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Sample records for asian small felid

  1. Modelling the Species Distribution of Flat-Headed Cats (Prionailurus planiceps), an Endangered South-East Asian Small Felid

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    Hearn, Andrew J.; Hesse, Deike; Mohamed, Azlan; Traeholdt, Carl; Cheyne, Susan M.; Sunarto, Sunarto; Jayasilan, Mohd-Azlan; Ross, Joanna; Shapiro, Aurélie C.; Sebastian, Anthony; Dech, Stefan; Breitenmoser, Christine; Sanderson, Jim; Duckworth, J. W.; Hofer, Heribert

    2010-01-01

    Background The flat-headed cat (Prionailurus planiceps) is one of the world's least known, highly threatened felids with a distribution restricted to tropical lowland rainforests in Peninsular Thailand/Malaysia, Borneo and Sumatra. Throughout its geographic range large-scale anthropogenic transformation processes, including the pollution of fresh-water river systems and landscape fragmentation, raise concerns regarding its conservation status. Despite an increasing number of camera-trapping field surveys for carnivores in South-East Asia during the past two decades, few of these studies recorded the flat-headed cat. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we designed a predictive species distribution model using the Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) algorithm to reassess the potential current distribution and conservation status of the flat-headed cat. Eighty-eight independent species occurrence records were gathered from field surveys, literature records, and museum collections. These current and historical records were analysed in relation to bioclimatic variables (WorldClim), altitude (SRTM) and minimum distance to larger water resources (Digital Chart of the World). Distance to water was identified as the key predictor for the occurrence of flat-headed cats (>50% explanation). In addition, we used different land cover maps (GLC2000, GlobCover and SarVision LLC for Borneo), information on protected areas and regional human population density data to extract suitable habitats from the potential distribution predicted by the MaxEnt model. Between 54% and 68% of suitable habitat has already been converted to unsuitable land cover types (e.g. croplands, plantations), and only between 10% and 20% of suitable land cover is categorised as fully protected according to the IUCN criteria. The remaining habitats are highly fragmented and only a few larger forest patches remain. Conclusion/Significance Based on our findings, we recommend that future conservation efforts for

  2. Modelling the species distribution of flat-headed cats (Prionailurus planiceps, an endangered South-East Asian small felid.

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    Andreas Wilting

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The flat-headed cat (Prionailurus planiceps is one of the world's least known, highly threatened felids with a distribution restricted to tropical lowland rainforests in Peninsular Thailand/Malaysia, Borneo and Sumatra. Throughout its geographic range large-scale anthropogenic transformation processes, including the pollution of fresh-water river systems and landscape fragmentation, raise concerns regarding its conservation status. Despite an increasing number of camera-trapping field surveys for carnivores in South-East Asia during the past two decades, few of these studies recorded the flat-headed cat. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we designed a predictive species distribution model using the Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt algorithm to reassess the potential current distribution and conservation status of the flat-headed cat. Eighty-eight independent species occurrence records were gathered from field surveys, literature records, and museum collections. These current and historical records were analysed in relation to bioclimatic variables (WorldClim, altitude (SRTM and minimum distance to larger water resources (Digital Chart of the World. Distance to water was identified as the key predictor for the occurrence of flat-headed cats (>50% explanation. In addition, we used different land cover maps (GLC2000, GlobCover and SarVision LLC for Borneo, information on protected areas and regional human population density data to extract suitable habitats from the potential distribution predicted by the MaxEnt model. Between 54% and 68% of suitable habitat has already been converted to unsuitable land cover types (e.g. croplands, plantations, and only between 10% and 20% of suitable land cover is categorised as fully protected according to the IUCN criteria. The remaining habitats are highly fragmented and only a few larger forest patches remain. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Based on our findings, we recommend that future conservation

  3. The influence of feeding enrichment on the behavior of small felids (Carnivora: Felidae in captivity

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    Letícia S. Resende

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Animals in captivity are frequently exposed to environmental deprivation resulting in abnormal behaviors that indicate distress. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the "surprise pack" environmental enrichment technique in improving the welfare of small neotropical felids in captivity. In order to accomplish this, we used five individuals from the Rio de Janeiro Zoo. The experiment was divided into three steps corresponding to: I period prior to the enrichment, II period in which the animals were being submitted to enrichment stimuli, and III period after the enrichment. In phase II, we observed a significant reduction in abnormal behavior compared to phases I and III. Only in phase II did the animals demonstrate the following behaviors: predation, social interaction and territory demarcation. However, in this same phase, the mean time spent interacting with the enrichment throughout the day showed a decrease.

  4. Parasites of free-ranging small canids and felids in the Bolivian Chaco.

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    Fiorello, Christine V; Robbins, Richard G; Maffei, Leonardo; Wade, Susan E

    2006-06-01

    Parasite surveys of free-ranging wildlife provide important information for monitoring population health. Between March 2001 and March 2003, we sampled 10 ocelots (Leopardus pardalis), eight Geoffroy's cats (Oncifelis geoffroyi), a jaguarundi (Herpailurus yaguarondi), five pampas foxes (Pseudalopex gymnocercus), and three crab-eating foxes (Cerdocyon thous) at three sites in the Bolivian Chaco. The objective of the study was to survey the parasite fauna of these carnivores and compare prevalence of parasites among the sites. The parasite community of these carnivores was diverse, with representatives from eight genera of nematodes, two families of cestodes, two protozoan species, and six arthropod species. Fecal parasites identified from 12 of the 13 felids and five of the six canids examined included Aelurostrongylus abstrusus, Ancylostoma tubaeforme, Uncinaria sp., Crenosoma sp., Toxocara cati, Spirurida, Capillaria aerophila, Spirometra sp., Taeniidae, and Cystoisospora sp. Four tick species, Amblyomma parvum, A. tigrinum, A. ovale, and A. cajennense, and two flea species, Pulex irritans and Delostichus phyllotis, were identified. Two crab-eating foxes had serologic evidence of heartworm disease (HWD). Antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii were found in 15 of 26 animals. Although HWD was found only in canids inside the national park, parasite prevalence did not appear to differ among sites, and no evidence was found of parasite spillover from domestic to wild carnivores.

  5. Isolation of Malassezia spp. from cerumen of wild felids.

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    Coutinho, Selene Dall' Acqua; Fedullo, José Daniel; Corrêa, Sandra Helena

    2006-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the presence of different species of the genus Malassezia in the healthy external auditory canal of wild felids maintained in captivity. One hundred and thirty-two adult animals (264 samples of cerumen), 77 males (58.3%) and 55 females (41.7%), were studied: large felids (55 animals) - 26 lions (Panthera leo), 13 tigers (Panthera tigris), 6 leopards (Panthera pardus), 6 jaguars (Panthera onca), 2 cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus), 2 pumas (Puma concolor); small felids (77 animals) - 29 tiger cats (Leopardus tigrinus), 19 jaguarundis (Herpailurus yagouaroundi), 10 margays (Leopardus wiedii), 9 pampas cats (Oncifelis colocolo), 6 geoffroy's cats (Oncifelis geoffroyi), and 4 servals (Leptailurus serval). Samples were obtained by the introduction of a sterile swab into the ear canal after cleaning the auricle with an alcohol-ether solution. The swabs were seeded onto Petri dishes containing modified Mycosel agar and sterile olive oil was added to the surface of the medium before specimen seeding. The plates were incubated at 35oC for two weeks. The isolates were analyzed regarding macro-and micromorphology and identified through catalase tests and growth on Tween 20, 40, 60 and 80. Malassezia spp. were isolated from 58 of the felids studied (43.9%) and from 102 samples of cerumen (38.6%). Malassezia sympodialis was isolated exclusively in large felids (33 animals-56.9%), and Malassezia pachydermatis exclusively in smaller varieties (25 animals - 43.1%). The incidence of fungi was higher in lions, with yeast being isolated in 25 of 26 animals (96.2%). Forty-eight strains (47.1%) were isolated from the right ear canal and 54 (52.9%) from the left. Although M. pachydermatis is the species considered a member of the microbiota of the mammalian external ear canal these results suggest that M. sympodialis participates in the microbiota of large felids.

  6. International training programs in reproductive sciences for conservation of Latin American felids.

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    Swanson, W F; Brown, J L

    2004-07-01

    Survival of the ten non-domestic felid species endemic to Latin America is imperiled by habitat loss, poaching and poor captive management. Over the past 10 years, conservation of these felids has been the primary focus of a reproductive research and training program conducted in Brazil, Mexico, and the USA. The objectives of this program were to: (1) provide intensive training in reproductive sciences to Latin American scientists, (2) conduct collaborative studies investigating basic and applied reproduction in endangered felids, and (3) establish a highly-trained scientific cohort to conduct independent conservation-based research. Four formal training courses, consisting of didactic lectures and hands-on instruction in research techniques, including semen collection, sperm cryopreservation and laparoscopic artificial insemination (AI), were taught in Brazil and Mexico between 1995 and 1998. Several of these scientists received further training in conducting fecal hormone analysis in the USA, and a number of research studies, many in collaboration with American scientists, were initiated in Latin American felids. Research findings have characterized basal reproductive traits in several felid species, including ocelots, margay, tigrinas and jaguars, and established that Latin American felids exhibit only minimal seasonal variation in most reproductive traits. Other studies have explored the impact of acute and chronic stressors on adrenocortical activity and demonstrated the importance of environmental enrichment in captivity, especially in small felids. Additional research has examined ovarian and immunological responsiveness of Latin American felids to exogenous gonadotropins and assessed the impact of nutrition on sperm production and oocyte quality. Applied reproductive studies have investigated sperm cryopreservation in both captive and wild felid populations and demonstrated the production of viable offspring in ocelots and tigrinas following laparoscopic AI

  7. Parasitosis in wild felids of India: an overview

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    Aman Dev Moudgil

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Being a tropical country, India provides an ideal environment for the development of parasites as well as for vector populations resulting in a high degree of parasitism in animals and humans. But only a few detailed studies and sporadic case reports are available on the prevalence of parasites in captive wild animals, and the knowledge of parasites and parasitic diseases in wild animals is still in its infancy.  The family felidae comprises the subfamily felinae and pantherinae, and within those are all large and small cats.  Most of the available reports on parasites in felids describe helminthic infections, which caused morbidities and occasional mortalities in the infected animals.  The parasites most frequently found include the nematodes Toxocara, Toxascaris, Baylisascaris, Strongyloides, Gnathostoma, Dirofilaria and Galonchus, the trematode Paragonimus and the cestodes Echinococcus and Taenia.  Almost all the studies identified the parasitic stages by classical parasitological techniques and only a few new studies confirmed the species using molecular techniques.  Amongst the protozoan parasitic infections reported in felids: babesiosis, trypanosomiasis and coccidiosis are most commonly found.  Most of the parasite species found in felids are transmissible to humans (zoonosis and therefore have public health significance.  Routine monitoring of the presence of parasites in captive wild felids is imperative for the formulation and implementation of measures to prevent and control parasitic infections and the transmission of these parasites to humans.  This review summarizes the available reports and highlights deficient areas, which require further systematic investigation. 

  8. Recommendations on vaccination for Asian small animal practitioners: a report of the WSAVA Vaccination Guidelines Group.

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    Day, M J; Karkare, U; Schultz, R D; Squires, R; Tsujimoto, H

    2015-02-01

    In 2012 and 2013, the World Small Animal Veterinary Association (WSAVA) Vaccination Guidelines Group (VGG) undertook fact-finding visits to several Asian countries, with a view to developing advice for small companion animal practitioners in Asia related to the administration of vaccines to dogs and cats. The VGG met with numerous first opinion practitioners, small animal association leaders, academic veterinarians, government regulators and industry representatives and gathered further information from a survey of almost 700 veterinarians in India, China, Japan and Thailand. Although there were substantial differences in the nature and magnitude of the challenges faced by veterinarians in each country, and also differences in the resources available to meet those challenges, overall, the VGG identified insufficient undergraduate and postgraduate training in small companion animal microbiology, immunology and vaccinology. In most of the countries, there has been little academic research into small animal infectious diseases. This, coupled with insufficient laboratory diagnostic support, has limited the growth of knowledge concerning the prevalence and circulating strains of key infectious agents in most of the countries visited. Asian practitioners continue to recognise clinical infections that are now considered uncommon or rare in western countries. In particular, canine rabies virus infection poses a continuing threat to animal and human health in this region. Both nationally manufactured and international dog and cat vaccines are variably available in the Asian countries, but the product ranges are small and dominated by multi-component vaccines with a licensed duration of immunity (DOI) of only 1 year, or no description of DOI. Asian practitioners are largely unaware of current global trends in small animal vaccinology or of the WSAVA vaccination guidelines. Consequently, most practitioners continue to deliver annual revaccination with both core and non

  9. Comparative endocrinology of domestic and nondomestic felids.

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    Brown, Janine L

    2006-07-01

    The ability to track gonadal and adrenal activity via hormones is key to optimizing health and reproduction. Through decades of study, a great deal has been learned about the biology of female domestic cats, including endocrine function. More recently, comparative endocrine studies have greatly expanded our knowledge base of nondomestic felids as well. The latter has been possible largely through the development of noninvasive fecal steroid metabolite analysis techniques, which currently is the method of choice for monitoring endocrine function in wildlife species, including felids. It now is well-recognized that a range in endocrine patterns exists among Felidae, with many traits and mechanisms being uncommon, if not unique. There is a high degree of variability in the type of ovulation (spontaneous versus induced) expressed across the taxon. Even within species, some individuals exhibit ovulation that is only induced, whereas others ovulate spontaneously as well. Steroid metabolism also differs in that metabolites are excreted almost exclusively in feces, with very little steroid found in urine. Across species there are marked differences in seasonal and social influences on reproduction, adrenal responses to husbandry practices, and ovarian responses to assisted reproductive procedures. This means that developing strategies to improve health and reproduction of felids must be done on a species by species basis. This paper summarizes current knowledge on the reproductive endocrinology of female domestic and nondomestic cats, and describes how the rapidly growing endocrine database is aiding ex situ management efforts.

  10. Worldwide occurrence of feline hemoplasma infections in wild felid species.

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    Willi, Barbara; Filoni, Claudia; Catão-Dias, José L; Cattori, Valentino; Meli, Marina L; Vargas, Astrid; Martínez, Fernando; Roelke, Melody E; Ryser-Degiorgis, Marie-Pierre; Leutenegger, Christian M; Lutz, Hans; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina

    2007-04-01

    While hemoplasma infections in domestic cats are well studied, almost no information is available on their occurrence in wild felids. The aims of the present study were to investigate wild felid species as possible reservoirs of feline hemoplasmas and the molecular characterization of the hemoplasma isolates. Blood samples from the following 257 wild felids were analyzed: 35 Iberian lynxes from Spain, 36 Eurasian lynxes from Switzerland, 31 European wildcats from France, 45 lions from Tanzania, and 110 Brazilian wild felids, including 12 wild felid species kept in zoos and one free-ranging ocelot. Using real-time PCR, feline hemoplasmas were detected in samples of the following species: Iberian lynx, Eurasian lynx, European wildcat, lion, puma, oncilla, Geoffroy's cat, margay, and ocelot. "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum" was the most common feline hemoplasma in Iberian lynxes, Eurasian lynxes, Serengeti lions, and Brazilian wild felids, whereas "Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis" was the most prevalent in European wildcats; hemoplasma coinfections were frequently observed. Hemoplasma infection was associated with species and free-ranging status of the felids in all animals and with feline leukemia virus provirus-positive status in European wildcats. Phylogenetic analyses of the 16S rRNA and the partial RNase P gene revealed that most hemoplasma isolates exhibit high sequence identities to domestic cat-derived isolates, although some isolates form different subclusters within the phylogenetic tree. In conclusion, 9 out of 15 wild felid species from three different continents were found to be infected with feline hemoplasmas. The effect of feline hemoplasma infections on wild felid populations needs to be further investigated.

  11. Degenerative spinal disease in large felids.

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    Kolmstetter, C; Munson, L; Ramsay, E C

    2000-03-01

    Degenerative spinal disorders, including intervertebral disc disease and spondylosis, seldom occur in domestic cats. In contrast, a retrospective study of 13 lions (Panthera leo), 16 tigers (Panthera tigris), 4 leopards (Panthera pardis), 1 snow leopard (Panthera uncia), and 3 jaguars (Panthera onca) from the Knoxville Zoo that died or were euthanatized from 1976 to 1996 indicated that degenerative spinal disease is an important problem in large nondomestic felids. The medical record, radiographic data, and the necropsy report of each animal were examined for evidence of intervertebral disc disease or spondylosis. Eight (three lions, four tigers, and one leopard) animals were diagnosed with degenerative spinal disease. Clinical signs included progressively decreased activity, moderate to severe rear limb muscle atrophy, chronic intermittent rear limb paresis, and ataxia. The age at onset of clinical signs was 10-19 yr (median = 18 yr). Radiographic evaluation of the spinal column was useful in assessing the severity of spinal lesions, and results were correlated with necropsy findings. Lesions were frequently multifocal, included intervertebral disc mineralization or herniation with collapsed intervertebral disc spaces, and were most common in the lumbar area but also involved cervical and thoracic vertebrae. Marked spondylosis was present in the cats with intervertebral disc disease, presumably subsequent to vertebral instability. Six of the animals' spinal cords were examined histologically, and five had acute or chronic damage to the spinal cord secondary to disc protrusion. Spinal disease should be suspected in geriatric large felids with decreased appetite or activity. Radiographic evaluation of the spinal column is the most useful method to assess the type and severity of spinal lesions.

  12. A Progress Report on the Species Survival Plan for Asian Small-Clawed Otters in United States Zoos

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    Foster-Turley P.

    1986-05-01

    Full Text Available When the Asian otter SSP /committee was initiated, these otters were maintained in more than ten zoos, but were successfully reproducing in none of them. Various explanations were offered to explain this breeding .failure. New animals were imported from zoos outside the United States to supplement the United States' captive population of ageing, previous pets. In the past two years two facilities have had repeated successful births, and two others have recorded first births that were stillborn. Research initiated by members of the SSP committee is now in progress to understand more of the reproductive, genetic and behavioural make-up of the Asian small-clawed otter.

  13. Biology and Ecology of Asian Small-Clawed Otter Aonyx cinereus (Illiger, 1815: A Review

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    Sandeep Kumar Gupta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Asian small-clawed otter is the smallest among the 13 extant species of otters. It has a large distribution range extending from India in South Asia through Southeast Asia up to Taiwan and Philippines in the east and Southern China in the north. It is considered ‘Vulnerable’ due to habitat loss and degradation, depletion of prey species and exploitation. Being adapted to live in shallow streams and water bodies, they are more vulnerable to modification of these habitats by anthropogenic as well as climate change impacts. This paper summarizes the state of knowledge on the biology and ecology of this little known species. Over the years, the IUCN SSC Otter Specialist Group has developed a cadre of biologist across Asia to conduct field surveys and has popularized otter conservation by promoting otter as the ambassador of wetlands. However, concerted effort is needed for its long-term survival. Policy based action, research on factors affecting survival, habitat-based actions on creation and where required expansion of protected areas and communication and awareness building among local communities are suggested.

  14. Conservation Aspects of the Ecology of Asian Small-Clawed and Smooth Otters on the Malay Peninsula

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    Foster-Turley P.

    1992-02-01

    Full Text Available Between April 1989 and June 1990 I made four six-week study visits to Tanjong Piandang, Perak, Malaysia where I studied otters in collaboration with Mr Burhannudin ("Bond" Mohd of the Department of National parks and Wildlife of Peninsular Malaysia. We mostly studied field signs and collected scats of both smooth (Lutra perspicillata and small clawed otters (Aonyx cinerea inhabiting the rice fields and fringing mangroves of the study site. With experience, smooth and small-clawed otters signs can be easily discriminated in the field. Although previous natural historians have considered mangroves important to smooth otters, the results of this study indicate their importance to small-clawed otters as well. More than 25 % of the remaining mangroves in Malaysia are under threat of conversion to aquaculture projects: a particular problem for the survival of otters, as this brings them into even closer contact with humans who view them as pests. The Kerian rice fields of Perak, Malaysia are also an important habitat for small-clawed and smooth otters. Asian rivers seem to contain fewer otter signs and probably fewer otters than wetlands, marshes and mangroves, so preserving pristine Asian river habitats like Hauy Kha Khaeng and Sungai Tembeling may not be enough to ensure the survival of good populations of otters. I suggest that to be most effective in our Asian otter conservation efforts we need to increasingly link up with our colleagues who are working to protect these fragile habitats.

  15. Adaptive differences in the body proportions of large felids.

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    Gonyea, W J

    1976-01-01

    Body proportions of eight species of large felids were studied and the relationship between their morphology, habitat structure and habitat utilization was analyzed. Both Panthera onca and Neofelis nebulosa are exclusive forest dwellers (found exclusively in high densly structured habitats). These felids have the relatively shortest anterior limbs and lumbar spine. In addition, P. onca has the relatively shortest posterior limbs of the large felids, while the posterior limbs of N. nebulosa are relatively long when compared with those of P. onca which seems to be an adaptation for jumping. All large fields use the anterior limbs to make primary contact with their prey. In addition, the prey taken by the forest fields can exceed their own body weight. On the other hand, the cheetah is found in low structured habitats (savanna), and it has the relatively longest limbs and lumbarspine of the large felids. But the cheetah's prey usually weigh less than its own body weight. The cheetah also employs a 'rapid pursuit phase' in hunting and is capable of overtaking its prey. The lion, however, was found to have the body proportions of a forest felid, yet it also resides in low structured habitats. It is postulated that the utilization of large prey by the lion limits the possibilities for morphological adaptations for speed. To increase hunting efficiency, reproductive success, and territorial defense on the plains, lions form prides.

  16. Digital Image Collections for Asian Religion and Art History in a Small-Sized Liberal Arts College

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    May Chang

    2002-10-01

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    頁次:6-15

    small;">This paper reviews the establishment of a digital image library from 35mm slides to support faculty and student needs in a small-sized liberal arts college. The framework consists of central local resources, distributed faculty collections, and external resources. Standards and guidelines for digital preservation and access are also discussed. The pilot collections were multi-disciplinary resources in Middle East art and architecture and faculty slide collections in East Asian religions and Asian art history. Technical and management issues of integrating digital technology in the traditional slide library are also discussed.

  17. AZA Wildlife Contraception Center programme for wild felids and canids.

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    Asa, C; Boutelle, S; Bauman, K

    2012-12-01

    North American zoos began using melengestrol acetate (MGA) implants to control reproduction in wild felids in the mid-1970s. Research linking MGA and other progestin-based contraceptives to uterine and mammary pathology in canids as well as felids resulted in a shift to GnRH agonist implants (Suprelorin(®): deslorelin, Peptech Animal Health, Australia). However, a recent study revealed an association between Suprelorin(®) and uterine pathology in canids, but that pathology was not found in canids treated with oral megestrol acetate (MA) for 2 weeks around the time of implant insertion to prevent the initial agonist stimulation phase. Thus, the AZA Wildlife Contraception Center (WCC) currently recommends Suprelorin(®) plus the 2-week MA regimen for wild canids and felids. WCC research is now focusing on factors affecting Suprelorin(®) reversibility.

  18. Leishmania(Leishmania) chagasi in captive wild felids in Brazil.

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    Dahroug, Magyda A A; Almeida, Arleana B P F; Sousa, Valéria R F; Dutra, Valéria; Turbino, Nívea C M R; Nakazato, Luciano; de Souza, Roberto L

    2010-01-01

    This study used a PCR-RFLP test to determine the presence of Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi in 16 captive wild felids [seven Puma concolor (Linnaeus, 1771); five Panthera onca (Linnaeus, 1758) and four Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus, 1758)] at the zoological park of the Federal University of Mato Grosso, Brazil. Amplification of Leishmania spp. DNA was seen in samples from five pumas and one jaguar, and the species was characterized as L. chagasi using restriction enzymes. It is already known that domestic felids can act as a reservoir of L. chagasi in endemic areas, and further studies are necessary to investigate their participation in the epidemiological chain of leishmaniasis.

  19. Cloning Endangered Felids by Interspecies Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer.

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    Gómez, Martha C; Pope, C Earle

    2015-01-01

    In 2003, the first wild felid was produced by interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer. Since then other wild felid clone offspring have been produced by using the same technique with minor modifications. This chapter describes detailed protocols used in our laboratory for (1) the isolation, culture, and preparation of fibroblast cells as donor nucleus, and (2) embryo reconstruction with domestic cat enucleated oocytes to produce cloned embryos that develop to the blastocyst stage in vitro and, after transfer into synchronized recipients, establish successful pregnancies.

  20. Assessing the efficacy of hair snares as a method for noninvasive sampling of Neotropical felids

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    Tatiana P. Portella

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Hair snares have been used in North and Central America for a long time in assessment and monitoring studies of several mammalian species. This method can provide a cheap, suitable, and efficient way to monitor mammals because it combines characteristics that are not present in most alternative techniques. However, despite their usefulness, hair snares are rarely used in other parts of the world. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effectiveness of hair snares and three scent lures (cinnamon, catnip, and vanilla in the detection of felids in one of the largest remnants of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. We performed tests with six captive felid species - Panthera onca (Linnaeus, 1758, Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus, 1758, L. tigrinus (Schreber, 1775, L. wiedii (Schinz, 1821, Puma concolor (Linnaeus, 1771, and P. yagouaroundi (É. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1803 - to examine their responses to the attractants, and to correlate those with lure efficiency in the field. The field tests were conducted at the Parque Estadual Pico do Marumbi, state of Paraná, Brazil. Hair traps were placed on seven transects. There were equal numbers of traps with each scent lure, for a total of 1,551 trap-days. In captivity, vanilla provided the greatest response, yet no felids were detected in the field with any of the tested lures, although other species were recorded. Based on the sampling of non-target species, and the comparison with similar studies elsewhere, this study points to a possible caveat of this method when rare species or small populations are concerned. Meanwhile, we believe that improved hair snares could provide important results with several species in the location tested and others.

  1. An evaluation of the PCR-RFLP technique to aid molecular-based monitoring of felids and canids in India

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    Home Chandrima

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The order Carnivora is well represented in India, with 58 of the 250 species found globally, occurring here. However, small carnivores figure very poorly in research and conservation policies in India. This is mainly due to the dearth of tested and standardized techniques that are both cost effective and conducive to small carnivore studies in the field. In this paper we present a non-invasive genetic technique standardized for the study of Indian felids and canids with the use of PCR amplification and restriction enzyme digestion of scat collected in the field. Findings Using existing sequences of felids and canids from GenBank, we designed primers from the 16S rRNA region of the mitochondrial genome and tested these on ten species of felids and five canids. We selected restriction enzymes that would cut the selected region differentially for various species within each family. We produced a restriction digestion profile for the potential differentiation of species based on fragment patterns. To test our technique, we used felid PCR primers on scats collected from various habitats in India, representing varied environmental conditions. Amplification success with field collected scats was 52%, while 86% of the products used for restriction digestion could be accurately assigned to species. We verified this through sequencing. A comparison of costs across the various techniques currently used for scat assignment showed that this technique was the most practical and cost effective. Conclusions The species-specific key developed in this paper provides a means for detailed investigations in the future that focus on elusive carnivores in India and this approach provides a model for other studies in areas of Asia where many small carnivores co-occur.

  2. Identification of neotropical felid faeces using RCP-PCR.

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    Roques, S; Adrados, B; Chavez, C; Keller, C; Magnusson, W E; Palomares, F; Godoy, J A

    2011-01-01

    Faeces similarity among sympatric felid species has generally hampered their use in distributional, demographic and dietary studies. Here, we present a new and simple approach based on a set of species-specific primers, for the unambiguous identification of faeces from sympatric neotropical felids (i.e. puma, jaguar, jaguarundi and ocelot/ margay). This method, referred to as rapid classificatory protocol-PCR (RCP-PCR), consists of a single-tube multiplex PCR yielding species-specific banding patterns on agarose gel. The method was optimized with samples of known origin (14 blood and 15 fresh faeces) and validated in faecal samples of unknown origin (n = 138), for some of which (n = 40) we also obtained species identification based on mtDNA sequencing. This approach proved reliable and provides high identification success rates from faeces. Its simplicity and cost effectiveness should facilitate its application for routine surveys of presence and abundance of these species.

  3. Pathology in Captive Wild Felids at German Zoological Gardens.

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    Johannes Junginger

    Full Text Available This retrospective study provides an overview on spontaneous diseases occurring in 38 captive wild felids submitted for necropsy by German zoological gardens between 2004 and 2013. Species included 18 tigers, 8 leopards, 7 lions, 3 cheetahs and 2 cougars with an age ranging from 0.5 to 22 years. Renal lesions, predominantly tubular alterations (intra-tubular concrements, tubular degeneration, necrosis, intra-tubular cellular debris, proteinaceous casts, dilated tubuli followed by interstitial (lympho-plasmacytic inflammation, fibrosis, metastatic-suppurative inflammation, eosinophilic inflammation and glomerular lesions (glomerulonephritis, glomerulosclerosis, amyloidosis were detected in 33 out of 38 animals (87%. Tumors were found in 19 of 38 felids (50% with 12 animals showing more than one neoplasm. The tumor prevalence increased with age. Neoplasms originated from endocrine (11, genital (8, lympho-hematopoietic (5 and alimentary organs (4 as well as the mesothelium (3. Most common neoplasms comprised uterine/ovarian leiomyomas (5/2, thyroid adenomas/adenocarcinoma (5/1, pleural mesotheliomas (3, hemangiosarcomas (2 and glossal papillomas (2. Inflammatory changes were frequently encountered in the intestine and the lung. Two young animals displayed metastatic mineralization suggestive of a vitamin D- or calcium intoxication. One tiger exhibited degenerative white matter changes consistent with an entity termed large felid leukoencephalomyelopathy. Various hyperplastic, degenerative and inflammatory changes with minor clinical significance were found in several organs. Summarized, renal lesions followed by neoplastic changes as well as inflammatory changes in lung and gastrointestinal tract represent the most frequent findings in captive wild felids living in German zoological gardens.

  4. Pathology in Captive Wild Felids at German Zoological Gardens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junginger, Johannes; Hansmann, Florian; Herder, Vanessa; Lehmbecker, Annika; Peters, Martin; Beyerbach, Martin; Wohlsein, Peter; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    This retrospective study provides an overview on spontaneous diseases occurring in 38 captive wild felids submitted for necropsy by German zoological gardens between 2004 and 2013. Species included 18 tigers, 8 leopards, 7 lions, 3 cheetahs and 2 cougars with an age ranging from 0.5 to 22 years. Renal lesions, predominantly tubular alterations (intra-tubular concrements, tubular degeneration, necrosis, intra-tubular cellular debris, proteinaceous casts, dilated tubuli) followed by interstitial (lympho-plasmacytic inflammation, fibrosis, metastatic-suppurative inflammation, eosinophilic inflammation) and glomerular lesions (glomerulonephritis, glomerulosclerosis, amyloidosis) were detected in 33 out of 38 animals (87%). Tumors were found in 19 of 38 felids (50%) with 12 animals showing more than one neoplasm. The tumor prevalence increased with age. Neoplasms originated from endocrine (11), genital (8), lympho-hematopoietic (5) and alimentary organs (4) as well as the mesothelium (3). Most common neoplasms comprised uterine/ovarian leiomyomas (5/2), thyroid adenomas/adenocarcinoma (5/1), pleural mesotheliomas (3), hemangiosarcomas (2) and glossal papillomas (2). Inflammatory changes were frequently encountered in the intestine and the lung. Two young animals displayed metastatic mineralization suggestive of a vitamin D- or calcium intoxication. One tiger exhibited degenerative white matter changes consistent with an entity termed large felid leukoencephalomyelopathy. Various hyperplastic, degenerative and inflammatory changes with minor clinical significance were found in several organs. Summarized, renal lesions followed by neoplastic changes as well as inflammatory changes in lung and gastrointestinal tract represent the most frequent findings in captive wild felids living in German zoological gardens.

  5. Analysis of Thermal Environment over a Small-Scale Landscape in a Densely Built-Up Asian Megacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younha Kim

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have found that larger parks might be needed to counteract the Urban Heat Island effects typical in densely populated Asian megacities. However, it is not easy to establish large parks to serve as urban cool islands in Asian megacities, where little space exists for large urban neighborhood parks. Officials in these cities would rather use small areas by replacing heat-absorbing artificial land cover with natural cover. The main objective of this study was to understand the cooling effect of changes in land cover on surface and air temperatures in urban micro-scale environments for supporting sustainable green-space planning and policy in densely built-up areas. This was achieved using measurements at different heights (ground surface, 0.1 m, and 1.5 m for five land cover types (LCTs and modeling with the micro-scale climate model ENVI-met. At all vertical measuring points, the average temperature over the entire measurement period had the same hot-to-cold order: asphalt > soil > grass > water > forest. However, the value dramatically decreased as the measuring points became higher. The intensity of hot and cool spots showed the highest value at surface by 18.2 °C, and declined with the height, showing 4.1 °C at 0.1 m and 3.1 °C at 1.5 m. The modeling results indicated that the well-known diurnal variation in surface insolation also occurred in our small domain, among the various LCTs. Based on these findings, providing small-scale green infrastructure in densely built-up areas could be an effective way to improve urban micro-scale thermal conditions.

  6. Prevalence of Salmonella spp. and thermophilic Campylobacter spp. in the small Asian mongoose (Herpestes javanicus) in Barbados, West Indies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhynd, Kamara J R; Leighton, Patrick A; Elcock, David A; Whitehall, Pamela J; Rycroft, Andrew; Macgregor, Shaheed K

    2014-12-01

    From April to July 2005, rectal swabs were collected from 48 free-ranging small Asian mongooses (Herpestes javanicus) on the east and south coasts of Barbados and analyzed for Salmonella and Campylobacter spp. Salmonella was recovered in 21.12% (7/33) of mongooses at the east-coast site and 26.67% (4/15) at the south-coast site. Four serotypes were isolated: Salmonella enterica serovar Rubislaw, Kentucky, Javiana, and Panama. One east-coast sample of 11 tested for Campylobacter was positive (9.09%). These results indicate that mongooses in Barbados are carriers and shedders of Salmonella and Campylobacter spp. and are a potential wildlife reservoir for these enteropathogens.

  7. A Neoclassical Analysis of the Asian Crisis: Business Cycle Accounting of a Small Open Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Keisuke Otsu

    2007-01-01

    This paper applies the business cycle accounting method a la Chari, Kehoe and McGrattan (2007) to a standard neoclassical small open economy model and assesses the recent crises in Hong Kong, Korea, Singapore and Thailand. The key common features of these crises are the sudden output collapses and consumption drops as large as the output drops. Quantitative results show that the sudden drops in total factor productivity are important in explaining the output drops. Distortions in the foreign ...

  8. Social partner discrimination based on sounds and scents in Asian small-clawed otters ( Aonyx cinereus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemasson, A.; Mikus, M.-A.; Blois-Heulin, C.; Lodé, T.

    2013-03-01

    Ability to discriminate familiar conspecifics is an essential competence in any group-living species, ensuring socio-spatial cohesion, but in many animals, such as mustelids, the relative importance of the different communicative modalities for discrimination is poorly understood. In otters, there is evidence of intra-specific variation in physical appearance and in feces chemical profile, but the potential for acoustic identity coding as well as for identity decoding in visual, acoustic and olfactive domains remains unexplored. We investigated the acoustic structure of contact calls in five captive groups of small-clawed otters and found that it is possible to reliably assign one particular call to a given adult male caller. Females discriminated between familiar and unfamiliar adult males based on their sound (playback) and smell (feces) but not based on their picture, suggesting abilities to memorize and use acoustic and olfactive signatures in their daily social life.

  9. Social partner discrimination based on sounds and scents in Asian small-clawed otters (Aonyx cinereus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemasson, A; Mikus, M-A; Blois-Heulin, C; Lodé, T

    2013-03-01

    Ability to discriminate familiar conspecifics is an essential competence in any group-living species, ensuring socio-spatial cohesion, but in many animals, such as mustelids, the relative importance of the different communicative modalities for discrimination is poorly understood. In otters, there is evidence of intra-specific variation in physical appearance and in feces chemical profile, but the potential for acoustic identity coding as well as for identity decoding in visual, acoustic and olfactive domains remains unexplored. We investigated the acoustic structure of contact calls in five captive groups of small-clawed otters and found that it is possible to reliably assign one particular call to a given adult male caller. Females discriminated between familiar and unfamiliar adult males based on their sound (playback) and smell (feces) but not based on their picture, suggesting abilities to memorize and use acoustic and olfactive signatures in their daily social life.

  10. Molecular detection of Cytauxzoon spp. in asymptomatic Brazilian wild captive felids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, Marcos R; Adania, Cristina H; Machado, Rosangela Z; Allegretti, Silmara M; Felippe, Paulo A N; Silva, Ketty F; Nakaghi, Andréa C H; Dagnone, Ana S

    2009-01-01

    Cytauxzoon spp. DNA was detected for the first time in blood samples from asymptomatic Brazilian wild captive felids. In 2006, 72 EDTA blood samples from seven wild felids species: Puma concolor (puma), Leopardus pardalis (ocelot), Puma yagouaroundi (jaguarundi), Leopardus wiedii (margay), Leopardus tigrinus (little spotted cat), Oncifelis colocolo (pampas cat) and Panthera onca (jaguar) were analyzed using polymerase chain reaction to amplify the 18S rRNA gene segment in order to verify the presence of Cytauxzoon spp. DNA. Nine samples were positive: six ocelots, two pumas, and one jaguar. In Brazil, wild felids may be natural reservoirs for Cytauxzoon spp.

  11. Molecular Phenotyping Small (Asian) versus Large (Western) Plaque Psoriasis Shows Common Activation of IL-17 Pathway Genes but Different Regulatory Gene Sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaehwan; Oh, Chil-Hwan; Jeon, Jiehyun; Baek, Yoosang; Ahn, Jaewoo; Kim, Dong Joo; Lee, Hyun-Soo; Correa da Rosa, Joel; Suárez-Fariñas, Mayte; Lowes, Michelle A; Krueger, James G

    2016-01-01

    Psoriasis is present in all racial groups, but in varying frequencies and severity. Considering that small plaque psoriasis is specific to the Asian population and severe psoriasis is more predominant in the Western population, we defined Asian small and intermediate plaque psoriasis as psoriasis subtypes and compared their molecular signatures with the classic subtype of Western large plaque psoriasis. Two different characteristics of psoriatic spreading-vertical growth and radial expansion-were contrasted between subtypes, and genomic data were correlated to histologic and clinical measurements. Compared with Western large plaque psoriasis, Asian small plaque psoriasis revealed limited psoriasis spreading, but IL-17A and IL-17-regulated proinflammatory cytokines were highly expressed. Paradoxically, IL-17A and IL-17-regulated proinflammatory cytokines were lower in Western large plaque psoriasis, whereas T cells and dendritic cells in total psoriatic skin area were exponentially increased. Negative immune regulators, such as CD69 and FAS, were decreased in both Western large plaque psoriasis and psoriasis with accompanying arthritis or obesity, and their expression was correlated with psoriasis severity index. Based on the disease subtype comparisons, we propose that dysregulation of T-cell expansion enabled by downregulation of immune negative regulators is the main mechanism for development of large plaque psoriasis subtypes.

  12. Antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in captive neotropical and exotic wild canids and felids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, M R; Adania, C H; Teixeira, R H F; Silva, K F; Jusi, M M G; Machado, S T Z; de Bortolli, C P; Falcade, M; Sousa, L; Alegretti, S M; Felippe, P A N; Machado, R Z

    2010-10-01

    This study was designed to detect antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in wild captive carnivores maintained in Brazilian zoos. Blood samples were collected from 142 Brazilian wild felids and 19 exotic felids in zoos, and 3 European wolves (Canis lupus) and 94 Brazilian wild canids maintained in captivity in Brazilian zoos of São Paulo, Mato Grosso states and Federal District. One hundred and two (63.4%) and 70 (50.3%) of the 161 wild felids tested were seropositive for T. gondii and N. caninum by indirect immunofluorescent assay test (IFAT), respectively. Among sampled wild canids, 49 (50.5%) and 40 (41.2%) animals were seropositive for T. gondii and N. caninum antigens by IFAT, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first serological detection of antibodies to N. caninum in Brazilian wild captive felids and bush dogs (Speothos venaticus (Lund)).

  13. Nanog Is an Essential Factor for Induction of Pluripotency in Somatic Cells from Endangered Felids

    OpenAIRE

    Verma, Rajneesh; Liu, Jun; Holland, Michael Kenneth; Temple-Smith, Peter; Williamson, Mark; Verma, Paul John

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Nanog has an important role in pluripotency induction in bovines and snow leopards. To examine whether it was required for wild felids globally, we examined the induction of pluripotency in felids from Asia (Bengal tiger, Panthera tigris), Africa (serval, Leptailurus serval), and the Americas (jaguar, Panthera onca). Dermal fibroblasts were transduced with genes encoding the human transcription factors OCT4, SOX2, KLF4, and cMYC with or without NANOG. Both four- and five-factor induc...

  14. Comparison of mtDNA haplogroups in Hungarians with four other European populations: a small incidence of descents with Asian origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadasi, Edit; Gyurus, P; Czakó, Márta; Bene, Judit; Kosztolányi, Sz; Fazekas, Sz; Dömösi, P; Melegh, B

    2007-06-01

    Hungarians are unique among the other European populations because according to history, the ancient Magyars had come from the eastern side of the Ural Mountains and settled down in the Carpathian basin in the 9th century AD. Since variations in the human mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) are routinely used to infer the histories of different populations, we examined the distribution of restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) sites of the mtDNA in apparently healthy, unrelated Hungarian subjects in order to collect data on the genetic origin of the Hungarian population. Among the 55 samples analyzed, the large majority belonged to haplogroups common in other European populations, however, three samples fulfilled the requirements of haplogroup M. Since haplogroup M is classified as a haplogroup characteristic mainly for Asian populations, the presence of haplogroup M found in approximately 5% of the total suggests that an Asian matrilineal ancestry, even if in a small incidence, can be detected among modern Hungarians.

  15. A small cysteine-rich protein from the Asian soybean rust fungus, Phakopsora pachyrhizi, suppresses plant immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Asian soybean rust fungus, Phakopsora pachyrhizi, is an obligate pathogen capable of causing explosive disease epidemics that drastically reduce the yield of soybean (Glycine max). Currently, the molecular mechanisms by which P. pachyrhizi and other rust fungi cause disease are poorly understood...

  16. Inducing pluripotency in somatic cells from the snow leopard (Panthera uncia), an endangered felid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, R; Holland, M K; Temple-Smith, P; Verma, P J

    2012-01-01

    Induced pluripotency is a new approach to produce embryonic stem-like cells from somatic cells that provides a unique means to understand both pluripotency and lineage assignment. To investigate whether this technology could be applied to endangered species, where the limited availability of gametes makes production and research on embryonic stem cells difficult, we attempted generation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells from snow leopard (Panthera uncia) fibroblasts by retroviral transfection with Moloney-based retroviral vectors (pMXs) encoding four factors (OCT4, SOX2, KLF4 and cMYC). This resulted in the formation of small colonies of cells, which could not be maintained beyond four passages (P4). However, addition of NANOG, to the transfection cocktail produced stable iPS cell colonies, which formed as early as D3. Colonies of cells were selected at D5 and expanded in vitro. The resulting cell line was positive for alkaline phosphatase (AP), OCT4, NANOG, and Stage-Specific embryonic Antigen-4 (SSEA-4) at P14. RT-PCR also confirmed that endogenous OCT4 and NANOG were expressed by snow leopard iPS cells from P4. All five human transgenes were transcribed at P4, but OCT4, SOX2 and NANOG transgenes were silenced as early as P14; therefore, reprogramming of the endogenous pluripotent genes had occurred. When injected into immune-deficient mice, snow leopard iPS cells formed teratomas containing tissues representative of the three germ layers. In conclusion, this was apparently the first derivation of iPS cells from the endangered snow leopard and the first report on induced pluripotency in felid species. Addition of NANOG to the reprogramming cocktail was essential for derivation of iPS lines in this felid. The iPS cells provided a unique source of pluripotent cells with utility in conservation through cryopreservation of genetics, as a source of reprogrammed donor cells for nuclear transfer or for directed differentiation to gametes in the future.

  17. Recurrent evolution of melanism in South American felids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexsandra Schneider

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Morphological variation in natural populations is a genomic test bed for studying the interface between molecular evolution and population genetics, but some of the most interesting questions involve non-model organisms that lack well annotated reference genomes. Many felid species exhibit polymorphism for melanism but the relative roles played by genetic drift, natural selection, and interspecies hybridization remain uncertain. We identify mutations of Agouti signaling protein (ASIP or the Melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R as independent causes of melanism in three closely related South American species: the pampas cat (Leopardus colocolo, the kodkod (Leopardus guigna, and Geoffroy's cat (Leopardus geoffroyi. To assess population level variation in the regions surrounding the causative mutations we apply genomic resources from the domestic cat to carry out clone-based capture and targeted resequencing of 299 kb and 251 kb segments that contain ASIP and MC1R, respectively, from 54 individuals (13-21 per species, achieving enrichment of ~500-2500-fold and ~150x coverage. Our analysis points to unique evolutionary histories for each of the three species, with a strong selective sweep in the pampas cat, a distinctive but short melanism-specific haplotype in the Geoffroy's cat, and reduced nucleotide diversity for both ancestral and melanism-bearing chromosomes in the kodkod. These results reveal an important role for natural selection in a trait of longstanding interest to ecologists, geneticists, and the lay community, and provide a platform for comparative studies of morphological variation in other natural populations.

  18. Evaluation of nutrient digestibility and fecal characteristics of exotic felids fed horse- or beef-based diets: use of the domestic cat as a model for exotic felids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vester, Brittany M; Beloshapka, Alison N; Middelbos, Ingmar S; Burke, Sarah L; Dikeman, Cheryl L; Simmons, Lee G; Swanson, Kelly S

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of feeding commercially available beef- and horse-based diets on nutrient digestibility and fecal characteristics of large captive exotic felids and domestic cats. Four species of large exotic felids including cheetahs, Malayan tigers, jaguars, and Amur tigers, and domestic cats were utilized in a crossover design. Raw meat diets included a beef-based diet (57% protein; 28% fat) and a horse-based diet (51% protein; 30% fat). All cats were acclimated to the diet for 16 days followed by a 4 day collection period, where total feces, including one fresh sample, were collected. All feces were scored on collection. Intake did not differ due to diet, but fecal output was greater when cats consumed the horse-based diet. Total tract apparent dry matter (DM) digestibility was higher (Phorse-based diet. CP digestibility was similar in domestic cats and cheetahs, and greater (Phorse-based diet compared with the beef-based diet. Domestic cats had lower (Phorse-based diet. Fecal total short-chain fatty acid (SCFA), branched-chain fatty acid (BCFA), and butyrate concentrations were higher (P<0.05) when cats consumed the beef-based diet. Our results suggest that the domestic cat serves as an appropriate model for large exotic felid species, but differences among the species exist. Decreased nutrient digestibility by tigers and jaguars should be considered when developing feeding recommendations for these species based on domestic cat data.

  19. Asian Heroes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    China,South Korea and Japan keep Olympic flag flying Atotal of 19 countries and regions of Asia competed at the 2008 Beijing Olympics, winning 86 gold, 54 silver and 72 bronze medals. Their gold medal haul accounted for 28.5 percent of the total 302 gold medals awarded. Of the Asian medal winners, China, Japan and South Korea were the top three accounting for 73 gold medals, and 84.9 percent of all medals won by Asian countries.

  20. Mammalian energetics. Instantaneous energetics of puma kills reveal advantage of felid sneak attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Terrie M; Wolfe, Lisa; Davis, Tracy; Kendall, Traci; Richter, Beau; Wang, Yiwei; Bryce, Caleb; Elkaim, Gabriel Hugh; Wilmers, Christopher C

    2014-10-03

    Pumas (Puma concolor) live in diverse, often rugged, complex habitats. The energy they expend for hunting must account for this complexity but is difficult to measure for this and other large, cryptic carnivores. We developed and deployed a physiological SMART (species movement, acceleration, and radio tracking) collar that used accelerometry to continuously monitor energetics, movements, and behavior of free-ranging pumas. This felid species displayed marked individuality in predatory activities, ranging from low-cost sit-and-wait behaviors to constant movements with energetic costs averaging 2.3 times those predicted for running mammals. Pumas reduce these costs by remaining cryptic and precisely matching maximum pouncing force (overall dynamic body acceleration = 5.3 to 16.1g) to prey size. Such instantaneous energetics help to explain why most felids stalk and pounce, and their analysis represents a powerful approach for accurately forecasting resource demands required for survival by large, mobile predators.

  1. Cross transmission of gastrointestinal nematodes between captive neotropical felids and feral cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendón-Franco, Emilio; Romero-Callejas, Evangelina; Villanueva-García, Claudia; Osorio-Sarabia, David; Muñoz-García, Claudia I

    2013-12-01

    Pathogen cross transmission between wildlife and domestic animals represents an extinction risk for wildlife; however, reliable verification is difficult to perform, and in some cases, it is even considered unlikely to be conducted. The aim of this work was to identify cross transmission of helminths between feral cats and captive wild felids at a zoological park in southeastern Mexico. Feces were collected from jaguars (Panthera onca), cougars (Puma concolor), ocelots (Leopardus pardalis), margays (Leopardus wiedii), and jaguarundis (Puma yagouaroundi). A flotation technique and macroscopic sieving were performed on the feces. Additionally, as part of the noxious fauna control program of the park, feral cats were captured and euthanized. To perform parasitologic studies, helminths from these animals were recovered. Toxocara cati and Trichuris campanula were shared by jaguarundis and feral cats. Ancylostoma sp. was found in jaguar and ocelot and Ancylostoma tubaeforme in feral cats. Additionally, during this study, a couple of jaguarundis died with clinical signs of trichuriasis. This is the first report of T. campanula in jaguarundi. Because feral cats roam freely in the park, transmission could occur from these vertebrates to wild felids. This study shows the risk that parasites represent to wild felids; a similar situation could be found in free-living species, especially in fragmented habitats that favor contact with domestic animals.

  2. Influence of pork and pork by-products on macronutrient and energy digestibility and palatability in large exotic felids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iske, C J; Morris, C L; Kappen, K L

    2016-09-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate digestibility and palatability of a new commercial pork-based raw diet for zoo-managed felids. Currently 2 protein sources (beef or horse) comprise the majority of commercial raw meat diet formulations for exotic carnivores in zoological institutions. Pork-based diets have traditionally not been widely utilized and thus nutrient digestibility of pork has not been adequately evaluated in exotic carnivores. The objectives of this study were 1) to determine if a pork-based diet had similar apparent total tract macronutrient digestibility and fecal scores as standard zoo carnivore diets formulated with either horse or beef, in large exotic felids and 2) evaluate palatability of pork for use in zoos. Ten exotic felids were used including cheetahs (; 3), jaguars (; = 3), leopards (; 2), puma (; 1), and Bengal tiger (; 1). Dietary treatments consisted of 4 raw meat diets: 1 horse-based (Horse), 2 beef-based (B1, B2), and 1 pork-based diet (Pork). Fecal scores also were evaluated (1 = hard to 5 = watery/liquid). This randomized crossover design study consisted of 4 periods, each 10 d for treatment adaptation followed by 4 d of sample collection. Dry matter and crude protein apparent digestibility values were greater ( matter digestibility was greater ( < 0.05) in felids fed Pork (90.8%) than felids fed Horse (88.5%). Apparent fat digestibility values were high across all treatments but were greater ( < 0.05) in felids fed Pork (98.5%) compared with felids fed B1 (95.5%) or B2 (96.5%). Gross energy digestibility values were greater in felids fed Pork (92.4%) compared with B1 (90.2%). Average fecal scores were 2.30, 2.94, 3.42, and 3.54 for Horse, Pork, B1 and B2, respectively; and were different ( < 0.05) between treatments with exception of B1 and B2 that did not differ. Felids approached the pork diet first in 65.6% of observations and tasted the pork diet first in 71.9% of observations, compared with a beef-based raw diet. Based

  3. Focal palatine erosion in captive and free-living cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) and other felid species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zordan, Martýn; Deem, Sharon L; Sanchez, Carlos R

    2012-01-01

    We examined 1,092 skulls of captive and free-living individuals, representing 33 felid species, to determine the prevalence of focal palatine erosion (FPE). FPE was detected in 3.2% of cats evaluated, including cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) and 14 other felid species. The prevalence of FPE between cheetah (9.4%; n = 64) and non-cheetah species (2.8%; n = 1,028) (χ(2) test; P = 0.004) and between captive (5.7%; n = 246) and free-living (2.4%; n = 824) individuals (χ(2) test; P = 0.010) were significantly different, with prevalence between captive (19%; n = 21) and free-living (2.9%; n = 34) cheetahs approaching significance (Fisher's exact test; P = 0.064). FPE was diagnosed with equal prevalence in skulls from individuals in which the lower molars did not meet the palatine bone (60.6%) and individuals in which it did (39.4%; n = 33) (χ(2) test; P = 0.139). In cheetahs with FPE, one was a captive animal in Germany, one a free-living cheetah from Mali, one captive cheetah from Kenya, and three captive cheetahs of unknown origin. Additionally, we evaluated the medical records of 49 captive cheetahs in Namibia. Of these cheetahs, 48 (98.0%) had clinical signs consistent with FPE, although only 16 of these 48 (39.6%) had perforation of the palatine bone. Based on physical examinations, FPE was diagnosed in two caracals (Caracal caracal) and one fishing cat (Prionailurus viverrinus) from a North American Zoo. Results from this study confirm FPE in cheetahs outside of Namibia, in a minimum of 15 felid species, and a higher FPE prevalence in captive individuals than free-living ones. Clinical implications of these findings and recommendations for future studies are provided.

  4. Neoplasia in felids at the Knoxville Zoological Gardens, 1979-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owston, Michael A; Ramsay, Edward C; Rotstein, David S

    2008-12-01

    A review of medical records and necropsy reports from 1979-2003 found 40 neoplasms in 26 zoo felids, including five lions (Panthera leo, two males and three females), three leopards (Panthera pardus, two males and one female), one jaguar (Panthera onca, female), 11 tigers (Panthera tigris, three males and eight females), two snow leopards (Panthera uncia, one male and one female), two cougars (Felis concolor, one male and one female), one bobcat (Felis rufus, male), and one cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus, female). Animals that had not reached 3 yr of age or had been housed in the collection less than 3 yrs were not included in the study. Neoplasia rate at necropsy was 51% (24/47), and overall incidence of felid neoplasia during the study period was 25% (26/103). Neoplasia was identified as the cause of death or reason for euthanasia in 28% (13/47) of those necropsied. Neoplasms were observed in the integumentary-mammary (n=11), endocrine (n=10), reproductive (n=8), hematopoietic-lymphoreticular (n=5), digestive (n=3), and hepatobiliary (n=2) systems. One neoplasm was unclassified by system. Multiple neoplasms were observed in 11 animals. Both benign and malignant neoplasms were observed in all systems except for the hematopoietic-lymphoreticular systems where all processes were malignant. Of the endocrine neoplasms, those involving the thyroid and parathyroid glands predominated (n=8) over other endocrine organs and included adenomas and carcinomas. In the integumentary system, 63% (7/11) of neoplasms involved the mammary gland, with mammary carcinoma representing 83% (6/7) of the neoplasms. The rates of neoplasia at this institution, during the given time period, appears to be greater than rates found in the one other published survey of captive felids.

  5. Nanog is an essential factor for induction of pluripotency in somatic cells from endangered felids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Rajneesh; Liu, Jun; Holland, Michael Kenneth; Temple-Smith, Peter; Williamson, Mark; Verma, Paul John

    2013-02-01

    Nanog has an important role in pluripotency induction in bovines and snow leopards. To examine whether it was required for wild felids globally, we examined the induction of pluripotency in felids from Asia (Bengal tiger, Panthera tigris), Africa (serval, Leptailurus serval), and the Americas (jaguar, Panthera onca). Dermal fibroblasts were transduced with genes encoding the human transcription factors OCT4, SOX2, KLF4, and cMYC with or without NANOG. Both four- and five-factor induction resulted in colony formation at day 3 in all three species tested; however, we were not able to maintain colonies that were generated without NANOG beyond passage (P) 7. Five-factor induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) colonies from wild cats were expanded in vitro on feeder layers and were positive for alkaline phosphatase and protein expression of OCT-4, NANOG, and stage-specific embryonic antigen-4 at P4 and P14. Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction confirmed that all five human transgenes were transcribed at P4; however, OCT4, SOX2, and NANOG transgenes were silenced by P14. Endogenous OCT4 and NANOG transcripts were detected at P4 and P14 in all cell lines confirming successful reprogramming. At P14, the iPSCs from all three species remained euploid and differentiated in vivo and in vitro into derivatives of the three germ layers. This study describes an effective method for inducing pluripotency in three endangered wild cats from across the globe and confirms Nanog as an essential factor in the reprogramming event. Efficient production of iPSC from endangered felids creates a unique opportunity for species preservation through gamete production, nuclear transfer, embryo complementation, and future novel technologies.

  6. Pathogen exposure varies widely among sympatric populations of wild and domestic felids across the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, Scott; Bevins, Sarah N.; Lappin, Michael R.; Boydston, Erin E.; Lyren, Lisa M.; Alldredge, Mathew W.; Logan, Kenneth A.; Sweanor, Linda L.; Riley, Seth P.D.; Serieys, Laurel E.K.; Fisher, Robert N.; Vickers, T. Winston; Boyce, Walter M.; McBride, Roy; Cunnigham, Mark C.; Jennings, Megan; Lewis, Jesse S.; Lunn, Tamika; Crooks, Kevin R.; VandeWoude, Sue

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how landscape, host, and pathogen traits contribute to disease exposure requires systematic evaluations of pathogens within and among host species and geographic regions. The relative importance of these attributes is critical for management of wildlife and mitigating domestic animal and human disease, particularly given rapid ecological changes, such as urbanization. We screened >1,000 samples from sympatric populations of puma (Puma concolor), bobcat (Lynx rufus) and domestic cat (Felis catus) across urban gradients in six sites, representing three regions, in North America for exposure to a representative suite of bacterial, protozoal and viral pathogens (Bartonella sp., Toxoplasma gondii, feline herpesvirus-1, feline panleukopenea virus, feline calicivirus, feline immunodeficiency virus). We evaluated prevalence within each species, and examined host trait and land cover determinants of exposure-providing an unprecedented analysis of factors relating to potential for infections in domesticated and wild felids. Prevalence differed among host species (highest for puma and lowest for domestic cat) and was greater for indirectly transmitted pathogens. Sex was inconsistently predictive of exposure to directly transmitted pathogens only, and age infrequently predictive of both direct and indirectly transmitted pathogens. Determinants of pathogen exposure were widely divergent between the wild felid species. For puma, suburban landuse predicted increased exposure to Bartonella sp. in southern California, and FHV-1 exposure increased near urban edges in Florida. This may suggest inter-specific transmission with domestic cats via flea vectors (California) and direct contact (Florida) around urban boundaries. Bobcats captured near urban areas had increased exposure to T. gondii in Florida, suggesting an urban source of prey. Bobcats captured near urban areas in Colorado and Florida had higher FIV exposure, possibly suggesting increased intra

  7. Response of a small felid of conservation concern to habitat fragmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Fleschutz, Mira; Gálvez, Nicolás; Pe'er, Guy; Davies, Zoe G.; Henle, Klaus; Schuttler, Elke

    2016-01-01

    Habitat loss and fragmentation are major drivers of biodiversity loss. A key question, particularly relevant to carnivore conservation, is to which extent species are able to survive in human-modified landscapes. Currently, conservationists are concerned about the impact habitat fragmentation may have on the long-term persistence of the forestdwelling guin˜a (Leopardus guigna), given the increasingly modified landscapes in which they live. Here we evaluate the effect habitat cover, fragmentat...

  8. Feline panleukopaenia virus in captive non-domestic felids in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily P. Lane

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available An outbreak of feline panleukopaenia virus (FPLV infection was diagnosed by pathology, electron microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR in vaccinated captive-bred subadult cheetahs in South Africa. Subsequent to this disease outbreak, 12 cases of FPLV diagnosed on histology were confirmed by PCR in captive African black-footed cat, caracal, cheetah, lion, ocelot and serval. Phylogenetic analyses of the viral capsid protein gene on PCR-positive samples, vaccine and National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI reference strains identified a previously unknown strain of FPLV, present since at least 2006, that differs from both the inactivated and the modified live vaccine strains. A previously described South African strain from domestic cats and cheetahs was identified in a serval. Surveys of FPLV strains in South African felids are needed to determine the geographical and host species distribution of this virus. Since non-domestic species may be reservoirs of parvoviruses, and since these viruses readily change host specificity, the risks of FPLV transmission between captive-bred and free-ranging carnivores and domestic cats and dogs warrant further research.Keywords: feline panleukopaenia; parvovirus; felid; cheetah; vaccination

  9. Spontaneous proliferative and neoplastic lesions in thyroid and parathyroid glands of nondomestic felids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Jenny P; Steeil, James; Ramsay, Edward C; Reel, Danielle; Newman, Shelley J

    2017-01-01

    Based on microscopic and immunohistochemical characterization, we documented spontaneous proliferative and neoplastic lesions in the thyroid and parathyroid glands of nondomestic felids. Ten animals (4 leopards, 3 tigers, and 3 cougars), all with a previous diagnosis of thyroid neoplasia were identified from the University of Tennessee College of Veterinary Medicine database. The mean age of affected animals was 15.9 y. Twelve neoplasms were identified; 2 animals had 2 concurrent neoplasms. After immunohistochemical characterization using a panel of chromogranin A, thyroglobulin, and calcitonin, 7 of the former thyroid neoplasms were diagnosed as thyroid adenomas, 1 was diagnosed as a thyroid carcinoma, and 4 were diagnosed as parathyroid adenomas. No thyroid medullary neoplasms (C-cell tumors) were diagnosed in the current study. Most of the diagnosed neoplasms were benign (11 of 12), and metastasis was not documented in the single carcinoma. Only 2 animals were suspected to have functional neoplasms (1 thyroid adenoma and 1 parathyroid adenoma), based on associated tissue lesions or serum biochemistry. Other documented lesions in the thyroid and parathyroid glands included thyroid nodular hyperplasia ( n = 7), parathyroid hyperplasia associated with chronic renal disease ( n = 2), a thyroid abscess, and a branchial cyst. Parathyroid adenomas were more commonly diagnosed than expected in comparison with domestic cats. We demonstrated that an immunohistochemistry panel for thyroglobulin, calcitonin, and chromogranin A can be used to differentiate neoplasms of thyroid from parathyroid origin in nondomestic felids.

  10. DNA extraction from hair shafts of wild Brazilian felids and canids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberts, C C; Ribeiro-Paes, J T; Aranda-Selverio, G; Cursino-Santos, J R; Moreno-Cotulio, V R; Oliveira, A L D; Porchia, B F M M; Santos, W F; Souza, E B

    2010-12-21

    Wild felids and canids are usually the main predators in the food chains where they dwell and are almost invisible to behavior and ecology researchers. Due to their grooming behavior, they tend to swallow shed hair, which shows up in the feces. DNA found in hair shafts can be used in molecular studies that can unravel, for instance, genetic variability, reproductive mode and family structure, and in some species, it is even possible to estimate migration and dispersion rates in given populations. First, however, DNA must be extracted from hair. We extracted successfully and dependably hair shaft DNA from eight wild Brazilian felids, ocelot, margay, oncilla, Geoffroy's cat, pampas cat, jaguarundi, puma, and jaguar, as well as the domestic cat and from three wild Brazilian canids, maned wolf, crab-eating fox, and hoary fox, as well as the domestic dog. Hair samples came mostly from feces collected at the São Paulo Zoo and were also gathered from non-sedated pet or from recently dead wild animals and were also collected from museum specimens. Fractions of hair samples were stained before DNA extraction, while most samples were not. Our extraction protocol is based on a feather DNA extraction technique, based in the phenol:chloroform:isoamyl alcohol general method, with proteinase K as digestive enzyme.

  11. Scent marking in Sunda clouded leopards (Neofelis diardi): novel observations close a key gap in understanding felid communication behaviours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Maximilian L.; Wittmer, Heiko U.; Setiawan, Endro; Jaffe, Sarah; Marshall, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    Intraspecific communication is integral to the behavioural ecology of solitary carnivores, but observing and quantifying their communication behaviours in natural environments is difficult. Our systematic literature review found that basic information on scent marking is completely lacking for 23% of all felid species, and information on 21% of other felid species comes solely from one study of captive animals. Here we present results of the first systematic investigation of the scent marking behaviours of Sunda clouded leopards in the wild. Our observations using motion-triggered video cameras in Indonesian Borneo are novel for clouded leopards, and contrary to previous descriptions of their behaviour. We found that clouded leopards displayed 10 distinct communication behaviours, with olfaction, scraping, and cheek rubbing the most frequently recorded. We also showed that males make repeated visits to areas they previously used for marking and that multiple males advertise and receive information at the same sites, potentially enhancing our ability to document and monitor clouded leopard populations. The behaviours we recorded are remarkably similar to those described in other solitary felids, despite tremendous variation in the environments they inhabit, and close a key gap in understanding and interpreting communication behaviours of clouded leopards and other solitary felids. PMID:27739507

  12. Comparative immunological characterization of type-specific and conserved B-cell epitopes of pinniped, felid and canid herpesviruses.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Lebich; T.C. Harder (Timm); H.R. Frey; I.K.G. Visser (Ilona); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); B. Liess

    1994-01-01

    textabstractMurine monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were generated against phocid herpesviruses (PhHV 2557/Han88 and 7848/Han90) isolated from European harbour seals (Phoca vitulina), and against strains of both felid (FHV strain FVR 605) and canid herpesviruses (CHV isolate 5105/Han89). MAbs were chara

  13. Interspecific interactions between wild felids vary across scales and levels of urbanization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Jesse S; Bailey, Larissa L; VandeWoude, Sue; Crooks, Kevin R

    2015-12-01

    Ongoing global landscape change resulting from urbanization is increasingly linked to changes in species distributions and community interactions. However, relatively little is known about how urbanization influences competitive interactions among mammalian carnivores, particularly related to wild felids. We evaluated interspecific interactions between medium- and large-sized carnivores across a gradient of urbanization and multiple scales. Specifically, we investigated spatial and temporal interactions of bobcats and pumas by evaluating circadian activity patterns, broad-scale seasonal interactions, and fine-scale daily interactions in wildland-urban interface (WUI), exurban residential development, and wildland habitats. Across levels of urbanization, interspecific interactions were evaluated using two-species and single-species occupancy models with data from motion-activated cameras. As predicted, urbanization increased the opportunity for interspecific interactions between wild felids. Although pumas did not exclude bobcats from areas at broad spatial or temporal scales, bobcats responded behaviorally to the presence of pumas at finer scales, but patterns varied across levels of urbanization. In wildland habitat, bobcats avoided using areas for short temporal periods after a puma visited an area. In contrast, bobcats did not appear to avoid areas that pumas recently visited in landscapes influenced by urbanization (exurban development and WUI habitat). In addition, overlap in circadian activity patterns between bobcats and pumas increased in exurban development compared to wildland habitat. Across study areas, bobcats used sites less frequently as the number of puma photographs increased at a site. Overall, bobcats appear to shape their behavior at fine spatial and temporal scales to reduce encounters with pumas, but residential development can potentially alter these strategies and increase interaction opportunities. We explore three hypotheses to explain our

  14. Measurement of thyroid hormones (thyroxine, T4; triiodothyronine, T3) in captive nondomestic felids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodini, Débora Cattaruzzi; Felippe, Erika Cristiane Gutierrez; Oliveira, Cláudio Alvarenga

    2007-03-01

    The aim of this research was to obtain basic values for the evaluation of thyroid function in nondomestic felids. Serum thyroid hormone concentrations (thyroxine, T4; triiodothyronine, T3) were measured by radioimmunoassay in 145 cats, representing nine species of captive nondomestic felids: jaguar (Panthera onca), n = 49; puma (Puma concolor), n = 10; ocelot (Leopardus pardalis), n = 22; oncilla (Leopardus tigrinus), n = 12; geoffroy (Oncifelis geoffroyi), n = 4; jaguarundi (Herpailurus yaguarondi), n = 8; margay (Leopardus wiedii), n = 7; lion (Panthera leo), n = 26; and tiger (Panthera tigris), n = 7. For each species, mean +/- SEM of T3 and T4, respectively, were as follows: jaguar, 0.56 +/- 0.03 and 9.7 +/- 0.8 ng/ml; puma, 0.67 +/- 0.04 and 11.2 +/- 1.2 ng/ml; ocelot, 0.48 +/- 0.03 and 13.8 +/- 1.5 ng/ml; oncilla, 0.43 +/- 0.03 and 10.0 +/- 1.6 ng/ml; geoffroy, 0.44 +/- 0.04 and 8.0 +/- 0.16 ng/ml; jaguarundi, 0.7 +/- 0.03 and 5.0 +/- 1.0 ng/ml; margay, 0.48 +/- 0.04 and 12.2 +/- 2.3 ng/ml; lion, 0.43 +/- 0.02 and 5.7 +/- 2.6 ng/ml; and tiger, 0.66 +/- 0.03 and 12.6 +/- 0.9 ng/ml. Within species, T3 and T4 concentrations did not differ (P > 0.05) between males and females.

  15. CONDITIONAL ASIAN OPTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Runhuan Feng; Volkmer, Hans W.

    2015-01-01

    Conditional Asian options are recent market innovations, which offer cheaper and long-dated alternatives to regular Asian options. In contrast with payoffs from regular Asian options which are based on average asset prices, the payoffs from conditional Asian options are determined only by average prices above certain threshold. Due to the limited inclusion of prices, conditional Asian options further reduce the volatility in the payoffs than their regular counterparts and have been promoted i...

  16. Refinement of a commercial bench-top relaxin assay for pregnancy diagnosis using urine from domestic and nondomestic felids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Laurie A; Steinetz, Bernard G; Bond, Jennifer B; Lasano, Sally; Swanson, William F

    2008-06-01

    Relaxin, a 6-kDa polypeptide hormone, is excreted in the urine during pregnancy in several mammalian species. A recent study showed that detection of urinary relaxin using a bench-top serum assay (Witness relaxin kit, Synbiotics Corp., San Diego, California 92127, USA) can be diagnostic for pregnancy in domestic cats (Felis silvestris catus), but it is unknown whether the bench-top kit is applicable with urine across felid species. Our objectives were to 1) examine modifications in urine processing to improve kit reliability in pregnant cats, 2) evaluate the impact of concentrating urine via filtration on relaxin detection, 3) assess the effect of sample freezing on relaxin concentrations, and 4) begin quantifying urinary relaxin levels in nondomestic felids. Urine and serum were collected from domestic cats and nondomestic cat species (Pallas' cat, Otocolobus manul; sand cat, Felis margarita; cheetah, Acinonyx jubatus; and lion, Panthera leo) at several times after breeding. Urine samples, subjected to various processing methods, were tested using the bench-top kit, and relaxin levels were later quantified via radioimmunoassay. For domestic cat urine samples, filtration and addition of protein/phosphate buffer improved the consistency of the relaxin kit for early pregnancy diagnosis. Urine freezing caused a slight (approximately 13%) but significant decrease in relaxin concentrations, but frozen-thawed samples still tested positive with the bench-top kit. In nondomestic felids, urinary relaxin immunoreactivity during pregnancy was similar to or higher than that of pregnant domestic cats, suggesting that relaxin is a reliable cross-species marker of pregnancy. Urinary relaxin was detectable using the bench-top kit in pregnant Pallas' cats, but urine samples from other species tested negative, regardless of processing methods. Findings suggest that measurement of urinary relaxin is a promising approach for noninvasive pregnancy diagnosis in exotic felids, but

  17. Development, validation, and application of a urinary relaxin radioimmunoassay for the diagnosis and monitoring of pregnancy in felids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haas van Dorsser, Florine J; Swanson, William F; Lasano, Salamia; Steinetz, Bernard G

    2006-06-01

    Many nondomestic felids are highly endangered, and captive breeding programs have become essential components of holistic conservation efforts for these species. The ability to diagnose pregnancy early in gestation is fundamental to developing effective breeding programs. The purpose of this study was to develop a radioimmunoassay (RIA) for the detection of urinary relaxin in felids and assess its applicability for early, noninvasive pregnancy diagnosis in domestic cats (Felis silvestris catus) and leopards (Panthera pardus). Urine was collected from pregnant and nonpregnant domestic cats and leopards at mating, and then weekly thereafter for the duration of gestation. Paired serum samples were also collected from the domestic cats. A RIA for relaxin that uses an antiserum against synthetic canine relaxin was validated for felid urine and shown to detect relaxin immunoreactivity in pregnant cat urine subjected to acid-acetone extraction. In the cat, urinary relaxin was first detected between Days 21 and 28 of gestation; levels peaked at 42-49 days, and the concentrations then declined over 2 wk prior to parturition. The urinary relaxin profiles of the cat mirrored those in serum. In the leopard, urinary relaxin was first detected at Day 25-28 of gestation; levels peaked at Day 60-64 and declined in the last 3-4 wk of pregnancy. These results indicate that measurement of urinary relaxin in the cat and leopard provides a reliable method for pregnancy determination from as early as 3-4 wk of gestation. This method of pregnancy diagnosis and monitoring may prove useful in the breeding management of domestic cats and other felid and canid species, and provides a foundation for future studies on pregnancy in captive exotic carnivores.

  18. Effect of Bungee-carcass enrichment on behavior and fecal glucocorticoid metabolites in two species of zoo-housed Felids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruskell, Amber D; Meiers, Susan T; Jenkins, Sean E; Santymire, Rachel M

    2015-01-01

    Enrichment can improve animal physiological and psychological well-being. This study sought to promote more natural felid behavior and prevent development or incidence of stereotypies through the use of a feeding enrichment. Our objectives are to use fecal glucocorticoid metabolites values and behavioral observations to quantify the effectiveness of the enrichment device for two species of large cats, Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris; n = 2) and cougar (Felis concolor; n = 2). The feeding enrichment, a white-tailed deer carcass flank securely attached to an AussieDog Products(©) Felid 120-cm bungee, was implemented twice for each individual separated by 1 month. Fecal samples were obtained from each felid and analyzed for pre- and post-enrichment fecal glucocorticoid metabolites (FGM) concentrations using a cortisol enzyme immunoassay. An ethogram with 12 mutual exclusive behavioral categories was utilized to record behavioral responses to the enrichment. Results demonstrate that: 1) there were no differences (P > 0.05) in FGMs for either species between pre- and post-enrichment; 2) pacing decreased (P = 0.025) and walking increased (P = 0.017) after exposure to enrichment in both cougars; and 3) tigers reduced (P = 0.025) 'other' behavioral category after the first enrichment exposure and laid down more (P = 0.025) after the second enrichment exposure. The neutral hormonal impact on the animals coupled with the behavioral changes indicates that this enrichment is successful at altering the animals' behavior without adding physiological stress to their environments. These findings, combined with the low cost and versatility of the enrichment, promote the use of this enrichment to enhance large felid enclosures.

  19. Vif of feline immunodeficiency virus from domestic cats protects against APOBEC3 restriction factors from many felids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielonka, Jörg; Marino, Daniela; Hofmann, Henning; Yuhki, Naoya; Löchelt, Martin; Münk, Carsten

    2010-07-01

    To get more insight into the role of APOBEC3 (A3) cytidine deaminases in the species-specific restriction of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) of the domestic cat, we tested the A3 proteins present in big cats (puma, lion, tiger, and lynx). These A3 proteins were analyzed for expression and sensitivity to the Vif protein of FIV. While A3Z3s and A3Z2-Z3s inhibited Deltavif FIV, felid A3Z2s did not show any antiviral activity against Deltavif FIV or wild-type (wt) FIV. All felid A3Z3s and A3Z2-Z3s were sensitive to Vif of the domestic cat FIV. Vif also induced depletion of felid A3Z2s. Tiger A3s showed a moderate degree of resistance against the Vif-mediated counter defense. These findings may imply that the A3 restriction system does not play a major role to prevent domestic cat FIV transmission to other Felidae. In contrast to the sensitive felid A3s, many nonfelid A3s actively restricted wt FIV replication. To test whether Vif(FIV) can protect also the distantly related human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), a chimeric HIV-1.Vif(FIV) was constructed. This HIV-1.Vif(FIV) was replication competent in nonpermissive feline cells expressing human CD4/CCR5 that did not support the replication of wt HIV-1. We conclude that the replication of HIV-1 in some feline cells is inhibited only by feline A3 restriction factors and the absence of the appropriate receptor or coreceptor.

  20. Obesity and Asian Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Asian American > Obesity Obesity and Asian Americans Non-Hispanic whites are 60% ... youthonline . [Accessed 05/25/2016] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  1. Human attacks by large felid carnivores in captivity and in the wild.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Suzanne M; Mills, Angela; Shoff, William H

    2014-06-01

    Whereas those who live in the native ranges of the large feline carnivores are well aware of the risks of cat and human encounters, North Americans and Europeans are increasingly exposed to exotic animals through travel, ecotourism, leisure pursuits in rural areas, occupational exposure, zoo and animal park visits, wild habitat encroachment at the urban-wildlands interface, and contact with exotic pets. In encounters during which persons have been severely injured, lapses in animal management protocols, lack of appropriate adult supervision, and intoxication have been reported. Unlike common domestic pets that have lived in close association with humans for thousands of years, no matter where individual large felines may have been raised, they remain wild carnivores with strong prey-drive and territorial instincts. The emergency management of large felid attacks is similar to that of other major trauma: stabilization; management of significant orthopedic, neurologic, vascular, and soft tissue injuries; antibiotic coverage provided for the number of organisms that inhabit their mouths and the potential for tetanus and rabies; and early management in survivors of likely posttraumatic stress disorder. We must actively explore responsible measures globally that can be taken to ensure biologically appropriate, ethical, safe, and sustainable conservation of these large carnivores in both their natural habitats and captivity.

  2. Survey of feline leukemia virus and feline coronaviruses in captive neotropical wild felids from Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimaraes, Ana M S; Brandão, Paulo E; de Moraes, Wanderlei; Cubas, Zalmir S; Santos, Leonilda C; Villarreal, Laura Y B; Robes, Rogério R; Coelho, Fabiana M; Resende, Mauricio; Santos, Renata C F; Oliveira, Rosangela C; Yamaguti, Mauricio; Marques, Lucas M; Neto, Renata L; Buzinhani, Melissa; Marques, Regina; Messick, Joanne B; Biondo, Alexander W; Timenetsky, Jorge

    2009-06-01

    A total of 57 captive neotropical felids (one Leopardus geoffroyi, 14 Leopardus pardalis, 17 Leopardus wiedii, 22 Leopardus tigrinus, and three Puma yagouaroundi) from the Itaipu Binacional Wildlife Research Center (Refúgio Bela Vista, Southern Brazil) were anesthetized for blood collection. Feces samples were available for 44 animals, including one L. geoffroyi, eight L. pardalis, 14 L. wiedii, 20 L. tigrinus, and one P. yagouaroundi. Total DNA and RNA were extracted from blood and feces, respectively, using commercial kits. Blood DNA samples were evaluated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for feline leukemia virus (FeLV) proviral DNA, whereas reverse transcriptase-PCR was run on fecal samples for detection of coronavirus RNA. None of the samples were positive for coronaviruses. A male L. pardalis and a female L. tigrinus were positive for FeLV proviral DNA, and identities of PCR products were confirmed by sequencing. This is the first evidence of FeLV proviral DNA in these species in Southern Brazil.

  3. Feline panleukopaenia virus in captive non-domestic felids in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Emily P; Brettschneider, Helene; Caldwell, Peter; Oosthuizen, Almero; Dalton, Desiré L; du Plessis, Liza; Steyl, Johan; Kotze, Antoinette

    2016-06-09

    An outbreak of feline panleukopaenia virus (FPLV) infection was diagnosed by pathology, electron microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in vaccinated captive-bred subadult cheetahs in South Africa. Subsequent to this disease outbreak, 12 cases of FPLV diagnosed on histology were confirmed by PCR in captive African black-footed cat, caracal, cheetah, lion, ocelot and serval. Phylogenetic analyses of the viral capsid protein gene on PCR-positive samples, vaccine and National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) reference strains identified a previously unknown strain of FPLV, present since at least 2006, that differs from both the inactivated and the modified live vaccine strains. A previously described South African strain from domestic cats and cheetahs was identified in a serval. Surveys of FPLV strains in South African felids are needed to determine the geographical and host species distribution of this virus. Since non-domestic species may be reservoirs of parvoviruses, and since these viruses readily change host specificity, the risks of FPLV transmission between captive-bred and free-ranging carnivores and domestic cats and dogs warrant further research.

  4. Home range and density of three sympatric felids in the Southern Atlantic Forest, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. B. Kasper

    Full Text Available Abstract Home range and minimal population densities of Southern tiger cat (Leopardus guttulus, margay (Lepardus wiedii and jaguarundi (Puma yagouaroundi were estimated between 2005 and 2006 in Taquari Valley, near the southern edge of the Atlantic Rainforest in Brazil. Home range data were collected by conventional radio telemetry (VHF locations in a highly fragmented landscape. The average home range size, calculated using 95% kernel density estimates, was 16.01 km2 for Southern tiger cat, 21.85 km2 for margay and 51.45 km2 for jaguarundi. Telemetry data were used to obtain minimal density estimates of 0.08 Southern tiger cats / km2, and 0.04 jaguarundi / km2. The density estimates arise from areas where ocelot (Leopardus pardalis and other larger-bodied carnivores were locally extinct, and they suggest a specific type of mesopredator release known as the ocelot effect, which is likely enabling the increase in smaller felid populations in this area.

  5. Changing ideas about the evolution and functional morphology of Machairodontine felids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turner, A.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Sabre-toothed felids, the machairodontines, have attracted much attention among palaeontologists for many decades, not only because of their spectacular morphology but also because they are a striking example of convergent evolution that is most probably linked to strong selective pressures. In this paper we provide a summary of the changing interpretations of their functional anatomy and evolution, from early hypotheses proposing a stabbing mode of attack and a pleiotropic control of the complex of machairodont morphologies, to the current views favouring the canine shear-bite model and a mosaic evolution of anatomical features.

    Los félidos de dientes de sable, los macairodontinos, han ejercido una especial atracción entre los paleontólogos durante muchas décadas, no sólo por su espectacular morfología, sino también debido a que son un llamativo ejemplo de evolución convergente, probablemente ligada a una fuerte presión selectiva. En este trabajo suministramos una recopilación de los cambios de interpretación acerca de su anatomía functional y evolución, desde las primeras hipótesis en las que se proponía un ataque por apuñalamiento y un control pleitrópico del complejo morfológico macairodontino, hasta los actuales puntos de vista que favorecen un modelo de mordedura muy especializado y una evolución en mosaico de los carácteres anatómicos.

  6. [Population estimates and conservation of felids (Carnivora: Felidae) in Northern Quintana Roo, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ávila-Nájera, Dulce María; Chávez, Cuauhtémoc; Lazcano-Barrero, Marco A; Pérez-Elizalde, Sergio; Alcántara-Carbajal, José Luis

    2015-09-01

    Wildlife density estimates provide an idea of the current state of populations, and in some cases, reflect the conservation status of ecosystems, essential aspects for effective management actions. In Mexico, several regions have been identified as high priority areas for the conservation of species that have some level of risk, like the Yucatan Peninsula (YP), where the country has the largest population of jaguars. However, little is known about the current status of threatened and endangered felids, which coexist in the Northeastern portion of the Peninsula. Our objective was to estimate the wild cats' density population over time at El Eden Ecological Reserve (EEER) and its surrounding areas. Camera trap surveys over four years (2008, 2010, 2011 and 2012) were conducted, and data were obtained with the use of capture-recapture models for closed populations (CAPTURE + MMDM or 1/2 MMDM), and the spatially explicit capture-recapture model (SPACECAP). The species studied were jaguar (Panthera onca), puma (Puma concolor), ocelot (Leopardus pardalis), jaguarundi (Puma yaguaroundi) and margay (Leopardus wiedii). Capture frequency was obtained for all five species and the density for three (individuals/100km2). The density estimated with The Mean Maximum Distance Moved (MMDM), CAPTURE, ranged from 1.2 to 2.6 for jaguars, from 1.7 to 4.3 for pumas and from 1.4 to 13.8 for ocelots. The density estimates in SPACECAP ranged from 0.7 to 3.6 for jaguars, from 1.8 to 5.2 for pumas and 2.1 to 5.1 for ocelots. Spatially explicit capture recapture (SECR) methods in SPACECAP were less likely to overestimate densities, making it a useful tool in the planning and decision making process for the conservation of these species. The Northeastern portion of the Yucatan Peninsula maintains high populations of cats, the EEER and its surrounding areas are valuable sites for the conservation of this group of predators. Rev. Biol.

  7. Parasites of domestic and wild animals in South Africa. XLVIII . Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae infesting domestic cats and wild felids in southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan G. Horak

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Ticks collected from domestic cats (Felis catus, cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus,caracals (Caracal caracal, African wild cats (Felis lybica, black-footed cats (Felis nigripes, a serval (Leptailurus serval, lions(Panthera leo, and leopards (Panthera pardus were identified and counted. Thirteen species of ixodid ticks and one argasid tick were identified from domestic cats and 17 species of ixodid ticks from wild felids. The domestic cats and wild felids harboured 11 ixodid species in common. The adults of Haemaphysalis elliptica, the most abundant tick species infesting cats and wild felids, were most numerous on a domestic cat in late winter and in mid-summer, during 2 consecutive years. The recorded geographic distribution of the recently described Haemaphysalis colesbergensis, a parasite of cats and caracals, was extended by 2 new locality records in the Northern Cape Province,South Africa.

  8. Leukoencephalomyelopathy of mature captive cheetahs and other large felids: a novel neurodegenerative disease that came and went?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brower, A I; Munson, L; Radcliffe, R W; Citino, S B; Lackey, L B; Van Winkle, T J; Stalis, I; Terio, K A; Summers, B A; de Lahunta, A

    2014-09-01

    A novel leukoencephalomyelopathy was identified in 73 mature male and female large captive felids between 1994 and 2005. While the majority of identified cases occurred in cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus), the disease was also found in members of 2 other subfamilies of Felidae: 1 generic tiger (Panthera tigris) and 2 Florida panthers (Puma concolor coryi). The median age at time of death was 12 years, and all but 1 cheetah were housed in the United States. Characteristic clinical history included progressive loss of vision leading to blindness, disorientation, and/or difficulty eating. Neurologic deficits progressed at a variable rate over days to years. Mild to severe bilateral degenerative lesions were present in the cerebral white matter and variably and to a lesser degree in the white matter of the brain stem and spinal cord. Astrocytosis and swelling of myelin sheaths progressed to total white matter degeneration and cavitation. Large, bizarre reactive astrocytes are a consistent histopathologic feature of this condition. The cause of the severe white matter degeneration in these captive felids remains unknown; the lesions were not typical of any known neurotoxicoses, direct effects of or reactions to infectious diseases, or nutritional deficiencies. Leukoencephalomyelopathy was identified in 70 cheetahs, 1 tiger, and 2 panthers over an 11-year period, and to our knowledge, cases have ceased without planned intervention. Given what is known about the epidemiology of the disease and morphology of the lesions, an environmental or husbandry-associated source of neurotoxicity is suspected.

  9. Evaluation of four raw meat diets using domestic cats, captive exotic felids, and cecectomized roosters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, K R; Beloshapka, A N; Morris, C L; Parsons, C M; Burke, S L; Utterback, P L; Swanson, K S

    2013-01-01

    Our objective was to evaluate raw meat diets for captive exotic and domestic carnivores containing traditional and alternative raw meat sources, specifically, beef trimmings, bison trimmings, elk muscle meat, and horse trimmings. We aimed to examine diet composition and protein quality; apparent total tract energy and macronutrient digestibility in domestic cats, African wildcats, jaguars, and Malayan tigers; and ME and fecal fermentative end-products in domestic cats. Because of variation in the meat sources, dietary proximate, AA, and long-chain fatty acid composition were variable. Our analyses indicated that all diets had essential fatty acid deficiencies, and the elk diet (i.e., trimmed muscle meat) was deficient in total fat. Standardized AA digestibilities measured using the cecectomized rooster assay were high (>87%). Using the NRC minimum requirements for the growth of kittens, the first limiting AA of all diets was the combined requirement of Met and Cys (AA score: 81 to 95; protein digestibility corrected AA score: 75 to 90). All diets were highly digestible (88 to 89% OM digestibility). There was no effect of diet or felid species on DM (85 to 87%), OM, and GE (90 to 91%) digestibilities. Apparent CP digestibility was greater (P≤0.05) in cats fed elk (97%) compared with those fed bison (96%), and greater (P≤0.05) in wildcats (97%) and domestic cats (97%) compared with tigers (95%). The diet and species interaction (P≤0.05) was observed for apparent fat digestibility. In domestic cats, the fresh fecal pH and proportions of acetate and butyrate were altered (P≤0.05) due to diet. Diet also affected (P≤0.05) fresh fecal concentrations of total branched-chain fatty acids, valerate, and Lactobacillus genus. In conclusion, although the raw meat diets were highly digestible, because of variation in raw meat sources the nutrient composition of the diets was variable. Thus, compositional analysis of raw meat sources is necessary for proper diet

  10. Suicide and attempted suicide among South Asians in England: who is at risk?

    OpenAIRE

    Ineichen, Bernard

    2008-01-01

    Evidence from both large-scale and small-scale studies suggests differences and similarities in patterns of suicide and attempted suicide between South Asians and the total population in England. Among South Asians, the excess of females among both suicides and attempted suicides is even more marked; the traditional view of a strong family structure among Asians is confirmed, although cultural conflict between generations is apparent. The technique of suicide by burning among Asians appears t...

  11. A New Subspecies Identification and Population Study of the Asian Small-Clawed Otter (Aonyx cinereus in Malay Peninsula and Southern Thailand Based on Fecal DNA Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. A. Rosli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Three species of otter can be found throughout Malay Peninsula: Aonyx cinereus, Lutra sumatrana, and Lutrogale perspicillata. In this study, we focused on the A. cinereus population that ranges from the southern and the east coast to the northern regions of Malay Peninsula up to southern Thailand to review the relationships between the populations based on the mitochondrial D-loop region. Forty-eight samples from six populations were recognized as Johor, Perak, Terengganu, Kelantan, Ranong, and Thale Noi. Among the 48 samples, 33 were identified as A. cinereus, seven as L. sumatrana, and eight as L. perspicillata. Phylogenetically, two subclades formed for A. cinereus. The first subclade grouped all Malay Peninsula samples except for samples from Kelantan, and the second subclade grouped Kelantan samples with Thai sample. Genetic distance analysis supported the close relationships between Thai and Kelantan samples compared to the samples from Terengganu and the other Malaysian states. A minimum-spanning network showed that Kelantan and Thailand formed a haplogroup distinct from the other populations. Our results show that Thai subspecies A. cinereus may have migrated to Kelantan from Thai mainland. We also suggest the classification of a new subspecies from Malay Peninsula, the small-clawed otter named A. cinereus kecilensis.

  12. Central Asian Republic Info

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — CAR Info is designed and managed by the Central Asian Republic Mission to fill in the knowledge and reporting gaps in existing agency systems for that Mission. It...

  13. The Asian war bow

    CERN Document Server

    Nieminen, Timo A

    2011-01-01

    The bow is one of the earliest complex machines, a prime example of the storage and transfer of energy. The physics of the bow illuminates compromises and design choices made in Asian military archery.

  14. Asian Art on Display

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borggreen, Gunhild Ravn

    2010-01-01

    Med udgangspunkt i seminaret Visualising Asian Modernity diskuteres forholdet mellem antropologi og samtidskunst i lyset af hvorledes asiatisk kunst fremvises og formidles i vestlig og dansk sammenhæng....

  15. Glaucoma in Asian Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Us Donate In This Section Glaucoma In Asian Populations email Send this article to a friend by ... an even more serious problem as the world population and longevity increases. The other major glaucoma type ...

  16. The South Asian genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John C Chambers

    Full Text Available The genetic sequence variation of people from the Indian subcontinent who comprise one-quarter of the world's population, is not well described. We carried out whole genome sequencing of 168 South Asians, along with whole-exome sequencing of 147 South Asians to provide deeper characterisation of coding regions. We identify 12,962,155 autosomal sequence variants, including 2,946,861 new SNPs and 312,738 novel indels. This catalogue of SNPs and indels amongst South Asians provides the first comprehensive map of genetic variation in this major human population, and reveals evidence for selective pressures on genes involved in skin biology, metabolism, infection and immunity. Our results will accelerate the search for the genetic variants underlying susceptibility to disorders such as type-2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease which are highly prevalent amongst South Asians.

  17. Laparoscopic oviductal artificial insemination improves pregnancy success in exogenous gonadotropin-treated domestic cats as a model for endangered felids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conforti, Valéria A; Bateman, Helen L; Schook, Mandi W; Newsom, Jackie; Lyons, Leslie A; Grahn, Robert A; Deddens, James A; Swanson, William F

    2013-07-01

    Artificial insemination (AI) in cats traditionally uses equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) to induce follicular development and ovulation, with subsequent bilateral laparoscopic intrauterine insemination. However, long-acting hCG generates undesirable secondary ovulations in cats. Uterine AI also requires relatively high numbers of spermatozoa for fertilization (~8 × 10(6) sperm), and unfortunately, sperm recovery from felids is frequently poor. Using short-acting porcine luteinizing hormone (pLH) instead of hCG, and using the oviduct as the site of sperm deposition, could improve fertilization success while requiring fewer spermatozoa. Our objectives were to compare pregnancy and fertilization success between 1) uterine and oviductal inseminations and 2) eCG/hCG and eCG/pLH regimens in domestic cats. Sixteen females received either eCG (100 IU)/hCG (75 IU) or eCG (100 IU)/pLH (1000 IU). All females ovulated and were inseminated in one uterine horn and the contralateral oviduct using fresh semen (1 × 10(6) motile sperm/site) from a different male for each site. Pregnant females (11/16; 69%) were spayed approximately 20 days post-AI, and fetal paternity was genetically determined. The number of corpora lutea (CL) at AI was similar between hormone regimens, but hCG increased the number of CL at 20 days post-AI. Numbers of pregnancies and normal fetuses were similar between regimens. Implantation abnormalities were observed in the hCG group only. Finally, oviductal AI produced more fetuses than uterine AI. In summary, laparoscopic oviductal AI with low sperm numbers in eCG/hCG- or eCG/pLH-treated females resulted in high pregnancy and fertilization percentages in domestic cats. Our subsequent successes with oviductal AI in eCG/pLH-treated nondomestic felids to produce healthy offspring supports cross-species applicability.

  18. Scrolling and Strolling, Asian Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Joan

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a lesson on Asian cultures. Asian cultures demonstrate respect for nature through their art. Students learned how to use Asian brush techniques and designs to create scrolls. They also learned how to write Haiku, a three-line form of poetry that uses a pattern of syllables.

  19. South Asian Diaspora in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    2005-01-01

    and exclusion, individualization and interdependency, these relationships are delineated on the basis of two empirical projects, combined with an array of secondary sources. South Asian youth are becoming a part of the receiving society along with developing their complex diaspora identities through strategies...... societies, South Asian countries and the South Asian diaspora living in Scandinavia....

  20. The role of wild canids and felids in spreading parasites to dogs and cats in Europe. Part I: Protozoa and tick-borne agents

    OpenAIRE

    Otranto, Domenico; Cantacessi, Cinzia; Pfeffer, Martin; Dantas-Torres,Filipe; Brianti, Emanuele; Deplazes, Peter; Genchi, Claudio; Guberti, Vittorio; Capelli, Gioia

    2015-01-01

    This is the accepted manuscript. The final version is available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2015.04.022 Over the last few decades, the world has witnessed radical changes in climate, landscape, and ecosystems. These events, associated to other factors such as increasing illegal wildlife trade and changing human behaviour towards wildlife, are resulting into thinning boundaries between wild canids and felids and their domestic counterparts. As a consequence, the epidemiology of di...

  1. HIV Among Asians

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention VIH En Español Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... Email Updates on HIV Syndicated Content Website Feedback HIV Among Asians Format: Select One File [143K] Recommend ...

  2. Malaysian Cinema, Asian Film

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heide, van der William

    2002-01-01

    This title series departs from traditional studies of national cinema by accentuating the intercultural and intertextual links between Malaysian films and Asian (as well as European and American) film practices. Using cross-cultural analysis, the author characterizes Malaysia as a pluralist society

  3. A New Asian Alliance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The inauguration of the China-ASEAN Free Trade Area caps 10 years of fruitful efforts It was not only the birth of a new decade. January 1 also witnessed a day of celebration on the mainland and beyond after Beijing and its partners in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) fully established the China-ASEAN Free Trade Area (CAFTA).

  4. Asian Yellow Goat Cloned

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ It was released on August 24,2005 by Prof. CHEN Dayuan (Da-Yuan Chen) from the CAS Institute of Zoology that the first success in cloning the Asian Yellow Goat by nuclear transfer had recently been achieved in east China's Shandong Province.

  5. Asian fungal fermented food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nout, M.J.R.; Aidoo, K.E.

    2010-01-01

    In Asian countries, there is a long history of fermentation of foods and beverages. Diverse micro-organisms, including bacteria, yeasts and moulds, are used as starters, and a wide range of ingredients can be made into fermented foods. The main raw materials include cereals, leguminous seeds, vegeta

  6. Articulating Asianness: Young Asian Dutch and non-homeland Asian popular media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.A. Kartosen; E.S.H. Tan

    2013-01-01

    This study explores Asian Dutch young people’s ethnic-cultural identification in relation to their media consumption, and specifically their consumption of popular media from Asian countries other than their country of origin. A survey was conducted among 486 Asian Dutch (18-35 years old). In concur

  7. History of Asian American psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Frederick T L; Okazaki, Sumie

    2009-10-01

    An overview of the history of Asian American psychology is provided by reviewing the context for the development of the field as well as the early founding of the Asian American Psychological Association (AAPA). The presidents of AAPA as well as key events and conferences are noted. The involvement of AAPA leaders in national mental health policies and activities are reviewed. The substantive areas of Asian American psychology and the education and training of Asian American psychologists are also discussed. The article ends with some comments about the future of Asian American psychology.

  8. The Hmong Diaspora: preserved South-East Asian genetic ancestry in French Guianese Asians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brucato, Nicolas; Mazières, Stéphane; Guitard, Evelyne; Giscard, Pierre-Henri; Bois, Etienne; Larrouy, Georges; Dugoujon, Jean-Michel

    2012-01-01

    The Hmong Diaspora is one of the widest modern human migrations. Mainly localised in South-East Asia, the United States of America, and metropolitan France, a small community has also settled the Amazonian forest of French Guiana. We have biologically analysed 62 individuals of this unique Guianese population through three complementary genetic markers: mitochondrial DNA (HVS-I/II and coding region SNPs), Y-chromosome (SNPs and STRs), and the Gm allotypic system. All genetic systems showed a high conservation of the Asian gene pool (Asian ancestry: mtDNA=100.0%; NRY=99.1%; Gm=96.6%), without a trace of founder effect. When compared across various Asian populations, the highest correlations were observed with Hmong-Mien groups still living in South-East Asia (Fst<0.05; P-value<0.05). Despite a long history punctuated by exodus, the French Guianese Hmong have maintained their original genetic diversity.

  9. Using detection dogs and genetic analyses of scat to expand knowledge and assist felid conservation in Misiones, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMatteo, Karen E; Rinas, Miguel A; Argüelles, Carina F; Holman, Bernardo E; Di Bitetti, Mario S; Davenport, Barbara; Parker, Patricia G; Eggert, Lori S

    2014-11-01

    Many carnivores require large ranges to meet their ecological and energetic needs; however, anthropogenic changes threaten species and their habitats. Camera traps have been used to effectively collect data on carnivores in a variety of habitat types; however, a single survey effort is typically limited to species that have similar body size, habitat use and movement patterns, and individual identification of animals is not always possible. We evaluated whether scat detection dogs could effectively survey for 4 wide-ranging felids that vary in these characteristics: jaguars (Panthera onca), pumas (Puma concolor), ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) and oncillas (Leopardus tigrinus). From June to October 2009 and May to August 2011, a detection dog-handler team detected 588 scats, from which 176 unique genotypes were detected. We assigned sex to 84.7% of the genotyped scats and identified 55 individuals multiple times. The effectiveness of these noninvasive techniques (detection dogs and genetic analyses of scat) not only opens the door for additional studies in areas that were previously difficult or impossible with standard survey techniques, but also provides conservationists with a set of tools that overcome some of the limitations associated with the use of camera traps alone.

  10. Asian Media Productions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This work consists of 12 essays on different aspects of Asian media by Japanese, European, and American scholars, many of whom have themselves been involved in the production of media forms. Working in the fields of anthropology, media and cultural studies, and on the basis of hands-on research, ......, they have written a book on the social practices and cultural attitudes of people producing, reading, watching and listening to different kinds of media in Japan, China, Taiwan, Indonesia, Vietnam, Singapore and India.......This work consists of 12 essays on different aspects of Asian media by Japanese, European, and American scholars, many of whom have themselves been involved in the production of media forms. Working in the fields of anthropology, media and cultural studies, and on the basis of hands-on research...

  11. Mood disorders in Asians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Albert; Chang, Doris

    2014-02-01

    Mood disorders are disorders that have a disturbance in mood as the predominant feature. They are common psychiatric disorders and are associated with significant distress and functional impairment. As the theory of mood disorders is based on the philosophy of mind/body dichotomy in the West, it contradicts the holistic tradition of medicine in the East. This may partially explain why many Asians with mood disorders emphasize their physical symptoms in discussions with their treatment providers. In the development of the DSM and ICD diagnostic systems, it is presumed that the diagnostic categories are applicable to all races and ethnicities. Similarly, many consider pharmacological and psychological treatment approaches to mood disorders universally applicable. To effectively treat Asians with mood disorders, clinicians need to customize biological and psychosocial interventions in consideration of patients' potential genetic and cultural differences.

  12. Is Asian Currency Unit Attractive to East Asian Economies?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin Zhang; Fan He

    2007-01-01

    Pegging the RMB exchange rate to the Asian currency unit (ACU) has not, at least in the short term, been proved a better solution than pegging to the US dollar or pegging to a G-3 (US$, Japaneseyen and euro) currency basket. Although the Asian currency unit can help Asian economies to keep the relative price of regional currencies stable, the cost of joining a formal regional monetary cooperation is the relinquishment of the autonomy of their domestic policies. Asian monetary cooperation needs to provide more potential benefits if it is to attract Asian economies. We argue that Asian monetary cooperation should be designed to solve the problem of regional trade imbalance, and regional exchange rate policy coordination should be adopted as the first step towards exchange rate cooperation.

  13. Current Update in Asian Rhinoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clyde H. Ishii, MD, FACS

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: There has been a tremendous growth of cosmetic surgery among Asians worldwide. Rhinoplasty is second only to blepharoplasty in terms of popularity among Asians regarding cosmetic surgical procedures. Most Asians seek to improve their appearance while maintaining the essential features of their ethnicity. There are considerable ethnic nasal and facial variations in this population alone. Successful rhinoplasty in Asians must take into account underlying anatomic differences between Asians and whites. Due to ethnic variations, cultural differences, and occasional language barriers, careful preoperative counseling is necessary to align the patient’s expectations with the limitations of the procedure. This article will review the many facets of Asian rhinoplasty as it is practiced today.

  14. Heart Disease and Asians and Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Asian American > Heart Disease Heart Disease and Asians and Pacific Islanders Overall, Asian American ... are less likely than white adults to have heart disease and they are less likely to die from ...

  15. South Asian Cluster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionel Sergiu Pirju

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at presenting the South Asian cluster composed of India, Indonesia, Iran and Malaysia, the intercultural values that characterizes it, the supported leadership style and tracing the main macroeconomic considerations which characterizes them. The research is synchronic, analysing the contemporary situation of these countries without reference to their evolution in time, by using the positivist paradigm that explains the reality at one point. It will be analysed the overall cluster with the existing interactions between the countries that composes it, while the article being one of information will avoid building recommendation, or new theories.

  16. The Asian Newspaper's Reluctant Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lent, John A., Ed.

    This book is composed of 19 articles written by both Asian and American scholars on the history and present conditions of newspapers in 15 Asian nations: China, Hong Kong, Japan, Korea, Taiwan, Australia, Burma, Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore, the Philippines, Thailand, South Vietnam, Ceylon, India, and Pakistan. Two overviews of the Asian…

  17. South Asian Families in Diaspora

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    2008-01-01

      South Asian Family in Diaspora: Retreat from marriage, myth or reality?   This paper proposes to explore the dynamics of close ties in the South Asian families in the Nordic countries, especially Denmark through intimate partnership formation in the context of late modern societal discourse...

  18. A new landing impact attenuation seat in manned spacecraft biologically-inspired by felids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Hui

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available When manned spacecraft comes back to the earth, it relies on the impact attenuation seat to protect astronauts from injuries during landing phase. Hence, the seat needs to transfer impact load, as small as possible, to the crew. However, there is little room left for traditional seat to improve further. Herein, a new seat system biologically-inspired by felids’ landing is proposed. Firstly, a series of experiments was carried out on cats and tigers, in which they were trained to jump down voluntarily from different heights. Based on the ground reaction forces combined with kinematics, the experiment indicated that felids’ landing after self-initial jump was a multi-step impact attenuation process and the new seat was inspired by this. Then the construction and work process of new seat were redesigned to realize the multi-step impact attenuation. The dynamic response of traditional and new seat is analyzed under the identical conditions and the results show that the new concept seat can significantly weaken the occupant overload in two directions compared with that of traditional seat. As a consequence, the risk of injury evaluated for spinal and head is also lowered, meaning a higher level of protection which is especially beneficial to the debilitated astronaut.

  19. The role of wild canids and felids in spreading parasites to dogs and cats in Europe. Part I: Protozoa and tick-borne agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otranto, Domenico; Cantacessi, Cinzia; Pfeffer, Martin; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Brianti, Emanuele; Deplazes, Peter; Genchi, Claudio; Guberti, Vittorio; Capelli, Gioia

    2015-09-30

    Over the last few decades, the world has witnessed radical changes in climate, landscape, and ecosystems. These events, together with other factors such as increasing illegal wildlife trade and changing human behaviour towards wildlife, are resulting into thinning boundaries between wild canids and felids and their domestic counterparts. As a consequence, the epidemiology of diseases caused by a number of infectious agents is undergoing profound readjustements, as pathogens adapt to new hosts and environments. Therefore, there is a risk for diseases of wildlife to spread to domestic carnivores and vice versa, and for zoonotic agents to emerge or re-emerge in human populations. Hence, the identification of the hazards arising from the co-habitation of these species is critical in order to plan and develop adequate control strategies against these pathogens. In the first of this two-part article, we review the role that wild canids and felids may play in the transmission of protozoa and arthropod-borne agents to dogs and cats in Europe, and provide an account of how current and future progress in our understanding of the ecology and epidemiology of parasites, as well as of host-parasite interactions, can assist efforts aimed at controlling parasite transmission.

  20. Fighting Asian soybean rust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caspar eLangenbach

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Phakopsora pachyrhizi is a biotrophic fungus provoking Asian soybean rust (SBR disease. SBR poses a major threat to global soybean production. Though several resistance genes provided soybean immunity to certain P. pachyrhizi races, the pathogen swiftly overcame this resistance. Therefore, fungicides are the only current means to control SBR. However, insensitivity to fungicides is soaring in P. pachyrhizi and, therefore, alternative measures are needed for SBR control. In this article, we discuss the different approaches for fighting SBR and their potential, disadvantages, and advantages over other measures. These encompass conventional breeding for SBR resistance, transgenic approaches, exploitation of transcription factors, secondary metabolites, and antimicrobial peptides, RNAi/HIGS, and biocontrol strategies. It seems that an integrating approach exploiting different measures is likely to provide the best possible means for the effective control of SBR.

  1. The Confucian Asian cluster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionel Sergiu Pirju

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Confucian Asian cluster consists of China, Hong Kong, Japan, Singapore, South Korea, and Taiwan. Confucian tradition countries were defined by achieving a consistent performance in the global economy, they still representing the major competitors in the EU and North American countries. Their progress is defined by a great national management that was able to influence beneficial management systems applied in organizations, these rules characterized by authority; aims to ensure the confidence in business. This article will present the intercultural values characterizing it, the leadership style and also tracing major macroeconomic considerations. The research is synchronic, analysing the contemporary situation of these countries, and the analysis will be interdisciplinary exploratory, identifying specific regional cultural elements.

  2. Racism and Asian American Student Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jennifer Y.

    2014-01-01

    This article provides a theoretical analysis and ethnographic account of Asian American student leadership in higher education. Existing literature highlights Asian and Asian American leadership styles as cultural differences. I shift the analysis from culture to racism in order to work toward a more socially just conception of Asian American…

  3. Job satisfaction of Asian Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, C N; Hinson, S

    2000-04-01

    Since Asian Americans have demographic and labor force characteristics more similar to Euro-Americans than African Americans, one might predict that their job satisfaction would be more like the former than the latter. And, because Asian Americans originating from different countries are heterogeneous in language, culture, and recency of immigration, one might predict that they may report obtaining different amounts of satisfaction from their jobs. However, data from 21 nationally representative opinion surveys from 1972 through 1996 suggest the opposite. Asian Americans (n = 199) reported job satisfaction more like African Americans (n = 1,231) than Euro-Americans (n = 10,709), and Asian Americans from China (n = 53), Japan (n = 44), India (n = 55), and the Philippines (n = 47) reported similar job satisfaction. These differences persisted when age, education, occupation, and personal income were held constant.

  4. Osteoporosis and Asian American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... not supported by your browser. Home Osteoporosis Women Osteoporosis and Asian American Women Publication available in: PDF ( ... Are Available? Resources For Your Information What Is Osteoporosis? Osteoporosis is a condition in which the bones ...

  5. Bounds for Asian basket options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deelstra, Griselda; Diallo, Ibrahima; Vanmaele, Michèle

    2008-09-01

    In this paper we propose pricing bounds for European-style discrete arithmetic Asian basket options in a Black and Scholes framework. We start from methods used for basket options and Asian options. First, we use the general approach for deriving upper and lower bounds for stop-loss premia of sums of non-independent random variables as in Kaas et al. [Upper and lower bounds for sums of random variables, Insurance Math. Econom. 27 (2000) 151-168] or Dhaene et al. [The concept of comonotonicity in actuarial science and finance: theory, Insurance Math. Econom. 31(1) (2002) 3-33]. We generalize the methods in Deelstra et al. [Pricing of arithmetic basket options by conditioning, Insurance Math. Econom. 34 (2004) 55-57] and Vanmaele et al. [Bounds for the price of discrete sampled arithmetic Asian options, J. Comput. Appl. Math. 185(1) (2006) 51-90]. Afterwards we show how to derive an analytical closed-form expression for a lower bound in the non-comonotonic case. Finally, we derive upper bounds for Asian basket options by applying techniques as in Thompson [Fast narrow bounds on the value of Asian options, Working Paper, University of Cambridge, 1999] and Lord [Partially exact and bounded approximations for arithmetic Asian options, J. Comput. Finance 10 (2) (2006) 1-52]. Numerical results are included and on the basis of our numerical tests, we explain which method we recommend depending on moneyness and time-to-maturity.

  6. Wild Asian elephants distinguish aggressive tiger and leopard growls according to perceived danger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuppil, Vivek; Coss, Richard G

    2013-10-23

    Prey species exhibit antipredator behaviours such as alertness, aggression and flight, among others, in response to predators. The nature of this response is variable, with animals reacting more strongly in situations of increased vulnerability. Our research described here is the first formal study to investigate night-time antipredator behaviour in any species of elephants, Asian or African. We examined the provocative effects of elephant-triggered tiger and leopard growls while elephants attempted to crop-raid. Tigers opportunistically prey on elephant calves, whereas leopards pose no threat; therefore, we predicted that the elephant response would be reflective of this difference. Elephants reacted similarly cautiously to the simulated presence of felids of both species by eventually moving away, but differed markedly in their more immediate behavioural responses. Elephants retreated silently to tiger-growl playbacks, whereas they responded with aggressive vocalizations, such as trumpets and grunts, to leopard-growl playbacks. Elephants also lingered in the area and displayed alert or investigative behaviours in response to leopard growls when compared with tiger growls. We anticipate that the methods outlined here will promote further study of elephant antipredator behaviour in a naturalistic context, with applications for conservation efforts as well.

  7. An Analysis of Southeast Asian Firms' Investment in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KaishengZeng

    2004-01-01

    Economic cooperation between China and Southeast Asian economies is increasingly attracting the attention of policy-makers, scholars, and practitioners. Firms from Southeast Asia have been playing an important role in China's utilization of foreign direct investment, though most of these firms have been viewed as small, labor-intensive, and ordinary in technology. This paper reveals one important dimension of economic cooperation between China and Southeast Asia. It investigates the factors that influence Southeast Asian firms' investments in Guangdong, which is one of the largest provinces in China in terms of utilization of foreign direct investment, and it tries to answer the question of what make Southeast Asian firms invest in China in a large scale and in the way of advancing waves.T he research outcomes contribute to the knowledge of the changing economic relations between China and Southeast Asia.

  8. Rape: an Asian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadesan, K

    2001-06-01

    Rape is one of the fastest growing violent crimes in many parts of the world. Rape laws have been amended in most countries in an attempt to cope with the proliferation of this crime. Even though the legal definition of rape and the procedural laws have been amended, rape remains a serious problem in both the developed and developing nations. In some countries the offence of rape carries severe punishment sometimes even the death sentence. In many jurisdictions the term 'sexual penetration' is being used instead of 'sexual intercourse'. Sexual penetration includes sexual intercourse, anal intercourse, cunnilingus, fellatio or any other intrusions involving any part of a human body or of any object into the genital or anal opening of a person's body. In many countries rape and other sexual offences have been replaced with a series of gender neutral and graded offences with appropriate punishments. Medical examination can provide independent, scientific, corroborative evidence that may be of value to the court in arriving at a judgement. Doctors should have a clear understanding of different rape laws in order to apprectiate the various issues involved. Special knowledge, skill and experience are essential to conduct a good-quality medical examination. There is a dearth of trained forensic physicians in many Asian countries. However, managing a rape victim (survivor) goes for beyond proving the case in a court of law. There should be an adequate rehabilitation programme available to the victims to help them cope.

  9. Asian Citrus Psyllid RNAi Pathway – RNAi evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taning, Clauvis N. T.; Andrade, Eduardo C.; Hunter, Wayne B.; Christiaens, Olivier; Smagghe, Guy

    2016-01-01

    Diaphorina citri, known as the Asian citrus psyllid, is an important pest of citrus because it transmits a phloem-limited bacteria strongly implicated in huanglongbing (citrus greening disease). Emerging biotechnologies, such as RNA interference, could provide a new sustainable and environmentally friendly strategy for the management of this pest. In this study, genome and functional analysis were performed to verify whether the RNAi core genes are present in the Asian psyllid genome and if the RNAi machinery could be exploited to develop a management strategy for this pest. Analyses of RNAi-related genes in the Asian citrus psyllid genome showed an absence of sequences encoding R2D2, a dsRNA-binding protein that functions as a cofactor of Dicer-2 in Drosophila. Nevertheless, bioassays using an in Planta System showed that the Asian citrus psyllid was very sensitive to ingested dsRNA, demonstrating a strong RNAi response. A small dose of dsRNA administered through a citrus flush was enough to trigger the RNAi mechanism, causing significant suppression of the targeted transcript, and increased psyllid mortality. This study provides evidence of a functional RNAi machinery, which could be further exploited to develop RNAi based management strategies for the control of the Asian citrus psyllid. PMID:27901078

  10. An Asian perspective on GMO and biotechnology issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Paul P S

    2008-01-01

    Of the 102 million hectares that made up the global area of biotech crops in 2006, less than 8% (7.6 million ha) were in Asia. Three biotech crops are currently planted in significant areas in four Asian countries with government regulatory approval; namely, cotton, corn (maize), and canola. However, the amount of GM crop material imported into the Asian region for processing into food and animal feed is very substantial, and almost every country imports GM food. The issues which concern Asian scientists, regulators, and the lay public resemble those of other regions - biosafety, food safety, ethics and social justice, competitiveness, and the "EU" trade question. Most Asian countries now have regulatory systems for approving the commercialization of GM crops, and for approving food safety of GM crops. In Asia, because of the varied cultures, issues concerning the use of genes derived from animals arouse much emotion for religious and diet choice reasons. Because many Asian producers and farmers are small-scale, there is also concern about technology dependency and to whom the benefits accrue. All consumers surveyed have expressed concern about potential allergenic and long-term toxic effects, neither of which is grounded on scientific facts. Because of Asia's growing demand for high volumes of quality food, it is likely that GM crops will become an increasing feature of our diet.

  11. Impacts of East Asian aerosols on the Asian monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Rachel; Bollasina, Massimo; Booth, Ben; Dunstone, Nick; Marenco, Franco

    2016-04-01

    Over recent decades, aerosol emissions from Asia have increased rapidly. Aerosols are able to alter radiative forcing and regional hydroclimate through direct and indirect effects. Large emissions within the geographical region of the Asian monsoon have been found to impact upon this vital system and have been linked to observed drying trends. The interconnected nature of smaller regional monsoon components (e.g. the Indian monsoon and East Asian monsoon) presents the possibility that aerosol sources could have far-reaching impacts. Future aerosol emissions are uncertain and may continue to dominate regional impacts on the Asian monsoon. Standard IPCC future emissions scenarios do not take a broad sample of possible aerosol pathways. We investigate the sensitivity of the Asian monsoon to East Asian aerosol emissions. Experiments carried out with HadGEM2-ES use three time-evolving future anthropogenic aerosol emissions scenarios with similar time-evolving greenhouse gases. We find a wetter summer over southern China and the Indochina Peninsula associated with increased sulfate aerosol over China. The southern-flood-northern-drought pattern seen in observations is reflected in these results. India is found to be drier in the summer overall, although wetter in June. These precipitation changes are linked to the increase in sulfate through the alteration of large scale dynamics. Sub-seasonal changes are also seen, with an earlier withdrawal of the monsoon over East Asia.

  12. South Asian High and Asian-Pacific-American Climate Teleconnection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Growing evidence indicates that the Asian monsoon plays an important role in affecting the weather and climate outside of Asia. However, this active role of the monsoon has not been demonstrated as thoroughly as has the variability of the monsoon caused by various impacting factors such as sea surface temperature and land surface. This study investigates the relationship between the Asian monsoon and the climate anomalies in the Asian-Pacific-American (APA) sector. A hypothesis is tested that the variability of the upper-tropospheric South Asian high (SAH), which is closely associated with the overall heating of the large-scale Asian monsoon, is linked to changes in the subtropical western Pacific high (SWPH), the midPacific trough, and the Mexican high. The changes in these circulation systems cause variability in surface temperature and precipitation in the APA region. A stronger SAH is accompanied by a stronger and more extensive SWPH. The enlargement of the SWPH weakens the mid-Pacific trough. As a result, the southern portion of the Mexican high becomes stronger. These changes are associated with changes in atmospheric teleconnections, precipitation, and surface temperature throughout the APA region. When the SAH is stronger, precipitation increases in southern Asia, decreases over the Pacific Ocean, and increases over the Central America. Precipitation also increases over Australia and central Africa and decreases in the Mediterranean region. While the signals in surface temperature are weak over the tropical land portion,they are apparent in the mid latitudes and over the eastern Pacific Ocean.

  13. The role of wild canids and felids in spreading parasites to dogs and cats in Europe. Part II: Helminths and arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otranto, Domenico; Cantacessi, Cinzia; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Brianti, Emanuele; Pfeffer, Martin; Genchi, Claudio; Guberti, Vittorio; Capelli, Gioia; Deplazes, Peter

    2015-09-30

    Over the last few decades, ecological factors, combined with everchanging landscapes mainly linked to human activities (e.g. encroachment and tourism) have contributed to modifications in the transmission of parasitic diseases from domestic to wildlife carnivores and vice versa. In the first of this two-part review article, we have provided an account of diseases caused by protozoan parasites characterised by a two-way transmission route between domestic and wild carnivore species. In this second and final part, we focus our attention on parasitic diseases caused by helminth and arthropod parasites shared between domestic and wild canids and felids in Europe. While a complete understanding of the biology, ecology and epidemiology of these parasites is particularly challenging to achieve, especially given the complexity of the environments in which these diseases perpetuate, advancements in current knowledge of transmission routes is crucial to provide policy-makers with clear indications on strategies to reduce the impact of these diseases on changing ecosystems.

  14. Suicide and attempted suicide among South Asians in England: who is at risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ineichen, Bernard

    2008-09-01

    Evidence from both large-scale and small-scale studies suggests differences and similarities in patterns of suicide and attempted suicide between South Asians and the total population in England. Among South Asians, the excess of females among both suicides and attempted suicides is even more marked; the traditional view of a strong family structure among Asians is confirmed, although cultural conflict between generations is apparent. The technique of suicide by burning among Asians appears to be waning. Asians who attempt or complete suicide are more likely to be suffering from stress, but less likely to have been diagnosed as mentally ill. Their psychological problems appear to have been frequently overlooked by general practitioners, or not presented to them. Differences in religion, with Hindus producing higher rates than Muslims, and demographic, geographical, financial and cultural differences, contribute to the need for disaggregation and up-to-date research.

  15. Diabetic nephropathy in Surinamese South Asian subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Chandieshaw, Prataap Kalap; Chandie Shaw, Prataap Kalap

    2008-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the incidence and risk factors for nephropathy in diabetic and non-diabetic Surinamese South Asians. The Surinamese South Asians, originally descended from the North-East India. Due to the former colonial bounds with the Netherlands, a relatively young South Asian migrant population settled in the Netherlands. South Asians have a high prevalence of central obesity and an eight-fold higher prevalence for type 2 diabetes mellitus. We found the following conclusions: 1.Sur...

  16. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    APJTB MonthlyAims&Scope Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine(APJTB)is administrated by Hainan Medical University and sponsored by Asian Pacific Tropical Medicine Press,and aims to establish an international academic communicating platform for researchers of tropical biomedicine and public health workers,especially specialists and scholars of the Asian

  17. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    APJTB MonthlyAims&Scope Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine(APJTB)is administrated by Hainan Medical University and sponsored by Asian Pacific Tropical Medicine Press,and aims to establish an international academic communicating platform for researchers of tropical biomedicine and public health workers,especially specialists and scholars of the Asian Pacific region and worldwide on tropical biomedicine research,to

  18. Japan's Energy Policy in the Asian Region

    OpenAIRE

    Reiji Takeishi

    2014-01-01

    With encouraged economic activities in the Asian region, energy consumption of Asian countries are substantially increasing. Based on the improved role of Asian countries, the possibility to secure enough energy in the future is becoming a seriously important matter because economic activities basically depend on stable energy supplies.

  19. Potentials in Asian Export Credit Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    "Mekong River Regional Development Project advocated by Asian Development Bank (ADB) has been implemented. Trans-Asia Railway and Trans-Asia Highway are being discussed. It is a good opportunity for Asian Export Credit Agencies (ECAs) to cooperate and financing these large crossboarder projects."On May 11, at the 10th Annual Meeting of Asian Export Credit Agencies,

  20. Educational Planning: The Asian Experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Jansen (Karel)

    1976-01-01

    textabstractThis article intends to present a discussion of various approaches to educational planning against the background of the experience of the Asian countries.l It may be, however, that some of our arguments apply to other parts of the Third World as well.

  1. Social and clinically-relevant cardiovascular risk factors in Asian Americans adults: NHANES 2011-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echeverria, Sandra E; Mustafa, Mehnaz; Pentakota, Sir Ram; Kim, Soyeon; Hastings, Katherine; Amadi, Chioma; Palaniappan, Latha

    2017-02-17

    Little evidence exists examining cardiovascular risk factors among Asian Americans and how social determinants such as nativity status and education pattern risk in the United States (U.S.) context. We used the 2011-2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, which purposely oversampled Asian Americans from 2011 to 2014, and examined prevalence of Type II diabetes, smoking and obesity for Asian Americans (n=1363) and non-Latino Whites (n=4121). We classified Asian Americans as U.S. or foreign-born and by years in the U.S. Obesity status was based on standard body mass index (BMI) cut points of ≥30kg/m(2) and Asian-specific cut points (BMI≥25kg/m(2)) that may be more clinically relevant for this population. We fit separate logistic regression models for each outcome using complex survey design methods and tested for the joint effect of race, nativity and education on each outcome.Diabetes and obesity prevalence (applying Asian-specific BMI cut points) were higher among Asian Americans when compared to non-Latino Whites but smoking prevalence was lower. These patterns remained in fully adjusted models and showed small increases with longer duration in the U.S. Joint effects models showed higher odds of prevalent Type II diabetes and obesity (Asian-specific) for foreign-born Asians, regardless of years in the U.S. and education, when compared to non-Latino Whites with high education. Smoking models showed significant interaction effects between race and education for non-Latino Whites only. Our study supports the premise that social as well as clinical factors should be considered when developing health initiatives for Asian Americans.

  2. Asian Creativity: A Response to Satoshi Kanazawa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey Miller

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This article responds to Satoshi Kanazawa's thoughtful and entertaining comments about my article concerning the Asian future of evolutionary psychology. Contra Kanazawa's argument that Asian cultural traditions and/or character inhibit Asian scientific creativity, I review historical evidence of high Asian creativity, and psychometric evidence of high Asian intelligence (a cognitive trait and openness to experience (a personality trait — two key components of creativity. Contra Kanazawa's concern that political correctness is a bigger threat to American evolutionary psychology than religious fundamentalism, I review evidence from research funding patterns and student attitudes suggesting that fundamentalism is more harmful and pervasive. Finally, in response to Kanazawa's focus on tall buildings as indexes of national wealth and creativity, I find that 13 of the world's tallest 25 buildings are in China, Hong Kong, or Taiwan — of which 11 were built in the last decade. Asian creativity, secularism, and architectural prominence point to a bright future for Asian science.

  3. The Rise of Asian SMEs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Export-oriented Asian SMEs-and the vital role they play in generating growth and employment-traversed difficult financial terrain in 2008-09.But with the global financial crisis behind them,their outlook is only looking more prospective with time.Sore Subroto,global head of SME Banking of Standard Chartered Bank,explained SMEs' function and difficulties in an exclusive article for Beijing Review.

  4. The Rise of Asian SMEs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Export-oriented Asian SMEs-and the vital role they play in generating growth and employment-traversed difficult financial terrain in 2008-09.But with the global financial crisis behind them,their outlook is only looking more prospective with time.Som Subroto,global head of SME Banking of Standard Chartered Bank,explained SMEs’function and difficulties in an exclusive article for Beijing Review.Edited excerpts follow

  5. English as an Asian Language

    OpenAIRE

    Kachru, Braj .B

    1998-01-01

    This paper outlines the dimensions of Asia's English, which constitutes a world of its own in linguistic, cultural, interactional, ideological, and political terms. The questions this paper raises are: What conditions must a transplanted colonial language satisfy to be accepted as part of the colonized's linguistic repertoire? Why not consider Asian Englishes as part of a local pluralistic linguistic heritage? Answers to these questions demand redefining the concept of «nativeness» and types ...

  6. Corridor use by Asian elephants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Wenjing; Lin, Liu; Luo, Aidong; Zhang, Li

    2009-06-01

    There are 18 km of Kunming-Bangkok Highway passing through the Mengyang Nature Reserve of Xishuangbanna National Nature Reserve in Yunnan Province, China. From September 2005 to September 2006 the impact of this highway on movement of wild Asian elephants between the eastern and western part of the nature reserve was studied using track transecting, rural surveys and direct monitoring. Our results showed that the number of crossroad corridors used by Asian elephants diminished from 28 to 23 following the construction of the highway. In some areas, the elephant activity diminished or even disappeared, which indicated a change in their home ranges. The utilization rate of artificial corridors was 44%. We also found that elephants preferred artificial corridors that were placed along their original corridors. During the research, wild elephants revealed their adaptation to the highway. They were found walking across the highway road surface many times and for different reasons. We suggest that the highway management bureau should revise their management strategies to mitigate the potential risks caused by elephants on the road for the safety of the public and to protect this endangered species from harm. It is also very important to protect and maintain current Asian elephants corridors in this region.

  7. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    APJTB Monthly Aims&Scope Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine(APJTB)aims to set up and provide an international academic communication platform for physicians,medical scientists,allied health scientists and public health workers,especially those in the Asian Pacific region and worldwide on tropical biomedicine,infectious diseases and public health,and to meet the growing challenges of understanding,preventing and controlling the dramatic global emergence and reemergence of infectious diseases in the Asian Pacific region.

  8. Stomach cancer incidence rates among Americans, Asian Americans and Native Asians from 1988 to 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Yeerae; Park, Jinju; Nam, Byung-Ho; Ki, Moran

    2015-01-01

    Stomach cancer is the second most common cancer in Eastern Asia, accounting for approximately 50% of all new cases of stomach cancer worldwide. Our objective was to compare the stomach cancer incidence rates of Asian Americans in Los Angeles with those of native Asians to assess the etiology of stomach cancer from 1988 to 2011. To examine these differences, Asian Americans (Korean, Japanese, Chinese, and Filipino Americans living in Los Angeles, California, USA) and native Asians (from Korea,...

  9. Numerical Algorithm for Delta of Asian Option

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boxiang Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the numerical solution of the Greeks of Asian options. In particular, we derive a close form solution of Δ of Asian geometric option and use this analytical form as a control to numerically calculate Δ of Asian arithmetic option, which is known to have no explicit close form solution. We implement our proposed numerical method and compare the standard error with other classical variance reduction methods. Our method provides an efficient solution to the hedging strategy with Asian options.

  10. U.S. and East Asian Integration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Limin

    2008-01-01

    the U.S. is directly impacting on the future of the East Asian community. Therefore, finding ways to get along with the U.S. is crucial to the speed, direction, configuration and character of the East Asian community. In this paper, the author has analyzed the interests of the United States in East Asia and its stands towards the East Asian integration. The author concludes that it is to the interest of the United States to make more efforts to further join in the East Asian integration.And East Asia should accept and welcome the American participation.

  11. Introduction to Asian Herpetological Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuezhao WANG; Shengxian ZHONG

    2011-01-01

    Asian Herpetological Research (AHR),an international English language journal,is published quarterly by the Chengdu Institute of Biology (CIB),Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Science Press of China,cooperated with the Asiatic Herpetological Research Society (AHRS),with its registered numbers:CN 51-1735/Q and ISSN 2095-0357,and post distribution code:62-218.AHR has an international Editorial Board consisting of many top herpetologists from different countries in the world.The journal's website can be found at:http://www.ahr-journal.com.

  12. Awareness and Use of South Asian Tobacco Products Among South Asians in New Jersey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrywna, Mary; Jane Lewis, M; Mukherjea, Arnab; Banerjee, Smita C; Steinberg, Michael B; Delnevo, Cristine D

    2016-12-01

    South Asians are the third largest Asian group in the US and among the fastest growing racial groups in New Jersey. Tobacco consumption among South Asians is characterized by several smoked and smokeless tobacco products indigenous to the Indian subcontinent. However, there is a paucity of research on tobacco use behaviors among South Asians in the US. The goal of this study was to examine the awareness and use of South Asian tobacco products such as bidis, gutkha, paan, paan masala, and zarda as well as other potentially carcinogenic products such as supari, their context of use, and their cultural significance among South Asians living in the US. Eight focus groups were conducted with South Asian adults living in Central New Jersey. Overall, participants were aware of a wide variety of foreign and American tobacco products with older South Asians identifying a greater variety of indigenous products compared to younger South Asians. Hookah was consistently recognized as popular among the younger generation while products such as paan or paan masala were more commonly identified with elders. Use of tobacco-related products such as paan and supari were described as common at social gatherings or after meals. In addition, light or social users of South Asian tobacco products, including products not consistently defined as tobacco, may not report tobacco use on a survey. Better understanding of the use of these products among South Asians and how some may classify tobacco usage can inform future research and public health interventions in these communities.

  13. Oxidative phosphorylation is essential for felid sperm function, but is substantially lower in cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) compared to domestic cat (Felis catus) ejaculate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrell, Kimberly A; Wildt, David E; Anthony, Nicola M; Bavister, Barry D; Leibo, S P; Penfold, Linda M; Marker, Laurie L; Crosier, Adrienne E

    2011-09-01

    Compared with the normospermic domestic cat, sperm metabolic function is compromised in the teratospermic cat and cheetah, but the pathway(s) involved in this deficiency are unknown. Glycolysis is essential for sperm motility, yet it appears to function normally in spermatozoa of either species regardless of structural morphology. We conducted a comparative study to further understand the mechanisms of energy production in felid spermatozoa, with the hypothesis that oxidative phosphorylation is required for normal sperm function and is impaired in teratospermic ejaculates. Electroejaculates from both species were stained with MitoTracker to quantify mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) or were incubated to assess changes in sperm function (motility, acrosomal integrity, and lactate production) after mitochondrial inhibition with myxothiazol. Sperm midpiece dimensions also were quantified. Sperm mitochondrial fluorescence (directly proportional to MMP) was ~95% lower in the cheetah compared with the normospermic and teratospermic cat, despite the cheetah having a 10% longer midpiece. In both species, MMP was increased 5-fold in spermatozoa with retained cytoplasm compared with structurally normal cells. Inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation impaired sperm function in both species, but a 100-fold higher inhibitor concentration was required in the cat compared with the cheetah. Collectively, findings revealed that oxidative phosphorylation was required for sperm function in the domestic cat and cheetah. This pathway of energy production appeared markedly less active in the cheetah, indicating a species-specific vulnerability to mitochondrial dysfunction. The unexpected, cross-species linkage between retained cytoplasmic droplets and elevated MMP may reflect increased concentrations of metabolic enzymes or substrates in these structures.

  14. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    <正>APJTB Monthly Aims&Scope Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine(APJTB)aims to set up and provide an international academic communication platform for physicians,medical scientists,allied health scientists and public health workers,especially those in the Asian Pacific region and worldwide on tropical biomedicine,infectious diseases and public

  15. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    Aims & Scope Asian Pacific Journal of TropicalBiomedicine(APJTB) aims to set up and provide an international academic communication plaffom for physicians,medical scientisis,allied health scientists and public health workers,especially those in the Asian Pacific region and worldwide on tropical biomedicine,infectious diseases and public health,and to meet the growing challenges

  16. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    <正>Aims&Scope Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine(APJTB)aims to set up and provide an international academic communication platform for physicians,medical scientists,allied health scientists and public health workers,especially those in the Asian Pacific region and worldwide on tropical biomedicine,infectious diseases and public health,and to meet the growing challenges of understanding

  17. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    APJTB MonthlyAims&Scope Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine(APJTB)aims to set up and provide an international academic communication platform for physicians,medical scientists,allied health scientists and public health workers,especially those in the Asian Pacific region and worldwide on tropical biomedicine,infectious diseases and public health,and to meet the growing challenges

  18. Diabetic nephropathy in Surinamese South Asian subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chandieshaw, Prataap Kalap; Chandie Shaw, Prataap Kalap

    2008-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the incidence and risk factors for nephropathy in diabetic and non-diabetic Surinamese South Asians. The Surinamese South Asians, originally descended from the North-East India. Due to the former colonial bounds with the Netherlands, a relatively youn

  19. Book Review: Infrastructure for Asian Connectivity

    OpenAIRE

    Sandee, Henry

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews the book Infrastructure for Asian Connectivity edited by Bhattacharyay, Kawai and Nag (2012). This book is the second publication coordinated by the ADB and the ADB Institute focusing on infrastructure and connectivity in Asian countries. This book looks at regional (across border) infrastructure that is needed to facilitate growth and development through better connectivity and integration among countries.

  20. Asian Cinema and the Social Imaginary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissanayake, Wimal

    2009-01-01

    There is growing interest by schools and universities in understanding Asian societies and cultures. One way of deepening this interest productively is through the imaginative use of cinema. In this article, the author explores how cinema can be a window into the dynamics of contemporary Asian societies and cultures. Through "aesthetic…

  1. Regional conditions in East Asian development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søborg, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    The present volume contains case studies of how government og firms in a number of Asian countries have responded to challenges of globalisation and how that has affected their economic transformation.......The present volume contains case studies of how government og firms in a number of Asian countries have responded to challenges of globalisation and how that has affected their economic transformation....

  2. Asian American Literature: Questions of Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongo, Garrett

    1994-01-01

    Argues that Asian American literature is too narrowly defined to include the wide range of diversity it contains and calls for Asian writers to produce work from a more generous interpretive perspective. American poetry is extolled for its beauty of language and its effect on the emotions to both energize and sadden. (GR)

  3. The Impact of Racial Identity, Ethnic Identity, Asian Values and Race-Related Stress on Asian Americans and Asian International College Students’ Psychological Well-Being

    OpenAIRE

    Iwamoto, Derek Kenji; LIU, WILLIAM MING

    2010-01-01

    The current study investigated the direct and moderating effects of racial identity, ethnic identity, Asian values, and race-related stress on positive psychological well-being among 402 Asian American and Asian international college students. Results revealed that the racial identity statuses Internalization, Immersion-Emersion, Dissonance, Asian values and Ethnic Identity Affirmation and Belonging were significant predictors of well-being. Asian values, Dissonance and Conformity were found ...

  4. Influence of dietary fiber type and amount on energy and nutrient digestibility, fecal characteristics, and fecal fermentative end-product concentrations in captive exotic felids fed a raw beef-based diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, K R; Morris, C L; Burke, S L; Swanson, K S

    2013-05-01

    Little nutritional or metabolic information has been collected from captive exotic cats fed raw diets. In particular, fiber types and concentrations for use in raw meat-based diets for captive exotic felids have not been well studied. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of fiber type and concentration on apparent total tract energy and macronutrient digestibility, fecal characteristics, and fecal fermentative end-products in captive exotic felids. Four animals of each captive exotic species (jaguar (Panthera onca), cheetah (Acinonyz jubatus), Malayan tiger (Panthera tigris corbetti), and Siberian tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) were randomized in four 4 × 4 Latin square designs (1 Latin square per species) to 1 of the 4 raw beef-based dietary treatments (94.7 to 96.7% beef trimmings): 2 or 4% cellulose or 2 or 4% beet pulp. Felid species, fiber type, and fiber concentration all impacted digestibility and fecal fermentative end-products. Inclusion of beet pulp increased (P ≤ 0.05) fecal short-chain fatty acids and fecal output in all cats. Inclusion of 2 and 4% cellulose, and 4% beet pulp increased (P ≤ 0.05) fecal bulk and diluted fecal branched-chain fatty acid concentrations compared with 2% beet pulp. Apparent total tract DM, OM, fat, and GE digestibility coefficients decreased (P ≤ 0.05) linearly with BW of cats. Additionally, fecal moisture, fecal score, and concentrations of fermentative end-products increased (P ≤ 0.05) with BW. Although the response of many outcomes was dependent on cat size, in general, beet pulp increased wet fecal weight, fecal scores, and fecal metabolites, and reduced fecal pH. Cellulose generally reduced DM and OM digestibility, but increased dry fecal weight and fecal percent DM. Although beet pulp and cellulose fibers were tested individually in this study, these data indicate that the optimum fiber type and concentration for inclusion in captive exotic felid diets is likely a combination of fermentable and

  5. Brain death: the Asian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Hoe Chin; Kwek, Tong Kiat; Morihara, Hirofumi; Gao, Daiquan

    2015-04-01

    Asia is the largest and most populous continent in the world with people from many diverse ethnic groups, religions and government systems. The authors surveyed 14 countries accounting for the majority of Asia's population and found that, although the concept of brain death is widely accepted, there is wide variability in the criteria for certification. Although most Asian countries have adopted the "whole-brain" concept of brain death, most countries with past colonial links to the United Kingdom follow the UK "brainstem" concept of brain death. Despite this difference, most countries require only neurologic testing of irreversible coma and absent brainstem reflexes as criteria for certification of brain death. Variability exists in the number of personnel required, qualifications of certifying doctors, need for repeat examination, minimum time interval between examinations, and requirement for and choice of confirmatory tests.

  6. Obesity and Dyslipidemia in South Asians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anoop Misra

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and dyslipidemia are emerging as major public health challenges in South Asian countries. The prevalence of obesity is more in urban areas than rural, and women are more affected than men. Further, obesity in childhood and adolescents is rising rapidly. Obesity in South Asians has characteristic features: high prevalence of abdominal obesity, with more intra-abdominal and truncal subcutaneous adiposity than white Caucasians. In addition, there is greater accumulation of fat at “ectopic” sites, namely the liver and skeletal muscles. All these features lead to higher magnitude of insulin resistance, and its concomitant metabolic disorders (the metabolic syndrome including atherogenic dyslipidemia. Because of the occurrence of type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia and other cardiovascular morbidities at a lower range of body mass index (BMI and waist circumference (WC, it is proposed that cut-offs for both measures of obesity should be lower (BMI 23–24.9 kg/m2 for overweight and ≥25 kg/m2 for obesity, WC ≥80 cm for women and ≥90 cm for men for abdominal obesity for South Asians, and a consensus guideline for these revised measures has been developed for Asian Indians. Increasing obesity and dyslipidemia in South Asians is primarily driven by nutrition, lifestyle and demographic transitions, increasingly faulty diets and physical inactivity, in the background of genetic predisposition. Dietary guidelines for prevention of obesity and diabetes, and physical activity guidelines for Asian Indians are now available. Intervention programs with emphasis on improving knowledge, attitude and practices regarding healthy nutrition, physical activity and stress management need to be implemented. Evidence for successful intervention program for prevention of childhood obesity and for prevention of diabetes is available for Asian Indians, and could be applied to all South Asian countries with similar cultural and lifestyle profiles. Finally, more

  7. Selected Statistics on the Status of Asian-American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Pauline; Cabezas, Amado

    1977-01-01

    Taken from a paper on "The Economic and Employment Status of Asian Women in America" by Pauline Fong and Amado Cabezas of ASIAN, Inc., this brief analysis of statistics on Asian women indicates that highly educated Asian women do not have higher incomes or better jobs than many of those with less education.

  8. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    <正>Aims&Scope Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine(APJTB)aims to set up and provide an international academic communication platform for physicians,medical scientists,allied health scientists and public health workers,especially those in the Asian Pacific region and worldwide on tropical biomedicine,infectious diseases and public health,and to meet the growing challenges of understanding,preventing and controlling the dramatic global emergence and reemergence of infectious diseases in the Asian Pacific region.APJTB publishes new findings in both basic and clinical(including modern,traditional and epidemiological)research

  9. Asian Financial Cooperation as Seen From Europe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ In fact, I am convinced that steps to promote the Asian bond market have the potential to make a contribution to monetary and financial cooperation in Asia that goes beyond simply deepening and enhancing the efficiency of today's bond markets. Let me explain what I have in mind by looking at Asian monetary cooperation through the European rear-view mirror. In doing so, I will first make some broad-brush comparisons between Asian and European developments and then present some observations on the forces that, in my mind, have driven the process of cooperation in Europe - leaving it to you to decide whether a similar development could be expected in Asia.

  10. Evaluation of a Health Careers Program for Asian American and Pacific Islander High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Christine J.; Borrero, Noah E.

    2012-01-01

    The authors evaluated a health careers program in a U.S. urban public high school. After small subgroups of the original sample were removed, participants included 162 Asian American and Pacific Islander students. Analyses of covariance indicated that, compared with the comparison group, the treatment group reported significantly higher levels of…

  11. Responding to Asian Pacific Islander Youth Violence: Lessons Learned from a Community Mobilization Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Mary H.

    2005-01-01

    Youth violence in Asian Pacific Islander (API) communities is growing at an alarming rate as a result of many factors, such as immigration history, intergenerational conflicts, mental health and substance abuse problems, and socioeconomic context. Unfortunately, the issues of API youth are often ignored due to their small population and a general…

  12. Comparative anatomy of the frontal sinuses in the primitive sabre-toothed felid Promegantereon ogygia (Felidae, Machairodontinae and similarly sized extant felines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morales, J.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the frontal sinuses of the sabre-toothed felid Promegantereon ogygia are analysed, in comparison to those of the extant felines Acinonyx jubatus, Puma conocolor and Panthera pardus, of similar body weight. The study was carried out using 3D virtual models obtained from CT Scan images, a non-destructive technique that has revealed as a powerful tool for accessing to all kind of intracranial information. Our study shows that the frontal sinuses of P. ogygia were more similar to those of P. concolor, both in the presence of several struts reinforcing the dorsal part, and in the development of a remarkable caudal expansion. This caudal expansion would act as a thermal insulator of the brain, and would indicate a more open environment than previously supposed for this species, whereas the struts would be related to biomechanical stresses produced during the “canine shear-bite”, the killing method of the machairodontines.En el presente trabajo, se analizan los senos frontales del félido dientes de sable Promegantereon ogygia, en comparación con los de los felinos actuales Acinonyx jubatus, Puma conocolor y Panthera pardus, de similar peso corporal. El estudio se llevó a cabo utilizando modelos virtuales 3D obtenidos por tomografía axial computerizada, una técnica no destructiva que se ha revelado como una poderosa herramienta para acceder a todo tipo de información intracraneal. Nuestro estudio muestra que los senos frontales de P. ogygia eran más similares a los de P. concolor, tanto en la presencia de varios puntales óseos de refuerzo de la parte dorsal, y en el desarrollo de una notable expansión caudal. Esta expansión caudal actuaría como un aislante térmico del cerebro, y podría indicar un entorno más abierto de lo que se supone para esta especie, mientras que los puntales óseos se relacionarían con tensiones biomecánicas producidas durante el mordisco típico de los macairodontinos, el método de ataque

  13. PERSPECTIVES ON EAST-ASIAN MONETARY INTEGRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Masini

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Increasing trade interdependence among East-Asian countries suggests the urge to design some monetary arrangement to stabilize the macroeconomic framework of an extremely heterogeneously growing area. The paper reviews the literature and analyses several directions of East-Asian integration process, especially in relation to the European model. We argue that a more comprehensive economic and political world-scenario should be considered and a multi-speed policy approach should be implemented in the area. Around the pivotal role of China, a wide agreement should be reached for an Asian single-currency, which might be rapidly issued and provide a reference target for other East-Asian countries.

  14. China and Its Northeast Asian Neighbors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Bojiang; Li Baowen

    2007-01-01

    @@ Ⅰ Northeast Asian countries have held an important position on China's diplomatic chessboard. Their bilateral relations can be traced back to the ancient times, and they are important for China's national security strategy.

  15. The Asian Future of Evolutionary Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey Miller

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Asia's population, wealth, cognitive capital, and scientific influence are growing quickly. Reasonable demographic, economic, and psychometric projections suggest that by the mid-21st century, most of the world's psychology will be done in Asia, by Asians. Even if evolutionary psychology wins the battles for academic respectability in the United States and European Union, if it ignores the rise of Asian psychology, it will fail to have any serious, long-term, global influence in the behavioral sciences after the current generations of researchers are dead. I outline a ‘marketing strategy’ for promoting evolutionary psychology in the current Asian powers (Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Singapore, the new Asian mega-powers (China, India, and other developing Asia countries (e.g. Vietnam, Thailand, Malaysia, in a way that takes advantage of Asia's relative secularism, freedom from political correctness, sex-positive social attitudes, and intellectual traditions of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Confucianism.

  16. Central Asian Snow Cover from Hydrometeorological Surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Central Asian Snow Cover from Hydrometeorological Surveys data are based on observations made by personnel for three river basins: Amu Darya, Sir Darya, and...

  17. The rise of Asian sovereign wealth funds

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    This Asia Focus provides an overview of sovereign wealth funds, evaluates the structure and activities of major funds in Asia, and compares the transparency of Asian funds relative to international best practices.

  18. Asian Banks: Leading the Way to Recovery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ The global financial crisis has rocked the American and European Union banking system leaving many Western banks teetering on the verge of bankruptcy.But in the East,Asian banks have fared well so far.

  19. Asian Employment Forum Held in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ From August 13 through 15,2007,the Asian Employment Forum sponsored by the International Labor Organization (ILO) and hosted by the Ministry of Labor and Social Security of China was held in Beijing.

  20. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    <正>APJTB Monthly Aims&Scope Asian Pacific Jounrnal of Tropical Biomedicine(APJTB)aims to set up and provide an international academic communication platform for physicians,medical scientists,allied health scientists and public health workers,especially those in the Asian Pacific region and worldwide on tropical biomedicine,infectious diseases and public health,and to meet the growing challenges

  1. Serious Play: Race, Game, Asian American Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Fickle, Tara

    2014-01-01

    "Serious Play: Race, Game, Asian American Literature," argues that games are narrative fantasies of perfectly equal opportunity that can help us reconceive of what it means to be a minority in contemporary America. Race's idiomatic evolution into a "race card" points not just to identity's growing immateriality and "virtualization" but to its increasingly intimate relationship with the ludic. Asian American authors in particular have seized upon the possibilities of transforming identity into...

  2. Asian citrus psyllid RNAi pathway : RNAi evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Taning, Clauvis N. T.; Andrade, Eduardo C.; Hunter, Wayne B.; Olivier Christiaens; Guy Smagghe

    2016-01-01

    Diaphorina citri, known as the Asian citrus psyllid, is an important pest of citrus because it transmits a phloem-limited bacteria strongly implicated in huanglongbing (citrus greening disease). Emerging biotechnologies, such as RNA interference, could provide a new sustainable and environmentally friendly strategy for the management of this pest. In this study, genome and functional analysis were performed to verify whether the RNAi core genes are present in the Asian psyllid genome and if t...

  3. Seed Dispersal Potential of Asian Elephants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harich, Franziska K.; Treydte, Anna Christina; Ogutu, Joseph Ochieng

    2016-01-01

    of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). We examined the effects of elephant fruit consumption on potential seed dispersal using the example of a tree species with mega-faunal characteristics, Dillenia indica L., in Thailand. We conducted feeding trials with Asian elephants to quantify seed survival and gut...... dispersers might, therefore, have long-term negative consequences for the recruitment and dispersal dynamics of populations of certain tree species....

  4. A Classroom of Bunnies, Blimps, and Werewolves: Teaching Asian Religions Online in Second Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Alyson Prude

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Virtual environments promise a myriad of exciting opportunities for college and university online teaching, but how much do they actually deliver? This evaluation of the use of Second Life in an Asian religions course contributes to the small but growing body of literature addressing the incorporation of online virtual worlds into higher education. It discusses benefits and drawback of teaching in Second Life and suggests Asian-inspired Second Life locations that can be useful in the classroom. Given instructor commitment to making use of the unique possibilities Second Life offers, including synchronous communication, virtual world fieldtrips, animations, and the potential for guest lectures and international participation, Second Life can provide a lively and interesting alternative for online Asian-content courses.

  5. IAU South West Asian ROAD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickaelian, Areg; Azatyan, Naira; Farmanyan, Sona; Mikayelyan, Gor

    2016-10-01

    Armenia is hosting the IAU South West Asian (SWA) Regional Office of Astronomy for Development (ROAD). It is a county of ancient astronomy and is also rich in modern astronomical facilities and infrastructures, hence may successfully serve as a regional center for various activities. Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory (BAO) has 2.6m and 1m Schmidt, as well as a number of smaller telescopes that are an observational basis for joint projects and collaborations. Armenian Virtual Observatory (ArVO) is hosting astronomical databases, such as the Digitized First Byurakan Survey (DFBS) and may also serve as a basis for development of VO structures in this region. Recently we have conducted a number of new activities; a meeting on ``Relation of Astronomy to other Sciences, Culture and Society" (RASCS) was organized by BAO and Armenian Astronomical Society (ArAS) in Oct 2014 in Byurakan. Activities related to Archaeoastronomy and Astronomy in Culture (AAC) were initiated as well. Discussions on future Armenian-Iranian collaboration in astronomy were carried out, including an Armenian-Iranian Astronomical Workshop held in Oct 2015 in Byurakan. Similar workshops have been carried out between BAO and Abastumani Astronomical Observatory (AbAO, Georgia) since 1974.

  6. Chemical peels for acne and acne scars in asians: Evidence based review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangeline B Handog

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical peeling is a widely used procedure in the management of acne and acne scars, but there are very few studies on Asian populations who are more prone to develop hyper pigmentation. This article aims to summarize and evaluate the existing studies on the role of chemical peels in the treatment of acne and acne scars among Asians. An online search was conducted to identify prospective studies published in English that evaluated the use of chemical peels in active acne and acne scars in Asian populations. There were six studies for acne and eight studies for acne scars that were identified using our search parameters. Most were single-centre, open label and with small sample sizes. Acne severity was not uniformly reported and the objective outcome measures of some studies were not explicitly reported as well. The general trend of the results of the studies support the safety and efficacy of chemical peels for acne and acne scars including those of darker skin types. The existing studies support the use of chemical peels in the treatment of acne and acne scars in Asians. Further clinical trials with better study design and more subjects are needed to further establish the role of chemical peels in Asian acne patients.

  7. Family Violence: Psychological Consequences and Beliefs in Asian and Asian-American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maker, Azmaira; Heiple, Becky

    This study specifically explored the relationships among childhood trauma, long-term psychological consequences, beliefs about family violence, and gender role stereotypes in Asian and Asian American women. A prediction was made that childhood physical violence and witnessing family violence would create long-term negative symptoms; higher levels…

  8. Who's behind that mask and cape? The Asian leopard cat's Agouti (ASIP) allele likely affects coat colour phenotype in the Bengal cat breed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershony, L C; Penedo, M C T; Davis, B W; Murphy, W J; Helps, C R; Lyons, L A

    2014-12-01

    Coat colours and patterns are highly variable in cats and are determined mainly by several genes with Mendelian inheritance. A 2-bp deletion in agouti signalling protein (ASIP) is associated with melanism in domestic cats. Bengal cats are hybrids between domestic cats and Asian leopard cats (Prionailurus bengalensis), and the charcoal coat colouration/pattern in Bengals presents as a possible incomplete melanism. The complete coding region of ASIP was directly sequenced in Asian leopard, domestic and Bengal cats. Twenty-seven variants were identified between domestic and leopard cats and were investigated in Bengals and Savannahs, a hybrid with servals (Leptailurus serval). The leopard cat ASIP haplotype was distinguished from domestic cat by four synonymous and four non-synonymous exonic SNPs, as well as 19 intronic variants, including a 42-bp deletion in intron 4. Fifty-six of 64 reported charcoal cats were compound heterozygotes at ASIP, with leopard cat agouti (A(P) (be) ) and domestic cat non-agouti (a) haplotypes. Twenty-four Bengals had an additional unique haplotype (A2) for exon 2 that was not identified in leopard cats, servals or jungle cats (Felis chaus). The compound heterozygote state suggests the leopard cat allele, in combination with the recessive non-agouti allele, influences Bengal markings, producing a darker, yet not completely melanistic coat. This is the first validation of a leopard cat allele segregating in the Bengal breed and likely affecting their overall pelage phenotype. Genetic testing services need to be aware of the possible segregation of wild felid alleles in all assays performed on hybrid cats.

  9. Negotiating Intra-Asian Games Networks: On Cultural Proximity, East Asian Games Design, and Chinese Farmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean Chan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A key feature of networked games in East Asia is the relationship between the adaptation of regional Asian aesthetic and narrative forms in game content, and the parallel growth in more regionally-focused marketing and distribution initiatives. This essay offers a contextual analysis of intra-Asian games networks, with reference to the production, marketing and circulation of Asian MMORPGs. My discussion locates these networks as part of broader discourses on regionalism, East Asian cultural production and Asian modernity. At the same time, I consider how these networks highlight structural asymmetry and uneven power relations within the region; and I examine the emergent use of gamer-workers known as Chinese farmers in the digital game-items trade.

  10. Sustainability in South Asian city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Akhmat

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available City brings about the most complex interplay of social, cultural, and political dimensions of space. It will have to accommodate around one billion humans only in South Asia by the year 2030. Therefore it needs to be prepared to absorb huge increases in urban population and resulting pressure on basic infrastructure and livelihood opportunities. In order to secure a better future and to improve the quality of life of all the citizens, city needs to be reinvented, by incorporating creativity and innovation with the approaches, we use in its planning. Here we present an overview of the progress, challenges and some key interventions to reinvent the city in South Asian region as well as in the developing world, with the examples of the most populous countries in the region: India, Pakistan and Bangladesh. Planning transforms geometric space in city into lived space. City planning in South Asia is as old as the human settlement itself, but the current situation is well below the level to be admired. Most of the city plans have been faulty with poor economic base and implementability, and fostered unintended city within the city, whose growth rate shadows the growth rate of the city itself. City in the developing world desperately needs to follow a sustainable development pattern which satisfies the requirement for equity; meets basic human needs; allows social and ethnic self-determination; promotes environmental awareness, integrity and inter-linkages between various living beings across time and space. It requires a combination of strategic policy making, supported by a system that combines personal opinion with scientific knowledge. It needs to reset the basis for the articulation of the initiatives of all relevant stakeholders to seek synergies for its development.

  11. ENTREPRENEURIAL ACTIVITY AMONG ASIAN COMMUNITIES IN GREECE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charalambos Tsardanidis

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the presence of the population of Asian origin in Greece, a relatively recent phenomenon on which academic studies and available statistics are still fairly scarce. Following an analysis of the available sources, and based on their own research, the authors reach the conclusion that while it is from being the majority case, it is clear that Asian communities are notable for their autonomous professional and entrepreneurial activity in Greece, and furthermore that unlike other communities with a strongpresence in the country (i.e Albanians, Asians seek to differentiate themselves from their welcoming society by emphasising the ethnic nature of their business so as to specifically lend added value to their entrepreneurial practices. This creates new economic structures that have a positive impact on the Greek economy, which is invigorated by an increase in the number of workers, companies and taxpayers, at the same time as it transforms the urban landscape by revitalising (for example some of Athens’ most depressed neighbourhoods. These Asian diasporas, even though they display several common features, also have great differences which determine both their strategies for progressing in the welcoming society and their chances of achieving same. The underlying argument in the analysis is that the presence of the Asian diaspora represents a positive element for the Greek economy, in view of which the government should react by encouraging their integration and maximising their potential.

  12. Sexuality and human rights: an Asian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Erick

    2005-01-01

    In Asia, the lesbian and gay rights movements are clearly dominated by activists, who tend to think in terms of a binary opposition (homo- vs hetero-) and clear-cut categories. Based on "Western patterns," the approach is practical, the arguments based on minority rights. "Coming out" is often perceived as a "white model" bringing more problems than real freedom. On the contrary, "Asian values" put the emphasis on family and social harmony, often in contradiction to what is pictured as "lesbian and gay rights." Homophobia follows very subtle ways in Asian countries. Asian gays have to negotiate their freedom, lifestyle and identities in an atmosphere of heterosexism, and not the endemic violent homophobia prevalent in many western countries. In Asia, one's identity relates to one's position in the group and sexuality plays a relatively insignificant role in its cultural construction. That Asian gays often marry and have children shows the elasticity their sexual identity encompasses. Fluidity of sexuality does not really match the Western approach in terms of essentialist categories that have a right to exist. Most Asian societies can be thought of as "tolerant" as long as homosexuality remains invisible. Procreative sexuality can be seen as a social duty, and heterosexual marriage is often not considered incompatible with a "homosexual life." The development of the Internet has even facilitated the encounters while allowing secrecy. Unfortunately, the traditional figures of transgender and transvestites have often been separated from the gay liberation movement.

  13. Economic and Organisational Wisdom for Asian Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arup BARMAN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Asian Century is rich and already 14 years old. Today, Asia is in the middle of a historic transformation which has brought both challenges and opportunities. To meet these challenges, Asian leaders need to devise bold and innovative national policies for pursuing avenues for regional and global cooperation. In the similar way organisation and business in Asia will transform. This transformative whirlpool calls the Asian private sector and public sector organisations for absorption of new wisdom, values and principles in place of 20th century’s management. Overall, the capacity to respond to the changing global economic landscape through flexibility and adaptivness will carry a high premium. This paper delve the issues how Asian Organisations have already been used the wisdom during the global chaos. Deriving from the examples of Asia in the midst of global chaos in many points of time, this present paper attempts to re-focus on organisational wisdom of commitment and ability for Asian organisation, modernization, governance and helping to retool institutions, for enhancing transparency, and finally to develop accountability for organisational resilience and survival.

  14. Stomach cancer incidence rates among Americans, Asian Americans and Native Asians from 1988 to 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeerae; Park, Jinju; Nam, Byung-Ho; Ki, Moran

    2015-01-01

    Stomach cancer is the second most common cancer in Eastern Asia, accounting for approximately 50% of all new cases of stomach cancer worldwide. Our objective was to compare the stomach cancer incidence rates of Asian Americans in Los Angeles with those of native Asians to assess the etiology of stomach cancer from 1988 to 2011. To examine these differences, Asian Americans (Korean, Japanese, Chinese, and Filipino Americans living in Los Angeles, California, USA) and native Asians (from Korea, Japan, China, and the Philippines) were selected for this study. Using the Cancer Incidence in Five Continents database, stomach cancer incidence rates were examined. Data from the National Cancer Registry of Korea were used for native Koreans. Between native countries, the incidence rates in Japan, China, the Philippines, and the US declined over time, but the incidence in Korea has remained constant. The incidences among Asian immigrants were lower than those among native Asians. The incidence rates of males were approximately 2 times higher than those among females in Asian countries were. The effect of immigration on stomach cancer incidence suggests that lifestyle factors are a significant determinant of stomach cancer risk. However, the incidence in Korea remains the highest of these countries.

  15. An Asian Regional Architecture for Energy Security

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia Liping

    2011-01-01

    @@ Introduction Non-traditional security issues such as energy security have been becoming more and more important in Asia and worldwide in recent years.It is increasingly difficult for a single country to guarantee its energy security in the globalized world of today.Asian countries have made some progress in bilateral and multilateral dialogues to promote cooperation and coordination in the energy field.However, they are still far from establishing a regional architecture of energy security.The Asian countries must therefore make greater efforts to realize a regional mechanism of energy cooperation.In the future, there should be a multi-level(regional, sub-regional, and trans-regional, and bilateral),multi-channel, and multi-model Asian regional architecture of energy security.

  16. Sustainability in South Asian city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Akhmat

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available South Asia is one of most densely populated region in the world. Currently, 28.33% of the South Asian population lives in urban areas, with an annual growth rate of 2.92%. Shifting of jobs from agriculture to industry and the concentration of economic opportunities in urban areas are causing tremendous increase in urbanisation in the region, which is seriously affecting the environment, and poses strong challenges to governments in terms of the infrastructure and services. In this article, we will give an overview of urbanisation problems in South Asia. We will also suggest some key interventions for sustainable development in the region. Urbanisation problems in South Asia are manifested in the form of lopsided urbanisation and faulty urban planning with poor economic base. Urban poverty has been increasing in the region, resulting in the growth of a massive number of slums. As a manifestation of social injustice and the social divide, slums exclude the poor from accessing the basic amenities. South Asia has the highest regional urbanisation of poverty at any given overall urbanisation. Concerted government efforts with long-term commitment at the highest political levels are required to reduce urban poverty and deprivation. The way cities are growing in the region is not at all sustainable, with a clear imbalance between economic, environmental, socio-political and technological aspects. Sustainable communities can be established by focusing on social and human development programmes to develop intangible assets in the community such as inclusion, tolerance, public participation, and democratic governance, which do not depreciate through use but rather become more valuable the more they are used. Place matters in different ways, which have yet to be fully appreciated and incorporated into how planners teach place. But it needs to directly adopt the Bottom-up Approach to provide solutions for the problems going on in the cities of the region

  17. Close relationships between Asian American and European American college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C; Edwards, K; Young, B; Greenberger, E

    2001-02-01

    The authors examined attitudes and behaviors regarding close relationships between European and Asian Americans, with a particular emphasis on 5 major subgroups of Asian Americans (Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese, and Filipino Americans). Participants were 218 Asian American college students and 171 European American college students attending a culturally diverse university. The European Americans did not differentiate among the various subgroups of Asian Americans. Their attitudes regarding close relationships were less positive toward Asian Americans than toward Mexican and African Americans, a finding contrary to the prediction of social exchange theory (H. Tajfel, 1975). In contrast to the European Americans' view of homogeneity among Asian Americans, the 5 major subgroups of Asian Americans expressed a distinctive hierarchy of social preference among themselves. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for future research on interethnic relations involving Asian Americans.

  18. Alcohol Drinking Patterns among Asian and Caucasian Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sue, Stanley; And Others

    1979-01-01

    This article suggests that there are genetic and cultural factors which account for the difference in drinking patterns between Caucasian and Asian Americans. It is also suggested that Asian acculturation has an influence on this difference. (EB)

  19. A 16-year examination of domestic violence among Asians and Asian Americans in the empirical knowledge base: a content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yick, Alice G; Oomen-Early, Jody

    2008-08-01

    Until recently, research studies have implied that domestic violence does not affect Asian American and immigrant communities, or even Asians abroad, because ethnicity or culture has not been addressed. In this content analysis, the authors examined trends in publications in leading scholarly journals on violence relating to Asian women and domestic violence. A coding schema was developed, with two raters coding the data with high interrater reliability. Sixty articles were published over the 16 years studied, most atheoretical and focusing on individual levels of analysis. The terms used in discussing domestic violence reflected a feminist perspective. Three quarters of the studies were empirical, with most guided by logical positivism using quantitative designs. Most targeted specific Asian subgroups (almost a third focused on Asian Indians) rather than categorizing Asians as a general ethnic category. The concept of "Asian culture" was most often assessed by discussing Asian family structure. Future research is discussed in light of the findings.

  20. Asian American Youth Language Use: Perspectives across Schools and Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, Shalini

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies of Asian American youth language practices have presented compelling insights about the identities and migration experiences of young people of Asian descent. This article offers a detailed examination of the relationship between language use and select issues concerning Asian American youth, including social life, schooling,…

  1. Ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and overweight in Asian American adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won Kim Cook

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Asian American children and adolescents are an under-investigated subpopulation in obesity research. This study aimed to identify specific profiles of Asian subgroups at high risk of adolescent overweight with special attention to Asian ethnicity, socioeconomic status (SES, and their interaction. Multiple logistic regression models were fitted using a sample of 1533 Asian American adolescents ages 12–17 from the 2007–2012 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS. In addition to Asian ethnicity and socioeconomic status (assessed by family income and parental education level, age, gender, nativity, and two lifestyle variables, fast food consumption and physical activity, were also controlled for in these models. Key predictors of overweight in Asian American adolescents included certain Asian ethnicities (Southeast Asian, Filipino, and mixed ethnicities, low family income (<300% of the Federal Poverty Level, and being male. Multiplicative interaction terms between low family income and two ethnicities, Southeast Asian and Vietnamese that had the lowest SES among Asian ethnic groups, were significantly associated with greatly elevated odds of being overweight (ORs = 12.90 and 6.67, respectively. These findings suggest that high risk of overweight in Asian American adolescents associated with low family incomes may be further elevated for those in low-income ethnic groups. Future research might investigate ethnic-group SES as a meaningful indicator of community-level socioeconomic disparities that influence the health of Asian Americans.

  2. The Roles of English Language Education in Asian Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Bok-Myung

    2011-01-01

    This study surveys the history of English language and the roles of English language education in Asian context. Through the historical survey on English dispersal in Asian countries, the first section of this study traces the dispersal of English from the 18th century and the development of English in Asian countries. The second section of this…

  3. A comparison of plant species for rearing Asian citrus psyllid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Five plant genotypes were compared with respect to Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) reproduction potential: Bergera koenigii, Citrus aurantiifolia, C. macrophylla, C. taiwanica and Murraya paniculata. Asian citrus psyllid reproduction is dependent on young flush and thus Asian citrus psyllid production po...

  4. Correlation Dynamics in East Asian Financial Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuper, Gerard; Lestano, L

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the dynamic relationship between stock returns and exchange rate changes using daily data from January 3, 1994 - September 27, 2013 for six East Asian countries: Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, South Korea and Thailand. We estimate conditional correlations using

  5. Ecology of the Asian citrus pysllid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Host selection by psyllids in general appears to involve taste rather than olfaction. Adults are often less discriminating than nymphs. A priori, there is good reason to doubt that Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) uses a long-distance sex pheromone or that ACP orients to host plant volatiles over large (m...

  6. Asian Americans as a Minority Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sue, Stanley; And Others

    1975-01-01

    The stated purpose of this article is to argue for a more realistic appraisal of the status of Asian Americans, by examining the 1970 statistics concerning income, education, interracial marriage, and mental health among the 435,000 Chinese, 343,000 Filipinos, and 591,000 Japanese in the U.S. (Author/JM)

  7. Correlation dynamics in East Asian financial markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lestano, L; Kuper, Gerard H.

    2016-01-01

    We examine the dynamic relationship between stock returns and exchange rate changes using daily data from January 1994 to September 2013 for six East Asian countries. We use the multivariate GARCH-DCC model in order to disclose the relationship between stock markets and foreign exchange markets whic

  8. Southeast Asian Refugee Adolescents: Implications for Counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemak, Fred; Greenberg, Byron

    1994-01-01

    Examined self-perceived depression and isolation reported by unaccompanied Southeast Asian refugee adolescents (n=301), population traditionally inadequately served by mental health professionals. Findings revealed significant differences regarding sex, English language skills, work involvement, and self-disclosure. Results have implications for…

  9. Alkaloids of some Asian Sedum species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, JH; THart, H; Stevens, JF

    1996-01-01

    The leafy parts of 16 Asian species belonging to the three sections of Sedum were investigated for the presence of alkaloids. Only in seven species of Sedum sect. Sedum were alkaloids found. Sedum bulbiferum, S. japonicum, S. lepidopodium, S. morrisomensis, S. oryzifolium, S. polytrichoides and S. s

  10. Simultaneous Visual Discrimination in Asian Elephants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissani, Moti; Hoefler-Nissani, Donna; Lay, U. Tin; Htun, U. Wan

    2005-01-01

    Two experiments explored the behavior of 20 Asian elephants ("Elephas aximus") in simultaneous visual discrimination tasks. In Experiment 1, 7 Burmese logging elephants acquired a white+/black- discrimination, reaching criterion in a mean of 2.6 sessions and 117 discrete trials, whereas 4 elephants acquired a black+/white- discrimination in 5.3…

  11. Asian Varieties of English: Attitudes towards Pronunciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokumoto, Mina; Shibata, Miki

    2011-01-01

    According to previous studies, Japanese EFL learners who wish to acquire American or British English pronunciation are reluctant to speak their L1-accented English. In view of this tendency, the present study examined the attitudes of Asian learners toward their L1-accented English. University students from Japan, South Korea, and Malaysia…

  12. Philosophy 323, Readings in Asian Thought. Syllabus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurdle, Burton G., Jr.

    A survey course syllabus of Asian philosophy is presented. For each period of dates in the semester course, a reading assignment was made, discussion topics and questions proposed, and supplementary readings and sources suggested. The course focused on Indian philosophy, Buddhism and Hinduism, and Chinese philosophy, specifically Confucian…

  13. The World of the Elderly Asian American

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalish, Richard A.; Moriwaki, Sharon

    1973-01-01

    Describes the psychosocial aspects of the past and the present living situation for today's elderly Chinese and Japanese Americans; many values to which first-generation Asian Americans were for maintaining adequate life satisfaction during the later years. (Author/JM)

  14. The Asian Student in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, Dolores Muga

    1988-01-01

    Educators can better meet the educational needs of Asian American students through greater awareness and understanding of their cultural heritage. Teachers and counselors can best serve these students through specific strategies, such as directive rather than group counseling, that reflect sensitivity to cultural differences and that will foster…

  15. East Asian Cinema (College Course File).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, Linda; Ma, Ning

    1990-01-01

    Provides guidelines for instructors who teach entire courses on (or who include) films from Japan and China. Considers issues of concern in contemporary Asian cinema such as conflicts between tradition and modernity, indigenous definitions of cultural identity and artistic form, and internationalization. (KEH)

  16. A 16-Year Examination of Domestic Violence among Asians and Asian Americans in the Empirical Knowledge Base: A Content Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yick, Alice G.; Oomen-Early, Jody

    2008-01-01

    Until recently, research studies have implied that domestic violence does not affect Asian American and immigrant communities, or even Asians abroad, because ethnicity or culture has not been addressed. In this content analysis, the authors examined trends in publications in leading scholarly journals on violence relating to Asian women and…

  17. Critical thinking dispositions of nursing students in Asian and non-Asian countries: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salsali, Mahvash; Tajvidi, Mansooreh; Ghiyasvandian, Shahrzad

    2013-09-26

    Critical thinking disposition represents an inclination of a person to use possessed skills in relation to critical thinking. The trend of critical thinking has been described as inner motivation to solve problems and make decisions by thinking. In nursing as a practical profession, the concept of critical thinking dispositions is important component in helping to manage complex health situations and to deal with patient issues effectively. Willingness to think critically is a prerequisite for safe and subtly performance. The results of studies show critical thinking dispositions of nursing students in Asian countries are different from non-Asian countries. Aim of this literature review was to compare critical thinking dispositions of nursing students in Asian and non-Asian countries. Literature review was done in English and Persian databases. The results showed of the 795 articles published in English and Persian language that studied critical thinking, 73 ones studied critical thinking skills and dispositions in nursing education, and relationship between teaching methods and critical thinking skills and dispositions in nursing education of different countries. Fifteen of seventy three articles assessed critical thinking dispositions in nursing students. Limited studies showed that the Asian nursing students had mostly undermining score of the critical thinking dispositions, while non-Asian countries tend to positive scores. The reasons for these differences could be due to issues such as environmental, educational methods and cultural differences. However, future studies should measure critical thinking disposition by discipline-based tools.

  18. Treatment of inflammatory bowel disease in Asia: the results of a multinational web-based survey in the 2nd Asian Organization of Crohn's and Colitis (AOCC) meeting in Seoul

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keum, Bora; Ye, Byoung Duk; Park, Soo Jung; Koo, Hoon Sup; Eun, Chang Soo

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) management guidelines have been released from Western countries, but no adequate data on the application of these guidelines in Asian countries and no surveys on the treatment of IBD in real practice exist. Since there is a growing need for a customized consensus for IBD treatment in Asian countries, Asian Organization of Crohn's and Colitis performed a multinational survey of medical doctors who treat IBD patients in Asian countries. Methods A questionnaire was developed between August 2013 and November 2013. It was composed of 4 domains: personal information, IBD diagnosis, IBD treatment, and quality of IBD care. Upon completion of the questionnaire, a web-based survey was conducted between 17 March 2014 and 12 May 2014. Results In total, 353 medical doctors treating IBD from ten Asian countries responded to the survey. This survey data suggested a difference in available medical treatments (budesonide, tacrolimus) among Asian countries. Therapeutic strategies regarding refractory IBD (acute severe ulcerative colitis [UC] refractory to intravenous steroids and refractory Crohn's disease [CD]) and active UC were coincident, however, induction therapies for mild to moderate inflammatory small bowel CD are different among Asian countries. Conclusions This survey demonstrated that current therapeutic approaches and clinical management of IBD vary among Asian countries. Based on these results and discussions, we hope that optimal management guidelines for Asian IBD patients will be developed. PMID:27433145

  19. Electronic geothermal atlases of Asian Russia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Albert DDuchkov; Michael Zheleznjak; Ludmila SSokolova

    2014-01-01

    Generalized geothermal data was used to produce two electronic atlases for Asian Russia, Geothermal Atlas of Siberia (GAS) (1995-2000) and Geothermal Atlas for Siberia and Russian Far East (GASRFE) (2009-2012). The atlases include heat flow maps, temperatures at depths of 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 5 km and lower boundary of permafrost. Quantitative values of pa-rameters are presented as isolines (GAS) and symbols (GASRFE). GAS website is located at the Trofimuk Institute (www.ipgg.sbras.ru/ru/institute/structure/geophysics/natural-fields). GASRFE provides the most complete geothermal data on Asian Russia, which has been growing for the last 50 years, and is published on the Internet at http://maps.nrcgit.ru/geoterm. In this atlas, data about the depth of permafrost lower boundary ("zero"isotherm) are pre-sented for the first time.

  20. Ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and overweight in Asian American adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Won Kim; Tseng, Winston; Bautista, Roxanna; John, Iyanrick

    2016-12-01

    Asian American children and adolescents are an under-investigated subpopulation in obesity research. This study aimed to identify specific profiles of Asian subgroups at high risk of adolescent overweight with special attention to Asian ethnicity, socioeconomic status (SES), and their interaction. Multiple logistic regression models were fitted using a sample of 1533 Asian American adolescents ages 12-17 from the 2007-2012 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS). In addition to Asian ethnicity and socioeconomic status (assessed by family income and parental education level), age, gender, nativity, and two lifestyle variables, fast food consumption and physical activity, were also controlled for in these models. Key predictors of overweight in Asian American adolescents included certain Asian ethnicities (Southeast Asian, Filipino, and mixed ethnicities), low family income (overweight (ORs = 12.90 and 6.67, respectively). These findings suggest that high risk of overweight in Asian American adolescents associated with low family incomes may be further elevated for those in low-income ethnic groups. Future research might investigate ethnic-group SES as a meaningful indicator of community-level socioeconomic disparities that influence the health of Asian Americans.

  1. Impact of anthropogenic aerosols from global, East Asian, and non-East Asian sources on East Asian summer monsoon system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiuyan; Wang, Zhili; Zhang, Hua

    2017-01-01

    The impact of the total effects due to anthropogenic aerosols from global, East Asian, and non-East Asian sources on East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) system is studied using an aerosol-climate online model BCC_AGCM2.0.1_CUACE/Aero. The results show that the summer mean net all-sky shortwave fluxes averaged over East Asian monsoon region (EAMR) at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) and surface reduce by 4.8 and 5.0 W m- 2, respectively, due to the increases of global aerosol emissions in 2000 relative to 1850. Changes in radiations and their resulting changes in heat and water transport and cloud fraction contribute together to the surface cooling over EAMR in summer. The increases in global anthropogenic aerosols lead to a decrease of 2.1 K in summer mean surface temperature and an increase of 0.4 hPa in summer mean surface pressure averaged over EAMR, respectively. It is shown that the changes in surface temperature and pressure are significantly larger over land than ocean, thus decreasing the contrast of land-sea surface temperature and pressure. This results in the marked anomalies of north and northeast winds over eastern and southern China and the surrounding oceans in summer, thereby weakening the EASM. The summer mean precipitation averaged over the EAMR reduces by 12%. The changes in non-East Asian aerosol emissions play a more important role in inducing the changes of local temperature and pressure, and thus significantly exacerbate the weakness of the EASM circulation due to local aerosol changes. The weakening of circulation due to both is comparable, and even the effect of non-local aerosols is larger in individual regions. The changes of local and non-local aerosols contribute comparably to the reductions in precipitation over oceans, whereas cause opposite changes over eastern China. Our results highlight the importance of aerosol changes outside East Asia in the impact of the changes of anthropogenic aerosols on EASM.

  2. The 1st Asian Lightning Protection Forum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ The First Asian Lightning Protection Forum was held on October 28-29, 2003 in Beijing, China.The forum was sponsored by the China Association for Standardization and was organized by Chinese National Committee for Lightning Protection Technology Standardization, Department of Electrical Engineering Tsinghua University, China Electricity Council, Zhongguang High-tech Industrial Development Co.,Ltd, and Lightning Protection Center of Guangdong Province.

  3. asian herpetological research instructions for authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    asian herpetological research (ahr),an international english language journal,is published quarterly by the chengdu institute of biology,chinese academy of sciences (cib),and science press in cooperation with the asiatic herpetological research society (ahrs).the scope of the journal includes all contemporary herpetological research areas including taxonomy,morphology,phylogeny,systematics,evolution,zoogeography,physiology,ecology,toxicology and conservation biology of amphibians and reptiles.

  4. Asian Herpetological Research Instructions for Authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    @@ Asian Herpetological Research (AHR),an international English language journal,is published quarterly by the Chengdu Institute of Biology,Chinese Academy of Sciences (CIB),and Science Press in cooperation with the Asiatic Herpetological Research Society (AHRS).The scope of the journal includes all contemporary herpetological research areas including taxonomy,morphology,phylogeny,systematics,evolution,zoogeography,physiology,ecology,toxicology and conservation biology of amphibians and reptiles.

  5. Acid deposition study in the Asian countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soon, Ting-Kueh [Tunku Abdul Rahman College, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Lau, Wai-Yoo [Malaysian Scientific Association, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    1996-12-31

    The Association of South East Asian Nations or ASEAN is a regional association of seven countries, namely Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Brunei and Vietnam, located at the south eastern part of the Asian continent. Together with the East Asian States of Japan, China, Korea and Taiwan, this part of the world is experiencing rapid economic growth, especially in the last decade. Rapid industrialization has resulted in an increased demand for energy in the manufacturing and transport sectors, and also for infrastructure development. This has led to a significant increase in gaseous emissions and a corresponding increase in atmospheric acidity. Acid deposition study in the ASEAN countries began in the mid-70s when Malaysia first started her acid rain monitoring network in 1976. This was followed closely by Singapore and the other ASEAN countries in the 80s. By now all ASEAN countries have their own acid rain monitoring networks with a number of these countries extending the monitoring to dry deposition as well.

  6. Genetic link between Asians and native Americans: evidence from HLA genes and haplotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokunaga, K; Ohashi, J; Bannai, M; Juji, T

    2001-09-01

    We have been studying polymorphisms of HLA class I and II genes in East Asians including Buryat in Siberia, Mongolian, Han Chinese, Man Chinese, Korean Chinese, South Korean, and Taiwan indigenous populations in collaboration with many Asian scientists. Regional populations in Japan, Hondo-Japanese, Ryukyuan, and Ainu, were also studied. HLA-A, -B, and -DRB1 gene frequencies were subjected to the correspondence analysis and calculation of DA distances. The correspondence analysis demonstrated several major clusters of human populations in the world. "Mongoloid" populations were highly diversified, in which several clusters such as Northeast Asians, Southeast Asians, Oceanians, and Native Americans were observed. Interestingly, an indigenous population in North Japan, Ainu, was placed relatively close to Native Americans in the correspondence analysis. Distribution of particular HLA-A, -B, -DRB1 alleles and haplotypes was also analyzed in relation to migration and dispersal routes of ancestral populations. A number of alleles and haplotypes showed characteristic patterns of regional distribution. For example, B39-HR5-DQ7 (B*3901-DRB1*1406-DQB1*0301) was shared by Ainu and Native Americans. A24-Cw8-B48 was commonly observed in Taiwan indigenous populations, Maori in New Zealand, Orochon in Northeast China, Inuit, and Tlingit. These findings further support the genetic link between East Asians and Native Americans. We have proposed that various ancestral populations in East Asia, marked by different HLA haplotypes, had migrated and dispersed through multiple routes. Moreover, relatively small genetic distances and the sharing of several HLA haplotypes between Ainu and Native Americans suggest that these populations are descendants of some Upper Paleolithic populations of East Asia.

  7. Asian Americans in American History: An AsianCrit Perspective on Asian American Inclusion in State U.S. History Curriculum Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Sohyun

    2016-01-01

    Compared to other groups of color, Asian Americans and their perspectives have rarely been given attention in curriculum studies. This article seeks to address the gap in the literature. It uses AsianCrit, a branch of critical race theory, as a theoretical lens to analyze and explicate common patterns across various states' scripting of Asian…

  8. Abundance and Community Structure of Bacteria on Asian Dust Particles Collected in Beijing, China, during the Asian Dust Season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Nobuyasu; Baba, Takashi; Ichijo, Tomoaki; Himezawa, Yuka; Enoki, Kanami; Saraya, Makoto; Li, Pin-Fang; Nasu, Masao

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 180 t/km(2) of Asian dust particles are estimated to fall annually on Beijing, China, and there is significant concern about the influence of microbes transported by Asian dust events on human health and downwind ecosystems. In this study, we collected Asian dust particles in Beijing, and analyzed the bacterial communities on these particles by culture-independent methods. Bacterial cells on Asian dust particles were visualized first by laser scanning microscopy, which demonstrated that Asian dust particles carry bacterial cells to Beijing. Bacterial abundance, as determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR), was 10(8) to 10(9) cells/g, a value about 10 times higher than that in Asian dust source soils. Inter-seasonal variability of bacterial community structures among Asian dust samples, as compared by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP), was low during the Asian dust season. Several viable bacteria, including intestinal bacteria, were found in Asian dust samples by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Clone library analysis targeting 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequences demonstrated that bacterial phylogenetic diversity was high in the dust samples, and most of these were environmental bacteria distributed in soil and air. The dominant species in the clone library was Segetibacter aerophilus (Bacteroidetes), which was first isolated from an Asian dust sample collected in Korea. Our results also indicate the possibility of a change in the bacterial community structure during transportation and increases in desiccation-tolerant bacteria such as Firmicutes.

  9. East meets West: ethnic differences in epidemiology and clinical behaviors of lung cancer between East Asians and Caucasians

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Zhou; David C. Christian

    2011-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide, with large variation of the incidence and mortality across regions. Although the mortality of lung cancer has been decreasing, or steady in lhe US, it has been increasing in Asia for the past two decades. Smoking is the leading cause of lung cancer, and other risk factors such as indoor coal buming, cooking fumes, and infections may play important roles in the development of lung cancer among Asian never smoking women. The median age of diagnosis in Asian patients with lung cancer is generally younger than Caucasian patients, particularly among never smokers. Asians and Caucasians may have different genetic susceptibilities to lung cancer, as evidenced from candidate polymorphisms and genome-wide association studies. Recent epidemiologic studies and clinical trials have shown consistently that Asian ethnicity is a favorable prognostic factor for overall survival in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), independent of smoking status. Compared with Caucasian patients with NSCLC, East Asian patients have a much higher prevalence of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation (approximately 30% vs. 7%, predominantly among patients with adenocarcinoma and never-smokers), a lower prevalence of K-Ras mutation (less than 10% vs. 18%, predominantly among patients with adenocarcinoma and smokers), and higher proportion of patients who are responsive to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors. The ethnic differences in epidemiology and clinical behaviors should be taken into account when conducting global clinical trials that include different ethnic populations.

  10. UV Responses in Native Hawaiians or Other Pacific Islanders and Asians Residing in Hawai'i and in Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colmenares, Leticia U.; Coelho, Sergio; Miller, Sharon A.; Boomer, KB; Beer, Janusz Z.

    2013-01-01

    Background UV exposure causes a wide range of skin damage including cutaneous melanoma. The mechanisms of cellular and molecular damage as well as erythemal and pigmentation responses to UV exposure have largely been studied in the White population. Methods This study systematically investigates responses to UV exposure in the Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islanders (NHPI) and Asian populations living in Hawai'i (A/HI) as well as in Asians living in Maryland (A/MD). Results Our analyses indicate that the NHPI population is less sensitive to UV exposure than the A/HI population. Comparisons between the two Asian groups suggest that, despite slightly but not statistically different baseline constitutive pigmentation (pre-UV exposure), the A/HI and A/MD had similar UV sensitivity, measured as minimal erythemal dose (MED). However, the A/MD population had higher levels of oxy-hemoglobin at doses of 2.0, 2.8 and 4.0 MED. Unexpectedly the A/MD subjects retained higher levels of pigmentation 2 weeks post UV exposure. Conclusion This study provides insight into UV responses of the inhabitants of Hawai'i and shows that such responses are statistically significant for relatively small samples of Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islanders, and for Asians living in Hawai'i and Asians living in Maryland. PMID:23651272

  11. Report on the First International Asian Otter Symposium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foster-Turley P.

    1989-02-01

    Full Text Available The first International Asian Otter Symposium, held in Bangalore, India from October 17-22, 1988 was a great success.An Asian section of the IUCN Otter Specialist Group is being formed. An Asian Otter newsletter has been started for continued communication with symposium participants and others after the conference. The next Asian Otter Symposium 1s being planned and will be hosted by Japan in 1991. A move to make otters the symbol of wetlands in India is being spearheaded. Otter surveys are now also being initiated throughout Asia.

  12. Child Physical Abuse Prevalence, Characteristics, Predictors, and Beliefs about Parent-Child Violence in South Asian, Middle Eastern, East Asian, and Latina Women in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maker, Azmaira H.; Shah, Priti V.; Agha, Zia

    2005-01-01

    The present study examined the prevalence, characteristics, beliefs, and demographic predictors of parent-child physical violence among South Asian, Middle Eastern, East Asian, and Latina women in the United States. Two hundred fifty-one college-educated women from a middle to high SES (South Asian/Middle Eastern, n = 93; East Asian, n = 72;…

  13. Southeast Asian Refugee Youth: An Annotated Bibliography. Southeast Asian Refugee Studies Occasional Papers. Number Six.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Ruth E., Comp.; Hendricks, Glenn L., Comp.

    This annotated bibliography comprises books and articles on Southeast Asian refugee youth. It is divided into the following cross-referenced sections: (1) Adaptation and Acculturation; (2) Education; (3) Physical and Mental Health; (4) Unaccompanied Minors and Amerasian Youth; (5) Courtship and Marriage; (6) General Topics; (7) Journalism; and (8)…

  14. Asian flushing: genetic and sociocultural factors of alcoholism among East asians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Haeok; Kim, Sun S; You, Kwang Soo; Park, Wanju; Yang, Jin Hyang; Kim, Minjin; Hayman, Laura L

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol use can lead to a cascade of problems such as increased chances of risky behavior and negative health consequences, including alcoholic liver disease and upper gastric and liver cancer. Ethanol is metabolized mainly by 2 major enzymes: alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH). Genetic variations of genes encoding the 2 enzymes are very common among East Asians but relatively rare for most other populations. Facial flushing and other physical discomforts after alcohol drinking triggered by accumulation of acetaldehyde through defective genes for ADH and ALDH have been reported. Approximately 40% of East Asians (Chinese, Japanese, and Korean) show facial flushing after drinking alcohol, known as "Asian flush," which is characterized by adverse reactions on alcohol drinking in individuals possessing the fasting metabolizing alleles for ADH, ADH1B*2, and ADH1C*1, and the null allele for ALDH and ALDH2*2. Alcoholism is determined not only by the genetic deficiency but also by behaviors that involve complex interactions between genetic and sociocultural factors. The purpose of this article was to provide nurses with the most current information about genetic and sociocultural influences on alcoholism and alcohol-related health problems specifically for East Asians and implications of this knowledge to nursing practice. The physiological phenomenon of genes and genetics in relation to alcohol metabolism in this special population is emphasized.

  15. Groundwater sustainability in Asian Mega city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, M.

    2009-12-01

    Population increased in many Asian coastal cities, and increased demand of groundwater as water resources caused many subsurface environments. Subsurface environmental problems such as land subsidence due to excessive pumping, groundwater contamination and subsurface thermal anomaly, have occurred repeatedly in Asian mega cities with a time lag depending on the development stage of urbanization. This study focus on four subjects; urban, water, heat, and material in subsurface environment, and intensive field observations and data collections had been made in the basins including Tokyo, Osaka, Bangkok, Jakarta, Manila, Seoul, and Taipei. The new methods for evaluating the changes in groundwater storage by gravimeter measurements in situ and Satellite GRACE, and residence time evaluation by 85Kr and CFCs, have been developed in this study. The combined effects of heat island and global warming from subsurface temperature in Asian mega cities evaluated the magnitude and timing of the urbanization which were preserved in subsurface thermal environment. The effects of law/institution on change in reliable water resources between groundwater and surface water, have been also investigated. The groundwater is “private water”, on the other hand, the surface water is “public water”. Regulation of groundwater pumping due to serious land subsidence did not work without alternative water resources, and the price of water is another major factor for the change in reliable water resources between groundwater and surface water. Land use/cover changes at three ages (1940’s, 1970’s and 2000’s) have been analyzed based on GIS with 0.5 km grid at seven targeted cities. The development of integrated indicators based on GIS for understanding the relationship between human activities and subsurface environment have been made in this study. Finally, we address the sustainable use of groundwater and subsurface environments for better future development and human well-being.

  16. Confucianism and the Asian Martial Traditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Alexander Simpkins

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Confucianism has been foundational in the political and social life of many Asian countries. Its influence pervades institutions and practices at every level of human activity. Martial arts have also benefited from this philosophy, as the traditional Confucian legacy continues to influence modern practices. This article briefly highlights some key figures and events, describes relevant core concepts of Confucian philosophy, and then shows exemplary applications to martial arts today. Modern martial artists can gain understanding of the traditional Confucian insights that deepen the significance of contemporary martial arts.

  17. Commensal Oral Candida in Asian Cohorts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lakshman Samaranayake

    2009-01-01

    The oral carriage rate of Candida in healthy humans ranges from 40% to 60%. However for a prolonged period, the oral candidal prevalence in humans was documented essentially using data from studies in the West as their prevalence in inhabitants in different regions of the world, including Asia was not known. Yet, recent reports from a number of studies indicate the quality, quantity and prevalence of oral yeasts differ between Asia and other regions for reason that are still unclear. This mini review on such data from Asian studies on oral carriage of Candida provides another intriguing facet of the behavior of this ubiquitous yeast.

  18. Asian monsoon variability, cyclicities, and forcing mechanisms

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naidu, P.D.

    and the radiolarian Actinomma spp. (upwelling indicators) show that the evolution of the Asian monsoon started in the late Miocene, at about 9.5Ma (million years ago). Between 9.5 and 5Ma the monsoon increased noticeably in strength, with smaller fluctuations... 5000 to 1200 years BP (Fig. 4). As a consequence strong monsoon rainfall the out flow of the rivers draining the Himalayan Mountains increased at the end of the deglcaiation, and it was larger than today during the lower and mid Holocene. About 5x...

  19. Trade Finance: A Catalyst for Asian Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez, Claude

    2015-01-01

    This report first assesses the state of trade finance market in Asia, then it identifies the latest trend. Finally it provides a synopsis of the necessary steps that will help sustain trade growth in emerging Asia and insure its impact on GDP growth. The key points are as follows: (i) the impact of trade liberalization on countries ‘growth is very short lives in absence of financial deregulations, (ii) trade in Asian countries relies heavily on letters of credit (L/Cs) which leaves a lot ...

  20. Institute of Industrial Engineers Asian Conference 2013

    CERN Document Server

    Tsao, Yu-Chung; Lin, Shi-Woei

    2013-01-01

    This book is based on the research papers presented during The Institute of Industrial Engineers Asian Conference 2013 held at Taipei in July 2013. It presents information on the most recent and relevant research, theories and practices in industrial and systems engineering. Key topics include: Engineering and Technology Management Engineering Economy and Cost Analysis Engineering Education and Training Facilities Planning and Management Global Manufacturing and Management Human Factors Industrial & Systems Engineering Education Information Processing and Engineering Intelligent Systems Manufacturing Systems Operations Research Production Planning and Control Project Management Quality Control and Management Reliability and Maintenance Engineering Safety, Security and Risk Management Supply Chain Management Systems Modeling and Simulation Large scale complex systems.

  1. E-Thesis Repositories: The Asian Scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shantashree Sengupta

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Across the globe, people are trying to find out ways to make the findings of research freely available to the public through open access institutional repositories. Theses and dissertations are considered to be one of the most important sources of scholarly communication. Due to various benefits of electronic theses and dissertations over the print format, various institutions are developing their own e-thesis repositories. Various Asian countries have contributed to the development of e-thesis repositories. The present study gives an overview of the growth and development of e-thesis repositories in Asia with the data from the OpenDOAR database.

  2. Zika virus from a Southeast Asian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikan, Nitwara; Smith, Duncan R

    2017-01-01

    Phylogenic evidence suggests that the strain of Zika virus causing an unprecedented outbreak of disease in the Americas had its origin in Southeast Asia, where reports of isolated cases of Zika virus infection have occurred since 2010. Why there has been no large outbreak of Zika infection in Southeast Asia remains unclear and whether such an outbreak will occur in the future is a question of significant concern. This review looks at Zika virus from a Southeast Asian perspective and highlights some of the possible scenarios with regards to Zika virus in this part of the world as well as highlighting some of the research questions that need to be urgently addressed.

  3. Gifted Asian American Adolescent Males: Portraits of Cultural Dilemmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Chen-yao; Hebert, Thomas P.

    2006-01-01

    Many gifted Asian American adolescent males face cultural issues that may impact their success. This article presents important cultural dilemmas faced by 2 gifted Asian American young men. Through a qualitative approach, the acculturation experiences of John and Matt, gifted Taiwanese, second generation immigrants, are described.…

  4. Factors Affecting the Career Aspirations of Asian Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, S. Alvin

    This study examined the career aspirations of Asian American college students, using a retrospective method of data collection that asked subjects to report various occupational alternatives that they have considered in their lifetime so far. Male (N=52) and female (N=97) Asian Americans were compared with a Euro-American group of 95 males and 151…

  5. Culturally-Competent School Counseling with Asian American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Linda G.; Phoummarath, Marion J.

    2006-01-01

    Asian American adolescents are frequently overlooked as a population in need of counseling interventions. However, cultural issues such as refugee status or the pressure of high academic achievement can influence an Asian American student's mental health. As there is a dearth of school counseling literature written about what school counselors…

  6. Southeast Asian Mental Health: Treatment, Prevention, Services, Training and Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owan, Tom Choken, Ed.

    This sourcebook contains 19 papers which discuss the mental health service needs of Southeast Asian refugees in the United States. The volume is divided into five sections: Treatment; Prevention; Services; Training; and Research. The papers (and their authors) are: (1) "Psychiatric Care for Southeast Asians: How Different Is Different?"…

  7. Education Concerns of Asian and Pacific Americans. 1978 Conference Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takei, Barbara

    Five national issues considered to be the most important to Asian and Pacific Americans' (APA) education priorities are discussed in this report. These include the need to: (1) increase Federal assistance and improve access for APAs; (2) gather more data and research on APA education needs; (3) promote more Asian and Pacific American participation…

  8. The Bakke Case and Asian/Pacific Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asian and Pacific American Federal Employee Council, Washington, DC.

    Amidst much controversy, the United States Department of Justice has filed an amicus brief in the Supreme Court on behalf of the special minority admissions program at the University of California Medical School at Davis. This fact sheet is intended to show why Asian and Pacific Americans and those friendly toward Asians should pay careful…

  9. Educational inequalities and success in Asian countries in PISA 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Castejón Company

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the results of PISA 2009 from seven Asian countries. The analysis focuses on three hubs of educational inequality: academic inequalities, inequalities by gender and social in- equalities. The main conclusion drawn from the results of this work is that is not possible to affirm that Asian education systems constitute a homogeneous educational model.

  10. Prevention and Intervention of Depression in Asian-American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieu, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Depression is one of the most common psychological disorders experienced by adolescents. Research has shown depression rates are higher in Asian-American adolescents when compared to their European-American counterparts. This paper will investigate possible programs for preventing and responding to Asian-American youths' depression through a…

  11. Coping Strategies for Managing Acculturative Stress among Asian International Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ra, Young-An; Trusty, Jerry

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the effects of specific coping strategies on managing acculturative stress and acculturation of Asian international students, based on a sample of 220 Asian international students in the U.S. The data were analyzed with hierarchical multiple regression using Baron and Kenny's (1986) mediation procedure. The results supported…

  12. Asian Megatrends and Management Education of Overseas Chinese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannesson, Jokull; Palona, Iryna

    2010-01-01

    Asian megatrends are necessitating the development of management education of ethnic groups like the overseas Chinese and, universities need to change accordingly. This article identifies five Asian megatrends and their impact on the management education of overseas Chinese. The megatrends are: the emergence of women in politics and business; a…

  13. Always "Outsiders": Asians, Naturalization, and the Supreme Court.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesser, Jeff H.

    1986-01-01

    Focuses on Supreme Court naturalization rulings in relation to Asian immigrants. Asserts that an ethos of racial exclusion set the stage for internment of Japanese Americans in World War II and continues to discriminate against Asian immigrants in the United States today. (GC)

  14. Asian American Acculturation and Enculturation: Construct Clarification and Measurement Consolidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shengying; Moradi, Bonnie

    2013-01-01

    An overview of the evolution of Asian American acculturation and enculturation theory and measurement is offered, focusing on major theoretical advancements and methodological issues that are salient for measuring these constructs. Informed by these considerations, an empirical approach is taken to clarifying the dimensions of Asian American…

  15. Education and Recreation Activities of Older Asian Immigrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Junhyoung; Dattilo, John; Heo, Jinmoo

    2011-01-01

    Older Asian immigrants experience a variety of challenges when attempting to adapt to life in a new society. Adjustment difficulties associated with cultural differences among older Asian immigrants and the host country may result in a certain levels of acculturative stress. This stress is negatively associated with health and quality of life. In…

  16. Breaking Barriers: An Asian-American Curriculum Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brombach, Catherine; Tice, Natasha Florey

    A 10-day curriculum is presented for upper elementary grades to explore who is in power on the local, state, and federal levels; and to investigate why so few Asian Americans are in power; and to confront personal prejudices and break stereotypes about Asian Americans. The 10 days are devoted to the following: (1) distinguishing between prejudice…

  17. From Dependence to Autonomy. The Development of Asian Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altbach, Philip G., Ed.; Selvaratnam, Viswanathan, Ed.

    A collection of works on the development of Asian universities is presented, focusing on an aspect of higher education not previously analyzed: the contemporary impact of Western academic systems in Asia. Eleven papers fall into three sections following the introduction, "Twisted Roots: The Western Impact on Asian Higher Education," (P. Altabach).…

  18. Overweight, Body Image, and Depression in Asian and Hispanic Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Bin; Unger, Jennifer B.; Gallaher, Peggy; Johnson, C. Anderson; Wu, Qiaobing; Chou, Chih-Ping

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To prospectively investigate associations between overweight and depressive symptoms in Asian and Hispanic adolescents. Methods: Data included 780 Hispanic and 375 Asian students. Structural equation model was used to prospectively explore moderation effects of gender, ethnicity, and acculturation on associations of overweight, body…

  19. Economic and Employment Status of Asian-Pacific Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Pauline L.; Cabezas, Amado Y.

    This report deals with the employment and economic status of Asian and Pacific women in the United States. Data collected for a set of socioeconomic variables were analyzed and interpreted. Variables were analyzed by specific Asian ethnicity and by age. Data aggregated at the standard metropolitan statistical area level were used whenever…

  20. Central Asian Students' Adjustment Experiences at a "Globalized" Korean University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jinsook; Kim, Yejin

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the academic and cultural experiences of undergraduate Central Asian students at a university in Ulsan, South Korea. The study was designed to examine the experiences of Central Asian students both in their adjustment to academic work, and to the cultural environment created by the internationalization policy of the…

  1. Southeast Asian Refugee Resettlement in the United States and Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, David W.

    1989-01-01

    Explores the lessons drawn from a comparative examination of the North American experience with Southeast Asian refugee resettlement efforts from 1975 to 1978. Reviews demographic dimensions of Southeast Asian refugee resettlement. Provides an overview of the programatic response to refugee arrivals. Assesses these responses with regard to refugee…

  2. The East-Asian VLBI Network

    CERN Document Server

    Wajima, Kiyoaki; An, Tao; Baan, Willem A; Fujisawa, Kenta; Hao, Longfei; Jiang, Wu; Jung, Taehyun; Kawaguchi, Noriyuki; Kim, Jongsoo; Kobayashi, Hideyuki; Oh, Se-Jin; Roh, Duk-Gyoo; Wang, Min; Wu, Yuanwei; Xia, Bo; Zhang, Ming

    2015-01-01

    The East-Asian VLBI Network (EAVN) is the international VLBI facility in East Asia and is conducted in collaboration with China, Japan, and Korea. The EAVN consists of VLBI arrays operated in each East Asian country, containing 21 radio telescopes and three correlators. The EAVN will be mainly operated at 6.7 (C-band), 8 (X-band), 22 (K-band), and 43 GHz (Q-band), although the EAVN has an ability to conduct observations at 1.6 - 129 GHz. We have conducted fringe test observations eight times to date at 8 and 22 GHz and fringes have been successfully detected at both frequencies. We have also conducted science commissioning observations of 6.7 GHz methanol masers in massive star-forming regions. The EAVN will be operational from the second half of 2017, providing complementary results with the FAST on AGNs, massive star-forming regions, and evolved stars with high angular resolution at cm- to mm-wavelengths.

  3. Phytoecdysteroids of the East Asian Caryophyllaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Novozhilova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Occurrence of integristerone A (1, 20-hydroxyecdysone (2, ecdysone (3, 2-deoxy-20-hydroxyecdysone (4 has been analyzed in 64 species of the East Asian Caryophyllaceae. Materials and Methods: Ecdysteroid content was determinate by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. HPLC with a high-resolution mass spectrometry was performed on Shimadzu LCMS-IT-TOF (Japan system equipped with a LC-20A Prominence liquid chromatograph, a photodiode array detector SPD-M20A and ion-trap/time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Results: New sources of phytoecdysteroids: Melandrium sachalinense and Melandrium firmum have been revealed. It is the 1 st time that two has been identified in M. sachalinense and M. firmum; 1 in the species: Lychnis fulgens, Silene repens, Silene foliosa, Silene stenophylla, Silene jenisseensis and M. sachalinense; 3 in Lychnis cognata; 4 in L. fulgens, S. stenophylla and S. jenisseensis (the tribe Lychnideae, the subfamily Caryophylloideae. Ecdysteroid-negative taxa are Spergularia rubra of the tribe Sperguleae; species of the genera Minuartia, Honckenya, Eremogone, Arenaria, Moehringia, Pseudostellaria, Fimbripetalum, Stellaria and Cerastium of the tribe Alsineae; Scleranthus annuus of the tribe Sclerantheae, as well as the East Asian representatives of the genera Gypsophila, Psammophiliela, Dianthus and Saponaria of the tribe Diantheae; Oberna and Agrostemma of the tribe Lychnideae. Conclusion: This investigation shows the most promising sources of ecdysteriods are species of genera Silene and Lychnis.

  4. The Need for International Asian Otter Symposium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foster-Turley P.

    1988-02-01

    Full Text Available Not enough is known about the variable ecology and behaviour of the otter species in Asia. Much work is needed with these species throughout their ranges in India and Southeast Asia to determine their status and the relative size of their populations. Because otters, as high-order carnivores, are very susceptible to the pressures of human population, trapping, and habitat destruction, and because they do not survive in waters that are polluted, there is reason to suspect that in many areas of their so-called range throughout Asia they are in trouble. Unless status surveys and ecological research is begun soon to document their status, we may not know in time. For all of these reasons, it is important that an effort be made immediately to heighten the awareness of Asian biologists and conservationists into the plight faced by otters and their habitat in this region. Holding an International Asian Otter Symposium in India will serve this purpose and hopefully stimulate more research and conservation efforts with these species.

  5. Warm Indian Ocean, Weak Asian Monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koll Roxy, Mathew; Ritika, Kapoor; Terray, Pascal; Murtugudde, Raghu; Ashok, Karumuri; Nath Goswami, Buphendra

    2015-04-01

    There are large uncertainties looming over the status and fate of the South Asian monsoon in a changing climate. Observations and climate models have suggested that anthropogenic warming in the past century has increased the moisture availability and the land-sea thermal contrast in the tropics, favoring an increase in monsoon rainfall. In contrast, we notice that South Asian subcontinent experienced a relatively subdued warming during this period. At the same time, the tropical Indian Ocean experienced a nearly monotonic warming, at a rate faster than the other tropical oceans. Using long-term observations and coupled model experiments, we suggest that the enhanced Indian Ocean warming along with the suppressed warming of the subcontinent weaken the land-sea thermal contrast throughout the troposphere, dampen the monsoon Hadley circulation, and reduce the rainfall over South Asia. As a result, the summer monsoon rainfall during 1901-2012 shows a significant weakening trend over South Asia, extending from Pakistan through central India to Bangladesh.

  6. Insightful problem solving in an Asian elephant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preston Foerder

    Full Text Available The "aha" moment or the sudden arrival of the solution to a problem is a common human experience. Spontaneous problem solving without evident trial and error behavior in humans and other animals has been referred to as insight. Surprisingly, elephants, thought to be highly intelligent, have failed to exhibit insightful problem solving in previous cognitive studies. We tested whether three Asian elephants (Elephas maximus would use sticks or other objects to obtain food items placed out-of-reach and overhead. Without prior trial and error behavior, a 7-year-old male Asian elephant showed spontaneous problem solving by moving a large plastic cube, on which he then stood, to acquire the food. In further testing he showed behavioral flexibility, using this technique to reach other items and retrieving the cube from various locations to use as a tool to acquire food. In the cube's absence, he generalized this tool utilization technique to other objects and, when given smaller objects, stacked them in an attempt to reach the food. The elephant's overall behavior was consistent with the definition of insightful problem solving. Previous failures to demonstrate this ability in elephants may have resulted not from a lack of cognitive ability but from the presentation of tasks requiring trunk-held sticks as potential tools, thereby interfering with the trunk's use as a sensory organ to locate the targeted food.

  7. Central Asian Gypsies: identities and migrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Marushiakova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Central Asian Gypsies: identities and migrations During recent years the topic of Gypsy/Roma migration and identities became burning topic of pan-EUropean public discourse. Much less attention is paid to the Gypsy migrations outside the borders of European Union. The present article has ambitious goal to fulfill this gap and to present contemporary Gypsy migrations in Post-soviet Central Asian in order to see how this “burning” topic looks outside European space. After breakdown of Soviet Union and establishing of new independent republics in Central Asia and in connection to economical difficulties, wars and social unrest, in order to make their living, the communities of Central Asian ‘Gypsies’ revitalised their former nomadic traditions and migrate towards Russian Federation and in frames of Central Asia towards Kazakhstan. There they are earning their living through begging and sporadic work in construction and scrap collection. A central point of this article is the impact of these contemporary migrations on the development of identities and well being of Central Asian ‘Gypsies’. The multilevel, hierarchically structured identities of Central-Asian ‘Gypsies' are analysed as demonstrated in different historical contexts – as former “Soviet people”, member of former ruling class of agricultural proletariat, and as declassed community today; as Central-Asian ‘Gypsies’ or as citizens of respective Central Asian Republics during migrations in Russian Federation in front of Russian majority society and in front of Roma; and in context of the Central Asian region during the migrations to Kazakhstan and in their home countries.     Cyganie środkowoazjatyccy – tożsamości i migracje W ostatnich latach tematyka migracji i tożsamości Cyganów (Romów stała się tematem palącym w unijnoeuropejskim dyskursie publicznym. O wiele mniej uwagi poświęca się w nim migracjom Cyganów, które mają miejsce poza granicami

  8. Barriers to lifestyle behavioral change in migrant South Asian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Mihir; Phillips-Caesar, Erica; Boutin-Foster, Carla

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this literature review is to describe and assess the cultural barriers to behavior change in migrant South Asians, given the high morbidity and mortality associated with cardiovascular disease in this population. We reviewed studies that explored the relationship between South Asian culture in the Diaspora and lifestyle behaviors. Our review produced 91 studies, of which 25 discussed the relationship between various aspects of South Asians' belief system and their approach to modifying lifestyle habits. We identify 6 specific categories of beliefs which play the largest role in the difficulties South Asians describe with behavior change: gender roles, body image, physical activity misconceptions, cultural priorities, cultural identity, and explanatory model of disease. Future research and interventions should account for these cultural factors to successfully improve dietary habits and physical activity levels in migrant South Asian populations.

  9. The SOOS Asian Workshop:Exploring possibilities for collaboration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sebastiaan Swart; Jiping Liu; Parli Bhaskar; Louise Newman; Kim Finney; Michael Meredith; Oscar Schoifeld

    2014-01-01

    The ifrst Southern Ocean Observing System (SOOS) Asian Workshop was successfully held in Shanghai, China in May 2013, attracting over 40 participants from six Asian nations and widening exposure to the objectives and plans of SOOS. The workshop was organized to clarify Asian research activities currently taking place in the Southern Ocean and to discuss, amongst other items, the potential for collaborative efforts with and between Asian countries in SOOS-related activities. The workshop was an important mechanism to initiate discussion, understanding and collaborative avenues in the Asian domain of SOOS beyond current established efforts. Here we present some of the major outcomes of the workshop covering the principle themes of SOOS and attempt to provide a way forward to achieve a more integrated research community, enhance data collection and quality, and guide scientiifc strategy in the Southern Ocean.

  10. Asian carp behavior in response to static water gun firing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layhee, Megan J.; Gross, Jackson A.; Parsley, Michael J.; Romine, Jason G.; Glover, David C.; Suski, Cory D.; Wagner, Tristany L.; Sepulveda, Adam J.; Gresswell, Robert E.

    2013-01-01

    The potential for invasion of Asian carp into the Great Lakes has ecological and socio-economic implications. If they become established, Asian carp are predicted to alter lake ecosystems and impact commercial and recreational fisheries. The Chicago Sanitary and Shipping Canal is an important biological conduit between the Mississippi River Basin, where invasive Asian carp are abundant, and the Great Lakes. Millions of dollars have been spent to erect an electric barrier defense in the canal to prevent movement of Asian carp into the Great Lakes, but the need for additional fish deterrent technologies to supplement the existing barrier is warranted. Scientists with the U.S. Geological Survey Northern Rocky Mountain Science Center are examining seismic water gun technology, formerly used in oceanic oil exploration, as a fish deterrent. The goal of the current study is to employ telemetry and sonar monitoring equipment to assess the behavioral response of Asian carp to seismic water guns and the sound energy it generates.

  11. Asian Rhinoplasty: Preoperative Simulation and Planning Using Adobe Photoshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiranantawat, Kidakorn; Nguyen, Anh H

    2015-11-01

    A rhinoplasty in Asians differs from a rhinoplasty performed in patients of other ethnicities. Surgeons should understand the concept of Asian beauty, the nasal anatomy of Asians, and common problems encountered while operating on the Asian nose. With this understanding, surgeons can set appropriate goals, choose proper operative procedures, and provide an outcome that satisfies patients. In this article the authors define the concept of an Asian rhinoplasty-a paradigm shift from the traditional on-top augmentation rhinoplasty to a structurally integrated augmentation rhinoplasty-and provide a step-by-step procedure for the use of Adobe Photoshop as a preoperative program to simulate the expected surgical outcome for patients and to develop a preoperative plan for surgeons.

  12. The Central Asian Armies Facing the Challenge of Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Peyrouse

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on one of the main challenges that Central Asian armies face, that is, the problem of training and formation. Having rapidly increased since 2007, Central Asian military budgets have been able to multiply the purchases of equipment and weapons from foreign partners (Russia, western countries, Israel, China, South Korea, etc.. Money is not enough, however, to get the military institution back on its feet in its most human aspect, that of formation. In fact, the teaching institutions and the training possibilities provided to conscripts and professional soldiers on contract are generally of inadequate quality and impede the overall military capacities of the Central Asian states. This article will examine the main problems of the Central Asian military institutions and will discuss the means that have been implemented by Central Asian governments to reduce the negative impact of difficulties in promoting human capital.

  13. An Asian perspective on relationship and marriage education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei-Jen

    2005-06-01

    The goal of this article is to provide couple therapists and relationship educators with information to enhance the cultural relevance of their work with Asian populations. Because of the rapid social, economic, cultural, and gender role changes, the various Asian interpretations of the institution of marriage are undergoing major transformation. This article describes the general trends in marriage in several Asian nations, with a focus on the swiftly rising divorce rates and changing cultural attitudes to marriage, and discusses current relationship education initiatives in these nations. Finally, based on my experiences working with Asian populations, I present a few humble insights regarding adaptation of marriage education to render it more culturally appropriate for Asians.

  14. A meta-analytic study: the relationship between acculturation and depression among Asian Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Arpana; Leong, Frederick; Valentine, Jeffrey C; Canada, Dericka D

    2013-01-01

    Acculturation is an important and popular cultural research variable among specific ethnic populations that is used to explain the process of assimilating into the host culture. Acculturation has often been used to account for psychosocial changes and health outcomes and has been used to explain health disparities among ethnic groups. Using Asian Americans as an illustrative ethnic group, the authors see that researchers have highlighted the influence of acculturation on health outcomes. Some researchers suggest that this relationship is positive, whereas others postulate that the opposite is true. Because of the highly complex and divergent findings in the literature, this meta-analysis addresses the question of how acculturation (as measured by acculturation scales) is related to depression (a specific mental health outcome) among the Asian American population living in North America. Analyses were based on 38 studies. The meta-analyses reveal that when acculturation is measured as assimilation to the American culture, there is a small but statistically significant negative relationship between acculturation and depression scores. When acculturation is measured as orientation to the Asian culture, the relationship between acculturation and depression scores is also negative, but not statistically significant.

  15. Asian Radiology Forum 2015 for Building an Asian Friendship: A Step toward the Vigorous Intersociety Collaboration in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ho Sung; Choi, Jung-Ah; Lee, Jongmin

    2016-01-01

    According to the reports presented at the Asian Radiology Forum 2015, organized by the Korean Society of Radiology (KSR) during the Korean Congress of Radiology (KCR) in September 2015 in Seoul, there is an increasing need to promote international exchange and collaboration amongst radiology societies in Asian countries. The Asian Radiology Forum was first held by KSR and the national delegates of Asian radiological partner societies, who attended this meeting with the aim of discussing selected subjects of global relevance in radiology. In 2015, current stands, pros and cons, and future plans for inter-society collaboration between each Asian radiological partner societies were primarily discussed. The Asian radiology societies have international collaborations with each other through various activities, such as joint symposia, exchange programs, social exchange, and international membership. The advantages of continuing inter-society collaboration in most of the Asian radiology societies include international speakers, diverse clinical research, and cutting edge technology; while limited range of financial and human resources, language barrier, differences in goals and expectations are claimed as disadvantages. With regard to the future, most of the Asian radiology societies focus on expanding partner societies and enhancing globalization and collaboration programs through various international meetings and exchange programs.

  16. Asian radiology forum 2015 for building an Asian friendship: A step toward the vigorous intersociety collaboration in Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ho Sung [Dept. of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jung Ah [Dept. of Radiology, Hallym University College of Medicine, Hallym University Dongtan Sacred Heart Hospital, Hwaseong (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong Min [Dept. of Radiology and Biomedical Engineering, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    According to the reports presented at the Asian Radiology Forum 2015, organized by the Korean Society of Radiology (KSR) during the Korean Congress of Radiology (KCR) in September 2015 in Seoul, there is an increasing need to promote international exchange and collaboration amongst radiology societies in Asian countries. The Asian Radiology Forum was first held by KSR and the national delegates of Asian radiological partner societies, who attended this meeting with the aim of discussing selected subjects of global relevance in radiology. In 2015, current stands, pros and cons, and future plans for inter-society collaboration between each Asian radiological partner societies were primarily discussed. The Asian radiology societies have international collaborations with each other through various activities, such as joint symposia, exchange programs, social exchange, and international membership. The advantages of continuing inter-society collaboration in most of the Asian radiology societies include international speakers, diverse clinical research, and cutting edge technology; while limited range of financial and human resources, language barrier, differences in goals and expectations are claimed as disadvantages. With regard to the future, most of the Asian radiology societies focus on expanding partner societies and enhancing globalization and collaboration programs through various international meetings and exchange programs.

  17. Social class and health: the puzzling counter-example of British South Asians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, R; Wright, W; Hunt, K

    1998-11-01

    British South Asians (with ancestry from the Indian subcontinent) provided a puzzling exception to the British class gradient in mortality during the 1970s. On the assumption that class gradients in health are produced mainly by gradients in standard of living, this might be due to a break in the relation of class to standard of living (change in class structure), or by a break in the relation of standard of living to patterns of health behaviour and health risk (change in class lifestyles). Data on these characteristics are available from the West of Scotland Twenty-07 Study, where 159 South Asians aged 30-40 (mean age 35) were sampled alongside 319 of the general population in Glasgow. As regards changes in class structure, results indicate that the underclass thesis, which suggests that ethnic minorities are forced into less eligible jobs or into a separate labour market or into unemployment, resulting in a standard of living below that of the general population, still holds good for British South Asians in categories from social class III non-manual downwards. It does not hold good for owners of small businesses, where Sikhs and Hindus in particular have a standard of living equivalent to general population counterparts. However, prosperity is not predictable from levels of education in the subcontinent and from this and other signs it appears that a wholesale redistribution of class chances is occurring among British South Asians, disrupting inter-and intra-generational continuities in the relation between class and standard of living. There is little sign of change in class lifestyles, i.e. in the relation between standard of living and health behaviour or health risk. As yet, though, the new distribution of standard of living is affecting patterns of health behaviour and health risk more strongly than symptom experience or chronic illness, suggesting that a class gradient in health will re-emerge.

  18. Solar Energy and the Western Asian Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Morais Mendonca Teles, Antonio

    2016-07-01

    The Western Asian countries receive the most abundant solar radiation of the world. They also have enormous reserves of oil and natural gas. But the world reserves of those fuels will certainly diminish greatly as the worldwide demand for energy will increase steadily in the coming decades. And the suppliers of energy will have to contend with public concerns about the polluting effects of those fuels and the possible dangers of nuclear energy. Clearly a power source based on an non exhaustible and non-polluting fuel could be expected to find a role. It now appears that such a source is at hand in the solar energy. Here in this paper, under the principles in the United Nations' Agenda 21, we suggest to Western Asian countries, the study and own development of the following technologies based on solar energy; and comment about them: *photo-voltaic solar cell power plants - in the future, its cost per kilowatt-hour will probably be competitive as to other sources of electrical energy. A new technique, the solar non-imaging concentrator, with amorphous silicon-based thin films solar cells at the focus of the concentrators, can collect and intensify solar radiation far better than conventional concentrators do, thus reducing much more the cost; *bio-gas - using biological gas to produce energy and for heating/cooling purposes; *wind generation of electricity - it's nowadays, a non-expensive technique; *water pump for irrigation and human consuming, driving their power from photovoltaic cells; *and the study and own development of solar lasers for peaceful scientific studies. In this new kind of laser, the external necessary pumping energy comes from the high intensity of sunlight, produced with non-imaging concentrators. Solar lasers can give unexpected new great uses for mankind. Those achievements will require international cooperation and transfer of information, sustained research and development work, and some initial subsides by independent governments. Solar

  19. Asian Media Influence in the Global Context

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘璟; 韩澄

    2013-01-01

    Introduction:“Today the world we live in is a global vil age where no nation, group or culture can remain anonymous.”(qtd. in Jones&Quach 5) With the fast development of digital media, Asian entertainment media is enjoying warm welcome in the worldwide. Japan is considered as a manga superpower.“It has replaced the United states as the world's largest exporter of comics and animation.”(qtd. in Wong 42) Chinese blockbusters receive success not only within China, but in the global box office. In addition, entertainment media in China and Japan have great impact on the development of intercultural dialogue, in terms of providing an open and respectful exchange platform for different cultural backgrounds with aims of developing deeper understanding of diverse perspectives and practices and diminishing barriers of intercultural communication.

  20. USGS science and technology help managers battle invading Asian carp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolar, Cynthia S.; Morrison, Sandra S.

    2016-09-28

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducts Asian carp research focused on early detection, risk assessment, and development of control tools and strategies. The goals are to prevent the establishment of invasive Asian carp in the Great Lakes and to reduce their impacts in the Ohio River and Mississippi River Basins and elsewhere. Managers can use the information, tools, and strategies for early detection of Asian carp and to control them when their presence is first evident. New detection and control tools are designed to accommodate expansion to other invasive species and application in geographically diverse areas.This USGS focus complements goals of the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative (GLRI), a multi-agency collaboration started in 2010 to protect and restore the Great Lakes. As a member of the Asian Carp Regional Coordinating Committee, which guides Asian carp efforts, the USGS works closely with Federal and State agencies, Canada, and others to address high-priority Asian carp issues and provide science to inform management decisions.The USGS has gained extensive knowledge of Asian carp biology and life history over the past 30 years. That knowledge guides the design, development, and application of control strategies, and is essential for developing approaches in line with modern principles and practices of integrated pest management (IPM). IPM is a process used to solve pest problems while minimizing risks to people and the environment.

  1. Prevalence of common disease-associated variants in Asian Indians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allayee Hooman

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Asian Indians display a high prevalence of diseases linked to changes in diet and environment that have arisen as their lifestyle has become more westernized. Using 1200 genome-wide polymorphisms in 432 individuals from 15 Indian language groups, we have recently shown that: (i Indians constitute a distinct population-genetic cluster, and (ii despite the geographic and linguistic diversity of the groups they exhibit a relatively low level of genetic heterogeneity. Results We investigated the prevalence of common polymorphisms that have been associated with diseases, such as atherosclerosis (ALOX5, hypertension (CYP3A5, AGT, GNB3, diabetes (CAPN10, TCF7L2, PTPN22, prostate cancer (DG8S737, rs1447295, Hirschsprung disease (RET, and age-related macular degeneration (CFH, LOC387715. In addition, we examined polymorphisms associated with skin pigmentation (SLC24A5 and with the ability to taste phenylthiocarbamide (TAS2R38. All polymorphisms were studied in a cohort of 576 India-born Asian Indians sampled in the United States. This sample consisted of individuals whose mother tongue is one of 14 of the 22 "official" languages recognized in India as well as individuals whose mother tongue is Parsi, a cultural group that has resided in India for over 1000 years. Analysis of the data revealed that allele frequency differences between the different Indian language groups were small, and interestingly the variant alleles of ALOX5 g.8322G>A and g.50778G>A, and PTPN22 g.36677C>T were present only in a subset of the Indian language groups. Furthermore, a latitudinal cline was identified both for the allele frequencies of the SNPs associated with hypertension (CYP3A5, AGT, GNB3, as well as for those associated with the ability to taste phenylthiocarbamide (TAS2R38. Conclusion Although caution is warranted due to the fact that this US-sampled Indian cohort may not represent a random sample from India, our results will hopefully assist in the

  2. Medieval European medicine and Asian spices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Jong Kuk

    2014-08-01

    This article aimed to explain the reasons why Asian spices including pepper, ginger, and cinnamon were considered as special and valuable drugs with curative powers in the Medieval Europe. Among these spices, pepper was most widely and frequently used as medicine according to medieval medical textbooks. We analyzed three main pharmacology books written during the Middle Ages. One of the main reasons that oriental spices were widely used as medicine was due to the particular medieval medical system fundamentally based on the humoral theory invented by Hippocrates and Galen. This theory was modified by Arab physicians and imported to Europe during the Middle Ages. According to this theory, health is determined by the balance of the following four humors which compose the human body: blood, yellow bile, black bile, and phlegm. Each humor has its own qualities such as cold, hot, wet, and dry. Humoral imbalance was one of the main causes of disease, so it was important to have humoral equilibrium. Asian spices with hot and dry qualities were used to balance the cold and wet European diet. The analysis of several major medical textbooks of the Middle Ages proves that most of the oriental spices with hot and dry qualities were employed to cure diverse diseases, particularly those caused by coldness and humidity. However, it should be noted that the oriental spices were considered to be much more valuable and effective as medicines than the local medicinal ingredients, which were not only easily procured but also were relatively cheap. Europeans mystified oriental spices, with the belief that they have marvelous and mysterious healing powers. Such mystification was related to the terrestrial Paradise. They believed that the oriental spices were grown in Paradise which was located in the Far East and were brought to the Earthly world along the four rivers flowing from the Paradise.

  3. Seed dispersal potential of Asian elephants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harich, Franziska K.; Treydte, Anna C.; Ogutu, Joseph O.; Roberts, John E.; Savini, Chution; Bauer, Jan M.; Savini, Tommaso

    2016-11-01

    Elephants, the largest terrestrial mega-herbivores, play an important ecological role in maintaining forest ecosystem diversity. While several plant species strongly rely on African elephants (Loxodonta africana; L. cyclotis) as seed dispersers, little is known about the dispersal potential of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). We examined the effects of elephant fruit consumption on potential seed dispersal using the example of a tree species with mega-faunal characteristics, Dillenia indica L., in Thailand. We conducted feeding trials with Asian elephants to quantify seed survival and gut passage times (GPT). In total, 1200 ingested and non-ingested control seeds were planted in soil and in elephant dung to quantify differences in germination rates in terms of GPT and dung treatment. We used survival analysis as a novel approach to account for the right-censored nature of the data obtained from germination experiments. The average seed survival rate was 79% and the mean GPT was 35 h. The minimum and maximum GPT were 20 h and 72 h, respectively. Ingested seeds were significantly more likely to germinate and to do so earlier than non-ingested control seeds (P = 0.0002). Seeds with the longest GPT displayed the highest germination success over time. Unexpectedly, seeds planted with dung had longer germination times than those planted without. We conclude that D. indica does not solely depend on but benefits from dispersal by elephants. The declining numbers of these mega-faunal seed dispersers might, therefore, have long-term negative consequences for the recruitment and dispersal dynamics of populations of certain tree species.

  4. Memory as Travel in Asian American Children's Literature: Bridging Home and School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ching, Stuart H. D.; Pataray-Ching, Jann

    2002-01-01

    Examines Asian American children's literature. Suggests that four representations of memory in Asian American children's literature (memory as recovery, as cultural change, as catharsis, and as border crossing) compose an empowering discourse for Asian and Asian American students negotiating competing cultural and economic motives in American…

  5. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine APJTB Bimonthly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>Aims & Scope Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine(APJTB)aims to set up and provide an international academic communication platform for physicians,medical scientists,allied health scientists and public health workers,especially those in the Asian Pacific region and worldwide on tropical biomedicine,infectious diseases and public health,and to meet the growing challenges of understanding,preventing and controUing the dramatic global emergence and reemergence of infectious diseases in the Asian Pacific region.

  6. Pricing Arithmetic Asian Options under the CEV Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Peng

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the pricing of arithmetic Asian options when the underlying stock follows the constant elasticity of variance (CEV process. We build a binomial tree method to estimate the CEV process and use it to price arithmetic Asian options. We find that the binomial tree method for the lognormal case can effectively solve the computational problems arising from the inherent complexities of arithmetic Asian options when the stock price follows CEV process. We present numerical results to demonstrate the validity and the convergence of the approach for the different parameter values set in CEV process.

  7. 'Do You Ride on Elephants' and 'Never Tell Them You're German': The Experiences of British Asian and Black, and Overseas Student Teachers in Southeast England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Mike; Stuart, Janet S.

    2005-01-01

    In this article we report on part of a small-scale study into the experiences of 28 British-born Asian and black, and overseas student teachers, who were following both Postgraduate Certificate in Education (PGCE) and school-based routes to qualified teacher status (QTS), in Sussex and Kent. The results indicate worrying degrees of racism,…

  8. Effect of Asian dust storms on mortality in three Asian cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyewon; Honda, Yasushi; Lim, Youn-Hee; Guo, Yue Leon; Hashizume, Masahiro; Kim, Ho

    2014-06-01

    Asian dust storms (ADS) have affected several Asian countries and have been a major concern due to adverse effects on public health. The occurrence of ADS differs in each country based on geographical features and distance from the storms' origin. Many studies have reported significant associations between ADS and morbidity. However, regarding the association between ADS and mortality, only a few studies have found statistically significant ADS effects in Korea, Taiwan and Japan. Accordingly, this study aimed to examine the effects of ADS on daily mortality in three Asian cities (Seoul, South Korea; Taipei, Taiwan; and Kitakyushu, Japan) and to explore the differences in the extent of effects in each city. We performed time-series analyses using a generalized additive model (GAM) with Quasi-Poisson regressions. Deaths due to accidents or external causes were excluded. We used a dummy variable as an indicator of ADS and considered lag effects of ADS. Stratified analyses by disease and age and sensitivity analyses controlling for NO2, SO2, and PM10 were also conducted respectively. Additionally, influenza epidemics were adjusted for considering seasonal patterns, and a meta-analysis was performed. We reported results as excess mortality by percentage due to Asian dust storms. We found significant excess mortality in Seoul and Kitakyushu as follows. In Seoul, ADS showed adverse effects on mortality under 65 years old (lag 2: 4.44%, lag 3: 5%, lag 4: 4.39%). In Kitakyushu, ADS had adverse effects on respiratory mortality (lag 2: 18.82%). Contradictory to results in Seoul and Kitakyushu, ADS seemed to have a protective effect in Taipei: total non-accidental mortality (lag 0: -2.77%, lag 1: -3.24%), mortality over 65 years old (lag 0: -3.35%, lag 1: -3.29%) and respiratory mortality (lag 0: -10.62%, lag 1: -9.67%). Sensitivity analyses showed similar findings as the main results. Our findings suggest that ADS may affect mortality in several Asian cities, and that a dust

  9. Arctic autumn sea ice decline and Asian winter temperature anomaly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Na; LIN Lina; WANG Yingjie; KONG Bin; ZHANG Zhanhai; CHEN Hongxia

    2016-01-01

    Associations between the autumn Arctic sea ice concentration (SIC) and Asian winter temperature are discussed using the singular value decomposition analysis. Results show that in recent 33 years reduced autumn Arctic sea ice is accompanied by Asian winter temperature decrease except in the Tibetan plateau and the Arctic Ocean and the North Pacific Ocean coast. The autumn SIC reduction excites two geopotential height centers in Eurasia and the north Arctic Ocean, which are persistent from autumn to winter. The negative center is in Barents Sea/Kara Sea. The positive center is located in Mongolia. The anomalous winds are associated with geopotential height centers, providing favorable clod air for the Asian winter temperature decreasing in recent 33 years. This relationship indicates a potential long-term outlook for the Asian winter temperature decrease as the decline of the autumn sea ice in the Arctic Ocean is expected to continue as climate warms.

  10. An East Asian Monsoon in the Mid-Pliocene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Qing; ZHANG Zhong-Shi; GAO Yong-Qi

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the authors simulate the East Asian climate changes in the mid-Pliocene (~3.3 to 3.0 Ma BP) with the Community Atmosphere Model version 3.1 (CAM3.1) and compare the simulated East Asian monsoon with paleoclimate data. The simulations show an obvious warming pattern in East Asia in the mid-Pliocene compared with the pre-industrial climate, with surface air temperature increasing by 0.5 4.0°C. In the warm mid-Pliocene simulation, the East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM) becomes stronger, while the East Asian Winter Monsoon (EAWM) is similar relative to the pre-industrial climate. Compared with the paleoclimate data, our simulations depict the intensified EASM well but cannot reproduce the weakened EAWM. This model-data discrepancy may be attributed to the uncertainty in the reconstructed mid-Pliocene sea surface temperature.

  11. Impact of Asian Dust on Climate and Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Mian; Tan, Qian; Diehl, Thomas; Yu, Hongbin

    2010-01-01

    Dust generated from Asian permanent desert and desertification areas can be efficiently transported around the globe, making significant radiative impact through their absorbing and scattering solar radiation and through their deposition on snow and ice to modify the surface albedo. Asian dust is also a major concern of surface air quality not only in the source and immediate downwind regions but also areas thousands of miles away across the Pacific. We present here a global model, GOCART, analysis of data from satellite remote sensing instrument (MODIS, MISR, CALIPSO, OMI) and other observations on Asian dust sources, transport, and deposition, and use the model to assess the Asian dust impact on global climate and air quality.

  12. The Asian Developmental State and the Flying Geese Paradigm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Kasahara (Shigehisa)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ East Asian economies have been subject to theoretical debates, especially regarding the principal factors that have contributed to their impressive development performance. Many economists familiar with the region’s institutional particularities believe that their catch

  13. Incretin response in Asian type 2 diabetes: Are Indians different?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awadhesh Kumar Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Incretin-based therapy has clearly emerged as one of the most sought out strategy in managing type 2 diabetes, primarily because they generally do not causes hypoglycemia and possess weight-neutral or weight losing properties. Efficacy-wise too, these agents, are more or less similar to commonly used drugs metformin and sulfonylureas. Interestingly, some studies recently suggested that glycemic response to these incretin-based therapies could also differ ethnicity-wise. Subsequently, meta-analysis from these studies also suggested that Asians may have better response to these incretin-based therapies. This review will be an attempt to critically analyze those studies available in literature and to address as to why East-Asians and South-Asians may have different incretin response compared to non-Asians.

  14. Glucose abnormalities in Asian patients with chronic hepatitis C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Q

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Qingyan Bo,1 Roberto Orsenigo,2 Junyi Wang,1 Louis Griffel,3 Clifford Brass3 1Beijing Novartis Pharma Co. Ltd., Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 2Novartis Pharma AG, Basel, Switzerland; 3Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation, East Hanover, NJ, USA Abstract: Many studies have demonstrated a potential association between type 2 diabetes (T2D and hepatitis C virus infection in Western countries, while similar evidence is limited in Asia. We compared the prevalence of glucose abnormalities (impaired fasting glucose [IFG] and T2D and their risk factors between Asian and non-Asian chronic hepatitis C (CHC patients, and evaluated whether glucose abnormalities impacted the viral responses to peginterferon plus ribavirin treatment (current standard of care in most Asian countries. This study retrospectively analyzed data of 1,887 CHC patients from three Phase II/III studies with alisporivir (DEB025 as treatment for CHC. The chi-square test was used to compare the prevalence of IFG/T2D between Asian and non-Asian CHC patients, and logistic regression was used to adjust for sex, age, and cirrhosis status. Risk factors for IFG/T2D were evaluated using univariate and multivariate analysis. Our results indicated that the prevalence of IFG/T2D was high in both Asian and non-Asian CHC patients (23.0% vs 20.9%, and no significant difference was found between these two populations (adjusted odds ratio: 1.3, 95% confidence interval: 0.97, 1.7; P=0.08. Age, sex, and cirrhosis status were risk factors for IFG/T2D in both populations, while body mass index was positively associated with IFG/T2D in non-Asian but not in Asian participants. No significant differences in sustained virological response rates were seen between patients with normal fasting glucose and patients with IFG/T2D for both populations. These results demonstrate that the prevalence of glucose abnormalities in Asian CHC patients was similar to that in non-Asians, and glucose abnormalities had

  15. Intercultural communication: Differences between Western and Asian perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Dang, Linh

    2016-01-01

    The thesis focused differences in intercultural communication from Western and Asian perspective. The goal of this thesis was to find the differences and similarities in business communication between Western and Asian culture. The theoretical part of this thesis was titled as intercultural communication. Definition of intercultural communication, culture’s influence on perception, obstacles in intercultural communication and inter-cultural communication competences were covered in this...

  16. GLOBAL RECESSION AND ASIAN GROWTH: EXPERIENCE AND PROSPECTS

    OpenAIRE

    Dowling, John Malcolm

    2015-01-01

    The paper outlines current macroeconomic developments in industrial countries and explains how slower growth in these economies is being transmitted to developing economies in Asia. The macroeconomic outlook for industrial countries in 2009 is discussed along with the transmission mechanism that has brought the global downturn tothe Asian economies. Monetary and fiscal policy adjustments in Asian economies have been implemented to address the downturn in economic activity and these policies a...

  17. Assessing Asian Equilibrium Exchange Rates as Policy Instruments

    OpenAIRE

    MASUJIMA Yuki

    2015-01-01

    This paper attempts to estimate the quarterly equilibrium exchange rates (EER) of nine Asian currencies (Japan, China, Korea, Hong Kong, Singapore, Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Philippines) with the Behavioral Equilibrium Exchange Rates (BEER) from 2006 to 2014. The BEER was compared with the Fundamental Equilibrium Exchange Rates (FEER) published biannually by the Peterson Institute for International Economics. While four Asian currencies tend to be undervalued in the Peterson's FEER a...

  18. The Chinese Economy and Income Inequality among East Asian Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Sumie Sato; Mototsugu Fukushige

    2010-01-01

    Using the Atkinson inequality measure of income distribution, we analyze the impact of China as a single country and examine the effect of its domestic income inequality on total income inequality among East Asian countries. First, we find that China's domestic income inequality exacerbated income inequality among East Asian countries from the 1980s, and this effect became even more pronounced from 1990. Second, the growth of China's per capita GDP had an equalizing effect on income distribut...

  19. Estimation of the Asian telecommunication technical efficiencies with panel data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Yu-yong; JIA Huai-jing

    2007-01-01

    This article used panel data and the Stochastic frontier analysis (SFA) model to analyze and compare the technical efficiencies of the telecommunication industry in 28 Asian countries from 1994 to 2003. In conclusion, the technical efficiencies of the Asian countries were found to steadily increase in the past decade. The high-income countries have the highest technical efficiency; however, income is not the only factor that affects the technical efficiency.

  20. Comparison of flight design of Asian honeybee drones

    OpenAIRE

    Radloff, Sarah; Randall Hepburn, H.; KOENIGER, Gudrun

    2003-01-01

    International audience; The excess power index (integrating body dry mass, thorax-to-body dry mass and wing surface area) was compared in drones of seven Asian Apis species. There are two statistically distinct groups of drones: drones of the dwarf honeybees form one class, all other Asian species belong to the second. Drones of dwarf honeybees have a 36% ergonomic advantage in power availability and 20% advantage in available excess power over all other drones. Comparisons of flight dimensio...

  1. Dynamic analysis of house price diffusion across Asian financial centres

    OpenAIRE

    Nanda, Anupam; Yeh, Jia-Huey

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore effects of macroeconomic variables on house prices and also, the lead-lag relationships of real estate markets to examine house price diffusion across Asian financial centres. The analysis is based on the Global Vector Auto-Regression (GVAR) model estimated using quarterly data for six Asian financial centres (Hong Kong, Tokyo, Seoul, Singapore, Taipei and Bangkok) from 1991Q1 to 2011Q2. The empirical results indicate that the global economic conditions pla...

  2. Sarcoidosis in Caucasians, Blacks and Asians in London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmondstone, W M; Wilson, A G

    1985-01-01

    The incidence and clinical features of sarcoidosis were studied in a retrospective survey of 156 patients attending two South London hospitals between 1969 and 1982. Sixty-eight patients were Caucasian, 59 were Black West Indian or African immigrants and 29 were immigrants racially derived from Indo-Pakistan (Asians). The annual incidence of sarcoidosis in the local community in 1977-78 was 19.8 per 10(5) for Blacks and 16.8 per 10(5) for Asians compared with 1.5 per 10(5) for Caucasians. Erythema nodosum was a more common presenting feature in Caucasians than in Blacks (P less than 0.001) or Asians (P less than 0.05). Blacks developed sarcoidosis at a later age than Caucasians (P less than 0.05) and were less likely to present as a chance finding on a chest radiograph (P less than 0.05). They had more widespread extrathoracic disease than Caucasians (P less than 0.001) and were more commonly treated with corticosteroids (P less than 0.001). In the Asians there was a male predominance compared with Caucasians (P less than 0.01). Asians also had more extrathoracic sarcoidosis than Caucasians (P less than 0.001) and more of them were treated with corticosteroids (P less than 0.05). A stage 2 chest radiograph at presentation (P less than 0.05) and skin sarcoidosis (P less than 0.05) were less common in Asians than in Blacks, but otherwise there were no significant differences between the two groups. In this study the incidence of sarcoidosis in Asians approached that in Blacks, while the clinical features were intermediate in severity between Blacks and Caucasians. In both Blacks and Asians the disease was more common, more severe and more extensive than in Caucasians.

  3. Asian Citrus Psyllid RNAi Pathway – RNAi evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Taning, Clauvis N. T.; Andrade, Eduardo C. de; Hunter, Wayne B.; Christiaens, Olivier; Smagghe, Guy

    2016-01-01

    Diaphorina citri, known as the Asian citrus psyllid, is an important pest of citrus because it transmits a phloem-limited bacteria strongly implicated in huanglongbing (citrus greening disease). Emerging biotechnologies, such as RNA interference, could provide a new sustainable and environmentally friendly strategy for the management of this pest. In this study, genome and functional analysis were performed to verify whether the RNAi core genes are present in the Asian psyllid genome and if t...

  4. Mongolia’s Contribution To The Northeast Asian Security

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Myagmar; Dovchin

    2014-01-01

    <正>During these and yesterday’s presentations we had good chance to get understanding of Asian security.So,I will limit myself with few remarks on how ideas of Asian Security Mechanisms are reflected and being implemented in foreign policy of Mongolia in NEA.Issues related to Mongolia The drastic changes in the environment surrounding Mongolia and the future development trend since the end of the Cold War make it

  5. Type 2 diabetes among Asian Americans: Prevalence andprevention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a growing problemamong Asian Americans. Based on the Centers forDisease Control, the age-adjusted prevalence of T2DMfor Asian Americans is 9%, placing them at "moderaterisk". However differential patterns of disease burdenemerge when examining disaggregated data acrossAsian American ethnic groups; with Filipino, PacificIslander, Japanese, and South Asian groups consistentlydescribed as having the highest prevalence of T2DM.Disentangling and strengthening prevalence data is vitalfor on-going prevention efforts. The strongest evidencecurrently available to guide the prevention of T2DMin the United States comes from a large multicenterrandomized clinical control trial called the DiabetesPrevention Program, which targets individual lifestylebehavior changes. It has been translated and adoptedfor some Asian American groups, and shows promise.However stronger study designs and attention toseveral key methodological considerations will improvethe science. Increased attention has also been directedtoward population level downstream prevention efforts.Building an infrastructure that includes both individualand population approaches is needed to prevent T2DMamong Asian American populations, and is essential forreducing health disparities.

  6. Clinical utility, safety and tolerability of capsule endoscopy in urban Southeast Asian population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tiing-Leong Ang; Kwong-Ming Fock; Tay-Meng Ng; Eng-Kiong Teo; Yi-Lyn Tan

    2003-01-01

    AIM:Capsule endoscopy has demonstrated its clinical utility in the evaluation of small bowel pathology in several Western studies. In this prospective study, we aimed to determine the clinical utility, safety and tolerability of capsule endoscopy in the evaluation of suspected small bowel disease in an urban Southeast Asian population.METHODS: We used the given (M2A) capsule endoscopy system in 16 consecutive patients with suspected small bowel pathology. In 9 patients the indication was obscure gastrointestinal bleeding, while in 6 patients it was to determine the extent of small bowel involvement in Crohn's disease. One patient underwent capsule endoscopy for evaluation of chronic abdominal pain. Patient's tolerability to the procedure was evaluated by standardized questionnaires and all patients were reviewed at one week to ensure that the capsule had been excreted without any adverse events.RESULTS: Abnormal findings were present in 8 patients (50%). The cause of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding was determined in 5 out of 9 patients. Findings included 2 cases of angiodysplasia, 2 cases of jejunal ulcers and 1 case of both angiodysplasia and jejunal ulcer. One patient had small bowel erosions and foci of erythema of doubtful significance.Ileal lesions were diagnosed in 2 out of 6 patients with Crohn's disease. Capsule endoscopy was well tolerated by all patients. One patient with Crohn's disease had a complication of capsule retention due to terminal ileum stricture. The capsule eventually passed out spontaneously after 1 month.CONCLUSION: Our study, which represented the first Asian series, further confirms the diagnostic utility, safety and tolerability of wireless capsule endoscopy.

  7. Impact of Asian aerosols on air quality over the United States: A perspective from aerosol-cloud-radiation coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Z.; Yu, H.; Chin, M.

    2013-12-01

    It has well been established, through satellite/ground observations, that dust and aerosols from various Asian sources can travel across the Pacific and reach North America (NA) at least on episode bases. Once reaching NA, these inflow aerosols would compete with local emissions to influence atmospheric composition and air quality over the United States (US). The previous studies, typically based on one or multiple satellite measurements in combination with global/regional model simulations, suggest that the impact of Asian dust/aerosols on US air quality tend to be small since most inflow aerosols stay aloft. On the other hand, aerosols affect many key meteorological processes that will ultimately channel down to impact air quality. Aerosols absorb and scatter solar radiation that change the atmospheric stability, thus temperature, wind, and planetary boundary layer structure that would directly alter air quality. Aerosols can serve as cloud condensation nuclei and ice nuclei to modify cloud properties and precipitation that would also affect aerosol removal and concentration. This indirect impact of Asian aerosol inflow on US air quality may be substantial and need to be investigated. This study employs the NASA Unified WRF (NU-WRF) to address the question from the aerosol-radiation-cloud interaction perspective. The simulation period was selected from April to June of 2010 during which the Asian dust continuously reached NA based on CALIPSO satellite observation. The preliminary results show that the directly-transported Asian aerosol increases surface PM2.5 concentration by less than 2 μg/m3 over the west coast areas of US, and the aerosol-radiation-cloud feedback has a profound effect on air quality over the central to eastern US. A more detailed analysis links this finding to a series of meteorological conditions modified by aerosol effects.

  8. Asian American Interethnic Relations and Politics. Asians in America: The Peoples of East, Southeast, and South Asia in American Life and Culture Series, Volume 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Franklin, Ed.

    The articles in this anthology address the complex subject of interethnic relations and Asian American politics, transcending ideas of Asian Americans as the model minority. The articles are: (1) "Opening the American Mind and Body: The Role of Asian American Studies" (Shirley Hume); (2) "Surviving Democracy's 'Mistake":…

  9. Height of south Asian children in the Netherlands aged 0–20 years : secular trends and comparisons with current Asian Indian, Dutch and WHO references

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilde, J.A. de; Dommelen, P. van; Buuren, S. van; Middelkoop, B.J.C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: People from Asian populations are generally shorter than other ethnic groups. It is unknown if current universal height references are suitable for affluent South Asian children in the Netherlands. Aims: To develop height-for-age charts for contemporary South Asian children aged 0–20 yea

  10. Southeast Asian Sharī‘ahs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.B. Hooker

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The Southeast Asian materials show that the sharī‘ah’s providing various pathways (through time and place for individual Muslims to follow when doing their duty to God, which is fidelity to Revealed Truth. There are many paths and it is pointless to insist upon an historical ‘purist’ mono-legacy, however attractive this might appear theoretically. The realities of life (economics, social structure, alternative philosophies, and so on dictate otherwise. Local sharī‘ahs adapt realities to Revelation irrespective of whether sources of legislation or forms of government are Muslim or non-Muslim this was never an issue in Southeast Asia. The localized sharī‘ahs were achieved via an acceptance of legal pluralism and hybridization of laws. The result is that Revealed obligations are phrased in local terms, change over time is allowed for, and the end result is a truly original and unique set of ‘Southeast Asian’ sharī‘ahs.Copyright (c 2014 by SDI. All right reserved.DOI: 10.15408/sdi.v20i2.387

  11. Asian Option Pricing Based on Genetic Algorithms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YunzhongLiu; HuiyuXuan

    2004-01-01

    The cross-fertilization between artificial intelligence and computational finance has resulted in some of the most active research areas in financial engineering. One direction is the application of machine learning techniques to pricing financial products, which is certainly one of the most complex issues in finance. In the literature, when the interest rate,the mean rate of return and the volatility of the underlying asset follow general stochastic processes, the exact solution is usually not available. In this paper, we shall illustrate how genetic algorithms (GAs), as a numerical approach, can be potentially helpful in dealing with pricing. In particular, we test the performance of basic genetic algorithms by using it to the determination of prices of Asian options, whose exact solutions is known from Black-Scholesoption pricing theory. The solutions found by basic genetic algorithms are compared with the exact solution, and the performance of GAs is ewluated accordingly. Based on these ewluations, some limitations of GAs in option pricing are examined and possible extensions to future works are also proposed.

  12. Food Safety Program in Asian Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Ryuji; Hwang, Lucy Sun

    2015-01-01

    By using the ILSI network in Asia, we are holding a session focused on food safety programs in several Asian areas. In view of the external environment, it is expected to impact the global food system in the near future, including the rapid increase in food demand and in public health services due to population growth, as well as the threats to biosecurity and food safety due to the rapid globalization of the food trade. Facilitating effective information sharing holds promise for the activation of the food industry. At this session, Prof. Hwang shares the current situation of Food Safety and Sanitation Regulations in Taiwan. Dr. Liu provides a talk on the role of risk assessment in food regulatory control focused on aluminum-containing food additives in China. After the JECFA evaluation of aluminum-containing food additives in 2011, each country has carried out risk assessment based on dietary intake surveys. Ms. Chan reports on the activities of a working group on Food Standards Harmonization in ASEAN. She also explains that the ILSI Southeast Asia Region has actively supported the various ASEAN Working Groups in utilizing science to harmonize food standards. Prof. Park provides current research activities in Korea focused on the effect of climate change on food safety. Climate change is generally seen as having a negative impact on food security, particularly in developing countries. We use these four presentations as a springboard to vigorous discussion on issues related to Food Safety in Asia.

  13. Asian elephants acquire inaccessible food by blowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Kaori; Irie, Naoko; Hiraiwa-Hasegawa, Mariko; Kutsukake, Nobuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Many animals acquire otherwise inaccessible food with the aid of sticks and occasionally water. As an exception, some reports suggest that elephants manipulate breathing through their trunks to acquire inaccessible food. Here, we report on two female Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) in Kamine Zoo, Japan, who regularly blew to drive food within their reach. We experimentally investigated this behaviour by placing foods in inaccessible places. The elephants blew the food until it came within accessible range. Once the food was within range, the elephants were increasingly less likely to blow as the distance to the food became shorter. One subject manipulated her blowing duration based on food distance: longer when the food was distant. These results suggest that the elephants used their breath to achieve goals: that is, they used it not only to retrieve the food but also to fine-tune the food position for easy grasping. We also observed individual differences in the elephants' aptitude for this technique, which altered the efficiency of food acquisition. Thus, we added a new example of spontaneous behaviour for achieving a goal in animals. The use of breath to drive food is probably unique to elephants, with their dexterous trunks and familiarity with manipulating the act of blowing, which is commonly employed for self-comfort and acoustic communication.

  14. Urban air quality in the Asian region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopke, Philip K. [Center for Air Resources Engineering and Science, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY 13699-5708 (United States)], E-mail: hopkepk@clarkson.edu; Cohen, David D. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), Physics Division, Private Mail Bag 1, Menai 2234, NSW (Australia); Begum, Bilkis A.; Biswas, Swapan K. [Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission (BAEC), Atomic Energy Centre, Dhaka (AECD), P.O. Box 164, Dhaka (Bangladesh); Ni Bangfa [China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE), China National Nuclear Corp. (CNNC), P.O. Box 275-50, Beijing 102413 (China); Pandit, Gauri Girish [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Santoso, Muhayatun [Center for Nuclear Technology of Material and Radiometry, National Nuclear Energy Agency (BATAN), Jl. Tamansari 71, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Chung, Yong-Sam [Hanaro Center, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), 150 Dukjin-dong, Yusung-ku, P.O. Box 105, Daejon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Davy, Perry; Markwitz, Andreas [Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (GNS), 30 Gracefield Road, P.O. Box 31-312, Lower Hutt (New Zealand); Waheed, Shahida; Siddique, Naila [Division of Nuclear Chemistry, PINSTECH, Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC), P.O. Box 1482, Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); Santos, Flora L.; Pabroa, Preciosa Corazon B. [Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI), Commonwealth Avenue, Diliman, P.O. Box 213, Quezon City 1101 (Philippines); Seneviratne, Manikkuwadura Consy Shirani [Atomic Energy Authority, 60/460, Baseline Road, Orugodawatta, Wellampitiya (Sri Lanka); Wimolwattanapun, Wanna; Bunprapob, Supamatthree [Thailand Institute of Nuclear Technology (TINT), 16 Vibhavadi Rangsit Road, Bangkok 10900 (Thailand); Thu Bac Vuong [Centre for Radiation Protection, Institute of Nuclear Sciences and Technology, P.O. Box 5T-160, Cau Giay (Viet Nam)] (and others)

    2008-10-01

    Over the past decade, member states of the Regional Co-operation Agreement (RCA), an intergovernmental agreement for the East Asia and Pacific region under the auspices of the IAEA with the assistance of international organizations and financial institutions such as the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank, have started to set in place policies and legislation for air pollution abatement. To support planning and evaluate the effectiveness of control programs, data are needed that characterizes urban air quality. The focus of this measurement program describe in this report is on size segregated particulate air pollution. Such airborne particulate matter can have a significant impact on human health and urban visibility. These data provide the input to receptor models that may permit the mitigation of these impacts by identification and quantitative apportionment of the particle sources. The aim of this report is to provide an overview of the measurements of concentrations and composition of particulate air pollution in two size fractions across the participating countries. For many of the large cities in this region, the measured particulate matter concentrations are greater than air quality standards or guidelines that have been adopted in developed countries.

  15. Comparison of East Asian winter monsoon indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Hui

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Four East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM indices are compared in this paper. In the research periods, all the indices show similar interannual and decadal-interdecadal variations, with predominant periods centering in 3–4 years, 6.5 years and 9–15 years, respectively. Besides, all the indices show remarkable weakening trends since the 1980s. The correlation coefficient of each two indices is positive with a significance level of 99%. Both the correlation analyses and the composites indicate that in stronger EAWM years, the Siberian high and the higher-level subtropical westerly jet are stronger, and the Aleutian low and the East Asia trough are deeper. This circulation pattern is favorable for much stronger northwesterly wind and lower air temperature in the subtropical regions of East Asia, while it is on the opposite in weaker EAWM years. Besides, EAWM can also exert a remarkable leading effect on the summer monsoon. After stronger (weaker EAWM, less (more summer precipitation is seen over the regions from the Yangtze River valley of China to southern Japan, while more (less from South China Sea to the tropical western Pacific.

  16. ASIAN HIGHLANDS PERSPECTIVES 28 (Entire Volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Various

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available AHP's 2013 annual collection of materials contains 5 original research articles, 7 new pieces of fiction, & 20 reviews of recent books. ARTICLES. Ian G Baird-Shifting Contexts & Performances: The Brao-Kavet & Their Sacred Mountains in Northeast Cambodia. Dpa' mo skyid-The 'Descent of Blessings': Ecstasy & Revival among the Tibetan Bon Communities of Reb gong. Gerong Pincuo & Henrëtte Daudey-Too Much Loving-kindness to Repay: Funeral Speeches of the Wenquan Pumi. Wang Shiyong-Towards a Localized Development Approach for Tibetan Areas in China. William Noseworthy-The Cham's First Highland Sovereign-Po Romé (r. 1627-1651. FICTION. Bsod nams 'gyur med-Folktales from Gcig sgril. Lhundrom-Longing for Snow-covered Peaks: Deity Possession in the Philippines. Thub bstan-Elopement. Ba Lobsang Gonbo-Love in Shambala. Pad+ma skyabs-The Price of a Thesis. Pad ma rin chen-Scattered Memories of a Misspent Youth & Conflict. REVIEWS. 20 new books on Tibetan, Mongolian, Chinese, & Highland Southeast Asian studies.

  17. Asians seek end to girls' trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Each year, approximately 1 million Asian children under 18 years old, many of them female, become prostitutes. With regard to this problem, the Summit Foundation, the United Nations Population Fund, UNICEF, and the Centre for Development and Population Activities are sponsoring a conference entitled "Girls' Rights, Society's Responsibility: Taking Action Against Child Sexual Exploitation," on December 8-10, 1997, at the Nehru Centre, Worli, Bombay. Policy makers from government, the legal and police professions, corporations, the tourism industry, and grassroots organizations will attend. Representatives from Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, India, Maldives, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, and Thailand will develop coordinated strategies to end the abuse. The experiences of community-based nongovernmental organizations will be used to develop approaches to prevent exploitation, provide surveillance, and rehabilitate girls who have been exploited. The Nehru Centre, Jet Airways, and the President Hotel of Bombay will provide support. Participants are to include the Ford Foundation, the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, UNIFEM, the World Health Organization, the World Bank, the US Agency for International Development (USAID), Oxfam, CIDA, SIDA, NORAD, and many corporations (Bata, Apeejay, Pepsi, Tata, Godrej, Mahindra and Mahindra, and hotel and tourist businesses).

  18. Metabolic syndrome and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease:Asian deifnitions and Asian studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Gao Fan; Yong-De Peng

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), as conventionally recognized, is a metabolic disorder largely conifned to residents of aflfuent industrialized Western countries. However, obesity and insulin resistance are not restricted to the West, as witnessed by their increasingly universal distribution. In particular, there has been an upsurge in metabolic syndrome in the Asia-Paciifc region, although there are critical differences in the extent of adiposity between Eastern and Western populations. DATA SOURCES:An English-language literature search using PubMed (1999-2007) on obesity, metabolic syndrome and NAFLD, focusing on Asian deifnitions and Asian studies. RESULTS:NAFLD appears to be of long-standing insulin resistance and likely represents the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome. With insulin resistance as a common factor, the disease is associated with atherosclerosis and cardiovascular risk. All features of the metabolic syndrome and related events are assessed for practical management of NAFLD, although the criteria for the diagnosis of obesity and central obesity differ across racial groups. CONCLUSIONS:The increasing prevalence of obesity, coupled with diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension and ultimately metabolic syndrome, puts a very large population at risk of developing NAFLD in the coming decades. The simultaneous identiifcation and appropriate treatment of the components of metabolic syndrome are crucial to reduce hepatic as well as cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.

  19. Age-dependent dose coefficients for tritium in Asian populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trivedi, A

    1999-10-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publications 56 (1989) and 67 (1993) have prescribed the biokinetic models and age-dependent dose coefficients for tritiated water and organically bound tritium. The dose coefficients are computed from values selected to specify the anatomical, morphological and physiological characteristics of a three-month-old, one-year-old, five-year-old, 10-year-old, 15-year-old and adult (Reference Man) Caucasian living in North America and Western Europe. However, values for Reference Man and other age groups are not directly applicable to Asians, because of differences in race, custom, dietary habits and climatic conditions. An Asian Man model, including five age groups, has been proposed by Tanaka and Kawamura (1996, 1998) for use in internal dosimetry. The basic concept of the ICRP Reference Man and the system describing body composition in ICRP Publication 23 (1975) were used. Reference values for Asians were given for the body weight and height, the mass of soft tissue, the mass of body water and the daily fluid balance, and are used to compute the dose coefficients for tritium. The age-dependent dose coefficients for Asians for tritiated water intakes are smaller by 20 to 30% of the currently prescribed values (Trivedi, 1998). The reduction in the dose coefficient values is caused by the increased daily fluid balance among Asians. The dose coefficient for tritiated water is 1.4 x 10{sup -11} Sv Bq{sup -1} for Asian Man compared to 2.0 x 10{sup -11} Sv Bq{sup -1} for Reference Man. The dose coefficients for organically bound tritium are only marginally different from those of the ICRP values. The dose coefficient for organically bound tritium for Asian Man is 4.0 x 10{sup -11} Sv Bq{sup -11} compared to 4.6 x 10{sup -11} Sv Bq{sup -1} for Reference Man. (author)

  20. Borrowed beauty? Understanding identity in Asian facial cosmetic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquino, Yves Saint James; Steinkamp, Norbert

    2016-09-01

    This review aims to identify (1) sources of knowledge and (2) important themes of the ethical debate related to surgical alteration of facial features in East Asians. This article integrates narrative and systematic review methods. In March 2014, we searched databases including PubMed, Philosopher's Index, Web of Science, Sociological Abstracts, and Communication Abstracts using key terms "cosmetic surgery," "ethnic*," "ethics," "Asia*," and "Western*." The study included all types of papers written in English that discuss the debate on rhinoplasty and blepharoplasty in East Asians. No limit was put on date of publication. Combining both narrative and systematic review methods, a total of 31 articles were critically appraised on their contribution to ethical reflection founded on the debates regarding the surgical alteration of Asian features. Sources of knowledge were drawn from four main disciplines, including the humanities, medicine or surgery, communications, and economics. Focusing on cosmetic surgery perceived as a westernising practice, the key debate themes included authenticity of identity, interpersonal relationships and socio-economic utility in the context of Asian culture. The study shows how cosmetic surgery of ethnic features plays an important role in understanding female identity in the Asian context. Based on the debate themes authenticity of identity, interpersonal relationships, and socio-economic utility, this article argues that identity should be understood as less individualistic and more as relational and transformational in the Asian context. In addition, this article also proposes to consider cosmetic surgery of Asian features as an interplay of cultural imperialism and cultural nationalism, which can both be a source of social pressure to modify one's appearance.

  1. Isolation of Microsporum gypseum from the haircoat of health wild felids kept in captivity in Brazil Isolamento de Microsporum gypseum do pelame de felídeos selvagens sadios mantidos em cativeiro no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henri Donnarumma Levy Bentubo

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Dermatophytes are fungi that cause superficial mycoses in animals and humans. While studies have shown that domestic cats (Felis catus are often asymptomatic carriers of dermatophytes, and thus a significant source of infection, this aspect has not been studied in relation to their wild relatives. The present study was aimed at determining the presence of dermatophytes on the haircoat of healthy wild felids, kept in captivity at "Fundação Parque Zoológico de São Paulo". Samples were taken from 130 adult animals of both sexes: 25 lions (Panthera leo, 12 tigers (Panthera tigris, 6 jaguars (Panthera onca, 4 leopards (Panthera pardus, 2 snow leopards (Panthera uncia, 2 pumas (Puma concolor, 2 cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus, 1 ocelot (Leopardus pardalis, 28 tiger cats (Leopardus tigrinus, 10 margays (Leopardus wiedii, 8 geoffroy's cats (Leopardus geoffroyi, 22 jaguarundis (Herpailurus yagouaroundi and 8 pampas cats (Oncifelis colocolo. The samples were obtained by rubbing the haircoat of the animals with squares of sterile carpet, and then seeded onto Petri dishes containing Mycobiotic agar (Difco™. The plates were incubated at 25°C for 4 weeks. The isolates were subcultured in Sabouraud dextrose agar supplemented with chloramphenicol (100mg/L and cultured on slides for posterior identification by their macro- and microscopic characteristics. Microsporum gypseum was isolated from two apparently healthy lionesses (1.6%, both kept in terrariums. The most prevalent contaminants were of the genera Penicillium (27.9%; Cladosporium (24.5%; Acremonium (12.1%; Scopulariopsis and Chrysosporium (9.8%; and Aspergillus (5.3%. The occurrence of dermatophytes in the haircoat of healthy wild felids, maintained in captivity, confirms their status as asymptomatic carriers and characterizes them as sources of infection for other animals and for humans.Os dermatófitos são os fungos mais comumente associados às micoses superficiais em animais e homem. O estado de

  2. Effective strategies for recruiting of Asian cancer patients in internet research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hyun Ju; Lin, Chia-Ju; Liu, Yi; Chee, Wonshik; Im, Eun-Ok

    2006-01-01

    This poster is aims to provide directions for effective strategies for recruiting Asian cancer patients in Internet study among Asian American cancer patients. In the study, we used four different strategies to recruit Asian cancer participants: (a) general and ethnic specific Internet cancer support groups; (b) Asian Internet communities/groups; (c) Asian physician clinics, Asian community and culture center; and (d) community consultants. The most effective recruitment strategy among them was the recruitment through community consultant. The findings support the importance of using key persons in ethnic minority communities to recruit ethnic minority participants.

  3. Asian Woes Crown Year of Economic Drama

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许晓蓉

    1998-01-01

    亚洲,特别是东南亚地区的经济增长在过去的几年里曾为世人所瞩目,因此赢得了Asian tigers的美誉。但是,从1997年下半年以来: First Thailand,then Indonesia and South Korea were forced to swallow theirpride. 到了10月底便触发了全球股市的下挫,接着欧洲某些国家也始受连累。但是,经济界人士开始探讨新经济模式的问题: And some economists even talked about a new economic paradigm-an era inwhich the dream of sustained high growth and low inflation might be achieved byharnessing technological change. 然而,现在尚不是心平气和地坐下来举办研讨沙龙的时候,迫在眉睫的问题是:救急!After repeated attacks on the Korean currency,the won,that destabilizedbanks,Senul was forced to go the IMF at the start of December for US $57 billion inemergency assistance. 57亿美元的巨额救急款是否会奏效?分析家们似乎并不乐观: Some analysts questioned whether even that would be enough to solve SouthKorea’s problems. 当然,欧美的经济学家最关心的还是自己家门口的事。当日本第4大证券公司倒闭、日元贬值的时候,西方感到全球性的危机正在迫近: But the collapse of Japan’s four

  4. Disease and health management in Asian aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondad-Reantaso, Melba G; Subasinghe, Rohana P; Arthur, J Richard; Ogawa, Kazuo; Chinabut, Supranee; Adlard, Robert; Tan, Zilong; Shariff, Mohamed

    2005-09-30

    Asia contributes more than 90% to the world's aquaculture production. Like other farming systems, aquaculture is plagued with disease problems resulting from its intensification and commercialization. This paper describes the various factors, providing specific examples, which have contributed to the current disease problems faced by what is now the fastest growing food-producing sector globally. These include increased globalization of trade and markets; the intensification of fish-farming practices through the movement of broodstock, postlarvae, fry and fingerlings; the introduction of new species for aquaculture development; the expansion of the ornamental fish trade; the enhancement of marine and coastal areas through the stocking of aquatic animals raised in hatcheries; the unanticipated interactions between cultured and wild populations of aquatic animals; poor or lack of effective biosecurity measures; slow awareness on emerging diseases; the misunderstanding and misuse of specific pathogen free (SPF) stocks; climate change; other human-mediated movements of aquaculture commodities. Data on the socio-economic impacts of aquatic animal diseases are also presented, including estimates of losses in production, direct and indirect income and employment, market access or share of investment, and consumer confidence; food availability; industry failures. Examples of costs of investment in aquatic animal health-related activities, including national strategies, research, surveillance, control and other health management programmes are also provided. Finally, the strategies currently being implemented in the Asian region to deal with transboundary diseases affecting the aquaculture sector are highlighted. These include compliance with international codes, and development and implementation of regional guidelines and national aquatic animal health strategies; new diagnostic and therapeutic techniques and new information technology; new biosecurity measures including

  5. Inguinal hernia repair: toward Asian guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomanto, Davide; Cheah, Wei-Keat; Faylona, Jose Macario; Huang, Ching Shui; Lohsiriwat, Darin; Maleachi, Andy; Yang, George Pei Cheung; Li, Michael Ka-Wai; Tumtavitikul, Sathien; Sharma, Anil; Hartung, Rolf Ulrich; Choi, Young Bai; Sutedja, Barlian

    2015-02-01

    Groin hernias are very common, and surgical treatment is usually recommended. In fact, hernia repair is the most common surgical procedure performed worldwide. In countries such as the USA, China, and India, there may easily be over 1 million repairs every year. The need for this surgery has become an important socioeconomic problem and may affect health-care providers, especially in aging societies. Surgical repair using mesh is recommended and widely employed in Western countries, but in many developing countries, tissue-to-tissue repair is still the preferred surgical procedure due to economic constraints. For these reason, the development and implementation of guidelines, consensus, or recommendations may aim to clarify issues related to best practices in inguinal hernia repair in Asia. A group of Asian experts in hernia repair gathered together to debate inguinal hernia treatments in Asia in an attempt to reach some consensus or develop recommendations on best practices in the region. The need for recommendations or guidelines was unanimously confirmed to help overcome the discrepancy in clinical practice between countries; the experts decided to focus mainly on the technical aspects of open repair, which is the most common surgery for hernia in our region. After the identification of 12 main topics for discussion (indication, age, and sex; symptomatic and asymptomatic hernia: type of hernia; type of treatment; hospital admission; preoperative care; anesthesia; surgical technique; perioperative care; postoperative care; early complications; and long-term complications), a search of the literature was carried out according to the five levels of the Oxford Classification of Evidence and the four grades of recommendation.

  6. Minimum cost of transport in Asian elephants: do we really need a bigger elephant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langman, Vaughan A; Rowe, Michael F; Roberts, Thomas J; Langman, Nathanial V; Taylor, Charles R

    2012-05-01

    Body mass is the primary determinant of an animal's energy requirements. At their optimum walking speed, large animals have lower mass-specific energy requirements for locomotion than small ones. In animals ranging in size from 0.8 g (roach) to 260 kg (zebu steer), the minimum cost of transport (COT(min)) decreases with increasing body size roughly as COT(min)∝body mass (M(b))(-0.316±0.023) (95% CI). Typically, the variation of COT(min) with body mass is weaker at the intraspecific level as a result of physiological and geometric similarity within closely related species. The interspecific relationship estimates that an adult elephant, with twice the body mass of a mid-sized elephant, should be able to move its body approximately 23% cheaper than the smaller elephant. We sought to determine whether adult Asian and sub-adult African elephants follow a single quasi-intraspecific relationship, and extend the interspecific relationship between COT(min) and body mass to 12-fold larger animals. Physiological and possibly geometric similarity between adult Asian elephants and sub-adult African elephants caused body mass to have a no effect on COT(min) (COT(min)∝M(b)(0.007±0.455)). The COT(min) in elephants occurred at walking speeds between 1.3 and ∼1.5 m s(-1), and at Froude numbers between 0.10 and 0.24. The addition of adult Asian elephants to the interspecific relationship resulted in COT(min)∝M (-0.277±0.046)(b). The quasi-intraspecific relationship between body mass and COT(min) among elephants caused the interspecific relationship to underestimate COT(min) in larger elephants.

  7. The role of mega dams in reducing sediment fluxes: A case study of large Asian rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Harish; Kao, Shuh-Ji; Dai, Minhan

    2012-09-01

    SummaryIn order to sustain the ever growing population and to meet water and energy requirements of the rapidly growing economies, most of the large rivers draining through East, Southern and Southeast (ESSE) Asian region have been regulated all along their courses, over the past few decades. For instance, ESSE Asian countries (China, Taiwan, Vietnam, Myanmar, Thailand, India, Pakistan and Bangladesh) host about 250 mega dams and several tens of thousands of large and small reservoirs. The present study provides a revised estimate on annual suspended sediment fluxes of the large rivers draining through ESSE region, including the latest data of the Indian peninsula rivers. In the last 50 years, the combined annual sediment flux of the large Chinese rivers has been reduced from 1800 million tons (Mt) to about 370 Mt. We estimate that at present the Indian peninsular rivers collectively transport about 83 Mt of sediment annually. The Ganga-Brahmaputra and the Indus, contribute 850 and 13 Mt of sediments, respectively to the oceans. Our revised estimates suggest that at present the large rivers of ESSE region, collectively delivering ∼2150 Mt of sediment annually to the oceans. We show that at decadal scale, decline in sediment fluxes of the large Asian rivers are proportional to the number of mega dams present in the respective catchments. We also demonstrate that storage of sediment-laden water of major flood events (major-event), led to huge sediment trapping behind mega dams. Thus, ongoing and planned dam constructions activities across ESSE Asia may further reduce the annual sediment fluxes.

  8. Multiplex APLP System for High-Resolution Haplogrouping of Extremely Degraded East-Asian Mitochondrial DNAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakuda, Tsuneo; Shojo, Hideki; Tanaka, Mayumi; Nambiar, Phrabhakaran; Minaguchi, Kiyoshi; Umetsu, Kazuo; Adachi, Noboru

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) serves as a powerful tool for exploring matrilineal phylogeographic ancestry, as well as for analyzing highly degraded samples, because of its polymorphic nature and high copy numbers per cell. The recent advent of complete mitochondrial genome sequencing has led to improved techniques for phylogenetic analyses based on mtDNA, and many multiplex genotyping methods have been developed for the hierarchical analysis of phylogenetically important mutations. However, few high-resolution multiplex genotyping systems for analyzing East-Asian mtDNA can be applied to extremely degraded samples. Here, we present a multiplex system for analyzing mitochondrial single nucleotide polymorphisms (mtSNPs), which relies on a novel amplified product-length polymorphisms (APLP) method that uses inosine-flapped primers and is specifically designed for the detailed haplogrouping of extremely degraded East-Asian mtDNAs. We used fourteen 6-plex polymerase chain reactions (PCRs) and subsequent electrophoresis to examine 81 haplogroup-defining SNPs and 3 insertion/deletion sites, and we were able to securely assign the studied mtDNAs to relevant haplogroups. Our system requires only 1×10−13 g (100 fg) of crude DNA to obtain a full profile. Owing to its small amplicon size (<110 bp), this new APLP system was successfully applied to extremely degraded samples for which direct sequencing of hypervariable segments using mini-primer sets was unsuccessful, and proved to be more robust than conventional APLP analysis. Thus, our new APLP system is effective for retrieving reliable data from extremely degraded East-Asian mtDNAs. PMID:27355212

  9. Asian ascendancy: media in the age of globalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Amber; Subhani, Muhammad Imtiaz; Hasan, Syed Akif

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate the media industry in Asia, with reference to international standards of media tools, instruments, content, and coverage. We have also explored factors that may further improve Asian media. We have used an empirical approach. Our findings revealed that the media in Asian significantly contribute to expanding cultural knowledge and the exchange of multilateral dialogues. However, they do not look after the interests of minorities or non-dominating communities. Although the media should be a virtual ambassador, they often provoke hostilities within regions. Governments own most media outlets in the developing nations in Asia, and so the media rely on government backing and are subject to restrictions. International and national regulations connected to media freedom or constraints should be explored to protect Asian societies. The practical implications of these negative aspects are that the Asian media does not help the plights of minorities or minimize the fear of war in the region. The universal lesson of brotherhood among humanity for all colors and races should be preached by the media. In this paper, we have concentrated on how Asian media influence cultural expansion, the exchange of multilateral dialogues, the interests of minorities, aggression between nations, and generate income for common citizens.

  10. Toxicity of a traditional molluscicide to asian clam veligers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layhee, Megan J.; ,; Miho Yoshioka,; Bahram Farokhkish,; ,; Gross, Jackson A.; Sepulveda, Adam J.

    2014-01-01

    Aquaculture and hatchery industries are in need of effective control methods to reduce the risk of spreading aquatic invasive species, such as the Asian clam Corbicula fluminea, through aquaculture and hatchery activities. The planktonic nature of Asian clam veligers enables this life stage to enter water-based infrastructure undetected, including hatchery trucks used to stock fish. Once in hatchery trucks, veligers can disperse overland and establish in previously uninvaded habitats. As a result, there is a need to develop techniques that result in veliger mortality but do not harm fish. In September 2012, we conducted laboratory trials to determine if a molluscicide (750 mg/L potassium chloride and 25 mg/L formalin) commonly used to kill zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) veligers in hatchery trucks can also effectively kill Asian clam veligers. We exposed Asian clam veligers to this molluscicide for 1, 3, and 5 h in each of two water types: deionized water and filtered lake water. We found ,20% mortality at the 1-h exposure period and 100% mortality at both the 3-h and 5-h exposure periods, regardless of water type. This laboratory study represents an important step toward reducing the spread of Asian clams by aquaculture facilities.

  11. South Asian adolescents' experiences of acculturative stress and coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tummala-Narra, Pratyusha; Deshpande, Anita; Kaur, Jasleen

    2016-03-01

    Despite the significant growth in the South Asian population in the United States over the past 2 decades, the experiences of South Asian adolescents have remained largely invisible. Guided by a socioecological perspective (American Psychological Association, 2012; García Coll & Marks, 2012), this study examined South Asian adolescents' experiences of acculturative stress and approaches to coping with this stress across home and school contexts. A semistructured interview was completed by 16 participants (9 girls, 7 boys; ages 14-18 years) from different South Asian backgrounds, attending an urban public high school in the Northeastern part of the United States. Conventional content analysis was used to analyze the interview data, and revealed 4 broad categories or domains related to participants' experiences as young South Asians in the U.S. These domains include the following: (a) Connection to family, community, and heritage; (b) Challenges to acculturation; (c) Stress accompanying the navigation across cultural contexts; and (d) Coping and resilience. Participants' narratives reflect acculturative stress experienced in home and school contexts which can inhibit psychological well-being and bicultural identity development. The findings have important implications for culturally informed research, intervention, and policy. (PsycINFO Database Record

  12. Are Asian international medical students just rote learners?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakol, Mohsen; Dennick, Reg

    2010-08-01

    A wide variety of countries are seeking to attract international medical students. This could be due to the fact that their universities not only receive the economic benefit from these students, but also because they recognise the issues of cultural diversity and pedagogical practice. This review paper draws on literature to understand more fully the learning process of Asian international students. Whereas views on learning are different across cultures, medical school teachers must understand how Asian international students learn based on their culture. Two general themes emerged from the literature review: firstly culture's influence on learning and secondly memorisation versus understanding, both of which relate to the learning process of Asian international students. This study shows that Asian international students have a different approach to learning, which is not just about rote learning. Changes in attitudes towards Asian international students may stimulate the internationalisation of a more culturally sensitive form of medical education. The paper suggests further work on the area of appreciative thinking in order to identify the epistemological and ontological dimensions for a flexible approach to learning.

  13. Systemic calicivirus epidemic in captive exotic felids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Tara M; Sikarskie, James; Kruger, John; Wise, Annabel; Mullaney, Thomas P; Kiupel, Matti; Maes, Roger K

    2007-06-01

    A 5-day-old, mother-raised, Amur tiger cub (Panthera tigris altaica) presented with tongue ulcerations. Identical lesions appeared and progressed to sloughing of the tongue in the three littermates of this cub the following day. The lesions progressed in all cubs to include sloughing of the carpal, tarsal, metacarpal, and metatarsal foot pad epithelium. Oral ulcerations were also noted in adult African lions (Panthera leo) and Amur tigers (Panthera tigris altaica), but not in two adult snow leopards (Panthera uncia) housed in the same building. All adult cats had been previously vaccinated for common feline diseases including feline calicivirus (FCV). Detection of FCV RNA in oral secretions by a real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay (RRT-PCR) confirmed FCV infection in the tiger cubs and one lion. A male lion and a male tiger cub died during the disease outbreak. RRT-PCR confirmed FCV in multiple tissues in both of these animals. A stray cat live-trapped outside the feline building during the epidemic was found to be positive for FCV by virus isolation and was thought to be the source of infection.

  14. Characteristics of the Onset of the Asian Summer Monsoon and the Importance of Asian-Australian "Land Bridge"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Based on summarizing previous achievements and using data as long and new as possible, the onset characteristics of Asian summer monsoon and the role of Asian-Australian "land bridge" in the onset of summer monsoon are further discussed. In particular, the earliest onset area of Asian summer monsoon is comparatively analyzed, and the sudden and progressive characteristics of the onset of summer monsoon in different regions are discussed. Furthermore, the relationships among such critical events during the onset of Asian summer monsoon as the splitting of subtropical high belt over the Bay of Bengal (BOB), the initiation of convection over Indo-China Peninsula, the westward advance, reestablishment of South Asian High, and the rapid northward progression of convection originated from Sumatra in early summer are studied. The important impact of the proper collocation of the latent heating over Indo-China Peninsula and the sensible heating over Indian Peninsula on the splitting of the subtropical high belt, the deepening of BOB trough, the activating of Sri Lanka vortex (twin vortexes in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres),and the subsequent onset of South China Sea summer monsoon are emphasized.

  15. An Empirical Study of Asian Crude Oil Premiums

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The price of Middle East crude oil exported to Asian countries has been higher than that to Europe and America for a long period, and this price differential made Asian countries pay more than European and American countries. Prior investigations found that "Asian Crude Oil Premium" did exist at a relatively low oil price level. However, world oil price soared after 2003, making the price of Middle East crude oil exported to European countries or America rise quickly, sometimes even higher than that to Asia. Under this situation, this paper uses the price of Middle East crude oil sold to Europe or America or Asia to test if the premium exists at a high oil price level and concludes that the crude oil price premium of Asia against America does not exist, but the premium of Asia against Europe still exists.

  16. [Melasma and aspects of pigmentary disorders in Asians].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, H Y

    2012-11-01

    Pigmentary changes in Asians are larger problems and more important features of aging than wrinkles. Melasma is a commonly observed epidermal hypermelanosis of the face in Asians. The altered dermal structures and impaired basement membrane are thought to have an influence on the development of epidermal hyperpigmentation of melasma. Dermal hyperpigmentary diseases are particularly common in Asians. Acquired bilateral melanosis of the neck is a characteristic dermal melanotic condition primarily of the neck in peri-menopausal women. It is characterized by marked accumulation of dermal pigment with perivascular lymphocytic infiltration. The cases seem to represent a continuum of Riehl's melanosis. Subclinical injury or inflammation may play a role as possible causative factors for the development of the pigmentation.

  17. Melasma and aspects of pigmentary disorders in Asians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, H Y

    2012-12-01

    Pigmentary changes in Asians are larger problems and more important features of aging than wrinkles. Melasma is a commonly observed epidermal hypermelanosis of the face in Asians. The altered dermal structures and impaired basement membrane are thought to have an influence on the development of epidermal hyperpigmentation of melasma. Dermal hyperpigmentary diseases are particularly common in Asians. Acquired bilateral melanosis of the neck is a characteristic dermal melanotic condition primarily of the neck in peri-menopausal women. It is characterized by marked accumulation of dermal pigment with perivascular lymphocytic infiltration. The cases seem to represent a continuum of Riehl's melanosis. Subclinical injury or inflammation may play a role as possible causative factors for the development of the pigmentation.

  18. Thrusts and Prospects on Understanding and Predicting Asian Monsoon Climate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Bin

    2008-01-01

    Development of monsoon climate prediction through integrated research efforts to improve our understanding of monsoon variability and predictability is a primary goal of the Asian Monsoon Years (2007-2011) and International Monsoon Study under the leadership of the World Climate Research Programme.The present paper reviews recent progress in Asian monsoon research focusing on (1) understanding and modeling of the monsoon variability, (2) determining the sources and limits of predictability, and (3) assessing the current status of climate prediction, with emphasis on the weekly to interannual time scales. Particular attention is paid to identify scientific issues and thrust areas, as well as potential directions to move forward in an attempt to stimulate future research to advance our understanding of monsoon climate dynamics and improve our capability to forecast Asian monsoon climate variation.

  19. Impacts of Asian dust events on atmospheric fungal communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Eun Mi; Kim, Yong Pyo; Jeong, Kweon; Kim, Ik Soo; Eom, Suk Won; Choi, Young Zoo; Ka, Jong-Ok

    2013-12-01

    The composition of atmospheric fungi in Seoul during Asian dust events were assessed by culturing and by molecular methods such as mold specific quantitative PCR (MSQPCR) and internal transcribed spacer cloning (ITS cloning). Culturable fungal concentrations in the air were monitored from May 2008 to July 2011 and 3 pairs of ITS clone libraries, one during Asian dust (AD) day and the other during the adjacent non Asian dust (NAD) day for each pair, were constructed after direct DNA extraction from total suspended particles (TSP) samples. In addition, six aeroallergenic fungi in the atmosphere were also assessed by MSQPCR from October, 2009 to November, 2011. The levels of the airborne culturable fungal concentrations during AD days was significantly higher than that of NAD days (P libraries. Thus, it was concluded that AD impacts not only airborne fungal concentrations but also fungal communities.

  20. East Asian monsoon climate simulated in the PlioMIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Zhang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Based on the simulations with fifteen climate models in the Pliocene Model Intercomparison Project (PlioMIP, the regional climate of East Asia (focusing on China during the mid-Pliocene is investigated in this study. Compared to the pre-industrial, the multi-model ensemble mean (MMM of all models shows the East Asian summer wind (EASW largely strengthens in monsoon China, and the East Asian winter wind (EAWW strengthens in south monsoon China but slightly weakens in north monsoon China in mid-Pliocene. The MMM of all models also illustrates a warmer and wetter mid-Pliocene climate in China. The simulated weakened mid-Pliocene EAWW in north monsoon China and intensified EASW in monsoon China agree well with geological reconstructions. However, the model-model discrepancy in simulating mid-Pliocene East Asian monsoon climate, in particular EAWW, should be further addressed in the future work of PlioMIP.

  1. A Model of Teaching and Learning Online in Asian Context

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Md Kabirul Islam

    2005-01-01

    Online teaching and learning practices in Asian universities are different from that in western universities. Western universities give emphasis on student-student interaction for learning. Online courses offered by most Asian universities are a kind of mixed mode that comprised simultaneous face-to-face tutorials and online interaction facility. In this situation most students use the online facility to collect resources and to contact their teachers. The quantity of student-student interaction was sporadic in many courses. So research is needed to improve the situation and create an environment for students where they can learn what peer group interaction is and practice it. This paper has presented a model of teaching and learning online for Asian universities. Possible barriers in teaching and learning situations in Asia and students' abilities have been considered to develop the model.

  2. An Assessment of Three Northeast Asian Economies’ Total Factor Productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana GÂRDU

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available East Asian economies have achieved spectacular growth rates in a relatively short timespan outstripping the rest of the developing world. Hence the concern of both scholarly and policymaking circles for their peculiar development strategies. Both their spectacular rise and provisional decline after the Asian financial crisis (AFC were explained from three major perspectives: statism, neoliberalism, and neoconfucianism.The paper purports to quantify and interpret the pre-crisis total factor productivity (TFP of three Northeast Asian economies by using the Solow Model. The interdependencies between their TFP dynamics were investigated via a VAR Model. The findings suggest that labour contribution has decreased over time in favour of capital inputs and/or TFP as speedy industrialisation, and a gradual refinement of international specialisation proceeded. However low or even negative TFP during the 1990s signal the emergence of structural problems that decelerate growth, and increase these economies’ vulnerability to exogenous shocks.

  3. International portfolio diversification: United States and south Asian equity markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mushtaq Rizwan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the dynamic liaison between US and three developing South Asian equity markets in short and long term. To gauge the long-term relationship, we applied Johansen co-integration procedure as all the representative indices are found to be non-stationary at level. The findings illustrate that the US equity market index exhibits a reasonably different movement over time in contrast to the three developing equity markets under consideration. However, the Granger-causality test divulge that the direction of causality scamper from US equity market to the three South Asian markets. It further indicates that within the three developing equity markets the direction of causality emanates from Bombay stock market to Karachi and Colombo. Overall, the results of the study suggest that the American investors can get higher returns through international diversification into developing equity markets, while the US stock market would also be a gainful upshot for South Asian investors.

  4. Women in the family business: the case of Asian businesswomen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia Sáiz López

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This article approaches the subject of studying Asian businesswomen in Spain. It begins by noting how businesswomen have been viewed from various analytical perspectives, and concludes that such profiles do not help us to analyse the most common type of Asian businesswomen that we have encountered in both statistical data and in fieldwork, given that the most common type of Asian businesswoman forms part of the family business. A new bibliographic review this time in the area of family businesses reveals that in recent times, the academic view has tended to view the family as a basic entity of study; a comprehensive perspective which, when applied to our specific field, enables us to reconsider the role and contribution of women in family businesses.

  5. The emerging epidemic of hypertension in Asian children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chong Guk

    2014-12-01

    Hypertension has become a serious global public health burden because of its high incidence and concomitant risk of cardiovascular disease. Many studies have verified that risk factors, such as hypertension and obesity which are responsible for cardiovascular disease, start in early childhood. In Asian countries, the prevalence of hypertension in the pediatric age group has become more prevalent than ever before with the increasing obesity epidemic. To tackle the epidemic of cardiovascular disease, a leading cause of death and disability of non-communicable diseases in Asian countries, population-based measures aiming at reducing harmful environmental factors to blood pressure and body weight must be applied to individuals in their early childhood, as early as the fetal stage. This review focused on the prevalence of pediatric hypertension in Asian countries and outlined several considerations for accurate blood pressure (BP) measurement and evaluation, along with an overview of pathophysiology of fetal programming and obesity related with childhood hypertension.

  6. Assessment of Cardiovascular Disease Risk in South Asian Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Monira Hussain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although South Asian populations have high cardiovascular disease (CVD burden in the world, their patterns of individual CVD risk factors have not been fully studied. None of the available algorithms/scores to assess CVD risk have originated from these populations. To explore the relevance of CVD risk scores for these populations, literature search and qualitative synthesis of available evidence were performed. South Asians usually have higher levels of both “classical” and nontraditional CVD risk factors and experience these at a younger age. There are marked variations in risk profiles between South Asian populations. More than 100 risk algorithms are currently available, with varying risk factors. However, no available algorithm has included all important risk factors that underlie CVD in these populations. The future challenge is either to appropriately calibrate current risk algorithms or ideally to develop new risk algorithms that include variables that provide an accurate estimate of CVD risk.

  7. Climatology of yellow sand (Asian sand, Asian dust or Kosa)in East Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Masatoshi; Yoshino

    2002-01-01

    In order to study climatology of yellow sand (Asian sand, Asian dust or Kosa) in EastAsia, secular fluctuation in China, Korea and Japan in the recent 30 years was presented. Thenumber of days with sand-dust storm at five stations in China-Hotan, Zhangye, Minqin, Jurhand Beijing, decreases a lot at the former three stations, but changed little at the latter two stations.Suggesting that the recent global warming is more evident in Xinjiang and Gansu, where the fre-quency of cold air invasions from the higher latitudes is decreasing. But, the eastern parts ofMongolia, inner Mongolia, and North China encounter stronger cyclones in early spring as a resultof global warming. These cyclones bring cold air from higher latitudes, causing severe duststorms. Secular variation in the annual days with sand-dust storms in China and Kosa days in Ko-rea and Japan show a parallel change with higher frequency from 1975 to 1985. This may be re-lated to the higher frequency of La Nina years. However, different tendency was shown in theperiod from 1986 to 1996. Since 1996 or 1997, a sharp increase is clear, which may be caused bythe developed cyclones in East Asia as well as human activities, and stronger land degradationunder La Nina conditions. Anomalies of the total number of stations with Kosa days were dis-cussed in accordance with some synoptic meteorological conditions such as the differences be-tween Siberian anticyclone and Aleutian cyclone center at 500 hPa level during the previous winter.

  8. Estimates of Asian dust deposition over the Asian region by using ADAM2 in 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soon-Ung; Choe, Anna; Park, Moon-Soo

    2010-05-01

    The Asian Dust Aerosol Model 2 (ADAM2) with the MM5 meteorological model has been employed to estimate the dust concentration, and wet and dry depositions of dust in the Asian region for the year of 2007. It is found that the model simulates quite reasonably the dust (PM(10)) concentrations both in the dust source region (100-110 degrees E and 37-43 degrees N) and the downstream region of Korea. The starting and ending times of most of dust events and their peak concentration occurring times are well simulated. The annual average dust (PM(10)) concentration near the surface is found to be 171microgm(-3) over the dust source area, 39microgm(-3) over the Yellow Sea, 25microgm(-3) over the Korean peninsula and 17microgm(-3) over the East Sea. It is also found that the annual total deposition of dust is about 118.1tkm(-2) (dry deposition, 101.4tkm(-2); wet deposition, 16.7tkm(-2)) in the dust source region, 19.0tkm(-2) (dry deposition, 7.8tkm(-2); wet deposition, 11.2tkm(-2)) in the Yellow Sea, 12.6tkm(-2) (dry deposition, 6.5tkm(-2); wet deposition, 6.1tkm(-2)) in the Korean peninsula and 10.7tkm(-2) (dry deposition, 2.1tkm(-2); wet deposition, 8.6tkm(-2)) in the East Sea. Their ratios of wet deposition to total deposition of dust in the respective regions are 14%, 59%, 48% and 80%. This clearly indicates that the main dust removal mechanism from the atmosphere is dry deposition over the source region whereas wet deposition predominates in the downstream region of the sea. The estimated dust deposition could adversely impact the eco-environmental system in the downstream regions of the dust source region significantly.

  9. TRANSNATIONAL MOBILITY IN A BORDER TERRITORY: ASIAN COMMUNITIES IN SPAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Beltrán Antolín

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Spain, an European Union country, has become a new location for Asian transnationalism, a new territory to explore, an horizon to discover, a border to cross over. The Spanish economy is an attractive sector for Asian investment and business initiatives, that receives projects and initiatives already tested in other places, or new ones, particularly adapted to the local factors. The diasporas that have taken place, can be categorised, in general terms, into three typologies: the commercial diaspora, the elite and “bottom-up transnationalism”; three models of transnationalism which –in Spain– have demonstrated great adaptability and a high level of integration into the social and economic life of the welcoming country. However, at the same time, inevitable processes of economic competition have been unleashed and have sometimes given rise to violent outbreaks of racism and xenophobia. The Asian disembarkation of its diasporas in a boundary territory of Europe such as Spain, together with the accompanying economic and entrepreneurial dynamism, foster both the increase of wealth and the internationalisation of the national economy. Asian transnationalism –in the context of Spain– should be considered as multinodal and not exclusively binational (origin and destination, as the links actively maintained by the actors-agents of transnationalism include different Asian immigrant communities scattered throughout the world, as well as the countrie of origin. Spain is just another location, one step more in the cross-over that Asian transnationalism involves; in short, a boundary territory that is still filled with opportunities to explore.

  10. The burden of prostate cancer in Asian nations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Cullen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In this review, the International Agency for Research on Cancer′s cancer epidemiology databases were used to examine prostate cancer (PCa age-standardized incidence rates (ASIR in selected Asian nations, including Cancer Incidence in Five Continents (CI5 and GLOBOCAN databases, in an effort to determine whether ASIRs are rising in regions of the world with historically low risk of PCa development. Materials and Methods: Asian nations with adequate data quality were considered for this review. PCa ASIR estimates from CI5 and GLOBOCAN 2008 public use databases were examined in the four eligible countries: China, Japan, Korea and Singapore. Time trends in PCa ASIRs were examined using CI5 Volumes I-IX. Results: While PCa ASIRs remain much lower in the Asian nations examined than in North America, there is a clear trend of increasing PCa ASIRs in the four countries examined. Conclusion: Efforts to systematically collect cancer incidence data in Asian nations must be expanded. Current CI5 data indicate a rise in PCa ASIR in several populous Asian countries. If these rates continue to rise, it is uncertain whether there will be sufficient resources in place, in terms of trained personnel and infrastructure for medical treatment and continuum of care, to handle the increase in PCa patient volume. The recommendation by some experts to initiate PSA screening in Asian nations could compound a resource shortfall. Obtaining accurate estimates of PCa incidence in these countries is critically important for preparing for a potential shift in the public health burden posed by this disease.

  11. The Permanent Exclusion of Asian Pupils in Secondary Schools in Central Birmingham.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehra, Harish

    1998-01-01

    Examined the permanent exclusion of Asian students from secondary schools in Birmingham (England). City school records show that exclusion of Asian male students, particularly of Muslims, is on the increase. Patterns of racial discrimination and racism were apparent. (SLD)

  12. Social life of captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) in Southern India: implications for elephant welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanitha, Varadharajan; Thiyagesan, Krishnamoorthy; Baskaran, Nagarajan

    2011-01-01

    Asian elephants in the wild live in complex social societies; in captivity, however, management often occurs in solitary conditions, especially at the temples and private places of India. To investigate the effect of social isolation, this study assessed the social group sizes and the presence of stereotypies among 140 captive Asian elephants managed in 3 captive systems (private, temple, and forest department) in Tamil Nadu, India, between 2003 and 2005. The majority of the facilities in the private (82%) and temple (95%) systems held a single elephant without opportunity for social interaction. The forest department managed the elephants in significantly larger groups than the private and temple systems. Among the 3 systems, the proportion of elephants with stereotypies was the highest in temple (49%) followed by private system (26%) and the forest department facility (6%); this correlates with the social isolation trend observed in the 3 systems and suggests a possible link between social isolation and abnormal elephant behavior separate from other environmental factors. The results of this study indicate it would be of greater benefit to elephant well being to keep the patchily distributed solitary temple and private elephants who are socially compatible and free from contagious diseases in small social groups at "common elephant houses" for socialization.

  13. Precipitation variability over the South Asian monsoon heat low and associated teleconnections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Sajjad; Müller, Wolfgang A.; Hagemann, Stefan; Jacob, Daniela; Mujumdar, M.; Krishnan, R.

    2011-04-01

    The present study examines the precipitation variability over the South Asian monsoon heat low region and associated teleconnections using high resolution (T106L31) climate simulations performed with the ECHAM5 model. It is found that an intensification of the heat low in response to enhanced precipitation/convection over northwestern India-Pakistan (NWIP) can induce large-scale circulation anomalies that resemble the northern summer circumglobal teleconnection (CGT) wave-like pattern extending well into the Asian monsoon region. Accordingly the wave-like response to rainfall increase over the heat low region is associated with anomalous ascent over northern China and descent over the South China Sea. Additionally, small but statistically significant lead-lag correlations between the heat low and precipitation over northern China further suggest that the detected signal pertains to the true features of the process. On the other hand, suppressed convection and rainfall over the heat low region do not reveal any significant large-scale circulation anomalies.

  14. Sediment Load of Asian Rivers flowing into the Oceans and their Regional Variation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Shuguang; Zheng Yonglai; Zhuge Zhengji; Li Congxian

    2002-01-01

    Study of the major Asian rivers discharge to the ocean reveals variations of their water discharges and sediment loads, and local characteristics of river sediment concentrations. On the basis of this, the Asian rivers fall into three regions, including Eurasia Arctic, East Asia, Southeast and South Asia Regions. The Eurasia Arctic Region is characterized by the lowest sediment concentration and load, while the East Asia Region is of the highest sediment concentration and higher sediment load, and the South-East and South Asia Region yields higher sediment concentration and highest sediment load.The sediment loads of these regions are mainly controlled by climate, geomorphology and tectonic activity. The Eurasia Arctic rivers with large basin areas and water discharge, drain low relief which consists of tundra sediment, thus causing the lowest sediment load. The East Asia rivers with small basin areas and lowest water discharges, drain extensive loess plateau, and transport most erodible loess material, which results in highest sediment concentration. The SE and South Asia rivers originating from the Tibet Plateau have large basin areas and the largest water discharges because of the Summer Monsoon and high rainfall influence, causing the highest sediment load.In Asia, tectonic motion of the Tibet Plateau plays an important role. Those large rivers originating from the Tibet Plateau transport about 50% of the world river sediment load to ocean annually, forming large estuaries and deltas, and consequently exerting a great influence on sedimentation in the coastal zone and shelves.

  15. Correlation Pattern among “Asian Paper Tigers” Currencies: A Dynamic Conditional Correlation Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozaimah Zainudin

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to investigate the Dynamic Conditional Correlation (DCC for eight currencies in the East Asia region, known as Asian Paper Tigers from the period of July 2002 to July 2012. The estimation results generated from DCC model verify that each tested exchange rate's volatility is determined by its own previous volatility shock, however failed to find any evidence with its own residual shock. While for correlation estimation results, we support the evidence that the conditional correlations for all tested pairs currencies are highly affected by their previous correlation. Most of the Asian Paper Tigers currencies recorded a low conditional correlation over the tested sampling period except for CNYJPY, MYRCNY, MYRIDR, MYRTHB, JPYTHB and PHPKRW. The findings further verify that mixing the currencies within different monetary regime plays a significant role in enhancing the currency portfolio diversification results. Although in unstable period, both JPYTHB and MYRJPY are the most promising combinations to be included in the optimal currency investment basket where both pairs have small and stable correlations either during the global recession period or European liquidity crisis period.

  16. Consensus of the Present and Prospects on Endoscopic Diagnosis and Treatment in East Asian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Kamiya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim. New diagnostic or therapeutic methods in endoscopy have been used. Current clinical application of these procedures is not well known. The aim of this study is to investigate the present situation on endoscopic diagnosis and treatment of gastrointestinal disorders in East Asian countries. Method. A representative member from the International Gastrointestinal Consensus Symposium Committee provided a questionnaire to physicians in China, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, the Philippines, and Thailand. Results. In total, 514 physicians including gastroenterologists, surgeons, and general practitioners enrolled. The most frequently occurring disorder as the origin of upper gastrointestinal bleeding is gastric ulcer. Capsule endoscopy is selected as the first choice for the diagnosis of small intestine bleeding. The second choice was double-balloon endoscopy or angiography. For patients with gastric adenoma, the number of physicians who choose endoscopic mucosal resection is larger than those selecting endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD in China, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Thailand. ESD is chosen first in Japan and Korea. Conclusion. New instruments or techniques on endoscopy have not come into wide use yet, and there is diversity in the situation on it in Asian countries. We should unify the endoscopic diagnostic criteria or treated strategy in patients with GI disease.

  17. Binomial lattice for pricing Asian options on yields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨德生

    2003-01-01

    An efficient binomial lattice for pricing Asian options on yields is established under the affine term structure model. In order to reconnect the path of the discrete lattice,the technique of D. Nelson and K. Ramaswamy is used to transform a stochastic interest rate process into a stochastic diffusion with unit volatility. By the binomial lattice and linear interpolation,the prices of Asian options on yields can be obtained. As the number of nodes in the tree structure grows linearly with the number of time steps, the computational speed is improved. The numerical experiments to verify the validity of the lattice are also provided.

  18. Interactions between Economic Growth and Unemployment Condition in Asian Region

    OpenAIRE

    Syh Han Ang; Nanthakumar Loganathan

    2013-01-01

    This study is aimed to examine the relationship between GDP growth and unemployment rate for developed and developing Asian countries over the period 1980-2010. This study has applied the Okun’s law framework to estimate the co-integration dynamic and weak or strong Granger-causality for relationship between GDP growth and unemployment rate with ARDL approach. The results found that developed and developing Asian countries have achieved the negative sign for the long run coefficient as well...

  19. Asian American dating: important factors in partner choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, T A

    1999-05-01

    The majority of research on romantic relationships has tended to focus on marriage, with relatively less attention paid to dating. This study examined the relationship between Asian American dating, both interracial and intraracial, and a variety of factors thought to be associated with dating in this population, including acculturation, ethnic identity, attractiveness, interracial dating experience, ethnicity of friends, parental influence over dating, and density. Participants were administered measures of these variables and were asked questions regarding their likelihood of dating both Asian Americans and White Americans. An interesting pattern of results emerged when the variables were put into regression equations to predict both interracial and intraracial dating. Findings are presented and implications discussed.

  20. Information for Authors Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedcine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>GENERAL Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine is sponsored by Asian Pacific Tropical Medicine Press and aims to sel up an academic communicating platform for Chinese and scientists all over the world on tropical biomedicine and related sciences.The Journal invites concise reports of original research in all areas of tropical biomedicine and related fields,both experimental and clinical,including modern,traditional and epidemiological studies,from any part of die world.Review articles based primarily on audiors’own research on internationally important topics will be accepted.Short communications and letters to the editor are also welcome.Authors are requested to submit

  1. The YH database: the first Asian diploid genome database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Guoqing; Ma, Lijia; Song, Chao;

    2009-01-01

    genome consensus. The YH database is currently one of the three personal genome database, organizing the original data and analysis results in a user-friendly interface, which is an endeavor to achieve fundamental goals for establishing personal medicine. The database is available at http://yh.genomics.org.cn.......The YH database is a server that allows the user to easily browse and download data from the first Asian diploid genome. The aim of this platform is to facilitate the study of this Asian genome and to enable improved organization and presentation large-scale personal genome data. Powered by GBrowse...

  2. Information for Authors Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedcine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    <正>GENERAL Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine is sponsored by Asian Pacific Tropical Medicine Press and Hainan Medical University Journal Publisher,and aims to set up an acdemic communicating platform for Chinese and scientists all over the world on tropical biomedicine and related sciences.The Journal invites concise reports of original research in all areas of tropical biomedicine and related fields,both experimental and clinical.including modern,traditional and epidemiological studies,from any part of the world.Review articles based

  3. Long run Relationship among East Asian equity markets and KSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Ali Bhatti

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The dependence of various stock markets plays a vital role in diversification while selecting securities in an investor’s portfolio. This study examines interdependence among the East Asian stock markets in relation to the Karachi Stock Exchange. Monthly data ranging from 2000 to 2010 is included and tested in this paper. This relationship is tested by using descriptive statistics and correlation matrix. Data stationarity is ensured by Unit Root Test. Evidence from Granger Causality and Impulse Response Test prove no relationship between KSE and stock markets of the East Asian countries while there exists certain level of unidirectional relationship from Japan to China and from Japan to Pakistan.

  4. The Representation of Older People in East Asian Television Advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieler, Michael; Ivanov, Alex; Hagiwara, Shigeru

    2016-11-15

    In this study, 432 television advertisements from Hong Kong, Japan, and South Korea were analyzed to determine their representations of older people. Findings demonstrate that in East Asian advertisements, older people are highly underrepresented, appear in major roles, mostly alongside younger people, and older men clearly outnumber older women. The other variables investigated (i.e., setting and product categories) led to no conclusive findings for the three societies. In short, our study, employing ethnolinguistic vitality theory to analyze television advertisements, demonstrates how East Asian societies greatly marginalize older people. Potential effects of such representations are discussed using social cognitive theory and cultivation theory.

  5. Host Defense Peptides from Asian Frogs as Potential Clinical Therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vineeth T.V. Kumar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Host defense peptides (HDPs are currently major focal points of medical research as infectious microbes are gaining resistance to existing drugs. They are effective against multi-drug resistant pathogens due to their unique primary target, biological membranes, and their peculiar mode of action. Even though HDPs from 60 Asian frog species belonging to 15 genera have been characterized, research into these peptides is at a very early stage. The purpose of this review is to showcase the status of peptide research in Asia. Here we provide a summary of HDPs from Asian frogs.

  6. Pricing Arithmetic Asian Options under Hybrid Stochastic and Local Volatility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Ku Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, hybrid stochastic and local volatility models have become an industry standard for the pricing of derivatives and other problems in finance. In this study, we use a multiscale stochastic volatility model incorporated by the constant elasticity of variance to understand the price structure of continuous arithmetic average Asian options. The multiscale partial differential equation for the option price is approximated by a couple of single scale partial differential equations. In terms of the elasticity parameter governing the leverage effect, a correction to the stochastic volatility model is made for more efficient pricing and hedging of Asian options.

  7. Fetal growth trajectories in pregnancies of European and South Asian mothers with and without gestational diabetes, a population-based cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenum, Anne Karen; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S.; Mørkrid, Kjersti; Nakstad, Britt; Rognerud-Jensen, Odd Harald; Birkeland, Kåre I.; Vangen, Siri

    2017-01-01

    Objective Our aim was to examine the impact of gestational diabetes (GDM), from before the GDM-diagnosis is made, on fetal growth trajectories, and to compare it in Europeans and South Asians; two ethnic groups with dissimilar fetal growth patterns. Methods We studied European (n = 349) and South Asian (n = 184) pregnant women, from the population-based STORK-Groruddalen cohort in Oslo, Norway. Mothers were enrolled in early pregnancy, screened for GDM in gestational week 28 ±2, and classified as “non-GDM”, “mild GDM” or “moderate/severe GDM”. We measured fetal head circumference, abdominal circumference and femur length by ultrasound, and estimated fetal weight in gestational week 24, 32 and 37, and performed corresponding measurements at birth. Results In non-GDM pregnancies, South Asian fetuses (n = 156) had a slower growth from gestational week 24, compared with Europeans (n = 310). More than two thirds of the European mothers later diagnosed with GDM were overweight or obese in early pregnancy, while this was not observed in South Asians. Fetuses of GDM mothers tended to be smaller than fetuses of non-GDM mothers in week 24, but thereafter grew faster until birth. This pattern was especially pronounced in fetuses of South Asian mothers with moderate/severe GDM. In week 24 these fetuses had a -0.95 SD (95% CI: -1.53, -0.36) lower estimated fetal weight than their non-GDM counterparts. In contrast, at birth they were 0.45 SD (0.09, 0.81) larger. Conclusions Offspring of GDM mothers were smaller in mid pregnancy, but subsequently grew faster until birth, compared with offspring of non-GDM mothers. This pattern was most prominent in South Asian mothers with moderate to severe GDM. However, the most remarkable characteristic of these fetuses was not a large size at birth, but the small size in mid pregnancy, before the GDM diagnosis was set. PMID:28253366

  8. East Asian Attitudes toward Death— A Search for the Ways to Help East Asian Elderly Dying in Contemporary America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sok K

    2009-01-01

    The art of dying well has been a quintessential subject of ethicoreligious matters among the people in the West and the East. Most of us wish to die at home; however, about 50% of Americans die in acute care hospitals. Furthermore, immigrants from East Asian cultures feel more uncomfortable near death, because their physicians are not familiar with their traditions. This article is written to help American physicians understand the unique aspects of East Asian Confucian Ethics for the better care of the dying elderly. Western attitudes toward death are briefly reviewed and the six East Asian concepts related to death are elaborated from Confucian Chinese philosophy. To widen the horizon of bioethics and to embrace the Confucian wisdom of dying well, three pearls of wisdom from classical Confucianism are proposed: the relational autonomy of family, Confucian creative self-transformation, and the unity of transcendence and the human being. PMID:20740092

  9. 76 FR 25515 - Asian American and Pacific Islander Heritage Month, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-05

    ... Pacific Islander Heritage Month, 2011 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation This... success are uniquely American. As we celebrate Asian American and Pacific Islander Heritage Month, we... Asian American and Pacific Islander Heritage Month, let us celebrate the millions of Asian Americans...

  10. The Establishment of the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank and Its Implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hou; Hongyu

    2015-01-01

    Ⅰ.The Background and Status of the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank Chinese President Xi Jinping and Premier Li Keqiang announced the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank(the AIIB)initiative during their respective visits to Southeast Asian countries in October 2013.The AIIB is envisaged to promote interconnectivity and

  11. Artificial selection on introduced Asian haplotypes shaped the genetic architecture in european commercial pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosse, Mirte; Soares Lopes, Marcos; Madsen, Ole; Megens, Hendrik Jan; Crooijmans, Richard P.M.A.; Frantz, Laurent A.F.; Harlizius, Barbara; Bastiaansen, John W.M.; Groenen, Martien A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Early pig farmers in Europe importedAsian pigs to cross with their local breeds in order to improve traits of commercial interest. Current genomics techniques enabled genome-wide identification of these Asian introgressed haplotypes in modern European pig breeds.We propose that the Asian variants

  12. Asian Student Depression in American High Schools: Differences in Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Suzan J.; Ziegler, Robert; Arsenault, Lisa; Fried, Lise E.; Hacker, Karen

    2011-01-01

    There are inconsistent findings about depression in Asians. This study examined risk factors for depression in Asian and Caucasian adolescents. Stratified bivariate secondary analyses of risk indicators and depressed mood were performed in this cross-sectional study of high school survey data (9th to 12th grades) from 2,542 students (198 Asian).…

  13. Asians in the Ivory Tower: Dilemmas of Racial Inequality in American Higher Education. Multicultural Education Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teranishi, Robert T.

    2010-01-01

    Highly respected scholar Robert Teranishi draws on his vast research to present this timely and compelling examination of the experience of Asian Americans in higher education. "Asians in the Ivory Tower" explores why and how Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders (AAPIs) are important to our nation's higher education priorities and places the…

  14. Disaggregating Qualitative Data from Asian American College Students in Campus Racial Climate Research and Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Museus, Samuel D.; Truong, Kimberly A.

    2009-01-01

    This article highlights the utility of disaggregating qualitative research and assessment data on Asian American college students. Given the complexity of and diversity within the Asian American population, scholars have begun to underscore the importance of disaggregating data in the empirical examination of Asian Americans, but most of those…

  15. Complicating the Image of Model Minority Success: A Review of Southeast Asian American Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Bic; Lee, Stacey J.

    2007-01-01

    Similar to other Asian American students, Southeast Asian American students are often stereotyped by the popular press as hardworking and high-achieving model minorities. On the other hand, Southeast Asian American youth are also depicted as low-achieving high school dropouts involved in gangs. The realities of academic performance and persistence…

  16. The globalisation strategies of five Asian tobacco companies: a comparative analysis and implications for global health governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kelley; Eckhardt, Jappe

    2017-03-01

    The global tobacco industry, from the 1960s to mid 1990s, saw consolidation and eventual domination by a small number of transnational tobacco companies (TTC). This paper draws together comparative analysis of five case studies in the special issue on 'The Emergence of Asian Tobacco Companies: Implications for Global Health Governance.' The cases suggest that tobacco industry globalisation is undergoing a new phase, beginning in the late 1990s, with the adoption of global business strategies by five Asian companies. The strategies were prompted foremost by external factors, notably market liberalisation, competition from TTCs and declining domestic markets. State protection and promotion enabled the industries in Japan, South Korea and China to rationalise their operations ahead of foreign market expansion. The TTM and TTL will likely remain domestic or perhaps regional companies, JTI and KT&G have achieved TTC status, and the CNTC is poised to dwarf all existing companies. This global expansion of Asian tobacco companies will increase competition which, in turn, will intensify marketing, exert downward price pressures along the global value chain, and encourage product innovation. Global tobacco control requires fuller understanding of these emerging changes and the regulatory challenges posed by ongoing globalisation.

  17. The secretory pattern and source of immunoreactive prolactin in pregnant African (Loxodonta africana) and Asian (Elephas maximus) elephants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Yuki; Yamamoto, Tatsuya; Yuto, Natsuki; Hildebrandt, Thomas B; Lueders, Imke; Wibbelt, Gudrun; Shiina, Osamu; Mouri, Yasushi; Sugimura, Keisuke; Sakamoto, Sayuri; Kaewmanee, Saroch; Nagaoka, Kentaro; Watanabe, Gen; Taya, Kazuyoshi

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to define the secretion of prolactin (PRL) in pregnant African and Asian elephants. Levels of immunoreactive (ir-) PRL in serum and placental homogenates were measured by a heterologous radioimmunoassay (RIA) based on an ovine and human RIA system, and the localization of ir-PRL in the placenta was detected by immunohistochemistry using anti-human PRL. Circulating ir-PRL clearly showed a biphasic pattern during pregnancy in African and Asian elephants. Serum levels of ir-PRL started to increase from the 4 - 6th month of gestation and reached the first peak level around the 11-14th month. A second peak of circulating ir-PRL levels was observed around the 18-20th month of gestation followed by an abrupt decline after parturition. In contrast, in a case of abortion of an African elephant, the second peak of ir-PRL was not observed, and the levels remained low for about four months until parturition. The weight of the fetus delivered at the 17th month of gestation was 23.5 kg, which was quite small compared with normal fetuses in previous reports. Ir-PRL was detected in placental homogenates, and immunolocalization was observed in trophoblasts in both the African and Asian elephants, indicating that the placenta is the source of ir-PRL during pregnancy in elephants. The present results clearly demonstrated that circulating ir-PRL shows a biphasic pattern during normal pregnancy and that the placenta appears to be an important source of circulating ir-PRL during pregnancy in both African and Asian elephants.

  18. "Too Asian?" On Racism, Paradox and Ethno-Nationalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coloma, Roland Sintos

    2013-01-01

    This essay examines the controversial "Too Asian?" article published by Canada's premiere news magazine in 2010 as a case study of media and education in order to produce a sharper analytical grammar of race in liberal, multicultural societies. I argue that the article recycles racial stereotypes, perpetuates the normalization of…

  19. The diploid genome sequence of an Asian individual

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jun; Wang, Wei; Li, Ruiqiang

    2008-01-01

    Here we present the first diploid genome sequence of an Asian individual. The genome was sequenced to 36-fold average coverage using massively parallel sequencing technology. We aligned the short reads onto the NCBI human reference genome to 99.97% coverage, and guided by the reference genome, we...

  20. Complete mitochondrial genome of a Asian lion (Panthera leo goojratensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu-Fei; Wang, Qiang; Zhao, Jian-ning

    2016-01-01

    The entire mitochondrial genome of this Asian lion (Panthera leo goojratensis) was 17,183 bp in length, gene composition and arrangement conformed to other lions, which contained the typical structure of 22 tRNAs, 2 rRNAs, 13 protein-coding genes and a non-coding region. The characteristic of the mitochondrial genome was analyzed in detail.

  1. Growth and Poverty: Lessons from the East Asian Miracle Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    M. G. Quibria

    2002-01-01

    This paper provides an extensive review of growth, inequality and poverty reduction in the East Asian miracle economies. This review suggests that the basic impetus for poverty reduction was robust economic growth, which was fostered by a conducive policy and institutional framework. This framework - which helped to create a 'level playing field' - encouraged high investment, production over diversion, and efficient use of investable resources

  2. Asian Students: Their Experiences and Perceptions of Australian Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, John W.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    A survey of 111 Asian students attending three South Australian universities found varied reasons for studying in Australia, four distinct student segments, but no dominant selection criteria. About one-quarter experienced communication problems, homesickness, or loneliness. Study-related difficulties varied, related to segment. A large minority…

  3. Classroom Behaviors of Asian American Students in Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shwu-yong L.; Waxman, Hersholt C.

    This study examines Asian American middle school students' classroom behaviors in mathematics using systematic classroom observation techniques. The study explores questions related to classroom behaviors in terms of interactions with teachers, classroom settings, activities, and manners; differences in classroom behaviors between boys and girls…

  4. The Asian Financial Crisis, Globalisation and Popular Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Tony

    1998-01-01

    Globalization is a confused and confusing term being used to explain a wide range of phenomena. It is presented as being outside anyone's control, neutral, and free of class interests. The Asian financial crisis illustrates that human agency still plays a role. Popular educators can help reinforce the idea that collective action does make a…

  5. Food Preferences, Beliefs and Practices of Southeast Asian Refugee Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Story, Mary; Harris, Linda J.

    1988-01-01

    Results from a study of 207 Southeast Asian refugee high school students indicate that these students have maintained strong ties to their native foods and traditional meal patterns. Cambodian, Vietnamese, and Hmong students showed varying degrees of nutritional awareness. Implications of beliefs, preferences, and practices for nutrition education…

  6. Asian and Pacific Islander HIV/AIDS Awareness PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-05-12

    In this PSA, Asians and Pacific Islanders are encouraged to talk about HIV and get tested for HIV.  Created: 5/12/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 5/12/2010.

  7. East Asian Collections and Organizational Transformation in Academic Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamada, Hitoshi

    2002-01-01

    Discusses special aspects of East Asian collections and explores how organizational changes in academic libraries affect them, based on experiences at the University of Arizona. Considers total quality management; continuous quality improvement; teamwork; staffing changes; specialization versus generalization; budgetary restraints and cost…

  8. Bamboo: Strategies for Teaching about Aspects of Asian Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antolik, Brother Raymond

    1978-01-01

    Ten classroom activities introduce elementary and junior high school students to Asian culture by investigating the uses of bamboo. Students are directed to read about bamboo, investigate bamboo's roles (food, building material, clothing, tools), and construct artifacts such as a fishing pole and a flute. (Author/DB)

  9. Behavioral assay on Asian citrus psyllid attraction to orange jasmine

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) is an important pest because it transmits a bacterium putatively responsible for huanglongbing, a devastating citrus disease. Research on ACP chemical ecology is of interest with respect to identifying attractants and repellents for managing the psyllid. We report on a...

  10. Systematic notes on Asian birds. 23. Types of the Campephagidae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dickinson, E.C.; Dekker, R.W.R.J.; Eck, S.; Somadikarta, S.

    2002-01-01

    A list of nearly 300 names applied to Asian forms of species of cuckoo-shrikes and minivets and their allies (family Campephagidae) is provided. This list provides information on the whereabouts of a type; where our information does not include reliable data we provide notes to explain the deficit a

  11. Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Wild Asian Elephants, Southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachariah, Arun; Pandiyan, Jeganathan; Madhavilatha, G K; Mundayoor, Sathish; Chandramohan, Bathrachalam; Sajesh, P K; Santhosh, Sam; Mikota, Susan K

    2017-03-01

    We tested 3 ild Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) in southern India and confirmed infection in 3 animals with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, an obligate human pathogen, by PCR and genetic sequencing. Our results indicate that tuberculosis may be spilling over from humans (reverse zoonosis) and emerging in wild elephants.

  12. A Model of Asian and Pacific Islander Sexual Minority Acculturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahm, Hyeouk Chris; Adkins, Chris

    2009-01-01

    In the United States, the interplay of racism, sexism, and acculturation creates psychological and social stressors that may affect the development of positive ethnic/sexual identities among Asian and Pacific Islander (API) adolescents. This article proposes a new model of identity formation theory for API gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender…

  13. New criteria for the characterization of traditional East Asian papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avataneo, Chiara; Sablier, Michel

    2017-01-01

    We report a pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) method capable of analyzing traditional East Asian papers. The method proposed is based on rapid and easy single step Py-GC/MS analysis that can be carried out with a minimum amount of matter, in the few microgram range. Three reference papers manufactured from kozo (Broussonetia kazinoki Siebold & Zucc.), mitsumata (Edgeworthia chrysantha Lindl.), and gampi (Wikstroemia sikokiana Franch. & Sav.) with the traditional hand paper making processes were examined. The method allows discrimination between terpenic and steroid compounds, which were revealed as chemical markers of origin of the plant fibers. Each paper investigated was found to have characteristic pyrolysis fingerprints that were unique to the traditional handmade paper, demonstrating the potential for differentiation of these biochemical components of fiber plants on East Asian papers towards identification and conservation of cultural heritage. The investigation on Py-GC/MS was extended to liquid extraction followed by GC/MS analysis to characterize the biochemical components of fiber plants. The main contribution of this study is to provide molecular criteria for discriminating plant species used for traditional East Asian hand papermaking. Py-GC/MS complements efficiently microscope identification especially for adverse cases. A case study of archaeological Chinese paper painting artefacts was thereafter successfully investigated to address informative potential and efficiency of the criteria of identification on ancient and degraded East Asian paperworks.

  14. Cultural Factors in Working with Southeast Asian Refugee Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Evelyn

    1988-01-01

    Presents some of the unique socio-political-cultural factors that impact upon the psychological development of Southeast Asian refugee adolescents, including adjustment problems and intercultural conflicts. Recommends clinicians working with this population assess major stresses, strengths, and culturally specific responses to mental health…

  15. Dual Minority Stress and Asian American Gay Men's Psychological Distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yung-Chi; Tryon, Georgiana Shick

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the direct and additive effects of racial minority stress and sexual minority stress on the psychological well-being among a community sample of 139 Asian American gay men. Self-esteem was tested to see whether it moderated or mediated the effects of perceived dual minority stress on psychological distress. Results…

  16. Dialogue of Freedom. Asian Voices Challenge Cultural Assumptions about Democracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pon, Cynthia

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the concept of freedom in a global context, focusing on the Asian perspectives of three spokespersons: Zhuangzi or Chuang Tzu, a Daoist (Taoist) poet-philosopher in 4th-century-BCE China; Indian-born Nobel economist Amartya Sen, whose work on poverty links development with freedom; and Aung San Suu Kyi, Burmese democratic leader and…

  17. Some Sidelights of the Northeast Asian Youth Forum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LuoYi

    2004-01-01

    At the invitation of the Moral Re-Armament/Initiatives of Change-Korea (MRA/IC-Korea for short), I participated in the Northeast Asian Youth Forum held in Seoul during August 29 to 24 this year.The theme of the forum was “The role of the yuth in realizing peace and prosperity in Northeast Asia”,

  18. Predictors of Academic Procrastination in Asian International College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowinger, Robert Jay; Kuo, Ben C. H.; Song, Hyun-A.; Mahadevan, Lakshmi; Kim, Eunyoung; Liao, Kelly Yu-Hsin; Chang, Catherine Y.; Kwon, Kyong-Ah; Han, Suejung

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the relationships among acculturative stress, coping styles, self-efficacy, English language proficiency, and various demographic characteristics as predictors of procrastination behavior in Asian International students (N = 255) studying in the United States. Results of multiple logistic regression indicated that a collective…

  19. Plant resistance within the Rutaceae to Asian citrus psyllid

    Science.gov (United States)

    USDA-ARS recently initiated research on host plant resistance to the Asian citrus psyllid. The psyllid is an important invasive pest of citrus in the United States because it transmits a serious disease of citrus known as huanglongbing (citrus greening). There is no cure for this bacterial disease. ...

  20. Occlusal status in Asian male adults : Prevalence and ethnic variation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soh, J; Sandham, John; Chin, Yeen

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the occlusal status in young Asian male adults of three ethnic groups. Study models of a sample of male army recruits (N = 339, age 1722 years) with no history of orthodontic treatment were assessed. The ethnic proportions of the sample were Chinese 76.1% (

  1. Acculturation and Smoking Behavior in Asian-American Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Grace X.; Tan, Yin; Toubbeh, Jamil I.; Su, Xuefen; Shive, Steven E.; Lan, Yajia

    2004-01-01

    The relationship between acculturation and smoking behavior was examined in four Asian-American groups that included recent immigrants and US-born Koreans, Chinese, Vietnamese and Cambodians residing in the Delaware Valley of Pennsylvania and New Jersey. The study was part of a community-based, comprehensive cross-sectional study designed to…

  2. Maximising Asian ESL Learners' Communicative Oral English via Drama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Chamkaur

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes that activities based on a variety of drama-based techniques could be valuable in giving Asian ESL learners opportunities to use communicative spoken English confidently and without restraint during their time in English-language-speaking countries. These learners often get anxious when in situations where they are required to…

  3. The Community College Presidency: An Asian Pacific American Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, M. Jack

    1996-01-01

    Analyzes the status of Asian Pacific Americans (APAs) in higher education compared to their representation in chief executive positions, describing a glass ceiling effect and common stereotypes regarding APAs. Reviews characteristics of chief executive officers in California community colleges. Provides strategies for increasing APA representation…

  4. Making Education Reform Happen: Is There an "Asian" Way?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallinger, Philip

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a descriptive analysis of education reform in selected Southeast Asian nations between 1995 and 2007. It reports the results of a purposive survey of elite informants comprising scholars and educational leaders involved in education reform in Thailand, Malaysia, Taiwan, Hong Kong and Singapore. The paper addresses two main…

  5. Systematic notes on Asian birds. 3. Types of the Eurylaimidae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, R.W.R.J.; Dickinson, E.C.; Eck, S.; Somadikarta, S.

    2000-01-01

    A list of 62 names applied to Asian forms of species of broadbill (Eurylaimidae) is provided, with information on the whereabouts of one or more type specimens. Where our information does not include reliable information we provide notes to explain the deficit and to stimulate others to offer additi

  6. Systematic notes on Asian birds. 5. Types of the Pittidae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dickinson, E.C.; Dekker, R.W.R.J.; Eck, S.; Somadikarta, S.; Violani, C.; Voisin, C.; Voisin, J.-F.

    2000-01-01

    A list of 126 names applied to Asian forms of species of pitta (Family Pittidae) is provided, with information on the whereabouts of type-specimens. Where our information does not include reliable data we provide notes to explain the deficit and to stimulate others to offer additional data or source

  7. Systematic notes on Asian birds. 14. Types of the Hirundinidae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dickinson, E.C.; Dekker, R.W.R.J.; Eck, S.; Somadikarta, S.; Kalyakin, M.; Loskot, V.; Morioka, H.; Violani, C.; Voisin, C.

    2001-01-01

    A list of the 110 names applied to Asian forms of species of swallows and martins (family Hirundinidae) is provided. This list provides information on the whereabouts of a type; where our information does not include reliable data we provide notes to explain the deficit and to stimulate others to of

  8. Systematic notes on Asian birds. 45. Types of the Corvidae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dickinson, E.C.; Dekker, R.W.R.J.; Eck, S.; Somadikarta, S.; Kalyakin, M.; Loskot, V.; Morioka, H.; Violani, C.; Voisin, C.

    2004-01-01

    A list of about 280 names applied to Asian forms of species of crows (family Corvidae) is presented. This list provides information on the whereabouts of type specimens. Where our information does not include reliable data we provide notes to explain the deficit and to stimulate others to offer addi

  9. Migrant Labor and the "Poverty" of Asian American Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okihiro, Gary Y.

    1988-01-01

    Scholars have failed to develop theoretical and methodological tools for understanding Asian Americans. However, the issues are not totally ignored since there is a growing number of writers, historians, and poets who are producing promising works outside of the liberal tradition. Examples of authors and enriching works are presented. (VM)

  10. "Too Asian?" On Racism, Paradox and Ethno-Nationalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coloma, Roland Sintos

    2013-01-01

    This essay examines the controversial "Too Asian?" article published by Canada's premiere news magazine in 2010 as a case study of media and education in order to produce a sharper analytical grammar of race in liberal, multicultural societies. I argue that the article recycles racial stereotypes, perpetuates the normalization of…

  11. Asian American Educational Goals: Racial Barriers and Cultural Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yung-Lung; Fouad, Nadya A.

    2013-01-01

    Educational success among Asian American students has often been misunderstood as an occupational development separate from any experience of racism. However, several theorists have suggested that racial barriers in occupational mobility correlate with educational pursuits. Therefore, this research aims to examine the direct effect of perceived…

  12. XX1 Asian chestnut gall wasp (Dryocosmus kuriphilus) (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Asian chestnut gall wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus, is an invasive pest of chestnut in Japan, Europe, and the United States. D. kuriphilus induces formation of galls on all chestnut species. Damage caused by galling reduces commercial chestnut yields and threatens restoration of American chestnut i...

  13. Deploying Renewables in Southeast Asian Countries: Trends and Potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This paper is part of the IEA ongoing analysis of global renewable energy markets and policies. It focuses on six Southeast Asian countries: Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam. The report investigates the potentials and barriers for scaling up market penetration of renewable energy technologies in the electricity, heating and transport sectors in the six countries.

  14. Intercultural Competence of Tatarstan Central-Asian Diasporas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nargiza I. Omorova

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This article examines intercultural competence of Tatarstan Central- Asian diasporas as an important communicative quality, concludes that the high level of intercultural competence of these diasporas contributes to their socio-cultural adaptation and intercultural communication in the country

  15. Multi-layered population structure in Island Southeast Asians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricaut, Francois-Xavier; Yngvadottir, Bryndis; Harney, Eadaoin; Castillo, Cristina; Hoogervorst, Tom; Antao, Tiago; Kusuma, Pradiptajati; Razafindrazaka, Harilanto; Cardona, Alexia; Pierron, Denis; Letellier, Thierry; Wee, Joseph; Abdullah, Syafiq; Metspalu, Mait; Kivisild, Toomas

    2016-01-01

    The history of human settlement in Southeast Asia has been complex and involved several distinct dispersal events. Here we report the analyses of 1825 individuals from Southeast Asia including new genome-wide genotype data for 146 individuals from three Mainland Southeast Asian (Burmese, Malay and Vietnamese) and four Island Southeast Asian (Dusun, Filipino, Kankanaey and Murut) populations. While confirming the presence of previously recognized major ancestry components in the Southeast Asian population structure, we highlight the Kankanaey Igorots from the highlands of the Philippine Mountain Province as likely the closest living representatives of the source population that may have given rise to the Austronesian expansion. This conclusion rests on independent evidence from various analyses of autosomal data and uniparental markers. Given the extensive presence of trade goods, cultural and linguistic evidence of Indian influence in Southeast Asia starting from 2.5kya we also detect traces of a South Asian signature in different populations in the region dating to the last couple of thousand years. PMID:27302840

  16. Acculturation Stress and Depression among Asian Immigrant Elders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mui, Ada C.; Kang, Suk-Young

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the association between acculturation stress and depressive symptoms in a regional probability sample (n = 407) of six groups of Asian immigrant elders (Chinese, Korean, Indian, Filipino, Vietnamese, and Japanese). Findings suggest that about 40 percent of the sample were depressed, indicating higher depression rates than found…

  17. Report to the Governor on Discrimination Against Asians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington State Commission on Asian-American Affairs, Olympia.

    The purpose of this report is to stimulate discussion, promote understanding, develop better awareness, and thereby bring about action to make necessary changes toward racial equality and justice. The public hearing conducted on March 3, 1973 by the Washington State Asian American Advisory Council brought attention to the fact that racism has and…

  18. Community Violence Exposure of Southeast Asian American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Joyce

    2008-01-01

    Southeast Asian adolescents in the United States face the daily challenge of adjusting to the American culture and their culture of origin. However, little is known about how the patterns of their bicultural adjustment influence psychological symptoms, especially when faced with other challenges such as community violence and negative life events.…

  19. Occurrence and function of yeasts in Asian indigenous fermented foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aidoo, K.E.; Nout, M.J.R.; Sarkar, P.K.

    2006-01-01

    In the Asian region, indigenous fermented foods are important in daily life. In many of these foods, yeasts are predominant and functional during the fermentation. The diversity of foods in which yeasts predominate ranges from leavened bread-like products such as nan and idli, to alcoholic beverages

  20. 2011 Asian Geographic Trend Report for GMAT[R] Examinees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graduate Management Admission Council, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Asian Geographic Trend Report presents trends in the student pipeline for graduate management education. Examination of data collected from respondents taking the Graduate Management Admission Test[R] (GMAT[R]) during the 2007 and 2011 testing years (TY) and from the requested destination of their score reports forms the basis of this report.…

  1. Ethnic Conflict and CENTCOM Policy for the Central Asian Republics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-04-01

    than half of the 14 basic conclusions apply to the US view of Central Asia: • Rapid advances in info/ biotechnology will create new vulnerabilities for...security, economic conditions, and growing world demand for illegal drugs. This demand takes Central/South Asian cannabis , opium, and heroin and

  2. Corporate Social Responsibility and Earnings Management : Evidence from Asian Economies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, Bert; Kang, Feng-Ching

    2013-01-01

    We investigate how earnings management is associated with corporate social responsibility (CSR) and investor protection with 139 firms in ten Asian countries. In Asia, CSR is increasingly attracting attention but the legal system generally is perceived as being poor. We hypothesize that there is an

  3. Multi-layered population structure in Island Southeast Asians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mörseburg, Alexander; Pagani, Luca; Ricaut, Francois-Xavier; Yngvadottir, Bryndis; Harney, Eadaoin; Castillo, Cristina; Hoogervorst, Tom; Antao, Tiago; Kusuma, Pradiptajati; Brucato, Nicolas; Cardona, Alexia; Pierron, Denis; Letellier, Thierry; Wee, Joseph; Abdullah, Syafiq; Metspalu, Mait; Kivisild, Toomas

    2016-11-01

    The history of human settlement in Southeast Asia has been complex and involved several distinct dispersal events. Here, we report the analyses of 1825 individuals from Southeast Asia including new genome-wide genotype data for 146 individuals from three Mainland Southeast Asian (Burmese, Malay and Vietnamese) and four Island Southeast Asian (Dusun, Filipino, Kankanaey and Murut) populations. While confirming the presence of previously recognised major ancestry components in the Southeast Asian population structure, we highlight the Kankanaey Igorots from the highlands of the Philippine Mountain Province as likely the closest living representatives of the source population that may have given rise to the Austronesian expansion. This conclusion rests on independent evidence from various analyses of autosomal data and uniparental markers. Given the extensive presence of trade goods, cultural and linguistic evidence of Indian influence in Southeast Asia starting from 2.5 kya, we also detect traces of a South Asian signature in different populations in the region dating to the last couple of thousand years.

  4. Insulin resistance : pathophysiology in South Asians & therapeutic strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sleddering, Maria Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    This thesis describes the pathophysiology of insulin resistance in the South Asian population and comprises studies on pharmacological and weight loss interventions in insulin resistant patients. Because of the increasing number of patients with obesity and T2DM, more research is needed to identify

  5. Binge drinking and alcohol-related problems among U.S.-born Asian Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, Derek; Takamatsu, Stephanie; Castellanos, Jeanett

    2012-07-01

    Binge drinking (five drinks or more in a 2-h sitting for men or four or more drinks in a 2-h sitting for women) and alcohol-related problems are a growing problem among Asian American young adults. The current study examines the sociocultural (i.e., generational status and ethnic identity) determinants of binge drinking and alcohol-related problems across U.S.-born, young-adult, Asian American ethnic groups. Data were collected from 1,575 Asian American undergraduates from a public university in Southern California. Chinese Americans consisted of the largest Asian ethnicity in the study, followed by Vietnamese, Filipino, Korean, South Asian, Japanese, Multi-Asian, and "other Asian American." Participants completed a web-based assessment of binge drinking, alcohol-related problems, ethnic identity, descriptive norms (i.e., perceived peer drinking norms), and demographic information. An analysis of variance was used to determine potential gender and ethnic differences in binge drinking and alcohol-related problems. Negative binomial regression was selected to examine the relationship between the predictors and outcomes in our model. There were no gender differences between Asian American men and women in regards to binge drinking; however, men reported more alcohol-related problems. Japanese Americans reported the highest number of binge-drinking episodes and alcohol-related problems, followed by Filipino and Multi-Asian Americans (e.g., Chinese and Korean). Living off-campus; higher scores in descriptive norms; Greek status; and belonging to the ethnic groups Japanese, Filipino, Multi-Asian, Korean, and South Asian increased the risk of engaging in binge drinking. Quantity of alcohol consumed, Greek status, gender, Filipino, South Asian, other Asian, and lower ethnic identity scores were related to alcohol-related problems. Using one of the largest samples collected to date on sociocultural determinants and drinking among U.S.-born Asian American young adults, the

  6. Winter climate changes over East Asian region under RCP scenarios using East Asian winter monsoon indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ja-Young; Ahn, Joong-Bae; Jhun, Jong-Ghap

    2017-01-01

    The changes in the winter climatology and variability of the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM) for the late 21st century (2070-2099) under the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 4.5 and 8.5 scenarios are projected in terms of EAWM indices (EAWMIs). Firstly, the capability of the climate models participating in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) in simulating the boreal winter climatology and the interannual variability of the EAWM for the late 20th century (1971-2000) is examined. Nine of twenty-three climate models are selected based on the pattern correlations with observation and a multi-model ensemble is applied to the nine model data. Three of twelve EAWMIs that show the most significant temporal correlations between the observation and CMIP5 surface air temperatures are utilized. The ensemble CMIP5 is capable of reproducing the overall features of the EAWM in spite of some biases in the region. The negative correlations between the EAWMIs and boreal winter temperature are well reproduced and 3-5 years of the major interannual variation observed in this region are also well simulated according to power spectral analyses of the simulated indices. The fields regressed onto the indices that resemble the composite strong winter monsoon pattern are simulated more or less weakly in CMIP5 compared to the observation. However, the regressed fields of sea level pressure, surface air temperature, 500-hPa geopotential height, and 300-hPa zonal wind are well established with pattern correlations above 0.83 between CMIP5 and observation data. The differences between RCPs and Historical indicate strong warming, which increases with latitude, ranging from 1 to 5 °C under RCP4.5 and from 3 to 7 °C under RCP8.5 in the East Asian region. The anomalous southerly winds generally become stronger, implying weaker EAWMs in both scenarios. These features are also identified with fields regressed onto the indices in RCPs. The future projections reveal

  7. Winter climate changes over East Asian region under RCP scenarios using East Asian winter monsoon indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ja-Young; Ahn, Joong-Bae; Jhun, Jong-Ghap

    2016-03-01

    The changes in the winter climatology and variability of the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM) for the late 21st century (2070-2099) under the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 4.5 and 8.5 scenarios are projected in terms of EAWM indices (EAWMIs). Firstly, the capability of the climate models participating in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) in simulating the boreal winter climatology and the interannual variability of the EAWM for the late 20th century (1971-2000) is examined. Nine of twenty-three climate models are selected based on the pattern correlations with observation and a multi-model ensemble is applied to the nine model data. Three of twelve EAWMIs that show the most significant temporal correlations between the observation and CMIP5 surface air temperatures are utilized. The ensemble CMIP5 is capable of reproducing the overall features of the EAWM in spite of some biases in the region. The negative correlations between the EAWMIs and boreal winter temperature are well reproduced and 3-5 years of the major interannual variation observed in this region are also well simulated according to power spectral analyses of the simulated indices. The fields regressed onto the indices that resemble the composite strong winter monsoon pattern are simulated more or less weakly in CMIP5 compared to the observation. However, the regressed fields of sea level pressure, surface air temperature, 500-hPa geopotential height, and 300-hPa zonal wind are well established with pattern correlations above 0.83 between CMIP5 and observation data. The differences between RCPs and Historical indicate strong warming, which increases with latitude, ranging from 1 to 5 °C under RCP4.5 and from 3 to 7 °C under RCP8.5 in the East Asian region. The anomalous southerly winds generally become stronger, implying weaker EAWMs in both scenarios. These features are also identified with fields regressed onto the indices in RCPs. The future projections reveal

  8. Paleo-drainage basin connectivity predicts evolutionary relationships across three Southeast Asian biodiversity hotspots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruyn, Mark; Rüber, Lukas; Nylinder, Stephan; Stelbrink, Björn; Lovejoy, Nathan R; Lavoué, Sébastien; Tan, Heok Hui; Nugroho, Estu; Wowor, Daisy; Ng, Peter K L; Siti Azizah, M N; Von Rintelen, Thomas; Hall, Robert; Carvalho, Gary R

    2013-05-01

    Understanding factors driving diversity across biodiversity hotspots is critical for formulating conservation priorities in the face of ongoing and escalating environmental deterioration. While biodiversity hotspots encompass a small fraction of Earth's land surface, more than half the world's plants and two-thirds of terrestrial vertebrate species are endemic to these hotspots. Tropical Southeast (SE) Asia displays extraordinary species richness, encompassing four biodiversity hotspots, though disentangling multiple potential drivers of species richness is confounded by the region's dynamic geological and climatic history. Here, we use multilocus molecular genetic data from dense multispecies sampling of freshwater fishes across three biodiversity hotspots, to test the effect of Quaternary climate change and resulting drainage rearrangements on aquatic faunal diversification. While Cenozoic geological processes have clearly shaped evolutionary history in SE Asian halfbeak fishes, we show that paleo-drainage re-arrangements resulting from Quaternary climate change played a significant role in the spatiotemporal evolution of lowland aquatic taxa, and provide priorities for conservation efforts.

  9. [Phylogeography of southern Asian Dolly Varden char Salvelinus malma krascheninnikovi: genealogical analysis of mitochondrial DNA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleĭnik, A G; Skurikhina, L A; Chukova, E I

    2010-02-01

    Phylogeography of southern Asian Dolly Varden char was studied using the data on mtDNA variation (regions ND1/ND2, ND5/ND6, and Cytb/D loop) obtained using PCR-RFLP analysis. Analysis of contemporary population genetic structure showed that S. m. krascheninnikovi throughout the whole species range was characterized by high population differentiation in combination with rather small differences between the populations from remote regions. The genealogy of mtDNA haplotypes was reconstructed and nested clade analysis of geographical distances was performed. Geographical distribution of mtDNA haplotypes of S. m. krascheninnikovi was explained by population genetic processes (restricted gene flow), as well as by historical demographic events (range expansion and fragmentation). It was demonstrated that the main demographic events were associated with cyclic processes of the geological formation of the Sea of Japan and adjacent territories. Furthermore, genealogical tree of S. m. krascheninnikovi contained the traces of secondary contact between isolated phylogeographical lineages.

  10. Asian Development Bank assistance to promote private sector participation in renewable energy development in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaidi, S.H. Asian Development Bank

    1997-12-31

    Inadequate power supply has emerged as one of the most serious infrastructure constraints on sustainable economic growth in the Asia and Pacific Region. The heavy reliance on coal in the region as a fuel source for power generation has significant detrimental environmental impacts. Power systems based on renewable energy sources (RES) such as wind, solar, bagasse, bio-methanation, municipal and agricultural wastes, mini-hydro, etc. are suitable candidates for alleviating some of the power shortages. RES technologies offer investment opportunities to small entrepreneurs in power generation and provide alternative sources of energy. There is, therefore, a challenge for the policy makers of the Region and for the Asian Development Bank to create an enabling environment for the private sector to undertake development of RES. (R.P.)

  11. Association between asthma and obesity among immigrant Asian Americans, California Health Interview Survey, 2001-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra, Benjamin J; Scroggins, Christy M; Becerra, Monideepa B

    2014-11-26

    Our objective was to study the comorbidity of asthma and obesity among foreign-born Asian Americans, by subgroups. Public data from the California Health Interview Survey, 2001-2011, were analyzed by using independent logistic regressions, yielding the association between asthma and obesity (Asian and standard cutoffs for body mass index [BMIs]) of 19,841 Asian American immigrant respondents. Chinese, Filipino, South Asian, and Japanese immigrants had a positive association between lifetime asthma and obesity, whereas among Korean immigrants, a positive association was found between lifetime asthma and overweight status (standard BMI cutoffs). Routine screening for this comorbidity is warranted among immigrant Asian Americans.

  12. Trends in Asian American racial/ethnic intermarriage: a comparison of 1980 and 1990 census data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S M; Fernandez, M

    1998-01-01

    "In this paper, we use data from the 1990 [U.S.] census to compare patterns of Asian American intermarriage with those reported by Lee and Yamanaka (1990).... Our main findings show that: (i) the overall outmarriage rate has declined; (ii) Asian American inter-ethnic marriages (that is, marriages between two Asian Americans of different Asian ethnicities) have increased; and (iii) social distance, measured by an Index of Intermarriage Distance, between Asian Americans and other racial and ethnic groups has widened. We conclude by discussing some implications of the findings for the role of racial and ethnic intermarriage as an indicator of intergroup relations."

  13. Contribution of job satisfaction to happiness of Asian Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, C N

    2001-08-01

    Many demographic and labor force characteristics, such as family income, educational attainment, and occupation, correlated with job satisfaction. Since Asian Americans are more like Euro-Americans than African Americans in most of these characteristics, it seems reasonable to predict that their job satisfaction would be high as for Euro-Americans rather than low as for African Americans. Yet research of Weaver and Hinson showed that the opposite is true. One explanation for this unexpected result is that Asians do not think of jobs as a source of happiness but simply as a means of earning money to underwrite other aspects of their lives, such as the well-being of their families, which are the main sources of their happiness. The hypothesis was tested that job satisfaction does not contribute to the happiness of Asian Americans in comparison to satisfaction from other domains of their lives. Analysis was conducted of the attitudes of Asian-American (n = 160), African-American (n = 602), and Euro-American (n = 6,477) workers who responded to 22 surveys drawn from 1972 to 1998, each of which was representative of the labor force of the USA. The hypothesis was supported by the finding that the partial correlation of job satisfaction and global happiness with satisfaction in seven other domains of life (marriage, financial condition, community, nonwork activities, family, health and physical condition, and friendships) held constant was significant for Euro-American women and men but not for Asian Americans or African Americans of either sex. And, the same result occurred when global happiness was regressed on job satisfaction net the effects of satisfaction in other seven domains.

  14. Heterologous Protection against Asian Zika Virus Challenge in Rhesus Macaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Christina M.; Mohr, Emma L.; Gellerup, Dane D.; Breitbach, Meghan E.; Buechler, Connor R.; Rasheed, Mustafa N.; Mohns, Mariel S.; Weiler, Andrea M.; Barry, Gabrielle L.; Weisgrau, Kim L.; Eudailey, Josh A.; Rakasz, Eva G.; Vosler, Logan J.; Post, Jennifer; Capuano, Saverio; Golos, Thaddeus G.; Permar, Sallie R.; Osorio, Jorge E.; Friedrich, Thomas C.; O’Connor, Shelby L.; O’Connor, David H.

    2016-01-01

    Background Zika virus (ZIKV; Flaviviridae, Flavivirus) was declared a public health emergency of international concern by the World Health Organization (WHO) in February 2016, because of the evidence linking infection with ZIKV to neurological complications, such as Guillain-Barre Syndrome in adults and congenital birth defects including microcephaly in the developing fetus. Because development of a ZIKV vaccine is a top research priority and because the genetic and antigenic variability of many RNA viruses limits the effectiveness of vaccines, assessing whether immunity elicited against one ZIKV strain is sufficient to confer broad protection against all ZIKV strains is critical. Recently, in vitro studies demonstrated that ZIKV likely circulates as a single serotype. Here, we demonstrate that immunity elicited by African lineage ZIKV protects rhesus macaques against subsequent infection with Asian lineage ZIKV. Methodology/Principal Findings Using our recently developed rhesus macaque model of ZIKV infection, we report that the prototypical ZIKV strain MR766 productively infects macaques, and that immunity elicited by MR766 protects macaques against heterologous Asian ZIKV. Furthermore, using next generation deep sequencing, we found in vivo restoration of a putative N-linked glycosylation site upon replication in macaques that is absent in numerous MR766 strains that are widely being used by the research community. This reversion highlights the importance of carefully examining the sequence composition of all viral stocks as well as understanding how passage history may alter a virus from its original form. Conclusions/Significance An effective ZIKV vaccine is needed to prevent infection-associated fetal abnormalities. Macaques whose immune responses were primed by infection with East African ZIKV were completely protected from detectable viremia when subsequently rechallenged with heterologous Asian ZIKV. Therefore, these data suggest that immunogen selection

  15. Co-movements of and Linkages between Asian Stock Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe H. Kim,

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available International marketers may be interested in stock market linkages for various reasons: the co-movements of equity prices appear to reflect not only market globalization but also the globalization of capital resources. The co-movements can affect the balancing strategies of country market portfolios as they indicate opportunities and risks. The strategic choice of alternative market presence, such as market entry via export marketing or a full ownership and marketing may need to match with the type of financial resources. The co-movements of and the linkages between the U.S. stock market and Asian stock markets have been studied extensively. However, little attention has been given to the co-movements of Asian stock markets and the lead/lag linkages between them. In this paper, we study this issue with the principal components analysis (PCA and Granger-causality (G-C statistical techniques. We find that the contemporaneous co-movements of Asian stock markets have become closer and portfolio diversification benefits with Asian stock markets have diminished over time during the January 1, 2001-January 1, 2011 period. We find that the Singapore, Indian, and Japanese stock markets are the most influential stock markets and the Philippine and South Korean stock markets are the least influential stock markets in Asia. The Japanese, Singapore, and New Zealand stock markets are the least affected stock markets and the Shanghai, Australian, and South Korean stock markets are the most affected stock markets by the movements in the other Asian stock markets.

  16. Higher levels of neanderthal ancestry in East Asians than in Europeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Jeffrey D; Yang, Melinda A; Jay, Flora; Kim, Sung K; Durand, Eric Y; Stevison, Laurie S; Gignoux, Christopher; Woerner, August; Hammer, Michael F; Slatkin, Montgomery

    2013-05-01

    Neanderthals were a group of archaic hominins that occupied most of Europe and parts of Western Asia from ∼30,000 to 300,000 years ago (KYA). They coexisted with modern humans during part of this time. Previous genetic analyses that compared a draft sequence of the Neanderthal genome with genomes of several modern humans concluded that Neanderthals made a small (1-4%) contribution to the gene pools of all non-African populations. This observation was consistent with a single episode of admixture from Neanderthals into the ancestors of all non-Africans when the two groups coexisted in the Middle East 50-80 KYA. We examined the relationship between Neanderthals and modern humans in greater detail by applying two complementary methods to the published draft Neanderthal genome and an expanded set of high-coverage modern human genome sequences. We find that, consistent with the recent finding of Meyer et al. (2012), Neanderthals contributed more DNA to modern East Asians than to modern Europeans. Furthermore we find that the Maasai of East Africa have a small but significant fraction of Neanderthal DNA. Because our analysis is of several genomic samples from each modern human population considered, we are able to document the extent of variation in Neanderthal ancestry within and among populations. Our results combined with those previously published show that a more complex model of admixture between Neanderthals and modern humans is necessary to account for the different levels of Neanderthal ancestry among human populations. In particular, at least some Neanderthal-modern human admixture must postdate the separation of the ancestors of modern European and modern East Asian populations.

  17. ICCS 2009 Asian Report: Civic Knowledge and Attitudes among Lower-Secondary Students in Five Asian Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraillon, Julian; Schulz, Wolfram; Ainley, John

    2012-01-01

    This report presents findings from the Asian regional module of the International Civic and Citizenship Education Study (ICCS), sponsored by the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA). ICCS studied the ways in which young people in lower-secondary schools are prepared to undertake their roles as citizens.…

  18. The Contribution of East Asian Countries to Internationally Published Asian Higher Education Research: The Role of System Development and Internationalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jisun; Horta, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    Studies of higher education by scholars based in Asia have been growing in volume, following worldwide trends. To a large extent, this growth has been driven by East Asian countries, but little is known about the characteristics of the contribution of these countries. This study analyses their overall and specific contribution. The paper concludes…

  19. From Forever Foreigners to Model Minority: Asian American Men in Sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Yomee

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite their long history in the United States, relatively little scholarly attention has been paid to Asian Americans and their lived experience in sports. The purpose of this study was to give voices to Asian American men by focusing on their experiences in sports. In particular, this study examined the experiences of East Asian and Southeast Asian American male college students who were often perceived as “foreign” and “pejoratively feminine” racialized minority yet participated in sports that were associated with dominant masculinity in the U.S. The setting of the study was as a predominately White institution located in Upstate New York where Asian Americans make up about one percent of the total student population. Qualitative research method was employed for the study. Six Asian American male students were recruited through snowball and purposeful sampling methods. In-depth interviews were conducted to reveal the rich stories of these Asian American men. The research showed that the stories of Asian American male college students were much nuanced and complicated. Specifically, this study revealed that Asian American men were constantly otherized as “forever foreigners” who did not have a legitimate citizenship in the United States. Also, Asian Americans faced unique ideas about their manhood that either highlighted emasculated and feminized masculinity or hyper-masculinity. In dealing with these situations, Asian American men employed unique cultural strategies to challenge and resist racial stereotypes through sports.

  20. Health Care Access Among Asian American Subgroups: The Role of Residential Segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreon, Daisy C; Baumeister, Sebastian E

    2015-10-01

    Few studies have examined differences in health care access across Asian American ethnicities and none have considered the effects of residential segregation. The segregation of Asians by neighborhood has been steadily increasing over the past few decades due in part to the settlement patterns of immigrants. Data from the 2009 National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n = 746) were used. We examined differences in yearly medical checkups between Asian subgroups as well as among foreign-born and US-born Asians. Results showed that immigrant Filipinos and Vietnamese were less likely to get a checkup compared with foreign-born Chinese. The effect of Asian subgroup was modified by the percentage of Asians in a census tract (p Chinese and Vietnamese residential concentration of Asians had a stronger inverse association with having a yearly checkup.

  1. What are Asian-American youth consuming? A systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diep, Cassandra S; Foster, Margaret J; McKyer, E Lisako J; Goodson, Patricia; Guidry, Jeffrey J; Liew, Jeffrey

    2015-04-01

    Numerous studies have explored dietary practices among children, but there are limited studies on children of Asian background in the US. This review had three aims: (a) review literature regarding Asian-American youth's dietary behaviors, (b) critically evaluate the methodological quality of such research, and (c) provide recommendations for future nutrition-related research on Asian-American youth. The authors conducted a systematic literature review through MEDLINE (EBSCO), CINAHL Plus with Full Text (EBSCO), and Embase (Ovid); extracted descriptive data; and evaluated methodological quality. Thirteen articles were included. Major findings included: (a) frequent consumption of milk, fruit, meat, unenriched white rice, vegetables, and high-fat and high-sugar items among Asian-American children and (b) acculturation's influences on diet, resulting in Asian-American youth consuming diets characterized by both Asian and American foods. Findings from this review may inform education and promotion programs and services for Asian Americans in the US.

  2. Asian migration to Australia: food and health consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlqvist, Mark L

    2002-01-01

    Australia's food and health patterns are inextricably and increasingly linked with Asia. Indigenous Australians arrived in the continent via Asia and have linguistic connections with people who settled in south India; there was interaction and food trade between both South-East Asia and China and northern indigenous Australians over thousands of years. After European settlement in 1788, there have been several and increasing (apart from the period of the infamous White Australian Policy following the Colonial period and Independence, with Federation, in 1901) waves of Asian migration, notably during the gold rush (Chinese), the building of the overland Telegraph (Afghans), the Colombo Plan and Asian student education in Australia from the 1950s onwards (South-Eeast Asians), and with refugees (Vietnamese and mainland Chinese), and business (late twentieth century) and progressive family reunion. Each wave has injected additional food cultural elements and caused a measure of health change for migrants and host citizens. Of principal advantage to Australia has been the progressive diversification of the food supply and associated health protection. This has increased food security and sustainability. The process of Australian eating patterns becoming Asianized is evident through market garden development (and the introduction of new foods), fresh food markets and groceries, restaurants and the development of household cooking skills (often taught by student boarders). Most of the diversification has been with grain (rice), legumes (soy), greens, root vegetables, and various 'exotic fruits'. Food acculturation with migration is generally bi-directional. Thus, for Asians in Australia, there has been a decrease in energy expenditure (and a lower plane of energy throughput), an increase in food energy density (through increased fat and sugary drink intakes), and a decrease in certain health protective foods (lentils, soy, greens) and beverages (tea). This sets the stage

  3. Dermoscopy of Melanomas on the Trunk and Extremities in Asians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Je-Ho Mun

    Full Text Available The incidence of melanoma among the Asian population is lower compared to that among the Western European population. These populations differed in their most common histopathologic subtypes, acral lentiginous melanoma being the most common in the Asian population. Although the dermoscopic features of the melanomas on the acral skin have been thoroughly investigated in the Asian population, studies concerning the dermoscopic patterns of melanomas on the non-acral skin have been scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate the dermoscopic patterns of melanomas on the trunk and extremities in the Asian population. To achieve this, we evaluated the dermoscopic patterns of 22 primary melanomas diagnosed at two university hospitals in Korea. In addition, 100 benign melanocytic lesions were included as the control group for comparative analysis. A P value less than 0.05 was regarded as statistically significant. Melanoma-associated dermoscopic features such as asymmetry (odds ratio [OR], 30.00, multicolor pattern (OR, 30.12, blotches (OR, 13.50, blue white veils (OR, 15.75, atypical pigment networks (OR, 9.71, irregular peripheral streaks (OR, 6.30, atypical vascular patterns (OR, 11.50, ulcers (OR, 15.83, atypical dots/globules (OR, 3.15, shiny white lines (OR, 5.88, and regression structures (OR, 7.06 were more commonly observed in patients with melanomas than in patients of the control group. The mean dermoscopic scores obtained on the 7-point checklist, revised 7-point checklist, 3-point checklist, ABCD rule, and CASH algorithm were 5.36, 3.41, 2.05, 6.89, and 9.68, respectively, in the primary melanomas, and 1.33, 0.93, 0.46, 2.45, and 3.60, respectively, in the control group (all, P < 0.001. The present study showed that melanoma-related dermoscopic patterns were common in Asian patients. Dermoscopy is a reliable diagnostic tool for the melanomas of the trunk and extremities in the Asian populations.

  4. Small Orbits

    CERN Document Server

    Borsten, L; Ferrara, S; Marrani, A; Rubens, W

    2012-01-01

    We study both the "large" and "small" U-duality charge orbits of extremal black holes appearing in D = 5 and D = 4 Maxwell-Einstein supergravity theories with symmetric scalar manifolds. We exploit a formalism based on cubic Jordan algebras and their associated Freudenthal triple systems, in order to derive the minimal charge representatives, their stabilizers and the associated "moduli spaces". After recalling N = 8 maximal supergravity, we consider N = 2 and N = 4 theories coupled to an arbitrary number of vector multiplets, as well as N = 2 magic, STU, ST^2 and T^3 models. While the STU model may be considered as part of the general N = 2 sequence, albeit with an additional triality symmetry, the ST^2 and T^3 models demand a separate treatment, since their representative Jordan algebras are Euclidean or only admit non-zero elements of rank 3, respectively. Finally, we also consider minimally coupled N = 2, matter coupled N = 3, and "pure" N = 5 theories.

  5. Recent advances on thrombosis and haemostasis in Asian Pacific region: report of the Fourth Asian Pacific Congress on Thrombosis and Haemostasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhao-yue

    2006-01-01

    @@ The Fourth Asian Pacific Congress on Thrombosis and Haemostasis (APCTH) was held from September 21 to 23, 2006 in Suzhou, China and organized by the Asian Pacific Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis and the Chinese Society of Haematology with professor RUAN Chang-geng as the chairperson.

  6. Comparison of Body Mass Index (BMI) Categories Based on Asian and Universal Standards and Language Spoken at Home among Asian American University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Tiffany; McMahan, Shari; Mouttapa, Michele; Tanjasiri, Sora Park; Beam, William

    2009-01-01

    Background: The World Health Organization released lower Body Mass Index (BMI) cutoff points for Asian individuals to account for increased body fat percentage (BF%) and risk of obesity-related conditions at a lower body mass index. Purpose: This preliminary study: (1) explores the impact of utilizing Asian BMI standards (compared to universal…

  7. Youth Mobilization for Development in Asian Settings. Asian Regional Youth Meeting (Kathmandu, Nepal, September 17-22, 1978). Final Report, Recommendations, and Selected Documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    This report contains the proceedings of a 1978 meeting held in Kathmandu, Nepal to examine major problems and aspirations of Asian youth. Thirty three people from 18 countries participated. There are three parts to the report. Part I summarizes the six main themes of the meeting. They are: concept of youth as viewed by Asian cultures; concepts and…

  8. Small carnivores of Biligiri Rangaswamy Temple Tiger Reserve, Karnataka, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honnavalli N. Kumara

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available During the present study in Biligiri Rangaswamy Temple Tiger Reserve (BRT, nine species of small carnivores viz., Jungle Cat Felis chaus, Rusty-spotted Cat Prionalilurus rubiginosus, Leopard Cat Prionailurus bengalensis, Small Indian Civet Viverricula indica, Asian Palm Civet Paradoxurus hermaphroditus, Striped-necked Mongoose Herpestes vitticollis, Ruddy Mongoose Herpestes smithii, Common Mongoose Herpestes edwardsii and Smooth-coated Otter Lutrogale perspicillata, were recorded using camera-trapping technique, transect walks, and night surveys. Vegetation type strongly influences the presence and abundance of each species. The most sightings of small carnivores occurred in dry deciduous forests. Among all the species, the Asian Palm Civet was the most abundant and was followed by the small Indian Civet. Compared to many other forests or regions in India, the sight records of the Rusty-spotted Cat were relatively higher in BRT. Although we were unable to use statistical methods to search for higher levels of interdependencies between forest types and small carnivore abundance, our study sheds light on patterns of small carnivore distribution in this unique habitat which bridges the Western Ghats and the Eastern Ghats.

  9. Identification of bifidobacteria isolated from Asian elephant (Elephas maximus)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vera Bunesova; Eva Vlkova; Vojtech Rada; Jiri Killer; Vladimir Kmet

    2013-06-01

    Bifidobacteria are considered as one of the key genera in intestinal tracts of animals, and their species composition vary depending on the host. The aim of this study was to identify faecal bifidobacteria from Asian elephants (Elephas maximus), housed in Zoological gardens (Ostrava, Czech Republic). Using culturing, bifidobacteria were found in counts 7.60±0.56 log CFU/g. Twenty-six pure strains were isolated from faeces of Asian elephant. The isolates were clustered into two groups according to fingerprinting profiles and fermentation characteristic. Bacteria were identified by a combination of MALDI-TOF MS, PCR methods and sequencing as B. boum (12 isolates) and B. adolescentis (14 isolates). Elephant strains showed different fingerprinting profiles than type and collection strains. Since these two species are frequently isolated from gastrointestinal tract of herbivores, they seem to be typical of animals fed plant diets.

  10. [Pandemic without drama. Influenza vaccination and Asian flu in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, Wilfried

    2013-01-01

    The history of the 1957/58 Asian flu in Germany is systematically presented for the first time. The focus is on flu vaccination, which is discussed as a yardstick of the perception of the pandemic. International expertise on influenza virology was predominantly based in Anglo-Saxon countries. German microbiologists issued no clear recommendation for preventative vaccination until 1960. Instead, quinine was relied upon as the traditional medicinal prophylaxis. Antibiotics were more frequently administered. In East Germany, little fuss was made over the Asian flu. In line with the authorities' social hygiene orientation, vaccination was accepted as a matter of principle. In the Federal Republic and West Berlin, the population rejected the vaccination largely. It was seen as a scandal that many employees were on sick leave because of the flu, thus adversely affecting the economy.

  11. The YH database: the first Asian diploid genome database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guoqing; Ma, Lijia; Song, Chao; Yang, Zhentao; Wang, Xiulan; Huang, Hui; Li, Yingrui; Li, Ruiqiang; Zhang, Xiuqing; Yang, Huanming; Wang, Jian; Wang, Jun

    2009-01-01

    The YH database is a server that allows the user to easily browse and download data from the first Asian diploid genome. The aim of this platform is to facilitate the study of this Asian genome and to enable improved organization and presentation large-scale personal genome data. Powered by GBrowse, we illustrate here the genome sequences, SNPs, and sequencing reads in the MapView. The relationships between phenotype and genotype can be searched by location, dbSNP ID, HGMD ID, gene symbol and disease name. A BLAST web service is also provided for the purpose of aligning query sequence against YH genome consensus. The YH database is currently one of the three personal genome database, organizing the original data and analysis results in a user-friendly interface, which is an endeavor to achieve fundamental goals for establishing personal medicine. The database is available at http://yh.genomics.org.cn.

  12. Information for Authors Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedcine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    <正>GENERAL Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine is sponsored by Asian Paeific Tropical Medicine Press and Hainan Medical University Journal Publisher,and aims to set up an acdemic communicating platform for Chinese and scientists all over the world on tropical biomedicine and related sciences.The Journal invites concise reports of original research in all areas of tropical biomedicine and related fields,both experimental and clinical,including modern,traditional and epidemiological studies,from any part of the world.Review articles based primarily on authors’own research on internationally important topics will be accepted.Short communications and letters to the editor are also welcome.Authors

  13. European Union Trading Bloc: Motivation for East Asian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Imran

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available European Union is extremely integrated market with more than 500 million consumers searching for quality goods. EU trading bloc is largest exporter to more than 80 countries and 71 per cent imports enter in EU region at reduced or sometimes at zero tariffs. Still EU has having motivated agenda with other world for a number of trade agreements in the pipeline. Basic idea behind this research study is, whether EU trading bloc has improved the performance of member countries or not? Research study finds that EU trading bloc has increased the production and welfare of the peoples in EU region. Now, it is suggestion for East Asian countries to make East Asian Trading Bloc (EATB for improved performance and better wellbeing of the people in near future.

  14. Return and Volatility Spillovers Among Asian Stock Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Joshi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The study examines the return and volatility spillover among Asian stock markets in India, Hong Kong, Japan, China, Jakarta, and Korea using a six-variable asymmetric generalized autoregressive conditional heteroscedasticity–Baba, Engle, Kraft, and Kroner (GARCH-BEKK model during February 2, 2007, to February 29, 2010. The author finds evidence of bidirectional return, shock, and volatility spillover among most of the stock markets. The magnitude of volatility linkages is low indicating weak integration of Asian stock markets. The study finds that own volatility spillover is higher than cross-market spillover. The overall persistence of stock market volatility is highest for Japan (0.931 and lowest for China (0.824. The implication of weak integration is that investors will benefit from reduction of diversifiable risk.

  15. Asian Monsoon Failure and Megadrought During the Last Millennium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Edward R.; Anchukaitis, Kevin J.; Buckley, Brendan M.; D'Arrigo, Rosanne D.; Jacoby, Gordon C.; Wright, William E.

    2010-04-01

    The Asian monsoon system affects more than half of humanity worldwide, yet the dynamical processes that govern its complex spatiotemporal variability are not sufficiently understood to model and predict its behavior, due in part to inadequate long-term climate observations. Here we present the Monsoon Asia Drought Atlas (MADA), a seasonally resolved gridded spatial reconstruction of Asian monsoon drought and pluvials over the past millennium, derived from a network of tree-ring chronologies. MADA provides the spatiotemporal details of known historic monsoon failures and reveals the occurrence, severity, and fingerprint of previously unknown monsoon megadroughts and their close linkages to large-scale patterns of tropical Indo-Pacific sea surface temperatures. MADA thus provides a long-term context for recent monsoon variability that is critically needed for climate modeling, prediction, and attribution.

  16. Stopping the Silent Killer: Hepatitis B Among Asian Americans

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-04-18

    This podcast discusses an underappreciated health threat to many Asians and Pacific Islanders in the United States: chronic infection with the hepatitis B virus. Dr. John Ward, director of CDC's Division of Viral Hepatitis, and Dr. Sam So, founder of the Asian Liver Center at Stanford University, address the importance of testing, vaccination, and care to prevent serious health consequences from this "silent" disease.  Created: 4/18/2008 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP), Division of Viral Hepatitis (DVH) and Office of Dispute Resolution and Equal Employment Opportunity, Office of the Director (OD).   Date Released: 5/1/2008.

  17. Activities of Asian Students and Young Scientists on Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, H.; Lo, C.-Y.; Cho, K.

    2012-07-01

    This paper reports a history and future prospects of the activities by Asian students and young scientists on photogrammetry and remote sensing. For future growths of academic fields, active communications among students and young scientists are indispensable. In some countries and regions in Asia, local communities are already established by youths and playing important roles of building networks among various schools and institutes. The networks are expected to evolve innovative cooperations after the youths achieve their professions. Although local communities are getting solid growth, Asian youths had had little opportunities to make contacts with youths of other countries and regions. To promote youth activities among Asian regions, in 2007, Asian Association on Remote Sensing (AARS) started a series of programs involving students and young scientists within the annual conferences, the Asian Conference on Remote Sensing (ACRS). The programs have provided opportunities and motivations to create networks among students and young scientists. As a result of the achievements, the number of youth interested and involved in the programs is on growing. In addition, through the events held in Asian region by ISPRS Student Consortium (ISPRSSC) and WG VI/5, the Asian youths have built friendly partnership with ISPRSSC. Currently, many Asian youth are keeping contacts with ACRS friends via internet even when they are away from ACRS. To keep and expand the network, they are planning to establish an Asian youth organization on remote sensing. This paper describes about the proposals and future prospects on the Asian youth organization.

  18. Asian dust storm particles induce a broad toxicological transcriptional program in human epidermal keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyun; Shin, Dong Wook; Kim, Wonnyon; Doh, Seong-Jae; Lee, Soo Hwan; Noh, Minsoo

    2011-01-15

    Exposure to airborne dust particles originated from seasonal Asian dust storms in Chinese and Mongolian deserts results in increased incidence of a range of diseases including asthma, contact dermatitis and conjunctivitis. The areas affected by Asian dust particles extend from East China to the west coast of North America. In order to study toxicological mechanisms in human skin, we evaluated the effects of dust particles collected during Asian dust storms (Asian dust particles) on gene expression in human epidermal keratinocytes (HEK). In HEK, exposure to Asian dust particles significantly increased gene expressions of cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1), CYP1A2, and CYP1B1, which is an indication of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) activation. In addition, Asian dust particles increased gene transcription of the cytokines IL-6, IL-8, and GM-CSF, which have broad pro-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties. Asian dust particles significantly up-regulated expression of caspase 14 in HEK, suggesting that Asian dust particles directly affect keratinocyte differentiation. We also demonstrated that protein extract of pollen, a material frequently adsorbed onto Asian dust particles, potentially contributes to the increased transcription of IL-6, CYP1A1, CYP1A2, and CYP1B1. Taken together, these studies suggest that Asian dust particles can exert toxicological effects on human skin through the activation of the cellular detoxification system, the production of pro-inflammatory and immunomodulatory cytokines, and changes in the expression of proteins essential in normal epidermal differentiation.

  19. Defense, Education and Health Expenditures in Selected Asian Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Hirnissa, M.T; Habibullah, M.S.; Baharom, A.H.

    2008-01-01

    This study explores the inter-relationship between military expenditure, education expenditure and health expenditure in eight selected Asian countries namely Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore, Philippines, Bangladesh, Nepal, Sri Lanka and South Korea. Autoregressive Distributed Lag-Restricted Error Correction Model (ARDL-RECM) procedure was utilized in the analysis. The empirical results suggest that, except for the case of Malaysia and Sri Lanka, whereby no meaningful interrelationship was det...

  20. AB025. Asian men’s sexual health: Korean perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Park,Kwangsung

    2016-01-01

    Sexual function is an important component of men’s health. The prevalence of erectile dysfunction (ED) in Korea has been reported as 18–36.6% whereas Asian data showed a wide range from 2% to 88%. In 2013, the Korean Society for Sexual Medicine and Andrology (KSSMA) developed the Korean Guideline of ED. Risk factors for ED included age, diabetes, hypertension, obesity, lack of exercise, dyslipidemia, smoking, depression, lower urinary tract symptoms, and pelvic surgery. This guideline showed ...

  1. Social Media and Socio-Political Change: An Asian Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Pang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available With the widespread adoption of social media in many Asian societies, these platforms are increasingly used in a variety of ways to promote civic and political aims but such uses are shaped by various stakeholders and contexts of use. In this special issue, four papers on Japan, Singapore, Malaysia and China-Australia present highly contextualized assessments of the role of social media in civic and political life in Asia.

  2. Maximising Asian ESL Learners’ Communicative Oral English via Drama

    OpenAIRE

    Chamkaur Gill

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes that activities based on a variety of drama-based techniques could be valuable in giving Asian ESL learners opportunities to use communicative spoken English confidently and without restraint during their time in English-language-speaking countries. These learners often get anxious when in situations where they are required to speak in English. Fears about making errors related to grammar, fluency and clarity that might cause them to be embarrassed stand in the way of unen...

  3. Journal of Asian Natural Products Research简介

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李霄茜

    2009-01-01

    @@ Journal of Asian Natural Products Research(,简称JANPR;ISSN:1028-6020;e-ISSN:1477-2213)是由英国Taylor & Francis公司出版发行的一本以亚洲传统医学中天然产品的化学和药理学研究为主要方向的国际性杂志.

  4. Asian Banks:Leading the Way to Recovery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The global financial crisis has rocked the American and European Union banking system leaving many Western banks teetering on the verge of bankruptcy. But in the East, Asian banks have fared well so far. But what’s the secret to their success in riding out the crisis? Karen Fawcett, Group Head of Transaction Banking of Standard Chartered Bank, gave her answers in the following article with Beijing Review. Edited excerpts follow:

  5. Risk assessment and aspirin use in Asian and Western populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runlin Gao

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Runlin Gao1, Xiaoying Li21Department of Cardiology, Cardiovascular Institute and Fuwai Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing; 2Department of Geriatric Cardiology, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, ChinaObjective: The aim of this review was to examine aspirin utilization, cardiovascular risk ­estimation, and clinical evidence for aspirin prophylaxis in Asian versus Western countries.Methods: A literature search was performed using PubMed and the key terms "aspirin" and "Asia" or "Western".Results: Despite the growing burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD, aspirin is underutilized in high-risk patients in both Asian and Western countries. A number of risk estimation scores are available; however, validation is needed in countries such as Japan, India, and in South Asia. Underutilization of aspirin in Asia may be linked to an overestimation of bleeding risks. It is possible that a higher prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection and genetic differences may make Asians more susceptible to gastrointestinal bleeding. Very low aspirin doses and even the wider use of gastroprotective agents may be the optimal approach to high-risk patients in Asia.Conclusions: Based on the current evidence, aspirin should be used for CVD prevention when the risk:benefit ratio is favorable. A number of trials are underway, including the Diabetic Atherosclerosis Prevention by Cilostazol and Japanese Primary Prevention Project, which will provide key data on the benefits of aspirin in Asian patients at risk of CVD, and may improve aspirin utilization and risk estimation.Keywords: aspirin, cardiovascular risk estimation, Asia, Western

  6. Characterization of dental anatomy and gingival biotype in Asian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Stacey A; Kim, Alexis C; Prusa, Louis A; Kao, Richard T

    2013-01-01

    Gingival and dental characteristics are risk factors for periodontal problems. With short or fused roots, a decreased periodontium results in some attachment loss, compromising periodontal stability. Similarly, with an increased incidence of thin gingival biotype, inflammatory and traumatic insults may result in gingival recession. Anecdotally, Asian dentitions have been described as having short roots with "thin gingiva". This cross-sectional study will utilize clinical data and radiographic interpretation to ascertain whether this clinical impression is valid.

  7. Low coverage sequencing of two Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) genomes

    OpenAIRE

    Dastjerdi, Akbar; Robert, Christelle; Watson, Mick

    2014-01-01

    Background There are three species of elephant that exist, the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) and two species of African elephant (Loxodonta africana and Loxodonta cyclotis). The populations of all three species are dwindling, and are under threat due to factors, such as habitat destruction and ivory hunting. The species differ in many respects, including in their morphology and response to disease. The availability of elephant genome sequence data from all three elephant species will compl...

  8. Pacific Asian Business Programs in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Chuk C Y Kwok

    1986-01-01

    As Pacific Asia becomes increasingly important in the world economy, business programs are needed for preparing students who want to specialize in this region. This study develops a comprehensive listing of Pacific Asian business programs currently available in the U.S. It is found that the programs vary significantly in terms of length, structure and regional focus. Although there are a few programs of this kind available, the number may still be insufficient. The American business schools m...

  9. Medication Errors in the Southeast Asian Countries: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrzad Salmasi

    Full Text Available Medication error (ME is a worldwide issue, but most studies on ME have been undertaken in developed countries and very little is known about ME in Southeast Asian countries. This study aimed systematically to identify and review research done on ME in Southeast Asian countries in order to identify common types of ME and estimate its prevalence in this region.The literature relating to MEs in Southeast Asian countries was systematically reviewed in December 2014 by using; Embase, Medline, Pubmed, ProQuest Central and the CINAHL. Inclusion criteria were studies (in any languages that investigated the incidence and the contributing factors of ME in patients of all ages.The 17 included studies reported data from six of the eleven Southeast Asian countries: five studies in Singapore, four in Malaysia, three in Thailand, three in Vietnam, one in the Philippines and one in Indonesia. There was no data on MEs in Brunei, Laos, Cambodia, Myanmar and Timor. Of the seventeen included studies, eleven measured administration errors, four focused on prescribing errors, three were done on preparation errors, three on dispensing errors and two on transcribing errors. There was only one study of reconciliation error. Three studies were interventional.The most frequently reported types of administration error were incorrect time, omission error and incorrect dose. Staff shortages, and hence heavy workload for nurses, doctor/nurse distraction, and misinterpretation of the prescription/medication chart, were identified as contributing factors of ME. There is a serious lack of studies on this topic in this region which needs to be addressed if the issue of ME is to be fully understood and addressed.

  10. Impact of remittance in developing countries South Asian countries

    OpenAIRE

    Bhandari, Bishow

    2015-01-01

    There are various examinations of the impact of remittance on poverty, education, governance, human development index, economic growth among several factors in developing countries with scattered result using the panel data of developing countries. This study aims to examine the direct impact of remittance on economic growth and the other development indicator and the long term impact of the remittance in the five south Asian developing countries. The result finds the positi...

  11. Asian and African Development Trajectories Revisiting Facts and Figures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles Carbonnier

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In today’s dominant discourse, the development trajectory of many East Asian countries is pictured as a success, whereas that of many sub-Saharan African countries is considered a failure. The Asian success stories often refer to the developmental state model, which highlights the pivotal role played by Asian political elites in catalyzing economic growth and broad-based development. The model includes economic liberalization and outward-oriented policies, with targeted support to – and protection of – strategic sectors and infant industries.How far is this underlying assumption supported by empirical evidence? This working paper examines a wide range of economic, social, institutional and governance indicators for a sample of six sub-Saharan and five South East Asian countries. Contrary to our research hypothesis, we did not find any significant difference in the level of government involvement in the domestic economy between the countries of the two regions, nor in the quality of institutions and governance indicators, nor in the share of imports and exports in GDP.Even if there are important gaps between the two regions, for instance with regard to the demographic transition, the agricultural sector or tertiary education, the picture is much more nuanced than portrayed by the dominant discourse. Our review of economic and socio-political indicators tells a rather different story, but not the whole story. Nevertheless, the indicators fail to take into account all the historical, institutional and structural factors that matter a great deal for development. Hence our analysis should be complemented by detailed country case studies to uncover the specific dynamics underlying different development trajectories and outcomes.

  12. Asian Origins of Cinderella: The Zhuang Storyteller of Guangxi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fay Beauchamp

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The acceptance and understanding of the Asian origins of the “Cinderella” story should replace the widely held belief that the story is fundamentally Western or universal. The Zhuang, an ethnic group at the intersection of China and Vietnam, combined ideas from their own traditions and experiences with motifs from Hindu and Buddhist narratives circulating in their area during the Tang Dynasty, and should be credited with creating this subversive, virginal, talented, and compassionate heroine.

  13. Diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease in Asia: the results of a multinational web-based survey in the 2nd Asian Organization for Crohn's and Colitis (AOCC) meeting in Seoul

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Soo; Lee, Jun; Lee, Chang-Kyun; Kim, You Sun

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims As the number of Asian patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has increased recently, there is a growing need to improve IBD care in this region. This study is aimed at determining how Asian countries are currently dealing with their IBD patients in terms of diagnosis. Methods A questionnaire was designed by the organizing committee of Asian Organization for Crohn's and Colitis, for a multinational web-based survey conducted between March 2014 and May 2014. Results A total of 353 Asian medical doctors treating IBD patients responded to the survey (114 in China, 88 in Japan, 116 in Korea, and 35 in other Asian countries). Most of the respondents were gastroenterologists working in an academic teaching hospital. While most of the doctors from China, Japan, and Korea use their own national guidelines for IBD diagnosis, those from other Asian countries most commonly adopt the European Crohn's Colitis Organisation's guideline. Japanese doctors seldom adopt the Montreal classification for IBD. The most commonly used activity scoring system for ulcerative colitis is the Mayo score in all countries except China, whereas that for Crohn's disease (CD) is the Crohn's Disease Activity Index. The most available tool for small-bowel evaluation in CD patients differs across countries. Many physicians administer empirical anti-tuberculous medications before the diagnosis of CD. Conclusions The results of this survey demonstrate that Asian medical doctors have different diagnostic approaches for IBD. This knowledge would be important in establishing guidelines for improving the care of IBD patients in this region. PMID:27433144

  14. Looking for Asian butch-dykes: exploring filmic representations of East Asian butch-dykes in Donna Lee's Enter the Mullet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hui-Ling

    2009-01-01

    Asian butch-dykes have been overlooked in analyses of Chinese cinema, studies that often concentrate on "feminized" transgender roles. This article examines cinematic representations of Asian butch-dykes through film analysis of Enter the Mullet (2004), a five-minute short, and in-depth interviews with the filmmaker, Donna Lee, a Chinese-Canadian in Vancouver. Lee's film is inspired by Enter the Dragon (1973), starring Bruce Lee, the most recognized icon of Asian masculinity. Combining with the mullet hairstyle, which is often associated with White working-class, the filmmaker introduces viewers to the hybrid masculinity of Asian butch-dykes. The article argues that Asian female masculinity can be a strategic means of destabilizing the hegemony of White-male-middle-class masculinity.

  15. Genetic epidemiology of coronary artery disease: an Asian Indian perspective

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shanker Jayashree; Maitra Arindam; Kakkar V. Vijay

    2015-09-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) has emerged as a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Recent findings on the role of genetic factors in the aetiopathology of CAD have implicated novel genes and variants in addition to those involved in lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. However, our present knowledge is limited due to lack of clarity on their exact identity and the quantum of impact on disease susceptibility, and incident risk. It is a matter of great interest to understand the role of genetic factors in ethnic populations that have a strong underlying predisposition to CAD such as the South Asian populations, particularly among Asian Indians living in India and abroad. Although, a number of isolated studies do implicate certain gene polymorphisms towards enhanced disease susceptibility, the available data remains scanty and inconclusive as they have not been validated in large, prospective cohorts. The present review aims to consolidate the available literature on the genetics of CAD in Asian Indians and seeks to provide insights on the concerns that need to be addressed in future studies to generate information having clinical value.

  16. Effectiveness of Onion Extract Gel on Surgical Scars in Asians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumutnart Chanprapaph

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Onion extracts have been shown in vitro to accelerate wound healing. Results from clinical studies on surgical scars in Caucasians were disappointing. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of onion extract gel in improving the cosmetic and symptoms of surgical scars in Asians. Patients/Methods. Twenty Asians who had new Pfannenstiel’s cesarean section scars were recruited in this prospective double-blinded, split-scar study. Each side was randomly assigned treatment with onion extract gel or placebo at 7 days after surgery. The product was applied three times daily for 12 weeks. Subjects were evaluated at baseline and 4th and 12th weeks. Scar redness was assessed by calorimeter, scar height and pliability were assessed by blinded investigators, and scar symptoms and overall cosmetic improvement were assessed by subjects. Results. Sixteen subjects completed the study. A statistically significant difference between two sides of scar in terms of scar height and scar symptoms was found. There was no statistically significant difference in scar redness, scar pliability, and overall cosmetic appearance between two sides. Conclusions. The early use of topical 12% onion extract gel on Pfannenstiel’s cesarean section scar in Asians resulted in the improvement of scar height and scar symptoms.

  17. Capturing volatility and its spillover in South Asian countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchika Gahlota

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to study volatility and its spillover among South Asian Countries through use of Granger causality test. Using the daily closing prices of major index of each country in South Asia, the Granger causality and C GARCH M models asses the impact of recession on the nature of volatility by decomposing the long period into two sub periods. The study finds significant bidirectional causality between Stock market of U.S. and India for both short terms as well as for long term which is not disturbed by recession. But the recession has changed causal relation among other countries. The recession has created higher shock impact on the permanent component of the volatility of stock market of all South Asian countries. It is also observed that volatility of all South Asian countries is of long term nature. In addition, the observed spillover effects are unstable over time in the sense that the spillover changed its nature after beginning of recession.

  18. The Asian Development Model and Mining Reforms in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John McLaren

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to provide accounting, marketing, management, finance and legal professionals who are engaged with emerging economies with an introduction to the ‘Asian Development Model’ and to use the mining reforms in Indonesia as an example of the Model in operation. This will assist those professionals in recognising the challenges faced by businesses in Australia and New Zealand when governments in South East Asian countries attempt to ‘catch up’ to the developed world and at the same time attempt to spread the benefits of the development to their people. The paper argues that there is an Asian Development Model and that the Indonesian mining reforms, in particular the requirement over time for 51 percent Indonesian Government ownership and the ban on the export of unprocessed resources, represent an attempt by the Indonesian State to speed up industrialisation in their country and to spread more of the benefits from mining to ordinary citizens in the recently democratised and politically decentralised country. In attempting to show strength however, the Indonesian state is exposing some weakness. The impact on jobs, revenue and production has been adverse although Foreign Direct Investment has increased. This latter may be because it is foreign multinational mining companies who are better placed than local mining enterprises to build smelters. The success of developing mining might be at the expense of local capital. In other words state intervention does not always produce all of the desired outcomes. It is not a panacea.

  19. The contribution of Asian scientists to global research in andrology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GeoffreyMHWA1TES

    1999-01-01

    Aim: To present a personal account of the involvement of the World Health Organization (WHO) in the collaborative development in Asia of those areas of andmlogy concerned with male contraception and reproductive health.Methods: The andrology training through workshops and institution support undertaken by the WHO Human Reproduction Programme (HRP) and how they contributed to the strengthening of audrology research in Asia are summadsed. Results: The author' s experience and the Asian scientific contributions to the global research in the following areas are reviewed: the safety of vasectomy and the development of new methods of vas occlusion; gossypoland its failure to become a safe, reversible male antifeltility drug; Tripterygium and whether its pule extracts will passypol through the appropriate toxicology and phased clinical studies to become acceptable contraceptive drugs; hormonalmethods of contraception for men. Conclusion: The WHO policy of research capacity building through training and institution strengthening, together with the collaboration of Asian andrologists, has created strong National institutions now able to direct their own programmes of research in clinical and scientific andrology. ( Asian J Androl 1999 Jun ;1: 7-12)

  20. Climate Change Signal Analysis for Northeast Asian Surface Temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jeong-Hyeong LEE; Byungsoo KIM; Keon-Tae SOHN; Won-Tae KOWN; Seung-Ki MIN

    2005-01-01

    Climate change detection, attribution, and prediction were studied for the surface temperature in the Northeast Asian region using NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data and three coupled-model simulations from ECHAM4/OPYC3, HadCM3, and CCCma GCMs (Canadian Centre for Climate Modeling and Analysis general circulation model). The Bayesian fingerprint approach was used to perform the detection and attribution test for the anthropogenic climate change signal associated with changes in anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) and sulfate aerosol (SO42-) concentrations for the Northeast Asian temperature. It was shown that there was a weak anthropogenic climate change signal in the Northeast Asian temperature change. The relative contribution of CO2 and SOl- effects to total temperature change in Northeast Asia was quantified from ECHAM4/OPYC3 and CCCma GCM simulations using analysis of variance. For the observed temperature change for the period of 1959-1998, the CO2 effect contributed 10%-21% of the total variance and the direct cooling effect of SO42- played a less important role (0% 7%) than the CO2effect. The prediction of surface temperature change was estimated from the second CO2+SO24- scenario run of ECHAM4/OPYC3 which has the least error in the simulation of the present-day temperature field near the Korean Peninsula. The result shows that the area-mean surface temperature near the Korean Peninsula will increase by about 1.1° by the 2040s relative to the 1990s.

  1. I. KARIMOV’S ROLE IN CENTRAL ASIAN SECURITY SUPPORTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. G. Garbuzarova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the place and role of the first President of Uzbekistan I. Karimov in the system of Central Asian security. Central Asia is an unstable region with political conflicts and activity of Islamic extremists. The leading superpowers pay attention to the region. The diversity of problems in the region requires the participation of each regional actor in strengthening Central Asian security. The attention is focused on the personal factor in the political system of Uzbekistan. The personalistic approach to the analysis of political system of Uzbekistan proves Karimov’s substantial role in regional security issues. There are indicators such as the efforts to maintain the geopolitical balance in Central Asia, the strategy and tactics of the struggle against Islamic radicalism, a call for fair solution of water-energy and territorial issues. The events of 2005 in Andijan had tested the regime of Islam Karimov. Moreover it could have destabilized the whole region and changed the configuration of powers. Despite the warlike rhetoric of Islam Karimov the author comes to the conclusion that the first president of Uzbekistan played the constructive role in ensuring stability in the Central Asian region. Experts associated Karimov’s death with drastic regional changes due to lack of experience of the transit authority. The transit of power is taking place in a calm political atmosphere. The question remains about political strategy and tactics which will adhere to his successor in the solution of regional problems.

  2. Morphometric analysis of the cranial base in Asians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hong-Po; Liu, Pao-Hsin; Tseng, Yu-Chuan; Yang, Yi-Hsin; Pan, Chin-Yun; Chou, Szu-Ting

    2014-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that developmental heterogeneity in cranial base morphology increases the prevalence of Class III malocclusion and mandibular prognathism in Asians. Thin-plate spline (TPS) graphical analysis of lateral cephalometric radiographs of the cranial base and the upper midface configuration were compared between a European-American group (24 females and 31 males) and four Asian ethnic groups (100 Chinese, 100 Japanese, 100 Korean and 100 Taiwanese; 50 females and 50 males per group) of young adults with clinically acceptable occlusion and facial profiles. Procrustes analysis was performed to identify statistically significant differences in each configuration of landmarks (P expansion in the anterior portion of the cranial base and upper midface region. The most posterior cranial base region also showed horizontal compression between the basion and Bolton point, with forward displacement of the articulare. Facial flatness and anterior displacement of the temporomandibular joint, resulting from a relative retrusion of the nasomaxillary complex and a relative forward position of the mandible were also noted. These features that tend to cause a prognathic mandible and/or retruded midface indicate a morphologic predisposition of Asian populations for Class III malocclusion.

  3. Autosomal and X-linked single nucleotide polymorphisms reveal a steep Asian-Melanesian ancestry cline in eastern Indonesia and a sex bias in admixture rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Murray P; Karafet, Tatiana M; Lansing, J Stephen; Sudoyo, Herawati; Hammer, Michael F

    2010-05-22

    The geographical region between mainland Asia and New Guinea is characterized by numerous small islands with isolated human populations. Phenotypically, groups in the west are similar to their neighbours in mainland Southeast Asia, eastern groups near New Guinea are similar to Melanesians, and intervening populations are intermediate in appearance. A long-standing question is whether this pattern primarily reflects mixing between groups with distinct origins or whether natural selection has shaped this range of variation by acting differentially on populations across the region. To address this question, we genotyped a set of 37 single nucleotide polymorphisms that are evolutionarily independent, putatively neutral and highly informative for Asian-Melanesian ancestry in 1430 individuals from 60 populations spanning mainland Asia to Melanesia. Admixture analysis reveals a sharp transition from Asian to Melanesian genetic variants over a narrow geographical region in eastern Indonesia. Interestingly, this admixture cline roughly corresponds to the human phenotypic boundary noted by Alfred Russell Wallace in 1869. We conclude that this phenotypic gradient probably reflects mixing of two long-separated ancestral source populations-one descended from the initial Melanesian-like inhabitants of the region, and the other related to Asian groups that immigrated during the Paleolithic and/or with the spread of agriculture. A higher frequency of Asian X-linked markers relative to autosomal markers throughout the transition zone suggests that the admixture process was sex-biased, either favouring a westward expansion of patrilocal Melanesian groups or an eastward expansion of matrilocal Asian immigrants. The matrilocal marriage practices that dominated early Austronesian societies may be one factor contributing to this observed sex bias in admixture rates.

  4. Sex difference in blood pressure among South Asian diaspora in Europe and North America and the role of BMI: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Munter, J S L; Agyemang, C; van Valkengoed, I G; Bhopal, R; Stronks, K

    2011-07-01

    It is unclear whether the sex difference that is known to occur in blood pressure (BP) is similar in some South Asian populations. This study presents a meta-analysis of the sex difference in BP, hypertension and the role of body mass index (BMI) in South Asian diaspora compared with populations of European descent. We systematically searched for studies that reported BP and hypertension among South Asian descent populations living in Europe and North America. Weighted mean differences in BP and risk ratios (RR) for hypertension were calculated for men and women. We included 11 studies in this meta-analysis. In general, men had a higher BP and prevalence of hypertension than women, for example, systolic BP was higher in men than in women among the Indian (7.21 mm Hg, 95% confidence interval (CI): 4.46-9.95) and European populations (6.12 mm Hg, 95% CI: 4.45-7.80). The difference was less in the Pakistani population (4.00 mm Hg, 95% CI: 2.65-5.36). The Bangladeshi population showed a comparatively small sex difference in systolic (2.93 mm Hg, 95% CI: 1.20-4.66) and diastolic BP (0.68 mm Hg, 95% CI: -1.76 to 3.12) and prevalence of hypertension (RR 1.28, 95% CI: 0.66-2.46). Sex differences in BMI for the South Asian populations were greater than those in Europeans. The Indian population had similar sex differences in BP and hypertension compared with Europeans, but Pakistani and Bangladeshi had smaller sex differences. Sex differences in BMI might relate to the blunted sex differences in BP in Pakistani and Bangladeshi populations. Further research should focus on factors that underlie this intriguing sex difference among South Asian populations.

  5. A new node on the SE Asian paleoclimate map: the alkaline crater lakes of central Myanmar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smittenberg, Rienk H.; Chabangborn, Akkaneewut; Thu Aung, Lin; Fritz, Sherilyn; Wohlfarth, Barbara

    2014-05-01

    SE Asia is climatically a key region where the Asian monsoon system connects with the Indo-Pacific warm pool and from where much (latent) heat gets transported to higher latitudes. We recently obtained sediment cores from four crater lakes located in Central Myanmar, with the aim to further colour the still largely white space on the SE Asian paleoclimate map. The chain of volcanic craters extending northeast to southwest in the vicinity of the lower Chindwin River in central Myanmar have been known for a long time. These craters are aligned west of the Sagaing Fault, which is a continental transform fault between the Indian and Sunda continental plates. Four of the craters still contain lakes, while several of the smaller craters are drained and used for agriculture. The region has a tropical Savannah climate, with warm temperatures throughout the year. Precipitation is almost absent during the dry season but increases to an average monthly precipitation of 100-134 mm per month during the monsoon season (May through October). Three of the four lakes, named Twin Ywa (30 m depth), Twin Taung (60 m), and Twin Pyauk (8m), are highly alkaline (pH 10-11), support extensive cyanobacterial blooms and are anoxic below a few meters water depth. Their sediments are composed of highly organic and laminated algae gyttjas. The shallower (2m), oxic and more neutral (pH 7.5) Lake Leshe contains organic-lean clays but with clear variations in colour and bulk density that likely mark changes in humidity though time. The lake levels of the relatively small crater lakes are solely regulated by precipitation and evaporation, and their limnology and water isotope compositions are therefore sensitive to changes in monsoon intensity. We will present limnological data including water isotopic compositions, and initial bulk sedimentary data as well as preliminary age determinations. These will form the basis for more extensive multi-proxy analyses that should result in an improved insight

  6. Climatic variation and age-specific survival in Asian elephants from Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumby, Hannah S; Courtiol, Alexandre; Mar, Khyne U; Lummaa, Virpi

    2013-05-01

    Concern about climate change has intensified interest in understanding how climatic variability affects animal life histories. Despite such effects being potentially most dramatic in large, long-lived, and slowly reproducing terrestrial mammals, little is known of the effects of climatic variation on survival in those species. Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) are endangered across their distribution, and inhabit regions characterized by high seasonality of temperature and rainfall. We investigated the effects of monthly climatic variation on survival and causes of death in Asian elephants using a unique demographic data set of 1024 semi-captive, longitudinally monitored elephants from four sites in Myanmar between 1965 and 2000. Temperature had a significant effect on survival in both sexes and across all ages. For elephants between 1 month and 17 years of age, maximal survival was reached at -24 degrees C, and any departures from this temperature increased mortality, whereas neonates and mature elephants had maximal survival at even lower temperatures. Although males experienced higher mortality overall, sex differences in these optimal temperatures were small. Because the elephants spent more time during a year in temperatures above 24 degrees C than in temperatures below it, most deaths occurred at hot (temperatures>24 degrees C) rather than cold periods. Decreased survival at higher temperatures resulted partially from increased deaths from infectious disease and heat stroke, whereas the lower survival in the coldest months was associated with an increase in noninfectious diseases and poor health in general. Survival was also related to rainfall, with the highest survival rates during the wettest months for all ages and sexes. Our results show that even the normal-range monsoon variation in climate can exert a large impact on elephant survival in Myanmar, leading to extensive absolute differences in mortality; switching from favorable to unfavorable climatic

  7. Ionospheric disturbances in Asian region of Russia during sudden stratospheric warmings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurkin, Vladimir; Chernigovskaya, Marina; Medvedeva, Irina; Orlov, Igor

    This paper presents an investigation of the subauroral and mid-latitude ionosphere variations in the Asian region of Russia during stratospheric warmings in 2008, 2009 and 2010. We used the data from network of vertical and oblique-incidence sounding ionosounders of ISTP SB RAS. Irkutsk chirp-sounder (vertical incidence sounding) run every 1 minute on 24-hour basis for 30 days in winter of 2008, 2009 and 2010 to study small-scale and medium-scale distur-bances. The experiments on the radio paths Magadan-Irkutsk, Khabarovsk-Irkutsk and Norilsk -Irkutsk were conducted in order to study large-scale ionospheric disturbances. The frequency range was from 4 to 30 MHz, the sweep rate used 500 kHz/sec. To identify the stratospheric warming events the Berlin Meteorological University data (http://strat-www.met.fu-berlin.de) on stratospheric warming at standard isobaric levels and the atmospheric temperature height profiles measured by the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) aboard the EOS Aura spacecraft were used. The increase of wave activity in upper ionosphere over Asian region of Russia has recorded during stratospheric warmings. Spectrums of multi-scale variations were derived from the data obtained during the prolonged experiments. The analysis of experimental data has revealed the amplitudes of planetary waves in ionosphere during stratospheric warmings in 2008 and 2010 larger than ones in winter 2009 as opposed to amplitude variations of temperature in stratosphere. This work was supported by Russian Foundation for Basic Research (grant 08-05-00658).

  8. Extratropical influences on the inter-annual variability of South-Asian monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, F. S.; Yoo, J. H.; Körnich, H.; Kucharski, F.

    2012-04-01

    The effects of extratropical dynamics on the interannual variations in South-Asian Monsoon (SAM) are examined. Based on NCEP/NCAR reanalysis and CRU precipitation data, a conditional maximum covariance analysis is performed on sea level pressure, 200 hPa geopotential heights and the SAM rainfall by removing the linear effects of El-Niño Southern Oscillation from the fields. It is found that two modes provide a strong connection between the upper-level circulation in the Atlantic/European region and SAM rainfall: the Circumglobal Teleconnection (CGT) and the Summer North Atlantic Oscillation (SNAO). The structures in the 200 hPa heights of both modes in the Atlantic region are similar in the Atlantic region, and their southeastward extension to South Asia (SA) also corresponds to upper-level ridges (in their positive phases) in slightly different positions. Nevertheless, the influence of both modes on SAM rainfall is distinct. Whereas a positive CGT is related to a widespread increase of rainfall in SAM, a positive SNAO is related to a precipitation dipole with its positive phase over Pakistan and the negative phase over northern India. The physical mechanisms for the influence of CGT and SNAO on SAM are related to the upper-level geopotential anomaly which affects the amplitude and position of the low-level convergence. The small displacements of the centers of these responses and the low level cold advection from the north east of SA in case of SNAO explain the differences in the corresponding SAM rainfall distributions. These findings are confirmed with the relatively high-resolution coupled climate model EC-Earth, which gives confidence in the physical basis and robustness of these extratropical variability modes and their influence on the South-Asian monsoon rainfall.

  9. Bollywood Dreams? The Rise of the Asian Mela as a Global Cultural Phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Smith

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available This article will examine some of the complexities inherent in the development of Asian Mela festivals from small-scale community-based events in India, to national celebrations of Diasporic culture in Western countries. Like Caribbean Carnivals, Melas are becoming more popular as a global cultural tourism phenomenon and are increasingly being promoted to white and tourist audiences. This similarly engenders fears of cultural dilution, distortion, and ‘Othering’. The programming of Melas is apparently keeping pace with the exporting, re-packaging and hybridisation of other forms of Asian culture, such as cuisine, music, fashion, and cinema. But does this symbolise a Bollywood dream or just another post-colonial appropriation of indigenous or Disaporic cultures? Cultural protectionism is certainly a contentious issue within Diasporic communities, where inter-generational differences of opinion can lead to conflict and confusion. Identity construction is complex and worthy of further examination in the context of Melas, which traditionally served to celebrate ethnic community and folk cultures and identities, but are increasingly becoming a showcase for global and hybridised cultural forms. The article will examine these issues, as well as providing an analysis of the factors and mechanisms that are driving the development of Melas forward. This will include the role and vision of artistic directors of Melas, the contribution of ethnic communities to cultural continuity, and issues relating to audience and tourism development. A case study of the Edinburgh Mela will be presented, which exemplifies a number of the aforementioned issues, focusing in particular on national and Diasporic identity construction, and the tensions between popular and traditional cultural forms.

  10. Mapping QTL for Resistance Against Viral Nervous Necrosis Disease in Asian Seabass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peng; Wang, Le; Wan, Zi Yi; Ye, Bao Qing; Huang, Shuqing; Wong, Sek-Man; Yue, Gen Hua

    2016-02-01

    Viral nervous necrosis disease (VNN), caused by nervous necrosis virus (NNV), leads to mass mortality in mariculture. However, phenotypic selection for resistance against VNN is very difficult. To facilitate marker-assisted selection (MAS) for resistance against VNN and understanding of the genetic architecture underlying the resistance against this disease, we mapped quantitative trait loci (QTL) for resistance against VNN in Asian seabass. We challenged fingerlings at 37 days post-hatching (dph), from a single back-cross family, with NNV at a concentration of 9 × 10(6) TCID50/ml for 2 h. Daily mortalities were recorded and collected. A panel of 330 mortalities and 190 surviving fingerlings was genotyped using 149 microsatellites with 145 successfully mapped markers covering 24 linkage groups (LGs). Analysis of QTL for both resistance against VNN and survival time was conducted using interval mapping. Five significant QTL located in four LGs and eight suggestive QTL in seven LGs were identified for resistance. Another five significant QTL in three LGs and five suggestive QTL in three LGs were detected for survival time. One significant QTL, spanning 3 cM in LG20, was identified for both resistance and survival time. These QTL explained 2.2-4.1% of the phenotypic variance for resistance and 2.2-3.3% of the phenotypic variance for survival time, respectively. Our results suggest that VNN resistance in Asian seabass is controlled by many loci with small effects. Our data provide information for fine mapping of QTL and identification of candidate genes for a better understanding of the mechanism of disease resistance.

  11. Does Financial Openness Affect Economic Growth in Asian Economies? A Case Study in Selected Asian Economies, 1980-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsinrong P. WEI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, financial liberalization has been one of the most important strategies for Asian countries to promote growth. However, debate emerges following several financial crises on whether liberalizing financial markets and allowing for free access to international capital markets, would benefit or impede economic development. The objective of this study is to examine the impact of financial openness on select seventeen Asian economies and answer the three questions: 1. Is there any linkage between financial openness and economic growth for these seventeen Asian countries? 2. Does any of the financial openness pose positive or negative effects? 3. If no direct impact revealed, can financial openness still have growth effect under certain fundamental or institutional conditions? Our main findings are as follows: 1. By employing both de jure and de facto indicators of financial openness, our empirical results indicate that the de facto indicators are associated with growth of Asian economies but de jure indicator does not show statistically significant impact on growth across three methodologies. 2.Furthermore, these growth effects vary among the de facto indicators. According to our empirical results, out of the four de facto financial openness measurements, only one of them, foreign direct investment inflows, influences growth positively whereas three other measures, including foreign direct investment outflows, portfolio investment inflows and outflows exert negative impact on growth. In terms of the view that the growth effect of the financial openness depends on macroeconomic foundations or institutional conditions of an economy, our findings do not support this view due to the estimation results are not robust across five financial openness proxies.

  12. Racial stereotypes and interracial attraction: phenotypic prototypicality and perceived attractiveness of Asians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Clara L; Chan, Joy F; Kaiser, Cheryl R

    2011-10-01

    What does it take to find a member of a different race attractive? In this research, we suggest that for Whites, attraction to Asians may be based, in part, on stereotypes and variations in Asians' racial appearance. Study 1 reveals that Asians are stereotyped as being more feminine and less masculine than other racial groups-characteristics considered appealing for women but not for men to possess. Study 2 examines how variation in racial appearance, phenotypic prototypicality (PP), shapes the degree to which Asians are gender stereotyped and how PP relates to perceptions of attractiveness. Higher PP Asian men are perceived as being less masculine and less physically attractive than lower PP Asian men. These findings inform theory on how within-group variation in racial appearance affects stereotyping and other social outcomes.

  13. Divergence of East Asians and Europeans estimated using male- and female-specific genetic markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tateno, Yoshio; Komiyama, Tomoyoshi; Katoh, Toru; Munkhbat, Batmunkh; Oka, Akira; Haida, Yuko; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Tamiya, Gen; Inoko, Hidetoshi

    2014-03-01

    To study the male and female lineages of East Asian and European humans, we have sequenced 25 short tandem repeat markers on 453 Y-chromosomes and collected sequences of 72 complete mitochondrial genomes to construct independent phylogenetic trees for male and female lineages. The results indicate that East Asian individuals fall into two clades, one that includes East Asian individuals only and a second that contains East Asian and European individuals. Surprisingly, the European individuals did not form an independent clade, but branched within in the East Asians. We then estimated the divergence time of the root of the European clade as ∼ 41,000 years ago. These data indicate that, contrary to traditional views, Europeans diverged from East Asians around that time. We also address the origin of the Ainu lineage in northern Japan.

  14. Contribution of Asian dust to atmospheric deposition of radioactive cesium ((137)Cs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuyama, Taijiro; Fujiwara, Hideshi

    2008-11-01

    Both Asian dust (kosa) transported from the East Asian continent and locally suspended dust near monitoring sites contribute to the observed atmospheric deposition of (137)Cs in Japan. To estimate the relative contribution of these dust phenomena to the total (137)Cs deposition, we monitored weekly deposition of mineral particles and (137)Cs in spring. Deposition of (137)Cs from a single Asian dust event was 62.3 mBq m(-2) and accounted for 67% of the total (137)Cs deposition during the entire monitoring period. Furthermore, we found high (137)Cs specific activity in the Asian dust deposition sample. Although local dust events contributed to (137)Cs deposition, their contribution was considerably smaller than that of Asian dust. We conclude that the primary source of atmospheric (137)Cs in Japan is dust transported from the East Asian continent.

  15. Asian Indians in America: The influence of values and culture on mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Rohit M; Arora, Lily; Mehta, Urvakhsh M; Asnaani, Anu; Radhakrishnan, Rajiv

    2016-08-01

    Asian Indians represent a significant portion of the largest growing race of Asians in the past decade in the United States. This selective review examines major cultural themes related to first- and second-generation Asian Indians living in the United States as they impact psychological and psychiatric dysfunction in this population. Specifically, we review the impact of Asian Indian culture on mental health, discuss the impact of acculturation and ethnic identity development on the mental health of Indian-Americans, and focus on typical mental health problems of Asian Indian adolescents, women and elderly in America. Finally, we provide a brief overview of empirically-supported treatment approaches and cultural considerations for additional treatments relevant to this population. This review is intended to provide an important foundation for more systematic empirically-driven investigation into better understanding how Asian Indian cultural themes impact mental health for Indian-Americans, and how to develop effective treatments for these issues in this cultural group.

  16. Place of origin and violent disagreement among Asian American families: analysis across five States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jong-Yi; Probst, Janice C; Moore, Charity G; Martin, Amy B; Bennett, Kevin J

    2011-08-01

    We examined the prevalence of and factors associated with violent and heated disagreements in the Asian American families, with an emphasis on place of birth differences between parent and child. Data were obtained from the 2003 National Survey of Children's Health, limited to five states with the highest concentration of Asian-Americans (n = 793). Multivariable analysis used generalized logistic regression models with a three-level outcome, violent and heated disagreement versus calm discussion. Violent disagreements were reported in 13.7% of Asian-American homes and 9.9% of white homes. Differential parent-child place of birth was associated with increased odds for heated disagreement in Asian-American families. Parenting stress increased the likelihood of violent disagreements in both Asian-American and white families. Asian-American families are not immune to potential family violence. Reducing parenting stress and intervening in culturally appropriate ways to reduce generation differences should be violence prevention priorities.

  17. Primary care physicians' cancer screening recommendation practices and perceptions of cancer risk of Asian Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Harry T; Ma, Grace X; Gold, Robert S; Atkinson, Nancy L; Wang, Min Qi

    2013-01-01

    Asian Americans experience disproportionate incidence and mortality rates of certain cancers, compared to other racial/ethnic groups. Primary care physicians are a critical source for cancer screening recommendations and play a significant role in increasing cancer screening of their patients. This study assessed primary care physicians' perceptions of cancer risk in Asians and screening recommendation practices. Primary care physicians practicing in New Jersey and New York City (n=100) completed a 30-question survey on medical practice characteristics, Asian patient communication, cancer screening guidelines, and Asian cancer risk. Liver cancer and stomach cancer were perceived as higher cancer risks among Asian Americans than among the general population, and breast and prostate cancer were perceived as lower risks. Physicians are integral public health liaisons who can be both influential and resourceful toward educating Asian Americans about specific cancer awareness and screening information.

  18. Social Anxiety and Mental Health Service Use Among Asian American High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brice, Chad; Masia Warner, Carrie; Okazaki, Sumie; Ma, Pei-Wen Winnie; Sanchez, Amanda; Esseling, Petra; Lynch, Chelsea

    2015-10-01

    Asian American adults endorse more symptoms of social anxiety (SA) on self-report measures than European Americans, but demonstrate lower prevalence rates of SA disorder in epidemiological studies. These divergent results create ambiguity concerning the mental health needs of Asian Americans. The present study is the first to investigate this issue in adolescents through assessment of self-reported SA in Asian American high school students. Parent and self-ratings of impairment related to SA and self-reported mental health service use for SA were also measured. Asian American students endorsed a greater number of SA symptoms and scored in the clinical range more frequently than other ethnic groups. Also, Asian American and Latino students endorsed more school impairment related to SA than other ethnic groups. No differences in parent-reported impairment or service utilization were identified. Implications for future research and treatment for SA among Asian American adolescents are discussed.

  19. Asian Americans' family cohesion and suicide ideation: moderating and mediating effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joel Wong, Y; Uhm, Soo Yun; Li, Peiwei

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between family cohesion and suicide ideation in a national, adult community sample of Asian Americans (N=2072). The data for this study were drawn from the National Latino and Asian American Study, the first national epidemiological study of Asian Americans' mental health. The results indicate that family cohesion was negatively related to suicide ideation. In addition, English language proficiency moderated the relationship between family cohesion and suicide ideation. Family cohesion was related to lower odds of suicide ideation among low English proficiency Asian Americans. In contrast, family cohesion was not significantly related to suicide ideation among high English proficiency Asian Americans. Further, the findings are consistent with a model in which the relationship between family cohesion and suicide ideation was partially mediated by psychological distress. Practical implications for addressing suicide ideation among Asian Americans are discussed.

  20. Impacts of the current economic crisis on Southeast Asian labour markets

    OpenAIRE

    John Walsh

    2010-01-01

    Southeast Asian labour markets are characterized by the diversity of the countries of which they are part and by the historical antecedents of colonialism that have largely given them their nature. Most have adopted a form of the export-oriented, import-substituting low labour cost manufacturing paradigm of economic development known as the East Asian Economic Model (EAEM). Having already passed through the Asian Financial Crisis of 1997 and its disruptive effects, workers in the region are f...

  1. Policy Challenges for Infrastructure Development in Asian LICs: Lessons from the Region

    OpenAIRE

    Fujita, Yasuo

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses policy issues pertaining to infrastructure development in low income countries (LICs) in Asia. Infrastructure challenges in Asian LICs have not been adequately highlighted to date mainly because the international focus has often been on African LICs and because large countries such as China, India, and Indonesia attracted more interest among the developing Asian countries. While Asian LICs have sought to improve their infrastructure over the years, the quality and quantit...

  2. Evolution of Asian and African lygosomine skinks of the Mabuya group (Reptilia : Scincidae): A molecular perspective

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    Phylogenetic relationships among Asian and African lygosomine skinks of the Mabuya group were inferred from 825 base pairs of DNA sequences of mitochondrial 12S and 16S rRNA genes. Results indicated the presence of two distinct lineages within this group, of which one consisted of Lamprolepis and Lygosoma, and the other of Apterygodon, Dasia, and Asian and African Mabuya. Within the latter, African species of Mabuya first diverged from the remainder, leaving the Asian congeners together with ...

  3. Corporate Governance, Competition, and Finance: Re-thinking Lessons from the Asian Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Jack Glen; Ajit Singh

    2005-01-01

    This paper critically examines the Greenspan-Summers-IMF thesis concerning the Asian crisis, which suggested that the fundamental causes of the Asian crisis lay in the microeconomic behavior of economic agents in these societies--in the Asian way of doing business. The paper concentrates on corporate governance and competition in emerging markets and outlines the international significance of these issues in the context of the New International Financial Architecture and the Doha Development ...

  4. Asian/American Bodies in Extremis: Gendering Power, Pleasure, and Nation through "Spectacular" Excess

    OpenAIRE

    Knoll, Melissa Garcia

    2012-01-01

    As a cross-genre study, this project centralizes performances of physical excess, putting genre theory in conversation with Asian/American critical race discourses to articulate the specific knowledges produced by film, stand-up comedy, theatre, and sports. Considering figures such as Annabel Chong, Margaret Cho, and Manny Pacquiao from within the discourses of gender and nation, I investigate how the Asian/American body in extremis speaks and is spoken, and how Asian/American subjects use b...

  5. Association of periodontal and cardiovascular diseases: South-Asian studies 2001–2012

    OpenAIRE

    Syed Akhtar Hussain Bokhari; Ayyaz Ali Khan; Wai Keung Leung; Gohar Wajid

    2015-01-01

    Large proportion of Asian populations have moderate to severe periodontal disease and a substantial number are anticipated to be at high risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). This study reviews epidemiology and association of periodontal and CVDs from the South-Asian region. Observational studies and clinical trials published during January 2001–December 2012 focusing association between periodontitis and CVDs in South-Asian countries were retrieved from various databases and studied. Curren...

  6. Effectiveness of high interest rate policy on exchange rates: A reexamination of the Asian financial crisis

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    One of the most controversial issues in the aftermath of the Asian financial crisis has been the appropriate response of monetary policy to a sharp decline in the value of some currencies. In this paper, we empirically examine the effects on Asian exchange rates of sharply higher interest rates during the Asian financial crisis. Taking account of the currency contagion effect, our results indicate that sharply higher interest rates helped to support the exchange rates of South Korea, the Phil...

  7. Assessing the needs and guiding the future: findings from the health needs assessment in 13 Asian American communities of Maryland in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sunmin; Ma, Grace X; Juon, Hee-Soon; Martinez, Genevieve; Hsu, Chiehwen E; Bawa, Julie

    2011-04-01

    There is lack of in depth data on health needs of diverse Asian American communities. We conducted 19 focus groups in 13 Asian American communities in Maryland in 2007. We developed a moderator's guide to collect qualitative data on health needs from 174 participants, and used MAX QDA to analyze data and code emergent themes. Cardiovascular disease related conditions, diabetes, and mental health were the top three health concerns. Weight concerns, cancer, arthritis, smoking, osteoporosis, and hepatitis B followed next. Many participants were not receiving preventive health service such as cancer screening due to a lack of access to health care or lack of awareness of preventive care. Additionally, under-represented communities lacked adequate health resources and advocacy, potentially due to a relatively shorter history of immigration and a small population. The results render support for awareness education on importance of preventive care and mental health.

  8. Getting the message: media images and stereotypes and their effect on Asian Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, T A

    1998-01-01

    Mass media sources such as television and movies arguably offer up little in the way of positive Asian/Asian American images or role models. This article contends that the media do not often portray the diversity that is inherent within the Asian American culture and that such a paucity of Asian images may greatly affect perceptions Asian Americans may hold both of their own racial group and of the larger society. This article examines both media images of Asians and Asian Americans and autobiographical information from Asian American literature to illustrate the potentially detrimental effects of being a person of color in a society that emphasizes a monoracial standard of beauty. Information gleaned from first-hand accounts from Asian Americans often points to the media as a potent source of information as to how attractiveness is defined and measured. This article concludes with a discussion of some brief case examples and ethical imperatives for mental health workers in terms of both self-awareness and education as well as considerations for culturally sensitive therapy.

  9. An overview of prostate diseases and their characteristics specific to Asian men

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu-Jie Xia; Di Cui; Qi Jiang

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,we reviewed the features of common prostate diseases,such as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH),prostate cancer (PCa)and chronic prostatitis (CP) that are specific to Asian men.Compared to the Westerners,Asians exhibit particular characteristics of prostate diseases.Through summarizing the epidemiology,symptomatology,diagnostics and therapeutics of these diseases,we find that Asians have a lower incidence of PCa than whites,but the incidences of BPH and CP are similar.Asian men with CP often suffer from fewer disease sites,but have a higher frequency of pain during urination rather than after sexual climax.Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a widely used marker for the diagnosis of PCa in both Asian and Western countries.Although the PSA level may be lower in Asians,the threshold used is based on whites.After reviewing the treatments available for these diseases,we did not find a fundamental difference between Asians and whites.Furthermore,the selection for the most appropriate treatment based on the individual needs of patients remains a challenge to urologists in Asia.After considering the traits of prostate diseases that are specific to Asian men,we hope to pave the way for the development of specific diagnostic and therapeutic strategies targeted specifically to Asian men.

  10. Inter-decadal variations,causes and future projection of the Asian summer monsoon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ding Yihui; Si Dong; Sun Ying; Liu Yanju; Song Yafang

    2014-01-01

    The present paper presents a concise summary of our recent studies on the Asian summer monsoon, with highting decadal and inter-decadal scales. The studies on the long-term variations of the Asian summer monsoon and its impacts on the change in the summer precipitation in China are reviewed. Moreover,recent changes in the Asian summer monsoon and summer precipitation in East Asia (including Meiyu precipitation) are discussed. Finally,the future changes of the Asian summer monsoon are also pointed out in this paper.

  11. Regional Commonalities and Regional Identities: Forging a Normative Understanding of Southeast Asian Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gürol Baba

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last two decades, most of the IR academia’s attention on Southeast Asian regionalism utilised constructivism and/or realism and has focused on ASEAN and its derivatives. This article aims to skew this angle by elaborating a possible relationship between Asian values and a normative understanding of Southeast Asian identity. The major reason for this article’s focus on a normative interpretation is that a practical application of Southeast Asian identity is not very achievable due to various ethnic, cultural, political, territorial, and historical diversities. While the region is diverse, there are also a number of commonalities among its states. Asian values, from a Confucian perspective, account for some of these commonalities. By using constructivists’ claims on both the links between norms and identity and the dynamic interaction between values and norms, this article argues that Asian values could contribute to the development of Amitav Acharya’s widely cited normative/ideational format of Southeast Asian identity. The article takes ASEAN identity as a case study and aims to show why a normative identity is more achievable than a practical identity among Southeast Asians, and how Asian values might contribute to the creation of this shared identity.

  12. Small Business Development Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Small Business Administration — Small Business Development Centers (SBDCs) provide assistance to small businesses and aspiring entrepreneurs throughout the United States and its territories. SBDCs...

  13. Co-circulation of Peste-des-Petits-Ruminants Virus Asian lineage IV with Lineage II in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woma, T Y; Adombi, C M; Yu, D; Qasim, A M M; Sabi, A A; Maurice, N A; Olaiya, O D; Loitsch, A; Bailey, D; Shamaki, D; Dundon, W G; Quan, M

    2016-06-01

    Peste-des-petits-ruminants (PPR), a major small ruminant transboundary animal disease, is endemic in Nigeria. Strains of the causal agent, peste-des-petits-ruminants virus (PPRV), have been differentiated into four genetically distinct lineages based on the partial sequence of the virus nucleoprotein (N) or fusion (F) genes. Peste-des-petits-ruminants virus strains that were identified initially in Africa were grouped into lineages I, II and III and viruses from Asia were classified as lineage IV and referred to as the Asian lineage. Many recent reports indicate that the Asian lineage is now also present in Africa. With this in mind, this study was conducted to reassess the epidemiology of PPRV in Nigeria. A total of 140 clinical samples from 16 sheep and 63 goats with symptoms suggestive of PPR were collected from different states of Nigeria during a four-year period (2010-2013). They were analysed by the amplification of fragments of the N gene. Results for 33 (42%) animals were positive. The phylogenetic analysis of the N gene sequences with those available in GenBank showed that viruses that were detected belong to both lineage II and IV. Based on an analysis of the N gene sequences, the lineage IV isolates grouped into two clades, one being predominant in the north-eastern part of the country and the other found primarily in the southern regions of the country. This study reports the presence of PPRV Asian lineage IV in Nigeria for the first time.

  14. Distinguishing the Asian dust sources based on cathodoluminescence analysis of single quartz grain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagashima, K.; Nishido, H.; Kayama, M.; Tada, R.; Isozaki, Y.; Sun, Y.; Igarashi, Y.

    2009-12-01

    Numerous tracers, such as mineralogical component, strontium (87Sr/86Sr) and neodymium (eNd(0)) isotopes (Liu et al., 1994; Biscaye et al.,1997; Bory et al., 2002, 2003; Kanayama et al., 2002, 2005), rare earth element composition (e.g., Svensson et al., 2000), oxygen isotope (Mizota et al., 1992; Hou et al., 2003) and ESR intensity of quartz (Ono et al., 1998; Sun et al., 2007), have been investigated to discriminate source areas of Asian dust. However, these analyses need large volume of samples (mostly more than 10 mg) and the applications to the dust samples are limited. Then, here we developed a provenance-tracing method by using a cathodoluminescence (CL) spectral of “single” quartz grain for applying it to small volume of aeolian dust samples, such as aeolian dust in the ice cores and marine sediments with the location of long distance from the Asian deserts. CL is the emission from a material which is excited by electron beam. Since CL spectroscopy and microscopy provide information on the existence and distribution of defects and trace elements in minerals, CL analyses have potential to characterize dust-source areas. CL spectra of quartz have been demonstrated to show different patterns between the quartz from hydrothermal, plutonic, volcanic and metamorphic origins (e.g., Zinkernagel, 1978; Götze et al., 2001), suggesting the spectra reflect the condition of the quartz formation and the local environment. Then, here we conducted CL spectral analysis of silt size quartz in the surface samples from the major Asian deserts, such as the Taklimakan Desert and Gobi Desert in southern Mongolia (hereafter Mongolian Gobi). CL spectra were measured in the areas of approximately 4 micron square for each quartz grain by a Scanning Electron Microscope-Cathodoluminescence (SEM-CL) at the Okayama University of Science, a SEM (Jeol: JSM-5410) attached with a grating monochromator (Oxford Instruments: Mono CL2), where EDS system can be used in combination with SEM

  15. Droughts in Asian Least Developed Countries: Vulnerability and sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Alimullah Miyan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Droughts occur both in developed and developing countries with significant impacts and are exacerbating in frequency, severity and duration. Over exploitation of water resources, weather variability and climate change are mostly responsible for such exacerbation. The impacts of droughts encompass the global ecosystem as a whole but vary from region to region. Least developed countries (LDCs are becoming the worst sufferer of the impacts due to physical, social and economic as well as knowledge and skills differences. The increasing biophysical vulnerability contexts and intensity in the Asian LDCs causing adverse effects on food security, human health, biodiversity, water resources, hydroelectric power generation, streams, perennial springs, and livelihood. Drought is also responsible for increasing pollution, pests and diseases and forced migration and famine. Information indicates monsoon has become erratic contributing to up-scaling of droughts. South and Southeast Asian LDCs like Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan, Cambodia and Lao PDR under the monsoon climatic zone have also been suffering from increasing droughts arising out of delayed and changing distribution patterns of precipitation. Prolong dry spells increase the frequencies of wildfire in grasslands, forests, and range-lands. The rain-fed crops of the plains are facing challenges from soil-moisture stress with projected droughts. Droughts causing migration of fishes, and marine anadromus species are having adverse impacts on spawning habitats. Reduction in annual surface runoff is decreasing the ground and surface water with negative effect on agriculture and water supply for industrial and domestic sectors. As droughts are exacerbating the consequences are accelerating. However, traditionally people are adapting with the changing situations applying indigenous knowledge and practices for sustainable living. This paper reflects on prevalence and impacts of droughts, existing coping

  16. Helicobacter pylori associated Asian enigma: Does diet deserve distinction?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Syed Faisal Zaidi

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori(H. pylori) is one of the most widespread infections in humans worldwide that chronically infects up to 50% of the world’s population. The infection is involved in the pathogenesis of chronic active gastritis, peptic ulcer, mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma and gastric cancer, therefore, it has been classified as class Ⅰ definite carcinogen by the World Health Organization. Despite the established etiological role of H. pylori, its actual distribution and association with related diseases is controversial and there is a large intercountry variation especially among Asian countries. H. pylori infection is more frequent in developing countries like India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh as compared to developed Asian countries like Japan, China and South Korea. However, the frequency of gastric cancer is comparatively lower in India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh with that of Japan, China and South Korea. Such phenomenon of clinical diversity, defined as enigma, is judged by genetic variability of the infecting H. pylori strains, differences in the host genetic background in various ethnic groups, and environmental factors such as dietary habits. Most of the studies have so far focused on the bacterial factor while environmental issues, including dietary components, were not given due attention as one of the factors related with H. pylori associated gastric carcinogenesis. The dietary factor has been suggested to play an important role in H. pylori related carcinogenesis, and in this respect several studies have corroborated the intake of various dietary components as modulatory factors for gastric cancer risk. In this review, such studies, from in vitro experiments to clinical trials, are being focused in detail with respect to enigma associated with H. pylori. It may be conceivably concluded from the available evidence that dietary factor can be a game changer in the scenario of Asian enigma, particularly in high risk population infected with

  17. Reabsorption of returning workers from the Gulf: the Asian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazi, S

    1994-01-01

    This study examines trends in return labor migration from the Middle East to South Asia and Southeast Asia. Survey data were used to describe trends in outmigration and socioeconomic characteristics of return migrants and to examine the extent to which return migration is associated with skill level and use of savings and remittances on their return. General trends indicate a decline in outmigration during the late 1980s and early 1990s, after oil prices dropped in 1986. Migrants from Pakistan and Korea declined by half during 1981-85 and by 40% among Indian migrants. The demand for service workers and migrants willing to accept cuts in wages was unaffected. Outmigration from Southeast Asian countries grew in the recent past. These increases were due to the replacement of workers from Jordan and Yemen who were expelled from Saudi Arabia after the Gulf crisis. The shift in occupational demand to service and higher level workers is expected to weaken migration from Pakistan and Bangladesh and to strengthen migration from Sri Lanka and other Southeast Asian countries with a skilled migrant labor force. Outmigration from Southeast Asian countries increased to high-growth destination countries such as Japan, Malaysia, and Singapore. Socioeconomic characteristics of migrants varied by country of origin. For instance, Philippine migrants were better educated. Migrants from Thailand, Bangladesh, and Pakistan were from rural and impoverished areas. Sri Lanka and the Philippines had many women migrants. Return migrants encountered high unemployment. Return migrants to Korea had fewer reemployment problems. Reemployment was associated with local country conditions. Unskilled workers had the highest rates of unemployment. Savings tended to be invested in real estate and housing. Savings and investment from remittance income was high in Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, and Thailand.

  18. Transport pathways from the Asian monsoon anticyclone to the stratosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garny, Hella; Randel, William

    2016-04-01

    The upper tropospheric Asian monsoon anticyclone emerges in response to persistent deep convection over India and southeast Asia in northern summer. The monsoon circulation is associated with rapid transport from the surface to the upper troposphere within convective updrafts, leading to tracer anomalies within the anticyclone. Possibly air is transported further into the stratosphere, but the exact pathways of air from the upper tropospheric anticyclone to the stratosphere are currently under debate. While air is thought to be confined to the anticyclone by its surrounding wind jets, large variability in the anticyclone results in shedding of air from the anticyclone to its surrounding, and possibly air might reach the extratropical lower stratosphere by isentropic mixing. On the other hand, positive vertical velocities in the anticyclone region suggests upward transport of air into the tropical lower stratosphere. In this study, we investigate transport pathways of air originating in the upper tropospheric Asian monsoon anticyclone based on isentropic and three-dimensional trajectories. Trajectories are driven by ERA-Interim reanalysis data, and three-dimensional results are based both on kinematic and diabatic transport calculations. Isentropic calculations show that air parcels are typically confined within the anticyclone for 10-20 days, and spread over the tropical belt within a month of their initialization. However, only few parcels (3 % at 360 K, 8 % at 380 K) reach the extratropical stratosphere by isentropic transport. When considering vertical transport we find that 31 % (48 %) of the trajectories reach the stratosphere within 60 days when using vertical velocities or diabatic heating rates to calculate vertical transport, respectively. In both cases, most parcels that reach the stratosphere are transported upward within the anticyclone and enter the stratosphere in the tropics, typically 10-20 days after their initialization at 360 K. This suggests

  19. Trade Relationship between Oman and Its Major Trading Asian Partners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdusalam F. Yahia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: No empirical research exists that examines the interdependence of trade between Oman and its five major trading Asian partners (Emirates, Japan, South-Korea, Thailand and Mainland China. This study attempted to fill this gap in the literature by examining the interaction of trade between Oman and its major trading Asian partner. Particularly, this study attempted to answer the very important question that is there any feedback effect of the trade relationship between Oman and its major trading Asian partners. Approach: A simultaneous-equations model with a double-log form was developed and tested in this study in order to achieve its objectives. Results: The model was estimated using the Two Stage Least Square (2SLS procedure of estimation and the main findings of the analysis revealed that the price of oil does not seem to be the major determinant of Omani exports to its major trading partners with exception of Japan. The short-term elasticity of Omani imports from its major trading partners with respect to its income seems to be higher (e.g., ranging from 0.55-2.0 in all cases. Conclusion: This study brought new empirical evidence on the trade interdependence and suggested that there is a significant impact (a feedback effect on the level of GDP of Omani's four major trading partners namely Emirates, Japan and South Korea. Therefore, policy maker in sultanate of Oman should be aware of such interdependence and consider the degree of feedback effect of trade in any economic programming that linked and related to these countries.

  20. Improving communication skills in the Southeast Asian health care context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claramita, Mora; Susilo, Astrid Pratidina

    2014-12-01

    The aim of these two PhD thesis are to develop a guideline on doctor-patient communication skills based on cultural characteristics of Southeast Asian context and to develop communication skills training for nurses to enhance their contribution to the informed consent and shared decision making process, in the same context. These studies started with qualitative methods; including grounded theory methodology, by exploring doctors', patients', medical students' and nurses' perceptions on the current and desired communication skills in which influenced by culture. Based on the results, we design communication skills training and evaluate the training with quantitative methods, using pre and post test studies. Southeast Asian desired ideal partnership style in communicating with their doctors. More emphasize on basic skills such as listening to subtle non-verbal cues are needed for doctors and nurses. A guideline on doctor-patient communication tailored to local culture was developed as well as training for nurses using 4CID design to enhance their contribution to the shared decision making process. To promote two-way interaction between doctors and patients and between health professionals require mastering basic skills in communicating with people, such as explorations on the unspoken concern. In a culturally hierarchical context of Indonesia, this two-way interaction is quite a challenge. To generalize our studies to other culture, more studies with rigorous methods should follow. To promote the use of basic skills in communicating with patients to approach the desired partnership communication style in Southeast Asian context, we need to use local evidences.