U.S. food supply in ever-increasing amounts both in the form of traditional products (soy milk, tofu) and in more subtle ways in dairy and bread/cake products. The isoflavones in non-fermented foods are for the most part in the form of glycoside conjugates. These undergo changes due to different processing procedures. Isoflavones and their metabolites are well absorbed and undergo an enterohepatic circulation. They are often termed phytoestrogens because they bind to the estrogen receptors although weakly compared to physiologic estrogens. This estrogenicity is not the only mechanism by which isoflavones may have bioactivity—they inhibit tyrosine kinases, have antioxidant activity, bind to and activate peroxisome proliferator regulators α and γ, inhibit enzymes in steroid biosynthesis, strongly influence natural killer cell function and the activation of specific T-cell subsets, and inhibit metastasis. These various properties may explain the much lower incidence of hormonally-dependent breast cancer in Asian populations compared to Americans and Europeans. PMID:20235891

  8. Occupational dermatoses: An Asian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riti Bhatia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Occupational dermatoses contribute to a significant portion of work-related diseases, especially in Asia, where a major portion of the workforce is in the unorganized sector. This review article is focussed on the frequency and pattern of occupational skin diseases reported across Asian countries and type of allergens implicated in different occupations. The literature was searched systematically using key words 'occupational dermatoses,' 'occupational skin disease' and name of each Asian country. Ninty five full-text articles were considered relevant and evaluated. Some of the dermatoses seen in industrial workers in Asian countries are similar to those in Western countries, including dermatoses due to chromate in construction and electroplating workers, epoxy resin, and chromate in painters, wood dust in workers in the furniture industry, azo dyes in textile workers and formaldehyde and chromates in those working in the leather and dyeing industries, dermatoses in domestic workers, chefs and health-care workers. Dermatoses in workers engaged in agriculture, beedi (tiny cigars manufacture, agarbatti (incense sticks production, fish processing, carpet weaving, sanitation and those working in coffee plantations and coal mines appear to be unique to Asian countries. Recognition of clinical patterns and geographic variations in occupational skin diseases will provide an impetus to further strengthen future research in these areas, as well as improving their management.

  9. TB in Wild Asian Elephants

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-05-10

    Dr. Susan Mikota, co-founder of Elephant Care International, discusses TB in wild Asian elephants.  Created: 5/10/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 5/10/2017.

  10. South Asians in College Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad-Stout, David J.; Nath, Sanjay R.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this article is to provide information on the assessment and treatment of South Asian college students for mental health practitioners. We provide a brief historical review of the cultures from which these students come and the process of migration to the United States and also make recommendations for work with these students in the…

  11. The revolt of the Rust Belt: place and politics in the age of anger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuarrie, Michael

    2017-11-01

    This paper argues that the election of Donald Trump is the product of a confluence of historical factors rather than the distinctive appeal of the victor himself. By paying particular attention to the geography of unusual voting behaviour the analytical question comes into view: why did so much uncharacteristic voting occur in the Rust Belt states of the upper Midwest? It is impossible to answer this question adequately using conventional categorical attributes. The usual hypotheses of 'economic anxiety' and white revanchism are unable to account for sudden shifts in the voting behaviour of both white and black voters in post-industrial territories. Instead, it is necessary to turn to the history of the region and the institutional apparatus that connected voters there to the federal government and the Democratic Party. From this perspective we can see that the active dismantling of the Fordist social order set the region on a divergent path from the rest of the country. But this path had no political outlet due to the reorientation of the Democratic Party around a new class and geographic base. Due to this, the party pursued policies that would magnify the region's difficulties rather than alleviate its circumstances. Moreover, the elaborate institutional ties that connected the region's voters to the Democratic Party and the federal government meant that the political implications of regional decline would be muted. However, as these institutions frayed, Rust Belt voters were made available to candidates that challenged the policy consensus that had done so much damage to the region. The election was decided by a Rust Belt revolt that unified black and white working-class voters against Hillary Clinton and the Democratic Party. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2017.

  12. Electrochemical formation of green rusts in deaerated seawater-like solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Refait, Ph., E-mail: prefait@univ-lr.fr [Laboratoire d' etude des materiaux en milieux agressifs (LEMMA), EA 3167, Universite de La Rochelle, Bat. Marie Curie, Av. Michel Crepeau, F-17 042 La Rochelle Cedex 01 (France); Fed. de Recherche en Environnement et Developpement Durable, FR CNRS 3097 (France); Nguyen, D.D. [Laboratoire d' etude des materiaux en milieux agressifs (LEMMA), EA 3167, Universite de La Rochelle, Bat. Marie Curie, Av. Michel Crepeau, F-17 042 La Rochelle Cedex 01 (France); Hue University' s College of Education, Hue (Viet Nam); Jeannin, M. [Laboratoire d' etude des materiaux en milieux agressifs (LEMMA), EA 3167, Universite de La Rochelle, Bat. Marie Curie, Av. Michel Crepeau, F-17 042 La Rochelle Cedex 01 (France); Fed. de Recherche en Environnement et Developpement Durable, FR CNRS 3097 (France); Sable, S. [Littoral, Environnement et Societe (LiENSs), UMR 6250, CNRS-Univ. La Rochelle, Bat. Marie Curie, Av. Michel Crepeau, F-17 042 La Rochelle Cedex 01 (France); Fed. de Recherche en Environnement et Developpement Durable, FR CNRS 3097 (France); Langumier, M. [Laboratoire d' etude des materiaux en milieux agressifs (LEMMA), EA 3167, Universite de La Rochelle, Bat. Marie Curie, Av. Michel Crepeau, F-17 042 La Rochelle Cedex 01 (France); Littoral, Environnement et Societe (LiENSs), UMR 6250, CNRS-Univ. La Rochelle, Bat. Marie Curie, Av. Michel Crepeau, F-17 042 La Rochelle Cedex 01 (France); Fed. de Recherche en Environnement et Developpement Durable, FR CNRS 3097 (France); Sabot, R. [Laboratoire d' etude des materiaux en milieux agressifs (LEMMA), EA 3167, Universite de La Rochelle, Bat. Marie Curie, Av. Michel Crepeau, F-17 042 La Rochelle Cedex 01 (France); Fed. de Recherche en Environnement et Developpement Durable, FR CNRS 3097 (France)

    2011-07-15

    Highlights: > Sulphated green rust could be electro-generated on carbon steel in anoxic seawater-like electrolytes. > Rust layers grown during 11 years on carbon steel in natural seawater were thoroughly characterised by {mu}-Raman spectroscopy. > The mechanism of marine corrosion of carbon steel in anoxic conditions could be specified. - Abstract: Carbon steel electrodes were polarised at a potential {approx}150 mV higher than the open circuit potential, in a deaerated seawater-like electrolyte (0.5 mol dm{sup -3} NaCl, 0.03 mol dm{sup -3} Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, 0.003 mol dm{sup -3} NaHCO{sub 3}). X-ray diffraction and {mu}-Raman analysis demonstrated that a layer mainly composed of GR(SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}) had grown on the steel surface. GR(SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}) was accompanied by traces of GR(CO{sub 3}{sup 2-}). Similar experiments performed in a solution composed of 0.3 mol dm{sup -3} of Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and 0.03 mol dm{sup -3} of NaHCO{sub 3} led to the same result. The nature of the GR forming on steel is thus mainly linked to the sulphate to carbonate concentration ratio. Finally, carbon steel coupons immersed for 11 years in the harbour of La Rochelle (Atlantic coast) were removed from seawater for analysis. The inner part of the rust layer proved to be mainly composed of magnetite, GR(SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}) and iron sulphide FeS. This definitively confirms that GR(SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}), as Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and FeS, can form from steel in O{sub 2}-depleted environments.

  13. Green rust formation controls nutrient availability in a ferruginous water column

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zegeye, Asfaw; Bonneville, Steeve; Benning, Liane G.

    2013-01-01

    a mechanism for reconstructing ancient ocean chemistry. Such reconstructions depend, however, on precise knowledge of the iron minerals formed in the water column. Here, we combine mineralogical and geochemical analyses to demonstrate formation of the mixed-valence iron mineral, green rust, in ferruginous......Iron-rich (ferruginous) conditions were a prevalent feature of the ocean throughout much of Earth's history. The nature of elemental cycling in such settings is poorly understood, however, thus hampering reconstruction of paleoenvironmental conditions during key periods in Earth evolution...

  14. The phytosociology of the De Rust section of the Mountain Zebra National Park, Eastern Cape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.R. Brown

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available As part of a vegetation survey programme for conservation areas in South Africa, the plant communities of the De Rust section of the Mountain Zebra National Park were investigated. From a TWINSPAN classification, refined by Braun-Blanquet procedures, 14 plant communities, which can be placed into six major groups, were identified. A clas- sification and description of these communities, as well as a vegetation map are presented. Associated gradients in habitat were identified by using an ordination algorithm (DECORANA. The diagnostic species as well as the prominent and less conspicuous species of the tree, shrub, herb and grass strata are outlined.

  15. [Influence of salicylic and succinic acids on the cytophysiological reactions of wheat infected by brown rust].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikova, L Ia; Shtubeĭ, T Iu

    2009-01-01

    The influence of the salicylic and succinic acids on the cytophysiological reactions of the plants and cellular structures of the fungus were investigated using the model of common wheat Triticum aestivum L. infected by brown rust. The experiments were performed on seedlings of the isogenic line of var. Thatcher with resistant gene Lr19. The salicylic and succinic acids accelerated and enhanced to a different extent the generation of active oxygen species and synthesis of callose and phenylpropanoids by the plant cells contacting with cellular structures of avirulent and virulent fungal clones.

  16. Efficient dechlorination of carbon tetrachloride by hydrophobic green rust intercalated with dodecanoate anions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ayala Luis, Karina Barbara; Ginette Anneliese Cooper, Nicola; Bender Koch, Christian

    2012-01-01

    similar to those found in heavily contaminated groundwater close to polluted industrial sites (14 988 mu M) was reduced mainly to the fully dechlorinated products carbon monoxide (CO, yields >54 and formic acid (HCOOH, yields >6. Minor formation of chloroform (CF), the only chlorinated degradation product......The reductive dechlorination of carbon tetrachloride (CT) by Fe-II-Fe-III hydroxide (green rust) intercalated with dodecanoate, (Fe4Fe2III)-Fe-II (OH)(12)(C12H23O2)(2)center dot gamma H2O (designated GR(C12)), at pH similar to 8 and at room temperature was investigated. CT at concentration levels...

  17. Winter wheat susceptibilty to leaf rust and resistance sources to diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Chełkowski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Winter wheat cultivars were significantly infected by Puccinia triticina causing leaf rust in seasons 2000-2002 in southern and also central regions of Poland. Resistance genes Lr9, Lr19 and Lr24 were found to be effective against dominating populations of the pathogen and typical isolates of P. triticina. Mentioned three resistance genes as well as genes Lr10 and Lr37 were identified using STS (Sequence Tagged Site DNA - PCR markers in cultivars and resistance sources. Mentioned markers were found very useful in resistance breeding of wheat.

  18. Rust in Plumeria spp. (Apocynaceae in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassia de Carvalho

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Frangipani (Plumeria spp. is a plant widely used in urban ornamentation, due to its hardiness, easy handling and exuberance of its flowers. Plumeria spp. Leaves were collected in Dourados, MS, Brazil, with typical symptoms and signs of the presence of rust: powdery yellowish uredinias in the abaxial and chlorotic and necrotic spots on the adaxial surface of the leaves, sometimes resulting in leaf abscission. The present study aims to record the occurrence of the disease in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul. Microscopic observations and measurements of uredinospores and teliospores confirmed that the fungus infecting plants was Coleosporium plumeriae.

  19. Overexpression of Soybean Isoflavone Reductase (GmIFR) Enhances Resistance to Phytophthora sojae in Soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Qun; Li, Ninghui; Dong, Lidong; Zhang, Dayong; Fan, Sujie; Jiang, Liangyu; Wang, Xin; Xu, Pengfei; Zhang, Shuzhen

    2015-01-01

    Isoflavone reductase (IFR) is an enzyme involved in the biosynthetic pathway of isoflavonoid phytoalexin in plants. IFRs are unique to the plant kingdom and are considered to have crucial roles in plant response to various biotic and abiotic environmental stresses. Here, we report the characterization of a novel member of the soybean isoflavone reductase gene family GmIFR. Overexpression of GmIFR transgenic soybean exhibited enhanced resistance to Phytophthora sojae. Following stress treatments, GmIFR was significantly induced by P. sojae, ethephon (ET), abscisic acid (placeCityABA), salicylic acid (SA). It is located in the cytoplasm when transiently expressed in soybean protoplasts. The daidzein levels reduced greatly for the seeds of transgenic plants, while the relative content of glyceollins in transgenic plants was significantly higher than that of non-transgenic plants. Furthermore, we found that the relative expression levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) of transgenic soybean plants were significantly lower than those of non-transgenic plants after incubation with P. sojae, suggesting an important role of GmIFR might function as an antioxidant to reduce ROS in soybean. The enzyme activity assay suggested that GmIFR has isoflavone reductase activity.

  20. High-efficiency induction of soybean hairy roots and propagation of the soybean cyst nematode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, H J; Farrand, S K; Noel, G R; Widholm, J M

    2000-01-01

    Cotyledon explants of 10 soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] cultivars were inoculated with Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain K599 with and without binary vectors pBI121 or pBINm-gfp5-ER possessing both neomycin phosphotransferase II (nptII) and beta-glucuronidase (gus) or nptII and green fluorescent protein (gfp) genes, respectively. Hairy roots were produced from the wounded surface of 54-95% of the cotyledon explants on MXB selective medium containing 200 microg ml(-1) kanamycin and 500 microg ml(-1) carbenicillin. Putative individual transformed hairy roots were identified by cucumopine analysis and were screened for transgene incorporation using polymerase chain reaction. All of the roots tested were found to be co-transformed with T-DNA from the Ri-plasmid and the transgene from the binary vectors. Southern blot analysis confirmed the presence of the 35S-gfp5 gene in the plant genomes. Transgene expression was also confirmed by histochemical GUS assay and Western blot analysis for the GFP. Attempts to induce shoot formation from the hairy roots failed. Infection of hairy roots of the soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines Ichinohe)-susceptible cultivar, Williams 82, with eggs of H. glycines race 1, resulted in the development of mature cysts about 4-5 weeks after inoculation. Thus the soybean cyst nematode could complete its entire life cycle in transformed soybean hairy-root cultures expressing GFP. This system should be ideal for testing genes that might impart resistance to soybean cyst nematode.