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Sample records for asian pig domestication

  1. Patterns of East Asian pig domestication, migration, and turnover revealed by modern and ancient DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Greger; Liu, Ranran; Zhao, Xingbo; Yuan, Jing; Fuller, Dorian; Barton, Loukas; Dobney, Keith; Fan, Qipeng; Gu, Zhiliang; Liu, Xiao-Hui; Luo, Yunbing; Lv, Peng; Andersson, Leif; Li, Ning

    2010-04-27

    The establishment of agricultural economies based upon domestic animals began independently in many parts of the world and led to both increases in human population size and the migration of people carrying domestic plants and animals. The precise circumstances of the earliest phases of these events remain mysterious given their antiquity and the fact that subsequent waves of migrants have often replaced the first. Through the use of more than 1,500 modern (including 151 previously uncharacterized specimens) and 18 ancient (representing six East Asian archeological sites) pig (Sus scrofa) DNA sequences sampled across East Asia, we provide evidence for the long-term genetic continuity between modern and ancient Chinese domestic pigs. Although the Chinese case for independent pig domestication is supported by both genetic and archaeological evidence, we discuss five additional (and possibly) independent domestications of indigenous wild boar populations: one in India, three in peninsular Southeast Asia, and one off the coast of Taiwan. Collectively, we refer to these instances as "cryptic domestication," given the current lack of corroborating archaeological evidence. In addition, we demonstrate the existence of numerous populations of genetically distinct and widespread wild boar populations that have not contributed maternal genetic material to modern domestic stocks. The overall findings provide the most complete picture yet of pig evolution and domestication in East Asia, and generate testable hypotheses regarding the development and spread of early farmers in the Far East.

  2. [Major domestication traits in Asian rice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Shu-Jun; Wang, Hong-Ru; Chu, Cheng-Cai

    2012-11-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is an excellent model plant in elucidation of cereal domestication. Loss of seed shattering, weakened dormancy, and changes in plant architecture were thought to be three key events in the rice domestication and creating the high-yield, uniform-germinating, and densely-planting modern rice. Loss of shattering is considered to be the direct morphological evidence for identifying domesticated rice. Two major shattering QTLs, Sh4 and qSH1, have displayed different domestication histories. Weakened seed dormancy is essential for synchronous germination in agricultural production. Genes Sdr4, qSD7-1, and qSD12 impose a global and complementary adaptation strategies in controlling seed dormancy. The prostate growth habit of wild rice is an adaptation to disturbed habitats, while the erect growth habit of rice cultivars meet the needs of compact planting, and such a plant architecture is mainly controlled by PROG1. The outcrossing habit of wild rice promotes propagation of domestication genes among different populations, while the self-pollinating habit of cultivated rice facilitates fixation of domestication genes. Currently, the researches on rice domestication mainly focus on individual genes or multiple neutral markers, and much less attention has been paid to the evolution of network controlling domestication traits. With the progress in functional genomics research, the molecular mechanism of domestication traits is emerging. Rice domestication researches based on network will be more comprehensive and better reflect rice domestica-tion process. Here, we reviewed most progresses in molecular mechanisms of rice domestication traits, in order to provide the new insights for rice domestication and molecular breeding.

  3. Artificial selection on introduced Asian haplotypes shaped the genetic architecture in european commercial pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosse, Mirte; Soares Lopes, Marcos; Madsen, Ole; Megens, Hendrik Jan; Crooijmans, Richard P.M.A.; Frantz, Laurent A.F.; Harlizius, Barbara; Bastiaansen, John W.M.; Groenen, Martien A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Early pig farmers in Europe importedAsian pigs to cross with their local breeds in order to improve traits of commercial interest. Current genomics techniques enabled genome-wide identification of these Asian introgressed haplotypes in modern European pig breeds.We propose that the Asian variants

  4. Strong signatures of selection in the domestic pig genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubin, Carl-Johan; Megens, Hendrik-Jan; Barrio, Alvaro Martinez;

    2012-01-01

    or white-spotted pigs, carrying the Dominant white, Patch, or Belt alleles. This discovery illustrates how structural changes have contributed to rapid phenotypic evolution in domestic animals and how alleles in domestic animals may evolve by the accumulation of multiple causative mutations as a response....... We found an excess of derived nonsynonymous substitutions in domestic pigs, most likely reflecting both positive selection and relaxed purifying selection after domestication. Our analysis of structural variation revealed four duplications at the KIT locus that were exclusively present in white...

  5. Penile Injuries in Wild and Domestic Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiler, Ulrike; Isernhagen, Marie; Stefanski, Volker; Ritzmann, Mathias; Kress, Kevin; Hein, Charlotte; Zöls, Susanne

    2016-03-25

    In boars, sexually motivated mounting can not only cause problems such as lameness, but penile injuries are also reported. The relevance of penis biting in boars is discussed controversially, but reliable data is missing. In the present study, boars ( n = 435) and barrows ( n = 85) from experimental farms were therefore evaluated for scars, fresh wounds and severe injuries of the penis. Similarly, 321 boars from 11 farms specializing in pork production with boars, and 15 sexually mature wild boars from the hunting season of 2015/16 were included in the study. In domestic boars, a high incidence of penile injuries was obvious (76.6%-87.0% of animals with scars and/or wounds at experimental farms, 64.0%-94.9% at commercial farms). The number of boars with severe injuries was in a similar range in both groups (7.3% vs. 9.3%). At commercial farms, the number of scars but not that of fresh wounds increased per animal with age by 0.3 per week. Moreover, raising boars in mixed groups led to about a 1.5 times higher number of scars than in single-sex groups. In wild boars, a considerable proportion of animals (40%) revealed penile injuries, which were even severe in three animals. We therefore conclude that penis biting is a highly relevant and severe welfare problem in the male pig population, but this phenomenon is not limited to intensive production systems.

  6. Strong signatures of selection in the domestic pig genome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rubin, C.J.; Megens, H.J.W.C.; Barrio, del J.M.G.; Maqbol, K.; Sayyab, S.; Groenen, M.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Domestication of wild boar (Sus scrofa) and subsequent selection have resulted in dramatic phenotypic changes in domestic pigs for a number of traits, including behavior, body composition, reproduction, and coat color. Here we have used whole-genome resequencing to reveal some of the loci that under

  7. Wild genius - domestic fool? Spatial learning abilities of wild and domestic guinea pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachser Norbert

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Domestic animals and their wild relatives differ in a wide variety of aspects. The process of domestication of the domestic guinea pig (Cavia aperea f. porcellus, starting at least 4500 years ago, led to changes in the anatomy, physiology, and behaviour compared with their wild relative, the wild cavy, Cavia aperea. Although domestic guinea pigs are widely used as a laboratory animal, learning and memory capabilities are often disregarded as being very scarce. Even less is known about learning and memory of wild cavies. In this regard, one striking domestic trait is a reduction in relative brain size, which in the domesticated form of the guinea pig amounts to 13%. However, the common belief, that such a reduction of brain size in the course of domestication of different species is accomplished by less learning capabilities is not at all very well established in the literature. Indeed, domestic animals might also even outperform their wild conspecifics taking advantage of their adaptation to a man-made environment. In our study we compared the spatial learning abilities of wild and domestic guinea pigs. We expected that the two forms are different regarding their learning performance possibly related to the process of domestication. Therefore wild cavies as well as domestic guinea pigs of both sexes, aged 35 to 45 days, were tested in the Morris water maze to investigate their ability of spatial learning. Results Both, wild cavies and domestic guinea pigs were able to learn the task, proving the water maze to be a suitable test also for wild cavies. Regarding the speed of learning, male as well as female domestic guinea pigs outperformed their wild conspecifics significantly. Interestingly, only domestic guinea pigs showed a significant spatial association of the platform position, while other effective search strategies were used by wild cavies. Conclusion The results demonstrate that domestic guinea pigs do not at all

  8. Evidence of long-term gene flow and selection during domestication from analyses of Eurasian wild and domestic pig genomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frantz, L.A.F.; Schraiber, J.G.; Madsen, O.; Megens, H.J.W.C.; Cagan, A.; Bosse, M.; Paudel, Y.; Crooijmans, R.P.M.A.; Larson, G.; Groenen, M.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, the process of domestication is assumed to be initiated by humans, involve few individuals and rely on reproductive isolation between wild and domestic forms. We analyzed pig domestication using over 100 genome sequences and tested whether pig domestication followed a traditional line

  9. A 16-year examination of domestic violence among Asians and Asian Americans in the empirical knowledge base: a content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yick, Alice G; Oomen-Early, Jody

    2008-08-01

    Until recently, research studies have implied that domestic violence does not affect Asian American and immigrant communities, or even Asians abroad, because ethnicity or culture has not been addressed. In this content analysis, the authors examined trends in publications in leading scholarly journals on violence relating to Asian women and domestic violence. A coding schema was developed, with two raters coding the data with high interrater reliability. Sixty articles were published over the 16 years studied, most atheoretical and focusing on individual levels of analysis. The terms used in discussing domestic violence reflected a feminist perspective. Three quarters of the studies were empirical, with most guided by logical positivism using quantitative designs. Most targeted specific Asian subgroups (almost a third focused on Asian Indians) rather than categorizing Asians as a general ethnic category. The concept of "Asian culture" was most often assessed by discussing Asian family structure. Future research is discussed in light of the findings.

  10. Development of molecular tools to differentiate Indian wild pig (Sus scrofa cristatus) meat from exotic and local domestic pig meat

    OpenAIRE

    Kajal Kumar Jadav; Avadh Bihari Shrivastav; Nidhi Rajput

    2013-01-01

    Aim: Identification of wild pig and domestic pig is essential to prevent illegal poaching of wild pig and to implement Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972. PCR-RFLP was used to differentiate Wild pig (Sus scrofa cristatus) from Domestic pig (Sus scrofa domestica) meat. Materials and Methods: DNA was isolated from meat samples of both the sub species and a fragment of Cytochrome b gene was amplified using universal primers and the PCR products were subjected to restriction digestion. Results: All ...

  11. Mining the pig genome to investigate the domestication process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Onsins, S E; Burgos-Paz, W; Manunza, A; Amills, M

    2014-12-01

    Pig domestication began around 9000 YBP in the Fertile Crescent and Far East, involving marked morphological and genetic changes that occurred in a relatively short window of time. Identifying the alleles that drove the behavioural and physiological transformation of wild boars into pigs through artificial selection constitutes a formidable challenge that can only be faced from an interdisciplinary perspective. Indeed, although basic facts regarding the demography of pig domestication and dispersal have been uncovered, the biological substrate of these processes remains enigmatic. Considerable hope has been placed on new approaches, based on next-generation sequencing, which allow whole-genome variation to be analyzed at the population level. In this review, we provide an outline of the current knowledge on pig domestication by considering both archaeological and genetic data. Moreover, we discuss several potential scenarios of genome evolution under the complex mixture of demography and selection forces at play during domestication. Finally, we highlight several technical and methodological approaches that may represent significant advances in resolving the conundrum of livestock domestication.

  12. A 16-Year Examination of Domestic Violence among Asians and Asian Americans in the Empirical Knowledge Base: A Content Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yick, Alice G.; Oomen-Early, Jody

    2008-01-01

    Until recently, research studies have implied that domestic violence does not affect Asian American and immigrant communities, or even Asians abroad, because ethnicity or culture has not been addressed. In this content analysis, the authors examined trends in publications in leading scholarly journals on violence relating to Asian women and…

  13. Insights into early pig domestication provided by ancient DNA analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caliebe, Amke; Nebel, Almut; Makarewicz, Cheryl; Krawczak, Michael; Krause-Kyora, Ben

    2017-01-01

    Pigs (Sus scrofa) were first domesticated between 8,500 and 8,000 cal BC in the Near East, from where they were subsequently brought into Europe by agriculturalists. Soon after the arrival of the first domestic pigs in northern Europe (~4500 BC), farmers are thought to have started to incorporate local wild boars into their swine herds. This husbandry strategy ultimately resulted in the domestication of European wild boars. Here, we set out to provide a more precise geographic and temporal framework of the early management of suid populations in northern Europe, drawing upon mitochondrial DNA haplotype data from 116 Neolithic Sus specimens. We developed a quantitative mathematical model tracing the haplotypes of the domestic pigs back to their most likely geographic origin. Our modelling results suggest that, between 5000 and 4000 BC, almost all matrilines in the north originated from domesticated animals from the south of central Europe. In the following period (4000–3000 BC), an estimated 78–100% of domesticates in the north were of northern matrilineal origin, largely from local wild boars. These findings point towards a dramatic change in suid management strategies taking place throughout south-central and northern Europe after 4000 BC. PMID:28300151

  14. Personalities in female domesticated pigs : behavioural and physiological indications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruis, MAW; Brake, JHAT; Van de Burgwal, JA; de Jong, IC; Blokhuis, HJ; Koolhaas, JM; Ruis, Marko A.W.; Brake, Joop H.A. te; Burgwal, Johan A. van de; Blokhuis, Harry J.; Koolhaas, Jaap M.

    2000-01-01

    The inconclusive evidence so far on the existence of distinct personality types in domesticated pigs, led us to perform the present experiment. A total of 128 gilts from 31 sows were systematically studied from birth to slaughter in two identical trials. Intra-test consistency in individual behaviou

  15. Hepatitis E Virus in Domestic Pigs, Wild Boars, Pig Farm Workers, and Hunters in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Anna; Tefanova, Valentina; Reshetnjak, Irina; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Geller, Julia; Lundkvist, Åke; Janson, Marilin; Neare, Kädi; Velström, Kaisa; Jokelainen, Pikka; Lassen, Brian; Hütt, Pirje; Saar, Tiiu; Viltrop, Arvo; Golovljova, Irina

    2015-12-01

    While hepatitis E is a growing health concern in Europe, epidemiological data on hepatitis E virus (HEV) in Estonia are scarce. Along with imported HEV infections, autochthonous cases are reported from European countries. Both domestic and wild animals can be a source of human cases of this zoonosis. Here, we investigated the presence of anti-HEV antibodies and HEV RNA in domestic pigs and wild boars, as well as in pig farm workers and hunters in Estonia. Anti-HEV antibodies were detected in 234/380 (61.6%) of sera from domestic pigs and in all investigated herds, and in 81/471 (17.2%) of meat juice samples from wild boars. HEV RNA was detected by real-time PCR in 103/449 (22.9%) of fecal samples from younger domestic pigs and 13/81 (16.0%) of anti-HEV-positive wild boar samples. Analysis of sera from 67 pig farm workers and 144 hunters revealed the presence of HEV-specific IgG in 13.4 and 4.2% of the samples, respectively. No HEV RNA was detected in the human serum samples. Phylogenetic analyses of HEV sequences from domestic pigs and wild boars, based on a 245 bp fragment from the open reading frame 2 showed that all of them belonged to genotype 3. The present study demonstrates the presence of HEV in Estonian domestic pig and wild boar populations, as well as in humans who have direct regular contact with these animals. Our results suggest that HEV infections are present in Estonia and require attention.

  16. A decade of pig genome sequencing: a window on pig domestication and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groenen, Martien A M

    2016-03-29

    Insight into how genomes change and adapt due to selection addresses key questions in evolutionary biology and in domestication of animals and plants by humans. In that regard, the pig and its close relatives found in Africa and Eurasia represent an excellent group of species that enables studies of the effect of both natural and human-mediated selection on the genome. The recent completion of the draft genome sequence of a domestic pig and the development of next-generation sequencing technology during the past decade have created unprecedented possibilities to address these questions in great detail. In this paper, I review recent whole-genome sequencing studies in the pig and closely-related species that provide insight into the demography, admixture and selection of these species and, in particular, how domestication and subsequent selection of Sus scrofa have shaped the genomes of these animals.

  17. Contrasting mode of evolution at a coat color locus in wild and domestic pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiying Fang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite having only begun approximately 10,000 years ago, the process of domestication has resulted in a degree of phenotypic variation within individual species normally associated with much deeper evolutionary time scales. Though many variable traits found in domestic animals are the result of relatively recent human-mediated selection, uncertainty remains as to whether the modern ubiquity of long-standing variable traits such as coat color results from selection or drift, and whether the underlying alleles were present in the wild ancestor or appeared after domestication began. Here, through an investigation of sequence diversity at the porcine melanocortin receptor 1 (MC1R locus, we provide evidence that wild and domestic pig (Sus scrofa haplotypes from China and Europe are the result of strikingly different selection pressures, and that coat color variation is the result of intentional selection for alleles that appeared after the advent of domestication. Asian and European wild boar (evolutionarily distinct subspecies differed only by synonymous substitutions, demonstrating that camouflage coat color is maintained by purifying selection. In domestic pigs, however, each of nine unique mutations altered the amino acid sequence thus generating coat color diversity. Most domestic MC1R alleles differed by more than one mutation from the wild-type, implying a long history of strong positive selection for coat color variants, during which time humans have cherry-picked rare mutations that would be quickly eliminated in wild contexts. This pattern demonstrates that coat color phenotypes result from direct human selection and not via a simple relaxation of natural selective pressures.

  18. Evidence of long-term gene flow and selection during domestication from analyses of Eurasian wild and domestic pig genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantz, Laurent A F; Schraiber, Joshua G; Madsen, Ole; Megens, Hendrik-Jan; Cagan, Alex; Bosse, Mirte; Paudel, Yogesh; Crooijmans, Richard P M A; Larson, Greger; Groenen, Martien A M

    2015-10-01

    Traditionally, the process of domestication is assumed to be initiated by humans, involve few individuals and rely on reproductive isolation between wild and domestic forms. We analyzed pig domestication using over 100 genome sequences and tested whether pig domestication followed a traditional linear model or a more complex, reticulate model. We found that the assumptions of traditional models, such as reproductive isolation and strong domestication bottlenecks, are incompatible with the genetic data. In addition, our results show that, despite gene flow, the genomes of domestic pigs have strong signatures of selection at loci that affect behavior and morphology. We argue that recurrent selection for domestic traits likely counteracted the homogenizing effect of gene flow from wild boars and created 'islands of domestication' in the genome. Our results have major ramifications for the understanding of animal domestication and suggest that future studies should employ models that do not assume reproductive isolation.

  19. Multi-locus analysis reveals a different pattern of genetic diversity for mitochondrial and nuclear DNA between wild and domestic pigs in East Asia.

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    Yin-Qiu Ji

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A major reduction of genetic diversity in mtDNA occurred during the domestication of East Asian pigs. However, the extent to which genetic diversity has been lost in the nuclear genome is uncertain. To reveal levels and patterns of nucleotide diversity and to elucidate the genetic relationships and demographic history of domestic pigs and their ancestors, wild boars, we investigated 14 nuclear markers (including 8 functional genes, 2 pseudogenes and 4 intergenic regions from 11 different chromosomes in East Asia-wide samples and pooled them with previously obtained mtDNA data for a combined analysis. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The results indicated that domestic pigs and wild boars possess comparable levels of nucleotide diversity across the nuclear genome, which is inconsistent with patterns that have been found in mitochondrial genome. CONCLUSIONS: This incongruence between the mtDNA and nuclear genomes is suggestive of a large-scale backcross between male wild boars and female domestic pigs in East Asia. Our data reveal the impacts of founder effects and backcross on the pig genome and help us better understand the complex demographic histories of East Asian pigs, which will be useful for future work on artificial selection.

  20. Artificial selection on introduced Asian haplotypes shaped the genetic architecture in European commercial pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosse, Mirte; Lopes, Marcos S; Madsen, Ole; Megens, Hendrik-Jan; Crooijmans, Richard P M A; Frantz, Laurent A F; Harlizius, Barbara; Bastiaansen, John W M; Groenen, Martien A M

    2015-12-22

    Early pig farmers in Europe imported Asian pigs to cross with their local breeds in order to improve traits of commercial interest. Current genomics techniques enabled genome-wide identification of these Asian introgressed haplotypes in modern European pig breeds. We propose that the Asian variants are still present because they affect phenotypes that were important for ancient traditional, as well as recent, commercial pig breeding. Genome-wide introgression levels were only weakly correlated with gene content and recombination frequency. However, regions with an excess or absence of Asian haplotypes (AS) contained genes that were previously identified as phenotypically important such as FASN, ME1, and KIT. Therefore, the Asian alleles are thought to have an effect on phenotypes that were historically under selection. We aimed to estimate the effect of AS in introgressed regions in Large White pigs on the traits of backfat (BF) and litter size. The majority of regions we tested that retained Asian deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) showed significantly increased BF from the Asian alleles. Our results suggest that the introgression in Large White pigs has been strongly determined by the selective pressure acting upon the introgressed AS. We therefore conclude that human-driven hybridization and selection contributed to the genomic architecture of these commercial pigs.

  1. Phylogenetic relationships of Asian and European pig breeds determined by mitochondrial DNA D-loop sequence polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K I; Lee, J H; Li, K; Zhang, Y P; Lee, S S; Gongora, J; Moran, C

    2002-02-01

    Phylogenetic relationships among Asian and European pig breeds were assessed using 1036 bp of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop sequences. An unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) tree was constructed on the basis of maximum likelihood distances using sequences determined for three Cheju (Korea), 11 Chinese, one Westran (Australian feral origin) and two European pigs (Berkshire and Welsh), and also published sequences for four Japanese (including two Wild Boars), one Yucatan miniature, five European (including Large White, Landrace, Duroc, Swedish and Wild Boar) and two Meishan pigs. The Colombian collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu) sequence was also determined and used as an outgroup. The maximum parsimony with heuristic search method was used to determine bootstrap support values. Asian-type pigs clustered together (bootstrap support 33%), but were separate from European-type pigs that also clustered together (93%). The Westran pig, derived from the feral descendants of pigs inhabiting Kangaroo Island of South Australia, clustered with Asian pigs, demonstrating Asian origin of their mitochondria. Berkshire and Large White clustered with Asian pigs, indicating that Asian pigs were involved in the development of these breeds. Our findings clearly demonstrate that pigs indigenous to China, Korea and Japan are only recently diverged from each other and distinctly different from European-type pigs. European pig breeds consist of pigs with mitochondria of Asian and non-Asian type, some of which were formed from closely related maternal ancestors, if not from a single ancestor.

  2. STR Profiling for Discrimination between Wild and Domestic Swine Specimens and between Main Breeds of Domestic Pigs Reared in Belarus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rębała, Krzysztof; Rabtsava, Alina A.; Kotova, Svetlana A.; Kipen, Viachaslau N.; Zhurina, Natalja V.; Gandzha, Alla I.; Tsybovsky, Iosif S.

    2016-01-01

    A panel comprising 16 short tandem repeats (STRs) and a gender-specific amelogenin marker was worked out and tested for robustness in discrimination between wild and domestic swine subspecies encountered in Europe, between regional populations of wild boars and between main breeds of domestic pigs reared in Belarus. The STR dataset comprised 310 wild boars, inhabiting all administrative regions of Belarus, and 313 domestic pigs, representing three local and three cosmopolitan lines. Additionally, a total of 835 wild boars were genotyped for the presence of melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) alleles specific for domestic pigs. Correctness of assignment of STR profiles to appropriate populations was measured by log-likelihood ratios (log-LRs). All samples were correctly identified as wild boars or domestic pigs with average log-LR of 42.4 (LR = 2.6×1018). On the other hand, as many as 50 out of 835 (6.0%) genotyped wild boars from Belarus possessed MC1R alleles specific to domestic pigs, demonstrating supremacy of our STR profiling system over traditional differentiation between wild boars and domestic pigs, based on single binary markers. Mean log-LRs for allocation of wild boars to their regions of origin and of domestic pigs to appropriate breeds were 2.3 (LR = 9.7) and 13.4 (LR = 6.6×105), respectively. Our results demonstrate the developed STR profiling system to be a highly efficient tool for differentiation between wild and domestic swine subspecies and between diverse breeds of domestic pigs as well as for verification of genetic identity of porcine specimens for the purpose of forensic investigations of wildlife crimes, assurance of veterinary public health, parentage control in animal husbandry, food safety management and traceability of livestock products. PMID:27851802

  3. Breaking barriers: addressing structural obstacles to social service provision for Asian survivors of domestic violence.

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    Lee, Mihan

    2013-11-01

    Many studies have attributed the disproportionately high rate of domestic violence in Asian communities to Asian patriarchal "cultural norms" and the psychological and behavioral traits that these norms produce in individuals. This article seeks to expand the scope of domestic violence analysis beyond these individual and cultural frameworks, arguing that Asian domestic violence is also a product of larger scale, social systems of inequality. By examining the funding criteria of the Family Violence Prevention Services Administration (FVPSA) and the Quality-Adjusted Life Year (QALY) standard used by Robin Hood, my research shows how state and private organizations systematically devalue and underfund minority-targeted programs.

  4. Worldwide Phylogeography of Wild Boar Reveals Multiple Centers of Pig Domestication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larson, Greger; Dobney, Keith; Albarella, Umberto;

    2005-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences from 686 wild and domestic pig specimens place the origin of wild boar in island Southeast Asia (ISEA), where they dispersed across Eurasia. Previous morphological and genetic evidence suggested pig domestication took place in a limited number of locations (pri...

  5. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in domestic pigs reared under different management in systems in Zimbabwe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hove, T.; Lind, Peter; Mukaratirwa, S.

    2005-01-01

    Serum samples from 474 domestic pigs (Sus scrola) from Zimbabwe were tested for anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgG antibodies using the indirect fluorescent antibody test. The results showed that T gondii infection is widespread in Zimbabwean pigs. Seroprevalence was lowest in fattening pigs from large.......51 % was found in the same group of fattening pigs using an indirect IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay at the single serum dilution of 1:400. The serosurvey shows the importance of modern intensive husbandry systems in reducing the prevalences of T gondii infection in domestic pigs....

  6. Of Domestic and Wild Guinea Pigs: Studies in Sociophysiology, Domestication, and Social Evolution

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    Sachser, Norbert

    Among mammals a majority of each individual's daily expectations, motivations, and behaviors are directed to encounters with conspecifics. Therefore the knowledge of the genesis, control, and consequences of social interactions is crucial for understanding their social life. We present here our research on the sociophysiology, domestication, and social evolution of wild (Cavia aperea and Galea musteloides) and domestic (Cavia aperea f. porcellus) guinea pigs, which summarizes general rules for many group-living mammals. It is shown that social interactions have consequences not only for the individuals' reproductive success but also for their degrees of stress and welfare. The way in which individuals interact is controlled not only by the present environment but also by the previous social experiences which they have gathered during their behavioral development. Furthermore, the study of ontogeny does not begin at birth, because prenatal social factors acting on pregnant females can also affect the way in which the offspring will interact when adult. In addition, to understand the genesis of interactions between domesticated animals implies knowledge of the behavioral and physiological changes which occurred during the process of domestication. Finally, understanding the social interactions among individuals of the wild ancestor of the domesticated form requires knowledge of how their behavior patterns were brought about by natural selection during the process of social evolution.

  7. Genome-wide footprints of pig domestication and selection revealed through massive parallel sequencing of pooled DNA.

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    Andreia J Amaral

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Artificial selection has caused rapid evolution in domesticated species. The identification of selection footprints across domesticated genomes can contribute to uncover the genetic basis of phenotypic diversity. METHODOLOGY/MAIN FINDINGS: Genome wide footprints of pig domestication and selection were identified using massive parallel sequencing of pooled reduced representation libraries (RRL representing ∼2% of the genome from wild boar and four domestic pig breeds (Large White, Landrace, Duroc and Pietrain which have been under strong selection for muscle development, growth, behavior and coat color. Using specifically developed statistical methods that account for DNA pooling, low mean sequencing depth, and sequencing errors, we provide genome-wide estimates of nucleotide diversity and genetic differentiation in pig. Widespread signals suggestive of positive and balancing selection were found and the strongest signals were observed in Pietrain, one of the breeds most intensively selected for muscle development. Most signals were population-specific but affected genomic regions which harbored genes for common biological categories including coat color, brain development, muscle development, growth, metabolism, olfaction and immunity. Genetic differentiation in regions harboring genes related to muscle development and growth was higher between breeds than between a given breed and the wild boar. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results, suggest that although domesticated breeds have experienced similar selective pressures, selection has acted upon different genes. This might reflect the multiple domestication events of European breeds or could be the result of subsequent introgression of Asian alleles. Overall, it was estimated that approximately 7% of the porcine genome has been affected by selection events. This study illustrates that the massive parallel sequencing of genomic pools is a cost-effective approach to identify

  8. A study to demonstrate freedom from Trichinella spp. in domestic pigs in Switzerland.

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    Schuppers, M E; Rosenberg, G; Graf, R; Eidam, V; Wittwer, C; Zimmermann, W; Gottstein, B; Frey, C F

    2010-12-01

    Trichinellosis is a food-borne zoonotic disease caused by the nematode Trichinella spp. Many omnivorous and carnivorous animal species can act as host for this parasite, including domestic pigs. To protect public health, it should be ensured that pork should not contain infective Trichinella larvae. Surveillance for Trichinella spp. can be done using direct (larval detection) and indirect (antibody detection) diagnostic techniques. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the absence of infection in Swiss domestic pigs. An ELISA was used as the initial screening test, and sera reacting in ELISA were further investigated using both a Western blot for serology and an artificial digestion test with 20 g of diaphragm tissue for larval detection. A total of 7412 adult pigs, 9973 finishing pigs and 2779 free-ranging pigs were tested. Samples from 17 (0.23%) adult pigs, 16 (0.16%) finishing pigs and nine (0.32%) free-ranging pigs were ELISA-positive, but all of these sera were subsequently negative by Western blot and by the artificial digestion method. Based on these findings, an absence of Trichinella infections in adult pigs (target prevalence 0.04%) and finishing pigs (target prevalence 0.03%) can be concluded. The results also demonstrated that the prevalence of Trichinella infections does not exceed 0.11% in free-ranging pigs, the group with the highest risk of exposure.

  9. Detection and Characterization of Hepatitis E Virus in Domestic Pigs of Different Ages in Portugal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berto, A.; Mesquita, J.R.; Hakze-van der Honing, van der R.W.; Nascimento, R.S.; Poel, van der W.H.M.

    2012-01-01

    This study represents the primary hepatitis E virus (HEV) surveillance in domestic pigs in Portugal, five pig farms were investigated in 5 different Portuguese regions, ten faecal samples were collected at four different stages of the production. All faecal samples were tested for hepatitis E virus

  10. High prevalance of Toxoplasma Gondii antibodies in domestic pigs in Oaxaca State, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigs are important in the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in North America. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in 525 domestic pigs (337 backyard raised, 188 farm raised) in Oaxaca state, Mexico was determined using the modified agglutination test (MAT, cut off 1:25). Antibodies to T. gondi...

  11. A genome-wide scan for signatures of directional selection in domesticated pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moon, S.; Kim, T.H.; Lee, K.T.; Kwak, W.; Lee, T.; Lee, S.W.; Kim, M.J.; Cho, K.; Kim, N.; Chung, W.H.; Sung, S.; Park, T.; Cho, S.; Groenen, M.A.M.; Nielsen, R.; Kim, Y.; Kim, H.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Animal domestication involved drastic phenotypic changes driven by strong artificial selection and also resulted in new populations of breeds, established by humans. This study aims to identify genes that show evidence of recent artificial selection during pig domestication. Results: Who

  12. Viral metagenomics demonstrates that domestic pigs are a potential reservoir for Ndumu virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masembe Charles

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rising demand for pork has resulted in a massive expansion of pig production in Uganda. This has resulted in increased contact between humans and pigs. Pigs can act as reservoirs for emerging infectious diseases. Therefore identification of potential zoonotic pathogens is important for public health surveillance. In this study, during a routine general surveillance for African swine fever, domestic pigs from Uganda were screened for the presence of RNA and DNA viruses using a high-throughput pyrosequencing method. Findings Serum samples from 16 domestic pigs were collected from five regions in Uganda and pooled accordingly. Genomic DNA and RNA were extracted and sequenced on the 454 GS-FLX platform. Among the sequences assigned to a taxon, 53% mapped to the domestic pig (Sus scrofa. African swine fever virus, Torque teno viruses (TTVs, and porcine endogenous retroviruses were identified. Interestingly, two pools (B and C of RNA origin had sequences that showed 98% sequence identity to Ndumu virus (NDUV. None of the reads had identity to the class Insecta indicating that these sequences were unlikely to result from contamination with mosquito nucleic acids. Conclusions This is the first report of the domestic pig as a vertebrate host for Ndumu virus. NDUV had been previously isolated only from culicine mosquitoes. NDUV therefore represents a potential zoonotic pathogen, particularly given the increasing risk of human-livestock-mosquito contact.

  13. Independent domestication of Asian rice followed by gene flow from japonica to indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ching-chia; Kawahara, Yoshihiro; Mizuno, Hiroshi; Wu, Jianzhong; Matsumoto, Takashi; Itoh, Takeshi

    2012-05-01

    Results from studies on the domestication process of Asian rice Oryza sativa have been controversial because of its complicated evolutionary history. Previous studies have yielded two alternative hypotheses about the origin(s) of the two major groups of O. sativa: japonica and indica. One study proposes a single common wild ancestor, whereas the other suggests that there were multiple domestication events of different types of wild rice. Here, we provide clear evidence of the independent domestication of japonica and indica obtained via high-throughput sequencing and a large-scale comparative analysis of two wild rice accessions (W1943 and W0106) and two cultivars (a japonica cultivar called "Nipponbare" and an indica cultivar called "Guangluai-4"). The different domestication processes of the two cultivar groups appear to have led to distinct patterns of molecular evolution in protein-coding regions. The intensity of purifying selection was relaxed only in the japonica group, possibly because of a bottleneck effect. Moreover, a genome-wide comparison between Nipponbare, Guangluai-4, and another indica cultivar (93-11) suggests multiple hybridization events between japonica and indica, both before and after the divergence of the indica cultivars. We found that a large amount of genomic DNA, including domestication-related genes, was transferred from japonica to indica, which might have been important in the development of modern rice. Our study provides an overview of the dynamic process of Asian rice domestication, including independent domestication events and subsequent gene flow.

  14. Molecular cloning, sequence identification and expression profile of domestic guinea pig (Cavia porcellus UGT1A1 gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Deming

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Domestic guinea pig is a model animal for human disease research. Uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase 1 family, polypeptide A1 (UGT1A1 is an important human disease-related gene. In this study, the complete coding sequence of domestic guinea pig gene UGT1A1 was amplified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The open reading frame of the domestic guinea pig UGT1A1 gene is 1602 bp in length and was found to encode a protein of 533 amino acids. Sequence analysis revealed that the UGT1A1 protein of domestic guinea pig shared high homology with the UGT1A1 proteins of degu (84%, damara mole-rat (84%, human (80%, northern white-cheeked gibbon (80%, Colobus angolensis palliatus (80% and golden snub-nosed monkey (79%. This gene contains five exons and four introns, as revealed by the computer-assisted analysis. The results also showed that the domestic guinea pig UGT1A1 gene had a close genetic relationship with the UGT1A1 gene of degu. The prediction of transmembrane helices showed that domestic guinea pig UGT1A1 might be a transmembrane protein. Expression profile analysis indicated that the domestic guinea pig UGT1A1 gene was differentially expressed in detected domestic guinea pig tissues. Our experiment laid a primary foundation for using the domestic guinea pig as a model animal to study the UGT1A1-related human diseases.

  15. Cytochrome b based genetic differentiation of Indian wild pig (Sus scrofa cristatus) and domestic pig (Sus scrofa domestica) and its use in wildlife forensics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sandeep Kumar; Kumar, Ajit; Hussain, Syed Ainul; Vipin; Singh, Lalji

    2013-06-01

    The Indian wild pig (Sus scrofa cristatus) is a protected species and listed in the Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972. The wild pig is often hunted illegally and sold in market as meat warranting punishment under law. To avoid confusion in identification of these two subspecies during wildlife forensic examinations, we describe genetic differentiation of Indian wild and domestic pigs using a molecular technique. Analysis of sequence generated from the partial fragment (421bp) of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cytochrome b (Cyt b) gene exhibited unambiguous (>3%) genetic variation between Indian wild and domestic pigs. We observed nine forensically informative nucleotide sequence (FINS) variations between Indian wild and domestic pigs. The overall genetic variation described in this study is helpful in forensic identification of the biological samples of wild and domestic pigs. It also helped in differentiating the Indian wild pig from other wild pig races. This study indicates that domestic pigs in India are not descendent of the Indian wild pig, however; they are closer to the other wild pig races found in Asia and Europe.

  16. Transmission routes of African swine fever virus to domestic pigs: current knowledge and future research directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinat, Claire; Gogin, Andrey; Blome, Sandra; Keil, Guenther; Pollin, Reiko; Pfeiffer, Dirk U; Dixon, Linda

    2016-03-12

    African swine fever (ASF) is a major threat to the pig industry in Europe. Since 2007, ASF outbreaks have been ongoing in the Caucasus, Eastern Europe and the Baltic countries, causing severe economic losses for many pig farmers and pork producers. In addition, the number of ASF cases in wild boar populations has dramatically increased over the past few years. Evidence supports direct contact with infectious domestic pigs and wild boars, and consumption of contaminated feed, as the main transmission routes of ASF virus (ASFV) to domestic pigs. However, significant knowledge gaps highlight the urgent need for research to investigate the dynamics of indirect transmission via the environment, the minimal infective doses for contaminated feed ingestion, the probability of effective contacts between infectious wild boars and domestic pigs, the potential for recovered animals to become carriers and a reservoir for transmission, the potential virus persistence within wild boar populations and the influence of human behaviour for the spread of ASFV. This will provide an improved scientific basis to optimise current interventions and develop new tools and strategies to reduce the risk of ASFV transmission to domestic pigs.

  17. Seroprevalence of hepatitis E virus in domestic pigs and wild boars in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burri, C; Vial, F; Ryser-Degiorgis, M-P; Schwermer, H; Darling, K; Reist, M; Wu, N; Beerli, O; Schöning, J; Cavassini, M; Waldvogel, A

    2014-12-01

    Hepatitis E is considered an emerging human viral disease in industrialized countries. Studies from Switzerland report a human seroprevalence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) of 2.6-21%, a range lower than in adjacent European countries. The aim of this study was to determine whether HEV seroprevalence in domestic pigs and wild boars is also lower in Switzerland and whether it is increasing and thus indicating that this zoonotic viral infection is emerging. Serum samples collected from 2,001 pigs in 2006 and 2011 and from 303 wild boars from 2008 to 2012 were analysed by ELISA for the presence of HEV-specific antibodies. Overall HEV seroprevalence was 58.1% in domestic pigs and 12.5% in wild boars. Prevalence in domestic pigs was significantly higher in 2006 than in 2011. In conclusion, HEV seroprevalence in domestic pigs and wild boars in Switzerland is comparable with the seroprevalence in other countries and not increasing. Therefore, prevalence of HEV in humans must be related to other factors than prevalence in pigs or wild boars.

  18. Distribution of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript in the hippocampal formation of the guinea pig and domestic pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolenkiewicz, M; Robak, A; Równiak, M; Bogus-Nowakowska, K; Całka, J; Majewski, M

    2009-02-01

    This study provides a detailed description concerning the distribution of cocaineand amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) subunits - CART(61-102) and rhCART(28-116) - in the hippocampal formation (HF) of the guinea pig and domestic pig, focussing on the dentate gyrus (DG) and hippocampus proper (HP). Although in both studied species CART-immunoreactive (CART-IR) neuronal somata and processes were present generally in the same layers, some species-specific differences were still found. In the granular layer (GL) of both species, the ovalshaped neurons and some thick varicose fibres were encountered. In the guinea pig there was an immunoreactive "band of dots", probably representing crosssectioned terminals within the DG molecular layer (MOL), whereas in the domestic pig, some varicose fibres were detected, thus suggesting a different orientation of, at least, some nerve terminals. Furthermore, some CART-positive cells and fibres were observed in the hilus (HL) of the guinea pig, whereas in the analogical part of the domestic pig only nerve terminals were labelled. In both species, in the pyramidal layer (PL) of the hippocampus proper, CART-IR triangular somata were observed in the CA3 sector, as well as some positive processes in MOL; however, a few immunoreactive perikarya were found only in the CA1 sector of the guinea pig. As regards the localization patterns of two isoforms of CART in the guinea pig, both peptide fragments were present simultaneously in each of the labelled neurons or fibres, whereas in the domestic pig three types of fibres may be distinguished within the area of the DG. In the hilus and MOL of the dentate gyrus, there were fibres expressing both isoforms of CART in their whole length (fibres of the first type). Fibres of the second type (in GL) coexpressed both peptides only on their short segments, and the last ones (in MOL) expressed solely rhCART(28-116). These results indicate that the distribution of the two CART isoforms are

  19. Juvenile domestic pigs (Sus scrofa domestica) use human-given cues in an object choice task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawroth, Christian; Ebersbach, Mirjam; von Borell, Eberhard

    2014-05-01

    Research on the comprehension of human-given cues by domesticated as well as non-domesticated species has received considerable attention over the last decade. While several species seem to be capable of utilizing these cues, former work with domestic pigs (Sus scrofa domestica) has shown inconclusive results. In this study, we investigated the use of human-given cues in an object choice task by young domestic pigs (N = 17; 7 weeks of age) who had very limited human contact prior to the experiments. Subjects had to choose between two bowls of which only one was baited with a reward. Over the course of five experiments, pigs were able to use proximal and, with some constraints, also distal pointing cues presented in both a dynamic-sustained and in a momentary manner. When the experimenter was pointing from the incorrect bowl towards the correct one, most of the subjects had problems solving the task-indicating that some form of stimulus/local enhancement affected pigs' decision making. Interestingly, pigs were able to utilize the body and head orientation of a human experimenter to locate the hidden reward but failed to co-orient when head or body orientation of the experimenter was directed into distant space with no bowls present. Control trials ruled out the possibility that other factors (e.g. odour cues) affected subjects' choice behaviour. Learning during experiments played a minor role and only occurred in three out of twelve test conditions. We conclude that domestic pigs, even at a very young age, are skilful in utilizing various human-given cues in an object choice task-raising the question whether pigs only used stimulus/local enhancement and associative learning processes or whether they were able to comprehend the communicative nature of at least some of these cues.

  20. Detection and genetic characterization of a novel parvovirus distantly related to human bufavirus in domestic pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargitai, Renáta; Pankovics, Péter; Kertész, Attila Mihály; Bíró, Hunor; Boros, Ákos; Phan, Tung Gia; Delwart, Eric; Reuter, Gábor

    2016-04-01

    In this study, a novel parvovirus (strain swine/Zsana3/2013/HUN, KT965075) was detected in domestic pigs and genetically characterized by viral metagenomics and PCR methods. The novel parvovirus was distantly related to the human bufaviruses and was detected in 19 (90.5 %) of the 21 and five (33.3 %) of the 15 faecal samples collected from animals with and without cases of posterior paraplegia of unknown etiology from five affected farms and one control farm in Hungary, respectively. Swine/Zsana3/2013/HUN is highly prevalent in domestic pigs and potentially represents a novel parvovirus species in the subfamily Parvovirinae.

  1. Pig Domestication and Human-Mediated Dispersal in Western Eurasia Revealed through Ancient DNA and Geometric Morphometrics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ottoni, Claudio; Flink, Linus Girdland; Evin, Allowen; Geoerg, Christina; De Cupere, Bea; Van Neer, Wim; Bartosiewicz, Laszlo; Linderholm, Anna; Barnett, Ross; Peters, Joris; Decorte, Ronny; Waelkens, Marc; Vanderheyden, Nancy; Ricaut, Francois-Xavier; Cakirlar, Canan; Cevik, Ozlem; Hoelzel, A. Rus; Mashkour, Marjan; Karimlu, Azadeh Fatemeh Mohaseb; Seno, Shiva Sheikhi; Daujat, Julie; Brock, Fiona; Pinhasi, Ron; Hongo, Hitomi; Perez-Enciso, Miguel; Rasmussen, Morten; Frantz, Laurent; Megens, Hendrik-Jan; Crooijmans, Richard; Groenen, Martien; Arbuckle, Benjamin; Benecke, Nobert; Vidarsdottir, Una Strand; Burger, Joachim; Cucchi, Thomas; Dobney, Keith; Larson, Greger

    2013-01-01

    Zooarcheological evidence suggests that pigs were domesticated in Southwest Asia similar to 8,500 BC. They then spread across the Middle and Near East and westward into Europe alongside early agriculturalists. European pigs were either domesticated independently or more likely appeared so as a resul

  2. Pig Domestication and Human-Mediated Dispersal in Western Eurasia Revealed through Ancient DNA and Geometric Morphometrics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ottoni, C.; Flink, L.G.; Evin, A.; Georg, C.; Cupere, De B.; Neer, van W.; Bartosiewicz, L.; Linderholm, A.; Barnett, R.; Peters, J.; Decorte, R.; Waelkens, M.; Vanderheyden, N.; Ricaut, F.X.; Cakirlar, C.; Cevik, O.; Hoelzel, A.R.; Mashkour, M.; Karimlu, A.F.M.; Seno, S.S.; Daujat, J.; Brock, F.; Pinhasi, R.; Hongo, H.; Perez-Enciso, M.; Rasmussen, M.; Frantz, L.A.F.; Megens, H.J.W.C.; Crooijmans, R.P.M.A.; Groenen, M.A.M.; Arbuckle, B.; Benecke, N.; Vidarsdottir, U.S.; Burger, J.; Cucchi, T.; Dobney, K.; Larson, G.

    2013-01-01

    Zooarcheological evidence suggests that pigs were domesticated in Southwest Asia ~8,500 BC. They then spread across the Middle and Near East and westward into Europe alongside early agriculturalists. European pigs were either domesticated independently or more likely appeared so as a result of admix

  3. Brain Mass and Encephalization Quotients in the Domestic Industrial Pig (Sus scrofa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Minervini

    Full Text Available In the present study we examined the brain of fetal, newborn, and adult pigs raised for meat production. The fresh and formalin-fixed weights of the brain have been recorded and used, together with body weight, to calculate the Encephalization Quotient (EQ. The weight of the cerebellum has been used to calculate the Cerebellar Quotient (CQ. The results have been discussed together with analogue data obtained in other terrestrial Cetartiodactyla (including the domestic bovine, sheep, goat, and camel, domesticated Carnivora, Proboscidata, and Primates. Our study, based on a relatively large experimental series, corrects former observations present in the literature based on smaller samples, and emphasizes that the domestic pig has a small brain relative to its body size (EQ = 0.38 for adults, possibly due to factors linked to the necessity of meat production and improved body weight. Comparison with other terrestrial Cetartiodactyla indicates a similar trend for all domesticated species.

  4. Unravelling the complexity of domestication: a case study using morphometrics and ancient DNA analyses of archaeological pigs from Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evin, Allowen; Flink, Linus Girdland; Bălăşescu, Adrian; Popovici, Dragomir; Andreescu, Radian; Bailey, Douglas; Mirea, Pavel; Lazăr, Cătălin; Boroneanţ, Adina; Bonsall, Clive; Vidarsdottir, Una Strand; Brehard, Stéphanie; Tresset, Anne; Cucchi, Thomas; Larson, Greger; Dobney, Keith

    2015-01-19

    Current evidence suggests that pigs were first domesticated in Eastern Anatolia during the ninth millennium cal BC before dispersing into Europe with Early Neolithic farmers from the beginning of the seventh millennium. Recent ancient DNA (aDNA) research also indicates the incorporation of European wild boar into domestic stock during the Neolithization process. In order to establish the timing of the arrival of domestic pigs into Europe, and to test hypotheses regarding the role European wild boar played in the domestication process, we combined a geometric morphometric analysis (allowing us to combine tooth size and shape) of 449 Romanian ancient teeth with aDNA analysis. Our results firstly substantiate claims that the first domestic pigs in Romania possessed the same mtDNA signatures found in Neolithic pigs in west and central Anatolia. Second, we identified a significant proportion of individuals with large molars whose tooth shape matched that of archaeological (likely) domestic pigs. These large 'domestic shape' specimens were present from the outset of the Romanian Neolithic (6100-5500 cal BC) through to later prehistory, suggesting a long history of admixture between introduced domestic pigs and local wild boar. Finally, we confirmed a turnover in mitochondrial lineages found in domestic pigs, possibly coincident with human migration into Anatolia and the Levant that occurred in later prehistory.

  5. Use of domesticated pigs by Mesolithic hunter-gatherers in northwestern Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Krause-Kyora, B.; Makarewicz, C.; Evin, A.; Flink, L.; Dobney, K.; Larson, G.; Hartz, S.; Schreiber, S.; von Carnap-Bornheim, C.; von Wurmb-Schwark, N.; Nebel, A.

    2013-01-01

    Mesolithic populations throughout Europe used diverse resource exploitation strategies that focused heavily on collecting and hunting wild prey. Between 5500 and 4200 cal BC, agriculturalists migrated into northwestern Europe bringing a suite of Neolithic technologies including domesticated animals. Here we investigate to what extent Mesolithic Ertebølle communities in northern Germany had access to domestic pigs, possibly through contact with neighbouring Neolithic agricultural groups. We em...

  6. Pig Domestication and Human-Mediated Dispersal in Western Eurasia Revealed through Ancient DNA and Geometric Morphometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottoni, Claudio; Girdland Flink, Linus; Evin, Allowen; Geörg, Christina; De Cupere, Bea; Van Neer, Wim; Bartosiewicz, László; Linderholm, Anna; Barnett, Ross; Peters, Joris; Decorte, Ronny; Waelkens, Marc; Vanderheyden, Nancy; Ricaut, François-Xavier; Çakırlar, Canan; Çevik, Özlem; Hoelzel, A. Rus; Mashkour, Marjan; Mohaseb Karimlu, Azadeh Fatemeh; Sheikhi Seno, Shiva; Daujat, Julie; Brock, Fiona; Pinhasi, Ron; Hongo, Hitomi; Perez-Enciso, Miguel; Rasmussen, Morten; Frantz, Laurent; Megens, Hendrik-Jan; Crooijmans, Richard; Groenen, Martien; Arbuckle, Benjamin; Benecke, Nobert; Strand Vidarsdottir, Una; Burger, Joachim; Cucchi, Thomas; Dobney, Keith; Larson, Greger

    2013-01-01

    Zooarcheological evidence suggests that pigs were domesticated in Southwest Asia ∼8,500 BC. They then spread across the Middle and Near East and westward into Europe alongside early agriculturalists. European pigs were either domesticated independently or more likely appeared so as a result of admixture between introduced pigs and European wild boar. As a result, European wild boar mtDNA lineages replaced Near Eastern/Anatolian mtDNA signatures in Europe and subsequently replaced indigenous domestic pig lineages in Anatolia. The specific details of these processes, however, remain unknown. To address questions related to early pig domestication, dispersal, and turnover in the Near East, we analyzed ancient mitochondrial DNA and dental geometric morphometric variation in 393 ancient pig specimens representing 48 archeological sites (from the Pre-Pottery Neolithic to the Medieval period) from Armenia, Cyprus, Georgia, Iran, Syria, and Turkey. Our results reveal the first genetic signatures of early domestic pigs in the Near Eastern Neolithic core zone. We also demonstrate that these early pigs differed genetically from those in western Anatolia that were introduced to Europe during the Neolithic expansion. In addition, we present a significantly more refined chronology for the introduction of European domestic pigs into Asia Minor that took place during the Bronze Age, at least 900 years earlier than previously detected. By the 5th century AD, European signatures completely replaced the endemic lineages possibly coinciding with the widespread demographic and societal changes that occurred during the Anatolian Bronze and Iron Ages. PMID:23180578

  7. Pig domestication and human-mediated dispersal in western Eurasia revealed through ancient DNA and geometric morphometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottoni, Claudio; Flink, Linus Girdland; Evin, Allowen; Geörg, Christina; De Cupere, Bea; Van Neer, Wim; Bartosiewicz, László; Linderholm, Anna; Barnett, Ross; Peters, Joris; Decorte, Ronny; Waelkens, Marc; Vanderheyden, Nancy; Ricaut, François-Xavier; Cakirlar, Canan; Cevik, Ozlem; Hoelzel, A Rus; Mashkour, Marjan; Karimlu, Azadeh Fatemeh Mohaseb; Seno, Shiva Sheikhi; Daujat, Julie; Brock, Fiona; Pinhasi, Ron; Hongo, Hitomi; Perez-Enciso, Miguel; Rasmussen, Morten; Frantz, Laurent; Megens, Hendrik-Jan; Crooijmans, Richard; Groenen, Martien; Arbuckle, Benjamin; Benecke, Nobert; Vidarsdottir, Una Strand; Burger, Joachim; Cucchi, Thomas; Dobney, Keith; Larson, Greger

    2013-04-01

    Zooarcheological evidence suggests that pigs were domesticated in Southwest Asia ~8,500 BC. They then spread across the Middle and Near East and westward into Europe alongside early agriculturalists. European pigs were either domesticated independently or more likely appeared so as a result of admixture between introduced pigs and European wild boar. As a result, European wild boar mtDNA lineages replaced Near Eastern/Anatolian mtDNA signatures in Europe and subsequently replaced indigenous domestic pig lineages in Anatolia. The specific details of these processes, however, remain unknown. To address questions related to early pig domestication, dispersal, and turnover in the Near East, we analyzed ancient mitochondrial DNA and dental geometric morphometric variation in 393 ancient pig specimens representing 48 archeological sites (from the Pre-Pottery Neolithic to the Medieval period) from Armenia, Cyprus, Georgia, Iran, Syria, and Turkey. Our results reveal the first genetic signatures of early domestic pigs in the Near Eastern Neolithic core zone. We also demonstrate that these early pigs differed genetically from those in western Anatolia that were introduced to Europe during the Neolithic expansion. In addition, we present a significantly more refined chronology for the introduction of European domestic pigs into Asia Minor that took place during the Bronze Age, at least 900 years earlier than previously detected. By the 5th century AD, European signatures completely replaced the endemic lineages possibly coinciding with the widespread demographic and societal changes that occurred during the Anatolian Bronze and Iron Ages.

  8. A gene expression atlas of the domestic pig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freeman Tom C

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This work describes the first genome-wide analysis of the transcriptional landscape of the pig. A new porcine Affymetrix expression array was designed in order to provide comprehensive coverage of the known pig transcriptome. The new array was used to generate a genome-wide expression atlas of pig tissues derived from 62 tissue/cell types. These data were subjected to network correlation analysis and clustering. Results The analysis presented here provides a detailed functional clustering of the pig transcriptome where transcripts are grouped according to their expression pattern, so one can infer the function of an uncharacterized gene from the company it keeps and the locations in which it is expressed. We describe the overall transcriptional signatures present in the tissue atlas, where possible assigning those signatures to specific cell populations or pathways. In particular, we discuss the expression signatures associated with the gastrointestinal tract, an organ that was sampled at 15 sites along its length and whose biology in the pig is similar to human. We identify sets of genes that define specialized cellular compartments and region-specific digestive functions. Finally, we performed a network analysis of the transcription factors expressed in the gastrointestinal tract and demonstrate how they sub-divide into functional groups that may control cellular gastrointestinal development. Conclusions As an important livestock animal with a physiology that is more similar than mouse to man, we provide a major new resource for understanding gene expression with respect to the known physiology of mammalian tissues and cells. The data and analyses are available on the websites http://biogps.org and http://www.macrophages.com/pig-atlas.

  9. Implications of food patch distribution on social foraging in domestic pigs (Sus scrofa)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Liat Romme; Nielsen, Birte Lindstrøm; Larsen, Ole Næsbye

    2010-01-01

    Feeding behaviour of social animals can be influenced by the spatial distribution of resources. In domestic housing facilities growing pigs will often be fed from feeding sites confined to a small area, i.e. effectively a clumping of food resources. In the present experiment we investigated how f...

  10. Location of external anal sphincter motoneurons in the sacral cord of the female domestic pig

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, BFM; Roukema, G; Geerdes, B; Holstege, G

    1996-01-01

    The location of the striated external anal sphincter motoneurons in the spinal cord was investigated in 12, between 3 and 4 months old, female domestic pigs using the retrograde tracer horseradish peroxidase (HRP). Their motoneuronal cell bodies were found in the spinal segments S1-S3, and were not

  11. The action of the masticatory muscles and cranial changes in pigs as results of domestication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Dinu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The comparative study of wild boar and domestic pig skulls suggests that a change in feeding habits under human control may have been a factor influencing the action of the masticatory and neck muscles in reshaping the cranial region. This paper offers both an anatomical and an osteological comparative morphological argument supporting this hypothesis.

  12. High prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in domestic pigs in Oaxaca State, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, C; Estrada-Malacón, M A; Reyes-Hernández, S O; Pérez-Ramírez, J A; Trujillo-López, J I; Villena, I; Dubey, J P

    2012-12-01

    Pigs are important in the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in North America. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in 525 domestic pigs (337 backyard raised, 188 farm raised) in Oaxaca State, Mexico was determined using the modified agglutination test (MAT, cutoff 1:25). Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 58 (17.2%) of the 337 backyard pigs with MAT titers of 1:25 in 10, 1:50 in 12, 1:100 in 18, 1:200 in 6, 1:400 in 6, 1:800 in 3, and 1:1,600 in 3. Seropositive pigs were found in 39 (37.9%) of 103 homes in all 7 municipalities surveyed. Seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in backyard pigs varied with age, gender, geographic region, climate, and altitude. High seroprevalence was found in pigs ≥ 9-mo-old (40%), in females (40%), in pigs from the Istmo region (33.3%), and in those raised in a tropical climate (65%). Seroprevalence was higher (24.5%) in pigs raised at 100-660 m above sea level than in those at 20-60 m of altitude (14.2%). With respect to farm pigs, only 1 (0.5%, MAT titer 1:100) of 188 pigs from 5 farms was positive for anti- T. gondii antibodies. The results affirm that the management system (outdoor vs. indoor system with biosecurity) is a key factor in the epidemiology of porcine toxoplasmosis. Because there is no national system of determining the T. gondii infection status at the time of slaughter, precautions should be taken while handling pig carcasses, and all pork should be cooked thoroughly before human consumption.

  13. Chronically infected wild boar can transmit genotype 3 hepatitis E virus to domestic pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlosser, Josephine; Vina-Rodriguez, Ariel; Fast, Christine; Groschup, Martin H; Eiden, Martin

    2015-10-22

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) causes acute hepatitis E in humans in developing countries, but sporadic and autochthonous cases do also occur in industrialized nations. In Europe, food-borne zoonotic transmission of genotype 3 (gt3) has been associated with the consumption of raw and undercooked products from domestic pig and wild boar. As shown recently, naturally acquired HEV gt3 replicates efficiently in experimentally infected wild boar and is transmissible from a wild boar to domestic pigs. Generally, following an acute infection swine suffer from a transient febrile illness and viremia in connection with fecal virus shedding. However, little is known about sub-acute or chronic HEV infections in swine, and how and where HEV survives the immune response. In this paper, we describe the incidental finding of a chronic HEVgt3 infection in two naturally infected European wild boar which were raised and housed at FLI over years. The wild boar displayed fecal HEV RNA excretion and viremia over nearly the whole observation period of more than five months. The animal had mounted a substantial antibody response, yet without initial clearance of the virus by the immune system. Further analysis indicated a subclinical course of HEV with no evidence of chronic hepatitis. Additionally, we could demonstrate that this chronic wild boar infection was still transmissible to domestic pigs, which were housed together with this animal. Sentinel pigs developed fecal virus shedding accompanied by seroconversion. Wild boar should therefore be considered as an important reservoir for transmission of HEV gt3 in Europe.

  14. Experimental Infection of Domestic Pigs with African Swine Fever Virus Lithuania 2014 Genotype II Field Isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo, C; Soler, A; Nieto, R; Cano, C; Pelayo, V; Sánchez, M A; Pridotkas, G; Fernandez-Pinero, J; Briones, V; Arias, M

    2017-02-01

    An experimental infection was conducted to evaluate horizontal transmission, clinical, virological and humoral response induced in domestic pigs infected with African swine fever (ASF) genotype II virus circulating in 2014 into the European Union (EU). Ten naive pigs were placed in contact with eight pigs experimentally inoculated with the Lithuanian LT14/1490 ASF virus (ASFV) responsible for the first ASF case detected in wild boar in Lithuania in January 2014. Clinical examination and rectal temperature were recorded each day. Blood sampling from every animal was carried out twice weekly. Blood samples were examined for presence of ASF virus-specific antibodies and for determining the ASFV viral load. From the obtained results, it was concluded that the Lithuanian ASFV induced an acute disease which resulted in 94, 5% mortality. The disease was easily detected by real-time PCR prior to the onset of clinical signs and 33% of the animals seroconverted. All findings were in accordance with observations previously made in domestic pigs and wild boar when infected with ASF genotype II viruses characterized by a high virulence. One in-contact pig remained asymptomatic and survived the infection. The role of such animals in virus transmission would need further investigation.

  15. Genetic relatedness of Brucella suis biovar 2 isolates from hares, wild boars and domestic pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreizinger, Zsuzsa; Foster, Jeffrey T; Rónai, Zsuzsanna; Sulyok, Kinga M; Wehmann, Enikő; Jánosi, Szilárd; Gyuranecz, Miklós

    2014-08-27

    Porcine brucellosis generally manifests as disorders in reproductive organs potentially leading to serious losses in the swine industry. Brucella suis biovar 2 is endemic in European wild boar (Sus scrofa) and hare (Lepus europeus, Lepus capensis) populations, thus these species may play a significant role in disease spread and serve as potential sources of infection for domestic pigs. The aim of this study was an epidemiologic analysis of porcine brucellosis in Hungary and a comparative analysis of B. suis bv. 2 strains from Europe using multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA). MLVA-16 and its MLVA-11 subset were used to determine the genotypes of 68 B. suis bv. 2 isolates from Hungary and results were then compared to European MLVA genotypes. The analyses indicated relatively high genetic diversity of B. suis bv. 2 in Hungary. Strains isolated from hares and wild boars from Hungary showed substantial genetic divergence, suggesting separate lineages in each host and no instances of cross species infections. The closest relatives of strains from Hungarian wild boars and domestic pigs were mainly in the isolates from German and Croatian boars and pigs. The assessment of the European MLVA genotypes of wild boar isolates generally showed clustering based on geographic origin. The hare strains were relatively closely related to one another and did not cluster based on geographic origin. The limited relationships between geographic origin and genotype in isolates from hares might be the result of cross-border live animal translocation. The results could also suggest that certain B. suis strains are more adapted to hares. Across Europe, isolates from domestic pigs were closely related to isolates originating from both hares and wild boars, supporting the idea that wild animals are a source of brucellosis in domestic pigs.

  16. Seroprevalence and correlates of Toxoplasma gondii infection in domestic pigs in Veracruz State, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Romero-Salas, Dora; García-Vázquez, Zeferino; Crivelli-Diaz, Margarita; Barrientos-Morales, Manuel; Lopez-de-Buen, Lorena; Dubey, Jitender P

    2014-04-01

    Toxoplasma gondii infection in pigs has epidemiological concern for its contributing role in human infections. We determined seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in 402 domestic pigs raised in backyards in Veracruz State, Mexico using the modified agglutination test (MAT; cut off 1:25); 182 (45.3%) of the 402 pigs were seropositive with MAT titers of 1:25 in 28, 1:50 in 22, 1:100 in 18, 1:200 in 30, 1:400 in 35, 1:800 in 23, 1:1,600 in 11, and 1:3,200 or higher in 15. Seropositive pigs were found in 137 (53.3%) of 257 homes in all 7 municipalities surveyed. Multivariate analysis showed that T. gondii seropositivity in pigs was associated with tropical-humid climate (OR = 4.32; 95% CI 1.47-12.62; P = 0.007) of the raising municipalities, feeding with leftovers (OR = 2.83; 95% CI 1.01-7.91; P = 0.04), storing pig food in the owner's home (OR = 2.39; 95% CI 1.09-5.22; P = 0.02), and free ranging (OR = 3.48; 95% CI 1.49-8.15; P = 0.003). Results indicate that backyard pigs in Veracruz have the highest seroprevalence of T. gondii infection obtained by MAT in pigs studied in Mexico so far. The correlates of T. gondii infection found in the present study may be useful for an optimal planning of preventive measures against T. gondii infection in pigs. Results also remark the risk of T. gondii infection in humans by ingestion of raw or undercook pork in Mexico.

  17. Survey of Trichinella infections in domestic pigs from northern and eastern Henan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jing; Jiang, Peng; Liu, Li Na; Wang, Zhong Quan

    2013-05-20

    The aim of this work was to investigate the current situation of Trichinella infections in swine in the cities of Anyang and Shanqiu in the Henan province historically designated as trichinellosis-free. A total of 475 diaphragm muscle samples were collected from 2010 to 2011 and examined by trichinelloscopy and artificial digestion. No Trichinella larvae were detected by trichinelloscopy; however, using the digestion method, 3.79% (18/475) of domestic pigs were deemed positive for Trichinella. Among the 475 pigs examined, 112 from an industrialized pig farm were negative. However. Trichinella larvae were detected in 10% (9/90) of pigs from small pig farms, which was significantly higher than the 3.3% (9/273) of pigs found positive from backyard farms (PTrichinella spiralis. Our study confirms the existence of porcine trichinellosis in northern and eastern parts of Henan. The results will be useful for evaluating the risk of infection for humans. Given this new found data, public health officials should consider implementing strategies to eliminate human transmission.

  18. An Asian origin for a 10,000-year-old domesticated plant in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, David L; Smith, Bruce D; Clarke, Andrew C; Sandweiss, Daniel H; Tuross, Noreen

    2005-12-20

    New genetic and archaeological approaches have substantially improved our understanding of the transition to agriculture, a major turning point in human history that began 10,000-5,000 years ago with the independent domestication of plants and animals in eight world regions. In the Americas, however, understanding the initial domestication of New World species has long been complicated by the early presence of an African enigma, the bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria). Indigenous to Africa, it reached East Asia by 9,000-8,000 before present (B.P.) and had a broad New World distribution by 8,000 B.P. Here we integrate genetic and archaeological approaches to address a set of long-standing core questions regarding the introduction of the bottle gourd into the Americas. Did it reach the New World directly from Africa or through Asia? Was it transported by humans or ocean currents? Was it wild or domesticated upon arrival? Fruit rind thickness values and accelerator mass spectrometer radiocarbon dating of archaeological specimens indicate that the bottle gourd was present in the Americas as a domesticated plant by 10,000 B.P., placing it among the earliest domesticates in the New World. Ancient DNA sequence analysis of archaeological bottle gourd specimens and comparison with modern Asian and African landraces identify Asia as the source of its introduction. We suggest that the bottle gourd and the dog, two "utility" species, were domesticated long before any food crops or livestock species, and that both were brought to the Americas by Paleoindian populations as they colonized the New World.

  19. Usefulness of human coagulation and fibrinolysis assays in domestic pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münster, Anna-Marie Bloch; Olsen, Aage Kristian; Bladbjerg, Else-Marie

    2002-01-01

    Pigs are often used as animal models in research on blood coagulation and fibrinolysis. The usefulness of the assays applied within this field, and the knowledge of reference intervals are therefore essential and of utmost importance. In the study reported here, we investigated the applicability...... time, tissue factor, tissue factor pathway inhibitor, factor VII, protein C, protein S, prothrombin fragment 1+2, antithrombin, thrombin-antithrombin complexes, fibrinogen, soluble fibrin, urokinase-type plasminogen activator, plasmin inhibitor, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1, and D-dimer. We found...... that 11 of 12 functional assays, but only 3 of 10 immunoassays, were applicable to porcine plasma, and we determined the normal range of these variables. We conclude that human functional assays are useful in porcine plasma, whereas only a few immunologic assays can be used. However, precautions must...

  20. Phenotypic features of the domestic pigs bred in the Roman settlements of Pompeii and Caralis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manca, Paolo; Farina, Vittorio; Gadau, Sergio; Lepore, Gianluca; Genovese, Angelo; Zedda, Marco

    2004-01-01

    A reconstruction of the morphological features of domestic pigs from two Roman settlements is here suggested by means of the study of skeletal and dental remains, with the aim at evaluating their degree of selection in comparison with wild boars. Material was formed by 111 bone and tooth fragments and was uncovered during the excavations of Polybius' House in Pompeii and of Roman buildings in the neighbourhood of Caralis harbour (Sardinia). The remains underwent morphological examination. The eruption of permanent teeth and ossification of epiphyseal cartilages let us establish that most animals were over 18-20 months. When possible, the determination of sex was made by detecting tusk features. The presence of anthropic signs on the bone surface provides some information about slaughtering and cooking procedure in the Roman period and supports the hypothesis that the animal remnants were food remains. Osteometric analysis was carried out on long and short bones and teeth through suitable multiplicative parameters, leading to the assessment of the withers height and other main phenotypic features. Logarithmic deviation pointed out the significant osteometric differences between the domestic pigs from the two Roman settlements. These data were also compared with those from wild boars and modern crossbred wild boars X non-selected pigs. In conclusion, our data show that pigs from Caralis bear much resemblance to wild boars, whereas those from Pompeii appear to be improved, so sharing some phenotypic features of modem improved breeds.

  1. Understanding African Swine Fever infection dynamics in Sardinia using a spatially explicit transmission model in domestic pig farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mur, L; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, J M; Fernández-Carrión, E; Jurado, C; Rolesu, S; Feliziani, F; Laddomada, A; Martínez-López, B

    2017-03-13

    African swine fever virus (ASFV) has been endemic in Sardinia since 1978, resulting in severe losses for local pig producers and creating important problems for the island's veterinary authorities. This study used a spatially explicit stochastic transmission model followed by two regression models to investigate the dynamics of ASFV spread amongst domestic pig farms, to identify geographic areas at highest risk and determine the role of different susceptible pig populations (registered domestic pigs, non-registered domestic pigs [brado] and wild boar) in ASF occurrence. We simulated transmission within and between farms using an adapted version of the previously described model known as Be-FAST. Results from the model revealed a generally low diffusion of ASF in Sardinia, with only 24% of the simulations resulting in disease spread, and for each simulated outbreak on average only four farms and 66 pigs were affected. Overall, local spread (indirect transmission between farms within a 2 km radius through fomites) was the most common route of transmission, being responsible for 98.6% of secondary cases. The risk of ASF occurrence for each domestic pig farm was estimated from the spread model results and integrated in two regression models together with available data for brado and wild boar populations. There was a significant association between the density of all three populations (domestic pigs, brado, and wild boar) and ASF occurrence in Sardinia. The most significant risk factors were the high densities of brado (OR = 2.2) and wild boar (OR = 2.1). The results of both analyses demonstrated that ASF epidemiology and infection dynamics in Sardinia create a complex and multifactorial disease situation, where all susceptible populations play an important role. To stop ASF transmission in Sardinia, three main factors (improving biosecurity on domestic pig farms, eliminating brado practices and better management of wild boars) need to be addressed.

  2. Mitochondrial DNA evidence indicates the local origin of domestic pigs in the upstream region of the Yangtze River.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Jin

    Full Text Available Previous studies have indicated two main domestic pig dispersal routes in East Asia: one is from the Mekong region, through the upstream region of the Yangtze River (URYZ to the middle and upstream regions of the Yellow River, the other is from the middle and downstream regions of the Yangtze River to the downstream region of the Yellow River, and then to northeast China. The URYZ was regarded as a passageway of the former dispersal route; however, this assumption remains to be further investigated. We therefore analyzed the hypervariable segements of mitochondrial DNA from 513 individual pigs mainly from Sichuan and the Tibet highlands and 1,394 publicly available sequences from domestic pigs and wild boars across Asia. From the phylogenetic tree, most of the samples fell into a mixed group that was difficult to distinguish by breed or geography. The total network analysis showed that the URYZ pigs possessed a dominant position in haplogroup A and domestic pigs shared the same core haplotype with the local wild boars, suggesting that pigs in group A were most likely derived from the URYZ pool. In addition, a region-wise network analysis determined that URYZ contains 42 haplotypes of which 22 are unique indicating the high diversity in this region. In conclusion, our findings confirmed that pigs from the URYZ were domesticated in situ.

  3. Spatio-temporal Analysis of African Swine Fever in Sardinia (2012-2014): Trends in Domestic Pigs and Wild Boar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, I; Rodríguez, A; Feliziani, F; Rolesu, S; de la Torre, A

    2017-04-01

    African swine fever (ASF) is a notifiable viral disease affecting domestic pigs and wild boars that has been endemic in Sardinia since 1978. Several risk factors complicate the control of ASF in Sardinia: generally poor level of biosecurity, traditional breeding practices, illegal behaviour in movements and feeding of pigs, and sporadic occurrence of long-term carriers. A previous study describes the disease in Sardinia during 1978-2013. The aim of this study was to gain more in-depth knowledge of the spatio-temporal pattern of ASF in Sardinia during 2012 to May 2014, comparing patterns of occurrence in domestic pigs and wild boar and identifying areas of local transmission. African swine fever notifications were studied considering seasonality, spatial autocorrelation, spatial point pattern and spatio-temporal clusters. Results showed differences in temporal and spatial pattern of wild boar and domestic pig notifications. The peak in wild boar notifications (October 2013 to February 2014) occurred six months after than in domestic pig (May to early summer 2013). Notifications of cases in both host species tended to be clustered, with a maximum significant distance of spatial association of 15 and 25 km in domestic pigs and wild boars, respectively. Five clusters for local ASF transmission were identified for domestic pigs, with a mean radius and duration of 4 km (3-9 km) and 38 days (6-55 days), respectively. Any wild boar clusters were found. The apparently secondary role of wild boar in ASF spread in Sardinia could be explained by certain socio-economic factors (illegal free-range pig breeding or the mingling of herds. The lack of effectiveness of previous surveillance and control programmes reveals the necessity of employing a new approach). Results present here provide better knowledge of the dynamics of ASF in Sardinia, which could be used in a more comprehensive risk analysis necessary to introduce a new approach in the eradication strategy.

  4. Developmental Stage-Specific Imprinting of IPL in Domestic Pigs (Sus scrofa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengping Hou

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Imprinted in placenta and liver (IPL gene has been identified as an imprinted gene in the mouse and human. Its sequence and imprinting status, however, have not been determined in the domestic pigs. In the present study, a 259 base pair-specific sequence for IPL gene of the domestic pig was obtained and a novel SNP, a T/C transition, was identified in IPL exon 1. The C allele of this polymorphism was found to be the predominant allele in Landrace,Yorkshire, and Duroc. The frequency of CC genotype and C allele are different in Duroc as compared with Yorkshire (P=.038 and P=.005, resp.. Variable imprinting status of this gene was observed in different developmental stages. For example, it is imprinted in 1-dayold newborns (expressed from the maternal allele, but imprinting was lost in 180-day-old adult (expressed from both parental alleles. Real-time PCR analysis showed the porcine IPL gene is expressed in all tested eight organ/tissues. The expression level was significantly higher in spleen, duodenum, lung, and bladder of 180-day-old Lantang adult compared to that in 1-day-old newborns Lantang pigs (P<.05. In conclusion, the imprinting of the porcine IPL gene is developmental stage and tissue specific.

  5. Molecular Basis for the Dominant White Phenotype in the Domestic Pig

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marklund, Stefan; Kijas, James; Rodriguez-Martinez, Heriberto; Rönnstrand, Lars; Funa, Keiko; Moller, Maria; Lange, Dirk; Edfors-Lilja, Inger; Andersson, Leif

    1998-01-01

    The change of phenotypic traits in domestic animals and crops as a response to selective breeding mimics the much slower evolutionary change in natural populations. Here, we describe that the dominant white phenotype in domestic pigs is caused by two mutations in the KIT gene encoding the mast/stem cell growth factor receptor (MGF), one gene duplication associated with a partially dominant phenotype and a splice mutation in one of the copies leading to the fully dominant allele. The splice mutation is a G to A substitution in the first nucleotide of intron 17 and leads to skipping of exon 17. The duplication is most likely a regulatory mutation affecting KIT expression, whereas the splice mutation is expected to cause a receptor with impaired or absent tyrosine kinase activity. Immunocytochemistry showed that this variant form is expressed in 17- to 19-day-old pig embryos. Hundreds of millions of white pigs around the world are assumed to be heterozygous or homozygous for the two mutations. [The EMBL accession numbers for porcine KIT1*0101, KIT1*0202, KIT2*0202, and KIT2*0101 are AJ223228–AJ223231, respectively.] PMID:9724328

  6. Alternative Splicing and Expression Profile Analysis of Expressed Sequence Tags in Domestic Pig

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang Zhang; Lin Tao; Lin Ye; Ling He; Yuan-Zhong Zhu; Yue-Dong Zhu; Yan Zhou

    2007-01-01

    Domestic pig (Sus scrofa domestica) is one of the most important mammals to humans. Alternative splicing is a cellular mechanism in eukaryotes that greatly increases the diversity of gene products. Expression sequence tags (ESTs) have been widely used for gene discovery, expression profile analysis, and alternative splicing detection. In this study, a total of 712,905 ESTs extracted from 101 different nonnormalized EST libraries of the domestic pig were analyzed. These EST libraries cover the nervous system, digestive system, immune system, and meat production related tissues from embryo, newborn, and adult pigs, making contributions to the analysis of alternative splicing variants as well as expression profiles in various stages of tissues. A modified approach was designed to cluster and assemble large EST datasets, aiming to detect alternative splicing together with EST abundance of each splicing variant. Much efforts were made to classify alternative splicing into different types and apply different filters to each type to get more reliable results. Finally, a total of 1,223 genes with average 2.8 splicing variants were detected among 16,540 unique genes. The overview of expression profiles would change when we take alternative splicing into account.

  7. A Novel Blocking ELISA for Detection of Antibodies against Hepatitis E Virus in Domestic Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yiyang; Zhao, Qin; Liu, Baoyuan; Wang, Lizhen; Sun, Yani; Li, Huixia; Wang, Xinjie; Syed, Shahid Faraz; Zhang, Gaiping; Zhou, En-Min

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infects both humans and animals, with an overall human mortality rate generally less than 1%, but as high as 20% among pregnant women. HEV strains fall into 4 major genotypes. Zoonotic genotypes 3 and 4 associate with sporadic human and animal HEV cases in many industrialized countries. To date, collective evidence implicates pigs as the main HEV reservoir, justifying the importance of monitoring HEV infection rates in pig herds to prevent human illness. Due to the lack of a robust in vitro cell culture system for viral propagation, no "gold standard" assay has yet been developed to detect HEV infection in domestic pigs. 1E4, a monoclonal antibody (mAb) specific for the C-terminal 268 amino acids of HEV genotype 4 ORF2 capsid protein (sORF2-C), was generated and conjugated to horseradish peroxidase (HRP) for use in a blocking ELISA (bELISA). Optimal sORF2-C coating antigen concentration (8 μg/ml), HRP-1E4 dilution (1:1000), and test pig serum dilution (1:20) were determined using a checkerboard titration test. A cut-off value of 16.9% was chosen to differentiate between positive vs. negative sera after mean percent inhibition (PI) testing of 230 negative pig sera. Compared with the indirect ELISA (iELISA), western blot, and a commercial ELISA kit for detecting anti-HEV antibodies in human sera, the bELISA showed no statistical differences and statistically high coincidence of 93.23%, 92%, and 95% with the other tests, respectively. A blocking ELISA (bELISA) for detecting anti-HEV antibodies in pig serum samples was developed with high sensitivity and high specificity comparable to that of the indirect ELISA. The bELISA results exhibited high agreement with iELISA, western blot, and a commercial ELISA kit designed to detect human anti-HEV antibodies. Therefore, bELISA should serve as an ideal method for large-scale serological investigation of anti-HEV antibodies in domestic pigs.

  8. A Novel Blocking ELISA for Detection of Antibodies against Hepatitis E Virus in Domestic Pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiyang Chen

    Full Text Available Hepatitis E virus (HEV infects both humans and animals, with an overall human mortality rate generally less than 1%, but as high as 20% among pregnant women. HEV strains fall into 4 major genotypes. Zoonotic genotypes 3 and 4 associate with sporadic human and animal HEV cases in many industrialized countries. To date, collective evidence implicates pigs as the main HEV reservoir, justifying the importance of monitoring HEV infection rates in pig herds to prevent human illness. Due to the lack of a robust in vitro cell culture system for viral propagation, no "gold standard" assay has yet been developed to detect HEV infection in domestic pigs. 1E4, a monoclonal antibody (mAb specific for the C-terminal 268 amino acids of HEV genotype 4 ORF2 capsid protein (sORF2-C, was generated and conjugated to horseradish peroxidase (HRP for use in a blocking ELISA (bELISA. Optimal sORF2-C coating antigen concentration (8 μg/ml, HRP-1E4 dilution (1:1000, and test pig serum dilution (1:20 were determined using a checkerboard titration test. A cut-off value of 16.9% was chosen to differentiate between positive vs. negative sera after mean percent inhibition (PI testing of 230 negative pig sera. Compared with the indirect ELISA (iELISA, western blot, and a commercial ELISA kit for detecting anti-HEV antibodies in human sera, the bELISA showed no statistical differences and statistically high coincidence of 93.23%, 92%, and 95% with the other tests, respectively. A blocking ELISA (bELISA for detecting anti-HEV antibodies in pig serum samples was developed with high sensitivity and high specificity comparable to that of the indirect ELISA. The bELISA results exhibited high agreement with iELISA, western blot, and a commercial ELISA kit designed to detect human anti-HEV antibodies. Therefore, bELISA should serve as an ideal method for large-scale serological investigation of anti-HEV antibodies in domestic pigs.

  9. Phylogenetic relationships of Australian and New Zealand feral pigs assessed by mitochondrial control region sequence and nuclear GPIP genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gongora, Jaime; Fleming, Peter; Spencer, Peter B S; Mason, Richard; Garkavenko, Olga; Meyer, Johann-Nikolaus; Droegemueller, Cord; Lee, Jun Heon; Moran, Chris

    2004-11-01

    Pigs were introduced into Australia and New Zealand in the 18th and 19th centuries, with some establishing feral populations. With few records of pig introductions into these two countries, molecular phylogenetic analysis was used to assess their origins. Mitochondrial (mt) control region sequence and nuclear glucosephosphate isomerase pseudogene (GPIP) restriction fragments were used, as distinct European and Asian domestic pig and Wild Boar control region clades and GPIP genotypes can be recognised. Feral pig control region sequences clustered with either European or Asian domestic pig sequences and both Asian and European GPIP alleles were segregating. It was not possible to distinguish direct importation of Asian domestic animals into Australia and New Zealand from indirect introgression of Asian domestic sequences via Europe. However, the clustering of three feral control region sequences of pigs from northern Australia with Asian Wild Boar implies unrecorded introduction of Wild Boar or crossbred animals into Australia. However, two of these feral pigs had European GPIP alleles. In combination, analyses of control region and GPIP markers suggest that both European and Asian pigs have contributed in similar frequencies to the origins of Australian feral pigs.

  10. Antibodies to henipavirus or henipa-like viruses in domestic pigs in Ghana, West Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David T S Hayman

    Full Text Available Henipaviruses, Hendra virus (HeV and Nipah virus (NiV, have Pteropid bats as their known natural reservoirs. Antibodies against henipaviruses have been found in Eidolon helvum, an old world fruit bat species, and henipavirus-like nucleic acid has been detected in faecal samples from E. helvum in Ghana. The initial outbreak of NiV in Malaysia led to over 265 human encephalitis cases, including 105 deaths, with infected pigs acting as amplifier hosts for NiV during the outbreak. We detected non-neutralizing antibodies against viruses of the genus Henipavirus in approximately 5% of pig sera (N = 97 tested in Ghana, but not in a small sample of other domestic species sampled under a E. helvum roost. Although we did not detect neutralizing antibody, our results suggest prior exposure of the Ghana pig population to henipavirus(es. Because a wide diversity of henipavirus-like nucleic acid sequences have been found in Ghanaian E. helvum, we hypothesise that these pigs might have been infected by henipavirus(es sufficiently divergent enough from HeVor NiV to produce cross-reactive, but not cross-neutralizing antibodies to HeV or NiV.

  11. Prevalence of classical swine fever virus in domestic pigs in South Korea: 1999-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, J-Y; Lim, S I; Jeoung, H Y; Choi, E-J; Hyun, B-H; Kim, B; Kim, J; Shin, Y-K; Dela Pena, R C; Kim, J B; Joo, H; An, D J

    2013-12-01

    The major policy for eradication of classical swine fever (CSF) in South Korea has focused on the implementation of compulsory vaccination of the susceptible pig population. A vaccine strain of CSF virus, the LOM strain, is used to maintain high herd seroconversion, a practice complementary to the 'stamping-out policy' and restriction of animal movement during disease outbreaks. To survey for the prevalence of CSF in domestic pigs in South Korea over the past 13 years (1999-2011), we tested 4 193 782 and 1 162 645 samples for antibodies and antigens, respectively. Whereas seropositivity for CSF antibodies has been maintained at over 95% in the mainland, in Jeju Island, where no-vaccination has been administered since 1999, seroprevalence has been below 1% during the last 3 years of study (2009-2011). The highest number of outbreaks in South Korea occurred in 2002 and 2003; since then, outbreaks have decreased each year, with the last CSF outbreak recorded in 2009. No outbreaks have occurred during the past 3 years, and a high level of herd immunity has been maintained in the mainland pig population for 8 years; therefore, South Korea could now switch to a no-vaccination policy throughout the country. However, the constant threat of the re-emergence of the disease in the susceptible pig population should be the main consideration in planning and carrying out the last phase of the CSF eradication process.

  12. Genome-wide identification of long intergenic noncoding RNA genes and their potential association with domestication in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhong-Yin; Li, Ai-Min; Adeola, Adeniyi C; Liu, Yan-Hu; Irwin, David M; Xie, Hai-Bing; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2014-06-02

    Thousands of long intergenic noncoding RNAs (lincRNAs) have been identified in the human and mouse genomes, some of which play important roles in fundamental biological processes. The pig is an important domesticated animal, however, pig lincRNAs remain poorly characterized and it is unknown if they were involved in the domestication of the pig. Here, we used available RNA-seq resources derived from 93 samples and expressed sequence tag data sets, and identified 6,621 lincRNA transcripts from 4,515 gene loci. Among the identified lincRNAs, some lincRNA genes exhibit synteny and sequence conservation, including linc-sscg2561, whose gene neighbor Dnmt3a is associated with emotional behaviors. Both linc-sscg2561 and Dnmt3a show differential expression in the frontal cortex between domesticated pigs and wild boars, suggesting a possible role in pig domestication. This study provides the first comprehensive genome-wide analysis of pig lincRNAs.

  13. Genetic structure in village dogs reveals a Central Asian domestication origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Laura M; Boyko, Ryan H; Castelhano, Marta; Corey, Elizabeth; Hayward, Jessica J; McLean, Corin; White, Michelle E; Abi Said, Mounir; Anita, Baddley A; Bondjengo, Nono Ikombe; Calero, Jorge; Galov, Ana; Hedimbi, Marius; Imam, Bulu; Khalap, Rajashree; Lally, Douglas; Masta, Andrew; Oliveira, Kyle C; Pérez, Lucía; Randall, Julia; Tam, Nguyen Minh; Trujillo-Cornejo, Francisco J; Valeriano, Carlos; Sutter, Nathan B; Todhunter, Rory J; Bustamante, Carlos D; Boyko, Adam R

    2015-11-01

    Dogs were the first domesticated species, originating at least 15,000 y ago from Eurasian gray wolves. Dogs today consist primarily of two specialized groups--a diverse set of nearly 400 pure breeds and a far more populous group of free-ranging animals adapted to a human commensal lifestyle (village dogs). Village dogs are more genetically diverse and geographically widespread than purebred dogs making them vital for unraveling dog population history. Using a semicustom 185,805-marker genotyping array, we conducted a large-scale survey of autosomal, mitochondrial, and Y chromosome diversity in 4,676 purebred dogs from 161 breeds and 549 village dogs from 38 countries. Geographic structure shows both isolation and gene flow have shaped genetic diversity in village dog populations. Some populations (notably those in the Neotropics and the South Pacific) are almost completely derived from European stock, whereas others are clearly admixed between indigenous and European dogs. Importantly, many populations--including those of Vietnam, India, and Egypt-show minimal evidence of European admixture. These populations exhibit a clear gradient of short--range linkage disequilibrium consistent with a Central Asian domestication origin.

  14. Preliminary attempt to distinguish the domesticated pigs from wild boars by the methods of carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michael; P.RICHARDS

    2009-01-01

    Despite great achievements in the origins of domestic pigs made by the methods of zooarchaeology and molecular biology,how to scientifically distinguish the domesticated pigs from wild boars during the early stage of pig domestication is still poorly understood.Compared to wild boar’s diets which come from the natural environment,the diets of domestic pigs are more easily influenced by human feeding activities.Therefore,in principle,exploration of the dietary differences among pigs and understanding the impact on pig diets fed by humans can have great potential to differentiate between wild boars and domesticated pigs.To reveal dietary differences among pigs and distinguish the domesticated pigs from wild boars based on comparison with the diets of humans and other animals,we analyzed the carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes of human bones from Xiaojingshan Site and animal bones from Yuezhuang Site,both of which belong to Houli Culture in Shandong Province and date to about 8500―7500 years ago.The mean δ 13C value((-17.8 ± 0.3)‰) and δ 15N value((9.0±0.6)‰) in human collagen indicate that although millet agriculture began it was not the main subsistence strategy as millets are typical of C4 plants and that humans made a living mainly by gathering,hunting or raising some domesticated animals.The δ 13C value(-16.1‰) and δ 15N value(6.9‰) in the bovine suggest that C3 plants were dominant in its diet with some C4 plants complemented.The fish has lower δ 13C value(-24.9‰) and higher δ 15N value(8.8‰) than the bovine,which is the characteristic of the isotopic values from Eurasian freshwater fish.Based on the differences in carbon and nitrogen isotope values,the pigs can be divided into three groups.A group,composed of two pigs,has low δ 13C values(-18.1‰,-20.0‰) and low δ 15N values(4.7‰,6.0‰).B group,only one pig,has the highest δ 13C value(-10.6‰) and mediate δ 15N value(6.4‰).As for the C group,also only one pig,low δ 13C

  15. SNP data in the detection of hybridization levels between wild boar and domestic pig in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iacolina, Laura; Bakan, Jana; Cubric-Curik, Vlatka

    , a better understanding of hybridization patterns in Europe might have important implications for conservation and management of both wild populations and local breeds, as well as for the contingency of infectious diseases. Here we present the results for the analysis of 235 wild boars (WB; from 22 areas......, additionally, highlights the presence of several individuals, of both ancestries, with intermediate positions. This result was confirmed by Admixture analysis that detected the presence of hybrid individuals in both WB and local domestic pig breeds. The introgression level varies considerably among populations...

  16. Assessing rates and patterns of hybridization between wild boar and domestic pig in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canu, Antonio; Iacolina, Laura; Apollonio, Marco

    Introgressive hybridization between wild boar and domestic pig has unpredictable evolutionary consequences and has the potential to alter reproductive, immunological and behavioural traits, influencing individual fitness and possibly increasing species' invasiveness. Though of great interest......, reconstructing patterns of gene flow between wild and domestic form of Sus scrofa is arduous. In fact, hybridization patterns may differ greatly with respect to time (ancient vs. recent), source (intentional in captivity vs. unintentional in the wild), spread (extensive vs. occasional) and directionality (i.......e. involved sexes of the two forms). This is likely to produce a puzzling scenario, where close populations may show contrasting signals of genetic introgression. Whether and how much this can impact the dynamics of local populations remains unproven. Diagnosing hybrids is the first step to address the issue...

  17. Preliminary attempt to distinguish the domesticated pigs from wild boars by the methods of carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU YaoWu; LUAN FengShi; WANG ShouGong; WANG ChangSui; Michael P. RICHARDS

    2009-01-01

    Despite great achievements in the origins of domestic pigs made by the methods of zooarchaeology and molecular biology, how to scientifically distinguish the domesticated pigs from wild boars during the early stage of pig domestication is still poorly understood. Compared to wild boar's diets which come from the natural environment, the diets of domestic pigs are more easily influenced by human feeding activities. Therefore, in principle, exploration of the dietary differences among pigs and under standing the impact on pig diets fed by humans can have great potential to differentiate between wild boars and domesticated pigs. To reveal dietary differences among pigs and distinguish the domesti cated pigs from wild boars based on comparison with the diets of humans and other animals, we ana lyzed the carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes of human bones from Xiaojingshan Site and animal bones from Yuezhuang Site, both of which belong to Houli Culture in Shandong Province and date to about 8500--7500 years ago. The mean б13C value ((-17.8 ± 0.3)%o) and б15N value ((9.0±0.6)%0) in human collagen indicate that although millet agriculture began it was not the main subsistence strategy as millets are typical of C4 plants and that humans made a living mainly by gathering, hunting or raisingsome domesticated animals. The б13C value (-16.1%.) and б15N value (6.9%.) in the bovine suggest that C3 plants were dominant in its diet with some C4 plants complemented. The fish has lower б13C value (-24.9%.) and higher б15N value (8.8%.) than the bovine, which is the characteristic of the isotopic val ues from Eurasian freshwater fish. Based on the differences in carbon and nitrogen isotope values, the pigs can be divided into three groups. A group, composed of two pigs, has low б13C values (-18.1%o,-20.0%o) and low б15N values (4.7%o, 6.0%.). B group, only one pig, has the highest б13C value (-10.6%o)and mediate б15N value (6.4%.). As for the C group, also only one pig

  18. The pathogenesis of highly virulent African Swine Fever virus in domestic pigs exposed via intraoropharyngeal, intranasopharyngeal, and intramuscular inoculation, and by direct contact with infected pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    In order to optimize novel systems for African Swine Fever Virus (ASFV) vaccine development, domestic pigs were challenged with the highly virulent ASFV-Malawi strain via intraoropharyngeal (IOP), intranasopharyngeal (INP), intramuscular (IM), and direct contact (DC) routes. Direct challenge doses ...

  19. Molecular epidemiology of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae from outbreaks of enzootic pneumonia in domestic pig and the role of wild boar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhnert, Peter; Overesch, Gudrun

    2014-11-07

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is the major cause of enzootic pneumonia (EP) in domestic pigs, a disease with low mortality but high morbidity, having a great economic impact for producers. In Switzerland EP has been successfully eradicated, however, sporadic outbreaks are observed with no obvious source. Besides the possibility of recurrent outbreaks due to persisting M. hyopneumoniae strains within the pig population, there is suspicion that wild boars might introduce M. hyopneumoniae into swine herds. To elucidate possible links between domestic pig and wild boar, epidemiological investigations of recent EP outbreaks were initiated and lung samples of pig and wild boar were tested for the presence of specific genotypes by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Despite generally different genotypes in wild boar, outbreak strains could be found in geographically linked wild boar lungs after, but so far not before the outbreak. Recurrent outbreaks in a farm were due to the same strain, indicating unsuccessful sanitation rather than reintroduction by wild boar. In another case outbreaks in six different farms were caused by the same strain never found in wild boar, confirming spread between farms due to hypothesized animal transport. Results indicate the presence of identical lineages of wild boar and domestic pig strains, and possible transmission of M. hyopneumoniae between wild boar and pig. However, the role of wild boar might be rather one as a recipient than a transmitter. More important than contact to wild boar for sporadic outbreaks in Switzerland is apparently persistence of M. hyopneumoniae within a farm as well as transmission between farms.

  20. Genetic characterization of the domestic pig (Sus scrofa domestica in Cerete-Colombia, using microsatellite markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Meléndez G.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of this study was to characterize a population of domestic pig (Sus scrofa domestica in Cereté, Córdoba, using 20 microsatellite; calculate heterozygosity per locus and average heterozygosity. Materials and methods. Hair samples were collected from 62 specimens. DNA was extracted by proteinase K digestion and phenol-chloroform purification. Information from 20 microsatellites was selected out of those recommended for swine biodiversity studies. PCR products were separated by a vertical polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The bands were visualized by staining with silver nitrate. Results. All microsatellites used were polymorphic. Between 3 (SW1067 and 15 (IFNG alleles were detected with an average number of 6.7 and a total de 134 alleles. The average expected and observed heterozygosities were 0.5278 and 0.5479, respectively. PIC values ranged between 0.1999 and 0.8300 for loci SW1067 and SW911, respectively. Conclusions. Levels of observed and expected heterozygosity found in the present study indicate that the domestic pig (Sus scrofa domestica in Córdoba Cereté show high degree of genetic variability

  1. Prenatal stress produces anxiety prone female offspring and impaired maternal behaviour in the domestic pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Kenneth M D; Piastowska-Ciesielska, Agnieszka; Donald, Ramona D; Robson, Sheena K; Ison, Sarah H; Jarvis, Susan; Brunton, Paula J; Russell, John A; Lawrence, Alistair B

    2014-04-22

    Numerous studies have shown that prenatal stress (PNS) can have profound effects on postnatal well-being. Here, the domestic pig (Sus scrofa) was used to investigate PNS effects owing to the direct relevance for farm animal welfare and the developing status of the pig as a large animal model in translational research. Pregnant primiparous sows were exposed, in mid-gestation, to either a social stressor (mixing with unfamiliar conspecifics) or were kept in stable social groups. The ratio of levels of mRNAs for corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) receptors 1 and 2 in the amygdala, measured for the first time in the pig, was substantially increased in 10-week-old female, but not male, PNS progeny indicating a neurobiological propensity for anxiety-related behaviour. Mature female offspring were observed at parturition in either a behaviourally restrictive crate or open pen. Such PNS sows showed abnormal maternal behaviour in either environment, following the birth of their first piglet. They spent more time lying ventrally, more time standing and showed a higher frequency of posture changes. They were also more reactive towards their piglets, and spent longer visually attending to their piglets compared to controls. Associated with this abnormal maternal care, piglet mortality was increased in the open pen environment, where protection for piglets is reduced. Overall, these data indicate that PNS females have their brain development shifted towards a pro-anxiety phenotype and that PNS can be causally related to subsequent impaired maternal behaviour in adult female offspring.

  2. Orosomucoid expression profiles in liver, adipose tissues and serum of lean and obese domestic pigs, Göttingen minipigs and Ossabaw minipigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højbøge, Tina Rødgaard; Stagsted, Jan; Christoffersen, Berit Ø.;

    2013-01-01

    , as well as the serum concentration of ORM protein in three porcine obesity models; the domestic pig, Göttingen minipigs and Ossabaw minipigs.No changes in ORM1 mRNA expression were observed in obese pigs compared to lean pigs in the four types of tissues. However, obese Ossabaw minipigs, but none...

  3. Cloning changes the response to obesity of innate immune factors in blood, liver, and adipose tissues in domestic pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rødgaard, Tina; Skovgaard, Kerstin; Stagsted, Jan; Heegaard, Peter M H

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of cloned pigs as porcine obesity models reflecting obesity-associated changes in innate immune factor gene expression profiles. Liver and adipose tissue expression of 43 innate immune genes as well as serum concentrations of six immune factors were analyzed in lean and diet-induced obese cloned domestic pigs and compared to normal domestic pigs (obese and lean). The number of genes affected by obesity was lower in cloned animals than in control animals. All genes affected by obesity in adipose tissues of clones were downregulated; both upregulation and downregulation were observed in the controls. Cloning resulted in a less differentiated adipose tissue expression pattern. Finally, the serum concentrations of two acute-phase proteins (APPs), haptoglobin (HP) and orosomucoid (ORM), were increased in obese clones as compared to obese controls as well as lean clones and controls. Generally, the variation in phenotype between individual pigs was not reduced in cloned siblings as compared to normal siblings. Therefore, we conclude that cloning limits both the number of genes responding to obesity as well as the degree of tissue-differentiated gene expression, concomitantly with an increase in APP serum concentrations only seen in cloned, obese pigs. This may suggest that the APP response seen in obese, cloned pigs is a consequence of the characteristic skewed gene response to obesity in cloned pigs, as described in this work. This should be taken into consideration when using cloned animals as models for innate responses to obesity.

  4. Spatial distribution of Trichinella britovi, T. spiralis and T. pseudospiralis of domestic pigs and wild boars (Sus scrofa) in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Széll, Z; Marucci, G; Ludovisi, A; Gómez-Morales, M A; Sréter, T; Pozio, E

    2012-02-10

    Trichinellosis is a foodborne disease caused by the consumption of raw meat and raw meat-derived products from swine, horse and some game animals infected with nematode worms of the genus Trichinella. Between June 2006 and February 2011, 16 million domestic pigs and 0.22 million wild boars (Sus scrofa) were tested for Trichinella sp. in Hungary. Trichinella infection was not found in any pigs slaughtered for public consumption. Nevertheless, Trichinella spiralis was detected in four backyard pigs when trace back was done following a family outbreak. Trichinella infection was demonstrated in 17 wild boars (0.0077%). Larvae from wild boars were identified as Trichinella britovi (64.7%), T. spiralis (29.4%) and Trichinella pseudospiralis (5.9%). Although the prevalence of Trichinella sp. infection in wild boars and domestic pigs is very low, the spatial analysis reveals that the level of risk differs by region in Hungary. Most of the T. britovi infected wild boars (63.6%) were shot in the north-eastern mountain area of Hungary; whereas domestic pigs and wild boars infected with T. spiralis were detected only in the southern counties bordering Croatia and Romania. In the north-western and central counties, the prevalence of Trichinella infection seems to be negligible.

  5. Genome-wide SNP analysis reveals recent genetic introgression from domestic pigs into Northwest European wild boar populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goedbloed, D.J.; Megens, H.J.W.C.; Hooft, van W.F.; Herrero-Medrano, J.; Lutz, W.; Alexandri, P.; Crooijmans, R.P.M.A.; Groenen, M.A.M.; Wieren, van S.E.; Ydenberg, R.C.; Prins, H.H.T.

    2013-01-01

    Present-day genetic introgression from domestic pigs into European wild boar has been suggested in various studies. However, no hybrids have been identified beyond doubt mainly because available methods were unable to quantify the extent of introgression and rule out natural processes. Genetic intro

  6. Pathogenesis of African swine fever in domestic pigs and European wild boar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blome, Sandra; Gabriel, Claudia; Beer, Martin

    2013-04-01

    African swine fever (ASF) is among the most important viral diseases that can affect domestic and feral pigs. Both clinical signs and pathomorphological changes vary considerably depending on strain virulence and host factors. Acute infections with highly virulent virus strains lead to a clinical course that resembles a viral haemorrhagic fever that is characterized by pronounced depletion of lymphoid tissues, apoptosis of lymphocyte subsets, and impairment of haemostasis and immune functions. It is generally accepted that most lesions can be attributed to cytokine-mediated interactions triggered by infected and activated monocytes and macrophages, rather than by virus-induced direct cell damage. Nevertheless, most pathogenetic mechanisms are far from being understood. This review summarizes the current knowledge and discusses implications and research gaps.

  7. New insights into the molecular epidemiology of Trichinella infection in domestic pigs, wild boars, and bears in Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicorescu, Isabela Madalina Dragoi; Ionita, Mariana; Ciupescu, Laurentiu; Buzatu, Cristian Vasile; Tanasuica, Rodica; Mitrea, Ioan Liviu

    2015-09-15

    Trichinellosis is a food-borne zoonosis caused by the parasitic nematode Trichinella, characterized by an extremely wide host range and geographical distribution. In Romania, it is recognized as one of the most serious zoonotic diseases. A cross-sectional study, covering all regions of Romania, was conducted in 2014 to investigate and update the prevalence of Trichinella infection among domestic pigs, wild boars, and bears. Additional, molecular identification of Trichinella species circulating among these animals was performed in order to establish the biogeography of Trichinella species within the seven geographical regions of Romania. For this, a total of 113,383 pigs raised in non-controlled housing conditions (backyards), 5596 hunted wild boars and 147 hunted bears were subjected to Trichinella analysis. The highest prevalence of Trichinella infections was found in bears (12.93%), followed by wild boars (1.66%) and domestic pigs (0.20%). Of 294 Trichinella isolates that tested positive by multiplex PCR, 219 (74.49%) were identified as Trichinella spiralis, 66 (22.45%) as Trichinella britovi, and 9 isolates (3.06%) as mixed infections of T. spiralis and T. britovi. T. spiralis was more prevalent in domestic pigs (165/228; 72.37%) than in game (63/228; 27.63%), while T. britovi showed a higher prevalence in game (50/75; 66.66%) than in domestic pigs (25/75; 33.33%). Moreover, the present study revealed a significant host- and area- related distribution of Trichinella species within the seven regions of Romania. Therefore, these findings are of epidemiological relevance, updating data on the prevalence and distribution of Trichinella species circulating among domestic and wild animals in South-Eastern Europe.

  8. Research Regarding the Hybrids Resulted from the Domestic Pig and the Wild Boar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Matiuti

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Research was conducted between 2005-2009 in Barzava, Arad county. The villagers breed pigs traditionally, the animals having the freedom to roam the outskirts of the villages. Over the years the domestic sows (Sus scrofa domesticus which had been let by their owners to roam the forests for mast and acorn, have mated with wild boars (Sus scrofa ferus, thus obtaining crossbreeds in various colours – either resembling the female or the male. In Bazava the total number of swine is 1820 specimens out of which 546 is formed by hybrids or crossbreeds in 2009. In the case of these hybrids the length of the head together with that of the trunk can reach 150-170 cm. An adult male can have a weight of 150-200 kg and the female 100-150 kg. These specimens are easily recognizable by the fact that they have the trunk covered in thick, long, spiky hairs. There are also other external characteristics of these crossbreeds. Data has been gathered on what concerns the colour and the length of the hair, external features, maintenance and feeding. Behavioural observations have been made also. The local people appreciate a lot these hybrids because of their qualitative meat, out of which they obtain traditional dishes, combining this meat with that from domestic pigs and veal. Moreover, the maintenance of these hybrids is very low-cost, the only conditions which have to be met being simple shelters during the night and during the winter. The demand for such animals is great. These hybrids are being bought by the Zoos or are used for repopulating the areas in which the wild boars are on the verge of extinction because of excessive poaching. Foreign buyers are also interested in these hybrids, wanting to breed them in special parks and then to organize hunting outings.

  9. Isolation and characterisation of a dinucleotide microsatellite set for a parentage and biodiversity study in domestic guinea pig (Cavia porcellus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Aviles

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The domestic guinea pig is a valuable genetic resource because it is part of local folklore and food tradition in many South American countries. The economic importance of the guinea pig is due to its high feed efficiency and the quality of animal protein produced. For these reasons, our study is aimed to design a complete dinucleotide microsatellite marker set following international recommendation to assess the genetic diversity and genealogy management of guinea pigs. We selected a total of 20 microsatellites, looking for laboratory efficiency and good statistical parameters. The set was tested in 100 unrelated individuals of guinea pigs from Ecuador, Peru, Colombia, Bolivia and Spain. Our results show a high degree of polymorphisms with a total of 216 alleles and a mean number of 10.80±3.49 for markers with a combined exclusion probability of 0.99.

  10. Protection of European domestic pigs from virulent African isolates of African swine fever virus by experimental immunisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Katherine; Chapman, Dave; Argilaguet, Jordi M; Fishbourne, Emma; Hutet, Evelyne; Cariolet, Roland; Hutchings, Geoff; Oura, Christopher A L; Netherton, Christopher L; Moffat, Katy; Taylor, Geraldine; Le Potier, Marie-Frederique; Dixon, Linda K; Takamatsu, Haru-H

    2011-06-20

    African swine fever (ASF) is an acute haemorrhagic disease of domestic pigs for which there is currently no vaccine. We showed that experimental immunisation of pigs with the non-virulent OURT88/3 genotype I isolate from Portugal followed by the closely related virulent OURT88/1 genotype I isolate could confer protection against challenge with virulent isolates from Africa including the genotype I Benin 97/1 isolate and genotype X Uganda 1965 isolate. This immunisation strategy protected most pigs challenged with either Benin or Uganda from both disease and viraemia. Cross-protection was correlated with the ability of different ASFV isolates to stimulate immune lymphocytes from the OURT88/3 and OURT88/1 immunised pigs.

  11. An investigation into natural resistance to African swine fever in domestic pigs from an endemic area in southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penrith, M L; Thomson, G R; Bastos, A D S; Phiri, O C; Lubisi, B A; Du Plessis, E C; Macome, F; Pinto, F; Botha, B; Esterhuysen, J

    2004-12-01

    A population of domestic pigs in northern Mozambique with increased resistance to the pathogenic effects of African swine fever (ASF) virus was identified by the high prevalence of circulating antibodies to ASF virus. An attempt was made to establish whether the resistance in this population was heritable. Some of these pigs were acquired and transported to a quarantine facility and allowed to breed naturally. Offspring of the resistant pigs were transferred to a high security facility where they were challenged with two ASF viruses, one of which was isolated from one of the Mozambican pigs and the other a genetically closely-related virus from Madagascar. All but one of the 105 offspring challenged developed acute ASF and died. It therefore appears that the resistance demonstrated by these pigs is not inherited by their offspring, or could not be expressed under the conditions of the experiment. The question remains therefore as to the mechanism whereby pigs in the population from which the experimental pigs were derived co-existed with virulent ASF viruses.

  12. Wild and domestic pig interactions at the wildlife-livestock interface of Murchison Falls National Park, Uganda, and the potential association with African Swine Fever outbreaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther eKukielka

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Bushpigs (Potamochoerus larvatus and warthogs (Phacochoerus africanus, which are widely distributed in Eastern Africa, are likely to cohabitate in the same environment with domestic pigs, facilitating the transmission of shared pathogens. However, potential interactions between bushpig, warthog and domestic pig and the resulting potential circulation of infectious diseases have rarely been investigated in Africa to date. In order to understand the dynamics of such interactions and the potential influence of human behavior and husbandry practices on them, individual interviews (n=233 and participatory rural appraisals (n=11 were carried out among Ugandan pig farmers at the edge of Murchison Falls National Park, northern Uganda. In addition, as an example of possible implications of wild and domestic pig interactions, nonlinear multivariate analysis (multiple correspondence analyses was used to investigate the potential association between the aforementioned factors (interactions and human behavior and practices and farmer reported ASF outbreaks. No direct interactions between wild pigs and domestic pig were reported in our study area. However, indirect interactions were described by 83 (35.6 % of the participants and were identified to be more common at water sources during the dry season. Equally, eight (3.4% farmers declared exposing their domestic pig to raw hunting leftovers of wild pigs. The exploratory analysis performed suggested possible associations between the farmer reported ASF outbreaks and indirect interactions, free-range housing systems, dry season, and having a warthog burrow less than 3km from the household. Our study was useful to gather local knowledge and to identify knowledge gaps about potential interactions between wild and domestic pig in this area. This information could be useful to facilitate the design of future observational studies to better understand the potential transmission of pathogens between wild and

  13. In the elephant's seed shadow: the prospects of domestic bovids as replacement dispersers of three tropical Asian trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekar, Nitin; Lee, Chia-lo; Sukumar, Raman

    2015-08-01

    As populations of the world's largest animal species decline, it is unclear how ecosystems will react to their local extirpation. Due to the unique ecological characteristics of megaherbivores such as elephants, seed dispersal is one ecosystem process that may be affected as populations of large animals are decimated. In typically disturbed South Asian ecosystems, domestic bovids (cattle, Bosprimigenius, and buffalo, Bubalus bubalis) may often be the species most available to replace Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) as endozoochorous dispersers of large-fruited mammal-dispersed species. We use feeding trials, germination trials, and movement data from the tropical moist forests of Buxa Tiger Reserve (India) to examine whether domestic bovids are viable replacements for elephants in the dispersal of three large- fruited species: Dillenia indica, Artocarpus chaplasha, and Careya arborea. We find that (1) once consumed, seeds are between 2.5 (C. arborea) and 26.5 (D. indica) times more likely to pass undigested into elephant dung than domestic bovid dung; and (2) seeds from elephant dung germinated as well as or better than seeds taken from bovid dung for all plant species, with D. indica seeds from elephant dung 1.5 times more likely to germinate. Furthermore, since wild elephants have less constrained movements than even free-roaming domestic bovids, we calculate that maximum dispersal by elephants is between 9.5 and 11.2 times farther than that of domestic bovids, with about 20% of elephant-dispersed seeds being moved farther than the maximum distance seeds are moved by bovids. Our findings suggest that, while bovids are able to disperse substantial numbers of seeds over moderate distances for two of the three study species, domestic bovids will be unable to routinely emulate the reliable, long-distance dispersal of seeds executed by elephants in this tropical moist forest. Thus while domestic bovids can attenuate the effects of losing elephants as dispersers

  14. First Report of the Occurrence of Trichinella-Specific Antibodies in Domestic Pigs in Central and Eastern Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nöckler, Karsten; Baumann, Maximilian P. O.; Fries, Reinhard; Dione, Michel M.; Clausen, Peter-Henning; Grace, Delia

    2016-01-01

    Previous research on trichinellosis in Africa focused on isolating Trichinella from wildlife while the role of domestic pigs has remained highly under-researched. Pig keeping in Uganda is historically recent, and evidence on zoonotic pig diseases, including infection with Trichinella species, is scarce. A cross-sectional survey on Trichinella seroprevalence in pigs was conducted in three districts in Central and Eastern Uganda from April 2013 to January 2015. Serum from a random sample of 1125 pigs from 22 villages in Eastern and Central Uganda was examined to detect immunoglobulin G (IgG) against any Trichinella spp. using a commercially available ELISA based on excretory-secretory antigen. ELISA positive samples were confirmed using Western Blot based on somatic antigen of Trichinella spiralis as recommended in previous validation studies. Diaphragm pillar muscle samples (at least 5 g each) of 499 pigs from areas with high ELISA positivity were examined using the artificial digestion method. Overall, 78 of all 1125 animals (6.9%, 95% CI: 5.6–8.6%) tested positive for antibodies against Trichinella spp. in the ELISA at significantly higher levels in Kamuli district compared to Masaka and Mukono districts. Thirty-one percent of the ELISA positive samples were confirmed IgG positive by the Western Blot leading to an overall seroprevalence of 2.1% (95% CI: 1.4–3.2%). The large proportion of ELISA positive samples that could not be confirmed using Western blot may be the result of cross-reactivity with other gastrointestinal helminth infections or unknown host-specific immune response mechanisms in local pig breeds in Uganda. Attempts to isolate muscle larvae for species determination using the artificial digestion method were unsuccessful. Due to the large number of muscle samples examined we are confident that even if pigs are infected, the larval burden in pork is too low to pose a major risk to consumers of developing trichinellosis. This was the first large

  15. Meiotic recombination analyses of individual chromosomes in male domestic pigs (Sus scrofa domestica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary, Nicolas; Barasc, Harmonie; Ferchaud, Stéphane; Billon, Yvon; Meslier, Frédéric; Robelin, David; Calgaro, Anne; Loustau-Dudez, Anne-Marie; Bonnet, Nathalie; Yerle, Martine; Acloque, Hervé; Ducos, Alain; Pinton, Alain

    2014-01-01

    For the first time in the domestic pig, meiotic recombination along the 18 porcine autosomes was directly studied by immunolocalization of MLH1 protein. In total, 7,848 synaptonemal complexes from 436 spermatocytes were analyzed, and 13,969 recombination sites were mapped. Individual chromosomes for 113 of the 436 cells (representing 2,034 synaptonemal complexes) were identified by immunostaining and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The average total length of autosomal synaptonemal complexes per cell was 190.3 µm, with 32.0 recombination sites (crossovers), on average, per cell. The number of crossovers and the lengths of the autosomal synaptonemal complexes showed significant intra- (i.e. between cells) and inter-individual variations. The distributions of recombination sites within each chromosomal category were similar: crossovers in metacentric and submetacentric chromosomes were concentrated in the telomeric regions of the p- and q-arms, whereas two hotspots were located near the centromere and in the telomeric region of acrocentrics. Lack of MLH1 foci was mainly observed in the smaller chromosomes, particularly chromosome 18 (SSC18) and the sex chromosomes. All autosomes displayed positive interference, with a large variability between the chromosomes.

  16. Pathogenesis of highly virulent African swine fever virus in domestic pigs exposed via intraoropharyngeal, intranasopharyngeal, and intramuscular inoculation, and by direct contact with infected pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howey, Erin B; O'Donnell, Vivian; de Carvalho Ferreira, Helena C; Borca, Manuel V; Arzt, Jonathan

    2013-12-26

    To investigate the pathogenesis of African swine fever virus (ASFV), domestic pigs (n=18) were challenged with a range (10(2)-10(6) 50% hemadsorbing doses (HAD50)) of the highly virulent ASFV-Malawi strain by inoculation via the intraoropharyngeal (IOP), intranasopharyngeal (INP), or intramuscular (IM) routes. A subsequent contact challenge experiment was performed in which six IOP-inoculated donor pigs were allowed to have direct contact (DC) with six naïve pigs for exposure times that varied from 24 to 72 h. All challenge routes resulted in clinical progression and postmortem lesions similar to those previously described in experimental and natural infection. The onset of clinical signs occurred between 1 and 7 days post inoculation (dpi) and included pyrexia with variable progression to obtundation, hematochezia, melena, moribundity and death with a duration of 4-11 days. Viremia was first detected between 4 and 5 dpi in all inoculation groups whereas ASFV shedding from the nasal cavity and tonsil was first detected at 3-9 dpi. IM and DC were the most consistent modes of infection, with 12/12 (100%) of pigs challenged by these routes becoming infected. Several clinical and virological parameters were significantly different between IM and DC groups indicating dissimilarity between these modes of infection. Amongst the simulated natural routes, INP inoculation resulted in the most consistent progression of disease across the widest range of doses whilst preserving simulation of natural exposure and therefore may provide a superior system for pathogenesis and vaccine efficacy investigation.

  17. Innate immune responses to obesity in cloned and wild-type domestic pig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højbøge, Tina Rødgaard; Skovgaard, Kerstin; Stagsted, Jan

    as a refined pig model for obesity-induced innate host responses by reducing pig-to-pig biological variation compared to wild-type (WT) pigs (n=19). Pigs were fed ad libitum with a high fat/high sucrose diet to induce obesity or kept lean on a restricted diet (60% of ad libitum intake) beginning at three...... months of age. mRNA expression levels were determined for 39 innate immune factors on a high-throughput qPCR system in samples from liver, abdominal fat, mesenteric fat and subcutaneous fat. Previous findings have suggested that cloning may affect certain phenotypic traits of pigs including basic......, mRNA expression profiles of certain acute phase proteins were significantly affected by cloning, being expressed at higher levels in the liver of both cloned groups compared to both WT groups but at lower levels in adipose tissues of cloned lean pigs as opposed to WT lean pigs. Also there were...

  18. Dynamics of African swine fever virus shedding and excretion in domestic pigs infected by intramuscular inoculation and contact transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinat, Claire; Reis, Ana Luisa; Netherton, Christopher L; Goatley, Lynnette; Pfeiffer, Dirk U; Dixon, Linda

    2014-09-26

    African swine fever virus (ASFV) is a highly virulent swine pathogen that has spread across Eastern Europe since 2007 and for which there is no effective vaccine or treatment available. The dynamics of shedding and excretion is not well known for this currently circulating ASFV strain. Therefore, susceptible pigs were exposed to pigs intramuscularly infected with the Georgia 2007/1 ASFV strain to measure those dynamics through within- and between-pen transmission scenarios. Blood, oral, nasal and rectal fluid samples were tested for the presence of ASFV by virus titration (VT) and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Serum was tested for the presence of ASFV-specific antibodies. Both intramuscular inoculation and contact transmission resulted in development of acute disease in all pigs although the experiments indicated that the pathogenesis of the disease might be different, depending on the route of infection. Infectious ASFV was first isolated in blood among the inoculated pigs by day 3, and then chronologically among the direct and indirect contact pigs, by day 10 and 13, respectively. Close to the onset of clinical signs, higher ASFV titres were found in blood compared with nasal and rectal fluid samples among all pigs. No infectious ASFV was isolated in oral fluid samples although ASFV genome copies were detected. Only one animal developed antibodies starting after 12 days post-inoculation. The results provide quantitative data on shedding and excretion of the Georgia 2007/1 ASFV strain among domestic pigs and suggest a limited potential of this isolate to cause persistent infection.

  19. The welfare implications of large litter size in the domestic pig II: management factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baxter, E.M.; Rutherford, K.M.D.; D'Eath, R.B.

    2013-01-01

    Increasing litter size has long been a goal of pig (Sus scrofa domesticus) breeders and producers in many countries. Whilst this has economic and environmental benefits for the pig industry, there are also implications for pig welfare. Certain management interventions are used when litter size ro...

  20. Prevalence of Muscular Sarcosporidiosis in Slaughtered Domestic Pigs in Perak, Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainalabidin, Fazly Ann; Noorazmi, Muhamad Syamsul Naim; Bakri, Wan Normaziah Wan Omar; Sathaya, Geethamalar; Ismail, Mohd Iswadi

    2017-01-01

    Sarcosporidiosis is a disease caused by intracellular protozoan parasites, namely, Sarcocystis spp. In pigs, three species of Sarcocystis spp. have been recognised, including Sarcocystis meischeriana, Sarcocystis porcifelis and Sarcocystis suihominis. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of muscular sarcosporidiosis in pigs using the pepsin digestion technique. A total of 150 fresh heart, oesophagus and thigh muscle samples from 50 Yorkshire and Landrace pigs were collected from two local abattoirs in Perak from May to August 2014. All the fresh muscle samples were thoroughly examined for macrocyst-forming Sarcocystis spp. and processed using the peptic digestion technique to detect bradyzoites. The results from the muscle samples showed that 58% (29 out of 50) of the pigs were positive for Sarcocystis spp. These findings highlight the importance of implementing stringent measures for screening pigs in abattoirs for Sarcocystis spp. infection because this infection in pigs is a public health concern. PMID:28228924

  1. Fasting plasma hormones and metabolites in feral and domestic newborn pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasser, T R; Martin, R J; Gahagan, J H; Wangsness, P J

    1981-08-01

    Newborn Yorkshire and Ossabaw (feral) pigs were examined under thermoneutral conditions to determine whether survival rate during fasting differs between these breeds and whether any blood-borne factors are associated with improved survival. Newborn pigs were removed from the sow before suckling. Body composition was determined on 10 newborn Ossabaw and 12 newborn Yorkshire pigs. Another group of animals (eight Ossabaw, 12 Yorkshire) was fasted for 72 hr, with blood samples drawn at birth and 12 and 24 hr into fasting. Glucose, free fatty acid (FFA), growth hormone (GH), insulin, thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3), cortisol and glucagon concentrations were measured in plasma of fasted pigs. Concentrations of carcass lipid, dry matter and ash were higher in newborn Ossabaw pigs than in newborn Yorkshire pigs. Survival through 72 hr of fasting was lower among Yorkshire pigs. Yorkshire and Ossabaw pigs had similar concentrations of metabolites and hormones at birth, with the exceptions of lower plasma GH and higher T3 concentrations in Ossabaw pigs. Higher plasma T3 concentrations would indicate a greater potential for fatty acid oxidation. During fasting, Ossabaw pigs had lower plasma GH and T4 concentrations and higher glucagon and FFA concentrations. Increased survival among newborn Ossabaw pigs may have been due to increased availability of FFA during fasting, and to a greater potential for gluconeogenesis through increased oxidation of fatty acids and higher plasma glucagon concentrations. This would suggest that maternal treatments that would increase storage of fat and(or) increase the capacity for oxidation of fat in utero would improve survival of newborn pigs.

  2. Development of a microsatellite-based method for the differentiation of European wild boar (Sus scrofa scrofa) from domestic pig breeds (Sus scrofa domestica) in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conyers, Christine M; Allnutt, Theodore R; Hird, Heather J; Kaye, Joy; Chisholm, James

    2012-04-04

    Twenty microsatellites (simple sequence repeats, SSR) were used to discriminate wild boar from domestic pig and to identify mixtures of the two. Reference groups of wild boar and pig samples were collected from the UK and Europe for genetic assignment tests. Bayesian Analysis of Populations software (BAPs) gave 100% correct assignment for blind wild boar and pig samples and correctly identified mixed samples. DNA was extracted from 12 commercial food samples (11 labeled as containing wild boar) including patés, salamis, and sausage, and good SSR profiles were obtained. Eleven samples were correctly assigned as pig, and two as mixed meats. One sample sold as wild boar meat was clearly assigned as pig. A further 10 blind samples of meat cuts were analyzed, eight wild boar and two pig, and all were correctly assigned.

  3. Molecular characterization of African swine fever virus from domestic pigs in northern Tanzania during an outbreak in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misinzo, Gerald; Kwavi, David E; Sikombe, Christopher D; Makange, Mariam; Peter, Emma; Muhairwa, Amandus P; Madege, Michael J

    2014-10-01

    African swine fever (ASF) is an acute, highly contagious and deadly viral hemorrhagic fever of domestic pigs caused by African swine fever virus (ASFV), a double-stranded DNA virus of the family Asfarviridae. In this study, molecular diagnosis and characterization of outbreak ASFV in northern Tanzania, was performed on spleen, lymph node, kidney, and heart samples collected in June and July 2013 from domestic pigs that died during a hemorrhagic disease outbreak. Confirmatory diagnosis of ASF was performed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) by partial amplification of B646L gene of ASFV encoding the major capsid protein p72 using PPA1/PPA2 primers. PCR using PPA1/PPA2 primers produced an expected PCR product size, confirming ASF outbreak in northern Tanzania. In addition, nucleotide amplification and sequencing, and phylogenetic reconstruction of the variable 3'-end of the B646L gene and complete E183L gene encoding the inner envelope transmembrane protein p54 showed that the 2013 outbreak ASFV from northern Tanzania were 100 % identical and clustered into ASFV B646L (p72) and E183L (p54) genotype X. Furthermore, the tetrameric amino acid repeats within the central variable region (CVR) of the B602L gene coding for the J9L protein had the signature BNBA(BN)5NA with a single novel tetramer NVDI (repeat code N). The results of the present study confirm an ASF outbreak in northern Tanzania in the year 2013 and show that the present outbreak ASFV is closely related to other ASFV from ticks, warthogs, and domestic pigs previously reported from Tanzania.

  4. [Genetic components and the uncertainty of the phenotypic realization of the mass of newborns in domestic pigs Sus scrofa L].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitin, S V; Kniazev, S P; Ermolaev, V I

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we discuss the features of the genetic determination of a continuous quantitative trait, the mass of newborn offspring in populations of the domestic pig. We defined several components that determine the phenotypic trait, such as the maternal effect, complete dominance, interaction of the parental alleles in the genotype of the offspring, and the uncertainty of phenotypic realization of genotype. We found that a phenotypic trait of high genetic determinacy can also have a maximum range in phenotypic realization, in which case each genotype encountered in the population can realize within the entire range of possible phenotypes.

  5. The welfare implications of large litter size in the domestic pig I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rutherford, K.M.D.; Baxter, E.M.; D'Eath, R.B.

    2013-01-01

    Increasing litter size has long been a goal of pig breeders and producers, and may have implications for pig (Sus scrofa domesticus) welfare. This paper reviews the scientific evidence on biological factors affecting sow and piglet welfare in relation to large litter size. It is concluded that, i...

  6. Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Carbon Excretion and Losses in Growing Pigs Fed Danish or Asian Diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prapaspongsa, Trakarn; Vu, T K V; Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard

    2008-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine inputs and outputs of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and carbon (C) and to estimate the nutrient losses during housing and storage in order to address these important parts of the whole manure management systems in pigs fed different diets.......The objectives of this study were to determine inputs and outputs of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and carbon (C) and to estimate the nutrient losses during housing and storage in order to address these important parts of the whole manure management systems in pigs fed different diets....

  7. Whole Genome Sequencing Identifies a Missense Mutation in HES7 Associated with Short Tails in Asian Domestic Cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiao; Sun, Xin; Hu, Xue-Song; Zhuang, Yan; Liu, Yue-Chen; Meng, Hao; Miao, Lin; Yu, He; Luo, Shu-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Domestic cats exhibit abundant variations in tail morphology and serve as an excellent model to study the development and evolution of vertebrate tails. Cats with shortened and kinked tails were first recorded in the Malayan archipelago by Charles Darwin in 1868 and remain quite common today in Southeast and East Asia. To elucidate the genetic basis of short tails in Asian cats, we built a pedigree of 13 cats segregating at the trait with a founder from southern China and performed linkage mapping based on whole genome sequencing data from the pedigree. The short-tailed trait was mapped to a 5.6 Mb region of Chr E1, within which the substitution c. 5T > C in the somite segmentation-related gene HES7 was identified as the causal mutation resulting in a missense change (p.V2A). Validation in 245 unrelated cats confirmed the correlation between HES7-c. 5T > C and Chinese short-tailed feral cats as well as the Japanese Bobtail breed, indicating a common genetic basis of the two. In addition, some of our sampled kinked-tailed cats could not be explained by either HES7 or the Manx-related T-box, suggesting at least three independent events in the evolution of domestic cats giving rise to short-tailed traits. PMID:27560986

  8. Detection of genetic diversity and selection at the coding region of the melanocortin receptor 1 (MC1R) gene in Tibetan pigs and Landrace pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rui; Jin, Long; Long, Keren; Chai, Jie; Ma, Jideng; Tang, Qianzi; Tian, Shilin; Hu, Yaodong; Lin, Ling; Wang, Xun; Jiang, Anan; Li, Xuewei; Li, Mingzhou

    2016-01-10

    Domestication and subsequent selective pressures have produced a large variety of pig coat colors in different regions and breeds. The melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) gene plays a crucial role in determining coat color of mammals. Here, we investigated genetic diversity and selection at the coding region of the porcine melanocortin receptor 1 (MC1R) in Tibetan pigs and Landrace pigs. By contrast, genetic variability was much lower in Landrace pigs than in Tibetan pigs. Meanwhile, haplotype analysis showed that Tibetan pigs possessed shared haplotypes, suggesting a possibility of recent introgression event by way of crossbreeding with neighboring domestic pigs or shared ancestral polymorphism. Additionally, we detected positive selection at the MC1R in both Tibetan pigs and Landrace pigs through the dN/dS analysis. These findings suggested that novel phenotypic change (dark coat color) caused by novel mutations may help Tibetan pigs against intensive solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation and camouflage in wild environment, whereas white coat color in Landrace were intentionally selected by human after domestication. Furthermore, both the phylogenetic analysis and the network analysis provided clues that MC1R in Asian and European wild boars may have initially experienced different selective pressures, and MC1R alleles diversified in modern domesticated pigs.

  9. Evaluation of the risk of classical swine fever (CSF) spread from backyard pigs to other domestic pigs by using the spatial stochastic disease spread model Be-FAST: the example of Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-López, Beatriz; Ivorra, Benjamin; Ramos, Angel Manuel; Fernández-Carrión, Eduardo; Alexandrov, Tsviatko; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, José Manuel

    2013-07-26

    The study presented here is one of the very first aimed at exploring the potential spread of classical swine fever (CSF) from backyard pigs to other domestic pigs. Specifically, we used a spatial stochastic spread model, called Be-FAST, to evaluate the potential spread of CSF virus (CSFV) in Bulgaria, which holds a large number of backyards (96% of the total number of pig farms) and is one of the very few countries for which backyard pigs and farm counts are available. The model revealed that, despite backyard pigs being very likely to become infected, infections from backyard pigs to other domestic pigs were rare. In general, the magnitude and duration of the CSF simulated epidemics were small, with a median [95% PI] number of infected farms per epidemic of 1 [1,4] and a median [95% PI] duration of the epidemic of 44 [17,101] days. CSFV transmission occurs primarily (81.16%) due to indirect contacts (i.e. vehicles, people and local spread) whereas detection of infected premises was mainly (69%) associated with the observation of clinical signs on farm rather than with implementation of tracing or zoning. Methods and results of this study may support the implementation of risk-based strategies more cost-effectively to prevent, control and, ultimately, eradicate CSF from Bulgaria. The model may also be easily adapted to other countries in which the backyard system is predominant. It can also be used to simulate other similar diseases such as African swine fever.

  10. Legislating gender inequalities: the nature and patterns of domestic violence experienced by South Asian women with insecure immigration status in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anitha, Sundari

    2011-10-01

    Research on domestic violence documents the particular vulnerability of immigrant women due to reasons including social isolation, language barriers, lack of awareness about services, and racism on the part of services. Based on qualitative interviews with 30 South Asian women with insecure immigration status residing in Yorkshire and Northwest England, this article explores how inequalities created by culture, gender, class, and race intersect with state immigration and welfare policies in the United Kingdom, thereby exacerbating structures of patriarchy within minority communities. It is within these contexts that South Asian women with insecure immigration status experience intensified forms and specific patterns of abuse.

  11. Domestic pigs' (Sus scrofa domestica) use of direct and indirect visual and auditory cues in an object choice task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawroth, Christian; von Borell, Eberhard

    2015-05-01

    Recently, foraging strategies have been linked to the ability to use indirect visual information. More selective feeders should express a higher aversion against losses compared to non-selective feeders and should therefore be more prone to avoid empty food locations. To extend these findings, in this study, we present a series of studies investigating the use of direct and indirect visual and auditory information by an omnivorous but selective feeder-the domestic pig. Subjects had to choose between two buckets, with only one containing a reward. Before making a choice, the subjects in Experiment 1 (N = 8) received full information regarding both the baited and non-baited location, either in a visual or auditory domain. In this experiment, the subjects were able to use visual but not auditory cues to infer the location of the reward spontaneously. Additionally, four individuals learned to use auditory cues after a period of training. In Experiment 2 (N = 8), the pigs were given different amounts of visual information about the content of the buckets-lifting either both of the buckets (full information), the baited bucket (direct information), the empty bucket (indirect information) or no bucket at all (no information). The subjects as a group were able to use direct and indirect visual cues. However, over the course of the experiment, the performance dropped to chance level when indirect information was provided. A final experiment (N = 3) provided preliminary results for pigs' use of indirect auditory information to infer the location of a reward. We conclude that pigs at a very young age are able to make decisions based on indirect information in the visual domain, whereas their performance in the use of indirect auditory information warrants further investigation.

  12. Intranasal oxytocin administration in relationship to social behaviour in domestic pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camerlink, Irene; Reimert, Inonge; Bolhuis, J Elizabeth

    2016-09-01

    Intranasal administration of oxytocin has been shown to alter positive and negative social behaviour. Positive social behaviour in pigs (Sus scrofa) may be expressed through gentle social nosing, and greater insight in the specific expression hereof might contribute to the current search for positive indicators of animal welfare. We investigated whether oxytocin alters social nosing and whether this is specific to nose-body or nose-nose contact. Sixty-four focal female pigs of 13weeks of age (out of 16 groups) were given oxytocin (24IU dose) and saline (placebo) intranasally once on two consecutive days. The frequency of nose-to-nose contact and nose-to-body contact was recorded upon pigs' return in the home pen after being for 10min located in a separate area near pen mates undergoing a positive or negative event or not. The effect of intranasal oxytocin depended on the social context in which pigs were studied. Control pigs, which were not exposed to positively or negatively aroused pen mates, gave and received less nose-nose contact after oxytocin administration than after saline administration. Pigs exposed to positively aroused pen mates also tended to give less nose contact when given oxytocin compared to saline, whereas pigs exposed to negatively aroused pen mates and administered oxytocin tended to receive more nose contact. Nose-body contact was lowest in groups of negative social context, suggesting an effect of emotional state on social nosing. In contrast to nose-nose contact, nose-body contact was unaffected by oxytocin treatment. The relationship between social nosing and oxytocin merits further research.

  13. European wild boars and domestic pigs display different polymorphic patterns in the Toll-like receptor (TLR) 1, TLR2, and TLR6 genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Ingrid-Maria; Rosengren, Johan K; Edman, Kjell; Edfors, Inger

    2010-01-01

    During the last decade, the Toll-like receptors (TLRs) have been extensively studied, and their immense importance in innate immunity is now being unveiled. Here, we report pronounced differences--probably reflecting the domestication process and differences in selective pressure--between wild boars and domestic pigs regarding single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in TLR genes. The open reading frames of TLR1, TLR2, and TLR6 were sequenced in 25 wild boars, representing three populations, and in 15 unrelated domestic pigs of Hampshire, Landrace, and Large White origin. In total, 20, 27, and 26 SNPs were detected in TLR1, TLR2, and TLR6, respectively. In TLR1 and TLR2, the numbers of SNPs detected were significantly lower (P < or = 0.05, P < or = 0.01) in the wild boars than in the domestic pigs. In the wild boars, one major high frequency haplotype was found in all three genes, while the same pattern was exhibited only by TLR2 in the domestic pigs. The relative frequency of non-synonymous (dN) and synonymous (dS) SNPs was lower for the wild boars than for the domestic pigs in all three genes. In addition, differences in diversity between the genes were revealed: the mean heterozygosity at the polymorphic positions was markedly lower in TLR2 than in TLR1 and TLR6. Because of its localization--in proximity of the bound ligand--one of the non-synonymous SNPs detected in TLR6 may represent species-specific function on the protein level. Furthermore, the codon usage pattern in the genes studied deviated from the general codon usage pattern in Sus scrofa.

  14. Investigating the role of free-ranging wild boar (Sus scrofa) in the re-emergence of enzootic pneumonia in domestic pig herds: a pathological, prevalence and risk-factor study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista Linhares, Mainity; Belloy, Luc; Origgi, Francesco C; Lechner, Isabel; Segner, Helmut; Ryser-Degiorgis, Marie-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Enzootic pneumonia (EP) caused by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae has a significant economic impact on domestic pig production. A control program carried out from 1999 to 2003 successfully reduced disease occurrence in domestic pigs in Switzerland, but recurrent outbreaks suggested a potential role of free-ranging wild boar (Sus scrofa) as a source of re-infection. Since little is known on the epidemiology of EP in wild boar populations, our aims were: (1) to estimate the prevalence of M. hyopneumoniae infections in wild boar in Switzerland; (2) to identify risk factors for infection in wild boar; and (3) to assess whether infection in wild boar is associated with the same gross and microscopic lesions typical of EP in domestic pigs. Nasal swabs, bronchial swabs and lung samples were collected from 978 wild boar from five study areas in Switzerland between October 2011 and May 2013. Swabs were analyzed by qualitative real time PCR and a histopathological study was conducted on lung tissues. Risk factor analysis was performed using multivariable logistic regression modeling. Overall prevalence in nasal swabs was 26.2% (95% CI 23.3-29.3%) but significant geographical differences were observed. Wild boar density, occurrence of EP outbreaks in domestic pigs and young age were identified as risk factors for infection. There was a significant association between infection and lesions consistent with EP in domestic pigs. We have concluded that M. hyopneumoniae is widespread in the Swiss wild boar population, that the same risk factors for infection of domestic pigs also act as risk factors for infection of wild boar, and that infected wild boar develop lesions similar to those found in domestic pigs. However, based on our data and the outbreak pattern in domestic pigs, we propose that spillover from domestic pigs to wild boar is more likely than transmission from wild boar to pigs.

  15. Intranasal oxytocin administration in relationship to social behaviour in domestic pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camerlink, Irene; Reimert, Inonge; Bolhuis, Liesbeth

    2016-01-01

    Intranasal administration of oxytocin has been shown to alter positive and negative social behaviour. Positive social behaviour in pigs (Sus scrofa) may be expressed through gentle social nosing, and greater insight in the specific expression hereof might contribute to the current search for posi

  16. Vaccination with viral protein-mimicking peptides postpones mortality in domestic pigs infected by African swine fever virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Vadim; Efremov, Evgeniy E; Novikov, Boris V; Balyshev, Vladimir M; Tsibanov, Sodnom Zh; Kalinovsky, Tatiana; Kolbasov, Denis V; Niedzwiecki, Aleksandra; Rath, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    Periodic outbreaks of African swine fever virus (ASFV) infection around the world threaten local populations of domestic pigs with lethal disease and provide grounds for pandemic spread. Effective vaccination may bring this threat under control. We investigated the effectiveness of select peptides mimicking viral proteins in establishing a protective immune response. Forty-six synthetic peptides based on the analysis of the complete nucleotide sequence of ASFV were tested for immunogenicity in mice. The 17 best immune response-inducing peptide candidates were selected for further investigation. Twenty-four domestic pigs, 3-4 months old and weighing 20-25 kg, were divided into six groups (n = 4) and immunized by subcutaneous injection using a standard three-round injection protocol with one of four peptide combinations prepared from the 17 peptides (Groups 1-4) or with carrier only (Group 5). Group 6, the control, was not vaccinated. Animal body temperature and behavior were monitored during and post immunization for health assessment. Two weeks after the last round of immunizations, the pigs were infected with live ASFV (Espania 70) at 6.0 Ig GAE50/cm3, and the survival rate was monitored. Blood samples were collected for analysis the day before infection and on days 3, 7 and 10 post-infection, or from deceased animals. The serum titers of specific immunoglobulins against synthetic peptides and whole inactivated ASFV were determined by enzyme immunoassay before and after infection. The presence of viral DNA in blood serum samples was determined by polymerase chain reaction. Viral infection activity in blood sera was determined by heme absorption in cultured porcine bone marrow and porcine leukocyte cells. Repeating the injection of synthetic peptides in both the mice and pigs produced an immune response specific to individual peptides, which differed widely in the intensity scale. Specific anti-whole virus immunoglobulin binding activity in the swine serum samples

  17. New records of calyptrate dipterans (Fanniidae, Muscidae and Sarcophagidae associated with the decomposition of domestic pigs in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Rocha Barbosa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The calyptrate dipterans are the most important decomposers of human cadavers. Knowledge of their species and distribution are of great importance to forensic entomology, especially because of the enormous diversity in Brazil. Carcasses of domestic pigs (Sus scrofa, L were the experimental models used to attract calyptrates of forensic interest during the winters of 2006 and 2007 and the summers of 2006 and 2008. A total of 24,423 specimens from 44 species were collected (19 Muscidae, 2 Fanniidae and 23 Sarcophagidae, three of which were new records of occurrence and 20 of which were new forensic records for the state of Rio de Janeiro. Fourteen of these species were newly identified as forensically important in Brazil.

  18. Orosomucoid expression profiles in liver, adipose tissues and serum of lean and obese domestic pigs, Göttingen minipigs and Ossabaw minipigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højbøge, Tina Rødgaard; Stagsted, Jan; Christoffersen, Berit Ø.;

    2013-01-01

    , the expression of ORM has not yet been characterized in such pig models. The objective of this study was to investigate the expression of ORM1 mRNA in liver, visceral adipose tissue, subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) from the abdomen or retroperitoneal abdominal adipose tissue (RPAT) and SAT from the neck......, as well as the serum concentration of ORM protein in three porcine obesity models; the domestic pig, Göttingen minipigs and Ossabaw minipigs.No changes in ORM1 mRNA expression were observed in obese pigs compared to lean pigs in the four types of tissues. However, obese Ossabaw minipigs, but none...... of the other breeds, showed significantly elevated ORM serum concentrations compared to their lean counterparts. Studies in humans have shown that the expression of ORM was unchanged in adipose tissue depots in obese humans with an increased serum concentration of ORM. Thus in this respect, obese Ossabaw...

  19. Toxocara cati larva migrans in domestic pigs--detected at slaughterhouse control in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Rebecca K; Mermer, Anna; Øines, Øivind

    2012-11-21

    Routine Trichinella meat inspection at the slaughterhouse detected one larva in a pooled batch of 100 pig samples. The larva was sent to the Norwegian Veterinary Institute (NVI) for species identification.Morphological examination revealed that the larva was not Trichinella spp. Molecular analysis was performed. PCR and sequencing of 5S/ITS identified the larva as Toxocara cati. A second round of digests was carried out at the meat inspection laboratory, in smaller batches to try to identify the infected animal. No further larvae were detected and it was not possible to identify which of the 100 animals the larva had come from. This is the first time that Toxocara cati has been reported in slaughterhouse pigs in Norway.Although the infected individual could not be identified, the meat originated from one of six potential farms. A small survey regarding rodent control and cats was sent to each of these farms. Cats had restricted access to food storage areas (two farms reported that cats had access) whilst none of the farms allowed cats into the production housing. Cats were, however, present on all the farms (mostly stray cats of unknown health status). Half of the farms also reported seeing rodents in the pig housing during the previous six months and half reported finding rodents in the feed and straw storage areas. We were unable to narrow down the source of infection - however contamination of food or bedding material, with cat faeces or infected rodents, in addition to the presence of infected rodents in pig housing remain potential routes of infection.

  20. Comparative analysis of protein coding sequences from human, mouse and the domesticated pig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Frank Grønlund; Hobolth, Asger; Hornshøj, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    rubrices in order to investigate 1) the relationships between three major lineages of mammals: rodents, artiodactys and primates, and 2) the rate of evolution and the occurrence of positive Darwinian selection using codon based models of sequence evolution. Results: We provide evidence......Background: The availability of abundant sequence data from key model organisms has made large scale studies of mulecular evolution an exciting possibility. Here we use full length cDNA alignments comprising more than 700,000 nucleotides from human, mouse, pig and the Japanese pufferfish Fugu...

  1. Comparative analysis of protein coding sequences from human, mouse, and the domesticated pig  

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Frank Grønlund; Hobolth, Asger; Hornshøj, H.

    2005-01-01

    rubrices in order to investigate 1) the relationships between three major lineages of mammals: rodents, artiodactyls and primates, and 2) the rate of evolution and the occurrence of positive Darwinian selection using codon based models of sequence evolution. Results We provide evidence......Background The availability of abundant sequence data from key model organisms has made large scale studies of molecular evolution an exciting possibility. Here we use full length cDNA alignments comprising more than 700,000 nucleotides from human, mouse, pig and the Japanese pufferfish Fugu...

  2. Developmental changes affecting lectin binding in the vomeronasal organ of domestic pigs, Sus scrofa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Junwoo; Lee, Wonho; Jeong, Chanwoo; Kim, Hwangryong; Taniguchi, Kazumi; Shin, Taekyun

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the developmental changes of glycoconjugate patterns in the porcine vomeronasal organs (VNOs) and associated glands (Jacobson's glands) from prenatal (9 weeks of gestation) and postnatal (2 days after birth) to the sexually mature stage (6 months old). The VNO of pigs (Sus scrofa) was examined using the following: Dolichos biflorus agglutinin (DBA), Bandeiraea simplicifolia agglutinin isolectin B4 (BSI-B4), Triticum vulgaris agglutinin (WGA), Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEA-I), and soybean agglutinin (SBA). At the fetal stage, all lectins examined were detected mainly in the free border of the vomeronasal epithelium, but few (WGA and UEA-I) and or absent in the VNO cell bodies. At the postnatal and sexually mature stages, the reactivity of some lectins, including WGA, UEA-I, DBA and SBA, were shown to increase in the VNO sensory epithelium as well as the free border. The increased reactivity of lectins as development progressed was also observed in Jacobson's gland acini. These findings suggest that binding sites of lectins, including those of WGA, UEA-I, DBA, and SBA, increase during development from fetal to postnatal growth, possibly contributing to the increased ability of chemoreception in the pig.

  3. Orosomucoid expression profiles in liver, adipose tissues and serum of lean and obese domestic pigs, Göttingen minipigs and Ossabaw minipigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rødgaard, Tina; Stagsted, Jan; Christoffersen, Berit Ø; Cirera, Susanna; Moesgaard, Sophia G; Sturek, Michael; Alloosh, Mouhamad; Heegaard, Peter M H

    2013-02-15

    The acute phase protein orosomucoid (ORM) has anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects, and may play an important role in the maintenance of metabolic homeostasis in obesity-induced low-grade inflammation. Even though the pig is a widely used model for obesity related metabolic symptoms, the expression of ORM has not yet been characterized in such pig models. The objective of this study was to investigate the expression of ORM1 mRNA in liver, visceral adipose tissue, subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) from the abdomen or retroperitoneal abdominal adipose tissue (RPAT) and SAT from the neck, as well as the serum concentration of ORM protein in three porcine obesity models; the domestic pig, Göttingen minipigs and Ossabaw minipigs. No changes in ORM1 mRNA expression were observed in obese pigs compared to lean pigs in the four types of tissues. However, obese Ossabaw minipigs, but none of the other breeds, showed significantly elevated ORM serum concentrations compared to their lean counterparts. Studies in humans have shown that the expression of ORM was unchanged in adipose tissue depots in obese humans with an increased serum concentration of ORM. Thus in this respect, obese Ossabaw minipigs behave more similarly to obese humans than the other two pig breeds investigated.

  4. Simulating the spread of classical swine fever virus between a hypothetical wild-boar population and domestic pig herds in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boklund, A; Goldbach, S G; Uttenthal, A; Alban, L

    2008-07-15

    Denmark has no free-range wild-boar population. However, Danish wildlife organizations have suggested that wild boar should be reintroduced into the wild to broaden national biodiversity. Danish pig farmers fear that this would lead to a higher risk of introduction of classical swine fever virus (CSFV), which could have enormous consequences in terms of loss of pork exports. We conducted a risk assessment to address the additional risk of introducing and spreading CSFV due to the reintroduction of wild boar. In this paper, we present the part of the risk assessment that deals with the spread of CSFV between the hypothetical wild-boar population and the domestic population. Furthermore, the economic impact is assessed taking the perspective of the Danish national budget and the Danish pig industry. We used InterSpreadPlus to model the differential classical swine fever (CSF) risk due to wild boar. Nine scenarios were run to elucidate the effect of: (a) presence of wild boar (yes/no), (b) locations for the index case (domestic pig herd/wild-boar group), (c) type of control strategy for wild boar (hunting/vaccination) and (d) presence of free-range domestic pigs. The presence of free-range wild boar was simulated in two large forests using data from wildlife studies and Danish habitat data. For each scenario, we estimated (1) the control costs borne by the veterinary authorities, (2) the control-related costs to farmers and (3) the loss of exports associated with an epidemic. Our simulations predict that CSFV will be transmitted from the domestic pig population to wild boar if the infected domestic pig herd is located close to an area with wild boar (wild-boar population, the epidemic will last longer and will occasionally lead to several epidemics because of periodic transfer of virus from groups of infected wild boar to domestic pig herds. The size and duration of the epidemic will be reduced if there are no free-range domestic pig herds in the area with CSF

  5. A Paleolithic diet confers higher insulin sensitivity, lower C-reactive protein and lower blood pressure than a cereal-based diet in domestic pig

    OpenAIRE

    Ugander Martin; Sjöberg Trygve; Steen Stig; Wierup Nils; Sundler Frank; Pacini Giovanni; Ahrén Bo; Jönsson Tommy; Frostegård Johan; Göransson Leif; Lindeberg Staffan

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background A Paleolithic diet has been suggested to be more in concordance with human evolutionary legacy than a cereal based diet. This might explain the lower incidence among hunter-gatherers of diseases of affluence such as type 2 diabetes, obesity and cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to experimentally study the long-term effect of a Paleolithic diet on risk factors for these diseases in domestic pigs. We examined glucose tolerance, post-challenge insulin response...

  6. Untangling the hybrid nature of modern pig genomes: a mosaic derived from biogeographically distinct and highly divergent Sus scrofa populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosse, Mirte; Megens, Hendrik-Jan; Madsen, Ole; Frantz, Laurent A F; Paudel, Yogesh; Crooijmans, Richard P M A; Groenen, Martien A M

    2014-08-01

    The merging of populations after an extended period of isolation and divergence is a common phenomenon, in natural settings as well as due to human interference. Individuals with such hybrid origins contain genomes that essentially form a mosaic of different histories and demographies. Pigs are an excellent model species to study hybridization because European and Asian wild boars diverged ~1.2 Mya, and pigs were domesticated independently in Europe and Asia. During the Industrial Revolution in England, pigs were imported from China to improve the local pigs. This study utilizes the latest genomics tools to identify the origin of haplotypes in European domesticated pigs that are descendant from Asian and European populations. Our results reveal fine-scale haplotype structure representing different ancient demographic events, as well as a mosaic composition of those distinct histories due to recently introgressed haplotypes in the pig genome. As a consequence, nucleotide diversity in the genome of European domesticated pigs is higher when at least one haplotype of Asian origin is present, and haplotype length correlates negatively with recombination frequency and nucleotide diversity. Another consequence is that the inference of past effective population size is influenced by the background of the haplotypes in an individual, but we demonstrate that by careful sorting based on the origin of haplotypes, both distinct demographic histories can be reconstructed. Future detailed mapping of the genomic distribution of variation will enable a targeted approach to increase genetic diversity of captive and wild populations, thus facilitating conservation efforts in the near future.

  7. A Taphonomic Study Exploring the Differences in Decomposition Rate and Manner between Frozen and Never Frozen Domestic Pigs (Sus scrofa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Lindsey G; Dabbs, Gretchen R

    2015-05-01

    This research examined differences in decomposition rate and manner of domestic pig subjects (Sus scrofa) in never frozen (control) and previously frozen (experimental) research conditions. Eight control and experimental subjects were placed in an identical outdoor research environment. Daily quantitative and qualitative measurements were collected: abdominal circumference, total body score (TBS), temperature, photographs, descriptive decomposition stages, and visual observations. Field necropsies were performed at accumulated degree days (ADD) between 50 and 300 (Celsius). Paired samples t-tests of ADD to TBS >3.0, TBS >9.5, and TBS >16.0 indicate the rate of decomposition of experimental subjects was significantly slower than controls at both TBS >3 and >9.5 (p = 0.003 and p = 0.002, respectively). A suite of qualitative indicators of predecomposition freezing is also reported. The differences between experimental and control subjects suggest previously frozen subjects should not be used in taphonomic research, as results do not accurately reflect the "normal" taphonomic condition.

  8. A serological survey for antibodies against foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) in domestic pigs during outbreaks in Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wekesa, Sabenzia N.; Namatovu, Alice; Sangula, Abraham K.;

    2014-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is endemic in Kenya and has been well studied in cattle, but not in pigs, yet the role of pigs is recognised in FMD-free areas. This study investigated the presence of antibodies against FMD virus (FMDV) in pigs sampled during a countrywide random survey for FMD...

  9. Seasonal-dependent variations in metabolic status of spermatozoa and antioxidant enzyme activity in the reproductive tract fluids of wild boar/domestic pig hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziekońska, A; Fraser, L; Koziorowska-Gilun, M; Strzezek, J; Koziorowski, M; Kordan, W

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated seasonal changes in the metabolic performance of spermatozoa and activity of the antioxidant enzymes in the seminal plasma of three wild boar/domestic pigs (aged 1.5 to 2.5 years) and the activity of the antioxidant enzymes in fluids of the cauda epididymidis and vesicular glands from 16 wild boar/domestic pig hybrids (aged 1 to 3 years). Parameters of the sperm metabolic activity, such as total motility, mitochondrial functions, and measurements of oxygen uptake, ATP content and L-lactate production, were analyzed during the spring-summer and autumn-winter periods. Besides these sperm metabolic parameters, the sperm membrane integrity was also assessed. Total protein content and activity of the antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), were measured in the reproductive tract fluids. There were no marked significant differences (P > 0.05) between the seasonal periods in terms of sperm motility, mitochondrial function and oxygen uptake; however, spermatozoa collected during the autumn-winter period exhibited higher (P pig hybrids.

  10. Genome data from a sixteenth century pig illuminate modern breed relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, O; Burgos-Paz, W; Casas, E; Ballester, M; Bianco, E; Olalde, I; Santpere, G; Novella, V; Gut, M; Lalueza-Fox, C; Saña, M; Pérez-Enciso, M

    2015-02-01

    Ancient DNA (aDNA) provides direct evidence of historical events that have modeled the genome of modern individuals. In livestock, resolving the differences between the effects of initial domestication and of subsequent modern breeding is not straight forward without aDNA data. Here, we have obtained shotgun genome sequence data from a sixteenth century pig from Northeastern Spain (Montsoriu castle), the ancient pig was obtained from an extremely well-preserved and diverse assemblage. In addition, we provide the sequence of three new modern genomes from an Iberian pig, Spanish wild boar and a Guatemalan Creole pig. Comparison with both mitochondrial and autosomal genome data shows that the ancient pig is closely related to extant Iberian pigs and to European wild boar. Although the ancient sample was clearly domestic, admixture with wild boar also occurred, according to the D-statistics. The close relationship between Iberian, European wild boar and the ancient pig confirms that Asian introgression in modern Iberian pigs has not existed or has been negligible. In contrast, the Guatemalan Creole pig clusters apart from the Iberian pig genome, likely due to introgression from international breeds.

  11. Occurrence and first molecular characterization of Sarcocystis spp. in wild boars (Sus scrofa) and domestic pigs (Sus scrofa domesticus) in Romania: Public health significance of the isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imre, Kálmán; Sala, Claudia; Morar, Adriana; Imre, Mirela; Ciontu, Cătălin; Chisăliță, Ion; Dudu, Andreea; Matei, Marius; Dărăbuș, Gheorghe

    2017-03-01

    Domestic and wild pigs, as intermediate hosts, can harbor tissue cysts of three Sarcocystis species namely S. miescheriana, S. suihominis and S. porcifelis. Out of them, S. suihominis is zoonotic. Romania is a country with high consumption of raw and/or undercooked traditional pork products. This fact may greatly favor the acquiring of the zoonotic Sarcocystis infections by humans, as definitive host. Based on this consideration and in order to investigate the occurrence and public health significance of Sarcocystis spp. in two western counties (Caraş-Severin and Timiş) of Romania, a total of 165 heart samples from hunted wild boars (Sus scrofa, n=101) and home slaughtered domestic pigs (Sus scrofa domesticus, n=64) were screened using microscopic fresh examination and molecular methods. Microscopic examination revealed the presence of sarcocysts in 60.4% of wild boars, and 23.4% of domestic pigs. Genetic characterization of isolates through the PCR-RFLP procedure, targeting the 18S rRNA gene, was successfully achieved for all microscopically positive samples, indicating the presence of a single species, S. miescheriana, in both hosts. The identity of 13 selected S. miescheriana isolates was also confirmed through sequencing. The tested hosts older than 27 months were found to be significantly higher infected (p<0.05) with Sarcocystis than the 6 to ≤27months age group. Although the human infective S. suihominis has not been registered, for a more reliable epidemiological picture, further molecular studies enrolling a larger number of animals and diagnosis on human intestinal Sarcocystis infections are still necessary.

  12. Novel Y-chromosome short tandem repeats in Sus scrofa and their variation in European wild boar and domestic pig populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacolina, L; Brajković, V; Canu, A; Šprem, N; Cubric-Curik, V; Fontanesi, L; Saarma, U; Apollonio, M; Scandura, M

    2016-12-01

    Y-chromosome markers are important tools for studying male-specific gene flow within and between populations, hybridization patterns and kinship. However, their use in non-human mammals is often hampered by the lack of Y-specific polymorphic markers. We identified new male-specific short tandem repeats (STRs) in Sus scrofa using the available genome sequence. We selected four polymorphic loci (5-10 alleles per locus), falling in one duplicated and two single-copy regions. A total of 32 haplotypes were found by screening 211 individuals from eight wild boar populations across Europe and five domestic pig populations. European wild boar were characterized by significantly higher levels of haplotype diversity compared to European domestic pigs (HD  = 0.904 ± 0.011 and HD  = 0.491 ± 0.077 respectively). Relationships among STR haplotypes were investigated by combining them with single nucleotide polymorphisms at two linked genes (AMELY and UTY) in a network analysis. A differentiation between wild and domestic populations was observed (FST  = 0.229), with commercial breeds sharing no Y haplotype with the sampled wild boar. Similarly, a certain degree of geographic differentiation was observed across Europe, with a number of local private haplotypes and high diversity in northern populations. The described Y-chromosome markers can be useful to track male inheritance and gene flow in wild and domestic populations, promising to provide insights into evolutionary and population genetics in Sus scrofa.

  13. First detection of Sarcoptes scabiei from domesticated pig (Sus scrofa) and genetic characterization of S. scabiei from pet, farm and wild hosts in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erster, Oran; Roth, Asael; Pozzi, Paolo S; Bouznach, Arieli; Shkap, Varda

    2015-08-01

    In this report we describe for the first time the detection of Sarcoptes scabiei type suis mites on domestic pigs in Israel and examine its genetic variation compared with S. sabiei from other hosts. Microscopic examination of skin samples from S. scabiei-infested pigs (Sus scrofa domesticus) revealed all developmental stages of S. scabiei. To detect genetic differences between S. scabiei from different hosts, samples obtained from pig, rabbits (Orictolagus cuniculus), fox (Vulpes vulpes), jackal (Canis aureus) and hedgehog (Erinaceus concolor) were compared with GenBank-annotated sequences of three genetic markers. Segments from the following genes were examined: cytochrome C oxidase subunit 1 (COX1), glutathione-S-transferase 1 (GST1), and voltage-sensitive sodium channel (VSSC). COX1 analysis did not show correlation between host preference and genetic identity. However, GST1 and VSSC had a higher percentage of identical sites within S. scabiei type suis sequences, compared with samples from other hosts. Taking into account the limited numbers of GST1 and VSSC sequences available for comparison, this high similarity between sequences of geographically-distant, but host-related populations, may suggest that different host preference is at least partially correlated with genetic differences. This finding may help in future studies of the factors that drive host preferences in this parasite.

  14. Effect of O. porcinus Tick Salivary Gland Extract on the African Swine Fever Virus Infection in Domestic Pig.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Bernard

    Full Text Available African swine fever is a haemorrhagic disease in pig production that can have disastrous financial consequences for farming. No vaccines are currently available and animal slaughtering or area zoning to restrict risk-related movements are the only effective measures to prevent the spread of the disease. Ornithodoros soft ticks are known to transmit the African swine fever virus (ASFV to pigs in farms, following the natural epidemiologic cycle of the virus. Tick saliva has been shown to modulate the host physiological and immunological responses during feeding on skin, thus affecting viral infection. To better understand the interaction between soft tick, ASFV and pig at the bite location and the possible influence of tick saliva on pig infection by ASFV, salivary gland extract (SGE of Ornithodoros porcinus, co-inoculated or not with ASFV, was used for intradermal auricular inoculation. Our results showed that, after the virus triggered the disease, pigs inoculated with virus and SGE presented greater hyperthermia than pigs inoculated with virus alone. The density of Langerhans cells was modulated at the tick bite or inoculation site, either through recruitment by ASFV or inhibition by SGE. Additionally, SGE and virus induced macrophage recruitment each. This effect was enhanced when they were co-inoculated. Finally, the co-inoculation of SGE and virus delayed the early local spread of virus to the first lymph node on the inoculation side. This study has shown that the effect of SGE was powerful enough to be quantified in pig both on the systemic and local immune response. We believe this model should be developed with infected tick and could improve knowledge of both tick vector competence and tick saliva immunomodulation.

  15. Effect of O. porcinus Tick Salivary Gland Extract on the African Swine Fever Virus Infection in Domestic Pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Jennifer; Hutet, Evelyne; Paboeuf, Frédéric; Randriamparany, Tantely; Holzmuller, Philippe; Lancelot, Renaud; Rodrigues, Valérie; Vial, Laurence; Le Potier, Marie-Frédérique

    2016-01-01

    African swine fever is a haemorrhagic disease in pig production that can have disastrous financial consequences for farming. No vaccines are currently available and animal slaughtering or area zoning to restrict risk-related movements are the only effective measures to prevent the spread of the disease. Ornithodoros soft ticks are known to transmit the African swine fever virus (ASFV) to pigs in farms, following the natural epidemiologic cycle of the virus. Tick saliva has been shown to modulate the host physiological and immunological responses during feeding on skin, thus affecting viral infection. To better understand the interaction between soft tick, ASFV and pig at the bite location and the possible influence of tick saliva on pig infection by ASFV, salivary gland extract (SGE) of Ornithodoros porcinus, co-inoculated or not with ASFV, was used for intradermal auricular inoculation. Our results showed that, after the virus triggered the disease, pigs inoculated with virus and SGE presented greater hyperthermia than pigs inoculated with virus alone. The density of Langerhans cells was modulated at the tick bite or inoculation site, either through recruitment by ASFV or inhibition by SGE. Additionally, SGE and virus induced macrophage recruitment each. This effect was enhanced when they were co-inoculated. Finally, the co-inoculation of SGE and virus delayed the early local spread of virus to the first lymph node on the inoculation side. This study has shown that the effect of SGE was powerful enough to be quantified in pig both on the systemic and local immune response. We believe this model should be developed with infected tick and could improve knowledge of both tick vector competence and tick saliva immunomodulation.

  16. Effect of O. porcinus Tick Salivary Gland Extract on the African Swine Fever Virus Infection in Domestic Pig

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Jennifer; Hutet, Evelyne; Paboeuf, Frédéric; Randriamparany, Tantely; Holzmuller, Philippe; Lancelot, Renaud; Rodrigues, Valérie; Vial, Laurence; Le Potier, Marie-Frédérique

    2016-01-01

    African swine fever is a haemorrhagic disease in pig production that can have disastrous financial consequences for farming. No vaccines are currently available and animal slaughtering or area zoning to restrict risk-related movements are the only effective measures to prevent the spread of the disease. Ornithodoros soft ticks are known to transmit the African swine fever virus (ASFV) to pigs in farms, following the natural epidemiologic cycle of the virus. Tick saliva has been shown to modulate the host physiological and immunological responses during feeding on skin, thus affecting viral infection. To better understand the interaction between soft tick, ASFV and pig at the bite location and the possible influence of tick saliva on pig infection by ASFV, salivary gland extract (SGE) of Ornithodoros porcinus, co-inoculated or not with ASFV, was used for intradermal auricular inoculation. Our results showed that, after the virus triggered the disease, pigs inoculated with virus and SGE presented greater hyperthermia than pigs inoculated with virus alone. The density of Langerhans cells was modulated at the tick bite or inoculation site, either through recruitment by ASFV or inhibition by SGE. Additionally, SGE and virus induced macrophage recruitment each. This effect was enhanced when they were co-inoculated. Finally, the co-inoculation of SGE and virus delayed the early local spread of virus to the first lymph node on the inoculation side. This study has shown that the effect of SGE was powerful enough to be quantified in pig both on the systemic and local immune response. We believe this model should be developed with infected tick and could improve knowledge of both tick vector competence and tick saliva immunomodulation. PMID:26828597

  17. The ADH1B Arg47His polymorphism in East Asian populations and expansion of rice domestication in history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong Hua

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The emergence of agriculture about 10,000 years ago marks a dramatic change in human evolutionary history. The diet shift in agriculture societies might have a great impact on the genetic makeup of Neolithic human populations. The regionally restricted enrichment of the class I alcohol dehydrogenase sequence polymorphism (ADH1BArg47His in southern China and the adjacent areas suggests Darwinian positive selection on this genetic locus during Neolithic time though the driving force is yet to be disclosed. Results We studied a total of 38 populations (2,275 individuals including Han Chinese, Tibetan and other ethnic populations across China. The geographic distribution of the ADH1B*47His allele in these populations indicates a clear east-to-west cline, and it is dominant in south-eastern populations but rare in Tibetan populations. The molecular dating suggests that the emergence of the ADH1B*47His allele occurred about 10,000~7,000 years ago. Conclusion We present genetic evidence of selection on the ADH1BArg47His polymorphism caused by the emergence and expansion of rice domestication in East Asia. The geographic distribution of the ADH1B*47His allele in East Asia is consistent with the unearthed culture relic sites of rice domestication in China. The estimated origin time of ADH1B*47His allele in those populations coincides with the time of origin and expansion of Neolithic agriculture in southern China.

  18. A comparative study on the effects of tylosin on select bacteria during continuous-flow culture of mixed populations of gut microflora derived from a feral and a domestic pig

    Science.gov (United States)

    Continuous flow cultures of feral (culture FC) and domesticated (culture RPCF) pig gut microflora were established in steady state. Cultures, in duplicate, were continuously infused subtherapeutic (25 ug/ml) levels of tylosin and sampled at intervals to assess effects on total culturable anaerobes, ...

  19. A comparative chromosome analysis of Thai wild boar (Sus scrofa jubatus and relationship to domestic pig (S. s. domestica by conventional staining, G-banding and high-resolution technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pornnarong Siripiyasing

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This research is the first comparative chromosome analysis report of Thai wild boar (Sus scrofa jubatus and its relationship to domestic pig (S. s. domestica by conventional staining, G-banding and high-resolution technique. Blood samples of the Thai wild boar were taken from two males and two females kept in Nakhon Ratchasima Zoo. After standard whole blood lymphocyte culture at 37 oC for 72 hr. in the presence of colchicine, the metaphase spreads were performed on microscopic slides and airdried. Conventional staining, G-banding and high-resolution technique were applied to stain the chromosomes. The results showed that the number of diploid chromosomes of Thai wild boar was 2n (diploid = 38, and the fundamental numbers (NF were 62 in the male and female. The type of autosomes were 12 metacentric, 14 submetacentric, 4 acrocentric and 6 telocentric chromosomes, with X and Y chromosomes being metacentric chromosomes. We found that chromosomes 1, 5, 7, 8, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 16, 17, 18, X and Y had the same Gbanding and high-resolution technique patterns as those of domestic pig chromosomes. Chromosomes 2, 3, 4, 6, 9 and 15 are similar to those of domestic pig chromosomes. These results show the evolutionary relationship between the Thai wild boar and the domestic pig.

  20. Draft Genome Sequence of Streptococcus caviae Strain Cavy grass 6T, Isolated from Domesticated Guinea Pig Fecal Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palakawong Na Ayudthaya, Susakul; Marshall, Ian P. G.; Schreiber, Lars

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Streptococcus caviae strain Cavy grass 6T, isolated from fecal samples of pet guinea pigs, can metabolize a range of plant mono- and disaccharides, as well as polymeric carbohydrates. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of this strain, which comprises 2.11 Mb. PMID:28360157

  1. Cloning Changes the Response to Obesity of Innate Immune Factors in Blood, Liver, and Adipose Tissues in Domestic Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højbøge, Tina Rødgaard; Skovgaard, Kerstin; Stagsted, Jan;

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of cloned pigs as porcine obesity models reflecting obesity-associated changes in innate immune factor gene expression profiles. Liver and adipose tissue expression of 43 innate immune genes as well as serum concentrations of six immune...

  2. Wild and Domestic Pig Interactions at the Wildlife–Livestock Interface of Murchison Falls National Park, Uganda, and the Potential Association with African Swine Fever Outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukielka, Esther A.; Jori, Ferran; Martínez-López, Beatriz; Chenais, Erika; Masembe, Charles; Chavernac, David; Ståhl, Karl

    2016-01-01

    Bushpigs (BPs) (Potamochoerus larvatus) and warthogs (WHs) (Phacochoerus africanus), which are widely distributed in Eastern Africa, are likely to cohabitate in the same environment with domestic pigs (DPs), facilitating the transmission of shared pathogens. However, potential interactions between BP, WH, and DP, and the resulting potential circulation of infectious diseases have rarely been investigated in Africa to date. In order to understand the dynamics of such interactions and the potential influence of human behavior and husbandry practices on them, individual interviews (n = 233) and participatory rural appraisals (n = 11) were carried out among Ugandan pig farmers at the edge of Murchison Falls National Park, northern Uganda. In addition, as an example of possible implications of wild and DP interactions, non-linear multivariate analysis (multiple correspondence analyses) was used to investigate the potential association between the aforementioned factors (interactions and human behavior and practices) and farmer reported African swine fever (ASF) outbreaks. No direct interactions between wild pigs (WPs) and DP were reported in our study area. However, indirect interactions were described by 83 (35.6%) of the participants and were identified to be more common at water sources during the dry season. Equally, eight (3.4%) farmers declared exposing their DP to raw hunting leftovers of WPs. The exploratory analysis performed suggested possible associations between the farmer reported ASF outbreaks and indirect interactions, free-range housing systems, dry season, and having a WH burrow less than 3 km from the household. Our study was useful to gather local knowledge and to identify knowledge gaps about potential interactions between wild and DP in this area. This information could be useful to facilitate the design of future observational studies to better understand the potential transmission of pathogens between wild and DPs. PMID:27148545

  3. Wild and Domestic Pig Interactions at the Wildlife-Livestock Interface of Murchison Falls National Park, Uganda, and the Potential Association with African Swine Fever Outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukielka, Esther A; Jori, Ferran; Martínez-López, Beatriz; Chenais, Erika; Masembe, Charles; Chavernac, David; Ståhl, Karl

    2016-01-01

    Bushpigs (BPs) (Potamochoerus larvatus) and warthogs (WHs) (Phacochoerus africanus), which are widely distributed in Eastern Africa, are likely to cohabitate in the same environment with domestic pigs (DPs), facilitating the transmission of shared pathogens. However, potential interactions between BP, WH, and DP, and the resulting potential circulation of infectious diseases have rarely been investigated in Africa to date. In order to understand the dynamics of such interactions and the potential influence of human behavior and husbandry practices on them, individual interviews (n = 233) and participatory rural appraisals (n = 11) were carried out among Ugandan pig farmers at the edge of Murchison Falls National Park, northern Uganda. In addition, as an example of possible implications of wild and DP interactions, non-linear multivariate analysis (multiple correspondence analyses) was used to investigate the potential association between the aforementioned factors (interactions and human behavior and practices) and farmer reported African swine fever (ASF) outbreaks. No direct interactions between wild pigs (WPs) and DP were reported in our study area. However, indirect interactions were described by 83 (35.6%) of the participants and were identified to be more common at water sources during the dry season. Equally, eight (3.4%) farmers declared exposing their DP to raw hunting leftovers of WPs. The exploratory analysis performed suggested possible associations between the farmer reported ASF outbreaks and indirect interactions, free-range housing systems, dry season, and having a WH burrow less than 3 km from the household. Our study was useful to gather local knowledge and to identify knowledge gaps about potential interactions between wild and DP in this area. This information could be useful to facilitate the design of future observational studies to better understand the potential transmission of pathogens between wild and DPs.

  4. In vivo skin absorption and distribution of the nerve agent VX (O-ethyl-S-[2(diisopropylamino)ethyl] methylphosphonothioate) in the domestic white pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilcott, R P; Dalton, C H; Hill, I; Davison, C M; Blohm, K L; Clarkson, E D; Hamilton, M G

    2005-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the skin absorption and distribution of VX (O-ethyl-S-[2 (diisopropylamino)ethyl] methylphosphonothioate) in the domestic pig in order to evaluate the animal as a potential model for assessing pretreatments against toxic anti-cholinesterase compounds. A liquid droplet (equivalent to a 2 x LD50 dose) of radiolabelled VX was applied to the inner ear-skin of each anaesthetized animal. Blood and tissue samples (liver, lung, kidney, heart and skin exposure sites) were obtained post-mortem. The amount of radioactivity in each sample was measured by liquid scintillation counting, from which the skin absorption rate and dose distribution of VX were calculated. A substantial proportion (22 +/- 3%) of the applied dose remained within the skin at the site of application. It is conceivable that strategies to minimize or remove this reservoir may be of benefit in the early treatment of VX-exposed casualties. Image analysis of autoradiographs of exposed skin sites indicated that each milligram of radioactive VX covered an area of 1.2 +/- 0.5 cm2. The average skin absorption rate of 14C-VX was 661 +/- 126 microg/cm2 per hour. Comparison of these data with previous studies suggests that human skin is less permeable to VX than pig skin, but VX spreads over a greater surface area when applied to human skin. Thus, paradoxically, while pig-ear skin is more permeable than human skin, the difference in skin surface spreading may lead to the absorption of an equivalent systemic dose.

  5. Development and validation of a sensitive HPLC method for the quantification of HI-6 in guinea pig plasma and evaluated in domestic swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnert, Sara; Vair, Cory; Mikler, John

    2010-05-15

    A rapid and small volume assay to quantify HI-6 in plasma was developed to further the development and licensing of an intravenous formulation of HI-6. The objective of this method was to develop a sensitive and rapid assay that clearly resolved HI-6 and an internal standard in saline and plasma matrices. A fully validated method using ion-pair HPLC and 2-PAM as the internal standard fulfilled these requirements. Small plasma samples of 35 microL were extracted using acidification, filtration and neutralization. Linearity was shown for over 4 microg/mL to 1mg/mL with accuracy and precision within 6% relative error at the lower limit of detection. This method was utilized in the pharmacokinetic analysis HI-6 dichloride (2Cl) and HI-6 dimethane sulfonate (DMS) in anaesthetized guinea pigs and domestic swine following an intravenous bolus administration. From the resultant pharmacokinetic parameters a target plasma concentration of 100 microM was established and maintained in guinea pigs receiving an intravenous infusion. This validated method allows for the analysis of low volume samples, increased sample numbers and is applicable to the determination of pharmacokinetic profiles and parameters.

  6. Asian Elephant (Elephas maximus), Pig-Tailed Macaque (Macaca nemestrina) and Tiger (Panthera tigris) Populations at Tourism Venues in Thailand and Aspects of Their Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Burbach, Jan; Ronfot, Delphine; Srisangiam, Rossukon

    2015-01-01

    This study focused on determining the size and welfare aspects of Asian elephant, pig-tailed macaque and tiger populations at facilities open to tourists in Thailand. Data were gathered from 118 venues through direct observations and interviews with staff. A score sheet-based welfare assessment was used to calculate scores between 1 and 10, indicating each venue's welfare situation. Factors such as freedom of movement for the animals, access to veterinary care, environmental noise quality, hygiene standards and work intensity were included in the score sheet. 1688 elephants, 371 macaques and 621 tigers were found at the venues. 89 venues exclusively kept elephants, 9 designated 'Monkey schools' offered macaque shows, 4 venues kept primarily tigers, mostly for petting and photo opportunities, and the remaining venues kept a mix of these animals. A strong imbalance in female to male gender ratios was recorded with about 4:1 for adult elephants and 1:4 for adult macaques. Severely inadequate welfare conditions were common, with 75% of macaques and 99% of tigers being kept at venues with scores less than 5. 86% of elephants were kept in inadequate conditions at venues with scores between 3 and 5, but a significant number of venues with scores above 5 were found. 4.6% of elephants were provided commendable conditions, reaching assessment scores of 8 and above. 71% of venues did not offer any sort of education about animals to visitors. This study is the first to assess welfare aspects of captive wild animals at tourism venues across Thailand. It concludes that significant concerns exist about the welfare of wild animals in the tourism sector of Thailand. Urgent attention needs to be given to address these concerns and prevent further suffering. But also to ensure the demand for wild animals doesn't have a negative impact on wild populations.

  7. Asian Elephant (Elephas maximus, Pig-Tailed Macaque (Macaca nemestrina and Tiger (Panthera tigris Populations at Tourism Venues in Thailand and Aspects of Their Welfare.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Schmidt-Burbach

    Full Text Available This study focused on determining the size and welfare aspects of Asian elephant, pig-tailed macaque and tiger populations at facilities open to tourists in Thailand. Data were gathered from 118 venues through direct observations and interviews with staff. A score sheet-based welfare assessment was used to calculate scores between 1 and 10, indicating each venue's welfare situation. Factors such as freedom of movement for the animals, access to veterinary care, environmental noise quality, hygiene standards and work intensity were included in the score sheet. 1688 elephants, 371 macaques and 621 tigers were found at the venues. 89 venues exclusively kept elephants, 9 designated 'Monkey schools' offered macaque shows, 4 venues kept primarily tigers, mostly for petting and photo opportunities, and the remaining venues kept a mix of these animals. A strong imbalance in female to male gender ratios was recorded with about 4:1 for adult elephants and 1:4 for adult macaques. Severely inadequate welfare conditions were common, with 75% of macaques and 99% of tigers being kept at venues with scores less than 5. 86% of elephants were kept in inadequate conditions at venues with scores between 3 and 5, but a significant number of venues with scores above 5 were found. 4.6% of elephants were provided commendable conditions, reaching assessment scores of 8 and above. 71% of venues did not offer any sort of education about animals to visitors. This study is the first to assess welfare aspects of captive wild animals at tourism venues across Thailand. It concludes that significant concerns exist about the welfare of wild animals in the tourism sector of Thailand. Urgent attention needs to be given to address these concerns and prevent further suffering. But also to ensure the demand for wild animals doesn't have a negative impact on wild populations.

  8. A Paleolithic diet confers higher insulin sensitivity, lower C-reactive protein and lower blood pressure than a cereal-based diet in domestic pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugander Martin

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A Paleolithic diet has been suggested to be more in concordance with human evolutionary legacy than a cereal based diet. This might explain the lower incidence among hunter-gatherers of diseases of affluence such as type 2 diabetes, obesity and cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to experimentally study the long-term effect of a Paleolithic diet on risk factors for these diseases in domestic pigs. We examined glucose tolerance, post-challenge insulin response, plasma C-reactive protein and blood pressure after 15 months on Paleolithic diet in comparison with a cereal based swine feed. Methods Upon weaning twenty-four piglets were randomly allocated either to cereal based swine feed (Cereal group or cereal free Paleolithic diet consisting of vegetables, fruit, meat and a small amount of tubers (Paleolithic group. At 17 months of age an intravenous glucose tolerance test was performed and pancreas specimens were collected for immunohistochemistry. Group comparisons of continuous variables were made by use of the t-test. P Results At the end of the study the Paleolithic group weighed 22% less and had 43% lower subcutaneous fat thickness at mid sternum. No significant difference was seen in fasting glucose between groups. Dynamic insulin sensitivity was significantly higher (p = 0.004 and the insulin response was significantly lower in the Paleolithic group (p = 0.001. The geometric mean of C-reactive protein was 82% lower (p = 0.0007 and intra-arterial diastolic blood pressure was 13% lower in the Paleolithic group (p = 0.007. In evaluations of multivariate correlations, diet emerged as the strongest explanatory variable for the variations in dynamic insulin sensitivity, insulin response, C-reactive protein and diastolic blood pressure when compared to other relevant variables such as weight and subcutaneous fat thickness at mid sternum. There was no obvious immunohistochemical difference in pancreatic islets

  9. Comparative chromosome painting between the domestic pig (Sus scrofa) and two species of peccary, the collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu) and the white-lipped peccary (T. pecari): a phylogenetic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosma, A A; de Haan, N A; Arkesteijn, G J A; Yang, F; Yerle, M; Zijlstra, C

    2004-01-01

    The Suidae and the Dicotylidae (or Tayassuidae) are related mammalian families, both belonging to the artiodactyl suborder Suiformes, which diverged more than 37 million years ago. Cross-species chromosome painting was performed between the domestic pig (Sus scrofa; 2n = 38), a representative of the Suidae, and two species of the Dicotylidae: the collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu; 2n = 30) and the white-lipped peccary (T. pecari; 2n = 26). G-banded metaphase chromosomes of the two peccaries were hybridized with whole chromosome painting probes derived from domestic pig chromosomes 1-18 and X. For both peccary species, a total of 31 autosomal segments that are conserved between pig and peccary could be identified. The painting results confirm conclusions inferred from G-band analyses that the karyotypes of the collared peccary and the white-lipped peccary are largely different. The karyotypic heterogeneity of the Dicotylidae contrasts with the relative homogeneity among the karyotypes of the Suidae. For this difference between the Dicotylidae and the Suidae, a number of explanations are being postulated: 1) the extant peccaries are phylogenetically less closely related than is usually assumed; 2) the peccary genome is less stable than the genome of the pigs; and 3) special (e.g. biogeographical or biosocial) circumstances have facilitated the fixation of chromosome rearrangements in ancestral dicotylid populations.

  10. Genetic variation at the alpha-1-fucosyltransferase (FUT1) gene in Asian wild boar and Chinese and Western commercial pig breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, W B; Wu, S L; Musa, H H; Zhu, G Q; Chen, G H

    2008-12-01

    Escherichia coli F18 bacteria producing enterotoxins and/or shigatoxin (ETEC/STEC) are main pathogens that cause oedema disease and postweaning diarrhoea in piglets, and alpha-1-fucosyltransferase (FUT1) gene has been identified as a candidate gene for controlling the expression of ETEC F18 receptor. The genetic variations at nucleotide position 307 in open reading frame of FUT1 gene in one wild boar breed and 20 western commercial and Chinese native pig breeds were investigated by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. The results showed that the genetic polymorphisms of the FUT1 locus were only detected in western pig breeds and the Chinese Taihu (including Meishan pig, Fengjing pig and Erhualian pig), Huai and Lingao pig breeds; only Duroc and Pietrain possessed the resistant AA genotype, while the wild boar and other Chinese pig breeds only presented the susceptible genotype GG. The results indicated that Chinese native pig breeds lack genetic factors providing resistance to ETEC F18 bacteria. The resistant allele to ETEC F18 might originate from European wild boar. It was inferred that oedema and postweaning diarrhoea caused by ETEC F18 have close relationship with the growth rate, which can explain why on the contrary Chinese native pig breeds have stronger resistance to oedema and postweaning diarrhoea in piglets compared with western pig breeds.

  11. Course and transmission characteristics of oral low-dose infection of domestic pigs and European wild boar with a Caucasian African swine fever virus isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietschmann, Jana; Guinat, Claire; Beer, Martin; Pronin, Valery; Tauscher, Kerstin; Petrov, Anja; Keil, Günther; Blome, Sandra

    2015-07-01

    In 2007, African swine fever virus (ASFV) was introduced into the Transcaucasian countries and Russia. Since then, it has spread alarmingly and reached the European Union. ASFV strains are highly virulent and lead to almost 100% mortality under experimental conditions. However, the possibility of dose-dependent disease courses has been discussed. For this reason, a study was undertaken to assess the risk of chronic disease and the establishment of carriers upon low-dose oronasal infection of domestic pigs and European wild boar. It was demonstrated that very low doses of ASFV are sufficient to infect especially weak or runted animals by the oronasal route. Some of these animals did not show clinical signs indicative of ASF, and they developed almost no fever. However, no changes were observed in individual animal regarding the onset, course and outcome of infection as assessed by diagnostic tests. After amplification of ASFV by these animals, pen- and stablemates became infected and developed acute lethal disease with similar characteristics in all animals. Thus, we found no indication of prolonged or chronic individual courses upon low-dose infection in either species. The scattered onset of clinical signs and pathogen detection within and among groups confirms moderate contagiosity that is strongly linked with blood contact. In conclusion, the prolonged course at the "herd level" together with the exceptionally low dose that proved to be sufficient to infect a runted wild boar could be important for disease dynamics in wild-boar populations and in backyard settings.

  12. Associations of MYF5 gene polymorphisms with meat quality traits in different domestic pig (Sus scrofa populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Liu

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The MYF5 gene is first inducibly expressed in muscle cell during embryonic muscle development and plays an important role in regulating the differentiation of skeletal muscle precursors. In this study we used PCR-RFLP to investigate two pig (Sus scrofa populations (n = 302 for two MYF5 gene polymorphisms, a previously unreported novel Met-Leu shift single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP MYF5/Hsp92II located on exon 1 and the previously identified intron 1 MYF5/HinfI SNP. Haplotype and association analysis showed that haplotypes of the two SNPs were significantly associated with drip loss rate (DLR, p < 0.05, water holding capacity (WHC, p < 0.05, biceps femoris meat color value (MCV2, p < 0.05, biceps femoris marbling score (MM2, p < 0.01, longissimus dorsi intramuscular fat percentage (IMF, p < 0.01 and longissimus dorsi Water moisture content (WM, p < 0.01 in the population 2. However, further studies are needed to confirm these preliminary results.

  13. Evolution of pigs in East Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The research into the origins of domestic animals is of significance not only for understanding their development per se, but also for making clear the human society evolution. Although there are evidences to show that pigs were independently domesticated in a variety of places throughout the world, the detailed scenario of the origin and dispersal of domestic pigs in East Asia remains unclear.

  14. Domestic Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lapierre, Simon

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1960s, there has been growing awareness regarding the issue of domestic violence as a form of violence against women, which has been largely influenced by the work of feminist activist and scholars in North America and Europe (Dobash and Dobash 1992. Other terms have been used to describe the same phenomenon, including domestic abuse, spousal abuse, wife battering, marital violence, intimate partner violence. Though there is no doubt that this problem has existed for much more than five decades, the tendency to label it as ‘private matters’ or ‘marital disagreements’ has obscured the reality of women living with abuse in their home. At a general level, domestic violence can be defined as the means used by a man in order to assert his control and domination over his intimate partner, whether they are married or not (Mullender 1996. It can involve incidents of physical and sexual violence, as well as verbal, psychological and financial abuse. Though some of its manifestations may be associated with particular cultural or religious groups – e.g. forced marriage and honour killing in South-Asian communities – domestic violence affects women from all classes and backgrounds.

  15. Is Asian Currency Unit Attractive to East Asian Economies?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin Zhang; Fan He

    2007-01-01

    Pegging the RMB exchange rate to the Asian currency unit (ACU) has not, at least in the short term, been proved a better solution than pegging to the US dollar or pegging to a G-3 (US$, Japaneseyen and euro) currency basket. Although the Asian currency unit can help Asian economies to keep the relative price of regional currencies stable, the cost of joining a formal regional monetary cooperation is the relinquishment of the autonomy of their domestic policies. Asian monetary cooperation needs to provide more potential benefits if it is to attract Asian economies. We argue that Asian monetary cooperation should be designed to solve the problem of regional trade imbalance, and regional exchange rate policy coordination should be adopted as the first step towards exchange rate cooperation.

  16. The prey pathway: a regional history of cattle (Bos taurus) and pig (Sus scrofa) domestication in the northern Jordan Valley, Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marom, Nimrod; Bar-Oz, Guy

    2013-01-01

    The faunal assemblage from the 9(th)-8(th) millennium BP site at Sha'ar Hagolan, Israel, is used to study human interaction with wild suids and cattle in a time period just before the appearance of domesticated animals of these species in the Jordan Valley. Our results, based on demographic and osteometric data, indicate that full domestication of both cattle and suids occurred at the site during the 8(th) millennium. Importantly, domestication was preceded in both taxa by demographic and metric population parameters indicating severe overhunting. The possible role of overhunting in shaping the characteristics of domesticated animals and the social infrastructure to ownership of herds is then explored.

  17. A deep catalog of autosomal single nucleotide variation in the pig.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Bianco

    Full Text Available A comprehensive catalog of variability in a given species is useful for many important purposes, e.g., designing high density arrays or pinpointing potential mutations of economic or physiological interest. Here we provide a genomewide, worldwide catalog of single nucleotide variants by simultaneously analyzing the shotgun sequence of 128 pigs and five suid outgroups. Despite the high SNP missing rate of some individuals (up to 88%, we retrieved over 48 million high quality variants. Of them, we were able to assess the ancestral allele of more than 39M biallelic SNPs. We found SNPs in 21,455 out of the 25,322 annotated genes in pig assembly 10.2. The annotation showed that more than 40% of the variants were novel variants, not present in dbSNP. Surprisingly, we found a large variability in transition / transversion rate along the genome, which is very well explained (R2=0.79 primarily by genome differences in in CpG content and recombination rate. The number of SNPs per window also varied but was less dependent of known factors such as gene density, missing rate or recombination (R2=0.48. When we divided the samples in four groups, Asian wild boar (ASWB, Asian domestics (ASDM, European wild boar (EUWB and European domestics (EUDM, we found a marked correlation in allele frequencies between domestics and wild boars within Asia and within Europe, but not across continents, due to the large evolutive distance between pigs of both continents (~1.2 MYA. In general, the porcine species showed a small percentage of SNPs exclusive of each population group. EUWB and EUDM were predicted to harbor a larger fraction of potentially deleterious mutations, according to the SIFT algorithm, than Asian samples, perhaps a result of background selection being less effective due to a lower effective population size in Europe.

  18. A deep catalog of autosomal single nucleotide variation in the pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Erica; Nevado, Bruno; Ramos-Onsins, Sebastián E; Pérez-Enciso, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive catalog of variability in a given species is useful for many important purposes, e.g., designing high density arrays or pinpointing potential mutations of economic or physiological interest. Here we provide a genomewide, worldwide catalog of single nucleotide variants by simultaneously analyzing the shotgun sequence of 128 pigs and five suid outgroups. Despite the high SNP missing rate of some individuals (up to 88%), we retrieved over 48 million high quality variants. Of them, we were able to assess the ancestral allele of more than 39M biallelic SNPs. We found SNPs in 21,455 out of the 25,322 annotated genes in pig assembly 10.2. The annotation showed that more than 40% of the variants were novel variants, not present in dbSNP. Surprisingly, we found a large variability in transition / transversion rate along the genome, which is very well explained (R2=0.79) primarily by genome differences in in CpG content and recombination rate. The number of SNPs per window also varied but was less dependent of known factors such as gene density, missing rate or recombination (R2=0.48). When we divided the samples in four groups, Asian wild boar (ASWB), Asian domestics (ASDM), European wild boar (EUWB) and European domestics (EUDM), we found a marked correlation in allele frequencies between domestics and wild boars within Asia and within Europe, but not across continents, due to the large evolutive distance between pigs of both continents (~1.2 MYA). In general, the porcine species showed a small percentage of SNPs exclusive of each population group. EUWB and EUDM were predicted to harbor a larger fraction of potentially deleterious mutations, according to the SIFT algorithm, than Asian samples, perhaps a result of background selection being less effective due to a lower effective population size in Europe.

  19. The pig tapeworm Taenia solium, the cause of cysticercosis: Biogeographic (temporal and spacial) origins in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelet, Lorraine; Carod, Jean-François; Rakontondrazaka, Mahenintsoa; Ma, Laurence; Gay, Frédérick; Dauga, Catherine

    2010-05-01

    Cysticercosis is a serious public health problem in Madagascar. The prevalence rate of active cysticercosis reached 21% in regions with a high level of livestock farming. Taenia solium of African-American and Asian genotypes are both present on the island. The times of divergence of the 13 specimens studied suggests a very ancient diversification of T. solium. These events are widely thought to be prior to the domestication of pigs, and seem to follow the expansion of Homo in Asia. Multiple human migrations and the diversity of potential intermediate hosts may have led to a complex epidemiological situation on the island.

  20. Analyses of pig genomes provide insight to procine demography and evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenen, M.A.M.; Megens, H.J.W.C.; Frantz, L.A.F.; Bosse, M.; Crooijmans, R.P.M.A.; Dibbits, B.W.; Madsen, O.; Paudel, Y.

    2012-01-01

    For 10,000¿years pigs and humans have shared a close and complex relationship. From domestication to modern breeding practices, humans have shaped the genomes of domestic pigs. Here we present the assembly and analysis of the genome sequence of a female domestic Duroc pig (Sus scrofa) and a comparis

  1. The prey pathway: a regional history of cattle (Bos taurus and pig (Sus scrofa domestication in the northern Jordan Valley, Israel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nimrod Marom

    Full Text Available The faunal assemblage from the 9(th-8(th millennium BP site at Sha'ar Hagolan, Israel, is used to study human interaction with wild suids and cattle in a time period just before the appearance of domesticated animals of these species in the Jordan Valley. Our results, based on demographic and osteometric data, indicate that full domestication of both cattle and suids occurred at the site during the 8(th millennium. Importantly, domestication was preceded in both taxa by demographic and metric population parameters indicating severe overhunting. The possible role of overhunting in shaping the characteristics of domesticated animals and the social infrastructure to ownership of herds is then explored.

  2. Genetic characterization of Bhutanese native chickens based on an analysis of Red Junglefowl (Gallus gallus gallus and Gallus gallus spadecieus), domestic Southeast Asian and commercial chicken lines (Gallus gallus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorji, Nedup; Duangjinda, Monchai; Phasuk, Yupin

    2012-07-01

    The genetic diversity of Bhutanese chickens needs to be understood in order to develop a suitable conservation strategy for these birds in Bhutan. In this, work, we used microsatellite markers to examine the genetic diversity of Bhutanese chickens. Four Bhutanese chicken varieties (Black plumage, Frizzle, Naked neck and Red Junglefowl-like, corresponding to Yuebjha Narp, Phulom, Khuilay and Seim, respectively), two subspecies of Red Junglefowl (Gallus gallus gallus and Gallus gallus spadecieus), two varieties of Thai native chickens (Pradhu Hang Dam and Chee; Gallus gallus domesticus) representing the Southeast Asian domestic chicken, and two commercial lines (Broiler and Single Comb White Leghorn) were genotyped with 18 microsatellites that included 16 loci recommended by the FAO/ISAG for investigations of genetic variability in chickens. All loci were polymorphic, with the number of alleles ranging from six (MCW0111) to 23 (MCW0183). Substantial genetic variation was observed in all populations, with the Bhutanese native chicken Yuebjha Narp (Black plumage chicken) showing the lowest genetic variability. Despite extensive intrapopulation variation, the genetic differentiation among 10 populations was moderate. A neighbor-joining tree revealed the genetic relationships involved while principal component analysis showed that Bhutanese native chickens should be given priority in conservation efforts because of their genetic distinctiveness. Chee chickens are especially valuable as a reservoir of predomestic diversity, as indicated by their greater genetic variation and their position in the phylogenetic tree.

  3. Feral pig populations are structured at fine spatial scales in tropical Queensland, Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jobina Lopez

    Full Text Available Feral pigs occur throughout tropical far north Queensland, Australia and are a significant threat to biodiversity and World Heritage values, agriculture and are a vector of infectious diseases. One of the constraints on long-lasting, local eradication of feral pigs is the process of reinvasion into recently controlled areas. This study examined the population genetic structure of feral pigs in far north Queensland to identify the extent of movement and the scale at which demographically independent management units exist. Genetic analysis of 328 feral pigs from the Innisfail to Tully region of tropical Queensland was undertaken. Seven microsatellite loci were screened and Bayesian clustering methods used to infer population clusters. Sequence variation at the mitochondrial DNA control region was examined to identify pig breed. Significant population structure was identified in the study area at a scale of 25 to 35 km, corresponding to three demographically independent management units (MUs. Distinct natural or anthropogenic barriers were not found, but environmental features such as topography and land use appear to influence patterns of gene flow. Despite the strong, overall pattern of structure, some feral pigs clearly exhibited ancestry from a MU outside of that from which they were sampled indicating isolated long distance dispersal or translocation events. Furthermore, our results suggest that gene flow is restricted among pigs of domestic Asian and European origin and non-random mating influences management unit boundaries. We conclude that the three MUs identified in this study should be considered as operational units for feral pig control in far north Queensland. Within a MU, coordinated and simultaneous control is required across farms, rainforest areas and National Park Estates to prevent recolonisation from adjacent localities.

  4. Identification of chromosomal locations associated with tail biting and being a victim of tail-biting behaviour in the domestic pig (Sus scrofa domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kaitlin; Zanella, Ricardo; Ventura, Carlos; Johansen, Hanne Lind; Framstad, Tore; Janczak, Andrew; Zanella, Adroaldo J; Neibergs, Holly Louise

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this study was to identify loci associated with tail biting or being a victim of tail biting in Norwegian crossbred pigs using a genome-wide association study with PLINK case-control analysis. DNA was extracted from hair or blood samples collected from 98 trios of crossbred pigs located across Norway. Each trio came from the same pen and consisted of one pig observed to initiate tail biting, one pig which was the victim of tail biting and a control pig which was not involved in either behaviour. DNA was genotyped using the Illumina PorcineSNP60 BeadChip whole-genome single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) assay. After quality assurance filtering, 53,952 SNPs remained comprising 74 animals (37 pairs) for the tail biter versus control comparison and 53,419 SNPs remained comprising 80 animals (40 pairs) for the victim of tail biting versus control comparison. An association with being a tail biter was observed on Sus scrofa chromosome 16 (SSC16; p = 1.6 × 10(-5)) and an unassigned chromosome (p = 3.9 × 10(-5)). An association with being the victim of tail biting was observed on Sus scrofa chromosomes 1 (SSC1; p = 4.7 × 10(-5)), 9 (SSC9; p = 3.9 × 10(-5)), 18 (SSC18; p = 7 × 10(-5) for 9,602,511 bp, p = 3.4 × 10(-5) for 9,653,881 bp and p = 5.3 × 10(-5) for 29,577,783 bp) and an unassigned chromosome (p = 6.1 × 10(-5)). An r(2) = 0.96 and a D' = 1 between the two SNPs at 9 Mb on SSC18 indicated extremely high linkage disequilibrium, suggesting that these two markers represent a single locus. These results provide evidence of a moderate genetic association between the propensity to participate in tail-biting behaviour and the likelihood of becoming a victim of this behaviour.

  5. Simulating the spread of classical swine fever virus between a hypothetical wild-boar population and domestic pig herds in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boklund, Anette; Goldbach, Stine G.; Uttenthal, Åse;

    2008-01-01

    Denmark has no free-range wild-boar population. However, Danish wildlife organizations have suggested that wild boar should be reintroduced into the wild to broaden national biodiversity. Danish pig farmers fear that this would lead to a higher risk of introduction of classical swine fever virus...... (CSFV), which could have enormous consequences in terms of loss of pork exports. We conducted a risk assessment to address the additional risk of introducing and spreading CSFV due to the reintroduction of wild boar. In this paper, we present the part of the risk assessment that deals with the spread...

  6. Establishing a DNA identification system for pigs (Sus scrofa) using a multiplex STR amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Chih; Hsieh, Hsing-Mei; Lee, James Chun-I; Hsiao, Chung-Ting; Lin, Der-Yuh; Linacre, Adrian; Tsai, Li-Chin

    2014-03-01

    In this study we establish a novel STR multiplex using 13 tetra-nucleotide STRs and the amelogenin marker for the forensic identification of pigs. The genotypes and allele frequency were generated based on 341 samples from 11 pig breeds in Taiwan. Genetic variation was tested including Na, Ne, Ho, He, F-statistics, PIC, Pm and PE for each STR locus and for each breed. Based upon the 341 samples in this study, the CPm and CPEtrio of the 13 STR loci were 1.31 E-11 and 0.9996 respectively. The CPItrio based on ten family sets ranged from 4.012 E+4 to 4.332 E+6 for paternity test. Validation of the multiplex included: determining the sensitivity of the test, where reproducible full DNA profiles were obtained using an initial template of between 0.25 and 1 ng; a comprehensive range of tissue types generated the same genotype; and the specificity was confirmed as no DNA full profile was generated for any species other than Sus scrofa. Based on the phylogenetic analysis, the European domestic breeds clustered separately from the Asian breeds, as expected, and their hybrids formed unique clades respectively between the clades of Asian and European breeds. Eleven test samples, acting as unknown samples, matched all expected breeds. We demonstrate that this novel 14-plex PCR system is valuable in pig individualization, parentage testing, breed assessment, phylogenetic study and forensic applications.

  7. Selection signature in domesticated animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhangyuan, Pan; Xiaoyun, He; Xiangyu, Wang; Xiaofei, Guo; Xiaohan, Cao; Wenping, Hu; Ran, Di; Qiuyue, Liu; Mingxing, Chu

    2016-12-20

    Domesticated animals play an important role in the life of humanity. All these domesticated animals undergo same process, first domesticated from wild animals, then after long time natural and artificial selection, formed various breeds that adapted to the local environment and human needs. In this process, domestication, natural and artificial selection will leave the selection signal in the genome. The research on these selection signals can find functional genes directly, is one of the most important strategies in screening functional genes. The current studies of selection signal have been performed in pigs, chickens, cattle, sheep, goats, dogs and other domestic animals, and found a great deal of functional genes. This paper provided an overview of the types and the detected methods of selection signal, and outlined researches of selection signal in domestic animals, and discussed the key issues in selection signal analysis and its prospects.

  8. 脉冲电磁场对家猪淋巴细胞的细胞遗传学效应%Cytogenetic Effects of Pulsing Electromagnetic Field on Domestic Pig Lymphocytes in Vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹方东; 徐柳; 王子淑; 王喜忠

    2001-01-01

    以家猪外周血淋巴细胞为材料,研究了脉冲电磁场(pulsing electromagnetic fields,简称PEMFs)对细胞的遗传学效应。实验发现,100和200 kHz的PEMFs对家猪的淋巴细胞照射培养12、24、48 h后,染色体畸变(包括非整倍体、染色体断裂等)频率明显高于对照组(P<0.05)。其中,56%的染色体或染色单体断裂和42%的间隙发生在家猪常见染色体脆性位点部位。同时,经100 kHz和200 kHz的PEMFs照射48 h后,淋巴细胞姐妹染色单体交换(SCE)频率也明显高于对照组(P<0.05)。实验结果表明,PEMFs能诱导DNA损伤和染色体畸变。%The effects of pulsing electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) on cells are very important subjects in the field of bioelectromagnetics. In this experiment,the cytogenetic effects of PEMF on domestic pig lymphocytes were tested in vitro. Pig lymphocytes in RPMI 1640 medium were exposed to PEMFs of 100 kHz and 200 kHz for 12,24 and 48 hours. Chromosomal aberrations (aneuploidy,breaks,gaps,et al.) were significantly increased in exposed cultures,and of these aberrations,56% chromosomal or chromatid breaks and 42% gaps induced by PEMFs were the points of pig chromosomal fragile sites.The baseline frequency of sister-chromatid exchange (SCE) increased after exposing lymphocytes continuously to PEMFs of 100 kHz and 200 kHz for 48 hours. These results suggested that the exposure to PEMFs might induce a type of DNA lesion and chromosomal aberrations.

  9. Exploring pig raising in Bangladesh: implications for public health interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen P. Luby

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Pigs are intermediate hosts and potential reservoirs of a number of pathogens that can infect humans. The objectives of this manuscript are to understand pig raising patterns in Bangladesh, interactions between pigs and humans, social stigma and discrimination that pig raisers experience and to explore the implications of these findings for public health interventions. The study team conducted an exploratory qualitative study by interviewing backyard pig raisers and nomadic herders (n = 34, observing daily interactions between pigs and humans (n = 18 and drawing seasonal diagrams (n = 6 with herders to understand the reasons for movement of nomadic herds. Pig raisers had regular close interaction with pigs. They often touched, caressed and fed their pigs which exposed them to pigs' saliva and feces. Herders took their pigs close to human settlements for scavenging. Other domestic animals and poultry shared food and sleeping and scavenging places with pigs. Since pigs are taboo in Islam, a majority of Muslims rejected pig raising and stigmatized pig raisers. This study identified several potential ways for pigs to transmit infectious agents to humans in Bangladesh. Poverty and stigmatization of pig raisers make it difficult to implement health interventions to reduce the risk of such transmissions. Interventions that offer social support to reduce stigma and highlight economic benefits of disease control might interest of pig raisers in accepting interventions targeting pig borne zoonoses.

  10. Asian Heroes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    China,South Korea and Japan keep Olympic flag flying Atotal of 19 countries and regions of Asia competed at the 2008 Beijing Olympics, winning 86 gold, 54 silver and 72 bronze medals. Their gold medal haul accounted for 28.5 percent of the total 302 gold medals awarded. Of the Asian medal winners, China, Japan and South Korea were the top three accounting for 73 gold medals, and 84.9 percent of all medals won by Asian countries.

  11. Domestic Violence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙犁

    2014-01-01

    <正>Most of the attention on domestic violence is on the violence perpetrated by the husband towards the wife.It seems that little attention is paid on the infliction of domestic violence on children.Domestic violence on children should not be neglected.Domestic violence on children is everywhere.A survey

  12. Behaviour Genetics of Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Budimir

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The behavior of pigs can be divided into several categories, which include maternal behavior, aggressive behavior, sexual behavior, feeding behavior, and various other forms of emotional behavior. Domestication has caused many changes in the original behaviour of boar, such as in reproductive and sexual behaviour, and has lead to a general increase in social tolerance between animals. Further modifications in behaviour are also possible, as suggested by the optimization of environmental factors which affect maternal behavior. The behaviour of a sow after farrowing appeared as a consequence of natural selection for protection of piglets from predators in the wild boar population, and affects the survival of piglets and the longevity of the sow in breeding. The behavior of the sows which includes the protection of the piglets from predators appears as a consequence of natural selection in the wild boar population. Familiarity with the molecular mechanisms which determine the patterns of behavior enables understanding of behavioral problems such as aggressiveness and helps the improvement of the well-being of pigs. Research conducted on pigs has determined that there are regions on chromosomes 2, 6, 10, 14, and 15, and chromosome X which can explain the genetic aspect of appearance of some behavioral patterns in sows. The goal of this paper is to illustrate the behavioral patterns appeared in the populations of domestic breeds of pigs and their genetic aspects, which knowledge may provide some help in improving the production qualities and creating higher economic gain during production.

  13. Programming Pig

    CERN Document Server

    Gates, Alan

    2011-01-01

    This guide is an ideal learning tool and reference for Apache Pig, the open source engine for executing parallel data flows on Hadoop. With Pig, you can batch-process data without having to create a full-fledged application-making it easy for you to experiment with new datasets. Programming Pig introduces new users to Pig, and provides experienced users with comprehensive coverage on key features such as the Pig Latin scripting language, the Grunt shell, and User Defined Functions (UDFs) for extending Pig. If you need to analyze terabytes of data, this book shows you how to do it efficiently

  14. Domestic Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domestic violence is a type of abuse. It usually involves a spouse or partner, but it can also be ... child, elderly relative, or other family member. Domestic violence may include Physical violence that can lead to ...

  15. A comparative study on the effects of tylosin on select bacteria during continuous flow culture of mixed populations of gut microflora derived from a feral and a domestic pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramlachan, Nicole; Anderson, Robin C; Andrews, Kathleen; Harvey, Roger B; Nisbet, David J

    2008-02-01

    Continuous flow cultures of feral (culture FC) and domesticated (culture RPCF) pig gut microflora were established in steady state. Cultures were continuously infused with 25 or 100 microg tylosin/mL and sampled at intervals to assess effects on total culturable anaerobes, Bacteroides and Enterococcus via plating to agar supplemented without or with 100 microg tylosin/mL, the latter to assess bacterial sensitivity to tylosin. Endogenous tylosin-insensitive anaerobes within the cultures, while similar prior to tylosin administration, responded differently during tylosin administration, with concentrations in RPCF cultures becoming enriched more than in FC cultures. Tylosin-insensitive anaerobes in RPCF cultures persisted at increased concentrations after cessation of tylosin administration whereas concentrations in FC cultures decreased slightly. Concentrations of Bacteroides and endogenous Enterococcus recovered on medium without tylosin decreased to near or below detectable levels in FC cultures administered 25 or 100 microg tylosin/mL. Tylosin-insensitive Bacteroides were enriched to >5 log10 CFU/mL in RPCF cultures after 25 microg tylosin/mL but not at 100 microg tylosin/mL. Populations of endogenous tylosin-insensitive Enterococcus were enriched in RPCF but not FC cultures administered 25 or 100 microg tylosin/mL. In cultures administered 100 microg tylosin/mL, an exogenous-sourced E. faecium possessing tylosin resistance maintained itself only in the presence of tylosin. These results indicate that under the conditions of these tests, antibiotic exposure may enrich for antibiotic-insensitive bacteria populations of endogenous or exogenous origin but that the ability of an exogenous tylosin-resistant E. faecium to persist is reduced in the absence of the antibiotic, likely due to exclusion by native flora.

  16. The Chinese Economy and Income Inequality among East Asian Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Sumie Sato; Mototsugu Fukushige

    2010-01-01

    Using the Atkinson inequality measure of income distribution, we analyze the impact of China as a single country and examine the effect of its domestic income inequality on total income inequality among East Asian countries. First, we find that China's domestic income inequality exacerbated income inequality among East Asian countries from the 1980s, and this effect became even more pronounced from 1990. Second, the growth of China's per capita GDP had an equalizing effect on income distribut...

  17. Enhancing genome-wide copy number variation identification by high density array CGH using diverse resources of pig breeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiying Wang

    Full Text Available Copy number variations (CNVs are important forms of genomic variation, and have attracted extensive attentions in humans as well as domestic animals. In the study, using a custom-designed 2.1 M array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH, genome-wide CNVs were identified among 12 individuals from diverse pig breeds, including one Asian wild population, six Chinese indigenous breeds and two modern commercial breeds (Yorkshire and Landrace, with one individual of the other modern commercial breed, Duroc, as the reference. A total of 1,344 CNV regions (CNVRs were identified, covering 47.79 Mb (∼1.70% of the pig genome. The length of these CNVRs ranged from 3.37 Kb to 1,319.0 Kb with a mean of 35.56 Kb and a median of 11.11 Kb. Compared with similar studies reported, most of the CNVRs (74.18% were firstly identified in present study. In order to confirm these CNVRs, 21 CNVRs were randomly chosen to be validated by quantitative real time PCR (qPCR and a high rate (85.71% of confirmation was obtained. Functional annotation of CNVRs suggested that the identified CNVRs have important function, and may play an important role in phenotypic and production traits difference among various breeds. Our results are essential complementary to the CNV map in the pig genome, which will provide abundant genetic markers to investigate association studies between various phenotypes and CNVs in pigs.

  18. Biodistribution of the radionuclides (18)F-FDG, (11)C-methionine, (11)C-PK11195, and (68)Ga-citrate in domestic juvenile female pigs and morphological and molecular imaging of the tracers in hematogenously disseminated Staphylococcus aureus lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afzelius, Pia Maria Tullia; Nielsen, Ole L; Alstrup, Aage Ko

    2016-01-01

    with experimental bacterial infection. Four juvenile 14-15 weeks old female domestic pigs were scanned seven days after intra-arterial inoculation in the right femoral artery with a porcine strain of S. aureus using a sequential scanning protocol with (18)F-FDG, (11)C-methionine, (11)C-PK11195 and (68)Ga......-methionine and particularly (11)C-PK11195 and (68)Ga-citrate accumulated to a lesser extent in infectious foci. (18)F-FDG-uptake was seen in the areas of inflammatory cells and to a much lesser extent in reparative infiltration surrounding necrotic regions....

  19. mRNA expression of three kinds of recombinant bifidobacterium vaccines of Taenia solium in domestic pigs%3种猪带绦虫重组双歧杆菌候选疫苗在家猪体内的mRNA表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周必英; 刘美辰; 杨凤娇

    2015-01-01

    Objective To detect the expression of three kinds of recombinant bifidobacterium(Bb) vaccines of Taenia solium in domestic pigs.Methods Healthy domestic pigs of 40 days old were orally administrated with 1011 (colony forming units,CFU) recombinant Bb-TSO45W-4B,Bb-TSOL18 and Bb-TSO45W-4B-TSOL18 vaccines.Two weeks after the first immunization,these domestic pigs were strengthened immunized.56 days after the first immunization,these domestic pigs were killed.The liver,lung and spleen were collected to detect the expression of three kinds of recombinant Bb vaccines of Taenia solium in domestic pigs using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).Results The TSO45W-4B gene of Taenia solium could be expressed in liver,lung and spleen of domestic pigs.The relative expression was 3.3,3.3,1,respectively.The relative expression in liver and lung was higher than that in spleen;The TSOL18 gene of Taenia solium could be expressed in liver and spleen of domestic pigs.The relative expression was 2.6,1,respectively.The relative expression in liver was higher than that in spleen.The TSO45W-4B-TSOL18 fusion gene of Taenia solium could be expressed in liver,lung and spleen of domestic pigs.The relative expression was 0.2,2.4,2.1,respectively.Conclusion Three kinds of recombinant Bb vaccines of Taenia solium could be expressed in domestic pigs,which would contribute to playing a role in immune effect of vaccines.%目的 检测3种猪带绦虫重组双歧杆菌候选疫苗在家猪体内的表达情况. 方法 将40日龄健康家猪分别用1011克隆形成单位(colony forming units,CFU)的猪带绦虫Bb-TSO45W-4B、Bb-TSOL18和Bb-TSO45W-4B-TSOL18重组候选疫苗对家猪口服灌胃.首次免疫2周后加强免疫1次.于首免后56 d,剖杀家猪,无菌取肝、肺、脾,采用RT-PCR方法检测上述3种候选疫苗在家猪体内的mRNA表达情况. 结果 在家猪肝脏、肺脏和脾脏中均检测到猪带绦虫TSO45W-4B基因的mRNA,其中肝脏和

  20. Study on Phylogenetic Relationships of Five Breeds of Pigs by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA(RAPD)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    RAPD was used to study the genetic divergency and phylogenetic relationships of five breeds of domestic pigs,including Min pig,Duroc,Yorkshired,Landrace and Junmu I pig.We selected fourteen primers from eighty random primers,caculated genetic distance index matrix and constructed phylogenetic tree with UPGMA methods.Genetic distance index matrix indicated that the genetic relationship between Junmu I pig and Landrace was the closest and the farthest between Duroc and min pig.

  1. Valuing women’s labour: Law, empowerment and human rights of migrant filipino domestic workers in Pakistan 11th Asian Law Institute International Conference Law in Asia: Balancing Tradition and Modernization

    OpenAIRE

    Shahid, A

    2014-01-01

    International labour migration has expanded across the globe and is no more confined to migration from Asia to Europe, Americas and oil rich Gulf countries. New regional migration patterns have emerged, creating new labour markets within countries in Asia. Domestic service is an informal labour sector where international labour migration is taking place. Historically, domestic service for others' households has remained a principal way of earning a living for women. Affluent families in the d...

  2. HUMAN DISPERSAL OF A WIDESPREAD ZOONOSIS IN A DOMESTICATED HOST

    Science.gov (United States)

    We assessed the evolutionary consequences of swine husbandry for Trichinella spiralis, a food borne parasite that causes severe muscular disease. We find far less genetic diversity in parasites of domesticated pigs than in related parasites of wildlife hosts. In particular, pigs of European origin...

  3. Experimental evidence of hepatitis A virus infection in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Young-Jo; Park, Woo-Jung; Park, Byung-Joo; Kwak, Sang-Woo; Kim, Yong-Hyeon; Lee, Joong-Bok; Park, Seung-Yong; Song, Chang-Seon; Lee, Sang-Won; Seo, Kun-Ho; Kang, Young-Sun; Park, Choi-Kyu; Song, Jae-Young; Choi, In-Soo

    2016-04-01

    Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is the leading cause of acute viral hepatitis worldwide, with HAV infection being restricted to humans and nonhuman primates. In this study, HAV infection status was serologically determined in domestic pigs and experimental infections of HAV were attempted to verify HAV infectivity in pigs. Antibodies specific to HAV or HAV-like agents were detected in 3.5% of serum samples collected from pigs in swine farms. When the pigs were infected intravenously with 2 × 10(5) 50% tissue culture infectious dose (TCID50 ) of HAV, shedding of the virus in feces, viremia, and seroconversion were detected. In pigs orally infected with the same quantity of HAV, viral shedding was detected only in feces. HAV genomic RNA was detected in the liver and bile of intravenously infected pigs, but only in the bile of orally infected pigs. In further experiments, pigs were intravenously infected with 6 × 10(5) TCID50 of HAV. Shedding of HAV in feces, along with viremia and seroconversion, were confirmed in infected pigs but not in sentinel pigs. HAV genomic RNA was detected in the liver, bile, spleen, lymph node, and kidney of the infected pigs. HAV antigenomic RNA was detected in the spleen of one HAV-infected pig, suggesting HAV replication in splenic cells. Infiltration of inflammatory cells was observed in the livers of infected pigs but not in controls. This is the first experimental evidence to demonstrate that human HAV strains can infect pigs.

  4. GENETIC ANALYSIS OF BLACK SLAVONIAN PIG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Margeta

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Pairs (18 of microsatelite primers were used in this study to detect the genetic relationship within Black Slavonian Pig and between Turopolje Pig, Mangalitsa breed and Croatian Wild Pigs. The second goal of this study was to determine phylogenetic relationships among these breeds and some Asian and European pigs using the mtDNA D-loop sequence polymorphism. The third goal was to determine the MC1R genotype of Black Slavonian pigs and to find an efficient and simple PCR-RFLP method, based on differences in MC1R genotype, to distinguish between purebred Black Slavonian pigs and their crossings with commercial pig breeds and Wild Boars. Aiming to conduct microsatellite analysis each animal was genotyped for 18 microsatelite markers, chosen based on their quality, size, polymorphism and location on the porcine genome as proposed by the FAO. Two pairs of primers amplified a 511-bp fragment of control region between sites 15 390 and 15 900 (Mit1.F and Mit1.R and a 810-bp fragment between sites 15 825 and 16 634 (Mit2.F and Mi2.R were genotyped for mtDNA. Two primer pairs were used to amplify the majority of the single exon of MC1R gene aiming to determinate MC1R genotype of Black Slavonian pig. The first pair of primers, MERL1 and EPIG2, was used to amplify a 428-bp product from the 5’ half of the exon, whereas EPIG1 and EPIG3 amplified a 405-bp product from the 3’ half. Our results showed that the 18 microsatellites used in this study were useful markers to study genetic diversity among Croatian autochthonous pig breeds. This set of microsatellites may be used for identifying individuals and for genetic diversity studies for selection and conservation of the Black Slavonian pig, Turopolje pig and Mangalitsa breed. Genetic distances between populations made with Principal Component Analysis (PCA method noticed that studied populations are mostly clearly geneticaly defined. mtDNA analysis suggested that Black Slavonian and Turopolje pig showed

  5. Review of wallowing in pigs: Description of the behaviour and its motivational basis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bracke, M.B.M.

    2011-01-01

    Wallowing, i.e. coating the body surface with mud, is a natural behaviour of pigs,commonly observed in feral pigs and wild boar, but rarely provided for in current housing systems for domestic pigs. Furthermore, in welfare science the subject has not been receiving much attention. This paper reviews

  6. Genetic resources, genome mapping and evolutionary genomics of the pig (Sus scrofa)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, K.; Baxter, T.; Muir, W.M.; Groenen, M.A.M.; Schook, L.B.

    2007-01-01

    The pig, a representative of the artiodactyla clade, is one of the first animals domesticated, and has become an important agriculture animal as one of the major human nutritional sources of animal based protein. The pig is also a valuable biomedical model organism for human health. The pig's import

  7. CONDITIONAL ASIAN OPTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Runhuan Feng; Volkmer, Hans W.

    2015-01-01

    Conditional Asian options are recent market innovations, which offer cheaper and long-dated alternatives to regular Asian options. In contrast with payoffs from regular Asian options which are based on average asset prices, the payoffs from conditional Asian options are determined only by average prices above certain threshold. Due to the limited inclusion of prices, conditional Asian options further reduce the volatility in the payoffs than their regular counterparts and have been promoted i...

  8. The Near Eastern origin of cat domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Carlos A; Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn; Roca, Alfred L; Hupe, Karsten; Johnson, Warren E; Geffen, Eli; Harley, Eric H; Delibes, Miguel; Pontier, Dominique; Kitchener, Andrew C; Yamaguchi, Nobuyuki; O'brien, Stephen J; Macdonald, David W

    2007-07-27

    The world's domestic cats carry patterns of sequence variation in their genome that reflect a history of domestication and breed development. A genetic assessment of 979 domestic cats and their wild progenitors-Felis silvestris silvestris (European wildcat), F. s. lybica (Near Eastern wildcat), F. s. ornata (central Asian wildcat), F. s. cafra (southern African wildcat), and F. s. bieti (Chinese desert cat)-indicated that each wild group represents a distinctive subspecies of Felis silvestris. Further analysis revealed that cats were domesticated in the Near East, probably coincident with agricultural village development in the Fertile Crescent. Domestic cats derive from at least five founders from across this region, whose descendants were transported across the world by human assistance.

  9. Domestic Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    T.J. Pempel

    2013-01-01

    In the wake of major domestic and international changes, most especially the end of the Cold War and 9/11 for all, but additionally the collapse of the asset bubble in Japan and the transition from military authoritarianism to democratization in the ROK and Taiwan, all of the countries in question saw sharply divided domestic coalitions pressing for often diametrically opposed courses in national security and foreign policy. This brief begins by noting the limits of classical realist inte...

  10. Genetic Resources, Genome Mapping and Evolutionary Genomics of the Pig (Sus scrofa)

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, K.; Baxter, T.; Muir, W. M.; Groenen, M.A.M.; Schook, L B

    2007-01-01

    The pig, a representative of the artiodactyla clade, is one of the first animals domesticated, and has become an important agriculture animal as one of the major human nutritional sources of animal based protein. The pig is also a valuable biomedical model organism for human health. The pig's importance to human health and nutrition is reflected in the decision to sequence its genome (3X). As an animal species with its wild ancestors present in the world, the pig provides a unique opportunity...

  11. Obesity and Asian Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Asian American > Obesity Obesity and Asian Americans Non-Hispanic whites are 60% ... youthonline . [Accessed 05/25/2016] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  12. Signatures of diversifying selection in European pig breeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Wilkinson

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Following domestication, livestock breeds have experienced intense selection pressures for the development of desirable traits. This has resulted in a large diversity of breeds that display variation in many phenotypic traits, such as coat colour, muscle composition, early maturity, growth rate, body size, reproduction, and behaviour. To better understand the relationship between genomic composition and phenotypic diversity arising from breed development, the genomes of 13 traditional and commercial European pig breeds were scanned for signatures of diversifying selection using the Porcine60K SNP chip, applying a between-population (differentiation approach. Signatures of diversifying selection between breeds were found in genomic regions associated with traits related to breed standard criteria, such as coat colour and ear morphology. Amino acid differences in the EDNRB gene appear to be associated with one of these signatures, and variation in the KITLG gene may be associated with another. Other selection signals were found in genomic regions including QTLs and genes associated with production traits such as reproduction, growth, and fat deposition. Some selection signatures were associated with regions showing evidence of introgression from Asian breeds. When the European breeds were compared with wild boar, genomic regions with high levels of differentiation harboured genes related to bone formation, growth, and fat deposition.

  13. Identification of genome-wide copy number variations among diverse pig breeds using SNP genotyping arrays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiying Wang

    Full Text Available Copy number variations (CNVs are important forms of genetic variation complementary to SNPs, and can be considered as promising markers for some phenotypic and economically important traits or diseases susceptibility in domestic animals. In the present study, we performed a genome-wide CNV identification in 14 individuals selected from diverse populations, including six types of Chinese indigenous breeds, one Asian wild boar population, as well as three modern commercial foreign breeds. We identified 63 CNVRs in total, which covered 9.98 Mb of polymorphic sequence and corresponded to 0.36% of the genome sequence. The length of these CNVRs ranged from 3.20 to 827.21 kb, with an average of 158.37 kb and a median of 97.85 kb. Functional annotation revealed these identified CNVR have important molecular function, and may play an important role in exploring the genetic basis of phenotypic variability and disease susceptibility among pigs. Additionally, to confirm these potential CNVRs, we performed qPCR for 12 randomly selected CNVRs and 8 of them (66.67% were confirmed successfully. CNVs detected in diverse populations herein are essential complementary to the CNV map in the pig genome, which provide an important resource for studies of genomic variation and the association between various economically important traits and CNVs.

  14. 青海省部分地区家猪感染旋毛虫情况调查%Investigation on Trichinella infection in domestic pigs in some regions of Qinghai province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜鹏; 刘巴睿; 崔晶; 李国昌; 李楠; 韩秀敏; 王虎; 王中全

    2011-01-01

    Objective To understand the prevalence of swine Trichinella infection in Qinghai Province. Methods 192 pigs from seven abattoirs randomly selected in Huzu Tu Autonomous County and Delingha City were selected as subjects. The diaphragm samples of the slaughtered pigs were taken and examined for Trichinella larvae by trichinoscopy and artificial digestion method. Results 192 diaphragm samples were not detected Trichinella larvae by trichinoscopy and artificial digestion method. Conclusion No pigs infected with trichinella larvae were found in Huzu and Delingha of Qinghai province for the moment.%目的 了解青海省家猪旋毛虫的感染情况.方法 在青海省互助土族自治县和德令哈市随机选取7个生猪屠宰点,对192头屠宰猪收集膈肌样本,先后使用压片镜检法和人工消化法对肌肉样本进行旋毛虫检验.结果 192份猪肉样本经镜检法和人工消化法检查,均未检出旋毛虫幼虫.结论 青海省互助土族自治县和德令哈市未发现自然感染旋毛虫的家猪.

  15. Pig and guinea pig skin as surrogates for human in vitro penetration studies: a quantitative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbero, Ana M; Frasch, H Frederick

    2009-02-01

    Both human and animal skin in vitro models are used to predict percutaneous penetration in humans. The objective of this review is a quantitative comparison of permeability and lag time measurements between human and animal skin, including an evaluation of the intra and inter species variability. We limit our focus to domestic pig and rodent guinea pig skin as surrogates for human skin, and consider only studies in which both animal and human penetration of a given chemical were measured jointly in the same lab. When the in vitro permeability of pig and human skin were compared, the Pearson product moment correlation coefficient (r) was 0.88 (Pskin permeability of 21% for pig and 35% for human, and an inter species average coefficient of variation of 37% for the set of studied compounds (n=41). The lag times of pig skin and human skin did not correlate (r=0.35, P=0.26). When the in vitro permeability of guinea pig and human skin were compared, r=0.96 (Phuman, and an inter species coefficient of variation of permeability of 41% for the set of studied compounds (n=15). Lag times of guinea pig and human skin correlated (r=0.90, Phuman skin was calculated for pig skin (n=50) and guinea pig skin (n=25). For pig skin, 80% of measurements fell within the range 0.3skin, 65% fell within that range. Both pig and guinea pig are good models for human skin permeability and have less variability than the human skin model. The skin model of choice will depend on the final purpose of the study and the compound under investigation.

  16. The Role of Structural Change in the Economic Development of Asian Economies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foster-McGregor, N.; Verspagen, Bart

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we combine data on gross domestic product (GDP) per capita and sectoral employment shares to undertake a decomposition of GDP per capita growth for a sample of 43 Asian and non-Asian economies. We decompose income changes into three components: (i) changes in labor productivity within

  17. Domestic violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiurski Jasmina

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article author examines a definition of a family, the role of a family as a social and legal institution as well as state reaction in a situation of mal function of a family. Special attention is given to a definition of a family, its protective function and criminal law in modern legal systems. Author also analyzes recent reform of our legislation firstly new criminal offence (Article 118a of the Criminal Code of Republic of Serbia - Domestic Violence - and its relation to other similar criminal offences. Finally, author gives an overview of up-to-now practice from District and Municipal Prosecutors Offices in Belgrade and suggestions for solving observed problems in implementation of this criminal offence.

  18. Genetic differences in recombination frequency in the pig (Sus scrofa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollivier, L

    1995-10-01

    A comparison has been performed on 3 recently published linkage maps of the pig, hereafter designated as the American (A), European (E), and Swedish (S) maps. The cumulated distances between common markers in these 3 maps were in the ratio 1.00 (A):0.88 (E):0.77 (S), in keeping with the ratio of the percentages of domestic genome in the reference families used to build the corresponding maps, i.e., 1.00 (A):0.81 (E):0.50 (S). From further recombination frequencies reported in wild boars (in the S report), the wild pig genome length (in centimorgans) is expected to represent 66% of the domestic pig genome length. These observations tend to confirm a general result of Burt and Bell (Nature (London), 326: 803-805 (1987)), showing higher chiasma frequencies in domestic mammalian species compared with wild species. Consequences for mapping studies are discussed.

  19. A comparison of brain gene expression levels in domesticated and wild animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank W Albert

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Domestication has led to similar changes in morphology and behavior in several animal species, raising the question whether similarities between different domestication events also exist at the molecular level. We used mRNA sequencing to analyze genome-wide gene expression patterns in brain frontal cortex in three pairs of domesticated and wild species (dogs and wolves, pigs and wild boars, and domesticated and wild rabbits. We compared the expression differences with those between domesticated guinea pigs and a distant wild relative (Cavia aperea as well as between two lines of rats selected for tameness or aggression towards humans. There were few gene expression differences between domesticated and wild dogs, pigs, and rabbits (30-75 genes (less than 1% of expressed genes were differentially expressed, while guinea pigs and C. aperea differed more strongly. Almost no overlap was found between the genes with differential expression in the different domestication events. In addition, joint analyses of all domesticated and wild samples provided only suggestive evidence for the existence of a small group of genes that changed their expression in a similar fashion in different domesticated species. The most extreme of these shared expression changes include up-regulation in domesticates of SOX6 and PROM1, two modulators of brain development. There was almost no overlap between gene expression in domesticated animals and the tame and aggressive rats. However, two of the genes with the strongest expression differences between the rats (DLL3 and DHDH were located in a genomic region associated with tameness and aggression, suggesting a role in influencing tameness. In summary, the majority of brain gene expression changes in domesticated animals are specific to the given domestication event, suggesting that the causative variants of behavioral domestication traits may likewise be different.

  20. Experimental pig-to-pig transmission dynamics for African swine fever virus, Georgia 2007/1 strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinat, C; Gubbins, S; Vergne, T; Gonzales, J L; Dixon, L; Pfeiffer, D U

    2016-01-01

    African swine fever virus (ASFV) continues to cause outbreaks in domestic pigs and wild boar in Eastern European countries. To gain insights into its transmission dynamics, we estimated the pig-to-pig basic reproduction number (R 0) for the Georgia 2007/1 ASFV strain using a stochastic susceptible-exposed-infectious-recovered (SEIR) model with parameters estimated from transmission experiments. Models showed that R 0 is 2·8 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1·3-4·8] within a pen and 1·4 (95% CI 0·6-2·4) between pens. The results furthermore suggest that ASFV genome detection in oronasal samples is an effective diagnostic tool for early detection of infection. This study provides quantitative information on transmission parameters for ASFV in domestic pigs, which are required to more effectively assess the potential impact of strategies for the control of between-farm epidemic spread in European countries.

  1. Characterization of fetal growth by repeated ultrasound measurements in the wild guinea pig (Cavia aperea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, K; Guenther, A; Göritz, F; Jewgenow, K

    2014-08-01

    Fetal growth during pregnancy has previously been studied in the domesticated guinea pig (Cavia aperea f. porcellus) after dissecting pregnant females, but there are no studies describing the fetal growth in their wild progenitor, the wild guinea pig (C aperea). In this study, 50 pregnancies of wild guinea pig sows were investigated using modern ultrasound technique. The two most common fetal growth parameters (biparietal diameter [BPD] and crown-rump-length [CRL]) and uterine position were measured. Data revealed similar fetal growth patterns in the wild guinea pig and domesticated guinea pig in the investigated gestation period, although they differ in reproductive milestones such as gestation length (average duration of pregnancy 68 days), average birth weight, and litter mass. In this study, pregnancy lasted on average 60.2 days with a variance of less than a day (0.96 days). The measured fetal growth parameters are strongly correlated with each (R = 0.91; P guinea pig.

  2. Seroprevalence of Japanese encephalitis virus using competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (C-ELISA) in pigs in East Sumba, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Annytha Detha; Diana A. Wuri; Ketut Santhia

    2015-01-01

    Japanese Encephalitis (JE), a vector-borne zoonotic viral disease, is mostly prevalent in Asian countries. The objective of this study was to investigate the occurence of JE virus (JEV) among pigs in East Sumba, Indonesia. Blood samples (n=52) were randomly collected from 52 apparantly healthy pigs where pig population was high in East Sumba. The samples were subjected for seroprevalence study for the presence of antibodies against JEV using competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (C-EL...

  3. Serological and Molecular Investigation of Swine Hepatitis E Virus in Pigs Raised in Southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costanzo, Nicola; Sarno, Eleonora; Peretti, Vincenzo; Ciambrone, Lucia; Casalinuovo, Francesco; Santoro, Adriano

    2015-11-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is a common acute hepatitis transmitted by the fecal-oral route. In developed countries, the virus has a zoonotic potential, and domestic pigs and wild boars are considered main reservoirs. To assess the prevalence of HEV-positive animals in the Calabria region (southern Italy) on a serological and molecular level, a total of 216 autochthonous healthy pigs (Apulo-Calabrese breed) were sampled. Both sera and feces were collected. Pigs were grouped based on age: 117 pigs pigs >6 months. By using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay system, a total of 173 (80%) of the 216 pigs tested seropositive. In all sampled farms (n = 8), pigs with antibodies (immunoglobulin G) against HEV were detected at a level higher than 60%, with a significant difference among age groups (P pigs were found to be nested reverse transcription PCR positive and thus to shed viral genomes in their feces. These positive findings resulted in a prevalence of 48.4% on the farm level (16 of 35 pigs) and an overall prevalence of 7.4% at the animal level (16 of 216 pigs). Based on the present study, HEV seems to circulate among the autochthonous domestic pig population of southern Italy with a low sharing rate. Further studies exploring the origin of infection are needed to minimize the risk of human exposure and to reduce consequences for public health.

  4. Cross protection against Taenia taeniaeformis in rats vaccinated with non-viable oncospheres of Asian Taenia or T. saginata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, A; Fan, P C; Chung, W C; Suzuki, M

    1994-03-01

    It was determined to examine whether rats injected with non-viable oncospheres of Asian Taenia or Taenia saginata became resistant to challenge infection with eggs of Taenia taeniaeformis, since (a) metacestodes of Asian Taenia and T. taeniaeformis develop in the liver of pigs and rats, respectively, and (b) Asian Taenia and T. saginata have human origins. Rats injected intravenously or subcutaneously with complete Freund's adjuvant with non-viable oncospheres of Asian Taenia showed statistically significant resistance to challenge infection with eggs of T. taeniaeformis, whereas those injected with non-viable oncospheres of T. saginata did not show any resistance.

  5. Mitochondrial lineages reveal intense gene flow between Iberian wild boars and South Iberian pig breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Asch, B; Pereira, F; Santos, L S; Carneiro, J; Santos, N; Amorim, A

    2012-02-01

    The phylogeography of wild boars (WB) and domestic pigs (Sus scrofa) has contributed important insights into where and when domestication occurred. The geographic distribution of two core haplotypes (E1a and E1c) of the main European phylogenetic clade suggests that Central Europe was an early domestication centre, although the complexity of the pattern does not exclude the possibility that multiple domestication events occurred in different regions. To investigate the relationships among WB and domestic pig breeds in Iberia, a fragment of the mitochondrial DNA control region from a large sample (n=409) of WB and local pig breeds was co-analysed with published sequences from other European populations. The Iberian sample revealed a high frequency of a sub-cluster (E1c) of the European haplogroup E1 in 77% of total Iberian samples, 96% of WB, 90% of Alentejano (Portugal) and 87% of Iberian breed pigs (Spain; Black Hairy, Black Hairless and Red varieties). Low genetic distance (F'(ST) = 0.105) was observed between Alentejano (Portugal) and Iberian breed pigs (Spain). Alentejano and Iberian breed pigs showed low genetic distances to both Iberian and Central European WB (average F'(ST) =0.345 and 0.215, respectively). This pattern suggests that early pig husbandry in the Iberian Peninsula did not solely rely on imported Central European stock, but also included the recruitment of local WB.

  6. 76 FR 79203 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive License: Avian Influenza Vaccines for Domesticated Poultry/Wild...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-21

    ... Vaccines for Domesticated Poultry/Wild Birds To Be Provided to the National Veterinary Stockpile Program... for the international industry. Data are available for mice, chickens, pigs, and horses. The field of use may be limited to ``Avian influenza vaccines for domesticated poultry/wild birds to be provided...

  7. Domestic Violence: Intersection of Culture, Gender and Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonsing, Jenny C

    2016-04-01

    This study examines South Asian women's experience of domestic violence in Hong Kong. Despite the proliferation of literature on domestic violence, this issue remain unexplored in the discourse of domestic violence in Hong Kong. A qualitative research approach through face to face interview with 14 women was employed. Participants were recruited through purposive and snowball sampling. Findings from this study highlight the importance of considering the social and cultural influence on how women perceived and construct their experiences of abuse.Implications for practice and policies are highlighted.

  8. From crop domestication to super-domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, D A; Balázs, E; Heslop-Harrison, J S

    2007-11-01

    Research related to crop domestication has been transformed by technologies and discoveries in the genome sciences as well as information-related sciences that are providing new tools for bioinformatics and systems' biology. Rapid progress in archaeobotany and ethnobotany are also contributing new knowledge to understanding crop domestication. This sense of rapid progress is encapsulated in this Special Issue, which contains 18 papers by scientists in botanical, crop sciences and related disciplines on the topic of crop domestication. One paper focuses on current themes in the genetics of crop domestication across crops, whereas other papers have a crop or geographic focus. One feature of progress in the sciences related to crop domestication is the availability of well-characterized germplasm resources in the global network of genetic resources centres (genebanks). Germplasm in genebanks is providing research materials for understanding domestication as well as for plant breeding. In this review, we highlight current genetic themes related to crop domestication. Impressive progress in this field in recent years is transforming plant breeding into crop engineering to meet the human need for increased crop yield with the minimum environmental impact - we consider this to be 'super-domestication'. While the time scale of domestication of 10 000 years or less is a very short evolutionary time span, the details emerging of what has happened and what is happening provide a window to see where domestication might - and can - advance in the future.

  9. Central Asian Republic Info

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — CAR Info is designed and managed by the Central Asian Republic Mission to fill in the knowledge and reporting gaps in existing agency systems for that Mission. It...

  10. The Asian war bow

    CERN Document Server

    Nieminen, Timo A

    2011-01-01

    The bow is one of the earliest complex machines, a prime example of the storage and transfer of energy. The physics of the bow illuminates compromises and design choices made in Asian military archery.

  11. Asian Art on Display

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borggreen, Gunhild Ravn

    2010-01-01

    Med udgangspunkt i seminaret Visualising Asian Modernity diskuteres forholdet mellem antropologi og samtidskunst i lyset af hvorledes asiatisk kunst fremvises og formidles i vestlig og dansk sammenhæng....

  12. Glaucoma in Asian Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Us Donate In This Section Glaucoma In Asian Populations email Send this article to a friend by ... an even more serious problem as the world population and longevity increases. The other major glaucoma type ...

  13. The South Asian genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John C Chambers

    Full Text Available The genetic sequence variation of people from the Indian subcontinent who comprise one-quarter of the world's population, is not well described. We carried out whole genome sequencing of 168 South Asians, along with whole-exome sequencing of 147 South Asians to provide deeper characterisation of coding regions. We identify 12,962,155 autosomal sequence variants, including 2,946,861 new SNPs and 312,738 novel indels. This catalogue of SNPs and indels amongst South Asians provides the first comprehensive map of genetic variation in this major human population, and reveals evidence for selective pressures on genes involved in skin biology, metabolism, infection and immunity. Our results will accelerate the search for the genetic variants underlying susceptibility to disorders such as type-2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease which are highly prevalent amongst South Asians.

  14. Statistical Exploration of Local Transmission Routes for African Swine Fever in Pigs in the Russian Federation, 2007-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergne, T; Gogin, A; Pfeiffer, D U

    2017-04-01

    African swine fever (ASF) is a devastating viral disease of swine that is present in both pigs and wild boar in the western part of the Russian Federation and the eastern part of the European Union. It represents a significant threat for the European pig production industry as neither treatment nor vaccine is available. This study analysed the spatial and spatio-temporal distributions of ASF cases that were reported in domestic pigs and wild boar for assessing the likelihood of wild boar-to-domestic pig and farm-to-farm transmission routes in the epidemic that occurred from 2007 to 2014 in the Krasnodar and the Tver regions, two of the most affected areas of the Russian Federation. Results suggest that in both regions, the spatial proximity to an infectious farm was a strong risk factor for infection of a susceptible farm. In the Krasnodar region, the results of the statistical analysis suggest that the epidemics in wild boar and in domestic pigs were independent from each other. In contrast, there seemed to be a dependence between the two epidemics in the Tver region. But because outbreaks in domestic pigs were not statistically significantly clustered around wild boar cases, the joint spatial distribution of wild boar cases and of outbreaks in domestic pigs in the Tver region may be explained by regular spillovers from the domestic pig to the wild boar population. These findings confirm the need to maintain high biosecurity standards on pig farms and justify strict control measures targeted at domestic pig production such as culling of infected herds and local movement restrictions.

  15. Study on Hepatocyte Apoptosis of Domestic Pigs Experimentally Infected with Taenia asiatica and Taenia saginata%亚洲带绦虫和牛带绦虫实验感染乳猪后肝脏细胞凋亡的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牟荣; 包怀恩; 张科; 吴家红; 郎书源

    2012-01-01

    目的 观察亚洲带绦虫和牛带绦虫实验感染乳猪后不同时间囊尾蚴寄生处肝组织细胞凋亡的情况. 方法 分别驱虫获取贵州省都匀市和从江县的人源亚洲带绦虫和牛带绦虫,收集虫卵.20日龄三元杂交乳猪(Duroc-Yorkshire-Landrace株)19头,随机分为亚洲带绦虫实验组6头、牛带绦虫实验组8头和对照组5头,两实验组以定量虫卵15万个/头灌胃感染.于感染后第15、32、46和74天处死,取两实验组囊尾蚴寄生处的肝组织和对照组肝组织,常规病理切片,苏木素-伊红(HE)染色法观察组织病理变化,原位末端标记法(TUNEL法)检测肝细胞凋亡指数,透射电子显微镜观察凋亡细胞形态.结果两实验组乳猪的感染率均为100%,亚洲带绦虫实验组较牛带绦虫实验组肝脏上的囊尾蚴数量多且发育较好.HE染色结果显示,两实验组均出现相似的肝脏组织病理学改变,感染后第15和32天,肝细胞水肿,胞浆疏松化,甚至气球样变,并可见肝细胞点片状坏死,感染后第46天,部分肝细胞呈小灶性坏死,感染后第74天,以肉芽肿形成和局部性肝纤维化为特征.TUNEL结果显示,感染后第46和74天,亚洲带绦虫实验组[(15.07±3.42)%和(27.33±0.92)%]和牛带绦虫实验组肝组织细胞的凋亡指数[(17.13±1.62)%和(34.20±0.73)%]均明显高于对照组[(9.53±1.06)%和(13.60±2.26)%](P<0.05),且牛带绦虫实验组均高于亚洲带绦虫实验组(P<0.05).透射电子显微镜观察发现,两实验组肝组织内均可见明显的肝实质细胞凋亡的形态特征,表现为细胞核体积缩小且皱缩变形,染色质凝结成块并聚集于胞核边缘,并可见典型的凋亡小体.结论 2种带绦虫囊尾蚴感染乳猪后中、晚期均可诱导明显的肝组织细胞凋亡.%Objective To investigate apoptosis in liver tissue of the domestic pigs infected with eggs of Taerda asiatica and Taenia saginata. Methods The adult worms of T

  16. The Evolutionary Origin and Genetic Makeup of Domestic Horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Librado, Pablo; Fages, Antoine; Gaunitz, Charleen; Leonardi, Michela; Wagner, Stefanie; Khan, Naveed; Hanghøj, Kristian; Alquraishi, Saleh A; Alfarhan, Ahmed H; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A; Der Sarkissian, Clio; Schubert, Mikkel; Orlando, Ludovic

    2016-10-01

    The horse was domesticated only 5.5 KYA, thousands of years after dogs, cattle, pigs, sheep, and goats. The horse nonetheless represents the domestic animal that most impacted human history; providing us with rapid transportation, which has considerably changed the speed and magnitude of the circulation of goods and people, as well as their cultures and diseases. By revolutionizing warfare and agriculture, horses also deeply influenced the politico-economic trajectory of human societies. Reciprocally, human activities have circled back on the recent evolution of the horse, by creating hundreds of domestic breeds through selective programs, while leading all wild populations to near extinction. Despite being tightly associated with humans, several aspects in the evolution of the domestic horse remain controversial. Here, we review recent advances in comparative genomics and paleogenomics that helped advance our understanding of the genetic foundation of domestic horses.

  17. Pig Production in Tanzania: a Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson, RT.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tanzania's 1.58 million pigs represent 3.7 per cent of the national population of quadruped meat-producing animals. Some 99.5 per cent of pigs are kept by small producers in units averaging 3.04 animals (range 2-48. About 18 per cent of households with livestock own pigs, 93.7 per cent of these having a herd of less than 19 and 69.2 per cent own 9 or fewer head. Scavenging is the main feed source. Maize bran is the principle supplement but some owners provide oilseed cakes and minerals. Domestic pigs are not indigenous to Tanzania and derive mainly from late 19th/early 20th century introductions. There have been few imports of breeding stock since 1961. Poor management, in-breeding, inadequate nutrition and rudimentary veterinary attention lead to low output from late ages at first farrowing, long inter-birth intervals, small litters, slow growth and high mortality. Government policy is not applied in practice. Animals are slaughtered in primitive private facilities or household compounds with little concern for welfare or hygiene, often with no official inspection. Pigs can make a greater contribution to society but public and private sectors must provide additional support with particular attention to management, nutrition, health, welfare and food safety to achieve this.

  18. Injuries caused by pigs in Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barss, P; Ennis, S

    Pigs are intelligent animals that can be formidable adversaries to humans because of their sharp tusks and their ability to attack swiftly. Domestic and feral pigs have an important role in the ecology of village life in Melanesia. A six-year review of all injuries that were caused by pigs that were referred from the villages in Milne Bay Province, Papua New Guinea, to the Provincial Hospital was completed. Some of the injuries that were seen among the 20 patients who were studied included: three penetrating abdominal injuries with prolapse and strangulation of the intestine; a "sucking" chest wound; bilateral pneumothoraces; two infected open fractures of the radius and the ulna; a perforating injury of the knee with septic arthritis; a hand injury with laceration of multiple tendons; an arterial injury of the wrist; injury of a tibial nerve with foot drop; and a severe scrotal injury with exposure of the testicles. Most injuries resulted from the hunting of feral pigs. Adult male hunters who used dogs and carried only one spear were injured most frequently. Wounds from injuries by pigs are deep, often involve multiple critical structures, and are grossly contaminated. Resuscitation requires the administration of fluid and often blood. Treatment includes irrigation, debridement and closure of the wound. The principles of managing such injuries, the prevention of injuries, the ecology of pigs and humans, human infections originating from pigs, and safer methods of hunting pigs are discussed.

  19. Early Holocene chicken domestication in northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Hai; Gao, Jianqiang; Yu, Baoquan; Zhou, Hui; Cai, Dawei; Zhang, Youwen; Chen, Xiaoyong; Wang, Xi; Hofreiter, Michael; Zhao, Xingbo

    2014-12-01

    Chickens represent by far the most important poultry species, yet the number, locations, and timings of their domestication have remained controversial for more than a century. Here we report ancient mitochondrial DNA sequences from the earliest archaeological chicken bones from China, dating back to ∼ 10,000 B.P. The results clearly show that all investigated bones, including the oldest from the Nanzhuangtou site, are derived from the genus Gallus, rather than any other related genus, such as Phasianus. Our analyses also suggest that northern China represents one region of the earliest chicken domestication, possibly dating as early as 10,000 y B.P. Similar to the evidence from pig domestication, our results suggest that these early domesticated chickens contributed to the gene pool of modern chicken populations. Moreover, our results support the idea that multiple members of the genus Gallus, specifically Gallus gallus and Gallus sonneratii contributed to the gene pool of the modern domestic chicken. Our results provide further support for the growing evidence of an early mixed agricultural complex in northern China.

  20. Updating Taenia asiatica in humans and pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galán-Puchades, M Teresa; Fuentes, Màrius V

    2016-11-01

    An epidemiological study on taeniasis and cysticercosis in northern India has recently updated the epidemiology of Taenia asiatica. Practically, all the detected cases of taeniasis were caused by T. asiatica, cited for the first time in humans in that country. The finding widens the geographical distribution of T. asiatica, a species wrongly considered an exclusive South-Eastern Asian parasite. Due to the introduction of molecular techniques in Taenia diagnosis, the species is slowly showing its true distribution. A human Taenia species with cosmopolitan hosts (the same as the other two Taenia species) but limited to a specific geographical area and not affected by globalisation would certainly be hard to believe. Regarding cysticercosis, there is a remarkable finding concerning T. asiatica pig cysticercosis, specifically the presence of the cysticercus of T. asiatica not only in the liver (its preferential infection site) but also in muscle. This is the first time that the cysticercus of T. asiatica has been found in muscle in a naturally infected pig. This fact is actually relevant since people are at a greater risk of becoming infected by T. asiatica than previously expected since the liver is no longer the only site of pig infection. The Taenia species causing Taenia saginata-like taeniasis around the world, as well as pig and human cysticercosis, should always be molecularly confirmed since T. asiatica could be involved.

  1. Linkage Disequilibrium Decay and Haplotype Block Structure in the Pig

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amaral, A.J.; Megens, H.J.W.C.; Crooijmans, R.P.M.A.; Heuven, H.C.M.; Groenen, M.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Linkage disequilibrium (LD) may reveal much about domestication and breed history. Ail investigation was conducted, to analyze the extent of LD, haploblock partitioning, and haplotype diversity within haploblocks across several pig breeds from China and Europe and in European wild boar. In total, 37

  2. Smallholder pig production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braae, Uffe Christian; Ngowi, Helena; Johansen, Maria Vang

    2013-01-01

    -ranging of pigs and presence of neighbouring pigs were also identified as risk factors for the presence of lice. Three species of fleas were identified; Tunga penetrans, Echidnophaga gallinacea and Ctenocephalides canis. The prevalence of fleas was 5% and 13% within confined and free-range, respectively. Two pigs...

  3. Single nucleotide markers of D-loop for identification of Indian wild pig (Sus scrofa cristatus)

    OpenAIRE

    Gaurav Kumar Srivastava; Nidhi Rajput; Kajal Kumar Jadav; Avadh Bihari Shrivastav; Himanshu R. Joshi

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Partial fragment of D-loop region extending from 35 to 770 were compared with corresponding sequences of 16 wild pigs and 9 domestic pig breeds from different parts of the world for detection of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers in the region. The paper also reappraises SNP markers from two fragments of cytochrome b gene and a fragment 12S rRNA gene distinguishing the Indian wild pig from other pig species of the world. Materials and Methods: Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was is...

  4. Transgenesis for pig models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yum, Soo-Young; Yoon, Ki-Young; Lee, Choong-Il; Lee, Byeong-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Animal models, particularly pigs, have come to play an important role in translational biomedical research. There have been many pig models with genetically modifications via somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). However, because most transgenic pigs have been produced by random integration to date, the necessity for more exact gene-mutated models using recombinase based conditional gene expression like mice has been raised. Currently, advanced genome-editing technologies enable us to generate specific gene-deleted and -inserted pig models. In the future, the development of pig models with gene editing technologies could be a valuable resource for biomedical research. PMID:27030199

  5. Implantable microchip transponders for body temperature measurements in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lohse, Louise; Uttenthal, Åse; Enøe, Claes

    thermometer. This work, however, can be quite time consuming and laborious, and further compromising the immediate well-fare of the pig, when restraining of the individual animal is necessary. Therefore, an electronic body monitoring system using implantable microchip transponders for measuring peripheral...... body temperature was tested, in order to evaluate the utility and reliability of this tool, in domestic pigs. The system is presently used and well optimized in small laboratory animals [1, 2]. We tested the microchip transponders during experimental infection of pigs with classical swine fever virus...... microchip transponder was injected deep subcutaneously by the left ear base of each individual. The transponder was before insertion programmed with ID identical to the individual pig’s ear tag number. The pigs were randomly divided into 3 groups: one group placebo-infected and two groups virus...

  6. Developing implantable neuroprosthetics: a new model in pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borton, David; Yin, Ming; Aceros, Juan; Agha, Naubahar; Minxha, Juri; Komar, Jacob; Patterson, William; Bull, Christopher; Nurmikko, Arto

    2011-01-01

    A new model has been established in the domestic pig for neural prosthetic device development and testing. To this end, we report on a complete neural prosthetic developmental system using a wireless sensor as the implant, a pig as the animal model, and a novel data acquisition paradigm for actuator control. A new type of stereotactic frame with clinically-inspired fixations pins that place the pig brain in standard surgical plane was developed and tested with success during the implantation of the microsystem. The microsystem implanted was an ultra-low power (12.5 mW) 16-channel intracortical/epicranial device transmitting broadband (40 kS/s) data over a wireless infrared telemetric link. Pigs were implanted and neural data was collected over a period of 5 weeks, clearly showing single unit spiking activity.

  7. Scrolling and Strolling, Asian Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Joan

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a lesson on Asian cultures. Asian cultures demonstrate respect for nature through their art. Students learned how to use Asian brush techniques and designs to create scrolls. They also learned how to write Haiku, a three-line form of poetry that uses a pattern of syllables.

  8. South Asian Diaspora in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    2005-01-01

    and exclusion, individualization and interdependency, these relationships are delineated on the basis of two empirical projects, combined with an array of secondary sources. South Asian youth are becoming a part of the receiving society along with developing their complex diaspora identities through strategies...... societies, South Asian countries and the South Asian diaspora living in Scandinavia....

  9. Age-related Infection with Cryptosporidium Species and Genotype in Pigs in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Jian Hai; YUAN Zhong Ying; CAI Hui Xia; SHEN Yu Juan; JIANG Yan Yan; ZHANG Jing; WANG Yan Juan; CAO Jian Ping

    2013-01-01

    Objective Pigs, as hosts of zoonotic Cryptosporidium species/genotypes, are domestic animals with public health significance. The present study was to characterize the infection rate and species/genotype of Cryptosporidium in pre-weaned and post-weaned pigs from Shanghai and Shaoxing, China. Methods A total of 208 fecal samples (42 from pre-weaned piglets, and 166 from post-weaned pigs) were examined by nested PCR of the 18S rRNA gene and analyzed by phylogenetic DNA fragment sequencing of secondary PCR products. Results Infection was detected in 79 samples (19/42 pre-weaned piglets, and 60/166 post-weaned pigs). C. suis (14/79) and Cryptosporidium pig genotype II (65/79) were identified; piglets were more susceptible to the former (13/14) and post-weaned pigs to the latter (59/65). Conclusion Infection of Cryptosporidium spp. in pigs was age-specific;piglets were more susceptible to C. suis while pigs were more susceptible to Cryptosporidium pig genotype II. These findings combined with the isolation of the two Cryptosporidium from water suggest that pigs may be a source of zoonotic Cryptosporidium water pollution. Improvements in pig feeding practices, sewage discharge, feces disposal and field worker protection are therefore important to prevent potential public health problems.

  10. Germline modification of domestic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, L; González, R; Dobrinski, I

    2015-01-01

    Genetically-modified domestic animal models are of increasing significance in biomedical research and agriculture. As authentic ES cells derived from domestic animals are not yet available, the prevailing approaches for engineering genetic modifications in those animals are pronuclear microinjection and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT, also known as cloning). Both pronuclear microinjection and SCNT are inefficient, costly, and time-consuming. In animals produced by pronuclear microinjection, the exogenous transgene is usually inserted randomly into the genome, which results in highly variable expression patterns and levels in different founders. Therefore, significant efforts are required to generate and screen multiple founders to obtain animals with optimal transgene expression. For SCNT, specific genetic modifications (both gain-of-function and loss-of-function) can be engineered and carefully selected in the somatic cell nucleus before nuclear transfer. SCNT has been used to generate a variety of genetically modified animals such as goats, pigs, sheep and cattle; however, animals resulting from SCNT frequently suffer from developmental abnormalities associated with incomplete nuclear reprogramming. Other strategies to generate genetically-modified animals rely on the use of the spermatozoon as a natural vector to introduce genetic material into the female gamete. This sperm mediated DNA transfer (SMGT) combined with intracytoplasmatic sperm injection (ICSI) has relatively high efficiency and allows the insertion of large DNA fragments, which, in turn, enhance proper gene expression. An approach currently being developed to complement SCNT for producing genetically modified animals is germ cell transplantation using genetically modified male germline stem cells (GSCs). This approach relies on the ability of GSCs that are genetically modified in vitro to colonize the recipient testis and produce donor derived sperm upon transplantation. As the genetic change

  11. The Complex History of the Domestication of Rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Megan; McCouch, Susan

    2007-01-01

    Background Rice has been found in archaeological sites dating to 8000 bc, although the date of rice domestication is a matter of continuing debate. Two species of domesticated rice, Oryza sativa (Asian) and Oryza glaberrima (African) are grown globally. Numerous traits separate wild and domesticated rices including changes in: pericarp colour, dormancy, shattering, panicle architecture, tiller number, mating type and number and size of seeds. Scope Genetic studies using diverse methodologies have uncovered a deep population structure within domesticated rice. Two main groups, the indica and japonica subspecies, have been identified with several subpopulations existing within each group. The antiquity of the divide has been estimated at more than 100 000 years ago. This date far precedes domestication, supporting independent domestications of indica and japonica from pre-differentiated pools of the wild ancestor. Crosses between subspecies display sterility and segregate for domestication traits, indicating that different populations are fixed for different networks of alleles conditioning these traits. Numerous domestication QTLs have been identified in crosses between the subspecies and in crosses between wild and domesticated accessions of rice. Many of the QTLs cluster in the same genomic regions, suggesting that a single gene with pleiotropic effects or that closely linked clusters of genes underlie these QTL. Recently, several domestication loci have been cloned from rice, including the gene controlling pericarp colour and two loci for shattering. The distribution and evolutionary history of these genes gives insight into the domestication process and the relationship between the subspecies. Conclusions The evolutionary history of rice is complex, but recent work has shed light on the genetics of the transition from wild (O. rufipogon and O. nivara) to domesticated (O. sativa) rice. The types of genes involved and the geographic and genetic distribution of

  12. HIV Among Asians

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention VIH En Español Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... Email Updates on HIV Syndicated Content Website Feedback HIV Among Asians Format: Select One File [143K] Recommend ...

  13. Malaysian Cinema, Asian Film

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heide, van der William

    2002-01-01

    This title series departs from traditional studies of national cinema by accentuating the intercultural and intertextual links between Malaysian films and Asian (as well as European and American) film practices. Using cross-cultural analysis, the author characterizes Malaysia as a pluralist society

  14. A New Asian Alliance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The inauguration of the China-ASEAN Free Trade Area caps 10 years of fruitful efforts It was not only the birth of a new decade. January 1 also witnessed a day of celebration on the mainland and beyond after Beijing and its partners in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) fully established the China-ASEAN Free Trade Area (CAFTA).

  15. Asian Yellow Goat Cloned

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ It was released on August 24,2005 by Prof. CHEN Dayuan (Da-Yuan Chen) from the CAS Institute of Zoology that the first success in cloning the Asian Yellow Goat by nuclear transfer had recently been achieved in east China's Shandong Province.

  16. Asian fungal fermented food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nout, M.J.R.; Aidoo, K.E.

    2010-01-01

    In Asian countries, there is a long history of fermentation of foods and beverages. Diverse micro-organisms, including bacteria, yeasts and moulds, are used as starters, and a wide range of ingredients can be made into fermented foods. The main raw materials include cereals, leguminous seeds, vegeta

  17. Articulating Asianness: Young Asian Dutch and non-homeland Asian popular media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.A. Kartosen; E.S.H. Tan

    2013-01-01

    This study explores Asian Dutch young people’s ethnic-cultural identification in relation to their media consumption, and specifically their consumption of popular media from Asian countries other than their country of origin. A survey was conducted among 486 Asian Dutch (18-35 years old). In concur

  18. History of Asian American psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Frederick T L; Okazaki, Sumie

    2009-10-01

    An overview of the history of Asian American psychology is provided by reviewing the context for the development of the field as well as the early founding of the Asian American Psychological Association (AAPA). The presidents of AAPA as well as key events and conferences are noted. The involvement of AAPA leaders in national mental health policies and activities are reviewed. The substantive areas of Asian American psychology and the education and training of Asian American psychologists are also discussed. The article ends with some comments about the future of Asian American psychology.

  19. Vaccination with Trypanosoma rangeli induces resistance of guinea pigs to virulent Trypanosoma cruzi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, B; Moretti, E; Fretes, R

    2014-01-15

    Chagas' disease, endemic in Latin America, is spread in natural environments through animal reservoirs, including marsupials, mice and guinea pigs. Farms breeding guinea pigs for food are located in some Latin-American countries with consequent risk of digestive infection. The aim of this work was to study the effect of vaccination with Trypanosoma rangeli in guinea pigs challenged with Trypanosoma cruzi. Animals were vaccinated with fixated epimastigotes of T. rangeli, emulsified with saponin. Controls received only PBS. Before being challenged with T. cruzi, parasitemia, survival rates and histological studies were performed. The vaccinated guinea pigs revealed significantly lower parasitemia than controls (pguinea pigs and dogs. The development of vaccines for use in animals, like domestic dogs and guinea pigs in captivity, opens up new opportunities for preventive tools, and could reduce the risk of infection with T. cruzi in the community.

  20. Genome-wide patterns of nucleotide polymorphism in domesticated rice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caicedo, Ana L; Williamson, Scott H; Hernandez, Ryan D

    2007-01-01

    Domesticated Asian rice (Oryza sativa) is one of the oldest domesticated crop species in the world, having fed more people than any other plant in human history. We report the patterns of DNA sequence variation in rice and its wild ancestor, O. rufipogon, across 111 randomly chosen gene fragments......, and use these to infer the evolutionary dynamics that led to the origins of rice. There is a genome-wide excess of high-frequency derived single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in O. sativa varieties, a pattern that has not been reported for other crop species. We developed several alternative models...... explanations for patterns of variation in domesticated rice varieties. If selective sweeps are indeed the explanation for the observed nucleotide data of domesticated rice, it suggests that strong selection can leave its imprint on genome-wide polymorphism patterns, contrary to expectations that selection...

  1. Pig model for diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention relates to a transgenic pig comprising a mutated IAPP gene and displaying a phenotype associated with diabetes. The invention also relates to a transgenic blastocyst, embryo, fetus, donor cell and/or cell nucleusderived from said transgenic pig. The invention further relates...... to use of the transgenic pig as a model system for studying therapy, treatment and/or prevention of diabetes....

  2. De-domestication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamborg, Christian; Gemmen, Bart; Christiansen, Stine Billeschou;

    2010-01-01

    De-domestication is the deliberate establishment of a population of domesticated animals or plants in the wild. In time, the population should be able to reproduce, becoming self-sustainable and incorporating 'wild' animals. Often de-domestication is part of a larger nature restoration scheme......, aimed at creating landscapes anew, or re-creating former habitats. De-domestication is taken up in this paper because it both engages and raises questions about the major norms governing animals and nature. The debate here concerns whether animals undergoing de-domestication should be looked upon...... as wild or non-wild and the effect this has on questions about how they should be treated. It also concerns the value of nature, and the kind and degree of nature management considered appropriate. The paper first describes actual de-domestication practices and considers the character of human duties...

  3. Genetic divergence between Cyprinus carpio carpio and Cyprinus carpio haematopterus as assessed by mitochondrial DNA analysis, with emphasis on origin of European domestic carp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jian Feng; Wu, Qing Jiang; Ye, Yu Zhen; Tong, Jin Gou

    2003-09-01

    Although common carp is the major fish species in Asian and European aquaculture and many domestic varieties have occurred, there is a controversy about the origination of European domestic common carp. Some scientists affirmed that the ancestor of European domestic common carp was Danube River wild common carp, but others considered it might be Asian common carp. For elucidating origination of European domestic common carp, we chose two representative European domestic common carp strains (German mirror carp and Russian scattered scaled mirror carp) and one wild common carp strain of Cyprinus carpio carpio subspecies (Volga River wild common carp) and two Asian common carp strains, the Yangtze River wild common carp (Cyprinus carpio haematopterus) and traditionally domestic Xingguo red common carp, as experimental materials. ND5-ND6 and D-loop segments of mitochondrial DNA were amplified by polymerase chain reaction and analyzed through restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and sequencing respectively. The results revealed that HaeIII and DdeI digestion patterns of ND5-ND6 segment and sequences of control region were different between European subspecies C. carpio carpio and Asian subspecies C. carpio haematopterus. Phylogenetic analysis showed that German mirror carp and Russian scattered scaled mirror carp belonged to two subspecies, C. carpio carpio and C. carpio haematopterus, respectively. Therefore, there were different ancestors for domestic carp in Europe: German mirror carp was domesticated from European subspecies C. carpio carpio and Russian scattered scaled mirror carp originated from Asian subspecies C. carpio haematopterus.

  4. Domestic violence against children

    OpenAIRE

    Mihić Biljana D.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper the author is analysing definitions and basic notions related to domestic violence against children, as one of the most serious forms of violence. The special chapter deals with effects of violence against children and causes of domestic violence against them. Also, the author is analysing different forms of social reaction and considering the problem of legal regulation of mandatory reporting domestic violence against children.

  5. δ18O values of Sus scrofa blood water and bone phosphate; a marked discrepancy between domestic and wild specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longinelli, Antonio; Selmo, Enrico

    2011-12-30

    δ¹⁸O analyses of water in the blood of domestic and wild pigs indicated that large isotopic differences exist between domestic and wild specimens of the same species (Sus scrofa) living in the same area. Similar isotopic differences are found between the δ¹⁸O(PO₄³⁻) values of bones from the two groups of animals. When δ¹⁸O values obtained from recent wild boar bones are introduced in the equation of the isotopic scale determined for domestic pigs, totally unreliable δ¹⁸O values of local meteoric water are obtained. The δ¹⁸O(PO₄³⁻) values measured in three groups of modern wild boar specimens allow the calculation of a first approximate equation which is quite different from that of domestic pigs. This isotopic scale should be accurately re-calibrated for wild animals.

  6. Identification of genome-wide copy number variations among diverse pig breeds by array CGH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies have shown that copy number variation (CNV in mammalian genomes contributes to phenotypic diversity, including health and disease status. In domestic pigs, CNV has been catalogued by several reports, but the extent of CNV and the phenotypic effects are far from clear. The goal of this study was to identify CNV regions (CNVRs in pigs based on array comparative genome hybridization (aCGH. Results Here a custom-made tiling oligo-nucleotide array was used with a median probe spacing of 2506 bp for screening 12 pigs including 3 Chinese native pigs (one Chinese Erhualian, one Tongcheng and one Yangxin pig, 5 European pigs (one Large White, one Pietrain, one White Duroc and two Landrace pigs, 2 synthetic pigs (Chinese new line DIV pigs and 2 crossbred pigs (Landrace × DIV pigs with a Duroc pig as the reference. Two hundred and fifty-nine CNVRs across chromosomes 1–18 and X were identified, with an average size of 65.07 kb and a median size of 98.74 kb, covering 16.85 Mb or 0.74% of the whole genome. Concerning copy number status, 93 (35.91% CNVRs were called as gains, 140 (54.05% were called as losses and the remaining 26 (10.04% were called as both gains and losses. Of all detected CNVRs, 171 (66.02% and 34 (13.13% CNVRs directly overlapped with Sus scrofa duplicated sequences and pig QTLs, respectively. The CNVRs encompassed 372 full length Ensembl transcripts. Two CNVRs identified by aCGH were validated using real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR. Conclusions Using 720 K array CGH (aCGH we described a map of porcine CNVs which facilitated the identification of structural variations for important phenotypes and the assessment of the genetic diversity of pigs.

  7. Asian Media Productions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This work consists of 12 essays on different aspects of Asian media by Japanese, European, and American scholars, many of whom have themselves been involved in the production of media forms. Working in the fields of anthropology, media and cultural studies, and on the basis of hands-on research, ......, they have written a book on the social practices and cultural attitudes of people producing, reading, watching and listening to different kinds of media in Japan, China, Taiwan, Indonesia, Vietnam, Singapore and India.......This work consists of 12 essays on different aspects of Asian media by Japanese, European, and American scholars, many of whom have themselves been involved in the production of media forms. Working in the fields of anthropology, media and cultural studies, and on the basis of hands-on research...

  8. Mood disorders in Asians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Albert; Chang, Doris

    2014-02-01

    Mood disorders are disorders that have a disturbance in mood as the predominant feature. They are common psychiatric disorders and are associated with significant distress and functional impairment. As the theory of mood disorders is based on the philosophy of mind/body dichotomy in the West, it contradicts the holistic tradition of medicine in the East. This may partially explain why many Asians with mood disorders emphasize their physical symptoms in discussions with their treatment providers. In the development of the DSM and ICD diagnostic systems, it is presumed that the diagnostic categories are applicable to all races and ethnicities. Similarly, many consider pharmacological and psychological treatment approaches to mood disorders universally applicable. To effectively treat Asians with mood disorders, clinicians need to customize biological and psychosocial interventions in consideration of patients' potential genetic and cultural differences.

  9. De-domestication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamborg, Christian; Gemmen, Bart; Christiansen, Stine Billeschou

    2010-01-01

    as wild or non-wild and the effect this has on questions about how they should be treated. It also concerns the value of nature, and the kind and degree of nature management considered appropriate. The paper first describes actual de-domestication practices and considers the character of human duties...... to animals in process of de-domestication. Secondly, the paper explores the implications of de-domestication for nature management, focusing on notions of naturalness and wildness. Finally, because the current division of ethical topics, with its dependence upon whether animals and nature are domesticated...

  10. Survey for Cyclospora cayetanensis in domestic animals in an endemic area in Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhard, M L; Nace, E K; Freeman, A R

    1999-06-01

    From January 1997 through July 1998, we examined stool samples from 327 domestic animals, including pigs, cattle, horses, goats, dogs, cats, guinea pigs, chicken, ducks, turkeys, and pigeons in Leogane, Haiti, for the presence of Cyclospora cayetanensis infection. No coccidian oocysts morphologically compatible with C. cayetanensis were detected in any of the animal samples, despite their living in, or near, households with infected individuals. These results suggest that domestic animals are not reservoir hosts for C. cayetanensis and that in this endemic area, humans are the only natural host for this parasite.

  11. Taxonomy Icon Data: pig [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available pig Sus scrofa domestica Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/Artiodactyla Sus_scrofa_domestic...a_L.png Sus_scrofa_domestica_NL.png Sus_scrofa_domestica_S.png Sus_scrofa_domestica_NS.pn...g http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Sus+scrofa+domestica&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Sus+scrofa+domestica&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Sus+scrofa+dom...estica&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Sus+scrofa+domestica&t=

  12. Current Update in Asian Rhinoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clyde H. Ishii, MD, FACS

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: There has been a tremendous growth of cosmetic surgery among Asians worldwide. Rhinoplasty is second only to blepharoplasty in terms of popularity among Asians regarding cosmetic surgical procedures. Most Asians seek to improve their appearance while maintaining the essential features of their ethnicity. There are considerable ethnic nasal and facial variations in this population alone. Successful rhinoplasty in Asians must take into account underlying anatomic differences between Asians and whites. Due to ethnic variations, cultural differences, and occasional language barriers, careful preoperative counseling is necessary to align the patient’s expectations with the limitations of the procedure. This article will review the many facets of Asian rhinoplasty as it is practiced today.

  13. BHA STUDY IN PIGS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Würtzen, G.; Olsen, P.

    1986-01-01

    of the stratified epithelium of the stomach were found in both control and treated pigs. In addition, proliferative and parakeratotic changes of the oesophageal epithelium were observed in a few pigs in the two groups on the highest doses. Papillomas were not found, and no changes of the glandular part...

  14. A Comparative Study of Research Capabilities of East Asian Countries and Implications for Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hien, P. D.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative study of research performance of 11 East and Southeast Asian countries based upon the total number of peer-refereed international publications (PRIP) per one million people (research intensity), the mean citation, and the contribution of domestic authors in PRIP production. Large gaps are observed within the…

  15. Identification of mildew resistance in wild and cultivated Central Asian grape germplasm

    OpenAIRE

    Riaz, Summaira; Boursiquot, Jean-Michel; Dangl, Gerald; Lacombe, Thierry; Laucou, Valerie; Tenscher, Alan C; Walker, M. Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Cultivated grapevines, Vitis vinifera subsp. sativa, evolved from their wild relative, V. vinifera subsp. sylvestris. They were domesticated in Central Asia in the absence of the powdery mildew fungus, Erysiphe necator, which is thought to have originated in North America. However, powdery mildew resistance has previously been discovered in two Central Asian cultivars and in Chinese Vitis species. ...

  16. Domestic violence against men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Christopher F

    This article reviews the literature relating to domestic violence against men and examines some of the reasons why men are reluctant to report violent episodes. The article focuses on men as the victims and women as the perpetrators of domestic violence and identifies gaps in service provision. The role of the nurse in supporting male victims is also discussed.

  17. Asian security 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    A review of the domestic affairs, international relations, foreign policy and military affairs of the region. Contents (partial): Perspectives; Focal points; The United States; The Soviet Union; China; The Korean peninsula; Southeast Asia; The Southwest Pacific; South Asia; Japan; Arms control; Refugees; Chronologies.

  18. EFFECT OF ε-AMINOCAPROIC ACID ON FIBRINOLYSIS IN PLASMA OF ASIAN ELEPHANTS (ELEPHAS MAXIMUS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, Sarrah; Abou-Madi, Noha; Fletcher, Daniel J

    2016-06-01

    ε-Aminocaproic acid (EACA) is a lysine analogue antifibrinolytic drug used to treat bleeding disorders in humans and domestic animals. Use in zoological medicine is rare and dose recommendations are anecdotal, but EACA may be a valuable therapeutic option for bleeding disorders in exotic species, including Asian elephants ( Elephas maximus ). This study used an in vitro model of hyperfibrinolysis and a thromboelastograph-based assay to estimate the therapeutic plasma concentration of EACA in Asian elephants (61.5 μg/ml, 95% CI = 34.6-88.5 μg/ml). Substantial but incomplete inhibition of lysis was seen at relatively low concentrations of EACA (40 μg/ml). Asian elephants appear sensitive to EACA-mediated inhibition of hyperfibrinolysis. Doses published for domestic animals, targeting higher plasma concentrations, may be inappropriate in this species.

  19. Genome data from a sixteenth century pig illuminate modern breed relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Ramírez, Óscar; Burgos-Paz, W; Ballester, Maria; Bianco, E; Olalde, Iñigo; Santpere, Gabriel; Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Pérez-Enciso, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Ancient DNA (aDNA) provides direct evidence of historical events that have modeled the genome of modern individuals. In livestock, resolving the differences between the effects of initial domestication and of subsequent modern breeding is not straight forward without aDNA data. Here, we have obtained shotgun genome sequence data from a sixteenth century pig from Northeastern Spain (Montsoriu castle), the ancient pig was obtained from an extremely well-preserved and diverse assemblage...

  20. Heart Disease and Asians and Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Asian American > Heart Disease Heart Disease and Asians and Pacific Islanders Overall, Asian American ... are less likely than white adults to have heart disease and they are less likely to die from ...

  1. Advances in genetic engineering of domestic animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaohua WANG,Kun ZHANG,Yunping DAI

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Global population will increase to over nine billion by 2050 with the doubling in demand for meat and milk. To overcome this challenge, it is necessary to breed highly efficient and productive livestock. Furthermore, livestock are also excellent models for human diseases and ideal bioreactors to produce pharmaceutical proteins. Thus, genetic engineering of domestic animals presents a critical and valuable tool to address these agricultural and biomedical applications. Overall, genetic engineering has evolved through three stages in history: transgenesis, gene targeting, and gene editing. Since the birth of the first transgenic pig, genetic engineering in livestock has been advancing slowly due to inherent technical limitations. A major breakthrough has been the advent of somatic cell nuclear transfer, which, for the first time, provided the technical ability to produce site-specific genome-modified domestic animals. However, the low efficiency of gene targeting events in somatic cells prohibits its wide use in agricultural and biomedical applications. Recently, rapid progress in tools and methods of genome engineering has been made, allowing genetic editing from mutation of a single base pair to the deletion of entire chromosomes. Here, we review the major advances of genetic engineering in domestic animals with emphasis placed on the introduction of latest designer nucleases.

  2. Mitochondrial DNA diversity of feral pigs from Karukinka Natural Park, Tierra del Fuego Island, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravena, P; Skewes, O; Gouin, N

    2015-04-28

    Control or eradication of exotic species is one of the greatest challenges facing biodiversity and ecosystem conservation. Domestic pigs (Sus scrofa domestica) were released and became feral in the southern region of Chilean Tierra del Fuego Island in the 1900s. Currently, they inhabit part of Karukinka Natural Park, an area of global conservation concern. To gain insight into the control of this invasive species, we analyzed genetic variation in the mitochondrial DNA control region to determine the origin and population subdivision of feral pigs in Tierra del Fuego. Sequences from a sample of 42 feral pigs, 10 domestic pigs from local farms, and references from other countries and commercial breeds revealed 2 highly differentiated populations, 1 in the western and the other in the eastern area of the park, each harboring a different haplotype, suggesting no connectivity between populations. Comparison of these haplotypes with reference sequences from other countries and commercial breeds indicated that feral pigs from Chilean Tierra del Fuego are of European origin, very likely from 2 separate introduction events. The haplotype found in the western feral population was also identified in domestic pigs from a farm. This raises concerns regarding the possible connectivity between stocks from local farms and the wild population. Based on these results, we recommend the development of strategies for controlling the population of this invasive species in Karukinka Natural Park.

  3. South Asian Cluster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionel Sergiu Pirju

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at presenting the South Asian cluster composed of India, Indonesia, Iran and Malaysia, the intercultural values that characterizes it, the supported leadership style and tracing the main macroeconomic considerations which characterizes them. The research is synchronic, analysing the contemporary situation of these countries without reference to their evolution in time, by using the positivist paradigm that explains the reality at one point. It will be analysed the overall cluster with the existing interactions between the countries that composes it, while the article being one of information will avoid building recommendation, or new theories.

  4. Vietnamese Domestic Tourism: An Investigation of Travel Motivations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Jolliffe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article approaches domestic tourism in Vietnam from a native Asian perspective aiming to examine Vietnamese domestic travel motivations. This quantitative study is based on a self-administered questionnaire to survey 230 Vietnamese domestic travellers. Results highlight the significant roles of the employer sponsoring the trip, family, travel promotion, and favourable weather in determining travel, in addition to their motivations to seek time for leisure and recreation. Moreover, the study detected a perception gap between the tourist’s demand and the travel agent’s supply. The behaviour of Vietnamese domestic travellers reflects the characteristics of a transition economy and reveals certain aspects which are also peculiar to other Asian countries. --- Die hier präsentierte quantitative Studie untersucht Reisemotive vietnamesischer InlandstouristInnen mittels eines an 230 ProbandInnen gerichteten Fragebogens. Die Ergebnisse heben neben dem Motiv der Freizeitgestaltung und Erholung die signifikante Rolle der Reisefinanzierung durch Arbeit- geberInnen, der Familie, der Tourismuswerbung sowie der Wetterbedingungen für die Reiseentscheidung hervor. Außerdem ergab die Studie, dass sich die touristischen Motivationen vom Angebot der Reiseagenturen unterscheiden. Die Autorinnen argumentieren, dass das Urlaubsverhalten vietnamesischer InlandstouristInnen Charakteristika eines im wirtschaftlichen Umbruch befindenden Landes widerspiegelt sowie Aspekte aufzeigt, die auch in anderen asiatischen Ländern eine wichtige Rolle spielen.

  5. Electric wiring domestic

    CERN Document Server

    Coker, A J

    1992-01-01

    Electric Wiring: Domestic, Tenth Edition, is a clear and reliable guide to the practical aspects of domestic electric wiring. Intended for electrical contractors, installation engineers, wiremen and students, its aim is to provide essential up to date information on modern methods and materials in a simple, clear, and concise manner. The main changes in this edition are those necessary to bring the work into line with the 16th Edition of the Regulations for Electrical Installations issued by the Institution of Electrical Engineers. The book begins by introducing the basic features of domestic

  6. Trichinella britovi from domestic to wild animals of Sardinia, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandino, E; Goddi, L; Mulas, M; Murgia, M C; Soddu, M; Marucci, G; Pezzotti, P; Cabras, P A; Pozio, E

    2015-09-15

    The zoonotic nematode Trichinella britovi has been documented in animals and/or humans of the Mediterranean islands of Corsica and Sardinia since 2004. From 2005 to 2007 in the Sardinia island, several surveys had shown that T. britovi was circulating among backyard and free-ranging pigs reared in the Orgosolo municipality but all attempts had failed to detect this parasite in wild susceptible animals. The aim of the present work was to investigate the circulation of T. britovi in pigs and wildlife of the Orgosolo municipality, and of surrounding municipalities and provinces in the 2010-2014 slaughtering/hunting seasons. The results show that the T. britovi circulation was still restricted to the Orgosolo municipality with a prevalence of 2.6% in free-ranging pigs and 0.2% in backyard pigs but, for the first time, this parasite was detected also in 0.4% of wild boar, and 27.6% of red foxes. No infection was detected in backyard pigs, wild boar, and red foxes of the other municipalities and provinces. Since 1978, African swine fever is endemic in Sardinia and foci of this virus are still active in the investigated areas favoring cannibalism and, consequently, the T. britovi transmission, due to the high mortality rate caused by this virus. This is the first documented report on the transmission of T. britovi between the domestic and the sylvatic cycle. The health authority of the island must provide a service to dispose animal carcasses and offal, stamping out illegal free-ranging pigs, and train hunters and pig owners to manage waste and by-products according to the EU regulations.

  7. The Asian Newspaper's Reluctant Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lent, John A., Ed.

    This book is composed of 19 articles written by both Asian and American scholars on the history and present conditions of newspapers in 15 Asian nations: China, Hong Kong, Japan, Korea, Taiwan, Australia, Burma, Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore, the Philippines, Thailand, South Vietnam, Ceylon, India, and Pakistan. Two overviews of the Asian…

  8. South Asian Families in Diaspora

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    2008-01-01

      South Asian Family in Diaspora: Retreat from marriage, myth or reality?   This paper proposes to explore the dynamics of close ties in the South Asian families in the Nordic countries, especially Denmark through intimate partnership formation in the context of late modern societal discourse...

  9. Prevalence of African swine fever viral antigens in slaughter pigs at Nalukolongo abattoir, Kampala, Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sajjakambwe,

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The underdevelopment of the African pig industry is widely attributed to African swine fever (ASF. Outbreaks of the disease occur in different parts of Uganda almost annually although cases are rarely confirmed. We conducted an abattoir based survey of ASF associated lymph node lesions to establish the status of the disease in apparently healthy pigs. Highly suspicious lesions were subjected to immunohistochemistry for viral antigen detection. Most lymph nodes with follicular necrosis, parenchymal haemorrhage and lymphoid depletion were positive to ASF antigens. Up to 22 (0.1% of the 258 pigs from which samples were collected were positive to ASF viral antigens. We conclude that domestic pigs in Uganda can act as reservoirs of the disease i.e. sustenance of the disease in pig populations may not be entirely dependent on the sylvatic cycle.

  10. Absorption of the nerve agent VX (O-ethyl-S-[2(di-isopropylamino)ethyl] methyl phosphonothioate) through pig, human and guinea pig skin in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Christopher H; Hattersley, Ian J; Rutter, Stephen J; Chilcott, Robert P

    2006-12-01

    The physico-chemical properties of VX make the skin the most likely route of absorption into the human body. The development of effective medical countermeasures against such percutaneous threat agents relies on the use of appropriate animal models, as the inherent toxicity of nerve agents precludes the use of human volunteers. Previous studies have characterised the mechanism of nerve agent toxicity in rodent models, however, it is generally accepted that one of the most appropriate animal models for human skin absorption is the domestic pig. The purpose of the present study was to measure and compare the skin absorption kinetics of VX in vitro using pig, human and guinea pig skin to highlight any potential species differences in skin permeability. When undiluted VX was applied directly to the skin, the permeability of guinea pig skin was approximately 7-fold greater than human skin. There was no significant difference in the permeability of pig and human skin. When VX diluted with isopropyl alcohol was applied to the skin, the permeability of guinea pig skin was approximately 4-fold greater than human skin. There was no significant difference in the permeability of pig and human skin. From this data it may be inferred that dermatomed, abdominal pig skin is an appropriate model for the human skin absorption of VX.

  11. Exploring the genetic signature of body size in Yucatan miniature pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyeongmin; Song, Ki Duk; Kim, Hyeon Jeong; Park, WonCheoul; Kim, Jaemin; Lee, Taeheon; Shin, Dong-Hyun; Kwak, Woori; Kwon, Young-jun; Sung, Samsun; Moon, Sunjin; Lee, Kyung-Tai; Kim, Namshin; Hong, Joon Ki; Eo, Kyung Yeon; Seo, Kang Seok; Kim, Girak; Park, Sungmoo; Yun, Cheol-Heui; Kim, Hyunil; Choi, Kimyung; Kim, Jiho; Lee, Woon Kyu; Kim, Duk-Kyung; Oh, Jae-Don; Kim, Eui-Soo; Cho, Seoae; Lee, Hak-Kyo; Kim, Tae-Hun; Kim, Heebal

    2015-01-01

    Since being domesticated about 10,000-12,000 years ago, domestic pigs (Sus scrofa domesticus) have been selected for traits of economic importance, in particular large body size. However, Yucatan miniature pigs have been selected for small body size to withstand high temperature environment and for laboratory use. This renders the Yucatan miniature pig a valuable model for understanding the evolution of body size. We investigate the genetic signature for selection of body size in the Yucatan miniature pig. Phylogenetic distance of Yucatan miniature pig was compared to other large swine breeds (Yorkshire, Landrace, Duroc and wild boar). By estimating the XP-EHH statistic using re-sequencing data derived from 70 pigs, we were able to unravel the signatures of selection of body size. We found that both selections at the level of organism, and at the cellular level have occurred. Selection at the higher levels include feed intake, regulation of body weight and increase in mass while selection at the molecular level includes cell cycle and cell proliferation. Positively selected genes probed by XP-EHH may provide insight into the docile character and innate immunity as well as body size of Yucatan miniature pig.

  12. Exploring the genetic signature of body size in Yucatan miniature pig.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeongmin Kim

    Full Text Available Since being domesticated about 10,000-12,000 years ago, domestic pigs (Sus scrofa domesticus have been selected for traits of economic importance, in particular large body size. However, Yucatan miniature pigs have been selected for small body size to withstand high temperature environment and for laboratory use. This renders the Yucatan miniature pig a valuable model for understanding the evolution of body size. We investigate the genetic signature for selection of body size in the Yucatan miniature pig. Phylogenetic distance of Yucatan miniature pig was compared to other large swine breeds (Yorkshire, Landrace, Duroc and wild boar. By estimating the XP-EHH statistic using re-sequencing data derived from 70 pigs, we were able to unravel the signatures of selection of body size. We found that both selections at the level of organism, and at the cellular level have occurred. Selection at the higher levels include feed intake, regulation of body weight and increase in mass while selection at the molecular level includes cell cycle and cell proliferation. Positively selected genes probed by XP-EHH may provide insight into the docile character and innate immunity as well as body size of Yucatan miniature pig.

  13. Domestic Demand Will Work

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    China can invigorate its economy by expanding domestic demand and boosting consumption chinese bankers are preparing to set up finance companies that provide consumer loans in major cities like Beijing and Shanghai.

  14. Generation of germline ablated male pigs by CRISPR/Cas9 editing of the NANOS2 gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ki-Eun; Kaucher, Amy V.; Powell, Anne; Waqas, Muhammad Salman; Sandmaier, Shelley E.S.; Oatley, Melissa J.; Park, Chi-Hun; Tibary, Ahmed; Donovan, David M.; Blomberg, Le Ann; Lillico, Simon G.; Whitelaw, C. Bruce A.; Mileham, Alan; Telugu, Bhanu P.; Oatley, Jon M.

    2017-01-01

    Genome editing tools have revolutionized the generation of genetically modified animals including livestock. In particular, the domestic pig is a proven model of human physiology and an agriculturally important species. In this study, we utilized the CRISPR/Cas9 system to edit the NANOS2 gene in pig embryos to generate offspring with mono-allelic and bi-allelic mutations. We found that NANOS2 knockout pigs phenocopy knockout mice with male specific germline ablation but other aspects of testicular development are normal. Moreover, male pigs with one intact NANOS2 allele and female knockout pigs are fertile. From an agriculture perspective, NANOS2 knockout male pigs are expected to serve as an ideal surrogate for transplantation of donor spermatogonial stem cells to expand the availability of gametes from genetically desirable sires. PMID:28071690

  15. Generation of germline ablated male pigs by CRISPR/Cas9 editing of the NANOS2 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ki-Eun; Kaucher, Amy V; Powell, Anne; Waqas, Muhammad Salman; Sandmaier, Shelley E S; Oatley, Melissa J; Park, Chi-Hun; Tibary, Ahmed; Donovan, David M; Blomberg, Le Ann; Lillico, Simon G; Whitelaw, C Bruce A; Mileham, Alan; Telugu, Bhanu P; Oatley, Jon M

    2017-01-10

    Genome editing tools have revolutionized the generation of genetically modified animals including livestock. In particular, the domestic pig is a proven model of human physiology and an agriculturally important species. In this study, we utilized the CRISPR/Cas9 system to edit the NANOS2 gene in pig embryos to generate offspring with mono-allelic and bi-allelic mutations. We found that NANOS2 knockout pigs phenocopy knockout mice with male specific germline ablation but other aspects of testicular development are normal. Moreover, male pigs with one intact NANOS2 allele and female knockout pigs are fertile. From an agriculture perspective, NANOS2 knockout male pigs are expected to serve as an ideal surrogate for transplantation of donor spermatogonial stem cells to expand the availability of gametes from genetically desirable sires.

  16. Preferred SLA class I/class II haplotype combinations in German Landrace pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimsa, Ulrike; Ho, Chak-Sum; Hammer, Sabine E

    2017-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules are responsible for the antigen presentation to T lymphocytes. High recombination rates in the MHC genes, as observed in humans, are believed to serve the evolutionary goal to achieve a high genetic diversity, allowing for a broad and efficient immune response. In a cohort of 155 pedigreed German Landrace pigs (65 founders and 90 piglets), we found that MHC genes occur in particular class I and class II haplotype combinations. This phenomenon has not been described before, probably because most of the earlier MHC studies in pigs were not pedigree-based. After comparing our data with published genotypes of different European pig breeds and Asian pigs, we hypothesise that the combination of particular but different haplotypes in different geographical regions may have developed under the evolutionary pressure of regionally endemic pathogens. This proposed mechanism ensures an efficient immune response despite low recombination rates.

  17. Family Ambiguity and Domestic Violence in Asia: Concept, Law and Process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohamad, M.; Wieringa, S.E.

    2013-01-01

    This book revisits the issue of Domestic Violence (DV) in Asia by exploring the question of family ambiguity, and interrogating DV’s relationship between concept, law and strategy. Comparative experiences in the Asian context enable an examination of the effectiveness of family regulations and laws

  18. Analysis of mitochondrial DNA indicates that domestic sheep are derived from two different ancestral maternal sources: no evidence for contributions from urial and argali sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiendleder, S; Mainz, K; Plante, Y; Lewalski, H

    1998-01-01

    To investigate the origins and phylogenetic relationships of domestic sheep, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from 243 sheep of five European, one African, and four Asian breeds and several mouflon (Ovis musimon), urial (O. vignei bochariensis), and argali (O. ammon nigrimontana, O. a. collium) were assayed for restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP). Twenty haplotypes were identified which occurred in three major phlogenetic groups: urial/argali, mouflon/domestic, and domestic sheep. From the branches that contain mouflon and domestic sheep, two major domestic sheep lineages are apparent. One lineage, termed European lineage, contains the majority of haplotypes detected among European domestic sheep. These mtDNAs resemble mouflon haplotypes. The other lineage, termed Asian lineage, consists of haplotypes found in central Asian and some European domestic sheep. The mean sequence difference between these two lineages (0.72%) is of similar magnitude as that between two argali subspecies. To accurately estimate sequence differences between the European and Asian mtDNA types, the mitochondrial control region of one animal from each lineage and of one mouflon and urial were completely sequenced. Sequence comparisons show that Asian and European domestic sheep lineages differ by 4.43%. The mouflon sequences diverges from the Asian type by 4.52%, but by only 1.36% from the European type. Our data supports the hypothesis that some modern domestic sheep and European mouflon derive from a common ancestor and provide evidence of an additional wild ancestor, other than the urial and argali groups, which has yet to be identified.

  19. Seroprevalence of Japanese encephalitis virus using competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (C-ELISA in pigs in East Sumba, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annytha Detha

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Japanese Encephalitis (JE, a vector-borne zoonotic viral disease, is mostly prevalent in Asian countries. The objective of this study was to investigate the occurence of JE virus (JEV among pigs in East Sumba, Indonesia. Blood samples (n=52 were randomly collected from 52 apparantly healthy pigs where pig population was high in East Sumba. The samples were subjected for seroprevalence study for the presence of antibodies against JEV using competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (C-ELISA. Results showed that 53% (n=28/52 blood samples from the pigs contained antibodies against JEV. This finding is suggestive that the JEV is circulating among pig population in East Sumba, Indonesia. The data may help in designing control strategies of the JEV in the East Sumba, Indonesia.

  20. Fighting Asian soybean rust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caspar eLangenbach

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Phakopsora pachyrhizi is a biotrophic fungus provoking Asian soybean rust (SBR disease. SBR poses a major threat to global soybean production. Though several resistance genes provided soybean immunity to certain P. pachyrhizi races, the pathogen swiftly overcame this resistance. Therefore, fungicides are the only current means to control SBR. However, insensitivity to fungicides is soaring in P. pachyrhizi and, therefore, alternative measures are needed for SBR control. In this article, we discuss the different approaches for fighting SBR and their potential, disadvantages, and advantages over other measures. These encompass conventional breeding for SBR resistance, transgenic approaches, exploitation of transcription factors, secondary metabolites, and antimicrobial peptides, RNAi/HIGS, and biocontrol strategies. It seems that an integrating approach exploiting different measures is likely to provide the best possible means for the effective control of SBR.

  1. The Confucian Asian cluster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionel Sergiu Pirju

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Confucian Asian cluster consists of China, Hong Kong, Japan, Singapore, South Korea, and Taiwan. Confucian tradition countries were defined by achieving a consistent performance in the global economy, they still representing the major competitors in the EU and North American countries. Their progress is defined by a great national management that was able to influence beneficial management systems applied in organizations, these rules characterized by authority; aims to ensure the confidence in business. This article will present the intercultural values characterizing it, the leadership style and also tracing major macroeconomic considerations. The research is synchronic, analysing the contemporary situation of these countries, and the analysis will be interdisciplinary exploratory, identifying specific regional cultural elements.

  2. Spontaneous reproductive pathology in female guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga-Parga, Tamara; La Perle, Krista M D; Newman, Shelley J

    2016-11-01

    Reproductive pathology of domestic guinea pigs is underreported to date. To provide a comprehensive review of uterine disease in guinea pigs, we performed a retrospective study of the pathology archives of the University of Tennessee, College of Veterinary Medicine. By histology, 13 of 37 uterine lesions in 23 animals were neoplastic; the other 24 nonneoplastic lesions included cystic endometrial hyperplasia (16 of 24), endometrial hemorrhage (3 of 24), pyometra (2 of 24), polyp (2 of 24), and mucometra (1 of 24). The most common guinea pig uterine neoplasms were uterine leiomyomas (6 of 13), followed by adenomas (3 of 13) and leiomyosarcomas (1 of 13). Other neoplasms included anaplastic tumors of unknown origin (2 of 13) and choriocarcinoma (1 of 13). Both anaplastic tumors and the choriocarcinoma were positive for vimentin. The choriocarcinoma was positive for HSD83B1, indicating a trophoblastic origin and its final diagnosis. All were negative for cytokeratin and smooth muscle. In multiple animals, more than 1 tumor or lesion was reported. Estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor expression was nearly 100% in uterine neoplasms. Nearly all animals for which data were available had cystic rete ovarii (18 of 19); the animal with no cystic rete ovarii had paraovarian cysts. In our study, female pet guinea pigs had a tendency to develop cystic endometrial hyperplasia and uterine neoplasia. Factors for the development of these lesions could be cystic rete ovarii, hormone dysregulation, and/or age. Other factors could contribute to the development of uterine lesions. As in other species, early ovariohysterectomy could decrease the prevalence of uterine lesions.

  3. Racism and Asian American Student Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jennifer Y.

    2014-01-01

    This article provides a theoretical analysis and ethnographic account of Asian American student leadership in higher education. Existing literature highlights Asian and Asian American leadership styles as cultural differences. I shift the analysis from culture to racism in order to work toward a more socially just conception of Asian American…

  4. The effect of high-fat diet on the composition of the gut microbiota in cloned and non-cloned pigs of lean and obese phenotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rebecca; Andersen, Anders Daniel; Hermann-Bank, Marie Louise

    2013-01-01

    overall composition of their gut microbiota. The colon of lean cloned pigs contained relatively more bacteria belonging to the phylum Firmicutes and less from the phylum Bacteroidetes than obese cloned pigs as estimated by qPCR. Fluidigm qPCR results revealed differences in specific bacterial groups......The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of high-far-high-energy diet on cloned and non-cloned domestic pigs of both lean and obese phenotype and to evaluate if the lean cloned pigs had a lower inter-individual variation as compared with non-cloned pigs. The microbiota of colon...... and terminal ileum was investigated in cloned and non-cloned pigs that received a high-far-high-energy diet with either restricted or ad libitum access to feed, resulting in lean and obese phenotypes, respectively. The fecal microbiota of lean pigs was investigated by terminal restriction fragment length...

  5. Fostering the Asian Bond Market:Challenges and Options Faced by China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HongChen

    2004-01-01

    Underdevelopment of bond markets is one of the factors contributing to the vulnerability of financial systems in Asian countries. Due to over-reliance on bank loans, it has not been possible for savings in Asia to be invested directly in enterprises rather than being funneled to international financial centers in theU.S, and Europe and then back to Asia. When there is a crisis, enterprises and financial institutions are faced with both “mismatch in maturity of loans” and “mismatch in currency denomination” in their funding positions. The risks inherent in the dual mismatches are sources offinancial instability in Asia. Therefore there has been a consensus among major Asian countries to foster Asian bond markets in order to reduce these risks. For China, developing its domestic bond market has become an important part of effort to participate in fostering Asian bond markets. Based on proposals and recent development of Asian bond markets, this paper discusses the problems and challenges faced by China in developing domestic bond markets.

  6. Domestic violence in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bash, K L; Jones, F

    1994-09-01

    Domestic violence is an underrecognized problem of immense cost. It is a crime; its victims must be identified and protected. The medical and judicial communities share responsibility in addressing this issue and providing support for victims. The role of health care workers in recognizing and preventing domestic violence cannot be overestimated. Direct questioning of patients, especially about the source of any injuries and about safety at home, is the first step in uncovering abuse. Educational programs for health care providers and the general public can change society's view and tolerance of this problem. Physicians must take an active role in changing community attitudes about domestic violence and in instituting programs to reduce its incidence. Medical treatment of the injuries resulting from domestic violence is not sufficient. Abused women need the care of a team of professionals who can address psychological, emotional, and physical injuries. They must also be provided with safe housing and financial and legal assistance in order to escape the abusive relationship. Physicians and legislators must work together to effect change. Domestic violence is a public health menace. We need to break the cycle of abuse that has become an integral part of our society.

  7. Prevalence of infection with Toxoplasma gondii in landrace and mixed breed pigs slaughtered in Baja California Sur State, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Vazquez-Morales, Renata Fabiola; Colado-Romero, Edgar Eusebio; Guzmán-Sánchez, Ramiro; Liesenfeld, Oliver; Dubey, Jitender P

    2015-03-01

    We performed a cross-sectional study to determine the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in 308 domestic pigs slaughtered in La Paz, Baja California Sur State, Mexico using the modified agglutination test (MAT, cut off 1:25). Forty (13%) of the 308 pigs were seropositive with MAT titers of 1:25 in 16, 1:50 in 5, 1:100 in 4, 1:200 in 5, 1:400 in 3, 1:800 in 3, 1:1600 in 2, and 1:3200 in 2. Multivariate analysis of pigs' characteristics showed that seropositivity to T. gondii was negatively associated with mixed breed (OR = 0.02; 95% CI: 0.003-0.26; P = 0.001). Other variables including sex, type of raising, and municipality did not show an association with T. gondii seropositivity by multivariate analysis. The frequency of high antibody titers (≥1:400) was significantly higher (P Landrace pigs than mixed breed pigs. The seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in pigs for slaughter in Baja California Sur State is low compared with seroprevalences reported in pigs in other Mexican states. Landrace pigs demonstrated higher seroprevalence rates and antibody levels than mixed breed pigs. This is the first report of T. gondii infection in pigs raised in a desert climate.

  8. Job satisfaction of Asian Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, C N; Hinson, S

    2000-04-01

    Since Asian Americans have demographic and labor force characteristics more similar to Euro-Americans than African Americans, one might predict that their job satisfaction would be more like the former than the latter. And, because Asian Americans originating from different countries are heterogeneous in language, culture, and recency of immigration, one might predict that they may report obtaining different amounts of satisfaction from their jobs. However, data from 21 nationally representative opinion surveys from 1972 through 1996 suggest the opposite. Asian Americans (n = 199) reported job satisfaction more like African Americans (n = 1,231) than Euro-Americans (n = 10,709), and Asian Americans from China (n = 53), Japan (n = 44), India (n = 55), and the Philippines (n = 47) reported similar job satisfaction. These differences persisted when age, education, occupation, and personal income were held constant.

  9. Osteoporosis and Asian American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... not supported by your browser. Home Osteoporosis Women Osteoporosis and Asian American Women Publication available in: PDF ( ... Are Available? Resources For Your Information What Is Osteoporosis? Osteoporosis is a condition in which the bones ...

  10. Japanese domesticated chickens have been derived from Shamo traditional fighting cocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komiyama, Tomoyoshi; Ikeo, Kazuho; Tateno, Yoshio; Gojobori, Takashi

    2004-10-01

    With the aim of elucidating the evolutionary origin of Japanese domesticated chickens, this study evolutionarily analyzed 85 chicken mtDNA sequences. Thirty-four various ornamental chickens, 42 fighting cocks (Shamo), and nine long-crowing chickens (Naganakidori) were included. Of the Shamo, 18 were sampled from Okinawa, while the remaining 24 were collected in other islands around Japan. In addition, three Southeast Asian Junglefowls were used as a reference to determine the common ancestor of Japanese domesticated chickens. A phylogenetic tree was constructed for the 88 mtDNA sequences revealing that the Shamo group from Okinawa clearly diverged from the other Japanese domesticated chickens studied. This strongly suggests that all Japanese domesticated chickens, including the ornamental varieties and Naganakidori, derived from the ancestors of the Shamo in Okinawa. To create novel varieties of ornamental chickens, intensive artificial selection is imposed on ancestral Shamo populations, resulting in profoundly differentiated Japanese domesticated chickens.

  11. Evolution History and Development Trend of Industrialized Live Pig Breeding Model in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhongming; SHEN

    2013-01-01

    Tremendous achievements of live pig industry in China are closely related to the industrialization of the industry,and development trend of the latter is essential for maintaining sustained and stable development of animal husbandry.The paper,on the basis of defining the evolution of industrialized live pig breeding model,elaborated the industrialized operation models of live pig industry in China since 1978,i.e.household operation,large-scale operation,and industrialized operation.The external environment for the development of live pig industry was analyzed,such as global economic competition,development of experience economy,and stronger green consciousness of consumers.Then development trend of industrialized live pig breeding was analyzed as"expanding international market,consolidating domestic market,integrating resources of live pig industry for the integrated operation,promoting the industrialization model and breeding technology driven by live pig processing,applying animal welfare and the internet of things in live pig breeding industry".

  12. Heat stress in growing pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Huynh Thi Thanh Thuy

    2005-01-01

    Compared to other species of farm animals, pigs are more sensitive to high environmental temperatures, because they cannot sweat and do not pant so well. Furthermore, fast-growing lean pigs generate more heat than their congeners living in the wild. This, in combination with confined housing, makes it difficult for these pigs to regulate their heat balance. Heat stressed pigs have low performance, poor welfare, and, by pen fouling, they give higher emissions of odour and ammonia.Above certain...

  13. Bounds for Asian basket options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deelstra, Griselda; Diallo, Ibrahima; Vanmaele, Michèle

    2008-09-01

    In this paper we propose pricing bounds for European-style discrete arithmetic Asian basket options in a Black and Scholes framework. We start from methods used for basket options and Asian options. First, we use the general approach for deriving upper and lower bounds for stop-loss premia of sums of non-independent random variables as in Kaas et al. [Upper and lower bounds for sums of random variables, Insurance Math. Econom. 27 (2000) 151-168] or Dhaene et al. [The concept of comonotonicity in actuarial science and finance: theory, Insurance Math. Econom. 31(1) (2002) 3-33]. We generalize the methods in Deelstra et al. [Pricing of arithmetic basket options by conditioning, Insurance Math. Econom. 34 (2004) 55-57] and Vanmaele et al. [Bounds for the price of discrete sampled arithmetic Asian options, J. Comput. Appl. Math. 185(1) (2006) 51-90]. Afterwards we show how to derive an analytical closed-form expression for a lower bound in the non-comonotonic case. Finally, we derive upper bounds for Asian basket options by applying techniques as in Thompson [Fast narrow bounds on the value of Asian options, Working Paper, University of Cambridge, 1999] and Lord [Partially exact and bounded approximations for arithmetic Asian options, J. Comput. Finance 10 (2) (2006) 1-52]. Numerical results are included and on the basis of our numerical tests, we explain which method we recommend depending on moneyness and time-to-maturity.

  14. Domestication genomics: evidence from animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guo-Dong; Xie, Hai-Bing; Peng, Min-Sheng; Irwin, David; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2014-02-01

    Animal domestication has far-reaching significance for human society. The sequenced genomes of domesticated animals provide critical resources for understanding the genetic basis of domestication. Various genomic analyses have shed a new light on the mechanism of artificial selection and have allowed the mapping of genes involved in important domestication traits. Here, we summarize the published genomes of domesticated animals that have been generated over the past decade, as well as their origins, from a phylogenomic point of view. This review provides a general description of the genomic features encountered under a two-stage domestication process. We also introduce recent findings for domestication traits based on results from genome-wide association studies and selective-sweep scans for artificially selected genomic regions. Particular attention is paid to issues relating to the costs of domestication and the convergent evolution of genes between domesticated animals and humans.

  15. Chlamydiaceae infections in pig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schautteet Katelijn

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Chlamydiaceae are Gram-negative obligate intracellular bacteria. They are responsible for a broad range of diseases in animals and humans. In pigs, Chlamydia suis, Chlamydia abortus, Chlamydia pecorum and Chlamydia psittaci have been isolated. Chlamydiaceae infections in pigs are associated with different pathologies such as conjunctivitis, pneumonia, pericarditis, polyarthritis, polyserositis, pseudo-membranous or necrotizing enteritis, periparturient dysgalactiae syndrome, vaginal discharge, return to oestrus, abortion, mummification, delivery of weak piglets, increased perinatal and neonatal mortality and inferior semen quality, orchitis, epididymitis and urethritis in boars. However, Chlamydiaceae are still considered as non-important pathogens because reports of porcine chlamydiosis are rare. Furthermore, Chlamydiaceae infections are often unnoticed because tests for Chlamydiaceae are not routinely performed in all veterinary diagnostic laboratories and Chlamydiaceae are often found in association with other pathogens, which are sometimes more easily to detect. However, recent studies have demonstrated that Chlamydiaceae infections in breeding sows, boars and piglets occur more often than thought and are economically important. This paper presents an overview on: the taxonomy of Chlamydiaceae occurring in pigs, diagnostic considerations, epidemiology and pathology of infections with Chlamydiaceae in pigs, public health significance and finally on prevention and treatment of Chlamydiaceae infections in pigs.

  16. Pathogenesis of avian influenza A (H5N1) viruses in pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background. Genetic reassortment of avian influenza H5N1 viruses with currently circulating human influenza A strains is one possibility that could lead to efficient human-to-human transmissibility. Domestic pigs which are susceptible to infection with both human and avian influenza A viruses are o...

  17. A survey for potentially zoonotic gastrointestinal parasites of dogs and pigs in Cambodia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Inpankaew, Tawin; Murrell, Kenneth Darwin; Pinyopanuwat, Nongnuch;

    2015-01-01

    There is little information available on parasites of zoonotic significance in Cambodia. In 2011, in an effort to obtain data on potentially zoonotic gastrointestinal parasites in domestic animals, 50 dogs and 30 pigs residing in 38 households located in Ang Svay Check village, Takeo province, Ca...

  18. Occurrence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in pigs on Prince Edward Island, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budu-Amoako, Ebo; Greenwood, Spencer J; Dixon, Brent R; Barkema, Herman W; Hurnik, Daniel; Estey, Chelsie; McClure, J T

    2012-02-28

    In a cross-sectional study of 633 pigs from 21 herds on Prince Edward Island, Canada (PEI), the prevalence of infection with Cryptosporidium and Giardia, and the genotypes and species of isolates were determined in order to establish the zoonotic potential of pigs in this region. As determined by direct immunofluorescence microscopy (DFA), 18 herds (86%) and 163 animals (26%; 95% CI: 22-29%) tested positive for Cryptosporidium, while just 3 herds (14%) and 6 animals (1%; 95% CI: 0.4-2%) tested positive for Giardia. Cryptosporidium spp. isolates were detected in 39% (95% CI: 34-44%) of weanlings (1-3 months of age) and 9% (95% CI: 6-13) of sows (>8months of age). Molecular characterization using the 18S rDNA and HSP70 gene fragments revealed the presence of Cryptosporidium sp. pig genotype II, C. suis, C. parvum, and Cryptosporidium sp. mouse genotype. Among the 113 isolates of Cryptosporidium spp. successfully genotyped, pig genotype II (61%) predominated, with C. suis (36%) being the next most prominant isolate. C. parvum (2%; two isolates) and Cryptosporidium sp. mouse genotype (0.9%; one isolate) were only occasionally isolated. The only two Cryptosporidium-positive genotyped isolates from sows included one each of C. suis and Cryptosporidium sp. pig genotype II. All but one of the six Giardia positive isolates were detected in weanling pigs. None of the Giardia-positive isolates was amenable to PCR. This study demonstrates that Cryptosporidium spp. are highly prevalent in pigs on PEI, Canada, are found mostly in weanlings (1-3 months of age). Furthermore, the pigs are primarily infected by the host-specific genotypes and species, Cryptosporidium sp. pig genotype II and C. suis, whereas the zoonotic C. parvum is rare. Giardia duodenalis is only occasionally found in pigs. These findings suggest that domestic pigs on PEI, Canada, likely do not pose a significant health risk to humans from these parasites.

  19. The first report of Trichinella pseudospiralis presence in domestic swine and T. britovi in wild boar in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santrac, Violeta; Nedic, Drago N; Maric, Jelena; Nikolic, Sonja; Stevanovic, Oliver; Vasilev, Sasa; Cvetkovic, Jelena; Sofronic-Milosavljevic, Ljiljana

    2015-09-01

    The Balkans is endemic for nematodes of the genus Trichinella in both domestic and wild animals. The high prevalence of these zoonotic pathogens in animals linked with the food habits to consume raw meat and meat derived products resulted in a very high prevalence of trichinellosis in humans living in this European region. In spite of numerous epidemiological investigations carried out in this region, very few information is available on the Trichinella species circulating in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Trichinella spp. larvae were isolated from a domestic pig reared in a backyard and from a hunted wild boar whose meat had been the source of trichinellosis in one case. Both Trichinella pseudospiralis and T. spiralis have been identified in the domestic pig, whereas, T. britovi was detected in the wild boar. While, T. spiralis is the Trichinella species most frequently detected in domestic pigs, T. pseudospiralis has been previously documented in domestic pigs only three times in Russia, Slovakia and Croatia. The detection of T. britovi in the wild boar confirms that this nematode is the most frequent species circulating among wildlife of Europe.

  20. Transmissibility studies of vacuolar changes in the rostral colliculus of pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spencer Yvonne I

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Histopathological examinations of brains from healthy pigs have revealed localised vacuolar changes, predominantly in the rostral colliculus, that are similar to the neuropil vacuolation featured in the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies and have been described in pigs challenged parenterally with the agent causing bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE. Feedstuff containing BSE-contaminated meat and bone meal (MBM may have been fed to pigs prior to the ban of mammalian MBM in feed of farmed livestock in the United Kingdom in 1996, but there is no evidence of the natural occurrence of a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE in the domestic pig. Furthermore, experimental transmission of BSE to pigs by the oral route has been unsuccessful. A study was conducted to investigate whether the localised vacuolar changes in the porcine brain were associated with a transmissible aetiology and therefore biologically significant. Two groups of ten pigs were inoculated parenterally with vacuolated rostral colliculus from healthy pigs either born before 1996 or born after 1996. Controls included ten pigs similarly inoculated with rostral colliculus from New Zealand-derived pigs and nine pigs inoculated with a bovine BSE brain homogenate. Results None of the pigs inoculated with rostral colliculus developed a TSE-like neurological disease up to five years post inoculation when the study was terminated, and disease-associated prion protein, PrPd, was not detected in the brains of these pigs. By contrast, eight of nine BSE-inoculated pigs developed neurological signs, two of which had detectable PrPd by postmortem tests. No significant histopathological changes were detected to account for the clinical signs in the PrPd-negative, BSE-inoculated pigs. Conclusion The findings in this study suggest that vacuolation in the porcine rostral colliculus is not caused by a transmissible agent and is probably a clinically insignificant

  1. [Yeasts in domestic animals: species identification and susceptibility to antifungals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamal, Petr; Koukalová, Dagmar

    2010-02-01

    Yeasts frequently colonize various kinds of domestic animals, but may also cause serious diseases. The aim of this study was to identify yeast isolates collected from dogs, cows and pigs, and to determine their in vitro antifungal susceptibility. Fifty-six yeast isolates from dogs (n = 24), cows (n = 20), and pigs (n = 12) were investigated. Appearance of colonies grown on Sabouraud agar, micromorphology on rice agar, as well as assimilation and fermentation of various carbon and nitrogen sources were evaluated. Susceptibility to six antifungals (flucytosine, amphotericin B, miconazole, ketoconazole, itraconazole and fluconazole) was determined semiquantitatively using the commercially available Fungitest kit (Bio-Rad Laboratories). Ten yeast species were identified in dogs with relatively even distribution. On the other hand, cow and pig were clearly dominated by Candida krusei (from 7 species) and Candida rugosa (from 5 species), respectively. Further, most of yeast isolates exhibited good susceptibility to the antifungals tested particularly to amphotericin B, ketoconazole and itraconazole. Based on results, it can be concluded that significant differences in the species spectrum and distribution were documented between groups of yeasts from dogs, cows and pigs. This is probably due to different environmental conditions and the endogenous origin of the yeast isolates. Mostly good susceptibility to systemic antifungals should positively influence the therapy of diseases caused by yeasts in veterinary medicine.

  2. Genome-wide patterns of nucleotide polymorphism in domesticated rice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana L Caicedo

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Domesticated Asian rice (Oryza sativa is one of the oldest domesticated crop species in the world, having fed more people than any other plant in human history. We report the patterns of DNA sequence variation in rice and its wild ancestor, O. rufipogon, across 111 randomly chosen gene fragments, and use these to infer the evolutionary dynamics that led to the origins of rice. There is a genome-wide excess of high-frequency derived single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in O. sativa varieties, a pattern that has not been reported for other crop species. We developed several alternative models to explain contemporary patterns of polymorphisms in rice, including a (i selectively neutral population bottleneck model, (ii bottleneck plus migration model, (iii multiple selective sweeps model, and (iv bottleneck plus selective sweeps model. We find that a simple bottleneck model, which has been the dominant demographic model for domesticated species, cannot explain the derived nucleotide polymorphism site frequency spectrum in rice. Instead, a bottleneck model that incorporates selective sweeps, or a more complex demographic model that includes subdivision and gene flow, are more plausible explanations for patterns of variation in domesticated rice varieties. If selective sweeps are indeed the explanation for the observed nucleotide data of domesticated rice, it suggests that strong selection can leave its imprint on genome-wide polymorphism patterns, contrary to expectations that selection results only in a local signature of variation.

  3. Rape: an Asian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadesan, K

    2001-06-01

    Rape is one of the fastest growing violent crimes in many parts of the world. Rape laws have been amended in most countries in an attempt to cope with the proliferation of this crime. Even though the legal definition of rape and the procedural laws have been amended, rape remains a serious problem in both the developed and developing nations. In some countries the offence of rape carries severe punishment sometimes even the death sentence. In many jurisdictions the term 'sexual penetration' is being used instead of 'sexual intercourse'. Sexual penetration includes sexual intercourse, anal intercourse, cunnilingus, fellatio or any other intrusions involving any part of a human body or of any object into the genital or anal opening of a person's body. In many countries rape and other sexual offences have been replaced with a series of gender neutral and graded offences with appropriate punishments. Medical examination can provide independent, scientific, corroborative evidence that may be of value to the court in arriving at a judgement. Doctors should have a clear understanding of different rape laws in order to apprectiate the various issues involved. Special knowledge, skill and experience are essential to conduct a good-quality medical examination. There is a dearth of trained forensic physicians in many Asian countries. However, managing a rape victim (survivor) goes for beyond proving the case in a court of law. There should be an adequate rehabilitation programme available to the victims to help them cope.

  4. Feral pigs as hosts for Amblyomma sculptum (Acari: Ixodidae) populations in the Pantanal, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Vanessa do Nascimento; Piovezan, Ubiratan; Franco, Ana Helena Alves; Osava, Carolina Fonseca; Herrera, Heitor Miragaia; Szabó, Matias Pablo Juan

    2014-11-01

    The Pantanal in Brazil is the largest floodplain of the world. This ecosystem, rich in wildlife, has a large feral pig population. Such a large host biomass must have a strong influence on the parasite fauna. In this work, we evaluated the role of feral pigs in the maintenance of Amblyomma sculptum (formerly Amblyomma cajennense), the most prevalent tick species in the Pantanal. Tick infestations were evaluated on 243 feral pigs and their environment. The suitability of domestic pigs, representing their feral relatives, to A. sculptum adults and nymphs was assessed experimentally. Tick infestation of feral pigs was strongly associated with that of the environment: 96 and 97 % of the ticks, respectively, were A. sculptum. The infestation prevalence on this host species was close to 90 % in the dry season and 100 % in the wet season and mean infestation intensity was above 30 ticks in both seasons. Suitability of pigs as hosts for A. sculptum was shown by the high proportion of nymphs and female ticks found engorging on captured feral pigs and adequate biological parameters displayed by ticks from experimental infestations of domestic pigs. Other tick species on feral pigs, albeit in much lower numbers, were Amblyomma parvum and Ornithodorus rostratus. Results show that feral pigs feed a high proportion of the A. sculptum adults and nymphs in their territories and should be a target for tick-borne diseases studies. This is particularly relevant to public health because all the main tick species found on feral pigs are aggressive to humans as well.

  5. BHA study in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Würtzen, G; Olsen, P

    1986-01-01

    Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) was given to pregnant SPF pigs (Danish Landrace) in doses of 0, 50, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight/day from mating to day 110 of the gestation period. The BHA was mixed in the diet (pelleted). Caesarean section was performed on gestation day 110. BHA affected neither the reproduction data nor the incidence of defects in the foetuses. Significantly lower weight gain was observed in the group of dams on the highest dose. Absolute and relative organ weights for the liver and thyroid gland showed a dose-related increase. Proliferative and parakeratotic proliferative changes of the stratified epithelium of the stomach were found in both control and treated pigs. In addition, proliferative and parakeratotic changes of the oesophageal epithelium were observed in a few pigs in the two groups on the highest doses. Papillomas were not found, and no changes of the glandular part of the stomach were observed.

  6. Dominance in domestic dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borg, Van Der J.A.M.; Schilder, M.B.H.; Vinke, C.M.; Vries, De Han; Petit, Odile

    2015-01-01

    A dominance hierarchy is an important feature of the social organisation of group living animals. Although formal and/or agonistic dominance has been found in captive wolves and free-ranging dogs, applicability of the dominance concept in domestic dogs is highly debated, and quantitative data are

  7. Impacts of East Asian aerosols on the Asian monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Rachel; Bollasina, Massimo; Booth, Ben; Dunstone, Nick; Marenco, Franco

    2016-04-01

    Over recent decades, aerosol emissions from Asia have increased rapidly. Aerosols are able to alter radiative forcing and regional hydroclimate through direct and indirect effects. Large emissions within the geographical region of the Asian monsoon have been found to impact upon this vital system and have been linked to observed drying trends. The interconnected nature of smaller regional monsoon components (e.g. the Indian monsoon and East Asian monsoon) presents the possibility that aerosol sources could have far-reaching impacts. Future aerosol emissions are uncertain and may continue to dominate regional impacts on the Asian monsoon. Standard IPCC future emissions scenarios do not take a broad sample of possible aerosol pathways. We investigate the sensitivity of the Asian monsoon to East Asian aerosol emissions. Experiments carried out with HadGEM2-ES use three time-evolving future anthropogenic aerosol emissions scenarios with similar time-evolving greenhouse gases. We find a wetter summer over southern China and the Indochina Peninsula associated with increased sulfate aerosol over China. The southern-flood-northern-drought pattern seen in observations is reflected in these results. India is found to be drier in the summer overall, although wetter in June. These precipitation changes are linked to the increase in sulfate through the alteration of large scale dynamics. Sub-seasonal changes are also seen, with an earlier withdrawal of the monsoon over East Asia.

  8. South Asian High and Asian-Pacific-American Climate Teleconnection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Growing evidence indicates that the Asian monsoon plays an important role in affecting the weather and climate outside of Asia. However, this active role of the monsoon has not been demonstrated as thoroughly as has the variability of the monsoon caused by various impacting factors such as sea surface temperature and land surface. This study investigates the relationship between the Asian monsoon and the climate anomalies in the Asian-Pacific-American (APA) sector. A hypothesis is tested that the variability of the upper-tropospheric South Asian high (SAH), which is closely associated with the overall heating of the large-scale Asian monsoon, is linked to changes in the subtropical western Pacific high (SWPH), the midPacific trough, and the Mexican high. The changes in these circulation systems cause variability in surface temperature and precipitation in the APA region. A stronger SAH is accompanied by a stronger and more extensive SWPH. The enlargement of the SWPH weakens the mid-Pacific trough. As a result, the southern portion of the Mexican high becomes stronger. These changes are associated with changes in atmospheric teleconnections, precipitation, and surface temperature throughout the APA region. When the SAH is stronger, precipitation increases in southern Asia, decreases over the Pacific Ocean, and increases over the Central America. Precipitation also increases over Australia and central Africa and decreases in the Mediterranean region. While the signals in surface temperature are weak over the tropical land portion,they are apparent in the mid latitudes and over the eastern Pacific Ocean.

  9. Pig design patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Pasupuleti, Pradeep

    2014-01-01

    Pig makes Hadoop programming simple, intuitive, and fun to work with. It removes the complexity from Map Reduce programming by giving the programmer immense power through its flexibility. What used to be extremely lengthy and intricate code written in other high level languages can now be written in almost one tenth of the size using its easy to understand constructs. Pig has proven to be the easiest way to learn how to program Hadoop clusters, as evidenced by its widespread adoption. This comprehensive guide enables readers to readily use design patterns to simplify the creation of complex da

  10. Molecular characterization of Belgian pseudorabies virus isolates from domestic swine and wild boar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verpoest, Sara; Cay, Ann Brigitte; De Regge, Nick

    2014-08-06

    Aujeszky's disease is an economically important disease in domestic swine caused by suid herpesvirus 1, also called pseudorabies virus (PRV). In several European countries, including Belgium, the virus has successfully been eradicated from the domestic swine population. The presence of PRV in the wild boar population however poses a risk for possible reintroduction of the virus into the domestic pig population. It is therefore important to assess the genetic relatedness between circulating strains and possible epidemiological links. In this study, nine historical Belgian domestic swine isolates that circulated before 1990 and five recent wild boar isolates obtained since 2006 from Belgium and the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg were genetically characterized by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis and phylogenetic analysis. While all wild boar isolates were characterized as type I RFLP genotypes, the RFLP patterns of the domestic swine isolates suggest that a shift from genotype I to genotype II might have occurred in the 1980s in the domestic population. By phylogenetic analysis, Belgian wild boar isolates belonging to both clade A and B were observed, while all domestic swine isolates clustered within clade A. The joint phylogenetic analysis of both wild boar and domestic swine strains showed that some isolates with identical sequences were present within both populations, raising the question whether these strains represent an increased risk for reintroduction of the virus into the domestic population.

  11. Expression and significance of c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase 1/2 protein in chronic hibernated myocardium of domestic pigs%家猪慢性冬眠心肌中C-Jun N末端蛋白激酶1/2蛋白的表达及意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李东野; 朱红; 夏勇; 潘德峰; 杨煜; 李雷; 祁春梅

    2005-01-01

    study was performed in Cardiovascular Disease Institute, the Affiliated Hospital of Xuzhou Medical College.MATERIALS: Animal models were prepared in the Catheter Department of the Affiliated Hospital of Xuzhou Medical College, protein expression of JNK1/2 and the phosphorylation(p-JNK1/2) changes were measured in the Department of Biochemistry of Xuzhou Medical College. Fourteen small Chinese domestic pigs were randomly divided into two groups, experiment group( n = 8) and control group( n = 6) . Right coronary artery was selected as target vessel in experiment group, and home-made constrictor was delivered through right femoral artery to induce chronic hibernating myocardium and myocardial infarction.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Normal myocardial tissue in control group, normal myocardial tissue and chronic hibernating myocardium sample in experiment group were checked with light microscope and electron microscope,protein expression of JNK1/2 and the phosphorylation changes in myocardium tissue of three groups were analyzed by immunoblotting (Western blotting).RESULTS: p-JNK1/2 was higher in chronic hibernating myocardium of experiment group than that of normal myocardium in experiment and control group. Immunological activity of p-JNK1/2 in control group, normal myocardium, and chronic hibernating myocardium in experiment group was 1,1.42 ± 0.52, 2.6 ± 0.59, respectively.CONCLUSION: JNK1/2 can be activated in chronic hibernating myocardium tissue and also participated in its occurrence and development.

  12. Pseudorabies Virus and Brucella abortus from an Expanding Wild Pig ( Sus scrofa ) Population in Southern Oklahoma, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskamp, Joshua A; Gee, Kenneth L; Campbell, Tyler A; Silvy, Nova J; Webb, Stephen L

    2016-04-28

    Wild pigs ( Sus scrofa ) are causing increasing ecologic and economic damage at a global scale. Because wild pigs can carry ≥65 diseases that affect livestock, their widespread expansion threatens native wildlife and livestock. We screened wild pigs from south-central Oklahoma, US for antibodies against Brucella abortus , pseudorabies virus (PRV), and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRS). These pathogens were chosen because they are part of eradication programs in the US and could have large economic impacts on domestic livestock if transmitted from wild animals. We tested 282 serum samples during spring 2010 (n=149) and 2011 (n=133) and found an overall exposure rate to PRV of 24.1% (n=68); PRV was detected at two of three study sites. Two wild pigs had detectable antibody to B. abortus , and one had detectable antibody to PRRS. On average, 27% of wild pigs within a sounder were positive for PRV antibody, with 44% of the sounders (16/36) having at least one positive individual. These data highlight that wild pigs could carry pathogens that affect domestic livestock. Because the US is free of these pathogens in commercial livestock operations, continued surveillance and vaccination of domestic livestock are needed. Commercial livestock producers at the wildlife-livestock interface may benefit from spatial prioritization of risk zones to facilitate strategic control efforts.

  13. Domestication process of yaks revealed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ In his monumental work "Origin of Species," Charles Darwin suggested that all domestic animals originated from their wild ancestors through artificial selection and evolution. However, he did not give the details of how human beings domesticate these species.

  14. Complex population structure in African village dogs and its implications for inferring dog domestication history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyko, Adam R; Boyko, Ryan H; Boyko, Corin M; Parker, Heidi G; Castelhano, Marta; Corey, Liz; Degenhardt, Jeremiah D; Auton, Adam; Hedimbi, Marius; Kityo, Robert; Ostrander, Elaine A; Schoenebeck, Jeffrey; Todhunter, Rory J; Jones, Paul; Bustamante, Carlos D

    2009-08-18

    High genetic diversity of East Asian village dogs has recently been used to argue for an East Asian origin of the domestic dog. However, global village dog genetic diversity and the extent to which semiferal village dogs represent distinct, indigenous populations instead of admixtures of various dog breeds has not been quantified. Understanding these issues is critical to properly reconstructing the timing, number, and locations of dog domestication. To address these questions, we sampled 318 village dogs from 7 regions in Egypt, Uganda, and Namibia, measuring genetic diversity >680 bp of the mitochondrial D-loop, 300 SNPs, and 89 microsatellite markers. We also analyzed breed dogs, including putatively African breeds (Afghan hounds, Basenjis, Pharaoh hounds, Rhodesian ridgebacks, and Salukis), Puerto Rican street dogs, and mixed breed dogs from the United States. Village dogs from most African regions appear genetically distinct from non-native breed and mixed-breed dogs, although some individuals cluster genetically with Puerto Rican dogs or United States breed mixes instead of with neighboring village dogs. Thus, African village dogs are a mosaic of indigenous dogs descended from early migrants to Africa, and non-native, breed-admixed individuals. Among putatively African breeds, Pharaoh hounds, and Rhodesian ridgebacks clustered with non-native rather than indigenous African dogs, suggesting they have predominantly non-African origins. Surprisingly, we find similar mtDNA haplotype diversity in African and East Asian village dogs, potentially calling into question the hypothesis of an East Asian origin for dog domestication.

  15. The effect of high-fat diet on the composition of the gut microbiota in cloned and non-cloned pigs of lean and obese phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Rebecca; Andersen, Anders Daniel; Hermann-Bank, Marie Louise; Stagsted, Jan; Boye, Mette

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of high-far-high-energy diet on cloned and non-cloned domestic pigs of both lean and obese phenotype and to evaluate if the lean cloned pigs had a lower inter-individual variation as compared with non-cloned pigs. The microbiota of colon and terminal ileum was investigated in cloned and non-cloned pigs that received a high-far-high-energy diet with either restricted or ad libitum access to feed, resulting in lean and obese phenotypes, respectively. The fecal microbiota of lean pigs was investigated by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP). The intestinal microbiota of lean and obese cloned and non-cloned pigs was analyzed by quantitative real time PCR and a novel high-throughput qPCR platform (Fluidigm). Principal component analysis (PCA) of the T-RFLP profiles revealed that lean cloned and non-cloned pigs had a different overall composition of their gut microbiota. The colon of lean cloned pigs contained relatively more bacteria belonging to the phylum Firmicutes and less from the phylum Bacteroidetes than obese cloned pigs as estimated by qPCR. Fluidigm qPCR results revealed differences in specific bacterial groups in the gut microbiota of both lean and obese pigs. Our results suggest that high-far-high-energy diet is associated with changes in the gut microbiota even in the absence of obesity. Overall, the cloned pigs had a different gut microbiota from that of non-cloned pigs. To our knowledge this is the first study to investigate the gut microbiota of cloned domestic pigs of lean and obese phenotype.

  16. The role of adrenergic receptors in the motility of duodenum and choledochoduodenal junction in the pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blichowski, A; Andrzejewski, W; Gaszyński, W; Kozulski, W

    1977-01-01

    The role of adenergic receptors in the motility of duodenum and choledochoduodenal junction in the pig. Acta Physiol. Pol., 1977, 28 (6): 521-528. The choldeochoduodenal junction in the Vietnamese pig is functionally and anatomically a part of duodenal wall. In view of this, investigations were carried out for establishing the role of adrenergic receptors in the development of motor function of this part of the intestinal tract. The experiments were performed on domestic Vietnamese pigs (Sus scrofa domestica) and they showed that after stimulation of alpha and beta adrenergic receptors the motor activity of the duodenal muscular coat and the choledochoduodenal junction is inhibited. The obtained results suggest similar reactions of the adrenergic receptors in both examined parts of the intestinal tract in the pig.

  17. Investigation into the Epidemiology of African Swine Fever Virus at the Wildlife - Domestic Interface of the Gorongosa National Park, Central Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quembo, C J; Jori, F; Heath, L; Pérez-Sánchez, R; Vosloo, W

    2016-08-01

    An epidemiological study of African swine fever (ASF) was conducted between March 2006 and September 2007 in a rural area adjacent to the Gorongosa National park (GNP) located in the Central Mozambique. Domestic pigs and warthogs were sampled to determine the prevalence of antibodies against ASF virus and the salivary antigens of Ornithodoros spp. ticks, while ticks collected from pig pens were tested for the presence of ASFV. In addition, 310 framers were interviewed to gain a better understanding of the pig value chain and potential practices that could impact on the spread of the virus. The sero-prevalence to ASFV was 12.6% on farms and 9.1% in pigs, while it reached 75% in warthogs. Approximately 33% of pigs and 78% of warthogs showed antibodies against salivary antigens of ticks. The differences in sero-prevalence between farms close to the GNP, where there is greater chance for the sylvatic cycle to cause outbreaks, and farms located in the rest of the district, where pig to pig transmission is more likely to occur, were marginally significant. Ornithodoros spp. ticks were found in only 2 of 20 pig pens outside the GNP, and both pens had ticks testing positive for ASFV DNA. Interviews carried out among farmers indicated that biosecurity measures were mostly absent. Herd sizes were small with pigs kept in a free-ranging husbandry system (65%). Only 1.6% of farmers slaughtered on their premises, but 51% acknowledged allowing visitors into their farms to purchase pigs. ASF outbreaks seemed to have a severe economic impact with nearly 36% of farmers ceasing pig farming for at least 1 year after a suspected ASF outbreak. This study provides the first evidence of the existence of a sylvatic cycle in Mozambique and confirms the presence of a permanent source of virus for the domestic pig value chain.

  18. A Simple "Pig" Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Roger W.

    2008-01-01

    Our pig game involves a series of tosses of a die with the possibility of a player's score improving with each additional toss. With each additional toss, however, there is also the chance of losing the entire score accumulated so far. Two different strategies for deciding how many tosses a player should attempt are developed and then compared in…

  19. Guinea pig maximization test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    1985-01-01

    Guinea pig maximization tests (GPMT) with chlorocresol were performed to ascertain whether the sensitization rate was affected by minor changes in the Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) emulsion used. Three types of emulsion were evaluated: the oil phase was mixed with propylene glycol, saline...

  20. Domestication and plant genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Haibao; Sezen, Uzay; Paterson, Andrew H

    2010-04-01

    The techniques of plant improvement have been evolving with the advancement of technology, progressing from crop domestication by Neolithic humans to scientific plant breeding, and now including DNA-based genotyping and genetic engineering. Archeological findings have shown that early human ancestors often unintentionally selected for and finally fixed a few major domestication traits over time. Recent advancement of molecular and genomic tools has enabled scientists to pinpoint changes to specific chromosomal regions and genetic loci that are responsible for dramatic morphological and other transitions that distinguish crops from their wild progenitors. Extensive studies in a multitude of additional crop species, facilitated by rapid progress in sequencing and resequencing(s) of crop genomes, will further our understanding of the genomic impact from both the unusual population history of cultivated plants and millennia of human selection.

  1. A First Generation Comparative Chromosome Map between Guinea Pig (Cavia porcellus) and Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanenko, Svetlana A; Perelman, Polina L; Trifonov, Vladimir A; Serdyukova, Natalia A; Li, Tangliang; Fu, Beiyuan; O'Brien, Patricia C M; Ng, Bee L; Nie, Wenhui; Liehr, Thomas; Stanyon, Roscoe; Graphodatsky, Alexander S; Yang, Fengtang

    2015-01-01

    The domesticated guinea pig, Cavia porcellus (Hystricomorpha, Rodentia), is an important laboratory species and a model for a number of human diseases. Nevertheless, genomic tools for this species are lacking; even its karyotype is poorly characterized. The guinea pig belongs to Hystricomorpha, a widespread and important group of rodents; so far the chromosomes of guinea pigs have not been compared with that of other hystricomorph species or with any other mammals. We generated full sets of chromosome-specific painting probes for the guinea pig by flow sorting and microdissection, and for the first time, mapped the chromosomal homologies between guinea pig and human by reciprocal chromosome painting. Our data demonstrate that the guinea pig karyotype has undergone extensive rearrangements: 78 synteny-conserved human autosomal segments were delimited in the guinea pig genome. The high rate of genome evolution in the guinea pig may explain why the HSA7/16 and HSA16/19 associations presumed ancestral for eutherians and the three syntenic associations (HSA1/10, 3/19, and 9/11) considered ancestral for rodents were not found in C. porcellus. The comparative chromosome map presented here is a starting point for further development of physical and genetic maps of the guinea pig as well as an aid for genome assembly assignment to specific chromosomes. Furthermore, the comparative mapping will allow a transfer of gene map data from other species. The probes developed here provide a genomic toolkit, which will make the guinea pig a key species to unravel the evolutionary biology of the Hystricomorph rodents.

  2. Epidemiology and toxicology of arsenic poisoning in domestic animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selby, L.A.; Case, A.A.; Osweiler, G.D.; Hayes, H.M. Jr.

    1977-08-01

    Arsenic poisoning is one of the more important causes of heavy metal poisoning in domestic animals; yet sporadic instances of poisoning have been observed in cats, horses, and pigs. Cases observed by veterinary clinicians are either peracute, acute, or chronic intoxications. Frequently the initial and only indication that a severe problem exists with peracute poisoning in a cattle herd is dead animals. Chronic intoxications are also observed in cattle. Acute intoxication is the most common form of arsenic poisoning observed and documented in the dog. Also intoxicated dogs were younger, i.e., 2-6 months of age. Arsenic is a severe alimentary tract irritant in domestic animals, and treatment in most instances consists mainly of symptomatic and supportive treatment. The source of intoxication, when it can be determined, is usually dips, sprays, powders, or vegetation contaminated by pesticides containing arsenic.

  3. Epidemiology and toxicology of arsenic poisoning in domestic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selby, L A; Case, A A; Osweiler, G D; Hayes, H M

    1977-01-01

    Arsenic poisoning is one of the more important causes of heavy metal poisoning in domestic animals. Two species--dogs and cattle--are intoxicated more frequently than other animals; yet sporadic instances of poisoning have been observed in cats, horses, and pigs. Cases observed by veterinary clinicians are either peracute, acute, or chronic intoxications. Frequently the initial and only indication that a severe problem exists with peracute poisoning in a cattle herd is dead animals. Chronic intoxications are also observed in cattle. Acute intoxication is the most common form of arsenic poisoning observed and documented in the dog. Also intoxicated dogs were younger, i.e., 2-6 months of age. Arsenic is a severe alimentary tract irritant in domestic animals, and treatment in most instances consists mainly of symptomatic and supportive treatment. The source of intoxication, when it can be determined, is usually dips, sprays, powders, or vegetation contaminated by pesticides containing arsenic. PMID:908297

  4. Evaluation of Bioequivalency and Toxicological Effects of Three Sources of Arachidonic Acid (ARA) in Domestic Piglets

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Arachidonic acid (ARA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are routinely added to infant formula to support growth and development. We evaluated the bioequivalence and safety of three ARA-rich oils for potential use in infant formula using the neonatal pig model. The primary outcome for bioequivalence was brain accretion of ARA and DHA. Days 3 to 22 of age, domestic pigs fed one of three formulas, each containing ARA at ~0.64% and DHA at ~0.34% total fatty acids (FA). Control diet ARA was provided...

  5. Asian and African Development Trajectories Revisiting Facts and Figures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles Carbonnier

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In today’s dominant discourse, the development trajectory of many East Asian countries is pictured as a success, whereas that of many sub-Saharan African countries is considered a failure. The Asian success stories often refer to the developmental state model, which highlights the pivotal role played by Asian political elites in catalyzing economic growth and broad-based development. The model includes economic liberalization and outward-oriented policies, with targeted support to – and protection of – strategic sectors and infant industries.How far is this underlying assumption supported by empirical evidence? This working paper examines a wide range of economic, social, institutional and governance indicators for a sample of six sub-Saharan and five South East Asian countries. Contrary to our research hypothesis, we did not find any significant difference in the level of government involvement in the domestic economy between the countries of the two regions, nor in the quality of institutions and governance indicators, nor in the share of imports and exports in GDP.Even if there are important gaps between the two regions, for instance with regard to the demographic transition, the agricultural sector or tertiary education, the picture is much more nuanced than portrayed by the dominant discourse. Our review of economic and socio-political indicators tells a rather different story, but not the whole story. Nevertheless, the indicators fail to take into account all the historical, institutional and structural factors that matter a great deal for development. Hence our analysis should be complemented by detailed country case studies to uncover the specific dynamics underlying different development trajectories and outcomes.

  6. Diabetic nephropathy in Surinamese South Asian subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Chandieshaw, Prataap Kalap; Chandie Shaw, Prataap Kalap

    2008-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the incidence and risk factors for nephropathy in diabetic and non-diabetic Surinamese South Asians. The Surinamese South Asians, originally descended from the North-East India. Due to the former colonial bounds with the Netherlands, a relatively young South Asian migrant population settled in the Netherlands. South Asians have a high prevalence of central obesity and an eight-fold higher prevalence for type 2 diabetes mellitus. We found the following conclusions: 1.Sur...

  7. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    APJTB MonthlyAims&Scope Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine(APJTB)is administrated by Hainan Medical University and sponsored by Asian Pacific Tropical Medicine Press,and aims to establish an international academic communicating platform for researchers of tropical biomedicine and public health workers,especially specialists and scholars of the Asian

  8. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    APJTB MonthlyAims&Scope Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine(APJTB)is administrated by Hainan Medical University and sponsored by Asian Pacific Tropical Medicine Press,and aims to establish an international academic communicating platform for researchers of tropical biomedicine and public health workers,especially specialists and scholars of the Asian Pacific region and worldwide on tropical biomedicine research,to

  9. Japan's Energy Policy in the Asian Region

    OpenAIRE

    Reiji Takeishi

    2014-01-01

    With encouraged economic activities in the Asian region, energy consumption of Asian countries are substantially increasing. Based on the improved role of Asian countries, the possibility to secure enough energy in the future is becoming a seriously important matter because economic activities basically depend on stable energy supplies.

  10. Potentials in Asian Export Credit Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    "Mekong River Regional Development Project advocated by Asian Development Bank (ADB) has been implemented. Trans-Asia Railway and Trans-Asia Highway are being discussed. It is a good opportunity for Asian Export Credit Agencies (ECAs) to cooperate and financing these large crossboarder projects."On May 11, at the 10th Annual Meeting of Asian Export Credit Agencies,

  11. Evaluation of an Erns-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to distinguish Classical swine fever virus-infected pigs from pigs vaccinated with CP7_E2alf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannhorst, Katrin; Fröhlich, Andreas; Staubach, Christoph; Meyer, Denise; Blome, Sandra; Becher, Paul

    2015-07-01

    Infections with Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) are a major economic threat to pig production. To combat CSF outbreaks and to maintain trade, new marker vaccines were developed that allow differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA principle). The chimeric pestivirus CP7_E2alf was shown to be safe and efficacious. Its DIVA strategy is based on the detection of CSFV E(rns)-specific antibodies that are only developed on infection. However, for the new marker vaccine to be considered a valuable control tool, a validated discriminatory assay is needed. One promising candidate is the already commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, PrioCHECK CSFV E(rns) ELISA (Prionics BV, Lelystad, The Netherlands). Four laboratories of different European Union member states tested 530 serum samples and country-specific field sera from domestic pigs and wild boar. The ELISA displayed a good robustness. However, based on its reproducibility and repeatability, ranges rather than single values for diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were defined. The ELISA displayed a sensitivity of 90-98% with sera from CSFV-infected domestic pigs. A specificity of 89-96% was calculated with sera from domestic pigs vaccinated once with CP7_E2alf. The ELISA detected CSFV infections in vaccinated domestic pigs with a sensitivity of 82-94%. The sensitivity was lower with sera taken ≤21 days post-challenge indicating that the stage of CSFV infection had a considerable influence on testing. Taken together, the PrioCHECK CSFV E(rns) ELISA can be used for detection of CSFV infections in CP7_E2alf-vaccinated and nonvaccinated domestic pig populations, but should only be applied on a herd basis by testing a defined number of animals.

  12. Transfer of tylosin resistance between Enterococcus spp. during continuous-flow culture of feral or domestic porcine gut microbes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mixed populations of domesticated and feral pig gut microbes (RPCF and FC, respectively) were grown in continuous culture to investigate the effects of tylosin on antimicrobial resistance. Cultures established in steady state were inoculated with 9.7 log10 colony forming units (CFU) of a tylosin-re...

  13. Educational Planning: The Asian Experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Jansen (Karel)

    1976-01-01

    textabstractThis article intends to present a discussion of various approaches to educational planning against the background of the experience of the Asian countries.l It may be, however, that some of our arguments apply to other parts of the Third World as well.

  14. Wild boar: an increasing concern for Aujeszky's disease control in pigs?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boadella Mariana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The goal of this study was describing the temporal evolution of Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV contact prevalence among Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa populations under different management regimes and contact likelihoods with domestic pigs. Given the recent increase in wild boar abundance throughout Europe, we hypothesized that wild boar contact with ADV would remain stable in time even after significant reduction of ADV prevalence in domestic pigs. Results Sera from 1659 wild boar were collected from 2000 to 2010 within 6 areas of the Iberian Peninsula and tested for the presence of antibodies against ADV by ELISA. According to sampling date, wild boar were grouped into three time periods. ADV prevalence was compared through period both globally and by geographic area. Overall seroprevalence for the ten-year study period was 49.6 ± 2.4%. The highest seroprevalence was recorded in areas with intense wild boar management. The annual proportion of positive wild boar sampling sites remained stable through the study period, while the percentage of domestic pig AD positive counties decreased from 70% in 2003 to 1.7% in 2010. Conclusions Results presented herein confirmed our hypothesis that ADV would remain almost stable in wild boar populations. This evidences the increasing risk wild boar pose in the final stages of ADV eradication in pigs and for wildlife conservation.

  15. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in domestic animals in peri-urban communities of Kafue district, Zambia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siwila, J.; Phiri, I. G. K.; Enemark, Heidi L.;

    2013-01-01

    Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis are important parasites infecting a wide range of domestic animals worldwide. The aim of the present study was to determine the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia parasites in different domestic animals living in close contact with humans...... within rural/semiurban communities in Kafue district in Zambia. A single faecal sample per animal was collected from pigs, goats, dogs, ducks, chickens and pigeons and analysed by Merifluor Cryptosporidium/Giardia immunofluorescence antibody assay for the simultaneous detection of these parasites....... The faecal consistency was noted and scored as non-diarrhoeic or diarrhoeic. A total of 236 samples were collected. Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were detected in pigs (11.5%, 17/148), goats (5.9%; 1/17), ducks (10.0%; 3/30) and chickens (14.3%; 2/14) while Giardia cysts were detected in pigs (8.1%; 12...

  16. The guinea-pig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Maibach, H I; Anjo, M D

    1980-01-01

    14C ring-labelled hydrocortisone, testosterone and benzoic acid dissolved in acetone were applied to the backs of guinea-pigs (4 microgram/cm2). Percutaneous absorption was quantified by following the excretion of tracer in urine and faeces for 5 days. Absorption of hydrocortisone and benzoic acid...... was 2.4% (s.d. = 0.5; n = 3) and 31.4% (s.d. = 9.1; n = 3) of the applied dose respectively, similar to published human absorption data. Testosterone was absorbed to a greater extent in guinea-pigs (34.9% +/- 5.4; n = 5) than man. A thioglycollate based depilatory cream significantly increased the skin...

  17. Evolution of ascariasis in humans and pigs: a multi-disciplinary approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loreille Odile

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The nematode parasite Ascaris lumbricoides infects the digestive tracts of over 1.4 billion people worldwide, and its sister species, Ascaris suum, has infected a countless number of domesticated and feral pigs. It is generally thought that the putative ancestor to these worms infected either humans or pigs, but with the advent of domestication, they had ample opportunity to jump to a new host and subsequently specialize and evolve into a new species. While nuclear DNA markers decisively separate the two populations, mitochondrial sequences reveal that three major haplotypes are found in A. suum and in A. lumbricoides, indicating either occasional hybridization, causing introgression of gene trees, or retention of polymorphism dating back to the original ancestral species. This article provides an illustration of the combined contribution of parasitology, archaeoparasitology, genetics and paleogenetics to the history of ascariasis. We specifically investigate the molecular history of ascariasis in humans by sequencing DNA from the eggs of Ascaris found among ancient archeological remains. The findings of this paleogenetic survey will explain whether the three mitochondrial haplotypes result from recent hybridization and introgression, due to intensive human-pig interaction, or whether their co-occurrence predates pig husbandry, perhaps dating back to the common ancestor. We hope to show how human-pig interaction has shaped the recent evolutionary history of this disease, perhaps revealing the identity of the ancestral host.

  18. Xenotransplantation and pig endogenous retroviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magre, Saema; Takeuchi, Yasuhiro; Bartosch, Birke

    2003-01-01

    Xenotransplantation, in particular transplantation of pig cells, tissues and organs into human patients, may alleviate the current shortage of suitable allografts available for human transplantation. This overview addresses the physiological, immunological and virological factors considered with regard to xenotransplantation. Among the issues reviewed are the merits of using pigs as xenograft source species, the compatibility of pig and human organ physiology and the immunological hindrances with regard to the various types of rejection and attempts at abrogating rejection. Advances in the prevention of pig organ rejection by creating genetically modified pigs that are more suited to the human microenvironment are also discussed. Finally, with regard to virology, possible zoonotic infections emanating from pigs are reviewed, with special emphasis on the pig endogenous retrovirus (PERV). An in depth account of PERV studies, comprising their discovery as well as recent knowledge of the virus, is given. To date, all retrospective studies on patients with pig xenografts have shown no evidence of PERV transmission, however, many factors make us interpret these results with caution. Although the lack of PERV infection in xenograft recipients up to now is encouraging, more basic research and controlled animal studies that mimic the pig to human xenotransplantation setting more closely are required for safety assessment.

  19. The Pig PeptideAtlas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesselager, Marianne Overgaard; Codrea, Marius; Sun, Zhi;

    2016-01-01

    underrepresented in existing repositories. We here present a significantly improved build of the Pig PeptideAtlas, which includes pig proteome data from 25 tissues and three body fluid types mapped to 7139 canonical proteins. The content of the Pig PeptideAtlas reflects actively ongoing research within...... the veterinary proteomics domain, and this article demonstrates how the expression of isoform-unique peptides can be observed across distinct tissues and body fluids. The Pig PeptideAtlas is a unique resource for use in animal proteome research, particularly biomarker discovery and for preliminary design of SRM...

  20. Genetic analysis of wheat domestication and evolution under domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleg, Zvi; Fahima, Tzion; Korol, Abraham B; Abbo, Shahal; Saranga, Yehoshua

    2011-10-01

    Wheat is undoubtedly one of the world's major food sources since the dawn of Near Eastern agriculture and up to the present day. Morphological, physiological, and genetic modifications involved in domestication and subsequent evolution under domestication were investigated in a tetraploid recombinant inbred line population, derived from a cross between durum wheat and its immediate progenitor wild emmer wheat. Experimental data were used to test previous assumptions regarding a protracted domestication process. The brittle rachis (Br) spike, thought to be a primary characteristic of domestication, was mapped to chromosome 2A as a single gene, suggesting, in light of previously reported Br loci (homoeologous group 3), a complex genetic model involved in spike brittleness. Twenty-seven quantitative trait loci (QTLs) conferring threshability and yield components (kernel size and number of kernels per spike) were mapped. The large number of QTLs detected in this and other studies suggests that following domestication, wheat evolutionary processes involved many genomic changes. The Br gene did not show either genetic (co-localization with QTLs) or phenotypic association with threshability or yield components, suggesting independence of the respective loci. It is argued here that changes in spike threshability and agronomic traits (e.g. yield and its components) are the outcome of plant evolution under domestication, rather than the result of a protracted domestication process. Revealing the genomic basis of wheat domestication and evolution under domestication, and clarifying their inter-relationships, will improve our understanding of wheat biology and contribute to further crop improvement.

  1. Animal evolution during domestication: the domesticated fox as a model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trut, Lyudmila; Oskina, Irina; Kharlamova, Anastasiya

    2009-03-01

    We review the evolution of domestic animals, emphasizing the effect of the earliest steps of domestication on its course. Using the first domesticated species, the dog (Canis familiaris), for illustration, we describe the evolutionary peculiarities during the historical domestication, such as the high level and wide range of diversity. We suggest that the process of earliest domestication via unconscious and later conscious selection of human-defined behavioral traits may accelerate phenotypic variations. The review is based on the results of a long-term experiment designed to reproduce early mammalian domestication in the silver fox (Vulpes vulpes) selected for tameability or amenability to domestication. We describe changes in behavior, morphology and physiology that appeared in the fox during its selection for tameability, which were similar to those observed in the domestic dog. Based on the data of the fox experiment and survey of relevant data, we discuss the developmental, genetic and possible molecular genetic mechanisms underlying these changes. We ascribe the causative role in evolutionary transformation of domestic animals to the selection for behavior and to the neurospecific regulatory genes it affects.

  2. Asian Creativity: A Response to Satoshi Kanazawa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey Miller

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This article responds to Satoshi Kanazawa's thoughtful and entertaining comments about my article concerning the Asian future of evolutionary psychology. Contra Kanazawa's argument that Asian cultural traditions and/or character inhibit Asian scientific creativity, I review historical evidence of high Asian creativity, and psychometric evidence of high Asian intelligence (a cognitive trait and openness to experience (a personality trait — two key components of creativity. Contra Kanazawa's concern that political correctness is a bigger threat to American evolutionary psychology than religious fundamentalism, I review evidence from research funding patterns and student attitudes suggesting that fundamentalism is more harmful and pervasive. Finally, in response to Kanazawa's focus on tall buildings as indexes of national wealth and creativity, I find that 13 of the world's tallest 25 buildings are in China, Hong Kong, or Taiwan — of which 11 were built in the last decade. Asian creativity, secularism, and architectural prominence point to a bright future for Asian science.

  3. Epigenetics and transgenerational inheritance in domesticated farm animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeney, Amanda; Nilsson, Eric; Skinner, Michael K

    2014-01-01

    Epigenetics provides a molecular mechanism of inheritance that is not solely dependent on DNA sequence and that can account for non-Mendelian inheritance patterns. Epigenetic changes underlie many normal developmental processes, and can lead to disease development as well. While epigenetic effects have been studied in well-characterized rodent models, less research has been done using agriculturally important domestic animal species. This review will present the results of current epigenetic research using farm animal models (cattle, pigs, sheep and chickens). Much of the work has focused on the epigenetic effects that environmental exposures to toxicants, nutrients and infectious agents has on either the exposed animals themselves or on their direct offspring. Only one porcine study examined epigenetic transgenerational effects; namely the effect diet micronutrients fed to male pigs has on liver DNA methylation and muscle mass in grand-offspring (F2 generation). Healthy viable offspring are very important in the farm and husbandry industry and epigenetic differences can be associated with production traits. Therefore further epigenetic research into domestic animal health and how exposure to toxicants or nutritional changes affects future generations is imperative.

  4. Core questions in domestication research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeder, Melinda A

    2015-03-17

    The domestication of plants and animals is a key transition in human history, and its profound and continuing impacts are the focus of a broad range of transdisciplinary research spanning the physical, biological, and social sciences. Three central aspects of domestication that cut across and unify this diverse array of research perspectives are addressed here. Domestication is defined as a distinctive coevolutionary, mutualistic relationship between domesticator and domesticate and distinguished from related but ultimately different processes of resource management and agriculture. The relative utility of genetic, phenotypic, plastic, and contextual markers of evolving domesticatory relationships is discussed. Causal factors are considered, and two leading explanatory frameworks for initial domestication of plants and animals, one grounded in optimal foraging theory and the other in niche-construction theory, are compared.

  5. The Killing of the Pig: Farm Butchery in Rural Ireland circa 1940-1970

    OpenAIRE

    Cawley, Diarmuid

    2017-01-01

    This recorded oral history documents the method used by skilled butcher John Cawley to kill and prepare farm pigs for families in the rural south County Sligo (Ireland) area around Riverstown, Lough Arrow and Ballymote. The period in question ranged from the 1940’s to the 1970’s, at which point owning and killing pigs domestically was dying out. John Cawley was not a butcher in a conventional sense, as he did not own animals of his own nor did he own or work in a butcher shop. He worked as a ...

  6. Generation of CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene-targeted pigs via somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaoqing; Xin, Jige; Fan, Nana; Zou, Qingjian; Huang, Jiao; Ouyang, Zhen; Zhao, Yu; Zhao, Bentian; Liu, Zhaoming; Lai, Sisi; Yi, Xiaoling; Guo, Lin; Esteban, Miguel A; Zeng, Yangzhi; Yang, Huaqiang; Lai, Liangxue

    2015-03-01

    The domestic pig has been widely used as an important large animal model. Precise and efficient genetic modification in pig provides a great promise in biomedical research. Recently, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated (Cas) system has been successfully used to produce many gene-targeted animals. However, these animals have been generated by co-injection of Cas9 mRNA and single-guide RNA (sgRNA) into one-cell stage embryos, which mostly resulted in mosaicism of the modification. One or two rounds of further breeding should be performed to obtain homozygotes with identical genotype and phenotype. To address this issue, gene-targeted somatic cells can be used as donor for somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) to produce gene-targeted animals with single and identical mutations. In this study, we applied Cas9/sgRNAs to effectively direct gene editing in porcine fetal fibroblasts and then mutant cell colonies were used as donor to generate homozygous gene-targeted pigs through single round of SCNT. As a result, we successfully obtained 15 tyrosinase (TYR) biallelic mutant pigs and 20 PARK2 and PINK1 double-gene knockout (KO) pigs. They were all homozygous and no off-target mutagenesis was detected by comprehensive analysis. TYR (-/-) pigs showed typical albinism and the expression of parkin and PINK1 were depleted in PARK2 (-/-)/PINK1 (-/-) pigs. The results demonstrated that single- or double-gene targeted pigs can be effectively achieved by using the CRISPR/Cas9 system combined with SCNT without mosaic mutation and detectable off-target effects. This gene-editing system provides an efficient, rapid, and less costly manner to generate genetically modified pigs or other large animals.

  7. Worldwide patterns of ancestry, divergence, and admixture in domesticated cattle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared E Decker

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The domestication and development of cattle has considerably impacted human societies, but the histories of cattle breeds and populations have been poorly understood especially for African, Asian, and American breeds. Using genotypes from 43,043 autosomal single nucleotide polymorphism markers scored in 1,543 animals, we evaluate the population structure of 134 domesticated bovid breeds. Regardless of the analytical method or sample subset, the three major groups of Asian indicine, Eurasian taurine, and African taurine were consistently observed. Patterns of geographic dispersal resulting from co-migration with humans and exportation are recognizable in phylogenetic networks. All analytical methods reveal patterns of hybridization which occurred after divergence. Using 19 breeds, we map the cline of indicine introgression into Africa. We infer that African taurine possess a large portion of wild African auroch ancestry, causing their divergence from Eurasian taurine. We detect exportation patterns in Asia and identify a cline of Eurasian taurine/indicine hybridization in Asia. We also identify the influence of species other than Bos taurus taurus and B. t. indicus in the formation of Asian breeds. We detect the pronounced influence of Shorthorn cattle in the formation of European breeds. Iberian and Italian cattle possess introgression from African taurine. American Criollo cattle originate from Iberia, and not directly from Africa with African ancestry inherited via Iberian ancestors. Indicine introgression into American cattle occurred in the Americas, and not Europe. We argue that cattle migration, movement and trading followed by admixture have been important forces in shaping modern bovine genomic variation.

  8. Domestic animals as potential reservoir hosts of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense in sleeping sickness foci in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Njiokou F.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available An explanation of the endemic nature and/or the resurgence of Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT in the historic foci in West and Central Africa may be the existence of an animal reservoir. In some HAT foci, pigs were found infected by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense but the implication of the other domestic animals was not quite evaluated. This study aims to determine the prevalence of T. b. gambiense in domestic animal species (goat, sheep, pig and dog commonly found in the four active HAT foci in Cameroon (Bipindi, Fontem, Campo and Doumé. Blood samples were collected from 307 pigs, 264 goats, 267 sheep and 37 dogs and used for parasitological (QBC, immunological (LiTat 1.3 CATT and molecular (PCR analyses. QBC detected trypanosomes in 3.88 % domestic animals while 22.7 % were sero-positive with LiTat 1.3 CATT tests. Of the 875 animals analysed, 174 (19.88 % harboured T. brucei s.l. DNA, found in each of the four types of animal and in the four localities. The infection rate significantly differed among the animal species (p < 0.0001 and localities (p < 0.0001. The PCR also revealed T. b. gambiense group 1 DNA in 27 (3.08 % domestic animals. The specific infection rates were as follows: sheep (6.74 %, goats (3.08 %, pigs (0.32 % and dogs (0 %. T. b. gambiense was found in 8 (3.92 % animals from Bipindi, 15 (4.83 % from Campo, 4 (2.59 % from Fontem-Center and none from Doumé. The infection rates significantly differed between the localities, and correlated with the intensity of HAT transmission in the foci.

  9. Heat stress in growing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huynh Thi Thanh Thuy,

    2005-01-01

    Compared to other species of farm animals, pigs are more sensitive to high environmental temperatures, because they cannot sweat and do not pant so well. Furthermore, fast-growing lean pigs generate more heat than their congeners living in the wild. This, in combination with confined housing, makes

  10. The Rise of Asian SMEs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Export-oriented Asian SMEs-and the vital role they play in generating growth and employment-traversed difficult financial terrain in 2008-09.But with the global financial crisis behind them,their outlook is only looking more prospective with time.Sore Subroto,global head of SME Banking of Standard Chartered Bank,explained SMEs' function and difficulties in an exclusive article for Beijing Review.

  11. The Rise of Asian SMEs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Export-oriented Asian SMEs-and the vital role they play in generating growth and employment-traversed difficult financial terrain in 2008-09.But with the global financial crisis behind them,their outlook is only looking more prospective with time.Som Subroto,global head of SME Banking of Standard Chartered Bank,explained SMEs’function and difficulties in an exclusive article for Beijing Review.Edited excerpts follow

  12. English as an Asian Language

    OpenAIRE

    Kachru, Braj .B

    1998-01-01

    This paper outlines the dimensions of Asia's English, which constitutes a world of its own in linguistic, cultural, interactional, ideological, and political terms. The questions this paper raises are: What conditions must a transplanted colonial language satisfy to be accepted as part of the colonized's linguistic repertoire? Why not consider Asian Englishes as part of a local pluralistic linguistic heritage? Answers to these questions demand redefining the concept of «nativeness» and types ...

  13. [Domestic violence: any progress?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrion, Roger

    2014-01-01

    Since the publication of the French national survey of violence against women in 2000, the fight against domestic violence has made steady progress. Knowledge of the phenomenon has significantly improved. A nationwide study of murders and manslaughters perpetrated by one partner of a couple against the other has been published annually since 2006. In 2012, domestic violence resulted in the deaths of 314 persons: 166 women, 31 men, 25 children, 9 collateral victims, 14 rivals, and two former spouses killed by their ex-fathers in law. In addition, 67 perpetrators committed suicide (51 men and3 women). The number of victims fluctuates from year to year but has remained fairly stable since 2006 (n=168). Legislation has improved significantly: eight new laws have been passed since 2004, all designed to protect women and to ensure that violent men are restrained and treated. New measures to inform and protect women have been implemented and others have been improved, such as the anonymous helpline (phone no 3919, "domestic violence information"). An inter-ministerial committee on the protection of women from violence and the prevention of human trafficking (MIPROF) was created on 3 January 2013. A website entitled "Stop violence against women " (Stop violences faites aux femmes) is now available. The "Imminent Danger" mobile phone system, designed to alert police if a suspected or known perpetrator breaches restraint conditions, will be extended to the entire country from January 2014. Referees charged with coordinating comprehensive long-tern care of women victims have been deployed at the county level. Information centers on the rights of women and families (CIDFF) now form a local nationwide network. Routine interviews with a midwife during the fourth month of pregnancy, focusing on the woman's emotional, economic and social conditions, have been implemented in 21 % of maternity units and should gradually be generalized. The authorities who have enforced the law have

  14. Foreign Firms, Domestic Wages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Markusen, James R.; Schjerning, Bertel

    Foreign-owned firms are often hypothesized to generate productivity "spillovers" to the host country, but both theoretical micro-foundations and empirical evidence for this are limited. We develop a heterogeneous-firm model in which ex-ante identical workers learn from their employers in proportion...... large domestic firms. The empirical implications of the model are tested on matched employer-employee data from Denmark. Consistent with the theory, we find considerable evidence of higher wages and wage growth in large and/or foreign-owned firms. These effects survive controlling for individual...... characteristics, but, as expected, are reduced significantly when controlling for unobservable firm heterogeneity. Furthermore, acquired skills in foreign-owned and large firms appear to be transferable to both subsequent wage work and self-employment...

  15. Corridor use by Asian elephants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Wenjing; Lin, Liu; Luo, Aidong; Zhang, Li

    2009-06-01

    There are 18 km of Kunming-Bangkok Highway passing through the Mengyang Nature Reserve of Xishuangbanna National Nature Reserve in Yunnan Province, China. From September 2005 to September 2006 the impact of this highway on movement of wild Asian elephants between the eastern and western part of the nature reserve was studied using track transecting, rural surveys and direct monitoring. Our results showed that the number of crossroad corridors used by Asian elephants diminished from 28 to 23 following the construction of the highway. In some areas, the elephant activity diminished or even disappeared, which indicated a change in their home ranges. The utilization rate of artificial corridors was 44%. We also found that elephants preferred artificial corridors that were placed along their original corridors. During the research, wild elephants revealed their adaptation to the highway. They were found walking across the highway road surface many times and for different reasons. We suggest that the highway management bureau should revise their management strategies to mitigate the potential risks caused by elephants on the road for the safety of the public and to protect this endangered species from harm. It is also very important to protect and maintain current Asian elephants corridors in this region.

  16. Technology And Pregnant Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    One of the interesting things about aerospace spinoff is the way it keeps cropping up in uncommon applications unimaginably remote from the original technology. For example, the pig pregnancy detector. The pig pregnancy detector? City folk may be surprised to learn that there is such a thing-and wonder why. The why is because it is a sow's job to produce piglets and farmers can't afford to keep those who don't; it costs about a half-dollar a day in feed, labor and facilities, and even in small herds that's intolerable. So the barren sow must go. Until recently, the best method of determining pig pregnancy was "eyeballing," daily visual examination over a period of time. The problem with eyeballing is that pregnancy is not evident until well advanced; when there is no pregnancy, the farmer learns too late that he has been feeding a sow that won't give him a litter. Advancing technology provided an answer: the quick, easy-to-use, accurate automatic detector for early evaluation of pregnancy status. Among the most popular of these devices are Scanopreg and Scanoprobe, to whose development NASA technology contributed. Scanopreg is an ultrasonic system which detects pregnancy about 30 days after breeding, long before eyeballing can provide an answer. The companion Scanoprobe is a dual-function unit which not only determines pregnancy but also gives farmers an analysis of a hog's meat-fat ratio, an important factor in breeding. Only a short time on the market, Scanopreg and Scanoprobe have already found wide acceptance among meat producers because they rapidly repay their cost.

  17. Modelling the distribution of pig production and diseases in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Thanapongtharm, Weerapong

    2015-01-01

    This thesis, entitled “Modelling the distribution of pig production and diseases in Thailand”, presents many aspects of pig production in Thailand including the characteristics of pig farming system, distribution of pig population and pig farms, spatio-temporal distribution and risk of most important diseases in pig at present, and the suitability area for pig farming. Spatial distribution and characteristics of pig farming in Thailand were studied using time-series pig population data to des...

  18. Plant domestication slows pest evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcotte, Martin M; Lochab, Amaneet K; Turley, Nash E; Johnson, Marc T J

    2015-09-01

    Agricultural practices such as breeding resistant varieties and pesticide use can cause rapid evolution of pest species, but it remains unknown how plant domestication itself impacts pest contemporary evolution. Using experimental evolution on a comparative phylogenetic scale, we compared the evolutionary dynamics of a globally important economic pest - the green peach aphid (Myzus persicae) - growing on 34 plant taxa, represented by 17 crop species and their wild relatives. Domestication slowed aphid evolution by 13.5%, maintained 10.4% greater aphid genotypic diversity and 5.6% higher genotypic richness. The direction of evolution (i.e. which genotypes increased in frequency) differed among independent domestication events but was correlated with specific plant traits. Individual-based simulation models suggested that domestication affects aphid evolution directly by reducing the strength of selection and indirectly by increasing aphid density and thus weakening genetic drift. Our results suggest that phenotypic changes during domestication can alter pest evolutionary dynamics.

  19. Impact of swine reproductive technologies on pig and global food production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Robert V

    2014-01-01

    Reproductive technologies have dramatically changed the way pigs are raised for pork production in developed and developing countries. This has involved such areas as pigs produced/sow, more consistent pig flow to market, pig growth rate and feed efficiency, carcass yield and quality, labor efficiency, and pig health. Some reproductive technologies are in widespread use for commercial pork operations [Riesenbeck, Reprod Domest Anim 46:1-3, 2011] while others are in limited use in specific segments of the industry [Knox, Reprod Domest Anim 46:4-6, 2011]. Significant changes in the efficiency of pork production have occurred as a direct result of the use of reproductive technologies that were intended to improve the transfer of genes important for food production [Gerrits et al., Theriogenology 63:283-299, 2005]. While some technologies focused on the efficiency of gene transfer, others addressed fertility and labor issues. Among livestock species, pig reproductive efficiency appears to have achieved exceptionally high rates of performance (PigCHAMP 2011) [Benchmark 2011, Ames, IA, 12-16]. From the maternal side, this includes pigs born per litter, farrowing rate, as well as litters per sow per year. On the male side, boar fertility, sperm production, and sows served per sire have improved as well [Knox et al., Theriogenology, 70:1202-1208, 2008]. These shifts in the efficiency of swine fertility have resulted in the modern pig as one of the most efficient livestock species for global food production. These reproductive changes have predominantly occurred in developed countries, but data suggests transfer and adoption of these in developing countries as well (FAO STAT 2009; FAS 2006) [World pig meat production: food and agriculture organization of the United Nations, 2009; FAS, 2006) Worldwide Pork Production, 2006]. Technological advancements in swine reproduction have had profound effects on industry structure, production, efficiency, quality, and profitability. In

  20. Social Complexification and Pig (Sus scrofa) Husbandry in Ancient China: A Combined Geometric Morphometric and Isotopic Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucchi, Thomas; Dai, Lingling; Balasse, Marie; Zhao, Chunqing; Gao, Jiangtao; Hu, Yaowu; Yuan, Jing; Vigne, Jean-Denis

    2016-01-01

    Pigs have played a major role in the economic, social and symbolic systems of China since the Early Neolithic more than 8,000 years ago. However, the interaction between the history of pig domestication and transformations in Chinese society since then, have not been fully explored. In this paper, we investigated the co-evolution from the earliest farming communities through to the new political and economic models of state-like societies, up to the Chinese Empire, using 5,000 years of archaeological records from the Xiawanggang (XWG) and Xinzhai (XZ) sites (Henan Province). To trace the changes of pig populations against husbandry practices, we combined the geometric morphometric analysis of dental traits with a study of the stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios from bone collagen. The domestication process intensified during the Neolithic Yangshao, prompted by greater selective pressure and/or better herd control against wild introgression. After that, pig farming, in XWG, relied on local livestock and a gradual change of husbandry practices overtime. This was characterized by a gentle increase in millet foddering and animal protein intake, until a complete change over to household management during the Han dynasty. The only rupture in this steady trend of husbandry occurred during the Longshan period, with the appearance of small sized and idiosyncratic pigs with specific feeding practices (relying on millet and household scraps). From three exploratory hypothesis, we explored the possibility of anti-elite pig production in XWG during the Longshan period, as a means to resist incorporation into a new economic model promoting intensified domestic production. This exploratory hypothesis is the most suitable to our dataset; however, numerous areas need to be explored further in order to adequately document the role of pigs in the rise of China's complex societies.

  1. The Puzzle of Rice Domestication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Sang; Song Ge

    2007-01-01

    The origin of cultivated rice has puzzled plant biologists for decades. This is due, at least in part, to the complex evolutionary dynamics in rice cultivars and wild progenitors, particularly rapid adaptive differentiation and continuous gene flow within and between cultivated and wild rice. The long-standing controversy over single versus multiple and annual versus perennial origins of cultivated rice has been brought into shaper focus with the rapid accumulation of genetic and phylogenetic data. Molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed ancient genomic differentiation between rice cultivars, suggesting that they were domesticated from divergent wild populations. However, the recently cloned domestication gene sh4, responsible for the reduction of grain shattering from wild to cultivated rice, seems to have originated only once. Herein, we propose two models to reconcile apparently conflicting evidence regarding rice domestication. The snow-balling model considers a single origin of cultivated rice. In this model, a core of critical domestication alleles was fixed in the founding cultivar and then acted to increase the genetic diversity of cultivars through hybridization with wild populations. The combination model considers multiple origins of cultivated rice. In this model, initial cultivars were domesticated from divergent wild populations and fixed different sets of domestication alleles. Subsequent crosses among these semi-domesticated cultivars resulted in the fixation of a similar set of critical domestication alleles in the contemporary cultivars. In both models, introgression has played an important role in rice domestication. Recent and future introgression of beneficial genes from the wild gene pool through conventional and molecular breeding programs can be viewed as the continuation of domestication.

  2. Droughts in Asian Least Developed Countries: Vulnerability and sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Alimullah Miyan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Droughts occur both in developed and developing countries with significant impacts and are exacerbating in frequency, severity and duration. Over exploitation of water resources, weather variability and climate change are mostly responsible for such exacerbation. The impacts of droughts encompass the global ecosystem as a whole but vary from region to region. Least developed countries (LDCs are becoming the worst sufferer of the impacts due to physical, social and economic as well as knowledge and skills differences. The increasing biophysical vulnerability contexts and intensity in the Asian LDCs causing adverse effects on food security, human health, biodiversity, water resources, hydroelectric power generation, streams, perennial springs, and livelihood. Drought is also responsible for increasing pollution, pests and diseases and forced migration and famine. Information indicates monsoon has become erratic contributing to up-scaling of droughts. South and Southeast Asian LDCs like Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan, Cambodia and Lao PDR under the monsoon climatic zone have also been suffering from increasing droughts arising out of delayed and changing distribution patterns of precipitation. Prolong dry spells increase the frequencies of wildfire in grasslands, forests, and range-lands. The rain-fed crops of the plains are facing challenges from soil-moisture stress with projected droughts. Droughts causing migration of fishes, and marine anadromus species are having adverse impacts on spawning habitats. Reduction in annual surface runoff is decreasing the ground and surface water with negative effect on agriculture and water supply for industrial and domestic sectors. As droughts are exacerbating the consequences are accelerating. However, traditionally people are adapting with the changing situations applying indigenous knowledge and practices for sustainable living. This paper reflects on prevalence and impacts of droughts, existing coping

  3. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    APJTB Monthly Aims&Scope Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine(APJTB)aims to set up and provide an international academic communication platform for physicians,medical scientists,allied health scientists and public health workers,especially those in the Asian Pacific region and worldwide on tropical biomedicine,infectious diseases and public health,and to meet the growing challenges of understanding,preventing and controlling the dramatic global emergence and reemergence of infectious diseases in the Asian Pacific region.

  4. Stomach cancer incidence rates among Americans, Asian Americans and Native Asians from 1988 to 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Yeerae; Park, Jinju; Nam, Byung-Ho; Ki, Moran

    2015-01-01

    Stomach cancer is the second most common cancer in Eastern Asia, accounting for approximately 50% of all new cases of stomach cancer worldwide. Our objective was to compare the stomach cancer incidence rates of Asian Americans in Los Angeles with those of native Asians to assess the etiology of stomach cancer from 1988 to 2011. To examine these differences, Asian Americans (Korean, Japanese, Chinese, and Filipino Americans living in Los Angeles, California, USA) and native Asians (from Korea,...

  5. Numerical Algorithm for Delta of Asian Option

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boxiang Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the numerical solution of the Greeks of Asian options. In particular, we derive a close form solution of Δ of Asian geometric option and use this analytical form as a control to numerically calculate Δ of Asian arithmetic option, which is known to have no explicit close form solution. We implement our proposed numerical method and compare the standard error with other classical variance reduction methods. Our method provides an efficient solution to the hedging strategy with Asian options.

  6. U.S. and East Asian Integration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Limin

    2008-01-01

    the U.S. is directly impacting on the future of the East Asian community. Therefore, finding ways to get along with the U.S. is crucial to the speed, direction, configuration and character of the East Asian community. In this paper, the author has analyzed the interests of the United States in East Asia and its stands towards the East Asian integration. The author concludes that it is to the interest of the United States to make more efforts to further join in the East Asian integration.And East Asia should accept and welcome the American participation.

  7. Genomic diversity and introgression in O. sativa reveal the impact of domestication and breeding on the rice genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keyan Zhao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The domestication of Asian rice (Oryza sativa was a complex process punctuated by episodes of introgressive hybridization among and between subpopulations. Deep genetic divergence between the two main varietal groups (Indica and Japonica suggests domestication from at least two distinct wild populations. However, genetic uniformity surrounding key domestication genes across divergent subpopulations suggests cultural exchange of genetic material among ancient farmers. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we utilize a novel 1,536 SNP panel genotyped across 395 diverse accessions of O. sativa to study genome-wide patterns of polymorphism, to characterize population structure, and to infer the introgression history of domesticated Asian rice. Our population structure analyses support the existence of five major subpopulations (indica, aus, tropical japonica, temperate japonica and GroupV consistent with previous analyses. Our introgression analysis shows that most accessions exhibit some degree of admixture, with many individuals within a population sharing the same introgressed segment due to artificial selection. Admixture mapping and association analysis of amylose content and grain length illustrate the potential for dissecting the genetic basis of complex traits in domesticated plant populations. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Genes in these regions control a myriad of traits including plant stature, blast resistance, and amylose content. These analyses highlight the power of population genomics in agricultural systems to identify functionally important regions of the genome and to decipher the role of human-directed breeding in refashioning the genomes of a domesticated species.

  8. Vitamin D metabolism and rickets in domestic animals: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittmer, K E; Thompson, K G

    2011-03-01

    Rickets and osteomalacia are increasing in prevalence in people because of cultural practices, breast-feeding, decreased sun exposure, and increased sunscreen usage. Several hereditary forms of rickets owing to either renal phosphate wasting or defects in vitamin D metabolism are also reported in people. Rickets is well recognized in domestic animals, but published reports are not always supported by microscopic findings, and diagnoses based on clinical signs and radiology are unreliable. Most cases in domestic animals are caused by dietary deficiency of either vitamin D or phosphorus, but occasional inherited forms are reported in pigs, sheep, cats, and dogs. There is variation between species in susceptibility to dietary vitamin D and phosphorus deficiency and in the ability to manufacture vitamin D in their skin. A number of mouse models have been discovered or created to study human skeletal diseases and skeletal homeostasis. With the discovery that vitamin D is involved in not only calcium and phosphorus homeostasis but also in the immune system and cancer, there is great potential for new and existing animal models to generate valuable information about vitamin D and its many functions. This review presents an overview of vitamin D metabolism and rickets in domestic and laboratory animals and makes comparisons where appropriate with the disease in humans.

  9. Virtual dissection of pig carcasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vester-Christensen, Martin; Erbou, Søren Gylling Hemmingsen; Hansen, Mads Fogtmann;

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes the use of computed tomography (CT) as a reference method for estimating the lean meat percentage (LMP) of pig carcasses. The current reference is manual dissection which has a limited accuracy due to variability between butchers. A contextual Bayesian classification scheme...... is applied to classify volume elements of full body CT-scans of pig carcasses into three tissue types. A linear model describes the relation between voxels and the full weight of the half carcass, which can be determined more accurately than that of the lean meat content. Two hundred and ninety-nine half pig...

  10. Whipworms in humans and pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hawash, Mohamed Bayoumi Fahmy; Betson, Martha; Al-Jubury, Azmi

    2016-01-01

    -human primates suggesting a common African origin of the parasite, which then was transmitted to Asia and further to South America. On the other hand, there was no differentiation between pig-derived Trichuris from Europe and the New World suggesting dispersal relates to human activities by transporting pigs....... CONCLUSIONS: We found evidence for an African origin of T. trichiura which were then transmitted with human ancestors to Asia and further to South America. A host shift to pigs may have occurred in Asia from where T. suis seems to have been transmitted globally by a combination of natural host dispersal...

  11. Omnivores Going Astray: A Review and New Synthesis of Abnormal Behavior in Pigs and Laying Hens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunberg, Emma I.; Rodenburg, T. Bas; Rydhmer, Lotta; Kjaer, Joergen B.; Jensen, Per; Keeling, Linda J.

    2016-01-01

    Pigs and poultry are by far the most omnivorous of the domesticated farm animals and it is in their nature to be highly explorative. In the barren production environments, this motivation to explore can be expressed as abnormal oral manipulation directed toward pen mates. Tail biting (TB) in pigs and feather pecking (FP) in laying hens are examples of unwanted behaviors that are detrimental to the welfare of the animals. The aim of this review is to draw these two seemingly similar abnormalities together in a common framework, in order to seek underlying mechanisms and principles. Both TB and FP are affected by the physical and social environment, but not all individuals in a group express these behaviors and individual genetic and neurobiological characteristics play an important role. By synthesizing what is known about environmental and individual influences, we suggest a novel possible mechanism, common for pigs and poultry, involving the brain–gut–microbiota axis. PMID:27500137

  12. Adaptation and possible ancient interspecies introgression in pigs identified by whole-genome sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Huashui; Fang, Xiaodong; Yang, Bin; Huang, Zhiyong; Chen, Hao; Mao, Likai; Zhang, Feng; Zhang, Lu; Cui, Leilei; He, Weiming; Yang, Jie; Yao, Xiaoming; Zhou, Lisheng; Han, Lijuan; Li, Jing; Sun, Silong; Xie, Xianhua; Lai, Boxian; Su, Ying; Lu, Yao; Yang, Hui; Huang, Tao; Deng, Wenjiang; Nielsen, Rasmus; Ren, Jun; Huang, Lusheng

    2015-03-01

    Domestic pigs have evolved genetic adaptations to their local environmental conditions, such as cold and hot climates. We sequenced the genomes of 69 pigs from 15 geographically divergent locations in China and detected 41 million variants, of which 21 million were absent from the dbSNP database. In a genome-wide scan, we identified a set of loci that likely have a role in regional adaptations to high- and low-latitude environments within China. Intriguingly, we found an exceptionally large (14-Mb) region with a low recombination rate on the X chromosome that appears to have two distinct haplotypes in the high- and low-latitude populations, possibly underlying their adaptation to cold and hot environments, respectively. Surprisingly, the adaptive sweep in the high-latitude regions has acted on DNA that might have been introgressed from an extinct Sus species. Our findings provide new insights into the evolutionary history of pigs and the role of introgression in adaptation.

  13. SPARQling Pig - Processing Linked data with Pig Latin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagedorn, Stefan; Hose, Katja; Sattler, Kai-Uwe

    2015-01-01

    -defined functions while running on top of scalable distributed platforms. In doing so, these languages enable analytical tasks while avoiding the limitations of classical query languages such as SQL and SPARQL. However, the tuple-oriented view of general-purpose languages like Pig does not match very well...... the specifics of modern datasets available on the Web, which often use the RDF data model. Graph patterns, for instance, are one of the core concepts of SPARQL but have to be formulated as explicit joins, which burdens the user with the details of efficient query processing strategies. In this paper, we address...... this problem by proposing extensions to Pig that deal with linked data in RDF to bridge the gap between Pig and SPARQL for analytics. These extensions are realized by a set of user-defined functions and rewriting rules, still allowing to compile the enhanced Pig scripts to plain MapReduce programs. For all...

  14. Enantiospecific ketoprofen concentrations in plasma after oral and intramuscular administration in growing pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Mustonen Katja; Niemi Anneli; Raekallio Marja; Heinonen Mari; Peltoniemi Olli AT; Palviainen Mari; Siven Mia; Peltoniemi Marikki; Vainio Outi

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Ketoprofen is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug which has been widely used for domestic animals. Orally administered racemic ketoprofen has been reported to be absorbed well in pigs, and bioavailability was almost complete. The objectives of this study were to analyze R- and S-ketoprofen concentrations in plasma after oral (PO) and intra muscular (IM) routes of administration, and to assess the relative bioavailability of racemic ketoprofen for both enantiomers betwee...

  15. First Case of Natural Infection in Pigs: Review of Trypanosoma cruzi Reservoirs in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paz María Salazar-Schettino

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available An epidemiological research project was performed in the State of Morelos including collection of samples for blood smears and culture, serological tests, and xenodiagnoses from a total of 76 domestic and peridomestic mammals. Two strains of Trypanosoma cruzi were isolated by haemocultures; one from a pig (Sus scrofa, the first case of natural infection reported in Mexico, and the other from a dog (Canis familiaris. This study summarizes current information in Mexico concerning confirmed reservoirs of T. cruzi

  16. Investigation of the disposal of dead pigs by pig farmers in mainland China by simulation experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Linhai; Xu, Guoyan; Li, Qingguang; Hou, Bo; Hu, Wuyang; Wang, Jianhua

    2017-01-01

    Dead pigs are a major waste by-product of pig farming. Thus, safe disposal of dead pigs is important to the protection of consumer health and the ecological environment by preventing marketing of slaughtered and processed dead pigs and improper dumping of dead pigs. In this study, a probability model was constructed for the disposal of dead pigs by pig farmers by selecting factors affecting disposal. To that end, we drew on the definition and meaning of behavior probability based on survey data collected from 654 pig farmers in Funing County, Jiangsu Province, China. Moreover, the role of influencing factors in pig farmers' behavioral choices regarding the disposal of dead pigs was simulated by simulation experiment. The results indicated that years of farming had a positive impact on pig farmers' choice of negative disposal of dead pigs. Moreover, there was not a simple linear relationship between scale of farming and pig farmers' behavioral choices related to the disposal of dead pigs. The probability for farmers to choose the safe disposal of dead pigs increased with the improvement of their knowledge of government policies and relevant laws and regulations. Pig farmers' behavioral choice about the disposal of dead pigs was also affected by government subsidy policies, regulation, and punishment. Government regulation and punishment were more effective than subsidy. The findings of our simulation experiment provide important decision-making support for the governance in preventing the marketing of dead pigs at the source.

  17. A Study of the Teleconnections in the Asian-Pacific Monsoon Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Yihui; LIU Yunyun

    2008-01-01

    The interactions among the Asian-Pacific monsoon subsystems have significant impacts on the climatic regimes in the monsoon region and even the whole world. Based on the domestic and foreign related research, an analysis is made of four different teleconnection modes found in the Asian-Pacific monsoon region, which reveal clearly the interactions among the Indian summer monsoon (ISM), the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM), and the western North Pacific summer monsoon (WNPSM). The results show that: (1) In the period of the Asian monsoon onset, the date of ISM onset is two weeks earlier than the beginning of the Meiyu over the Yangtze River Basin, and a teleconnection mode is set up from the southwestern India via the Bay of Bengal (BOB) to the Yangtze River Basin and southern Japan, I.e., the "southern" teleconnection of the Asian summer monsoon. (2) In the Asian monsoon culmination period, the precipitation of the Yangtze River Basin is influenced significantly by the WNPSM through their teleconnection relationship, and is negatively related to the WNPSM rainfall, that is, when the WNPSM is weaker than normal, the precipitation of the Yangtze River Basin is too.re than normal. (3) In contrast to the rainfall over the Yangtze River Basin, the precipitation of northern China (from the 4th pentad of July to the 3rd pentad of August) is positively related to the WNPSM. When the WNPSM is stronger than normal, the position of the western Pacific subtropical high (WPSH) becomes farther northeast than normal, the anomalous northeastward water vapor transport along the southwestern flank of WPSH is converged over northern China, providing adequate moisture for more rainfalls than normal there. (4) The summer rainfall in northern China has also a positive correlation with the ISM. During the peak period of ISM, a teleconnection pattern is formed from Northwest India via the Tibetan Plateau to northern China, I.e., the "northern" teleconnection of the Asian summer monsoon

  18. Introduction to Asian Herpetological Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuezhao WANG; Shengxian ZHONG

    2011-01-01

    Asian Herpetological Research (AHR),an international English language journal,is published quarterly by the Chengdu Institute of Biology (CIB),Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Science Press of China,cooperated with the Asiatic Herpetological Research Society (AHRS),with its registered numbers:CN 51-1735/Q and ISSN 2095-0357,and post distribution code:62-218.AHR has an international Editorial Board consisting of many top herpetologists from different countries in the world.The journal's website can be found at:http://www.ahr-journal.com.

  19. A survey for potentially zoonotic gastrointestinal parasites of dogs and pigs in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inpankaew, Tawin; Murrell, K Darwin; Pinyopanuwat, Nongnuch; Chhoun, Chamnan; Khov, Kuong; Sem, Tharin; Sorn, San; Muth, Sinuon; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2015-12-01

    There is little information available on parasites of zoonotic significance in Cambodia. In 2011, in an effort to obtain data on potentially zoonotic gastrointestinal parasites in domestic animals, 50 dogs and 30 pigs residing in 38 households located in Ang Svay Check village, Takeo province, Cambodia were examined for parasites from faecal samples. The samples were processed using the formalin-ethyl acetate concentration technique (FECT). Hookworms were the most common zoonotic parasite found in dogs (80.0%) followed by Echinostomes (18.0%). While, in pigs, Fasciolopsis buski was the most common zoonotic parasite (30.0%) followed by Ascaris suum (13.3%). This study provides baseline data on gastrointestinal parasites in dogs and pigs from Cambodia and underscores the importance of domestic animals as reservoir hosts for human parasites for Cambodian veterinary and public health agencies. Follow-up studies are required to further taxonomically characterize these dog and pig parasites and to determine their role in human parasites in this community.

  20. An Investigation into the Relationship between Owner Knowledge, Diet, and Dental Disease in Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcellus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Rosemary; Wills, Alison P

    2016-11-14

    Recent studies have highlighted a high prevalence of dental disease in domestic guinea pigs, yet the aetiology of this multi-factorial disease is still unclear. Factors that have been associated with dental disease include feeding a diet that is high in energy but low in fibre, feeding an insufficiently abrasive diet, a lack of dietary calcium, and genetics. As many of these factors relate to the husbandry requirements of guinea pigs, owner awareness of dietary requirements is of the utmost importance. An online questionnaire was created based on previous research into the husbandry and feeding of rabbits. Guinea pig owners were asked to answer questions on the clinical history of their animals and their diet and management. In total, 150 surveys were completed for 344 guinea pigs, where owners of multiple animals could complete the survey for individuals. According to the owners, 6.7% of guinea pigs had been clinically diagnosed with dental disease, but 16.6% had signs consistent with dental disease. The specific clinical signs of having difficulty eating (Exp(B) = 33.927, Nagelkerke R ² = 0.301, p guinea pig diet, and dental disease in the study population. This study highlights the importance of access to the outdoors for the health and welfare of guinea pigs in addition to the need for owners to be alert to key clinical signs. A relationship between diet and dental disease was not identified in this study; however, the underlying aetiological causes of this condition require further investigation.

  1. Preliminary study on the detection of hepatitis E virus (HEV antibodies in pigs and wild boars in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiner Marcin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Although HEV infection in pigs does not pose a major economic risk to pork production, the risk of zoonotic transmission to humans is an important aspect of public health. HEV genotype 3 infections were reported in developed countries in individuals who had consumed raw meat or meat products from deer, wild boars, or pigs. The aim of the study was the analysis of the occurrence of HEV-specific antibodies among wild boars and domestic pigs in Poland. Material and Methods: A total of 290 samples from wild boars and 143 samples from pigs were tested. The antibodies were tested by ELISA. Results: The presence of anti-HEV IgG was demonstrated in 44.1% of pigs and 31.0% of wild boars. Anti-HEV IgG antibodies were detected in 1.4% of samples from pigs and in 2.1% of samples from wild boars at borderline level. The statistical analysis shows significant differences in the positive results for anti-HEV IgG between the groups of pigs and wild boars (P = 0.0263. Conclusion: Regular surveillance of the occurrence of HEV in swine and wild boars should be performed in the future.

  2. Whipworms in humans and pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hawash, Mohamed Bayoumi Fahmy; Betson, Martha; Al-Jubury, Azmi;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Trichuris suis and T. trichiura are two different whipworm species that infect pigs and humans, respectively. T. suis is found in pigs worldwide while T. trichiura is responsible for nearly 460 million infections in people, mainly in areas of poor sanitation in tropical and subtropical...... areas. The evolutionary relationship and the historical factors responsible for this worldwide distribution are poorly understood. In this study, we aimed to reconstruct the demographic history of Trichuris in humans and pigs, the evolutionary origin of Trichuris in these hosts and factors responsible...... for parasite dispersal globally. METHODS: Parts of the mitochondrial nad1 and rrnL genes were sequenced followed by population genetic and phylogenetic analyses. Populations of Trichuris examined were recovered from humans (n = 31), pigs (n = 58) and non-human primates (n = 49) in different countries...

  3. Injurious tail biting in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Eath, R.B.; Amott, G.; Turner, S. P.;

    2014-01-01

    risk, it is important to detect and treat tail biting as soon as it occurs. Early warning signs before the first bloody tails appear, such as pigs holding their tails tucked under, could in future be automatically detected using precision livestock farming methods enabling earlier reaction......Tail biting is a serious animal welfare and economic problem in pig production. Tail docking, which reduces but does not eliminate tail biting, remains widespread. However, in the EU tail docking may not be used routinely, and some ‘alternative’ forms of pig production and certain countries do...... not allow tail docking at all. Against this background, using a novel approach focusing on research where tail injuries were quantified, we review the measures that can be used to control tail biting in pigs without tail docking. Using this strict criterion, there was good evidence that manipulable...

  4. Brachyspira murdochii colitis in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tim Kåre; Christensen, A. S.; Boye, Mette

    2010-01-01

    The weakly beta-hemolytic porcine spirochete Brachyspira murdochii is considered a normal intestinal commensal. In the present study, however, a field case of B murdochii–associated catarrhal colitis was identified in a pig, as characterized by extensive spirochetal colonization of the surface...... epithelium. Experimentally, 8 weaned pigs were challenged with the B murdochii isolate, reproducing catarrhal colitis in 2 animals. By applying fluorescent in situ hybridization using a species-specific oligonucleotide probe targeting 23S rRNA, B murdochii organisms were found in high numbers and were...... closely associated with the surface epithelium in the pigs with catarrhal colitis. The results indicate that, when present in high numbers, B murdochii is low pathogenic for pigs....

  5. Structural variations in pig genomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paudel, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Paudel, Y. (2015). Structural variations in pig genomes. PhD thesis, Wageningen University, the Netherlands Structural variations are chromosomal rearrangements such as insertions-deletions (INDELs), duplications, inversions, translocations, and copy number variations (CNVs

  6. Awareness and Use of South Asian Tobacco Products Among South Asians in New Jersey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrywna, Mary; Jane Lewis, M; Mukherjea, Arnab; Banerjee, Smita C; Steinberg, Michael B; Delnevo, Cristine D

    2016-12-01

    South Asians are the third largest Asian group in the US and among the fastest growing racial groups in New Jersey. Tobacco consumption among South Asians is characterized by several smoked and smokeless tobacco products indigenous to the Indian subcontinent. However, there is a paucity of research on tobacco use behaviors among South Asians in the US. The goal of this study was to examine the awareness and use of South Asian tobacco products such as bidis, gutkha, paan, paan masala, and zarda as well as other potentially carcinogenic products such as supari, their context of use, and their cultural significance among South Asians living in the US. Eight focus groups were conducted with South Asian adults living in Central New Jersey. Overall, participants were aware of a wide variety of foreign and American tobacco products with older South Asians identifying a greater variety of indigenous products compared to younger South Asians. Hookah was consistently recognized as popular among the younger generation while products such as paan or paan masala were more commonly identified with elders. Use of tobacco-related products such as paan and supari were described as common at social gatherings or after meals. In addition, light or social users of South Asian tobacco products, including products not consistently defined as tobacco, may not report tobacco use on a survey. Better understanding of the use of these products among South Asians and how some may classify tobacco usage can inform future research and public health interventions in these communities.

  7. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    <正>APJTB Monthly Aims&Scope Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine(APJTB)aims to set up and provide an international academic communication platform for physicians,medical scientists,allied health scientists and public health workers,especially those in the Asian Pacific region and worldwide on tropical biomedicine,infectious diseases and public

  8. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    Aims & Scope Asian Pacific Journal of TropicalBiomedicine(APJTB) aims to set up and provide an international academic communication plaffom for physicians,medical scientisis,allied health scientists and public health workers,especially those in the Asian Pacific region and worldwide on tropical biomedicine,infectious diseases and public health,and to meet the growing challenges

  9. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    <正>Aims&Scope Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine(APJTB)aims to set up and provide an international academic communication platform for physicians,medical scientists,allied health scientists and public health workers,especially those in the Asian Pacific region and worldwide on tropical biomedicine,infectious diseases and public health,and to meet the growing challenges of understanding

  10. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    APJTB MonthlyAims&Scope Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine(APJTB)aims to set up and provide an international academic communication platform for physicians,medical scientists,allied health scientists and public health workers,especially those in the Asian Pacific region and worldwide on tropical biomedicine,infectious diseases and public health,and to meet the growing challenges

  11. Diabetic nephropathy in Surinamese South Asian subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chandieshaw, Prataap Kalap; Chandie Shaw, Prataap Kalap

    2008-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the incidence and risk factors for nephropathy in diabetic and non-diabetic Surinamese South Asians. The Surinamese South Asians, originally descended from the North-East India. Due to the former colonial bounds with the Netherlands, a relatively youn

  12. Book Review: Infrastructure for Asian Connectivity

    OpenAIRE

    Sandee, Henry

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews the book Infrastructure for Asian Connectivity edited by Bhattacharyay, Kawai and Nag (2012). This book is the second publication coordinated by the ADB and the ADB Institute focusing on infrastructure and connectivity in Asian countries. This book looks at regional (across border) infrastructure that is needed to facilitate growth and development through better connectivity and integration among countries.

  13. Asian Cinema and the Social Imaginary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissanayake, Wimal

    2009-01-01

    There is growing interest by schools and universities in understanding Asian societies and cultures. One way of deepening this interest productively is through the imaginative use of cinema. In this article, the author explores how cinema can be a window into the dynamics of contemporary Asian societies and cultures. Through "aesthetic…

  14. Regional conditions in East Asian development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søborg, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    The present volume contains case studies of how government og firms in a number of Asian countries have responded to challenges of globalisation and how that has affected their economic transformation.......The present volume contains case studies of how government og firms in a number of Asian countries have responded to challenges of globalisation and how that has affected their economic transformation....

  15. Asian American Literature: Questions of Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongo, Garrett

    1994-01-01

    Argues that Asian American literature is too narrowly defined to include the wide range of diversity it contains and calls for Asian writers to produce work from a more generous interpretive perspective. American poetry is extolled for its beauty of language and its effect on the emotions to both energize and sadden. (GR)

  16. Population Dynamics Among six Major Groups of the Oryza rufipogon Species Complex, Wild Relative of Cultivated Asian Rice

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hyunjung; Jung, Janelle; Singh, Namrata; Greenberg, Anthony; Jeff J. Doyle; Tyagi, Wricha; Chung, Jong-Wook; Kimball, Jennifer; Hamilton, Ruaraidh Sackville; McCouch, Susan R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Understanding population structure of the wild progenitor of Asian cultivated rice (O. sativa), the Oryza rufipogon species complex (ORSC), is of interest to plant breeders and contributes to our understanding of rice domestication. A collection of 286 diverse ORSC accessions was evaluated for nuclear variation using genotyping-by-sequencing (113,739 SNPs) and for chloroplast variation using Sanger sequencing (25 polymorphic sites). Results Six wild subpopulations were identified, ...

  17. The use and abuse of female domestic workers from Sri Lanka in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-habib, L

    1998-03-01

    Women who migrate from Sri Lanka to become domestic workers in Lebanon face gender, class, and race discrimination that often results in abuse, yet the predicament of these women is largely ignored by local and international humanitarian and human rights agencies. Public consciousness about the plight of Asian domestic workers in the Persian Gulf region was raised in 1990 when domestic workers were repatriated in the wake of the Gulf War. In Lebanon, nearly half of the work permits granted to foreigners in 1997 were to women from Sri Lanka. This migration began in the 1970s and is sanctioned by the Sri Lanka government because of the economic benefits accruing from wages sent home by these women. Lebanese families procure domestic positions through an employment agency that arranges transportation and entry for the Sri Lankan women. These women, especially minors, often have to bribe Sri Lankan government agents to falsify travel documents. Upon arrival in Lebanon, the women have no support systems or job security. Most employment contracts last 3 years and pay $100/month with no benefits or protection from local labor laws. Domestic workers are made vulnerable by employers who withhold salaries or travel documents. Upon return to Sri Lanka, former domestic workers face social disapproval and marital problems. To redress this situation, the governments of sending and receiving countries must take action to protect female migrant workers, and nongovernmental organizations must publicize the plight of these women and take action to address the abuses they face.

  18. Acute phase protein expression during elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus-1 viremia in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Jeffrey J; Cray, Carolyn; Rodriguez, Marilyn; Arheart, Kristopher L; Ling, Paul D; Herron, Alan

    2013-09-01

    Infection of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) with elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus (EEHV) can be associated with rapid, lethal hemorrhagic disease and has been documented in elephant herds in human care and in the wild. Recent reports describe real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays used to monitor clinically ill elephants and also to detect subclinical EEHV1 infection in apparently healthy Asian elephants. Acute phase proteins have been demonstrated to increase with a variety of infectious etiologies in domesticated mammals but have not yet been described in elephants. In addition, the immune response of Asian elephants to EEHV1 infection has not been described. In this study, whole blood and trunk wash samples representing repeated measures from eight elephants were examined for the presence of EEHV1 using a qPCR assay. Elephants were classified into groups, as follows: whole blood negative and positive and trunk wash negative and positive. Serum amyloid A (SAA) and haptoglobin (HP) levels were compared between these groups. A significant difference in SAA was observed with nearly a threefold higher mean value during periods of viremia (P=0.011). Higher values of SAA were associated with >10,000 virus genome copies/ml EEHV1 in whole blood. There were no significant differences in HP levels, although some individual animals did exhibit increased levels with infection. These data indicate that an inflammatory process is stimulated during EEHV1 viremia. Acute phase protein quantitation may aid in monitoring the health status of Asian elephants.

  19. Mutualism breakdown in breadfruit domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Xiaoke; Koch, Alexander M; Jones, A Maxwell P; Ragone, Diane; Murch, Susan; Hart, Miranda M

    2012-03-22

    During the process of plant domestication, below-ground communities are rarely considered. Some studies have attempted to understand the changes in root symbionts owing to domestication, but little is known about how it influences mycorrhizal response in domesticated crops. We hypothesized that selection for above-ground traits may also result in decreased mycorrhizal abundance in roots. Breadfruit (Artocarpus sp.) has a long domestication history, with a strong geographical movement of cultivars from west to east across the Melanesian and Polynesian islands. Our results clearly show a decrease in arbuscular mycorrhizas (AMs) along a domestication gradient from wild to recently derived cultivars. We showed that the vesicular and arbuscular colonization rate decreased significantly in more recently derived breadfruit cultivars. In addition, molecular analyses of breadfruit roots indicated that AM fungal species richness also responded along the domestication gradient. These results suggest that human-driven selection for plant cultivars can have unintended effects on below-ground mutualists, with potential impacts on the stress tolerance of crops and long-term food security.

  20. The Impact of Racial Identity, Ethnic Identity, Asian Values and Race-Related Stress on Asian Americans and Asian International College Students’ Psychological Well-Being

    OpenAIRE

    Iwamoto, Derek Kenji; LIU, WILLIAM MING

    2010-01-01

    The current study investigated the direct and moderating effects of racial identity, ethnic identity, Asian values, and race-related stress on positive psychological well-being among 402 Asian American and Asian international college students. Results revealed that the racial identity statuses Internalization, Immersion-Emersion, Dissonance, Asian values and Ethnic Identity Affirmation and Belonging were significant predictors of well-being. Asian values, Dissonance and Conformity were found ...

  1. New Insight into the History of Domesticated Apple: Secondary Contribution of the European Wild Apple to the Genome of Cultivated Varieties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornille, A.; Gladieux, P.; Smulders, M.J.M.; Roldán-Ruiz, I.; Laurens, F.; Cam, le B.; Nersesyan, A.; Clavel, J.; Olonova, M.; Feugey, L.; Gabrielyan, I.; Zhang, Xiu-Guo; Tenaillon, M.I.; Giraud, T.

    2012-01-01

    The apple is the most common and culturally important fruit crop of temperate areas. The elucidation of its origin and domestication history is therefore of great interest. The wild Central Asian species Malus sieversii has previously been identified as the main contributor to the genome of the cult

  2. A comparative study on the effect of subtherapeutic tylosin administration on select feral or domestic porcine gut microflora grown in continuous-flow culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Continuous flow cultures of feral (culture FC) and domesticated (culture RPCF) pig gut microflora were established in steady state. Cultures, in duplicate, were continuously infused subtherapeutic (25 ug/ml) levels of tylosin and sampled at intervals to assess effects on total culturable anaerobes,...

  3. Hyperendemic Campylobacter jejuni in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) raised for food in a semi-rural community of Quito, Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Jay P.; Vasco, Karla; Trueba, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    Summary Domestic animals and animal products are the source of pathogenic Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli in industrialized countries, yet little is known about the transmission of these bacteria in developing countries. Guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) are commonly raised for food in the Andean region of South America, however, limited research has characterized this rodent as a reservoir of zoonotic enteric pathogens. In this study, we examined the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in 203 fecal samples from domestic animals of 59 households in a semi-rural parish of Quito, Ecuador. Of the twelve animal species studied, guinea pigs showed the highest prevalence of C. jejuni (n = 39/40; 97.5%). Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was used to characterize the genetic relationship of C. jejuni from domestic animals and 21 sequence types (STs) were identified. The majority of STs from guinea pigs appeared to form new clonal complexes that were not related to STs of C. jejuni isolated from other animal species and shared only a few alleles with other C. jejuni previously characterized. The study identifies guinea pigs as a major reservoir of C. jejuni and suggests that some C. jejuni strains are adapted to this animal species. PMID:27043446

  4. Hyperendemic Campylobacter jejuni in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) raised for food in a semi-rural community of Quito, Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Jay P; Vasco, Karla; Trueba, Gabriel

    2016-06-01

    Domestic animals and animal products are the source of pathogenic Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli in industrialized countries, yet little is known about the transmission of these bacteria in developing countries. Guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) are commonly raised for food in the Andean region of South America, however, limited research has characterized this rodent as a reservoir of zoonotic enteric pathogens. In this study, we examined the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in 203 fecal samples from domestic animals of 59 households in a semi-rural parish of Quito, Ecuador. Of the twelve animal species studied, guinea pigs showed the highest prevalence of C. jejuni (n = 39/40; 97.5%). Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was used to characterize the genetic relationship of C. jejuni from domestic animals and 21 sequence types (STs) were identified. The majority of STs from guinea pigs appeared to form new clonal complexes that were not related to STs of C. jejuni isolated from other animal species and shared only a few alleles with other C. jejuni previously characterized. The study identifies guinea pigs as a major reservoir of C. jejuni and suggests that some C. jejuni strains are adapted to this animal species.

  5. Analyses of intestinal commensal Escherichia coli strains from wild boars suggest adaptation to conventional pig production conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Römer, Antje; Wieler, Lothar H; Schierack, Peter

    2012-12-28

    To test the hypothesis that Escherichia coli populations have adapted to conventional pig production practices, we comparatively tested intestinal commensal E. coli from wild boars versus isolates from domestic pigs by analyzing virulence-associated factors, adhesion, and metabolic activities. Virulence-associated genes typical for intestinal pathogenic E. coli (inVAGs) were sporadically detected among E. coli from wild boars except the adhesion-related gene paa and the enterotoxin-encoding gene astA. In contrast, several VAGs typical for extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (exVAGs) were common in E. coli from wild boars. The exVAG chuA occurred more often in E. coli from wild boars compared to E. coli from domestic pigs. 23.5% of E. coli from wild boars belonged to EcoR group B2 which is higher than observed for E. coli from clinically healthy domestic pigs. Furthermore, E. coli from wild boars were more efficient in fermentation of carbohydrate sources (dulcitol, inositol, d-sucrose, d-tagatose), and adhered better to the intestinal porcine epithelial cell line IPEC-J2. In conclusion, our findings point towards an adaptation of porcine intestinal E. coli to a specific intestinal milieu caused by different animal living conditions.

  6. Is health care a necessary or luxury product for Asian countries? An answer using panel approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, S M; Siddiqua, Salina; Huque, Rumana

    2017-12-01

    A number of studies have estimated the income elasticity of health care expenditure to identify whether health care is a necessary or luxury product. However, the issue has received less attention in developing countries, especially in Asian economies. The current study for the first time has used the panel data covering 36 Asian countries for the period 1995-2013 for revealing the nature of health care as a product. Along with conventional econometric techniques we have addressed the issue of cross section dependence and used Westerlund (2007) panel cointegration test which is robust against cross section dependence and heterogeneity for detecting the presence of panel cointegration. By applying Fully Modified OLS (FMOLS) and Dynamic OLS (DOLS) it was found that the long run elasticity of Health Care Expenditure (HCE) with Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is less than unit implying that the health care can be regarded as necessary in nature for these countries.

  7. The Application of Domestication in Cultural Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏洁

    2015-01-01

    Domestication does have its reason for existence in the field of translation. It is indispensable to cultural transmission. Domestication is the further extension of free translation. It helps the target language reader gain a better understanding of the source language. The lack of domestication will disillusion of our hope of attaining cultural transmission. In translation history domestication plays a positive role.

  8. Parallel reductions in phenolic constituents resulting from the domestication of eggplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Rachel S; Whitaker, Bruce D; Little, Damon P; Wu, Shi-Biao; Kennelly, Edward J; Long, Chun-Lin; Litt, Amy

    2015-07-01

    Crop domestication is often accompanied by changes in metabolite compositions that alter traits such as flavor, color, or other beneficial properties. Fruits of eggplants (Solanum melongena L.) and related species are abundant and diverse in pharmacologically interesting phenolic compounds, particularly hydroxycinnamic acid (HCA) conjugates such as the antioxidant caffeoylquinic acids (CQA) and HCA-polyamine amides (HCAA). To understand metabolite variability through the lens of natural and artificial selection, HPLC-DAD was used to generate phenolic profiles for 32 compounds in fruits from 93 accessions representing 9 Solanum species. Profiles were used for identification of species-level and infraspecific chemical patterns across both genetic distance and landscape. Sampling of plant lines included the undomesticated progenitor of eggplant and Asian landraces with a genetic background associated with three Asian regions near proposed separate centers of domestication to test whether chemical changes were convergent despite different origins. Results showed ten compounds were unique to species, and ten other compounds varied significantly in abundance among species. Five CQAs and three HCA-polyamine conjugates were more abundant in wild (undomesticated) versus domesticated eggplant, indicating that artificial selection may have led to reduced phenolic levels. No chemical abundance patterns were associated with site-origin. However, one genetically distinct lineage of geographically-restricted SE Asian eggplants (S. melongena subsp. ovigerum) had a higher HCAA content and diversity than other lineages, which is suggested to be related to artificial selection for small, firm fruit. Overall, patterns show that fruit size, palatability and texture were preferentially selected over health-beneficial phytochemical content during domestication of several nightshade crops.

  9. Serological prevalence of leptospiral infection in domestic animals in West Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahaman, A R; Ibrahim, A L; Adam, H

    1987-10-01

    A cross-sectional serological survey of domestic animals in West Malaysia revealed that 25.5% of the animals examined had agglutinating antibodies to one or more antigens belonging to Leptospira interrogans. Significant prevalence of infection was observed in cattle (40.5%), buffaloes (31%) and pigs (16%). The Sejroe serogroup was shown to be the principal one involved in cattle and buffaloes, and to a lesser extent the Tarassovi and Pomona serogroups. Evidence of infection in domestic animals by strains bearing the other seven antigens appeared insignificant and was indicative of sporadic infection. A majority of the large (semi-intensive) cattle and buffalo farms demonstrated a high prevalence of leptospiral infection. In both species of domestic animals mentioned above, the prevalence of infection was significantly higher (P = 0.01) in the semi-intensive farms than in the smallholdings. Amongst cattle, the droughtmasters had the highest prevalence whilst the Kedah-Kelantan (an indigenous breed) had the lowest prevalence of leptospiral infection. In general, the temperate breeds of cattle had a significantly (P = 0.01) higher prevalence of infection than local breeds. Leptospiral infection in goats and sheep was shown to be sporadic, and the Pomona serogroup was the principal leptospiral serogroup involved in these small ruminants. The prevalence of infection in pigs was observed to decline during the study period, and it is suspected that pigs in West Malaysia are the maintenance host for serovar pomona whilst cattle are the maintenance host for serovar hardjo. Overall, it appears that domestic animals in Malaysia will play a bigger role in the epidemiology of leptospiral infection with the advent of sophisticated farming.

  10. A Multiplex Real-Time PCR Assay for Screening Gypsy Moths (Lepidoptera: Erebidae) in the United States for Evidence of an Asian Genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M S; Barr, N B; Braswell, W E; Martinez, M; Ledezma, L A; Molongoski, J; Mastro, V; Schuenzel, E L

    2015-10-01

    European gypsy moth populations (Lymantria dispar L.) are well established and a proven destructive force in hardwood trees throughout the United States and Canada. Introduction of the exotic Asian gypsy moth into North America would be even more impactful, as Asian gypsy moth populations have wider host ranges, and are capable of naturally dispersing more rapidly due to female flight ability. To support early detection and exclusion of Asian gypsy moth, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) uses molecular techniques to screen moths trapped in North America for evidence of common Asian genotype. In order to strengthen U.S. domestic capacity to screen moths quickly and efficiently, we report a real-time PCR assay for this pest. A probe system using TaqMan 5' nuclease chemistry is reported for detection of an allele associated with common Asian gypsy moth genotypes. The targeted allele is located at the nuclear FS1 locus currently used by the USDA in conventional PCR tests to screen for evidence of Asian gypsy moth introductions or introgression. The diagnostic probe is successfully multiplexed with a conserved 18S probe system to detect reaction failure due to poor sample quality or quantity. The specificity, sensitivity, and repeatability of the FS1-18S multiplex real-time PCR assay were tested on laboratory-reared and field-collected moths to demonstrate diagnostic utility. Implications of the new assay as a screening tool for evidence of Asian gypsy moth introgression and introduction are discussed.

  11. The China National Tobacco Corporation: From domestic to global dragon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jennifer; Lee, Kelley; Sejpal, Nidhi

    2017-03-01

    The China National Tobacco Corporation (CNTC), which produces one-third of the world's cigarettes, is the largest tobacco company in the world. Over the past 60 years, the CNTC has been focused on supplying a huge domestic market. As the market has become increasingly saturated, and potential foreign competition looms, the company has turned to expansion abroad. This paper examines the ambitions and prospects of the CNTC to 'go global'. Using Chinese and English language sources, this paper describes the globalisation ambitions of the CNTC, and its global business strategy focused on internal restructuring, brand development and expansion of overseas operations in selected markets. The paper concludes that the company has undergone substantial change over the past two decades and is consequently poised to become a new global player in the tobacco industry. This article is part of the special issue 'The Emergence of Asian Tobacco Companies: Implications for Global Health Governance'.

  12. Career development: domestic display as imperial, anthropological, and social trophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintle, Claire

    2008-01-01

    Analyzing the dynamics of collection and display in the colonial context, this essay considers the South Asian artifacts collected by Sir Richard Carnac Temple, Chief Commissioner of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands from 1894-1904. Temple exhibited the teak carvings, body adornments, and hunting tools that he amassed throughout his career in his home, The Nash, which became the foundation of his public persona as a triumphant colonial chief, a "shining light" in the emerging discipline of anthropology, and a wealthy, upper-class lord of the manor. The politics of consumption, decoration, and self-creation converge in The Nash, offering a glimpse into how material objects removed from India during the late nineteenth century were consumed in Britain and how domestic display contributed to the formation of British identity.

  13. The Early Rice Project: From Domestication to Global Warming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorian Q. Fuller

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The Early Rice Project, at the UCL Institute of Archaeology, is clarifying the origins of Asian rice agriculture. In the Lower Yangtze region of China, we have found the tipping point when domesticated forms first outnumber wild types c.4600 BC. Investigations of assorted weed flora are also revealing how the cultivation of rice changed over time, with early cultivation in small, irregular, dug-out paddy fields in the Lower Yangtze from c.4000 BC, providing a means for the careful control of water conditions. We also work on early rice cultivation in Thailand and India. By better characterising how rice was cultivated across its entire range, we aim to model the ancient output of atmospheric methane from wet rice fields, as this was a potential contributor to the long story of human-caused global warming.

  14. Levels and patterns of nucleotide variation in domestication QTL regions on rice chromosome 3 suggest lineage-specific selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianfa Xie

    Full Text Available Oryza sativa or Asian cultivated rice is one of the major cereal grass species domesticated for human food use during the Neolithic. Domestication of this species from the wild grass Oryza rufipogon was accompanied by changes in several traits, including seed shattering, percent seed set, tillering, grain weight, and flowering time. Quantitative trait locus (QTL mapping has identified three genomic regions in chromosome 3 that appear to be associated with these traits. We would like to study whether these regions show signatures of selection and whether the same genetic basis underlies the domestication of different rice varieties. Fragments of 88 genes spanning these three genomic regions were sequenced from multiple accessions of two major varietal groups in O. sativa--indica and tropical japonica--as well as the ancestral wild rice species O. rufipogon. In tropical japonica, the levels of nucleotide variation in these three QTL regions are significantly lower compared to genome-wide levels, and coalescent simulations based on a complex demographic model of rice domestication indicate that these patterns are consistent with selection. In contrast, there is no significant reduction in nucleotide diversity in the homologous regions in indica rice. These results suggest that there are differences in the genetic and selective basis for domestication between these two Asian rice varietal groups.

  15. Brain death: the Asian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Hoe Chin; Kwek, Tong Kiat; Morihara, Hirofumi; Gao, Daiquan

    2015-04-01

    Asia is the largest and most populous continent in the world with people from many diverse ethnic groups, religions and government systems. The authors surveyed 14 countries accounting for the majority of Asia's population and found that, although the concept of brain death is widely accepted, there is wide variability in the criteria for certification. Although most Asian countries have adopted the "whole-brain" concept of brain death, most countries with past colonial links to the United Kingdom follow the UK "brainstem" concept of brain death. Despite this difference, most countries require only neurologic testing of irreversible coma and absent brainstem reflexes as criteria for certification of brain death. Variability exists in the number of personnel required, qualifications of certifying doctors, need for repeat examination, minimum time interval between examinations, and requirement for and choice of confirmatory tests.

  16. Mouse x pig chimeric antibodies expressed in Baculovirus retain the same properties of their parent antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jar, Ana M; Osorio, Fernando A; López, Osvaldo J

    2009-01-01

    The development of hybridoma and recombinant DNA technologies has made it possible to use antibodies against cancer, autoimmune disorders, and infectious diseases in humans. These advances in therapy, as well as immunoprophylaxis, could also make it possible to use these technologies in agricultural species of economic importance such as pigs. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is an arterivirus causing very important economic losses to the industry. Passive transfer of antibodies obtained by biotechnology could be used in the future to complement or replace vaccination against this and other pig pathogens. To this end, we constructed and studied the properties of chimeric mouse x pig anti-PRRSV antibodies. We cloned the constant regions of gamma-1 and gamma-2 heavy chains and the lambda light chain of pig antibodies in frame with the variable regions of heavy and light chains of mouse monoclonal antibody ISU25C1, which has neutralizing activity against PRRSV. The coding regions for chimeric IgG1 and IgG2 were expressed in a baculovirus expression system. Both chimeric antibodies recognized PRRSV in ELISA as well as in a Western-blot format and, more importantly, were able to neutralize PRRSV in the same fashion as the parent mouse monoclonal antibody ISU25C1. In addition, we show that both pig IgG1 and IgG2 antibodies could bind complement component C1q, with IgG2 being more efficient than IgG1 in binding C1q. Expressing chimeric pig antibodies with protective capabilities offers a new alternative strategy for infectious disease control in domestic pigs.

  17. Experimental Transmission of African Swine Fever (ASF) Low Virulent Isolate NH/P68 by Surviving Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo, C; Soler, A; Nieto, R; Sánchez, M A; Martins, C; Pelayo, V; Carrascosa, A; Revilla, Y; Simón, A; Briones, V; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, J M; Arias, M

    2015-12-01

    African swine fever (ASF) has persisted in Eastern Europe since 2007, and two endemic zones have been identified in the central and southern parts of the Russian Federation. Moderate- to low-virulent ASF virus isolates are known to circulate in endemic ASF-affected regions. To improve our knowledge of virus transmission in animals recovered from ASF virus infection, an experimental in vivo study was carried out. Four domestic pigs were inoculated with the NH/P68 ASF virus, previously characterized to develop a chronic form of ASF. Two additional in-contact pigs were introduced at 72 days post-inoculation (dpi) in the same box for virus exposure. The inoculated pigs developed a mild form of the disease, and the virus was isolated from tissues in the inoculated pigs up to 99 dpi (pigs were euthanized at 36, 65, 99 and 134 dpi). In-contact pigs showed mild or no clinical signs, but did become seropositive, and a transient viraemia was detected at 28 days post-exposure (dpe), thereby confirming late virus transmission from the inoculated pigs. Virus transmission to in-contact pigs occurred at four weeks post-exposure, over three months after the primary infection. These results highlight the potential role of survivor pigs in disease maintenance and dissemination in areas where moderate- to low-virulent viruses may be circulating undetected. This study will help design better and more effective control programmes to fight against this disease.

  18. Identification of Pasteurella multocida capsular types isolated from rabbits and other domestic animals in Mexico with respiratory diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano-Vargas, Edgardo; Vega-Sánchez, Vicente; Zamora-Espinosa, José Luis; Acosta-Dibarrat, Jorge; Aguilar-Romero, Francisco; Negrete-Abascal, Erasmo

    2012-06-01

    Pasteurella multocida is the causative agent of pasteurellosis, a major disease in most domestic animals and livestock. In this study, a total of 34 isolates of P. multocida from rabbits and other domestic animals from Mexico with respiratory diseases underwent polymerase chain reaction-based capsular typing. One sheep isolate was found to belong to capsular serogroup D, whereas the rest of the rabbit, sheep, cattle, pig, goat, and duck isolates belonged to capsular serogroup A of P. multocida. This is the first report of capsular type A in P. multocida isolates from rabbits and duck origin in Mexico.

  19. Experimental aerosolized guinea pig-adapted Zaire ebolavirus (variant: Mayinga) causes lethal pneumonia in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twenhafel, N A; Shaia, C I; Bunton, T E; Shamblin, J D; Wollen, S E; Pitt, L M; Sizemore, D R; Ogg, M M; Johnston, S C

    2015-01-01

    Eight guinea pigs were aerosolized with guinea pig-adapted Zaire ebolavirus (variant: Mayinga) and developed lethal interstitial pneumonia that was distinct from lesions described in guinea pigs challenged subcutaneously, nonhuman primates challenged by the aerosol route, and natural infection in humans. Guinea pigs succumbed with significant pathologic changes primarily restricted to the lungs. Intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies were observed in many alveolar macrophages. Perivasculitis was noted within the lungs. These changes are unlike those of documented subcutaneously challenged guinea pigs and aerosolized filoviral infections in nonhuman primates and human cases. Similar to findings in subcutaneously challenged guinea pigs, there were only mild lesions in the liver and spleen. To our knowledge, this is the first report of aerosol challenge of guinea pigs with guinea pig-adapted Zaire ebolavirus (variant: Mayinga). Before choosing this model for use in aerosolized ebolavirus studies, scientists and pathologists should be aware that aerosolized guinea pig-adapted Zaire ebolavirus (variant: Mayinga) causes lethal pneumonia in guinea pigs.

  20. Domestication and geographic origin of Oryza sativa in China: insights from multilocus analysis of nucleotide variation of O. sativa and O. rufipogon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xin; Qiao, Wei-Hua; Chen, You-Tao; Wang, Rong-Sheng; Cao, Li-Rong; Zhang, Wan-Xia; Yuan, Nan-Nan; Li, Zi-Chao; Zeng, Han-Lai; Yang, Qing-Wen

    2012-10-01

    Previous studies have indicated that China is one of the domestication centres of Asian cultivated rice (Oryza sativa), and common wild rice (O. rufipogon) is the progenitor of O. sativa. However, the number of domestication times and the geographic origin of Asian cultivated rice in China are still under debate. In this study, 100 accessions of Asian cultivated rice and 111 accessions of common wild rice in China were selected to examine the relationship between O. sativa and O. rufipogon and thereby infer the domestication and evolution of O. sativa in China through sequence analyses of six gene regions, trnC-ycf6 in chloroplast genomes, cox3 in mitochondrial genomes and ITS, Ehd1, Waxy, Hd1 in nuclear genomes. The results indicated that the two subspecies of O. sativa (indica and japonica) were domesticated independently from different populations of O. rufipogon with gene flow occurring later from japonica to indica; Southern China was the genetic diversity centre of O. rufipogon, and the Pearl River basin near the Tropic of Cancer was the domestication centre of O. sativa in China.

  1. Obesity and Dyslipidemia in South Asians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anoop Misra

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and dyslipidemia are emerging as major public health challenges in South Asian countries. The prevalence of obesity is more in urban areas than rural, and women are more affected than men. Further, obesity in childhood and adolescents is rising rapidly. Obesity in South Asians has characteristic features: high prevalence of abdominal obesity, with more intra-abdominal and truncal subcutaneous adiposity than white Caucasians. In addition, there is greater accumulation of fat at “ectopic” sites, namely the liver and skeletal muscles. All these features lead to higher magnitude of insulin resistance, and its concomitant metabolic disorders (the metabolic syndrome including atherogenic dyslipidemia. Because of the occurrence of type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia and other cardiovascular morbidities at a lower range of body mass index (BMI and waist circumference (WC, it is proposed that cut-offs for both measures of obesity should be lower (BMI 23–24.9 kg/m2 for overweight and ≥25 kg/m2 for obesity, WC ≥80 cm for women and ≥90 cm for men for abdominal obesity for South Asians, and a consensus guideline for these revised measures has been developed for Asian Indians. Increasing obesity and dyslipidemia in South Asians is primarily driven by nutrition, lifestyle and demographic transitions, increasingly faulty diets and physical inactivity, in the background of genetic predisposition. Dietary guidelines for prevention of obesity and diabetes, and physical activity guidelines for Asian Indians are now available. Intervention programs with emphasis on improving knowledge, attitude and practices regarding healthy nutrition, physical activity and stress management need to be implemented. Evidence for successful intervention program for prevention of childhood obesity and for prevention of diabetes is available for Asian Indians, and could be applied to all South Asian countries with similar cultural and lifestyle profiles. Finally, more

  2. Immunization of African Indigenous Pigs with Attenuated Genotype I African Swine Fever Virus OURT88/3 Induces Protection Against Challenge with Virulent Strains of Genotype I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulumba-Mfumu, L K; Goatley, L C; Saegerman, C; Takamatsu, H-H; Dixon, L K

    2016-10-01

    The attenuated African swine fever virus genotype I strain OURT88/3 has previously been shown to induce protection of European breeds of domestic pigs against challenge with virulent isolates. To determine whether protective immune responses could also be induced in indigenous breeds of pigs from the Kinshassa region in Democratic Republic of Congo, we immunized a group of eight pigs with OURT88/3 strain and challenged the pigs 3 weeks later with virulent genotype I strain OURT88/1. Four of the pigs were protected against challenge. Three of the eight pigs died from African swine fever virus and a fourth from an unknown cause. The remaining four pigs all survived challenge with a recent virulent genotype I strain from the Democratic Republic of Congo, DRC 085/10. Control groups of non-immune pigs challenged with OURT88/1 or DRC 085/10 developed signs of acute ASFV as expected and had high levels of virus genome in blood.

  3. Production of α1,3-galactosyltransferase and cytidine monophosphate-N-acetylneuraminic acid hydroxylase gene double-deficient pigs by CRISPR/Cas9 and handmade cloning

    Science.gov (United States)

    GAO, Hanchao; ZHAO, Chengjiang; XIANG, Xi; LI, Yong; ZHAO, Yanli; LI, Zesong; PAN, Dengke; DAI, Yifan; HARA, Hidetaka; COOPER, David K.C.; CAI, Zhiming; MOU, Lisha

    2016-01-01

    Gene-knockout pigs hold great promise as a solution to the shortage of organs from donor animals for xenotransplantation. Several groups have generated gene-knockout pigs via clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated 9 (Cas9) and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). Herein, we adopted a simple and micromanipulator-free method, handmade cloning (HMC) instead of SCNT, to generate double gene-knockout pigs. First, we applied the CRISPR/Cas9 system to target α1,3-galactosyltransferase (GGTA1) and cytidine monophosphate-N-acetylneuraminic acid hydroxylase (CMAH) genes simultaneously in porcine fetal fibroblast cells (PFFs), which were derived from wild-type Chinese domestic miniature Wuzhishan pigs. Cell colonies were obtained by screening and were identified by Surveyor assay and sequencing. Next, we chose the GGTA1/CMAH double-knockout (DKO) cells for HMC to produce piglets. As a result, we obtained 11 live bi-allelic GGTA1/CMAH DKO piglets with the identical phenotype. Compared to cells from GGTA1-knockout pigs, human antibody binding and antibody-mediated complement-dependent cytotoxicity were significantly reduced in cells from GGTA1/CMAH DKO pigs, which demonstrated that our pigs would exhibit reduced humoral rejection in xenotransplantation. These data suggested that the combination of CRISPR/Cas9 and HMC technology provided an efficient and new strategy for producing pigs with multiple genetic modifications. PMID:27725344

  4. Multi-perpetrator domestic violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, Michael

    2014-04-01

    A significant proportion of reports of domestic violence against women involve multiple perpetrators. Although the number of perpetrators has been consistently identified as a measure of abuse severity, only a minority of studies of domestic violence examine the role of multiple offenders. Data on multi-perpetrator domestic violence (MDV) is frequently removed from analysis in domestic violence studies, or multi-perpetrator incidents are treated as single-perpetrator incidents. However, the available research links MDV to negative mental and physical health outcomes, intimate partner homicide, homelessness among women, and severe mental illness and suicidality. This article reviews the available prevalence data on MDV and draws together research on the contexts in which MDV takes place. It highlights two groups that are particularly vulnerable to MDV: (1) girls and women partnered to members of gangs and organized crime groups and (2) girls and women in some ethnic minority communities. While discussions of honor in relation to domestic violence are often racialized in Western media, this article highlights the cross-cultural role of masculine honor in collective violence against women in the working class and impoverished communities of majority cultures as well as in migrant and ethnic minority communities. It is clear that such complex forms of violence present a range of challenges for intervention and treatment and the article emphasizes the need for specialized and coordinated modes of investigation, support, and care.

  5. ARE THE REAL GDP SERIES IN ASIAN COUNTRIES NONSTATIONARY OR NONLINEAR STATIONARY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurun Nahar Jannati

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper checks whether per capita real gross domestic product (GDP series in 16 Asian countries are nonstationary or nonlinear and globally stationary during the period from 1970 to 2009, by applying the nonlinear unit root tests developed by Kapitanios, Shin and Snell (2003. In five out of the sixteen countries that is approximately one-third of the countries, the series are found to be stationary with asymmetric or nonlinear mean reversion. Analyses depict that nonlinear unit root test are suitable for some cases compare to the commonly used unit root test, Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF and Dickey-Fuller Generalized Least Square (DF-GLS tests.

  6. Effect of economic growth and environmental quality on tourism in Southeast Asian Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firmansyah

    2017-02-01

    The tourism is an important sector in generating income for a country, nevertheless, tourism is sensitive toward the changes in economy, as well as changes in environmental quality. By employing econometric models of error correction on annual data, this study examines the influence of environmental quality, domestic and global economic growth on foreign tourist arrivals in selected Southeast Asian countries, namely Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, Philippines, and Singapore. The findings of this study showed that all of countries long run model were proved statistically, indicated that world economic growth as well as environmental quality affect foreign tourism arrivals.

  7. Changes in the Food Situation in Asian Emerging Countries and a Direction for Japanese Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Kunio, TSUBOTA

    2009-01-01

    Recent price hikes in the world food market have renewed the food security concerns of many Japanese who had long been anxious about the country's falling food self-sufficiency rates and the declining domestic agricultural sector. This paper first reviews recent turmoil in the world food market and shows that neither rising food demand in Asian emerging countries nor low levels of world food stocks were the main cause, but the biofuel policies undertaken by the EU and the US, coupled with the...

  8. Selected Statistics on the Status of Asian-American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Pauline; Cabezas, Amado

    1977-01-01

    Taken from a paper on "The Economic and Employment Status of Asian Women in America" by Pauline Fong and Amado Cabezas of ASIAN, Inc., this brief analysis of statistics on Asian women indicates that highly educated Asian women do not have higher incomes or better jobs than many of those with less education.

  9. Genetic characterisation of Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) strains from feral pigs in the Brazilian Pantanal: An opportunity to reconstruct the history of PCV2 evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzo, Giovanni; Cortey, Martí; de Castro, Alessandra Marnie Martins Gomes; Piovezan, Ubiratan; Szabo, Matias Pablo Juan; Drigo, Michele; Segalés, Joaquim; Richtzenhain, Leonardo José

    2015-07-09

    Since its discovery, Porcine circovirus type 2 has emerged as one of the most relevant swine infectious diseases, causing relevant economic losses for the pig industry. While four genotypes were identified, only three (PCV2a, PCV2b and PCV2d) are currently circulating and display a worldwide distribution. Another genotype, PCV2c, has been described only once in Danish archive samples collected between 1980 and 1990. In addition to commercial pigs, PCV2 has been demonstrated to infect wild boars and other wild species, which can potentially serve as a reservoir for domestic populations. In this study, eight sequences obtained from feral pigs in the Pantanal region (Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil) were compared with reference sequences and other Brazilian sequences, and the results revealed remarkable genetic diversity, with all four genotypes currently recognised being detected (PCV2a, PCV2b, PCV2c and PCV2d). This finding represents a remarkable discovery, as it is the first detection of PCV2c since 1990 and the first-ever detection of PCV2c in live animals. The peculiar population history and ecological scenario of feral pigs in the Pantanal coupled with the complex, and still only partially known relationship of feral pigs with other PCV2 susceptible species (i.e., domestic pigs, wild boars and peccaries), open exciting questions concerning PCV2 origin and evolution. Overall, the results of the present study led us to form the following hypothesis: the PCV2 strains found in feral pigs may be the last descent of the strains that circulated among European pigs in the past, or they may have infected these feral pigs more recently through a bridge species.

  10. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    <正>Aims&Scope Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine(APJTB)aims to set up and provide an international academic communication platform for physicians,medical scientists,allied health scientists and public health workers,especially those in the Asian Pacific region and worldwide on tropical biomedicine,infectious diseases and public health,and to meet the growing challenges of understanding,preventing and controlling the dramatic global emergence and reemergence of infectious diseases in the Asian Pacific region.APJTB publishes new findings in both basic and clinical(including modern,traditional and epidemiological)research

  11. Asian Financial Cooperation as Seen From Europe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ In fact, I am convinced that steps to promote the Asian bond market have the potential to make a contribution to monetary and financial cooperation in Asia that goes beyond simply deepening and enhancing the efficiency of today's bond markets. Let me explain what I have in mind by looking at Asian monetary cooperation through the European rear-view mirror. In doing so, I will first make some broad-brush comparisons between Asian and European developments and then present some observations on the forces that, in my mind, have driven the process of cooperation in Europe - leaving it to you to decide whether a similar development could be expected in Asia.

  12. Reactions of pigs to a hot environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huynh Thi Thanh Thuy,; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2005-01-01

    When compared to other species of farm animals, pigs are relatively sensitive to high environmental temperatures because the pig cannot sweat and is relatively poor at panting. Little information is available about the ambient temperatures above which group-housed pigs start to adapt their mechanism

  13. Weaning the pig - Concepts and consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pluske, J.R.; Dividich, Le J.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2003-01-01

    Weaning the Pig: Concepts and Consequences addresses the major issues surrounding the weaning process, both for piglets and the breeding herd, in modern-day pig production. The post-weaned pig presents many challenges to the manager, stockperson and nutritionist, and as such is a critical phase in t

  14. Respiratory health effects in pig farmers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Preller, L.

    1995-01-01

    This thesis describes a cross-sectional study of risk factors of chronic respiratory health effects in pig farmers working in the South of the Netherlands. The study population comprised 100 pig farmers with and 100 pig farmers without chronic respiratory symptoms. Base-line lung function, non-speci

  15. Fermentation of liquid diets for pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, R.

    2001-01-01

    In the last 30 years major changes occurred in pig nutrition. With the increasing size of the pig farms, manual feeding was replaced by automatic feeding systems. Most pigs were fed on dry diets, but during last the 15 years a clear tendency towards liquid feeding systems was observed. In the early

  16. Florfenicol - pharmacodynamic, pharmacokinetics and clinical efficacy of oral formulations in domestic animals: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ščuka Leon

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC is a major economic problem for swine producers world-wide. Pharmacodynamic, pharmacokinetics and clinical efficacy of florfenicol oral formulations in domestic animals were evaluated. For this purpose the systematic review and meta-analysis were done. In vitro efficacy of florfenicol showed that this drug is highly effective against most important respiratory pathogens. All these facts are shown in our survey. Three studies in pigs were relevant to include in the meta-analysis, which showed that results in the florfenicol group were better than in comparative control groups in all observed parameters: clinical signs, lung lesions and resolution of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (P<0,001. A second meta-analysis with 7 studies showed that the usage of florfenicol reduces mortality in pig herds with PRDC (P<0.05. Other field trials in pigs using florfenicol oral forms where reviewed. After treatment with florfenicol oral solution there was a significant drop of mortality in both groups of pigs (P<0.01; eg. one using florfenicol oral solution in treating PRDC (n=85 and another mixed pneumoenteric infection (n=54. Analysis of data when using premix in pigs (n=118 also suggests that a medicated premix has a favorable anti-infectious effect on pigs, irrespective of the group of animals or the evolution stage of the disease. Finally, favorable effect of florfenicol in treating swine ileitis was also presented. Regarding their pharmacokinetics, in vitro and clinical efficacy of florfenicol oral forms, they should be considered as a powerful tool for combating complex infections that are frequently met in intensive animal production.

  17. Cohabitation Duration and Transient Domesticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golub, Andrew; Reid, Megan; Strickler, Jennifer; Dunlap, Eloise

    2013-01-01

    Research finds that many impoverished urban Black adults engage in a pattern of partnering and family formation involving a succession of short cohabitations yielding children, a paradigm referred to as transient domesticity. Researchers have identified socioeconomic status, cultural adaptations, and urbanicity as explanations for aspects of this pattern. We used longitudinal data from the 2001 Survey of Income and Program Participation to analyze variation in cohabitation and marriage duration by race/ethnicity, income, and urban residence. Proportional hazards regression indicated that separation risk is greater among couples that are cohabiting, below 200% of the federal poverty line, and Black but is not greater among urban dwellers. This provides empirical demographic evidence to support the emerging theory of transient domesticity and suggests that both socioeconomic status and race explain this pattern. We discuss the implications of these findings for understanding transient domesticity and make recommendations for using the Survey of Income and Program Participation to further study this family formation paradigm.

  18. Analysis of the temperature sensitivity of Japanese rubella vaccine strain TO-336.vac and its effect on immunogenicity in the guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Kiyoko; Ami, Yasushi; Suzaki, Yuriko; Otsuki, Noriyuki; Sakata, Masafumi; Takeda, Makoto; Mori, Yoshio

    2016-04-01

    The marker of Japanese domestic rubella vaccines is their lack of immunogenicity in guinea pigs. This has long been thought to be related to the temperature sensitivity of the viruses, but supporting evidence has not been described. In this study, we generated infectious clones of TO-336.vac, a Japanese domestic vaccine, TO-336.GMK5, the parental virus of TO-336.vac, and their mutants, and determined the molecular bases of their temperature sensitivity and immunogenicity in guinea pigs. The results revealed that Ser(1159) in the non-structural protein-coding region was responsible for the temperature sensitivity of TO-336.vac dominantly, while the structural protein-coding region affected the temperature sensitivity subordinately. The findings further suggested that the temperature sensitivity of TO-336.vac affected the antibody induction in guinea pigs after subcutaneous inoculation.

  19. Stop Domestic Violence Against Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    IN the beautiful autumn of 1995, women from all over the world gathered at the NGO Forum of the UN Fourth World Conference on Women in Beijing to discuss the ugly topic of "women and violence." An American woman said angrily that domestic violence was "as common as giving birth to babies." She denounced the prevalence of the violent behavior that was hidden in families and called upon the participants to strive for women’s dignity and safety. The participants all recognized that domestic violence had become a global

  20. Superheroes and masterminds of plant domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Ainsworth, Natalia E; Tenaillon, Maud I

    2016-01-01

    Domestication is one of the most fundamental changes in the evolution of human societies. The geographical origins of domesticated plants are inferred from archaeology, ecology and genetic data. Scenarios vary among species and include single, diffuse or multiple independent domestications. Cultivated plants present a panel of traits, the "domestication syndrome" that distinguish them from their wild relatives. It encompasses yield-, food usage-, and cultivation-related traits. Most genes underlying those traits are "masterminds" affecting the regulation of gene networks. Phenotypic convergence of domestication traits across species or within species between independently domesticated forms rarely coincides with convergence at the gene level. We review here current data/models that propose a protracted transition model for domestication and investigate the impact of mating system, life cycle and gene flow on the pace of domestication. Finally, we discuss the cost of domestication, pointing to the importance of characterizing adaptive functional variation in wild resources.

  1. Domestic connectivity: media, gender and the domestic sphere in Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Jessica

    2017-01-01

    This article explores how increased media access influences Kenyan women’s everyday life and alters the domestic space. The study, which is set in Uasin Gishu County, Kenya, is based on 30 in-depth interviews with women. The article demonstrates that women have incorporated newly attained media i...... their traditional gender roles....

  2. Enteric Methane Emission from Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henry; Theil, Peter Kappel; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach

    2011-01-01

    The modern pig industry rely on relatively few feedstuffs mostly from cereals (corn, wheat, barley, oats, rye and rice), cereal co-products (different milling fractions, residues from biofuel and alcohol industries, etc.), cereal substitutes (tapioca, maniocca), legumes (peas, beans, lupins......), protein concentrates (meal or cakes of soybean, rape, sunflower, cotton) and co-products from the sugar and starch industries to produce compounds feeds. The classical pig diet can also be characterised as relatively concentrated but an increased demand of high energy cereals for direct human use...... and increased availability of fibre rich ingredients from, for instance, the feed milling or starch extraction/fermentation industries have promoted an increased utilisation of fibre rich co-products in the pig feeds (Serena et al. 2007). Especially pregnant sows may be supplied with fibre rich diets without...

  3. GRP nerves in pig antrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, J J; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1987-01-01

    We extracted gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) and its C-terminal decapeptide corresponding to 6.4 and 6.8 pmol/g from pig antrum mucosa. By immunohistochemistry GRP was localized to mucosal, submucosal, and myenteric nerve fibers. A few nerve cell bodies were also identified. Using isolated perfused...... pig antrum with intact vagal innervation, we found concomitant, atropine-resistant release of GRP and gastrin during electrical stimulation of the vagal nerves. Intra-arterial GRP at 10(-11)-10(-10) mol/l caused up to fivefold, dose-dependent increases in gastrin secretion; higher doses were less...... response to GRP and abolished the effect of vagal stimulation. The available evidence strongly suggests that GRP nerves are responsible for the stimulatory vagal effects on gastrin secretion in the pig....

  4. PERSPECTIVES ON EAST-ASIAN MONETARY INTEGRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Masini

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Increasing trade interdependence among East-Asian countries suggests the urge to design some monetary arrangement to stabilize the macroeconomic framework of an extremely heterogeneously growing area. The paper reviews the literature and analyses several directions of East-Asian integration process, especially in relation to the European model. We argue that a more comprehensive economic and political world-scenario should be considered and a multi-speed policy approach should be implemented in the area. Around the pivotal role of China, a wide agreement should be reached for an Asian single-currency, which might be rapidly issued and provide a reference target for other East-Asian countries.

  5. China and Its Northeast Asian Neighbors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Bojiang; Li Baowen

    2007-01-01

    @@ Ⅰ Northeast Asian countries have held an important position on China's diplomatic chessboard. Their bilateral relations can be traced back to the ancient times, and they are important for China's national security strategy.

  6. The Asian Future of Evolutionary Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey Miller

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Asia's population, wealth, cognitive capital, and scientific influence are growing quickly. Reasonable demographic, economic, and psychometric projections suggest that by the mid-21st century, most of the world's psychology will be done in Asia, by Asians. Even if evolutionary psychology wins the battles for academic respectability in the United States and European Union, if it ignores the rise of Asian psychology, it will fail to have any serious, long-term, global influence in the behavioral sciences after the current generations of researchers are dead. I outline a ‘marketing strategy’ for promoting evolutionary psychology in the current Asian powers (Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Singapore, the new Asian mega-powers (China, India, and other developing Asia countries (e.g. Vietnam, Thailand, Malaysia, in a way that takes advantage of Asia's relative secularism, freedom from political correctness, sex-positive social attitudes, and intellectual traditions of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Confucianism.

  7. Central Asian Snow Cover from Hydrometeorological Surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Central Asian Snow Cover from Hydrometeorological Surveys data are based on observations made by personnel for three river basins: Amu Darya, Sir Darya, and...

  8. The rise of Asian sovereign wealth funds

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    This Asia Focus provides an overview of sovereign wealth funds, evaluates the structure and activities of major funds in Asia, and compares the transparency of Asian funds relative to international best practices.

  9. Asian Banks: Leading the Way to Recovery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ The global financial crisis has rocked the American and European Union banking system leaving many Western banks teetering on the verge of bankruptcy.But in the East,Asian banks have fared well so far.

  10. Asian Employment Forum Held in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ From August 13 through 15,2007,the Asian Employment Forum sponsored by the International Labor Organization (ILO) and hosted by the Ministry of Labor and Social Security of China was held in Beijing.

  11. Selection Under Domestication: Evidence for a Sweep in the Rice Waxy Genomic Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Kenneth M.; Caicedo, Ana L.; Polato, Nicholas; McClung, Anna; McCouch, Susan; Purugganan, Michael D.

    2006-01-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa) was cultivated by Asian Neolithic farmers >11,000 years ago, and different cultures have selected for divergent starch qualities in the rice grain during and after the domestication process. An intron 1 splice donor site mutation of the Waxy gene is responsible for the absence of amylose in glutinous rice varieties. This mutation appears to have also played an important role in the origin of low amylose, nonglutinous temperate japonica rice varieties, which form a primary component of Northeast Asian cuisines. Waxy DNA sequence analyses indicate that the splice donor mutation is prevalent in temperate japonica rice varieties, but rare or absent in tropical japonica, indica, aus, and aromatic varieties. Sequence analysis across a 500-kb genomic region centered on Waxy reveals patterns consistent with a selective sweep in the temperate japonicas associated with the mutation. The size of the selective sweep (>250 kb) indicates very strong selection in this region, with an inferred selection coefficient that is higher than similar estimates from maize domestication genes or wild species. These findings demonstrate that selection pressures associated with crop domestication regimes can exceed by one to two orders of magnitude those observed for genes under even strong selection in natural systems. PMID:16547098

  12. Comparison of Macroeconomic Performance of Selected Asian Countries. An Econometric Analysis of China Economic Growth and Policy Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasret Benar Balcioglu

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares the key macroeconomics indicators for the selected countries: China, Malaysia, Indonesia, Korea, Rep. and India and also makes an econometric analysis for China for the period 1961-2007. These countries are chosen on the basis of comparability of data and time without measurement errors. This study also investigates six hypotheses considering the impact of several key macroeconomic variables such as domestic saving rate, domestic investment rate, and volatility of savings, volatility of inflation, growth rate of exports and growth rate of real GNP. By using suitable statistical and econometric tests, this paper finds that prevailing performance of China depends on its superior rates of domestic saving and exports. Policies are also suggested from the differentials between the economic performances of China and other chosen Asian countries.

  13. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    <正>APJTB Monthly Aims&Scope Asian Pacific Jounrnal of Tropical Biomedicine(APJTB)aims to set up and provide an international academic communication platform for physicians,medical scientists,allied health scientists and public health workers,especially those in the Asian Pacific region and worldwide on tropical biomedicine,infectious diseases and public health,and to meet the growing challenges

  14. Serious Play: Race, Game, Asian American Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Fickle, Tara

    2014-01-01

    "Serious Play: Race, Game, Asian American Literature," argues that games are narrative fantasies of perfectly equal opportunity that can help us reconceive of what it means to be a minority in contemporary America. Race's idiomatic evolution into a "race card" points not just to identity's growing immateriality and "virtualization" but to its increasingly intimate relationship with the ludic. Asian American authors in particular have seized upon the possibilities of transforming identity into...

  15. Asian citrus psyllid RNAi pathway : RNAi evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Taning, Clauvis N. T.; Andrade, Eduardo C.; Hunter, Wayne B.; Olivier Christiaens; Guy Smagghe

    2016-01-01

    Diaphorina citri, known as the Asian citrus psyllid, is an important pest of citrus because it transmits a phloem-limited bacteria strongly implicated in huanglongbing (citrus greening disease). Emerging biotechnologies, such as RNA interference, could provide a new sustainable and environmentally friendly strategy for the management of this pest. In this study, genome and functional analysis were performed to verify whether the RNAi core genes are present in the Asian psyllid genome and if t...

  16. Seed Dispersal Potential of Asian Elephants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harich, Franziska K.; Treydte, Anna Christina; Ogutu, Joseph Ochieng

    2016-01-01

    of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). We examined the effects of elephant fruit consumption on potential seed dispersal using the example of a tree species with mega-faunal characteristics, Dillenia indica L., in Thailand. We conducted feeding trials with Asian elephants to quantify seed survival and gut...... dispersers might, therefore, have long-term negative consequences for the recruitment and dispersal dynamics of populations of certain tree species....

  17. Fluorescence in situ hybridization applied to domestic animal cytogenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubes, J; Pinton, A; Bonnet-Garnier, A; Fillon, V; Musilova, P; Michalova, K; Kubickova, S; Ducos, A; Yerle, M

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this article is not to present an exhaustive review of molecular cytogenetics applications in domestic animal species, but more to illustrate the considerable contribution of these approaches in diagnostics and research in economically important species. A short presentation of the main applications of molecular cytogenetics in humans points out the domains in which it has become an essential tool and underlines the specificities attached to this species in comparison to farm animals. This article is devoted to outlining the current resources available in domestic species and to some examples of fluorescence in situ hybridization applications in the cattle, pig, horse and avian species. From a clinical point of view, these examples illustrate the advantages of FISH for the study of chromosomal abnormalities (identification, characterization and estimation of their effects). Other applications of molecular cytogenetics are also illustrated, particularly ZOO-FISH, an approach which allows the determination of chromosome homologies between species. Finally, a specific emphasis was placed on the usefulness of molecular cytogenetics for the analysis of species such as poultry, which harbour a complex karyotype.

  18. Fermentation of liquid diets for pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Scholten, R.

    2001-01-01

    In the last 30 years major changes occurred in pig nutrition. With the increasing size of the pig farms, manual feeding was replaced by automatic feeding systems. Most pigs were fed on dry diets, but during last the 15 years a clear tendency towards liquid feeding systems was observed. In the early 80's the use of liquid co-products from the human food industry was introduced into pig nutrition. In the Netherlands, nowadays about 20% of the slaughter pigs and about 10% of the sows is fed a li...

  19. Prevalence of Endemic Pig-Associated Zoonoses in Southeast Asia: A Review of Findings from the Lao People's Democratic Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okello, Anna L; Burniston, Stephanie; Conlan, James V; Inthavong, Phouth; Khamlome, Boualam; Welburn, Susan C; Gilbert, Jeffrey; Allen, John; Blacksell, Stuart D

    2015-05-01

    The increasing intensification of pork production in southeast Asia necessitates an urgent requirement to better understand the dual impact of pig-associated zoonotic disease on both pig production and human health in the region. Sharing porous borders with five countries and representing many regional ethnicities and agricultural practices, the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) appears well placed to gauge the levels of pig-associated zoonoses circulating in the wider region. Despite this, little is known about the true impact of zoonotic pathogens such as leptospirosis, Trichinella, hepatitis E virus (HEV), Japanese encephalitis (JE), and Taenia solium on human health and livestock production in the country. A comprehensive review of the published prevalences of these five pig-associated zoonoses in Lao PDR has demonstrated that although suspicion remains high of their existence in pig reservoirs across the country, epidemiological data are scarce; only 31 epidemiological studies have been undertaken on these diseases in the past 25 years. A greater understanding of the zoonoses prevalence and subsequent risks associated with pork production in the southeast Asian region could help focus public health and food safety interventions at key points along the value chain, benefiting both livestock producers and the broader animal and human health systems in the region.

  20. Visual cues given by humans are not sufficient for Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) to find hidden food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnik, Joshua M; Pokorny, Jennifer J; Keratimanochaya, Titiporn; Webb, Christine; Beronja, Hana F; Hennessy, Alice; Hill, James; Hill, Virginia J; Kiss, Rebecca; Maguire, Caitlin; Melville, Beckett L; Morrison, Violet M B; Seecoomar, Dannah; Singer, Benjamin; Ukehaxhaj, Jehona; Vlahakis, Sophia K; Ylli, Dora; Clayton, Nicola S; Roberts, John; Fure, Emilie L; Duchatelier, Alicia P; Getz, David

    2013-01-01

    Recent research suggests that domesticated species--due to artificial selection by humans for specific, preferred behavioral traits--are better than wild animals at responding to visual cues given by humans about the location of hidden food. \\Although this seems to be supported by studies on a range of domesticated (including dogs, goats and horses) and wild (including wolves and chimpanzees) animals, there is also evidence that exposure to humans positively influences the ability of both wild and domesticated animals to follow these same cues. Here, we test the performance of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) on an object choice task that provides them with visual-only cues given by humans about the location of hidden food. Captive elephants are interesting candidates for investigating how both domestication and human exposure may impact cue-following as they represent a non-domesticated species with almost constant human interaction. As a group, the elephants (n = 7) in our study were unable to follow pointing, body orientation or a combination of both as honest signals of food location. They were, however, able to follow vocal commands with which they were already familiar in a novel context, suggesting the elephants are able to follow cues if they are sufficiently salient. Although the elephants' inability to follow the visual cues provides partial support for the domestication hypothesis, an alternative explanation is that elephants may rely more heavily on other sensory modalities, specifically olfaction and audition. Further research will be needed to rule out this alternative explanation.

  1. Visual cues given by humans are not sufficient for Asian elephants (Elephas maximus to find hidden food.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua M Plotnik

    Full Text Available Recent research suggests that domesticated species--due to artificial selection by humans for specific, preferred behavioral traits--are better than wild animals at responding to visual cues given by humans about the location of hidden food. \\Although this seems to be supported by studies on a range of domesticated (including dogs, goats and horses and wild (including wolves and chimpanzees animals, there is also evidence that exposure to humans positively influences the ability of both wild and domesticated animals to follow these same cues. Here, we test the performance of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus on an object choice task that provides them with visual-only cues given by humans about the location of hidden food. Captive elephants are interesting candidates for investigating how both domestication and human exposure may impact cue-following as they represent a non-domesticated species with almost constant human interaction. As a group, the elephants (n = 7 in our study were unable to follow pointing, body orientation or a combination of both as honest signals of food location. They were, however, able to follow vocal commands with which they were already familiar in a novel context, suggesting the elephants are able to follow cues if they are sufficiently salient. Although the elephants' inability to follow the visual cues provides partial support for the domestication hypothesis, an alternative explanation is that elephants may rely more heavily on other sensory modalities, specifically olfaction and audition. Further research will be needed to rule out this alternative explanation.

  2. Domestic Violence. Technical Assistance Packet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Join Together, Boston, MA.

    Substance abuse has long been recognized as a precipitating factor in many domestic violence incidents. The main type of substance abuse is alcohol usage. Forty-six percent of the offenders reported being dependent on or abusing alcohol, while another 28% were found to be dependent on opiates, cocaine, marijuana, or inhalants. Nearly two-fifths of…

  3. Premier Wen on Domestic Policies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The Second Session of the 11th National People’s Congress held a press conference at the Great Hall of the People on March 13. Premier Wen Jiabao answered questions from the Chinese and foreign press. Below are highlights of his answers on domestic policies.

  4. Domestic Needs,International Relations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DREW; THOMPSON

    2009-01-01

    Washington listens closely to values and interests of domestic audiences when shaping its policy toward China Longtime Speakerof the House TipO’ Neil once fa-Lmously said, "Allpolitics is local." Whilehe was reflecting on rep-resentative governmentand the nature of elec-tions in America, public

  5. Preliminary Measurement of Internal Organs of Congjiang Fragrance Pig and Huanjiang Fragrance Pig

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen; Xuelin; Duan; Yongbang; Zhang; Yi; Liu; Peiqiong

    2014-01-01

    Fragrance pig is a famous miniature local breed in China,which is similar to human on the aspects of physical structure,anatomy,nutrition,metabolism and blood biochemical indicators. The internal organs of Congjiang fragrance pig and Huanjiang fragrance pig with different month ages were weighed. The results showed that the proportion of stomach in body weight in Congjiang fragrance pig was higher than that in Min pig,Harbin white and Landrace,and the proportion of large intestine in body weight in Congjiang fragrance pig was also higher than that in ordinary pigs; the weights of heart,liver and kidney in 8- 10 months old Congjiang fragrance pig were similar to that in Chinese adults. This provided reference data for future in-depth development and utilization of fragrance pig.

  6. Risk factors for contacts between wild boar and outdoor pigs in Switzerland and investigations on potential Brucella suis spill-over

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Natacha

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to the parallel increase of the number of free-ranging wild boar and domestic pigs reared outdoor, the risk that they interact has become higher. Contacts with wild boar can be the origin of disease outbreaks in pigs, as it has been documented for brucellosis in some European countries. This study aimed at quantifying the occurrence of contacts between wild boar and outdoor domestic pigs in Switzerland, and identifying risk factors for these contacts. Furthermore, exposed pigs were tested for pathogen spill-over, taking Brucella suis as an example because B. suis is widespread in Swiss wild boar while domestic pigs are officially free of brucellosis. Results Thirty-one percent of the game-wardens and 25% of the pig owners participating to a country-wide questionnaire survey reported contacts, including approaches of wild boar outside the fence, intrusions, and mating. Seventeen piggeries (5% reported the birth of cross-bred animals. Risk factors for contacts identified by a uni- and multivariable logistic regression approach were: distance between pig enclosure and buildings, proximity of a forest, electric fences, and fences ≤ 60 cm. Pigs of the Mangalitza breed were most at risk for mating with wild boar (births of cross-bred animals. Blood and tissues of 218 outdoor pigs from 13 piggeries were tested for an infection with Brucella suis, using rose bengal test, complement fixation test, and an IS711-based real-time PCR. One piggery with previous wild boar contacts was found infected with B. suis, however, epidemiological investigations failed to identify the direct source of infection. Conclusions Results show that interactions between wild boar and outdoor pigs are not uncommon, pointing at the existing risk of pathogen spill-over. Provided data on risk factors for these interactions could help the risk-based implementation of protection measures for piggeries. The documentation of a brucellosis outbreak in

  7. Rice domestication: histories and mysteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Briana L

    2012-09-01

    Domesticated rice (Oryza sativa) is one of the world's most important food crops, culturally, nutritionally and economically (Khush 1997). Thus, it is no surprise that there is intense curiosity about its genetic and geographical origins, its response to selection under domestication, and the genetic structure of its wild relative, Oryza rufipogon. Studies of Oryza attempting to answer these questions have accompanied each stage of the development of molecular markers, starting with allozymes and continuing to genome sequencing. While many of these studies have been restricted to small sample sizes, in terms of either the number of markers used or the number and distribution of the accessions, costs are now low enough that researchers are including large numbers of molecular markers and accessions. How will these studies relate to previous findings and long-held assumptions about rice domestication and evolution? If the paper in this issue of Molecular Ecology (Huang et al. 2012) is any indication, there will be some considerable surprises in store. In this study, a geographically and genomically thorough sampling of O. rufipogon and O. sativa revealed two genetically distinct groups of wild rice and also indicated that only one of these groups appears to be related to domesticated rice. While this fits well with previous studies indicating that there are genetic subdivisions within O. rufipogon, it stands in contrast to previous findings that the two major varieties of O. sativa (indica and japonica) were domesticated from two (or more) subpopulations of wild rice.

  8. IAU South West Asian ROAD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickaelian, Areg; Azatyan, Naira; Farmanyan, Sona; Mikayelyan, Gor

    2016-10-01

    Armenia is hosting the IAU South West Asian (SWA) Regional Office of Astronomy for Development (ROAD). It is a county of ancient astronomy and is also rich in modern astronomical facilities and infrastructures, hence may successfully serve as a regional center for various activities. Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory (BAO) has 2.6m and 1m Schmidt, as well as a number of smaller telescopes that are an observational basis for joint projects and collaborations. Armenian Virtual Observatory (ArVO) is hosting astronomical databases, such as the Digitized First Byurakan Survey (DFBS) and may also serve as a basis for development of VO structures in this region. Recently we have conducted a number of new activities; a meeting on ``Relation of Astronomy to other Sciences, Culture and Society" (RASCS) was organized by BAO and Armenian Astronomical Society (ArAS) in Oct 2014 in Byurakan. Activities related to Archaeoastronomy and Astronomy in Culture (AAC) were initiated as well. Discussions on future Armenian-Iranian collaboration in astronomy were carried out, including an Armenian-Iranian Astronomical Workshop held in Oct 2015 in Byurakan. Similar workshops have been carried out between BAO and Abastumani Astronomical Observatory (AbAO, Georgia) since 1974.

  9. People, Pigs, Pork and Preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorslund, Cecilie Agnete H

    , depending on whether they relate to an everyday or production context. Furthermore, some interesting national differences emerged, pointing at the need for more than one marketing strategy if pig welfare is to be supported through consumer demand. Overall, this thesis contributes with important findings...

  10. Fermented liquid feed for pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missotten, Joris A M; Michiels, Joris; Ovyn, Anneke; De Smet, Stefaan; Dierick, Noël A

    2010-12-01

    Since the announcement of the ban on the use of antibiotics as antimicrobial growth promoters in the feed of pigs in 2006 the investigation towards alternative feed additives has augmented considerably. Although fermented liquid feed is not an additive, but a feeding strategy, the experimental work examining its possible advantages also saw a rise. The use of fermented liquid feed (FLF) has two main advantages, namely that the simultaneous provision of feed and water may result in an alleviation of the transition from the sow milk to solid feed and may also reduce the time spent to find both sources of nutrients, and secondly, that offering FLF with a low pH may strengthen the potential of the stomach as a first line of defence against possible pathogenic infections. Because of these two advantages, FLF is often stated as an ideal feed for weaned piglets. The results obtained so far are rather variable, but in general they show a better body weight gain and worse feed/gain ratio for the piglets. However, for growing-finishing pigs on average a better feed/gain ratio is found compared to pigs fed dry feed. This better performance is mostly associated with less harmful microbiota and better gut morphology. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge of FLF for pigs,dealing with the FLF itself as well as its effect on the gastrointestinal tract and animal performance.

  11. Storytelling and story testing in domestication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerbault, Pascale; Allaby, Robin G; Boivin, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    The domestication of plants and animals marks one of the most significant transitions in human, and indeed global, history. Traditionally, study of the domestication process was the exclusive domain of archaeologists and agricultural scientists; today it is an increasingly multidisciplinary...

  12. Patterns and risks of trichinella infection in humans and pigs in northern Laos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James V Conlan

    Full Text Available Several outbreaks of trichinellosis associated with the consumption of raw pork have occurred in Laos since 2004. This cross-sectional study was conducted in four provinces of northern Laos to investigate the seroepidemiology of trichinellosis in the human population and determine the prevalence and species of Trichinella infection in the domestic pig population. Serum samples and questionnaire data were obtained from 1419 individuals. Serum samples were tested for Trichinella antibodies by ELISA using larval excretory-secretory (ES antigens and a subset of 68 positive samples were tested by western blot. The seroprevalence of Trichinella antibodies was 19.1% (95% confidence interval (CI = 17.1-21.1%. The risk of having antibodies detected by ELISA using ES antigens increased with age, being of Lao-Tai ethnicity, living in Oudomxay province and being male. Tongue and diaphragm muscle samples were collected from 728 pigs and tested for Trichinella larvae by the artificial digestion method. Trichinella larvae were isolated from 15 pigs (2.1% of which 13 were identified as T. spiralis by molecular typing; the species of the two remaining isolates could not be determined due to DNA degradation. Trichinella spp. are endemic in the domestic environment of northern Laos and targeted preventative health measures should be initiated to reduce the risk of further outbreaks occurring.

  13. Patterns and risks of trichinella infection in humans and pigs in northern Laos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlan, James V; Vongxay, Khamphouth; Khamlome, Boualam; Gomez-Morales, Maria Angeles; Pozio, Edoardo; Blacksell, Stuart D; Fenwick, Stanley; Thompson, R C A

    2014-01-01

    Several outbreaks of trichinellosis associated with the consumption of raw pork have occurred in Laos since 2004. This cross-sectional study was conducted in four provinces of northern Laos to investigate the seroepidemiology of trichinellosis in the human population and determine the prevalence and species of Trichinella infection in the domestic pig population. Serum samples and questionnaire data were obtained from 1419 individuals. Serum samples were tested for Trichinella antibodies by ELISA using larval excretory-secretory (ES) antigens and a subset of 68 positive samples were tested by western blot. The seroprevalence of Trichinella antibodies was 19.1% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 17.1-21.1%). The risk of having antibodies detected by ELISA using ES antigens increased with age, being of Lao-Tai ethnicity, living in Oudomxay province and being male. Tongue and diaphragm muscle samples were collected from 728 pigs and tested for Trichinella larvae by the artificial digestion method. Trichinella larvae were isolated from 15 pigs (2.1%) of which 13 were identified as T. spiralis by molecular typing; the species of the two remaining isolates could not be determined due to DNA degradation. Trichinella spp. are endemic in the domestic environment of northern Laos and targeted preventative health measures should be initiated to reduce the risk of further outbreaks occurring.

  14. Family Violence: Psychological Consequences and Beliefs in Asian and Asian-American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maker, Azmaira; Heiple, Becky

    This study specifically explored the relationships among childhood trauma, long-term psychological consequences, beliefs about family violence, and gender role stereotypes in Asian and Asian American women. A prediction was made that childhood physical violence and witnessing family violence would create long-term negative symptoms; higher levels…

  15. Impacts of Pig Management and Husbandry Farmers Towards Classical Swine Fever Transmission in West Timor Indonesia (DAMPAK MANAJEMEN DAN CARA BETERNAK BABI TERHADAP PENULARAN PENYAKIT CHOLERA BABI DI TIMOR BARAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrus Malo Bulu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Classical swine fever (CSF is a serious and highly infectious viral disease of domestic pigs and wildboar, which is caused by a single stranded RNA pestivirus. A cross sectional study was carried out onsmall-holder pig farmers in West Timor, in the province of East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia. The objectiveof this study was to describe the management, husbandry and trading practices adopted by pig farmers inWest Timor. A questionnaire survey was administered to the owners of these pigs (n = 240 to gatherinformation from farmers in order to understand management and husbandry practices in the region. Theresults of the questionnaire highlighted the lack of implementation of biosecurity measures by smallholderfarms in West Timor, which has the potential to increase the risk of their pigs to CSF, as well as toother diseases.

  16. Modelling and forecasting Australian domestic tourism

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we model and forecast Australian domestic tourism demand. We use a regression framework to estimate important economic relationships for domestic tourism demand. We also identify the impact of world events such as the 2000 Sydney Olympics and the 2002 Bali bombings on Australian domestic tourism. To explore the time series nature of the data, we use innovation state space models to forecast the domestic tourism demand. Combining these two frameworks, we build innovation state s...

  17. Negotiating Intra-Asian Games Networks: On Cultural Proximity, East Asian Games Design, and Chinese Farmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean Chan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A key feature of networked games in East Asia is the relationship between the adaptation of regional Asian aesthetic and narrative forms in game content, and the parallel growth in more regionally-focused marketing and distribution initiatives. This essay offers a contextual analysis of intra-Asian games networks, with reference to the production, marketing and circulation of Asian MMORPGs. My discussion locates these networks as part of broader discourses on regionalism, East Asian cultural production and Asian modernity. At the same time, I consider how these networks highlight structural asymmetry and uneven power relations within the region; and I examine the emergent use of gamer-workers known as Chinese farmers in the digital game-items trade.

  18. Effect of four resuscitation methods on lung ventilation of pigs with respiratory arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-hua LIU

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective To observe the effects of four cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR methods on lung ventilation of pigs with respiratory arrest. The four CPR methods included chest compression CPR (C-CPR, compression under the diaphragm CPR (D-CPR, abdominal compression CPR (A-CPR, and abdominal wall lifting and compression CPR (L-CPR. Methods  A total of 28 healthy domestic pigs were randomly divided into four groups. The pig respiratory arrest model was reproduced by intravenous injection of suxamethonium. Instantly after respiratory arrest, one of the 4 CPR methods was performed immediately on the groups of pigs respectively. After 2min of CPR, compression was stopped. The experimental pigs were given assisted respiration using a ventilator until autonomous respiration recovered. The tidal volume (VT in basic status and that during resuscitation by the four respective resuscitation methods was determined, and minute ventilation (MV was calculated. Furthermore, heart rate (HR, mean arterial blood pressure, and recovery time of autonomous respiration were compared between all the groups. Results In basic status, there was no statistical difference (P > 0.05 in VT and MV between the four groups. Approximately 2min after resuscitation, the VT and MV of D-CPR were higher than that of C-CPR; that of A-CPR was higher than that of D-CPR; and that of L-CPR was higher than that of A-CPR. The differences were statistically significant (P 0.05. HR in C-CPR and D-CPR were notably lower than the basic value (P < 0.01. Two minutes after resuscitation, mechanical ventilation was given, and HR in all the groups was close to the basic value 5 min after resuscitation. In the respiratory arrest pig model, L-CPR could provide more effective VT and MV than the other methods. Conclusion For the porcine respiratory arrest model, L-CPR can provide more effective lung ventilation than the other methods.

  19. 25 CFR 11.454 - Domestic violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Domestic violence. 11.454 Section 11.454 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.454 Domestic violence. (a) A person who commits domestic violence...

  20. Risk factors for domestic violence in Curacao

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, van N.Ph.L.; Bruijn, de J.G.M.

    2012-01-01

    One out of three people (25% of men, 38% of women) in Curacao have experienced some form of domestic violence at some point in their adult lives. The most significant risk factors for domestic violence in Curacao are the female gender, a young age, low education, and experiencing domestic violence v

  1. A pipeline strategy for grain crop domestication

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent decades, in the interest of diversifying the global food system, improving human nutrition, or making agriculture more sustainable, there have been many proposals for domesticating or completing the domestication of wild plants or semi-domesticated “orphan” crops. However, very few new cro...

  2. Sustainability in South Asian city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Akhmat

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available City brings about the most complex interplay of social, cultural, and political dimensions of space. It will have to accommodate around one billion humans only in South Asia by the year 2030. Therefore it needs to be prepared to absorb huge increases in urban population and resulting pressure on basic infrastructure and livelihood opportunities. In order to secure a better future and to improve the quality of life of all the citizens, city needs to be reinvented, by incorporating creativity and innovation with the approaches, we use in its planning. Here we present an overview of the progress, challenges and some key interventions to reinvent the city in South Asian region as well as in the developing world, with the examples of the most populous countries in the region: India, Pakistan and Bangladesh. Planning transforms geometric space in city into lived space. City planning in South Asia is as old as the human settlement itself, but the current situation is well below the level to be admired. Most of the city plans have been faulty with poor economic base and implementability, and fostered unintended city within the city, whose growth rate shadows the growth rate of the city itself. City in the developing world desperately needs to follow a sustainable development pattern which satisfies the requirement for equity; meets basic human needs; allows social and ethnic self-determination; promotes environmental awareness, integrity and inter-linkages between various living beings across time and space. It requires a combination of strategic policy making, supported by a system that combines personal opinion with scientific knowledge. It needs to reset the basis for the articulation of the initiatives of all relevant stakeholders to seek synergies for its development.

  3. New insights into the history of domesticated and wild apricots and its contribution to Plum pox virus resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decroocq, Stéphane; Cornille, Amandine; Tricon, David; Babayeva, Sevda; Chague, Aurélie; Eyquard, Jean-Philippe; Karychev, Raul; Dolgikh, Svetlana; Kostritsyna, Tatiana; Liu, Shuo; Liu, Weisheng; Geng, Wenjuan; Liao, Kang; Asma, Bayram M; Akparov, Zeynal; Giraud, Tatiana; Decroocq, Véronique

    2016-10-01

    Studying domesticated species and their wild relatives allows understanding of the mechanisms of population divergence and adaptation, and identifying valuable genetic resources. Apricot is an important fruit in the Northern hemisphere, where it is threatened by the Plum pox virus (PPV), causing the sharka disease. The histories of apricot domestication and of its resistance to sharka are however still poorly understood. We used 18 microsatellite markers to genotype a collection of 230 wild trees from Central Asia and 142 cultivated apricots as representatives of the worldwide cultivated apricot germplasm; we also performed experimental PPV inoculation tests. The genetic markers revealed highest levels of diversity in Central Asian and Chinese wild and cultivated apricots, confirming an origin in this region. In cultivated apricots, Chinese accessions were differentiated from more Western accessions, while cultivated apricots were differentiated from wild apricots. An approximate Bayesian approach indicated that apricots likely underwent two independent domestication events, with bottlenecks, from the same wild population. Central Asian native apricots exhibited genetic subdivision and high frequency of resistance to sharka. Altogether, our results contribute to the understanding of the domestication history of cultivated apricot and point to valuable genetic diversity in the extant genetic resources of wild apricots.

  4. Metabolomic phenotyping of a cloned pig model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Callesen Henrik

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pigs are widely used as models for human physiological changes in intervention studies, because of the close resemblance between human and porcine physiology and the high degree of experimental control when using an animal model. Cloned animals have, in principle, identical genotypes and possibly also phenotypes and this offer an extra level of experimental control which could possibly make them a desirable tool for intervention studies. Therefore, in the present study, we address how phenotype and phenotypic variation is affected by cloning, through comparison of cloned pigs and normal outbred pigs. Results The metabolic phenotype of cloned pigs (n = 5 was for the first time elucidated by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR-based metabolomic analysis of multiple bio-fluids including plasma, bile and urine. The metabolic phenotype of the cloned pigs was compared with normal outbred pigs (n = 6 by multivariate data analysis, which revealed differences in the metabolic phenotypes. Plasma lactate was higher for cloned vs control pigs, while multiple metabolites were altered in the bile. However a lower inter-individual variability for cloned pigs compared with control pigs could not be established. Conclusions From the present study we conclude that cloned and normal outbred pigs are phenotypically different. However, it cannot be concluded that the use of cloned animals will reduce the inter-individual variation in intervention studies, though this is based on a limited number of animals.

  5. Pigs taking wing with transposons and recombinases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Karl J; Carlson, Daniel F; Fahrenkrug, Scott C

    2007-01-01

    Swine production has been an important part of our lives since the late Mesolithic or early Neolithic periods, and ranks number one in world meat production. Pig production also contributes to high-value-added medical markets in the form of pharmaceuticals, heart valves, and surgical materials. Genetic engineering, including the addition of exogenous genetic material or manipulation of the endogenous genome, holds great promise for changing pig phenotypes for agricultural and medical applications. Although the first transgenic pigs were described in 1985, poor survival of manipulated embryos; inefficiencies in the integration, transmission, and expression of transgenes; and expensive husbandry costs have impeded the widespread application of pig genetic engineering. Sequencing of the pig genome and advances in reproductive technologies have rejuvenated efforts to apply transgenesis to swine. Pigs provide a compelling new resource for the directed production of pharmaceutical proteins and the provision of cells, vascular grafts, and organs for xenotransplantation. Additionally, given remarkable similarities in the physiology and size of people and pigs, swine will increasingly provide large animal models of human disease where rodent models are insufficient. We review the challenges facing pig transgenesis and discuss the utility of transposases and recombinases for enhancing the success and sophistication of pig genetic engineering. 'The paradise of my fancy is one where pigs have wings.' (GK Chesterton). PMID:18047690

  6. The uncoupling protein 1 gene (UCP1 is disrupted in the pig lineage: a genetic explanation for poor thermoregulation in piglets.

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    Frida Berg

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Piglets appear to lack brown adipose tissue, a specific type of fat that is essential for nonshivering thermogenesis in mammals, and they rely on shivering as the main mechanism for thermoregulation. Here we provide a genetic explanation for the poor thermoregulation in pigs as we demonstrate that the gene for uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1 was disrupted in the pig lineage. UCP1 is exclusively expressed in brown adipose tissue and plays a crucial role for thermogenesis by uncoupling oxidative phosphorylation. We used long-range PCR and genome walking to determine the complete genome sequence of pig UCP1. An alignment with human UCP1 revealed that exons 3 to 5 were eliminated by a deletion in the pig sequence. The presence of this deletion was confirmed in all tested domestic pigs, as well as in European wild boars, Bornean bearded pigs, wart hogs, and red river hogs. Three additional disrupting mutations were detected in the remaining exons. Furthermore, the rate of nonsynonymous substitutions was clearly elevated in the pig sequence compared with the corresponding sequences in humans, cattle, and mice, and we used this increased rate to estimate that UCP1 was disrupted about 20 million years ago.

  7. The globalisation strategies of five Asian tobacco companies: a comparative analysis and implications for global health governance.

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    Lee, Kelley; Eckhardt, Jappe

    2017-03-01

    The global tobacco industry, from the 1960s to mid 1990s, saw consolidation and eventual domination by a small number of transnational tobacco companies (TTC). This paper draws together comparative analysis of five case studies in the special issue on 'The Emergence of Asian Tobacco Companies: Implications for Global Health Governance.' The cases suggest that tobacco industry globalisation is undergoing a new phase, beginning in the late 1990s, with the adoption of global business strategies by five Asian companies. The strategies were prompted foremost by external factors, notably market liberalisation, competition from TTCs and declining domestic markets. State protection and promotion enabled the industries in Japan, South Korea and China to rationalise their operations ahead of foreign market expansion. The TTM and TTL will likely remain domestic or perhaps regional companies, JTI and KT&G have achieved TTC status, and the CNTC is poised to dwarf all existing companies. This global expansion of Asian tobacco companies will increase competition which, in turn, will intensify marketing, exert downward price pressures along the global value chain, and encourage product innovation. Global tobacco control requires fuller understanding of these emerging changes and the regulatory challenges posed by ongoing globalisation.

  8. Genetic testing in domestic cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Leslie A

    2012-12-01

    Varieties of genetic tests are currently available for the domestic cat that support veterinary health care, breed management, species identification, and forensic investigations. Approximately thirty-five genes contain over fifty mutations that cause feline health problems or alterations in the cat's appearance. Specific genes, such as sweet and drug receptors, have been knocked-out of Felidae during evolution and can be used along with mtDNA markers for species identification. Both STR and SNP panels differentiate cat race, breed, and individual identity, as well as gender-specific markers to determine sex of an individual. Cat genetic tests are common offerings for commercial laboratories, allowing both the veterinary clinician and the private owner to obtain DNA test results. This article will review the genetic tests for the domestic cat, and their various applications in different fields of science. Highlighted are genetic tests specific to the individual cat, which are a part of the cat's genome.

  9. ENTREPRENEURIAL ACTIVITY AMONG ASIAN COMMUNITIES IN GREECE

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    Charalambos Tsardanidis

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the presence of the population of Asian origin in Greece, a relatively recent phenomenon on which academic studies and available statistics are still fairly scarce. Following an analysis of the available sources, and based on their own research, the authors reach the conclusion that while it is from being the majority case, it is clear that Asian communities are notable for their autonomous professional and entrepreneurial activity in Greece, and furthermore that unlike other communities with a strongpresence in the country (i.e Albanians, Asians seek to differentiate themselves from their welcoming society by emphasising the ethnic nature of their business so as to specifically lend added value to their entrepreneurial practices. This creates new economic structures that have a positive impact on the Greek economy, which is invigorated by an increase in the number of workers, companies and taxpayers, at the same time as it transforms the urban landscape by revitalising (for example some of Athens’ most depressed neighbourhoods. These Asian diasporas, even though they display several common features, also have great differences which determine both their strategies for progressing in the welcoming society and their chances of achieving same. The underlying argument in the analysis is that the presence of the Asian diaspora represents a positive element for the Greek economy, in view of which the government should react by encouraging their integration and maximising their potential.

  10. Sexuality and human rights: an Asian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Erick

    2005-01-01

    In Asia, the lesbian and gay rights movements are clearly dominated by activists, who tend to think in terms of a binary opposition (homo- vs hetero-) and clear-cut categories. Based on "Western patterns," the approach is practical, the arguments based on minority rights. "Coming out" is often perceived as a "white model" bringing more problems than real freedom. On the contrary, "Asian values" put the emphasis on family and social harmony, often in contradiction to what is pictured as "lesbian and gay rights." Homophobia follows very subtle ways in Asian countries. Asian gays have to negotiate their freedom, lifestyle and identities in an atmosphere of heterosexism, and not the endemic violent homophobia prevalent in many western countries. In Asia, one's identity relates to one's position in the group and sexuality plays a relatively insignificant role in its cultural construction. That Asian gays often marry and have children shows the elasticity their sexual identity encompasses. Fluidity of sexuality does not really match the Western approach in terms of essentialist categories that have a right to exist. Most Asian societies can be thought of as "tolerant" as long as homosexuality remains invisible. Procreative sexuality can be seen as a social duty, and heterosexual marriage is often not considered incompatible with a "homosexual life." The development of the Internet has even facilitated the encounters while allowing secrecy. Unfortunately, the traditional figures of transgender and transvestites have often been separated from the gay liberation movement.

  11. Economic and Organisational Wisdom for Asian Century

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    Arup BARMAN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Asian Century is rich and already 14 years old. Today, Asia is in the middle of a historic transformation which has brought both challenges and opportunities. To meet these challenges, Asian leaders need to devise bold and innovative national policies for pursuing avenues for regional and global cooperation. In the similar way organisation and business in Asia will transform. This transformative whirlpool calls the Asian private sector and public sector organisations for absorption of new wisdom, values and principles in place of 20th century’s management. Overall, the capacity to respond to the changing global economic landscape through flexibility and adaptivness will carry a high premium. This paper delve the issues how Asian Organisations have already been used the wisdom during the global chaos. Deriving from the examples of Asia in the midst of global chaos in many points of time, this present paper attempts to re-focus on organisational wisdom of commitment and ability for Asian organisation, modernization, governance and helping to retool institutions, for enhancing transparency, and finally to develop accountability for organisational resilience and survival.

  12. Germline transgenic pigs by Sleeping Beauty transposition in porcine zygotes and targeted integration in the pig genome.

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    Wiebke Garrels

    Full Text Available Genetic engineering can expand the utility of pigs for modeling human diseases, and for developing advanced therapeutic approaches. However, the inefficient production of transgenic pigs represents a technological bottleneck. Here, we assessed the hyperactive Sleeping Beauty (SB100X transposon system for enzyme-catalyzed transgene integration into the embryonic porcine genome. The components of the transposon vector system were microinjected as circular plasmids into the cytoplasm of porcine zygotes, resulting in high frequencies of transgenic fetuses and piglets. The transgenic animals showed normal development and persistent reporter gene expression for >12 months. Molecular hallmarks of transposition were confirmed by analysis of 25 genomic insertion sites. We demonstrate germ-line transmission, segregation of individual transposons, and continued, copy number-dependent transgene expression in F1-offspring. In addition, we demonstrate target-selected gene insertion into transposon-tagged genomic loci by Cre-loxP-based cassette exchange in somatic cells followed by nuclear transfer. Transposase-catalyzed transgenesis in a large mammalian species expands the arsenal of transgenic technologies for use in domestic animals and will facilitate the development of large animal models for human diseases.

  13. Immunoglobulin genes and diversity: what we have learned from domestic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yi; Liu, Zhancai; Ren, Liming; Wei, Zhiguo; Wang, Ping; Li, Ning; Zhao, Yaofeng

    2012-06-20

    This review focuses on the diversity of immunoglobulin (Ig) genes and Ig isotypes that are expressed in domestic animals. Four livestock species-cattle, sheep, pigs, and horses-express a full range of Ig heavy chains (IgHs), including μ, δ, γ, ϵ, and α. Two poultry species (chickens and ducks) express three IgH isotypes, μ, υ, and α, but not δ. The κ and λ light chains are both utilized in the four livestock species, but only the λ chain is expressed in poultry. V(D)J recombination, somatic hypermutation (SHM), and gene conversion (GC) are three distinct mechanisms by which immunoglobulin variable region diversity is generated. Different domestic animals may use distinct means to diversify rearranged variable regions of Ig genes.

  14. Immunoglobulin genes and diversity: what we have learned from domestic animals

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    Sun Yi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This review focuses on the diversity of immunoglobulin (Ig genes and Ig isotypes that are expressed in domestic animals. Four livestock species—cattle, sheep, pigs, and horses—express a full range of Ig heavy chains (IgHs, including μ, δ, γ, ϵ, and α. Two poultry species (chickens and ducks express three IgH isotypes, μ, υ, and α, but not δ. The κ and λ light chains are both utilized in the four livestock species, but only the λ chain is expressed in poultry. V(DJ recombination, somatic hypermutation (SHM, and gene conversion (GC are three distinct mechanisms by which immunoglobulin variable region diversity is generated. Different domestic animals may use distinct means to diversify rearranged variable regions of Ig genes.

  15. Setup and dosimetry for exposing anaesthetised pigs in vivo to 900 MHz GSM mobile phone fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toivonen, Tommi; Toivo, Tim; Pitkäaho, Risto; Puranen, Lauri; Silfverhuth, Minna; Mennander, Ari; Hannula, Markus; Hyttinen, Jari; Jokela, Kari

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this study was a dosimetrical analysis of the setup used in the exposure of the heads of domestic pigs to GSM-modulated radio frequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) at 900 MHz. The heads of pigs were irradiated with a half wave dipole using three different exposure routines; short bursts of 1-3 s at two different exposure levels and a continuous 10-min exposure. The electroencephalogram (EEG) was registered continuously during the exposures to search for RF-EMF originated changes. The dosimetry was based on simulations with the anatomical heterogeneous numerical model of the pig head. The simulation results were validated by experimental measurements with the exposure dipole and a homogeneous liquid phantom resembling the pig head. The specific absorption rate (SAR), defined as a maximum average over 10 g tissue mass (SAR(10g)), was 7.3 W/kg for the first set of short bursts and 31 W/kg for the second set of short bursts. The SAR(10g) in the continuous 10-min exposure was 31 W/kg. The estimated uncertainty for the dosimetry was +/-25% (K = 2).

  16. Artificial cloning of domestic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefer, Carol L

    2015-07-21

    Domestic animals can be cloned using techniques such as embryo splitting and nuclear transfer to produce genetically identical individuals. Although embryo splitting is limited to the production of only a few identical individuals, nuclear transfer of donor nuclei into recipient oocytes, whose own nuclear DNA has been removed, can result in large numbers of identical individuals. Moreover, clones can be produced using donor cells from sterile animals, such as steers and geldings, and, unlike their genetic source, these clones are fertile. In reality, due to low efficiencies and the high costs of cloning domestic species, only a limited number of identical individuals are generally produced, and these clones are primarily used as breed stock. In addition to providing a means of rescuing and propagating valuable genetics, somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) research has contributed knowledge that has led to the direct reprogramming of cells (e.g., to induce pluripotent stem cells) and a better understanding of epigenetic regulation during embryonic development. In this review, I provide a broad overview of the historical development of cloning in domestic animals, of its application to the propagation of livestock and transgenic animal production, and of its scientific promise for advancing basic research.

  17. State Support of Domestic Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amy Wright

    2007-12-30

    This project was developed in response to a cooperative agreement offering by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) under the State Support of Domestic Production DE-FC26-04NT15456. The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) performed efforts in support of State programs related to the security, reliability and growth if our nation's domestic production of oil and natural gas. The project objectives were to improve the States ability to monitor the security of oil and gas operations; to maximize the production of domestic oil and natural gas thereby minimizing the threat to national security posed by interruptions in energy imports; to assist States in developing and maintaining high standards of environmental protection; to assist in addressing issues that limit the capacity of the industry; to promote the deployment of the appropriate application of technology for regulatory efficiency; and to inform the public about emerging energy issues.

  18. Did China follow the East Asian development model?

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    Boltho, Andrea

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available China is located in East Asia and, just as Japan, Taiwan or (South Korea at earlier stages of their development, has now grown very rapidly for some three decades. That is not enough, however, for it to qualify for membership of the club. The East Asian development model has a number of additional and important characteristics. Four are selected for discussion: the almost constant encouragement given to investment, the manufacturing sector and external competitiveness, and pursued via a variety of fairly interventionist industrial, trade and financial policies; a concomitant belief in the virtues of intense domestic (Japan and Taiwan and foreign (Korea competition; a set of broadly sensible and appropriate macroeconomic policies; and a number of favourable (pre-conditions, such as the presence of a homogeneous population, a relatively high stock of human capital, reasonable income equality and fairly authoritarian governments. China, since reforms began in the late 1970s, has shared some of these characteristics, but not all. In particular, it is still much more of a command economy than the other three countries have ever been, yet, at the same time, has embraced globalization with, arguably, much greater enthusiasm than was done, in earlier times, by Japan, Taiwan or Korea. If China's experience, however, is compared with that of other, more or less successful, developing countries, the similarities with the East Asia development model would seem to dwarf such differences

  19. Assessment of welfare in pigs

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    Luisa Antonella Volpelli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the definition given by Appleby (1996, animal welfare represents the state of well-being brought about by meeting the physical, environmental, nutritional, behavioural and social needs of the animal or groups of animals under the care, supervision or influence of people. Suitable husbandry techniques and disease control (in which man is directly involved may satisfy an animal’s physical, environmental and nutritive needs. However, it cannot be stated that people’s supervision or influence always guarantee the satisfaction of behavioural and social needs. Thus, special attention must be paid to these factors in intensive husbandry. This paper calls attention to the main factors characterizing pig welfare on the basis of productive, physiological, pathological and behavioural indicators; to the behavioural needs, which are characterised by several peculiar traits (it is noteworthy that, since the beginning, all categories of reared pigs have been involved in welfare legislation; to all categories of pigs that often show the effects of negative stimuli on their behaviour (limitations, variations; to the main critical points on the farm likely to cause welfare impairment or stress including buildings, inner facilities, space allowance, microclimate, lighting systems, environmental stressors, feeding management, mutilations, weaning, social factors, and stockmanship; and to environmental stressors including dust, odours (especially ammonia and noises. This paper takes into account sources, effects and possible solutions for noises; the positive effect of fibrous feeding; environmental enrichment and other possible techniques for improving social status and for preventing/reducing stereotypic behaviour and abnormal reactions (e.g. tail biting. The scientific/objective evaluation of welfare for intensively reared pigs may be carried out by means of direct observation of the animals themselves (animal-based or encompassing performance

  20. Australian wild rice reveals pre-domestication origin of polymorphism deserts in rice genome.

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    Gopala Krishnan S

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rice is a major source of human food with a predominantly Asian production base. Domestication involved selection of traits that are desirable for agriculture and to human consumers. Wild relatives of crop plants are a source of useful variation which is of immense value for crop improvement. Australian wild rices have been isolated from the impacts of domestication in Asia and represents a source of novel diversity for global rice improvement. Oryza rufipogon is a perennial wild progenitor of cultivated rice. Oryza meridionalis is a related annual species in Australia. RESULTS: We have examined the sequence of the genomes of AA genome wild rices from Australia that are close relatives of cultivated rice through whole genome re-sequencing. Assembly of the resequencing data to the O. sativa ssp. japonica cv. Nipponbare shows that Australian wild rices possess 2.5 times more single nucleotide polymorphisms than in the Asian wild rice and cultivated O. sativa ssp. indica. Analysis of the genome of domesticated rice reveals regions of low diversity that show very little variation (polymorphism deserts. Both the perennial and annual wild rice from Australia show a high degree of conservation of sequence with that found in cultivated rice in the same 4.58 Mbp region on chromosome 5, which suggests that some of the 'polymorphism deserts' in this and other parts of the rice genome may have originated prior to domestication due to natural selection. CONCLUSIONS: Analysis of genes in the 'polymorphism deserts' indicates that this selection may have been due to biotic or abiotic stress in the environment of early rice relatives. Despite having closely related sequences in these genome regions, the Australian wild populations represent an invaluable source of diversity supporting rice food security.