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Sample records for asian pig domestication

  1. Genetic diversity of domestic pigs in Tierralta (Colombia) using microsatellites

    OpenAIRE

    Enrique Pardo; Teodora I Cavadía; Iván Melendez

    2015-01-01

    Background: according to several authors, domestic pigs come from different wild boar populations with varied geographic distribution and are grouped in the genus Sus. Pig domestication occurred gradually. The first animals were small and gathered in small numbers. Several civilizations domesticated this animal as an important source of protein. Tierralta, in Córdoba province, has a large population of domestic pigs, which are a mixture of creole and other breeds. The genetic characterization...

  2. Risk Factors and Interventions for Domestic Violence among Asian Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Irene

    This paper discusses domestic violence, examining its epidemiology for the general population and for two Asian American groups. It reviews data from 10 empirical studies on domestic violence among Asian American women. Qualitative studies stress the impact of family ties, family honor, and shame; religious values; fear of the legal system; and…

  3. Penile Injuries in Wild and Domestic Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiler, Ulrike; Isernhagen, Marie; Stefanski, Volker; Ritzmann, Mathias; Kress, Kevin; Hein, Charlotte; Zöls, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    In boars, sexually motivated mounting can not only cause problems such as lameness, but penile injuries are also reported. The relevance of penis biting in boars is discussed controversially, but reliable data is missing. In the present study, boars ( n = 435) and barrows ( n = 85) from experimental farms were therefore evaluated for scars, fresh wounds and severe injuries of the penis. Similarly, 321 boars from 11 farms specializing in pork production with boars, and 15 sexually mature wild boars from the hunting season of 2015/16 were included in the study. In domestic boars, a high incidence of penile injuries was obvious (76.6%-87.0% of animals with scars and/or wounds at experimental farms, 64.0%-94.9% at commercial farms). The number of boars with severe injuries was in a similar range in both groups (7.3% vs. 9.3%). At commercial farms, the number of scars but not that of fresh wounds increased per animal with age by 0.3 per week. Moreover, raising boars in mixed groups led to about a 1.5 times higher number of scars than in single-sex groups. In wild boars, a considerable proportion of animals (40%) revealed penile injuries, which were even severe in three animals. We therefore conclude that penis biting is a highly relevant and severe welfare problem in the male pig population, but this phenomenon is not limited to intensive production systems. PMID:27023619

  4. Strong signatures of selection in the domestic pig genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubin, Carl-Johan; Megens, Hendrik-Jan; Barrio, Alvaro Martinez; Maqbool, Khurram; Sayyab, Shumaila; Schwochow, Doreen; Wang, Chao; Carlborg, Örjan; Jern, Patric; Jørgensen, Claus Bøttcher; Archibald, Alan L.; Fredholm, Merete; Groenen, Martien A.M.; Andersson, Leif

    2012-01-01

    Domestication of wild boar (Sus scrofa) and subsequent selection have resulted in dramatic phenotypic changes in domestic pigs for a number of traits, including behavior, body composition, reproduction, and coat color. Here we have used whole-genome resequencing to reveal some of the loci that un...

  5. Penile Injuries in Wild and Domestic Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiler, Ulrike; Isernhagen, Marie; Stefanski, Volker; Ritzmann, Mathias; Kress, Kevin; Hein, Charlotte; Zöls, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Male pigs raised for pork production on experimental and commercial farms were evaluated for scars, fresh wounds and severe injuries of the penis. A high incidence of penile injuries (64.0%–94.9% of the animals/farm) was found in boars but not in barrows (castrated males) with even severe wounds in 5.2% to 9.3% of the boars. A similar evaluation of 15 free-ranging wild boars also revealed a considerable proportion of animals with penile injuries. Thus, penis biting is a highly relevant and severe welfare problem in boars which is not limited to intensive production systems. Abstract In boars, sexually motivated mounting can not only cause problems such as lameness, but penile injuries are also reported. The relevance of penis biting in boars is discussed controversially, but reliable data is missing. In the present study, boars (n = 385) and barrows (n = 85) from experimental farms were therefore evaluated for scars, fresh wounds and severe injuries of the penis. Similarly, 321 boars from 11 farms specializing in pork production with boars, and 15 sexually mature wild boars from the hunting season of 2015/16 were included in the study. In domestic boars, a high incidence of penile injuries was obvious (76.6%–91.3% of animals with scars and/or wounds at experimental farms, 64.0%–94.9% at commercial farms). The number of boars with severe injuries was in a similar range in both groups (5.2% vs. 9.3%). At commercial farms, the number of scars but not that of fresh wounds increased per animal with age by 0.3 per week. Moreover, raising boars in mixed groups led to about a 1.5 times higher number of scars than in single-sex groups. In wild boars, a considerable proportion of animals (40%) revealed penile injuries, which were even severe in three animals. We therefore conclude that penis biting is a highly relevant and severe welfare problem in the male pig population, but this phenomenon is not limited to intensive production systems. PMID:27023619

  6. Wild genius - domestic fool? Spatial learning abilities of wild and domestic guinea pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachser Norbert

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Domestic animals and their wild relatives differ in a wide variety of aspects. The process of domestication of the domestic guinea pig (Cavia aperea f. porcellus, starting at least 4500 years ago, led to changes in the anatomy, physiology, and behaviour compared with their wild relative, the wild cavy, Cavia aperea. Although domestic guinea pigs are widely used as a laboratory animal, learning and memory capabilities are often disregarded as being very scarce. Even less is known about learning and memory of wild cavies. In this regard, one striking domestic trait is a reduction in relative brain size, which in the domesticated form of the guinea pig amounts to 13%. However, the common belief, that such a reduction of brain size in the course of domestication of different species is accomplished by less learning capabilities is not at all very well established in the literature. Indeed, domestic animals might also even outperform their wild conspecifics taking advantage of their adaptation to a man-made environment. In our study we compared the spatial learning abilities of wild and domestic guinea pigs. We expected that the two forms are different regarding their learning performance possibly related to the process of domestication. Therefore wild cavies as well as domestic guinea pigs of both sexes, aged 35 to 45 days, were tested in the Morris water maze to investigate their ability of spatial learning. Results Both, wild cavies and domestic guinea pigs were able to learn the task, proving the water maze to be a suitable test also for wild cavies. Regarding the speed of learning, male as well as female domestic guinea pigs outperformed their wild conspecifics significantly. Interestingly, only domestic guinea pigs showed a significant spatial association of the platform position, while other effective search strategies were used by wild cavies. Conclusion The results demonstrate that domestic guinea pigs do not at all

  7. Predicting Responses of Asian Christian Clergy to Domestic Violence

    OpenAIRE

    Hsieh, Ellie Y.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined how cultural, religious, and demographic factors of Asian Christian clergy affect their perceptions and responses to domestic violence. Their age, years lived in the U.S., amount of pastoral counseling education, adherence to Asian cultural values, gender role beliefs, and degree of religious fundamentalism (n = 72) were assessed using an anonymous questionnaire consisting of multiple-choice items and short-answers. Multiple regression analyses determined that individual...

  8. Mycobacterium bovis infection in domestic pigs in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Suzanne S; Crawshaw, Timothy R; Smith, Noel H; Palgrave, Christopher J

    2013-11-01

    Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis (TB), infects a wide range of wild and domestic mammals. Despite a control programme spanning decades, M. bovis infection levels in cattle in Great Britain (GB) have continued to rise over recent years. As the incidence of infection in cattle and wildlife may be linked to that in swine, data relating to infection of pigs identified at slaughter were examined in this study. Between 2007 and 2011, almost all M. bovis-infected pigs originated from farms in the South-West and West-Midland regions of England. The data suggest that pigs raised outdoors or on holdings with poor biosecurity may be more vulnerable to infection with M. bovis. In the majority of cases, the same strains of M. bovis were found in pigs and cattle, despite that fact that direct contact between these species was rarely observed. Genotyping and geographical mapping data indicated that some strains found in pigs may correlate better with those present in badgers, rather than cattle. In consequence, it is proposed that pigs may represent a useful sentinel for M. bovis infection in wildlife in GB. Given the potential implications of this infection for the pig industry, and for the on-going effort to control bovine TB, the importance of understanding the epidemiology and pathogenesis of M. bovis infection, as well as monitoring its prevalence, in pigs should not be underestimated. PMID:24095608

  9. Personalities in female domesticated pigs : behavioural and physiological indications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruis, MAW; Brake, JHAT; Van de Burgwal, JA; de Jong, IC; Blokhuis, HJ; Koolhaas, JM; Ruis, Marko A.W.; Brake, Joop H.A. te; Burgwal, Johan A. van de; Blokhuis, Harry J.; Koolhaas, Jaap M.

    2000-01-01

    The inconclusive evidence so far on the existence of distinct personality types in domesticated pigs, led us to perform the present experiment. A total of 128 gilts from 31 sows were systematically studied from birth to slaughter in two identical trials. Intra-test consistency in individual behaviou

  10. Contrasting mode of evolution at a coat color locus in wild and domestic pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiying Fang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite having only begun approximately 10,000 years ago, the process of domestication has resulted in a degree of phenotypic variation within individual species normally associated with much deeper evolutionary time scales. Though many variable traits found in domestic animals are the result of relatively recent human-mediated selection, uncertainty remains as to whether the modern ubiquity of long-standing variable traits such as coat color results from selection or drift, and whether the underlying alleles were present in the wild ancestor or appeared after domestication began. Here, through an investigation of sequence diversity at the porcine melanocortin receptor 1 (MC1R locus, we provide evidence that wild and domestic pig (Sus scrofa haplotypes from China and Europe are the result of strikingly different selection pressures, and that coat color variation is the result of intentional selection for alleles that appeared after the advent of domestication. Asian and European wild boar (evolutionarily distinct subspecies differed only by synonymous substitutions, demonstrating that camouflage coat color is maintained by purifying selection. In domestic pigs, however, each of nine unique mutations altered the amino acid sequence thus generating coat color diversity. Most domestic MC1R alleles differed by more than one mutation from the wild-type, implying a long history of strong positive selection for coat color variants, during which time humans have cherry-picked rare mutations that would be quickly eliminated in wild contexts. This pattern demonstrates that coat color phenotypes result from direct human selection and not via a simple relaxation of natural selective pressures.

  11. A 16-Year Examination of Domestic Violence among Asians and Asian Americans in the Empirical Knowledge Base: A Content Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yick, Alice G.; Oomen-Early, Jody

    2008-01-01

    Until recently, research studies have implied that domestic violence does not affect Asian American and immigrant communities, or even Asians abroad, because ethnicity or culture has not been addressed. In this content analysis, the authors examined trends in publications in leading scholarly journals on violence relating to Asian women and…

  12. Domestication and cereal feeding developed domestic pig-type intestinal microbiota in animals of suidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushida, Kazunari; Tsuchida, Sayaka; Ogura, Yoshitoshi; Toyoda, Atsushi; Maruyama, Fumito

    2016-06-01

    Intestinal microbiota are characterized by host-specific microorganisms, which have been selected through host-microbe interactions under phylogenetic evolution and transition of feeding behavior by the host. Although many studies have focused on disease-related intestinal microbiota, the origin and evolution of host-specific intestinal microbiota have not been well elucidated. Pig is the ideal mammal model to reveal the origin and evolution of host-specific intestinal microbiota because their direct wild ancestor and close phylogenetic neighbors are available for comparison. The pig has been recognized as a Lactobacillus-type animal. We analyzed the intestinal microbiota of various animals in Suidae: domestic pigs, wild boars and Red river hogs to survey the origin and evolution of Lactobacillus-dominated intestinal microbiota by metagenomic approach and following quantitative PCR confirmation. The metagenomic datasets were separated in two clusters; the wild animal cluster being characterized by a high abundance of Bifidobacterium, whereas the domesticated (or captured) animal cluster by Lactobacillus. In addition, Enterobacteriaceae were harbored as the major family only in domestic Sus scrofa. We conclude that domestication may have induced a larger Enterobacteriaceae population in pigs, and the introduction of modern feeding system further caused the development of Lactobacillus-dominated intestinal microbiota, with genetic and geographical factors possibly having a minor impact. PMID:26315488

  13. Directional and fluctuating asymmetries in domestic pig skulls

    OpenAIRE

    Parés Casanova, Pere-Miquel; Esteve-Puig, C.

    2014-01-01

    Morphological symmetry and asymmetry of skulls of domestic pig (n=29) were studied using geometric morphometric (GM) methods on the ventral aspect. Fluctuating asymmetry (FA) was used as an indicator of environmental stress, and directional asymmetry as a biomechanical constraint. The two-dimensional coordinates of 27 landmarks were digitized and analysed using GM. Multivariate analyses showed the presence of subtle but significant FA in the entire sample, and distinctive differences were det...

  14. Development of molecular tools to differentiate Indian wild pig (Sus scrofa cristatus meat from exotic and local domestic pig meat

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    Kajal Kumar Jadav

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Identification of wild pig and domestic pig is essential to prevent illegal poaching of wild pig and to implement Wildlife (Protection Act, 1972. PCR-RFLP was used to differentiate Wild pig (Sus scrofa cristatus from Domestic pig (Sus scrofa domestica meat. Materials and Methods: DNA was isolated from meat samples of both the sub species and a fragment of Cytochrome b gene was amplified using universal primers and the PCR products were subjected to restriction digestion. Results: All the known samples of each of the sub-species amplified 474 bp fragment successfully using b1 and b2 primers. To differentiate between wild and domestic pig meat, restriction digestion of the PCR products was carried out to produce characteristic PCR-RFLP patterns for each species. StuI digestion yielded a RFLP pattern which distinguished the closely related sub species. The alignment of sequences of Wild pigs with sequences of local domestic pig, European wild pig and exotic breeds revealed 7 intra-species polymorphic sites within Cytochrome b gene fragment.Conclusion: This study showed that The PCR-RFLP is a simple and very effective tool for differentiating the samples of both the sub species and could prove to be a useful tool in forensic identification of wild pig and domestic pig.

  15. Artificial selection on introduced Asian haplotypes shaped the genetic architecture in European commercial pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosse, Mirte; Lopes, Marcos S; Madsen, Ole; Megens, Hendrik-Jan; Crooijmans, Richard P M A; Frantz, Laurent A F; Harlizius, Barbara; Bastiaansen, John W M; Groenen, Martien A M

    2015-12-22

    Early pig farmers in Europe imported Asian pigs to cross with their local breeds in order to improve traits of commercial interest. Current genomics techniques enabled genome-wide identification of these Asian introgressed haplotypes in modern European pig breeds. We propose that the Asian variants are still present because they affect phenotypes that were important for ancient traditional, as well as recent, commercial pig breeding. Genome-wide introgression levels were only weakly correlated with gene content and recombination frequency. However, regions with an excess or absence of Asian haplotypes (AS) contained genes that were previously identified as phenotypically important such as FASN, ME1, and KIT. Therefore, the Asian alleles are thought to have an effect on phenotypes that were historically under selection. We aimed to estimate the effect of AS in introgressed regions in Large White pigs on the traits of backfat (BF) and litter size. The majority of regions we tested that retained Asian deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) showed significantly increased BF from the Asian alleles. Our results suggest that the introgression in Large White pigs has been strongly determined by the selective pressure acting upon the introgressed AS. We therefore conclude that human-driven hybridization and selection contributed to the genomic architecture of these commercial pigs. PMID:26702043

  16. Usefulness of human coagulation and fibrinolysis assays in domestic pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münster, Anna-Marie Bloch; Olsen, Aage Kristian; Bladbjerg, Else-Marie

    2002-01-01

    Pigs are often used as animal models in research on blood coagulation and fibrinolysis. The usefulness of the assays applied within this field, and the knowledge of reference intervals are therefore essential and of utmost importance. In the study reported here, we investigated the applicability of...... commercial human coagulation and fibrinolysis assays for use with porcine plasma. In total, 22 functional and immunologic assays were applied to plasma obtained from domestic pigs, and the following blood coagulation and fibrinolysis variables were measured: prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin...... that 11 of 12 functional assays, but only 3 of 10 immunoassays, were applicable to porcine plasma, and we determined the normal range of these variables. We conclude that human functional assays are useful in porcine plasma, whereas only a few immunologic assays can be used. However, precautions must...

  17. Personalities in female domesticated pigs: behavioural and physiological indications

    OpenAIRE

    Ruis, MAW; Brake, JHAT; van de Burgwal, JA; De Jong, IC; Blokhuis, HJ; Koolhaas, JM; Ruis, Marko A.W.; Brake, Joop H.A. te; Burgwal, Johan A. van de; Blokhuis, Harry J.; Koolhaas, Jaap M.

    2000-01-01

    The inconclusive evidence so far on the existence of distinct personality types in domesticated pigs, led us to perform the present experiment. A total of 128 gilts from 31 sows were systematically studied from birth to slaughter in two identical trials. Intra-test consistency in individual behavioural and/or physiological reactions was studied in three different tests. We were not able to show consistencies in reactions of gilts over time to a backtest (at 2-4 days and 4 weeks of age) and to...

  18. Worldwide Phylogeography of Wild Boar Reveals Multiple Centers of Pig Domestication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larson, Greger; Dobney, Keith; Albarella, Umberto;

    2005-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences from 686 wild and domestic pig specimens place the origin of wild boar in island Southeast Asia (ISEA), where they dispersed across Eurasia. Previous morphological and genetic evidence suggested pig domestication took place in a limited number of locations (pri...

  19. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in domestic pigs reared under different management in systems in Zimbabwe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hove, T.; Lind, Peter; Mukaratirwa, S.

    2005-01-01

    Serum samples from 474 domestic pigs (Sus scrola) from Zimbabwe were tested for anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgG antibodies using the indirect fluorescent antibody test. The results showed that T gondii infection is widespread in Zimbabwean pigs. Seroprevalence was lowest in fattening pigs from large and...

  20. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in domestic pigs reared under different management in systems in Zimbabwe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hove, T.; Lind, Peter; Mukaratirwa, S.

    2005-01-01

    Serum samples from 474 domestic pigs (Sus scrola) from Zimbabwe were tested for anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgG antibodies using the indirect fluorescent antibody test. The results showed that T gondii infection is widespread in Zimbabwean pigs. Seroprevalence was lowest in fattening pigs from large a.......51 % was found in the same group of fattening pigs using an indirect IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay at the single serum dilution of 1:400. The serosurvey shows the importance of modern intensive husbandry systems in reducing the prevalences of T gondii infection in domestic pigs....

  1. Worldwide phylogeography of wild boar reveals multiple centers of pig domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Greger; Dobney, Keith; Albarella, Umberto; Fang, Meiying; Matisoo-Smith, Elizabeth; Robins, Judith; Lowden, Stewart; Finlayson, Heather; Brand, Tina; Willerslev, Eske; Rowley-Conwy, Peter; Andersson, Leif; Cooper, Alan

    2005-03-11

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences from 686 wild and domestic pig specimens place the origin of wild boar in island Southeast Asia (ISEA), where they dispersed across Eurasia. Previous morphological and genetic evidence suggested pig domestication took place in a limited number of locations (principally the Near East and Far East). In contrast, new genetic data reveal multiple centers of domestication across Eurasia and that European, rather than Near Eastern, wild boar are the principal source of modern European domestic pigs. PMID:15761152

  2. Of Domestic and Wild Guinea Pigs: Studies in Sociophysiology, Domestication, and Social Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachser, Norbert

    Among mammals a majority of each individual's daily expectations, motivations, and behaviors are directed to encounters with conspecifics. Therefore the knowledge of the genesis, control, and consequences of social interactions is crucial for understanding their social life. We present here our research on the sociophysiology, domestication, and social evolution of wild (Cavia aperea and Galea musteloides) and domestic (Cavia aperea f. porcellus) guinea pigs, which summarizes general rules for many group-living mammals. It is shown that social interactions have consequences not only for the individuals' reproductive success but also for their degrees of stress and welfare. The way in which individuals interact is controlled not only by the present environment but also by the previous social experiences which they have gathered during their behavioral development. Furthermore, the study of ontogeny does not begin at birth, because prenatal social factors acting on pregnant females can also affect the way in which the offspring will interact when adult. In addition, to understand the genesis of interactions between domesticated animals implies knowledge of the behavioral and physiological changes which occurred during the process of domestication. Finally, understanding the social interactions among individuals of the wild ancestor of the domesticated form requires knowledge of how their behavior patterns were brought about by natural selection during the process of social evolution.

  3. Ancient DNA, pig domestication, and the spread of the Neolithic into Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Greger; Albarella, Umberto; Dobney, Keith; Rowley-Conwy, Peter; Schibler, Jörg; Tresset, Anne; Vigne, Jean-Denis; Edwards, Ceiridwen J; Schlumbaum, Angela; Dinu, Alexandru; Balaçsescu, Adrian; Dolman, Gaynor; Tagliacozzo, Antonio; Manaseryan, Ninna; Miracle, Preston; Van Wijngaarden-Bakker, Louise; Masseti, Marco; Bradley, Daniel G; Cooper, Alan

    2007-09-25

    The Neolithic Revolution began 11,000 years ago in the Near East and preceded a westward migration into Europe of distinctive cultural groups and their agricultural economies, including domesticated animals and plants. Despite decades of research, no consensus has emerged about the extent of admixture between the indigenous and exotic populations or the degree to which the appearance of specific components of the "Neolithic cultural package" in Europe reflects truly independent development. Here, through the use of mitochondrial DNA from 323 modern and 221 ancient pig specimens sampled across western Eurasia, we demonstrate that domestic pigs of Near Eastern ancestry were definitely introduced into Europe during the Neolithic (potentially along two separate routes), reaching the Paris Basin by at least the early 4th millennium B.C. Local European wild boar were also domesticated by this time, possibly as a direct consequence of the introduction of Near Eastern domestic pigs. Once domesticated, European pigs rapidly replaced the introduced domestic pigs of Near Eastern origin throughout Europe. Domestic pigs formed a key component of the Neolithic Revolution, and this detailed genetic record of their origins reveals a complex set of interactions and processes during the spread of early farmers into Europe. PMID:17855556

  4. Higher blood lactate concentration in Göttingen minipigs compared with domestic pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Aage Kristian Olsen

    2016-01-01

    Measurements of blood lactate concentration is useful as a monitoring tool during anaesthesia of animals and people. Recently, blood lactate has been used to monitor anaesthetized pigs, but very little is known about variations in blood lactate concentrations in pigs. We therefore evaluate...... the effects of breed (domestic pigs vs. Göttingen minipigs), body weight (40 kg vs. 70 kg), type of anaesthesia (inhalation vs. infusion) and surgery (minor vs. major surgery) on blood lactate concentrations in pigs. Anaesthesia reports from 81 pigs are included. We find significantly higher blood lactate...... levels in minipigs anaesthetised with isofluorane (2.53 ± 1.10 mmol/l) compared to domestic pigs (0.68 ± 0.48 mmol/l) (P

  5. Canadian Mock Juror Attitudes and Decisions in Domestic Violence Cases Involving Asian and White Interracial and Intraracial Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeder, Evelyn M.; Mossiere, Annik; Cheung, Liann

    2013-01-01

    This study manipulated the race of the defendant and the victim (White/White, White/Asian, Asian/Asian, and Asian/White) in a domestic violence case to examine the potential prejudicial impact of race on juror decision making. A total of 181undergraduate students read a trial transcript involving an allegation of spousal abuse in which defendant…

  6. Viral metagenomics demonstrates that domestic pigs are a potential reservoir for Ndumu virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masembe Charles

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rising demand for pork has resulted in a massive expansion of pig production in Uganda. This has resulted in increased contact between humans and pigs. Pigs can act as reservoirs for emerging infectious diseases. Therefore identification of potential zoonotic pathogens is important for public health surveillance. In this study, during a routine general surveillance for African swine fever, domestic pigs from Uganda were screened for the presence of RNA and DNA viruses using a high-throughput pyrosequencing method. Findings Serum samples from 16 domestic pigs were collected from five regions in Uganda and pooled accordingly. Genomic DNA and RNA were extracted and sequenced on the 454 GS-FLX platform. Among the sequences assigned to a taxon, 53% mapped to the domestic pig (Sus scrofa. African swine fever virus, Torque teno viruses (TTVs, and porcine endogenous retroviruses were identified. Interestingly, two pools (B and C of RNA origin had sequences that showed 98% sequence identity to Ndumu virus (NDUV. None of the reads had identity to the class Insecta indicating that these sequences were unlikely to result from contamination with mosquito nucleic acids. Conclusions This is the first report of the domestic pig as a vertebrate host for Ndumu virus. NDUV had been previously isolated only from culicine mosquitoes. NDUV therefore represents a potential zoonotic pathogen, particularly given the increasing risk of human-livestock-mosquito contact.

  7. Detection and genetic characterization of a novel parvovirus distantly related to human bufavirus in domestic pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargitai, Renáta; Pankovics, Péter; Kertész, Attila Mihály; Bíró, Hunor; Boros, Ákos; Phan, Tung Gia; Delwart, Eric; Reuter, Gábor

    2016-04-01

    In this study, a novel parvovirus (strain swine/Zsana3/2013/HUN, KT965075) was detected in domestic pigs and genetically characterized by viral metagenomics and PCR methods. The novel parvovirus was distantly related to the human bufaviruses and was detected in 19 (90.5 %) of the 21 and five (33.3 %) of the 15 faecal samples collected from animals with and without cases of posterior paraplegia of unknown etiology from five affected farms and one control farm in Hungary, respectively. Swine/Zsana3/2013/HUN is highly prevalent in domestic pigs and potentially represents a novel parvovirus species in the subfamily Parvovirinae. PMID:26733298

  8. Developmental Stage-Specific Imprinting of IPL in Domestic Pigs (Sus scrofa)

    OpenAIRE

    Shengping Hou; Yuming Chen; Jie Liang; Li Li(State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China); Tongshan Wu; Cindy Tian, X.; Shouquan Zhang

    2010-01-01

    Imprinted in placenta and liver (IPL) gene has been identified as an imprinted gene in the mouse and human. Its sequence and imprinting status, however, have not been determined in the domestic pigs. In the present study, a 259 base pair-specific sequence for IPL gene of the domestic pig was obtained and a novel SNP, a T/C transition, was identified in IPL exon 1. The C allele of this polymorphism was found to be the predominant allele in Landrace,Yorkshire, and Duroc. The frequency of CC gen...

  9. Brain Mass and Encephalization Quotients in the Domestic Industrial Pig (Sus scrofa.

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    Serena Minervini

    Full Text Available In the present study we examined the brain of fetal, newborn, and adult pigs raised for meat production. The fresh and formalin-fixed weights of the brain have been recorded and used, together with body weight, to calculate the Encephalization Quotient (EQ. The weight of the cerebellum has been used to calculate the Cerebellar Quotient (CQ. The results have been discussed together with analogue data obtained in other terrestrial Cetartiodactyla (including the domestic bovine, sheep, goat, and camel, domesticated Carnivora, Proboscidata, and Primates. Our study, based on a relatively large experimental series, corrects former observations present in the literature based on smaller samples, and emphasizes that the domestic pig has a small brain relative to its body size (EQ = 0.38 for adults, possibly due to factors linked to the necessity of meat production and improved body weight. Comparison with other terrestrial Cetartiodactyla indicates a similar trend for all domesticated species.

  10. Evaluating the risk of pathogen transmission from wild animals to domestic pigs in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Hayley E; Toribio, Jenny-Ann L M L; Lapidge, Steven J; Hernández-Jover, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Wild animals contribute to endemic infection in livestock as well as the introduction, reintroduction and maintenance of pathogens. The source of introduction of endemic diseases to a piggery is often unknown and the extent of wildlife contribution to such local spread is largely unexplored. The aim of the current study was to quantitatively assess the probability of domestic pigs being exposed to different pathogens from wild animals commonly found around commercial piggeries in Australia. Specifically, this study aims to quantify the probability of exposure to the pathogens Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. from European starlings (Sturnus vulgarus); Brachyspira hyodysenteriae, Lawsonia intracellularis and Salmonella spp. from rats (Rattus rattus and Rattus norvegicus); and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Leptospira spp., Brucella suis and L. intracellularis from feral pigs (Sus scrofa). Exposure assessments, using scenario trees and Monte Carlo stochastic simulation modelling, were conducted to identify potential pathways of introduction and calculate the probabilities of these pathways occurring. Input parameters were estimated from a national postal survey of commercial pork producers and from disease detection studies conducted for European starlings, rats and feral pigs in close proximity to commercial piggeries in Australia. Based on the results of the exposure assessments, rats presented the highest probability of exposure of pathogens to domestic pigs at any point in time, and L. intracellularis (median 0.13, 5% and 95%, 0.05-0.23) and B. hyodysenteriae (median 0.10, 0.05-0.19) were the most likely pathogens to be transmitted. Regarding European starlings, the median probability of exposure of domestic pigs to pathogenic E. coli at any point in time was estimated to be 0.03 (0.02-0.04). The highest probability of domestic pig exposure to feral pig pathogens at any point in time was found to be for M. hyopneumoniae (median 0.013, 0

  11. A gene expression atlas of the domestic pig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freeman Tom C

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This work describes the first genome-wide analysis of the transcriptional landscape of the pig. A new porcine Affymetrix expression array was designed in order to provide comprehensive coverage of the known pig transcriptome. The new array was used to generate a genome-wide expression atlas of pig tissues derived from 62 tissue/cell types. These data were subjected to network correlation analysis and clustering. Results The analysis presented here provides a detailed functional clustering of the pig transcriptome where transcripts are grouped according to their expression pattern, so one can infer the function of an uncharacterized gene from the company it keeps and the locations in which it is expressed. We describe the overall transcriptional signatures present in the tissue atlas, where possible assigning those signatures to specific cell populations or pathways. In particular, we discuss the expression signatures associated with the gastrointestinal tract, an organ that was sampled at 15 sites along its length and whose biology in the pig is similar to human. We identify sets of genes that define specialized cellular compartments and region-specific digestive functions. Finally, we performed a network analysis of the transcription factors expressed in the gastrointestinal tract and demonstrate how they sub-divide into functional groups that may control cellular gastrointestinal development. Conclusions As an important livestock animal with a physiology that is more similar than mouse to man, we provide a major new resource for understanding gene expression with respect to the known physiology of mammalian tissues and cells. The data and analyses are available on the websites http://biogps.org and http://www.macrophages.com/pig-atlas.

  12. High prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in domestic pigs in Oaxaca State, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, C; Estrada-Malacón, M A; Reyes-Hernández, S O; Pérez-Ramírez, J A; Trujillo-López, J I; Villena, I; Dubey, J P

    2012-12-01

    Pigs are important in the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in North America. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in 525 domestic pigs (337 backyard raised, 188 farm raised) in Oaxaca State, Mexico was determined using the modified agglutination test (MAT, cutoff 1:25). Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 58 (17.2%) of the 337 backyard pigs with MAT titers of 1:25 in 10, 1:50 in 12, 1:100 in 18, 1:200 in 6, 1:400 in 6, 1:800 in 3, and 1:1,600 in 3. Seropositive pigs were found in 39 (37.9%) of 103 homes in all 7 municipalities surveyed. Seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in backyard pigs varied with age, gender, geographic region, climate, and altitude. High seroprevalence was found in pigs ≥ 9-mo-old (40%), in females (40%), in pigs from the Istmo region (33.3%), and in those raised in a tropical climate (65%). Seroprevalence was higher (24.5%) in pigs raised at 100-660 m above sea level than in those at 20-60 m of altitude (14.2%). With respect to farm pigs, only 1 (0.5%, MAT titer 1:100) of 188 pigs from 5 farms was positive for anti- T. gondii antibodies. The results affirm that the management system (outdoor vs. indoor system with biosecurity) is a key factor in the epidemiology of porcine toxoplasmosis. Because there is no national system of determining the T. gondii infection status at the time of slaughter, precautions should be taken while handling pig carcasses, and all pork should be cooked thoroughly before human consumption. PMID:22559725

  13. No bilateral variation accompanies the skull size change in domestic pig

    OpenAIRE

    Parés Casanova, Pere-Miquel; Esteve-Puig, C.

    2015-01-01

    Morphological symmetry and asymmetry in a sample of 41 domestic pig skulls was decomposed into a component of symmetric and asymmetric variation using geometric morphometric methods. The leftright symmetric variation was similar to the asymmetric variation, and both mainly centred on the caudal part of skull.

  14. Isolation and characterisation of a dinucleotide microsatellite set for a parentage and biodiversity study in domestic guinea pig (Cavia porcellus)

    OpenAIRE

    Diana Aviles; Vincenzo Landi; Juan Vicente Delgado; José Luis Vega-Pla; Amparo Martinez

    2015-01-01

    The domestic guinea pig is a valuable genetic resource because it is part of local folklore and food tradition in many South American countries. The economic importance of the guinea pig is due to its high feed efficiency and the quality of animal protein produced. For these reasons, our study is aimed to design a complete dinucleotide microsatellite marker set following international recommendation to assess the genetic diversity and genealogy management of guinea pigs. We selected a total o...

  15. Genetic characterization of the domestic pig (Sus scrofa domestica) in Cerete-Colombia, using microsatellite markers

    OpenAIRE

    Iván Meléndez G.; Enrique Pardo P; Teodora Cavadia M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACTObjective. The purpose of this study was to characterize a population of domestic pig (Sus scrofa domestica) in Cereté, Córdoba, using 20 microsatellite; calculate heterozygosity per locus and average heterozygosity. Materials and methods. Hair samples were collected from 62 specimens. DNA was extracted by proteinase K digestion and phenol-chloroform purification. Information from 20 microsatellites was selected out of those recommended for swine biodiversity studies. PCR products wer...

  16. Chronically infected wild boar can transmit genotype 3 hepatitis E virus to domestic pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlosser, Josephine; Vina-Rodriguez, Ariel; Fast, Christine; Groschup, Martin H; Eiden, Martin

    2015-10-22

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) causes acute hepatitis E in humans in developing countries, but sporadic and autochthonous cases do also occur in industrialized nations. In Europe, food-borne zoonotic transmission of genotype 3 (gt3) has been associated with the consumption of raw and undercooked products from domestic pig and wild boar. As shown recently, naturally acquired HEV gt3 replicates efficiently in experimentally infected wild boar and is transmissible from a wild boar to domestic pigs. Generally, following an acute infection swine suffer from a transient febrile illness and viremia in connection with fecal virus shedding. However, little is known about sub-acute or chronic HEV infections in swine, and how and where HEV survives the immune response. In this paper, we describe the incidental finding of a chronic HEVgt3 infection in two naturally infected European wild boar which were raised and housed at FLI over years. The wild boar displayed fecal HEV RNA excretion and viremia over nearly the whole observation period of more than five months. The animal had mounted a substantial antibody response, yet without initial clearance of the virus by the immune system. Further analysis indicated a subclinical course of HEV with no evidence of chronic hepatitis. Additionally, we could demonstrate that this chronic wild boar infection was still transmissible to domestic pigs, which were housed together with this animal. Sentinel pigs developed fecal virus shedding accompanied by seroconversion. Wild boar should therefore be considered as an important reservoir for transmission of HEV gt3 in Europe. PMID:26344041

  17. Mitochondrial DNA evidence indicates the local origin of domestic pigs in the upstream region of the Yangtze River.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Jin

    Full Text Available Previous studies have indicated two main domestic pig dispersal routes in East Asia: one is from the Mekong region, through the upstream region of the Yangtze River (URYZ to the middle and upstream regions of the Yellow River, the other is from the middle and downstream regions of the Yangtze River to the downstream region of the Yellow River, and then to northeast China. The URYZ was regarded as a passageway of the former dispersal route; however, this assumption remains to be further investigated. We therefore analyzed the hypervariable segements of mitochondrial DNA from 513 individual pigs mainly from Sichuan and the Tibet highlands and 1,394 publicly available sequences from domestic pigs and wild boars across Asia. From the phylogenetic tree, most of the samples fell into a mixed group that was difficult to distinguish by breed or geography. The total network analysis showed that the URYZ pigs possessed a dominant position in haplogroup A and domestic pigs shared the same core haplotype with the local wild boars, suggesting that pigs in group A were most likely derived from the URYZ pool. In addition, a region-wise network analysis determined that URYZ contains 42 haplotypes of which 22 are unique indicating the high diversity in this region. In conclusion, our findings confirmed that pigs from the URYZ were domesticated in situ.

  18. Distribution of ORF2 and ORF3 genotypes of Porcine Circovirus Type 2 (PCV-2) in wild boars and domestic pigs in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Reiner, Gerald; Bronnert, Bastian; Hohloch, Corinna; Reinacher, Manfred; Willems, Hermann

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Porcine circovirus 2 (PCV-2), the essential infectious agent in PCVD (porcine circovirus diseases) circulates at high rates among domestic pig and wild boar populations. Wild boars may be viremic and shed the virus with excretions and secretions, and thus serve as a reservoir for domestic pig PCV-2 infection. We hypothesize that PCV-2 strains circulating in wild boars and in domestic pigs are significantly different and thus, partially independent. To prove this hypothesis...

  19. Alternative Splicing and Expression Profile Analysis of Expressed Sequence Tags in Domestic Pig

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang Zhang; Lin Tao; Lin Ye; Ling He; Yuan-Zhong Zhu; Yue-Dong Zhu; Yan Zhou

    2007-01-01

    Domestic pig (Sus scrofa domestica) is one of the most important mammals to humans. Alternative splicing is a cellular mechanism in eukaryotes that greatly increases the diversity of gene products. Expression sequence tags (ESTs) have been widely used for gene discovery, expression profile analysis, and alternative splicing detection. In this study, a total of 712,905 ESTs extracted from 101 different nonnormalized EST libraries of the domestic pig were analyzed. These EST libraries cover the nervous system, digestive system, immune system, and meat production related tissues from embryo, newborn, and adult pigs, making contributions to the analysis of alternative splicing variants as well as expression profiles in various stages of tissues. A modified approach was designed to cluster and assemble large EST datasets, aiming to detect alternative splicing together with EST abundance of each splicing variant. Much efforts were made to classify alternative splicing into different types and apply different filters to each type to get more reliable results. Finally, a total of 1,223 genes with average 2.8 splicing variants were detected among 16,540 unique genes. The overview of expression profiles would change when we take alternative splicing into account.

  20. Preliminary attempt to distinguish the domesticated pigs from wild boars by the methods of carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michael; P.RICHARDS

    2009-01-01

    Despite great achievements in the origins of domestic pigs made by the methods of zooarchaeology and molecular biology,how to scientifically distinguish the domesticated pigs from wild boars during the early stage of pig domestication is still poorly understood.Compared to wild boar’s diets which come from the natural environment,the diets of domestic pigs are more easily influenced by human feeding activities.Therefore,in principle,exploration of the dietary differences among pigs and understanding the impact on pig diets fed by humans can have great potential to differentiate between wild boars and domesticated pigs.To reveal dietary differences among pigs and distinguish the domesticated pigs from wild boars based on comparison with the diets of humans and other animals,we analyzed the carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes of human bones from Xiaojingshan Site and animal bones from Yuezhuang Site,both of which belong to Houli Culture in Shandong Province and date to about 8500―7500 years ago.The mean δ 13C value((-17.8 ± 0.3)‰) and δ 15N value((9.0±0.6)‰) in human collagen indicate that although millet agriculture began it was not the main subsistence strategy as millets are typical of C4 plants and that humans made a living mainly by gathering,hunting or raising some domesticated animals.The δ 13C value(-16.1‰) and δ 15N value(6.9‰) in the bovine suggest that C3 plants were dominant in its diet with some C4 plants complemented.The fish has lower δ 13C value(-24.9‰) and higher δ 15N value(8.8‰) than the bovine,which is the characteristic of the isotopic values from Eurasian freshwater fish.Based on the differences in carbon and nitrogen isotope values,the pigs can be divided into three groups.A group,composed of two pigs,has low δ 13C values(-18.1‰,-20.0‰) and low δ 15N values(4.7‰,6.0‰).B group,only one pig,has the highest δ 13C value(-10.6‰) and mediate δ 15N value(6.4‰).As for the C group,also only one pig,low δ 13C

  1. Characterization of the apolipoprotein AI and CIII genes in the domestic pig

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birchbauer, A.; Knipping, G.; Juritsch, B.; Zechner, R. (Univ. of Graz (Austria)); Aschauer, H. (Sandoz-Forschungs Institut Ges.m.b.H., Vienna (Austria))

    1993-03-01

    The apolipoproteins (apo) AI and CIII are important constituents of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and high-density lipoproteins. In humans, apo AI is believed to play an important protective role in the pathogenesis of arteriosclerosis, whereas apo CIII might be involved in the development of hypertriglyceridemia. Both human genes are located within a gene cluster on chromosome 11. Although the domestic pig has been widely used as an animal model in arteriosclerosis and lipid research, the porcine apolipoproteins genes are poorly characterized. In this report, the complete nucleotide sequences of the porcine apo AI and CIII genes are presented and the authors demonstrate, for the first time, apo CIII expression in the pig. Both genes are composed of four exons and three introns and resemble closely their human counterparts with regard to the transcriptional start sites, exon sizes, intron sizes, exon-intron borders, and the size of the intergenic region. The predicted pig apo AI is a protein of 241 amino acids, which is 2 amino acids shorter than human apo AI. The protein sequence was found to be very homologous to apo AI sequences in other mammalian species. Apo AI expression was detected on the mRNA level in porcine liver and intestine. The apo CIII gene encodes a protein with 73 amino acids, which is 6 amino acids shorter than human apo CIII. In contrast to the three isoforms of apo CIII found in humans, only one major isoform was detected in the pig. Presumably this isoform is unglycosylated. In addition to apo CIII expression in the liver and the intestine, a truncated form of apo CIII mRNA was also found in porcine kidney. The studies demonstrate the presence of an apo CIII gene, an apo CIII mRNA, and an apo CIII protein in the pig and, therefore, exclude a hypothesized apo CIII deficiency in these animals. 53 refs., 5 figs.

  2. Preliminary attempt to distinguish the domesticated pigs from wild boars by the methods of carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU YaoWu; LUAN FengShi; WANG ShouGong; WANG ChangSui; Michael P. RICHARDS

    2009-01-01

    Despite great achievements in the origins of domestic pigs made by the methods of zooarchaeology and molecular biology, how to scientifically distinguish the domesticated pigs from wild boars during the early stage of pig domestication is still poorly understood. Compared to wild boar's diets which come from the natural environment, the diets of domestic pigs are more easily influenced by human feeding activities. Therefore, in principle, exploration of the dietary differences among pigs and under standing the impact on pig diets fed by humans can have great potential to differentiate between wild boars and domesticated pigs. To reveal dietary differences among pigs and distinguish the domesti cated pigs from wild boars based on comparison with the diets of humans and other animals, we ana lyzed the carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes of human bones from Xiaojingshan Site and animal bones from Yuezhuang Site, both of which belong to Houli Culture in Shandong Province and date to about 8500--7500 years ago. The mean б13C value ((-17.8 ± 0.3)%o) and б15N value ((9.0±0.6)%0) in human collagen indicate that although millet agriculture began it was not the main subsistence strategy as millets are typical of C4 plants and that humans made a living mainly by gathering, hunting or raisingsome domesticated animals. The б13C value (-16.1%.) and б15N value (6.9%.) in the bovine suggest that C3 plants were dominant in its diet with some C4 plants complemented. The fish has lower б13C value (-24.9%.) and higher б15N value (8.8%.) than the bovine, which is the characteristic of the isotopic val ues from Eurasian freshwater fish. Based on the differences in carbon and nitrogen isotope values, the pigs can be divided into three groups. A group, composed of two pigs, has low б13C values (-18.1%o,-20.0%o) and low б15N values (4.7%o, 6.0%.). B group, only one pig, has the highest б13C value (-10.6%o)and mediate б15N value (6.4%.). As for the C group, also only one pig

  3. The pathogenesis of highly virulent African Swine Fever virus in domestic pigs exposed via intraoropharyngeal, intranasopharyngeal, and intramuscular inoculation, and by direct contact with infected pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    In order to optimize novel systems for African Swine Fever Virus (ASFV) vaccine development, domestic pigs were challenged with the highly virulent ASFV-Malawi strain via intraoropharyngeal (IOP), intranasopharyngeal (INP), intramuscular (IM), and direct contact (DC) routes. Direct challenge doses ...

  4. Molecular epidemiology of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae from outbreaks of enzootic pneumonia in domestic pig and the role of wild boar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhnert, Peter; Overesch, Gudrun

    2014-11-01

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is the major cause of enzootic pneumonia (EP) in domestic pigs, a disease with low mortality but high morbidity, having a great economic impact for producers. In Switzerland EP has been successfully eradicated, however, sporadic outbreaks are observed with no obvious source. Besides the possibility of recurrent outbreaks due to persisting M. hyopneumoniae strains within the pig population, there is suspicion that wild boars might introduce M. hyopneumoniae into swine herds. To elucidate possible links between domestic pig and wild boar, epidemiological investigations of recent EP outbreaks were initiated and lung samples of pig and wild boar were tested for the presence of specific genotypes by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Despite generally different genotypes in wild boar, outbreak strains could be found in geographically linked wild boar lungs after, but so far not before the outbreak. Recurrent outbreaks in a farm were due to the same strain, indicating unsuccessful sanitation rather than reintroduction by wild boar. In another case outbreaks in six different farms were caused by the same strain never found in wild boar, confirming spread between farms due to hypothesized animal transport. Results indicate the presence of identical lineages of wild boar and domestic pig strains, and possible transmission of M. hyopneumoniae between wild boar and pig. However, the role of wild boar might be rather one as a recipient than a transmitter. More important than contact to wild boar for sporadic outbreaks in Switzerland is apparently persistence of M. hyopneumoniae within a farm as well as transmission between farms. PMID:25236987

  5. Genetic characterization of the domestic pig (Sus scrofa domestica in Cerete-Colombia, using microsatellite markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Meléndez G.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of this study was to characterize a population of domestic pig (Sus scrofa domestica in Cereté, Córdoba, using 20 microsatellite; calculate heterozygosity per locus and average heterozygosity. Materials and methods. Hair samples were collected from 62 specimens. DNA was extracted by proteinase K digestion and phenol-chloroform purification. Information from 20 microsatellites was selected out of those recommended for swine biodiversity studies. PCR products were separated by a vertical polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The bands were visualized by staining with silver nitrate. Results. All microsatellites used were polymorphic. Between 3 (SW1067 and 15 (IFNG alleles were detected with an average number of 6.7 and a total de 134 alleles. The average expected and observed heterozygosities were 0.5278 and 0.5479, respectively. PIC values ranged between 0.1999 and 0.8300 for loci SW1067 and SW911, respectively. Conclusions. Levels of observed and expected heterozygosity found in the present study indicate that the domestic pig (Sus scrofa domestica in Córdoba Cereté show high degree of genetic variability

  6. In the footsteps of "Arundhati": Asian Indian women's experience of domestic violence in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, S D; Warrier, S

    1996-09-01

    This study examined the ideologies and conditions that are creating women's vulnerability to spousal abuse in the Asian Indian community in the US. The study focused on the multiple factors involved in Asian Indian women's experiences of domestic violence in the US: their minority status, life as an immigrant, and pressures to preserve a flawless public image of their community. The data were collected from interviews with 12 highly educated women from India who had sought outside help due to spousal abuse. 10 of these women were foreign born, and 2 were brought up in the US. The study revealed that the most important factor in these women's lives seemed to be childhood indoctrination into the ideals of ¿good¿ wife and mother that include sacrifice of personal freedom and autonomy. Although majority of the women worked as professionals, economic independence did not seem to provide them with a sense of empowerment. Furthermore, they felt responsible for the reputation of their families in India, were eager not to compromise their families' honor with a divorce, and operated under the added pressures of preserving traditions and presenting an ¿unblemished¿ image of the community to the US mainstream. PMID:12295884

  7. Relationship between food polyamines and gross domestic product in association with longevity in Asian countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phan Nguyen Thanh Binh

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between gross domestic pro- duct (GDP and dietary profile, with a focus on polyamine intake, was investigated in 35 Asian countries. Data on food supply, GDP, and health condition were collected from databases of the United Nations, the International Monetary Fund, and the World Health Organization, respectively. The amount of polyamine intake from food was estimated using polyamine concentrations listed in published sources. The amounts of putrescine, spermidine, spermine, and total polyamines in 1000 kcal of food in Asian countries were 39.07 ± 17.98, 33.74 ± 14.35, 14.05 ± 6.60 and 86.85 ± 33.96 μmol/1000 kcal, respectively. Putrescine, spermidine, and spermine constituted 44, 39, and 17% of total polyamine, respectively. Vegetables contributed the largest amount of both putrescine and spermidine and the second largest amount of spermine (45.5%, 62.2% and 27.2% of total putrescine, spermidine, and spermine, respectively. Meat was the richest source of spermine and contributed the greatest amount (50% of this polyamine. We showed a significant positive association between GDP and the amount of polyamine per 1000 kcal of food. Lifespan was associated with both GDP and the amount of polyamine per energy quotient of food. As several basic research studies have shown that polyamines help prolong longevity, it follows that polyamines may have a role in determining the lifespan of humans.

  8. Detection of porcine circovirus type 2 and its association with PMWS in wild boars and domestic pigs in Germany: a histopathological, immunohistochemical and molecular biological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohloch, Corinna; Reiner, Gerald; Bronnert, Bastian; Willems, Hermann; Reinacher, Manfred

    2015-01-01

    Beside domestic pigs wild boars can also be affected by postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS). For the first time a nationwide survey of wild boars (n = 356) and domestic pigs (n = 340) was carried out in Germany by histopathology, immunohistochemistry (IHC) and quantitative PCR (qPCR). Whereas 102/340 domestic pigs were immunoreactive for PCV2 antigen in at least one examined tissue, only 8/356 wild boars reacted positively. Similar findings could be found in qPCR: all domestic pigs showed viral DNA in at least one tissue, while in the examined tissues of 170 wild boars PCV2-DNA was not detectable. The specimens were examined histologically for histiocytosis and depletion of lymphocytes, both typical for PMWS. Based on these findings, six wild boars and 69 domestic pigs were assumed to be affected by PMWS. PMID:26054225

  9. The domestic pig as a model for evaluating olestra's nutritional effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, D A; Berry, D A; Spendel, V A; Kiorpes, A L; Peters, J C

    1997-08-01

    Experimental conditions for measuring the effect of the noncaloric fat substitute olestra on the availability of dietary nutrients were established in the weanling domestic pig. To evaluate the tolerance of the pig for dietary fat levels similar to those in the human diet, groups were fed a standard corn-soy-based swine feed with and without 14% (30% of energy) added fat for 4 wk. To evaluate the adequacy of a purified diet to produce good growth, groups of pigs were fed purified diets providing 30% of energy from fat and micronutrients at 1, 1.3 or 1.6 times the NRC's requirements for 5- to 10-kg swine. Cumulative body weight gain, digestible feed efficiency and a lack of adverse effects showed that the pig can tolerate diets providing 30% of energy from fat and that a purified diet providing the NRC's requirements for micronutrients produces growth comparable to a nutritionally complete swine feed. To determine whether tissue concentrations of vitamins A, D, E and K in the pig respond to olestra and dietary concentrations of the vitamins, two groups were fed purified diet providing 1 or 1.6 times the NRC's requirements for micronutrients and 4.8% olestra. Significant increases occurred in the serum concentration of 25-hydroxyergocalciferol and liver concentrations of retinol and alpha-tocopherol with increasing dietary concentrations of the vitamins. Olestra reduced the tissue concentrations of vitamins A, D and E. Prothrombin time was not affected by dietary concentration of either phylloquinone or olestra. To determine the amount of UV light exposure required to produce 50-80% of vitamin D status from vitamin D3, a range typical of humans, two groups of pigs were fed the NRC requirement for vitamin D and exposed to 15 or 45 min/d of UV light. Serum concentration of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol increased with increased exposure time. UV exposure of 1-2 min/d was calculated to be sufficient to produce 50-80% of total vitamin D status from vitamin D3. No antemortem

  10. Spatial distribution of Trichinella britovi, T. spiralis and T. pseudospiralis of domestic pigs and wild boars (Sus scrofa) in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Széll, Z; Marucci, G; Ludovisi, A; Gómez-Morales, M A; Sréter, T; Pozio, E

    2012-02-10

    Trichinellosis is a foodborne disease caused by the consumption of raw meat and raw meat-derived products from swine, horse and some game animals infected with nematode worms of the genus Trichinella. Between June 2006 and February 2011, 16 million domestic pigs and 0.22 million wild boars (Sus scrofa) were tested for Trichinella sp. in Hungary. Trichinella infection was not found in any pigs slaughtered for public consumption. Nevertheless, Trichinella spiralis was detected in four backyard pigs when trace back was done following a family outbreak. Trichinella infection was demonstrated in 17 wild boars (0.0077%). Larvae from wild boars were identified as Trichinella britovi (64.7%), T. spiralis (29.4%) and Trichinella pseudospiralis (5.9%). Although the prevalence of Trichinella sp. infection in wild boars and domestic pigs is very low, the spatial analysis reveals that the level of risk differs by region in Hungary. Most of the T. britovi infected wild boars (63.6%) were shot in the north-eastern mountain area of Hungary; whereas domestic pigs and wild boars infected with T. spiralis were detected only in the southern counties bordering Croatia and Romania. In the north-western and central counties, the prevalence of Trichinella infection seems to be negligible. PMID:21852037

  11. Short Contribution: Severe Enamel Defects and Malformations of Canines in Pre-Historic and Historic Domestic Pigs from Bohemia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Teegen, W.-R.; Kyselý, René

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 2 (2014), s. 139-146. ISSN 1804-848X Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : domestic pig (Sus scrofa f. domestica) * enamel defect * enamel and root hypoplasia * Iron Age (La Tène period) * Middle Ages Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology http://www.iansa.eu/papers/IANSA-2014-02-kysely.pdf

  12. New insights into the molecular epidemiology of Trichinella infection in domestic pigs, wild boars, and bears in Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicorescu, Isabela Madalina Dragoi; Ionita, Mariana; Ciupescu, Laurentiu; Buzatu, Cristian Vasile; Tanasuica, Rodica; Mitrea, Ioan Liviu

    2015-09-15

    Trichinellosis is a food-borne zoonosis caused by the parasitic nematode Trichinella, characterized by an extremely wide host range and geographical distribution. In Romania, it is recognized as one of the most serious zoonotic diseases. A cross-sectional study, covering all regions of Romania, was conducted in 2014 to investigate and update the prevalence of Trichinella infection among domestic pigs, wild boars, and bears. Additional, molecular identification of Trichinella species circulating among these animals was performed in order to establish the biogeography of Trichinella species within the seven geographical regions of Romania. For this, a total of 113,383 pigs raised in non-controlled housing conditions (backyards), 5596 hunted wild boars and 147 hunted bears were subjected to Trichinella analysis. The highest prevalence of Trichinella infections was found in bears (12.93%), followed by wild boars (1.66%) and domestic pigs (0.20%). Of 294 Trichinella isolates that tested positive by multiplex PCR, 219 (74.49%) were identified as Trichinella spiralis, 66 (22.45%) as Trichinella britovi, and 9 isolates (3.06%) as mixed infections of T. spiralis and T. britovi. T. spiralis was more prevalent in domestic pigs (165/228; 72.37%) than in game (63/228; 27.63%), while T. britovi showed a higher prevalence in game (50/75; 66.66%) than in domestic pigs (25/75; 33.33%). Moreover, the present study revealed a significant host- and area- related distribution of Trichinella species within the seven regions of Romania. Therefore, these findings are of epidemiological relevance, updating data on the prevalence and distribution of Trichinella species circulating among domestic and wild animals in South-Eastern Europe. PMID:26238657

  13. Research Regarding the Hybrids Resulted from the Domestic Pig and the Wild Boar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Matiuti

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Research was conducted between 2005-2009 in Barzava, Arad county. The villagers breed pigs traditionally, the animals having the freedom to roam the outskirts of the villages. Over the years the domestic sows (Sus scrofa domesticus which had been let by their owners to roam the forests for mast and acorn, have mated with wild boars (Sus scrofa ferus, thus obtaining crossbreeds in various colours – either resembling the female or the male. In Bazava the total number of swine is 1820 specimens out of which 546 is formed by hybrids or crossbreeds in 2009. In the case of these hybrids the length of the head together with that of the trunk can reach 150-170 cm. An adult male can have a weight of 150-200 kg and the female 100-150 kg. These specimens are easily recognizable by the fact that they have the trunk covered in thick, long, spiky hairs. There are also other external characteristics of these crossbreeds. Data has been gathered on what concerns the colour and the length of the hair, external features, maintenance and feeding. Behavioural observations have been made also. The local people appreciate a lot these hybrids because of their qualitative meat, out of which they obtain traditional dishes, combining this meat with that from domestic pigs and veal. Moreover, the maintenance of these hybrids is very low-cost, the only conditions which have to be met being simple shelters during the night and during the winter. The demand for such animals is great. These hybrids are being bought by the Zoos or are used for repopulating the areas in which the wild boars are on the verge of extinction because of excessive poaching. Foreign buyers are also interested in these hybrids, wanting to breed them in special parks and then to organize hunting outings.

  14. Isolation and characterisation of a dinucleotide microsatellite set for a parentage and biodiversity study in domestic guinea pig (Cavia porcellus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Aviles

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The domestic guinea pig is a valuable genetic resource because it is part of local folklore and food tradition in many South American countries. The economic importance of the guinea pig is due to its high feed efficiency and the quality of animal protein produced. For these reasons, our study is aimed to design a complete dinucleotide microsatellite marker set following international recommendation to assess the genetic diversity and genealogy management of guinea pigs. We selected a total of 20 microsatellites, looking for laboratory efficiency and good statistical parameters. The set was tested in 100 unrelated individuals of guinea pigs from Ecuador, Peru, Colombia, Bolivia and Spain. Our results show a high degree of polymorphisms with a total of 216 alleles and a mean number of 10.80±3.49 for markers with a combined exclusion probability of 0.99.

  15. The dose-response-relation of erythema of the domestic pig induced by UVC-radiation (254 nm)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For domestic pigs the time-course and the dose-response-relationship of erythemal effective UVC-radiation was investigated. By the chromameter CR 300 (Minolta) the redness of the skin was measured, using the international L*a*b*-system. As UVC-source a germicidal lamp (TUV, Philips) was housed in a tube. The irradiance of the 10 zylindric holes were attenuated by a wire mash, changing the intensity along a logarithmic decrement. For the experiment 10 pigs were used. Each pig could be irradiated with 40 dose-steps. The redness of the marked skin-areas was not only determined once before the irradiation but also several times within 36 hours. The reaction of the skin of the pigs to UVC-radiation was different to human's. The time-course of the UVC-erythema was biphasical. The second erythema-maximum could not be explained by the pigmentation, which had just begun, but by an new increase of the reddening of the skin. No dose-response-correlation like the human's UVC-erythema could be detected. Therefore, the domestic pig can not be used as a human's photo-biological model for UVC. (author)

  16. Wild and domestic pig interactions at the wildlife-livestock interface of Murchison Falls National Park, Uganda, and the potential association with African Swine Fever outbreaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther eKukielka

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Bushpigs (Potamochoerus larvatus and warthogs (Phacochoerus africanus, which are widely distributed in Eastern Africa, are likely to cohabitate in the same environment with domestic pigs, facilitating the transmission of shared pathogens. However, potential interactions between bushpig, warthog and domestic pig and the resulting potential circulation of infectious diseases have rarely been investigated in Africa to date. In order to understand the dynamics of such interactions and the potential influence of human behavior and husbandry practices on them, individual interviews (n=233 and participatory rural appraisals (n=11 were carried out among Ugandan pig farmers at the edge of Murchison Falls National Park, northern Uganda. In addition, as an example of possible implications of wild and domestic pig interactions, nonlinear multivariate analysis (multiple correspondence analyses was used to investigate the potential association between the aforementioned factors (interactions and human behavior and practices and farmer reported ASF outbreaks. No direct interactions between wild pigs and domestic pig were reported in our study area. However, indirect interactions were described by 83 (35.6 % of the participants and were identified to be more common at water sources during the dry season. Equally, eight (3.4% farmers declared exposing their domestic pig to raw hunting leftovers of wild pigs. The exploratory analysis performed suggested possible associations between the farmer reported ASF outbreaks and indirect interactions, free-range housing systems, dry season, and having a warthog burrow less than 3km from the household. Our study was useful to gather local knowledge and to identify knowledge gaps about potential interactions between wild and domestic pig in this area. This information could be useful to facilitate the design of future observational studies to better understand the potential transmission of pathogens between wild and

  17. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in sera of domestic pigs and some wild game species from Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hove, T; Dubey, J P

    1999-04-01

    Serum samples of domestic pigs (Sus scrofa), elands (Taurotragus oryx), sable antelopes (Hippotragus niger), warthogs (Phacochoerus aethiopicus), bushpigs (Koiropotamus [Potamochoerus] koiropotamus), white rhinos (Ceratotherium simus), African buffalos (Syncerus caffer), wildebeest (Connochaetas taurinus), and African elephants (Loxodonta africana) from Zimbabwe were tested for Toxoplasma gondii IgG antibodies by the modified agglutination test (MAT) with whole formalized tachyzoites and mercaptoethanol. Sera were diluted at 1:25, 1:50, and 1:500 for MAT testing. Sera with antibodies in a 1:25 dilution were considered to have T. gondii infection. Toxoplasma gondii antibodies were found in 9.3% of 97 domestic pigs, 36.8% of 19 elands, 11.9% of 67 sables, 0 of 3 warthogs, 0 of 3 bushpigs, 50% of 2 white rhinos, 5.6% of 18 buffalos, 14.5% of 69 wildebeest, and 10.5% of 19 elephants examined. PMID:10219323

  18. New records of calyptrate dipterans (Fanniidae, Muscidae and Sarcophagidae) associated with the decomposition of domestic pigs in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo Rocha Barbosa; Cátia Antunes de Mello-Patiu; Rubens Pinto de Mello; Margareth Maria de Carvalho Queiroz

    2009-01-01

    The calyptrate dipterans are the most important decomposers of human cadavers. Knowledge of their species and distribution are of great importance to forensic entomology, especially because of the enormous diversity in Brazil. Carcasses of domestic pigs (Sus scrofa, L) were the experimental models used to attract calyptrates of forensic interest during the winters of 2006 and 2007 and the summers of 2006 and 2008. A total of 24,423 specimens from 44 species were collected (19 Muscidae, 2 Fann...

  19. The importance of craniofacial sutures in biomechanical finite element models of the domestic pig.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen A Bright

    Full Text Available Craniofacial sutures are a ubiquitous feature of the vertebrate skull. Previous experimental work has shown that bone strain magnitudes and orientations often vary when moving from one bone to another, across a craniofacial suture. This has led to the hypothesis that craniofacial sutures act to modify the strain environment of the skull, possibly as a mode of dissipating high stresses generated during feeding or impact. This study tests the hypothesis that the introduction of craniofacial sutures into finite element (FE models of a modern domestic pig skull would improve model accuracy compared to a model without sutures. This allowed the mechanical effects of sutures to be assessed in isolation from other confounding variables. These models were also validated against strain gauge data collected from the same specimen ex vivo. The experimental strain data showed notable strain differences between adjacent bones, but this effect was generally not observed in either model. It was found that the inclusion of sutures in finite element models affected strain magnitudes, ratios, orientations and contour patterns, yet contrary to expectations, this did not improve the fit of the model to the experimental data, but resulted in a model that was less accurate. It is demonstrated that the presence or absence of sutures alone is not responsible for the inaccuracies in model strain, and is suggested that variations in local bone material properties, which were not accounted for by the FE models, could instead be responsible for the pattern of results.

  20. Surgical implantation and functional assessment of an invasive telemetric system to measure autonomic responses in domestic pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, A; Zebunke, M; Bellmann, O; Mohr, E; Langbein, J; Puppe, B

    2016-01-01

    The first aim of this study was to establish a surgical procedure to implant a new telemetric device for the continuous recording of electrocardiogram (ECG) and blood pressure (BP) in freely moving pigs. A second aim was the functional assessment of cardiovascular parameters, including heart rate variability (HRV) and blood pressure variability (BPV), so that these data could be used as the basis for the objective evaluation of autonomic activity and balance in different behavioural contexts. Eleven domestic pigs (German Landrace) underwent surgery for the placement of a telemetric device. At day 15 after surgery, 512 consecutive inter-beat intervals and pressure waves were analysed using different detection methods (automatic and manually corrected) while the animals were resting or feeding, respectively. HRV and BPV were calculated. Incomplete datasets were found in four pigs due to missing ECG or BP signals. Technical and surgical issues concerning catheterisation and detachment of the negative ECG lead were continuously improved. In the remaining pigs, excellent signal quality (manually corrected data of 1%) was obtained during resting and acceptable signal quality (ECG recordings. Sympathetic arousal with accompanying vagal withdrawal during feeding was documented. The established surgical implantation and functional assessment of the telemetric system with the reliable registration of cardiovascular parameters in freely moving pigs could serve as a basis for future studies of autonomic regulation in context of stress and animal welfare. PMID:26626089

  1. A longitudinal survey of African swine fever in Uganda reveals high apparent disease incidence rates in domestic pigs, but absence of detectable persistent virus infections in blood and serum

    OpenAIRE

    Muhangi, Denis; Masembe, Charles; Emanuelson, Ulf; Boqvist, Sofia; Mayega, Lawrence; Ademun, Rose Okurut; Bishop, Richard P.; Ocaido, Michael; Berg, Mikael; Ståhl, Karl

    2015-01-01

    Background African swine fever (ASF) is a fatal, haemorrhagic disease of domestic pigs, that poses a serious threat to pig farmers and is currently endemic in domestic pigs in most of sub-Saharan Africa. To obtain insight into the factors related to ASF outbreaks at the farm-level, a longitudinal study was performed in one of the major pig producing areas in central Uganda. Potential risk factors associated with outbreaks of ASF were investigated including the possible presence of apparently ...

  2. In the elephant's seed shadow: the prospects of domestic bovids as replacement dispersers of three tropical Asian trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekar, Nitin; Lee, Chia-lo; Sukumar, Raman

    2015-08-01

    As populations of the world's largest animal species decline, it is unclear how ecosystems will react to their local extirpation. Due to the unique ecological characteristics of megaherbivores such as elephants, seed dispersal is one ecosystem process that may be affected as populations of large animals are decimated. In typically disturbed South Asian ecosystems, domestic bovids (cattle, Bosprimigenius, and buffalo, Bubalus bubalis) may often be the species most available to replace Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) as endozoochorous dispersers of large-fruited mammal-dispersed species. We use feeding trials, germination trials, and movement data from the tropical moist forests of Buxa Tiger Reserve (India) to examine whether domestic bovids are viable replacements for elephants in the dispersal of three large- fruited species: Dillenia indica, Artocarpus chaplasha, and Careya arborea. We find that (1) once consumed, seeds are between 2.5 (C. arborea) and 26.5 (D. indica) times more likely to pass undigested into elephant dung than domestic bovid dung; and (2) seeds from elephant dung germinated as well as or better than seeds taken from bovid dung for all plant species, with D. indica seeds from elephant dung 1.5 times more likely to germinate. Furthermore, since wild elephants have less constrained movements than even free-roaming domestic bovids, we calculate that maximum dispersal by elephants is between 9.5 and 11.2 times farther than that of domestic bovids, with about 20% of elephant-dispersed seeds being moved farther than the maximum distance seeds are moved by bovids. Our findings suggest that, while bovids are able to disperse substantial numbers of seeds over moderate distances for two of the three study species, domestic bovids will be unable to routinely emulate the reliable, long-distance dispersal of seeds executed by elephants in this tropical moist forest. Thus while domestic bovids can attenuate the effects of losing elephants as dispersers

  3. Seroprevalence and risk factors associated to Toxoplasma gondii in domestic pigs from Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serum samples from 2970 (1400 sows, 1570 fattening) pigs, from 100 farms from the 10 main swine production regions in Spain were tested for antibodies against T. gondii by the modified agglutination test (MAT). Antibodies to T. gondii (MAT 1:25 or higher) were detected in 16.6% of 492 pigs (,9.7% f...

  4. Innate immune responses to obesity in cloned and wild-type domestic pig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højbøge, Tina Rødgaard; Skovgaard, Kerstin; Stagsted, Jan;

    , mRNA expression profiles of certain acute phase proteins were significantly affected by cloning, being expressed at higher levels in the liver of both cloned groups compared to both WT groups but at lower levels in adipose tissues of cloned lean pigs as opposed to WT lean pigs. Also there were...... three months of age. mRNA expression levels were determined for 39 innate immune factors on a high-throughput qPCR system in samples from liver, abdominal fat, mesenteric fat and subcutaneous fat. Previous findings have suggested that cloning may affect certain phenotypic traits of pigs including basic...

  5. The welfare implications of large litter size in the domestic pig II: management factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baxter, E.M.; Rutherford, K.M.D.; D'Eath, R.B.;

    2013-01-01

    Increasing litter size has long been a goal of pig (Sus scrofa domesticus) breeders and producers in many countries. Whilst this has economic and environmental benefits for the pig industry, there are also implications for pig welfare. Certain management interventions are used when litter size ro...... situations, not just those involving large litters. However, given that interventions for large litters involve increased handling of piglets and increased interaction with sows, there are likely to be even greater benefits for management of hyper-prolific herds....

  6. Phylogeography of Asian wild rice, Oryza rufipogon, reveals multiple independent domestications of cultivated rice, Oryza sativa

    OpenAIRE

    Londo, Jason P.; Chiang, Yu-Chung; Hung, Kuo-Hsiang; Chiang, Tzen-Yuh; Schaal, Barbara A.

    2006-01-01

    Cultivated rice, Oryza sativa L., represents the world’s most important staple food crop, feeding more than half of the human population. Despite this essential role in world agriculture, the history of cultivated rice’s domestication from its wild ancestor, Oryza rufipogon, remains unclear. In this study, DNA sequence variation in three gene regions is examined in a phylogeographic approach to investigate the domestication of cultivated rice. Results indicate that India and Indochina may rep...

  7. Detection of a new cluster of porcine circovirus type 2b strains in domestic pigs in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddicks, M; Fux, R; Szikora, F; Eddicks, L; Majzoub-Altweck, M; Hermanns, W; Sutter, G; Palzer, A; Banholzer, E; Ritzmann, M

    2015-04-17

    PCV2 can be divided into three different genotypes: PCV2a, PCV2b and PCV2c. Since 2004/2005 PCV2b has become the predominant genotype in the domestic pig population worldwide. In the years 2010 and 2012 PCV2b mutant strains (mPCV2), classified as PCV2b-1C strains, were detected in porcine circovirus diseases (PCVD) affected pigs in China and the United States, respectively. Within one year (April 2013-April 2014) newly emerging mPCV2 strains were isolated in seven German pig farms routinely vaccinating against PCV2. Histopathological, clinical and molecular biological findings including in-situ hybridization (ISH) and real-time PCR indicate PCVD in the affected animals. Characterized isolates from five farms were closely related to the PCV2b-1C reference strain BDH (GenBank no. HM038017), whereas strains from two other farms were only 99.1% and 99.0% identical (based on the nucleotide sequence of the complete genome) to mPCV2 strain BDH, respectively. PMID:25669598

  8. High prevalence of Tritrichomonas foetus 'bovine genotype' in faecal samples from domestic pigs at a farm where bovine trichomonosis has not been reported for over 30 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Kai; Morin-Adeline, Victoria; Gilchrist, Katrina; Brown, Graeme; Šlapeta, Jan

    2015-09-15

    Bovine venereal trichomonosis caused by the flagellate Tritrichomonas foetus is a notifiable disease in Australia. While, T. foetus is pathogenic in both cattle and cats, it has long been established that the same T. foetus colonises the stomach, caecum and nasal cavity of pigs without apparent clinical significance. Multi-locus genotyping grouped the non-pathogenic porcine T. foetus with the pathogenic 'bovine genotype', rather than with the 'feline genotype' T. foetus. Bovine trichomonosis is now uncommon due to wide-spread use of artificial insemination, however, whether T. foetus remains prevalent in pigs where bovine trichomonosis has been eradicated remains unknown. We surveyed faecal samples from pigs farmed in close proximity with T. foetus-negative cattle. The Modified Diamond's Medium assay used were 77.4% (24/31) positive for trichomonads and 64.50% (20/31) were T. foetus-positive based on real-time PCR and conventional PCR. An axenic reference strain of T. foetus, designated PIG30/1 was established. In addition, a novel trichomonad ITS rDNA, PIG12, closely related to sequences from Trichomitus spp is reported. Multi-locus genotyping at nine loci matched PIG30/1 to the 'bovine genotype' T. foetus. In conclusion, cross-species transmission of T. foetus between pigs and cows from environmental exposure of T. foetus-contaminated pig faeces is unlikely. Domestic T. foetus-positive pigs possess a negligible risk of a successful T. foetus transmission event to cattle. PMID:26315128

  9. Orosomucoid expression profiles in liver, adipose tissues and serum of lean and obese domestic pigs, Göttingen minipigs and Ossabaw minipigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højbøge, Tina Rødgaard; Stagsted, Jan; Christoffersen, Berit Ø.;

    2013-01-01

    The acute phase protein orosomucoid (ORM) has anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects, and may play an important role in the maintenance of metabolic homeostasis in obesity-induced low-grade inflammation. Even though the pig is a widely used model for obesity related metabolic symptoms, the...... expression of ORM has not yet been characterized in such pig models. The objective of this study was to investigate the expression of ORM1 mRNA in liver, visceral adipose tissue, subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) from the abdomen or retroperitoneal abdominal adipose tissue (RPAT) and SAT from the neck, as...... well as the serum concentration of ORM protein in three porcine obesity models; the domestic pig, Göttingen minipigs and Ossabaw minipigs.No changes in ORM1 mRNA expression were observed in obese pigs compared to lean pigs in the four types of tissues. However, obese Ossabaw minipigs, but none of the...

  10. Intranasal oxytocin administration in relationship to social behaviour in domestic pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camerlink, Irene; Reimert, Inonge; Bolhuis, J Elizabeth

    2016-09-01

    Intranasal administration of oxytocin has been shown to alter positive and negative social behaviour. Positive social behaviour in pigs (Sus scrofa) may be expressed through gentle social nosing, and greater insight in the specific expression hereof might contribute to the current search for positive indicators of animal welfare. We investigated whether oxytocin alters social nosing and whether this is specific to nose-body or nose-nose contact. Sixty-four focal female pigs of 13weeks of age (out of 16 groups) were given oxytocin (24IU dose) and saline (placebo) intranasally once on two consecutive days. The frequency of nose-to-nose contact and nose-to-body contact was recorded upon pigs' return in the home pen after being for 10min located in a separate area near pen mates undergoing a positive or negative event or not. The effect of intranasal oxytocin depended on the social context in which pigs were studied. Control pigs, which were not exposed to positively or negatively aroused pen mates, gave and received less nose-nose contact after oxytocin administration than after saline administration. Pigs exposed to positively aroused pen mates also tended to give less nose contact when given oxytocin compared to saline, whereas pigs exposed to negatively aroused pen mates and administered oxytocin tended to receive more nose contact. Nose-body contact was lowest in groups of negative social context, suggesting an effect of emotional state on social nosing. In contrast to nose-nose contact, nose-body contact was unaffected by oxytocin treatment. The relationship between social nosing and oxytocin merits further research. PMID:27143253

  11. The Impact of Trade Openness on Gross Domestic Product : A study of the Asian Financial Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Glommen Andersson, Elin; Severin, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    This bachelor thesis in economics examines the Asian financial crisis, the impact on the countries in the region and how well they recovered financially. The countries that are taken into consideration are Japan, Indonesia, South Korea, Philippines, Thailand, Malaysia and Singapore.  The variables used to explain the implications of the crisis are GDP, trade openness, unemployment and current account. Descriptive statistics show that the most closed economy that was affected by a current acco...

  12. Domestic Pig (Sus scrofa) as an Animal Model for Experimental Trypanosoma cruzi Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yauri, Verónica; Castro-Sesquen, Yagahira E; Verastegui, Manuela; Angulo, Noelia; Recuenco, Fernando; Cabello, Ines; Malaga, Edith; Bern, Caryn; Gavidia, Cesar M; Gilman, Robert H

    2016-05-01

    Pigs were infected with a Bolivian strain of Trypanosoma cruzi (genotype I) and evaluated up to 150 days postinoculation (dpi) to determine the use of pigs as an animal model of Chagas disease. Parasitemia was observed in the infected pigs during the acute phase (15-40 dpi). Anti-T. cruzi immunoglobulin M was detected during 15-75 dpi; high levels of anti-T. cruzi immunoglobulin G were detected in all infected pigs from 75 to 150 dpi. Parasitic DNA was observed by western blot (58%, 28/48) and polymerase chain reaction (27%, 13/48) in urine samples, and in the brain (75%, 3/4), spleen (50%, 2/4), and duodenum (25%, 1/4), but no parasitic DNA was found in the heart, colon, and kidney. Parasites were not observed microscopically in tissues samples, but mild inflammation, vasculitis, and congestion was observed in heart, brain, kidney, and spleen. This pig model was useful for the standardization of the urine test because of the higher volume that can be obtained as compared with other small animal models. However, further experiments are required to observe pathological changes characteristic of Chagas disease in humans. PMID:26928841

  13. Indirect genetic effects for growth rate in domestic pigs alter aggressive and manipulative biting behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camerlink, Irene; Ursinus, Winanda W; Bijma, Piter; Kemp, Bas; Bolhuis, J Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Indirect genetic effects (IGEs) are heritable effects of an individual on phenotypic values of others, and may result from social interactions. We determined the behavioural consequences of selection for IGEs for growth (IGEg) in pigs in a G × E treatment design. Pigs (n = 480) were selected for high versus low IGEg with a contrast of 14 g average daily gain and were housed in either barren or straw-enriched pens (n = 80). High IGEg pigs showed from 8 to 23 weeks age 40% less aggressive biting (P = 0.006), 27% less ear biting (P = 0.03), and 40% less biting on enrichment material (P = 0.005). High IGEg pigs had a lower tail damage score (high 2.0; low 2.2; P = 0.004), and consumed 30 % less jute sacks (P = 0.002). Selection on high IGEg reduced biting behaviours additive to the, generally much larger, effects of straw-bedding (P biting behaviours in pigs. PMID:25227986

  14. Identification of human Norovirus (HNoV in domestic pig stool samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María F. Gutiérrez

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available To determine the presence of NoVs as a possible causal zoonotic agent of acute diarrhea in pigs and humans. Materialsand methods. We collected a total of 77 samples from diarrheal children under 5 years and pigs under 2 months from La Chambatown in Tolima, Colombia. These samples were transported to the Laboratory of Virology of the Pontificia Universidad Javerianain Bogotá, and extraction with Trizol-reagent was done following the manufacturer’s instructions. After obtaining the RNA, thenext step was to perform RT-PCR for obtaining the expected amplification product of 213- bp NoVs. Finally, the positive samplesobtained in the RT-PCR were sequenced and analyzed by bioinformatics methods. Results. Six positive diarrheic samples fromchildren and a positive diarrheic sample from pigs were detected by a band of 231 bp. Five of the six positive samples in childrenand the positive pig sample were sequenced and analyzed. Conclusion. Given the close genetic relationship between pig andhuman sequences, this could be an indication of the potential existence of a common animal acting as a reservoir for human orother animal strains.

  15. Comparative analysis of protein coding sequences from human, mouse and the domesticated pig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Frank Grønlund; Hobolth, Asger; Hornshøj, Henrik;

    2005-01-01

    Background: The availability of abundant sequence data from key model organisms has made large scale studies of mulecular evolution an exciting possibility. Here we use full length cDNA alignments comprising more than 700,000 nucleotides from human, mouse, pig and the Japanese pufferfish Fugu...... lineages have on average experienced 1.44 and 2.86 times as many synomymous substitutions as humans, respectively, whereas the rates of non-synonymous substitutions are more similar. The analysis shows the highest average dN/dS ratio in the human lineage, followed by the pig and then the mouse lineages....... Using codon based models we detect signals of positive Darwinian selection in approximately 5.3%, 4.9% and 6.0% of the genes on the human, pig and mouse lineages respectively. Approximately 16.8% of all the genes studied here are not currently annotated as functional genes in humans. Our analyses...

  16. The welfare implications of large litter size in the domestic pig I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rutherford, K.M.D.; Baxter, E.M.; D'Eath, R.B.; Turner, Simon; Arnott, G.; Roehe, R.; Ask, Birgitte; Sandøe, P.; Moustsen, V.A.; Thorup, F.; Edwards, S.A.; Berg, P.; Lawrence, A.B.

    2013-01-01

    Increasing litter size has long been a goal of pig breeders and producers, and may have implications for pig (Sus scrofa domesticus) welfare. This paper reviews the scientific evidence on biological factors affecting sow and piglet welfare in relation to large litter size. It is concluded that, in...... a number of ways, large litter size is a risk factor for decreased animal welfare in pig production. Increased litter size is associated with increased piglet mortality, which is likely to be associated with significant negative animal welfare impacts. In surviving piglets, many of the causes of...... mortality can also occur in non-lethal forms that cause suffering. Intense teat competition may increase the likelihood that some piglets do not gain adequate access to milk, causing starvation in the short term and possibly long-term detriments to health. Also, increased litter size leads to more piglets...

  17. Whole Genome Sequencing Identifies a Missense Mutation in HES7 Associated with Short Tails in Asian Domestic Cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiao; Sun, Xin; Hu, Xue-Song; Zhuang, Yan; Liu, Yue-Chen; Meng, Hao; Miao, Lin; Yu, He; Luo, Shu-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Domestic cats exhibit abundant variations in tail morphology and serve as an excellent model to study the development and evolution of vertebrate tails. Cats with shortened and kinked tails were first recorded in the Malayan archipelago by Charles Darwin in 1868 and remain quite common today in Southeast and East Asia. To elucidate the genetic basis of short tails in Asian cats, we built a pedigree of 13 cats segregating at the trait with a founder from southern China and performed linkage mapping based on whole genome sequencing data from the pedigree. The short-tailed trait was mapped to a 5.6 Mb region of Chr E1, within which the substitution c. 5T > C in the somite segmentation-related gene HES7 was identified as the causal mutation resulting in a missense change (p.V2A). Validation in 245 unrelated cats confirmed the correlation between HES7-c. 5T > C and Chinese short-tailed feral cats as well as the Japanese Bobtail breed, indicating a common genetic basis of the two. In addition, some of our sampled kinked-tailed cats could not be explained by either HES7 or the Manx-related T-box, suggesting at least three independent events in the evolution of domestic cats giving rise to short-tailed traits. PMID:27560986

  18. Whole Genome Sequencing Identifies a Missense Mutation in HES7 Associated with Short Tails in Asian Domestic Cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiao; Sun, Xin; Hu, Xue-Song; Zhuang, Yan; Liu, Yue-Chen; Meng, Hao; Miao, Lin; Yu, He; Luo, Shu-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Domestic cats exhibit abundant variations in tail morphology and serve as an excellent model to study the development and evolution of vertebrate tails. Cats with shortened and kinked tails were first recorded in the Malayan archipelago by Charles Darwin in 1868 and remain quite common today in Southeast and East Asia. To elucidate the genetic basis of short tails in Asian cats, we built a pedigree of 13 cats segregating at the trait with a founder from southern China and performed linkage mapping based on whole genome sequencing data from the pedigree. The short-tailed trait was mapped to a 5.6 Mb region of Chr E1, within which the substitution c. 5T > C in the somite segmentation-related gene HES7 was identified as the causal mutation resulting in a missense change (p.V2A). Validation in 245 unrelated cats confirmed the correlation between HES7-c. 5T > C and Chinese short-tailed feral cats as well as the Japanese Bobtail breed, indicating a common genetic basis of the two. In addition, some of our sampled kinked-tailed cats could not be explained by either HES7 or the Manx-related T-box, suggesting at least three independent events in the evolution of domestic cats giving rise to short-tailed traits. PMID:27560986

  19. Investigating the role of free-ranging wild boar (Sus scrofa) in the re-emergence of enzootic pneumonia in domestic pig herds: a pathological, prevalence and risk-factor study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista Linhares, Mainity; Belloy, Luc; Origgi, Francesco C; Lechner, Isabel; Segner, Helmut; Ryser-Degiorgis, Marie-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Enzootic pneumonia (EP) caused by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae has a significant economic impact on domestic pig production. A control program carried out from 1999 to 2003 successfully reduced disease occurrence in domestic pigs in Switzerland, but recurrent outbreaks suggested a potential role of free-ranging wild boar (Sus scrofa) as a source of re-infection. Since little is known on the epidemiology of EP in wild boar populations, our aims were: (1) to estimate the prevalence of M. hyopneumoniae infections in wild boar in Switzerland; (2) to identify risk factors for infection in wild boar; and (3) to assess whether infection in wild boar is associated with the same gross and microscopic lesions typical of EP in domestic pigs. Nasal swabs, bronchial swabs and lung samples were collected from 978 wild boar from five study areas in Switzerland between October 2011 and May 2013. Swabs were analyzed by qualitative real time PCR and a histopathological study was conducted on lung tissues. Risk factor analysis was performed using multivariable logistic regression modeling. Overall prevalence in nasal swabs was 26.2% (95% CI 23.3-29.3%) but significant geographical differences were observed. Wild boar density, occurrence of EP outbreaks in domestic pigs and young age were identified as risk factors for infection. There was a significant association between infection and lesions consistent with EP in domestic pigs. We have concluded that M. hyopneumoniae is widespread in the Swiss wild boar population, that the same risk factors for infection of domestic pigs also act as risk factors for infection of wild boar, and that infected wild boar develop lesions similar to those found in domestic pigs. However, based on our data and the outbreak pattern in domestic pigs, we propose that spillover from domestic pigs to wild boar is more likely than transmission from wild boar to pigs. PMID:25747151

  20. Investigating the role of free-ranging wild boar (Sus scrofa in the re-emergence of enzootic pneumonia in domestic pig herds: a pathological, prevalence and risk-factor study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mainity Batista Linhares

    Full Text Available Enzootic pneumonia (EP caused by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae has a significant economic impact on domestic pig production. A control program carried out from 1999 to 2003 successfully reduced disease occurrence in domestic pigs in Switzerland, but recurrent outbreaks suggested a potential role of free-ranging wild boar (Sus scrofa as a source of re-infection. Since little is known on the epidemiology of EP in wild boar populations, our aims were: (1 to estimate the prevalence of M. hyopneumoniae infections in wild boar in Switzerland; (2 to identify risk factors for infection in wild boar; and (3 to assess whether infection in wild boar is associated with the same gross and microscopic lesions typical of EP in domestic pigs. Nasal swabs, bronchial swabs and lung samples were collected from 978 wild boar from five study areas in Switzerland between October 2011 and May 2013. Swabs were analyzed by qualitative real time PCR and a histopathological study was conducted on lung tissues. Risk factor analysis was performed using multivariable logistic regression modeling. Overall prevalence in nasal swabs was 26.2% (95% CI 23.3-29.3% but significant geographical differences were observed. Wild boar density, occurrence of EP outbreaks in domestic pigs and young age were identified as risk factors for infection. There was a significant association between infection and lesions consistent with EP in domestic pigs. We have concluded that M. hyopneumoniae is widespread in the Swiss wild boar population, that the same risk factors for infection of domestic pigs also act as risk factors for infection of wild boar, and that infected wild boar develop lesions similar to those found in domestic pigs. However, based on our data and the outbreak pattern in domestic pigs, we propose that spillover from domestic pigs to wild boar is more likely than transmission from wild boar to pigs.

  1. New records of calyptrate dipterans (Fanniidae, Muscidae and Sarcophagidae associated with the decomposition of domestic pigs in Brazil

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    Rodrigo Rocha Barbosa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The calyptrate dipterans are the most important decomposers of human cadavers. Knowledge of their species and distribution are of great importance to forensic entomology, especially because of the enormous diversity in Brazil. Carcasses of domestic pigs (Sus scrofa, L were the experimental models used to attract calyptrates of forensic interest during the winters of 2006 and 2007 and the summers of 2006 and 2008. A total of 24,423 specimens from 44 species were collected (19 Muscidae, 2 Fanniidae and 23 Sarcophagidae, three of which were new records of occurrence and 20 of which were new forensic records for the state of Rio de Janeiro. Fourteen of these species were newly identified as forensically important in Brazil.

  2. Toxocara cati larva migrans in domestic pigs - detected at slaughterhouse control in Norway

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    Davidson Rebecca K

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Routine Trichinella meat inspection at the slaughterhouse detected one larva in a pooled batch of 100 pig samples. The larva was sent to the Norwegian Veterinary Institute (NVI for species identification. Morphological examination revealed that the larva was not Trichinella spp. Molecular analysis was performed. PCR and sequencing of 5S/ITS identified the larva as Toxocara cati. A second round of digests was carried out at the meat inspection laboratory, in smaller batches to try to identify the infected animal. No further larvae were detected and it was not possible to identify which of the 100 animals the larva had come from. This is the first time that Toxocara cati has been reported in slaughterhouse pigs in Norway. Although the infected individual could not be identified, the meat originated from one of six potential farms. A small survey regarding rodent control and cats was sent to each of these farms. Cats had restricted access to food storage areas (two farms reported that cats had access whilst none of the farms allowed cats into the production housing. Cats were, however, present on all the farms (mostly stray cats of unknown health status. Half of the farms also reported seeing rodents in the pig housing during the previous six months and half reported finding rodents in the feed and straw storage areas. We were unable to narrow down the source of infection – however contamination of food or bedding material, with cat faeces or infected rodents, in addition to the presence of infected rodents in pig housing remain potential routes of infection.

  3. Classical and African swine fever in domestic pigs and European wild boar

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    Gabriel, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    Classical and African swine fever are highly contagious, notifiable viral diseases affecting different members of the Suidae family, both showing tremendous impact on animal health and pig production. Optimization of CSF control strategies comprised two different approaches. In a first step, the current strategy of oral immunization of wild boar using a conventional C-strain vaccine was supplemented with the implementation of genetic DIVA using a recently developed multiplex rRT-PCR assay....

  4. Cryptosporidium scrofarum n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Cryptosporidiidae) in domestic pigs (Sus scrofa)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kváč, Martin; Kestřánová, M.; Pinková, Martina; Květoňová, Dana; Kalinová, Jana; Wágnerová, Pavla; Kotková, Michaela; Vitovec, J.; Ditrich, Oleg; McEvoy, J.; Stenger, B.; Sak, Bohumil

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 191, 3-4 (2013), s. 218-227. ISSN 0304-4017 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LH11061 Grant ostatní: MSM 6007665806(CZ) MSM 6007665806 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 ; RVO:67985904 Keywords : Cryptosporidium scrofarum * Taxonomy * Morphology * Molecular analyses * Transmission studies * Cryptosporidium pig genotype II Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.545, year: 2013

  5. Simulating the spread of classical swine fever virus between a hypothetical wild-boar population and domestic pig herds in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boklund, Anette; Goldbach, Stine G.; Uttenthal, Åse;

    2008-01-01

    Denmark has no free-range wild-boar population. However, Danish wildlife organizations have suggested that wild boar should be reintroduced into the wild to broaden national biodiversity. Danish pig farmers fear that this would lead to a higher risk of introduction of classical swine fever virus...... CSFV between the hypothetical wild-boar population and the domestic population. Furthermore, the economic impact is assessed taking the perspective of the Danish national budget and the Danish pig industry. We used InterSpreadPlus to model the differential classical swine fever (CSF) risk due to wild...

  6. Ancient DNA, pig domestication, and the spread of the Neolithic into Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Larson, G; Albarella, U.; Dobney, K.; Rowley-Conwy, P.; J. Schibler; Tresset, A.; Vigne, J.D.; Edwards, C J; Schlumbaum, A.; Dinu, A.; Balaçsescu, A.; Dolman, G.; Tagliacozzo, A.; Manaseryan, N.; Miracle, P.

    2007-01-01

    The Neolithic Revolution began 11,000 years ago in the Near East and preceded a westward migration into Europe of distinctive cultural groups and their agricultural economies, including domesticated animals and plants. Despite decades of research, no consensus has emerged about the extent of admixture between the indigenous and exotic populations or the degree to which the appearance of specific components of the "Neolithic cultural package" in Europe reflects truly independent development. H...

  7. The survey of porcine teschoviruses, sapeloviruses and enteroviruses B infecting domestic pigs and wild boars in the Czech Republic between 2005 and 2011.

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    Prodělalová, Jana

    2012-10-01

    This study presents results of epidemiological survey and genetic characterisation of porcine enteric picornaviruses belonging to the genera Teschovirus, Sapelovirus, and Porcine enterovirus B. Faecal or gut content samples from domestic pigs (Sus scrofa f. domestica) and the cecal content of wild boars (Sus scrofa) of different ages (collected between 2005 and 2011) were analysed by molecular methods. Porcine enterovirus B was the most prevalent virus detected in both domestic pigs and wild boars (50.2% and 69.4%, respectively), followed by Porcine teschovirus and Porcine sapelovirus. The majority of positive domestic pigs (69.4%) and wild boars (64.3%) were infected with two or three tested viruses. There was no significant difference in prevalences of teschoviruses, sapeloviruses, and enteroviruses among healthy and diarrhoeic pigs. Results of epidemiological survey demonstrated that all target viral genera are common in Czech farms producing pigs and wild boars. Amplified nucleotide fragments of VP2 region obtained from randomly selected both historical and recent Teschovirus isolates were sequenced. Based on sequence data, historical Porcine teschovirus isolate CAPM V-180, previously determined as serotype 1 was reclassified into serotype 11. Moreover, another recent Porcine teschovirus isolate OH264/2010 was described and classified into serotype 11. Four nontypeable PTV strains (historical isolate CAPM V-182/1976 and recent isolates JA247/2010, NI429/2010, and BR1576/2007) identified in this study might represent novel serotypes. To the best of our knowledge, our study represents the first description of this serotype in the Czech Republic. PMID:22579481

  8. Interchangeability of Electrocardiography and Blood Pressure Measurement for Determining Heart Rate and Heart Rate Variability in Free-Moving Domestic Pigs in Various Behavioral Contexts

    OpenAIRE

    Krause, Annika; Tuchscherer, Armin; Puppe, Birger; Langbein, Jan

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the interchangeability between heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) measures derived from a series of interbeat intervals (IBIs) recorded via electrocardiogram (ECG) and intra-arterial blood pressure (BP) in various behavioral contexts. Five minutes of simultaneously recorded IBIs from ECG and BP signals in 11 female domestic pigs during resting, feeding, and active behavior were analyzed. Comparisons were made for measures of HR, the standard deviation of IBIs...

  9. A Paleolithic diet confers higher insulin sensitivity, lower C-reactive protein and lower blood pressure than a cereal-based diet in domestic pig

    OpenAIRE

    Ugander Martin; Sjöberg Trygve; Steen Stig; Wierup Nils; Sundler Frank; Pacini Giovanni; Ahrén Bo; Jönsson Tommy; Frostegård Johan; Göransson Leif; Lindeberg Staffan

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background A Paleolithic diet has been suggested to be more in concordance with human evolutionary legacy than a cereal based diet. This might explain the lower incidence among hunter-gatherers of diseases of affluence such as type 2 diabetes, obesity and cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to experimentally study the long-term effect of a Paleolithic diet on risk factors for these diseases in domestic pigs. We examined glucose tolerance, post-challenge insulin response...

  10. Hybrid origin of European commercial pigs examined by an in-depth haplotype analysis on chromosome 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosse, Mirte; Madsen, Ole; Megens, Hendrik-Jan; Frantz, Laurent A F; Paudel, Yogesh; Crooijmans, Richard P M A; Groenen, Martien A M

    2014-01-01

    Although all farm animals have an original source of domestication, a large variety of modern breeds exist that are phenotypically highly distinct from the ancestral wild population. This phenomenon can be the result of artificial selection or gene flow from other sources into the domesticated population. The Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa) has been domesticated at least twice in two geographically distinct regions during the Neolithic revolution when hunting shifted to farming. Prior to the establishment of the commercial European pig breeds we know today, some 200 years ago Chinese pigs were imported into Europe to improve local European pigs. Commercial European domesticated pigs are genetically more diverse than European wild boars, although historically the latter represents the source population for domestication. In this study we examine the cause of the higher diversity within the genomes of European commercial pigs compared to their wild ancestors by testing two different hypotheses. In the first hypothesis we consider that European commercial pigs are a mix of different European wild populations as a result of movement throughout Europe, hereby acquiring haplotypes from all over the European continent. As an alternative hypothesis, we examine whether the introgression of Asian haplotypes into European breeds during the Industrial Revolution caused the observed increase in diversity. By using re-sequence data for chromosome 1 of 136 pigs and wild boars, we show that an Asian introgression of about 20% into the genome of European commercial pigs explains the majority of the increase in genetic diversity. These findings confirm that the Asian hybridization, that was used to improve production traits of local breeds, left its signature in the genome of the commercial pigs we know today. PMID:25601878

  11. A serological survey for antibodies against foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) in domestic pigs during outbreaks in Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wekesa, Sabenzia N.; Namatovu, Alice; Sangula, Abraham K.;

    2014-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is endemic in Kenya and has been well studied in cattle, but not in pigs, yet the role of pigs is recognised in FMD-free areas. This study investigated the presence of antibodies against FMD virus (FMDV) in pigs sampled during a countrywide random survey for FMD...... in cattle coinciding with SAT 1 FMDV outbreaks in cattle. A total of 191 serum samples were collected from clinically healthy pigs in 17 districts. Forty-two of the 191 sera were from pigs vaccinated against serotypes O/A/SAT 2 FMDV. Antibodies against FMDV non-structural proteins were found in sera from 30...... neutralisation test (VNT). Due to high degree of agreement between the two ELISAs, it was concluded that positive pigs had been infected with FMDV. Implications of these results for the role of pigs in the epidemiology of FMD in Kenya are discussed, and in-depth studies are recommended....

  12. Closed-loop glycaemic control using an implantable artificial pancreas in diabetic domestic pig (Sus scrofa domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, M J; Gregory, R; Tomlins, P; Jacob, D; Hubble, J; Sahota, T S

    2016-03-16

    The performance of a completely implantable peritoneal artificial pancreas (AP) has been demonstrated in principle in a live diabetic domestic pig. The device consists of a smart glucose-sensitive gel that forms a gateway to an insulin reservoir and is designed to both sense glucose and deliver insulin in the peritoneal cavity. It can be refilled with insulin via subcutaneous ports and surgery was developed to insert the AP. Diabetes was induced with streptozotocin (STZ), the device filled with insulin (Humulin(®) R U-500) in situ and the animal observed for several weeks, during which time there was normal access to food and water and several oral glucose challenges. Blood glucose (BG) levels were brought down from >30 mmol/L (540 mg/dL) to non-fasted values between 7 and 13 mmol/L (126-234 mg/dL) about five days after filling the device. Glucose challenge responses improved ultimately so that, starting at 10 mmol/L (180 mg/dL), the BG peak was 18 mmol/L (324 mg/dL) and fell to 7 mmol/L (126 mg/dL) after 30 min, contrasting with intravenous attempts. The reservoir solution was removed after 8 days of blood glucose levels during which they had been increasingly better controlled. A rapid return to diabetic BG levels (30 mmol/L) occurred only after a further 24 days implying some insulin had remained in the device after removal of the reservoir solution. Thus, the closed loop system appeared to have particular influence on the basal and bolus needs for the 8 days in which the reservoir solution was in place and substantial impact for a further 3 weeks. No additional insulin manual adjustment was given during this period. PMID:26691655

  13. First detection of Sarcoptes scabiei from domesticated pig (Sus scrofa) and genetic characterization of S. scabiei from pet, farm and wild hosts in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erster, Oran; Roth, Asael; Pozzi, Paolo S; Bouznach, Arieli; Shkap, Varda

    2015-08-01

    In this report we describe for the first time the detection of Sarcoptes scabiei type suis mites on domestic pigs in Israel and examine its genetic variation compared with S. sabiei from other hosts. Microscopic examination of skin samples from S. scabiei-infested pigs (Sus scrofa domesticus) revealed all developmental stages of S. scabiei. To detect genetic differences between S. scabiei from different hosts, samples obtained from pig, rabbits (Orictolagus cuniculus), fox (Vulpes vulpes), jackal (Canis aureus) and hedgehog (Erinaceus concolor) were compared with GenBank-annotated sequences of three genetic markers. Segments from the following genes were examined: cytochrome C oxidase subunit 1 (COX1), glutathione-S-transferase 1 (GST1), and voltage-sensitive sodium channel (VSSC). COX1 analysis did not show correlation between host preference and genetic identity. However, GST1 and VSSC had a higher percentage of identical sites within S. scabiei type suis sequences, compared with samples from other hosts. Taking into account the limited numbers of GST1 and VSSC sequences available for comparison, this high similarity between sequences of geographically-distant, but host-related populations, may suggest that different host preference is at least partially correlated with genetic differences. This finding may help in future studies of the factors that drive host preferences in this parasite. PMID:26002310

  14. Latent porcine circovirus type 2-infected domestic pigs: A potential infection model for the effective development of vaccines against latent or chronic virus induced diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sydler, Titus; Brägger, Stefanie; Handke, Martin; Hartnack, Sonja; Lewis, Fraser I; Sidler, Xaver; Brugnera, Enrico

    2016-02-17

    Until recently, knowledge of the pathogenicity of Circoviridae and Anelloviridae family members was limited. Our previous discoveries provided clues toward resolving this issue based on studies of the latent nature of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) genotype group members. We developed a conventional pig infection model that indicated that weaners already harbored latent PCV2 infection in the thymus, which enabled the viruses to specifically modulate the maturation of T-helper cells. This finding raised the possibility that the thymi of normal fetuses were already infected with PCV2. The present findings further substantiate our hypothesis that PCV2 masquerades as the host by infecting fetuses before they acquire immune-competence. We provide the first demonstration that all domestic pig fetuses preferentially harbor latent PCV2-infected cells in their thymi. These PCV2-infected cells are different from thymocytes and are located in the medulla of the fetal thymus. These latent PCV2-infected cells in fetuses are found at the same location and share characteristics with the infected cells observed in adolescent pigs. Moreover, fetuses also harbor these infected cells in other lymph system organs. We provide the first demonstration that the fetal thymus virus pools are minimally affected by sow vaccination, highlighting the immune-privileged character of this organ. Furthermore, we found a striking reduction in virus-infected cells in the fetal spleen and an increase in PCV2-infected cells in the fetal intestine of anti-PCV2-vaccinated mothers. These data indicate that specific immune response interactions occur between mothers and their progeny that are not dependent on the humoral immunity of the mother and cannot be attributed to the rudimentary humoral responses of the fetuses because these pig fetuses do not have any PCV2-specific antibodies. These shifts in our understanding of the PCV2-infected cell pool will lead to different avenues in the search for

  15. A comparative study on the effects of tylosin on select bacteria during continuous-flow culture of mixed populations of gut microflora derived from a feral and a domestic pig

    Science.gov (United States)

    Continuous flow cultures of feral (culture FC) and domesticated (culture RPCF) pig gut microflora were established in steady state. Cultures, in duplicate, were continuously infused subtherapeutic (25 ug/ml) levels of tylosin and sampled at intervals to assess effects on total culturable anaerobes, ...

  16. A comparative chromosome analysis of Thai wild boar (Sus scrofa jubatus and relationship to domestic pig (S. s. domestica by conventional staining, G-banding and high-resolution technique

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    Pornnarong Siripiyasing

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This research is the first comparative chromosome analysis report of Thai wild boar (Sus scrofa jubatus and its relationship to domestic pig (S. s. domestica by conventional staining, G-banding and high-resolution technique. Blood samples of the Thai wild boar were taken from two males and two females kept in Nakhon Ratchasima Zoo. After standard whole blood lymphocyte culture at 37 oC for 72 hr. in the presence of colchicine, the metaphase spreads were performed on microscopic slides and airdried. Conventional staining, G-banding and high-resolution technique were applied to stain the chromosomes. The results showed that the number of diploid chromosomes of Thai wild boar was 2n (diploid = 38, and the fundamental numbers (NF were 62 in the male and female. The type of autosomes were 12 metacentric, 14 submetacentric, 4 acrocentric and 6 telocentric chromosomes, with X and Y chromosomes being metacentric chromosomes. We found that chromosomes 1, 5, 7, 8, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 16, 17, 18, X and Y had the same Gbanding and high-resolution technique patterns as those of domestic pig chromosomes. Chromosomes 2, 3, 4, 6, 9 and 15 are similar to those of domestic pig chromosomes. These results show the evolutionary relationship between the Thai wild boar and the domestic pig.

  17. In vitro culture and characterization of putative porcine embryonic germ cells derived from domestic breeds and yucatan mini pig embryos at days 20-24 of gestation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petkov, Stoyan Gueorguiev; Marks, Hendrik; Klein, Tino;

    2011-01-01

    Embryonic germ cells (EGC) are cultured pluripotent cells derived from primordial germ cells (PGC). This study explored the possibility of establishing porcine EGC from domestic breeds and Yucatan mini pigs using embryos at Days 17-24 of gestation. In vitro culture of PGC from both pooled and...... individual embryos resulted in the successful derivation of putative EGC lines from Days 20 to 24 with high efficiency. RT-PCR showed that gene expression among all 31 obtained cell lines was very similar, and only minor changes were detected during in vitro passaging of the cells. Genome-wide RNA...... annotation clustering of the gene expression pattern of the putative EGC suggests partial differentiation toward endo/mesodermal lineages. The putative EGC were able to form embryoid bodies in suspension culture and to differentiate into epithelial-like, mesenchymal-like, and neuronal-like cells. However...

  18. Implications of food patch distribution on social foraging in domestic pigs (Sus scrofa)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Liat Romme; Nielsen, Birte Lindstrøm; Larsen, Ole Næsbye

    2010-01-01

    feeding behaviour of growing pigs changed with increasing distance between feeding sites. During 20-min feeding tests, eight groups, each consisting of four growing pigs (35.4 ± 2.7 kg), were allowed to eat from four buckets containing food pellets placed in a test arena in a rectangular pattern. The...... buckets (i.e. time spent eating, intake, number of bouts, mean bout duration, number of aggressive interactions, number of shifts to new feeding sites: P < 0.0001; mean duration of aggressive interactions: P = 0.0010; displacements: P = 0.3228). Physical separation of food sites (medium and far) affected...... aggressive interactions (lower frequency, longer mean duration) compared to minimal separation (close). Time spent eating, number of feeding bouts, number of shifts to a new site, and food intake decreased with increasing distance between food sites (from close to far). Mean bout duration was affected by...

  19. [Function and morphology of the larynx of the domestic guinea pig. An animal model for laryngologic and phoniatric research?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koitschev, A; Waldmann, B; Ptok, M

    1995-07-01

    The present study was undertaken to collect data on fundamental functional and morphological features of the guinea pig larynx using frequency analysis of animal vocalizations and light and scanning electron microscopy. Vocalizations of healthy animals were recorded in an anechoic chamber and were analyzed with short-time fourier transformation (color spectrograms). From the multitude of vocalization patterns produced by the guinea pig, distress squeals were selected as a typical, reproducible, voiced sound. These were stereotyped, upward-frequency modulated, multiharmonic signals with a formant-like structure. The fundamental frequency of this sound rose by about 1.5 octaves and reached up to 6 kHz near the end of the call. The different regions of the endolaryngeal epithelia showed morphological properties that corresponded to proposed functional significance. Keratinized squamous epithelium covered the supraglottic region. The marginal rim of the vocal cord was covered by a very thin epithelium with very flat cells covered with short microvilli. The subepithelial space was filled with loose connective tissue. The subglottic region was covered by respiratory epithelia. Based on these findings, we propose that the larynx of the guinea pig can be used as a model in phoniatric and laryngological research. PMID:7673001

  20. The ADH1B Arg47His polymorphism in East Asian populations and expansion of rice domestication in history

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    Zhong Hua

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The emergence of agriculture about 10,000 years ago marks a dramatic change in human evolutionary history. The diet shift in agriculture societies might have a great impact on the genetic makeup of Neolithic human populations. The regionally restricted enrichment of the class I alcohol dehydrogenase sequence polymorphism (ADH1BArg47His in southern China and the adjacent areas suggests Darwinian positive selection on this genetic locus during Neolithic time though the driving force is yet to be disclosed. Results We studied a total of 38 populations (2,275 individuals including Han Chinese, Tibetan and other ethnic populations across China. The geographic distribution of the ADH1B*47His allele in these populations indicates a clear east-to-west cline, and it is dominant in south-eastern populations but rare in Tibetan populations. The molecular dating suggests that the emergence of the ADH1B*47His allele occurred about 10,000~7,000 years ago. Conclusion We present genetic evidence of selection on the ADH1BArg47His polymorphism caused by the emergence and expansion of rice domestication in East Asia. The geographic distribution of the ADH1B*47His allele in East Asia is consistent with the unearthed culture relic sites of rice domestication in China. The estimated origin time of ADH1B*47His allele in those populations coincides with the time of origin and expansion of Neolithic agriculture in southern China.

  1. Cloning Changes the Response to Obesity of Innate Immune Factors in Blood, Liver, and Adipose Tissues in Domestic Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højbøge, Tina Rødgaard; Skovgaard, Kerstin; Stagsted, Jan;

    2013-01-01

    upregulation and downregulation were observed in the controls. Cloning resulted in a less differentiated adipose tissue expression pattern. Finally, the serum concentrations of two acute-phase proteins (APPs), haptoglobin (HP) and orosomucoid (ORM), were increased in obese clones as compared to obese controls......The objective of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of cloned pigs as porcine obesity models reflecting obesity-associated changes in innate immune factor gene expression profiles. Liver and adipose tissue expression of 43 innate immune genes as well as serum concentrations of six immune...

  2. A Paleolithic diet confers higher insulin sensitivity, lower C-reactive protein and lower blood pressure than a cereal-based diet in domestic pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jönsson, Tommy; Ahrén, Bo; Pacini, Giovanni; Sundler, Frank; Wierup, Nils; Steen, Stig; Sjöberg, Trygve; Ugander, Martin; Frostegård, Johan; Göransson, Leif; Lindeberg, Staffan

    2006-01-01

    Background A Paleolithic diet has been suggested to be more in concordance with human evolutionary legacy than a cereal based diet. This might explain the lower incidence among hunter-gatherers of diseases of affluence such as type 2 diabetes, obesity and cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to experimentally study the long-term effect of a Paleolithic diet on risk factors for these diseases in domestic pigs. We examined glucose tolerance, post-challenge insulin response, plasma C-reactive protein and blood pressure after 15 months on Paleolithic diet in comparison with a cereal based swine feed. Methods Upon weaning twenty-four piglets were randomly allocated either to cereal based swine feed (Cereal group) or cereal free Paleolithic diet consisting of vegetables, fruit, meat and a small amount of tubers (Paleolithic group). At 17 months of age an intravenous glucose tolerance test was performed and pancreas specimens were collected for immunohistochemistry. Group comparisons of continuous variables were made by use of the t-test. P < 0.05 was chosen for statistical significance. Simple and multivariate correlations were evaluated by use of linear regression analysis. Results At the end of the study the Paleolithic group weighed 22% less and had 43% lower subcutaneous fat thickness at mid sternum. No significant difference was seen in fasting glucose between groups. Dynamic insulin sensitivity was significantly higher (p = 0.004) and the insulin response was significantly lower in the Paleolithic group (p = 0.001). The geometric mean of C-reactive protein was 82% lower (p = 0.0007) and intra-arterial diastolic blood pressure was 13% lower in the Paleolithic group (p = 0.007). In evaluations of multivariate correlations, diet emerged as the strongest explanatory variable for the variations in dynamic insulin sensitivity, insulin response, C-reactive protein and diastolic blood pressure when compared to other relevant variables such as weight and

  3. A Paleolithic diet confers higher insulin sensitivity, lower C-reactive protein and lower blood pressure than a cereal-based diet in domestic pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugander Martin

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A Paleolithic diet has been suggested to be more in concordance with human evolutionary legacy than a cereal based diet. This might explain the lower incidence among hunter-gatherers of diseases of affluence such as type 2 diabetes, obesity and cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to experimentally study the long-term effect of a Paleolithic diet on risk factors for these diseases in domestic pigs. We examined glucose tolerance, post-challenge insulin response, plasma C-reactive protein and blood pressure after 15 months on Paleolithic diet in comparison with a cereal based swine feed. Methods Upon weaning twenty-four piglets were randomly allocated either to cereal based swine feed (Cereal group or cereal free Paleolithic diet consisting of vegetables, fruit, meat and a small amount of tubers (Paleolithic group. At 17 months of age an intravenous glucose tolerance test was performed and pancreas specimens were collected for immunohistochemistry. Group comparisons of continuous variables were made by use of the t-test. P Results At the end of the study the Paleolithic group weighed 22% less and had 43% lower subcutaneous fat thickness at mid sternum. No significant difference was seen in fasting glucose between groups. Dynamic insulin sensitivity was significantly higher (p = 0.004 and the insulin response was significantly lower in the Paleolithic group (p = 0.001. The geometric mean of C-reactive protein was 82% lower (p = 0.0007 and intra-arterial diastolic blood pressure was 13% lower in the Paleolithic group (p = 0.007. In evaluations of multivariate correlations, diet emerged as the strongest explanatory variable for the variations in dynamic insulin sensitivity, insulin response, C-reactive protein and diastolic blood pressure when compared to other relevant variables such as weight and subcutaneous fat thickness at mid sternum. There was no obvious immunohistochemical difference in pancreatic islets

  4. Comparative radiographic and resonance frequency analyses of the peri-implant tissue after dental implants placement using flap and flapless techniques: An experimental study on domestic pigs

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    Vlahović Zoran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Flapless implant surgery has become very important issue during recent years, mostly thanks to computerization of dentistry and software planning of dental implants placements. The aim of this study was to compare flap and flapless surgical techniques for implant placement through radiographic and radiofrequency analyses. Methods. The experiment was made in five domestic pigs. Nine weeks following domestic pigs teeth extraction, implants were placed, on the right side using surgical technique flap, and flapless on the left side. Digital dental Xrays were applied to determine primary dental implant stability quality (ISQ. At certain intervals, not later than three months, the experimental animals were sacrificed, and just before it, control X-rays were applied to measure dental implants stability. Results. Radiographic analysis showed that peri-implant bone resorption in the first 4 weeks following placement implants with flap and flapless surgical techniques was negligible. After the 3 months, mean value of peri-implant bone resorption of the implants placed using flap technique was 1.86 mm, and of those placed using flapless technique was 1.13 mm. In relation to the primary dental implant stability in the first and second week there was an expected decrease in ISQ values, but it was less expressed in the dental implants placed using the flapless technique. In the third week the ISQ values were increased in the dental implants placed by using both techniques, but the increase in flapless implant placement was higher (7.4 ISQ than in flap implant placement (1.5 ISQ. The upward trend continued in a 4- week period, and after 3 months the dental implant stability values in the implants placed using flap technique were higher than the primary stability for 7.1 ISQ, and in the implants placed using flapless technique were higher comparing to the primary stability for 10.1 ISQ units. Conclusion. Based on the results of radiographic and

  5. Asian Elephant (Elephas maximus, Pig-Tailed Macaque (Macaca nemestrina and Tiger (Panthera tigris Populations at Tourism Venues in Thailand and Aspects of Their Welfare.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Schmidt-Burbach

    Full Text Available This study focused on determining the size and welfare aspects of Asian elephant, pig-tailed macaque and tiger populations at facilities open to tourists in Thailand. Data were gathered from 118 venues through direct observations and interviews with staff. A score sheet-based welfare assessment was used to calculate scores between 1 and 10, indicating each venue's welfare situation. Factors such as freedom of movement for the animals, access to veterinary care, environmental noise quality, hygiene standards and work intensity were included in the score sheet. 1688 elephants, 371 macaques and 621 tigers were found at the venues. 89 venues exclusively kept elephants, 9 designated 'Monkey schools' offered macaque shows, 4 venues kept primarily tigers, mostly for petting and photo opportunities, and the remaining venues kept a mix of these animals. A strong imbalance in female to male gender ratios was recorded with about 4:1 for adult elephants and 1:4 for adult macaques. Severely inadequate welfare conditions were common, with 75% of macaques and 99% of tigers being kept at venues with scores less than 5. 86% of elephants were kept in inadequate conditions at venues with scores between 3 and 5, but a significant number of venues with scores above 5 were found. 4.6% of elephants were provided commendable conditions, reaching assessment scores of 8 and above. 71% of venues did not offer any sort of education about animals to visitors. This study is the first to assess welfare aspects of captive wild animals at tourism venues across Thailand. It concludes that significant concerns exist about the welfare of wild animals in the tourism sector of Thailand. Urgent attention needs to be given to address these concerns and prevent further suffering. But also to ensure the demand for wild animals doesn't have a negative impact on wild populations.

  6. Asian Elephant (Elephas maximus), Pig-Tailed Macaque (Macaca nemestrina) and Tiger (Panthera tigris) Populations at Tourism Venues in Thailand and Aspects of Their Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Burbach, Jan; Ronfot, Delphine; Srisangiam, Rossukon

    2015-01-01

    This study focused on determining the size and welfare aspects of Asian elephant, pig-tailed macaque and tiger populations at facilities open to tourists in Thailand. Data were gathered from 118 venues through direct observations and interviews with staff. A score sheet-based welfare assessment was used to calculate scores between 1 and 10, indicating each venue's welfare situation. Factors such as freedom of movement for the animals, access to veterinary care, environmental noise quality, hygiene standards and work intensity were included in the score sheet. 1688 elephants, 371 macaques and 621 tigers were found at the venues. 89 venues exclusively kept elephants, 9 designated 'Monkey schools' offered macaque shows, 4 venues kept primarily tigers, mostly for petting and photo opportunities, and the remaining venues kept a mix of these animals. A strong imbalance in female to male gender ratios was recorded with about 4:1 for adult elephants and 1:4 for adult macaques. Severely inadequate welfare conditions were common, with 75% of macaques and 99% of tigers being kept at venues with scores less than 5. 86% of elephants were kept in inadequate conditions at venues with scores between 3 and 5, but a significant number of venues with scores above 5 were found. 4.6% of elephants were provided commendable conditions, reaching assessment scores of 8 and above. 71% of venues did not offer any sort of education about animals to visitors. This study is the first to assess welfare aspects of captive wild animals at tourism venues across Thailand. It concludes that significant concerns exist about the welfare of wild animals in the tourism sector of Thailand. Urgent attention needs to be given to address these concerns and prevent further suffering. But also to ensure the demand for wild animals doesn't have a negative impact on wild populations. PMID:26407173

  7. Carbonic anhydrase-related protein XI: structure of the gene in the greater false vampire bat (Megaderma lyra) compared with human and domestic pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Calvin A; Hewett-Emmett, David; Tashian, Richard E

    2013-06-01

    Carbonic anhydrase-related protein XI (CA-RP XI) is a member of the α-carbonic anhydrase family (encoded by the gene CA-11), which has lost features of the active site required for enzymatic activity. Using PCR, we amplified CA-11 from genomic DNA of the bat Megaderma lyra. To elucidate the gene structure, we sequenced PCR products and compared their sequences with genomic and mRNA sequences known from human and domestic pig. We identified and sequenced eight introns in the bat CA-11. Five introns (introns 3-7) are located in identical or similar positions in other members of the vertebrate α-carbonic anhydrase gene family. Two 5' introns and one 3' intron are located in the regions of little or no sequence similarity with other members of the gene family. The low sequence similarity and additional introns suggest a separate evolutionary origin for the 5' and 3' portions of the CA-RP XI gene. PMID:23417223

  8. Associations of MYF5 gene polymorphisms with meat quality traits in different domestic pig (Sus scrofa populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Liu

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The MYF5 gene is first inducibly expressed in muscle cell during embryonic muscle development and plays an important role in regulating the differentiation of skeletal muscle precursors. In this study we used PCR-RFLP to investigate two pig (Sus scrofa populations (n = 302 for two MYF5 gene polymorphisms, a previously unreported novel Met-Leu shift single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP MYF5/Hsp92II located on exon 1 and the previously identified intron 1 MYF5/HinfI SNP. Haplotype and association analysis showed that haplotypes of the two SNPs were significantly associated with drip loss rate (DLR, p < 0.05, water holding capacity (WHC, p < 0.05, biceps femoris meat color value (MCV2, p < 0.05, biceps femoris marbling score (MM2, p < 0.01, longissimus dorsi intramuscular fat percentage (IMF, p < 0.01 and longissimus dorsi Water moisture content (WM, p < 0.01 in the population 2. However, further studies are needed to confirm these preliminary results.

  9. Proteomic analysis of domestic pig pancreas during development using two-dimensional electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Ahn, Ji Ye; Kim, Il Yong; Oh, Sae Jin; Hwang, Hye Sook; Yi, Sun Shin; Kim, Yo Na; Shin, Jae Hoon; Yoon, Yeo Sung; Seong, Je Kyung

    2014-01-01

    Pig pancreas may be a therapeutic resource for human diabetic patients. However, this potential is hindered by a lack of knowledge of the molecular events of pig pancreas development. In this study, the embryonic day 60, neonate and 6-month protein profiles of pig pancreas were ascertained at using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. Twenty four proteins were differentially expressed during pig pancreas developm...

  10. Evolution of pigs in East Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The research into the origins of domestic animals is of significance not only for understanding their development per se, but also for making clear the human society evolution. Although there are evidences to show that pigs were independently domesticated in a variety of places throughout the world, the detailed scenario of the origin and dispersal of domestic pigs in East Asia remains unclear.

  11. Domestic Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lapierre, Simon

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1960s, there has been growing awareness regarding the issue of domestic violence as a form of violence against women, which has been largely influenced by the work of feminist activist and scholars in North America and Europe (Dobash and Dobash 1992. Other terms have been used to describe the same phenomenon, including domestic abuse, spousal abuse, wife battering, marital violence, intimate partner violence. Though there is no doubt that this problem has existed for much more than five decades, the tendency to label it as ‘private matters’ or ‘marital disagreements’ has obscured the reality of women living with abuse in their home. At a general level, domestic violence can be defined as the means used by a man in order to assert his control and domination over his intimate partner, whether they are married or not (Mullender 1996. It can involve incidents of physical and sexual violence, as well as verbal, psychological and financial abuse. Though some of its manifestations may be associated with particular cultural or religious groups – e.g. forced marriage and honour killing in South-Asian communities – domestic violence affects women from all classes and backgrounds.

  12. Development of two Trichoplusia ni larvae-derived ELISAs for the detection of antibodies against replicase and capsid proteins of porcine circovirus type 2 in domestic pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Martín, Eva; Grau-Roma, Llorenç; Argilaguet, Jordi M; Nofrarías, Miquel; Escribano, José M; Gómez-Sebastián, Silvia; Segalés, Joaquim; Rodríguez, Fernando

    2008-12-01

    The main aim of the present study was to describe new methods for the identification of antibodies against the PCV2 capsid (Cap) and replicase (Rep) proteins in pig sera. Specifically, two new indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) were developed based on recombinant PCV2 Cap (rCap) and Rep/Rep' (rRep) proteins expressed in baculovirus and produced in Trichoplusia ni insect larvae. Both assays were validated by testing serum samples in a longitudinal study of 107 animals with different clinico-pathological features of PCV2 infection: pigs with postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS), wasted pigs without a diagnosis of PMWS and healthy animals. Longitudinal antibody profiles indicated that healthy animals had significantly higher anti-Cap and anti-Rep antibody levels than the rest of the animal groups at 11 weeks of age. Moreover, PMWS affected pigs could be distinguished from the rest of the pig groups by their lower anti-Rep antibody levels at 11 weeks of age and at necropsy. The results demonstrate the potential of these two ELISAs for large-scale serological studies. This study represents the first longitudinal study of the induction of anti-Cap and anti-Rep antibodies in farms affected by PMWS, from 1 week of age until the occurrence of disease. PMID:18773923

  13. The prey pathway: a regional history of cattle (Bos taurus and pig (Sus scrofa domestication in the northern Jordan Valley, Israel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nimrod Marom

    Full Text Available The faunal assemblage from the 9(th-8(th millennium BP site at Sha'ar Hagolan, Israel, is used to study human interaction with wild suids and cattle in a time period just before the appearance of domesticated animals of these species in the Jordan Valley. Our results, based on demographic and osteometric data, indicate that full domestication of both cattle and suids occurred at the site during the 8(th millennium. Importantly, domestication was preceded in both taxa by demographic and metric population parameters indicating severe overhunting. The possible role of overhunting in shaping the characteristics of domesticated animals and the social infrastructure to ownership of herds is then explored.

  14. Distribution of hydroxylated vitamin D metabolites [25OHD3 and 1,25(OH)2D3] in domestic pigs: evidence that 1,25(OH)2D3 is stored outside the blood circulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rungby, J; Mortensen, L; Jakobsen, K; Brock, A; Mosekilde, L

    1993-03-01

    1. The distribution of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25OHD3) and 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol [1,25(OH)2D3] in various organs from domestic pigs was examined by HPLC. 2. Plasma levels of both metabolites corresponded to those found in healthy human subjects. 3. Tissue concentrations of 25OHD3 in fat, kidney, liver, and intestinal mucosa were low (< 1/3 of plasma levels), whereas tissue concentrations of 1,25(OH)2D3 exceeded plasma levels by factors 3-7, adipose tissue concentrations being the highest. 4. Substantial amounts of activated vitamin D are stored outside the blood-streams and may actively participate in vitamin D and calcium homeostasis. PMID:8097149

  15. Phylogenetic comparison of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) and porcine reproductive respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) strains detected in domestic pigs until 2008 and in 2012 in Croatia

    OpenAIRE

    Prpić, Jelena; Keros, Tomislav; Bedeković, Tomislav; Brnić, Dragan; Cvetnić, Željko; Roić, Besi; Jemeršić, Lorena

    2014-01-01

    Background Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) have been present for the last 2 decades in Croatia, causing large economical losses in the pig production. The clinical features of the infections are mostly manifested by the development of respiratory problems, weight loss and poor growth performance, as well as reproductive failure in pregnant sows. Even though the infections are continuously recognized in some regions in Croatia, t...

  16. Identification of chromosomal locations associated with tail biting and being a victim of tail-biting behaviour in the domestic pig (Sus scrofa domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kaitlin; Zanella, Ricardo; Ventura, Carlos; Johansen, Hanne Lind; Framstad, Tore; Janczak, Andrew; Zanella, Adroaldo J; Neibergs, Holly Louise

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this study was to identify loci associated with tail biting or being a victim of tail biting in Norwegian crossbred pigs using a genome-wide association study with PLINK case-control analysis. DNA was extracted from hair or blood samples collected from 98 trios of crossbred pigs located across Norway. Each trio came from the same pen and consisted of one pig observed to initiate tail biting, one pig which was the victim of tail biting and a control pig which was not involved in either behaviour. DNA was genotyped using the Illumina PorcineSNP60 BeadChip whole-genome single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) assay. After quality assurance filtering, 53,952 SNPs remained comprising 74 animals (37 pairs) for the tail biter versus control comparison and 53,419 SNPs remained comprising 80 animals (40 pairs) for the victim of tail biting versus control comparison. An association with being a tail biter was observed on Sus scrofa chromosome 16 (SSC16; p = 1.6 × 10(-5)) and an unassigned chromosome (p = 3.9 × 10(-5)). An association with being the victim of tail biting was observed on Sus scrofa chromosomes 1 (SSC1; p = 4.7 × 10(-5)), 9 (SSC9; p = 3.9 × 10(-5)), 18 (SSC18; p = 7 × 10(-5) for 9,602,511 bp, p = 3.4 × 10(-5) for 9,653,881 bp and p = 5.3 × 10(-5) for 29,577,783 bp) and an unassigned chromosome (p = 6.1 × 10(-5)). An r(2) = 0.96 and a D' = 1 between the two SNPs at 9 Mb on SSC18 indicated extremely high linkage disequilibrium, suggesting that these two markers represent a single locus. These results provide evidence of a moderate genetic association between the propensity to participate in tail-biting behaviour and the likelihood of becoming a victim of this behaviour. PMID:22941514

  17. Asian gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on natural gas which now appears ready to take a leading role on the world energy stage. Demand for natural gas, and specifically LNG, will be strong throughout the world, particularly in Asia. Indonesia and Malaysia will become much more dependent on natural gas in the Asian market. In Thailand, where remarkable economic growth has been fueled by imported oil and domestically produced natural gas, LNG may soon have to be imported from neighboring countries. The author sees Thailand's imports of natural gas increasing from 1.5 to 4.5 million tons annually. Similarly, Korea's imports of LNG will rise from 2 to 8 million tons between 1987 and 2000. In Japan, energy demand is expected to increase at an even faster rate in the 1990s. Given the opposition to nuclear power generation and growing concern about the greenhouse effect, it is likely that LNG will satisfy a major portion of Japan's increasing demand for energy. Japanese gas companies are studying the possibility of establishing a national pipeline network to move gas beyond metropolitan areas

  18. Establishing a DNA identification system for pigs (Sus scrofa) using a multiplex STR amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Chih; Hsieh, Hsing-Mei; Lee, James Chun-I; Hsiao, Chung-Ting; Lin, Der-Yuh; Linacre, Adrian; Tsai, Li-Chin

    2014-03-01

    In this study we establish a novel STR multiplex using 13 tetra-nucleotide STRs and the amelogenin marker for the forensic identification of pigs. The genotypes and allele frequency were generated based on 341 samples from 11 pig breeds in Taiwan. Genetic variation was tested including Na, Ne, Ho, He, F-statistics, PIC, Pm and PE for each STR locus and for each breed. Based upon the 341 samples in this study, the CPm and CPEtrio of the 13 STR loci were 1.31 E-11 and 0.9996 respectively. The CPItrio based on ten family sets ranged from 4.012 E+4 to 4.332 E+6 for paternity test. Validation of the multiplex included: determining the sensitivity of the test, where reproducible full DNA profiles were obtained using an initial template of between 0.25 and 1 ng; a comprehensive range of tissue types generated the same genotype; and the specificity was confirmed as no DNA full profile was generated for any species other than Sus scrofa. Based on the phylogenetic analysis, the European domestic breeds clustered separately from the Asian breeds, as expected, and their hybrids formed unique clades respectively between the clades of Asian and European breeds. Eleven test samples, acting as unknown samples, matched all expected breeds. We demonstrate that this novel 14-plex PCR system is valuable in pig individualization, parentage testing, breed assessment, phylogenetic study and forensic applications. PMID:24528574

  19. [Domestication and its sequelae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boessneck, J

    1985-01-01

    The domestication of the dog took place in the late Glacial. Its earliest record comes from Oberkassel near Bonn and its age is some 14000 years B.C. On the other side the domestication of the farm animals began about 10000 years ago, during the so-called Neolithic Revolution, when man's way of life changed basicly from the hunter-and gatherer-culture to agriculture and animal husbandry. This change took place in the valleys and on the slopes of the mountains surrounding the basin of the Euphrat and Tigris rivers which is called the Fertile Crescent. Sheep and goat were succeeded by pig and cattle. Immediately after the transition to domestication with protection by human being taking the place of natural selection the livestock animals and the dog underwent a decrease in size. This reduction in size is one of the most important criteria for distinguishing prehistoric domestic livestock from their wild forms. In high developed cultures domestication resulted in a hardly imaginable morphological and physiological extension of variability, in a richness of forms not to be guessed by the whole potential of the corresponding ancestors. But all these rich appearing forms were due to intraspecific procedures. They don't create new species. By the way of the increasing influence of man and its domestic animals on the environment the procedure of domestication is more and more shifted in the foreground and increasingly intervenes with the interests of wild life. PMID:3834643

  20. Spectrophotometric retinal oximetry in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traustason, Sindri; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Karlsson, Robert;

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: To assess the validity of spectrophotometric retinal oximetry, by comparison to blood gas analysis and intra-vitreal measurements of partial pressure of oxygen (pO2). METHODS: Female domestic pigs were used for all experiments (n=8). Oxygen fraction in inspired air was changed using a......, Reykjavik, Iceland). The device simultaneously acquires images at two wavelengths (570 nm and 600 nm) and specialized software automatically detects retinal blood vessels. In three pigs, invasive pO2-measurements were performed after the initial non-invasive measurements. RESULTS: Comparison of femoral......-measurements in three pigs. This relationship was approximately linear (R(2) = 0.45, p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Non-invasive spectrophotometric oximetry is sensitive to changes in oxygen saturation in pigs and correlated with intravitreal pO2-measurements and with femoral artery pO2. Pigs present a higher intra...

  1. Behaviour Genetics of Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Budimir

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The behavior of pigs can be divided into several categories, which include maternal behavior, aggressive behavior, sexual behavior, feeding behavior, and various other forms of emotional behavior. Domestication has caused many changes in the original behaviour of boar, such as in reproductive and sexual behaviour, and has lead to a general increase in social tolerance between animals. Further modifications in behaviour are also possible, as suggested by the optimization of environmental factors which affect maternal behavior. The behaviour of a sow after farrowing appeared as a consequence of natural selection for protection of piglets from predators in the wild boar population, and affects the survival of piglets and the longevity of the sow in breeding. The behavior of the sows which includes the protection of the piglets from predators appears as a consequence of natural selection in the wild boar population. Familiarity with the molecular mechanisms which determine the patterns of behavior enables understanding of behavioral problems such as aggressiveness and helps the improvement of the well-being of pigs. Research conducted on pigs has determined that there are regions on chromosomes 2, 6, 10, 14, and 15, and chromosome X which can explain the genetic aspect of appearance of some behavioral patterns in sows. The goal of this paper is to illustrate the behavioral patterns appeared in the populations of domestic breeds of pigs and their genetic aspects, which knowledge may provide some help in improving the production qualities and creating higher economic gain during production.

  2. Programming Pig

    CERN Document Server

    Gates, Alan

    2011-01-01

    This guide is an ideal learning tool and reference for Apache Pig, the open source engine for executing parallel data flows on Hadoop. With Pig, you can batch-process data without having to create a full-fledged application-making it easy for you to experiment with new datasets. Programming Pig introduces new users to Pig, and provides experienced users with comprehensive coverage on key features such as the Pig Latin scripting language, the Grunt shell, and User Defined Functions (UDFs) for extending Pig. If you need to analyze terabytes of data, this book shows you how to do it efficiently

  3. Domestic Violence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙犁

    2014-01-01

    <正>Most of the attention on domestic violence is on the violence perpetrated by the husband towards the wife.It seems that little attention is paid on the infliction of domestic violence on children.Domestic violence on children should not be neglected.Domestic violence on children is everywhere.A survey

  4. Thinking Pigs: A Comparative Review of Cognition, Emotion, and Personality in Sus domesticus

    OpenAIRE

    Marino, Lori; Colvin, Christina M

    2015-01-01

    While relatively little is known about the psychology of domestic pigs, what is known suggests that pigs are cognitively complex and share many traits with animals whom we consider intelligent. This paper reviews the scientific evidence for cognitive complexity in domestic pigs and, when appropriate, compares this literature with similar findings in other animals, focusing on some of the more compelling and cutting-edge research results. The goals of this paper are to: 1) frame pig cognition ...

  5. Domestic Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domestic violence is a type of abuse. It usually involves a spouse or partner, but it can also be ... child, elderly relative, or other family member. Domestic violence may include Physical violence that can lead to ...

  6. Domestic violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... called child abuse . Domestic violence is a crime. Types of Domestic Violence Domestic violence can include any of these behaviors: ... weapon Sexual abuse, forcing someone to have any type of sexual activity he or she does ... abuse, including name-calling, humiliation, threats to the person ...

  7. mRNA expression of three kinds of recombinant bifidobacterium vaccines of Taenia solium in domestic pigs%3种猪带绦虫重组双歧杆菌候选疫苗在家猪体内的mRNA表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周必英; 刘美辰; 杨凤娇

    2015-01-01

    Objective To detect the expression of three kinds of recombinant bifidobacterium(Bb) vaccines of Taenia solium in domestic pigs.Methods Healthy domestic pigs of 40 days old were orally administrated with 1011 (colony forming units,CFU) recombinant Bb-TSO45W-4B,Bb-TSOL18 and Bb-TSO45W-4B-TSOL18 vaccines.Two weeks after the first immunization,these domestic pigs were strengthened immunized.56 days after the first immunization,these domestic pigs were killed.The liver,lung and spleen were collected to detect the expression of three kinds of recombinant Bb vaccines of Taenia solium in domestic pigs using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).Results The TSO45W-4B gene of Taenia solium could be expressed in liver,lung and spleen of domestic pigs.The relative expression was 3.3,3.3,1,respectively.The relative expression in liver and lung was higher than that in spleen;The TSOL18 gene of Taenia solium could be expressed in liver and spleen of domestic pigs.The relative expression was 2.6,1,respectively.The relative expression in liver was higher than that in spleen.The TSO45W-4B-TSOL18 fusion gene of Taenia solium could be expressed in liver,lung and spleen of domestic pigs.The relative expression was 0.2,2.4,2.1,respectively.Conclusion Three kinds of recombinant Bb vaccines of Taenia solium could be expressed in domestic pigs,which would contribute to playing a role in immune effect of vaccines.%目的 检测3种猪带绦虫重组双歧杆菌候选疫苗在家猪体内的表达情况. 方法 将40日龄健康家猪分别用1011克隆形成单位(colony forming units,CFU)的猪带绦虫Bb-TSO45W-4B、Bb-TSOL18和Bb-TSO45W-4B-TSOL18重组候选疫苗对家猪口服灌胃.首次免疫2周后加强免疫1次.于首免后56 d,剖杀家猪,无菌取肝、肺、脾,采用RT-PCR方法检测上述3种候选疫苗在家猪体内的mRNA表达情况. 结果 在家猪肝脏、肺脏和脾脏中均检测到猪带绦虫TSO45W-4B基因的mRNA,其中肝脏和

  8. Genetic diversity and relationships of Vietnamese and European pig breeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indigenous resources of the Asian pig population are less defined and only rarely compared with European breeds. In this study, five indigenous pig breeds from Viet Nam (Mong Cai, Muong Khuong, Co, Meo, Tap Na), two exotic breeds kept in Viet Nam (Large White, Landrace), three European commercial breeds (Pietrain, Landrace, Large White), and European Wild Boar were chosen for evaluation and comparison of genetic diversity. Samples and data from 317 animals were collected and ten polymorphic microsatellite loci were selected according to the recommendations of the FAO Domestic Animal Diversity Information System (DAD-IS; http://www.fao.org/dad-is/). Effective number of alleles, Polymorphism Information Content (PIC), within-breed diversity, estimated heterozygosities and tests for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were determined. Breed differentiation was evaluated using the fixation indices of Wright (1951). Genetic distances between breeds were estimated according to Nei (1972) and used for the construction of UPGMA dendrograms which were evaluated by bootstrapping. Heterozygosity was higher in indigenous Vietnamese breeds than in the other breeds. The Vietnamese indigenous breeds also showed higher genetic diversity than the European breeds and all genetic distances had a strong bootstrap support. The European commercial breeds, in contrast, were closely related and bootstrapping values for genetic distances among them were below 60%. European Wild Boar displayed closer relation with commercial breeds of European origin than with the native breeds from Viet Nam. This study is one of the first to contribute to a genetic characterization of autochthonous Vietnamese pig breeds and it clearly demonstrates that these breeds harbour a rich reservoir of genetic diversity. (author)

  9. Trichinella pseudospiralis in pig from Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Relja; Beck, Ana; Lucinger, Snjezana; Florijancić, Tihomir; Bosković, Ivica; Marinculić, Albert

    2009-02-23

    Trichinella spiralis and Trichinella britovi are species that are frequently found in domestic pigs and various sylvatic animals in Croatia. During routine trichinoscopy, non-encapsulated larvae were detected in the muscle tissue of a domestic pig. Artificial digestion revealed a larvae burden of 602 muscle larvae per gram of tissue. Tissue section analysis confirmed the presence of non-encapsulated larvae. Multiplex PCR identified the larvae as T. pseudospiralis. This observation is consistent with the reports of a local veterinary inspector who described the presence of non-encapsulated Trichinella in four individual cases over the last 2 years. This is the first report of T. pseudospiralis in Croatia and one of very few cases of T. pseudospiralis infection described in domestic pigs. The detection of non-encapsulated larvae stresses the need for implementation of artificial digestion instead of trichinoscopy for the detection and identification of Trichinella infections. PMID:19054619

  10. Domestic Violence

    OpenAIRE

    İbiloğlu, Aslıhan Okan

    2012-01-01

    Domestic violence is a problem that affects the lives of many women both in urban and rural areas. Depression and post-traumatic stress disorder are the most prevalent mental health problems related with domestic violence. Children of battered women are also affected from the domestic violence. Children who grow up in families with intimate partner violence may suffer from a range of behavioral and emotional disturbances that can be associated with the perpetration or experiencing of violence...

  11. Domestic Violence

    OpenAIRE

    Lažanová, Jana

    2011-01-01

    This thesis deals with the issue of domestic violence, which currently represents the social problem. At the turn of the 20th and 21 century, domestic violence, thanks the increasing interest of women's social and nonprofit organizations, is becoming a social problem to be solved. The work is divided into two parts - theoretical and practical. The theoretical part describes the characteristics of domestic violence, its types, forms and profiles of victims and actors of violence. The legal...

  12. Organic pig sector in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Vermeer, Herman

    2011-01-01

    The Dutch organic pig sector has shown strong growth in recent years. Although a significant share of organic of organic pork is exported, domestic consumers are continuing to buy more organic pork. To facilitate organic pig farmers, Wageningen UR and Louis Bolk Institute carry out a variety of research aimed specifically at the sector. The report contains sector facts, sector aspirations, current affairs and research projects.

  13. HUMAN DISPERSAL OF A WIDESPREAD ZOONOSIS IN A DOMESTICATED HOST

    Science.gov (United States)

    We assessed the evolutionary consequences of swine husbandry for Trichinella spiralis, a food borne parasite that causes severe muscular disease. We find far less genetic diversity in parasites of domesticated pigs than in related parasites of wildlife hosts. In particular, pigs of European origin...

  14. Asian Medical Students: Quality of Life and Motivation to Learn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Marcus A.; Hawken, Susan J.; Krageloh, Christian; Zhao, Yipin; Doherty, Iain

    2011-01-01

    Issues linked with the notions of quality of life (QOL) and motivation to learn among Asian medical students have not been well documented. This is true in both the international and the New Zealand contexts. Our paper addresses this lack of research by focusing on the QOL of international and domestic Asian students studying in New Zealand, where…

  15. PigGIS: Pig Genomic Informatics System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruan, Jue; Guo, Yiran; Li, Heng;

    2007-01-01

    Pig Genomic Information System (PigGIS) is a web-based depository of pig (Sus scrofa) genomic learning mainly engineered for biomedical research to locate pig genes from their human homologs and position single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in different pig populations. It utilizes a variety of...

  16. Insulin-like growth factors in the Goettinger miniature-pig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    IGF I was determined by a radioimmunoassay and IGF II by a radioreceptorassay in 20 Goettinger miniature (mini)-pigs and 13 domestic pigs of different weight and age. Immunoreactive IGF I serum levels of mini-pigs were similar to those of of domestic pigs in corresponding age-classes (150-250 and 100-270 μ/l, respectively). No differences were detectable between receptor-reactive IGF II serum levels in mini-pigs (150-200 μ/l) and domestic pigs (110-270 μ/l) nor did the biological insulin-like activities (measured in the rat fat cell assay) differ in mini- and domestic pigs (81-100 and 71-98 mU inculin/l, respectively). IGF I and IGF II decreased drastically after hypophysectomy in one of the mini-pigs. Intravenous bolus injections of 30 μ/kg of recombinant human IGF I in 4 mini-pigs caused a simular degree of hypoglycemia (nadir of blood glucose 1.33 ± 0.61 mmol/l) as 0.15 IU insulin/kg, followed by a sharp growth hormone peak. We conclude that the marked difference between mini- and domestic pigs regarding body size is unrelated to serum levels of IGF I and II, a lack of response of tissues to IGF I or a reduced growth hormone secretory capacity in the mini-pig. (author)

  17. Insulin-like growth factors in the Goettinger miniature-pig

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zenobi, P.D.; Guler, H.-P.; Zapf, J.; Froesch, E.R.

    1988-01-01

    IGF I was determined by a radioimmunoassay and IGF II by a radioreceptorassay in 20 Goettinger miniature (mini)-pigs and 13 domestic pigs of different weight and age. Immunoreactive IGF I serum levels of mini-pigs were similar to those of of domestic pigs in corresponding age-classes (150-250 and 100-270 ..mu../l, respectively). No differences were detectable between receptor-reactive IGF II serum levels in mini-pigs (150-200 ..mu../l) and domestic pigs (110-270 ..mu../l) nor did the biological insulin-like activities (measured in the rat fat cell assay) differ in mini- and domestic pigs (81-100 and 71-98 mU inculin/l, respectively). IGF I and IGF II decreased drastically after hypophysectomy in one of the mini-pigs. Intravenous bolus injections of 30 ..mu../kg of recombinant human IGF I in 4 mini-pigs caused a simular degree of hypoglycemia (nadir of blood glucose 1.33 +- 0.61 mmol/l) as 0.15 IU insulin/kg, followed by a sharp growth hormone peak. We conclude that the marked difference between mini- and domestic pigs regarding body size is unrelated to serum levels of IGF I and II, a lack of response of tissues to IGF I or a reduced growth hormone secretory capacity in the mini-pig.

  18. Collagen fibre arrangement in the skin of the pig.

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, W.; Neurand, K; Radke, B

    1982-01-01

    The arrangement and proportion of collagen fibres and fibre bundles in the dermis of the pig have been investigated with light microscopical (Nomarski's interference contrast, polarization optics) and scanning electron microscopical methods. Skin samples were obtained from different body regions of wild boars, domestic pigs and miniature pigs. All the methods used have demonstrated that the bulk of the dermis is dominated by a massive three dimensional network of collagen fibres and fibre bun...

  19. Coexistence of multiple strains of porcine parvovirus 2 in pig farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saekhow, Prayuth; Mawatari, Takahiro; Ikeda, Hidetoshi

    2014-07-01

    The porcine parvovirus 2 (PPV2) genome was first identified in 2001 in Myanmar. Recently, the PPV2 genome has been found in several other countries. In this study, the prevalence of PPV2 in Japanese domestic pigs was investigated and found to be 58% (69/120) in healthy domestic pigs and 100% (69/69) in sick domestic pigs. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the PCR products of the VP1 gene and an almost full length PPV2 clone indicated that diverged PPV2 strains exist in Japan. Clearly distinct strains of PPV2 were detected in 7 of the 10 pig farms. PMID:24845822

  20. Review of wallowing in pigs: Description of the behaviour and its motivational basis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bracke, M.B.M.

    2011-01-01

    Wallowing, i.e. coating the body surface with mud, is a natural behaviour of pigs,commonly observed in feral pigs and wild boar, but rarely provided for in current housing systems for domestic pigs. Furthermore, in welfare science the subject has not been receiving much attention. This paper reviews

  1. Genetic resources, genome mapping and evolutionary genomics of the pig (Sus scrofa)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, K.; Baxter, T.; Muir, W.M.; Groenen, M.A.M.; Schook, L.B.

    2007-01-01

    The pig, a representative of the artiodactyla clade, is one of the first animals domesticated, and has become an important agriculture animal as one of the major human nutritional sources of animal based protein. The pig is also a valuable biomedical model organism for human health. The pig's import

  2. Combining different pedigrees to fine-map QTL in the pig

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tortereau, F.J.D.

    2012-01-01

    Pig domestication started around 10,000 years ago during the Neolithic age, independently in Europe and China, and most current pig breeds originate from these two areas. Among the 560 pig breeds that have been recorded over the world in 2007 by the FAO, only few of them have been intensively select

  3. Smart Pigs

    OpenAIRE

    ECT Team, Purdue

    2007-01-01

    Smart Pigs are inspection vehicles that move inside a pipe line pushed along by the flowing material. Smart Pigs use different technologies to locate problems along the pipelines. Magnets have been used to detect corrosion where the most common technology is the Magnetic Flux Leakage (MFL) that detects corrosion on thinning walls. Another detection technology uses ultrasonic sensors to detect coating disbondment, cracks, dents and gouges. The Global Positioning System (GPS) technology is bein...

  4. Domestic Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslihan Okan Ibiloglu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Domestic violence is a problem that affects the lives of many women both in urban and rural areas. Depression and post-traumatic stress disorder are the most prevalent mental health problems related with domestic violence. Children of battered women are also affected from the domestic violence. Children who grow up in families with intimate partner violence may suffer from a range of behavioral and emotional disturbances that can be associated with the perpetration or experiencing of violence later in life. The mental health care sector can have a significant impact on publicizing and addressing violence against women and children and on reducing the mental health problems related to abuse. This review focuses on domestic violence victims, most of whom are women and children victimized by their spouses or parents, along with the causes and cycle of domestic violence.

  5. Biodistribution of the radionuclides (18)F-FDG, (11)C-methionine, (11)C-PK11195, and (68)Ga-citrate in domestic juvenile female pigs and morphological and molecular imaging of the tracers in hematogenously disseminated Staphylococcus aureus lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzelius, Pia; Nielsen, Ole L; Alstrup, Aage Ko; Bender, Dirk; Leifsson, Páll S; Jensen, Svend B; Schønheyder, Henrik C

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 5-7% of acute-care patients suffer from bacteremia. Bacteremia may give rise to bacterial spread to different tissues. Conventional imaging procedures as X-ray, Computed Tomography (CT), Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), and ultrasound are often first-line imaging methods for identification and localization of infection. These methods are, however, not always successful. Early identification and localization of infection is critical for the appropriate and timely selection of therapy. The aim of this study was thus; a head to head comparison of (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) to PET with tracers that potentially could improve uncovering of infectious lesions in soft tissues. We chose (11)C-methionine, (11)C-PK11195, and (68)Ga-citrate as tracers and besides presenting their bio-distribution we validated their diagnostic utility in pigs with experimental bacterial infection. Four juvenile 14-15 weeks old female domestic pigs were scanned seven days after intra-arterial inoculation in the right femoral artery with a porcine strain of S. aureus using a sequential scanning protocol with (18)F-FDG, (11)C-methionine, (11)C-PK11195 and (68)Ga-citrate. This was followed by necropsy of the pigs consisting of gross pathology, histopathology and microbial examination. The pigs primarily developed lesions in lungs and neck muscles. (18)F-FDG had higher infection to background ratios and accumulated in most infectious foci caused by S. aureus, while (11)C-methionine and particularly (11)C-PK11195 and (68)Ga-citrate accumulated to a lesser extent in infectious foci. (18)F-FDG-uptake was seen in the areas of inflammatory cells and to a much lesser extent in reparative infiltration surrounding necrotic regions. PMID:27069765

  6. The Trend of Coal Exports and Imports by China and Its Influence on Asian coal Markets.

    OpenAIRE

    Atsuo Sagawa; Koichi Koizumi

    2008-01-01

    China exported over 90 million tons of coal in 2001 to play an important role as supplier of coal to Asian coal markets, especially the East Asian region. However, China's coal exports have decreased every year since 2004, whereas its imports have risen, reflecting a tightening of its domestic supply and demand due to a sharp increase in domestic consumption since 2003. This decrease in export and increase in import remarkably influenced the supply and demand of coal in the Asian coal markets...

  7. Phylogeography and domestication of Indian river buffalo

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar Niraj; Sandhu Jasmeet S; Nagarajan Muniyandi; Kumar Satish; Behl Vandana

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background The water buffalo- Bubalus bubalis holds tremendous potential in livestock sector in many Asian countries, particularly India. The origin, domestication and genetic structure of the Indian river buffalo are poorly understood. Therefore, to understand the relationship among the maternal lineages of Indian river buffalo breeds and their domestication process, we analysed mitochondrial D-loop region of 217 animals representing eight breeds from eight different locations in In...

  8. Domestic Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to anyone regardless of race, age, sexual orientation, religion, or gender. Domestic violence affects people of all ... ABOUT The Attorney General Budget & Performance Strategic Plans History AGENCIES BUSINESS Business Opportunities Small & Disadvantaged Business Grants ...

  9. Domestic violence.

    OpenAIRE

    Lapierre, Simon

    1994-01-01

    Since the 1960s, there has been growing awareness regarding the issue of domestic violence as a form of violence against women, which has been largely influenced by the work of feminist activist and scholars in North America and Europe (Dobash and Dobash 1992). Other terms have been used to describe the same phenomenon, including domestic abuse, spousal abuse, wife battering, marital violence, intimate partner violence. Though there is no doubt that this problem has existed for much more than...

  10. Genetic Resources, Genome Mapping and Evolutionary Genomics of the Pig (Sus scrofa)

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    The pig, a representative of the artiodactyla clade, is one of the first animals domesticated, and has become an important agriculture animal as one of the major human nutritional sources of animal based protein. The pig is also a valuable biomedical model organism for human health. The pig's importance to human health and nutrition is reflected in the decision to sequence its genome (3X). As an animal species with its wild ancestors present in the world, the pig provides a unique opportunity...

  11. Genetic resources, genome mapping and evolutionary genomics of the pig (Sus scrofa)

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, K.; Baxter, T.; Muir, W.M.; Groenen, M. A. M.; Schook, L B

    2007-01-01

    The pig, a representative of the artiodactyla clade, is one of the first animals domesticated, and has become an important agriculture animal as one of the major human nutritional sources of animal based protein. The pig is also a valuable biomedical model organism for human health. The pig's importance to human health and nutrition is reflected in the decision to sequence its genome (3X). As an animal species with its wild ancestors present in the world, the pig provides a unique opportunity...

  12. Experimental infection of Bama miniature pigs with a highly virulent classical swine fever virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Zhuo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently, larger domestic pigs are only animals widely used in vaccine evaluation and pathogenicity study of classical swine fever virus (CSFV. This study was aimed to create an alternative animal experimental infection model of CSFV. Results Twenty specific-pathogen-free Bama miniature pigs were randomly divided into two groups and rooms, infected and non-infected, and the pigs in the infected group were inoculated intramuscularly with 104, 105 or 106 TCID50 (median tissue culture infective dose CSFV Shimen strain (n = 5 × 3 or left uninoculated to serve as in-contact pigs (n = 3. The uninfected control pigs (n = 2 were housed in a separate room. Clinical signs, body temperature, viraemia, tissue antigen distribution, pathological changes and seroconversion were monitored. Clinical signs were observed as early as 2 days post-inoculation (dpi in all infected pigs (though mild in contact pigs, but not non-infected control pigs. All inoculated pigs showed viraemia by 6 dpi. The in-contact pigs showed lower levels of viraemia. At 10 dpi, seroconversion was noted in five of the 15 inoculated pigs. All inoculated or one in-contact pigs died by 15 dpi. Conclusions These results show that Bama miniature pigs support productive CSFV infection and display clinical signs and pathological changes consistent with CSFV infections observed in larger domestic pigs.

  13. PigGIS: Pig Genomic Informatics System

    OpenAIRE

    Ruan, Jue; Guo, Yiran; Heng LI; Hu, Yafeng; Song, Fei; Huang, Xin; Kristiensen, Karsten; Bolund, Lars; Wang, Jun

    2006-01-01

    Pig Genomic Information System (PigGIS) is a web-based depository of pig (Sus scrofa) genomic learning mainly engineered for biomedical research to locate pig genes from their human homologs and position single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in different pig populations. It utilizes a variety of sequence data, including whole genome shotgun (WGS) reads and expressed sequence tags (ESTs), and achieves a successful mapping solution to the low-coverage genome problem. With the data presently av...

  14. Domestic violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-30

    Essential facts Domestic violence and abuse includes any incident or repeated incidents of controlling, coercive or threatening behaviour, violence or abuse between family members or intimate partners (including former partners). It can involve psychological, physical, sexual, financial and emotional abuse, as well as 'honour'-based violence and forced marriage. According to the Office for National Statistics, at least 1.4 million women and 700,000 men aged between 16 and 59 experienced domestic abuse in England and Wales in 2013/14 - equivalent to 8.5% of women and 4.5% of men. PMID:27027171

  15. Signatures of diversifying selection in European pig breeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Wilkinson

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Following domestication, livestock breeds have experienced intense selection pressures for the development of desirable traits. This has resulted in a large diversity of breeds that display variation in many phenotypic traits, such as coat colour, muscle composition, early maturity, growth rate, body size, reproduction, and behaviour. To better understand the relationship between genomic composition and phenotypic diversity arising from breed development, the genomes of 13 traditional and commercial European pig breeds were scanned for signatures of diversifying selection using the Porcine60K SNP chip, applying a between-population (differentiation approach. Signatures of diversifying selection between breeds were found in genomic regions associated with traits related to breed standard criteria, such as coat colour and ear morphology. Amino acid differences in the EDNRB gene appear to be associated with one of these signatures, and variation in the KITLG gene may be associated with another. Other selection signals were found in genomic regions including QTLs and genes associated with production traits such as reproduction, growth, and fat deposition. Some selection signatures were associated with regions showing evidence of introgression from Asian breeds. When the European breeds were compared with wild boar, genomic regions with high levels of differentiation harboured genes related to bone formation, growth, and fat deposition.

  16. 青海省部分地区家猪感染旋毛虫情况调查%Investigation on Trichinella infection in domestic pigs in some regions of Qinghai province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜鹏; 刘巴睿; 崔晶; 李国昌; 李楠; 韩秀敏; 王虎; 王中全

    2011-01-01

    Objective To understand the prevalence of swine Trichinella infection in Qinghai Province. Methods 192 pigs from seven abattoirs randomly selected in Huzu Tu Autonomous County and Delingha City were selected as subjects. The diaphragm samples of the slaughtered pigs were taken and examined for Trichinella larvae by trichinoscopy and artificial digestion method. Results 192 diaphragm samples were not detected Trichinella larvae by trichinoscopy and artificial digestion method. Conclusion No pigs infected with trichinella larvae were found in Huzu and Delingha of Qinghai province for the moment.%目的 了解青海省家猪旋毛虫的感染情况.方法 在青海省互助土族自治县和德令哈市随机选取7个生猪屠宰点,对192头屠宰猪收集膈肌样本,先后使用压片镜检法和人工消化法对肌肉样本进行旋毛虫检验.结果 192份猪肉样本经镜检法和人工消化法检查,均未检出旋毛虫幼虫.结论 青海省互助土族自治县和德令哈市未发现自然感染旋毛虫的家猪.

  17. Implantable microchip transponders for body temperature measurements in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lohse, Louise; Uttenthal, Åse; Enøe, Claes; Nielsen, Jens

    body temperature was tested, in order to evaluate the utility and reliability of this tool, in domestic pigs. The system is presently used and well optimized in small laboratory animals [1, 2]. We tested the microchip transponders during experimental infection of pigs with classical swine fever virus...... the 2 methods were compared. As the pigs included in this experiment were sequentially killed and hence the number of pigs within each group was reduced with 3-4 individuals per week, the corresponding data sets diminished during the experimental period. Results All virus inoculated pigs were infected...... thermometer. This work, however, can be quite time consuming and laborious, and further compromising the immediate well-fare of the pig, when restraining of the individual animal is necessary. Therefore, an electronic body monitoring system using implantable microchip transponders for measuring peripheral...

  18. Advances in pigging technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naylor, J. [Pipeline Engineering, Yorkshire (United Kingdom)

    1998-08-01

    Pigging is now an essential aspect of pipeline planning and engineers, influencing every facet from design and routing to integrity management, rehabilitation, servicing and maintenance. Some recent developments are reviewed here but systems, equipment and products are being continually enhanced to improve operational efficiency and cost effectiveness. The paper describes special-purpose pigs and pigging systems, intelligent pigging, pig signaling and detection, and static pigging/pipeline isolation.

  19. Obesity and Asian Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Asian American > Obesity Obesity and Asian Americans Non-Hispanic whites are 60% ... youthonline . [Accessed 05/25/2016] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  20. Epizootiology of trichinellosis in pigs and wild boars in Western Romania, 1998-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borza, Claudia; Neghina, Adriana M; Dumitrascu, Victor; Tirnea, Livius; Calma, Crenguta L; Neghina, Raul

    2012-08-01

    This article reports for the first time data regarding trichinellosis in sacrificed animals (domestic pigs and wild boars) inspected during the period from January 1998 to November 2011 in the largest of the Romanian counties. The data were collected from the Veterinary Public Health Department of Timis County. A total of 5,586,431 domestic pigs on farms, 609,325 pigs in private households, and 823 wild boars were examined during the study period. The results indicated that 681 domestic pigs (0.01%) on farms and 407 pigs in private households (0.07%) were found to be infected with Trichinella. Regarding wild boars, infection was detected in only 4 animals (0.5%). Although no infected animals have recently been identified during routine examinations (2009-2011), human outbreaks continue to occur yearly, and the main factors for these include improper handling by the population. PMID:22651387

  1. Methodologies of Culture, Gender, and Violence: Logics of Belonging and Exclusion in South Asian Immigrant Communities

    OpenAIRE

    Munshi, Soniya

    2010-01-01

    Here, I examine the relationship between South Asian Women's Organization (SAWO)’s work, predicated upon ideas of cultural-specificity of domestic violence in South Asian communities, and state responses to immigrant survivors of domestic violence. I will look at the deployment of categories of exception for a narrow subset of “battered immigrant women,” made possible through the Violence Against Women Act (1994), who are then exempted from many of the repressive policies that generally impac...

  2. Evolution of ascariasis in humans and pigs: a multi-disciplinary approach

    OpenAIRE

    Loreille Odile; Bouchet Françoise

    2003-01-01

    The nematode parasite Ascaris lumbricoides infects the digestive tracts of over 1.4 billion people worldwide, and its sister species, Ascaris suum, has infected a countless number of domesticated and feral pigs. It is generally thought that the putative ancestor to these worms infected either humans or pigs, but with the advent of domestication, they had ample opportunity to jump to a new host and subsequently specialize and evolve into a new species. While nuclear DNA markers decisively sepa...

  3. Effect of four resuscitation methods on lung ventilation of pigs with respiratory arrest

    OpenAIRE

    Ya-hua LIU; Xiu-man LI; Li-xiang WANG

    2012-01-01

    Objective To observe the effects of four cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) methods on lung ventilation of pigs with respiratory arrest. The four CPR methods included chest compression CPR (C-CPR), compression under the diaphragm CPR (D-CPR), abdominal compression CPR (A-CPR), and abdominal wall lifting and compression CPR (L-CPR). Methods  A total of 28 healthy domestic pigs were randomly divided into four groups. The pig respiratory arrest model was reproduced by intravenous injection of s...

  4. A comparison of brain gene expression levels in domesticated and wild animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank W Albert

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Domestication has led to similar changes in morphology and behavior in several animal species, raising the question whether similarities between different domestication events also exist at the molecular level. We used mRNA sequencing to analyze genome-wide gene expression patterns in brain frontal cortex in three pairs of domesticated and wild species (dogs and wolves, pigs and wild boars, and domesticated and wild rabbits. We compared the expression differences with those between domesticated guinea pigs and a distant wild relative (Cavia aperea as well as between two lines of rats selected for tameness or aggression towards humans. There were few gene expression differences between domesticated and wild dogs, pigs, and rabbits (30-75 genes (less than 1% of expressed genes were differentially expressed, while guinea pigs and C. aperea differed more strongly. Almost no overlap was found between the genes with differential expression in the different domestication events. In addition, joint analyses of all domesticated and wild samples provided only suggestive evidence for the existence of a small group of genes that changed their expression in a similar fashion in different domesticated species. The most extreme of these shared expression changes include up-regulation in domesticates of SOX6 and PROM1, two modulators of brain development. There was almost no overlap between gene expression in domesticated animals and the tame and aggressive rats. However, two of the genes with the strongest expression differences between the rats (DLL3 and DHDH were located in a genomic region associated with tameness and aggression, suggesting a role in influencing tameness. In summary, the majority of brain gene expression changes in domesticated animals are specific to the given domestication event, suggesting that the causative variants of behavioral domestication traits may likewise be different.

  5. DOMESTIC VIOLENCE: AN OVERVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    G. S. Venumadhava; Mayuri Sahay

    2015-01-01

    Domestic violence is a crime which may result in injury or even death for the victim, there is need to understand to cause of domestic violence. Data are reviewed for a variety of studies indicating that history of domestic violence to identify and evaluate different theories of domestic violence. Explain how the theory of violence used dictates the response to domestic violence. Identify domestic violence as intentional, learned behavior designed to achieve power and control over anoth...

  6. Pig Production in Tanzania: a Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson, RT.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tanzania's 1.58 million pigs represent 3.7 per cent of the national population of quadruped meat-producing animals. Some 99.5 per cent of pigs are kept by small producers in units averaging 3.04 animals (range 2-48. About 18 per cent of households with livestock own pigs, 93.7 per cent of these having a herd of less than 19 and 69.2 per cent own 9 or fewer head. Scavenging is the main feed source. Maize bran is the principle supplement but some owners provide oilseed cakes and minerals. Domestic pigs are not indigenous to Tanzania and derive mainly from late 19th/early 20th century introductions. There have been few imports of breeding stock since 1961. Poor management, in-breeding, inadequate nutrition and rudimentary veterinary attention lead to low output from late ages at first farrowing, long inter-birth intervals, small litters, slow growth and high mortality. Government policy is not applied in practice. Animals are slaughtered in primitive private facilities or household compounds with little concern for welfare or hygiene, often with no official inspection. Pigs can make a greater contribution to society but public and private sectors must provide additional support with particular attention to management, nutrition, health, welfare and food safety to achieve this.

  7. Asian American Women: A Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yung, Judy, Comp.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Listed in this bibliography are materials available on Asian American women at the Asian Community Library (Oakland Public Library) and the Asian American Studies Library (University of California, Berkeley). (Author/EB)

  8. Domestic Violence: Intersection of Culture, Gender and Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonsing, Jenny C

    2016-04-01

    This study examines South Asian women's experience of domestic violence in Hong Kong. Despite the proliferation of literature on domestic violence, this issue remain unexplored in the discourse of domestic violence in Hong Kong. A qualitative research approach through face to face interview with 14 women was employed. Participants were recruited through purposive and snowball sampling. Findings from this study highlight the importance of considering the social and cultural influence on how women perceived and construct their experiences of abuse.Implications for practice and policies are highlighted. PMID:25774039

  9. The New Asian Immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Morrison G.; Hirschman, Charles

    In the early 1960s, Asian immigration to the United States was severely limited. The passage of the Immigration Act of 1965 expanded Asian immigration and ended a policy of racial discrimination and exclusion. Currently, over one third of the total immigrant population to the United States is from Asia, particularly China, Japan, Korea, the…

  10. Asian American Cultural Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libretti, Tim

    1997-01-01

    Explores the encounter of Marxism and Asian American literary theory and imagines an Asian American Marxism. To do so requires theorizing race, class, and gender not as substantive categories of antagonisms but as complementary and coordinated elements of a totality of social relations structuring racial patriarchal capitalism. (SLD)

  11. Foreign and Domestic Bank Participation in Emerging Markets: Lessons from Mexico and Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    B. Gerard Dages; Linda S. Goldberg; Daniel Kinney

    2000-01-01

    The Asian Crisis has highlighted the importance of strong domestic financial systems in overall economic development and stabilization. Less agreement is evident on the role of foreign banks in achieving this goal. We explore this issue by studying bank-specific data on lending by domestically- and foreign-owned banks in Argentina and Mexico. We find that foreign banks generally have had higher loan growth rates than their domestically-owned counterparts, with lower volatility of lending, con...

  12. Genetic Resources, Genome Mapping and Evolutionary Genomics of the Pig (Sus scrofa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kefei Chen, Tara Baxter, William M. Muir, Martien A. Groenen, Lawrence B. Schook

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The pig, a representative of the artiodactyla clade, is one of the first animals domesticated, and has become an important agriculture animal as one of the major human nutritional sources of animal based protein. The pig is also a valuable biomedical model organism for human health. The pig's importance to human health and nutrition is reflected in the decision to sequence its genome (3X. As an animal species with its wild ancestors present in the world, the pig provides a unique opportunity for tracing mammalian evolutionary history and defining signatures of selection resulting from both domestication and natural selection. Completion of the pig genome sequencing project will have significant impacts on both agriculture and human health. Following the pig whole genome sequence drafts, along with large-scale polymorphism data, it will be possible to conduct genome sweeps using association mapping, and identify signatures of selection. Here, we provide a description of the pig genome sequencing project and perspectives on utilizing genomic technologies to exploit pig genome evolution and the molecular basis for phenotypic traits for improving pig production and health.

  13. Age-related Infection with Cryptosporidium Species and Genotype in Pigs in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Jian Hai; YUAN Zhong Ying; CAI Hui Xia; SHEN Yu Juan; JIANG Yan Yan; ZHANG Jing; WANG Yan Juan; CAO Jian Ping

    2013-01-01

    Objective Pigs, as hosts of zoonotic Cryptosporidium species/genotypes, are domestic animals with public health significance. The present study was to characterize the infection rate and species/genotype of Cryptosporidium in pre-weaned and post-weaned pigs from Shanghai and Shaoxing, China. Methods A total of 208 fecal samples (42 from pre-weaned piglets, and 166 from post-weaned pigs) were examined by nested PCR of the 18S rRNA gene and analyzed by phylogenetic DNA fragment sequencing of secondary PCR products. Results Infection was detected in 79 samples (19/42 pre-weaned piglets, and 60/166 post-weaned pigs). C. suis (14/79) and Cryptosporidium pig genotype II (65/79) were identified; piglets were more susceptible to the former (13/14) and post-weaned pigs to the latter (59/65). Conclusion Infection of Cryptosporidium spp. in pigs was age-specific;piglets were more susceptible to C. suis while pigs were more susceptible to Cryptosporidium pig genotype II. These findings combined with the isolation of the two Cryptosporidium from water suggest that pigs may be a source of zoonotic Cryptosporidium water pollution. Improvements in pig feeding practices, sewage discharge, feces disposal and field worker protection are therefore important to prevent potential public health problems.

  14. Impact of GDP, Spending on R&D, Number of Universities and Scientific Journals on Research Publications among Asian Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Meo, Sultan Ayoub; Al Masri, Abeer A.; Usmani, Adnan Mahmood; Memon, Almas Naeem; Zaidi, Syed Ziauddin

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to compare the impact of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita, spending on Research and Development (R&D), number of universities, and Indexed Scientific Journals on total number of research documents (papers), citations per document and Hirsch index (H-index) in various science and social science subjects among Asian countries. Materials and Methods In this study, 40 Asian countries were included. The information regarding Asian countries, their GDP per capita,...

  15. Vietnam: From Transitional State to Asian Tiger?

    OpenAIRE

    F. Gerard Adams; Anh Le Tran

    2010-01-01

    Putting aside the legacy of its unique history, Vietnam has achieved an excellent growth record. But it is still far behind the leading East Asian economies. We consider the Vietnamese growth strategy in light of the controversies about ‘accumulation vs assimilation’ and ‘non-intervention vs governing the market’. We discuss the changes that are occurring as a result of the actions of the still large state-owned sector, and as a result of growing private domestic and FDI-led entrepren...

  16. Immunological relationships of an endogenous guinea pig retrovirus with prototype mammalian type B and type D retroviruses.

    OpenAIRE

    Dahlberg, J E; Tronick, S R; Aaronson, S A

    1980-01-01

    A retrovirus endogenous to guinea pig cells was earlier shown to be morphologically similar to type B and type D prototype retroviruses. Molecular hybridization techniques were used to show that guinea pig virus nucleotide sequences are endogenous to both domestic (Cavia porcellus) and indigenous (Cavia aperea) guinea pigs, but cannot be detected in the DNA of either other hystricomorph rodents or other mammals tested. Using radioimmunological techniques designed to detect interspecies relati...

  17. Variation in mitochondrial minichromosome composition between blood-sucking lice of the genus Haematopinus that infest horses and pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Simon D; Barker, Stephen C.; Shao, Renfu

    2014-01-01

    Background The genus Haematopinus contains 21 species of blood-sucking lice, parasitizing both even-toed ungulates (pigs, cattle, buffalo, antelopes, camels and deer) and odd-toed ungulates (horses, donkeys and zebras). The mitochondrial genomes of the domestic pig louse, Haematopinus suis, and the wild pig louse, Haematopinus apri, have been sequenced recently; both lice have fragmented mitochondrial genomes with 37 genes on nine minichromosomes. To understand whether the composition of mito...

  18. The Pig Farm Manager for Modelling Pig Production Systems

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Before setting up or changing a pig farm operation, the consequences of the farm set up must be explored and changes planned. To calculate technical and economic consequences a farm manager model for pig production systems, the Pig Farm Manager, has been developed. The Pig Farm Manager estimates the effects of various farm designs as well as farm management on production, environmental and economical parameters. The Pig Farm Manager includes simulations for sow farms and finisher pig farms. I...

  19. Patterns of Asian and non-Asian morbidity in hospitals.

    OpenAIRE

    Donaldson, L. J.; Taylor, J. B.

    1983-01-01

    On the basis of surname, 6418 Asians were identified out of a total of 109 187 deaths and discharges of Leicestershire residents who had been treated in hospitals in the Trent Regional Health Authority over two years. After linkage to Hospital Activity Analysis computerised records, hospital morbidity in Asians and non-Asians was compared. Asian patients in certain age groups were more likely than non-Asian patients to be diagnosed as having asthma; leukaemia; diabetes mellitus; blood, thyroi...

  20. PIGS BREEDING FOR THE PRODUCTION OF TRADITIONAL MEAT PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đuro Senčić

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The fertile Slavonia is known for production of several types of cured meats: kulen, kulen sis, sausage, ham and bacon, and other pork products (“krvavica” - blood sausage, “švargl” - a type of brawn where chopped parts of head are stuffed inside the pig’s stomach, “čvarci” - a variant of pork crisps, fat. These products require “mature pigs” of adequate slaughter quality. Production of pigs intended for traditional meat products may take place in different production systems (open, closed, semi-open, “organic”. Each of these systems provides a specific quality of pigs for slaughter, reflecting on the quality of the final product. Production systems can have a significant impact on growth performance and carcass and meat quality of pigs. This effect arises from the interaction between housing conditions, the amount and composition of food and used pig genotype. The choice of a production system depends on local production conditions, pig genotype, consumer demand (market for a given product quality, and other factors. Due to their quality, the traditional Slavonian meat products can become a recognizable Croatian brand in both domestic and international markets. Production of standard quality products requires standard quality of pigs. Therefore this book is focused on such pigs production.

  1. Smallholder pig production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braae, Uffe Christian; Ngowi, Helena; Johansen, Maria Vang

    2013-01-01

    pigs (2%) were found infested with Sarcoptes scabiei var. suis. Ticks found belonged to four genera; Amblyomma spp., Rhipicephalus spp., Haemaphysalis spp., and Boophilus spp. The prevalence of hard ticks among the free-range pigs was 50%. Ectoparasites were more prevalent in the free-range system...... although highly prevalent within both production systems. Keeping pigs in a free-range system and contact with neighbouring pigs were main risk factors for the presence of ectoparasites. Confinement was highly effective as a preventive tool against hard ticks....

  2. Asian Art on Display

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borggreen, Gunhild Ravn

    2010-01-01

    Med udgangspunkt i seminaret Visualising Asian Modernity diskuteres forholdet mellem antropologi og samtidskunst i lyset af hvorledes asiatisk kunst fremvises og formidles i vestlig og dansk sammenhæng....

  3. Glaucoma in Asian Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Us Donate In This Section Glaucoma In Asian Populations email Send this article to a friend by ... an even more serious problem as the world population and longevity increases. The other major glaucoma type ...

  4. The South Asian genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John C Chambers

    Full Text Available The genetic sequence variation of people from the Indian subcontinent who comprise one-quarter of the world's population, is not well described. We carried out whole genome sequencing of 168 South Asians, along with whole-exome sequencing of 147 South Asians to provide deeper characterisation of coding regions. We identify 12,962,155 autosomal sequence variants, including 2,946,861 new SNPs and 312,738 novel indels. This catalogue of SNPs and indels amongst South Asians provides the first comprehensive map of genetic variation in this major human population, and reveals evidence for selective pressures on genes involved in skin biology, metabolism, infection and immunity. Our results will accelerate the search for the genetic variants underlying susceptibility to disorders such as type-2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease which are highly prevalent amongst South Asians.

  5. Central Asian Republic Info

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — CAR Info is designed and managed by the Central Asian Republic Mission to fill in the knowledge and reporting gaps in existing agency systems for that Mission. It...

  6. The Asian Face Lift

    OpenAIRE

    Bergeron, Léonard; Chen, Yu-Ray

    2009-01-01

    The face-lift procedure (rhytidectomy) is increasingly popular in Asia. There is extensive literature on different techniques in Western patients. Cultural and anthropomorphologic differences between Asian and Caucasians require the adaptation of current techniques to obtain a satisfactory outcome for both the patient and the surgeon. This article therefore attempts to define important differences between Asians and Caucasians in terms of signs of facial aging, perception of beauty, and surgi...

  7. Phylogeography and domestication of Indian river buffalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Niraj

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The water buffalo- Bubalus bubalis holds tremendous potential in livestock sector in many Asian countries, particularly India. The origin, domestication and genetic structure of the Indian river buffalo are poorly understood. Therefore, to understand the relationship among the maternal lineages of Indian river buffalo breeds and their domestication process, we analysed mitochondrial D-loop region of 217 animals representing eight breeds from eight different locations in India along with published sequences of Mediterranean buffalo. Results The maximum parsimony tree showed one major clade with six internal branches. Reduced median network revealed expansion from more than one set of haplotypes indicating complex domestication events for this species. In addition, we found several singleton haplotypes. Using rho statistics, we obtained a time estimate of 6300 years BP for the expansion of one set of hapltoypes of the Indian domestic buffalo. A few breed specific branches in the network indicated an ancient time depth of differentiation of some of the maternal lineages of river buffalo breeds. The multidimensional display of breed pairwise FST values showed significant breed differentiation. Conclusion Present day river buffalo is the result of complex domestication processes involving more than one maternal lineage and a significant maternal gene flow from the wild populations after the initial domestication events. Our data are consistent with the available archaeological information in supporting the proposition that the river buffalo was likely to be domesticated in the Western region of the Indian subcontinent, specifically the present day breeding tracts of the Mehsana, Surati and Pandharpuri breeds.

  8. The Asian methanol market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the purpose of this presentation, Asia has been broadly defined as a total of 15 countries, namely Japan, Korea, Taiwan, China, Hong Kong, the Philippines, Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, Myanmar, India, Vietnam, Australia and New Zealand. In 1994 and the first half of 1995, the methanol industry and its derivative industries experienced hard time, because of extraordinarily high methanol prices. In spite of this circumstance, methanol demand in Asian countries has been growing steadily and remarkably, following Asian high economic growth. Most of this growth in demand has been and will continue to be met by outside supply. However, even with increased import of methanol from outside of Asia, as a result of this growth, Asian trade volume will be much larger in the coming years. Asian countries must turn their collective attention to making logistics and transportation for methanol and its derivatives more efficient in the Asian region to make better use of existing supply resources. The author reviews current economic growth as his main topic, and explains the forecast of the growth of methanol demand and supply in Asian countries in the near future

  9. Pathogenesis of highly-pathogenic Asian PRRSV in pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2006, Chinese investigators reported a unique syndrome in growing swine that was highlighted by clinical signs of high fever, anorexia, listlessness, red discoloration of skin, respiratory distress and very high morbidity and mortality rates. Originally known as porcine high fever disease (PHFD),...

  10. Pig in the Middle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Sophie

    2000-01-01

    Explores themes relating to human transition as they appear in "Charlotte's Web" and four other stories using pigs as a subject. Discusses the motifs common to all these texts that recur in the film "Babe." Considers how the cycle of life and death is ceaseless, and pigs symbolize the necessary transitions that people must all make. (NH)

  11. BHA STUDY IN PIGS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Würtzen, G.; Olsen, P.

    1986-01-01

    changes of the stratified epithelium of the stomach were found in both control and treated pigs. In addition, proliferative and parakeratotic changes of the oesophageal epithelium were observed in a few pigs in the two groups on the highest doses. Papillomas were not found, and no changes of the glandular...

  12. Tail biting in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrøder-Petersen, D L; Simonsen, H B

    2001-11-01

    One of the costly and welfare-reducing problems in modern pig production is tail biting. Tail biting is an abnormal behaviour, characterized by one pig's dental manipulation of another pig's tail. Tail biting can be classified into two groups: the pre-injury stage, before any wound on the tail is present, and the injury stage, where the tail is wounded and bleeding. Tail biting in the injury stage will reduce welfare of the bitten pig and the possible spread of infection is a health as well as welfare problem. The pigs that become tail biters may also suffer, because they are frustrated due to living in a stressful environment. This frustration may result in an excessive motivation for biting the tails of pen mates. This review aims to summarize recent research and theories in relation to tail biting. PMID:11681870

  13. From Crop Domestication to Super-domestication

    OpenAIRE

    Vaughan, D.A.; Balázs, E; Heslop-Harrison, J S

    2007-01-01

    Research related to crop domestication has been transformed by technologies and discoveries in the genome sciences as well as information-related sciences that are providing new tools for bioinformatics and systems' biology. Rapid progress in archaeobotany and ethnobotany are also contributing new knowledge to understanding crop domestication. This sense of rapid progress is encapsulated in this Special Issue, which contains 18 papers by scientists in botanical, crop sciences and related disc...

  14. FDI Spillover Effects in the Food Industry in Asian Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Takuya Yamamoto; Takeshi Sakurai

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes the spillover effects of foreign companies' FDI on local companies, taking examples of public food companies in 4 Asian countries/areas namely Thailand, Malaysia, Hong Kong, and China. The analyses confirm spillover effects in food industry in Thailand, and reveal that the effects are stronger in the case of "domestic-market oriented FDI" than in the case of "export-oriented FDI." Moreover, it is found that domestic-market oriented FDI reduces the share of export in total ...

  15. Investigating the geometry of pig airways using computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansy, Hansen A.; Azad, Md Khurshidul; McMurray, Brandon; Henry, Brian; Royston, Thomas J.; Sandler, Richard H.

    2015-03-01

    Numerical modeling of sound propagation in the airways requires accurate knowledge of the airway geometry. These models are often validated using human and animal experiments. While many studies documented the geometric details of the human airways, information about the geometry of pig airways is scarcer. In addition, the morphology of animal airways can be significantly different from that of humans. The objective of this study is to measure the airway diameter, length and bifurcation angles in domestic pigs using computed tomography. After imaging the lungs of 3 pigs, segmentation software tools were used to extract the geometry of the airway lumen. The airway dimensions were then measured from the resulting 3 D models for the first 10 airway generations. Results showed that the size and morphology of the airways of different animals were similar. The measured airway dimensions were compared with those of the human airways. While the trachea diameter was found to be comparable to the adult human, the diameter, length and branching angles of other airways were noticeably different from that of humans. For example, pigs consistently had an early airway branching from the trachea that feeds the superior (top) right lung lobe proximal to the carina. This branch is absent in the human airways. These results suggested that the human geometry may not be a good approximation of the pig airways and may contribute to increasing the errors when the human airway geometric values are used in computational models of the pig chest.

  16. Global Imbalances and the Asian Economies: Implications for Regional Cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Eichengreen, Barry

    2006-01-01

    This paper asks how Asia should prepare for the disorderly correction of global imbalances. It recommends tightening monetary policy and allowing Asian currencies to appreciate as a way of achieving a better balance between internal and external demand. Leaving the overall level of demand unchanged requires that this monetary tightening be complemented by some relaxation of fiscal policy. But because the scope for fiscal support of domestic demand differs across countries, so too does the opt...

  17. Genome-wide patterns of nucleotide polymorphism in domesticated rice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caicedo, Ana L; Williamson, Scott H; Hernandez, Ryan D;

    2007-01-01

    Domesticated Asian rice (Oryza sativa) is one of the oldest domesticated crop species in the world, having fed more people than any other plant in human history. We report the patterns of DNA sequence variation in rice and its wild ancestor, O. rufipogon, across 111 randomly chosen gene fragments......, and use these to infer the evolutionary dynamics that led to the origins of rice. There is a genome-wide excess of high-frequency derived single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in O. sativa varieties, a pattern that has not been reported for other crop species. We developed several alternative models...... plausible explanations for patterns of variation in domesticated rice varieties. If selective sweeps are indeed the explanation for the observed nucleotide data of domesticated rice, it suggests that strong selection can leave its imprint on genome-wide polymorphism patterns, contrary to expectations that...

  18. Asian American-Pacific American Relations: The Asian American Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Sucheng

    This paper examines the migration and settlement history of Asians into the United States and the interaction of the major Asian immigrants with each other and with American society. An important thesis is that, because the differences between Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders are much greater than the similarities between them, they should no…

  19. Empirical Selection of Informative Microsatellite Markers within Co-ancestry Pig Populations Is Required for Improving the Individual Assignment Efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Y. H. Li; Chu, H. P.; Jiang, Y. N.; Lin, C.Y.; Li, S. H.; Li, K. T.; Weng, G. J.; Cheng, C. C.; Lu, D. J.; Ju, Y. T.

    2014-01-01

    The Lanyu is a miniature pig breed indigenous to Lanyu Island, Taiwan. It is distantly related to Asian and European pig breeds. It has been inbred to generate two breeds and crossed with Landrace and Duroc to produce two hybrids for laboratory use. Selecting sets of informative genetic markers to track the genetic qualities of laboratory animals and stud stock is an important function of genetic databases. For more than two decades, Lanyu derived breeds of common ancestry and crossbreeds hav...

  20. Quantitative angiographic results of sirolimus and paclitaxel coated stents on inflammatory coronary lesions in pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周旭晨

    2006-01-01

    Objective To investigate the anti-inflammation effects of rapamycin versus paclitaxel coated stents on interleukin-1βinduced coronary stenosis in pigs. Methods Fourteen male domestic young pigs (2 to 3 months, 25 to 30 kg) were operated on via thoracotomy. The mid left anterior descending (LAD) and left circumflex coronary artery (LCx) were respectively undermined 10 mm segment and aseptically wrapped with cotton mesh soaked in IL-1β5 ug. Two weeks later, the animals

  1. De-domestication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamborg, Christian; Gemmen, Bart; Christiansen, Stine Billeschou;

    2010-01-01

    De-domestication is the deliberate establishment of a population of domesticated animals or plants in the wild. In time, the population should be able to reproduce, becoming self-sustainable and incorporating 'wild' animals. Often de-domestication is part of a larger nature restoration scheme......, aimed at creating landscapes anew, or re-creating former habitats. De-domestication is taken up in this paper because it both engages and raises questions about the major norms governing animals and nature. The debate here concerns whether animals undergoing de-domestication should be looked upon as...... wild or non-wild and the effect this has on questions about how they should be treated. It also concerns the value of nature, and the kind and degree of nature management considered appropriate. The paper first describes actual de-domestication practices and considers the character of human duties to...

  2. Current Update in Asian Rhinoplasty

    OpenAIRE

    Clyde H. Ishii, MD, FACS

    2014-01-01

    Summary: There has been a tremendous growth of cosmetic surgery among Asians worldwide. Rhinoplasty is second only to blepharoplasty in terms of popularity among Asians regarding cosmetic surgical procedures. Most Asians seek to improve their appearance while maintaining the essential features of their ethnicity. There are considerable ethnic nasal and facial variations in this population alone. Successful rhinoplasty in Asians must take into account underlying anatomic differences between As...

  3. BHA STUDY IN PIGS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Würtzen, G.; Olsen, P.

    Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) was given to pregnant SPF pigs (Danish Landrace) in doses of 0, 50, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight/day from mating to day 110 of the gestation period. The BHA was mixed in the diet (pelleted). Caesarean section was performed on gestation day 110. BHA affected neither...... changes of the stratified epithelium of the stomach were found in both control and treated pigs. In addition, proliferative and parakeratotic changes of the oesophageal epithelium were observed in a few pigs in the two groups on the highest doses. Papillomas were not found, and no changes of the glandular...

  4. Domestic violence against children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihić Biljana D.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author is analysing definitions and basic notions related to domestic violence against children, as one of the most serious forms of violence. The special chapter deals with effects of violence against children and causes of domestic violence against them. Also, the author is analysing different forms of social reaction and considering the problem of legal regulation of mandatory reporting domestic violence against children.

  5. Domestic violence against children

    OpenAIRE

    Mihić Biljana D.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper the author is analysing definitions and basic notions related to domestic violence against children, as one of the most serious forms of violence. The special chapter deals with effects of violence against children and causes of domestic violence against them. Also, the author is analysing different forms of social reaction and considering the problem of legal regulation of mandatory reporting domestic violence against children.

  6. South Asian Diaspora in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    2005-01-01

    exclusion, individualization and interdependency, these relationships are delineated on the basis of two empirical projects, combined with an array of secondary sources. South Asian youth are becoming a part of the receiving society along with developing their complex diaspora identities through strategies...... societies, South Asian countries and the South Asian diaspora living in Scandinavia....

  7. First record of Trichinella pseudospiralis in the Slovak Republic found in domestic focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurníková, Z; Snábel, V; Pozio, E; Reiterová, K; Hrcková, G; Halásová, D; Dubinský, P

    2005-03-10

    Infection of Trichinella spp. is widespread among wildlife in Slovakia and the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) is the main reservoir of Trichinella britovi. Trichinella spiralis has been rarely documented in sylvatic and domestic animals of this country. During routine examination of domestic pigs at the slaughter, Trichinella larvae were detected by artificial digestion in a domestic pig of a large-scale breeding farm in Eastern Slovakia. The parasite has been identified by molecular (PCR) and biochemical (allozymes) analyses and by the morphology of the nurse cell as the non-encapsulated species Trichinella pseudospiralis infecting both mammals and birds. The epidemiological investigation carried out at the farm level revealed the presence of the same parasite species in other three pigs of 192 examined (2.1%), in 3 of 14 (21.4%) examined synanthropic rats (Rattus norvegicus) and in a domestic cat. The farm was characterized by inadequate sanitary conditions, insufficient nutrition, cannibalism and the presence of rat population. A different profile has been observed at the phosphoglucomutase locus in T. pseudospiralis isolates from Slovakia in comparison with the T. pseudospiralis reference isolate from the Palearctic region. This is the first documented focus of T. pseudospiralis from Central Europe. The detection in domestic pigs of a non-encapsulated parasite infecting both mammals and birds stresses the need to avoid the use of trichinelloscopy to detect this infection at the slaughterhouse. PMID:15725537

  8. Mitochondrial DNA diversity of feral pigs from Karukinka Natural Park, Tierra del Fuego Island, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravena, P; Skewes, O; Gouin, N

    2015-01-01

    Control or eradication of exotic species is one of the greatest challenges facing biodiversity and ecosystem conservation. Domestic pigs (Sus scrofa domestica) were released and became feral in the southern region of Chilean Tierra del Fuego Island in the 1900s. Currently, they inhabit part of Karukinka Natural Park, an area of global conservation concern. To gain insight into the control of this invasive species, we analyzed genetic variation in the mitochondrial DNA control region to determine the origin and population subdivision of feral pigs in Tierra del Fuego. Sequences from a sample of 42 feral pigs, 10 domestic pigs from local farms, and references from other countries and commercial breeds revealed 2 highly differentiated populations, 1 in the western and the other in the eastern area of the park, each harboring a different haplotype, suggesting no connectivity between populations. Comparison of these haplotypes with reference sequences from other countries and commercial breeds indicated that feral pigs from Chilean Tierra del Fuego are of European origin, very likely from 2 separate introduction events. The haplotype found in the western feral population was also identified in domestic pigs from a farm. This raises concerns regarding the possible connectivity between stocks from local farms and the wild population. Based on these results, we recommend the development of strategies for controlling the population of this invasive species in Karukinka Natural Park. PMID:25966196

  9. Asian American Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Diseases Behavioral and Mental Health Issues Cancer Diabetes Flu (Influenza) New* Heart Diseases Domestic Violence Mental Health Substance Abuse Complementary/Alternative Medicine Health Organizations Acupuncture Herbal Medicine Tai Chi/Qi Gong National U.S. ...

  10. Implantable microchip transponders for body temperature measurements in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lohse, Louise; Uttenthal, Åse; Enøe, Claes;

    temperature. The peripheral body temperature measured by the microchip transponder was on average 0.5-1.0 °C lower than the core body temperature measured by rectal thermometer, in all 3 groups. However, the paired data sets followed the same pattern throughout the experimental period. Standard deviation of......Objective Body temperature is a simple, but clinically important parameter in monitoring the health status of pigs, both at individual level and herd level. The standard procedure for obtaining such data is normally performed by recording of the core body temperature, using a rectal digital...... body temperature was tested, in order to evaluate the utility and reliability of this tool, in domestic pigs. The system is presently used and well optimized in small laboratory animals [1, 2]. We tested the microchip transponders during experimental infection of pigs with classical swine fever virus...

  11. Husbandry, health and biosecurity of the smallholder and pet pig population in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, A V; Grove-White, D H; Williams, H J

    2015-07-11

    Three hundred and thirteen pet and smallholder pig owners in England responded to an online questionnaire regarding husbandry and healthcare of their pigs. There was a lack of knowledge of the legislation regarding Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) registration, animal movements and feeding of domestic food waste. Only 83.8 per cent of respondents had registered their pigs with DEFRA, while 17.7 per cent were not familiar with the movement regulations, and 23.9 per cent were feeding their pigs with household scraps. Contact with veterinary surgeons may be positively associated with DEFRA registration, legal feeding practices and knowledge of vaccination. Furthermore, the veterinary surgeon was considered to be the primary source of husbandry and healthcare knowledge. This paper identifies the pet and smallholder pig population as a potential risk for the incursion and spread of infectious disease, while highlighting the need for improved owner education. PMID:26116269

  12. Prevalence of African swine fever viral antigens in slaughter pigs at Nalukolongo abattoir, Kampala, Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sajjakambwe,

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The underdevelopment of the African pig industry is widely attributed to African swine fever (ASF. Outbreaks of the disease occur in different parts of Uganda almost annually although cases are rarely confirmed. We conducted an abattoir based survey of ASF associated lymph node lesions to establish the status of the disease in apparently healthy pigs. Highly suspicious lesions were subjected to immunohistochemistry for viral antigen detection. Most lymph nodes with follicular necrosis, parenchymal haemorrhage and lymphoid depletion were positive to ASF antigens. Up to 22 (0.1% of the 258 pigs from which samples were collected were positive to ASF viral antigens. We conclude that domestic pigs in Uganda can act as reservoirs of the disease i.e. sustenance of the disease in pig populations may not be entirely dependent on the sylvatic cycle.

  13. Asian oil demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This conference presentation examined global oil market development and the role of Asian demand. It discussed plateau change versus cyclical movement in the global oil market; supply and demand issues of OPEC and non-OPEC oil; if high oil prices reduce demand; and the Asian oil picture in the global context. Asian oil demand has accounted for about 50 per cent of the global incremental oil market growth. The presentation provided data charts in graphical format on global and Asia-Pacific incremental oil demand from 1990-2005; Asia oil demand growth for selected nations; real GDP growth in selected Asian countries; and, Asia-Pacific oil production and net import requirements. It also included charts in petroleum product demand for Asia-Pacific, China, India, Japan, and South Korea. Other data charts included key indicators for China's petroleum sector; China crude production and net oil import requirements; China's imports and the share of the Middle East; China's oil exports and imports; China's crude imports by source for 2004; China's imports of main oil products for 2004; India's refining capacity; India's product balance for net-imports and net-exports; and India's trade pattern of oil products. tabs., figs

  14. Asian Institute of Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Naval Research, London (England).

    The Asian Institute of Technology is a notable success for that part of the world where success is not too common. It is an excellent example of not only the initiative and organization of a technical university, but also of the success of a foreign aid program. This report gives details of this organization and accomplishments. (Author)

  15. Gifted Asian American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitano, Margie K.

    1997-01-01

    Presents an analysis of personal, socialization, and structural factors affecting the lifespan achievement of 15 Asian American women identified as gifted. Their families' intense focus on educational achievement and hard work are described, and the need for better preparation to overcome obstacles in the workplace is discussed. (Author/CR)

  16. Asian Yellow Goat Cloned

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ It was released on August 24,2005 by Prof. CHEN Dayuan (Da-Yuan Chen) from the CAS Institute of Zoology that the first success in cloning the Asian Yellow Goat by nuclear transfer had recently been achieved in east China's Shandong Province.

  17. Asian fungal fermented food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nout, M.J.R.; Aidoo, K.E.

    2010-01-01

    In Asian countries, there is a long history of fermentation of foods and beverages. Diverse micro-organisms, including bacteria, yeasts and moulds, are used as starters, and a wide range of ingredients can be made into fermented foods. The main raw materials include cereals, leguminous seeds, vegeta

  18. Asian-American Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, William T.; Yu, Elena S. H.

    Although Asian Americans enjoy the image of a "successful minority," they also have endured hardships and prejudices. This report traces the history of the Japanese and Chinese experience in the United States. Some similarities are discernible in the immigration patterns of the two ethnic populations. The first wave of immigrants provided cheap…

  19. Profile: Asian Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Program Grants Other Grants Planning and Evaluation Grantee Best Practices Asian American Asthma Cancer Chronic Liver Disease Diabetes ... Phone: 240-453-2882 Office of Minority Health Resource Center Toll Free: 1-800-444-6472 / Fax: 301-251-2160 Email: info@minorityhealth.hhs.gov Stay Connected ... FOIA | Accessibility | Site Map | Contact Us | Viewers & Players

  20. Exploring the genetic signature of body size in Yucatan miniature pig.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeongmin Kim

    Full Text Available Since being domesticated about 10,000-12,000 years ago, domestic pigs (Sus scrofa domesticus have been selected for traits of economic importance, in particular large body size. However, Yucatan miniature pigs have been selected for small body size to withstand high temperature environment and for laboratory use. This renders the Yucatan miniature pig a valuable model for understanding the evolution of body size. We investigate the genetic signature for selection of body size in the Yucatan miniature pig. Phylogenetic distance of Yucatan miniature pig was compared to other large swine breeds (Yorkshire, Landrace, Duroc and wild boar. By estimating the XP-EHH statistic using re-sequencing data derived from 70 pigs, we were able to unravel the signatures of selection of body size. We found that both selections at the level of organism, and at the cellular level have occurred. Selection at the higher levels include feed intake, regulation of body weight and increase in mass while selection at the molecular level includes cell cycle and cell proliferation. Positively selected genes probed by XP-EHH may provide insight into the docile character and innate immunity as well as body size of Yucatan miniature pig.

  1. Pathogen presence in feral pigs and their movement around two commercial piggeries in Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, H E; Toribio, J-A L M L; Hernandez-Jover, M; Marshall, D; Lapidge, S J

    2014-03-29

    Feral pigs are wild animal reservoirs of infectious pathogens transmissible to other species, all of which are transmissible to domestic pigs. The objective of this study was to detect the presence of harmful production-limiting pathogens; Brucella suis, Leptospira species, Lawsonia intracellularis, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in a feral pig population within a 10 km radius of two large-scale commercial piggeries in Southern Queensland, Australia. The movement pattern of six pigs within the feral population was also investigated using geographic positioning system collars. All pathogens were present in the feral pig population except for A pleuropneumoniae. The true seroprevalence (TP) from 83 serum samples was 10.5 per cent for B suis, 48.6 per cent for Leptospira species, 100 per cent for L intracellularis and 42.1 per cent for M hyopneumoniae. Of 72 lung samples, 27.6 per cent were positive for M hyopneumoniae. Serum samples from 86 domestic sows within the study region were positive for Leptospira species (TP 2.1 per cent), L intracellularis (TP 100 per cent) and M hyopneumoniae (TP 100 per cent). The majority of feral pig movement was within 5 km of the piggeries, with one approaching to 100 m of the free-range piggery. The presence of pathogens in feral pigs in such close proximity to commercial piggeries could pose a biosecurity risk. PMID:24572722

  2. Serological prevalence of leptospiral infection in domestic animals in West Malaysia.

    OpenAIRE

    Bahaman, A. R.; Ibrahim, A. L.; Adam, H.

    1987-01-01

    A cross-sectional serological survey of domestic animals in West Malaysia revealed that 25.5% of the animals examined had agglutinating antibodies to one or more antigens belonging to Leptospira interrogans. Significant prevalence of infection was observed in cattle (40.5%), buffaloes (31%) and pigs (16%). The Sejroe serogroup was shown to be the principal one involved in cattle and buffaloes, and to a lesser extent the Tarassovi and Pomona serogroups. Evidence of infection in domestic animal...

  3. Trichinella britovi from domestic to wild animals of Sardinia, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandino, E; Goddi, L; Mulas, M; Murgia, M C; Soddu, M; Marucci, G; Pezzotti, P; Cabras, P A; Pozio, E

    2015-09-15

    The zoonotic nematode Trichinella britovi has been documented in animals and/or humans of the Mediterranean islands of Corsica and Sardinia since 2004. From 2005 to 2007 in the Sardinia island, several surveys had shown that T. britovi was circulating among backyard and free-ranging pigs reared in the Orgosolo municipality but all attempts had failed to detect this parasite in wild susceptible animals. The aim of the present work was to investigate the circulation of T. britovi in pigs and wildlife of the Orgosolo municipality, and of surrounding municipalities and provinces in the 2010-2014 slaughtering/hunting seasons. The results show that the T. britovi circulation was still restricted to the Orgosolo municipality with a prevalence of 2.6% in free-ranging pigs and 0.2% in backyard pigs but, for the first time, this parasite was detected also in 0.4% of wild boar, and 27.6% of red foxes. No infection was detected in backyard pigs, wild boar, and red foxes of the other municipalities and provinces. Since 1978, African swine fever is endemic in Sardinia and foci of this virus are still active in the investigated areas favoring cannibalism and, consequently, the T. britovi transmission, due to the high mortality rate caused by this virus. This is the first documented report on the transmission of T. britovi between the domestic and the sylvatic cycle. The health authority of the island must provide a service to dispose animal carcasses and offal, stamping out illegal free-ranging pigs, and train hunters and pig owners to manage waste and by-products according to the EU regulations. PMID:26264251

  4. Electric wiring domestic

    CERN Document Server

    Coker, A J

    1992-01-01

    Electric Wiring: Domestic, Tenth Edition, is a clear and reliable guide to the practical aspects of domestic electric wiring. Intended for electrical contractors, installation engineers, wiremen and students, its aim is to provide essential up to date information on modern methods and materials in a simple, clear, and concise manner. The main changes in this edition are those necessary to bring the work into line with the 16th Edition of the Regulations for Electrical Installations issued by the Institution of Electrical Engineers. The book begins by introducing the basic features of domestic

  5. Asian American Adolescent Identity

    OpenAIRE

    Ohm, Julie Juhye

    1999-01-01

    The formation of ego identity in Asian American late adolescents attending Virginia Tech was examined within the frameworks of Erikson's psychosocial theory and Berry, Trimble, and Olmedo's model of acculturation. Ego identity was measured using the Achieved sub-scale of the Revised Version of the Extended Objective Measure of Ego Identity Status, an instrument based on the theoretical constructs of Erikson. Ethnic identity was measured using the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure and Ameri...

  6. Asian material culture

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    This exciting, richly illustrated volume gives the reader a unique insight into the materiality of Asian cultures and the ways in which objects and practices can simultaneously embody and exhibit aesthetic and functional characteristics, everyday and spiritual aspirations. Material culture is examined from a variety of perspectives and the authors rigorously investigate the creation and meaning of material object, and their associated practices within the context of time and place. All chapte...

  7. Asian Media Productions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This work consists of 12 essays on different aspects of Asian media by Japanese, European, and American scholars, many of whom have themselves been involved in the production of media forms. Working in the fields of anthropology, media and cultural studies, and on the basis of hands-on research......, they have written a book on the social practices and cultural attitudes of people producing, reading, watching and listening to different kinds of media in Japan, China, Taiwan, Indonesia, Vietnam, Singapore and India....

  8. Chlamydiaceae infections in pig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schautteet Katelijn

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Chlamydiaceae are Gram-negative obligate intracellular bacteria. They are responsible for a broad range of diseases in animals and humans. In pigs, Chlamydia suis, Chlamydia abortus, Chlamydia pecorum and Chlamydia psittaci have been isolated. Chlamydiaceae infections in pigs are associated with different pathologies such as conjunctivitis, pneumonia, pericarditis, polyarthritis, polyserositis, pseudo-membranous or necrotizing enteritis, periparturient dysgalactiae syndrome, vaginal discharge, return to oestrus, abortion, mummification, delivery of weak piglets, increased perinatal and neonatal mortality and inferior semen quality, orchitis, epididymitis and urethritis in boars. However, Chlamydiaceae are still considered as non-important pathogens because reports of porcine chlamydiosis are rare. Furthermore, Chlamydiaceae infections are often unnoticed because tests for Chlamydiaceae are not routinely performed in all veterinary diagnostic laboratories and Chlamydiaceae are often found in association with other pathogens, which are sometimes more easily to detect. However, recent studies have demonstrated that Chlamydiaceae infections in breeding sows, boars and piglets occur more often than thought and are economically important. This paper presents an overview on: the taxonomy of Chlamydiaceae occurring in pigs, diagnostic considerations, epidemiology and pathology of infections with Chlamydiaceae in pigs, public health significance and finally on prevention and treatment of Chlamydiaceae infections in pigs.

  9. A Comparative Study of Research Capabilities of East Asian Countries and Implications for Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hien, P. D.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative study of research performance of 11 East and Southeast Asian countries based upon the total number of peer-refereed international publications (PRIP) per one million people (research intensity), the mean citation, and the contribution of domestic authors in PRIP production. Large gaps are observed within the…

  10. Immunolocalization of succinate dehydrogenase in the esophagus epithelium of domesticated mammals

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, W.; Kacza, J.; I. N. Hornickel; Schoennagel, B.

    2013-01-01

    Using immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), the esophagus epithelia of seven domesticated mammals (horse, cattle, goat, pig, dog, laboratory rat, cat) of three nutrition groups (herbivorous, omnivorous, carnivorous) were studied to get first information about energy generation, as demonstrated by succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activities. Distinct reaction intensities could be observed in all esophageal cell layers of the different species studied reflecting moderate...

  11. Current Update in Asian Rhinoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clyde H. Ishii, MD, FACS

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: There has been a tremendous growth of cosmetic surgery among Asians worldwide. Rhinoplasty is second only to blepharoplasty in terms of popularity among Asians regarding cosmetic surgical procedures. Most Asians seek to improve their appearance while maintaining the essential features of their ethnicity. There are considerable ethnic nasal and facial variations in this population alone. Successful rhinoplasty in Asians must take into account underlying anatomic differences between Asians and whites. Due to ethnic variations, cultural differences, and occasional language barriers, careful preoperative counseling is necessary to align the patient’s expectations with the limitations of the procedure. This article will review the many facets of Asian rhinoplasty as it is practiced today.

  12. Cooperative program for Asian pediatricians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakakihara, Y; Nakamura, Y

    1993-12-01

    The Cooperative Program for Asian Pediatricians (CPAP) is a non-government organization established in 1989 to promote mutual understanding and friendship among young pediatricians in Asian countries. Unlike other government programs and non-government organizations, CPAP is solely facilitating mutual relationships among young inexperienced pediatricians who would otherwise have no chance to travel overseas. It has been funded by donations from members of the alumni association of the Department of Pediatrics at the University of Tokyo and many private companies and individuals. The Cooperative Program for Asian Pediatricians has so far invited 36 Asian pediatricians from 11 countries. By constructing a human network among Asian pediatricians, it is hoped that CPAP will contribute to making international cooperation in the Asian region easier and smoother. PMID:8109248

  13. The Pig PeptideAtlas: A resource for systems biology in animal production and biomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesselager, Marianne O; Codrea, Marius C; Sun, Zhi; Deutsch, Eric W; Bennike, Tue B; Stensballe, Allan; Bundgaard, Louise; Moritz, Robert L; Bendixen, Emøke

    2016-02-01

    Biological research of Sus scrofa, the domestic pig, is of immediate relevance for food production sciences, and for developing pig as a model organism for human biomedical research. Publicly available data repositories play a fundamental role for all biological sciences, and protein data repositories are in particular essential for the successful development of new proteomic methods. Cumulative proteome data repositories, including the PeptideAtlas, provide the means for targeted proteomics, system-wide observations, and cross-species observational studies, but pigs have so far been underrepresented in existing repositories. We here present a significantly improved build of the Pig PeptideAtlas, which includes pig proteome data from 25 tissues and three body fluid types mapped to 7139 canonical proteins. The content of the Pig PeptideAtlas reflects actively ongoing research within the veterinary proteomics domain, and this article demonstrates how the expression of isoform-unique peptides can be observed across distinct tissues and body fluids. The Pig PeptideAtlas is a unique resource for use in animal proteome research, particularly biomarker discovery and for preliminary design of SRM assays, which are equally important for progress in research that supports farm animal production and veterinary health, as for developing pig models with relevance to human health research. PMID:26699206

  14. Evolution History and Development Trend of Industrialized Live Pig Breeding Model in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhongming; SHEN

    2013-01-01

    Tremendous achievements of live pig industry in China are closely related to the industrialization of the industry,and development trend of the latter is essential for maintaining sustained and stable development of animal husbandry.The paper,on the basis of defining the evolution of industrialized live pig breeding model,elaborated the industrialized operation models of live pig industry in China since 1978,i.e.household operation,large-scale operation,and industrialized operation.The external environment for the development of live pig industry was analyzed,such as global economic competition,development of experience economy,and stronger green consciousness of consumers.Then development trend of industrialized live pig breeding was analyzed as"expanding international market,consolidating domestic market,integrating resources of live pig industry for the integrated operation,promoting the industrialization model and breeding technology driven by live pig processing,applying animal welfare and the internet of things in live pig breeding industry".

  15. Domestic cooked cheese

    OpenAIRE

    Slavko Kirin

    2006-01-01

    The research results of sensory properties, chemical and microbiological quality of domestic cooked cheese, which is produced around Bjelovar region, are presented in this paper.Domestic cooked cheese is Croatian autochthonous cheese produced in wider north-western region of Croatia (Bilogora, Lika, Banovina, Gorski Kotar and around Zagreb), and therefore should be registered as Protected Denomination of Origin (PDO) and/or Protected Geographical Indication (PGI). Sensory properties, chemical...

  16. Large-scale screening and characterization of enteroviruses and kobuviruses infecting pigs in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dung, Nguyen; Anh, Pham Hong; Van Cuong, Nguyen; Hoa, Ngo Thi; Carrique-Mas, Juan; Hien, Vo Be; Sharp, C; Rabaa, M; Berto, A; Campbell, James; Baker, Stephen; Farrar, Jeremy; Woolhouse, Mark E; Bryant, Juliet E; Simmonds, Peter

    2016-02-01

    A recent survey of pigs in Dong Thap province, Vietnam identified a high frequency of enterovirus species G (EV-G) infection (144/198; 72.7%). Amongst these was a plethora of EV-G types (EV-G1, EV-G6 and four new types EV-G8-EV-G11). To better characterize the genetic diversity of EV-G and investigate the possible existence of further circulating types, we performed a larger-scale study on 484 pig and 45 farm-bred boar faecal samples collected in 2012 and 2014, respectively. All samples from the previous and current studies were also screened for kobuviruses. The overall EV infection frequency remained extremely high (395/484; 81.6%), but with comparable detection rates and viral loads between healthy and diarrhoeic pigs; this contrasted with less frequent detection of EV-G in boars (4/45; 8.9%). EV was most frequently detected in pigs ≤ 14 weeks old (∼ 95%) and declined in older pigs. Infections with EV-G1 and EV-G6 were most frequent, whilst less commonly detected types included EV-G3, EV-G4 and EV-G8-EV-G11, and five new types (EV-G12-EV-G16). In contrast, kobuvirus infection frequency was significantly higher in diarrhoeic pigs (40.9 versus 27.6%; P = 0.01). Kobuviruses also showed contrasting epizootiologies and age associations; a higher prevalence was found in boars (42%) compared with domestic pigs (29%), with the highest infection frequency amongst pigs >52 weeks old. Although genetically diverse, all kobuviruses identified belonged to the species Aichivirus C. In summary, this study confirms infection with EV-G was endemic in Vietnamese domestic pigs and exhibits high genetic diversity and extensive inter-type recombination. PMID:26653281

  17. Transmissibility studies of vacuolar changes in the rostral colliculus of pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spencer Yvonne I

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Histopathological examinations of brains from healthy pigs have revealed localised vacuolar changes, predominantly in the rostral colliculus, that are similar to the neuropil vacuolation featured in the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies and have been described in pigs challenged parenterally with the agent causing bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE. Feedstuff containing BSE-contaminated meat and bone meal (MBM may have been fed to pigs prior to the ban of mammalian MBM in feed of farmed livestock in the United Kingdom in 1996, but there is no evidence of the natural occurrence of a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE in the domestic pig. Furthermore, experimental transmission of BSE to pigs by the oral route has been unsuccessful. A study was conducted to investigate whether the localised vacuolar changes in the porcine brain were associated with a transmissible aetiology and therefore biologically significant. Two groups of ten pigs were inoculated parenterally with vacuolated rostral colliculus from healthy pigs either born before 1996 or born after 1996. Controls included ten pigs similarly inoculated with rostral colliculus from New Zealand-derived pigs and nine pigs inoculated with a bovine BSE brain homogenate. Results None of the pigs inoculated with rostral colliculus developed a TSE-like neurological disease up to five years post inoculation when the study was terminated, and disease-associated prion protein, PrPd, was not detected in the brains of these pigs. By contrast, eight of nine BSE-inoculated pigs developed neurological signs, two of which had detectable PrPd by postmortem tests. No significant histopathological changes were detected to account for the clinical signs in the PrPd-negative, BSE-inoculated pigs. Conclusion The findings in this study suggest that vacuolation in the porcine rostral colliculus is not caused by a transmissible agent and is probably a clinically insignificant

  18. Pig design patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Pasupuleti, Pradeep

    2014-01-01

    Pig makes Hadoop programming simple, intuitive, and fun to work with. It removes the complexity from Map Reduce programming by giving the programmer immense power through its flexibility. What used to be extremely lengthy and intricate code written in other high level languages can now be written in almost one tenth of the size using its easy to understand constructs. Pig has proven to be the easiest way to learn how to program Hadoop clusters, as evidenced by its widespread adoption. This comprehensive guide enables readers to readily use design patterns to simplify the creation of complex da

  19. The East-Asian economic growth miracle : lessons for sub-Sahara Africa / Stephanie van der Westhuizen

    OpenAIRE

    Rossouw, Stephanié

    2003-01-01

    The economic performance of eight East Asian countries - Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Singapore, Thailand, Malaysia and Indonesia - have been described as the "East Asian Miracle" because of their economies' significant growth since the 1960s. In these eight countries real per capita Gross Domestic Product (GDP) rose twice as fast as in any other region between 1965 and 1990. In contrast, much of Sub-Sahara African (SSA) remains in poverty with slow growth in many SSA...

  20. A survey for potentially zoonotic gastrointestinal parasites of dogs and pigs in Cambodia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Inpankaew, Tawin; Murrell, Kenneth Darwin; Pinyopanuwat, Nongnuch;

    2015-01-01

    There is little information available on parasites of zoonotic significance in Cambodia. In 2011, in an effort to obtain data on potentially zoonotic gastrointestinal parasites in domestic animals, 50 dogs and 30 pigs residing in 38 households located in Ang Svay Check village, Takeo province......, Cambodia were examined for parasites from faecal samples. The samples were processed using the formalin-ethyl acetate concentration technique (FECT). Hookworms were the most common zoonotic parasite found in dogs (80.0%) followed by Echinostomes (18.0%). While, in pigs, Fasciolopsis buski was the most...... common zoonotic parasite (30.0%) followed by Ascaris suum (13.3%). This study provides baseline data on gastrointestinal parasites in dogs and pigs from Cambodia and underscores the importance of domestic animals as reservoir hosts for human parasites for Cambodian veterinary and public health agencies...

  1. Power Dynamics with International Students: From the Perspective of Domestic Students in Korean Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jon, Jae-Eun

    2012-01-01

    This paper explored the power dynamics between domestic and international students in the context of higher education in an Asian non-English speaking country, Korea. Despite increased international student mobility in recent years, little is known about the relationship dynamics among students from different countries, especially related to power…

  2. Family Ambiguity and Domestic Violence in Asia: Concept, Law and Process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Mohamad; S.E. Wieringa

    2013-01-01

    This book revisits the issue of Domestic Violence (DV) in Asia by exploring the question of family ambiguity, and interrogating DV’s relationship between concept, law and strategy. Comparative experiences in the Asian context enable an examination of the effectiveness of family regulations and laws

  3. The effect of high-fat diet on the composition of the gut microbiota in cloned and non-cloned pigs of lean and obese phenotype

    OpenAIRE

    Pedersen, Rebecca; Andersen, Anders Daniel; Hermann-Bank, Marie Louise; Stagsted, Jan; Boye, Mette

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of high-far-high-energy diet on cloned and non-cloned domestic pigs of both lean and obese phenotype and to evaluate if the lean cloned pigs had a lower inter-individual variation as compared with non-cloned pigs. The microbiota of colon and terminal ileum was investigated in cloned and non-cloned pigs that received a high-far-high-energy diet with either restricted or ad libitum access to feed, resulting in lean and obese phenotypes, respec...

  4. South Asian Cluster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionel Sergiu Pirju

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at presenting the South Asian cluster composed of India, Indonesia, Iran and Malaysia, the intercultural values that characterizes it, the supported leadership style and tracing the main macroeconomic considerations which characterizes them. The research is synchronic, analysing the contemporary situation of these countries without reference to their evolution in time, by using the positivist paradigm that explains the reality at one point. It will be analysed the overall cluster with the existing interactions between the countries that composes it, while the article being one of information will avoid building recommendation, or new theories.

  5. Increased Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae Disease Prevalence in Domestic Hybrids Among Free-Living Wild Boar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goedbloed, Daniel J; van Hooft, Pim; Lutz, Walburga; Megens, Hendrik-Jan; van Wieren, Sip E; Ydenberg, Ron C; Prins, Herbert H T

    2015-12-01

    Wildlife immune genes are subject to natural selection exerted by pathogens. In contrast, domestic immune genes are largely protected from pathogen selection by veterinary care. Introgression of domestic alleles into the wild could lead to increased disease susceptibility, but observations are scarce due to low introgression rates, low disease prevalence and reduced survival of domestic hybrids. Here we report the first observation of a deleterious effect of domestic introgression on disease prevalence in a free-living large mammal. A fraction of 462 randomly sampled free-living European wild boar (Sus scrofa) was genetically identified as recent wild boar-domestic pig hybrids based on 351 SNP data. Analysis of antibody prevalence against the bacterial pathogen Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mhyo) showed an increased Mhyo prevalence in wild-domestic hybrids. We argue that the most likely mechanism explaining the observed association between domestic hybrid status and Mhyo antibody prevalence would be introgression of deleterious domestic alleles. We hypothesise that large-scale use of antibiotics in the swine breeding sector may have played a role in shaping the relatively deleterious properties of domestic swine immune genes and that domestic introgression may also lead to increased wildlife disease susceptibility in the case of other species. PMID:26391376

  6. A Simple "Pig" Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Roger W.

    2008-01-01

    Our pig game involves a series of tosses of a die with the possibility of a player's score improving with each additional toss. With each additional toss, however, there is also the chance of losing the entire score accumulated so far. Two different strategies for deciding how many tosses a player should attempt are developed and then compared in…

  7. Guinea pig maximization test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    1985-01-01

    Guinea pig maximization tests (GPMT) with chlorocresol were performed to ascertain whether the sensitization rate was affected by minor changes in the Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) emulsion used. Three types of emulsion were evaluated: the oil phase was mixed with propylene glycol, saline with...

  8. South Asian Families in Diaspora

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    2008-01-01

      South Asian Family in Diaspora: Retreat from marriage, myth or reality?   This paper proposes to explore the dynamics of close ties in the South Asian families in the Nordic countries, especially Denmark through intimate partnership formation in the context of late modern societal discourse of ...

  9. PETROCHINA TOPS ASIAN COMPETITIVENESS RANKING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    PetroChina, the largest oil producer in China, ranks first in a competitiveness report of listed Asian enterprises recently published by the Research Institute of Boao Forum for Asia. The oil giant tops the ranks in the Asian Competitiveness: Annual Repor

  10. Pseudorabies Virus and Brucella abortus from an Expanding Wild Pig ( Sus scrofa ) Population in Southern Oklahoma, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskamp, Joshua A; Gee, Kenneth L; Campbell, Tyler A; Silvy, Nova J; Webb, Stephen L

    2016-04-28

    Wild pigs ( Sus scrofa ) are causing increasing ecologic and economic damage at a global scale. Because wild pigs can carry ≥65 diseases that affect livestock, their widespread expansion threatens native wildlife and livestock. We screened wild pigs from south-central Oklahoma, US for antibodies against Brucella abortus , pseudorabies virus (PRV), and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRS). These pathogens were chosen because they are part of eradication programs in the US and could have large economic impacts on domestic livestock if transmitted from wild animals. We tested 282 serum samples during spring 2010 (n=149) and 2011 (n=133) and found an overall exposure rate to PRV of 24.1% (n=68); PRV was detected at two of three study sites. Two wild pigs had detectable antibody to B. abortus , and one had detectable antibody to PRRS. On average, 27% of wild pigs within a sounder were positive for PRV antibody, with 44% of the sounders (16/36) having at least one positive individual. These data highlight that wild pigs could carry pathogens that affect domestic livestock. Because the US is free of these pathogens in commercial livestock operations, continued surveillance and vaccination of domestic livestock are needed. Commercial livestock producers at the wildlife-livestock interface may benefit from spatial prioritization of risk zones to facilitate strategic control efforts. PMID:27124329

  11. The first report of Trichinella pseudospiralis presence in domestic swine and T. britovi in wild boar in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santrac, Violeta; Nedic, Drago N; Maric, Jelena; Nikolic, Sonja; Stevanovic, Oliver; Vasilev, Sasa; Cvetkovic, Jelena; Sofronic-Milosavljevic, Ljiljana

    2015-09-01

    The Balkans is endemic for nematodes of the genus Trichinella in both domestic and wild animals. The high prevalence of these zoonotic pathogens in animals linked with the food habits to consume raw meat and meat derived products resulted in a very high prevalence of trichinellosis in humans living in this European region. In spite of numerous epidemiological investigations carried out in this region, very few information is available on the Trichinella species circulating in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Trichinella spp. larvae were isolated from a domestic pig reared in a backyard and from a hunted wild boar whose meat had been the source of trichinellosis in one case. Both Trichinella pseudospiralis and T. spiralis have been identified in the domestic pig, whereas, T. britovi was detected in the wild boar. While, T. spiralis is the Trichinella species most frequently detected in domestic pigs, T. pseudospiralis has been previously documented in domestic pigs only three times in Russia, Slovakia and Croatia. The detection of T. britovi in the wild boar confirms that this nematode is the most frequent species circulating among wildlife of Europe. PMID:26204186

  12. The power of paradigms : examining the evidential basis for Early to Mid-Holocene pigs and pottery in Melanesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The origin and timing of the introduction of pigs and pottery into New Guinea are continuous topics. Arguments have centred on whether domestic pigs and pottery technology entered New Guinea following the 'Austronesian expansion' from southeast Asia into Island Melanesia, c 3300 calBP, or in the Early to Mid-Holocene. We review the history of the debate and present new dates on pig bone and pottery contexts from archaeological sites, including Taora and Lachitu, on the north coast of mainland Papua New Guinea (PNG), where earlier data supported claims for early pig and pottery. We argue that theoretical positions about 'Neolithic' origins in PNG influenced the relative willingness to accept early dates prima facie and conclude that current evidence shows neither pig nor pottery arrived before 3000 calBP in mainland PNG. (author). 96 refs., 11 figs., 6 tabs.

  13. A First Generation Comparative Chromosome Map between Guinea Pig (Cavia porcellus) and Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanenko, Svetlana A; Perelman, Polina L; Trifonov, Vladimir A; Serdyukova, Natalia A; Li, Tangliang; Fu, Beiyuan; O'Brien, Patricia C M; Ng, Bee L; Nie, Wenhui; Liehr, Thomas; Stanyon, Roscoe; Graphodatsky, Alexander S; Yang, Fengtang

    2015-01-01

    The domesticated guinea pig, Cavia porcellus (Hystricomorpha, Rodentia), is an important laboratory species and a model for a number of human diseases. Nevertheless, genomic tools for this species are lacking; even its karyotype is poorly characterized. The guinea pig belongs to Hystricomorpha, a widespread and important group of rodents; so far the chromosomes of guinea pigs have not been compared with that of other hystricomorph species or with any other mammals. We generated full sets of chromosome-specific painting probes for the guinea pig by flow sorting and microdissection, and for the first time, mapped the chromosomal homologies between guinea pig and human by reciprocal chromosome painting. Our data demonstrate that the guinea pig karyotype has undergone extensive rearrangements: 78 synteny-conserved human autosomal segments were delimited in the guinea pig genome. The high rate of genome evolution in the guinea pig may explain why the HSA7/16 and HSA16/19 associations presumed ancestral for eutherians and the three syntenic associations (HSA1/10, 3/19, and 9/11) considered ancestral for rodents were not found in C. porcellus. The comparative chromosome map presented here is a starting point for further development of physical and genetic maps of the guinea pig as well as an aid for genome assembly assignment to specific chromosomes. Furthermore, the comparative mapping will allow a transfer of gene map data from other species. The probes developed here provide a genomic toolkit, which will make the guinea pig a key species to unravel the evolutionary biology of the Hystricomorph rodents. PMID:26010445

  14. Effects of cognitive enrichment on behavioural and physiological reactions of pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebunke, Manuela; Puppe, Birger; Langbein, Jan

    2013-06-13

    Cognitive enrichment, a special form of environmental enrichment, addresses the cognitive abilities of animals in captivity. Through cognitive interaction with the environment, the animals regain a certain control over their environment, and essential resources, such as food or water, act as a reward for successful coping. It is assumed that this process has important implications for animal welfare, especially in the intensive housing systems of farm animals. This study investigates the effects of cognitive enrichment on welfare-relevant behaviour (agonistic interactions and behavioural reactivity in a repeated open-field test) and autonomic control (heart rate variability during feeding, resting and in a repeated open-field test) in domestic pigs. A total of forty-eight pigs, Sus scrofa, were housed in groups of four. In six replicates, an experimental group was compared with a conventionally fed control group. The pigs in the experimental group were confronted with a cognitive challenge that was integrated into their familiar housing environment. Pigs were rewarded with food after they successfully mastered the discrimination of an individual acoustical signal followed by an operant task. The pigs in both groups reacted with sympathetic arousal to feeding announcement (increased heart rate (HR)). During feeding, the experimental pigs' HR decreased, and heart rate variability (HRV) increased, while the control pigs' HR stayed highly elevated and HRV decreased. These results are supported by a considerably larger number of agonistic interactions during feeding in the control group. During resting, the basal HRV of the experimental pigs increased (during operant conditioning) compared to the control. In the repeated open-field test, the experimental pigs displayed less locomotion and elimination as well as more contact with the wall and an unknown object compared to the control group. We conclude that cognitive enrichment leads to relaxed feeding and evokes longer

  15. Mediation and Domestic Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Faget

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the potential and limits of recourse to mediation for regulating domestic violence. On the basis of an empirical study of its implementation in France and of the existing academic literature, it shows the existence of two types of practices reflecting two conceptions of mediation and more generally, two conceptions of the articulation between social and penal regulation

  16. Mediation and Domestic Violence

    OpenAIRE

    Jacques Faget

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyzes the potential and limits of recourse to mediation for regulating domestic violence. On the basis of an empirical study of its implementation in France and of the existing academic literature, it shows the existence of two types of practices reflecting two conceptions of mediation and more generally, two conceptions of the articulation between social and penal regulation

  17. Unemployment and domestic violence

    OpenAIRE

    Dan Anderberg; Helmut Rainer; Jonathan Wadsworth; Tanya Wilson

    2014-01-01

    Contrary to popular belief, the incidence of domestic violence in Britain does not seem to have risen during the recession. But according to research by Jonathan Wadsworth and colleagues, men and women have experienced different risks of unemployment - and these have had contrasting effects on the level of physical abuse.

  18. Investigation into the Epidemiology of African Swine Fever Virus at the Wildlife - Domestic Interface of the Gorongosa National Park, Central Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quembo, C J; Jori, F; Heath, L; Pérez-Sánchez, R; Vosloo, W

    2016-08-01

    An epidemiological study of African swine fever (ASF) was conducted between March 2006 and September 2007 in a rural area adjacent to the Gorongosa National park (GNP) located in the Central Mozambique. Domestic pigs and warthogs were sampled to determine the prevalence of antibodies against ASF virus and the salivary antigens of Ornithodoros spp. ticks, while ticks collected from pig pens were tested for the presence of ASFV. In addition, 310 framers were interviewed to gain a better understanding of the pig value chain and potential practices that could impact on the spread of the virus. The sero-prevalence to ASFV was 12.6% on farms and 9.1% in pigs, while it reached 75% in warthogs. Approximately 33% of pigs and 78% of warthogs showed antibodies against salivary antigens of ticks. The differences in sero-prevalence between farms close to the GNP, where there is greater chance for the sylvatic cycle to cause outbreaks, and farms located in the rest of the district, where pig to pig transmission is more likely to occur, were marginally significant. Ornithodoros spp. ticks were found in only 2 of 20 pig pens outside the GNP, and both pens had ticks testing positive for ASFV DNA. Interviews carried out among farmers indicated that biosecurity measures were mostly absent. Herd sizes were small with pigs kept in a free-ranging husbandry system (65%). Only 1.6% of farmers slaughtered on their premises, but 51% acknowledged allowing visitors into their farms to purchase pigs. ASF outbreaks seemed to have a severe economic impact with nearly 36% of farmers ceasing pig farming for at least 1 year after a suspected ASF outbreak. This study provides the first evidence of the existence of a sylvatic cycle in Mozambique and confirms the presence of a permanent source of virus for the domestic pig value chain. PMID:25483914

  19. Genome-wide patterns of nucleotide polymorphism in domesticated rice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana L Caicedo

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Domesticated Asian rice (Oryza sativa is one of the oldest domesticated crop species in the world, having fed more people than any other plant in human history. We report the patterns of DNA sequence variation in rice and its wild ancestor, O. rufipogon, across 111 randomly chosen gene fragments, and use these to infer the evolutionary dynamics that led to the origins of rice. There is a genome-wide excess of high-frequency derived single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in O. sativa varieties, a pattern that has not been reported for other crop species. We developed several alternative models to explain contemporary patterns of polymorphisms in rice, including a (i selectively neutral population bottleneck model, (ii bottleneck plus migration model, (iii multiple selective sweeps model, and (iv bottleneck plus selective sweeps model. We find that a simple bottleneck model, which has been the dominant demographic model for domesticated species, cannot explain the derived nucleotide polymorphism site frequency spectrum in rice. Instead, a bottleneck model that incorporates selective sweeps, or a more complex demographic model that includes subdivision and gene flow, are more plausible explanations for patterns of variation in domesticated rice varieties. If selective sweeps are indeed the explanation for the observed nucleotide data of domesticated rice, it suggests that strong selection can leave its imprint on genome-wide polymorphism patterns, contrary to expectations that selection results only in a local signature of variation.

  20. The Confucian Asian cluster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionel Sergiu Pirju

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Confucian Asian cluster consists of China, Hong Kong, Japan, Singapore, South Korea, and Taiwan. Confucian tradition countries were defined by achieving a consistent performance in the global economy, they still representing the major competitors in the EU and North American countries. Their progress is defined by a great national management that was able to influence beneficial management systems applied in organizations, these rules characterized by authority; aims to ensure the confidence in business. This article will present the intercultural values characterizing it, the leadership style and also tracing major macroeconomic considerations. The research is synchronic, analysing the contemporary situation of these countries, and the analysis will be interdisciplinary exploratory, identifying specific regional cultural elements.

  1. The guinea-pig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Maibach, H I; Anjo, M D

    1980-01-01

    14C ring-labelled hydrocortisone, testosterone and benzoic acid dissolved in acetone were applied to the backs of guinea-pigs (4 microgram/cm2). Percutaneous absorption was quantified by following the excretion of tracer in urine and faeces for 5 days. Absorption of hydrocortisone and benzoic acid...... was 2.4% (s.d. = 0.5; n = 3) and 31.4% (s.d. = 9.1; n = 3) of the applied dose respectively, similar to published human absorption data. Testosterone was absorbed to a greater extent in guinea-pigs (34.9% +/- 5.4; n = 5) than man. A thioglycollate based depilatory cream significantly increased the...

  2. Racism and Asian American Student Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jennifer Y.

    2014-01-01

    This article provides a theoretical analysis and ethnographic account of Asian American student leadership in higher education. Existing literature highlights Asian and Asian American leadership styles as cultural differences. I shift the analysis from culture to racism in order to work toward a more socially just conception of Asian American…

  3. Diabetes and Asians and Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... diabetes per 100 population (2014) Asian American White Asian American/White Ratio Men 5.8 6.3 0.9 Women 5.7 5.3 1.1 Total 5.8 5.7 1.0 Source: CDC 2016. National Diabetes Surveillance ... Asian American/Pacific Islanders Non-Hispanic White Asian American/Pacific ...

  4. Phosphorus in pig diets

    OpenAIRE

    Lyberg, Karin

    2006-01-01

    Pig feed is mainly based on cereals where phosphorus (P) is mostly present in inositol hexaphosphate (IP6), which is not readily available to monogastric animals. More available P sources are often added to ensure that pigs’ requirements are fulfilled; this results in high excretion levels of P. The digestibility of P depends on phytase activity and amount of IP6 in feedstuffs. The overall aim was to study effects of liquid feeding, P levels and phytase supplementation on digestibility and pe...

  5. Fostering the Asian Bond Market:Challenges and Options Faced by China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HongChen

    2004-01-01

    Underdevelopment of bond markets is one of the factors contributing to the vulnerability of financial systems in Asian countries. Due to over-reliance on bank loans, it has not been possible for savings in Asia to be invested directly in enterprises rather than being funneled to international financial centers in theU.S, and Europe and then back to Asia. When there is a crisis, enterprises and financial institutions are faced with both “mismatch in maturity of loans” and “mismatch in currency denomination” in their funding positions. The risks inherent in the dual mismatches are sources offinancial instability in Asia. Therefore there has been a consensus among major Asian countries to foster Asian bond markets in order to reduce these risks. For China, developing its domestic bond market has become an important part of effort to participate in fostering Asian bond markets. Based on proposals and recent development of Asian bond markets, this paper discusses the problems and challenges faced by China in developing domestic bond markets.

  6. Purification and crystallization of yeast glycosylphosphatidylinositol transamidase subunit PIG-S (PIG-S71–467)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The PIG-S71–467 subunit of the yeast GPI transamidase complex was cloned, overexpressed, purified and crystallized. The crystals belonged to space group C2 and diffracted to 3.2 Å resolution. The transfer of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchors onto eukaryotic proteins is catalyzed by the transamidase complex, which is composed of at least five subunits (PIG-K, PIG-S, PIG-T, PIG-U and GPAA1). Here, the recombinant protein PIG-S71–467 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, including residues 71–467 of the entire 534-residue protein, was cloned, expressed and purified to homogeneity. The monodisperse protein was crystallized by the vapour-diffusion method. A diffraction data set was collected to 3.2 Å resolution with 91.6% completeness. The crystals belonged to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 106.72, b = 59.33, c = 124.3 Å, β = 114.19°, and contained two molecules in the asymmetric unit

  7. Evaluation of an Erns-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to distinguish Classical swine fever virus-infected pigs from pigs vaccinated with CP7_E2alf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannhorst, Katrin; Fröhlich, Andreas; Staubach, Christoph; Meyer, Denise; Blome, Sandra; Becher, Paul

    2015-07-01

    Infections with Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) are a major economic threat to pig production. To combat CSF outbreaks and to maintain trade, new marker vaccines were developed that allow differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA principle). The chimeric pestivirus CP7_E2alf was shown to be safe and efficacious. Its DIVA strategy is based on the detection of CSFV E(rns)-specific antibodies that are only developed on infection. However, for the new marker vaccine to be considered a valuable control tool, a validated discriminatory assay is needed. One promising candidate is the already commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, PrioCHECK CSFV E(rns) ELISA (Prionics BV, Lelystad, The Netherlands). Four laboratories of different European Union member states tested 530 serum samples and country-specific field sera from domestic pigs and wild boar. The ELISA displayed a good robustness. However, based on its reproducibility and repeatability, ranges rather than single values for diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were defined. The ELISA displayed a sensitivity of 90-98% with sera from CSFV-infected domestic pigs. A specificity of 89-96% was calculated with sera from domestic pigs vaccinated once with CP7_E2alf. The ELISA detected CSFV infections in vaccinated domestic pigs with a sensitivity of 82-94%. The sensitivity was lower with sera taken ≤21 days post-challenge indicating that the stage of CSFV infection had a considerable influence on testing. Taken together, the PrioCHECK CSFV E(rns) ELISA can be used for detection of CSFV infections in CP7_E2alf-vaccinated and nonvaccinated domestic pig populations, but should only be applied on a herd basis by testing a defined number of animals. PMID:26179095

  8. Domestication process of yaks revealed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ In his monumental work "Origin of Species," Charles Darwin suggested that all domestic animals originated from their wild ancestors through artificial selection and evolution. However, he did not give the details of how human beings domesticate these species.

  9. An encyclopedia on domestic electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book describes the footprint of domestic electrification with domestic energy and the role of electrification, basic knowledge on domestic electrification, the basic things electric equipment in domestic, materials, part and making, demand of electricity, electrification and life, various electric equipment in the kitchen, rationalization of house chore, environment and hygiene like electric iron, electric stove, electric mat and dining wagon, beauty treatment and health, refinement and entertainment and lighting in houses.

  10. Children, contact and domestic abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Morrison, Fiona

    2014-01-01

    In recent years the issue of children’s contact with non-resident parents has been increasingly debated. The policy gaze has focused on contested contact when there are allegations of domestic abuse. Some commentators argue that in circumstances of domestic abuse, contact with an abusive father may not be in the ‘best interests’ of the child. To support these claims they point to evidence that domestic abuse adversely affects children, and domestic abuse often continues followi...

  11. Genetic perspectives on crop domestication

    OpenAIRE

    Gross, Briana L.; Olsen, Kenneth M.

    2010-01-01

    The process of crop domestication has long been a topic of active research for biologists, anthropologists and others. Genetic data have proved a powerful resource for drawing inferences on questions regarding the geographical origins of crops, the numbers of independent domestication events for a given crop species, the specific molecular changes underlying domestication traits, and the nature of artificial selection during domestication and subsequent crop improvement. We would argue that t...

  12. Intermedial Representations in Asian Macbeth-s

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, I-Chun

    2011-01-01

    In her article "Intermedial representations in Asian Macbeth-s" I-Chun Wang discusses three Asian versions of Macbeths that exemplify the cultural meanings through the interaction of landscape, body, and spectacles of power. Shakespeare remains one of the most popular playwrights in the Eastern world, and playwrights in the Asian world find Shakespearean plays attractive to the Asian audience. Among Shakespearean plays, Macbeth fascinates its Asian audience with its theme on kingship, territo...

  13. Depression among Asian Americans: Review and Recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Zornitsa Kalibatseva; Leong, Frederick T. L.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a review of the prevalence and manifestation of depression among Asian Americans and discusses some of the existing issues in the assessment and diagnosis of depression among Asian Americans. The authors point out the diversity and increasing numbers of Asian Americans and the need to provide better mental health services for this population. While the prevalence of depression among Asian Americans is lower than that among other ethnic/racial groups, Asian Americans rece...

  14. Keynote address: The future of Asian natural gas--The Petronas perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the last several years, the Asian Pacific Region has been experiencing a high rate of economic growth. The prospects for the future would appear to be no less bullish. There is a heightened demand for energy and a greater sense of urgency to change to a cleaner burning fuel. These and other factors indicate a significant increase in demand for natural gas. Fortunately, Malaysian reserves are adequate to meet this demand. PETRONAS is vigorously pursuing actions that will expand its supply capabilities. This expansion along with long-term agreements on pricing and sales with gas purchasers will assure the future role of Asian natural gas in domestic and export markets

  15. [Formation of genetic polymorphism in connection with phylogenesis and microevolution of the domestic dog Canis familiaris L].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kniazev, S P; Tikhonov, V N; Tanabe, Y; Morozov, P S

    1998-11-01

    The analysis of genetic relationships between numerous breeds and populations of domestic dogs of Asian and European origin was performed by studying their polymorphism for 14 loci of biochemical markers. Phylogenetic positions of different breed groups, related to one another and to ancestral forms from the center of domestication, were elucidated. Directions of gene flow in the formation of breed as well as dynamics and vectors of the forming genetic structure in microevolution of this extremely polytypic species, were established. PMID:10096028

  16. Mental Health and Asian Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Program Grants Other Grants Planning and Evaluation Grantee Best Practices Asian American Asthma Cancer Chronic Liver Disease Diabetes Heart Disease Hepatitis HIV/AIDS Immunizations Infant Heath & Mortality Mental Health Obesity Organ and Tissue Donation Stroke Stay Connected ...

  17. Pricing American and Asian Options

    OpenAIRE

    Pat Muldowney

    2015-01-01

    An analytic method for pricing American call options is provided; followed by an empirical method for pricing Asian call options. The methodology is the pricing theory presented in "A Modern Theory of Random Variation", by Patrick Muldowney, 2012.

  18. SPARQling Pig - Processing Linked data with Pig Latin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagedorn, Stefan; Hose, Katja; Sattler, Kai-Uwe

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, dataflow languages such as Pig Latin have emerged as flexible and powerful tools for handling complex analysis tasks on big data. These languages support schema flexibility as well as common programming patterns such as iteration. They offer extensibility through user......-defined functions while running on top of scalable distributed platforms. In doing so, these languages enable analytical tasks while avoiding the limitations of classical query languages such as SQL and SPARQL. However, the tuple-oriented view of general-purpose languages like Pig does not match very well...... this problem by proposing extensions to Pig that deal with linked data in RDF to bridge the gap between Pig and SPARQL for analytics. These extensions are realized by a set of user-defined functions and rewriting rules, still allowing to compile the enhanced Pig scripts to plain MapReduce programs. For all...

  19. Complex population structure in African village dogs and its implications for inferring dog domestication history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyko, Adam R.; Boyko, Ryan H.; Boyko, Corin M.; Parker, Heidi G.; Castelhano, Marta; Corey, Liz; Degenhardt, Jeremiah D.; Auton, Adam; Hedimbi, Marius; Kityo, Robert; Ostrander, Elaine A.; Schoenebeck, Jeffrey; Todhunter, Rory J.; Jones, Paul; Bustamante, Carlos D.

    2009-01-01

    High genetic diversity of East Asian village dogs has recently been used to argue for an East Asian origin of the domestic dog. However, global village dog genetic diversity and the extent to which semiferal village dogs represent distinct, indigenous populations instead of admixtures of various dog breeds has not been quantified. Understanding these issues is critical to properly reconstructing the timing, number, and locations of dog domestication. To address these questions, we sampled 318 village dogs from 7 regions in Egypt, Uganda, and Namibia, measuring genetic diversity >680 bp of the mitochondrial D-loop, 300 SNPs, and 89 microsatellite markers. We also analyzed breed dogs, including putatively African breeds (Afghan hounds, Basenjis, Pharaoh hounds, Rhodesian ridgebacks, and Salukis), Puerto Rican street dogs, and mixed breed dogs from the United States. Village dogs from most African regions appear genetically distinct from non-native breed and mixed-breed dogs, although some individuals cluster genetically with Puerto Rican dogs or United States breed mixes instead of with neighboring village dogs. Thus, African village dogs are a mosaic of indigenous dogs descended from early migrants to Africa, and non-native, breed-admixed individuals. Among putatively African breeds, Pharaoh hounds, and Rhodesian ridgebacks clustered with non-native rather than indigenous African dogs, suggesting they have predominantly non-African origins. Surprisingly, we find similar mtDNA haplotype diversity in African and East Asian village dogs, potentially calling into question the hypothesis of an East Asian origin for dog domestication. PMID:19666600

  20. BUSINESS PLAN: SOUTH ASIAN ARTS

    OpenAIRE

    Saran, Sabrina

    2009-01-01

    The intention of this paper is to provide an understanding of South Asian Arts as an organization in the Arts industry in Vancouver. Elements of the company and the industry are explored in order to further comprehend the potential target markets and why they are as such. Due to the current surge in popularity of South Asian arts within mainstream culture, there is great potential in this company. Discussion segues into marketing initiatives that are necessary to compete with key players that...

  1. Alcohol and the Asian Glow

    OpenAIRE

    Young, Brian

    1999-01-01

    Facial flushing is a common hypersensitivity reaction that may be observed in many Asians following low to moderate alcohol consumption. Flushing can be accompanied by other symptoms such as tachycardia, nausea, and dizziness. Recent studies have shown that this flushing reaction is due to the presence of ALDH2*2, an inactive allele for the alcohol dehydrogenase gene found in approximately 50% of Asians. Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) is an important enzyme in alcohol metabolism, and deficienc...

  2. Lessons from the "Asian Flu"

    OpenAIRE

    Bekić, Darko

    1998-01-01

    What has been underlying the syntagms "Japanese challenge ", " Asian miracle " or " Seven Asian tigers " in the past thirty years or so ? There are a number of economic, sociological and political explanations of the phenomenon. In Asia, the systems of traditional values, modern market economy and state are successfully combined. Some forecasters predicted last year that the future growth of the Chinese economy at a constant rate of between 8 and 12 per cent a year, combined with the Japanese...

  3. Biodistribution of the radionuclides (18)F-FDG, (11)C-methionine, (11)C-PK11195, and (68)Ga-citrate in domestic juvenile female pigs and morphological and molecular imaging of the tracers in hematogenously disseminated Staphylococcus aureus lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afzelius, Pia Maria Tullia; Nielsen, Ole L; Alstrup, Aage Ko;

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 5-7% of acute-care patients suffer from bacteremia. Bacteremia may give rise to bacterial spread to different tissues. Conventional imaging procedures as X-ray, Computed Tomography (CT), Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), and ultrasound are often first-line imaging methods for......-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) to PET with tracers that potentially could improve uncovering of infectious lesions in soft tissues. We chose (11)C-methionine, (11)C-PK11195, and (68)Ga-citrate as tracers and besides presenting their bio-distribution we validated their diagnostic utility in pigs with...

  4. [Domestic violence in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, Tomás; Grez, Marcela; Prato, Juan Andrés; Torres, Rafael; Ruiz, Sergio

    2014-08-01

    According to recent surveys, there is a high prevalence of domestic violence (DV) in Chile. A systematic review was conducted in PubMed, Scielo, and Lilacs with the MesH terms "Chile", "Mental Health", "Health", "Domestic Violence", to explore the impact of DV on health in Chile. Eleven studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Two studies were prospective, exploring the influence of DV on maternal-infant health. Nine studies explored the influence of DV on mental health in adults. DV was associated with deranged mental health indicators specially anxiety and depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation. Similar results were observed among mothers who were victims of violence and their children. It is concluded that DV is a complex phenomenon with serious effects on health. However the number of studies on the subject is low and new follow up studies are required. Predictive models for DV and effective preventive measures are urgently needed. PMID:25424674

  5. Detecting domestic violence.

    OpenAIRE

    Elzinga, Paul; Poelmans, Jonas; Viaene, Stijn; Dedene, Guido

    2009-01-01

    Over 90% of the case data from police inquiries is stored as unstructured text in police databases. We use the combination of Formal Concept Analysis and Emergent Self Organizing Maps for exploring a dataset of unstructured police reports out of the Amsterdam-Amstelland police region in the Netherlands. In this paper, we specifically aim at making the reader familiar with how we used these two tools for browsing the dataset and how we discovered useful patterns for labelling cases as domestic...

  6. Detecting domestic violence

    OpenAIRE

    Elzinga, Paul; Poelmans, Jonas; Viaene, Stijn; Dedene, Guido

    2009-01-01

    Over 90% of the case data from police inquiries is stored as unstructured text in police databases. We use the combination of Formal Concept Analysis and Emergent Self Organizing Maps for exploring a dataset of unstructured police reports out of the Amsterdam-Amstelland police region in the Netherlands. In this paper, we specifically aim at making the reader familiar with how we used these two tools for browsing the dataset and how we discovered useful patterns for labelling cases as domestic...

  7. Oil palm: domestication achieved?

    OpenAIRE

    Gerritsma, W.; Wessel, M.

    1997-01-01

    The natural habitat of the oil palm comprises very wet and relatively dry niches in the lowland rain forest in West and Central Africa. The domestication of the oil palm started with the extraction of fruits from wild forest resources. When forests were cleared for shifting cultivation, oil palms were not felled and in the subsequent regeneration period they obtained a favourable position resulting in semi-wild palm groves. Thinning of groves gave rise to semi-permanent or permanent intercrop...

  8. Globalization and domestic conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Michelle R. Garfinkel; Skaperdas, Stergios; Syropoulos, Constantinos

    2005-01-01

    We examine how globalization affects trade patterns and welfare when conflict prevails domestically. We do so in a simple model of trade, in which a natural resource like oil is contested by competing groups using real resources (”guns”). Thus, conflict is viewed as ultimately stemming from imperfect property-rights enforcement. When comparing autarky with free trade in such a setting, the gains from trade have to be weighed against the possibly higher resource costs of conflict. We find that...

  9. Bounds for Asian basket options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deelstra, Griselda; Diallo, Ibrahima; Vanmaele, Michèle

    2008-09-01

    In this paper we propose pricing bounds for European-style discrete arithmetic Asian basket options in a Black and Scholes framework. We start from methods used for basket options and Asian options. First, we use the general approach for deriving upper and lower bounds for stop-loss premia of sums of non-independent random variables as in Kaas et al. [Upper and lower bounds for sums of random variables, Insurance Math. Econom. 27 (2000) 151-168] or Dhaene et al. [The concept of comonotonicity in actuarial science and finance: theory, Insurance Math. Econom. 31(1) (2002) 3-33]. We generalize the methods in Deelstra et al. [Pricing of arithmetic basket options by conditioning, Insurance Math. Econom. 34 (2004) 55-57] and Vanmaele et al. [Bounds for the price of discrete sampled arithmetic Asian options, J. Comput. Appl. Math. 185(1) (2006) 51-90]. Afterwards we show how to derive an analytical closed-form expression for a lower bound in the non-comonotonic case. Finally, we derive upper bounds for Asian basket options by applying techniques as in Thompson [Fast narrow bounds on the value of Asian options, Working Paper, University of Cambridge, 1999] and Lord [Partially exact and bounded approximations for arithmetic Asian options, J. Comput. Finance 10 (2) (2006) 1-52]. Numerical results are included and on the basis of our numerical tests, we explain which method we recommend depending on moneyness and time-to-maturity.

  10. The Early Rice Project: From Domestication to Global Warming

    OpenAIRE

    Fuller, Dorian Q.; Alison Weisskopf

    2011-01-01

    The Early Rice Project, at the UCL Institute of Archaeology, is clarifying the origins of Asian rice agriculture. In the Lower Yangtze region of China, we have found the tipping point when domesticated forms first outnumber wild types c.4600 BC. Investigations of assorted weed flora are also revealing how the cultivation of rice changed over time, with early cultivation in small, irregular, dug-out paddy fields in the Lower Yangtze from c.4000 BC, providing a means for the careful control of ...

  11. Domestic Violence: Protecting Yourself and Your Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    MENU Return to Web version Domestic Violence: Protecting Yourself and Your Children Domestic Violence: Protecting Yourself and Your Children What is domestic violence? Domestic violence is abuse by a ...

  12. Computed tomography analysis of guinea pig bone: architecture, bone thickness and dimensions throughout development.

    OpenAIRE

    Agata Witkowska; Aziza Alibhai; Chloe Hughes; Jennifer Price; Karl Klisch; Sturrock, Craig J.; Rutland, Catrin S.

    2014-01-01

    The domestic guinea pig, Cavia aperea f. porcellus, belongs to the Caviidae family of rodents. It is an important species as a pet, a source of food and in medical research. Adult weight is achieved at 8–12 months and life expectancy is ∼5–6 years. Our aim was to map bone local thickness, structure and dimensions across developmental stages in the normal animal. Guinea pigs (n = 23) that had died of natural causes were collected and the bones manually extracted and cleaned. Institutional ethi...

  13. MICRODISSECTION OF MINIATURE PIG EAR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YI Haijin; GuoWeiwei; Chen Lei; Wu Na; Li Jiana; Ren Lili; Yang Shiming

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the suitability of miniature pigs as an animal model for otological research. Methods Microdissection of the temporal bone was performed on 10 miniature pigs and recorded on photo-graphs. Results The morphology and measurement of the external, middle and inner ear and the lateral re-cess of the miniature pigs were obtained by microdissection. Conclusion Compared to traditional animal models, the miniature pig may be a better model for biomedical research because of its many similarities in physiological functions with humans. Similarities of the temporal bone structures, including the external, middle and inner ear and the lateral recess, between the miniature pig and human make the animal a poten-tially useful model for otological research.

  14. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in domestic animals in peri-urban communities of Kafue district, Zambia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siwila, J.; Phiri, I. G. K.; Enemark, Heidi L.;

    2013-01-01

    Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis are important parasites infecting a wide range of domestic animals worldwide. The aim of the present study was to determine the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia parasites in different domestic animals living in close contact with humans...... within rural/semiurban communities in Kafue district in Zambia. A single faecal sample per animal was collected from pigs, goats, dogs, ducks, chickens and pigeons and analysed by Merifluor Cryptosporidium/Giardia immunofluorescence antibody assay for the simultaneous detection of these parasites. The...... faecal consistency was noted and scored as non-diarrhoeic or diarrhoeic. A total of 236 samples were collected. Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were detected in pigs (11.5%, 17/148), goats (5.9%; 1/17), ducks (10.0%; 3/30) and chickens (14.3%; 2/14) while Giardia cysts were detected in pigs (8.1%; 12...

  15. Frank Pig Says Hello

    OpenAIRE

    Kealy, Una

    2013-01-01

    Patrick McCabe’s Frank Pig Says Hello is an explosively powerful, angry-poignant and ultimately heart-rending dramatisation of Frank Brady who, as a young boy and adolescent, is driven beyond the boundaries of his mental and emotional health by his inability to cope with growing up, the loss of his parents and the preservation of his damaged and fragile mental and emotional health. Emphasising the difficulties that Frank experiences, McCabe splits his eponymous character into two: an adult Fr...

  16. South Asian High and Asian-Pacific-American Climate Teleconnection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Growing evidence indicates that the Asian monsoon plays an important role in affecting the weather and climate outside of Asia. However, this active role of the monsoon has not been demonstrated as thoroughly as has the variability of the monsoon caused by various impacting factors such as sea surface temperature and land surface. This study investigates the relationship between the Asian monsoon and the climate anomalies in the Asian-Pacific-American (APA) sector. A hypothesis is tested that the variability of the upper-tropospheric South Asian high (SAH), which is closely associated with the overall heating of the large-scale Asian monsoon, is linked to changes in the subtropical western Pacific high (SWPH), the midPacific trough, and the Mexican high. The changes in these circulation systems cause variability in surface temperature and precipitation in the APA region. A stronger SAH is accompanied by a stronger and more extensive SWPH. The enlargement of the SWPH weakens the mid-Pacific trough. As a result, the southern portion of the Mexican high becomes stronger. These changes are associated with changes in atmospheric teleconnections, precipitation, and surface temperature throughout the APA region. When the SAH is stronger, precipitation increases in southern Asia, decreases over the Pacific Ocean, and increases over the Central America. Precipitation also increases over Australia and central Africa and decreases in the Mediterranean region. While the signals in surface temperature are weak over the tropical land portion,they are apparent in the mid latitudes and over the eastern Pacific Ocean.

  17. Impacts of East Asian aerosols on the Asian monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Rachel; Bollasina, Massimo; Booth, Ben; Dunstone, Nick; Marenco, Franco

    2016-04-01

    Over recent decades, aerosol emissions from Asia have increased rapidly. Aerosols are able to alter radiative forcing and regional hydroclimate through direct and indirect effects. Large emissions within the geographical region of the Asian monsoon have been found to impact upon this vital system and have been linked to observed drying trends. The interconnected nature of smaller regional monsoon components (e.g. the Indian monsoon and East Asian monsoon) presents the possibility that aerosol sources could have far-reaching impacts. Future aerosol emissions are uncertain and may continue to dominate regional impacts on the Asian monsoon. Standard IPCC future emissions scenarios do not take a broad sample of possible aerosol pathways. We investigate the sensitivity of the Asian monsoon to East Asian aerosol emissions. Experiments carried out with HadGEM2-ES use three time-evolving future anthropogenic aerosol emissions scenarios with similar time-evolving greenhouse gases. We find a wetter summer over southern China and the Indochina Peninsula associated with increased sulfate aerosol over China. The southern-flood-northern-drought pattern seen in observations is reflected in these results. India is found to be drier in the summer overall, although wetter in June. These precipitation changes are linked to the increase in sulfate through the alteration of large scale dynamics. Sub-seasonal changes are also seen, with an earlier withdrawal of the monsoon over East Asia.

  18. The Pig--Pet, Pork or Sacrifice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Arthur

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the various roles of the pig in children's books, including E. B. White's CHARLOTTE'S WEB and Nina Bawden's PEPPERMINT PIG. Notes that, although pigs are often used as metaphors for greed, gluttony, and squalor, the portrayal of pigs in children's literature is typically positive. (MM)

  19. Modelling the distribution of pig production and diseases in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Thanapongtharm, Weerapong

    2015-01-01

    This thesis, entitled “Modelling the distribution of pig production and diseases in Thailand”, presents many aspects of pig production in Thailand including the characteristics of pig farming system, distribution of pig population and pig farms, spatio-temporal distribution and risk of most important diseases in pig at present, and the suitability area for pig farming. Spatial distribution and characteristics of pig farming in Thailand were studied using time-series pig population data to des...

  20. Pigs fly on schedule with remote launchers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of a new pig launcher for use in gas, oil or multi-phase pipeline applications in remote sites was discussed. The pig launcher, developed by Opsco '92 Industries Ltd., sends forth pigs of any shape or style, from a pre-loaded pig chamber at a preset cycle of up to six weeks between launches. Opsco's Remote Pig Launcher (ORPL) is also capable of providing 60 weeks of unmanned pig launching. The ORPL is designed to fit new installations but can be retrofitted to existing pig senders. The advantage of ORPL is that frequent pigging helps reduce production losses caused by liquid slugging and high level separator shutdowns at plant inlets. Operator time, and transportation to a pigging site are reduced because several pigs can be loaded during a single visit. This reduces overall operating costs. 1 fig

  1. Genetic variations associated with six-white-point coat pigmentation in Diannan small-ear pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Meng-Die; Han, Xu-Man; Ma, Yun-Fei; Irwin, David M; Gao, Yun; Deng, Jia-Kun; Adeola, Adeniyi C; Xie, Hai-Bing; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2016-01-01

    A common phenotypic difference among domestic animals is variation in coat color. Six-white-point is a pigmentation pattern observed in varying pig breeds, which seems to have evolved through several different mechanistic pathways. Herein, we re-sequenced whole genomes of 31 Diannan small-ear pigs from China and found that the six-white-point coat color in Diannan small-ear pigs is likely regulated by polygenic loci, rather than by the MC1R locus. Strong associations were observed at three loci (EDNRB, CNTLN, and PINK1), which explain about 20 percent of the total coat color variance in the Diannan small-ear pigs. We found a mutation that is highly differentiated between six-white-point and black Diannan small-ear pigs, which is located in a conserved noncoding sequence upstream of the EDNRB gene and is a putative binding site of the CEBPB protein. This study advances our understanding of coat color evolution in Diannan small-ear pigs and expands our traditional knowledge of coat color being a monogenic trait. PMID:27270507

  2. War and domestic violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colson, E

    1995-01-01

    A longterm study (begun in 1956) of the people of four villages in Gwembe District in Zambia provides information on deaths due to Rhodesian action or to Zimbabwean freedom fighters and on deaths due to domestic violence (which is likely to have been underreported because it is considered shameful). During the decade of the 1970s, one woman and three men died from Rhodesian action and 5 women were killed by kinsmen (two husbands, two sons, and one brother). The police left the kin to settle the case of the sister killed by the brother. One man who killed his mother persuaded a younger, unmarried kinsman to be charged and punished in his stead; another left the community. One of the men who killed his wife was released because of his age (he paid damages to his children in accordance with matrilineal tradition); the other was released for lack of evidence. Battered women usually do not press charges against their husbands but may leave them and, if young, marry again. In some cases, battered women seeking divorce have also won compensation for broken bones. Domestic violence may have been especially prevalent in this period because the economic situation deteriorated, men could not find work, and the Rhodesian war added stress and disrupted the local transportation system. In response, men began to drink more heavily and male violence directed against women and men brewed along with locally-produced alcohol. Domestic violence may be exacerbated when men use women as an outlet for their anger and frustration in stressful times of war. PMID:12295013

  3. [The pig sty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, J C

    1993-11-01

    A first-page picture of the journal O Estado de S. Paulo on October, 1993, depicts 3 children playing in the ruins of a school building in Bahia. They are dressed in rags, just like the immense majority of children begotten in recent years. They are disgracefully filthy, with dishevelled hair, in the company of a pig content to share its habitat with such animalistic beings. In the inside pages of the same edition are profuse photos of other pigs dressed in suits and ties. This ostentation mocks the people and mainly the 3 children who do not attend school because the money for it has been embezzled from their pockets. Decent journalists, conscious of these piggish humans, endeavor every day to make this country a decent place to live. In the fight for a dignified and decent country, the journal Planejamento Agora, edited by ABEPF, makes an important statement with its slogan that the fight is true when the spirit is unabated. Planejamento Agora stoically battles to make every animal child alive today a human child who is wanted. The work and team of Planejamento Agora are saluted, and they are urged to continue the struggle on behalf of such children. PMID:12346085

  4. Przemoc domowa = Domestic violence

    OpenAIRE

    Łepecka-Klusek, Celina; Pawłowska-Muc, Agnieszka Konstancja; Pilewska-Kozak, Anna Bogusława; Stadnicka, Grażyna; Pałucka, Klaudia

    2015-01-01

    Łepecka-Klusek Celina, Pawłowska-Muc Agnieszka Konstancja, Pilewska‑Kozak Anna Bogusława, Stadnicka Grażyna, Pałucka Klaudia. Przemoc domowa = Domestic violence. Journal of Education, Health and Sport. 2015;5(6):169-182. ISSN 2391-8306. DOI 10.5281/zenodo.18420 http://ojs.ukw.edu.pl/index.php/johs/article/view/2015%3B5%286%29%3A169-182 https://pbn.nauka.gov.pl/works/564476 http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.18420 Formerly Journal of Health Sciences. ISSN 1429-9623 / 2300-66...

  5. Foreign Firms, Domestic Wages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Markusen, James R.; Schjerning, Bertel

    Foreign-owned firms are often hypothesized to generate productivity "spillovers" to the host country, but both theoretical micro-foundations and empirical evidence for this are limited. We develop a heterogeneous-firm model in which ex-ante identical workers learn from their employers in proportion...... similarly large domestic firms. The empirical implications of the model are tested on matched employer-employee data from Denmark. Consistent with the theory, we find considerable evidence of higher wages and wage growth in large and/or foreign-owned firms. These effects survive controlling for individual...

  6. Sarchophagid flies (Insecta, Diptera) from pig carcasses in Minas Gerais, Brazil, with nine new records from the Cerrado, a threatened Neotropical biome

    OpenAIRE

    Cátia A. Mello-Patiu; Maria Lígia Paseto; Lucas S. de Faria; Júlio Mendes; Arício X Linhares

    2014-01-01

    Sarchophagid flies (Insecta, Diptera) from pig carcasses in Minas Gerais, Brazil, with nine new records from the Cerrado, a threatened Neotropical biome. The diversity of the Sarcophagidae fauna of the Cerrado biome, also know as the Brazilian Savanna, is still underestimated. In this research we collected flies in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, during a Forensic Entomology experiment. Samples were collected throughout the decomposition process of domestic pig (Sus scrofa Linnaeus) carcas...

  7. Effect of heat on the anaphylactic-sensitising capacity of cows' milk, gots' milk, and various infant formulae fed to guinea-pigs.

    OpenAIRE

    McLaughlan, P; Anderson, K. J.; Widdowson, E M; Coombs, R R

    1981-01-01

    Cows' milk--fresh, boiled, and processed in different ways for the domestic market, and various infant milk formulae--was investigated for its sensitising capacity in the guinea-pig after being fed for 37 days. The anaphylactic sensitising capacity was considerably reduced by heat-treatment. As heat becomes more intense and more prolonged so beta-lactoglobulin and casein become less sensitising. It should be stressed that these were results from experiments on guinea-pigs drinking milk. Shoul...

  8. Impact of swine reproductive technologies on pig and global food production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Robert V

    2014-01-01

    Reproductive technologies have dramatically changed the way pigs are raised for pork production in developed and developing countries. This has involved such areas as pigs produced/sow, more consistent pig flow to market, pig growth rate and feed efficiency, carcass yield and quality, labor efficiency, and pig health. Some reproductive technologies are in widespread use for commercial pork operations [Riesenbeck, Reprod Domest Anim 46:1-3, 2011] while others are in limited use in specific segments of the industry [Knox, Reprod Domest Anim 46:4-6, 2011]. Significant changes in the efficiency of pork production have occurred as a direct result of the use of reproductive technologies that were intended to improve the transfer of genes important for food production [Gerrits et al., Theriogenology 63:283-299, 2005]. While some technologies focused on the efficiency of gene transfer, others addressed fertility and labor issues. Among livestock species, pig reproductive efficiency appears to have achieved exceptionally high rates of performance (PigCHAMP 2011) [Benchmark 2011, Ames, IA, 12-16]. From the maternal side, this includes pigs born per litter, farrowing rate, as well as litters per sow per year. On the male side, boar fertility, sperm production, and sows served per sire have improved as well [Knox et al., Theriogenology, 70:1202-1208, 2008]. These shifts in the efficiency of swine fertility have resulted in the modern pig as one of the most efficient livestock species for global food production. These reproductive changes have predominantly occurred in developed countries, but data suggests transfer and adoption of these in developing countries as well (FAO STAT 2009; FAS 2006) [World pig meat production: food and agriculture organization of the United Nations, 2009; FAS, 2006) Worldwide Pork Production, 2006]. Technological advancements in swine reproduction have had profound effects on industry structure, production, efficiency, quality, and profitability. In

  9. Integrating Y-chromosome, mitochondrial, and autosomal data to analyze the origin of pig breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, O; Ojeda, A; Tomàs, A; Gallardo, D; Huang, L S; Folch, J M; Clop, A; Sánchez, A; Badaoui, B; Hanotte, O; Galman-Omitogun, O; Makuza, S M; Soto, H; Cadillo, J; Kelly, L; Cho, I C; Yeghoyan, S; Pérez-Enciso, M; Amills, M

    2009-09-01

    We have investigated the origin of swine breeds through the joint analysis of mitochondrial, microsatellite, and Y-chromosome polymorphisms in a sample of pigs and wild boars with a worldwide distribution. Genetic differentiation between pigs and wild boars was remarkably weak, likely as a consequence of a sustained gene flow between both populations. The analysis of nuclear markers evidenced the existence of a close genetic relationship between Near Eastern and European wild boars making it difficult to infer their relative contributions to the gene pool of modern European breeds. Moreover, we have shown that European and Far Eastern pig populations have contributed maternal and paternal lineages to the foundation of African and South American breeds. Although West African pigs from Nigeria and Benin exclusively harbored European alleles, Far Eastern and European genetic signatures of similar intensity were detected in swine breeds from Eastern Africa. This region seems to have been a major point of entry of livestock species in the African continent as a result of the Indian Ocean trade. Finally, South American creole breeds had essentially a European ancestry although Asian Y-chromosome and mitochondrial haplotypes were found in a few Nicaraguan pigs. The existence of Spanish and Portuguese commercial routes linking Asia with America might have favored the introduction of Far Eastern breeds into this continent. PMID:19535739

  10. Asian gas expansion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, D.

    2001-11-01

    This article reports on the sales and purchase agreements signed by Malaysia LNG Tiga Snd Bnd (MLNG Tiga) to supply the Tohoku Electric Power Company in Japan from its new LNG plant under construction in east Malaysia, and also negotiations with three other Japanese customers. Details are given of Malaysia's recoverable reserves, the allocation of gas reserves for production of LNG and fertiliser for export, the supply of gas feedstocks to MLNG plants, and the role of the national oil and gas corporation, Petrobras, in supplying natural gas to customers in peninsular Malaysia. Work on gas transmission pipelines, Malaysia's domestic gas utilisation programme, gas consumption, and the completion of additional gas processing plants are considered. Plans by Malaysia and Thailand to build new gas transmission pipelines and to pipe offshore gas from gas fields jointly owned by the two countries, and problems encountered with the rejection of the gas separation plant's Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) are outlined.

  11. Options for development of transgenic pigs with enhanced performance traits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Traditional breeding practices have yielded a slow but steady genetic improvement of domestic animals. Unfortunately, these practices often do not enable the separation of desirable production traits from undesirable traits, and furthermore, do not enable the transfer of advantageous genetic traits from one species to another. Transgenic methodologies surmount these barriers, and transgenic pigs have been developed that have a variety of novel enhanced performance traits, the capability to serve as factories for the production of pharmaceuticals, and soon may provide a reliable supply of organs for xenotransplantation. This presentation will focus primarily on the expression of novel performance traits, since they have the potential to provide the greatest benefit to farmers in countries with a less well developed agricultural infrastructure. The first hurdle in the development of animals with novel production characteristics is the availability of reliable methods for the production of transgenic animals. This requires the combination of a suitable transgenic technique and an appropriate genetic construct. Classic pronuclear microinjection, the original method for producing transgenic animals may soon be surpassed by the more convenient sperm-mediated transgenesis, use of a retroviral vector system, or by techniques involving nuclear transfer. Despite the complexity involved in generating transgenic animals, a variety of interesting performance enhancing genes have been introduced into pigs. These include porcine growth hormone and IGF1 to enhance growth characteristics and carcass quality, α-lactalbumin to enhance the growth of nursing piglets, plant oleate desaturase (http://www.newscientist.com/hottopics/gm/gm.jsp?id=ns99991841) to increase the proportion of unsaturated fatty acids in tissues, and phytase to enhance plant phosphorus utilization. No information is available on the performance or meat quality characteristics of pigs expressing the

  12. China’s trade performance and its impacts on Asian economies

    OpenAIRE

    Dyah Wulan Sari

    2006-01-01

    In 2001, China joined the World Trade Organization (WTO), and its economy has since opened up through domestic reform. The Chinese government has also since tried enthusiastically to lure a lot of investors—and succeeded. As a consequence, China’s exports have boomed, and China has become a most enthusiastic importer. This development has brought great opportunities for the Asian economy, with interregional trade being the principal contributor to China’s steady export growth. Chinese imports...

  13. Virtual dissection of pig carcasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vester-Christensen, Martin; Erbou, Søren Gylling Hemmingsen; Hansen, Mads Fogtmann;

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes the use of computed tomography (CT) as a reference method for estimating the lean meat percentage (LMP) of pig carcasses. The current reference is manual dissection which has a limited accuracy due to variability between butchers. A contextual Bayesian classification scheme is...... applied to classify volume elements of full body CT-scans of pig carcasses into three tissue types. A linear model describes the relation between voxels and the full weight of the half carcass, which can be determined more accurately than that of the lean meat content. Two hundred and ninety-nine half pig...

  14. Effect of Pig Price Volatility on Sichuan Pig Farmers’ Behavioral Response in China

    OpenAIRE

    Miao Hao; Rong Chen; Xinhong Fu

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to analyze cobweb phenomenon of pig price volatility and its effects on pig producers in Sichuan, China. Historical data showed that pig price from 2000 to 2003 pertained to Occlude Cobweb Phenomenon; while pig price from 2004 to 2012 pertained to Divergent Cobweb Phenomenon. Based on Cobweb Phenomenon this article provided a comparative analysis of pig price volatility’s effects on scattered farmers, scale farmers and pig factories via examining their basic information, respo...

  15. Social Complexification and Pig (Sus scrofa Husbandry in Ancient China: A Combined Geometric Morphometric and Isotopic Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Cucchi

    Full Text Available Pigs have played a major role in the economic, social and symbolic systems of China since the Early Neolithic more than 8,000 years ago. However, the interaction between the history of pig domestication and transformations in Chinese society since then, have not been fully explored. In this paper, we investigated the co-evolution from the earliest farming communities through to the new political and economic models of state-like societies, up to the Chinese Empire, using 5,000 years of archaeological records from the Xiawanggang (XWG and Xinzhai (XZ sites (Henan Province. To trace the changes of pig populations against husbandry practices, we combined the geometric morphometric analysis of dental traits with a study of the stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios from bone collagen. The domestication process intensified during the Neolithic Yangshao, prompted by greater selective pressure and/or better herd control against wild introgression. After that, pig farming, in XWG, relied on local livestock and a gradual change of husbandry practices overtime. This was characterized by a gentle increase in millet foddering and animal protein intake, until a complete change over to household management during the Han dynasty. The only rupture in this steady trend of husbandry occurred during the Longshan period, with the appearance of small sized and idiosyncratic pigs with specific feeding practices (relying on millet and household scraps. From three exploratory hypothesis, we explored the possibility of anti-elite pig production in XWG during the Longshan period, as a means to resist incorporation into a new economic model promoting intensified domestic production. This exploratory hypothesis is the most suitable to our dataset; however, numerous areas need to be explored further in order to adequately document the role of pigs in the rise of China's complex societies.

  16. Social Complexification and Pig (Sus scrofa) Husbandry in Ancient China: A Combined Geometric Morphometric and Isotopic Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucchi, Thomas; Dai, Lingling; Balasse, Marie; Zhao, Chunqing; Gao, Jiangtao; Hu, Yaowu; Yuan, Jing; Vigne, Jean-Denis

    2016-01-01

    Pigs have played a major role in the economic, social and symbolic systems of China since the Early Neolithic more than 8,000 years ago. However, the interaction between the history of pig domestication and transformations in Chinese society since then, have not been fully explored. In this paper, we investigated the co-evolution from the earliest farming communities through to the new political and economic models of state-like societies, up to the Chinese Empire, using 5,000 years of archaeological records from the Xiawanggang (XWG) and Xinzhai (XZ) sites (Henan Province). To trace the changes of pig populations against husbandry practices, we combined the geometric morphometric analysis of dental traits with a study of the stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios from bone collagen. The domestication process intensified during the Neolithic Yangshao, prompted by greater selective pressure and/or better herd control against wild introgression. After that, pig farming, in XWG, relied on local livestock and a gradual change of husbandry practices overtime. This was characterized by a gentle increase in millet foddering and animal protein intake, until a complete change over to household management during the Han dynasty. The only rupture in this steady trend of husbandry occurred during the Longshan period, with the appearance of small sized and idiosyncratic pigs with specific feeding practices (relying on millet and household scraps). From three exploratory hypothesis, we explored the possibility of anti-elite pig production in XWG during the Longshan period, as a means to resist incorporation into a new economic model promoting intensified domestic production. This exploratory hypothesis is the most suitable to our dataset; however, numerous areas need to be explored further in order to adequately document the role of pigs in the rise of China's complex societies. PMID:27384523

  17. Depression among Asian Americans: Review and Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zornitsa Kalibatseva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a review of the prevalence and manifestation of depression among Asian Americans and discusses some of the existing issues in the assessment and diagnosis of depression among Asian Americans. The authors point out the diversity and increasing numbers of Asian Americans and the need to provide better mental health services for this population. While the prevalence of depression among Asian Americans is lower than that among other ethnic/racial groups, Asian Americans receive treatment for depression less often and its quality is less adequate. In addition, the previous belief that Asians somatize depression may become obsolete as more evidence appears to support that Westerners may “psychologize” depression. The cultural validity of the current DSM-IV conceptualization of depression is questioned. In the course of the review, the theme of complexity emerges: the heterogeneity of ethnic Asian American groups, the multidimensionality of depression, and the intersectionality of multiple factors among depressed Asian Americans.

  18. Culturally Speaking: Asian Pacific American Heritage Month

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Sherry

    2004-01-01

    The celebration of the Asian Pacific American heritage month is to be held in May 2004. The librarians are advised to include authentic literature by and about Asian Americans for cross-cultural understanding.

  19. Forensic Aspects in Domestic Homicide

    OpenAIRE

    Kovačević, Dražen; Žarković-Palijan, Tija; Radeljak, Sanja; Marinović, Dunja; Dadić Hero, Elizabeta; Ljubin Golub, Tajana

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was investigation of specific forensic aspects in offenders involved in domestic homicide cases in regard to sociodemographic and psychosocial variables and modalities of the offense. The research was conducted at the Department of Forensic Psychiatry in Neuropsychiatric Hospital »Dr. Ivan Barbot« in Popovaca, Croatia. The sample in this study consisted of domestic homicide group (N=162). The results showed certain characteristics within the group of domestic homicide off...

  20. Domestication of Media and Technology

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    This edited book brings together both theoretical and empirical contributions on the domestication of technology in everyday life. Domestication is a social science approach to study use and acceptance if ICT from the users (and non-users) point of view. Domestication is concept that was much discussed at EMTEL, an FP5 research and training network in which IPTS was a partner. The book is a result of the discussions and contacts that emerged from EMTEL.

  1. Domestication and nutrition in fish

    OpenAIRE

    Cahu, Chantal

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate to what extent, the study of feeding regimes of fish could be valuable to indicate the possibilities and the constraints of their domestication. Though the natural feeding regime of fish seems to be disadvantageous for their domestication, as protein requirement is high, different species could be considered as domesticated. These species are herbivorous, detritivorous, omnivorous as well as carnivorous. In the same way, there are large differences in gut ...

  2. Asian and African Development Trajectories Revisiting Facts and Figures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles Carbonnier

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In today’s dominant discourse, the development trajectory of many East Asian countries is pictured as a success, whereas that of many sub-Saharan African countries is considered a failure. The Asian success stories often refer to the developmental state model, which highlights the pivotal role played by Asian political elites in catalyzing economic growth and broad-based development. The model includes economic liberalization and outward-oriented policies, with targeted support to – and protection of – strategic sectors and infant industries.How far is this underlying assumption supported by empirical evidence? This working paper examines a wide range of economic, social, institutional and governance indicators for a sample of six sub-Saharan and five South East Asian countries. Contrary to our research hypothesis, we did not find any significant difference in the level of government involvement in the domestic economy between the countries of the two regions, nor in the quality of institutions and governance indicators, nor in the share of imports and exports in GDP.Even if there are important gaps between the two regions, for instance with regard to the demographic transition, the agricultural sector or tertiary education, the picture is much more nuanced than portrayed by the dominant discourse. Our review of economic and socio-political indicators tells a rather different story, but not the whole story. Nevertheless, the indicators fail to take into account all the historical, institutional and structural factors that matter a great deal for development. Hence our analysis should be complemented by detailed country case studies to uncover the specific dynamics underlying different development trajectories and outcomes.

  3. Familial Hypercholesterolemia in Asian Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Mengge; Zhao, Dong

    2016-05-01

    Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is the most common autosomal disorder characterized by an elevated low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol level and a high risk of premature cardiovascular disease. In this review, we summarize information on FH studies in Asian countries, focusing on mean cholesterol level, FH frequency, diagnostic criteria, genotypes, and clinical care of FH patients in Asian populations. Compared with Western countries, most Asian countries had lower mean cholesterol levels, with a significant variation between different countries. In the limited studies reported, a frequency of 1/900 was reported in Hokuriku district, Japan in 1977 and a frequency of 1/85 among Christian Lebanese in 1979. Recently, a population study in China reported frequencies of 0.47% and 0.28%. However, the different FH frequencies reported were based on different diagnostic criteria. Of 28 publications from 16 Asian countries or regions, 14 used self-defined FH criteria. Only one specific guideline for FH was available, which was developed by Japanese scientists. Six Asian countries joined the Make Early Diagnosis to Prevent Early Deaths program in the late 1990s, and the estimated diagnosis rates of FH ranged from 3% to 10% in these countries. A more recent study explored the awareness, knowledge, and perception of FH among practitioners in Japan, Korea, and Taiwan. The study found that the correct rates of these FH-related questions were low and concluded that lack of country-specific criteria and guidelines may contribute to the lack of FH knowledge in the present survey. More attention and resources should be focused on raising awareness, improving care, and increasing FH research in Asian populations. PMID:27075771

  4. Asians on the Rim: Transnational Capital and Local Community in the Making of Contemporary Asian America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirlik, Arif

    1996-01-01

    Explores suggested contradictions to grasping contemporary Asian America as a socio-ideological formation. It is suggested that the emergence of Pacific Asian economies in the global economy has had a transformative effect on the Asian American self-image, causing Asian Americans to see themselves as either grounded in local communities or as…

  5. Asian and Non-Asian Attitudes toward Rape, Sexual Harassment, and Sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, M. Alexis; Gorzalka, Boris B.

    2002-01-01

    Explored potential differences between Asian and non-Asian Canadian university students regarding their attitudes toward coercive and noncoercive sexual behavior. Student surveys indicated that Asian students' attitudes were significantly more conservative. Asian students were more tolerant of rape myths and sexual harassment. They demonstrated…

  6. Pig illnesses and epidemics: a qualitative study on perceptions and practices of pig raisers in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeca Sultana

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Zoonoses in swine are increasingly becoming a global public health concern. Understanding how livestock farmers perceive animal illnesses will help to develop locally acceptable and effective public health intervention strategies to control and manage zoonoses. The authors describe Bangladeshi pig raisers’ perception of pig illnesses and their behaviour towards sick pigs. We collected qualitative data from August 2007 to September 2008. Included in our study are backyard pig raisers from three districts, namely: Faridpur, Chapainobabgonj and Tangail and nomadic herders from six districts, namely: Mymensingh, Tangail, Sherpur, Sirajgonj, Bogra and Pabna. We conducted in-depth interviews (n = 34 and made observations of human interactions with pigs (n = 18. Pig raisers reported several illnesses that caused their pigs to suffer and die. They had close contact with sick pigs whilst caring for them. They slaughtered sick pigs and consumed and sold the pork if they thought that the pig might die. They believed that pig illness could be transmitted among pigs but not between pigs and humans. The perception of pig raisers on pig illnesses and their behaviour towards sick pigs places them in close contact with potentially infectious pig secretions and excretions. Such exposure could favour zoonotic transmission of infectious diseases. A better surveillance system for pig diseases would provide an opportunity to identify the transmission of diseases, determine whether they pose a risk to humans, or whether they contribute to the emergence of diseases.

  7. Liberalising the domestic energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents information on the changes involved in the liberalisation of the UK domestic gas and electricity markets. Topics discussed include choices for domestic customers and small businesses due to competition in the energy markets; competition in the deregulated markets; the Association of Energy Suppliers; the electricity market; an update on the open gas market; the link between deregulation and energy efficiency; the local authority view; switchers and stickers in the domestic gas market; the role of voluntary bodies in advising the public; the role of voluntary organisations in deregulation; the beneficiaries in domestic energy liberalisation; and metering and billing. (UK)

  8. Plant domestication and gene banks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the time of the dawn of agriculture, plant domestication was very slow. As agriculture progressed, however, domestication began to evolve faster and reached its highest point with the advent of plant breeders who played a very important role in solving the world food problem. One of the fastest moving strategies was a better exploitation of genetic diversity, both natural and induced. However, intensive plant breeding activity caused a heavy fall in genetic variability. Gene banks then provided a further tool for modern agriculture, specifically to preserve genetic resources and to help breeders to further domesticate important crops and to introduce and domesticate new species. (author). 3 refs

  9. ''Asian BBQ House'' restaurant business plan

    OpenAIRE

    Dhaugoda, Sabina; Dang, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    Helsinki is becoming a more and more attractive city with diverse food cultures. Asian fusion has been now a long existing trend and is growing fast worldwide including Finland and especially Helsinki. The growing number of Asian fusion restaurants in Helsinki clearly justifies the general likeness of Asian fusion cuisines by people living here. However, the authors observed that the restaurant scene of Helsinki is still missing a proper Asian style barbecue restaurant. The idea of opening an...

  10. Histological data concerning the pig (sus scrofa) for use in radiobiology. I. Normal histology of certain systems. 2. Injuries caused by total γ irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The domestic pig lately become a laboratory whose anatomical and physiological characteristics appear to be appreciated for certain radiological studies. In this report the authors describe research which they have carried out (in particular in the field of histology) on domestic pigs of different species with a view to compiling a record which might be of help to future workers in this field. The second part of their work deals with anatomical and histological injuries caused by total exposure to gamma radiation from cobalt 60 at doses of around 285 rads. (authors)

  11. Whipworms in humans and pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hawash, Mohamed B F; Betson, Martha; Al-Jubury, Azmi;

    2016-01-01

    areas. The evolutionary relationship and the historical factors responsible for this worldwide distribution are poorly understood. In this study, we aimed to reconstruct the demographic history of Trichuris in humans and pigs, the evolutionary origin of Trichuris in these hosts and factors responsible...... for parasite dispersal globally. METHODS: Parts of the mitochondrial nad1 and rrnL genes were sequenced followed by population genetic and phylogenetic analyses. Populations of Trichuris examined were recovered from humans (n = 31), pigs (n = 58) and non-human primates (n = 49) in different countries......-human primates suggesting a common African origin of the parasite, which then was transmitted to Asia and further to South America. On the other hand, there was no differentiation between pig-derived Trichuris from Europe and the New World suggesting dispersal relates to human activities by transporting pigs...

  12. Injurious tail biting in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Eath, R.B.; Amott, G.; Turner, S. P.;

    2014-01-01

    Tail biting is a serious animal welfare and economic problem in pig production. Tail docking, which reduces but does not eliminate tail biting, remains widespread. However, in the EU tail docking may not be used routinely, and some ‘alternative’ forms of pig production and certain countries do not...... allow tail docking at all. Against this background, using a novel approach focusing on research where tail injuries were quantified, we review the measures that can be used to control tail biting in pigs without tail docking. Using this strict criterion, there was good evidence that manipulable...... risk, it is important to detect and treat tail biting as soon as it occurs. Early warning signs before the first bloody tails appear, such as pigs holding their tails tucked under, could in future be automatically detected using precision livestock farming methods enabling earlier reaction and...

  13. Brachyspira murdochii colitis in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tim Kåre; Christensen, A. S.; Boye, Mette

    2010-01-01

    The weakly beta-hemolytic porcine spirochete Brachyspira murdochii is considered a normal intestinal commensal. In the present study, however, a field case of B murdochii–associated catarrhal colitis was identified in a pig, as characterized by extensive spirochetal colonization of the surface...... epithelium. Experimentally, 8 weaned pigs were challenged with the B murdochii isolate, reproducing catarrhal colitis in 2 animals. By applying fluorescent in situ hybridization using a species-specific oligonucleotide probe targeting 23S rRNA, B murdochii organisms were found in high numbers and were...... closely associated with the surface epithelium in the pigs with catarrhal colitis. The results indicate that, when present in high numbers, B murdochii is low pathogenic for pigs....

  14. Asian Pacific American Women's Health Concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pian, Canta

    This paper discusses the adjustment and acculturation problems of Asian Pacific American women and how these problems relate to their health concerns. Information presented in the article is based on the observations of health service providers to the Asian community. The paper suggests that the diversity of Asian Americans (age, ethnic group, and…

  15. Potentials in Asian Export Credit Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    "Mekong River Regional Development Project advocated by Asian Development Bank (ADB) has been implemented. Trans-Asia Railway and Trans-Asia Highway are being discussed. It is a good opportunity for Asian Export Credit Agencies (ECAs) to cooperate and financing these large crossboarder projects."On May 11, at the 10th Annual Meeting of Asian Export Credit Agencies,

  16. Omnivores Going Astray: A Review and New Synthesis of Abnormal Behavior in Pigs and Laying Hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunberg, Emma I; Rodenburg, T Bas; Rydhmer, Lotta; Kjaer, Joergen B; Jensen, Per; Keeling, Linda J

    2016-01-01

    Pigs and poultry are by far the most omnivorous of the domesticated farm animals and it is in their nature to be highly explorative. In the barren production environments, this motivation to explore can be expressed as abnormal oral manipulation directed toward pen mates. Tail biting (TB) in pigs and feather pecking (FP) in laying hens are examples of unwanted behaviors that are detrimental to the welfare of the animals. The aim of this review is to draw these two seemingly similar abnormalities together in a common framework, in order to seek underlying mechanisms and principles. Both TB and FP are affected by the physical and social environment, but not all individuals in a group express these behaviors and individual genetic and neurobiological characteristics play an important role. By synthesizing what is known about environmental and individual influences, we suggest a novel possible mechanism, common for pigs and poultry, involving the brain-gut-microbiota axis. PMID:27500137

  17. Isolation and genetic characterization of swinepox virus from pigs in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riyesh, Thachamvally; Barua, Sanjay; Kumar, Naveen; Jindal, Naresh; Bera, Bidhan Chandra; Narang, Gulshan; Mahajan, Nand Kishore; Arora, Devan; Anand, Taruna; Vaid, Rajesh Kumar; Yadav, Mansi; Chandel, Surender Singh; Malik, Praveen; Tripathi, Bhupendra Nath; Singh, Raj Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Swinepox virus (SWPV), a member of the genus Suipoxvirus causes generalized pock-like lesions on the body of domestic and wild pigs. Although outbreak has been reported in India since 1987, virus isolation and genetic characterization remained elusive. In September 2013, an outbreak of acute skin infection occurred in piglets in a commercial piggery unit at Rohtak district in Haryana, India. The presence of SWPV in scab samples collected from piglets succumbed to infection was confirmed by virus isolation, PCR amplification of SWPV-specific gene segments and nucleotide sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis of host-range genes of the SWPV revealed that the Indian isolate is genetically closely related to reference isolate SWPV/pig/U.S.A/1999/Nebraska. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report on isolation and genetic characterization of SWPV from pigs in India. PMID:27260812

  18. Enteric Methane Emission from Pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Jørgensen, Henry; Peter K. Theil; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach

    2011-01-01

    The modern pig industry rely on relatively few feedstuffs mostly from cereals (corn, wheat, barley, oats, rye and rice), cereal co-products (different milling fractions, residues from biofuel and alcohol industries, etc.), cereal substitutes (tapioca, maniocca), legumes (peas, beans, lupins), protein concentrates (meal or cakes of soybean, rape, sunflower, cotton) and co-products from the sugar and starch industries to produce compounds feeds. The classical pig diet can also be characterised ...

  19. [Domestic violence: any progress?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrion, Roger

    2014-01-01

    Since the publication of the French national survey of violence against women in 2000, the fight against domestic violence has made steady progress. Knowledge of the phenomenon has significantly improved. A nationwide study of murders and manslaughters perpetrated by one partner of a couple against the other has been published annually since 2006. In 2012, domestic violence resulted in the deaths of 314 persons: 166 women, 31 men, 25 children, 9 collateral victims, 14 rivals, and two former spouses killed by their ex-fathers in law. In addition, 67 perpetrators committed suicide (51 men and3 women). The number of victims fluctuates from year to year but has remained fairly stable since 2006 (n=168). Legislation has improved significantly: eight new laws have been passed since 2004, all designed to protect women and to ensure that violent men are restrained and treated. New measures to inform and protect women have been implemented and others have been improved, such as the anonymous helpline (phone no 3919, "domestic violence information"). An inter-ministerial committee on the protection of women from violence and the prevention of human trafficking (MIPROF) was created on 3 January 2013. A website entitled "Stop violence against women " (Stop violences faites aux femmes) is now available. The "Imminent Danger" mobile phone system, designed to alert police if a suspected or known perpetrator breaches restraint conditions, will be extended to the entire country from January 2014. Referees charged with coordinating comprehensive long-tern care of women victims have been deployed at the county level. Information centers on the rights of women and families (CIDFF) now form a local nationwide network. Routine interviews with a midwife during the fourth month of pregnancy, focusing on the woman's emotional, economic and social conditions, have been implemented in 21 % of maternity units and should gradually be generalized. The authorities who have enforced the law have

  20. Enantiospecific ketoprofen concentrations in plasma after oral and intramuscular administration in growing pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Mustonen Katja; Niemi Anneli; Raekallio Marja; Heinonen Mari; Peltoniemi Olli AT; Palviainen Mari; Siven Mia; Peltoniemi Marikki; Vainio Outi

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Ketoprofen is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug which has been widely used for domestic animals. Orally administered racemic ketoprofen has been reported to be absorbed well in pigs, and bioavailability was almost complete. The objectives of this study were to analyze R- and S-ketoprofen concentrations in plasma after oral (PO) and intra muscular (IM) routes of administration, and to assess the relative bioavailability of racemic ketoprofen for both enantiomers betwee...

  1. First Case of Natural Infection in Pigs: Review of Trypanosoma cruzi Reservoirs in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paz María Salazar-Schettino

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available An epidemiological research project was performed in the State of Morelos including collection of samples for blood smears and culture, serological tests, and xenodiagnoses from a total of 76 domestic and peridomestic mammals. Two strains of Trypanosoma cruzi were isolated by haemocultures; one from a pig (Sus scrofa, the first case of natural infection reported in Mexico, and the other from a dog (Canis familiaris. This study summarizes current information in Mexico concerning confirmed reservoirs of T. cruzi

  2. Genetics of Adiposity in Large Animal Models for Human Obesity-Studies on Pigs and Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachowiak, M; Szczerbal, I; Switonski, M

    2016-01-01

    The role of domestic mammals in the development of human biomedical sciences has been widely documented. Among these model species the pig and dog are of special importance. Both are useful for studies on the etiology of human obesity. Genome sequences of both species are known and advanced genetic tools [eg, microarray SNP for genome wide association studies (GWAS), next generation sequencing (NGS), etc.] are commonly used in such studies. In the domestic pig the accumulation of adipose tissue is an important trait, which influences meat quality and fattening efficiency. Numerous quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for pig fatness traits were identified, while gene polymorphisms associated with these traits were also described. The situation is different in dog population. Generally, excessive accumulation of adipose tissue is considered, similar to humans, as a complex disease. However, research on the genetic background of canine obesity is still in its infancy. Between-breed differences in terms of adipose tissue accumulation are well known in both animal species. In this review we show recent advances of studies on adipose tissue accumulation in pigs and dogs, and their potential importance for studies on human obesity. PMID:27288831

  3. South Asians in College Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad-Stout, David J.; Nath, Sanjay R.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this article is to provide information on the assessment and treatment of South Asian college students for mental health practitioners. We provide a brief historical review of the cultures from which these students come and the process of migration to the United States and also make recommendations for work with these students in the…

  4. Plant domestication slows pest evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcotte, Martin M; Lochab, Amaneet K; Turley, Nash E; Johnson, Marc T J

    2015-09-01

    Agricultural practices such as breeding resistant varieties and pesticide use can cause rapid evolution of pest species, but it remains unknown how plant domestication itself impacts pest contemporary evolution. Using experimental evolution on a comparative phylogenetic scale, we compared the evolutionary dynamics of a globally important economic pest - the green peach aphid (Myzus persicae) - growing on 34 plant taxa, represented by 17 crop species and their wild relatives. Domestication slowed aphid evolution by 13.5%, maintained 10.4% greater aphid genotypic diversity and 5.6% higher genotypic richness. The direction of evolution (i.e. which genotypes increased in frequency) differed among independent domestication events but was correlated with specific plant traits. Individual-based simulation models suggested that domestication affects aphid evolution directly by reducing the strength of selection and indirectly by increasing aphid density and thus weakening genetic drift. Our results suggest that phenotypic changes during domestication can alter pest evolutionary dynamics. PMID:26100381

  5. The Puzzle of Rice Domestication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Sang; Song Ge

    2007-01-01

    The origin of cultivated rice has puzzled plant biologists for decades. This is due, at least in part, to the complex evolutionary dynamics in rice cultivars and wild progenitors, particularly rapid adaptive differentiation and continuous gene flow within and between cultivated and wild rice. The long-standing controversy over single versus multiple and annual versus perennial origins of cultivated rice has been brought into shaper focus with the rapid accumulation of genetic and phylogenetic data. Molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed ancient genomic differentiation between rice cultivars, suggesting that they were domesticated from divergent wild populations. However, the recently cloned domestication gene sh4, responsible for the reduction of grain shattering from wild to cultivated rice, seems to have originated only once. Herein, we propose two models to reconcile apparently conflicting evidence regarding rice domestication. The snow-balling model considers a single origin of cultivated rice. In this model, a core of critical domestication alleles was fixed in the founding cultivar and then acted to increase the genetic diversity of cultivars through hybridization with wild populations. The combination model considers multiple origins of cultivated rice. In this model, initial cultivars were domesticated from divergent wild populations and fixed different sets of domestication alleles. Subsequent crosses among these semi-domesticated cultivars resulted in the fixation of a similar set of critical domestication alleles in the contemporary cultivars. In both models, introgression has played an important role in rice domestication. Recent and future introgression of beneficial genes from the wild gene pool through conventional and molecular breeding programs can be viewed as the continuation of domestication.

  6. Insulinoma in 2 guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus)

    OpenAIRE

    Vannevel, Janice Y.; Wilcock, Brian

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes an insulinoma in 2 guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus). Both guinea pigs presented with neurologic signs and low blood glucose readings. The neurologic signs resolved with dextrose administration. Insulinoma was confirmed on postmortem examination.

  7. Using Pig skin to treat Burns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper discusses the use of irradiated Pig Skin for the treatment of Burns, traumatic dermal denudations and poorly healing Decubitus ulcers. It gives a brief history of Pig skin use its characteristics

  8. Thrombolytic therapy for cerebral arteries under real-time MR imaging guidance: an experiment in pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the feasibility of thrombolytic therapy for cerebral arteries in experimental pigs under real-time MR imaging guidance. Methods: Ten domestic female pigs (produced in U.S.A.) were enrolled in this study. After puncturing femoral artery with percutaneous technique, the bilateral ascending pharyngeal arteries were catheterized with 3 F active MR-tracking microcatheter under the guidance of real-time MR imaging. Then, aged thrombi were injected via the microcatheter to occlude the pharyngeal arteries. After 30-60 minutes, 500,000-750,000 units of urokinase were infused through the microcatheter into either one of the occluded ascending pharyngeal arteries for thrombolysis. Intraarterial contrast enhanced MRA and T1 fat suppressed coronal MR images were obtained to assess the vessel occlusion and the results of thrombolysis. Results: MR angiography revealed that the major cerebral blood supply in pigs was obtained from the basicranial micro-vascular network which was formed by bilateral ascending pharyngeal arteries. Catheterization of ascending pharyngeal arteries via the femoral artery access was successfully performed in all 10 pigs under the guidance of real-time MR imaging. Both ascending pharyngeal arteries were totally occluded in all pigs after injection of aged thromboli. After urokinase infusion into the ascending pharyngeal arteries, the blood clots were resolved with re-established blood flow. Conclusion: It is feasible to perform thrombolytic therapy for cerebral arteries under real-time MR imaging guidance. (authors)

  9. Experimental embolization using histoacryl blue (N-butyl 2- cyanoacrylate) in pig rete mirabile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was performed to evaluate any difference in the penetration of the acylic glue into the pig rete mirabile according to the difference of the concentration of the glue mixture. Three domestic pigs (12-15 kg) were used. After obtaining a normal angiography, two different concentrations of 1 : 1 and 0.5 : 1 of histoacryl blue mixture with Lipiodol were administrated into the pig rete mirabile and then angiographic and pathologic findings were analyzed after taking a postembolization angiography. The degree of the penetration of the glue mixture into the pig rete was different in the angiographic and pathologic findings according to the glue mixture ratio. In case of using 0.5 : 1 mixture of glue and Lipiodol, glue penetrated into the similar vessels with size of about 80μm than in case of using 1 : 1 mixture of glue and Lipiodol. Because the polymerization time of glue mixture will be different according to the concentration of glue mixture, a mixture with thin glue concentration seemed to penetrate deeply into the pig rete

  10. Advertising and Australian Pig Producers Welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Lin ZHANG; Goddard, Ellen W.

    2000-01-01

    The pig meat market in Australia is characterized by generic (fresh pork, bacon etc.) advertising. These advertising expenditures are funded from collective levies from pig producers. At the same time, there are extensive brand advertising activities in the pig market. Impact of advertising on pig meat consumption has been a long-standing argument. So far, there have been several studies done on the effectiveness of generic pork advertising in Australia up to 1988. However, the previous studi...

  11. Diagnostic characteristics of circovirus infection in pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Ivica Gjurovski; Branko Angelovski; Toni Dovenski; Dine Mitrov; Trpe Ristoski

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the results from the histopathology and the immunohistochemical method in the diagnostic of Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) infection in pigs. The circovirus infection is a pig disease that is caused by a small, spherical, nonenveloped virus with a single stranded DNA genome which is spread throughout the pig industry worldwide. The circovirus is the etiological agent of a several pig diseases which today are thought to be the cause of the greatest economi...

  12. Pigs leptospirosis at the territory of Belgrade

    OpenAIRE

    Vojinović Dragica; Vasić Ana; Jovičić Dubravka; Đuričić Bosiljka; Ilić Živka

    2014-01-01

    Examinations of pig blood samples have been carried out at public pig farms in three Belgrade municipalities: Palilula, Surcin and Obrenovac. The number of tested blood serums of pigs at Palilula was 18990, in Surcin 7739 and in Obrenovac it was 8200. The number of positive blood serums on leptospirosis in pigs was 760, and out of that number the most positive samples (496) were in Surcin, followed by Palilula (217), and the least were found in Obrenovac (4...

  13. Genomic diversity and introgression in O. sativa reveal the impact of domestication and breeding on the rice genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keyan Zhao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The domestication of Asian rice (Oryza sativa was a complex process punctuated by episodes of introgressive hybridization among and between subpopulations. Deep genetic divergence between the two main varietal groups (Indica and Japonica suggests domestication from at least two distinct wild populations. However, genetic uniformity surrounding key domestication genes across divergent subpopulations suggests cultural exchange of genetic material among ancient farmers. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we utilize a novel 1,536 SNP panel genotyped across 395 diverse accessions of O. sativa to study genome-wide patterns of polymorphism, to characterize population structure, and to infer the introgression history of domesticated Asian rice. Our population structure analyses support the existence of five major subpopulations (indica, aus, tropical japonica, temperate japonica and GroupV consistent with previous analyses. Our introgression analysis shows that most accessions exhibit some degree of admixture, with many individuals within a population sharing the same introgressed segment due to artificial selection. Admixture mapping and association analysis of amylose content and grain length illustrate the potential for dissecting the genetic basis of complex traits in domesticated plant populations. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Genes in these regions control a myriad of traits including plant stature, blast resistance, and amylose content. These analyses highlight the power of population genomics in agricultural systems to identify functionally important regions of the genome and to decipher the role of human-directed breeding in refashioning the genomes of a domesticated species.

  14. The use of pigs in neuroscience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Nanna Marie; Moustgaard, Anette; Jelsing, Jacob;

    2007-01-01

    The use of pigs in neuroscience research has increased in the past decade, which has seen broader recognition of the potential of pigs as an animal for experimental modeling of human brain disorders. The volume of available background data concerning pig brain anatomy and neurochemistry has...

  15. Weaning the pig - Concepts and consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pluske, J.R.; Dividich, Le J.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2003-01-01

    Weaning the Pig: Concepts and Consequences addresses the major issues surrounding the weaning process, both for piglets and the breeding herd, in modern-day pig production. The post-weaned pig presents many challenges to the manager, stockperson and nutritionist, and as such is a critical phase in t

  16. Exploring Asian American racial identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Grace A; Lephuoc, Paul; Guzmán, Michele R; Rude, Stephanie S; Dodd, Barbara G

    2006-07-01

    In this study the authors used cluster analysis to create racial identity profiles for a sample of Asian Americans using the People of Color Racial Identity Attitudes Scale (PCRIAS). A four-cluster solution was chosen: each cluster corresponded to one PCRIAS subscale and was named accordingly. Scores on the Asian American Racism-Related Stress Inventory and the Color-Blind Racial Attitudes Scale were compared across clusters. As expected, the Dissonance and Immersion clusters were characterized by relatively high racism-related stress and low levels of color-blind attitudes; the Conformity cluster showed roughly the opposite pattern. Surprisingly, the Internalization cluster showed a pattern similar to that for Conformity and thus may reflect "pseudoindependence" as discussed by Helms. PMID:16881750

  17. Metabolic syndrome in South Asians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushik Pandit

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available South Asia is home to one of the largest population of people with metabolic syndrome (MetS. The prevalence of MetS in South Asians varies according to region, extent of urbanization, lifestyle patterns, and socioeconomic/cultural factors. Recent data show that about one-third of the urban population in large cities in India has the MetS. All classical risk factors comprising the MetS are prevalent in Asian Indians residing in India. The higher risk in this ethnic population necessitated a lowering of the cut-off values of the risk factors to identify and intervene for the MetS to prevent diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Some pharmacological and nonpharmacological interventions are underway in MetS to assess the efficacy in preventing the diabetes and cardiovascular disease in this ethnic population.

  18. Augmentation Mammaplasty in Asian Women

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Ming-Huei; Huang, Jung-Ju

    2009-01-01

    With the rapid economic development of Southeast Asia, the demand for cosmetic surgery has increased rapidly. Breast augmentation is among the most frequently performed cosmetic procedures. However, breast augmentation still has “bad press” in Southeast Asia because of not so distant catastrophes caused by direct liquid silicone injection and “Amazing Gel” augmentations. Asian patients have special characteristics that need to be taken into consideration when performing breast augmentation. T...

  19. Lessons from the Asian Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Mishkin, Frederic S.

    2000-01-01

    This paper provides an asymmetric information analysis of the recent East Asian crisis. It then outlines several lessons from this crisis. First, there is a strong rationale for an international lender of last resort. Second, without appropriate conditionality for this lending, the moral hazard created by operation of an international lender of last resort can promote financial instability. Third, although capital flows did contribute to the crisis, they are a symptom rather than an underlyin...

  20. Path Integral and Asian Options

    OpenAIRE

    Peng Zhang

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we analytically study the problem of pricing an arithmetically averaged Asian option in the path integral formalism. By a trick about the Dirac delta function, the measure of the path integral is defined by an effective action functional whose potential term is an exponential function. This path integral is evaluated by use of the Feynman-Kac theorem. After working out some auxiliary integrations involving Bessel and Whittaker functions, we arrive at the spectral expansion for t...

  1. Sustainability in South Asian city

    OpenAIRE

    Ghulam Akhmat; Muhammad Mahroof Khan; Mumtaz Ali

    2011-01-01

    South Asia is one of most densely populated region in the world. Currently, 28.33% of the South Asian population lives in urban areas, with an annual growth rate of 2.92%. Shifting of jobs from agriculture to industry and the concentration of economic opportunities in urban areas are causing tremendous increase in urbanisation in the region, which is seriously affecting the environment, and poses strong challenges to governments in terms of the infrastructure and services. In this article, we...

  2. Asian Tigers' Choices: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Chow, Hwee Kwan

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers the choices facing the Asian tiger economies regarding growth strategies that foster trans-Pacific rebalancing. A review of historical data spanning 2000 to 2008 reveals only a slight widening of the overall current account surplus but that there is considerable variation across the countries, with Hong Kong, China exhibiting the biggest increase in the saving and investment (S-I) balance. Meanwhile, cross-correlation coefficient estimates tentatively suggest that changes...

  3. Passives in South Asian languages:

    OpenAIRE

    Chandra, Pritha; Anindita SAHOOA

    2013-01-01

    Haspelmath (2010) debates whether universal (descriptive) categories of the types that generativists (cf. Newmeyer, 2007) envisage are real and needed for cross-linguistic studies. Instead every language has its own unique set of categories. We raise doubt on this “categorial particularism” position by drawing on underlying similarities of passive constructions of three South Asian languages - Oriya (Indo-Aryan), Malayalam (Dravidian) and Kharia (Austro-Asiatic). Unlike English-type passives,...

  4. The Rise of Asian SMEs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Export-oriented Asian SMEs-and the vital role they play in generating growth and employment-traversed difficult financial terrain in 2008-09.But with the global financial crisis behind them,their outlook is only looking more prospective with time.Sore Subroto,global head of SME Banking of Standard Chartered Bank,explained SMEs' function and difficulties in an exclusive article for Beijing Review.

  5. The Rise of Asian SMEs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Export-oriented Asian SMEs-and the vital role they play in generating growth and employment-traversed difficult financial terrain in 2008-09.But with the global financial crisis behind them,their outlook is only looking more prospective with time.Som Subroto,global head of SME Banking of Standard Chartered Bank,explained SMEs’function and difficulties in an exclusive article for Beijing Review.Edited excerpts follow

  6. Complete Genome Sequence of an H10N5 Avian Influenza Virus Isolated from Pigs in Central China

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Nan; Zou, Wei; Yang, Ying; Guo, Xuebo; Hua, Yafeng; Qiang ZHANG; Zhao, Zongzheng; Jin, Meilin

    2012-01-01

    An avian H10N5 influenza virus, A/swine/Hubei/10/2008/H10N5, was isolated from pigs in the Hubei Province of central China. Homology and phylogenetic analyses of all eight gene segments demonstrated that the strain was wholly of avian origin and closely homologous to the Eurasian lineage avian influenza virus. To our knowledge, this is the first report of interspecies transmission of an avian H10N5 influenza virus to domestic pigs under natural conditions.

  7. GRP nerves in pig antrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, J J; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    We extracted gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) and its C-terminal decapeptide corresponding to 6.4 and 6.8 pmol/g from pig antrum mucosa. By immunohistochemistry GRP was localized to mucosal, submucosal, and myenteric nerve fibers. A few nerve cell bodies were also identified. Using isolated perfused...... pig antrum with intact vagal innervation, we found concomitant, atropine-resistant release of GRP and gastrin during electrical stimulation of the vagal nerves. Intra-arterial GRP at 10(-11)-10(-10) mol/l caused up to fivefold, dose-dependent increases in gastrin secretion; higher doses were less...... response to GRP and abolished the effect of vagal stimulation. The available evidence strongly suggests that GRP nerves are responsible for the stimulatory vagal effects on gastrin secretion in the pig....

  8. Asian School of Nuclear Medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Asian School of Nuclear Medicine (ASNM) was formed in February 2003, with the ARCCNM as the parent body. Aims of ASNM: 1. To foster Education in Nuclear Medicine among the Asian countries, particularly the less developed ones. 2. To promote training of Nuclear Medicine Physicians in cooperation with government agencies, IAEA and universities and societies. 3. To assist in national and regional training courses, award continuing medical education (CME) points and provide regional experts for advanced educational programmes. 4. To work towards awarding of diplomas or degrees in association with recognized universities by distance learning and practical attachments, with examinations. The ASNM works toward a formal training courses leading to the award of a certificate in the long term. The most fundamental job of the ASNM remains the transfer of knowledge from the more developed countries to the less developed ones in the Asian region. The ASNM could award credit hours to the participants of training courses conducted in the various countries and conduct electronic courses and examinations. CME programmes may also be conducted as part of the regular ARCCNM meetings and the ASNM will award CME credit points for such activities

  9. A comparative study on the effect of subtherapeutic tylosin administration on select feral or domestic porcine gut microflora grown in continuous-flow culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Continuous flow cultures of feral (culture FC) and domesticated (culture RPCF) pig gut microflora were established in steady state. Cultures, in duplicate, were continuously infused subtherapeutic (25 ug/ml) levels of tylosin and sampled at intervals to assess effects on total culturable anaerobes,...

  10. Genetic characterisation of Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) strains from feral pigs in the Brazilian Pantanal: An opportunity to reconstruct the history of PCV2 evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzo, Giovanni; Cortey, Martí; de Castro, Alessandra Marnie Martins Gomes; Piovezan, Ubiratan; Szabo, Matias Pablo Juan; Drigo, Michele; Segalés, Joaquim; Richtzenhain, Leonardo José

    2015-07-01

    Since its discovery, Porcine circovirus type 2 has emerged as one of the most relevant swine infectious diseases, causing relevant economic losses for the pig industry. While four genotypes were identified, only three (PCV2a, PCV2b and PCV2d) are currently circulating and display a worldwide distribution. Another genotype, PCV2c, has been described only once in Danish archive samples collected between 1980 and 1990. In addition to commercial pigs, PCV2 has been demonstrated to infect wild boars and other wild species, which can potentially serve as a reservoir for domestic populations. In this study, eight sequences obtained from feral pigs in the Pantanal region (Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil) were compared with reference sequences and other Brazilian sequences, and the results revealed remarkable genetic diversity, with all four genotypes currently recognised being detected (PCV2a, PCV2b, PCV2c and PCV2d). This finding represents a remarkable discovery, as it is the first detection of PCV2c since 1990 and the first-ever detection of PCV2c in live animals. The peculiar population history and ecological scenario of feral pigs in the Pantanal coupled with the complex, and still only partially known relationship of feral pigs with other PCV2 susceptible species (i.e., domestic pigs, wild boars and peccaries), open exciting questions concerning PCV2 origin and evolution. Overall, the results of the present study led us to form the following hypothesis: the PCV2 strains found in feral pigs may be the last descent of the strains that circulated among European pigs in the past, or they may have infected these feral pigs more recently through a bridge species. PMID:25975522

  11. DNA testing and domestic dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Mellersh, Cathryn

    2011-01-01

    There are currently about 80 different DNA tests available for mutations that are associated with inherited disease in the domestic dog, and as the tools available with which to dissect the canine genome become increasingly sophisticated, this number can be expected to rise dramatically over the next few years. With unrelenting media pressure focused firmly on the health of the purebred domestic dog, veterinarians and dog breeders are turning increasingly to DNA tests to ensure the health of ...

  12. Domestic Distortions and International Trade.

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, James E.; Geoffrey J. Bannister; Neary, J. Peter

    1995-01-01

    In this paper, the authors develop techniques for measuring the trade policy equivalent of domestic distortions using a distance function approach. Their measure, the trade restrictiveness index, is shown to equal the uniform tariff that is welfare equivalent to a given pattern of domestic taxes and subsidies. The authors extend the index to incorporate taxes in markets for nontraded goods and factors of production and illustrate its operationality with an application to liberalization in Mex...

  13. FDI Outflows and Domestic Investment

    OpenAIRE

    Dasgupta, Nandita

    2016-01-01

    The recent phenomenon of rising outward foreign direct investment (OFDI) flows has raised serious policy concerns about its effects on the domestic investment and capital formation in the countries of origin of such FDI flows. Does OFDI stimulate domestic investment or does it crowd it out? The concern arises because OFDI activities could shift not only some of the production activities from home to foreign destinations but also could possibly threaten the availability of scarce financial res...

  14. Domestic violence against elderly women.

    OpenAIRE

    Grunfeld, A F; Larsson, D. M.; Mackay, K; Hotch, D.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the experiences of four elderly abused women to better understand the influence of violence on their lives and the implications for intervention by family physicians. DESIGN: Qualitative case presentations of four elderly women who participated in a hospital-based domestic violence intervention program. SETTING: The Domestic Violence Program of Vancouver Hospital and Health Sciences Centre, an intervention program based in the emergency department. PARTICIPANTS: Four En...

  15. International standards and domestic violence

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolić-Ristanović Vesna Ž.; Dokmanović Mirjana

    2005-01-01

    The majority states in the world, as well as Serbia and Montenegro, took over the obligations from international law documents with regards to prevention, protection and prosecution of domestic violence. Over the last several years, in Serbia and Montenegro, there have been some positive steps regarding more decisive reaction on domestic violence, in the first place thanks to NGOs advocacy. However, the state involvement and contribution is still symbolic in comparison with obligations that i...

  16. Droughts in Asian Least Developed Countries: Vulnerability and sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Alimullah Miyan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Droughts occur both in developed and developing countries with significant impacts and are exacerbating in frequency, severity and duration. Over exploitation of water resources, weather variability and climate change are mostly responsible for such exacerbation. The impacts of droughts encompass the global ecosystem as a whole but vary from region to region. Least developed countries (LDCs are becoming the worst sufferer of the impacts due to physical, social and economic as well as knowledge and skills differences. The increasing biophysical vulnerability contexts and intensity in the Asian LDCs causing adverse effects on food security, human health, biodiversity, water resources, hydroelectric power generation, streams, perennial springs, and livelihood. Drought is also responsible for increasing pollution, pests and diseases and forced migration and famine. Information indicates monsoon has become erratic contributing to up-scaling of droughts. South and Southeast Asian LDCs like Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan, Cambodia and Lao PDR under the monsoon climatic zone have also been suffering from increasing droughts arising out of delayed and changing distribution patterns of precipitation. Prolong dry spells increase the frequencies of wildfire in grasslands, forests, and range-lands. The rain-fed crops of the plains are facing challenges from soil-moisture stress with projected droughts. Droughts causing migration of fishes, and marine anadromus species are having adverse impacts on spawning habitats. Reduction in annual surface runoff is decreasing the ground and surface water with negative effect on agriculture and water supply for industrial and domestic sectors. As droughts are exacerbating the consequences are accelerating. However, traditionally people are adapting with the changing situations applying indigenous knowledge and practices for sustainable living. This paper reflects on prevalence and impacts of droughts, existing coping

  17. Blueprint for domestic uranium enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The AEC advisory committee on domestic production of uranium enrichment has studied for more than a year how to achieve the domestic enrichment of uranium by the construction and operation of a commercial enriching plant using centrifugal separation method, and the report was submitted to the Atomic Energy Commission on August 18, 1980. Japan has depended wholly on overseas services for her uranium enrichment needs, but the development of domestic enrichment has been carried on in parallel. The AEC decided to construct a uranium enrichment pilot plant using centrifuges, and it has been forwarded as a national project. The plant is operated by the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp. since 1979. The capacity of the plant will be raised to approximately 75 ton SWU a year. The centrifuges already operated have provided the first delivery of fuel of about 1 ton for the ATR ''Fugen''. The demand-supply balance of uranium enrichment service, the significance of the domestic enrichment of uranium, the evaluation of uranium enrichment technology, the target for domestic enrichment plan, the measures to promote domestic uranium enrichment, and the promotion of the construction of a demonstration plant are reported. (Kako, I.)

  18. Asian School of Nuclear Medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of organisations are involved in the field of nuclear medicine education. These include International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), World Federation of Nuclear Medicine and Biology (WFNMB), Asia-Oceania Federation of Nuclear Medicine and Biology (AOFNMB), Society of Nuclear Medicine (SNM in USA), European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM). Some Universities also have M.Sc courses in Nuclear Medicine. In the Asian Region, an Asian Regional Cooperative Council for Nuclear Medicine (ARCCNM) was formed in 2000, initiated by China, Japan and Korea, with the main aim of fostering the spread of Nuclear Medicine in Asia. The Asian School of Nuclear Medicine (ASNM) was formed in February 2003, with the ARCCNM as the parent body. The Aims of ASNM are: to foster Education in Nuclear Medicine among the Asian countries, particularly the less developed regions; to promote training of Nuclear Medicine Physicians in cooperation with government agencies, IAEA and universities and societies; to assist in national and regional training courses, award continuing medical education (CME) points and provide regional experts for advanced educational programmes; and to work towards awarding of diplomas or degrees in association with recognised universities by distance learning and practical attachments, with examinations. There are 10 to 12 teaching faculty members from each country comprising of physicists, radio pharmacists as well as nuclear medicine physicians. From this list of potential teaching experts, the Vice-Deans and Dean of ASNM would then decide on the 2 appropriate teaching faculty member for a given assignment or a course in a specific country. The educational scheme could be in conjunction with the ARCCNM or with the local participating countries and their nuclear medicine organisations, or it could be a one-off training course in a given country. This teaching faculty is purely voluntary with no major expenses paid by the ASNM; a token contribution could be

  19. Emergence of avian H1N1 influenza viruses in pigs in China.

    OpenAIRE

    Guan, Y.; Shortridge, K. F.; Krauss, S.; Li, P H; Kawaoka, Y.; Webster, R G

    1996-01-01

    Avian influenza A viruses from Asia are recognized as the source of genes that reassorted with human vital genes to generate the Asian/57 (H2N2) and Hong Kong/68 (H3N2) pandemic strains earlier in this century. Here we report the genetic analysis of avian influenza A H1N1 viruses recently isolated from pigs in southern China, a host suspected to generate new pandemic strains through gene reassortment events. Each of the eight gene segments was of avian origin. Phylogenetic analysis indicates ...

  20. Factors identifying pigs predisposed to tail biting

    OpenAIRE

    Beattie, V. E.; Breuer, K.; O Connell, N. E.; Sneddon, I. A.; Mercer, J. T.; Rance, K. A.; Sutcliffe, M. E. M.; Edwards, S A

    2005-01-01

    Approximately 5% of pigs slaughtered in the UK have been tail-bitten, leading to welfare and production issues. Tail biting is sporadic and not all pigs tail bite. The aim of this study was to identify factors that are common in pigs that perform tail-biting behaviour, and that might be used in a predictive way to identify such animals. The behaviour of 159 pigs was observed in the post-weaning period. Pigs were weaned at 4 weeks of age. In the week prior to weaning and at 6 weeks of age each...

  1. Fermentation of liquid diets for pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Scholten, R.

    2001-01-01

    In the last 30 years major changes occurred in pig nutrition. With the increasing size of the pig farms, manual feeding was replaced by automatic feeding systems. Most pigs were fed on dry diets, but during last the 15 years a clear tendency towards liquid feeding systems was observed. In the early 80's the use of liquid co-products from the human food industry was introduced into pig nutrition. In the Netherlands, nowadays about 20% of the slaughter pigs and about 10% of the sows is fed a li...

  2. Correlates of Suicidal Behaviors Among Asian Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Duldulao, Aileen Alfonso; Takeuchi, David T.; Hong, Seunghye

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the correlates of suicidal ideation, suicide plan and suicide attempt among Asian Americans focusing on nativity and gender. Analyses are performed on data from the National Latino and Asian American Study (N=2095), the first ever study conducted on the mental health of a national sample of Asian Americans. The sample is comprised of adults with 998 men (47%) and 1,097 (53%) women. Weighted logistic regression analyses reveal that US-born women have a higher percentage tha...

  3. Heterogeneity within the Asian American community

    OpenAIRE

    Oh Gia; Nguyen Tammy; Ryujin Lisa; Sadler Georgia; Paik Grace; Kustin Brenda

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Background Educational interventions are grounded on scientific data and assumptions about the community to be served. While the Pan Asian community is composed of multiple, ethnic subgroups, it is often treated as a single group for which one health promotion program will be applicable for all of its cultural subgroups. Compounding this stereotypical view of the Pan Asian community, there is sparse data about the cultural subgroups' similarities and dissimilarities. The Asian Grocer...

  4. Immigration and Mental Disorders among Asian Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Takeuchi, David T.; Zane, Nolan; Hong, Seunghye; Chae, David H.; Gong, Fang; Gee, Gilbert C.; Walton, Emily; Sue, Stanley; Alegria, Margarita

    2007-01-01

    Objectives. We examined lifetime and 12-month rates of any depressive, anxiety, and substance abuse disorders in a national sample of Asian Americans. We focused on factors related to nativity and immigration as possible correlates of mental disorders. Methods. Data were derived from the National Latino and Asian American Study, the first national epidemiological survey of Asian Americans in the United States. Results. The relationships between immigration-related factors and mental disorders...

  5. A putative East Asian business model

    OpenAIRE

    Linda Low

    2006-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims to distill from both the Asian “miracle” and the “meltdown” since the Asian crisis, a generic East Asian business model which is changing in the context of globalisation, information communication technology, knowledge-based economy, deregulation and emerging new competition. Design/methodology/approach – The generic business model considers the creative and innovative nature of intellectual capital in a qualitative macroeconomic development model rather than a quant...

  6. A South Asian American diasporic aesthetic community?

    OpenAIRE

    Murthy, Dhiraj

    2007-01-01

    Abstract In the late 1990s, a diverse group of British South Asian musicians began to gain notoriety in the UK for their distinctive blends of synthesized beats with what were considered South Asian elements (e.g. tabla, sitar and `Hindustani' samples). Following these successes, the British media industries engaged in discourses on whether these South Asian musicians should be labelled under pre-existing musical genres such as acid jazz and electronic music or under an ethnically ...

  7. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    APJTB Monthly Aims&Scope Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine(APJTB)aims to set up and provide an international academic communication platform for physicians,medical scientists,allied health scientists and public health workers,especially those in the Asian Pacific region and worldwide on tropical biomedicine,infectious diseases and public health,and to meet the growing challenges of understanding,preventing and controlling the dramatic global emergence and reemergence of infectious diseases in the Asian Pacific region.

  8. Summary Report: Asian Pacific Islander Workers Hearing

    OpenAIRE

    Asian Pacific American Labor Alliance; AFL-CIO; UCLA Labor Center

    2002-01-01

    The first ever California State Assembly Hearing on Asian Pacific Islander Workers was convened by the Labor Employment Committee and the Asian Pacific Islander Legislative Caucus, at the request of Assembly member Judy Chu. The Hearing brought together Asian Pacific Islander workers and advocates from all over California. Their stories are a snapshot of millions of workers. The testimonies gave a glimpse of the detrimental impact that worker exploitation has on families and communities. Most...

  9. RODOS - The domestic counterpart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One term of reference for validly teaming up with Project RODOS (Real-Time-On-Line Decision Support System for Nuclear Emergencies in Europe) is to institutionally - contribute research initiatives geared towards emulating the RODOS functions on novel conceptual pathways, expand system's coverage of issues that are relevant in a nuclear crisis management and bring in a domestic perspective on how the system may best perform in each and every national - i.e. legal, managerial, logistic and cultural environment. On this line, one reviews the approach taken in the IFIN-HH RODOS Group to address the challenge, as well a number of representative outputs. These include: i) A phase-one, pre-RODOS, period (1990 - 1994), involving topical field orientation, feasibility demonstrations and expertise acquisition by hands-on training in environmental radiology modeling and DSS code development, the resulting products - codes in the 'APUD' and 'ACA-IFA' family, including custom versions developed by appointment of the IAEA Safety Section and AECL-Research, Ontario, Canada - being favourably reviewed by the NEA/OECD Data Bank; ii) A phase-two, upgrading and consolidation period (1994 -1996), assisted by the IAEA fellowship system and the US Government via the Nuclear Regulatory Commission in Washington, D.C, having on record an effective participation in the development of the US NRC, EPA, and DOE's 'FRMAC Assessment Manual - The Federal manual for Assessing Environmental Data during a Radiological Emergency', and the 'RTM-95 International Technical Response Manual', and the research initiative of developing a software support for the manuals' implementation - the codes 'ROBOT' (Rule-Oriented Basic Operational Tool); iii) A phase-three period (1996 - ), evolving within the RODOS framework and featuring, inter alia: (a) the application of the ROBOT concept in the development of a standalone software platform, code-named NOTEPAD for DSS support in field operations, nuclear accident

  10. The use and abuse of female domestic workers from Sri Lanka in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-habib, L

    1998-03-01

    Women who migrate from Sri Lanka to become domestic workers in Lebanon face gender, class, and race discrimination that often results in abuse, yet the predicament of these women is largely ignored by local and international humanitarian and human rights agencies. Public consciousness about the plight of Asian domestic workers in the Persian Gulf region was raised in 1990 when domestic workers were repatriated in the wake of the Gulf War. In Lebanon, nearly half of the work permits granted to foreigners in 1997 were to women from Sri Lanka. This migration began in the 1970s and is sanctioned by the Sri Lanka government because of the economic benefits accruing from wages sent home by these women. Lebanese families procure domestic positions through an employment agency that arranges transportation and entry for the Sri Lankan women. These women, especially minors, often have to bribe Sri Lankan government agents to falsify travel documents. Upon arrival in Lebanon, the women have no support systems or job security. Most employment contracts last 3 years and pay $100/month with no benefits or protection from local labor laws. Domestic workers are made vulnerable by employers who withhold salaries or travel documents. Upon return to Sri Lanka, former domestic workers face social disapproval and marital problems. To redress this situation, the governments of sending and receiving countries must take action to protect female migrant workers, and nongovernmental organizations must publicize the plight of these women and take action to address the abuses they face. PMID:12321536

  11. Asian Greek Sisterhoods: Archives, Affects, and Belongings in Asian American Sororities, 1929-2015

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Vivian

    2015-01-01

    The dissertation, Asian Greek Sisterhoods: Archives, Affects, and Belongings in Asian American Sororities, 1929-2015, examines the kinds of archives produced by Asian American women in single-gender social organizations or Asian Greek-letter sororities, reconceiving them as transformative acts of affects: embodied memory-keeping practices that transmit knowledge, traditions, cultural practices, and social customs as collective identities and communal histories across time and space, among dif...

  12. Negotiating Intra-Asian Games Networks: On Cultural Proximity, East Asian Games Design, and Chinese Farmers

    OpenAIRE

    Dean Chan

    2006-01-01

    A key feature of networked games in East Asia is the relationship between the adaptation of regional Asian aesthetic and narrative forms in game content, and the parallel growth in more regionally-focused marketing and distribution initiatives. This essay offers a contextual analysis of intra-Asian games networks, with reference to the production, marketing and circulation of Asian MMORPGs. My discussion locates these networks as part of broader discourses on regionalism, East Asian cultural ...

  13. Counseling Asians: psychotherapy in the context of racism and Asian-American history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toupin, E S

    1980-01-01

    The historical experience of Asian immigrants to the United States is outlined, and implications for counseling and psychotherapy with Asian-Americans are considered. It is suggested that, in charting therapeutic goals for Asians, three major factors must be taken into account: 1) when and why Asians migrated to the United States, and where they settled; 2) the number of years, and the impact, of public education; and 3) conflicting cultural norms that complicate the acculturation process. PMID:7356003

  14. RFamide-related peptide-like immunoreactivity in the porcine hypothalamus indicates thepresence of a gonadotropin-inhibitory system in the pig

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) was identified as an RFamide-related peptide (RFRP) in avian species. Mammalian orthologs (RFRP-1 and RFRP-3) have been reported in the human, rodents, and recently in sheep, but the role of RFRPs in the domestic pig is not established. We hypothesize that a Gn...

  15. Preliminary Measurement of Internal Organs of Congjiang Fragrance Pig and Huanjiang Fragrance Pig

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen; Xuelin; Duan; Yongbang; Zhang; Yi; Liu; Peiqiong

    2014-01-01

    Fragrance pig is a famous miniature local breed in China,which is similar to human on the aspects of physical structure,anatomy,nutrition,metabolism and blood biochemical indicators. The internal organs of Congjiang fragrance pig and Huanjiang fragrance pig with different month ages were weighed. The results showed that the proportion of stomach in body weight in Congjiang fragrance pig was higher than that in Min pig,Harbin white and Landrace,and the proportion of large intestine in body weight in Congjiang fragrance pig was also higher than that in ordinary pigs; the weights of heart,liver and kidney in 8- 10 months old Congjiang fragrance pig were similar to that in Chinese adults. This provided reference data for future in-depth development and utilization of fragrance pig.

  16. Development of Local Pig in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayu Dewantoro Putro Soewandi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is a country that has the largest swine germplasm in the world and having five out of eight species, but the population of local pig has been decreasing toward extinction. This paper describes characteristic of local pig and factors that cause endangered of germplasm and strategy to prevent the declined population. One of the factors that causing decreased of local pig population is due to its lower productivity. Government policies for the development of local pigs have not been planned yet because of the socio-cultural barriers. Therefore, establishment of the genetic resource conservation for local pig area is required. In addition, local pig preservation activities can be integrated with the promotion of cultural heritage and local traditions. Development strategy should be planned to increase local pig value, including (1 Build a genetic resource conservation area in the outer islands in Indonesia for wild pigs; (2 Preserving local pigs to develop local pig farms by community; and (3 Integrating maintenance of local pig farm with cultural activities through the establishment of village/tourist area.

  17. Numerical Algorithm for Delta of Asian Option

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boxiang Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the numerical solution of the Greeks of Asian options. In particular, we derive a close form solution of Δ of Asian geometric option and use this analytical form as a control to numerically calculate Δ of Asian arithmetic option, which is known to have no explicit close form solution. We implement our proposed numerical method and compare the standard error with other classical variance reduction methods. Our method provides an efficient solution to the hedging strategy with Asian options.

  18. "How Asian Am I?": Asian American Youth Cultures, Drug Use, and Ethnic Identity Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Geoffrey; Moloney, Molly; Evans, Kristin

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes the construction of ethnic identity in the narratives of 100 young Asian Americans in a dance club/rave scene. Authors examine how illicit drug use and other consuming practices shape their understanding of Asian American identities, finding three distinct patterns. The first presents a disjuncture between Asian American…

  19. Explaining Varying Asian Responses to China: Strategic Evolution in the Cases of Japan, Korea, and Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    FEI, John

    2012-01-01

    Domestic strategic preferences among state elites to prioritize economic and technological facets of national security have played a significant role in shaping the foreign policies of many Asian nations. This paper considers the role that elite preferences for economic and technological strength—preferences which are embedded and institutionalized in domestic political structures—played in shaping the security and economic policy responses of Japan, Korea, and Thailand towards China between ...

  20. Explaining Varying Asian Responses to China: Strategic Evolution in the Cases of Japan, Korea, and Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    FEI, John

    2012-01-01

    Domestic strategic preferences among state elites to prioritize economic and technological facets of national security have played a significant role in shaping the foreign policies of many Asian nations. This paper considers the role that elite preferences for economic and technological strength—preferences which are embedded and institutionalized in domestic political structures—played in shaping the security and economic policy responses of Japan, Korea, and Thailand towards Chi...

  1. The International Allocation of R&D Activity by US Multinationals: The East Asian Experience in Comparative Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Prema-chandra Athukorala; Archanun Kohpaiboon

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines patterns and determinants of overseas R&D expenditure of MNEs, with emphasis on the East Asian experience, using a new panel dataset relating to US-based manufacturing MNEs over the period 1990-2001. It is found that inter-country differences in R&D intensity of operation of US MNE affiliates are fundamentally determined by the domestic market size, overall R&D capability and cost of hiring R&D personnel. The impact of domestic market orientation of affiliates on R&D prope...

  2. Keratinization of the esophageal epithelium of domesticated mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Wilfried; Schoennagel, Britta; Kacza, Johannes; Busche, Roger; Hornickel, Isabelle Nina; Hewicker-Trautwein, Marion; Schnapper, Anke

    2014-01-01

    We studied the esophageal epithelium for keratinization characteristics from samples of domesticated mammals of three nutrition groups (herbivores: horse, cattle, sheep; omnivores: pig, dog, rat; carnivores: cat) using histochemistry (keratins, disulfides), sulfur measurements, and cryo-SEM. Keratins were found in all esophageal layers of all species, except for the equine Stratum corneum. The positive reaction staining of Pan-keratin was remarkable, but decreased in intensity toward the outer layers, whereas in the pig and cat, staining was confined to the corneal layer. The herbivores revealed positive staining reactions in the upper Stratum spinosum, particularly in the sheep. Regarding single keratins, CK6 immunostating was found in most esophageal layers, but only weakly or negatively in the porcine and equine Stratum corneum. CK13 staining was restricted to the sheep and here was found in all layers. CK14 could be detected in the equine and feline Stratum basale, and upper vital layers of the dog and rat. CK17 appeared only in the Stratum spinosum and Stratum granulosum, but in all layers of the dog and cat. Disulfides reacted strongest in the Stratum corneum of the herbivores, as corroborated by the sulfur concentrations in the esophagus. Our study emphasized that keratins are very important for the mechanical stability of the epithelial cells and cell layers of the mammalian esophagus. The role of these keratins in the esophageal epithelia is of specific interest owing to the varying feed qualities and mechanical loads of different nutrition groups, which have to be countered. PMID:23948668

  3. A study of alternative splicing in the pig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jørgensen Claus B

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since at least half of the genes in mammalian genomes are subjected to alternative splicing, alternative pre-mRNA splicing plays an important contribution to the complexity of the mammalian proteome. Expressed sequence tags (ESTs provide evidence of a great number of possible alternative isoforms. With the EST resource for the domestic pig now containing more than one million porcine ESTs, it is possible to identify alternative splice forms of the individual transcripts in this species from the EST data with some confidence. Results The pig EST data generated by the Sino-Danish Pig Genome project has been assembled with publicly available ESTs and made available in the PigEST database. Using the Distiller package 2,515 EST clusters with candidate alternative isoforms were identified in the EST data with high confidence. In agreement with general observations in human and mouse, we find putative splice variants in about 30% of the contigs with more than 50 ESTs. Based on the criteria that a minimum of two EST sequences confirmed each splice event, a list of 100 genes with the most distinct tissue-specific alternative splice events was generated from the list of candidates. To confirm the tissue specificity of the splice events, 10 genes with functional annotation were randomly selected from which 16 individual splice events were chosen for experimental verification by quantitative PCR (qPCR. Six genes were shown to have tissue specific alternatively spliced transcripts with expression patterns matching those of the EST data. The remaining four genes had tissue-restricted expression of alternative spliced transcripts. Five out of the 16 splice events that were experimentally verified were found to be putative pig specific. Conclusions In accordance with human and rodent studies we estimate that approximately 30% of the porcine genes undergo alternative splicing. We found a good correlation between EST predicted tissue

  4. Florfenicol - pharmacodynamic, pharmacokinetics and clinical efficacy of oral formulations in domestic animals: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ščuka Leon

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC is a major economic problem for swine producers world-wide. Pharmacodynamic, pharmacokinetics and clinical efficacy of florfenicol oral formulations in domestic animals were evaluated. For this purpose the systematic review and meta-analysis were done. In vitro efficacy of florfenicol showed that this drug is highly effective against most important respiratory pathogens. All these facts are shown in our survey. Three studies in pigs were relevant to include in the meta-analysis, which showed that results in the florfenicol group were better than in comparative control groups in all observed parameters: clinical signs, lung lesions and resolution of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (P<0,001. A second meta-analysis with 7 studies showed that the usage of florfenicol reduces mortality in pig herds with PRDC (P<0.05. Other field trials in pigs using florfenicol oral forms where reviewed. After treatment with florfenicol oral solution there was a significant drop of mortality in both groups of pigs (P<0.01; eg. one using florfenicol oral solution in treating PRDC (n=85 and another mixed pneumoenteric infection (n=54. Analysis of data when using premix in pigs (n=118 also suggests that a medicated premix has a favorable anti-infectious effect on pigs, irrespective of the group of animals or the evolution stage of the disease. Finally, favorable effect of florfenicol in treating swine ileitis was also presented. Regarding their pharmacokinetics, in vitro and clinical efficacy of florfenicol oral forms, they should be considered as a powerful tool for combating complex infections that are frequently met in intensive animal production.

  5. Prevalence of Endemic Pig-Associated Zoonoses in Southeast Asia: A Review of Findings from the Lao People's Democratic Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okello, Anna L; Burniston, Stephanie; Conlan, James V; Inthavong, Phouth; Khamlome, Boualam; Welburn, Susan C; Gilbert, Jeffrey; Allen, John; Blacksell, Stuart D

    2015-05-01

    The increasing intensification of pork production in southeast Asia necessitates an urgent requirement to better understand the dual impact of pig-associated zoonotic disease on both pig production and human health in the region. Sharing porous borders with five countries and representing many regional ethnicities and agricultural practices, the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) appears well placed to gauge the levels of pig-associated zoonoses circulating in the wider region. Despite this, little is known about the true impact of zoonotic pathogens such as leptospirosis, Trichinella, hepatitis E virus (HEV), Japanese encephalitis (JE), and Taenia solium on human health and livestock production in the country. A comprehensive review of the published prevalences of these five pig-associated zoonoses in Lao PDR has demonstrated that although suspicion remains high of their existence in pig reservoirs across the country, epidemiological data are scarce; only 31 epidemiological studies have been undertaken on these diseases in the past 25 years. A greater understanding of the zoonoses prevalence and subsequent risks associated with pork production in the southeast Asian region could help focus public health and food safety interventions at key points along the value chain, benefiting both livestock producers and the broader animal and human health systems in the region. PMID:25802431

  6. Career development: domestic display as imperial, anthropological, and social trophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintle, Claire

    2008-01-01

    Analyzing the dynamics of collection and display in the colonial context, this essay considers the South Asian artifacts collected by Sir Richard Carnac Temple, Chief Commissioner of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands from 1894-1904. Temple exhibited the teak carvings, body adornments, and hunting tools that he amassed throughout his career in his home, The Nash, which became the foundation of his public persona as a triumphant colonial chief, a "shining light" in the emerging discipline of anthropology, and a wealthy, upper-class lord of the manor. The politics of consumption, decoration, and self-creation converge in The Nash, offering a glimpse into how material objects removed from India during the late nineteenth century were consumed in Britain and how domestic display contributed to the formation of British identity. PMID:19069005

  7. The Early Rice Project: From Domestication to Global Warming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorian Q. Fuller

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The Early Rice Project, at the UCL Institute of Archaeology, is clarifying the origins of Asian rice agriculture. In the Lower Yangtze region of China, we have found the tipping point when domesticated forms first outnumber wild types c.4600 BC. Investigations of assorted weed flora are also revealing how the cultivation of rice changed over time, with early cultivation in small, irregular, dug-out paddy fields in the Lower Yangtze from c.4000 BC, providing a means for the careful control of water conditions. We also work on early rice cultivation in Thailand and India. By better characterising how rice was cultivated across its entire range, we aim to model the ancient output of atmospheric methane from wet rice fields, as this was a potential contributor to the long story of human-caused global warming.

  8. Domestic cooking methods affect the nutritional quality of red cabbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Feng; Zheng, Yonghua; Yang, Zhenfeng; Cao, Shifeng; Shao, Xingfeng; Wang, Hongfei

    2014-10-15

    The aim of this work is to investigate the effects of domestic cooking methods, including steaming, microwave heating, boiling and stir-frying on the nutritional quality of red cabbage. Compared with fresh-cut red cabbage, all cooking methods were found to cause significant reduction in anthocyanin and total glucosinolates contents. Moreover, steaming resulted in significantly greater retention of vitamin C and DPPH radical-scavenging activity, while stir-frying and boiling, two popular Chinese cooking methods, led to significant losses of total phenolic, vitamin C, DPPH radical-scavenging activity, and total soluble sugar as well as reducing sugars. Normally, red cabbage consumed fresh in salads could maintain the highest nutrition. However, considering the habits of Asian cuisine, it is recommended to use less water and less cooking time, such as steaming based on our present results, so as to retain the optimum benefits of the health-promoting compounds. PMID:24837935

  9. The Genetic Architecture of Domestication in Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Dominic Wright

    2015-01-01

    Domestication has been essential to the progress of human civilization, and the process itself has fascinated biologists for hundreds of years. Domestication has led to a series of remarkable changes in a variety of plants and animals, in what is termed the "domestication phenotype." In domesticated animals, this general phenotype typically consists of similar changes in tameness, behavior, size/morphology, color, brain composition, and adrenal gland size. This domestication phenotype is seen...

  10. Culture and Personality Among European American and Asian American Men

    OpenAIRE

    Eap, Sopagna; DeGarmo, David S.; Kawakami, Ayaka; Hara, Shelley N.; Hall, Gordon C.N.; Teten, Andra L.

    2008-01-01

    Personality differences between Asian American (N = 320) and European American men (N = 242) and also among Asian American ethnic groups (Korean, Chinese, Japanese, Filipino, and mixed Asian) are examined on the Big Five personality dimension. Personality structures for Asian Americans and European Americans closely replicate established norms. However, congruence is greater for European American and highly acculturated Asian American men than for low acculturated Asian American men. Similar ...

  11. Risk factors for contacts between wild boar and outdoor pigs in Switzerland and investigations on potential Brucella suis spill-over

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Natacha

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to the parallel increase of the number of free-ranging wild boar and domestic pigs reared outdoor, the risk that they interact has become higher. Contacts with wild boar can be the origin of disease outbreaks in pigs, as it has been documented for brucellosis in some European countries. This study aimed at quantifying the occurrence of contacts between wild boar and outdoor domestic pigs in Switzerland, and identifying risk factors for these contacts. Furthermore, exposed pigs were tested for pathogen spill-over, taking Brucella suis as an example because B. suis is widespread in Swiss wild boar while domestic pigs are officially free of brucellosis. Results Thirty-one percent of the game-wardens and 25% of the pig owners participating to a country-wide questionnaire survey reported contacts, including approaches of wild boar outside the fence, intrusions, and mating. Seventeen piggeries (5% reported the birth of cross-bred animals. Risk factors for contacts identified by a uni- and multivariable logistic regression approach were: distance between pig enclosure and buildings, proximity of a forest, electric fences, and fences ≤ 60 cm. Pigs of the Mangalitza breed were most at risk for mating with wild boar (births of cross-bred animals. Blood and tissues of 218 outdoor pigs from 13 piggeries were tested for an infection with Brucella suis, using rose bengal test, complement fixation test, and an IS711-based real-time PCR. One piggery with previous wild boar contacts was found infected with B. suis, however, epidemiological investigations failed to identify the direct source of infection. Conclusions Results show that interactions between wild boar and outdoor pigs are not uncommon, pointing at the existing risk of pathogen spill-over. Provided data on risk factors for these interactions could help the risk-based implementation of protection measures for piggeries. The documentation of a brucellosis outbreak in

  12. Multi-perpetrator domestic violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, Michael

    2014-04-01

    A significant proportion of reports of domestic violence against women involve multiple perpetrators. Although the number of perpetrators has been consistently identified as a measure of abuse severity, only a minority of studies of domestic violence examine the role of multiple offenders. Data on multi-perpetrator domestic violence (MDV) is frequently removed from analysis in domestic violence studies, or multi-perpetrator incidents are treated as single-perpetrator incidents. However, the available research links MDV to negative mental and physical health outcomes, intimate partner homicide, homelessness among women, and severe mental illness and suicidality. This article reviews the available prevalence data on MDV and draws together research on the contexts in which MDV takes place. It highlights two groups that are particularly vulnerable to MDV: (1) girls and women partnered to members of gangs and organized crime groups and (2) girls and women in some ethnic minority communities. While discussions of honor in relation to domestic violence are often racialized in Western media, this article highlights the cross-cultural role of masculine honor in collective violence against women in the working class and impoverished communities of majority cultures as well as in migrant and ethnic minority communities. It is clear that such complex forms of violence present a range of challenges for intervention and treatment and the article emphasizes the need for specialized and coordinated modes of investigation, support, and care. PMID:24217092

  13. Acoustics of old Asian bells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossing, Thomas D.

    2001-05-01

    The art of casting bronze bells developed to a high level of sophistication in China during the Shang dynasty (1766-1123 BC). Many chimes of two-tone bells remain from the Western and Eastern Zhou dynasties (1122-249 BC). With the spread of Buddhism from the third century, large round temple bells developed in China and later in Korea, Japan, and other Asian countries. Vibrational modes of some of these bells have been studied by means of holographic interferometry and experimental modal testing. Their musical as well as acoustical properties are discussed.

  14. Changing mobilities in Asian cities

    OpenAIRE

    Boquet, Yves

    2010-01-01

    Asian countries have experienced tremendous changes in their mobility patterns in recent years. As economic development has allowed a rise in the standards of living of a god part of the population, the rate of motorzation has increased very quickly. At the sametime, cities populations continue to grow at a fast pace, and the spread of the urbanized area requires more and more to be able to travel on distances too long for walking or even bicycling. Given the high density of many central citi...

  15. Introduction to Asian Herpetological Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuezhao WANG; Shengxian ZHONG

    2011-01-01

    Asian Herpetological Research (AHR),an international English language journal,is published quarterly by the Chengdu Institute of Biology (CIB),Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Science Press of China,cooperated with the Asiatic Herpetological Research Society (AHRS),with its registered numbers:CN 51-1735/Q and ISSN 2095-0357,and post distribution code:62-218.AHR has an international Editorial Board consisting of many top herpetologists from different countries in the world.The journal's website can be found at:http://www.ahr-journal.com.

  16. Asian student migration to Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, J; Hawthorne, L

    1996-01-01

    "This paper presents an overview of Asian student migration to Australia, together with an analysis of political and educational aspects of the overseas student programme. It focuses on some significant consequences of this flow for Australia. The characteristics of key student groups are contrasted to provide some perspective of the diversity of historical and cultural backgrounds, with the source countries of Malaysia, Indonesia and PRC [China] selected as case studies. Since the issue of PRC students in Australia has attracted considerable public attention and policy consideration, particular focus is placed on their experience." (SUMMARY IN FRE AND SPA) PMID:12291796

  17. A Simple Model for Learning Improvement: Weigh Pig, Feed Pig, Weigh Pig. Occasional Paper #23

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulcher, Keston H.; Good, Megan R.; Coleman, Chris M.; Smith, Kristen L.

    2014-01-01

    Assessing learning does not by itself result in increased student accomplishment, much like a pig never fattened up because it was weighed. Indeed, recent research shows that while institutions are more regularly engaging in assessment, they have little to show in the way of stronger student performance. This paper clarifies how assessment results…

  18. Metabolomic phenotyping of a cloned pig model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Callesen Henrik

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pigs are widely used as models for human physiological changes in intervention studies, because of the close resemblance between human and porcine physiology and the high degree of experimental control when using an animal model. Cloned animals have, in principle, identical genotypes and possibly also phenotypes and this offer an extra level of experimental control which could possibly make them a desirable tool for intervention studies. Therefore, in the present study, we address how phenotype and phenotypic variation is affected by cloning, through comparison of cloned pigs and normal outbred pigs. Results The metabolic phenotype of cloned pigs (n = 5 was for the first time elucidated by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR-based metabolomic analysis of multiple bio-fluids including plasma, bile and urine. The metabolic phenotype of the cloned pigs was compared with normal outbred pigs (n = 6 by multivariate data analysis, which revealed differences in the metabolic phenotypes. Plasma lactate was higher for cloned vs control pigs, while multiple metabolites were altered in the bile. However a lower inter-individual variability for cloned pigs compared with control pigs could not be established. Conclusions From the present study we conclude that cloned and normal outbred pigs are phenotypically different. However, it cannot be concluded that the use of cloned animals will reduce the inter-individual variation in intervention studies, though this is based on a limited number of animals.

  19. Domestication process of the goat revealed by an analysis of the nearly complete mitochondrial protein-encoding genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koh Nomura

    Full Text Available Goats (Capra hircus are one of the oldest domesticated species, and they are kept all over the world as an essential resource for meat, milk, and fiber. Although recent archeological and molecular biological studies suggested that they originated in West Asia, their domestication processes such as the timing of population expansion and the dynamics of their selection pressures are little known. With the aim of addressing these issues, the nearly complete mitochondrial protein-encoding genes were determined from East, Southeast, and South Asian populations. Our coalescent time estimations suggest that the timing of their major population expansions was in the Late Pleistocene and significantly predates the beginning of their domestication in the Neolithic era (≈10,000 years ago. The ω (ratio of non-synonymous rate/synonymous substitution rate for each lineage was also estimated. We found that the ω of the globally distributed haplogroup A which is inherited by more than 90% of goats examined, turned out to be extremely low, suggesting that they are under severe selection pressure probably due to their large population size. Conversely, the ω of the Asian-specific haplogroup B inherited by about 5% of goats was relatively high. Although recent molecular studies suggest that domestication of animals may tend to relax selective constraints, the opposite pattern observed in our goat mitochondrial genome data indicates the process of domestication is more complex than may be presently appreciated and cannot be explained only by a simple relaxation model.

  20. Levels and patterns of nucleotide variation in domestication QTL regions on rice chromosome 3 suggest lineage-specific selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianfa Xie

    Full Text Available Oryza sativa or Asian cultivated rice is one of the major cereal grass species domesticated for human food use during the Neolithic. Domestication of this species from the wild grass Oryza rufipogon was accompanied by changes in several traits, including seed shattering, percent seed set, tillering, grain weight, and flowering time. Quantitative trait locus (QTL mapping has identified three genomic regions in chromosome 3 that appear to be associated with these traits. We would like to study whether these regions show signatures of selection and whether the same genetic basis underlies the domestication of different rice varieties. Fragments of 88 genes spanning these three genomic regions were sequenced from multiple accessions of two major varietal groups in O. sativa--indica and tropical japonica--as well as the ancestral wild rice species O. rufipogon. In tropical japonica, the levels of nucleotide variation in these three QTL regions are significantly lower compared to genome-wide levels, and coalescent simulations based on a complex demographic model of rice domestication indicate that these patterns are consistent with selection. In contrast, there is no significant reduction in nucleotide diversity in the homologous regions in indica rice. These results suggest that there are differences in the genetic and selective basis for domestication between these two Asian rice varietal groups.

  1. Patterns and risks of trichinella infection in humans and pigs in northern Laos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James V Conlan

    Full Text Available Several outbreaks of trichinellosis associated with the consumption of raw pork have occurred in Laos since 2004. This cross-sectional study was conducted in four provinces of northern Laos to investigate the seroepidemiology of trichinellosis in the human population and determine the prevalence and species of Trichinella infection in the domestic pig population. Serum samples and questionnaire data were obtained from 1419 individuals. Serum samples were tested for Trichinella antibodies by ELISA using larval excretory-secretory (ES antigens and a subset of 68 positive samples were tested by western blot. The seroprevalence of Trichinella antibodies was 19.1% (95% confidence interval (CI = 17.1-21.1%. The risk of having antibodies detected by ELISA using ES antigens increased with age, being of Lao-Tai ethnicity, living in Oudomxay province and being male. Tongue and diaphragm muscle samples were collected from 728 pigs and tested for Trichinella larvae by the artificial digestion method. Trichinella larvae were isolated from 15 pigs (2.1% of which 13 were identified as T. spiralis by molecular typing; the species of the two remaining isolates could not be determined due to DNA degradation. Trichinella spp. are endemic in the domestic environment of northern Laos and targeted preventative health measures should be initiated to reduce the risk of further outbreaks occurring.

  2. Asian Studies Unit One: Asian Man and His Environment, Pilot Program; [And] Asian Studies Unit Two: Cultural Patterns of Asian Man, Field Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicago Board of Education, IL.

    Two units of Asian materials for secondary students comprise this document. The first unit presents a brief history of Asian man and his environment, including geography, climate, ethnic groups, resources, food, and population. Following the historical narrative are community references and various learning experiences and activities which further…

  3. Asian American Literature: Questions of Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongo, Garrett

    1994-01-01

    Argues that Asian American literature is too narrowly defined to include the wide range of diversity it contains and calls for Asian writers to produce work from a more generous interpretive perspective. American poetry is extolled for its beauty of language and its effect on the emotions to both energize and sadden. (GR)

  4. Beyond Bound Feet: Relocating Asian American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazumdar, Sucheta

    1996-01-01

    Attempts to correct the limited and stereotypical portrayal of Asian American women found in most histories. Reveals that women often played a more central and active role in the Asian American experience. Discusses little-known facets of this experience (e.g., many immigrants returned home after achieving financial security). (MJP)

  5. Immunizations and Asians and Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Program Grants Other Grants Planning and Evaluation Grantee Best Practices Asian American Asthma Cancer Chronic Liver Disease Diabetes ... 13 to 17 years who ever received the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination, 2014 - Males #doses Asian Males ... 240-453-2882 Office of Minority Health Resource Center Toll Free: 1-800-444-6472 / Fax: ...

  6. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    Aims & Scope Asian Pacific Journal of TropicalBiomedicine(APJTB) aims to set up and provide an international academic communication plaffom for physicians,medical scientisis,allied health scientists and public health workers,especially those in the Asian Pacific region and worldwide on tropical biomedicine,infectious diseases and public health,and to meet the growing challenges

  7. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    <正>Aims&Scope Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine(APJTB)aims to set up and provide an international academic communication platform for physicians,medical scientists,allied health scientists and public health workers,especially those in the Asian Pacific region and worldwide on tropical biomedicine,infectious diseases and public health,and to meet the growing challenges of understanding

  8. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    APJTB MonthlyAims&Scope Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine(APJTB)aims to set up and provide an international academic communication platform for physicians,medical scientists,allied health scientists and public health workers,especially those in the Asian Pacific region and worldwide on tropical biomedicine,infectious diseases and public health,and to meet the growing challenges

  9. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    <正>APJTB Monthly Aims&Scope Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine(APJTB)aims to set up and provide an international academic communication platform for physicians,medical scientists,allied health scientists and public health workers,especially those in the Asian Pacific region and worldwide on tropical biomedicine,infectious diseases and public

  10. Influence of light and photoperiodicity on pig prolificacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claus, R; Weiler, U

    1985-01-01

    In the wild pig mating activity is seasonal. The main breeding period is in late autumn but a second period may occur around April. It is known from other species that seasonal variations in breeding activity are mainly regulated by photoperiod. In the domestic pig seasonal influences on prolificacy still exist: for example, AI boars not only show decreased steroid synthesis, sperm counts and libido in summer compared with the optima which occur in winter but also a biphasic pattern with a transient increase in spring. In cyclic sows ovarian function may be affected with anoestrus mainly in summer and occasionally in February/March. Additionally ovulation rate may be lower in summer and the duration of oestrus prolonged compared with that in late autumn and winter. In consequence the interval from weaning to oestrus is prolonged in summer and mating during this season leads to lower conception rates and slightly smaller litters. Light programmes which extend the daily light period to a constant 15-16 h seem to be ineffective in improving reproductive characteristics of the sow but stimulate the sucking frequency of piglets and increase survival of piglets with a low birthweight. Simulation, in summer, of the decreasing photoperiod (naturally occurring in autumn) stimulates the reproductive characteristics of AI boars, optimizing testicular steroid production, libido and semen composition. Similarly, a programme of decreasing light (20 min decrease/week) from May to August removed the seasonal increase (June-August) of the weaning-to-oestrus interval which was 5.7 days (compared with 23.6 days for the controls). An interaction between photoperiod and puberty attainment seems to exist for male and female pigs. Further experiments with appropriate light programmes, however, are necessary to clarify this interaction. PMID:3910824

  11. Effect of four resuscitation methods on lung ventilation of pigs with respiratory arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-hua LIU

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective To observe the effects of four cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR methods on lung ventilation of pigs with respiratory arrest. The four CPR methods included chest compression CPR (C-CPR, compression under the diaphragm CPR (D-CPR, abdominal compression CPR (A-CPR, and abdominal wall lifting and compression CPR (L-CPR. Methods  A total of 28 healthy domestic pigs were randomly divided into four groups. The pig respiratory arrest model was reproduced by intravenous injection of suxamethonium. Instantly after respiratory arrest, one of the 4 CPR methods was performed immediately on the groups of pigs respectively. After 2min of CPR, compression was stopped. The experimental pigs were given assisted respiration using a ventilator until autonomous respiration recovered. The tidal volume (VT in basic status and that during resuscitation by the four respective resuscitation methods was determined, and minute ventilation (MV was calculated. Furthermore, heart rate (HR, mean arterial blood pressure, and recovery time of autonomous respiration were compared between all the groups. Results In basic status, there was no statistical difference (P > 0.05 in VT and MV between the four groups. Approximately 2min after resuscitation, the VT and MV of D-CPR were higher than that of C-CPR; that of A-CPR was higher than that of D-CPR; and that of L-CPR was higher than that of A-CPR. The differences were statistically significant (P 0.05. HR in C-CPR and D-CPR were notably lower than the basic value (P < 0.01. Two minutes after resuscitation, mechanical ventilation was given, and HR in all the groups was close to the basic value 5 min after resuscitation. In the respiratory arrest pig model, L-CPR could provide more effective VT and MV than the other methods. Conclusion For the porcine respiratory arrest model, L-CPR can provide more effective lung ventilation than the other methods.

  12. The production of multi-transgenic pigs: update and perspectives for xenotransplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemann, Heiner; Petersen, Bjoern

    2016-06-01

    The domestic pig shares many genetic, anatomical and physiological similarities to humans and is thus considered to be a suitable organ donor for xenotransplantation. However, prior to clinical application of porcine xenografts, three major hurdles have to be overcome: (1) various immunological rejection responses, (2) physiological incompatibilities between the porcine organ and the human recipient and (3) the risk of transmitting zoonotic pathogens from pig to humans. With the introduction of genetically engineered pigs expressing high levels of human complement regulatory proteins or lacking expression of α-Gal epitopes, the HAR can be consistently overcome. However, none of the transgenic porcine organs available to date was fully protected against the binding of anti-non-Gal xenoreactive natural antibodies. The present view is that long-term survival of xenografts after transplantation into primates requires additional modifications of the porcine genome and a specifically tailored immunosuppression regimen compliant with current clinical standards. This requires the production and characterization of multi-transgenic pigs to control HAR, AVR and DXR. The recent emergence of new sophisticated molecular tools such as Zinc-Finger nucleases, Transcription-activator like endonucleases, and the CRISPR/Cas9 system has significantly increased efficiency and precision of the production of genetically modified pigs for xenotransplantation. Several candidate genes, incl. hTM, hHO-1, hA20, CTLA4Ig, have been explored in their ability to improve long-term survival of porcine xenografts after transplantation into non-human primates. This review provides an update on the current status in the production of multi-transgenic pigs for xenotransplantation which could bring porcine xenografts closer to clinical application. PMID:26820415

  13. Impacts of Pig Management and Husbandry Farmers Towards Classical Swine Fever Transmission in West Timor Indonesia (DAMPAK MANAJEMEN DAN CARA BETERNAK BABI TERHADAP PENULARAN PENYAKIT CHOLERA BABI DI TIMOR BARAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrus Malo Bulu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Classical swine fever (CSF is a serious and highly infectious viral disease of domestic pigs and wildboar, which is caused by a single stranded RNA pestivirus. A cross sectional study was carried out onsmall-holder pig farmers in West Timor, in the province of East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia. The objectiveof this study was to describe the management, husbandry and trading practices adopted by pig farmers inWest Timor. A questionnaire survey was administered to the owners of these pigs (n = 240 to gatherinformation from farmers in order to understand management and husbandry practices in the region. Theresults of the questionnaire highlighted the lack of implementation of biosecurity measures by smallholderfarms in West Timor, which has the potential to increase the risk of their pigs to CSF, as well as toother diseases.

  14. Computational Prediction of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's Disease MicroRNAs in Domestic Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hai Yang; Lin, Zi Li; Yu, Xian Feng; Bao, Yuan; Cui, Xiang-Shun; Kim, Nam-Hyung

    2016-06-01

    As the most common neurodegenerative diseases, Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD) are two of the main health concerns for the elderly population. Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs) have been used as biomarkers of infectious, genetic, and metabolic diseases in humans but they have not been well studied in domestic animals. Here we describe a computational biology study in which human AD- and PD-associated miRNAs (ADM and PDM) were utilized to predict orthologous miRNAs in the following domestic animal species: dog, cow, pig, horse, and chicken. In this study, a total of 121 and 70 published human ADM and PDM were identified, respectively. Thirty-seven miRNAs were co-regulated in AD and PD. We identified a total of 105 unrepeated human ADM and PDM that had at least one 100% identical animal homolog, among which 81 and 54 showed 100% sequence identity with 241 and 161 domestic animal miRNAs, respectively. Over 20% of the total mature horse miRNAs (92) showed perfect matches to AD/PD-associated miRNAs. Pigs, dogs, and cows have similar numbers of AD/PD-associated miRNAs (63, 62, and 59). Chickens had the least number of perfect matches (34). Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analyses suggested that humans and dogs are relatively similar in the functional pathways of the five selected highly conserved miRNAs. Taken together, our study provides the first evidence for better understanding the miRNA-AD/PD associations in domestic animals, and provides guidance to generate domestic animal models of AD/PD to replace the current rodent models. PMID:26954182

  15. Stop Domestic Violence Against Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    IN the beautiful autumn of 1995, women from all over the world gathered at the NGO Forum of the UN Fourth World Conference on Women in Beijing to discuss the ugly topic of "women and violence." An American woman said angrily that domestic violence was "as common as giving birth to babies." She denounced the prevalence of the violent behavior that was hidden in families and called upon the participants to strive for women’s dignity and safety. The participants all recognized that domestic violence had become a global

  16. China reshapes the East Asian production network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐海燕; 张会清

    2009-01-01

    From the perspective of intra-product specialization and with in-depth analysis of trade statistics,this paper investigates the influence of China’s rise on the East Asian production network.Our conclusions suggest that in integrating into the East Asian production network,China has gradually emerged as the manufacturing center of East Asia,weakening the regional influence of the Four Asian Tigers.Meanwhile,the competitive effect of China’s rise has helped promote the specialization levels of the network’s members and even the network as a whole.With cooperation in various processes of intra-product specialization,internal connections of the East Asian production network were further strengthened.In addition,China became an export platform of East Asia,transforming the export pattern of the East Asian production network to world markets from "bilateral trade" into "triangular trade," trade via China.

  17. A Positive Domestic Violence Screen Predicts Future Domestic Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houry, Debra; Feldhaus, Kim; Peery, Benjamin; Abbott, Jean; Lowenstein, Steven R.; al-Bataa-de-Montero, Sameerah; Levine, Saul

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if a brief screen for domestic violence (DV) predicts future violence. We conducted a cohort study of adult women who presented to an inner-city emergency department during an 8-week study period. Participants were screened for DV using the Partner Violence Screen (PVS). At 4 months, follow-up telephone…

  18. Assessment of welfare in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Antonella Volpelli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the definition given by Appleby (1996, animal welfare represents the state of well-being brought about by meeting the physical, environmental, nutritional, behavioural and social needs of the animal or groups of animals under the care, supervision or influence of people. Suitable husbandry techniques and disease control (in which man is directly involved may satisfy an animal’s physical, environmental and nutritive needs. However, it cannot be stated that people’s supervision or influence always guarantee the satisfaction of behavioural and social needs. Thus, special attention must be paid to these factors in intensive husbandry. This paper calls attention to the main factors characterizing pig welfare on the basis of productive, physiological, pathological and behavioural indicators; to the behavioural needs, which are characterised by several peculiar traits (it is noteworthy that, since the beginning, all categories of reared pigs have been involved in welfare legislation; to all categories of pigs that often show the effects of negative stimuli on their behaviour (limitations, variations; to the main critical points on the farm likely to cause welfare impairment or stress including buildings, inner facilities, space allowance, microclimate, lighting systems, environmental stressors, feeding management, mutilations, weaning, social factors, and stockmanship; and to environmental stressors including dust, odours (especially ammonia and noises. This paper takes into account sources, effects and possible solutions for noises; the positive effect of fibrous feeding; environmental enrichment and other possible techniques for improving social status and for preventing/reducing stereotypic behaviour and abnormal reactions (e.g. tail biting. The scientific/objective evaluation of welfare for intensively reared pigs may be carried out by means of direct observation of the animals themselves (animal-based or encompassing performance

  19. Immunolocalization of succinate dehydrogenase in the esophagus epithelium of domesticated mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Meyer

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Using immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy (TEM, the esophagus epithelia of seven domesticated mammals (horse, cattle, goat, pig, dog, laboratory rat, cat of three nutrition groups (herbivorous, omnivorous, carnivorous were studied to get first information about energy generation, as demonstrated by succinate dehydrogenase (SDH activities. Distinct reaction intensities could be observed in all esophageal cell layers of the different species studied reflecting moderate to strong metabolic activities. The generally strong staining in the stratum basale indicated that new cells are continuously produced. The latter feature was confirmed by a thick, and in the horse generally highly active stratum spinosum. Only in the pig, reaction intensity variations occurred, obviously related to differences in physical feed quality or restricted feed allocation. The immunohistochemical results were corroborated by the presence of intact mitochondria in the esophageal cells of all species and nutrition types studied, except for the horse. Possible relationships between SDH reaction intensities and feed structure, mass or consistency are discussed.

  20. Germline transgenic pigs by Sleeping Beauty transposition in porcine zygotes and targeted integration in the pig genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiebke Garrels

    Full Text Available Genetic engineering can expand the utility of pigs for modeling human diseases, and for developing advanced therapeutic approaches. However, the inefficient production of transgenic pigs represents a technological bottleneck. Here, we assessed the hyperactive Sleeping Beauty (SB100X transposon system for enzyme-catalyzed transgene integration into the embryonic porcine genome. The components of the transposon vector system were microinjected as circular plasmids into the cytoplasm of porcine zygotes, resulting in high frequencies of transgenic fetuses and piglets. The transgenic animals showed normal development and persistent reporter gene expression for >12 months. Molecular hallmarks of transposition were confirmed by analysis of 25 genomic insertion sites. We demonstrate germ-line transmission, segregation of individual transposons, and continued, copy number-dependent transgene expression in F1-offspring. In addition, we demonstrate target-selected gene insertion into transposon-tagged genomic loci by Cre-loxP-based cassette exchange in somatic cells followed by nuclear transfer. Transposase-catalyzed transgenesis in a large mammalian species expands the arsenal of transgenic technologies for use in domestic animals and will facilitate the development of large animal models for human diseases.

  1. Molecular typing of Streptococcus suis isolates from Iberian pigs: a comparison with isolates from common intensively-reared commercial pig breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Del Rey, V; Fernández-Garayzábal, J F; Bárcena, C; Briones, V; Domínguez, L; Gottschalk, M; Vela, A I

    2014-12-01

    The Iberian pig (IP) is a traditional Spanish breed variety of the domestic pig (Sus scrofa domesticus) with high economic importance because of the value of the dry-cured products in national and international markets. The genetic characteristics of tonsillar and clinical Streptococcus suis isolates from the IP maintained under extensive or intensive management conditions were investigated. S. suis isolates from IP pigs were compared with S. suis isolates from intensively-farmed pigs of common breeds (CBP). S. suis was isolated from 48.4% of the IP tonsils examined, indicating wide distribution among IP pigs. Serotypes 1 (9.4%), 2 (8.6%) and 9 (7%) were the most commonly found, although a high percentage of S. suis isolates were not typeable by coagglutination testing. No significant differences in carrier rates or serotype diversity were observed between management systems, indicating that intensive farming does not influence S. suis colonisation. Both pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis showed a serotype-based distribution of S. suis IP isolates. Serotypes 1 and 2 S. suis isolates were grouped in the same cluster, whereas isolates of serotypes 9 and 7 were assigned to another cluster. All clinical and most tonsillar serotype 2 IP isolates were assigned to sequence type 1 (ST1) and exhibited the virulence genotype mrp+/epf+/sly+, indicating a high distribution of this genetic lineage among IP as well as a population of serotype 2 common to IPs and CBPs. The only clinical isolate of serotype 9 from IP was assigned to ST123, a sequence type associated with clinical isolates in CBPs in Spain. PMID:25458888

  2. Metabolomic phenotyping of af cloned pig model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Morten Rahr; Christensen, Kirstine Lykke; Hedemann, Mette Skou;

    2011-01-01

    Background Pigs are widely used as models for human physiological changes in intervention studies, because of the close resemblance between human and porcine physiology and the high degree of experimental control when using an animal model. Cloned animals have, in principle, identical genotypes and...... possibly also phenotypes and this offer an extra level of experimental control which could possibly make them a desirable tool for intervention studies. Therefore, in the present study, we address how phenotype and phenotypic variation is affected by cloning, through comparison of cloned pigs and normal...... outbred pigs. Results The metabolic phenotype of cloned pigs (n = 5) was for the first time elucidated by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomic analysis of multiple bio-fluids including plasma, bile and urine. The metabolic phenotype of the cloned pigs was compared with normal outbred pigs (n...

  3. Fueled by wealth, funneled by politics: the dominance of domestic drivers of arms procurement in Southeast Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Wah Kheng Dean

    2015-01-01

    What drives economically buoyant Southeast Asian nations, enjoying post–Cold War peace, to procure arms in a manner that has observers concerned about a regional arms race? Are these acquisitions driven by threats from within the region or from potential hegemons like China? Alternatively, are the purchases actually driven by domestic factors? This thesis investigates the following four factors to determine which are most powerful in driving arms procurements in Malaysia, Indonesia, and Singa...

  4. "Strategic Giving" A Qualitative Analysis Study on Pattern of Philanthropic Portfolio in CSR of Malaysia's Domestic Commercial Banks

    OpenAIRE

    Yong, Ting Lan

    2013-01-01

    Banking industry is the backbone of a country economy. Disruption on the stability of this industry may result in economic crises as evidenced by the 1997-98 Asian economic crises and the 2007 sub-prime crisis. While good corporate governance including good business ethics are crucial in maintaining this stability, the role of social responsibility is equally important. Thus, this study will focus on Philanthropic Portfolio in CSR of 8 domestic commercial banks in Malaysia; a specific focus w...

  5. Prospects of improved classical swine fever control in backyard pigs through oral vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietze, Klaas; Milicevic, Vesna; Depner, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Success in controlling classical swine fever (CSF) in regions with high proportions of pigs kept in small scale and low-biosecurity production systems, often referred to as backyard production, tends to be hampered by the lack of control strategies properly addressing the peculiarities of this epidemiologically important subpopulation. Under many circumstances the commonly practiced parenteral immunisation using live attenuated C-strain vaccine shows limitations concerning outreach of services and overall vaccination coverage in the backyard pig population. It is therefore proposed to stronger consider oral vaccine baits, as used for CSF control in wild boar, to complement the set of tools for CSF control in domestic pigs. First field results confirm the feasibility of its practical implementation. Next to the increased flexibility in the delivery to the end user, this non-invasive method comes along with the advantage of reducing the need for direct animal contact and biosecurity-relevant interventions that might cause the spread of diseases through vaccination campaigns entailing external personnel entering farm premises. In combination with epidemiological methods suitable for this production sector like e.g. participatory epidemiology, adapted CSF control strategies can better support the needs of small scale farmers and ultimately contribute to household food security for a large number of stakeholders that will have backyard pig production as a reality for decades to come. PMID:24511822

  6. Leptospirosis in pigs, dogs, rodents, humans, and water in an area of the Colombian tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón, Alfonso; Rodríguez, Virginia; Máttar, Salim; Arrieta, Germán

    2014-02-01

    Leptospirosis is a reemerging zoonosis of global distribution and is one of the causes of hemorrhagic fevers in the tropics. We sought to determine seroprevalence in humans and animals and isolate Leptospira interrogans sensu lato in domestic animals, rodents, and water sources. The study was conducted in a tropical area of the middle Sinú in Cordoba, Colombia. In a prospective descriptive study, we collected blood and urine from pigs and dogs, sera from rural human workers, sera and kidney macerates of rodents, and water samples from environmental sources. We used microagglutination to screen for antibodies to 13 serovars. Strains were cultured on the Ellinghausen-McCullough-Johnson-Harris medium and confirmed by PCR amplifying lipL32 gene. Seroprevalence was 55.9% in pigs, 35.2% in dogs, and 75.8% in humans; no antibody was detected, and no Leptospira were isolated from kidney macerates of rodents. Seven L. interrogans sensu lato strains were isolated: three from pigs, two from dogs, and two from water. High seroprevalence in pigs, dogs, and humans, concomitant to isolation of strains, demonstrates that in Cordoba, transmission exists among animals, the environment, and humans, which warrants the implementation of public health intervention measures to reduce the epidemiological impact of leptospirosis in the region. PMID:24254419

  7. Acclimation of growing pigs to climatic environment.

    OpenAIRE

    Verhagen, J.M.F.

    1987-01-01

    In intensive pig production the climatic environment has an important impact on productivity and health of the animals. Since factors as draught and fluctuating temperatures are known to influence the incidence and severity of Haemophilus pleuropneumoniae infections in growing pigs at the beginning of the fattening period. These aspects of climatic environmment in young growing pigs were studied.It is known that climatic factors influence metabolic rate and energy metabolism of animals. Moreo...

  8. Breeding for feed intake capacity in pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Eissen, J.J.

    2000-01-01

    This thesis deals with feed intake capacity of pigs. By selection, breeding organizations try to achieve genetic improvement in production and reproduction efficiency. Future genetic improvement may become constrained by a limited feed intake capacity of growing pigs and lactating sows, respectively. The aim of this thesis is to study the actual feed intake capacity of growing pigs and lactating sows in relation to their potential for production and reproduction in order to get a better under...

  9. BIOSECURITY MEASURES IN INTENSIVE PIG PRODUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Boris Antunović; Laura Vargović; Dalibor Cvrković; Katarina Kundih; Robert Spajić; Velimir Sili; Dražen Hižman; Željko Pavičić; Mario Ostović

    2012-01-01

    Contemporary pig production requires high demand on breeding large number of animals/pigs in a relatively small space while attaining maximum productivity. Their productivity is related to their health and ever-growing concern about less use of antibiotics in pig production. Measures have been taken to prevent diseases rather than cure them. Biosecurity measures prevent entry of pathogens into farm and their transmission between buildings. There are many critical points that must be taken car...

  10. Prevalence of diseases of pigs in Botswana

    OpenAIRE

    John Cassius Moreki; Modisa Mmoni Sentle,; Neo Bagwasi; Dan Seabo

    2011-01-01

    This paper is a review of diseases of pigs from 1997 to 2007. Lack of health management reduces animal performance. This review showed that bacterial and non-infectious diseases were a major challenge in pig production. The 10 most common diseases of pigs in order of importance were septicaemia, traumatic injuries/torsions, coli-septicaemia, stress, pneumonia, cystitis, colibacillosis, salmonella, mange and nutritional deficiencies with 72, 68, 53, 38, 36, 21, 18, 14, 12 and 10 cases recorde...

  11. Biomonitoring of cadmium in pig production

    OpenAIRE

    Lindén, Anna

    2002-01-01

    Cadmium is a nephrotoxic metal with increasing levels in arable soils. The non-smoking population is exposed to cadmium mainly from vegetable food, especially cereal products. The major part of pig feed is cereals, and accumulated cadmium in pig kidney could reflect cadmium in the local agricultural environment. In this thesis, the possibility to use pig kidney as a bioindicator of the availability of cadmium in the agricultural environment was evaluated. There were significant correlations b...

  12. Enteric Methane Emission from Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henry; Theil, Peter Kappel; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach

    2011-01-01

    ), protein concentrates (meal or cakes of soybean, rape, sunflower, cotton) and co-products from the sugar and starch industries to produce compounds feeds. The classical pig diet can also be characterised as relatively concentrated but an increased demand of high energy cereals for direct human use and...... compromising their reproductive performance. The direct use of forage crop is also developing although at a rather limited scale and primarily in organic farming. Other benefits, such as increased well being of animals, improvement of the gut transit or reduction of stomach ulcers also favour an increased...... per kg meat produced is increased (Fernández et al. 1983; Lekule et al. 1990). The present chapter will summarise our current knowledge concerning dietary and enteric fermentation that may influence the methane (CH4) emission in pigs. Enteric fermentation is the digestive process by which...

  13. Guinea pig model of tuberculosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pushpa Gupta; U.D.Gupta

    2009-01-01

    Animal models are being developed for testing different vaccine candidates as well as testing of new antituber-cular since a long time.Mice,guinea pigs and rabbits are animals which are frequently used.Though each model has got its merits as well as demerits and each of them differ from human tuberculosis in one aspect or the other but none of the model completely mimics the human disease.Out of the different animal species, guinea pig model is one of the better models as it is very sensitive to M.tuberculosis infection but it has certain limitations like paucity of immunological reagents.However,it is the best model for tuberculosis research.

  14. Child Abuse and Domestic Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Traumatic Stress Disorder Reporting Domestic Abuse Reporting Suspected Child Abuse or Neglect Traumatic Brain Injury Family & Relationships There’s more to a military family than moving and deployments — take us along through each phase of your military ... Care and Youth Programs Parenting Military Youth on ...

  15. Sinopec Focuses on Domestic Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    China Petrochemical Corporation (Sinopec Group) halted fuel exports to ensure domestic supply as high crude costs and retail price caps cause private refiners to cut back on production. The giant refiner recently said that it "stopped exporting to other r

  16. Genetic bank of domestic fowl

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pojezdná, A.; Bainová, Z.; Bainová, H.; Chudárková, A.; Bryjová, Anna; Bryja, J.; Vinkler, Michal

    Brno: Ústav biologie obratlovců AV ČR, 2013 - (Bryja, J.; Řehák, Z.; Zukal, J.). s. 180-181 ISBN 978-80-87189-14-6. [Zoologické dny. 07.02.2013-08.02.2013, Brno] Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : domestic fowl * genetic diversity Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  17. WILD PIG ATTACKS ON HUMANS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, J.

    2013-04-12

    Attacks on humans by wild pigs (Sus scrofa) have been documented since ancient times. However, studies characterizing these incidents are lacking. In an effort to better understand this phenomenon, information was collected from 412 wild pig attacks on humans. Similar to studies of large predator attacks on humans, data came from a variety of sources. The various attacks compiled occurred in seven zoogeographic realms. Most attacks occurred within the species native range, and specifically in rural areas. The occurrence was highest during the winter months and daylight hours. Most happened under non-hunting circumstances and appeared to be unprovoked. Wounded animals were the chief cause of these attacks in hunting situations. The animals involved were typically solitary, male and large in size. The fate of the wild pigs involved in these attacks varied depending upon the circumstances, however, most escaped uninjured. Most human victims were adult males traveling on foot and alone. The most frequent outcome for these victims was physical contact/mauling. The severity of resulting injuries ranged from minor to fatal. Most of the mauled victims had injuries to only one part of their bodies, with legs/feet being the most frequent body part injured. Injuries were primarily in the form of lacerations and punctures. Fatalities were typically due to blood loss. In some cases, serious infections or toxemia resulted from the injuries. Other species (i.e., pets and livestock) were also accompanying some of the humans during these attacks. The fates of these animals varied from escaping uninjured to being killed. Frequency data on both non-hunting and hunting incidents of wild pig attacks on humans at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina, showed quantitatively that such incidents are rare.

  18. A consumer study of entire male pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godt, Jannik; Kristensen, Kai; Poulsen, Carsten Stig; Juhl, Hans Jørn; Bech, Anne C.

    1996-01-01

    Former studies of the unpleasant odour of meat from certain uncastrated male pigs have been based mainly on evaluations made by trained sensory panellists. This study analyses the effect of the two dominating male pig odour components, skatole and androstenone, on the evaluation of eating quality...... made in-home by consumers, thus bringing the analysis out of the laboratory and into the market place. The vast majority of the population of uncastrated male pigs have low concentrations of skatole and androstenone. The cutlets that were evaluated in this study were selected from uncastrated male pigs...

  19. Nutritional studies in native, Thai Kadon pigs

    OpenAIRE

    K. Vasupen

    2007-01-01

    In the North-East of Thailand native, so-called Kadon pigs are typically kept on small-holder farms. Kadon pig is believed to be on the edge of extinction and in 2003 it was designated as a protected species of production animals. The main objective of this thesis was to study various nutritional aspects of Kadon pigs. Chapter 1, providing quantitative information on growth performance, organ weights, carcass composition and fatty acid profiles in the meat of female and male Kadon pigs. Carca...

  20. Fulfilling 100% organic pig diets: Concentrates

    OpenAIRE

    Crawley, K.

    2015-01-01

    The main dietary challenge for pig producers is ensuring that feed fulfills the nutrient requirements of pigs, in particular with regards to protein and the correct amino acid profile. This is a particular challenge for organic pig producers as the use of synthetic amino acids is not allowed. There has been a derogation from the EU Organic Regulatory Board to allow organic pig and poultry producers to include up to 5% non-organic feed within their rations to assist in meeting the nutritional ...

  1. on Guinea Pig Tracheal Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Keyhanmanesh

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available   Objective(s: In regard to the high incidence of asthma and the side-effects of the drugs used, finding novel treatments for this disease is necessary. Our previous studies demonstrated the preventive effect of Nigella sativa extract on ovalbumin-induced asthma. In addition, water-soluble substances of N. sativa extract and methanol fraction of this plant were responsible for the relaxant effect of this plant on tracheal chains of guinea pigs. Therefore, for the first time, in the present study, in order to identify main constituents of the methanolic extract, the relaxant effects of five different methanolic fractions (20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and 100% of N. sativa   on tracheal chains of guinea pigs were examined.     Materials and Methods:     The relaxant effects of four cumulative concentrations of each fraction (0.8, 1.2, 1.6, and 2.0 g% in comparison with saline as negative control and four cumulative concentrations of theophylline (0.2, 0.4, 0.6, and 0.8 mM were examined by their relaxant effects on precontracted tracheal chains of guinea pig by 60 mM KCl (group 1 and 10 μM methacholine (group 2.     Results: In group 1, all concentrations of only theophylline showed significant relaxant effects but all concentrations of these methanolic fractions showed significant contractile effects compared with that of saline (P

  2. Estimation of Pig Weight by Machine Vision: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Zhuo; Luo, Cheng; Teng, Guanghui; Liu, Tonghai

    2014-01-01

    In pig production, food conversion ratio and profit can be evaluated by real time detection of pig live weight. Traditional pig weight detections usually require direct contact with pigs, which are limited by its low efficiency and result in a lot of stresses even to death. The non-contact detection of pig body weight has become a challenge in pig production for decades. Digital image analysis and machine vision method enable the real time estimation of pig live weight by detecting pig critic...

  3. Evaluation of the genetic variability of 13 microsatellite markers in native Indian pigs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rajeev Kaul; Atar Singh; R. K. Vijh; M. S. Tantia; Rahul Behl

    2001-12-01

    We analysed polymorphism of 13 microsatellites in two Indian domesticated pig types (North Indian and Northeast Indian). Heterozygosity, polymorphism information content, and probability of identity of two random individuals were calculated for all microsatellites in both types. The number of alleles observed at a locus varied between five and 12. The evaluated microsatellites exhibited a very high heterozygosity and polymorphism information content. The probability of identity of two random individuals from different populations taking into account all the 13 microsatellites was as low as 3.51 × 10-19. On the basis of these results, we propose that these microsatellite markers may be used with reliability for studying the genetic diversity and for identification of individuals in Indian pig types.

  4. Preparation and analysis of spermatocyte meiotic pachytene bivalents of pigs for gene mapping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BANG; LIU; GENG; LIN; JIN; SHU; HONG; ZHAO; MEI; YU; TONG; AN; XIONG; ZHONG; ZHEN; PENG; KUI; LI

    2002-01-01

    Well-spread meiotic pachytene bivalents were obtained by using the prolonged hypotonic treatment com-bined with high chloroform Carnory's fixative solution from cells of the testes of domestic pigs. Comparisonin the division index and length of pachytenc bivalents with metaphase chromosomes showed that those ofthe former are 5 times higher and 3.42(1.87-5.98) times longer than those of the latter. Comparative studieson chromomere maps of bivalents and mitotic chromosomal G-bands were conducted by using the chromo-some 12 as a example. Sex vesicle and various shapes of synaptic sex chromosomes have been observed.Two-color PRimed IN Situ (PRINS) labeling has been conducted successfully on pachytene bivalents of pigs.

  5. PREVALENCE OF FOODBORNE PATHOGENS IN RURAL PIGS AND IN DERIVED COLD PORK MEATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Lorenzon

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The “rural” breeding of one or two pigs and their domestic slaughtering is a significant reality in the Veneto Region, as a consequence of an ancient tradition still surviving in the countryside. The present paper evaluates the hygienic conditions during slaughtering and processing, and the prevalence of foodborne pathogens both in live animals and in derived food, mainly sausages, salami and cold pork meats. The research underlines that, in main cases, the products derived from rural pigs are safe, if HACCP principles and good hygienic practices during slaughtering and processing are used. The presence of Listeria spp. in some products is probably derived from cross contaminations, not appropriate hygienic conditions, uncorrected salt percentage in the recipe, seasoning conditions: time, temperature, humidity...

  6. Obesity and Dyslipidemia in South Asians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anoop Misra

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and dyslipidemia are emerging as major public health challenges in South Asian countries. The prevalence of obesity is more in urban areas than rural, and women are more affected than men. Further, obesity in childhood and adolescents is rising rapidly. Obesity in South Asians has characteristic features: high prevalence of abdominal obesity, with more intra-abdominal and truncal subcutaneous adiposity than white Caucasians. In addition, there is greater accumulation of fat at “ectopic” sites, namely the liver and skeletal muscles. All these features lead to higher magnitude of insulin resistance, and its concomitant metabolic disorders (the metabolic syndrome including atherogenic dyslipidemia. Because of the occurrence of type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia and other cardiovascular morbidities at a lower range of body mass index (BMI and waist circumference (WC, it is proposed that cut-offs for both measures of obesity should be lower (BMI 23–24.9 kg/m2 for overweight and ≥25 kg/m2 for obesity, WC ≥80 cm for women and ≥90 cm for men for abdominal obesity for South Asians, and a consensus guideline for these revised measures has been developed for Asian Indians. Increasing obesity and dyslipidemia in South Asians is primarily driven by nutrition, lifestyle and demographic transitions, increasingly faulty diets and physical inactivity, in the background of genetic predisposition. Dietary guidelines for prevention of obesity and diabetes, and physical activity guidelines for Asian Indians are now available. Intervention programs with emphasis on improving knowledge, attitude and practices regarding healthy nutrition, physical activity and stress management need to be implemented. Evidence for successful intervention program for prevention of childhood obesity and for prevention of diabetes is available for Asian Indians, and could be applied to all South Asian countries with similar cultural and lifestyle profiles. Finally, more

  7. Institutional Racism and Mental Health: An Asian-American Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Jean Lau

    Positive stereotypes of contemporary Asian Americans have negative consequences for this minority group. The belief that Asian Americans are successful and have overcome prejudice and discrimination obscures the historical fact that legislation has curtailed Asian American civil rights and sanctioned harassment of Asians by public authorities and…

  8. ACE Minority Concerns Report: New Demographics Reveal the "Invisible" Asians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokuyama, M. Yukie

    1989-01-01

    The dramatic shift in immigration patterns is discussed. By the end of the 1980s Asian refugees will account for 75.2 percent and Southeast Asians will total 60 percent of immigrants. The new Asians are too often excluded from special programs and scholarships and forced to compete with native-born Asians. (MLW)

  9. Foreign versus Domestic Contributions to China's Ozone Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Ruijing; Lin, Jintai; Lin, Weili; Yan, Yingying

    2016-04-01

    Ozone is a critical air pollutant because it damages human health and vegetation. Previous studies for the United States and Europe have shown large influences of foreign emissions on domestic ozone levels, whereas the relative contributions of foreign versus domestic emissions are much less clear for China' ozone pollution. Here, we use the global chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) simulations to quantify the contributions of ozone transport from regions with large anthropogenic emissions to China. Our results indicate considerable influences of foreign anthropogenic pollution on China's ozone air quality. Of all ozone over China produced by global anthropogenic emissions, foreign anthropogenic emissions contribute 40% near the surface, and the foreign contribution increases with altitude and reaches up to 70% in the upper troposphere. The contributions by North America and Europe reach maximum levels in spring, in which season Chinese influence on the western United States also peaks. The springtime maxima are associated with strong westerly winds and frequent cyclonic activities favorable to the long-range transport. European anthropogenic pollution enhanced surface ozone concentrations by 1~4 ppbv over Western and Northern China in spring and winter. Despite much longer transport distance, the contribution from North America is distinctly greater than that from Europe due to the nearly tripled VOC emissions. Ozone contributed by Foreign Asian countries peaks in summer and autumn, widely dispersed to the upper troposphere over Southern China with strong upwelling. Therefore, although China produces large amounts of ozone precursor emissions, its domestic ozone pollution is still contributed significantly by foreign anthropogenic emissions. Our study is relevant to Chinese ozone pollution control and global collaboration.

  10. Domestic Hypermedia: Mixed Media in the Home

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbæk, Kaj; Petersen, Marianne Graves

    , domestic materials, such as photos, music, messages. become digitized. Based on the analyses we propose a Domestic Hypermedia infrastructure combining spatial, context-aware and physical hypermedia to support collaborative structuring and ambient presentation of materials in homes....

  11. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    <正>Aims&Scope Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine(APJTB)aims to set up and provide an international academic communication platform for physicians,medical scientists,allied health scientists and public health workers,especially those in the Asian Pacific region and worldwide on tropical biomedicine,infectious diseases and public health,and to meet the growing challenges of understanding,preventing and controlling the dramatic global emergence and reemergence of infectious diseases in the Asian Pacific region.APJTB publishes new findings in both basic and clinical(including modern,traditional and epidemiological)research

  12. Modelling and forecasting Australian domestic tourism

    OpenAIRE

    George Athanasopoulos; Rob J Hyndman

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we model and forecast Australian domestic tourism demand. We use a regression framework to estimate important economic relationships for domestic tourism demand. We also identify the impact of world events such as the 2000 Sydney Olympics and the 2002 Bali bombings on Australian domestic tourism. To explore the time series nature of the data, we use innovation state space models to forecast the domestic tourism demand. Combining these two frameworks, we build innovation state s...

  13. THE ROLE OF COUNSELING IN DOMESTIC VIOLENCE

    OpenAIRE

    Mayuri Sahay; G. S. Venumadhava

    2016-01-01

    The role of counseling dealing with domestic violence cases is excessively significant undoubtedly. This article describes to find out the role of counseling in order to deal with domestic violence cases and to understand the role of domestic violence counselor. There are, though, new domestic violence prevention strategies emerging, and prevention approaches from the counseling field can serve as models for further development of these strategies.

  14. Domestic Abuse Groupwork Service 2003 – 2006

    OpenAIRE

    Deery, Ruth; Hughes, Deborah

    2006-01-01

    The Calderdale Women’s Centre provides, amongst it range of services1, extensive domestic violence support services2 in close liaison with the West Yorkshire Police and other agencies. From July 2003 to March 2006, Domestic Abuse Groupwork, for women who have experienced or are experiencing domestic abuse, formed part of this service. This evaluation outlines the history and working of the Domestic Abuse Groupwork Service and its programme, presents a collation of qualitativ...

  15. Roads for Asian Integration: Measuring ADB's Contribution to the Asian Highway Network

    OpenAIRE

    Madhur, Srinivasa; Wignaraja, Ganeshan; Darjes, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Against the backdrop of growing momentum for regional cooperation and integration (RCI) in Asia, this paper examines the link between regional roads and Asian Development Bank (ADB) support between 1966 and 2008. The novel methodology used in this paper includes an Asia-wide definition of regional roads that fall on the Asian Highway (AH) network. The AH network is a system of about 140,000 kilometers (km) of standardized roads crisscrossing many Asian countries and with linkages to Europe. T...

  16. Masculine Norms, Avoidant Coping, Asian Values and Depression among Asian American Men

    OpenAIRE

    Iwamoto, Derek Kenji; Liao, Liang; Liu, William Ming

    2010-01-01

    Contrary to the “model minority” myth, growing research indicates that the rates of mental health problems among Asian Americans may be higher than initially assumed. This study seeks to add to the scant knowledge regarding the mental health of Asian American men by examining the role of masculine norms, coping and cultural values in predicting depression among this population (N=149). Results reveal that Asian American men who used avoidant coping strategies and endorsed the masculine norm D...

  17. Assessing pig body language: agreement and consistency between pig farmers, veterinarians, and animal activists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wemelsfelder, F; Hunter, A E; Paul, E S; Lawrence, A B

    2012-10-01

    This study investigates the interobserver and intraobserver reliability of qualitative behavior assessments (QBA) of individual pigs by 3 observer groups selected for their diverging backgrounds, experience, and views of pigs. Qualitative behavior assessment is a "whole animal" assessment approach that characterizes the demeanor of an animal as an expressive body language, using descriptors such as relaxed, anxious, or content. This paper addresses the concern that use of such descriptors in animal science may be prone to distortion by observer-related bias. Using a free-choice profiling methodology, 12 pig farmers, 10 large animal veterinarians, and 10 animal protectionists were instructed to describe and score the behavioral expressions of 10 individual pigs (sus scrofa) in 2 repeat sets of 10 video clips, showing these pigs in interaction with a human female. They were also asked to fill in a questionnaire gauging their experiences with and views on pigs. Pig scores were analyzed with generalized procrustes analysis and effect of treatment on these scores with ANOVA. Questionnaire scores were analyzed with a χ(2) test or ANOVA. Observers achieved consensus both within and among observer groups (P 0.90). The 3 groups also repeated their assessments of individual pigs with high precision (r > 0.85). Animal protectionists used a wider quantitative range in scoring individual pigs on dimension 2 than the other groups (P empathy for pigs (P reliability in their characterizations of pig body language. This supports the empirical nature of QBA in context of the wider anthropomorphism debate. PMID:22745187

  18. Myocardial cell death in reperfused and nonreperfused myocardial infarctions. MR imaging with dysprosium-DTPA-BMA in the pig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To investigate whether Dy-DTPA-BMA-enhanced MR imaging would permit identification of myocardial cell death, myocardial infarction was induced in 12 domestic pigs. Material and Methods: In 6 pigs with irreversible cell damage, Dy-DTPA-BMA (1.0 mmol/kg b.w.) was administered i.v. 70 min after coronary occlusion. In 6 other pigs, the infarctions were reperfused 80 min after the occlusion, followed by injection of Dy-DTPA-BMA after 30 min of reperfusion. In 4 additional pigs, the hearts were reperfused after 2 min of occlusion. All 16 pigs were sacrificed 10 min after the injection of Dy-DTPA-BMA. The hearts were excised and imaged with MR. Results: Reversibly injured myocardium could not be distinguished from adjacent nonischaemic myocardium after the administration of Dy-DTPA-BMA. Reperfused, infarcted myocardium demonstrated a high signal intensity in the proton-density- and T2-weighted sequences, despite a 5-fold higher Dy concentration compared with both nonreperfused infarcted and nonischaemic myocardium. Conclusion: This lack of susceptibility effect in infarcted myocardium, due to a homogeneous distribution of Dy, indicates the usefulness of Dy as a marker of tissue viability. (orig.)

  19. Comparison of Macroeconomic Performance of Selected Asian Countries. An Econometric Analysis of China Economic Growth and Policy Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasret Benar Balcioglu

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares the key macroeconomics indicators for the selected countries: China, Malaysia, Indonesia, Korea, Rep. and India and also makes an econometric analysis for China for the period 1961-2007. These countries are chosen on the basis of comparability of data and time without measurement errors. This study also investigates six hypotheses considering the impact of several key macroeconomic variables such as domestic saving rate, domestic investment rate, and volatility of savings, volatility of inflation, growth rate of exports and growth rate of real GNP. By using suitable statistical and econometric tests, this paper finds that prevailing performance of China depends on its superior rates of domestic saving and exports. Policies are also suggested from the differentials between the economic performances of China and other chosen Asian countries.

  20. Risk Factors for Domestic Violence in Curacao

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wijk, N. Ph. L.; de Bruijn, J. G. M.

    2012-01-01

    One out of three people (25% of men, 38% of women) in Curacao have experienced some form of domestic violence at some point in their adult lives. The most significant risk factors for domestic violence in Curacao are the female gender, a young age, low education, and experiencing domestic violence victimization in childhood. Divorce, single…

  1. A pipeline strategy for grain crop domestication

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent decades, in the interest of diversifying the global food system, improving human nutrition, or making agriculture more sustainable, there have been many proposals for domesticating or completing the domestication of wild plants or semi-domesticated “orphan” crops. However, very few new cro...

  2. 25 CFR 11.454 - Domestic violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Domestic violence. 11.454 Section 11.454 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.454 Domestic violence. (a) A person who commits domestic violence...

  3. 31 CFR 500.320 - Domestic bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Domestic bank. 500.320 Section 500... § 500.320 Domestic bank. The term domestic bank shall mean any branch or office within the United States of any of the following which is not a national of any designated foreign country: Any bank or...

  4. 31 CFR 535.320 - Domestic bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Domestic bank. 535.320 Section 535... § 535.320 Domestic bank. (a) The term domestic bank shall mean any branch or office within the United States of any of the following which is not Iran or an Iranian entity: any bank or trust...

  5. 31 CFR 515.320 - Domestic bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Domestic bank. 515.320 Section 515... § 515.320 Domestic bank. The term domestic bank shall mean any branch or office within the United States of any of the following which is not a national of a designated foreign country; any bank or...

  6. Risk factors for domestic violence in Curacao

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, van N.Ph.L.; Bruijn, de J.G.M.

    2012-01-01

    One out of three people (25% of men, 38% of women) in Curacao have experienced some form of domestic violence at some point in their adult lives. The most significant risk factors for domestic violence in Curacao are the female gender, a young age, low education, and experiencing domestic violence v

  7. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus ST9 in pigs in Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesper Larsen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA is an important nosocomial and community-associated pathogen. Recently, livestock-associated MRSA (LA-MRSA has emerged and disseminated in Europe and North America and now constitutes a considerable zoonotic burden in humans with risk factors of pig exposure, whereas the extent of the livestock reservoir is relatively unknown on other continents. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: From March through April 2011, MRSA was identified in pigs from 3 out of 30 production holdings in Chang Mai Province, Thailand. Representative isolates were subjected to molecular characterization and antimicrobial susceptibility testing; all isolates had genotypic and phenotypic characteristics of LA-MRSA previously characterized in the region: they belonged to ST9, lacked the lukF-lukS genes encoding Panton-Valentine leukocidin, and were resistant to multiple non-β-lactam antimicrobials. However, unlike other Asian LA-MRSA-ST9 variants, they were spa type t337 and harbored a different staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec IX. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A novel MRSA-ST9 lineage has been established in the pig population of Thailand, which differs substantially from LA-MRSA lineages found in other areas of the continent. The emergence of novel LA-MRSA lineages in the animal agriculture setting is worrisome and poses a serious threat to global public health.

  8. Globalisation and the Challenge of Asian Legal Transplants in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Prakash

    2005-01-01

    This article reviews the main patterns of Asian migration to Europe and the ways in which Europe today has become multicultured with Afro-Asian legal diversities. It discusses the limited role which Asian states have played in these processes of emigration and settlement. It further examines the status of the laws transplanted by Asian migrants and their descendants in Europe and the ways in which Asian diasporas in Europe are engaging in new hybrid patterns of socio-legal navigation and reco...

  9. Ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and overweight in Asian American adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Cook, Won Kim; Tseng, Winston; Bautista, Roxanna; John, Iyanrick

    2016-01-01

    Asian American children and adolescents are an under-investigated subpopulation in obesity research. This study aimed to identify specific profiles of Asian subgroups at high risk of adolescent overweight with special attention to Asian ethnicity, socioeconomic status (SES), and their interaction. Multiple logistic regression models were fitted using a sample of 1533 Asian American adolescents ages 12–17 from the 2007–2012 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS). In addition to Asian ethnic...

  10. Figuring Futures: Early Asian American Mixed-Race Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Poulsen, Melissa Eriko

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation examines figurations of Asian mixed race during the long period of Asian exclusion and enforced anti-miscegenation in the United States, when racial mixing was legally proscribed. During this time of U.S. expansion into Asia, and of unprecedented Asian immigration into the United States, such proscription helped maintain normative white identity while rendering the Asian American mixed-race body illegible, making cultural production one of the few sites where Asian American ...

  11. DomeTree: a canonical toolkit for mitochondrial DNA analyses in domesticated animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Min-Sheng; Fan, Long; Shi, Ni-Ni; Ning, Tiao; Yao, Yong-Gang; Murphy, Robert W; Wang, Wen-Zhi; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2015-09-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is widely used in various genetic studies of domesticated animals. Many applications require comprehensive knowledge about the phylogeny of mtDNA variants. Herein, we provide the most up-to-date mtDNA phylogeny (i.e. haplogroup tree or matrilineal genealogy) and a standardized hierarchical haplogroup nomenclature system for domesticated cattle, dogs, goats, horses, pigs, sheep, yaks and chickens. These high-resolution mtDNA haplogroup trees based on 1240 complete or near-complete mtDNA genome sequences are available in open resource DomeTree (http://www.dometree.org). In addition, we offer the software MitoToolPy (http://www.mitotool.org/mp.html) to facilitate the mtDNA data analyses. We will continuously and regularly update DomeTree and MitoToolPy. PMID:25655564

  12. Genetic testing in domestic cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Leslie A

    2012-12-01

    Varieties of genetic tests are currently available for the domestic cat that support veterinary health care, breed management, species identification, and forensic investigations. Approximately thirty-five genes contain over fifty mutations that cause feline health problems or alterations in the cat's appearance. Specific genes, such as sweet and drug receptors, have been knocked-out of Felidae during evolution and can be used along with mtDNA markers for species identification. Both STR and SNP panels differentiate cat race, breed, and individual identity, as well as gender-specific markers to determine sex of an individual. Cat genetic tests are common offerings for commercial laboratories, allowing both the veterinary clinician and the private owner to obtain DNA test results. This article will review the genetic tests for the domestic cat, and their various applications in different fields of science. Highlighted are genetic tests specific to the individual cat, which are a part of the cat's genome. PMID:22546621

  13. Domestication of Cuphea through mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuphea plants have promising characteristics as unique source of medium chain fatty acids. Although several groups of researchers in the world are working to domesticate this promising plant species, it still has many unfavorable wild characters, preventing it from becoming a practical agricultural crop at the present stage. In the present research, mutation breeding methods were adopted to domesticate the species in hope of inducing genetic modifications, but retaining its fatty acid constitution. Among the problematic characters, indeterminate growth pattern and non-uniform maturity, dormancy/germination, shattering of seeds and other plant morphology or plant-architecture traits must be modified to adapt it to the modern agricultural system. Several species of Cuphea were evaluated as the initial material. Problems of seed germination and those encountered in soaking the seeds in water or aqueous chemical mutagen solution could be solved and several promising and interesting mutant lines could be obtained. (author). 15 refs, 5 tabs

  14. Heart Disease and Asians and Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... HIV/AIDS Immunizations Infant Heath & Mortality Mental Health Obesity Organ and ... heart disease and they are less likely to die from heart disease. In general, Asian American adults have lower rates of being overweight or obese, lower rates of ...

  15. Asian Banks: Leading the Way to Recovery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ The global financial crisis has rocked the American and European Union banking system leaving many Western banks teetering on the verge of bankruptcy.But in the East,Asian banks have fared well so far.

  16. Asian-American Women in Educational Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Lily

    1980-01-01

    Provides information on the immigration history, education, income, and occupation representation in the social sciences and cultural and language barriers of Asian American women educational researchers. Includes recommendations to facilitate their entry into the social sciences in general. (MJL)

  17. The taming of the Asian Tigers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Equipment manufacturers with investments in Asia are feeling the pinch from the region's ongoing financial crisis. But Asian demand for power is still huge and with China opening its doors to foreign capital, the outlook is not all bad. (author)

  18. Obstacle problem for Arithmetic Asian options

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Monti; Andrea Pascucci

    2009-01-01

    We prove existence, regularity and a Feynman-Ka\\v{c} representation formula of the strong solution to the free boundary problem arising in the financial problem of the pricing of the American Asian option with arithmetic average.

  19. Minority Women's Health: Asian-Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Asian-Americans overall are at lower risk. Genes, culture, environment, and access to care play a role ... Mental health problems and suicide Osteoporosis Overweight and obesity Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) Stomach cancer Tuberculosis (TB) ...

  20. Asian Employment Forum Held in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ From August 13 through 15,2007,the Asian Employment Forum sponsored by the International Labor Organization (ILO) and hosted by the Ministry of Labor and Social Security of China was held in Beijing.