WorldWideScience

Sample records for asian earthquakes detected

  1. The Asian earthquakes detected in the ATLAS cavern

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    At the end of December, mysterious vibrations were picked up by the deformation sensors under the feet that are to support the ATLAS detector. It transpired that they had detected waves produced by the earthquakes responsible for the terrible tsunami in Asia.

  2. Twitter earthquake detection: earthquake monitoring in a social world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel C. Bowden

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS is investigating how the social networking site Twitter, a popular service for sending and receiving short, public text messages, can augment USGS earthquake response products and the delivery of hazard information. Rapid detection and qualitative assessment of shaking events are possible because people begin sending public Twitter messages (tweets with in tens of seconds after feeling shaking. Here we present and evaluate an earthquake detection procedure that relies solely on Twitter data. A tweet-frequency time series constructed from tweets containing the word “earthquake” clearly shows large peaks correlated with the origin times of widely felt events. To identify possible earthquakes, we use a short-term-average, long-term-average algorithm. When tuned to a moderate sensitivity, the detector finds 48 globally-distributed earthquakes with only two false triggers in five months of data. The number of detections is small compared to the 5,175 earthquakes in the USGS global earthquake catalog for the same five-month time period, and no accurate location or magnitude can be assigned based on tweet data alone. However, Twitter earthquake detections are not without merit. The detections are generally caused by widely felt events that are of more immediate interest than those with no human impact. The detections are also fast; about 75% occur within two minutes of the origin time. This is considerably faster than seismographic detections in poorly instrumented regions of the world. The tweets triggering the detections also provided very short first-impression narratives from people who experienced the shaking.

  3. Computer systems for automatic earthquake detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, S.W.

    1974-01-01

    U.S Geological Survey seismologists in Menlo park, California, are utilizing the speed, reliability, and efficiency of minicomputers to monitor seismograph stations and to automatically detect earthquakes. An earthquake detection computer system, believed to be the only one of its kind in operation, automatically reports about 90 percent of all local earthquakes recorded by a network of over 100 central California seismograph stations. The system also monitors the stations for signs of malfunction or abnormal operation. Before the automatic system was put in operation, all of the earthquakes recorded had to be detected by manually searching the records, a time-consuming process. With the automatic detection system, the stations are efficiently monitored continuously. 

  4. Earthquake detection through computationally efficient similarity search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Clara E; O'Reilly, Ossian; Bergen, Karianne J; Beroza, Gregory C

    2015-12-01

    Seismology is experiencing rapid growth in the quantity of data, which has outpaced the development of processing algorithms. Earthquake detection-identification of seismic events in continuous data-is a fundamental operation for observational seismology. We developed an efficient method to detect earthquakes using waveform similarity that overcomes the disadvantages of existing detection methods. Our method, called Fingerprint And Similarity Thresholding (FAST), can analyze a week of continuous seismic waveform data in less than 2 hours, or 140 times faster than autocorrelation. FAST adapts a data mining algorithm, originally designed to identify similar audio clips within large databases; it first creates compact "fingerprints" of waveforms by extracting key discriminative features, then groups similar fingerprints together within a database to facilitate fast, scalable search for similar fingerprint pairs, and finally generates a list of earthquake detections. FAST detected most (21 of 24) cataloged earthquakes and 68 uncataloged earthquakes in 1 week of continuous data from a station located near the Calaveras Fault in central California, achieving detection performance comparable to that of autocorrelation, with some additional false detections. FAST is expected to realize its full potential when applied to extremely long duration data sets over a distributed network of seismic stations. The widespread application of FAST has the potential to aid in the discovery of unexpected seismic signals, improve seismic monitoring, and promote a greater understanding of a variety of earthquake processes. PMID:26665176

  5. Earthquake detection through computationally efficient similarity search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Clara E.; O’Reilly, Ossian; Bergen, Karianne J.; Beroza, Gregory C.

    2015-01-01

    Seismology is experiencing rapid growth in the quantity of data, which has outpaced the development of processing algorithms. Earthquake detection—identification of seismic events in continuous data—is a fundamental operation for observational seismology. We developed an efficient method to detect earthquakes using waveform similarity that overcomes the disadvantages of existing detection methods. Our method, called Fingerprint And Similarity Thresholding (FAST), can analyze a week of continuous seismic waveform data in less than 2 hours, or 140 times faster than autocorrelation. FAST adapts a data mining algorithm, originally designed to identify similar audio clips within large databases; it first creates compact “fingerprints” of waveforms by extracting key discriminative features, then groups similar fingerprints together within a database to facilitate fast, scalable search for similar fingerprint pairs, and finally generates a list of earthquake detections. FAST detected most (21 of 24) cataloged earthquakes and 68 uncataloged earthquakes in 1 week of continuous data from a station located near the Calaveras Fault in central California, achieving detection performance comparable to that of autocorrelation, with some additional false detections. FAST is expected to realize its full potential when applied to extremely long duration data sets over a distributed network of seismic stations. The widespread application of FAST has the potential to aid in the discovery of unexpected seismic signals, improve seismic monitoring, and promote a greater understanding of a variety of earthquake processes. PMID:26665176

  6. Power of earthquake cluster detection tests

    CERN Document Server

    de Oliveira, Felipe Dimer

    2012-01-01

    Testing the global earthquake catalogue for indications of non-Poissonian attributes has been an area of intense research, especially since the 2011 Tohoku earthquake. The usual approach is to test statistically for the hypothesis that the global earthquake catalogue is well explained by a Poissonian process. In this paper we analyse one aspect of this problem which has been disregarded by the literature: the power of such tests to detect non-Poissonian features if they existed; that is, the probability of type II statistical errors. We argue that the low frequency of large events and the brevity of our earthquake catalogues reduces the power of the statistical tests so that an unequivocal answer for this question is not granted. We do this by providing a counter example of a stochastic process that is clustered by construction and by analysing the resulting distribution of p-values given by the current tests.

  7. Electrostatically actuated resonant switches for earthquake detection

    KAUST Repository

    Ramini, Abdallah H.

    2013-04-01

    The modeling and design of electrostatically actuated resonant switches (EARS) for earthquake and seismic applications are presented. The basic concepts are based on operating an electrically actuated resonator close to instability bands of frequency, where it is forced to collapse (pull-in) if operated within these bands. By careful tuning, the resonator can be made to enter the instability zone upon the detection of the earthquake signal, thereby pulling-in as a switch. Such a switching action can be functionalized for useful functionalities, such as shutting off gas pipelines in the case of earthquakes, or can be used to activate a network of sensors for seismic activity recording in health monitoring applications. By placing a resonator on a printed circuit board (PCB) of a natural frequency close to that of the earthquake\\'s frequency, we show significant improvement on the detection limit of the EARS lowering it considerably to less than 60% of the EARS by itself without the PCB. © 2013 IEEE.

  8. Pattern recognition for earthquake detection

    OpenAIRE

    Joswig, Manfred

    1990-01-01

    The detector algorithms in use at date rely on negative decision logic: based on a model of the ambient noise process they detect all deviations, but many of them are false alarms. The principal alternative to this approach is pattern recognition, which tests on positive correlation with some known signal patterns. The Sonogram-detector realizes this scheme for single seismogram traces. Sonograms display spectral energy versus time. Suitably scaled, these images display only information wh...

  9. @INGVterremoti: Tweeting the Automatic Detection of Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casarotti, E.; Amato, A.; Comunello, F.; Lauciani, V.; Nostro, C.; Polidoro, P.

    2014-12-01

    The use of social media is emerging as a powerful tool fordisseminating trusted information about earthquakes. Since 2009, theTwitter account @INGVterremoti provides constant and timely detailsabout M2+ seismic events detected by the Italian National SeismicNetwork, directly connected with the seismologists on duty at IstitutoNazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV). After the 2012 seismicsequence, the account has been awarded by a national prize as the"most useful Twitter account". Currently, it updates more than 110,000followers (one the first 50 Italian Twitter accounts for number offollowers). Nevertheless, since it provides only the manual revisionof seismic parameters, the timing (approximately between 10 and 20minutes after an event) has started to be under evaluation.Undeniably, mobile internet, social network sites and Twitter in particularrequire a more rapid and "real-time" reaction.During the last 18 months, INGV tested the tweeting of the automaticdetection of M3+ earthquakes, obtaining results reliable enough to bereleased openly 1 or 2 minutes after a seismic event. During the summerof 2014, INGV, with the collaboration of CORIS (Department ofCommunication and Social Research, Sapienza University of Rome),involved the followers of @INGVterremoti and citizens, carrying out aquali-quantitative study (through in-depth interviews and a websurvey) in order to evaluate the best format to deliver suchinformation. In this presentation we will illustrate the results of the reliability test and theanalysis of the survey.

  10. Detecting Optic Disc on Asians by Multiscale Gaussian Filtering

    OpenAIRE

    Bob Zhang; Jane You; Fakhri Karray

    2012-01-01

    The optic disc (OD) is an important anatomical feature in retinal images, and its detection is vital for developing automated screening programs. Currently, there is no algorithm designed to automatically detect the OD in fundus images captured from Asians which are larger and have thicker vessels compared to Caucasians. In this paper, we propose such a method to complement current algorithms using two steps: OD vessel candidate detection and OD vessel candidate matching. The first step is ac...

  11. MyShake - A smartphone app to detect earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Q.; Allen, R. M.; Schreier, L.; Kwon, Y. W.

    2015-12-01

    We designed an android app that harnesses the accelerometers in personal smartphones to record earthquake-shaking data for research, hazard information and warnings. The app has the function to distinguish earthquake shakings from daily human activities based on the different patterns behind the movements. It also can be triggered by the traditional earthquake early warning (EEW) system to record for a certain amount of time to collect earthquake data. When the app is triggered by the earthquake-like movements, it sends the trigger information back to our server which contains time and location of the trigger, at the same time, it stores the waveform data on local phone first, and upload to our server later. Trigger information from multiple phones will be processed in real time on the server to find the coherent signal to confirm the earthquakes. Therefore, the app provides the basis to form a smartphone seismic network that can detect earthquake and even provide warnings. A planned public roll-out of MyShake could collect millions of seismic recordings for large earthquakes in many regions around the world.

  12. USGS Tweet Earthquake Dispatch (@USGSted): Using Twitter for Earthquake Detection and Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, S. B.; Bouchard, B.; Bowden, D. C.; Guy, M.; Earle, P.

    2012-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is investigating how online social networking services like Twitter—a microblogging service for sending and reading public text-based messages of up to 140 characters—can augment USGS earthquake response products and the delivery of hazard information. The USGS Tweet Earthquake Dispatch (TED) system is using Twitter not only to broadcast seismically-verified earthquake alerts via the @USGSted and @USGSbigquakes Twitter accounts, but also to rapidly detect widely felt seismic events through a real-time detection system. The detector algorithm scans for significant increases in tweets containing the word "earthquake" or its equivalent in other languages and sends internal alerts with the detection time, tweet text, and the location of the city where most of the tweets originated. It has been running in real-time for 7 months and finds, on average, two or three felt events per day with a false detection rate of less than 10%. The detections have reasonable coverage of populated areas globally. The number of detections is small compared to the number of earthquakes detected seismically, and only a rough location and qualitative assessment of shaking can be determined based on Tweet data alone. However, the Twitter detections are generally caused by widely felt events that are of more immediate interest than those with no human impact. The main benefit of the tweet-based detections is speed, with most detections occurring between 19 seconds and 2 minutes from the origin time. This is considerably faster than seismic detections in poorly instrumented regions of the world. Going beyond the initial detection, the USGS is developing data mining techniques to continuously archive and analyze relevant tweets for additional details about the detected events. The information generated about an event is displayed on a web-based map designed using HTML5 for the mobile environment, which can be valuable when the user is not able to access a

  13. Prompt Earthquake Detection based on Transient Gravity Signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhel, K.; Montagner, J. P.; Barsuglia, M.; Ampuero, J. P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Harms, J.; Whiting, B. F.; Bernard, P.; Clevede, E.; Lognonne, P. H.

    2015-12-01

    The deformation caused by an earthquake induces changes in the Earth's gravitational field known as coseismic gravity changes, especially during mega-earthquakes. So far, only static gravity changes have been detected, considerably after the end of the rupture. Since gravity changes propagate at the speed of light, a dynamic gravity signal is produced everywhere on Earth during the rupture, even before the arrival of seismic waves. Here we confirm the evidence of this prompt gravity signal. We have analyzed, with a statistical blind method, the data recorded during the 2011 Mw 9.0 Tohoku-oki earthquake by a superconducting gravimeter in the underground Kamioka observatory, about 500 km away from the earthquake centroid. We find that a gravity signal is present before the P wave arrival, with a statistical significance of more than 99%. The signal amplitude is a fraction of μGal, consistent in sign and order-of-magnitude with theoretical predictions. A similar analysis is being conducted on data recorded by the broadband seismometers of the japanese network Fnet. Numerical simulations based on normal-mode method and an analytical model of dynamic gravity signals are used to compute synthetic seismograms, and thus characterize the prompt gravity signal. The robust detection of this prompt gravity signal with instruments more immune to the background seismic noise could, in principle, open new directions in earthquake seismology and overcome limitations of current earthquake early-warning systems imposed by the propagation speed of seismic waves.

  14. Detecting Optic Disc on Asians by Multiscale Gaussian Filtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bob Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The optic disc (OD is an important anatomical feature in retinal images, and its detection is vital for developing automated screening programs. Currently, there is no algorithm designed to automatically detect the OD in fundus images captured from Asians which are larger and have thicker vessels compared to Caucasians. In this paper, we propose such a method to complement current algorithms using two steps: OD vessel candidate detection and OD vessel candidate matching. The first step is achieved with multiscale Gaussian filtering, scale production, and double thresholding to initially extract the vessels' directional map of various thicknesses. The map is then thinned before another threshold is applied to remove pixels with low intensities. This result forms the OD vessel candidates. In the second step, a Vessels' Directional Matched Filter (VDMF of various dimensions is applied to the candidates to be matched, and the pixel with the smallest difference designated the OD center. We tested the proposed method on a new database consisting of 402 images from a diabetic retinopathy (DR screening programme consisting of Asians. The OD center was successfully detected with an accuracy of 99.25% (399/402.

  15. Reverse Detection of Short-Term Earthquake Precursors

    CERN Document Server

    Keilis-Borok, V; Gabrielov, A; Turcotte, D L

    2003-01-01

    We introduce a new approach to short-term earthquake prediction based on the concept of selforganization of seismically active fault networks. That approach is named "Reverse Detection of Precursors" (RDP), since it considers precursors in reverse order of their appearance. This makes it possible to detect precursors undetectable by direct analysis. Possible mechanisms underlying RDP are outlined. RDP is described with a concrete example: we consider as short-term precursors the newly introduced chains of earthquakes reflecting the rise of an earthquake correlation range; and detect (retrospectively) such chains a few months before two prominent Californian earthquakes - Landers, 1992, M = 7.6, and Hector Mine, 1999, M = 7.3, with one false alarm. Similar results (described elsewhere) are obtained by RDP for 21 more strong earthquakes in California (M >= 6.4), Japan (M >= 7.0) and the Eastern Mediterranean (M >= 6.5). Validation of the RDP approach requires, as always, prediction in advance for which this stu...

  16. Revisiting the global detection capability of earthquakes during the period immediately after a large earthquake: considering the influence of intermediate-depth and deep earthquakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takaki Iwata

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the global earthquake detection capability of the Global Centroid Moment Tensor (GCMT catalogue during the periods immediately following large earthquakes, including intermediate-depth (70 ≤ depth < 300 km and deep (300 km ≤ depth events. We have already shown that the detection capability beyond an aftershock zone degrades remarkably and that this condition persists for several hours after the occurrence of large shallow (depth < 70 km earthquakes. Because an intermediate-depth or deep earthquake occasionally generates seismic waves with significant amplitudes, it is necessary to investigate the change in the detection capability caused by such events. To this end, from the GCMT catalogue, we constructed the time sequences of the earthquakes that occurred immediately after the large earthquakes, and stacked these time sequences. To these stacked sequences, we then applied a statistical model representing the magnitude-frequency distribution of all observed earthquakes. This model has a parameter that characterizes the detection capability, and the temporal variation of the parameter is estimated by means of a Bayesian approach with a piecewise linear function. Consequently, we find that the global detection capability is lower after the occurrence of shallow earthquakes with magnitudes ≥ 5.45, intermediate-depth earthquakes with magnitudes ≥ 5.95, and deep earthquakes with magnitudes ≥ 6.95.

  17. Living with earthquakes - development and usage of earthquake-resistant construction methods in European and Asian Antiquity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kázmér, Miklós; Major, Balázs; Hariyadi, Agus; Pramumijoyo, Subagyo; Ditto Haryana, Yohanes

    2010-05-01

    Earthquakes are among the most horrible events of nature due to unexpected occurrence, for which no spiritual means are available for protection. The only way of preserving life and property is applying earthquake-resistant construction methods. Ancient Greek architects of public buildings applied steel clamps embedded in lead casing to hold together columns and masonry walls during frequent earthquakes in the Aegean region. Elastic steel provided strength, while plastic lead casing absorbed minor shifts of blocks without fracturing rigid stone. Romans invented concrete and built all sizes of buildings as a single, unflexible unit. Masonry surrounding and decorating concrete core of the wall did not bear load. Concrete resisted minor shaking, yielding only to forces higher than fracture limits. Roman building traditions survived the Dark Ages and 12th century Crusader castles erected in earthquake-prone Syria survive until today in reasonably good condition. Concrete and steel clamping persisted side-by-side in the Roman Empire. Concrete was used for cheap construction as compared to building of masonry. Applying lead-encased steel increased costs, and was avoided whenever possible. Columns of the various forums in Italian Pompeii mostly lack steel fittings despite situated in well-known earthquake-prone area. Whether frequent recurrence of earthquakes in the Naples region was known to inhabitants of Pompeii might be a matter of debate. Seemingly the shock of the AD 62 earthquake was not enough to apply well-known protective engineering methods throughout the reconstruction of the city before the AD 79 volcanic catastrophe. An independent engineering tradition developed on the island of Java (Indonesia). The mortar-less construction technique of 8-9th century Hindu masonry shrines around Yogyakarta would allow scattering of blocks during earthquakes. To prevent dilapidation an intricate mortise-and-tenon system was carved into adjacent faces of blocks. Only the

  18. Benford's Law: Detection of Quantum Phase Transitions similarly as Earthquakes

    CERN Document Server

    De, Aditi Sen

    2011-01-01

    More than a century earlier, it was predicted that the first significant digit appearing in a data, be it from natural sciences or from some mathematical series, will be nonuniformly distributed, with the number one appearing with the highest frequency. This law goes by the name of Benford's law. It has been observed to hold for data from a huge variety of sources, ranging from earthquakes to infectious disease cases. Quantum phase transitions are cooperative phenomena where qualitative changes occur in physical quantities of a many-body system at zero temperature. We find that Benford's law can be applied to detect quantum phase transitions in a way that is very similar to how it can distinguish earthquakes from background noise. Being certainly of very different physical origins, seismic activity and quantum cooperative phenomena may therefore be detected by similar methods. The result may provide methods to overcome the limitations associated with precise measurements in experiments.

  19. Benford's law detects quantum phase transitions similarly as earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen(De, Aditi; Sen, Ujjwal

    2011-09-01

    A century ago, it was predicted that the first significant digit appearing in a data would be nonuniformly distributed, with the number one appearing with the highest frequency. This law goes by the name of Benford's law. It holds for data ranging from infectious-disease cases to national greenhouse gas emissions. Quantum phase transitions are cooperative phenomena where qualitative changes occur in many-body systems at zero temperature. We show that the century-old Benford's law can detect quantum phase transitions, much like it detects earthquakes. Therefore, being certainly of very different physical origins, seismic activity and quantum cooperative phenomena may be detected by similar methods. The result has immediate implications in precise measurements in experiments in general, and for realizable quantum computers in particular. It shows that estimation of the first significant digit of measured physical observables is enough to detect the presence of quantum phase transitions in macroscopic systems.

  20. Precursory enhancement of EIA in the morning sector: Contribution from mid-latitude large earthquakes in the north-east Asian region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Kwangsun; Oyama, Koh-Ichiro; Bankov, Ludmil; Chen, Chia-Hung; Devi, Minakshi; Liu, Huixin; Liu, Jann-Yenq

    2016-01-01

    To investigate whether the link between seismic activity and EIA (equatorial ionization anomaly) enhancement is valid for mid-latitude seismic activity, DEMETER observations around seven large earthquakes in the north-east Asian region were fully analyzed (M ⩾ 6.8). In addition, statistical analysis was performed for 35 large earthquakes (M ⩾ 6.0) that occurred during the DEMETER observation period. The results suggest that mid-latitude earthquakes do contribute to EIA enhancement, represented as normalized equatorial Ne , and that ionospheric change precedes seismic events, as has been reported in previous studies. According to statistical studies, the normalized equatorial density enhancement is sensitive and proportional to both the magnitude and the hypocenter depth of an earthquake. The mechanisms that can explain the contribution of mid-latitude seismic activity to EIA variation are briefly discussed based on current explanations of the geochemical and ionospheric processes involved in lithosphere-ionosphere interaction.

  1. An earthquake from space: detection of precursory magnetic anomalies from Swarm satellites before the 2015 M8 Nepal Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Santis, A.; Balasis, G.; Pavón-Carrasco, F. J.; Cianchini, G.; Mandea, M.

    2015-12-01

    A large earthquake of around 8 magnitude occurred on 25 April 2015, 06:26 UTC, with epicenter in Nepal, causing more than 9000 fatalities and devastating destruction. The contemporary orbiting in the topside ionosphere of the three Swarm satellites by ESA makes it possible to look for possible pre-earthquake magnetic anomalous signals, likely due to some lithosphere-atmosphere-ionosphere (LAI) coupling. First, a wavelet analysis has been performed during the same day of the earthquake (from the external magnetic point of view, an exceptionally quiet day) with the result that a ULF anomalous and persisting signal (from around 3 to 6 UTC), is clearly detected before the earthquake. After this single-spot analysis, we performed a more extensive analysis for two months around the earthquake occurrence, to confirm or refute the cause-effect relationship. From the series of the detected magnetic anomalies (during night and magnetically quiet times) from Swarm satellites, we show that the cumulative numbers of anomalies follows the same typical power-law behavior of a critical system approaching its critical time, in our case, the large seismic event of 25 April, 2015, and then it recovers as the typical recovery phase after a large earthquake. The impressive similarity of this behavior with the analogous of seismic data analysis, provides strong support to the lithospheric origin of the satellite magnetic anomalies, as due to the LAI coupling during the preparation phase of the Nepal earthquake.

  2. A stochastic risk assessment for Eastern Europe and Central Asian countries for earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniell, James; Schaefer, Andreas; Toro, Joaquin; Murnane, Rick; Tijssen, Annegien; Simpson, Alanna; Saito, Keiko; Winsemius, Hessel; Ward, Philip

    2015-04-01

    This systematic assessment of earthquake risk for 33 countries in the ECA region was motivated by the interest of the World Bank and the Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery (GFDRR) in supporting Disaster Risk Management (DRM) efforts. They envisaged an exposure-based analysis that looked at the potential economic and/or social exposure of the populations of various countries to earthquake risk. Using a stochastic earthquake hazard model and historical catalogues, a unified earthquake catalogue was created for the 33 countries. A combined fault and background source model was created using data from many authors. The maximum magnitude and seismotectonic source zone discretization was undertaken using logic tree approaches. Site effects were taken into account on the basis of local topography and tectonic regime. Two approaches were used to calculate local ground motion - intensity prediction equations for MMI and a combination of GMPEs for stable and active settings. A 1km grid was used for analysis with aggregations of exposure quantified in terms of GDP and capital stock using disaggregated provincial analysis from CATDAT, as well as population data from Deltares. Vulnerability functions were calculated using socio-economic empirical functions derived by Daniell (2014) for the countries taking into account historical losses, seismic resistant code implementation and building typologies in each country. PML curves were created for each province in the 33 nations, through 3 methods; the 1st using direct historical values via the CATDAT Damaging Earthquakes Database; the 2nd using normalization procedures in order to provide a quick estimate of the historical record quantified in today's terms filling in gaps; and the 3rd being a traditional stochastic modelling approach over a period of 10,000 years taking all uncertainties into account. SSP projections of growth from the OECD were used to quantify the risk in 2010, 2030 and 2080 in order to examine

  3. Theoretical limits on detection and analysis of small earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiatek, Grzegorz; Ben-Zion, Yehuda

    2016-08-01

    We investigate theoretical limits on detection and reliable estimates of source characteristics of small earthquakes using synthetic seismograms for shear/tensile dislocations on kinematic circular ruptures and observed seismic noise and properties of several acquisition systems (instrument response, sampling rate). Simulated source time functions for shear/tensile dislocation events with different magnitudes, static stress drops, and rupture velocities provide estimates for the amplitude and frequency content of P and S phases at various observation angles. The source time functions are convolved with a Green's function for a homogenous solid assuming given P, S wave velocities and attenuation coefficients and a given instrument response. The synthetic waveforms are superposed with average levels of the observed ambient seismic noise up to 1 kHz. The combined seismograms are used to calculate signal-to-noise ratios and expected frequency content of P and S phases at various locations. The synthetic simulations of signal-to-noise ratio reproduce observed ratios extracted from several well-recorded data sets. The results provide guidelines on detection of small events in various geological environments, along with information relevant to reliable analyses of earthquake source properties.

  4. Earthquake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    正A serious earthquake happened in Wenchuan, Sichuan. Over 60,000 people died in the earhtquake, millins of people lost their homes. After the earthquake, people showed their love in different ways. Some gave food, medicine and everything necessary, some gave money,

  5. Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Emergency Wound Care Wound Management for Healthcare Pros Power Outages When the Power Goes Out Worker Safety Vaccine ... Share Compartir Surviving an earthquake and reducing its health impact requires preparation, planning, and practice. Far in advance, ...

  6. Earthquake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    CHENGDU,China—A powerful earthquake struck Western China on 12th May2008, toppling thousands of homes,factories and offices,trapping students in schools,the country’s worst natural disaster in three decades.MIANZHU,CHINA—As rescue workers plowed deeper into the wreckage left from Monday’s earthquake,uncovering more victims trapped in the most remote mountain villages near the epicenter in Sichuan Province

  7. GPS Technologies as a Tool to Detect the Pre-Earthquake Signals Associated with Strong Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulinets, S. A.; Krankowski, A.; Hernandez-Pajares, M.; Liu, J. Y. G.; Hattori, K.; Davidenko, D.; Ouzounov, D.

    2015-12-01

    The existence of ionospheric anomalies before earthquakes is now widely accepted. These phenomena started to be considered by GPS community to mitigate the GPS signal degradation over the territories of the earthquake preparation. The question is still open if they could be useful for seismology and for short-term earthquake forecast. More than decade of intensive studies proved that ionospheric anomalies registered before earthquakes are initiated by processes in the boundary layer of atmosphere over earthquake preparation zone and are induced in the ionosphere by electromagnetic coupling through the Global Electric Circuit. Multiparameter approach based on the Lithosphere-Atmosphere-Ionosphere Coupling model demonstrated that earthquake forecast is possible only if we consider the final stage of earthquake preparation in the multidimensional space where every dimension is one from many precursors in ensemble, and they are synergistically connected. We demonstrate approaches developed in different countries (Russia, Taiwan, Japan, Spain, and Poland) within the framework of the ISSI and ESA projects) to identify the ionospheric precursors. They are also useful to determine the all three parameters necessary for the earthquake forecast: impending earthquake epicenter position, expectation time and magnitude. These parameters are calculated using different technologies of GPS signal processing: time series, correlation, spectral analysis, ionospheric tomography, wave propagation, etc. Obtained results from different teams demonstrate the high level of statistical significance and physical justification what gives us reason to suggest these methodologies for practical validation.

  8. OTIS Flow Meter for Offshore Detection of Silent Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labonte, A. L.; Brown, K. M.

    2004-12-01

    The Optical Tracer Injection System (OTIS) is a new marine flow meter developed for the novel application of measuring fluid flow rates sensitive to transient pore pressure gradients and volumetric strain. These meters are designed with the potential to detect aseismic deformation in the offshore environment. Upcoming empirical results from subduction zone studies in Cascadia and Costa Rica are to be processed with dislocation modeling. Knowing the role of fluids in aseismic and seismic events will help to characterize the earthquake cycle: what fraction of built up stress is released in the form of earthquakes vs. silent creep events, and in what sequence these events occur. While bore hole studies give significant insight to subsurface spatial and temporal pressure gradients, they are difficult to execute and costly. On the other hand, monitoring fluid flux at natural focused flow seep sites on the seafloor as an indicator of strain, like monitoring water level changes in well bore studies, is a cost efficient alternative. Coupled to the seafloor, the OTIS optically senses, and electronically logs, the concentration of injected fluorescent rhodamine tracer from which the rate of fluids flowing through the sediment water interface can be determined. It has been developed to detect a large range of flow rates at the sediment water interface, 0.01 to 500+ m/yr, at 5-30 minute temporal resolution. The OTIS is deployed in conjunction with an osmotic sampler for post-recovery chemical analyses of pore fluids expelled at seep sites. Initial instrument tests at cold seeps in Monterey Bay coincided with Chemical Aqueous Transport (CAT) meter results and confirm improved temporal resolution, and low sensitivity to ocean currents. Presently, an OTIS is placed at the toe of the Cascadia forearc at the triple junction with the Nootka transform fault as part of a modem package for uplink of real time data to a surface buoy. In conjunction with land based seismic and geodetic

  9. Detection of Interplate Earthquakes in the Source Area of the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake Using Extensive Seafloor Aftershock Observation Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatani, Y.; Mochizuki, K.; Shinohara, M.; Yamada, T.; Shiobara, H.; Hino, R.; Azuma, R.; Ito, Y.; Murai, Y.; Sato, T.; Uehira, K.; Shimbo, T.; Yakiwara, H.; Kodaira, S.; Machida, Y.; Hirata, K.; Tsushima, H.

    2015-12-01

    Previous studies on the source process of the 2011 Mw 9.0 Tohoku earthquake have revealed its large coseismic slip along a shallow plate interface to the Japan Trench axis. In order to further understand the complex rupture propagation along the plate interface, it is essential to elucidate recovery process of interplate coupling in the source area after the Tohoku earthquake. Estimating changes in b-values for interplate earthquakes before and after the Tohoku event is one of the available approaches to answer the above issue. To start with, we attempt to automatically detect and determine the location of interplate earthquakes using extensive seafloor aftershock observation data. We used mainly short-period pop-up type ocean bottom seismometers (OBSs) [Shinohara et al., 2011, 2012]. We applied a semblance-based method [Nakatani et al., 2015] to 23 OBSs deployed off Fukushima. A seismic tomography result [Matsubara and Obara, 2011] is used for calculation of P wave traveltimes between OBS stations and given grids along the plate interface. To confirm the validity of our method, we conducted synthetic tests by using a Ricker wavelet with several different sets of signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio and focal depths. As the results, semblance values of earthquakes with focal depths relative to the plate interface of 5 km are comparable to noise level, regardless of S/N ratio. On the other hand, earthquakes along the plate interface have significant peak semblance values. Therefore, our method is effective for detection of interplate earthquakes. We, then, applied the method to several waveforms of interplate events listed in the JMA (Japan Meteorological Agency) catalog and identified epicenters by backprojecting semblance values. We compared our resulted epicenters to those of Shinohara et al. (2011, 2012) which precisely relocated the JMA ones using P- and S-wave arrival times and maximum-likelihood estimate technique. The results show good coincidence between them. In

  10. A Real-Time Earthquake Precursor Detection Technique Using TEC from a GPS Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alp Akyol, Ali; Arikan, Feza; Arikan, Orhan

    2016-07-01

    Anomalies have been observed in the ionospheric electron density distribution prior to strong earthquakes. However, most of the reported results are obtained by earthquake analysis. Therefore, their implementation in practice is highly problematic. Recently, a novel earthquake precursor detection technique based on spatio-temporal analysis of Total Electron Content (TEC) data obtained from Turkish National Permanent GPS Network (TNPGN) is developed by IONOLAB group (www.ionolab.org). In the present study, the developed detection technique is implemented in a causal setup over the available data set in test phase that enables the real time implementation. The performance of the developed earthquake prediction technique is evaluated by using 10 fold cross validation over the data obtained in 2011. Among the 23 earthquakes that have magnitudes higher than 5, the developed technique can detect precursors of 14 earthquakes while producing 8 false alarms. This study is supported by TUBITAK 115E915 and Joint TUBITAK 114E092 and AS CR 14/001 projects.

  11. Detecting earthquake damage in urban area: application to COSMO-SkyMed imagery of L'Aquila earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anniballe, R.; Chini, M.; Pierdicca, N.; Bignami, C.; Stramondo, S.; Noto, F.; Scalia, T.; Martinelli, A.; Mannella, A.

    2015-10-01

    Due to the improved spatial resolution, Earth observation (EO) data, either from Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) or optical sensor, provide the opportunity to assess earthquake damage of individual buildings. However, the operational use of EO data for earthquake damage mapping is basically limited to the visual inspection of Very High Resolution (VHR) optical imagery. In this work we investigate the feasibility of a damage assessment product at single building scale from a pair of VHR SAR images acquired before and after a seismic event. We perform the change analysis using the Kullbach-Leibler divergence and the intensity ratio and then we associate detected changes to a building map provided as GIS layer. Finally the expected SAR signature of a collapsed building is considered to identify severely damaged buildings. In order to test the proposed methodology we use Spotlight COSMO-SkyMed SAR imagery of L'Aquila (Italy) collected before and after the earthquake occurred on April 6, 2009. A macroseismic survey on the whole central area of L'Aquila city based on the European Macroseismic Scale 1998 is used to assess the capability of VHR SAR images to map damage.

  12. The first Long Period earthquake detected in the background seismicity at Mt. Vesuvius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Cusano

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The typical earthquakes occurring at Mt. Vesuvius are Volcano-Tectonic. On July 20, 2003, an unusual earthquake with low and narrow frequency content was detected. The seismograms presented an emergent onset and a nearly monochromatic spectrum at all stations of the Osservatorio Vesuviano (Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia seismic network. The event was located at about 4 km b.s.l. close to the crater axis and an equivalent duration magnitude of 0.6 was estimated. The nature of this event was investigated by comparing its features with those of two typical Volcano-Tectonic earthquakes occurred inside the same source volume. We compared the spectral content calculating the spectrograms and the coda patterns using the Hilbert Transform. A Seismic Moment Tensor inversion was performed on the low frequency earthquake. The focal mechanisms for the two Volcano-Tectonic earthquakes were estimated with a classical technique and resulted compatible with the stress field acting on the volcano. Taking into account the clear differences with the typical Volcano-Tectonic events as well as the peculiarities retrieved from our analyses (monochromatic, low frequency spectral content, and sustained coda and also some geochemical observations, we classify the unusual low frequency seismic event detected at Mt. Vesuvius as Long Period earthquake and propose that its origin could be linked to a pressure drop in the deep hydrothermal system.

  13. Contour Cluster Shape Analysis for Building Damage Detection from Post-earthquake Airborne LiDAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HE Meizhang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Detection of the damaged building is the obligatory step prior to evaluate earthquake casualty and economic losses. It's very difficult to detect damaged buildings accurately based on the assumption that intact roofs appear in laser data as large planar segments whereas collapsed roofs are characterized by many small segments. This paper presents a contour cluster shape similarity analysis algorithm for reliable building damage detection from the post-earthquake airborne LiDAR point cloud. First we evaluate the entropies of shape similarities between all the combinations of two contour lines within a building cluster, which quantitatively describe the shape diversity. Then the maximum entropy model is employed to divide all the clusters into intact and damaged classes. The tests on the LiDAR data at El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake rupture prove the accuracy and reliability of the proposed method.

  14. Improved Detection of Local Earthquakes in the Vienna Basin (Austria), using Subspace Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apoloner, Maria-Theresia; Caffagni, Enrico; Bokelmann, Götz

    2016-04-01

    The Vienna Basin in Eastern Austria is densely populated and highly-developed; it is also a region of low to moderate seismicity, yet the seismological network coverage is relatively sparse. This demands improving our capability of earthquake detection by testing new methods, enlarging the existing local earthquake catalogue. This contributes to imaging tectonic fault zones for better understanding seismic hazard, also through improved earthquake statistics (b-value, magnitude of completeness). Detection of low-magnitude earthquakes or events for which the highest amplitudes slightly exceed the signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR), may be possible by using standard methods like the short-term over long-term average (STA/LTA). However, due to sparse network coverage and high background noise, such a technique may not detect all potentially recoverable events. Yet, earthquakes originating from the same source region and relatively close to each other, should be characterized by similarity in seismic waveforms, at a given station. Therefore, waveform similarity can be exploited by using specific techniques such as correlation-template based (also known as matched filtering) or subspace detection methods (based on the subspace theory). Matching techniques basically require a reference or template event, usually characterized by high waveform coherence in the array receivers, and high SNR, which is cross-correlated with the continuous data. Instead, subspace detection methods overcome in principle the necessity of defining template events as single events, but use a subspace extracted from multiple events. This approach theoretically should be more robust in detecting signals that exhibit a strong variability (e.g. because of source or magnitude). In this study we scan the continuous data recorded in the Vienna Basin with a subspace detector to identify additional events. This will allow us to estimate the increase of the seismicity rate in the local earthquake catalogue

  15. Detection of gravity changes before powerful earthquakes in GRACE satellite observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Shahrisvand

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The variations of gravity field have been analyzed in this article, in order to find disturbances in the vicinity of recent great earthquakes epicenters including Chile (February 27, 2010, Tohoku-Oki (March 11, 2011 and Indian Ocean (April 11, 2012 prior to the events. For this purpose, the 10 years long time series of gravitational gradient components obtained from weekly Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE solutions have been used. Some of gravitational gradient components are independent to GRACE stripy error and amplify high frequency components of gravity field. Therefore that preseismic activity can be better illustrated. The interquartile method has been used to construct the higher and lower bounds in time series to detect outlying solution outside the bounds associated with impending earthquakes. Afterwards, Nonlinear Auto-Regressive models with eXogenous inputs (NARX neural network has been proposed in the detection process of prominent gravity field anomalies prior the earthquakes. Both methods detect considerable anomalous occurrences during 2-5 weeks prior to the earthquakes. Our results statistics show that the anomalous deviations before the earthquakes have different signs and amplitudes at different cases.

  16. Multi-Parameter Observation and Detection of Pre-Earthquake Signals in Seismically Active Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouzounov, D.; Pulinets, S.; Parrot, M.; Liu, J. Y.; Hattori, K.; Kafatos, M.; Taylor, P.

    2012-01-01

    .9) in Taiwan and Japan. We have found anomalous behavior before all of these events with no false negatives. Calculated false alarm ratio for the for the same month over the entire period of analysis (2003-2009) is less than 10% and was d as the earthquakes. The commonalities in detecting atmospheric/ionospheric anomalies show that they may exist over both land and sea in regions of maximum stress (i.e., along plate boundaries) Our results indicate that the ISTF model could provide a capability to observe pre-earthquake atmospheric/ionospheric signals by combining this information into a common framework.

  17. Electromagnetic (EM) earthquake precursor transmission and detection regarding experimental field and laboratory results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kenneth B., II; Saxton, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    Aside from understanding the animal kingdom reacting to a per-earthquake signal, a transmission source is apparent. The focus of this investigation is an electromagnetic emission approach and detection capable of becoming both practical and reliable to other plausible earthquake precursors. To better determine this method, several prototype magnetometers were devised and built with each successive version improving upon the next. Two twin (prototype #2) antennae were deployed to field settings outside the NE Texas town of Timpson, TX back in February, 2013 and very recent laboratory tests using the most refined (prototype #4) experimental antenna for detecting unconfined, granitic block fracturing. Field testing encompassed the small NE Texas town of Timpson, TX, which endured an earthquake phenomenon (May, 2012 - September, 2013). A rare sequence of events was strictly attributed to hydraulic fracturing activity in the immediate area all for hydrocarbon capture; thus, a chance to detect and record man-made earthquake activity. By swiveling two directional antennae at three locations, one mobile, the antennae could 'zero' in on a signal source until its pattern was well established and mapped, accordingly. Three signals were detected, two strong and one moderately strong, each with epicenter implications several kilometers from known seismological sites. Six months later, two M4s and a M2.4 earthquake hit over the 2013 Labor Day weekend. Hydraulic pump pressure increased deep Earth pore pressure, reduced friction, and displaced opposing tectonic stresses causing rock to fracture. This was the last earthquake sequence in the Timpson area, due to personal involvement and area citizens in contact with their state representatives. Well and drilling operations have since moved 40-50 miles SE of Timpson, TX and rare earthquake activity has now occurred there. Laboratory testing was next performed using cored granitic blocks and the latest, improved antenna with an

  18. Detection of Liberibacter asiaticus in a single infected Asian citrus psyllid adult or nymph: Impact of dilution with clean Asian citrus psyllids (Diaphorina citri) during extraction

    OpenAIRE

    LeVesque, Cynthia; Kumagai, Lucita; Bloomquist, Cheryl; Keremane, Manjunath; Lee, Richard; Kunta, Madhurababu; da Graça, John V.; Vidalakis, Georgious; Lin, Hong; Morgan, John; Hall, David G.; Polek, MaryLou

    2014-01-01

    Now that the presence of Huanglongbing (HLB) has been confirmed in California, protecting the state’s citrus industry through early detection of disease is essential in curtailing its spread. Because ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (Las), the putative causal agent of HLB, accumulates in its vector, the Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri, Kuwayama, accurate testing of the insect is vital. Due to the fact that insect secondary metabolites interfere with downstream applications (1,...

  19. Flash-sourcing or the rapid detection and characterisation of earthquake effects through clickstream data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossu, R.; Mazet-Roux, G.; Roussel, F.; Frobert, L.

    2011-12-01

    crowd-to-agency system, but unlike them it is not based on declarative information (e.g. answers to a questionnaire) but on implicit data, clickstream observed on our website. We present first the main improvements of the method, improved detection of traffic surges, and a way to instantly map areas affected by severe damage or network disruptions. The second part describes how the derived information improves and fastens public earthquake information and, beyond seismology, what it can teach us on public behaviour when facing an earthquake. Finally, the discussion will focus on the future evolutions and how flash-sourcing could ultimately improve earthquake response.

  20. IR Thermography in Moisture and Earthquake Damage Detection Performed in the Žica Monastery, Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Ristić, Slavica; Suzana POLIĆ-RADOVANOVIĆ

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the IR thermographic diagnostics of the seismic damage inflicted upon the Žica Monastery after the earthquake on 3rd November 2010. The Žica Monastery founded in 13th century is located in central Serbia. The moisture content in the structure was detected too. The obtained results document the current state of the buildings and, at the same time, confirm the advantages of IR thermography as a method in the diagnosis of earthquake cracks, useful for the seism...

  1. Automatic detection and rapid determination of earthquake magnitude by wavelet multiscale analysis of the primary arrival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dando, B.; Simons, F. J.; Allen, R. M.

    2006-12-01

    Earthquake early warning systems save lives. It is of great importance that networked systems of seismometers be equipped with reliable tools to make rapid determinations of earthquake magnitude in the few to tens of seconds before the damaging ground motion occurs. A new fully automated algorithm based on the discrete wavelet transform detects as well as analyzes the incoming first arrival with unmatched accuracy and precision, estimating the final magnitude to within a single unit from the first few seconds of the P wave. The curious observation that such brief segments of the seismogram may contain information about the final magnitude even of very large earthquakes, which occur on faults that may rupture over tens of seconds, is central to a debate in the seismological community which we hope to stimulate but cannot attempt to address within the scope of this paper. Wavelet coefficients of the seismogram can be determined extremely rapidly and efficiently by the fast lifting wavelet transform. Extracting amplitudes at individual scales is a very simple procedure, involving a mere handful of lines of computer code. Scale-dependent thresholded amplitudes derived from the wavelet transform of the first 3--4 seconds of an incoming seismic P arrival are predictive of earthquake magnitude, with errors of one magnitude unit for seismograms recorded up to 150 km away from the earthquake source. Our procedure is a simple yet extremely efficient tool for implementation on low-power recording stations. It provides an accurate and precise method of autonomously detecting the incoming P wave and predicting the magnitude of the source from the scale-dependent character of its amplitude well before the arrival of damaging ground motion. Provided a dense array of networked seismometers exists, our procedure should become the tool of choice for earthquake early warning systems worldwide.

  2. Ant Colony Optimization detects anomalous aerosol variations associated with the Chile earthquake of 27 February 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhoondzadeh, M.

    2015-04-01

    This study attempts to acknowledge AOD (Aerosol Optical Depth) seismo-atmospheric anomalies around the time of the Chile earthquake of 27 February 2010. Since AOD precursor alone might not be useful as an accurate and stand alone criteria for the earthquake anomalies detection, therefore it would be more appropriate to use and integrate a variety of other precursors to reduce the uncertainty of potential detected seismic anomalies. To achieve this aim, eight other precursors including GPS-TEC (Total Electron Content), H+, He+, O+ densities (cm-3) and total ion density (cm-3) from IAP experiment, electron density (cm-3) and electron temperature (K) from ISL experiment and VLF electric field from ICE experiment have been surveyed to detect unusual variations around the time and location of the Chile earthquake. Moreover, three methods including Interquartile, ANN (Artificial Neural Network) and ACO (Ant Colony Optimization) have been implemented to observe the discord patterns in time series of the AOD precursor. All of the methods indicate a clear abnormal increase in time series of AOD data, 2 days prior to event. Also a striking anomaly is observed in time series of TEC data, 6 days preceding the earthquake. Using the analysis of ICE data, a prominent anomaly is detected in the VLF electric field measurement, 1 day before the earthquake. The time series of H+, He+, O+ densities (cm-3) and total ion density (cm-3) from IAP and also electron density (cm-3) and electron temperature (K) from ISL, illustrate the abnormal behaviors, 3 days before the event. It should be noted that the acknowledgment of the different lead times in outcomes of the implemented precursors strictly depend on the proper understanding of Lithosphere-Atmosphere-Ionosphere (LAI) coupling mechanism during seismic activities. It means that these different anomalies dates between LAI precursors can be a hint of truthfulness of multi-precursors analysis.

  3. Thermal anomalies detection before strong earthquakes (M > 6.0 using interquartile, wavelet and Kalman filter methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Akhoondzadeh

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Thermal anomaly is known as a significant precursor of strong earthquakes, therefore Land Surface Temperature (LST time series have been analyzed in this study to locate relevant anomalous variations prior to the Bam (26 December 2003, Zarand (22 February 2005 and Borujerd (31 March 2006 earthquakes. The duration of the three datasets which are comprised of MODIS LST images is 44, 28 and 46 days for the Bam, Zarand and Borujerd earthquakes, respectively. In order to exclude variations of LST from temperature seasonal effects, Air Temperature (AT data derived from the meteorological stations close to the earthquakes epicenters have been taken into account. The detection of thermal anomalies has been assessed using interquartile, wavelet transform and Kalman filter methods, each presenting its own independent property in anomaly detection. The interquartile method has been used to construct the higher and lower bounds in LST data to detect disturbed states outside the bounds which might be associated with impending earthquakes. The wavelet transform method has been used to locate local maxima within each time series of LST data for identifying earthquake anomalies by a predefined threshold. Also, the prediction property of the Kalman filter has been used in the detection process of prominent LST anomalies. The results concerning the methodology indicate that the interquartile method is capable of detecting the highest intensity anomaly values, the wavelet transform is sensitive to sudden changes, and the Kalman filter method significantly detects the highest unpredictable variations of LST. The three methods detected anomalous occurrences during 1 to 20 days prior to the earthquakes showing close agreement in results found between the different applied methods on LST data in the detection of pre-seismic anomalies. The proposed method for anomaly detection was also applied on regions irrelevant to earthquakes for which no anomaly was detected

  4. The ionospheric perturbations associated with Asian earthquakes as seen from the subionospheric propagation from NWC to Japanese stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Kasahara

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Huge five earthquakes with magnitude greater than 6.0 took place in Asia (include Philippines, Indonesia, etc. during the period from the beginning of August 2008 to the end of Junuary 2009, and the corresponding data of subionospheric VLF propagation between the NWC transmitter (Australia, 19.8 kHz and a few Japanese stations (distance 6~8 Mm are examined. As the result of our analysis by means of (1 trend (average nighttime amplitude, (2 dispersion, (3 nighttime fluctuation, and (4 atmospheric gravity wave enhancement, three earthquakes from the five taking place within the fifth Frenel zone are found to have accompanied a precursory signature in VLF propagation. On the other hand, there were observed no such precursory signatures for the remaing two earthquakes. One is too deep (>400 km and another is too distant from the great-circle path. These characteristics of seismo-ionospheric perturbations would be of essential importance in studying the spatial/temporal properties of seismo-ionospheric perturbations for medium-distance propagation.

  5. High-Speed Digital Signal Processing Method for Detection of Repeating Earthquakes Using GPGPU-Acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Taiki; Okubo, Kan; Uchida, Naoki; Takeuchi, Nobunao; Matsuzawa, Toru

    2013-04-01

    Repeating earthquakes are occurring on the similar asperity at the plate boundary. These earthquakes have an important property; the seismic waveforms observed at the identical observation site are very similar regardless of their occurrence time. The slip histories of repeating earthquakes could reveal the existence of asperities: The Analysis of repeating earthquakes can detect the characteristics of the asperities and realize the temporal and spatial monitoring of the slip in the plate boundary. Moreover, we are expecting the medium-term predictions of earthquake at the plate boundary by means of analysis of repeating earthquakes. Although the previous works mostly clarified the existence of asperity and repeating earthquake, and relationship between asperity and quasi-static slip area, the stable and robust method for automatic detection of repeating earthquakes has not been established yet. Furthermore, in order to process the enormous data (so-called big data) the speedup of the signal processing is an important issue. Recently, GPU (Graphic Processing Unit) is used as an acceleration tool for the signal processing in various study fields. This movement is called GPGPU (General Purpose computing on GPUs). In the last few years the performance of GPU keeps on improving rapidly. That is, a PC (personal computer) with GPUs might be a personal supercomputer. GPU computing gives us the high-performance computing environment at a lower cost than before. Therefore, the use of GPUs contributes to a significant reduction of the execution time in signal processing of the huge seismic data. In this study, first, we applied the band-limited Fourier phase correlation as a fast method of detecting repeating earthquake. This method utilizes only band-limited phase information and yields the correlation values between two seismic signals. Secondly, we employ coherence function using three orthogonal components (East-West, North-South, and Up-Down) of seismic data as a

  6. Advances in understanding of the mechanism for generation of earthquake thermal precursors detected by satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraf, Arun K.; Rawat, Vineeta; Choudhury, Swapnamita; Dasgupta, Sudipta; Das, Josodhir

    2009-12-01

    Stresses building up during an earthquake preparation phase also manifest themselves in the form of a so called increased land surface temperature (LST) leading to a thermal precursor prior to the earthquake event. This phenomenon has now been validated by our observations of short-term thermal anomalies detected by infrared satellite sensors for several recent past earthquakes around the world. The rise in infrared radiance temperature was seen to vary between 5 and 12 °C for different earthquakes. We discuss in this paper different explanations for the generation of such anomalies that have been offered. Emission of gases due to the opening and closure of micropores upon induced stresses and also the participation of ground water have been propounded as a possible cause for generation of thermal anomalies. Seismo-ionosphere coupling, by which gases like radon move to the earth-atmosphere interface and cause air ionization thus bringing about a change in air temperature, relative humidity, etc., has been put forth by some workers. A mechanism of low frequency electromagnetic emission was tested and experimented by scientists with rock masses in stressed conditions as those that exist at tectonic locations. The workers proposed the positive hole pair theory, which received support from several scientific groups. Positive holes (sites of electron deficiency) are activated in stressed rocks from pre-existing yet dormant positive hole pairs (PHPs) and their recombination at rock-air interface leads to a LST rise. A combination of remote sensing detection of rock mechanics behavior with a perception of chemistry and geophysics has been applied to propose the remote sensing rock mechanics theory. Remote sensing detections of such anomalies confirm so far proposed lab theories for such a hotly debated field as earthquake precursor study by providing unbiased observations with consistency in time and space distribution.

  7. The ionospheric perturbations associated with Asian earthquakes as seen from the subionospheric propagation from NWC to Japanese stations

    OpenAIRE

    Kasahara, Y.; Muto, F.; Hobara, Y.; Hayakawa, M.

    2010-01-01

    Huge five earthquakes with magnitude greater than 6.0 took place in Asia (include Philippines, Indonesia, etc.) during the period from the beginning of August 2008 to the end of Junuary 2009, and the corresponding data of subionospheric VLF propagation between the NWC transmitter (Australia, 19.8 kHz) and a few Japanese stations (distance 6~8 Mm) are examined. As the result of our analysis by means of (1) trend (average nighttime amplitude), (2) dispersion, (3) nighttime fluctuation, and (4) ...

  8. Detection limits of tidal-wetland sequences to identify variable rupture modes of megathrust earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shennan, Ian; Garrett, Ed; Barlow, Natasha

    2016-10-01

    Recent paleoseismological studies question whether segment boundaries identified for 20th and 21st century great, >M8, earthquakes persist through multiple earthquake cycles or whether smaller segments with different boundaries rupture and cause significant hazards. The smaller segments may include some currently slipping rather than locked. In this review, we outline general principles regarding indicators of relative sea-level change in tidal wetlands and the conditions in which paleoseismic indicators must be distinct from those resulting from non-seismic processes. We present new evidence from sites across southcentral Alaska to illustrate different detection limits of paleoseismic indicators and consider alternative interpretations for marsh submergence and emergence. We compare predictions of coseismic uplift and subsidence derived from geophysical models of earthquakes with different rupture modes. The spatial patterns of agreement and misfits between model predictions and quantitative reconstructions of coseismic submergence and emergence suggest that no earthquake within the last 4000 years had a pattern of rupture the same as the Mw 9.2 Alaska earthquake in 1964. From the Alaska examples and research from other subduction zones we suggest that If we want to understand whether a megathrust ruptures in segments of variable length in different earthquakes, we need to be site-specific as to what sort of geological-based criteria eliminate the possibility of a particular rupture mode in different earthquakes. We conclude that coastal paleoseismological studies benefit from a methodological framework that employs rigorous evaluation of five essential criteria and a sixth which may be very robust but only occur at some sites: 1 - lateral extent of peat-mud or mud-peat couplets with sharp contacts; 2 - suddenness of submergence or emergence, and replicated within each site; 3 - amount of vertical motion, quantified with 95% error terms and replicated within each

  9. Anomalous Signals Prior to Wenchuan Earthquake Detected by Superconducting Gravimeter and Broadband Seismometers Records

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenbin Shen; Dijin Wang; Cheinway Hwang

    2011-01-01

    Using 1 Hz sampling records at one superconducting gravimeter (SG) station and 11 broadband seismometer stations,we found anomalous signals prior to the 2008 Wenchuan(汶川)earthquake event.The tides are removed from the original SG records to obtain the gravity residuals.Applying the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) and the wavelet analysis to the SG gravity residuals leads to time-frequency spectra,which suggests that there is an anomalous signal series around 39 h prior to the event.The period and the magnitude of the anomalous signal series are about 8 s and 3×10-8 m/s2 (3 μGal),respectively.In another aspect,applying HHT analysis technique to 11 records at broadband seismometer stations shows that most of them contain anomalous signals prior to the Wenchuan event,and the marginal spectra of 8 inland stations show an apparent characteristic of double peaks in anomalous days compared to the only one peak of the marginal spectra in quiet days.Preliminary investigations suggest that the anomalous signals prior to the earthquake are closely related to the low-frequency earthquake (LFE).We concluded that the SG data as well as the broadband seismometers records might be significant information sources in detecting the anomalous signals prior to large earthquakes.

  10. Testing continuous earthquake detection and location in Alentejo (South Portugal) by waveform coherency analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, Catarina; Grigoli, Francesco; Cesca, Simone; Custódio, Susana

    2015-04-01

    In the last decade a permanent seismic network of 30 broadband stations, complemented by dense temporary deployments, covered Portugal. This extraordinary network coverage enables now the computation of a high-resolution image of the seismicity of Portugal, which in turn will shed light on the seismotectonics of Portugal. The large data volumes available cannot be analyzed by traditional time-consuming manual location procedures. In this presentation we show first results on the automatic detection and location of earthquakes occurred in a selected region in the south of Portugal Our main goal is to implement an automatic earthquake detection and location routine in order to have a tool to quickly process large data sets, while at the same time detecting low magnitude earthquakes (i.e., lowering the detection threshold). We present a modified version of the automatic seismic event location by waveform coherency analysis developed by Grigoli et al. (2013, 2014), designed to perform earthquake detections and locations in continuous data. The event detection is performed by continuously computing the short-term-average/long-term-average of two different characteristic functions (CFs). For the P phases we used a CF based on the vertical energy trace, while for S phases we used a CF based on the maximum eigenvalue of the instantaneous covariance matrix (Vidale 1991). Seismic event detection and location is obtained by performing waveform coherence analysis scanning different hypocentral coordinates. We apply this technique to earthquakes in the Alentejo region (South Portugal), taking advantage from a small aperture seismic network installed in the south of Portugal for two years (2010 - 2011) during the DOCTAR experiment. In addition to the good network coverage, the Alentejo region was chosen for its simple tectonic setting and also because the relationship between seismicity, tectonics and local lithospheric structure is intriguing and still poorly understood. Inside

  11. Improving Seismic Monitoring System for Small to Intermediate Earthquake Detection

    OpenAIRE

    V. Joevivek, N. Chandrasekar & Y.Srinivas

    2010-01-01

    Efficient and successful seismic event detection is an important and challengingissue in many disciplines, especially in tectonics studies and geo-seismicsciences. In this paper, we propose a fast, efficient, and useful feature extractiontechnique for maximally separable class events. Support vector machineclassifier algorithm with an adjustable learning rate has been utilized toadaptively and accurately estimate small level seismic events. The algorithm hasless computation, and thereby incre...

  12. Postseismic Displacement Following the Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake Detected by Continuous GPS Observation and the Effect of Viscoelastic Relaxation Using 3D- FEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katagi, T.; Hashimoto, M.; Hashizume, M.; Choosakul, N.; Takemoto, S.; Fukuda, Y.; Fujimori, K.; Satomura, M.; Wu, P.; Otsuka, Y.; Takiguchi, H.; Saito, S.; Maruyama, T.; Kato, T.

    2007-12-01

    We have studied postseismic displacement following the Sumatra-Andaman earthquake of December 26, 2004 in Thailand and other Southeast Asian countries using continuous GPS observation. We will report the results of our GPS analysis from the beginning of 2001 to the end of October 2007. We have also constructed 3D-FEM to evaluate the effect of viscoelastic relaxation following the earthquake. We will also report this result. We used continuous GPS data from 6 sites operated by Chulalongkorn Univ. and Kyoto Univ. or JAMSTEC, 2 sites by Shizuoka Univ. and JAMSTEC, 3 sites by NICT in Thailand and Myanmar, 1 site by STE-Lab, Nagoya Univ., and IGS sites which are located in countries surrounding the Indian Ocean include Japan, China and Australia. Bernese 5.0 was used for the processing of 30 sec. sampling data to obtain static solutions. From our analysis, no significant motions were detected at each site until the day of the earthquake. Although postseismic displacements still have been detected at CHMI and SIS2 in northern Thailand, far from the epicenter, they seem to be decelerated. On the other hand, at SAMP and PHKT, close to the epicenter, where postseismic displacements also became smaller, but still may take a time to stop. An about 29 cm SW-ward motion was detected at PHKT from just after the Sumatra-Andaman earthquake to June 2007, which is larger than its coseismic displacement, about 26 cm. We have constructed 3D-FEM model to estimate how much viscoelastic relaxation affects postseismic displacements after the earthquake. We adopted a Maxwell viscoelastic body as well as Katagi et al. (2006), and modeled around the Andaman-Sea area using isoparametric hexahedral elements with 8 nodes (Zienkiewicz and Cheng, 1967). The Andaman-Sea is well known as a back arc basins, and its ocean floor is still spreading. Therefore, the mantle viscosity under the Sunda-plate may be smaller because of upwelling warm mantle. We are going to investigate and report the

  13. The Application of Speaker Recognition Techniques in the Detection of Tsunamigenic Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbatov, A.; O'Connell, J.; Paliwal, K.

    2015-12-01

    Tsunami warning procedures adopted by national tsunami warning centres largely rely on the classical approach of earthquake location, magnitude determination, and the consequent modelling of tsunami waves. Although this approach is based on known physics theories of earthquake and tsunami generation processes, this may be the main shortcoming due to the need to satisfy minimum seismic data requirement to estimate those physical parameters. At least four seismic stations are necessary to locate the earthquake and a minimum of approximately 10 minutes of seismic waveform observation to reliably estimate the magnitude of a large earthquake similar to the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami Earthquake of M9.2. Consequently the total time to tsunami warning could be more than half an hour. In attempt to reduce the time of tsunami alert a new approach is proposed based on the classification of tsunamigenic and non tsunamigenic earthquakes using speaker recognition techniques. A Tsunamigenic Dataset (TGDS) was compiled to promote the development of machine learning techniques for application to seismic trace analysis and, in particular, tsunamigenic event detection, and compare them to existing seismological methods. The TGDS contains 227 off shore events (87 tsunamigenic and 140 non-tsunamigenic earthquakes with M≥6) from Jan 2000 to Dec 2011, inclusive. A Support Vector Machine classifier using a radial-basis function kernel was applied to spectral features derived from 400 sec frames of 3-comp. 1-Hz broadband seismometer data. Ten-fold cross-validation was used during training to choose classifier parameters. Voting was applied to the classifier predictions provided from each station to form an overall prediction for an event. The F1 score (harmonic mean of precision and recall) was chosen to rate each classifier as it provides a compromise between type-I and type-II errors, and due to the imbalance between the representative number of events in the tsunamigenic and non

  14. Object-level change detection based on full-scale image segmentation and its application to Wenchuan Earthquake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Aiming at object fragmentation and poor detection results caused by discontinuous segmentation scale in object-level change detection,a new object-level change detection method based on the full-scale object tree is presented in this paper.The core idea of this new algorithm is to establish the full-scale object tree based on convexity model theory and integrate full-scale image segmentation techniques and change detection into the whole process.Some Wenchuan Earthquake images are taken as an example to discuss the new method for earthquake damage detection and evaluation in urban area,landslide detection,and extraction of barrier lake boundary.The application shows that the new method is robust and it provides an advanced tool for the quantitative detection and evaluation of earthquake damage.

  15. Detection of earthquake induced radon precursors by Hilbert Huang Transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman, Chiranjib; Ghose, Debasis; Sinha, Bikash; Deb, Argha

    2016-10-01

    Continuous measurement of radon-222 concentration in soil was carried out across duration of one year at a geologically faulted area having high regional heat flow to detect anomalies caused by seismic activities. The data reveals a range of periodicities present in the radon time series. To identify seismic induced radon changes we treat the time series data through various filtering methods to remove inherent periodicities. The Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (EEMD) is deployed to decompose the signal into its characteristic modes. Hilbert Huang Transform (HHT) is applied for the first time on the physically significant modes obtained by EEMD to represent time-energy-frequency of the recorded soil radon time series. After removing the periodic and quasi-periodic constituents from the original time series, the simulated result shows a forceful correlation in recorded radon-222 anomalies with regional and local seismic events.

  16. Automatic Earthquake Detection and Location by Waveform coherency in Alentejo (South Portugal) Using CatchPy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custodio, S.; Matos, C.; Grigoli, F.; Cesca, S.; Heimann, S.; Rio, I.

    2015-12-01

    Seismic data processing is currently undergoing a step change, benefitting from high-volume datasets and advanced computer power. In the last decade, a permanent seismic network of 30 broadband stations, complemented by dense temporary deployments, covered mainland Portugal. This outstanding regional coverage currently enables the computation of a high-resolution image of the seismicity of Portugal, which contributes to fitting together the pieces of the regional seismo-tectonic puzzle. Although traditional manual inspections are valuable to refine automatic results they are impracticable with the big data volumes now available. When conducted alone they are also less objective since the criteria is defined by the analyst. In this work we present CatchPy, a scanning algorithm to detect earthquakes in continuous datasets. Our main goal is to implement an automatic earthquake detection and location routine in order to have a tool to quickly process large data sets, while at the same time detecting low magnitude earthquakes (i.e. lowering the detection threshold). CatchPY is designed to produce an event database that could be easily located using existing location codes (e.g.: Grigoli et al. 2013, 2014). We use CatchPy to perform automatic detection and location of earthquakes that occurred in Alentejo region (South Portugal), taking advantage of a dense seismic network deployed in the region for two years during the DOCTAR experiment. Results show that our automatic procedure is particularly suitable for small aperture networks. The event detection is performed by continuously computing the short-term-average/long-term-average of two different characteristic functions (CFs). For the P phases we used a CF based on the vertical energy trace while for S phases we used a CF based on the maximum eigenvalue of the instantaneous covariance matrix (Vidale 1991). Seismic event location is performed by waveform coherence analysis, scanning different hypocentral coordinates

  17. Sampling Methods for Detection and Monitoring of the Asian Citrus Psyllid (Hemiptera: Psyllidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monzo, C; Arevalo, H A; Jones, M M; Vanaclocha, P; Croxton, S D; Qureshi, J A; Stansly, P A

    2015-06-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama is a key pest of citrus due to its role as vector of citrus greening disease or "huanglongbing." ACP monitoring is considered an indispensable tool for management of vector and disease. In the present study, datasets collected between 2009 and 2013 from 245 citrus blocks were used to evaluate precision, sensitivity for detection, and efficiency of five sampling methods. The number of samples needed to reach a 0.25 standard error-mean ratio was estimated using Taylor's power law and used to compare precision among sampling methods. Comparison of detection sensitivity and time expenditure (cost) between stem-tap and other sampling methodologies conducted consecutively at the same location were also assessed. Stem-tap sampling was the most efficient sampling method when ACP densities were moderate to high and served as the basis for comparison with all other methods. Protocols that grouped trees near randomly selected locations across the block were more efficient than sampling trees at random across the block. Sweep net sampling was similar to stem-taps in number of captures per sampled unit, but less precise at any ACP density. Yellow sticky traps were 14 times more sensitive than stem-taps but much more time consuming and thus less efficient except at very low population densities. Visual sampling was efficient for detecting and monitoring ACP at low densities. Suction sampling was time consuming and taxing but the most sensitive of all methods for detection of sparse populations. This information can be used to optimize ACP monitoring efforts. PMID:26313984

  18. Auto Correlation Analysis of Coda Waves from Local Earthquakes for Detecting Temporal Changes in Shallow Subsurface Structures: the 2011 Tohoku-Oki, Japan Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahara, Hisashi

    2015-02-01

    For monitoring temporal changes in subsurface structures I propose to use auto correlation functions of coda waves from local earthquakes recorded at surface receivers, which probably contain more body waves than surface waves. Use of coda waves requires earthquakes resulting in decreased time resolution for monitoring. Nonetheless, it may be possible to monitor subsurface structures in sufficient time resolutions in regions with high seismicity. In studying the 2011 Tohoku-Oki, Japan earthquake (Mw 9.0), for which velocity changes have been previously reported, I try to validate the method. KiK-net stations in northern Honshu are used in this analysis. For each moderate earthquake normalized auto correlation functions of surface records are stacked with respect to time windows in the S-wave coda. Aligning the stacked, normalized auto correlation functions with time, I search for changes in phases arrival times. The phases at lag times of times are measured at the stations based on the stretching method. Clear phase delays are found to be associated with the mainshock and to gradually recover with time. The amounts of the phase delays are 10 % on average with the maximum of about 50 % at some stations. The deconvolution analysis using surface and subsurface records at the same stations is conducted for validation. The results show the phase delays from the deconvolution analysis are slightly smaller than those from the auto correlation analysis, which implies that the phases on the auto correlations are caused by larger velocity changes at shallower depths. The auto correlation analysis seems to have an accuracy of about several percent, which is much larger than methods using earthquake doublets and borehole array data. So this analysis might be applicable in detecting larger changes. In spite of these disadvantages, this analysis is still attractive because it can be applied to many records on the surface in regions where no boreholes are available.

  19. Comparative analysis for detecting areas with building damage from several destructive earthquakes using satellite synthetic aperture radar images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Masashi; Yamazaki, Fumio

    2010-11-01

    Earthquakes that have caused large-scale damage in developed areas, such as the 1994 Northridge and 1995 Kobe events, remind us of the importance of making quick damage assessments in order to facilitate the resumption of normal activities and restoration planning. Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) can be used to record physical aspects of the Earth's surface under any weather conditions, making it a powerful tool in the development of an applicable method for assessing damage following natural disasters. Detailed building damage data recorded on the ground following the 1995 Kobe earthquake may provide an invaluable opportunity to investigate the relationship between the backscattering properties and the degree of damage. This paper aims to investigate the differences between the backscattering coefficients and the correlations derived from pre- and post-earthquake SAR intensity images to smoothly detect areas with building damage. This method was then applied to SAR images recorded over the areas affected by the 1999 Kocaeli earthquake in Turkey, the 2001 Gujarat earthquake in India, and the 2003 Boumerdes earthquake in Algeria. The accuracy of the proposed method was examined and confirmed by comparing the results of the SAR analyses with the field survey data.

  20. Detection of seismic events triggered by P-waves from the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazawa, Masatoshi

    2012-12-01

    Large-amplitude surface waves from the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake triggered many seismic events across Japan, while the smaller amplitude P-wave triggering remains unclear. A spectral method was used to detect seismic events triggered by the first arriving P-waves over Japan. This method uses a reference event to correct for source and propagation effects, so that the local response near the station can be examined in detail. P-wave triggering was found in the regions where triggered non-volcanic tremor (NVT) has been observed, and some seismic and volcanic regions. The triggering strain due to P-waves is of the order of 10-8 to 10-7, which is 1 to 2 orders of magnitude smaller than the triggering strain necessary for the surface wave triggering. In the regions of NVT, the triggered event was not identified with slow events, but with other seismic events such as tectonic earthquakes. The sequence of triggering in the regions started with P-wave arrivals. The subsequent surface waves contributed to triggering of NVT, possibly together with slow slip, which resulted in the large amplitude of the NVT.

  1. Recurrence quantification analysis for detecting dynamical changes in earthquake magnitude time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Min; Zhao, Gang; Wang, Gang

    2015-12-01

    In this study, recurrence plot (RP) and recurrence quantification analysis (RQA) techniques are applied to a magnitude time series composed of seismic events occurred in California region. Using bootstrapping techniques, we give the statistical test of the RQA for detecting dynamical transitions. From our results, we find the different patterns of RPs for magnitude time series before and after the M6.1 Joshua Tree Earthquake. RQA measurements of determinism (DET) and laminarity (LAM) quantifying the order with confidence levels also show peculiar behaviors. It is found that DET and LAM values of the recurrence-based complexity measure significantly increase to a large value at the main shock, and then gradually recovers to a small values after it. The main shock and its aftershock sequences trigger a temporary growth in order and complexity of the deterministic structure in the RP of seismic activity. It implies that the onset of the strong earthquake event is reflected in a sharp and great simultaneous change in RQA measures.

  2. Detection of Damage due to Earthquake Using Mid-resolution Remotely Sensed Imageries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jian-feng

    2007-01-01

    @@ How to mitigate the loss of human being's life and properties is extremely important.Truly improvement of building structure is significant,but when a big earthquake occurs,disaster is unavoidable,so emergency response immediately after an earthquake plays a vital role.naditional methods are time-consuming and laborious since almost everything is damaged after a big earthquake.

  3. The Hardboiled and the Haunted: Race, Masculinity, and the Asian American Detective

    OpenAIRE

    McMillin, Calvin

    2012-01-01

    Created by Earl Derr Biggers in the 1920s, Charlie Chan appeared in six popular mystery novels and a long-running film series that starred white actors in the title role. Since the early 1970s, however, attempts to revive the fictional character have drawn fervent protests from Asian American critics and activists. Despite his initial fame, Chan became closely identified with the racist stereotyping of Asians in U.S. popular culture. While he may indeed be culturally "dead," Charlie Chan rema...

  4. Strike-slip earthquakes can also be detected in the ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astafyeva, Elvira; Rolland, Lucie M.; Sladen, Anthony

    2014-11-01

    It is generally assumed that co-seismic ionospheric disturbances are generated by large vertical static displacements of the ground during an earthquake. Consequently, it is expected that co-seismic ionospheric disturbances are only observable after earthquakes with a significant dip-slip component. Therefore, earthquakes dominated by strike-slip motion, i.e. with very little vertical co-seismic component, are not expected to generate ionospheric perturbations. In this work, we use total electron content (TEC) measurements from ground-based GNSS-receivers to study ionospheric response to six recent largest strike-slip earthquakes: the Mw7.8 Kunlun earthquake of 14 November 2001, the Mw8.1 Macquarie earthquake of 23 December 2004, the Sumatra earthquake doublet, Mw8.6 and Mw8.2, of 11 April 2012, the Mw7.7 Balochistan earthquake of 24 September 2013 and the Mw 7.7 Scotia Sea earthquake of 17 November 2013. We show that large strike-slip earthquakes generate large ionospheric perturbations of amplitude comparable with those induced by dip-slip earthquakes of equivalent magnitude. We consider that in the absence of significant vertical static co-seismic displacements of the ground, other seismological parameters (primarily the magnitude of co-seismic horizontal displacements, seismic fault dimensions, seismic slip) may contribute in generation of large-amplitude ionospheric perturbations.

  5. GUI Based Computer Programs for Analyzing Dynamic Signals Detected from a Physical Earthquake Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Ru Wang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Many methods are available to be used as tools for data analysis, such as Fast Fourier Transform (FFT and Hilbert Huang Transform (HHT. However, the raw data need to be pre-processed before applying those methods. To deal with considerable raw data, it should be processed in a fast and efficient way. In this research, the dynamic signal data are obtained from physical earthquake models. To process the huge amount of data is always complicated and time consuming. Customized GUI programs to pre-process and post-process data has been designed to make the raw signal data express its physical meaning rapid by a combination of the manual and automatic process. The research uses animations to display the signal change in time that the signal detected can be shown by a graph which is close to physical phenomena and makes the physical data meaning become more obvious.

  6. Matched-filter Detection of the Missing Foreshocks and Aftershocks of the 2015 Gorkha earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, L.; Huang, H.; Wang, Y.; Plasencia Linares, M. P.

    2015-12-01

    The 25 April 2015 Mw 7.8 Gorkha earthquake occurred at the bottom edge of the locking portion of the Main Himalayan Thrust (MHT), where the Indian plate under-thrusts the Himalayan wedge. The earthquake is followed by a number of large aftershocks but is not preceded by any foreshocks within ~3 weeks according to the NEIC, ISC and NSC catalog. However, a large portion of aftershocks could be missed due to either the contamination of the mainshock coda or small signal to noise ratio. It is also unclear whether there are foreshocks preceding the mainshock, the underlying physical processes of which are crucial for imminent seismic hazard assessment. Here, we employ the matched filter technique to recover the missing events from 22 April to 30 April. We collect 3-component broadband seismic waveforms recorded by one station in Nepal operated by Ev-K2-CNR, OGS Italy and eleven stations in Tibet operated by the China Earthquake Networks Center. We bandpass the seismograms to 1-6 Hz to retain high frequency energies. The template waveforms with high signal-to-noise ratios (> 5) are obtained at several closest stations. To detect and locate the events that occur around the templates, correlograms are shifted at each station with differential travel time as a function of source location based on the CRUST1.0 model. We find ~14 times more events than those listed in the ISC catalog. Some of the detected events are confirmed by visual inspections of the waveforms at the closest stations. The preliminary results show a streak of seismicity occurred around 2.5 days before the mainshock to the southeast of the mainshock hypocenter. The seismicity rate is elevated above the background level during this period of time and decayed subsequently following the Omori's law. The foreshocks appear to migrate towards the hypocenter with logarithmic time ahead of the mainshock, which indicates possible triggering of the mainshock by the propagating afterslip of the foreshocks. Immediately

  7. Field Detection of Microcracks to Define the Nucleation Stage of Earthquake Occurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Fujinawa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Main shocks of natural earthquakes are known to be accompanied by preshocks which evolve following the modified Ohmori’s law in average over many samples. Individual preshock activity, however, is far less systematic for predictive purposes. On the other hand, the microcracks in laboratory rock experiments are always preceded to final rupture. And, previous investigations of field acoustic emissions showed that the activity increases prominently before and after the main shock. But there is no detection of any phenomena to identify the nucleation stage. Here we show that a special underground electric field measurement could detect microcracks. Pulse-like variations were classified into three groups (A, B, C by frequency. The B-type is suggested to define the nucleation period: activity increases sharply following the modified Omori’s law before the main shock and there is no activity afterward. The B-type is subgrouped into three types possibly corresponding to crack-rupture modes. The variations are supposed to be induced by crack occurrence through electrokinetic effects in the elastic-porous medium. The detection distance is suggested to be several orders larger than that of the acoustic emission due to the effective smallness of dissipation rate, and the waveform can be used to infer the rupture mode.

  8. An attempt of using straight-line information for building damage detection based only on post-earthquake optical imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Laigen; Shan, Jie; Ye, Yuanxin

    2014-03-01

    It is important to grasp damage information in stricken areas after an earthquake in order to perform quick rescue and recovery activities. Recent research into remote sensing techniques has shown significant ability to generate quality damage information. The methods based on only post-earthquake data are widely researched especially because there are no pre-earthquake reference data in many cities of the world. This paper addresses a method for detection of damaged buildings using only post-event satellite imagery so that scientists and researchers can take advantage of the ability of helicopters and airplanes to fly over the damage faster. Statistical information of line segments extracted from post-event satellite imagery, such as mean length (ML) and weighted tilt angel standard deviation (WTASD), are used for discriminating the damaged and undamaged buildings.

  9. An attempt of using straight-line information for building damage detection based only on post-earthquake optical imagery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is important to grasp damage information in stricken areas after an earthquake in order to perform quick rescue and recovery activities. Recent research into remote sensing techniques has shown significant ability to generate quality damage information. The methods based on only post-earthquake data are widely researched especially because there are no pre-earthquake reference data in many cities of the world. This paper addresses a method for detection of damaged buildings using only post-event satellite imagery so that scientists and researchers can take advantage of the ability of helicopters and airplanes to fly over the damage faster. Statistical information of line segments extracted from post-event satellite imagery, such as mean length (ML) and weighted tilt angel standard deviation (WTASD), are used for discriminating the damaged and undamaged buildings

  10. GNSS-monitoring of Natural Hazards: Ionospheric Detection of Earthquakes and Volcano Eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shults, K.; Astafyeva, E.; Lognonne, P. H.

    2015-12-01

    During the last few decades earthquakes as sources of strong perturbations in the ionosphere have been reported by many researchers, and in the last few years the seismo-ionosphere coupling has been more and more discussed (e.g., Calais and Minster, 1998, Phys. Earth Planet. Inter., 105, 167-181; Afraimovich et al., 2010, Earth, Planets, Space, V.62, No.11, 899-904; Rolland et al., 2011, Earth Planets Space, 63, 853-857). Co-volcanic ionospheric perturbations have come under the scrutiny of science only in recent years but observations have already shown that mass and energy injections of volcanic activities can also excite oscillations in the ionosphere (Heki, 2006, Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L14303; Dautermann et al., 2009, Geophys. Res., 114, B02202). The ionospheric perturbations are induced by acoustic and gravity waves generated in the neutral atmosphere by seismic source or volcano eruption. The upward propagating vibrations of the atmosphere interact with the plasma in the ionosphere by the particle collisions and excite variations of electron density detectable with dual-frequency receivers of the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS). In addition to co-seismic ionospheric disturbances (CID) observations, ionospheric GNSS measurements have recently proved to be useful to obtain ionospheric images for the seismic fault allowing to provide information on its' parameters and localization (Astafyeva et al., 2011, Geophys. Res. Letters, 38, L22104). This work describes how the GNSS signals can be used for monitoring of natural hazards on examples of the 9 March 2011 M7.3 Tohoku Foreshock and April 2015 M7.8 Nepal earthquake as well as the April 2015 Calbuco volcano eruptions. We also show that use of high-resolution GNSS data can aid to plot the ionospheric images of seismic fault.

  11. Statistical discrimination of induced and tectonic earthquake sequences in Central and Eastern US based on waveform detected catalogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, X.; Daniels, C.; Smith, E.; Peng, Z.; Chen, X.; Wagner, L. S.; Fischer, K. M.; Hawman, R. B.

    2015-12-01

    Since 2001, the number of M>3 earthquakes increased significantly in Central and Eastern United States (CEUS), likely due to waste-water injection, also known as "induced earthquakes" [Ellsworth, 2013]. Because induced earthquakes are driven by short-term external forcing and hence may behave like earthquake swarms, which are not well characterized by branching point-process models, such as the Epidemic Type Aftershock Sequence (ETAS) model [Ogata, 1988]. In this study we focus on the 02/15/2014 M4.1 South Carolina and the 06/16/2014 M4.3 Oklahoma earthquakes, which likely represent intraplate tectonic and induced events, respectively. For the South Carolina event, only one M3.0 aftershock is identified by the ANSS catalog, which may be caused by a lack of low-magnitude events in this catalog. We apply a recently developed matched filter technique to detect earthquakes from 02/08/2014 to 02/22/2014 around the epicentral region. 15 seismic stations (both permanent and temporary USArray networks) within 100 km of the mainshock are used for detection. The mainshock and aftershock are used as templates for the initial detection. Newly detected events are employed as new templates, and the same detection procedure repeats until no new event can be added. Overall we have identified more than 10 events, including one foreshock occurred ~11 min before the M4.1 mainshock. However, the numbers of aftershocks are still much less than predicted with the modified Bath's law. For the Oklahoma event, we use 1270 events from the ANSS catalog and 182 events from a relocated catalog as templates to scan through continuous recordings 3 days before to 7 days after the mainshock. 12 seismic stations within the vicinity of the mainshock are included in the study. After obtaining more complete catalogs for both sequences, we plan to compare the statistical parameters (e.g., b, a, K, and p values) between the two sequences, as well as their spatial-temporal migration pattern, which may

  12. Aftershocks of the 2014 M6 South Napa Earthquake: Detection, Location, and Focal Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardebeck, J.; Shelly, D. R.

    2014-12-01

    The aftershock sequence of the South Napa earthquake is notable both for its low productivity and for its geometric complexity. The aftershocks do not clearly define a fault plane consistent with the NNW-striking vertical plane implied by the mainshock moment tensor and the mapped surface rupture, but instead seem to delineate multiple secondary structures at depth. We investigate this unusual sequence by identifying additional aftershocks that do not appear in the network catalog, relocating the combined aftershock catalog using waveform cross-correlation arrival times and double-difference techniques, and determining focal mechanisms for individual events and event clusters. Additional aftershocks are detected by applying a matched filter approach to the continuous seismic data at nearby stations, with the catalog earthquakes serving as the waveform templates. In tandem with new event detections, we measure precise differential arrival times between events, which we then use in double-difference event location. We detect about 4 times as many well-located aftershocks as in the network catalog. We relocate the events using double-difference in both a 1D and a 3D velocity model. Most of the aftershocks occur between 8 and 11 km depth, similar depth to the mainshock hypocenter and deeper than most of the slip imaged seismically and geodetically. The aftershocks form a diffuse NNW-trending structure, primarily to the north of the mainshock hypocenter and on the west side of the main surface rupture. Within this diffuse trend there are clusters of aftershocks, some suggesting a N-S strike, and some that appear to dip to the east or west. Preliminary single-event and composite focal mechanisms also imply N-S striking strike-slip structures. The mainshock hypocenter and many of the aftershocks occur near the intersection of a sharply defined NE-dipping seismicity structure and the probable location of the West Napa fault, suggesting that stress is concentrated at a

  13. Searching non-impulsive earthquakes using a full-waveform, cross-correlation detection method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    alinne solano, ericka; Hjorleifsdottir, Vala

    2016-04-01

    Some seismic events, which have low P-wave amplitude, pass undetected by regional or global networks. A subset of these events occur due to fast mass movement as in the case of rapid glacial movements (Ekström, et al., 2003; Ekström, et al., 2006) or landslides (Ekstrom and Stark, 2013). Some other events depleted in high frequencies are related to volcanic activity (e.g. Schuler and Ekstrom, 2009) or to non-volcanic tremors (Obara, 2002). Furthermore, non-impulsive earthquakes have been located on oceanic transform faults (OTF) (Abercrombie and Ekstrom, 2001). A suite of methods can be used to detect these non-impulsive events. Correlation, matched filter, or template event methods (e.g. Schaff and Waldhauser 2010; Rubinstein & Beroza 2007) are very efficient for detecting smaller events occurring in a similar place and with the same mechanism as a larger template event. One such method (Ekström, 2006), that is applied on the scale of the globe, routinely detects events with magnitudes around Mw 5 and larger. In this work we want to lower the detection threshold by using shorter period records registered by regional networks together with a full-waveform detection method based on time reversal schemes (Solano, et al., in prep.). The method uses continuous observed seismograms, together with moment tensor responses calculated for a 3D structure. Looking for events on the East Pacific Rise (EPR) around 9 N in one month of data from the National Seismological broadband Network (Servicio Sismologico Nacional, SSN), we found one new event. However, we also had 435 false detections due to high noise levels at several stations, gaps in the data or detection of teleseismic phases. To manually discard these events is a time consuming task that should be automated. We are working on several strategies, including weighting the input traces by their signal to noise ratio, correlation of a template peak associated to the detection function and the coincidence in time of the

  14. Novel alleles of 31-bp VNTR polymorphism in the human cystathionine -synthase (CBS) gene were detected in healthy Asians

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yik-Yuen Gan; Chuan-Fei Chen

    2010-12-01

    A 31-bp variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) polymorphism of the cystathionine -synthase (CBS) gene was earlier reported in Caucasians of predominantly European descent and Indo–Caucasoid populations.We report here for the first time, the detection of allele 20, which was absent in Caucasian and Indo–Caucasoid populations, as a common allele present in Singaporean Chinese (6.25%), Indians (11.7%), and Malays (11.5%). Hence, allele 20 might be a specific allele for Asian populations. A relatively common allele 19 found in the Caucasian and Indo–Caucasoid populations (10.4%–10.6%) was absent in the Asian samples of this study. Therefore, allele 19 might be a specific allele for the Caucasian populations. A novel and rare allele 13, which was not reported before in the Caucasian and Indo–Caucasoid populations, was found in 0.5% of Singaporean Chinese as genotype 13/17 heterozygotes. The presence of alleles 13 and 20 were verified by DNA sequencing. There were five new genotypes (13/17, 16/20, 17/20, 18/20 and 20/20) not reported before in the Caucasian and Indo–Caucasoid populations, detected in this study. Nine genotypes (15/18, 16/18, 16/21, 17/19, 18/19, 18/21, 19/19, 19/21 and 21/21) which were present in the Caucasian and/or Indo–Caucasoid populations were absent in this study. Our results showed that CBS 31-bp VNTR polymorphism has a distinct genetic difference in allele and genotype frequencies between the European Caucasians, Indo–Caucasoid and Asian populations.

  15. Satellite detection of carbon monoxide emission prior to the Gujarat earthquake of 26 January 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NOAA AVHRR images have clearly shown anomalous changes in land surface temperature associated with earthquakes in the past two decades. Soon after the Gujarat earthquake of January 26, 2001, an anomalous increase in land surface temperature was inferred from MODIS satellite data a few days prior to the main earthquake event. The cause of such an anomalous change in surface temperature prior to the earthquake is attributed to many probable phenomena, but no definite cause has been identified. In the present study, changes of a complementary nature were found of land surface temperature associated with the emission of CO from the epicentral region. The observed changes on land and atmosphere associated with the Gujarat earthquake of 26 January, 2001, show the existence of strong coupling between land, atmosphere and ionosphere.

  16. An improved automatic detection method for earthquake-collapsed buildings from ADS40 image

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO HuaDong; LU LinLin; MA JianWen; PESARESI Martino; YUAN FangYan

    2009-01-01

    Earthquake-collapsed building identification is important in earthquake damage assessment and is evidence for mapping seismic intensity. After the May 12th Wenchuan major earthquake occurred,experts from CEODE and IPSC collaborated to make a rapid earthquake damage assessment. A crucial task was to identify collapsed buildings from ADS40 images in the earthquake region. The difficulty was to differentiate collapsed buildings from concrete bridges,dry gravels,and landslide-induced rolling stones since they had a similar gray level range in the image. Based on the IPSC method,an improved automatic identification technique was developed and tested in the study area,a portion of Beichuan County. Final results showed that the technique's accuracy was over 95%. Procedures and results of this experiment are presented in this article. Theory of this technique indicates that it could be applied to collapsed building identification caused by other disasters.

  17. Earthquake Risk and Earthquake Catastrophe Insurance for the People's Republic of China

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Zifa; Lin, Tun; Walker, George

    2009-01-01

    The year 2008 witnessed the renewed interests in earthquake risk management and insurance in the People's Republic of China (PRC), after the Wenchuan earthquake hit the country in May. Located along the southeastern edge of the Euro-Asian Plate, the PRC has a relatively high seismicity, which is manifested by the frequent occurrence of large and disastrous earthquakes. Buildings and infrastructure in the earthquake-prone regions of the PRC have relatively low earthquake resistance levels. Hen...

  18. Quakefinder: A scalable data mining system for detecting earthquakes from space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stolorz, P.; Dean, C. [California Inst. of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    We present an application of novel massively parallel datamining techniques to highly precise inference of important physical processes from remote sensing imagery. Specifically, we have developed and applied a system, Quakefinder, that automatically detects and measures tectonic activity in the earth`s crust by examination of satellite data. We have used Quakefinder to automatically map the direction and magnitude of ground displacements due to the 1992 Landers earthquake in Southern California, over a spatial region of several hundred square kilometers, at a resolution of 10 meters, to a (sub-pixel) precision of 1 meter. This is the first calculation that has ever been able to extract area-mapped information about 2D tectonic processes at this level of detail. We outline the architecture of the Quakefinder system, based upon a combination of techniques drawn from the fields of statistical inference, massively parallel computing and global optimization. We confirm the overall correctness of the procedure by comparison of our results with known locations of targeted faults obtained by careful and time-consuming field measurements. The system also performs knowledge discovery by indicating novel unexplained tectonic activity away from the primary faults that has never before been observed. We conclude by discussing the future potential of this data mining system in the broad context of studying subtle spatio-temporal processes within massive image streams.

  19. Crustal deformation associated with an M8.1 earthquake in the Solomon Islands, detected by ALOS/PALSAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyagi, Yousuke; Ozawa, Taku; Shimada, Masanobu

    2009-10-01

    On April 1, 2007 (UTC), a large Mw 8.1 interplate earthquake struck the Solomon Islands subduction zone where complicated tectonics result from the subduction of four plates. Extensive ground movements and a large tsunami occurred in the epicentral area causing severe damage over a wide area. Using ALOS/PALSAR data and the DInSAR technique, we detected crustal deformation exceeding 2 m in islands close to the epicenter. A slip distribution of the inferred seismic fault was estimated using geodetic information derived from DInSAR processing and field investigations. The result indicates large slip areas around the hypocenter and the centroid. It is possible that the largest slip area is related to subduction of the plate boundary between the Woodlark and Australian plates. A small slip area between those large slip areas may indicate weak coupling due to thermal activity related to volcanic activity on Simbo Island. The 2007 earthquake struck an area where large earthquake has not occurred since 1970. Most of this seismic gap was filled by the 2007 events, however a small seismic gap still remains in the southeastern region of the 2007 earthquake.

  20. Sismosima: A pioneer project for earthquake detection; Sismosima: un proyecto pionero para la deteccion de Terremotos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Echague, C. de

    2015-07-01

    Currently you can only study how earthquakes occur and minimizing their consequences, but in Sismosima are studied earthquakes for if possible issue a pre-alert. Geological and Mining Institute of Spain (IGME) launched this project that has already achieved in test the caves in which you installed meters an increase of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) that match the shot earthquake. Now, it remains check if gas emission occurs simultaneously, before or after. If were before, a couple of minutes would be enough to give an early warning with which save lives and ensure facilities. (Author)

  1. GPS detection of ionospheric perturbations following the January 17, 1994, northridge earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calais, Eric; Minster, J. Bernard

    1995-05-01

    Sources such as atmospheric or buried explosions and shallow earthquakes producing strong vertical ground displacements produce pressure waves that propagate at infrasonic speeds in the atmosphere. At ionospheric altitudes low frequency acoustic waves are coupled to ionispheric gravity waves and induce variations in the ionoispheric electron density. Global Positioning System (GPS) data recorded in Southern California were used to compute ionospheric electron content time series for several days preceding and following the January 17, 1994, M(sub w) = 6.7 Northridge earthquake. An anomalous signal beginning several minutes after the earthquake with time delays that increase with distance from the epicenter was observed. The signal frequency and phase velocity are consistent with results from numerical models of atmospheric-ionospheric acoustic-gravity waves excited by seismic sources as well as previous electromagnetic sounding results. It is believed that these perturbations are caused by the ionospheric response to the strong ground displacement associated with the Northridge earthquake.

  2. Exploring the limits of waveform correlation event detection as applied to three earthquake aftershock sequences.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Resor, Megan E.; Carr, Dorthe Bame; Young, Christopher John

    2010-05-01

    Swarms of earthquakes and/or aftershock sequences can dramatically increase the level of seismicity in a region for a period of time lasting from days to months, depending on the swarm or sequence. Such occurrences can provide a large amount of useful information to seismologists. For those who monitor seismic events for possible nuclear explosions, however, these swarms/sequences are a nuisance. In an explosion monitoring system, each event must be treated as a possible nuclear test until it can be proven, to a high degree of confidence, not to be. Seismic events recorded by the same station with highly correlated waveforms almost certainly have a similar location and source type, so clusters of events within a swarm can quickly be identified as earthquakes. We have developed a number of tools that can be used to exploit the high degree of waveform similarity expected to be associated with swarms/sequences. Dendro Tool measures correlations between known events. The Waveform Correlation Detector is intended to act as a detector, finding events in raw data which correlate with known events. The Self Scanner is used to find all correlated segments within a raw data steam and does not require an event library. All three techniques together provide an opportunity to study the similarities of events in an aftershock sequence in different ways. To comprehensively characterize the benefits and limits of waveform correlation techniques, we studied 3 aftershock sequences, using our 3 tools, at multiple stations. We explored the effects of station distance and event magnitudes on correlation results. Lastly, we show the reduction in detection threshold and analyst workload offered by waveform correlation techniques compared to STA/LTA based detection. We analyzed 4 days of data from each aftershock sequence using all three methods. Most known events clustered in a similar manner across the toolsets. Up to 25% of catalogued events were found to be a member of a cluster. In

  3. Possible earthquake precursor and drumbeat signal detected at the Nirano Mud Volcanic Field, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupi, Matteo; Suski Ricci, Barbara; Kenkel, Johannes; Ricci, Tullio; Fuchs, Florian; Miller, Stephen A.; Kemna, Andreas; Conventi, Marzia

    2016-04-01

    We used the Nirano mud volcanic field as a natural laboratory to test pre- and post-seismic effects generated by distant earthquakes. Mud volcanoes are geological systems often characterized by elevated fluid pressures at depth deviating from hydrostatic conditions. This near-critical state makes mud volcanoes particularly sensitive to external forcing induced by natural or man-made perturbations. We first characterized the subsurface structure of the Nirano mud volcanic field with a geoelectrical study. Next, we deployed a broad-band seismic station to understand the typical seismic signal generated at depth. Seismic records show a background noise below 2 s, sometimes interrupted by pulses of drumbeat-like high-frequency signals lasting from several minutes to hours. Drumbeat signal was previously discovered in geysers and at magmatic volcanoes. To date this is the first observation of drumbeat signal observed in mud volcanoes. In 2013 June we recorded a M4.7 earthquake, that occurred approximately 60 km far from our seismic station. According to empirical estimations the Nirano mud volcanic field should not have been affected by the M4.7 earthquake. Yet, before the seismic event we recorded an increasing amplitude of the signal in the 10-20 Hz frequency band. The signal emerged approximately two hours before the earthquake and lasted for about three hours. We performed an analysis of the 95th percentile of the root mean square amplitude of the waveforms for the day of the earthquake. This statistical analysis suggests the presence of a possible precursory signal about 10 minutes before the earthquake indicating the occurrence of enhanced fluid flow in the subsurface that may be related to pressure build up in the preparation zone of the earthquake.

  4. From Sumatra 2004 to Tohoku-Oki 2011: The systematic GPS detection of the ionospheric signature induced by tsunamigenic earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Occhipinti, Giovanni; Rolland, Lucie; Lognonné, Philippe; Watada, Shingo

    2013-06-01

    The recent tsunamigenic earthquake in Tohoku (11 March 2011) strongly affirms, one more time after the Sumatra event (26 December 2004), the necessity to open new paradigms in oceanic monitoring. Detection of ionospheric anomalies following the Sumatra tsunami demonstrated that ionosphere is sensitive to the tsunami propagation. Observations supported by modeling proved that tsunamigenic ionospheric anomalies are deterministic and reproducible by numerical modeling via the ocean/neutral-atmosphere/ionosphere coupling mechanism. In essence, tsunami induces internal gravity waves propagating within the neutral atmosphere and detectable in the ionosphere. Most of the ionospheric anomalies produced by tsunamis were observed in the far field where the tsunami signature in the ionosphere is clearly identifiable. In this work, we highlight the early signature in the ionosphere produced by tsunamigenic earthquakes and observed by GPS, measuring the total electron content, close to the epicenter. We focus on the first hour after the seismic rupture. We demonstrate that acoustic-gravity waves generated at the epicenter by the direct vertical displacement of the source rupture and the gravity wave coupled with the tsunami can be discriminated with theoretical support. We illustrate the systematic nature of those perturbations showing several observations: nominally the ionospheric perturbation following the tsunamigenic earthquakes in Sumatra on 26 December 2004 and 12 September 2007; in Chile on 14 November 2007; in Samoa on 29 September 2009; and the recent catastrophic Tohoku-Oki event on 11 March 2011. Based on the analytical description, we provide tracks for further modeling efforts and clues for the interpretation of complex—and thus often misleading—observations. The routine detection of the early ionospheric anomalies following the rupture highlights the role of ionospheric sounding in the future ocean monitoring and tsunami detection.

  5. Crustal Deformation Caused by an M8.1 Earthquake in the Solomon Islands, Detected by ALOS/PALSAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyagi, Y.; Ozawa, T.; Shimada, M.

    2009-12-01

    On April 1, 2007 (UTC), a large Mw 8.1 interplate earthquake occurred in the Solomon Islands subduction zone where Pacific, Australian, Solomon Sea, and Woodlark Plates produce complicated tectonics. This earthquake was accompanied by a large tsunami and caused considerable damage in the epicentral area. The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) performed emergency observations using the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS). A remote-sensing technique has the advantage of being able to observe and monitor a disaster in a remote location like the Solomon Islands that is difficult to access and receives few geophysical observations. Especially the Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Rader (PALSAR) can observe the target and get high coherence even under cloudy conditions in heavily-vegetated tropical region. We applied Differential Interferometric SAR (DInSAR) technique using data from the PALSAR installed on ALOS, and detected significant crustal deformation over wide area associated with the earthquake. Then we inverted the geodetic information from DInSAR result jointly with the field investigation data (Tomita et al., 2008), and estimated a slip distribution on the inferred seismic fault (Miyagi et al., 2009). The modeling result shows large slip areas around the hypocenter and the centroid, and the estimated slip pattern was corresponding to those deduced from teleseismic data (e.g. Yagi, 2007). It can be interpreted that the large slip area around the centroid is consistent with a strong coupling area due to a subduction of the plate boundary between the Woodlark and Australian plates, and that the small slip area is consistent with the weak coupling area under the Simbo Island caused by thermal activities related to volcanic activity of Simbo Island. The 2007 earthquake occurred in the area where has occurred no M7- or larger-sized earthquake since 1970. Although a part of the seismic gap was filled in the 2007 events, small seismic gap

  6. Earthquake Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Us Earthquakes Hazards Data & Products Learn Monitoring Research Earthquake Facts The largest recorded earthquake in the United ... we know, there is no such thing as "earthquake weather" . Statistically, there is an equal distribution of ...

  7. Feature Detection in SAR Interferograms With Missing Data Displays Fault Slip Near El Mayor-Cucapah and South Napa Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, J. W.; Donnellan, A.; Glasscoe, M. T.; Stough, T.

    2015-12-01

    Edge detection identifies seismic or aseismic fault motion, as demonstrated in repeat-pass inteferograms obtained by the Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR) program. But this identification, demonstrated in 2010, was not robust: for best results, it requires a flattened background image, interpolation into missing data (holes) and outliers, and background noise that is either sufficiently small or roughly white Gaussian. Proper treatment of missing data, bursting noise patches, and tiny noise differences at short distances apart from bursts are essential to creating an acceptably reliable method sensitive to small near-surface fractures. Clearly a robust method is needed for machine scanning of the thousands of UAVSAR repeat-pass interferograms for evidence of fault slip, landslides, and other local features: hand-crafted intervention will not do. Effective methods of identifying, removing and filling in bad pixels reveal significant features of surface fractures. A rich network of edges (probably fractures and subsidence) in difference images spanning the South Napa earthquake give way to a simple set of postseismically slipping faults. Coseismic El Mayor-Cucapah interferograms compared to post-seismic difference images show nearly disjoint patterns of surface fractures in California's Sonoran Desert; the combined pattern reveals a network of near-perpendicular, probably conjugate faults not mapped before the earthquake. The current algorithms for UAVSAR interferogram edge detections are shown to be effective in difficult environments, including agricultural (Napa, Imperial Valley) and difficult urban areas (Orange County.).

  8. Near Field Deformation of the Mw 6.0 24 August, 2014 South Napa Earthquake Estimated by Airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) Change Detection Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyda, A. W.; Zhang, X.; Glennie, C. L.; Hudnut, K. W.; Brooks, B. A.

    2015-12-01

    We examine surface deformation caused by the Mw 6.0 24 August, 2014 South Napa Earthquake using high-resolution pre and post event airborne LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) observations. Temporally spaced LiDAR surveys taken before and after an earthquake can provide decimeter-level, 3D near-field estimates of deformation. These near-field deformation estimates can help constrain fault slip and rheology of shallow seismogenic zones. We compare and contrast estimates of deformation obtained from pre and post-event LiDAR data sets of the 2014 South Napa Earthquake using two change detection techniques, Iterative Control Point (ICP) and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). The ICP algorithm has been and still is the primary technique for acquiring three dimensional deformations from airborne LiDAR data sets. It conducts a rigid registration of pre-event data points to post event data points via iteratively matching data points with the smallest Euclidian distances between data sets. PIV is a technique derived from fluid mechanics that measures the displacement of a particle between two images of known time. LiDAR points act as the particles within the point cloud images so that their movement represents the horizontal deformation of the surface. The results from these change detection techniques are presented and further analyzed for differences between the techniques, the effects of temporal spacing between LiDAR collections, and the use of permanent LiDAR scatterers to constrain deformation estimates. The airborne LiDAR results will also be compared with far field deformations from space based geodetic techniques (InSAR and GNSS) and field observations of surface displacement.

  9. Detection of Subtle Hydromechanical Medium Changes Caused By a Small-Magnitude Earthquake Swarm in NE Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Hour, V.; Schimmel, M.; Do Nascimento, A. F.; Ferreira, J. M.; Lima Neto, H. C.

    2016-04-01

    Ambient noise correlation analyses are largely used in seismology to map heterogeneities and to monitor the temporal evolution of seismic velocity changes associated mostly with stress field variations and/or fluid movements. Here we analyse a small earthquake swarm related to a main mR 3.7 intraplate earthquake in North-East of Brazil to study the corresponding post-seismic effects on the medium. So far, post-seismic effects have been observed mainly for large magnitude events. In our study, we show that we were able to detect localized structural changes even for a small earthquake swarm in an intraplate setting. Different correlation strategies are presented and their performances are also shown. We compare the classical auto-correlation with and without pre-processing, including 1-bit normalization and spectral whitening, and the phase auto-correlation. The worst results were obtained for the pre-processed data due to the loss of waveform details. The best results were achieved with the phase cross-correlation which is amplitude unbiased and sensitive to small amplitude changes as long as there exist waveform coherence superior to other unrelated signals and noise. The analysis of 6 months of data using phase auto-correlation and cross-correlation resulted in the observation of a progressive medium change after the major recorded event. The progressive medium change is likely related to the swarm activity through opening new path ways for pore fluid diffusion. We further observed for the auto-correlations a lag time frequency-dependent change which likely indicates that the medium change is localized in depth. As expected, the main change is observed along the fault.

  10. Movement of the 2011 Off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku Earthquake Detected by VERA Geophysical Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jike, T.; Manabe, S.; Tamura, Y.; Shizugami, M.

    2012-12-01

    The VERA project is carrying out daily GPS observations in parallel with geodetic VLBI observations, in order to monitor motion of the position of the VERA antenna stations. And continuous measurement of gravity is performed as co-location or a station of GGP in Kamioka mine and Mizusawa. These geophysical observations caught co-seismic or post-seismic phenomena, crustal movement, change of the atmospheric pressure by tsunami, post-seismic creeping, and free oscillation of the Earth, accompanying the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake.

  11. Damage Detection from SAR Imagery: Application to the 2003 Algeria and 2007 Peru Earthquakes

    OpenAIRE

    Giovanna Trianni; Paolo Gamba

    2008-01-01

    This paper is focused on the improvement and further validation of a recently proposed approach for the joint use of radar satellite imagery of an area affected by a major disaster and ancillary data. The study was carried out at different sites on imagery of two different earthquakes occurred one in the Mediterranean coast of Algeria on May 21st, 2003, which severely affected the city of Boumerdes, and one in the Pacific Coast of Peru on August, 15th, 2007. The combination of different radar...

  12. Least Square Support Vector Machine for Detection of - Ionospheric Anomalies Associated with the Powerful Nepal Earthquake (Mw = 7.5) of 25 April 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhoondzadeh, M.

    2016-06-01

    Due to the irrepalable devastations of strong earthquakes, accurate anomaly detection in time series of different precursors for creating a trustworthy early warning system has brought new challenges. In this paper the predictability of Least Square Support Vector Machine (LSSVM) has been investigated by forecasting the GPS-TEC (Total Electron Content) variations around the time and location of Nepal earthquake. In 77 km NW of Kathmandu in Nepal (28.147° N, 84.708° E, depth = 15.0 km) a powerful earthquake of Mw = 7.8 took place at 06:11:26 UTC on April 25, 2015. For comparing purpose, other two methods including Median and ANN (Artificial Neural Network) have been implemented. All implemented algorithms indicate on striking TEC anomalies 2 days prior to the main shock. Results reveal that LSSVM method is promising for TEC sesimo-ionospheric anomalies detection.

  13. Atmospheric Transport Modelling confining potential source location of East-Asian radionuclide detections in May 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, J. Ole; Ceranna, Lars

    2016-04-01

    The radionuclide component of the International Monitoring System (IMS) to verify compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) is in place to detect tiny traces of fission products from nuclear explosions in the atmosphere. The challenge for the interpretation of IMS radionuclide data is to discriminate radionuclide sources of CTBT relevance against emissions from nuclear facilities. Remarkable activity concentrations of Ba/La-140 occurred at the IMS radionuclide stations RN 37 (Okinawa) and RN 58 (Ussurysk) mid of May 2010. In those days also an elevated Xe-133 level was measured at RN 38 (Takasaki). Additional regional measurements of radioxenon were reported in the press and further analyzed in various publications. The radionuclide analysis gives evidence for the presence of a nuclear fission source between 10 and 12 May 2010. Backward Atmospheric Transport Modelling (ATM) with HYSPLIT driven by 0.2° ECMWF meteorological data for the IMS samples indicates that, assuming a single source, a wide range of source regions is possible including the Korean Peninsula, the Sea of Japan (East Sea), and parts of China and Russia. Further confinement of the possible source location can be provided by atmospheric backtracking for the assumed sampling periods of the reported regional xenon measurements. New studies indicate a very weak seismic event at the DPRK test site on early 12 May 2010. Forward ATM for a pulse release caused by this event shows fairly good agreement with the observed radionuclide signature. Nevertheless, the underlying nuclear fission scenario remains quite unclear and speculative even if assuming a connection between the waveform and the radionuclide event.

  14. Georadar investigations to detect cavities in a historical town damaged by an earthquake of the past

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gizzi, F. T.; Loperte, A.; Satriani, A.; Lapenna, V.; Masini, N.; Proto, M.

    2010-03-01

    This paper aims to highlight the use of the georadar as a useful prospecting technique to identify the areal density and the geometrical features of the grottoes placed in a historical town characterised by high seismic hazard. The town considered here is Rionero in Vulture (Southern Italy) that was hit by several historical earthquakes, among which the 1930 Irpinia earthquake (Me=6.7, Is=VIII MCS). For this event a damage map was already available from a previous study (Gizzi and Masini, 2006). This map shows that some sectors of the town suffered higher damage. One factor causing the uneven distribution of the effects is considered to be the presence of grottoes. To strengthen this work hypothesis it was necessary to in-depth investigate the subsoil of Rionero in Vulture. Therefore, geophysical data were correlated and integrated with data obtained from field surveys and historical documentary sources. All these investigations allowed to obtain more insights about the influences of the man-made caves on seismic damage.

  15. Earthquake- and tsunami-induced ionospheric disturbances detected by GPS total electron content observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsugawa, T.; Nishioka, M.; Matsumura, M.; Shinagawa, H.; Maruyama, T.; Ogawa, T.; Saito, A.; Otsuka, Y.; Nagatsuma, T.; Murata, T.

    2012-12-01

    Ionospheric disturbances induced by the 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami were studied by the high-resolution GPS total electron content (TEC) observation in Japan and in the world. The initial ionospheric disturbance appeared as sudden depletions by about 6 TEC unit (20%) about seven minutes after the earthquake onset, near the epicenter. From 06:00UT to 06:15UT, circular waves with short propagation distance propagated in the radial direction in the propagation velocity of 3,457, 783, 423 m/s for the first, second, third peak, respectively. Following these waves, concentric waves with long propagation distance appeared to propagate at the velocity of 138-288 m/s. In the vicinity of the epicenter, shortperiod oscillations with period of about 4 minutes were observed after 06:00 UT for 3 hours or more. We focus on the the circular and concentric waves in this paper. The circular or concentric structures indicate that these ionospheric disturbances had a point source. The center of these structures, termed as "ionospheric epicenter", was located around 37.5 deg N of latitude and 144.0 deg E of longitude, 170 km far from the epicenter to the southeast direction, and corresponded to the tsunami source. Comparing to the results of a numerical simulation using non-hydrostatic compressible atmosphere-ionosphere model, the first peak of circular wave would be caused by the acoustic waves generated from the propagating Rayleigh wave. The second and third waves would be caused by atmospheric gravity waves excited in the lower ionosphere due to the acoustic wave propagations from the tsunami source. The fourth and following waves are considered to be caused by the atmospheric gravity waves induced by the wavefronts of traveling tsunami. Long-propagation of these TEC disturbances were studied also using high-resolution GPS-TEC data in North America and Europe. Medium-scale wave structures with wavelengths of several 100 km appeared in the west part of North America at the

  16. Horizontal rotation signals detected by "G-Pisa" ring laser for the Mw=9.0, March 2011, Japan earthquake

    CERN Document Server

    Belfi, J; Carelli, G; Di Virgilio, A; Maccioni, E; Saccorotti, G; Stefani, F; Velikoseltsev, A

    2012-01-01

    We report the observation of the ground rotation induced by the Mw=9.0, 11th of March 2011, Japan earthquake. The rotation measurements have been conducted with a ring laser gyroscope operating in a vertical plane, thus detecting rotations around the horizontal axis. Comparison of ground rotations with vertical accelerations from a co-located force-balance accelerometer shows excellent ring laser coupling at periods longer than 100s. Under the plane wave assumption, we derive a theoretical relationship between horizontal rotation and vertical acceleration for Rayleigh waves. Due to the oblique mounting of the gyroscope with respect to the wave direction-of-arrival, apparent velocities derived from the acceleration / rotation rate ratio are expected to be always larger than, or equal to the true wave propagation velocity. This hypothesis is confirmed through comparison with fundamental-mode, Rayleigh wave phase velocities predicted for a standard Earth model.

  17. HF radar detection of infrasonic waves generated in the ionosphere by the 28 March 2005 Sumatra earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdillon, Alain; Occhipinti, Giovanni; Molinié, Jean-Philippe; Rannou, Véronique

    2014-03-01

    Surface waves generated by earthquakes create atmospheric waves detectable in the ionosphere using radio waves techniques: i.e., HF Doppler sounding, GPS and altimeter TEC measurements, as well as radar measurements. We present observations performed with the over-the-horizon (OTH) radar NOSTRADAMUS after the very strong earthquake (M=8.6) that occurred in Sumatra on March 28, 2005. An original method based on the analysis of the RTD (Range-Time-Doppler) image is suggested to identify the multi-chromatic ionospheric signature of the Rayleigh wave. The proposed method presents the advantage to preserve the information on the range variation and time evolution, and provides comprehensive results, as well as easy identification of the waves. In essence, a Burg algorithm of order 1 is proposed to compute the Doppler shift of the radar signal, resulting in sensitivity as good as obtained with higher orders. The multi-chromatic observation of the ionospheric signature of Rayleigh wave allows to extrapolate information coherent with the dispersion curve of Rayleigh waves, that is, we observe two components of the Rayleigh waves with estimated group velocities of 3.8 km/s and 3.6 km/s associated to 28 mHz (T~36 s) and 6.1 mHz (T~164 s) waves, respectively. Spectral analysis of the RTD image reveals anyway the presence of several oscillations at frequencies between 3 and 8 mHz clearly associated to the transfer of energy from the solid-Earth to the atmosphere, and nominally described by the normal modes theory for a complete planet with atmosphere. Oscillations at frequencies larger than 8 mHz are also observed in the spectrum but with smaller amplitudes. Particular attention is pointed out to normal modes 0S29 and 0S37 which are strongly involved in the coupling process. As the proposed method is frequency free, it could be used not only for detection of ionospheric perturbations induced by earthquakes, but also by other natural phenomena as well as volcanic explosions and

  18. Genetic algorithm for TEC seismo-ionospheric anomalies detection around the time of the Solomon (Mw = 8.0) earthquake of 06 February 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhoondzadeh, M.

    2013-08-01

    On 6 February 2013, at 12:12:27 local time (01:12:27 UTC) a seismic event registering Mw 8.0 struck the Solomon Islands, located at the boundaries of the Australian and Pacific tectonic plates. Time series prediction is an important and widely interesting topic in the research of earthquake precursors. This paper describes a new computational intelligence approach to detect the unusual variations of the total electron content (TEC) seismo-ionospheric anomalies induced by the powerful Solomon earthquake using genetic algorithm (GA). The GA detected a considerable number of anomalous occurrences on earthquake day and also 7 and 8 days prior to the earthquake in a period of high geomagnetic activities. In this study, also the detected TEC anomalies using the proposed method are compared to the results dealing with the observed TEC anomalies by applying the mean, median, wavelet, Kalman filter, ARIMA, neural network and support vector machine methods. The accordance in the final results of all eight methods is a convincing indication for the efficiency of the GA method. It indicates that GA can be an appropriate non-parametric tool for anomaly detection in a non linear time series showing the seismo-ionospheric precursors variations.

  19. [Proposal to address the mental health problems detected after the February 27, 2010 earthquake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Rodrigo A; Cortés, Paula F

    2016-02-01

    One of the most important topics mentioned by people from places affected by the February 27th, 2010 earthquake to the Presidential Delegation for the Reconstruction, was the urgent need of mental health care. Given the enormous individual and social burden of mental health sequelae after disasters, its treatment becomes a critical issue. In this article, we propose several actions to be implemented in Chile in the context of the process of recovery and reconstruction, including optimization of social communication and media response to disasters; designing and deployment of a national strategy for volunteer service; training of primary care staff in screening and initial management of post-traumatic stress reactions; and training, continuous education and clinical supervision of a critical number of therapists in evidence-based therapies for conditions specifically related to stress.

  20. Damage Detection from SAR Imagery: Application to the 2003 Algeria and 2007 Peru Earthquakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Trianni

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on the improvement and further validation of a recently proposed approach for the joint use of radar satellite imagery of an area affected by a major disaster and ancillary data. The study was carried out at different sites on imagery of two different earthquakes occurred one in the Mediterranean coast of Algeria on May 21st, 2003, which severely affected the city of Boumerdes, and one in the Pacific Coast of Peru on August, 15th, 2007. The combination of different radar-extracted features results in very fuzzy classification of the damage patterns, far less detailed than what available using optical imagery. However, focused results using the above-mentioned ancillary data provide enough detail and precision to be comparable with them. In particular, quantized damage level at the block level is achieved at enough detail using ALOS/PALSAR data and thus validates the original idea.

  1. [Proposal to address the mental health problems detected after the February 27, 2010 earthquake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Rodrigo A; Cortés, Paula F

    2016-02-01

    One of the most important topics mentioned by people from places affected by the February 27th, 2010 earthquake to the Presidential Delegation for the Reconstruction, was the urgent need of mental health care. Given the enormous individual and social burden of mental health sequelae after disasters, its treatment becomes a critical issue. In this article, we propose several actions to be implemented in Chile in the context of the process of recovery and reconstruction, including optimization of social communication and media response to disasters; designing and deployment of a national strategy for volunteer service; training of primary care staff in screening and initial management of post-traumatic stress reactions; and training, continuous education and clinical supervision of a critical number of therapists in evidence-based therapies for conditions specifically related to stress. PMID:27092680

  2. Thermal and TEC anomalies detection using an intelligent hybrid system around the time of the Saravan, Iran, (Mw = 7.7) earthquake of 16 April 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhoondzadeh, M.

    2014-02-01

    A powerful earthquake of Mw = 7.7 struck the Saravan region (28.107° N, 62.053° E) in Iran on 16 April 2013. Up to now nomination of an automated anomaly detection method in a non linear time series of earthquake precursor has been an attractive and challenging task. Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) have revealed strong potentials in accurate time series prediction. This paper presents the first study of an integration of ANN and PSO method in the research of earthquake precursors to detect the unusual variations of the thermal and total electron content (TEC) seismo-ionospheric anomalies induced by the strong earthquake of Saravan. In this study, to overcome the stagnation in local minimum during the ANN training, PSO as an optimization method is used instead of traditional algorithms for training the ANN method. The proposed hybrid method detected a considerable number of anomalies 4 and 8 days preceding the earthquake. Since, in this case study, ionospheric TEC anomalies induced by seismic activity is confused with background fluctuations due to solar activity, a multi-resolution time series processing technique based on wavelet transform has been applied on TEC signal variations. In view of the fact that the accordance in the final results deduced from some robust methods is a convincing indication for the efficiency of the method, therefore the detected thermal and TEC anomalies using the ANN + PSO method were compared to the results with regard to the observed anomalies by implementing the mean, median, Wavelet, Kalman filter, Auto-Regressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA), Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Genetic Algorithm (GA) methods. The results indicate that the ANN + PSO method is quite promising and deserves serious attention as a new tool for thermal and TEC seismo anomalies detection.

  3. Single Layer Recurrent Neural Network for detection of swarm-like earthquakes in W-Bohemia/Vogtland-the method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doubravová, Jana; Wiszniowski, Jan; Horálek, Josef

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we present a new method of local event detection of swarm-like earthquakes based on neural networks. The proposed algorithm uses unique neural network architecture. It combines features used in other neural network concepts such as the Real Time Recurrent Network and Nonlinear Autoregressive Neural Network to achieve good performance of detection. We use the recurrence combined with various delays applied to recurrent inputs so the network remembers history of many samples. This method has been tested on data from a local seismic network in West Bohemia with promising results. We found that phases not picked in training data diminish the detection capability of the neural network and proper preparation of training data is therefore fundamental. To train the network we define a parameter called the learning importance weight of events and show that it affects the number of acceptable solutions achieved by many trials of the Back Propagation Through Time algorithm. We also compare the individual training of stations with training all of them simultaneously, and we conclude that results of joint training are better for some stations than training only one station.

  4. Experimental proposal for the anticipated feasible detection of earthquakes; Propuesta experimental para la deteccion factible de terremotos con anticipacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Ortega, Sergio [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2004-07-15

    Some Internet articles, as well as scientific Tv programs, show several investigations regarding the detection of low frequency electromagnetic emissions preceding different magnitude earthquakes on the nearness of epicenters. For example, a publication in Science journal indicates that these emissions cause ionization in ground water before earthquakes. The experiment exposed here show that plants may transform similar low frequency electromagnetic emissions in electric current sufficient to activate some type of alarm. As precedent, plants may predict storms, perceiving air ionization before flash lightning opening its pores for capture rain water. Therefore, considering this mechanism, the experiment may be an alternative for achieving earthquake predictions. In case of some difference regarding real underground emissions, other device with greater sensibility can be used. [Spanish] En este articulo se expone un experimento mediante un aparato que crea un arco voltaico, el cual genera en sus alrededores ondas electromagneticas (OEM) de baja frecuencia. Al acercar este arco a unos centimetros de las raices de una planta, se descubrio que esta transforma, por algun mecanismo bioelectrico todavia no documentado, estas OEM en una pequena corriente electrica, registrada por un multimetro analogico simple conectado a la planta, en rangos menores a 10 mA. Es posible vislumbrar la importancia de este sencillo descubrimiento si se relaciona con recientes investigaciones sobre terremotos [04a12] que muestran que lagunas horas, incluso dias antes de la liberacion masiva de la energia que se encuentra acumulada en las placas tectonicas, en las cercanias de los epicentros se emiten tambien OEM de baja frecuencia. Ahora bien, si se analiza el hecho de que el movimiento de la aguja del multimetro puede activar algun tipo de alarma, cabe pensar que esto permitiria contar tiempo suficiente para prevenir y evitar innumerables perdidas humanas si se presentan eventos sismicos de

  5. Detection and mapping of soil liquefaction in the 2011 Tohoku earthquake using SAR interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishitsuka, Kazuya; Tsuji, Takeshi; Matsuoka, Toshifumi

    2012-12-01

    We have identified areas of soil liquefaction by the analysis of surface changes caused by the 2011 Tohoku earthquake, using synthetic aperture radar (SAR) interferometry in the Kanto region of Japan. Changes in surface scattering properties were evaluated using phase-corrected coherence, computed from the reflective intensity (amplitude) of SAR data. Often, the loss of coherence (decorrelation) is simply considered to represent areas damaged from the disaster. However, temporal decorrelation could also be induced by ordinal surface cover change in addition to disaster damage. Therefore, we use a coherence change threshold to discriminate significant decorrelation caused by soil liquefaction from that produced by ordinal surface cover changes. Moreover, local surface displacements are estimated using phase information from the SAR data. Our results compare favorably with those from surveys of sand boils and aerial photography, showing that surface changes derived from SAR data are associated with soil liquefaction. Our results demonstrate that soil liquefaction occurred mainly near the waterfront along Tokyo Bay and the Tone River, and ground subsidence was widely distributed.

  6. Critical features in electromagnetic anomalies detected prior to the L'Aquila earthquake

    CERN Document Server

    Contoyiannis, Y F; Kopanas, J; Antonopoulos, G; Contoyianni, L; Eftaxias, K

    2009-01-01

    Electromagnetic (EM) emissions in a wide frequency spectrum ranging from kHz to MHz are produced by opening cracks, which can be considered as the so-called precursors of general fracture. We emphasize that the MHz radiation appears earlier than the kHz in both laboratory and geophysical scale. An important challenge in this field of research is to distinguish characteristic epochs in the evolution of precursory EM activity and identify them with the equivalent last stages in the earthquake (EQ) preparation process. Recently, we proposed the following two epochs/stages model: (i) The second epoch, which includes the finally emerged strong impulsive kHz EM emission is due to the fracture of the high strength large asperities that are distributed along the activated fault sustaining the system. (ii) The first epoch, which includes the initially emerged MHz EM radiation is thought to be due to the fracture of a highly heterogeneous system that surrounds the family of asperities. A catastrophic EQ of magnitude Mw...

  7. Application of real time recurrent neural network for detection of small natural earthquakes in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiszniowski, Jan; Plesiewicz, Beata; Trojanowski, Jacek

    2014-06-01

    This study is an application of a Real Time Recurrent Neural Network (RTRN) in the detection of small natural seismic events in Poland. Most of the events studied are from the Podhale region with a magnitude of 0.4 to 2.5. The population distribution of the region required that seismic signals be recorded using temporary stations deployed in populated areas. As a consequence, the high level of seismic noise that cannot be removed by filtration made it impossible to detect small events by STA/LTA based algorithms. The presence of high noise requires an alternate method of seismic detection capable of recognizing small seismic events. We applied the RTRN, which potentially can detect seismic signals in the frequency domain as well as in the phase arrival times. Data results of small local seismic events showed that the RTRN has the ability to correctly detect most of the events with fewer false detections than STA/LTA methods.

  8. SNR changes of VLF radio signals detected onboard the DEMETER satellite and their possible relationship to the Wenchuan earthquake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE YuFei; YANG DongMei; CHEN HuaRan; QIAN JiaDong; ZHU Rong; M.Parrot

    2009-01-01

    Here we used the VLF signal data received by the DEMETER satellite,transmitted from various ground VLF transmitters which are located around China,to study the changes in the signal to noise ratio (SNR) before and after the Wenchuan earthquake,which had a magnitude of 8.0.We also found that the SNRs of different frequency signals decreased significantly over the epicenter region before the earthquake,and reverted to their original levels after the earthquake.This phenomenon may be related to the earthquake.

  9. SNR changes of VLF radio signals detected onboard the DEMETER satellite and their possible relationship to the Wenchuan earthquake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.; Parrot

    2009-01-01

    Here we used the VLF signal data received by the DEMETER satellite, transmitted from various ground VLF transmitters which are located around China, to study the changes in the signal to noise ratio (SNR) before and after the Wenchuan earthquake, which had a magnitude of 8.0. We also found that the SNRs of different frequency signals decreased significantly over the epicenter region before the earthquake, and reverted to their original levels after the earthquake. This phenomenon may be related to the earthquake.

  10. Cutaneous Melanoma in Asians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Yub; Yun, Sook Jung

    2016-09-01

    Malignant melanoma is a rare disease in Asians but potentially the most aggressive form of skin cancer worldwide. It can occur in any melanocyte-containing anatomic site. Four main cutaneous melanoma subtypes are recognized: lentigo maligna melanoma, superficial spreading melanoma, acral lentiginous melanoma (ALM), and nodular melanoma. Generally, excessive exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation increases the risk of melanoma. The exception is ALM, which is the most common melanoma subtype in Asians and is not associated with UV radiation. ALM presents as dark brownish to black, irregular maculopatches, nodules, or ulcers on the palms, soles, and nails. The lesions may be misdiagnosed as more benign lesions, such as warts, ulcers, hematomas, foreign bodies, or fungal infections, especially in amelanotic acral melanomas where black pigments are absent. The aim of this brief review is to improve understanding and the rate of early detection thereby reducing mortality, especially regarding cutaneous melanoma in Asians. PMID:27689028

  11. A Large Scale Automatic Earthquake Location Catalog in the San Jacinto Fault Zone Area Using An Improved Shear-Wave Detection Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, M. C. A.; Ross, Z.; Vernon, F.; Ben-Zion, Y.

    2015-12-01

    UC San Diego's ANZA network began archiving event-triggered data in 1982. As a result of improved recording technology, continuous waveform data archives are available starting in 1998. This continuous dataset, from 1998-present, represents a wealth of potential insight into spatio-temporal seismicity patterns, earthquake physics and mechanics of the San Jacinto Fault Zone. However, the volume of data renders manual analysis costly. In order to investigate the characteristics of the data in space and time, an automatic earthquake location catalog is needed. To this end, we apply standard earthquake signal processing techniques to the continuous data to detect first-arriving P-waves in combination with a recently developed S-wave detection algorithm. The resulting dataset of arrival time observations are processed using a grid association algorithm to produce initial absolute locations which are refined using a location inversion method that accounts for 3-D velocity heterogeneities. Precise relative locations are then derived from the refined absolute locations using the HypoDD double-difference algorithm. Moment magnitudes for the events are estimated from multi-taper spectral analysis. A >650% increase in the S:P pick ratio is achieved using the updated S-wave detection algorithm, when compared to the currently available catalog for the ANZA network. The increased number of S-wave observations leads to improved earthquake location accuracy and reliability (ie. less false event detections). Various aspects of spatio-temporal seismicity patterns and size distributions are investigated. Updated results will be presented at the meeting.

  12. Satellite detection of IR precursors using bi-angular advanced along-track scanning radiometer data: a case study of Yushu earthquake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pan Xiong; Xuhui Shen; Xingfa Gu; Qingyan Meng; Yaxin Bi; Liming Zhao; Yanhua Zhao

    2015-01-01

    The paper has developed and proposed a synthesis analysis method based on the robust satellite data analysis technique (RST) to detect seismic anomalies within the bi-angular advanced along-track scanning radiometer (AATSR) gridded brightness temperature (BT)data based on spatial/temporal continuity analysis.The proposed methods have been applied to analyze the Yushu (Qinghai,China) earthquake occurred on 14th April 2010,and a full AATSR data-set of 8 years data from March 2003 to May 2010 with longitude from 91°E to 101°E and latitude from 28°N to 38°N has been analyzed.Combining with the tectonic explanation of spatial and temporal continuity of the abnormal phenomena,the analyzed results indicate that the infrared radiation anomalies detected by the AATSR BT data with nadir view appear and enhance gradually along with the development and occurring of the earthquake,especially along the Ganzi-Yushu fault,Nu River fault and Jiali-Chayu fault;more infrared anomalies along the earthquake fault zone (Lancangjiang fault and Ning Karma Monastery-Deqin fault) are detected using the proposed synthesis analysis method,which can also characterize the activity of seismic faults more precisely.

  13. Bounded Earthquakes

    OpenAIRE

    Saric, Dragomir

    2006-01-01

    We give a short proof of the fact that bounded earthquakes of the unit disk induce quasisymmetric maps of the unit circle. By a similar method, we show that symmetric maps are induced by bounded earthquakes with asymptotically trivial measures.

  14. LOCAL SITE CONDITIONS INFLUENCING EARTHQUAKE INTENSITIES AND SECONDARY COLLATERAL IMPACTS IN THE SEA OF MARMARA REGION - Application of Standardized Remote Sensing and GIS-Methods in Detecting Potentially Vulnerable Areas to Earthquakes, Tsunamis and Other Hazards.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Pararas-Carayannis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The destructive earthquake that struck near the Gulf of Izmit along the North Anatolian fault in Northwest Turkey on August 17, 1999, not only generated a local tsunami that was destructive at Golcuk and other coastal cities in the eastern portion of the enclosed Sea of Marmara, but was also responsible for extensive damage from collateral hazards such as subsidence, landslides, ground liquefaction, soil amplifications, compaction and underwater slumping of unconsolidated sediments. This disaster brought attention in the need to identify in this highly populated region, local conditions that enhance earthquake intensities, tsunami run-up and other collateral disaster impacts. The focus of the present study is to illustrate briefly how standardized remote sensing techniques and GIS-methods can help detect areas that are potentially vulnerable, so that disaster mitigation strategies can be implemented more effectively. Apparently, local site conditions exacerbate earthquake intensities and collateral disaster destruction in the Marmara Sea region. However, using remote sensing data, the causal factors can be determined systematically. With proper evaluation of satellite imageries and digital topographic data, specific geomorphologic/topographic settings that enhance disaster impacts can be identified. With a systematic GIS approach - based on Digital Elevation Model (DEM data - geomorphometric parameters that influence the local site conditions can be determined. Digital elevation data, such as SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, with 90m spatial resolution and ASTER-data with 30m resolution, interpolated up to 15 m is readily available. Areas with the steepest slopes can be identified from slope gradient maps. Areas with highest curvatures susceptible to landslides can be identified from curvature maps. Coastal areas below the 10 m elevation susceptible to tsunami inundation can be clearly delineated. Height level maps can also help locate

  15. Small-displacement linear surface ruptures of the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake sequence detected by ALOS-2 SAR interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Satoshi; Yarai, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Tomokazu; Morishita, Yu; Nakano, Takayuki; Miyahara, Basara; Nakai, Hiroyuki; Miura, Yuji; Ueshiba, Haruka; Kakiage, Yasuaki; Une, Hiroshi

    2016-09-01

    We constructed and analyzed the ground surface displacement associated with the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake sequence using satellite radar interferometry images of the Advanced Land Observing Satellite 2. The radar interferogram generally shows elastic deformation caused by the main earthquakes, but many other linear discontinuities showing displacement are also found. Approximately 230 lineaments are identified, some of which coincide with the positions of known active faults, such as the main earthquake faults belonging to the Futagawa and Hinagu fault zones and other minor faults; however, there are much fewer known active faults than lineaments. In each area, the lineaments have a similar direction and displacement to each other; therefore, they can be divided into several groups based on location and major features. Since the direction of the lineaments coincides with that of known active faults or their conjugate faults, the cause of the lineaments must be related to the tectonic stress field of this region. The lineaments are classified into the following two categories: (1) main earthquake faults and their branched subfaults and (2) secondary faults that are not directly related to the main earthquake but whose slip was probably triggered by the main earthquake or aftershocks.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  16. OMG Earthquake! Can Twitter improve earthquake response?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earle, P. S.; Guy, M.; Ostrum, C.; Horvath, S.; Buckmaster, R. A.

    2009-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is investigating how the social networking site Twitter, a popular service for sending and receiving short, public, text messages, can augment its earthquake response products and the delivery of hazard information. The goal is to gather near real-time, earthquake-related messages (tweets) and provide geo-located earthquake detections and rough maps of the corresponding felt areas. Twitter and other social Internet technologies are providing the general public with anecdotal earthquake hazard information before scientific information has been published from authoritative sources. People local to an event often publish information within seconds via these technologies. In contrast, depending on the location of the earthquake, scientific alerts take between 2 to 20 minutes. Examining the tweets following the March 30, 2009, M4.3 Morgan Hill earthquake shows it is possible (in some cases) to rapidly detect and map the felt area of an earthquake using Twitter responses. Within a minute of the earthquake, the frequency of “earthquake” tweets rose above the background level of less than 1 per hour to about 150 per minute. Using the tweets submitted in the first minute, a rough map of the felt area can be obtained by plotting the tweet locations. Mapping the tweets from the first six minutes shows observations extending from Monterey to Sacramento, similar to the perceived shaking region mapped by the USGS “Did You Feel It” system. The tweets submitted after the earthquake also provided (very) short first-impression narratives from people who experienced the shaking. Accurately assessing the potential and robustness of a Twitter-based system is difficult because only tweets spanning the previous seven days can be searched, making a historical study impossible. We have, however, been archiving tweets for several months, and it is clear that significant limitations do exist. The main drawback is the lack of quantitative information

  17. NATURAL HAZARD ASSESSMENT OF SW MYANMAR - A CONTRIBUTION OF REMOTE SENSING AND GIS METHODS TO THE DETECTION OF AREAS VULNERABLE TO EARTHQUAKES AND TSUNAMI / CYCLONE FLOODING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Pararas-Carayannis

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Myanmar, formerly Burma, is vulnerable to several natural hazards, such as earthquakes, cyclones, floods, tsunamis and landslides. The present study focuses on geomorphologic and geologic investigations of the south-western region of the country, based on satellite data (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission-SRTM, MODIS and LANDSAT. The main objective is to detect areas vulnerable to inundation by tsunami waves and cyclone surges. Since the region is also vulnerable to earthquake hazards, it is also important to identify seismotectonic patterns, the location of major active faults, and local site conditions that may enhance ground motions and earthquake intensities. As illustrated by this study, linear, topographic features related to subsurface tectonic features become clearly visible on SRTM-derived morphometric maps and on LANDSAT imagery. The GIS integrated evaluation of LANDSAT and SRTM data helps identify areas most susceptible to flooding and inundation by tsunamis and storm surges. Additionally, land elevation maps help identify sites greater than 10 m in elevation height, that would be suitable for the building of protective tsunami/cyclone shelters.

  18. Continental dynamics and continental earthquakes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张东宁; 张国民; 张培震

    2003-01-01

    Two key research projects in geoscience field in China since the IUGG meeting in Birmingham in 1999, the project of "East Asian Continental Geodynamics" and the project of "Mechanism and Prediction of Strong Continental Earthquakes" are introduced in this paper. Some details of two projects, such as their sub-projects, some initial research results published are also given here. Because of the large magnitude of the November 14, 2001 Kunlun Mountain Pass MS=8.1 earthquake, in the third part of this paper, some initial research results are reviewed for the after-shock monitoring and the multi-discipline field survey, the impact and disaster of this earthquake on the construction site of Qinghai-Xizang (Tibet) railway and some other infrastructure.

  19. Analog earthquakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, R.B. [Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses, San Antonio, TX (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Analogs are used to understand complex or poorly understood phenomena for which little data may be available at the actual repository site. Earthquakes are complex phenomena, and they can have a large number of effects on the natural system, as well as on engineered structures. Instrumental data close to the source of large earthquakes are rarely obtained. The rare events for which measurements are available may be used, with modfications, as analogs for potential large earthquakes at sites where no earthquake data are available. In the following, several examples of nuclear reactor and liquified natural gas facility siting are discussed. A potential use of analog earthquakes is proposed for a high-level nuclear waste (HLW) repository.

  20. A comparison of classical and intelligent methods to detect potential thermal anomalies before the 11 August 2012 Varzeghan, Iran, earthquake (Mw = 6.4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Akhoondzadeh

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a number of classical and intelligent methods, including interquartile, autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA, artificial neural network (ANN and support vector machine (SVM, have been proposed to quantify potential thermal anomalies around the time of the 11 August 2012 Varzeghan, Iran, earthquake (Mw = 6.4. The duration of the data set, which is comprised of Aqua-MODIS land surface temperature (LST night-time snapshot images, is 62 days. In order to quantify variations of LST data obtained from satellite images, the air temperature (AT data derived from the meteorological station close to the earthquake epicenter has been taken into account. For the models examined here, results indicate the following: (i ARIMA models, which are the most widely used in the time series community for short-term forecasting, are quickly and easily implemented, and can efficiently act through linear solutions. (ii A multilayer perceptron (MLP feed-forward neural network can be a suitable non-parametric method to detect the anomalous changes of a non-linear time series such as variations of LST. (iii Since SVMs are often used due to their many advantages for classification and regression tasks, it can be shown that, if the difference between the predicted value using the SVM method and the observed value exceeds the pre-defined threshold value, then the observed value could be regarded as an anomaly. (iv ANN and SVM methods could be powerful tools in modeling complex phenomena such as earthquake precursor time series where we may not know what the underlying data generating process is. There is good agreement in the results obtained from the different methods for quantifying potential anomalies in a given LST time series. This paper indicates that the detection of the potential thermal anomalies derive credibility from the overall efficiencies and potentialities of the four integrated methods.

  1. A comparison of classical and intelligent methods to detect potential thermal anomalies before the 11 August 2012 Varzeghan, Iran, earthquake (Mw = 6.4)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhoondzadeh, M.

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, a number of classical and intelligent methods, including interquartile, autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA), artificial neural network (ANN) and support vector machine (SVM), have been proposed to quantify potential thermal anomalies around the time of the 11 August 2012 Varzeghan, Iran, earthquake (Mw = 6.4). The duration of the data set, which is comprised of Aqua-MODIS land surface temperature (LST) night-time snapshot images, is 62 days. In order to quantify variations of LST data obtained from satellite images, the air temperature (AT) data derived from the meteorological station close to the earthquake epicenter has been taken into account. For the models examined here, results indicate the following: (i) ARIMA models, which are the most widely used in the time series community for short-term forecasting, are quickly and easily implemented, and can efficiently act through linear solutions. (ii) A multilayer perceptron (MLP) feed-forward neural network can be a suitable non-parametric method to detect the anomalous changes of a non-linear time series such as variations of LST. (iii) Since SVMs are often used due to their many advantages for classification and regression tasks, it can be shown that, if the difference between the predicted value using the SVM method and the observed value exceeds the pre-defined threshold value, then the observed value could be regarded as an anomaly. (iv) ANN and SVM methods could be powerful tools in modeling complex phenomena such as earthquake precursor time series where we may not know what the underlying data generating process is. There is good agreement in the results obtained from the different methods for quantifying potential anomalies in a given LST time series. This paper indicates that the detection of the potential thermal anomalies derive credibility from the overall efficiencies and potentialities of the four integrated methods.

  2. Detection of spheriodal free oscillation excited by Peru 8.2 Ms earthquake with five international superconducting gravimeter data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEI; Xiang'e; XU; Houze; SUN; Heping

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, authors obtain the spectral peaks of the earth free oscillation and check all normal modes from 0S0 to 0S48 accurately, with the Fourier analysis and the maximum entropy spectrum method dealing jointly with six groups of the observational residual data from five international superconducting gravimeter stations. By comparing the observational results in this paper with three former groups of observations or models, authors notice an extra discrepancy between two observational 0S2 modes excited separately by Peru earthquake and Alaska earthquake, which probably mirrors the anisotropy of the Earth's inner core. The analysis on the splitting 1S2 mode shows that the asymmetric factor of rotationwise spectral splitting is possible to be different from that of anti-rotationwise spectral splitting.

  3. Detection of ULF electromagnetic emissions as a precursor to an earthquake in China with an improved polarization analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Ida

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available An improved analysis of polarization (as the ratio of vertical magnetic field component to the horizontal one has been developed, and applied to the approximately four years data (from 1 March 2003 to 31 December 2006 observed at Kashi station in China. It is concluded that the polarization ratio has exhibited an apparent increase only just before the earthquake on 1 September 2003 (magnitude = 6.1 and epicentral distance of 116 km.

  4. Airborne Light Detection and Ranging (lidar) Derived Deformation from the MW 6.0 24 August, 2014 South Napa Earthquake Estimated by Two and Three Dimensional Point Cloud Change Detection Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyda, A. W.; Zhang, X.; Glennie, C. L.; Hudnut, K.; Brooks, B. A.

    2016-06-01

    Remote sensing via LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) has proven extremely useful in both Earth science and hazard related studies. Surveys taken before and after an earthquake for example, can provide decimeter-level, 3D near-field estimates of land deformation that offer better spatial coverage of the near field rupture zone than other geodetic methods (e.g., InSAR, GNSS, or alignment array). In this study, we compare and contrast estimates of deformation obtained from different pre and post-event airborne laser scanning (ALS) data sets of the 2014 South Napa Earthquake using two change detection algorithms, Iterative Control Point (ICP) and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). The ICP algorithm is a closest point based registration algorithm that can iteratively acquire three dimensional deformations from airborne LiDAR data sets. By employing a newly proposed partition scheme, "moving window," to handle the large spatial scale point cloud over the earthquake rupture area, the ICP process applies a rigid registration of data sets within an overlapped window to enhance the change detection results of the local, spatially varying surface deformation near-fault. The other algorithm, PIV, is a well-established, two dimensional image co-registration and correlation technique developed in fluid mechanics research and later applied to geotechnical studies. Adapted here for an earthquake with little vertical movement, the 3D point cloud is interpolated into a 2D DTM image and horizontal deformation is determined by assessing the cross-correlation of interrogation areas within the images to find the most likely deformation between two areas. Both the PIV process and the ICP algorithm are further benefited by a presented, novel use of urban geodetic markers. Analogous to the persistent scatterer technique employed with differential radar observations, this new LiDAR application exploits a classified point cloud dataset to assist the change detection algorithms. Ground

  5. AIRBORNE LIGHT DETECTION AND RANGING (LIDAR DERIVED DEFORMATION FROM THE MW 6.0 24 AUGUST, 2014 SOUTH NAPA EARTHQUAKE ESTIMATED BY TWO AND THREE DIMENSIONAL POINT CLOUD CHANGE DETECTION TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. W. Lyda

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing via LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging has proven extremely useful in both Earth science and hazard related studies. Surveys taken before and after an earthquake for example, can provide decimeter-level, 3D near-field estimates of land deformation that offer better spatial coverage of the near field rupture zone than other geodetic methods (e.g., InSAR, GNSS, or alignment array. In this study, we compare and contrast estimates of deformation obtained from different pre and post-event airborne laser scanning (ALS data sets of the 2014 South Napa Earthquake using two change detection algorithms, Iterative Control Point (ICP and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV. The ICP algorithm is a closest point based registration algorithm that can iteratively acquire three dimensional deformations from airborne LiDAR data sets. By employing a newly proposed partition scheme, “moving window,” to handle the large spatial scale point cloud over the earthquake rupture area, the ICP process applies a rigid registration of data sets within an overlapped window to enhance the change detection results of the local, spatially varying surface deformation near-fault. The other algorithm, PIV, is a well-established, two dimensional image co-registration and correlation technique developed in fluid mechanics research and later applied to geotechnical studies. Adapted here for an earthquake with little vertical movement, the 3D point cloud is interpolated into a 2D DTM image and horizontal deformation is determined by assessing the cross-correlation of interrogation areas within the images to find the most likely deformation between two areas. Both the PIV process and the ICP algorithm are further benefited by a presented, novel use of urban geodetic markers. Analogous to the persistent scatterer technique employed with differential radar observations, this new LiDAR application exploits a classified point cloud dataset to assist the change detection

  6. The EM Earthquake Precursor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, K. B., II; Saxton, P. T.

    2013-12-01

    Many attempts have been made to determine a sound forecasting method regarding earthquakes and warn the public in turn. Presently, the animal kingdom leads the precursor list alluding to a transmission related source. By applying the animal-based model to an electromagnetic (EM) wave model, various hypotheses were formed, but the most interesting one required the use of a magnetometer with a differing design and geometry. To date, numerous, high-end magnetometers have been in use in close proximity to fault zones for potential earthquake forecasting; however, something is still amiss. The problem still resides with what exactly is forecastable and the investigating direction of EM. After the 1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake, American earthquake investigators predetermined magnetometer use and a minimum earthquake magnitude necessary for EM detection. This action was set in motion, due to the extensive damage incurred and public outrage concerning earthquake forecasting; however, the magnetometers employed, grounded or buried, are completely subject to static and electric fields and have yet to correlate to an identifiable precursor. Secondly, there is neither a networked array for finding any epicentral locations, nor have there been any attempts to find even one. This methodology needs dismissal, because it is overly complicated, subject to continuous change, and provides no response time. As for the minimum magnitude threshold, which was set at M5, this is simply higher than what modern technological advances have gained. Detection can now be achieved at approximately M1, which greatly improves forecasting chances. A propagating precursor has now been detected in both the field and laboratory. Field antenna testing conducted outside the NE Texas town of Timpson in February, 2013, detected three strong EM sources along with numerous weaker signals. The antenna had mobility, and observations were noted for recurrence, duration, and frequency response. Next, two

  7. Earthquakes for Kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hazards Data & Products Learn Monitoring Research Earthquakes for Kids Kid's Privacy Policy Earthquake Topics for Education FAQ Earthquake Glossary For Kids Prepare Google Earth/KML Files Earthquake Summary Posters ...

  8. Validation of eDNA surveillance sensitivity for detection of Asian carps in controlled and field experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahon, Andrew R; Jerde, Christopher L; Galaska, Matthew; Bergner, Jennifer L; Chadderton, W Lindsay; Lodge, David M; Hunter, Margaret E; Nico, Leo G

    2013-01-01

    In many North American rivers, populations of multiple species of non-native cyprinid fishes are present, including black carp (Mylpharyngodon piceus), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis), silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), common carp (Cyprinus carpio), and goldfish (Carassius auratus). All six of these species are found in the Mississippi River basin and tracking their invasion has proven difficult, particularly where abundance is low. Knowledge of the location of the invasion front is valuable to natural resource managers because future ecological and economic damages can be most effectively prevented when populations are low. To test the accuracy of environmental DNA (eDNA) as an early indicator of species occurrence and relative abundance, we applied eDNA technology to the six non-native cyprinid species putatively present in a 2.6 river mile stretch of the Chicago (IL, USA) canal system that was subsequently treated with piscicide. The proportion of water samples yielding positive detections increased with relative abundance of the six species, as indicated by the number of carcasses recovered after poisoning. New markers for black carp, grass carp, and a common carp/goldfish are reported and details of the marker testing to ensure specificity are provided.

  9. Validation of eDNA surveillance sensitivity for detection of Asian carps in controlled and field experiments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew R Mahon

    Full Text Available In many North American rivers, populations of multiple species of non-native cyprinid fishes are present, including black carp (Mylpharyngodon piceus, grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella, bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, common carp (Cyprinus carpio, and goldfish (Carassius auratus. All six of these species are found in the Mississippi River basin and tracking their invasion has proven difficult, particularly where abundance is low. Knowledge of the location of the invasion front is valuable to natural resource managers because future ecological and economic damages can be most effectively prevented when populations are low. To test the accuracy of environmental DNA (eDNA as an early indicator of species occurrence and relative abundance, we applied eDNA technology to the six non-native cyprinid species putatively present in a 2.6 river mile stretch of the Chicago (IL, USA canal system that was subsequently treated with piscicide. The proportion of water samples yielding positive detections increased with relative abundance of the six species, as indicated by the number of carcasses recovered after poisoning. New markers for black carp, grass carp, and a common carp/goldfish are reported and details of the marker testing to ensure specificity are provided.

  10. Validation of eDNA surveillance sensitivity for detection of Asian carps in controlled and field experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahon, Andrew R; Jerde, Christopher L; Galaska, Matthew; Bergner, Jennifer L; Chadderton, W Lindsay; Lodge, David M; Hunter, Margaret E; Nico, Leo G

    2013-01-01

    In many North American rivers, populations of multiple species of non-native cyprinid fishes are present, including black carp (Mylpharyngodon piceus), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis), silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), common carp (Cyprinus carpio), and goldfish (Carassius auratus). All six of these species are found in the Mississippi River basin and tracking their invasion has proven difficult, particularly where abundance is low. Knowledge of the location of the invasion front is valuable to natural resource managers because future ecological and economic damages can be most effectively prevented when populations are low. To test the accuracy of environmental DNA (eDNA) as an early indicator of species occurrence and relative abundance, we applied eDNA technology to the six non-native cyprinid species putatively present in a 2.6 river mile stretch of the Chicago (IL, USA) canal system that was subsequently treated with piscicide. The proportion of water samples yielding positive detections increased with relative abundance of the six species, as indicated by the number of carcasses recovered after poisoning. New markers for black carp, grass carp, and a common carp/goldfish are reported and details of the marker testing to ensure specificity are provided. PMID:23472178

  11. Tremors behind the power outlet - where earthquakes appear on our monthly bill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baisch, Stefan

    2013-04-01

    The world's appetite for energy has significantly increased over the last decades, not least due to the rapid growth of Asian economies. In parallel, the Fukushima shock raised widespread concerns against nuclear power generation and an increasing desire for clean energy technologies. To solve the conflict of higher demands, limited resources and a growing level of green consciousness, both up-scaling of conventional and development of renewable energy technologies are required. This is where the phenomenon of man-made earthquakes appears on the radar screen. Several of our energy production technologies have the potential to cause small, moderate, or sometimes even larger magnitude earthquakes. There is a general awareness that coal mining activities can produce moderate sized earthquakes. Similarly, long-term production from hydrocarbon reservoirs can lead to subsurface deformations accompanied by even larger magnitude earthquakes. Even the "renewables" are not necessarily earthquake-free. Several of the largest man-made earthquakes have been caused by water impoundment for hydropower plants. On a much smaller scale, micro earthquakes can occur in enhanced geothermal systems (EGS). Although still in its infancy, the EGS technology has an enormous potential to supply base load electricity, and its technical feasibility for a large scale application is currently being investigated in about a dozen pilot projects. The principal concept of heat extraction by circulating water through a subsurface reservoir is fairly simple, the technical implementation of EGS, however, exhibits several challenges not all of which are yet being solved. As the hydraulic conductivity at depth is usually extremely low at EGS sites, a technical stimulation of hydraulic pathways is required for creating an artificial heat exchanger. By injecting fluid under high pressure into the subsurface, tectonic stress on existing fractures can be released and the associated shearing of the fractures

  12. Is Earthquake Triggering Driven by Small Earthquakes?

    OpenAIRE

    Helmstetter, Agnes

    2002-01-01

    Using a catalog of seismicity for Southern California, we measure how the number of triggered earthquakes increases with the earthquake magnitude. The trade-off between this relation and the distribution of earthquake magnitudes controls the relative role of small compared to large earthquakes. We show that seismicity triggering is driven by the smallest earthquakes, which trigger fewer events than larger earthquakes, but which are much more numerous. We propose that the non-trivial scaling o...

  13. Tectonic pumping: earthquake-induced chemical flux detected in situ by a submarine cable experiment in Sagami Bay, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamo, Toshitaka; Okamura, Kei; Mitsuzawa, Kyohiko; Asakawa, Kenichi

    2007-11-01

    We successfully deployed an in situ automatic chemical analyzer sensitive to manganese (Mn) in seawater for a period of 81 days for the first time on the deep seafloor of Sagami Bay along a convergent plate boundary south of Japan. The in situ Mn analyzer (GAMOS-IV) was connected to a submarine cable as a means to supply power and to relay real time data. During the observation period from April 5 till June 25, 2006, the amount of measured Mn was seen to increase abruptly up to 10 times that of the background level only on April 21, probably triggered by a M5.8 earthquake which occurred ∼7 km south-southwest of the observation site. This study demonstrates the suitability of submarine cables for the long-term geochemical monitoring of deep sea environments. PMID:24367146

  14. Obesity and Asian Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Asian American > Obesity Obesity and Asian Americans Non-Hispanic whites are 60% ... youthonline . [Accessed 05/25/2016] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  15. Nested-quantitative PCR approach with improved sensitivity for the detection of low titer levels of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus in the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coy, M R; Hoffmann, M; Kingdom Gibbard, H N; Kuhns, E H; Pelz-Stelinski, K S; Stelinski, L L

    2014-07-01

    Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) is a phloem-limited bacterium transmitted by the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri, and the presumptive causal agent of citrus greening disease. The current method of detection for CLas within plant and insect samples is by a presence/absence qPCR assay using the CLas 16S rDNA gene target. Although qPCR is highly sensitive, low bacterial titers or suboptimal qPCR conditions can result in false-negatives. Using a nested qPCR assay, we determined the false-negative rate of the 16S presence/absence qPCR assay was greater than 50%. Studies to determine the performance parameters of the qPCR assays for CLas 16S and Wingless (Wg), the D. citri endogenous gene, using plasmid and psyllid DNA, revealed suboptimal and variable performance of the 16S assay in psyllid samples. Average efficiencies and sensitivity limits of the plasmid assays were 99.0% and 2.7 copies of template for Wg, respectively, and 98.5% and 2.2-22.1 copies for 16S, respectively. Variability in efficiency was significantly greater in psyllid samples for both gene targets compared to the corresponding plasmid assays, and efficiencies as low as 76% were obtained for 16S. A secondary structure analysis revealed the formation of two stem-loop structures that block the forward and probe binding sites in the 16S template, which could hinder amplification. In summary, our results suggest that suboptimal qPCR efficiency is not uncommon for the 16S presence/absence qPCR assay, which combined with lowCLas titers in some samples, could contribute significantly to the under-reporting of CLas infection in psyllid and plant samples. PMID:24769405

  16. Nested-quantitative PCR approach with improved sensitivity for the detection of low titer levels of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus in the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coy, M R; Hoffmann, M; Kingdom Gibbard, H N; Kuhns, E H; Pelz-Stelinski, K S; Stelinski, L L

    2014-07-01

    Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) is a phloem-limited bacterium transmitted by the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri, and the presumptive causal agent of citrus greening disease. The current method of detection for CLas within plant and insect samples is by a presence/absence qPCR assay using the CLas 16S rDNA gene target. Although qPCR is highly sensitive, low bacterial titers or suboptimal qPCR conditions can result in false-negatives. Using a nested qPCR assay, we determined the false-negative rate of the 16S presence/absence qPCR assay was greater than 50%. Studies to determine the performance parameters of the qPCR assays for CLas 16S and Wingless (Wg), the D. citri endogenous gene, using plasmid and psyllid DNA, revealed suboptimal and variable performance of the 16S assay in psyllid samples. Average efficiencies and sensitivity limits of the plasmid assays were 99.0% and 2.7 copies of template for Wg, respectively, and 98.5% and 2.2-22.1 copies for 16S, respectively. Variability in efficiency was significantly greater in psyllid samples for both gene targets compared to the corresponding plasmid assays, and efficiencies as low as 76% were obtained for 16S. A secondary structure analysis revealed the formation of two stem-loop structures that block the forward and probe binding sites in the 16S template, which could hinder amplification. In summary, our results suggest that suboptimal qPCR efficiency is not uncommon for the 16S presence/absence qPCR assay, which combined with lowCLas titers in some samples, could contribute significantly to the under-reporting of CLas infection in psyllid and plant samples.

  17. Ionospheric disturbances detected by high-resolution GPS-TEC observations after an earthquake and a tornado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsugawa, Takuya; Otsuka, Yuichi; Saito, Akinori; Ishii, Mamoru; Nishioka, Michi

    Ionospheric disturbances following the 2011 Tohoku earthquake and the 2013 Moore tornado were observed by high-resolution GPS total electron content (TEC) observations using dense GPS receiver networks. After the 2011 Tohoku earthquake, concentric waves with short propagation distance propagated in the radial direction in the propagation velocity of 3,457, 783, 423 m/s for the first, second, third peak, respectively. Following these waves, concentric waves with long propagation distance appeared to propagate at the velocity of 138-288 m/s. In the vicinity of the epicenter, sudden TEC depletions and short-period oscillations with a period of approximately 4 minutes were also observed. The center of these ionospheric variations, termed the "ionospheric epicenter", corresponded to the tsunami source. Comparing to the results of a numerical simulation using non-hydrostatic compressible atmosphere-ionosphere model, the first peak of circular wave would be caused by the acoustic waves generated from the propagating Rayleigh wave. The second and third waves would be caused by atmospheric gravity waves excited in the lower ionosphere due to the acoustic wave propagations from the tsunami source. The fourth and following waves are considered to be caused by the atmospheric gravity waves induced by the wavefronts of traveling tsunami. After the EF5 tornado hit Moore, Oklahoma, USA, on 20 May 2013, clear concentric waves and short-period oscillations were observed. These concentric waves were non-dispersive waves with a horizontal wavelength of approximately 120 km and a period of approximately 13 minutes. They were observed for more than seven hours throughout North America. TEC oscillations with a period of approximately 4 minutes were also observed in the south of Moore for more than eight hours. Comparison between the GPS-TEC observations and the infrared cloud images from the GOES satellite indicates that the concentric waves and the short-period oscillations would be

  18. History of earthquake studies in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Tatevossian, R.

    2004-01-01

    To evaluate the completeness of modern knowledge on historical seismicity it is necessary to know the general geopolitical and socio-cultural background in the country. It determines the possibility to record the evidence of an earthquake and conserve the record in original form for a long time-period. The potential duration of historical earthquake study in Russia is assessed based on these considerations. Certain stages of earthquake study in Russia have been detected. Specific problems ...

  19. Very High Resolution Optical Images for Detecting Co-seismic Surface Effects: the Cases of the 2005 Kashmir (Pakistan) and the 2003 Bam (Iran) Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chini, M.; Cinti, F. R.; Stramondo, S.

    2008-12-01

    Very High Resolution (VHR) satellite panchromatic image has revealed to be a reliable tool to detect surface effects of natural disasters. This is particularly true whereas the hit territory is a remote land and/or with logistic and security problems. Data from this kind of sensor have a potential for more exhaustive and accurate mapping of the environment with details of sub-meter ground resolution. We show two large earthquake case studies, the 2005 Mw 7.6 Kashmir and the 2003 Mw 6.6 Bam events, both producing significant surface effects as ruptures, landslides and building damages. In order to test the capability of VHR images to recognize and evaluate such features we used panchromatic QuickBird imagery (0.6 m spatial resolution) acquired before and after the events (kindly provided by DigitalGlobe). Concerning the Pakistan we focus on the Muzaffarabad and Balakot areas, both crossed by the earthquake fault and experiencing edifice collapses. Same sort of analysis is performed for the ancient town of Bam. We proceed with: 1. identification on the images of the main rupture trace and of major landslides; 2. generation of a detailed spatial distribution of damage and collapses through a single building automatic classification approach; 3. cross-comparison of the different surface effects. The QuickBird panchromatic images provide a view of the co-seismic features at large scale, revealing complex geometric pattern of the cracks and compressional deformation features. It is possible to detect the lateral sense of movement, and based on the sun shade projection in the images, we infer the facing of the scarp, thus the uplifted side. Regarding point two, if in one hand the use of QuickBird images leads to detect very small details, on the other hand buildings become rather complex structures. Furthermore they may be surrounded by scattering objects making less evident the contrast between the roofs and the ground, thus increasing the difficulties in the

  20. A smartphone application for earthquakes that matter!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossu, Rémy; Etivant, Caroline; Roussel, Fréderic; Mazet-Roux, Gilles; Steed, Robert

    2014-05-01

    level of shaking intensity with empirical models of fatality losses calibrated on past earthquakes in each country. Non-seismic detections and macroseismic questionnaires collected online are combined to identify as many as possible of the felt earthquakes regardless their magnitude. Non seismic detections include Twitter earthquake detections, developed by the US Geological Survey, where the number of tweets containing the keyword "earthquake" is monitored in real time and flashsourcing, developed by the EMSC, which detect traffic surges on its rapid earthquake information website caused by the natural convergence of eyewitnesses who rush to the Internet to investigate the cause of the shaking that they have just felt. All together, we estimate that the number of detected felt earthquakes is around 1 000 per year, compared with the 35 000 earthquakes annually reported by the EMSC! Felt events are already the subject of the web page "Latest significant earthquakes" on EMSC website (http://www.emsc-csem.org/Earthquake/significant_earthquakes.php) and of a dedicated Twitter service @LastQuake. We will present the identification process of the earthquakes that matter, the smartphone application itself (to be released in May) and its future evolutions.

  1. Superconducting Gravimeters Detect Gravity Fluctuations Induced by Mw 5.7 Earthquake Along South Pacific Rise Few Hours Before the 2011 Mw 9.0 Tohoku-Oki Earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keliang Zhang and Jin Ma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gravity changes sometimes appear before a big earthquake. To determine the possible sources is important for recognizing the mechanism and further geodynamic studies. During the first two hours on March 11 before the Mw 9.0 Tohoku-Oki earthquake, the non-tidal gravity time series of superconducting gravimeters worldwide showed low-frequency (< 0.10 Hz fluctuations with amplitude of ~1 to 4 ×× 10-8 ms-2 lasting ~10 - 20 minutes. Through comparing global seismicity with the arrival times of seismic waves, we find that the fluctuations were induced by the Mw 5.7 earthquake that occurred at 0:14:54.68 at (53.27°S,(53.27°S, 118.18°W118.18°W along the eastern South Pacific Rise. Several body waves such as P, S are clearly recorded in the station with ~400 km distance to the hypocenter. The fluctuations are in response to the waves that propagate with a velocity of about 4 km s-1. Their amplitudes are proportional to the inverse of the epicentral distances even though the fluctuations of European sites were overlapped with waves associated with a smaller, i.e., Mw 2.6, event in Europe during this period. That is, the Mw 5.7 earthquake induced remarkable gravity fluctuations over long distances at stations all over the world. As such, the foreshocks with larger magnitudes occurred before the Mw 9.0 earthquake would have more significant influence on the gravity recordings and the seismic-wave induced component should be removed during the analysis of anomalies prior to a great earthquake in future studies.

  2. Connecting slow earthquakes to huge earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obara, Kazushige; Kato, Aitaro

    2016-07-15

    Slow earthquakes are characterized by a wide spectrum of fault slip behaviors and seismic radiation patterns that differ from those of traditional earthquakes. However, slow earthquakes and huge megathrust earthquakes can have common slip mechanisms and are located in neighboring regions of the seismogenic zone. The frequent occurrence of slow earthquakes may help to reveal the physics underlying megathrust events as useful analogs. Slow earthquakes may function as stress meters because of their high sensitivity to stress changes in the seismogenic zone. Episodic stress transfer to megathrust source faults leads to an increased probability of triggering huge earthquakes if the adjacent locked region is critically loaded. Careful and precise monitoring of slow earthquakes may provide new information on the likelihood of impending huge earthquakes. PMID:27418504

  3. Connecting slow earthquakes to huge earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obara, Kazushige; Kato, Aitaro

    2016-07-15

    Slow earthquakes are characterized by a wide spectrum of fault slip behaviors and seismic radiation patterns that differ from those of traditional earthquakes. However, slow earthquakes and huge megathrust earthquakes can have common slip mechanisms and are located in neighboring regions of the seismogenic zone. The frequent occurrence of slow earthquakes may help to reveal the physics underlying megathrust events as useful analogs. Slow earthquakes may function as stress meters because of their high sensitivity to stress changes in the seismogenic zone. Episodic stress transfer to megathrust source faults leads to an increased probability of triggering huge earthquakes if the adjacent locked region is critically loaded. Careful and precise monitoring of slow earthquakes may provide new information on the likelihood of impending huge earthquakes.

  4. Synchronous changes in the seismicity rate and ocean-bottom hydrostatic pressures along the Nankai trough: A possible slow slip event detected by the Dense Oceanfloor Network system for Earthquakes and Tsunamis (DONET)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Kensuke; Nakano, Masaru; Takahashi, Narumi; Hori, Takane; Kamiya, Shinichiro; Araki, Eiichiro; Nakata, Ryoko; Kaneda, Yoshiyuki

    2016-06-01

    We detected long-term hydrostatic pressure changes at ocean-bottom stations of the Dense Oceanfloor Network system for Earthquakes and Tsunamis (DONET) along the Nankai trough, off southwestern Japan. We detected these changes after removing the contributions of ocean mass variations and sensor drift from the records. In addition, we detected a decrease in the background seismicity rate of a nearby earthquake cluster that was synchronous with the hydrostatic pressure changes. We interpreted these observed hydrostatic pressure changes to reflect vertical deformation of the ocean floor of 3-8 cm, and we consider the cause of the seafloor crustal deformation to be a slow slip event (SSE) beneath the stations. Because the pressure changes were observed at stations with distances less than 20 km to each other, we inferred that the SSE occurred in the shallow part of the sedimentary wedge, such as on a splay fault system. The synchronous observation of an SSE and a seismicity rate change suggests that both were triggered by a change in the regional stress that may be associated with stress accumulation and release processes occurring along the Nankai trough. These data show that continuous and careful monitoring of crustal activities by DONET stations provides an effective way to detect seismic and geodetic signals related to the occurrence of megathrust or other types of large earthquakes.

  5. Is Earthquake Triggering Driven by Small Earthquakes?

    CERN Document Server

    Helmstetter, A

    2002-01-01

    Using a catalog of seismicity for Southern California, we measure how the number of triggered earthquakes increases with the earthquake magnitude. The trade-off between this scaling and the distribution of earthquake magnitudes controls the relative role of small compared to large earthquakes. We show that seismicity triggering is driven by the smallest earthquakes, which trigger fewer aftershocks than larger earthquakes, but which are much more numerous. We propose that the non-trivial scaling of the number of aftershocks emerges from the fractal spatial distribution of aftershocks.

  6. Earthquakes in Virginia and vicinity 1774 - 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarr, Arthur C.; Wheeler, Russell L.

    2006-01-01

    This map summarizes two and a third centuries of earthquake activity. The seismic history consists of letters, journals, diaries, and newspaper and scholarly articles that supplement seismograph recordings (seismograms) dating from the early twentieth century to the present. All of the pre-instrumental (historical) earthquakes were large enough to be felt by people or to cause shaking damage to buildings and their contents. Later, widespread use of seismographs meant that tremors too small or distant to be felt could be detected and accurately located. Earthquakes are a legitimate concern in Virginia and parts of adjacent States. Moderate earthquakes cause slight local damage somewhere in the map area about twice a decade on the average. Additionally, many buildings in the map area were constructed before earthquake protection was added to local building codes. The large map shows all historical and instrumentally located earthquakes from 1774 through 2004.

  7. Defeating Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, R. S.

    2012-12-01

    The 2004 M=9.2 Sumatra earthquake claimed what seemed an unfathomable 228,000 lives, although because of its size, we could at least assure ourselves that it was an extremely rare event. But in the short space of 8 years, the Sumatra quake no longer looks like an anomaly, and it is no longer even the worst disaster of the Century: 80,000 deaths in the 2005 M=7.6 Pakistan quake; 88,000 deaths in the 2008 M=7.9 Wenchuan, China quake; 316,000 deaths in the M=7.0 Haiti, quake. In each case, poor design and construction were unable to withstand the ferocity of the shaken earth. And this was compounded by inadequate rescue, medical care, and shelter. How could the toll continue to mount despite the advances in our understanding of quake risk? The world's population is flowing into megacities, and many of these migration magnets lie astride the plate boundaries. Caught between these opposing demographic and seismic forces are 50 cities of at least 3 million people threatened by large earthquakes, the targets of chance. What we know for certain is that no one will take protective measures unless they are convinced they are at risk. Furnishing that knowledge is the animating principle of the Global Earthquake Model, launched in 2009. At the very least, everyone should be able to learn what his or her risk is. At the very least, our community owes the world an estimate of that risk. So, first and foremost, GEM seeks to raise quake risk awareness. We have no illusions that maps or models raise awareness; instead, earthquakes do. But when a quake strikes, people need a credible place to go to answer the question, how vulnerable am I, and what can I do about it? The Global Earthquake Model is being built with GEM's new open source engine, OpenQuake. GEM is also assembling the global data sets without which we will never improve our understanding of where, how large, and how frequently earthquakes will strike, what impacts they will have, and how those impacts can be lessened by

  8. Earthquake Early Warning Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Pei-Yang Lin

    2011-01-01

    Because of Taiwan’s unique geographical environment, earthquake disasters occur frequently in Taiwan. The Central Weather Bureau collated earthquake data from between 1901 and 2006 (Central Weather Bureau, 2007) and found that 97 earthquakes had occurred, of which, 52 resulted in casualties. The 921 Chichi Earthquake had the most profound impact. Because earthquakes have instant destructive power and current scientific technologies cannot provide precise early warnings in advance, earthquake ...

  9. Asian American Women: A Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yung, Judy, Comp.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Listed in this bibliography are materials available on Asian American women at the Asian Community Library (Oakland Public Library) and the Asian American Studies Library (University of California, Berkeley). (Author/EB)

  10. Asian American Cultural Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libretti, Tim

    1997-01-01

    Explores the encounter of Marxism and Asian American literary theory and imagines an Asian American Marxism. To do so requires theorizing race, class, and gender not as substantive categories of antagonisms but as complementary and coordinated elements of a totality of social relations structuring racial patriarchal capitalism. (SLD)

  11. Parallelization of the Coupled Earthquake Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Gary; Li, P. Peggy; Song, Yuhe T.

    2007-01-01

    This Web-based tsunami simulation system allows users to remotely run a model on JPL s supercomputers for a given undersea earthquake. At the time of this reporting, predicting tsunamis on the Internet has never happened before. This new code directly couples the earthquake model and the ocean model on parallel computers and improves simulation speed. Seismometers can only detect information from earthquakes; they cannot detect whether or not a tsunami may occur as a result of the earthquake. When earthquake-tsunami models are coupled with the improved computational speed of modern, high-performance computers and constrained by remotely sensed data, they are able to provide early warnings for those coastal regions at risk. The software is capable of testing NASA s satellite observations of tsunamis. It has been successfully tested for several historical tsunamis, has passed all alpha and beta testing, and is well documented for users.

  12. The results of the pilot project in Georgia to install a network of electromagnetic radiation before the earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machavariani, Kakhaber; Khazaradze, Giorgi; Turazashvili, Ioseb; Kachakhidze, Nino; Kachakhidze, Manana; Gogoberidze, Vitali

    2016-04-01

    The world's scientific literature recently published many very important and interesting works of VLF / LF electromagnetic emissions, which is observed in the process of earthquake preparation. This works reliable earthquake prediction in terms of trends. Because, Georgia is located in Trans Asian earthquake zone, VLF / LF electromagnetic emissions network are essential. In this regard, it was possible to take first steps. It is true that our university has Shota Rustaveli National Science Foundation № DI / 21 / 9-140 / 13 grant, which included the installation of a receiver in Georgia, but failed due to lack of funds to buy this device. However, European friends helped us (Prof. Dr. PF Biagi and Prof. Dr. Aydın BÜYÜKSARAÇ) and made possible the installation of a receiver. Turkish scientists expedition in Georgia was organized in August 2015. They brought with them VLF / LF electromagnetic emissions receiver and together with Georgian scientists install near Tbilisi. The station was named GEO-TUR. It should be noted that Georgia was involved in the work of the European network. It is possible to completely control the earthquake in Georgia in terms of electromagnetic radiation. This enables scientists to obtain the relevant information not only on the territory of our country, but also on seismically active European countries as well. In order to maintain and develop our country in this new direction, it is necessary to keep independent group of scientists who will learn electromagnetic radiation ahead of an earthquake in Georgia. At this stage, we need to remedy this shortcoming, it is necessary and appropriate specialists to Georgia to engage in a joint international research. The work is carried out in the frame of grant (DI/21/9-140/13 „Pilot project of before earthquake detected Very Low Frequency/Low Frequency electromagnetic emission network installation in Georgia") by financial support of Shota Rustaveli National Science Foundation.

  13. Earthquake forecast via neutrino tomography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Bin; CHEN Ya-Zheng; LI Xue-Qian

    2011-01-01

    We discuss the possibility of forecasting earthquakes by means of (anti)neutrino tomography. An- tineutrinos emitted from reactors are used as a probe. As the antineutrinos traverse through a region prone to earthquakes, observable variations in the matter effect on the antineutrino oscillation would provide a tomog- raphy of the vicinity of the region. In this preliminary work, we adopt a simplified model for the geometrical profile and matter density in a fault zone. We calculate the survival probability of electron antineutrinos for cases without and with an anomalous accumulation of electrons which can be considered as a clear signal of the coming earthquake, at the geological region with a fault zone, and find that the variation may reach as much as 3% for ν emitted from a reactor. The case for a ν beam from a neutrino factory is also investigated, and it is noted that, because of the typically high energy associated with such neutrinos, the oscillation length is too large and the resultant variation is not practically observable. Our conclusion is that with the present reactor facilities and detection techniques, it is still a difficult task to make an earthquake forecast using such a scheme, though it seems to be possible from a theoretical point of view while ignoring some uncertainties. However, with the development of the geology, especially the knowledge about the fault zone, and with the improvement of the detection techniques, etc., there is hope that a medium-term earthquake forecast would be feasible.

  14. Damage evaluation of reinforced concrete underground structures after earthquake. Part 3. Applicability of impact elastic wave for damage detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present report focuses on impact responses as a damage inspection method for underground structures subjected to large ground motion. When the loading test described in the previous report was conducted, the acceleration response to impact with a hammer was measured in each stage of damage. The followings were identified from the results; a) The ratio of acceleration amplitude at the surrounding measurement points to that near the hammering point was reduced with aggravation of damages. Because the reduction was remarkable especially in small deformation range, the acceleration amplitude ratio was useful as an index to detect light damages. b) Dissimilarity of frequency responses between sound and damaged states was evaluated using 'Spectrum Distance' which is a summation of the difference of frequency components between two Fourier amplitude spectrums. Because 'Spectrum Distance' increased according to the progress of deformation especially in small deformation range, it was also useful for light damage detecting. Finally, the randomness caused by different inspectors and different measurement positions in a structure was confirmed to be small enough through the trial inspections for a real channel. (author)

  15. HURRICANE SANDY AND EARTHQUAKES

    OpenAIRE

    MAVASHEV BORIS; MAVASHEV IGOR

    2013-01-01

    Submit for consideration the connection between formation of a hurricane Sandy and earthquakes. As a rule, weather anomalies precede and accompany earthquakes. The hurricane Sandy emerged 2 days prior to strong earthquakes that occurred in the area. And the trajectory of the hurricane Sandy matched the epicenter of the earthquakes. Possibility of early prediction of natural disasters will minimize the moral and material damage.

  16. Detection of ionospheric perturbations associated with Japanese earthquakes on the basis of reception of LF transmitter signals on the satellite DEMETER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Muto

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available There have been recently reported a lot of electromagnetic phenomena associated with earthquakes (EQs. Among these, the ground-based reception of subionospheric waves from VLF/LF transmitters, is recognized as a promising tool to investigate the ionospheric perturbations associated with EQs. This paper deals with the corresponding whistler-mode signals in the upper ionosphere from those VLF/LF transmitters, which is the counterpart of subionospheric signals. The whistler-mode VLF/LF transmitter signals are detected on board the French satellite, DEMETER launched on 29 June 2004. We have chosen several large Japanese EQs including the Miyagi-oki EQ (16 August 2005; M=7.2, depth=36 km, and the target transmitter is a Japanese LF transmitter (JJY whose transmitter frequency is 40 kHz. Due to large longitudinal separation of each satellite orbit (2500 km, we have to adopt a statistical analysis over a rather long period (such as 3 weeks or one month to have reliable data set. By analyzing the spatial distribution of JJY signal intensity (in the form of signal to noise ratio SNR during a period of 4 months including the Miyagi-oki EQ, we have found significant changes in the intensity; generally the SNR is significantly depleted before the EQ, which is considered to be a precursory ionospheric signature of the EQ. This abnormal effect is reasonably explained in terms of either (1 enhanced absorption of whistler-mode LF signals in the lower ionosphere due to the lowering of the lower ionosphere, or (2 nonlinear wave-wave scattering. Finally, this analysis suggests an important role of satellite observation in the study of lithosphere-atmosphere-ionosphere coupling.

  17. Gravity driven and tectonic post-seismic deformation of the April 6 2009 L'Aquila Earthquake detected by Cosmo-SkyMed DInSAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moro, M.; Albano, M.; Bignami, C.; Malvarosa, F.; Costantini, M.; Saroli, M.; Barba, S.; Falco, S.; Stramondo, S.

    2014-12-01

    The present work focuses on the analysis of post-seismic surface deformation detected in the area of L'Aquila, Central Italy, after the strong earthquake that hit the city and the surrounding villages on April 6th, 2009. The analysis has been carried out thanks to a new dataset of SAR COSMO-SkyMed images covering a time span of 480 days after the mainshock, with the adoption of the Persistent Scatterer Pairs (PSP) approach. This method allows the estimation of surface deformations by exploiting the SAR images at full resolution. In the investigated area two patterns of subsidence have been identified reaching a maximum value of 45 mm in the northeast area of the L'Aquila town. Here the subsidence is mainly ascribable to the post seismic slip release of the Paganica fault and it does not coincide with the maximum measured coseismic subsidence. The time series of the ground deformations also reveal that a large amount of deformation is released in the first three months after the main shock. The second pattern of deformation is centered on the Mt. Ocre ridge, where a detailed photogeological analysis allowed us to identify widespread evidence of morphological elements associated with Deep-seated gravitational slope deformation (DGSD). In particular geomorphologic analyses show evidences of lateral spread DGSD-type features, characterized by the tectonic superimposition of carbonatic sequences and transitional pelagic deposits. In this sector, the observed deformation is ascribable not only to the afterslip of the Paganica fault, but also to a gravitative cause. In order to confirm or reject such hypothesis a 2D numerical finite element models considering two cross sections over the Mt. Ocre ridge has been performed. The coseismic and postseimic deformations have been simulated numerically, considering an elastic-perfectly plastic rheology for the constituent rocks. First results show that most of the postseismic deformation is ascribable to the plastic deformation

  18. Earthquake Damage Assessment Using Objective Image Segmentation: A Case Study of 2010 Haiti Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oommen, Thomas; Rebbapragada, Umaa; Cerminaro, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we perform a case study on imagery from the Haiti earthquake that evaluates a novel object-based approach for characterizing earthquake induced surface effects of liquefaction against a traditional pixel based change technique. Our technique, which combines object-oriented change detection with discriminant/categorical functions, shows the power of distinguishing earthquake-induced surface effects from changes in buildings using the object properties concavity, convexity, orthogonality and rectangularity. Our results suggest that object-based analysis holds promise in automatically extracting earthquake-induced damages from high-resolution aerial/satellite imagery.

  19. DETECTION OF LOCAL SITE CONDITIONS INFLUENCING EARTHQUAKE SHOCK AND SECONDARY EFFECTS IN THE VALPARAISO AREA IN CENTRAL-CHILE USING REMOTE SENSING AND GIS METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Theilen-Willige

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential contribution of remote sensing and GIS techniques to earthquake hazard analysis was investigated in Valparaiso in Chile in order to improve the systematic, standardized inventory of those areas that are more susceptible to earthquake ground motions or to earthquake related secondary effects such as landslides, liquefaction, soil amplifications, compaction or even tsunami-waves. Geophysical, topographical, geological data and satellite images were collected, processed, and integrated into a spatial database using Geoinformation Systems (GIS and image processing techniques. The GIS integrated evaluation of satellite imageries, of digital topographic data and of various open-source geodata can contribute to the acquisition of those specific tectonic, geomorphologic/ topographic settings influencing local site conditions in Valparaiso, Chile. Using the weighted overlay techniques in GIS, susceptibility maps were produced indicating areas, where causal factors influencing near- surface earthquake shock occur aggregated. Causal factors (such as unconsolidated sedimentary layers within a basin’s topography, higher groundwater tables, etc. summarizing and interfering each other, rise the susceptibility of soil amplification and of earthquake related secondary effects. This approach was used as well to create a tsunami flooding susceptibility map. LANDSAT Thermal Band 6-imageries were analysed to get information of surface water currents in this area.

  20. History of earthquake studies in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Tatevossian

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the completeness of modern knowledge on historical seismicity it is necessary to know the general geopolitical and socio-cultural background in the country. It determines the possibility to record the evidence of an earthquake and conserve the record in original form for a long time-period. The potential duration of historical earthquake study in Russia is assessed based on these considerations. Certain stages of earthquake study in Russia have been detected. Specific problems of seismicity studies of low active areas are discussed as an example of Russian platform. The value of each (even moderate magnitude event becomes crucial for seismic hazard assessment in such territories. A correct identification of event nature (tectonic earthquake or exogenous phenomena - landslides, karsts, etc. is practically impossible without using primary sources with detailed descriptions. Occurrence of modern earthquakes can be used to assess the accuracy of historical seismicity knowledge.

  1. The South Asian genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John C Chambers

    Full Text Available The genetic sequence variation of people from the Indian subcontinent who comprise one-quarter of the world's population, is not well described. We carried out whole genome sequencing of 168 South Asians, along with whole-exome sequencing of 147 South Asians to provide deeper characterisation of coding regions. We identify 12,962,155 autosomal sequence variants, including 2,946,861 new SNPs and 312,738 novel indels. This catalogue of SNPs and indels amongst South Asians provides the first comprehensive map of genetic variation in this major human population, and reveals evidence for selective pressures on genes involved in skin biology, metabolism, infection and immunity. Our results will accelerate the search for the genetic variants underlying susceptibility to disorders such as type-2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease which are highly prevalent amongst South Asians.

  2. Glaucoma in Asian Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Us Donate In This Section Glaucoma In Asian Populations email Send this article to a friend by ... an even more serious problem as the world population and longevity increases. The other major glaucoma type ...

  3. Central Asian Republic Info

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — CAR Info is designed and managed by the Central Asian Republic Mission to fill in the knowledge and reporting gaps in existing agency systems for that Mission. It...

  4. Tohoku earthquake: a surprise?

    CERN Document Server

    Kagan, Yan Y

    2011-01-01

    We consider three issues related to the 2011 Tohoku mega-earthquake: (1) how to evaluate the earthquake maximum size in subduction zones, (2) what is the repeat time for the largest earthquakes in Tohoku area, and (3) what are the possibilities of short-term forecasts during the 2011 sequence. There are two quantitative methods which can be applied to estimate the maximum earthquake size: a statistical analysis of the available earthquake record and the moment conservation principle. The latter technique studies how much of the tectonic deformation rate is released by earthquakes. For the subduction zones, the seismic or historical record is not sufficient to provide a reliable statistical measure of the maximum earthquake. The moment conservation principle yields consistent estimates of maximum earthquake size: for all the subduction zones the magnitude is of the order 9.0--9.7, and for major subduction zones the maximum earthquake size is statistically indistinguishable. Starting in 1999 we have carried out...

  5. Protecting Your Family From Earthquakes-The Seven Steps to Earthquake Safety (in English, Chinese, Vietnamese, and Korean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developed by American Red Cross, Asian Pacific Fund

    2007-01-01

    This book is provided here because of the importance of preparing for earthquakes before they happen. Experts say it is very likely there will be a damaging San Francisco Bay Area earthquake in the next 30 years and that it will strike without warning. It may be hard to find the supplies and services we need after this earthquake. For example, hospitals may have more patients than they can treat, and grocery stores may be closed for weeks. You will need to provide for your family until help arrives. To keep our loved ones and our community safe, we must prepare now. Some of us come from places where earthquakes are also common. However, the dangers of earthquakes in our homelands may be very different than in the Bay Area. For example, many people in Asian countries die in major earthquakes when buildings collapse or from big sea waves called tsunami. In the Bay Area, the main danger is from objects inside buildings falling on people. Take action now to make sure your family will be safe in an earthquake. The first step is to read this book carefully and follow its advice. By making your home safer, you help make our community safer. Preparing for earthquakes is important, and together we can make sure our families and community are ready. English version p. 3-13 Chinese version p. 14-24 Vietnamese version p. 25-36 Korean version p. 37-48

  6. Seafloor displacement at Kumano-nada caused by the 2004 off Kii Peninsula earthquakes, detected through repeated GPS/Acoustic surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kido, M.; Fujimoto, H.; Miura, S.; Osada, Y.; Tsuka, K.; Tabei, T.

    2006-07-01

    In 2004, we started monitoring crustal deformation at Kumano-nada in the Nankai trough using the GPS/Acoustic technique. We observed a large southward seafloor displacement of ˜30 cm associated with the off Kii Peninsula earthquake, which occurred in September 2004, between our two survey campaigns in August and November 2004. The observed seafloor displacement is larger than that predicted from a slip model derived solely from GPS measurements on land. This may indicate the earthquake fault is slightly shallower and extends move to the NW than previously estimated.

  7. Kalman滤波在地震电离层TEC异常探测中的应用%APPLICATION OF KALMAN FILTERING IN DETECTING IONOSPHERIC TEC ANOMALY PRIOR TO EARTHQUAKE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂兆生; 祝芙英; 付宁波

    2011-01-01

    It has been verified by plentiful existing observations that the ionospheric disturbance do appear prior to earthquake. In this paper,on the basis of the ionospheric TEC derived from the GPS observation data from the reference stations of Crustal Movement Observational Network of China, we processed and analyzed the ionospheric TEC data prior to the WENCHUAN Ms8.0 earthquake by Kalman filtering and then we compared the results with the previous conclusion, the results indicate that the establishment of the model of the Kalman filter is reasonable and reliable in the detection of the ionospheric TEC anomaly prior to earthquake effectively.%基于中国地壳运动观测网络GPS观测资料解算的电离层TEC数据,利用Kalman滤波方法对2008年5月12日汶川Ms8.0地震前的电离层TEC进行异常探测研究,并与以前的处理结果进行对比,对比结果表明:利用Kalman滤波方法能够有效地探测到震前的电离层TEC异常扰动.

  8. Bacteriological Analysis, Antimicrobial Susceptibility and Detection of 16S rRNA gene of Helicobacter pylori by PCR in Drinking Water Samples of Earthquake Affected Areas and Other Parts of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasheed, F.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In Pakistan, clean drinking water is not available to most of the population. Main source of drinking water in Hazara, Azad Jammu and Kashmir-Pakistan is underground and spring water, due to earthquake water reservoirs in these areas were immensely contaminated. Moreover, drinking water treatment and proper sanitary facilities were also lacking. This study was conducted to analyze the quality of drinking water available in most of the cities of Pakistan including earthquake hit areas. For this purpose, 112 water samples were collected and analyzed by membrane filtration method. Microbial isolates were identified using QTS-10 and biochemical tests. Almost all samples were found to be contaminated but in earthquake affected areas quality of drinking water was substandard than other areas of Pakistan. Results revealed the detection of following bacterial pathogens among the water samples: Enterobacter sp., Klebsiellasp., Stenotrophomonas sp., Salmonella sp., Proteus sp., Edwardsiella tarda, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio cholerae, Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter baumanii, Aeromonas hydrophila, Citrobacter freundii, Shigella dysenteriae, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus sp. and Streptococcus sp. Furthermore, these bacterial isolates were found to be resistant to ampicillin (32.1%, amoxicillin (30.4%, sulphometoxazole (20.5% and cefaclor (31.3%. All drinking water samples were analyzed for 16S rRNA gene of Helicobacter pylori by using PCR, however no positive result was found in these samples. Based on our results it is suggested that authorities should pay attention to supply safe water and proper sanitary facilities to avoid epidemics of infectious diseases in future.

  9. Operational earthquake forecasting can enhance earthquake preparedness

    OpenAIRE

    Jordan, T. H.; Univ Southern California; Marzocchi, W.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Roma1, Roma, Italia; Michael, A.; USGS; Gerstenberger, M. C.; GNS

    2014-01-01

    We cannot yet predict large earthquakes in the short term with much reliability and skill, but the strong clustering exhibited in seismic sequences tells us that earthquake probabilities are not constant in time; they generally rise and fall over periods of days to years in correlation with nearby seismic activity. Opera- tional earthquake forecasting (OEF) is the dissemination of authoritative information about these time-dependent proba- bilities to help communities prepare for potentially ...

  10. STUDY ON COMPARISON AMONG EVENT DETECTION STRATEGIES FOR EARTHQUAKE ACCELERATION MONITORING%地震加速度监测中事件检测策略比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李昌珑; 廖成旺

    2012-01-01

    In earthquake acceleration monitoring, quick and accurate event detection is significant. The STA/ LTA algorithm based on original earthquake acceleration data is often used in event detection (triggering P-wave). A strategy is presented, which at first, processes the earthquake acceleration data in two ways band-pass filtering and velocity data computing then uses the STA/LTA algorithm. The study shows that band-pass filtering and velocity data computing can both enhance the effect on event detection, hopwever, the effects of second and fourth order bandpass filtering are slightly different and it is better by using second order band-pass filtering and velocity data computing.%地震加速度监测中,实时、准确的事件检测具有重要意义.事件检测的常用方法是STA/LTA算法,使用地震加速度原始数据.考虑将地震加速度原始数据进行带通滤波和加速度速度数据转换,再使用STA/LTA算法.研究表明,带通滤波和速度数据都能优化事件检测的效果;二阶同四阶带通滤波效果差别不大;同时使用二阶带通滤波和速度数据的策略检测效果最好.

  11. Smartphone MEMS accelerometers and earthquake early warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Q.; Allen, R. M.; Schreier, L.; Kwon, Y. W.

    2015-12-01

    The low cost MEMS accelerometers in the smartphones are attracting more and more attentions from the science community due to the vast number and potential applications in various areas. We are using the accelerometers inside the smartphones to detect the earthquakes. We did shake table tests to show these accelerometers are also suitable to record large shakings caused by earthquakes. We developed an android app - MyShake, which can even distinguish earthquake movements from daily human activities from the recordings recorded by the accelerometers in personal smartphones and upload trigger information/waveform to our server for further analysis. The data from these smartphones forms a unique datasets for seismological applications, such as earthquake early warning. In this talk I will layout the method we used to recognize earthquake-like movement from single smartphone, and the overview of the whole system that harness the information from a network of smartphones for rapid earthquake detection. This type of system can be easily deployed and scaled up around the global and provides additional insights of the earthquake hazards.

  12. Earthquake Damage - General

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — An earthquake is the motion or trembling of the ground produced by sudden displacement of rock in the Earth's crust. Earthquakes result from crustal strain,...

  13. Earthquakes in Southern California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — There have been many earthquake occurrences in Southern California. This set of slides shows earthquake damage from the following events: Imperial Valley, 1979,...

  14. Earthquakes: hydrogeochemical precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingebritsen, Steven E.; Manga, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Earthquake prediction is a long-sought goal. Changes in groundwater chemistry before earthquakes in Iceland highlight a potential hydrogeochemical precursor, but such signals must be evaluated in the context of long-term, multiparametric data sets.

  15. Tidal triggering of earthquakes

    OpenAIRE

    Heaton, Thomas H.

    1982-01-01

    Analysis of the tidal stress tensor at the time of moderate to large earthquakes strongly suggests that shallow (< 30 km) larger magnitude oblique-slip and dip-slip earthquakes are triggered by tidal stresses. No corresponding triggering effect is seen for shallow strike-slip earthquakes or for any type of intermediate or deep focus earthquakes which have been studied. Tidal triggering is also discussed from the viewpoint of the ‘dilatancy-diffusion’ model. Specifically, the model as usually ...

  16. EARTHQUAKE SCALING PARADOX

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU ZHONG-LIANG

    2001-01-01

    Two measures of earthquakes, the seismic moment and the broadband radiated energy, show completely different scaling relations. For shallow earthquakes worldwide from January 1987 to December 1998, the frequency distribution of the seismic moment shows a clear kink between moderate and large earthquakes, as revealed by previous works. But the frequency distribution of the broadband radiated energy shows a single power law, a classical Gutenberg-Richter relation. This inconsistency raises a paradox in the self-organized criticality model of earthquakes.

  17. Redefining Earthquakes and the Earthquake Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubenthal, Michael; Braile, Larry; Taber, John

    2008-01-01

    The Earthquake Machine (EML), a mechanical model of stick-slip fault systems, can increase student engagement and facilitate opportunities to participate in the scientific process. This article introduces the EML model and an activity that challenges ninth-grade students' misconceptions about earthquakes. The activity emphasizes the role of models…

  18. Children's Ideas about Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simsek, Canan Lacin

    2007-01-01

    Earthquake, a natural disaster, is among the fundamental problems of many countries. If people know how to protect themselves from earthquake and arrange their life styles in compliance with this, damage they will suffer will reduce to that extent. In particular, a good training regarding earthquake to be received in primary schools is considered…

  19. USGS science and technology help managers battle invading Asian carp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolar, Cynthia S.; Morrison, Sandra S.

    2016-09-28

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducts Asian carp research focused on early detection, risk assessment, and development of control tools and strategies. The goals are to prevent the establishment of invasive Asian carp in the Great Lakes and to reduce their impacts in the Ohio River and Mississippi River Basins and elsewhere. Managers can use the information, tools, and strategies for early detection of Asian carp and to control them when their presence is first evident. New detection and control tools are designed to accommodate expansion to other invasive species and application in geographically diverse areas.This USGS focus complements goals of the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative (GLRI), a multi-agency collaboration started in 2010 to protect and restore the Great Lakes. As a member of the Asian Carp Regional Coordinating Committee, which guides Asian carp efforts, the USGS works closely with Federal and State agencies, Canada, and others to address high-priority Asian carp issues and provide science to inform management decisions.The USGS has gained extensive knowledge of Asian carp biology and life history over the past 30 years. That knowledge guides the design, development, and application of control strategies, and is essential for developing approaches in line with modern principles and practices of integrated pest management (IPM). IPM is a process used to solve pest problems while minimizing risks to people and the environment.

  20. Earthquakes - Volcanoes (Causes - Forecast - Counteraction)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiapas, Elias

    2015-04-01

    going to be, when we know the record of specific earthquakes and the routes they have followed towards the East. For example, to foresee an earthquake in the Mediterranean region, we take starting point earthquakes to Latin America (0°-40°).The aforementioned elements will reach Italy in an average time period of 49 days and Greece in 53 days. The most reliable preceding phenomenon to determine the epicenter of an earthquake is the rise of the crust's temperature at the area where a large quantity of elements is concentrated, among other phenomena that can be detected either by instruments or by our senses. When there is an active volcano along the route between the area where the "starting-point" earthquake occurred and the area where we expect the same elements to cause a new earthquake, it is possible these elements will escape through the volcano's crater, carrying lava with them. We could contribute to that end, nullifying earthquakes that might be triggered by these elements further to the east, by using manmade resources, like adequate quantities of explosives at the right moment.

  1. EARTHQUAKES - VOLCANOES (Causes - Forecast - Counteraction)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiapas, Elias

    2014-05-01

    going to be, when we know the record of specific earthquakes and the routes they have followed towards the East. For example, to foresee an earthquake in the Mediterranean region, we take starting point earthquakes to Latin America (0°-40°).The aforementioned elements will reach Italy in an average time period of 49 days and Greece in 53 days. The most reliable preceding phenomenon to determine the epicenter of an earthquake is the rise of the crust's temperature at the area where a large quantity of elements is concentrated, among other phenomena that can be detected either by instruments or by our senses. When there is an active volcano along the route between the area where the "starting-point" earthquake occurred and the area where we expect the same elements to cause a new earthquake, it is possible these elements will escape through the volcano's crater, carrying lava with them. We could contribute to that end, nullifying earthquakes that might be triggered by these elements further to the east, by using manmade resources, like adequate quantities of explosives at the right moment.

  2. Asian American-Pacific American Relations: The Asian American Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Sucheng

    This paper examines the migration and settlement history of Asians into the United States and the interaction of the major Asian immigrants with each other and with American society. An important thesis is that, because the differences between Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders are much greater than the similarities between them, they should no…

  3. Report on Disaster Medical Operations with Acupuncture/Massage Therapy After the Great East Japan Earthquake

    OpenAIRE

    Shin Takayama; Tetsuharu Kamiya; Masashi Watanabe; Atsushi Hirano; Ayane Matsuda; Yasutake Monma; Takehiro Numata; Hiroko Kusuyama; Nobuo Yaegashi

    2012-01-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake inflicted immense damage over a wide area of eastern Japan with the consequent tsunami. Department of Traditional Asian Medicine, Tohoku University, started providing medical assistance to the disaster-stricken regions mainly employing traditional Asian therapies. We visited seven evacuation centers in Miyagi and Fukushima Prefecture and provided acupuncture/massage therapy. While massage therapy was performed manually, filiform needles and press tack needles w...

  4. Current Update in Asian Rhinoplasty

    OpenAIRE

    Clyde H. Ishii, MD, FACS

    2014-01-01

    Summary: There has been a tremendous growth of cosmetic surgery among Asians worldwide. Rhinoplasty is second only to blepharoplasty in terms of popularity among Asians regarding cosmetic surgical procedures. Most Asians seek to improve their appearance while maintaining the essential features of their ethnicity. There are considerable ethnic nasal and facial variations in this population alone. Successful rhinoplasty in Asians must take into account underlying anatomic differences between As...

  5. Seismicity dynamics and earthquake predictability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Sobolev

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Many factors complicate earthquake sequences, including the heterogeneity and self-similarity of the geological medium, the hierarchical structure of faults and stresses, and small-scale variations in the stresses from different sources. A seismic process is a type of nonlinear dissipative system demonstrating opposing trends towards order and chaos. Transitions from equilibrium to unstable equilibrium and local dynamic instability appear when there is an inflow of energy; reverse transitions appear when energy is dissipating. Several metastable areas of a different scale exist in the seismically active region before an earthquake. Some earthquakes are preceded by precursory phenomena of a different scale in space and time. These include long-term activation, seismic quiescence, foreshocks in the broad and narrow sense, hidden periodical vibrations, effects of the synchronization of seismic activity, and others. Such phenomena indicate that the dynamic system of lithosphere is moving to a new state – catastrophe. A number of examples of medium-term and short-term precursors is shown in this paper. However, no precursors identified to date are clear and unambiguous: the percentage of missed targets and false alarms is high. The weak fluctuations from outer and internal sources play a great role on the eve of an earthquake and the occurrence time of the future event depends on the collective behavior of triggers. The main task is to improve the methods of metastable zone detection and probabilistic forecasting.

  6. Result of alpha track detection of radon in soil gas in the Khlong Marui Fault Zone, Southern Thailand: A possible earthquake precursor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tripob Bhongsuwan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of radon concentration in soil gas were conducted at ten stations (ST1-ST10, located mainly in theKhlong Marui Fault Zone, Thap Put District, Phang Nga Province over a period from 28 January to 25 April, 2007. The resultsof the radon concentration were presented as the variation of cumulative alpha track over a week period. At Station ST10 theradon concentrations are in general higher than those at other stations for every week. Two significant radon anomalies werefound to have the concentration above the mean value plus one standard deviation. During the period of monitoring thelocal and regional earthquake activities were observed showing patterns consistent with the occurrence of the radon anomalies.The maximum radon concentration is interpreted to be related to a possible influence of the pressure and stress increasedin the subsurface. An increase in the number of earthquakes is observed correlating to a lower radon concentration when thesubsurface pressure dropped due to tectonic stress release by seismic activities. Therefore, it would be possible to use thevariation of soil gas radon concentration as an earthquake precursor in the Khlong Marui Fault Zone.

  7. Earth's free oscillations excited by the 2011 Tohoku Mw 9.0 earthquake detected with a groundwater level array in mainland China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Rui; Woith, Heiko; Wang, Rongjiang; Zhang, Yong

    2016-09-01

    Earth's free oscillations excited by a mega-thrust earthquake were observed by a continent-scale array of groundwater monitoring sites for the first time. After the occurrence of the 2011 Tohoku Mw 9.0 earthquake, water level records at 43 out of 216 wells in the China mainland revealed long-period free oscillation signals. In the time domain, these free oscillations exhibit globe circling Rayleigh surface waves. In some single wells, even the globe-circling Rayleigh wave R7 was visible, which travels three times around the Earth after the first arrival and appears about 10 hr after the earthquake occurrence in the present case. The spectral analysis shows that the principal oscillatory fluctuations seen in the water level records correspond to the spheroidal modes 0Sl (l = 2-31 for frequencies between 0.3 and 5.0 mHz) of the Earth's free oscillation. Especially at quiet sites, the spheroidal modes at very low frequencies (conditions.

  8. Mapping of earthquakes vulnerability area in Papua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad Fawzy Ismullah, M.; Massinai, Muh. Altin

    2016-05-01

    Geohazard is a geological occurrence which may lead to a huge loss for human. A mitigation of these natural disasters is one important thing to be done properly in order to reduce the risks. One of the natural disasters that frequently occurs in the Papua Province is the earthquake. This study applies the principle of Geospatial and its application for mapping the earthquake-prone area in the Papua region. It uses earthquake data, which is recorded for 36 years (1973-2009), fault location map, and ground acceleration map of the area. The earthquakes and fault map are rearranged into an earthquake density map, as well as an earthquake depth density map and fault density map. The overlaid data of these three maps onto ground acceleration map are then (compiled) to obtain an earthquake unit map. Some districts area, such as Sarmi, Nabire, and Dogiyai, are identified by a high vulnerability index. In the other hand, Waropen, Puncak, Merauke, Asmat, Mappi, and Bouven Digoel area shows lower index. Finally, the vulnerability index in other places is detected as moderate.

  9. Asian oil demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This conference presentation examined global oil market development and the role of Asian demand. It discussed plateau change versus cyclical movement in the global oil market; supply and demand issues of OPEC and non-OPEC oil; if high oil prices reduce demand; and the Asian oil picture in the global context. Asian oil demand has accounted for about 50 per cent of the global incremental oil market growth. The presentation provided data charts in graphical format on global and Asia-Pacific incremental oil demand from 1990-2005; Asia oil demand growth for selected nations; real GDP growth in selected Asian countries; and, Asia-Pacific oil production and net import requirements. It also included charts in petroleum product demand for Asia-Pacific, China, India, Japan, and South Korea. Other data charts included key indicators for China's petroleum sector; China crude production and net oil import requirements; China's imports and the share of the Middle East; China's oil exports and imports; China's crude imports by source for 2004; China's imports of main oil products for 2004; India's refining capacity; India's product balance for net-imports and net-exports; and India's trade pattern of oil products. tabs., figs

  10. Asian Americans in Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnow, Stanley; Yoshihara, Nancy

    This booklet is a detailed primer on the Asian American experience in the United States covering history, family and acculturation, education, culture and the arts, economics, discrimination and violence, and politics. An introduction reviews some basic demographics and looks at racial issues in light of the riots in Los Angeles (California) in…

  11. Gifted Asian American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitano, Margie K.

    1997-01-01

    Presents an analysis of personal, socialization, and structural factors affecting the lifespan achievement of 15 Asian American women identified as gifted. Their families' intense focus on educational achievement and hard work are described, and the need for better preparation to overcome obstacles in the workplace is discussed. (Author/CR)

  12. Asian Institute of Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Naval Research, London (England).

    The Asian Institute of Technology is a notable success for that part of the world where success is not too common. It is an excellent example of not only the initiative and organization of a technical university, but also of the success of a foreign aid program. This report gives details of this organization and accomplishments. (Author)

  13. Asian Yellow Goat Cloned

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ It was released on August 24,2005 by Prof. CHEN Dayuan (Da-Yuan Chen) from the CAS Institute of Zoology that the first success in cloning the Asian Yellow Goat by nuclear transfer had recently been achieved in east China's Shandong Province.

  14. Profile: Asian Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Program Grants Other Grants Planning and Evaluation Grantee Best Practices Asian American Asthma Cancer Chronic Liver Disease Diabetes ... Phone: 240-453-2882 Office of Minority Health Resource Center Toll Free: 1-800-444-6472 / Fax: 301-251-2160 Email: info@minorityhealth.hhs.gov Stay Connected ... FOIA | Accessibility | Site Map | Contact Us | Viewers & Players

  15. Malaysian Cinema, Asian Film

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heide, van der William

    2002-01-01

    This title series departs from traditional studies of national cinema by accentuating the intercultural and intertextual links between Malaysian films and Asian (as well as European and American) film practices. Using cross-cultural analysis, the author characterizes Malaysia as a pluralist society

  16. Asian fungal fermented food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nout, M.J.R.; Aidoo, K.E.

    2010-01-01

    In Asian countries, there is a long history of fermentation of foods and beverages. Diverse micro-organisms, including bacteria, yeasts and moulds, are used as starters, and a wide range of ingredients can be made into fermented foods. The main raw materials include cereals, leguminous seeds, vegeta

  17. Articulating Asianness: Young Asian Dutch and non-homeland Asian popular media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.A. Kartosen; E.S.H. Tan

    2013-01-01

    This study explores Asian Dutch young people’s ethnic-cultural identification in relation to their media consumption, and specifically their consumption of popular media from Asian countries other than their country of origin. A survey was conducted among 486 Asian Dutch (18-35 years old). In concur

  18. Detection of Haiti Earthquake Induced Landsides from Aerial Images and LiDAR Data%基于航空影像和LiDAR数据的海地地震滑坡识别研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈永林; 李晓静; 吴立新

    2011-01-01

    快速、准确地判别滑坡灾害范围对灾情评估与救灾指挥至关重要.将高分辨率航空影像和机载LiDAR数据相结合,能充分利用滑坡体的光谱特征、几何形态与空间结构特征,提高滑坡识别的准确度.该文以海地地震诱发的滑坡识别为例,介绍了面向对象的滑坡识别思路及方法;针对海地滑坡灾害特点,选择了相应的灾害特征,并经反复试验设定了特征参数阈值;针对面向对象分类过程中特征组合与选择这一瓶颈问题,以河流沉积物和滑坡判别为例,通过特征组合试验与对比分析,发现基于NDVI与坡度特征组合的分类结果明显优于单一特征及其它组合模式的分类结果.与最大似然分类法相比,该方法的分类结果更为准确、精度更高.%An earthquake measuring 7. 0 struck southern Haiti on 12 January,2010,causing tremendous damage in the Port-auPrince area and in southern Haiti, killing or injuring thousands of people and knocking down a large number of buildings, as well as quantities of landslides. Fast and reliable detection of earthquake-induced landslides is crucial for disaster reduction and emergency management to limit life losses and properties. Integration of aerial images and LiDAR data is capable of utilizing sufficiently the spectral characteristics, surface texture and spatial structural features to improve the accuracy of landslides identification. Taking the case of Haiti earthquake induced landslides, an object-based method was developed in this paper to identify earthquake-induced landslides from aerial images and LiDAR data, which contains noise and small details generally. The data sets,data pre-processing, multi-scale image segmentation, the selection of feature and its threshold, rules construction, the combination of features and its trials were presented. With the accuracy and precision analysis, it had proved that the proposed method is better than the maximum likelihood method

  19. Earthquake Science: a New Start

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Yun-tai

    2009-01-01

    @@ Understanding the mechanisms which cause earthquakes and thus earthquake prediction, is inher-ently difficult in comparison to other physical phenom-ena. This is due to the inaccessibility of the Earth's inte-rior, the infrequency of large earthquakes, and the com-plexities of the physical processes involved. Conse-quently, in its broadest sense, earthquake science--the science of studying earthquake phenomena, is a com-prehensive and inter-disciplinary field. The disciplines involved in earthquake science include: traditional seismology, earthquake geodesy, earthquake geology, rock mechanics, complex system theory, and informa-tion and communication technologies related to earth-quake studies.

  20. Encyclopedia of earthquake engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Kougioumtzoglou, Ioannis; Patelli, Edoardo; Au, Siu-Kui

    2015-01-01

    The Encyclopedia of Earthquake Engineering is designed to be the authoritative and comprehensive reference covering all major aspects of the science of earthquake engineering, specifically focusing on the interaction between earthquakes and infrastructure. The encyclopedia comprises approximately 265 contributions. Since earthquake engineering deals with the interaction between earthquake disturbances and the built infrastructure, the emphasis is on basic design processes important to both non-specialists and engineers so that readers become suitably well-informed without needing to deal with the details of specialist understanding. The content of this encyclopedia provides technically inclined and informed readers about the ways in which earthquakes can affect our infrastructure and how engineers would go about designing against, mitigating and remediating these effects. The coverage ranges from buildings, foundations, underground construction, lifelines and bridges, roads, embankments and slopes. The encycl...

  1. Astronomical tides and earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaoping; Mao, Wei; Huang, Yong

    2001-03-01

    A review on the studies of correlation between astronomical tides and earthquakes is given in three categories, including (1) earthquakes and the relative locations of the sun, the moon and the earth, (2) earthquakes and the periods and phases of tides and (3) earthquakes and the tidal stress. The first two categories mainly investigate whether or not there exist any dominant pattern of the relative locations of the sun, the moon and the earth during earthquakes, whether or not the occurrences of earthquakes are clustered in any special phase during a tidal period, whether or not there exists any tidal periodic phenomenon in seismic activities, By empasizing the tidal stress in seismic focus, the third category investigates the relationship between various seismic faults and the triggering effects of tidal stress, which reaches the crux of the issue. Possible reasons to various inconsistent investigation results by using various methods and samples are analyzed and further investigations are proposed.

  2. 基于D-InSAR技术的伊朗巴姆地震地表形变监测%Detecting Surface Deformation Produced by Bam Earthquake of Iran Based on D-InSAR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    寇程; 柯长青

    2013-01-01

    以伊朗巴姆地区为例,对伊朗巴姆地震造成的地表形变进行了差分干涉测量,得到了垂直向的同震三维形变场,并运用GIS三维分析技术对形变场进行了分析.实验结果表明,地震在巴姆城市的东侧造成了较大形变,在西侧也产生了微量形变.巴姆城市北部地块沉降,南部地块隆起.同时在巴姆城市南部可明显看到地震造成的断层.实验结果验证了基于C波段的SAR数据的D-InSAR技术在干燥地区监测地表形变方面的可行性.本文对产生去相关效应的原因进行了解释,认为对于干燥少植被的地区干涉效果较好.并指出,如果能够通过技术进步提高雷达干涉测量的精度并降低观测成本,同时将该技术与GPS、GIS等技术相结合,从而更好地研究形变机理,这将对地质灾害的研究产生重大意义.%Taking Bam earthquake as an example, we generated the coseismic deformation map along the vertical direction caused by MS6.7 earthquake using InSAR technology and analyzed the deformation map with GIS 3-D technology. The results suggested that, the earthquake has produced large deformation on the east of Bam city, and small deformation on the west of Bam city. The northern block of Bam subsided and the southern block uplifted. The fault caused by Bam earthquake was shown clearly in the deformation map. This result verifies the feasibility of detecting surface deformation using D-InSAR technology based on C band SAR images. In this paper we discussed the decorrelation effect, and pointed out that the InSAR was suitable for the area which was dry and with little vegetation. Finally, we concluded out that in order to study the deformation mechanism better, the InSAR technique should be combined with other techniques, such as GPS and GIS.

  3. The Global Earthquake History

    OpenAIRE

    Albini, P.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Milano-Pavia, Milano, Italia; Musson, R. M. W.; BGS, Edinburgh; Rovida, A.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Milano-Pavia, Milano, Italia; Locati, M.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Milano-Pavia, Milano, Italia; Gomez Capera, A. A.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Milano-Pavia, Milano, Italia; Viganò, D.; Global Earthquake Model-GEM

    2014-01-01

    The study of earthquakes from historical sources, or historical seismology, was considered an early priority for the Global Earthquake Model (GEM) project, which commissioned a study of historical seismicity at a global scale. This was “The Global Earthquake History” (GEH) project, led jointly by INGV (Milano, Italy) and BGS (UK). GEH was structured around three complementary deliverables: archive, catalogue, and the web infrastructure designed to store both archive and catalogue. The Global ...

  4. Earthquake at 40 feet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, G. J.

    1976-01-01

    The earthquake that struck the island of Guam on November 1, 1975, at 11:17 a.m had many unique aspects-not the least of which was the experience of an earthquake of 6.25 Richter magnitude while at 40 feet. My wife Bonnie, a fellow diver, Greg Guzman, and I were diving at Gabgab Beach in teh outer harbor of Apra Harbor, engaged in underwater phoyography when the earthquake struck. 

  5. Reduction of earthquake disasters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈顒; 陈祺福; 黄静; 徐文立

    2003-01-01

    The article summarizes the researches on mitigating earthquake disasters of the past four years in China. The studyof earthquake disasters′ quantification shows that the losses increase remarkably when population concentrates inurban area and social wealth increase. The article also summarizes some new trends of studying earthquake disas-ters′ mitigation, which are from seismic hazard to seismic risk, from engineering disaster to social disaster andintroduces the community-centered approach.

  6. Disturbance of O^+ Density Before Major Earthquake Detected by DEMETER Satellite%DEMETER卫星探测到的强震前O^+浓度变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧阳新艳; 张学民; 申旭辉; 黄建平; 刘静; 泽仁志玛; 赵庶凡

    2011-01-01

    Based on the data observed by French DEMETER satellite, thiS paper anatyzed anomalies which may be caused by Ms7.9 Tonga Islands earthquake (3 May 2006). Perturbations of electric field and plasma parameters above epicenter from observations six days, two days and one day before the earthquake can be seen by visual interpretation of level-2 images. The amplitude and duration of perturbations increased when the earthquake was approaching. Perturbation was also recorded two days after the earthquake and its amplitude was still large. The variation feature of O^+ density was more obvious than that of H^+ and He^+ density, and O^+accounted for about 90% among total H^+,He^+ and O^+through analyzing the data detected by IAP (Plasma Analyzer Instrument) onboard DEMETER satellite which has a revisiting period of sixteen days. Compared with the revisiting orbits of a half orbit one day before the earthquake from 2006 to 2008, it was found that variations of O^+ density can be classified into three types: density in northern hemisphere is higher than that in southern hemisphere in summer; the situation is quite the contrary in winter; and O^+ density is almost equal in both southern and northern hemisphere in equinoxes season. This paper presented different effects on O^+ density under influence of earthquake and geomagnetic storm. The earthquake affects the distribution of O^+ density at an orbit close to the epicenter, while geomagnetic storm affects O^+ density at all orbits in a storm day. O^+ density increased 20% more at the orbit closest to the epicenter than the other orbits one day before the earthquake, and it increased nearly an order of magnitude referred to the mean of O^+ density in May from 2006 to 2008. In addition, we obtained electron density detected simultaneously by ISL onboard DEMETER at the above-mentioned revisiting orbits and discovered that electron density increased synchronously with O^+ density. The

  7. The value of D-dimer in the detection of early deep-vein thrombosis after total knee arthroplasty in Asian patients: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Chung-Cheng

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and purpose The relationship of D-dimer and deep-vein thrombosis (DVT after total knee arthroplasty (TKA remains controversial. The purpose of this study was to assess the value of D-dimer in the detection of early DVT after TKA. Methods The measurements of plasma D-dimer level were obtained preoperatively and at day 7 postoperatively in 78 patients undergoing TKA. Ascending venography was performed in 7 to 10 days after surgery. The plasma D-dimer levels were correlated statistically with the venographic DVT. Results Venographic DVT was identified in 40% of patients. High plasma D-dimer level >2.0 μg/ml was found in 68% of patients with DVT and 45% without DVT (P Conclusion High plasma D-dimer level is a moderately sensitive, but less specific marker in the detection of early of DVT after TKA. Measurement of serum D-dimer alone is not accurate enough to detect DVT after TKA. Venography is recommended in patients with elevated D-dimer and clinically suspected but asymptomatic DVT after TKA.

  8. An efficient repeating signal detector to investigate earthquake swarms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoumal, Robert J.; Brudzinski, Michael R.; Currie, Brian S.

    2016-08-01

    Repetitive earthquake swarms have been recognized as key signatures in fluid injection induced seismicity, precursors to volcanic eruptions, and slow slip events preceding megathrust earthquakes. We investigate earthquake swarms by developing a Repeating Signal Detector (RSD), a computationally efficient algorithm utilizing agglomerative clustering to identify similar waveforms buried in years of seismic recordings using a single seismometer. Instead of relying on existing earthquake catalogs of larger earthquakes, RSD identifies characteristic repetitive waveforms by rapidly identifying signals of interest above a low signal-to-noise ratio and then grouping based on spectral and time domain characteristics, resulting in dramatically shorter processing time than more exhaustive autocorrelation approaches. We investigate seismicity in four regions using RSD: (1) volcanic seismicity at Mammoth Mountain, California, (2) subduction-related seismicity in Oaxaca, Mexico, (3) induced seismicity in Central Alberta, Canada, and (4) induced seismicity in Harrison County, Ohio. In each case, RSD detects a similar or larger number of earthquakes than existing catalogs created using more time intensive methods. In Harrison County, RSD identifies 18 seismic sequences that correlate temporally and spatially to separate hydraulic fracturing operations, 15 of which were previously unreported. RSD utilizes a single seismometer for earthquake detection which enables seismicity to be quickly identified in poorly instrumented regions at the expense of relying on another method to locate the new detections. Due to the smaller computation overhead and success at distances up to ~50 km, RSD is well suited for real-time detection of low-magnitude earthquake swarms with permanent regional networks.

  9. Asian Media Productions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This work consists of 12 essays on different aspects of Asian media by Japanese, European, and American scholars, many of whom have themselves been involved in the production of media forms. Working in the fields of anthropology, media and cultural studies, and on the basis of hands-on research, ......, they have written a book on the social practices and cultural attitudes of people producing, reading, watching and listening to different kinds of media in Japan, China, Taiwan, Indonesia, Vietnam, Singapore and India.......This work consists of 12 essays on different aspects of Asian media by Japanese, European, and American scholars, many of whom have themselves been involved in the production of media forms. Working in the fields of anthropology, media and cultural studies, and on the basis of hands-on research...

  10. Is Asian Currency Unit Attractive to East Asian Economies?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin Zhang; Fan He

    2007-01-01

    Pegging the RMB exchange rate to the Asian currency unit (ACU) has not, at least in the short term, been proved a better solution than pegging to the US dollar or pegging to a G-3 (US$, Japaneseyen and euro) currency basket. Although the Asian currency unit can help Asian economies to keep the relative price of regional currencies stable, the cost of joining a formal regional monetary cooperation is the relinquishment of the autonomy of their domestic policies. Asian monetary cooperation needs to provide more potential benefits if it is to attract Asian economies. We argue that Asian monetary cooperation should be designed to solve the problem of regional trade imbalance, and regional exchange rate policy coordination should be adopted as the first step towards exchange rate cooperation.

  11. Asian American Adolescent Identity

    OpenAIRE

    Ohm, Julie Juhye

    1999-01-01

    The formation of ego identity in Asian American late adolescents attending Virginia Tech was examined within the frameworks of Erikson's psychosocial theory and Berry, Trimble, and Olmedo's model of acculturation. Ego identity was measured using the Achieved sub-scale of the Revised Version of the Extended Objective Measure of Ego Identity Status, an instrument based on the theoretical constructs of Erikson. Ethnic identity was measured using the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure and Ameri...

  12. Asian material culture

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    This exciting, richly illustrated volume gives the reader a unique insight into the materiality of Asian cultures and the ways in which objects and practices can simultaneously embody and exhibit aesthetic and functional characteristics, everyday and spiritual aspirations. Material culture is examined from a variety of perspectives and the authors rigorously investigate the creation and meaning of material object, and their associated practices within the context of time and place. All chapte...

  13. An attempt to detect preseismic displacement field of the 2008 Iwate-Miyagi Nairiku Earthquake using InSAR small baseline time-series analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arimoto, M.; Fukushima, Y.; Hirahara, K.; Hashimoto, M.

    2008-12-01

    The Iwate-Miyagi Nairiku Earthquake (Mj 7.2) occurred at 8:43, JST on June 14 2008, in the northeastern Honshu, Japan. This earthquake caused significant amount of ground displacements with more than 2m of uplift and 1.5m of horizontal displacement at the Kurikoma2 GPS station of GEONET network operated by the Geographical Survey Institute (GSI).In a few years prior to the earthquake, the Kurikoma2 station displaced about 1cm and 2cm to the southeast and upward directions, respectively, according to GSI's analysis. We perform an InSAR small baseline (SB) time-series analysis in order to investigate this slow non-steady movement in detail. We applied an InSAR SB time-series analysis based on Schmidt and Bürgmann (2003; JGR, vol. 108). This method can mitigate atmospheric and orbital artifacts, which constitute dominant sources of error, by assuming a temporal smoothness of displacements. We used seven SAR data acquired by PALSAR onboard the ALOS satellite. We selected three interferograms and stacked them after converting to velocity. For the small baseline processing, we selected and processed 17 small-baseline pairs with definition of small baseline to be less than 2000 m for the perpendicular baseline and 1000 days for the temporal baseline. The interferograms were unwrapped and solved for the temporal evolution of displacements with the time steps defined by the SAR acquisition dates. Preliminary results indicate that atmospheric and orbital effects are still higher than the expected amplitude of preseismic displacements. Though the noise may further be mitigated by careful tuning of analysis parameters, our preliminary results suggest that we probably need more realistic atmospheric correction using independent data such as GPS and meteorological data. Acknowledgment PALSAR data are shared by PIXEL (PALSAR Interferometry Consortium to Study our Evolving Land surface), and provided from JAXA under a contract with ERI, Univ. of Tokyo. The ownership of PALSAR

  14. Development and evaluation of an interferon-γ release assay in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudel, Sarad; Villanueva, Marvin A; Mikota, Susan K; Nakajima, Chie; Gairhe, Kamal P; Subedi, Suraj; Rayamajhi, Nabin; Sashika, Mariko; Shimozuru, Michito; Matsuba, Takashi; Suzuki, Yasuhiko; Tsubota, Toshio

    2016-08-01

    We developed an interferon-γ release assay (IGRA) specific for Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). Whole blood collected from forty captive Asian elephants was stimulated with three different mitogens i.e., phytohemagglutinin (PHA), pokweed mitogen (PWM) and phorbol myristate aceteate/ionomycin (PMA/I). A sandwich ELISA that was able to recognize the recombinant elephant interferon-γ (rEIFN-γ) as well as native interferon-γ from the Asian elephants was performed using anti-elephant IFN-γ rabbit polyclonal antibodies as capture antibodies and biotinylated anti-elephant IFN-γ rabbit polyclonal antibodies as detection antibodies. PMA/I was the best mitogen to use as a positive control for an Asian elephant IGRA. The development of an Asian elephant-specific IGRA that detects native IFN-γ in elephant whole blood provides promising results for its application as a potential diagnostic tool for diseases, such as tuberculosis (TB) in Asian elephants. PMID:26983683

  15. More Earthquake Misery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Less than four months after the devastation of the Wenchuan earthquake on May 12, another quake brings further death and destruction to southwest China on August 30, a 6.1-magnitude earthquake hit southwest China, the border of Sichuan Province and Yunnan Province. Panzhihua City, Huili County in Sichuan and Yuanmou County and Yongren County in Yunnan were worst hit.

  16. Earthquakes and Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Earthquakes are low-probability, high-consequence events. Though they may occur only once in the life of a school, they can have devastating, irreversible consequences. Moderate earthquakes can cause serious damage to building contents and non-structural building systems, serious injury to students and staff, and disruption of building operations.…

  17. Bam Earthquake in Iran

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Following their request for help from members of international organisations, the permanent Mission of the Islamic Republic of Iran has given the following bank account number, where you can donate money to help the victims of the Bam earthquake. Re: Bam earthquake 235 - UBS 311264.35L Bubenberg Platz 3001 BERN

  18. Evidence for external forcing temporal clustering of great earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khachikyan, Galina; Zhumabayev, Beibit; Toyshiev, Nursultan; Kairatkyzy, Dina; Kaldybayev, Azamat; Nurakynov, Serik

    2016-04-01

    of 30-45N and 0-110E, showed that at the European part, the strongest earthquakes occurred mainly during increased level of solar activity (14 events out of 16, i.e. 87.5%), while at the Asian part of area, the strongest earthquakes occurred mainly during decreased level of solar activity (13 events out of 16, i.e. 81.25%). In 1973-2014 years, the largest event in considered area was the Sichuan earthquake in Asia in 2008 year (M=7.9), which occurred exactly in the minimum of the recent Centennial Gleissberg Cycle.

  19. Crowd-Sourced Global Earthquake Early Warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minson, S. E.; Brooks, B. A.; Glennie, C. L.; Murray, J. R.; Langbein, J. O.; Owen, S. E.; Iannucci, B. A.; Hauser, D. L.

    2014-12-01

    Although earthquake early warning (EEW) has shown great promise for reducing loss of life and property, it has only been implemented in a few regions due, in part, to the prohibitive cost of building the required dense seismic and geodetic networks. However, many cars and consumer smartphones, tablets, laptops, and similar devices contain low-cost versions of the same sensors used for earthquake monitoring. If a workable EEW system could be implemented based on either crowd-sourced observations from consumer devices or very inexpensive networks of instruments built from consumer-quality sensors, EEW coverage could potentially be expanded worldwide. Controlled tests of several accelerometers and global navigation satellite system (GNSS) receivers typically found in consumer devices show that, while they are significantly noisier than scientific-grade instruments, they are still accurate enough to capture displacements from moderate and large magnitude earthquakes. The accuracy of these sensors varies greatly depending on the type of data collected. Raw coarse acquisition (C/A) code GPS data are relatively noisy. These observations have a surface displacement detection threshold approaching ~1 m and would thus only be useful in large Mw 8+ earthquakes. However, incorporating either satellite-based differential corrections or using a Kalman filter to combine the raw GNSS data with low-cost acceleration data (such as from a smartphone) decreases the noise dramatically. These approaches allow detection thresholds as low as 5 cm, potentially enabling accurate warnings for earthquakes as small as Mw 6.5. Simulated performance tests show that, with data contributed from only a very small fraction of the population, a crowd-sourced EEW system would be capable of warning San Francisco and San Jose of a Mw 7 rupture on California's Hayward fault and could have accurately issued both earthquake and tsunami warnings for the 2011 Mw 9 Tohoku-oki, Japan earthquake.

  20. Demand surge following earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Anna H.

    2012-01-01

    Demand surge is understood to be a socio-economic phenomenon where repair costs for the same damage are higher after large- versus small-scale natural disasters. It has reportedly increased monetary losses by 20 to 50%. In previous work, a model for the increased costs of reconstruction labor and materials was developed for hurricanes in the Southeast United States. The model showed that labor cost increases, rather than the material component, drove the total repair cost increases, and this finding could be extended to earthquakes. A study of past large-scale disasters suggested that there may be additional explanations for demand surge. Two such explanations specific to earthquakes are the exclusion of insurance coverage for earthquake damage and possible concurrent causation of damage from an earthquake followed by fire or tsunami. Additional research into these aspects might provide a better explanation for increased monetary losses after large- vs. small-scale earthquakes.

  1. Historic Eastern Canadian earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power plants licensed in Canada have been designed to resist earthquakes: not all plants, however, have been explicitly designed to the same level of earthquake induced forces. Understanding the nature of strong ground motion near the source of the earthquake is still very tentative. This paper reviews historical and scientific accounts of the three strongest earthquakes - St. Lawrence (1925), Temiskaming (1935), Cornwall (1944) - that have occurred in Canada in 'modern' times, field studies of near-field strong ground motion records and their resultant damage or non-damage to industrial facilities, and numerical modelling of earthquake sources and resultant wave propagation to produce accelerograms consistent with the above historical record and field studies. It is concluded that for future construction of NPP's near-field strong motion must be explicitly considered in design

  2. Modeling earthquake dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charpentier, Arthur; Durand, Marilou

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we investigate questions arising in Parsons and Geist (Bull Seismol Soc Am 102:1-11, 2012). Pseudo causal models connecting magnitudes and waiting times are considered, through generalized regression. We do use conditional model (magnitude given previous waiting time, and conversely) as an extension to joint distribution model described in Nikoloulopoulos and Karlis (Environmetrics 19: 251-269, 2008). On the one hand, we fit a Pareto distribution for earthquake magnitudes, where the tail index is a function of waiting time following previous earthquake; on the other hand, waiting times are modeled using a Gamma or a Weibull distribution, where parameters are functions of the magnitude of the previous earthquake. We use those two models, alternatively, to generate the dynamics of earthquake occurrence, and to estimate the probability of occurrence of several earthquakes within a year or a decade.

  3. Turkish Compulsory Earthquake Insurance and "Istanbul Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durukal, E.; Sesetyan, K.; Erdik, M.

    2009-04-01

    The city of Istanbul will likely experience substantial direct and indirect losses as a result of a future large (M=7+) earthquake with an annual probability of occurrence of about 2%. This paper dwells on the expected building losses in terms of probable maximum and average annualized losses and discusses the results from the perspective of the compulsory earthquake insurance scheme operational in the country. The TCIP system is essentially designed to operate in Turkey with sufficient penetration to enable the accumulation of funds in the pool. Today, with only 20% national penetration, and about approximately one-half of all policies in highly earthquake prone areas (one-third in Istanbul) the system exhibits signs of adverse selection, inadequate premium structure and insufficient funding. Our findings indicate that the national compulsory earthquake insurance pool in Turkey will face difficulties in covering incurring building losses in Istanbul in the occurrence of a large earthquake. The annualized earthquake losses in Istanbul are between 140-300 million. Even if we assume that the deductible is raised to 15%, the earthquake losses that need to be paid after a large earthquake in Istanbul will be at about 2.5 Billion, somewhat above the current capacity of the TCIP. Thus, a modification to the system for the insured in Istanbul (or Marmara region) is necessary. This may mean an increase in the premia and deductible rates, purchase of larger re-insurance covers and development of a claim processing system. Also, to avoid adverse selection, the penetration rates elsewhere in Turkey need to be increased substantially. A better model would be introduction of parametric insurance for Istanbul. By such a model the losses will not be indemnified, however will be directly calculated on the basis of indexed ground motion levels and damages. The immediate improvement of a parametric insurance model over the existing one will be the elimination of the claim processing

  4. South Asian Cluster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionel Sergiu Pirju

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at presenting the South Asian cluster composed of India, Indonesia, Iran and Malaysia, the intercultural values that characterizes it, the supported leadership style and tracing the main macroeconomic considerations which characterizes them. The research is synchronic, analysing the contemporary situation of these countries without reference to their evolution in time, by using the positivist paradigm that explains the reality at one point. It will be analysed the overall cluster with the existing interactions between the countries that composes it, while the article being one of information will avoid building recommendation, or new theories.

  5. Spatiotermporal correlations of earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. An earthquake is the result of a sudden release of energy in the Earth's crust that creates seismic waves. At the present technological level, earthquakes of magnitude larger than three can be recorded all over the world. In spite of the apparent randomness of earthquake occurrence, long term measurements have revealed interesting scaling laws of earthquake characteristics: the rate of aftershocks following major earthquakes has a power law decay (Omori law); the magnitude distribution of earthquakes exhibits a power law behavior (Gutenberg-Richter law), furthermore, it has recently been pointed out that epicenters form fractal networks in fault zones (Kagan law). The theoretical explanation of earthquakes is based on plate tectonics: the earth's crust has been broken into plates which slowly move under the action of the flowing magma. Neighboring plates touch each other along ridges (fault zones) where a large amount of energy is stored in deformation. Earthquakes occur when the stored energy exceeds a material dependent threshold value and gets released in a sudden jump of the plate. The Burridge-Knopoff (BK) model of earthquakes represents earth's crust as a coupled system of driven oscillators where nonlinearity occurs through a stick-slip frictional instability. Laboratory experiments have revealed that under a high pressure the friction of rock interfaces exhibits a weakening with increasing velocity. In the present project we extend recent theoretical studies of the BK model by taking into account a realistic velocity weakening friction force between tectonic plates. Varying the strength of weakening a broad spectrum of interesting phenomena is obtained: the model reproduces the Omori and Gutenberg-Richter laws of earthquakes, furthermore, it provides information on the correlation of earthquake sequences. We showed by computer simulations that the spatial and temporal correlations of consecutive earthquakes are very

  6. 基于LiDAR和航空影像的地震灾害倒塌建筑物信息提取%The Detection of Earthquake -caused Collapsed Building Information from LiDAR Data and Aerophotograph

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于海洋; 程钢; 张育民; 卢小平

    2011-01-01

    地震灾害损失评估是震后展开救灾工作的重要环节.快速、准确地获取震后损毁建筑物信息能够为灾区减灾、救灾工作提供有效的支持.高分辨率航空遥感是灾害监测的重要技术手段,但其信息自动提取的精度受到一定的限制.近年来新出现的LiDAR技术能够提供地面目标的高程信息,可应用于复杂环境下倒塌建筑物信息的提取.研究中采用航空遥感数据和LiDAR数据,基于面向对象的图像分析(Object - Based Image Analysis,OBIA)与SVM技术相结合的方法对2010年1月12日海地地震中倒塌建筑物信息进行了提取,提取总体精度达到86.1%.%Damage estimation caused by an earthquake is a major task in the post - disaster mitigation process. To enhance the relief and rescue operation in the affected area, it is required to receive rapid and accurate knowledge about the conditions of damaged area. Remote sensing techniques were proved to be useful in the last decades in detecting, identifying and monitoring the impact and effect of natural disasters. Recently emerging LiDAR data provide the height of the ground objects, which can be used to extract the collapsed building in a complex urban environment. Using the aerophotographs and the normalized digital surface model ( nDSM ) extracted from LiDAR data, the authors developed a method based on OBIA and SVM for extracting the earthquake - caused collapsed building. The test study in Port - au -Prince, Haiti' s capital, after January 12,2010 earthquake shows that the method can extract collapsed buildings with high accuracy of 86. 1%.

  7. Earthquake forecast enrichment scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Smyth

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Predictability (CSEP is a global project aimed at testing earthquake forecast models in a fair environment. Various metrics are currently used to evaluate the submitted forecasts. However, the CSEP still lacks easily understandable metrics with which to rank the universal performance of the forecast models. In this research, we modify a well-known and respected metric from another statistical field, bioinformatics, to make it suitable for evaluating earthquake forecasts, such as those submitted to the CSEP initiative. The metric, originally called a gene-set enrichment score, is based on a Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistic. Our modified metric assesses if, over a certain time period, the forecast values at locations where earthquakes have occurred are significantly increased compared to the values for all locations where earthquakes did not occur. Permutation testing allows for a significance value to be placed upon the score. Unlike the metrics currently employed by the CSEP, the score places no assumption on the distribution of earthquake occurrence nor requires an arbitrary reference forecast. In this research, we apply the modified metric to simulated data and real forecast data to show it is a powerful and robust technique, capable of ranking competing earthquake forecasts.

  8. Phase Transformations and Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, H. W.

    2011-12-01

    Phase transformations have been cited as responsible for, or at least involved in, "deep" earthquakes for many decades (although the concept of "deep" has varied). In 1945, PW Bridgman laid out in detail the string of events/conditions that would have to be achieved for a solid/solid transformation to lead to a faulting instability, although he expressed pessimism that the full set of requirements would be simultaneously achieved in nature. Raleigh and Paterson (1965) demonstrated faulting during dehydration of serpentine under stress and suggested dehydration embrittlement as the cause of intermediate depth earthquakes. Griggs and Baker (1969) produced a thermal runaway model of a shear zone under constant stress, culminating in melting, and proposed such a runaway as the origin of deep earthquakes. The discovery of Plate Tectonics in the late 1960s established the conditions (subduction) under which Bridgman's requirements for earthquake runaway in a polymorphic transformation could be possible in nature and Green and Burnley (1989) found that instability during the transformation of metastable olivine to spinel. Recent seismic correlation of intermediate-depth-earthquake hypocenters with predicted conditions of dehydration of antigorite serpentine and discovery of metastable olivine in 4 subduction zones, suggests strongly that dehydration embrittlement and transformation-induced faulting are the underlying mechanisms of intermediate and deep earthquakes, respectively. The results of recent high-speed friction experiments and analysis of natural fault zones suggest that it is likely that similar processes occur commonly during many shallow earthquakes after initiation by frictional failure.

  9. South Asian Families in Diaspora

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    2008-01-01

      South Asian Family in Diaspora: Retreat from marriage, myth or reality?   This paper proposes to explore the dynamics of close ties in the South Asian families in the Nordic countries, especially Denmark through intimate partnership formation in the context of late modern societal discourse...

  10. PETROCHINA TOPS ASIAN COMPETITIVENESS RANKING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    PetroChina, the largest oil producer in China, ranks first in a competitiveness report of listed Asian enterprises recently published by the Research Institute of Boao Forum for Asia. The oil giant tops the ranks in the Asian Competitiveness: Annual Repor

  11. Earthquake Disaster Management and Insurance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    As one of the most powerful tools to reduce the earthquake loss, the Earthquake Disaster Management [EDM] and Insurance [EI] have been highlighted and have had a great progress in many countries in recent years. Earthquake disaster management includes a series of contents, such as earthquake hazard and risk analysis, vulnerability analysis of building and infrastructure, earthquake aware training, and building the emergency response system. EI, which has been included in EDM after this practice has been...

  12. Indonesian Earthquake Decision Support System

    OpenAIRE

    Warnars, Spits

    2010-01-01

    Earthquake DSS is an information technology environment which can be used by government to sharpen, make faster and better the earthquake mitigation decision. Earthquake DSS can be delivered as E-government which is not only for government itself but in order to guarantee each citizen's rights for education, training and information about earthquake and how to overcome the earthquake. Knowledge can be managed for future use and would become mining by saving and maintain all the data and infor...

  13. Distant, delayed and ancient earthquake-induced landslides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havenith, Hans-Balder; Torgoev, Almaz; Braun, Anika; Schlögel, Romy; Micu, Mihai

    2016-04-01

    ancient landslides for paleoseismic studies. As Central Asian mountain regions are marked by a relatively high ratio of seismically versus climatically triggered landslides, they represent a prime test area for such studies. This observation is contrasting with known landslide activity in Europe where by far most landslides are triggered by climatic factors, besides for some seismically active regions in the Eastern Alps, around the Mediterranean Sea and in the Carpathians (Vrancea, Romania). We will discuss how we may identify such earthquake-triggered landslides and how we may distinguish them from rainfall-induced slope failures.

  14. Post-Seismic Deformation from the 2009 Mw 6.3 Dachaidan Earthquake in the Northern Qaidam Basin Detected by Small Baseline Subset InSAR Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Liu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available On 28 August 2009, one thrust-faulting Mw 6.3 earthquake struck the northern Qaidam basin, China. Due to the lack of ground observations in this remote region, this study presents high-precision and high spatio-temporal resolution post-seismic deformation series with a small baseline subset InSAR technique. At the temporal scale, this changes from fast to slow with time, with a maximum uplift up to 7.4 cm along the line of sight 334 days after the event. At the spatial scale, this is more obvious at the hanging wall than that at the footwall, and decreases from the middle to both sides at the hanging wall. We then propose a method to calculate the correlation coefficient between co-seismic and post-seismic deformation by normalizing them. The correlation coefficient is found to be 0.73, indicating a similar subsurface process occurring during both phases. The results indicate that afterslip may dominate the post-seismic deformation during 19–334 days after the event, which mainly occurs with the fault geometry and depth similar to those of the c-seismic rupturing, and partly extends to the shallower and deeper depths.

  15. Post-Seismic Deformation from the 2009 Mw 6.3 Dachaidan Earthquake in the Northern Qaidam Basin Detected by Small Baseline Subset InSAR Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Xu, Caijun; Wen, Yangmao; Li, Zhicai

    2016-01-01

    On 28 August 2009, one thrust-faulting Mw 6.3 earthquake struck the northern Qaidam basin, China. Due to the lack of ground observations in this remote region, this study presents high-precision and high spatio-temporal resolution post-seismic deformation series with a small baseline subset InSAR technique. At the temporal scale, this changes from fast to slow with time, with a maximum uplift up to 7.4 cm along the line of sight 334 days after the event. At the spatial scale, this is more obvious at the hanging wall than that at the footwall, and decreases from the middle to both sides at the hanging wall. We then propose a method to calculate the correlation coefficient between co-seismic and post-seismic deformation by normalizing them. The correlation coefficient is found to be 0.73, indicating a similar subsurface process occurring during both phases. The results indicate that afterslip may dominate the post-seismic deformation during 19-334 days after the event, which mainly occurs with the fault geometry and depth similar to those of the c-seismic rupturing, and partly extends to the shallower and deeper depths. PMID:26861330

  16. Post-Seismic Deformation from the 2009 Mw 6.3 Dachaidan Earthquake in the Northern Qaidam Basin Detected by Small Baseline Subset InSAR Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Xu, Caijun; Wen, Yangmao; Li, Zhicai

    2016-01-01

    On 28 August 2009, one thrust-faulting Mw 6.3 earthquake struck the northern Qaidam basin, China. Due to the lack of ground observations in this remote region, this study presents high-precision and high spatio-temporal resolution post-seismic deformation series with a small baseline subset InSAR technique. At the temporal scale, this changes from fast to slow with time, with a maximum uplift up to 7.4 cm along the line of sight 334 days after the event. At the spatial scale, this is more obvious at the hanging wall than that at the footwall, and decreases from the middle to both sides at the hanging wall. We then propose a method to calculate the correlation coefficient between co-seismic and post-seismic deformation by normalizing them. The correlation coefficient is found to be 0.73, indicating a similar subsurface process occurring during both phases. The results indicate that afterslip may dominate the post-seismic deformation during 19–334 days after the event, which mainly occurs with the fault geometry and depth similar to those of the c-seismic rupturing, and partly extends to the shallower and deeper depths. PMID:26861330

  17. Local earthquake activity around Syowa Station, Antarctica

    OpenAIRE

    Kaminuma,Katsutada/Kanao,Masaki/Kubo,Atsuki

    1998-01-01

    The Japanese Antarctic Station, Syowa (69°S, 39°E), is located at the edge of the east Antarctic shield. Seismic observations at Syowa Station were started in 1959. Phase readings of earthquakes have been published by National Institute of Polar Research once a year since 1968, as one of the Data Report Series. Nine local earthquakes were detected empirically on short-period seismograms at Syowa Station in 1990-1996 on the basis of long term records of many different types of events. The seis...

  18. Twitter Seismology: Earthquake Monitoring and Response in a Social World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, D. C.; Earle, P. S.; Guy, M.; Smoczyk, G.

    2011-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is investigating how the social networking site Twitter, a popular service for sending and receiving short, public, text messages, can augment USGS earthquake response products and the delivery of hazard information. The potential uses of Twitter for earthquake response include broadcasting earthquake alerts, rapidly detecting widely felt events, qualitatively assessing earthquake damage effects, communicating with the public, and participating in post-event collaboration. Several seismic networks and agencies are currently distributing Twitter earthquake alerts including the European-Mediterranean Seismological Centre (@LastQuake), Natural Resources Canada (@CANADAquakes), and the Indonesian meteorological agency (@infogempabmg); the USGS will soon distribute alerts via the @USGSted and @USGSbigquakes Twitter accounts. Beyond broadcasting alerts, the USGS is investigating how to use tweets that originate near the epicenter to detect and characterize shaking events. This is possible because people begin tweeting immediately after feeling an earthquake, and their short narratives and exclamations are available for analysis within 10's of seconds of the origin time. Using five months of tweets that contain the word "earthquake" and its equivalent in other languages, we generate a tweet-frequency time series. The time series clearly shows large peaks correlated with the origin times of widely felt events. To identify possible earthquakes, we use a simple Short-Term-Average / Long-Term-Average algorithm similar to that commonly used to detect seismic phases. As with most auto-detection algorithms, the parameters can be tuned to catch more or less events at the cost of more or less false triggers. When tuned to a moderate sensitivity, the detector found 48 globally-distributed, confirmed seismic events with only 2 false triggers. A space-shuttle landing and "The Great California ShakeOut" caused the false triggers. This number of

  19. Rock friction and its implications for earthquake prediction examined via models of Parkfield earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tullis, T E

    1996-04-30

    The friction of rocks in the laboratory is a function of time, velocity of sliding, and displacement. Although the processes responsible for these dependencies are unknown, constitutive equations have been developed that do a reasonable job of describing the laboratory behavior. These constitutive laws have been used to create a model of earthquakes at Parkfield, CA, by using boundary conditions appropriate for the section of the fault that slips in magnitude 6 earthquakes every 20-30 years. The behavior of this model prior to the earthquakes is investigated to determine whether or not the model earthquakes could be predicted in the real world by using realistic instruments and instrument locations. Premonitory slip does occur in the model, but it is relatively restricted in time and space and detecting it from the surface may be difficult. The magnitude of the strain rate at the earth's surface due to this accelerating slip seems lower than the detectability limit of instruments in the presence of earth noise. Although not specifically modeled, microseismicity related to the accelerating creep and to creep events in the model should be detectable. In fact the logarithm of the moment rate on the hypocentral cell of the fault due to slip increases linearly with minus the logarithm of the time to the earthquake. This could conceivably be used to determine when the earthquake was going to occur. An unresolved question is whether this pattern of accelerating slip could be recognized from the microseismicity, given the discrete nature of seismic events. Nevertheless, the model results suggest that the most likely solution to earthquake prediction is to look for a pattern of acceleration in microseismicity and thereby identify the microearthquakes as foreshocks. PMID:11607668

  20. Research on the Relation between Anomalous Infrasonic waves and several Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, B.

    2013-12-01

    It is well known that earthquakes can generate infrasound signals often detected by infrasound monitoring system. Some of the observations suggest that infrasound with a typical frequency of a few Hz can be generated by vibrating ground surface and propagate at distances of a few thousands kilometers from an earthquake epicenter. In order to receive the anomalous infrasonic waves before earthquakes, we have built three infrasonic monitoring stations in Beijing. And atmospheric pressure is parallel observing at the same time. At first, two infrasonic monitoring equipment was putted in the same station. The data was observed from them has a very good correlation, this means that the performance of the instruments is good. After half a year, three instruments were putted in different stations. Large amounts of data have been acquired and lots of anomalous information has been found before earthquakes, such as Lushan 7.0 earthquake, Okhotsk 8.0 earthquake and Nantou 6.7 earthquake. The anomalous data before three earthquakes is about 7-8days before each earthquake. Moreover, the co-seismic infrasonic waves have been received, which is the similar to seismic wave, so we can know where the earthquake happened through co-seismic infrasonic waves. Using this method, we can inference where the next earthquake will be happened according to the anomalous information. we developed an infrasound generation model for a so-called slow earthquake to show that such kind of earthquake can generate long-period acoustic-gravity waves often observed several days prior to the strong earthquakes. With this model the atmospheric pressure perturbations generated by slow earthquake were calculated, and the occurrence of low frequencies and high amplitudes in the observed signal was explained. A consistency between the results of simulation and observation data indicates that slow earthquake may be a possible source of atmospheric pressure oscillations observed prior to strong earthquakes.

  1. Earthquakes and plate tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spall, H.

    1977-01-01

    The world's earthquakes are not randomly distributed over the Earth's surface. They tend to be concentrated in narrow zones. Why is this? And why are volcanoes and mountain ranges also found in these zones too?

  2. 1988 Spitak Earthquake Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 1988 Spitak Earthquake database is an extensive collection of geophysical and geological data, maps, charts, images and descriptive text pertaining to the...

  3. Earthquake Damage to Schools

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This set of slides graphically illustrates the potential danger that major earthquakes pose to school structures and to the children and adults who happen to be...

  4. A Deterministic Approach to Earthquake Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio Sgrigna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at giving suggestions for a deterministic approach to investigate possible earthquake prediction and warning. A fundamental contribution can come by observations and physical modeling of earthquake precursors aiming at seeing in perspective the phenomenon earthquake within the framework of a unified theory able to explain the causes of its genesis, and the dynamics, rheology, and microphysics of its preparation, occurrence, postseismic relaxation, and interseismic phases. Studies based on combined ground and space observations of earthquake precursors are essential to address the issue. Unfortunately, up to now, what is lacking is the demonstration of a causal relationship (with explained physical processes and looking for a correlation between data gathered simultaneously and continuously by space observations and ground-based measurements. In doing this, modern and/or new methods and technologies have to be adopted to try to solve the problem. Coordinated space- and ground-based observations imply available test sites on the Earth surface to correlate ground data, collected by appropriate networks of instruments, with space ones detected on board of Low-Earth-Orbit (LEO satellites. Moreover, a new strong theoretical scientific effort is necessary to try to understand the physics of the earthquake.

  5. Did the M S7.0 Lushan earthquake dynamically trigger earthquakes in the Datong volcanic region (Shanxi Province)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Meiqin; Zheng, Yong; Fu, Rui; Liang, Xiangjun; Wang, Xia; Li, Li; Li, Bin

    2013-08-01

    Immediately following the M S7.0 Lushan earthquake on April 20, 2013, using high-pass and low-pass filtering on the digital seismic stations in the Shanxi Province, located about 870-1,452 km from the earthquake epicenter, we detected some earthquakes at a time corresponding to the first arrival of surface waves in high-pass filtering waveform. The earthquakes were especially noticed at stations in Youyu (YUY), Shanzizao (SZZ), Shanghuangzhuang (SHZ), and Zhenchuan (ZCH), which are located in a volcanic region in the Shanxi Province,but they were not listed in the Shanxi seismic observation report. These earthquakes occurred 4-50 min after the passage of the maximum amplitude Rayleigh wave, and the periods of the surface waves were mainly between 15 and 20 s following. The Coulomb stresses caused by the Rayleigh waves that acted on the four stations was about 0.001 MPa, which is a little lower than the threshold value of dynamic triggering, therefore, we may conclude that the Datong volcanic region is more sensitive to the Coulomb stress change. To verify, if the similar phenomena are widespread, we used the same filtering to observe contrastively continuous waveform data before, and 5 h after, the M S7.0 Lushan earthquake and M S9.0 Tohoku earthquake in 2011. The results show that the similar phenomena occur before the earthquakes, but the seismicity rates after the earthquakes are remarkably increased. Since these weak earthquakes are quite small, it is hard to get clear phase arrival time from three or more stations to locate them. In addition, the travel time differences between P waves and S waves (S-P) are all less than 4 s, that means the events should occur in 34 km around the stations in the volcanic region. The stress of initial dynamic triggering of the M S9.0 Tohoku earthquake was about 0.09 MPa, which is much higher than the threshold value of dynamic triggering stress. The earthquakes after the M S9.0 Tohoku earthquake are related to dynamic

  6. The Confucian Asian cluster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionel Sergiu Pirju

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Confucian Asian cluster consists of China, Hong Kong, Japan, Singapore, South Korea, and Taiwan. Confucian tradition countries were defined by achieving a consistent performance in the global economy, they still representing the major competitors in the EU and North American countries. Their progress is defined by a great national management that was able to influence beneficial management systems applied in organizations, these rules characterized by authority; aims to ensure the confidence in business. This article will present the intercultural values characterizing it, the leadership style and also tracing major macroeconomic considerations. The research is synchronic, analysing the contemporary situation of these countries, and the analysis will be interdisciplinary exploratory, identifying specific regional cultural elements.

  7. Seismicity anomalies of the 2003 Bam, Iran earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashtari Jafari, Mohammad

    2012-08-01

    The Bam earthquake occurred in an area without any historically recorded major earthquake. Based on active tectonics and CMT solutions the area is under the influence of shortening and right-lateral strike-slip faulting. Seismicity is of a shallow crustal type which is mainly distributed within the Koohbanan-Golbaf, Lakarkooh-Shahdad-Gowk fault systems and the terminal sections of Zagros. In order to detect temporal seismicity anomalies before this earthquake we compiled a catalog from the ISC events and then analyzed it for the magnitude of completeness. After declustering this catalog, changes in seismicity were assessed by the z-value test. The temporal variations indicate a relative decrease in z-value before the Bam earthquake. Additional to seismic quiescence and decrease in b-value before the main shock there are pieces of evidence corresponding to increase in triggered background seismicity after this earthquake.

  8. Charles Darwin's earthquake reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galiev, Shamil

    2010-05-01

    As it is the 200th anniversary of Darwin's birth, 2009 has also been marked as 170 years since the publication of his book Journal of Researches. During the voyage Darwin landed at Valdivia and Concepcion, Chile, just before, during, and after a great earthquake, which demolished hundreds of buildings, killing and injuring many people. Land was waved, lifted, and cracked, volcanoes awoke and giant ocean waves attacked the coast. Darwin was the first geologist to observe and describe the effects of the great earthquake during and immediately after. These effects sometimes repeated during severe earthquakes; but great earthquakes, like Chile 1835, and giant earthquakes, like Chile 1960, are rare and remain completely unpredictable. This is one of the few areas of science, where experts remain largely in the dark. Darwin suggested that the effects were a result of ‘ …the rending of strata, at a point not very deep below the surface of the earth…' and ‘…when the crust yields to the tension, caused by its gradual elevation, there is a jar at the moment of rupture, and a greater movement...'. Darwin formulated big ideas about the earth evolution and its dynamics. These ideas set the tone for the tectonic plate theory to come. However, the plate tectonics does not completely explain why earthquakes occur within plates. Darwin emphasised that there are different kinds of earthquakes ‘...I confine the foregoing observations to the earthquakes on the coast of South America, or to similar ones, which seem generally to have been accompanied by elevation of the land. But, as we know that subsidence has gone on in other quarters of the world, fissures must there have been formed, and therefore earthquakes...' (we cite the Darwin's sentences following researchspace. auckland. ac. nz/handle/2292/4474). These thoughts agree with results of the last publications (see Nature 461, 870-872; 636-639 and 462, 42-43; 87-89). About 200 years ago Darwin gave oneself airs by the

  9. Racism and Asian American Student Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jennifer Y.

    2014-01-01

    This article provides a theoretical analysis and ethnographic account of Asian American student leadership in higher education. Existing literature highlights Asian and Asian American leadership styles as cultural differences. I shift the analysis from culture to racism in order to work toward a more socially just conception of Asian American…

  10. Diabetes and Asians and Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... diabetes per 100 population (2014) Asian American White Asian American/White Ratio Men 5.8 6.3 0.9 Women 5.7 5.3 1.1 Total 5.8 5.7 1.0 Source: CDC 2016. National Diabetes Surveillance ... Asian American/Pacific Islanders Non-Hispanic White Asian American/Pacific ...

  11. Rapid earthquake characterization using MEMS accelerometers and volunteer hosts following the M 7.2 Darfield, New Zealand, Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, J. F.; Cochran, E.S.; Chung, A.; Kaiser, A.; Christensen, C. M.; Allen, R.; Baker, J.W.; Fry, B.; Heaton, T.; Kilb, Debi; Kohler, M.D.; Taufer, M.

    2014-01-01

    We test the feasibility of rapidly detecting and characterizing earthquakes with the Quake‐Catcher Network (QCN) that connects low‐cost microelectromechanical systems accelerometers to a network of volunteer‐owned, Internet‐connected computers. Following the 3 September 2010 M 7.2 Darfield, New Zealand, earthquake we installed over 180 QCN sensors in the Christchurch region to record the aftershock sequence. The sensors are monitored continuously by the host computer and send trigger reports to the central server. The central server correlates incoming triggers to detect when an earthquake has occurred. The location and magnitude are then rapidly estimated from a minimal set of received ground‐motion parameters. Full seismic time series are typically not retrieved for tens of minutes or even hours after an event. We benchmark the QCN real‐time detection performance against the GNS Science GeoNet earthquake catalog. Under normal network operations, QCN detects and characterizes earthquakes within 9.1 s of the earthquake rupture and determines the magnitude within 1 magnitude unit of that reported in the GNS catalog for 90% of the detections.

  12. Pricing American and Asian Options

    OpenAIRE

    Pat Muldowney

    2015-01-01

    An analytic method for pricing American call options is provided; followed by an empirical method for pricing Asian call options. The methodology is the pricing theory presented in "A Modern Theory of Random Variation", by Patrick Muldowney, 2012.

  13. Job satisfaction of Asian Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, C N; Hinson, S

    2000-04-01

    Since Asian Americans have demographic and labor force characteristics more similar to Euro-Americans than African Americans, one might predict that their job satisfaction would be more like the former than the latter. And, because Asian Americans originating from different countries are heterogeneous in language, culture, and recency of immigration, one might predict that they may report obtaining different amounts of satisfaction from their jobs. However, data from 21 nationally representative opinion surveys from 1972 through 1996 suggest the opposite. Asian Americans (n = 199) reported job satisfaction more like African Americans (n = 1,231) than Euro-Americans (n = 10,709), and Asian Americans from China (n = 53), Japan (n = 44), India (n = 55), and the Philippines (n = 47) reported similar job satisfaction. These differences persisted when age, education, occupation, and personal income were held constant.

  14. a Collaborative Cyberinfrastructure for Earthquake Seismology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossu, R.; Roussel, F.; Mazet-Roux, G.; Lefebvre, S.; Steed, R.

    2013-12-01

    One of the challenges in real time seismology is the prediction of earthquake's impact. It is particularly true for moderate earthquake (around magnitude 6) located close to urbanised areas, where the slightest uncertainty in event location, depth, magnitude estimates, and/or misevaluation of propagation characteristics, site effects and buildings vulnerability can dramatically change impact scenario. The Euro-Med Seismological Centre (EMSC) has developed a cyberinfrastructure to collect observations from eyewitnesses in order to provide in-situ constraints on actual damages. This cyberinfrastructure takes benefit of the natural convergence of earthquake's eyewitnesses on EMSC website (www.emsc-csem.org), the second global earthquake information website within tens of seconds of the occurrence of a felt event. It includes classical crowdsourcing tools such as online questionnaires available in 39 languages, and tools to collect geolocated pics. It also comprises information derived from the real time analysis of the traffic on EMSC website, a method named flashsourcing; In case of a felt earthquake, eyewitnesses reach EMSC website within tens of seconds to find out the cause of the shaking they have just been through. By analysing their geographical origin through their IP address, we automatically detect felt earthquakes and in some cases map the damaged areas through the loss of Internet visitors. We recently implemented a Quake Catcher Network (QCN) server in collaboration with Stanford University and the USGS, to collect ground motion records performed by volunteers and are also involved in a project to detect earthquakes from ground motions sensors from smartphones. Strategies have been developed for several social media (Facebook, Twitter...) not only to distribute earthquake information, but also to engage with the Citizens and optimise data collection. A smartphone application is currently under development. We will present an overview of this

  15. BUSINESS PLAN: SOUTH ASIAN ARTS

    OpenAIRE

    Saran, Sabrina

    2009-01-01

    The intention of this paper is to provide an understanding of South Asian Arts as an organization in the Arts industry in Vancouver. Elements of the company and the industry are explored in order to further comprehend the potential target markets and why they are as such. Due to the current surge in popularity of South Asian arts within mainstream culture, there is great potential in this company. Discussion segues into marketing initiatives that are necessary to compete with key players that...

  16. Alcohol and the Asian Glow

    OpenAIRE

    Young, Brian

    1999-01-01

    Facial flushing is a common hypersensitivity reaction that may be observed in many Asians following low to moderate alcohol consumption. Flushing can be accompanied by other symptoms such as tachycardia, nausea, and dizziness. Recent studies have shown that this flushing reaction is due to the presence of ALDH2*2, an inactive allele for the alcohol dehydrogenase gene found in approximately 50% of Asians. Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) is an important enzyme in alcohol metabolism, and deficienc...

  17. Lessons from the "Asian Flu"

    OpenAIRE

    Bekić, Darko

    1998-01-01

    What has been underlying the syntagms "Japanese challenge ", " Asian miracle " or " Seven Asian tigers " in the past thirty years or so ? There are a number of economic, sociological and political explanations of the phenomenon. In Asia, the systems of traditional values, modern market economy and state are successfully combined. Some forecasters predicted last year that the future growth of the Chinese economy at a constant rate of between 8 and 12 per cent a year, combined with the Japanese...

  18. Earthquake impact scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wald, D.J.; Jaiswal, K.S.; Marano, K.D.; Bausch, D.

    2011-01-01

    With the advent of the USGS prompt assessment of global earthquakes for response (PAGER) system, which rapidly assesses earthquake impacts, U.S. and international earthquake responders are reconsidering their automatic alert and activation levels and response procedures. To help facilitate rapid and appropriate earthquake response, an Earthquake Impact Scale (EIS) is proposed on the basis of two complementary criteria. On the basis of the estimated cost of damage, one is most suitable for domestic events; the other, on the basis of estimated ranges of fatalities, is generally more appropriate for global events, particularly in developing countries. Simple thresholds, derived from the systematic analysis of past earthquake impact and associated response levels, are quite effective in communicating predicted impact and response needed after an event through alerts of green (little or no impact), yellow (regional impact and response), orange (national-scale impact and response), and red (international response). Corresponding fatality thresholds for yellow, orange, and red alert levels are 1, 100, and 1,000, respectively. For damage impact, yellow, orange, and red thresholds are triggered by estimated losses reaching $1M, $100M, and $1B, respectively. The rationale for a dual approach to earthquake alerting stems from the recognition that relatively high fatalities, injuries, and homelessness predominate in countries in which local building practices typically lend themselves to high collapse and casualty rates, and these impacts lend to prioritization for international response. In contrast, financial and overall societal impacts often trigger the level of response in regions or countries in which prevalent earthquake resistant construction practices greatly reduce building collapse and resulting fatalities. Any newly devised alert, whether economic- or casualty-based, should be intuitive and consistent with established lexicons and procedures. Useful alerts should

  19. Bounds for Asian basket options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deelstra, Griselda; Diallo, Ibrahima; Vanmaele, Michèle

    2008-09-01

    In this paper we propose pricing bounds for European-style discrete arithmetic Asian basket options in a Black and Scholes framework. We start from methods used for basket options and Asian options. First, we use the general approach for deriving upper and lower bounds for stop-loss premia of sums of non-independent random variables as in Kaas et al. [Upper and lower bounds for sums of random variables, Insurance Math. Econom. 27 (2000) 151-168] or Dhaene et al. [The concept of comonotonicity in actuarial science and finance: theory, Insurance Math. Econom. 31(1) (2002) 3-33]. We generalize the methods in Deelstra et al. [Pricing of arithmetic basket options by conditioning, Insurance Math. Econom. 34 (2004) 55-57] and Vanmaele et al. [Bounds for the price of discrete sampled arithmetic Asian options, J. Comput. Appl. Math. 185(1) (2006) 51-90]. Afterwards we show how to derive an analytical closed-form expression for a lower bound in the non-comonotonic case. Finally, we derive upper bounds for Asian basket options by applying techniques as in Thompson [Fast narrow bounds on the value of Asian options, Working Paper, University of Cambridge, 1999] and Lord [Partially exact and bounded approximations for arithmetic Asian options, J. Comput. Finance 10 (2) (2006) 1-52]. Numerical results are included and on the basis of our numerical tests, we explain which method we recommend depending on moneyness and time-to-maturity.

  20. Earthquake engineering in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡聿贤

    2002-01-01

    The development of earthquake engineering in China is described into three stages.The initial stage in 1950's -1960's was marked with the initiation of this branch of science from its creation in the first national 12-year plan of science andtechnology by specifying earthquake engineering as a branch item and IEM was one participant. The first earthquake zonationmap and the first seismic design code were soon completed and used in engineering design. Site effect on structural design andsite selection were seriously studied. The second stage marked with the occurrence of quite a few strong earthquakes in China,from which many lessons were learned and corresponding considerations were specified in our design codes and followed inconstruction practice. The third stage is a stage of disaster management, which is marked by a series of governmentdocumentations, leading by a national law of the People's Republic of China on the protecting against and mitigating earthquakedisasters adopted at the meeting of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress of the People's Republic of Chinain 1997, and then followed by some provincial and municipal laws to force the actions outlined in the national law. It may beexpected that our society will be much more safer to resist the attack of future strong earthquakes with less losses. Lastly,possible future developments are also discussed.

  1. Earthquake and Geothermal Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Kapoor, Surya Prakash

    2013-01-01

    The origin of earthquake has long been recognized as resulting from strike-slip instability of plate tectonics along the fault lines. Several events of earthquake around the globe have happened which cannot be explained by this theory. In this work we investigated the earthquake data along with other observed facts like heat flow profiles etc... of the Indian subcontinent. In our studies we found a high-quality correlation between the earthquake events, seismic prone zones, heat flow regions and the geothermal hot springs. As a consequence, we proposed a hypothesis which can adequately explain all the earthquake events around the globe as well as the overall geo-dynamics. It is basically the geothermal power, which makes the plates to stand still, strike and slip over. The plates are merely a working solid while the driving force is the geothermal energy. The violent flow and enormous pressure of this power shake the earth along the plate boundaries and also triggers the intra-plate seismicity. In the light o...

  2. Prioritizing earthquake and tsunami alerting efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, R. M.; Allen, S.; Aranha, M. A.; Chung, A. I.; Hellweg, M.; Henson, I. H.; Melgar, D.; Neuhauser, D. S.; Nof, R. N.; Strauss, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    The timeline of hazards associated with earthquakes ranges from seconds for the strong shaking at the epicenter, to minutes for strong shaking at more distant locations in big quakes, to tens of minutes for a local tsunami. Earthquake and tsunami warning systems must therefore include very fast initial alerts, while also taking advantage of available time in bigger and tsunami-generating quakes. At the UC Berkeley Seismological Laboratory we are developing a suite of algorithms to provide the fullest possible information about earthquake shaking and tsunami inundation from seconds to minutes after a quake. The E-larmS algorithm uses the P-wave to rapidly detect an earthquake and issue a warning. It is currently issuing alerts to test users in as little as 3 sec after the origin time. Development of a new waveform detector may lead to even faster alerts. G-larmS uses permanent deformation estimates from GNSS stations to estimate the geometry and extent of rupture underway providing more accurate ground shaking estimates in big (M>~7) earthquakes. It performed well in the M6.0 2014 Napa earthquake. T-larmS is a new algorithm designed to extend alert capabilities to tsunami inundation. Rapid estimates of source characteristics for subduction zones event can not only be used to warn of the shaking hazard, but also the local tsunami inundation hazard. These algorithms are being developed, implemented and tested with a focus on the western US, but are also now being tested in other parts of the world including Israel, Turkey, Korea and Chile. Beta users in the Bay Area are receiving the alerts and beginning to implement automated actions. They also provide feedback on users needs, which has led to the development of the MyEEW smartphone app. This app allows beta users to receive the alerts on their cell phones. All these efforts feed into our ongoing assessment of directions and priorities for future development and implementation efforts.

  3. Earthquake Damage to Transportation Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Earthquakes represent one of the most destructive natural hazards known to man. A serious result of large-magnitude earthquakes is the disruption of transportation...

  4. Earthquakes, March-April 1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    Person, W.J.

    1989-01-01

    The first major earthquake (7.0-7.9) of the year hit Mexico on April 25, killing three people and causing some damage. Earthquake-related deaths were also reported from Malawi, China, and New Britain. 

  5. Recurrence Statistics of Great Earthquakes

    CERN Document Server

    Ben-Naim, E; Johnson, P A

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the sequence of great earthquakes over the past century. To examine whether the earthquake record includes temporal clustering, we identify aftershocks and remove those from the record. We focus on the recurrence time, defined as the time between two consecutive earthquakes. We study the variance in the recurrence time and the maximal recurrence time. Using these quantities, we compare the earthquake record with sequences of random events, generated by numerical simulations, while systematically varying the minimal earthquake magnitude Mmin. Our analysis shows that the earthquake record is consistent with a random process for magnitude thresholds 7.0<=Mmin<=8.3, where the number of events is larger. Interestingly, the earthquake record deviates from a random process at magnitude threshold 8.4<=Mmin<= 8.5, where the number of events is smaller; however, this deviation is not strong enough to conclude that great earthquakes are clustered. Overall, the findings are robust both qualitat...

  6. Earthquake-Ionosphere Coupling Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamogawa, Masashi

    After a giant earthquake (EQ), acoustic and gravity waves are excited by the displacement of land and sea surface, propagate through atmosphere, and then reach thermosphere, which causes ionospheric disturbances. This phenomenon was detected first by ionosonde and by HF Doppler sounderin the 1964 M9.2 Great Alaskan EQ. Developing Global Positioning System (GPS), seismogenic ionospheric disturbance detected by total electron content (TEC) measurement has been reported. A value of TEC is estimated by the phase difference between two different carrier frequencies through the propagation in the dispersive ionospheric plasma. The variation of TEC is mostly similar to that of F-region plasma. Acoustic-gravity waves triggered by an earthquake [Heki and Ping, EPSL, 2005; Liu et al., JGR, 2010] and a tsunami [Artu et al., GJI, 2005; Liu et al., JGR, 2006; Rolland, GRL, 2010] disturb the ionosphere and travel in the ionosphere. Besides the traveling ionospheric disturbances, ionospheric disturbances excited by Rayleigh waves [Ducic et al, GRL, 2003; Liu et al., GRL, 2006] as well as post-seismic 4-minute monoperiodic atmospheric resonances [Choosakul et al., JGR, 2009] have been observed after the large earthquakes. Since GPS Earth Observation Network System (GEONET) with more than 1200 GPS receiving points in Japan is a dense GPS network, seismogenic ionospheric disturbance is spatially observed. In particular, the seismogenic ionospheric disturbance caused by the M9.0 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku EQ (henceforth the Tohoku EQ) on 11 March 2011 was clearly observed. Approximately 9 minutes after the mainshock, acoustic waves which propagated radially emitted from the tsunami source area were observed through the TEC measurement (e. g., Liu et al. [JGR, 2011]). Moreover, there was a depression of TEC lasting for several tens of minutes after a huge earthquake, which was a large-scale phenomenon extending to a radius of a few hundred kilometers. This TEC depression may be

  7. Turkish Children's Ideas about Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simsek, Canan Lacin

    2007-01-01

    Earthquake, a natural disaster, is among the fundamental problems of many countries. If people know how to protect themselves from earthquake and arrange their life styles in compliance with this, damage they will suffer will reduce to that extent. In particular, a good training regarding earthquake to be received in primary schools is considered…

  8. Organizational changes at Earthquakes & Volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, David W.

    1992-01-01

    Primary responsibility for the preparation of Earthquakes & Volcanoes within the Geological Survey has shifted from the Office of Scientific Publications to the Office of Earthquakes, Volcanoes, and Engineering (OEVE). As a consequence of this reorganization, Henry Spall has stepepd down as Science Editor for Earthquakes & Volcanoes(E&V).

  9. Testing earthquake predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luen, Brad; Stark, Philip B.

    2008-01-01

    Statistical tests of earthquake predictions require a null hypothesis to model occasional chance successes. To define and quantify 'chance success' is knotty. Some null hypotheses ascribe chance to the Earth: Seismicity is modeled as random. The null distribution of the number of successful predictions - or any other test statistic - is taken to be its distribution when the fixed set of predictions is applied to random seismicity. Such tests tacitly assume that the predictions do not depend on the observed seismicity. Conditioning on the predictions in this way sets a low hurdle for statistical significance. Consider this scheme: When an earthquake of magnitude 5.5 or greater occurs anywhere in the world, predict that an earthquake at least as large will occur within 21 days and within an epicentral distance of 50 km. We apply this rule to the Harvard centroid-moment-tensor (CMT) catalog for 2000-2004 to generate a set of predictions. The null hypothesis is that earthquake times are exchangeable conditional on their magnitudes and locations and on the predictions - a common "nonparametric" assumption in the literature. We generate random seismicity by permuting the times of events in the CMT catalog. We consider an event successfully predicted only if (i) it is predicted and (ii) there is no larger event within 50 km in the previous 21 days. The P-value for the observed success rate is <0.001: The method successfully predicts about 5% of earthquakes, far better than 'chance' because the predictor exploits the clustering of earthquakes - occasional foreshocks - which the null hypothesis lacks. Rather than condition on the predictions and use a stochastic model for seismicity, it is preferable to treat the observed seismicity as fixed, and to compare the success rate of the predictions to the success rate of simple-minded predictions like those just described. If the proffered predictions do no better than a simple scheme, they have little value.

  10. PAGER--Rapid assessment of an earthquake?s impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wald, D.J.; Jaiswal, K.; Marano, K.D.; Bausch, D.; Hearne, M.

    2010-01-01

    PAGER (Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response) is an automated system that produces content concerning the impact of significant earthquakes around the world, informing emergency responders, government and aid agencies, and the media of the scope of the potential disaster. PAGER rapidly assesses earthquake impacts by comparing the population exposed to each level of shaking intensity with models of economic and fatality losses based on past earthquakes in each country or region of the world. Earthquake alerts--which were formerly sent based only on event magnitude and location, or population exposure to shaking--now will also be generated based on the estimated range of fatalities and economic losses.

  11. Impacts of East Asian aerosols on the Asian monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Rachel; Bollasina, Massimo; Booth, Ben; Dunstone, Nick; Marenco, Franco

    2016-04-01

    Over recent decades, aerosol emissions from Asia have increased rapidly. Aerosols are able to alter radiative forcing and regional hydroclimate through direct and indirect effects. Large emissions within the geographical region of the Asian monsoon have been found to impact upon this vital system and have been linked to observed drying trends. The interconnected nature of smaller regional monsoon components (e.g. the Indian monsoon and East Asian monsoon) presents the possibility that aerosol sources could have far-reaching impacts. Future aerosol emissions are uncertain and may continue to dominate regional impacts on the Asian monsoon. Standard IPCC future emissions scenarios do not take a broad sample of possible aerosol pathways. We investigate the sensitivity of the Asian monsoon to East Asian aerosol emissions. Experiments carried out with HadGEM2-ES use three time-evolving future anthropogenic aerosol emissions scenarios with similar time-evolving greenhouse gases. We find a wetter summer over southern China and the Indochina Peninsula associated with increased sulfate aerosol over China. The southern-flood-northern-drought pattern seen in observations is reflected in these results. India is found to be drier in the summer overall, although wetter in June. These precipitation changes are linked to the increase in sulfate through the alteration of large scale dynamics. Sub-seasonal changes are also seen, with an earlier withdrawal of the monsoon over East Asia.

  12. South Asian High and Asian-Pacific-American Climate Teleconnection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Growing evidence indicates that the Asian monsoon plays an important role in affecting the weather and climate outside of Asia. However, this active role of the monsoon has not been demonstrated as thoroughly as has the variability of the monsoon caused by various impacting factors such as sea surface temperature and land surface. This study investigates the relationship between the Asian monsoon and the climate anomalies in the Asian-Pacific-American (APA) sector. A hypothesis is tested that the variability of the upper-tropospheric South Asian high (SAH), which is closely associated with the overall heating of the large-scale Asian monsoon, is linked to changes in the subtropical western Pacific high (SWPH), the midPacific trough, and the Mexican high. The changes in these circulation systems cause variability in surface temperature and precipitation in the APA region. A stronger SAH is accompanied by a stronger and more extensive SWPH. The enlargement of the SWPH weakens the mid-Pacific trough. As a result, the southern portion of the Mexican high becomes stronger. These changes are associated with changes in atmospheric teleconnections, precipitation, and surface temperature throughout the APA region. When the SAH is stronger, precipitation increases in southern Asia, decreases over the Pacific Ocean, and increases over the Central America. Precipitation also increases over Australia and central Africa and decreases in the Mediterranean region. While the signals in surface temperature are weak over the tropical land portion,they are apparent in the mid latitudes and over the eastern Pacific Ocean.

  13. Association between earthquake and equatorial waves in Outgoing Longwave Radiation over South East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Manohar Lal

    In the present study, efforts has been made to correlate the equatorial planetary waves in Outgoing Longwave Radiation (OLR) and to seismic activities in South East Asian region. The OLR data has been obtained from NOAA Climate Prediction Centre web site. The earthquake information has been obtained from USGS earthquake information centre. This paper present observations for the two earthquakes, i.e., 26 January 2001, Bhuj, India and 26 December 2004, Sumatra, Indonesia. The normal days OLR has been compared to the OLR recorded during the seismic events. It has been observed that there is significant enhancement in OLR, few days before the earthquake event. The Morlet 6.6 wavelet analysis shows the presence of planetary waves in equatorial OLR for period about 6 days, during and about 80 days before the earthquake. The OLR data were analysed in such a way that the other possible effects are minimized. The anomalous increase and presence of planetary waves before 80 days of seismic event shows great potential in providing early warning of a disastrous earthquake. It should be noted that planetary waves is generated only in the equatorial region irrespective of strong/severe earthquake location.

  14. ALMA measures Calama earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, R.; Shillue, B.

    2010-04-01

    On 4 March 2010, the ALMA system response to an extraordinarily large disturbance was measured when a magnitude 6.3 earthquake struck near Calama, Chile, relatively close to the ALMA site. Figures 1 through 4 demonstrate the remarkable performance of the ALMA system to a huge disturbance that was more than 100 times the specification for correction accuracy.

  15. Pupils in Wenchuan Earthquake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡永德

    2008-01-01

    A great earthquake broke out in WenChuan. A lot of people were killed, but somany people were rescused by soldiers.Here are stories about three recused pupils.Langzhen, aged three, was rescusedby the soldiers after being buried in ruinsfor 10 hours.

  16. Earthquake in Haiti

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Isak Winkel

    2012-01-01

    In the vocabulary of modern disaster research, Heinrich von Kleist's seminal short story "The Earthquake in Chile" from 1806 is a tale of disaster vulnerability. The story is not just about a natural disaster destroying the innocent city of Santiago but also about the ensuing social disaster...

  17. Episodic tremor triggers small earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2011-08-01

    It has been suggested that episodic tremor and slip (ETS), the weak shaking not associated with measurable earthquakes, could trigger nearby earthquakes. However, this had not been confirmed until recently. Vidale et al. monitored seismicity in the 4-month period around a 16-day episode of episodic tremor and slip in March 2010 in the Cascadia region. They observed five small earthquakes within the subducting slab during the ETS episode. They found that the timing and locations of earthquakes near the tremor suggest that the tremor and earthquakes are related. Furthermore, they observed that the rate of earthquakes across the area was several times higher within 2 days of tremor activity than at other times, adding to evidence of a connection between tremor and earthquakes. (Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, doi:10.1029/2011GC003559, 2011)

  18. Indonesian Earthquake Decision Support System

    CERN Document Server

    Warnars, Spits

    2010-01-01

    Earthquake DSS is an information technology environment which can be used by government to sharpen, make faster and better the earthquake mitigation decision. Earthquake DSS can be delivered as E-government which is not only for government itself but in order to guarantee each citizen's rights for education, training and information about earthquake and how to overcome the earthquake. Knowledge can be managed for future use and would become mining by saving and maintain all the data and information about earthquake and earthquake mitigation in Indonesia. Using Web technology will enhance global access and easy to use. Datawarehouse as unNormalized database for multidimensional analysis will speed the query process and increase reports variation. Link with other Disaster DSS in one national disaster DSS, link with other government information system and international will enhance the knowledge and sharpen the reports.

  19. Earthquakes in Ohio and Vicinity 1776-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dart, Richard L.; Hansen, Michael C.

    2008-01-01

    This map summarizes two and a third centuries of earthquake activity. The seismic history consists of letters, journals, diaries, and newspaper and scholarly articles that supplement seismograph recordings (seismograms) dating from the early twentieth century to the present. All of the pre-instrumental (historical) earthquakes were large enough to be felt by people or to cause shaking damage to buildings and their contents. Later, widespread use of seismographs meant that tremors too small or distant to be felt could be detected and accurately located. Earthquakes are a legitimate concern in Ohio and parts of adjacent States. Ohio has experienced more than 160 felt earthquakes since 1776. Most of these events caused no damage or injuries. However, 15 Ohio earthquakes resulted in property damage and some minor injuries. The largest historic earthquake in the state occurred in 1937. This event had an estimated magnitude of 5.4 and caused considerable damage in the town of Anna and in several other western Ohio communities. The large map shows all historical and instrumentally located earthquakes from 1776 through 2007.

  20. Changes in groundwater chemistry before two consecutive earthquakes in Iceland

    KAUST Repository

    Skelton, Alasdair

    2014-09-21

    Groundwater chemistry has been observed to change before earthquakes and is proposed as a precursor signal. Such changes include variations in radon count rates1, 2, concentrations of dissolved elements3, 4, 5 and stable isotope ratios4, 5. Changes in seismic wave velocities6, water levels in boreholes7, micro-seismicity8 and shear wave splitting9 are also thought to precede earthquakes. Precursor activity has been attributed to expansion of rock volume7, 10, 11. However, most studies of precursory phenomena lack sufficient data to rule out other explanations unrelated to earthquakes12. For example, reproducibility of a precursor signal has seldom been shown and few precursors have been evaluated statistically. Here we analyse the stable isotope ratios and dissolved element concentrations of groundwater taken from a borehole in northern Iceland between 2008 and 2013. We find that the chemistry of the groundwater changed four to six months before two greater than magnitude 5 earthquakes that occurred in October 2012 and April 2013. Statistical analyses indicate that the changes in groundwater chemistry were associated with the earthquakes. We suggest that the changes were caused by crustal dilation associated with stress build-up before each earthquake, which caused different groundwater components to mix. Although the changes we detect are specific for the site in Iceland, we infer that similar processes may be active elsewhere, and that groundwater chemistry is a promising target for future studies on the predictability of earthquakes.

  1. Familial Hypercholesterolemia in Asian Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Mengge; Zhao, Dong

    2016-05-01

    Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is the most common autosomal disorder characterized by an elevated low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol level and a high risk of premature cardiovascular disease. In this review, we summarize information on FH studies in Asian countries, focusing on mean cholesterol level, FH frequency, diagnostic criteria, genotypes, and clinical care of FH patients in Asian populations. Compared with Western countries, most Asian countries had lower mean cholesterol levels, with a significant variation between different countries. In the limited studies reported, a frequency of 1/900 was reported in Hokuriku district, Japan in 1977 and a frequency of 1/85 among Christian Lebanese in 1979. Recently, a population study in China reported frequencies of 0.47% and 0.28%. However, the different FH frequencies reported were based on different diagnostic criteria. Of 28 publications from 16 Asian countries or regions, 14 used self-defined FH criteria. Only one specific guideline for FH was available, which was developed by Japanese scientists. Six Asian countries joined the Make Early Diagnosis to Prevent Early Deaths program in the late 1990s, and the estimated diagnosis rates of FH ranged from 3% to 10% in these countries. A more recent study explored the awareness, knowledge, and perception of FH among practitioners in Japan, Korea, and Taiwan. The study found that the correct rates of these FH-related questions were low and concluded that lack of country-specific criteria and guidelines may contribute to the lack of FH knowledge in the present survey. More attention and resources should be focused on raising awareness, improving care, and increasing FH research in Asian populations. PMID:27075771

  2. Culturally Speaking: Asian Pacific American Heritage Month

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Sherry

    2004-01-01

    The celebration of the Asian Pacific American heritage month is to be held in May 2004. The librarians are advised to include authentic literature by and about Asian Americans for cross-cultural understanding.

  3. Depression among Asian Americans: Review and Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zornitsa Kalibatseva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a review of the prevalence and manifestation of depression among Asian Americans and discusses some of the existing issues in the assessment and diagnosis of depression among Asian Americans. The authors point out the diversity and increasing numbers of Asian Americans and the need to provide better mental health services for this population. While the prevalence of depression among Asian Americans is lower than that among other ethnic/racial groups, Asian Americans receive treatment for depression less often and its quality is less adequate. In addition, the previous belief that Asians somatize depression may become obsolete as more evidence appears to support that Westerners may “psychologize” depression. The cultural validity of the current DSM-IV conceptualization of depression is questioned. In the course of the review, the theme of complexity emerges: the heterogeneity of ethnic Asian American groups, the multidimensionality of depression, and the intersectionality of multiple factors among depressed Asian Americans.

  4. Asian and Non-Asian Attitudes toward Rape, Sexual Harassment, and Sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, M. Alexis; Gorzalka, Boris B.

    2002-01-01

    Explored potential differences between Asian and non-Asian Canadian university students regarding their attitudes toward coercive and noncoercive sexual behavior. Student surveys indicated that Asian students' attitudes were significantly more conservative. Asian students were more tolerant of rape myths and sexual harassment. They demonstrated…

  5. InSAR observations of the 2009 Racha earthquake, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaeva, Elena; Walter, Thomas R.

    2016-09-01

    Central Georgia is an area strongly affected by earthquake and landslide hazards. On 29 April 1991 a major earthquake (Mw  =  7.0) struck the Racha region in Georgia, followed by aftershocks and significant afterslip. The same region was hit by another major event (Mw  =  6.0) on 7 September 2009. The aim of the study reported here was to utilize interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) data to improve knowledge about the spatial pattern of deformation due to the 2009 earthquake. There were no actual earthquake observations by InSAR in Georgia. We considered all available SAR data images from different space agencies. However, due to the long wavelength and the frequent acquisitions, only the multi-temporal ALOS L-band SAR data allowed us to produce interferograms spanning the 2009 earthquake. We detected a local uplift around 10 cm (along the line-of-sight propagation) in the interferogram near the earthquake's epicenter, whereas evidence of surface ruptures could not be found in the field along the active thrust fault. We simulated a deformation signal which could be created by the 2009 Racha earthquake on the basis of local seismic records and by using an elastic dislocation model. We compared our modeled fault surface of the September 2009 with the April 1991 Racha earthquake fault surfaces and identify the same fault or a sub-parallel fault of the same system as the origin. The patch that was active in 2009 is just adjacent to the 1991 patch, indicating a possible mainly westward propagation direction, with important implications for future earthquake hazards.

  6. MyShake: A smartphone seismic network for earthquake early warning and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Qingkai; Allen, Richard M; Schreier, Louis; Kwon, Young-Woo

    2016-02-01

    Large magnitude earthquakes in urban environments continue to kill and injure tens to hundreds of thousands of people, inflicting lasting societal and economic disasters. Earthquake early warning (EEW) provides seconds to minutes of warning, allowing people to move to safe zones and automated slowdown and shutdown of transit and other machinery. The handful of EEW systems operating around the world use traditional seismic and geodetic networks that exist only in a few nations. Smartphones are much more prevalent than traditional networks and contain accelerometers that can also be used to detect earthquakes. We report on the development of a new type of seismic system, MyShake, that harnesses personal/private smartphone sensors to collect data and analyze earthquakes. We show that smartphones can record magnitude 5 earthquakes at distances of 10 km or less and develop an on-phone detection capability to separate earthquakes from other everyday shakes. Our proof-of-concept system then collects earthquake data at a central site where a network detection algorithm confirms that an earthquake is under way and estimates the location and magnitude in real time. This information can then be used to issue an alert of forthcoming ground shaking. MyShake could be used to enhance EEW in regions with traditional networks and could provide the only EEW capability in regions without. In addition, the seismic waveforms recorded could be used to deliver rapid microseism maps, study impacts on buildings, and possibly image shallow earth structure and earthquake rupture kinematics. PMID:26933682

  7. MyShake: A smartphone seismic network for earthquake early warning and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Qingkai; Allen, Richard M; Schreier, Louis; Kwon, Young-Woo

    2016-02-01

    Large magnitude earthquakes in urban environments continue to kill and injure tens to hundreds of thousands of people, inflicting lasting societal and economic disasters. Earthquake early warning (EEW) provides seconds to minutes of warning, allowing people to move to safe zones and automated slowdown and shutdown of transit and other machinery. The handful of EEW systems operating around the world use traditional seismic and geodetic networks that exist only in a few nations. Smartphones are much more prevalent than traditional networks and contain accelerometers that can also be used to detect earthquakes. We report on the development of a new type of seismic system, MyShake, that harnesses personal/private smartphone sensors to collect data and analyze earthquakes. We show that smartphones can record magnitude 5 earthquakes at distances of 10 km or less and develop an on-phone detection capability to separate earthquakes from other everyday shakes. Our proof-of-concept system then collects earthquake data at a central site where a network detection algorithm confirms that an earthquake is under way and estimates the location and magnitude in real time. This information can then be used to issue an alert of forthcoming ground shaking. MyShake could be used to enhance EEW in regions with traditional networks and could provide the only EEW capability in regions without. In addition, the seismic waveforms recorded could be used to deliver rapid microseism maps, study impacts on buildings, and possibly image shallow earth structure and earthquake rupture kinematics.

  8. Asian Pacific American Women's Health Concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pian, Canta

    This paper discusses the adjustment and acculturation problems of Asian Pacific American women and how these problems relate to their health concerns. Information presented in the article is based on the observations of health service providers to the Asian community. The paper suggests that the diversity of Asian Americans (age, ethnic group, and…

  9. Potentials in Asian Export Credit Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    "Mekong River Regional Development Project advocated by Asian Development Bank (ADB) has been implemented. Trans-Asia Railway and Trans-Asia Highway are being discussed. It is a good opportunity for Asian Export Credit Agencies (ECAs) to cooperate and financing these large crossboarder projects."On May 11, at the 10th Annual Meeting of Asian Export Credit Agencies,

  10. On the nature of intraplate earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talwani, Pradeep

    2016-04-01

    Continental intraplate regions are characterized by uniform stresses over thousands of kilometers. Local stresses, with wavelengths of tens to hundreds of kilometers can accumulate at inhomogeneities lying within these regional fields. A variety of geological structures, herein called local stress concentrators (LSCs), act as elastic inhomogeneities. The temporal buildup of stress depends on the particular structure and its geometrical relationship with the regional stress field. The interaction of the local and the regional stress fields can result in the rotation of the latter over wavelengths of tens to hundreds of kilometers. This rotation can be detected by direct measurement or from seismicity data. Intraplate earthquakes (IPEs) result when the local stresses become comparable with their regional counterparts, i.e., hundreds of megapascals. Globally, most of the seismic energy release associated with IPEs occurs within old rifts which contain LSCs most favorable for stress buildup by stress inversion. Of the various LSCs, stepover en echelon faults are associated the largest IPEs. In low tectonic strain rate regions, IPEs are associated with larger stress drops. With the availability of a variety of LSCs, there is generally an absence of repeat earthquakes. Instead, successive earthquakes occur on different structures, leading to the observation of "roaming" earthquakes. These observations suggest a need for a reevaluation of seismic hazard estimation techniques. This study addresses some of these facets of the nature of IPEs with global examples, including a unique, detailed seismicity and geodetic data set collected in a dozen years following the 2001 M 7.7 Bhuj earthquake in western India.

  11. Turkish Compulsory Earthquake Insurance (TCIP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdik, M.; Durukal, E.; Sesetyan, K.

    2009-04-01

    Through a World Bank project a government-sponsored Turkish Catastrophic Insurance Pool (TCIP) is created in 2000 with the essential aim of transferring the government's financial burden of replacing earthquake-damaged housing to international reinsurance and capital markets. Providing coverage to about 2.9 Million homeowners TCIP is the largest insurance program in the country with about 0.5 Billion USD in its own reserves and about 2.3 Billion USD in total claims paying capacity. The total payment for earthquake damage since 2000 (mostly small, 226 earthquakes) amounts to about 13 Million USD. The country-wide penetration rate is about 22%, highest in the Marmara region (30%) and lowest in the south-east Turkey (9%). TCIP is the sole-source provider of earthquake loss coverage up to 90,000 USD per house. The annual premium, categorized on the basis of earthquake zones type of structure, is about US90 for a 100 square meter reinforced concrete building in the most hazardous zone with 2% deductible. The earthquake engineering related shortcomings of the TCIP is exemplified by fact that the average rate of 0.13% (for reinforced concrete buildings) with only 2% deductible is rather low compared to countries with similar earthquake exposure. From an earthquake engineering point of view the risk underwriting (Typification of housing units to be insured, earthquake intensity zonation and the sum insured) of the TCIP needs to be overhauled. Especially for large cities, models can be developed where its expected earthquake performance (and consequently the insurance premium) can be can be assessed on the basis of the location of the unit (microzoned earthquake hazard) and basic structural attributes (earthquake vulnerability relationships). With such an approach, in the future the TCIP can contribute to the control of construction through differentiation of premia on the basis of earthquake vulnerability.

  12. The East-Asian VLBI Network

    CERN Document Server

    Wajima, Kiyoaki; An, Tao; Baan, Willem A; Fujisawa, Kenta; Hao, Longfei; Jiang, Wu; Jung, Taehyun; Kawaguchi, Noriyuki; Kim, Jongsoo; Kobayashi, Hideyuki; Oh, Se-Jin; Roh, Duk-Gyoo; Wang, Min; Wu, Yuanwei; Xia, Bo; Zhang, Ming

    2015-01-01

    The East-Asian VLBI Network (EAVN) is the international VLBI facility in East Asia and is conducted in collaboration with China, Japan, and Korea. The EAVN consists of VLBI arrays operated in each East Asian country, containing 21 radio telescopes and three correlators. The EAVN will be mainly operated at 6.7 (C-band), 8 (X-band), 22 (K-band), and 43 GHz (Q-band), although the EAVN has an ability to conduct observations at 1.6 - 129 GHz. We have conducted fringe test observations eight times to date at 8 and 22 GHz and fringes have been successfully detected at both frequencies. We have also conducted science commissioning observations of 6.7 GHz methanol masers in massive star-forming regions. The EAVN will be operational from the second half of 2017, providing complementary results with the FAST on AGNs, massive star-forming regions, and evolved stars with high angular resolution at cm- to mm-wavelengths.

  13. The Need for More Earthquake Science in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieh, K.

    2015-12-01

    Many regions within SE Asia have as great a density of active seismic structures as does the western US - Sumatra, Myanmar, Bangladesh, New Guinea and the Philippines come first to mind. Much of Earth's release of seismic energy in the current millennium has, in fact, come from these regions, with great losses of life and livelihoods. Unfortunately, the scientific progress upon which seismic-risk reduction in SE Asia ultimately depends has been and continues to be slow. Last year at AGU, for example, I counted 57 talks about the M6 Napa earthquake. In contrast, I can't recall hearing any talk on a SE Asian M6 earthquake at any venue in the past many years. In fact, even M7+ earthquakes often go unstudied. Not uncommonly, the region's earthquake scientists face high financial and political impediments to conducting earthquake research. Their slow speed in the development of scientific knowledge doesn't bode well for speedy progress in the science of seismic hazards, the sine qua non for substantially reducing seismic risk. There are two basic necessities for the region to evolve significantly from the current state of affairs. Both involve the development of regional infrastructure: 1) Data: Robust and accessible geophysical monitoring systems would need to be installed, maintained and utilized by the region's earth scientists and their results shared internationally. Concomitantly, geological mapping (sensu lato) would need to be undertaken. 2) People: The training, employment, and enduring support of a new, young, international corps of earth scientists would need to accelerate markedly. The United States could play an important role in achieving the goal of significant seismic risk reduction in the most seismically active countries of SE Asia by taking the lead in establishing a coalition to robustly fund a multi-decadal program that supports scientists and their research institutions to work alongside local expertise.

  14. South Asians in College Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad-Stout, David J.; Nath, Sanjay R.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this article is to provide information on the assessment and treatment of South Asian college students for mental health practitioners. We provide a brief historical review of the cultures from which these students come and the process of migration to the United States and also make recommendations for work with these students in the…

  15. Educational Planning: The Asian Experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Jansen (Karel)

    1976-01-01

    textabstractThis article intends to present a discussion of various approaches to educational planning against the background of the experience of the Asian countries.l It may be, however, that some of our arguments apply to other parts of the Third World as well.

  16. VLF/LF EM emissions as main precursor of earthquakes and their searching possibilities for Georgian s/a region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachakhidze, Manana; Kachakhidze, Nino

    2016-04-01

    Authors of abstract have created work which offers model of earth electromagnetic emissions generation detected in the process of earthquake preparation on the basis of electrodynamics. The model gives qualitative explanation of a mechanism of generation of electromagnetic waves emitted in the earthquake preparation period. Besides, scheme of the methodology of earthquake forecasting is created based on avalanche-like unstable model of fault formation and an analogous model of electromagnetic contour, synthesis of which, is rather harmonious. According to the authors of the work electromagnetic emissions in radiodiapason is more universal and reliable than other anomalous variations of various geophysical phenomena in earthquake preparation period; Besides, VLF/LF electromagnetic emissions might be declared as the main precursor of earthquake because it might turn out very useful with the view of prediction of large (M ≥5) inland earthquakes and to govern processes going on in lithosphere-atmosphere - ionosphere coupling (LAIC) system. Since the other geophysical phenomena, which may accompany earthquake preparation process and expose themselves several months, weeks or days prior to earthquakes are less informative with the view of earthquake forecasting, it is admissible to consider them as earthquake indicators. Physical mechanisms of mentioned phenomena are explained on the basis of the model of generation of electromagnetic emissions detected before earthquake, where a process of earthquake preparation and its realization are considered taking into account distributed and conservative systems properties. Up to these days electromagnetic emissions detection network did not exist in Georgia. European colleagues helped us (Prof. Dr. PF Biagi, Prof. Dr. Aydın BÜYÜKSARAÇ) and made possible the installation of a receiver. We are going to develop network and put our share in searching of earthquakes problem. Participation in conference is supported by financial

  17. Do Earthquakes Shake Stock Markets?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Susana; Karali, Berna

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines how major earthquakes affected the returns and volatility of aggregate stock market indices in thirty-five financial markets over the last twenty years. Results show that global financial markets are resilient to shocks caused by earthquakes even if these are domestic. Our analysis reveals that, in a few instances, some macroeconomic variables and earthquake characteristics (gross domestic product per capita, trade openness, bilateral trade flows, earthquake magnitude, a tsunami indicator, distance to the epicenter, and number of fatalities) mediate the impact of earthquakes on stock market returns, resulting in a zero net effect. However, the influence of these variables is market-specific, indicating no systematic pattern across global capital markets. Results also demonstrate that stock market volatility is unaffected by earthquakes, except for Japan. PMID:26197482

  18. Foreshocks of strong earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglielmi, A. V.; Sobisevich, L. E.; Sobisevich, A. L.; Lavrov, I. P.

    2014-07-01

    The specific enhancement of ultra-low-frequency (ULF) electromagnetic oscillations a few hours prior to the strong earthquakes, which was previously mentioned in the literature, motivated us to search for the distinctive features of the mechanical (foreshock) activity of the Earth's crust in the epicentral zones of the future earthquakes. Activation of the foreshocks three hours before the main shock is revealed, which is roughly similar to the enhancement of the specific electromagnetic ULF emission. It is hypothesized that the round-the-world seismic echo signals from the earthquakes, which form the peak of energy release 2 h 50 min before the main events, act as the triggers of the main shocks due to the cumulative action of the surface waves converging to the epicenter. It is established that the frequency of the fluctuations in the foreshock activity decreases at the final stages of the preparation of the main shocks, which probably testifies to the so-called mode softening at the approach of the failure point according to the catastrophe theory.

  19. Earthquake forecasting and its verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. Holliday

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available No proven method is currently available for the reliable short time prediction of earthquakes (minutes to months. However, it is possible to make probabilistic hazard assessments for earthquake risk. In this paper we discuss a new approach to earthquake forecasting based on a pattern informatics (PI method which quantifies temporal variations in seismicity. The output, which is based on an association of small earthquakes with future large earthquakes, is a map of areas in a seismogenic region ('hotspots'' where earthquakes are forecast to occur in a future 10-year time span. This approach has been successfully applied to California, to Japan, and on a worldwide basis. Because a sharp decision threshold is used, these forecasts are binary--an earthquake is forecast either to occur or to not occur. The standard approach to the evaluation of a binary forecast is the use of the relative (or receiver operating characteristic (ROC diagram, which is a more restrictive test and less subject to bias than maximum likelihood tests. To test our PI method, we made two types of retrospective forecasts for California. The first is the PI method and the second is a relative intensity (RI forecast based on the hypothesis that future large earthquakes will occur where most smaller earthquakes have occurred in the recent past. While both retrospective forecasts are for the ten year period 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2009, we performed an interim analysis 5 years into the forecast. The PI method out performs the RI method under most circumstances.

  20. Real time earthquake forecasting in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Murru, M.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Roma1, Roma, Italia; Console, R.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Roma1, Roma, Italia; Falcone, G.; Earth Science Department, Messina University

    2008-01-01

    We have applied an earthquake clustering epidemic model to real time data at the Italian Earthquake Data Center operated by the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV) for short-term forecasting of moderate and large earthquakes in Italy. In this epidemic-type model every earthquake is regarded, at the same time, as being triggered by previous events and triggering following earthquakes. The model uses earthquake data only, with no explicit use of tectonic, geologic, or geodetic...

  1. Investigation of the Seismic Nucleation Phase of Large Earthquakes Using Broadband Teleseismic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhart, Eryn Therese

    The dynamic motion of an earthquake begins abruptly, but is often initiated by a short interval of weak motion called the seismic nucleation phase (SNP). Ellsworth and Beroza [1995, 1996] concluded that the SNP was detectable in near-source records of 48 earthquakes with moment magnitude (Mw), ranging from 1.1 to 8.1. They found that the SNP accounted for approximately 0.5% of the total moment and 1/6 of the duration of the earthquake. Ji et al [2010] investigated the SNP of 19 earthquakes with Mw greater than 8.0 using teleseismic broadband data. This study concluded that roughly half of the earthquakes had detectable SNPs, inconsistent with the findings of Ellsworth and Beroza [1995]. Here 69 earthquakes of Mw 7.5-8.0 from 1994 to 2011 are further examined. The SNP is clearly detectable using teleseismic data in 32 events, with 35 events showing no nucleation phase, and 2 events had insufficient data to perform stacking, consistent with the previous analysis. Our study also reveals that the percentage of the SNP events is correlated with the focal mechanism and hypocenter depths. Strike-slip earthquakes are more likely to exhibit a clear SNP than normal or thrust earthquakes. Eleven of 14 strike-slip earthquakes (78.6%) have detectable NSPs. In contrast, only 16 of 40 (40%) thrust earthquakes have detectable SNPs. This percentage also became smaller for deep events (33% for events with hypocenter depth>250 km). To understand why certain thrust earthquakes have a visible SNP, we examined the sediment thickness, age, and angle of the subducting plate of all thrust earthquakes in the study. We found that thrust events with shallow (600 m) on the subducting plate tend to have clear SNPs. If the SNP can be better understood in the future, it may help seismologists better understand the rupture dynamics of large earthquakes. Potential applications of this work could attempt to predict the magnitude of an earthquake seconds before it begins by measuring the SNP, vastly

  2. Multi-layered population structure in Island Southeast Asians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricaut, Francois-Xavier; Yngvadottir, Bryndis; Harney, Eadaoin; Castillo, Cristina; Hoogervorst, Tom; Antao, Tiago; Kusuma, Pradiptajati; Razafindrazaka, Harilanto; Cardona, Alexia; Pierron, Denis; Letellier, Thierry; Wee, Joseph; Abdullah, Syafiq; Metspalu, Mait; Kivisild, Toomas

    2016-01-01

    The history of human settlement in Southeast Asia has been complex and involved several distinct dispersal events. Here we report the analyses of 1825 individuals from Southeast Asia including new genome-wide genotype data for 146 individuals from three Mainland Southeast Asian (Burmese, Malay and Vietnamese) and four Island Southeast Asian (Dusun, Filipino, Kankanaey and Murut) populations. While confirming the presence of previously recognized major ancestry components in the Southeast Asian population structure, we highlight the Kankanaey Igorots from the highlands of the Philippine Mountain Province as likely the closest living representatives of the source population that may have given rise to the Austronesian expansion. This conclusion rests on independent evidence from various analyses of autosomal data and uniparental markers. Given the extensive presence of trade goods, cultural and linguistic evidence of Indian influence in Southeast Asia starting from 2.5kya we also detect traces of a South Asian signature in different populations in the region dating to the last couple of thousand years. PMID:27302840

  3. Future Earth: Reducing Loss By Automating Response to Earthquake Shaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, R. M.

    2014-12-01

    Earthquakes pose a significant threat to society in the U.S. and around the world. The risk is easily forgotten given the infrequent recurrence of major damaging events, yet the likelihood of a major earthquake in California in the next 30 years is greater than 99%. As our societal infrastructure becomes ever more interconnected, the potential impacts of these future events are difficult to predict. Yet, the same inter-connected infrastructure also allows us to rapidly detect earthquakes as they begin, and provide seconds, tens or seconds, or a few minutes warning. A demonstration earthquake early warning system is now operating in California and is being expanded to the west coast (www.ShakeAlert.org). In recent earthquakes in the Los Angeles region, alerts were generated that could have provided warning to the vast majority of Los Angelinos who experienced the shaking. Efforts are underway to build a public system. Smartphone technology will be used not only to issue that alerts, but could also be used to collect data, and improve the warnings. The MyShake project at UC Berkeley is currently testing an app that attempts to turn millions of smartphones into earthquake-detectors. As our development of the technology continues, we can anticipate ever-more automated response to earthquake alerts. Already, the BART system in the San Francisco Bay Area automatically stops trains based on the alerts. In the future, elevators will stop, machinery will pause, hazardous materials will be isolated, and self-driving cars will pull-over to the side of the road. In this presentation we will review the current status of the earthquake early warning system in the US. We will illustrate how smartphones can contribute to the system. Finally, we will review applications of the information to reduce future losses.

  4. 汶川MS8.0地震前DEMETER卫星探测的离子温度变化分析%Analysis on ion temperature variation detected by DEMETER before 2008 Wenchuan MS8.0 earthquake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安张辉; 范莹莹; 刘君; 谭大诚; 陈军营; 郑国磊; 解滔

    2010-01-01

    @@ 2008年5月12日汶川MS8.0地震的发生给我国带来巨大的人民生命财产和经济损失, 这次沉痛的事件再次表明, 地震的预测预报是非常困难的. 同时, 地震的预测预报又具有非常重大的意义. 地震后, 研究人员在研究总结反思现有观测手段(钱复业等, 2009; 余涛等, 2009)的同时, 也开展了近些年国外发展起来的空间观测研究(曾中超等, 2009; 何宇飞等, 2009). 对空间观测手段, 在已公开发表的研究成果中, 大多利用的是2004年法国发射的DEMETER(Detection of Electro-Magnetic Emissions Transmitted from Earthquake Regions)地震电磁卫星所探测的电磁场信号进行分析研究, 而对卫星所探测到的电离层离子温度则没有较为详细的讨论. 例如, 曾中超等(2009)对DEMETER地震电磁卫星探测到的电离层电子的温度、 密度以及电场和磁场进行了分析研究, 得到了可能与汶川地震有关的疑似异常; 何宇飞等(2009)利用DEMETER卫星对中国周边多个导航VLF发射站信号的研究, 得到了震中上空区域不同频率对应的信噪比在地震前后发生明显变化的结果.

  5. Metabolic syndrome in South Asians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushik Pandit

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available South Asia is home to one of the largest population of people with metabolic syndrome (MetS. The prevalence of MetS in South Asians varies according to region, extent of urbanization, lifestyle patterns, and socioeconomic/cultural factors. Recent data show that about one-third of the urban population in large cities in India has the MetS. All classical risk factors comprising the MetS are prevalent in Asian Indians residing in India. The higher risk in this ethnic population necessitated a lowering of the cut-off values of the risk factors to identify and intervene for the MetS to prevent diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Some pharmacological and nonpharmacological interventions are underway in MetS to assess the efficacy in preventing the diabetes and cardiovascular disease in this ethnic population.

  6. South Asian Diaspora in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    2005-01-01

    and exclusion, individualization and interdependency, these relationships are delineated on the basis of two empirical projects, combined with an array of secondary sources. South Asian youth are becoming a part of the receiving society along with developing their complex diaspora identities through strategies......This article throws light on the psychological situation of South Asian youth in Scandinavia, primarily in Denmark, and to some extent in Norway, through the youths’ interethnic and intergenerational relationships. Within the social psychological conceptualisation of transmigration, inclusion...... like forming relationships across ethnic borders, youth organisations, and media consumption. Intergenerational relationships indicate negotiations for most, combining individualization with interdependency, but with serious conflicts for some. The conclusions pin point the challenges for Scandinavian...

  7. Exploring Asian American racial identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Grace A; Lephuoc, Paul; Guzmán, Michele R; Rude, Stephanie S; Dodd, Barbara G

    2006-07-01

    In this study the authors used cluster analysis to create racial identity profiles for a sample of Asian Americans using the People of Color Racial Identity Attitudes Scale (PCRIAS). A four-cluster solution was chosen: each cluster corresponded to one PCRIAS subscale and was named accordingly. Scores on the Asian American Racism-Related Stress Inventory and the Color-Blind Racial Attitudes Scale were compared across clusters. As expected, the Dissonance and Immersion clusters were characterized by relatively high racism-related stress and low levels of color-blind attitudes; the Conformity cluster showed roughly the opposite pattern. Surprisingly, the Internalization cluster showed a pattern similar to that for Conformity and thus may reflect "pseudoindependence" as discussed by Helms. PMID:16881750

  8. Path Integral and Asian Options

    OpenAIRE

    Peng Zhang

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we analytically study the problem of pricing an arithmetically averaged Asian option in the path integral formalism. By a trick about the Dirac delta function, the measure of the path integral is defined by an effective action functional whose potential term is an exponential function. This path integral is evaluated by use of the Feynman-Kac theorem. After working out some auxiliary integrations involving Bessel and Whittaker functions, we arrive at the spectral expansion for t...

  9. The Rise of Asian SMEs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Export-oriented Asian SMEs-and the vital role they play in generating growth and employment-traversed difficult financial terrain in 2008-09.But with the global financial crisis behind them,their outlook is only looking more prospective with time.Som Subroto,global head of SME Banking of Standard Chartered Bank,explained SMEs’function and difficulties in an exclusive article for Beijing Review.Edited excerpts follow

  10. The Rise of Asian SMEs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Export-oriented Asian SMEs-and the vital role they play in generating growth and employment-traversed difficult financial terrain in 2008-09.But with the global financial crisis behind them,their outlook is only looking more prospective with time.Sore Subroto,global head of SME Banking of Standard Chartered Bank,explained SMEs' function and difficulties in an exclusive article for Beijing Review.

  11. Sustainability in South Asian city

    OpenAIRE

    Ghulam Akhmat; Muhammad Mahroof Khan; Mumtaz Ali

    2011-01-01

    South Asia is one of most densely populated region in the world. Currently, 28.33% of the South Asian population lives in urban areas, with an annual growth rate of 2.92%. Shifting of jobs from agriculture to industry and the concentration of economic opportunities in urban areas are causing tremendous increase in urbanisation in the region, which is seriously affecting the environment, and poses strong challenges to governments in terms of the infrastructure and services. In this article, we...

  12. Passives in South Asian languages:

    OpenAIRE

    Chandra, Pritha; Anindita SAHOOA

    2013-01-01

    Haspelmath (2010) debates whether universal (descriptive) categories of the types that generativists (cf. Newmeyer, 2007) envisage are real and needed for cross-linguistic studies. Instead every language has its own unique set of categories. We raise doubt on this “categorial particularism” position by drawing on underlying similarities of passive constructions of three South Asian languages - Oriya (Indo-Aryan), Malayalam (Dravidian) and Kharia (Austro-Asiatic). Unlike English-type passives,...

  13. Heavy tails and earthquake probabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellsworth, William L.

    2012-01-01

    The 21st century has already seen its share of devastating earthquakes, some of which have been labeled as “unexpected,” at least in the eyes of some seismologists and more than a few journalists. A list of seismological surprises could include the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman Islands; 2008 Wenchuan, China; 2009 Haiti; 2011 Christchurch, New Zealand; and 2011 Tohoku, Japan, earthquakes

  14. Anthropogenic Triggering of Large Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulargia, Francesco; Bizzarri, Andrea

    2014-08-01

    The physical mechanism of the anthropogenic triggering of large earthquakes on active faults is studied on the basis of experimental phenomenology, i.e., that earthquakes occur on active tectonic faults, that crustal stress values are those measured in situ and, on active faults, comply to the values of the stress drop measured for real earthquakes, that the static friction coefficients are those inferred on faults, and that the effective triggering stresses are those inferred for real earthquakes. Deriving the conditions for earthquake nucleation as a time-dependent solution of the Tresca-Von Mises criterion applied in the framework of poroelasticity yields that active faults can be triggered by fluid overpressures < 0.1 MPa. Comparing this with the deviatoric stresses at the depth of crustal hypocenters, which are of the order of 1-10 MPa, we find that injecting in the subsoil fluids at the pressures typical of oil and gas production and storage may trigger destructive earthquakes on active faults at a few tens of kilometers. Fluid pressure propagates as slow stress waves along geometric paths operating in a drained condition and can advance the natural occurrence of earthquakes by a substantial amount of time. Furthermore, it is illusory to control earthquake triggering by close monitoring of minor ``foreshocks'', since the induction may occur with a delay up to several years.

  15. Can Satellites Aid Earthquake Predictions?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    John Roach; 李晓辉

    2004-01-01

    @@ Earthquake prediction is an imprecise science, and to illustrate the point,many experts point to the story of Tangshen①, China. On July 28, 1976, a magnitude② 7. 6 earthquake struck the city of Tangshen, China, without warning. None of the signs of the successful prediction from a year and half earlier were present. An estimated 250,000 people died.

  16. Earthquakes Threaten Many American Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Nancy E.

    2010-01-01

    Millions of U.S. children attend schools that are not safe from earthquakes, even though they are in earthquake-prone zones. Several cities and states have worked to identify and repair unsafe buildings, but many others have done little or nothing to fix the problem. The reasons for ignoring the problem include political and financial ones, but…

  17. Make an Earthquake: Ground Shaking!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savasci, Funda

    2011-01-01

    The main purposes of this activity are to help students explore possible factors affecting the extent of the damage of earthquakes and learn the ways to reduce earthquake damages. In these inquiry-based activities, students have opportunities to develop science process skills and to build an understanding of the relationship among science,…

  18. Focal Depths and Mechanisms of Earthquakes in the Himalayan-Tibetan Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, L.; Li, G.; Khan, N.; Zhao, J.; Lin, D.

    2015-12-01

    The complexity of the Himalayan-Tibetan lithospheric deformation is evident from extensive seismicity and diverse focal mechanism solutions. Here we investigate the focal depths and fault plane solutions of moderate earthquakes in the Himalayan-Tibetan region by teleseismic waveform modeling and a multi-scale double-difference earthquake relocation method. Shallow earthquakes are widespread across the whole study region. In the central Tibet, earthquakes are restricted to the upper crust and originate dominantly by strike-slip faulting, in agreement with low velocity layers observed previously in the lower crust and strong S-wave attenuation zones observed in the uppermost mantle. In the northern and southern Tibet, where the Asian and Indian plate subduct beneath the central Tibet, earthquakes appear to be distributed throughout the thickness of the crust and exhibit dominantly reverse faulting (Bai et al., 2015a). Intermediate-depth earthquakes are mostly located at the eastern and western Himalayan syntaxes, which reflect the ongoing deformation along the plate interface. The continental slab beneath the Indian-Eurasian collision zone deforms in a more complex manner than the oceanic slab subduction, combining tension, shearing and oblique convergence with plate subduction (Bai et al., 2015b). References Bai, L., Li, G., Khan, N.G., Zhao, J., and Ding, L., 2015a. Focal depths and mechanisms of shallow earthquakes in the Himalayan-Tibetan region, Gondwana Research, accepted. Bai, L., and Zhang, T., 2015b. Complex deformation pattern of the Pamir-Hindu Kush region inferred from multi-scale double-difference earthquake relocations, Tectonophysics, 638: 177-184, doi:10.1016/j.tecto.2014.11.006.

  19. An application of earthquake prediction algorithm M8 in eastern Anatolia at the approach of the 2011 Van earthquake

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Masoud Mojarab; Vladimir Kossobokov; Hossein Memarian; Mehdi Zare

    2015-07-01

    On 23rd October 2011, an M7.3 earthquake near the Turkish city of Van, killed more than 600 people, injured over 4000, and left about 60,000 homeless. It demolished hundreds of buildings and caused great damages to thousand others in Van, Ercis, Muradiye, and Çaldıran. The earthquake’s epicenter is located about 70 km from a preceding M7.3 earthquake that occurred in November 1976 and destroyed several villages near the Turkey–Iran border and killed thousands of people. This study, by means of retrospective application of the M8 algorithm, checks to see if the 2011 Van earthquake could have been predicted. The algorithm is based on pattern recognition of Times of Increased Probability (TIP) of a target earthquake from the transient seismic sequence at lower magnitude ranges in a Circle of Investigation (CI). Specifically, we applied a modified M8 algorithm adjusted to a rather low level of earthquake detection in the region following three different approaches to determine seismic transients. In the first approach, CI centers are distributed on intersections of morphostructural lineaments recognized as prone to magnitude 7+ earthquakes. In the second approach, centers of CIs are distributed on local extremes of the seismic density distribution, and in the third approach, CI centers were distributed uniformly on the nodes of a 1°×1° grid. According to the results of the M8 algorithm application, the 2011 Van earthquake could have been predicted in any of the three approaches. We noted that it is possible to consider the intersection of TIPs instead of their union to improve the certainty of the prediction results. Our study confirms the applicability of a modified version of the M8 algorithm for predicting earthquakes at the Iranian–Turkish plateau, as well as for mitigation of damages in seismic events in which pattern recognition algorithms may play an important role.

  20. Effects of Earthquake and Human Migration on Land Cover Change and Mass Wasting from the 2010 Haiti Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Y.; Lee, J.

    2015-12-01

    IntroductionThe 2010 earthquake in Haiti displaced millions of people and drastically induced mass wasting. The purpose of this study is to explore comprehensive relationships between population displacement and landslide frequency by comparing land use and land cover (LULC) maps of pre- and post-earthquake. To assess the impact of anthropogenic activities, we employed a maximum likelihood method to produce LULC maps from Landsat images for the dry season of 2000, 2002, 2005, 2008, 2010, 2012, and 2014. Landslide inventory maps were created with ArcGIS and Google Earth to visually detect mass wasting coverage for each year. We assessed LULC characteristics of new landslide areas for pre- and post-earthquake to find out what types of land cover most likely caused landslide events and how they were affected by anthropogenic activities in Haiti. The result (Figure 1) shows that the majority of the landslides occurred in the areas of bare soil and grassland over the entire period of this study. These types of land cover are generally considered to be landslide prone due to lack of forest, which leads to a weakening of slope stability. In the earthquake year of 2010, landslide events were dominantly found in bare soil (67.5%) while grassland only occupied 5.1% of total land use. After the earthquake, landslides increased 14.6% in the forest areas, and then decreased to 7% of the total land use in 2014. Post-earthquake data shows an increase of urban area landslides (16%). After the earthquake from 2010 to 2012, landslides in the forest area noticeably increased. This may be due to refugee camps, which were constructed after the earthquake. Clearing trees for biomass energy might have resulted in poor slope stability because roots are necessary to maintain soils.

  1. Asian School of Nuclear Medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Asian School of Nuclear Medicine (ASNM) was formed in February 2003, with the ARCCNM as the parent body. Aims of ASNM: 1. To foster Education in Nuclear Medicine among the Asian countries, particularly the less developed ones. 2. To promote training of Nuclear Medicine Physicians in cooperation with government agencies, IAEA and universities and societies. 3. To assist in national and regional training courses, award continuing medical education (CME) points and provide regional experts for advanced educational programmes. 4. To work towards awarding of diplomas or degrees in association with recognized universities by distance learning and practical attachments, with examinations. The ASNM works toward a formal training courses leading to the award of a certificate in the long term. The most fundamental job of the ASNM remains the transfer of knowledge from the more developed countries to the less developed ones in the Asian region. The ASNM could award credit hours to the participants of training courses conducted in the various countries and conduct electronic courses and examinations. CME programmes may also be conducted as part of the regular ARCCNM meetings and the ASNM will award CME credit points for such activities

  2. Testing earthquake source inversion methodologies

    KAUST Repository

    Page, Morgan T.

    2011-01-01

    Source Inversion Validation Workshop; Palm Springs, California, 11-12 September 2010; Nowadays earthquake source inversions are routinely performed after large earthquakes and represent a key connection between recorded seismic and geodetic data and the complex rupture process at depth. The resulting earthquake source models quantify the spatiotemporal evolution of ruptures. They are also used to provide a rapid assessment of the severity of an earthquake and to estimate losses. However, because of uncertainties in the data, assumed fault geometry and velocity structure, and chosen rupture parameterization, it is not clear which features of these source models are robust. Improved understanding of the uncertainty and reliability of earthquake source inversions will allow the scientific community to use the robust features of kinematic inversions to more thoroughly investigate the complexity of the rupture process and to better constrain other earthquakerelated computations, such as ground motion simulations and static stress change calculations.

  3. Early Earthquakes of the Americas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, James

    2004-11-01

    Robert Kovach's second book looks at the interplay of earthquake and volcanic events, archeology, and history in the Americas. Throughout history, major earthquakes have caused the deaths of millions of people and have damaged countless cities. Earthquakes undoubtedly damaged prehistoric cities in the Americas, and evidence of these events could be preserved in archeological records. Kovach asks, Did indigenous native cultures-Indians of the Pacific Northwest, Aztecs, Mayas, and Incas-document their natural history? Some events have been explicitly documented, for example, in Mayan codices, but many may have been recorded as myth and legend. Kovach's discussions of how early cultures dealt with fearful events such as earthquakes and volcanic eruptions are colorful, informative, and entertaining, and include, for example, a depiction of how the Maya would talk to maize plants in their fields during earthquakes to reassure them.

  4. Study on a newly developed pre-arrival transmission system for earthquake information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Considering the difficulty of precise and short-term earthquake prediction, a concept of earthquake detection near the epicenter and pre-arrival information transmission has been proposed since 20 years ago. In order to explore the possibility of application of such concept to practical use for earthquake hazard mitigation, a observation network has been newly developed. In the system, the occurrence of an earthquake is detected at an observation site near the epicenter at first, then the observed ground motion is analyzed quickly and the necessary predicted information such as the intensity of ground shaking, frequency contents and waveforms of the event could be rapidly transmitted before the coming of strong ground motion at a site. When such information could be transferred to important facilities such as nuclear power plants, it seems to be useful for the emergency response countermeasures for the earthquake hazard mitigation. (author)

  5. The CATDAT damaging earthquakes database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniell, J. E.; Khazai, B.; Wenzel, F.; Vervaeck, A.

    2011-08-01

    The global CATDAT damaging earthquakes and secondary effects (tsunami, fire, landslides, liquefaction and fault rupture) database was developed to validate, remove discrepancies, and expand greatly upon existing global databases; and to better understand the trends in vulnerability, exposure, and possible future impacts of such historic earthquakes. Lack of consistency and errors in other earthquake loss databases frequently cited and used in analyses was a major shortcoming in the view of the authors which needed to be improved upon. Over 17 000 sources of information have been utilised, primarily in the last few years, to present data from over 12 200 damaging earthquakes historically, with over 7000 earthquakes since 1900 examined and validated before insertion into the database. Each validated earthquake includes seismological information, building damage, ranges of social losses to account for varying sources (deaths, injuries, homeless, and affected), and economic losses (direct, indirect, aid, and insured). Globally, a slightly increasing trend in economic damage due to earthquakes is not consistent with the greatly increasing exposure. The 1923 Great Kanto (214 billion USD damage; 2011 HNDECI-adjusted dollars) compared to the 2011 Tohoku (>300 billion USD at time of writing), 2008 Sichuan and 1995 Kobe earthquakes show the increasing concern for economic loss in urban areas as the trend should be expected to increase. Many economic and social loss values not reported in existing databases have been collected. Historical GDP (Gross Domestic Product), exchange rate, wage information, population, HDI (Human Development Index), and insurance information have been collected globally to form comparisons. This catalogue is the largest known cross-checked global historic damaging earthquake database and should have far-reaching consequences for earthquake loss estimation, socio-economic analysis, and the global reinsurance field.

  6. The CATDAT damaging earthquakes database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Daniell

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The global CATDAT damaging earthquakes and secondary effects (tsunami, fire, landslides, liquefaction and fault rupture database was developed to validate, remove discrepancies, and expand greatly upon existing global databases; and to better understand the trends in vulnerability, exposure, and possible future impacts of such historic earthquakes.

    Lack of consistency and errors in other earthquake loss databases frequently cited and used in analyses was a major shortcoming in the view of the authors which needed to be improved upon.

    Over 17 000 sources of information have been utilised, primarily in the last few years, to present data from over 12 200 damaging earthquakes historically, with over 7000 earthquakes since 1900 examined and validated before insertion into the database. Each validated earthquake includes seismological information, building damage, ranges of social losses to account for varying sources (deaths, injuries, homeless, and affected, and economic losses (direct, indirect, aid, and insured.

    Globally, a slightly increasing trend in economic damage due to earthquakes is not consistent with the greatly increasing exposure. The 1923 Great Kanto ($214 billion USD damage; 2011 HNDECI-adjusted dollars compared to the 2011 Tohoku (>$300 billion USD at time of writing, 2008 Sichuan and 1995 Kobe earthquakes show the increasing concern for economic loss in urban areas as the trend should be expected to increase. Many economic and social loss values not reported in existing databases have been collected. Historical GDP (Gross Domestic Product, exchange rate, wage information, population, HDI (Human Development Index, and insurance information have been collected globally to form comparisons.

    This catalogue is the largest known cross-checked global historic damaging earthquake database and should have far-reaching consequences for earthquake loss estimation, socio-economic analysis, and the global

  7. Review of variations in Mw < 7 earthquake motions on position and TEC (Mw = 6.5 Aegean Sea earthquake sample)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Omer; Inyurt, Samed; Mekik, Cetin

    2016-02-01

    Turkey is a country located in the middle latitude zone, where tectonic activity is intensive. Recently, an earthquake of magnitude 6.5 Mw occurred offshore in the Aegean Sea on 24 May 2014 at 09:25 UTC, which lasted about 40 s. The earthquake was also felt in Greece, Romania, and Bulgaria in addition to Turkey. In recent years, ionospheric anomaly detection studies have been carried out because of seismicity with total electron content (TEC) computed from the global navigation satellite system's (GNSS) signal delays and several interesting findings have been published. In this study, both TEC and positional variations have been examined separately following a moderate size earthquake in the Aegean Sea. The correlation of the aforementioned ionospheric variation with the positional variation has also been investigated. For this purpose, a total of 15 stations was used, including four continuously operating reference stations in Turkey (CORS-TR) and stations in the seismic zone (AYVL, CANA, IPSA, and YENC), as well as international GNSS service (IGS) and European reference frame permanent network (EPN) stations. The ionospheric and positional variations of the AYVL, CANA, IPSA, and YENC stations were examined using Bernese v5.0 software. When the precise point positioning TEC (PPP-TEC) values were examined, it was observed that the TEC values were approximately 4 TECU (total electron content unit) above the upper-limit TEC value at four stations located in Turkey, 3 days before the earthquake at 08:00 and 10:00 UTC. At the same stations, on the day before the earthquake at 06:00, 08:00, and 10:00 UTC, the TEC values were approximately 5 TECU below the lower-limit TEC value. The global ionosphere model TEC (GIM-TEC) values published by the Centre for Orbit Determination in Europe (CODE) were also examined. Three days before the earthquake, at all stations, it was observed that the TEC values in the time period between 08:00 and 10:00 UTC were approximately 2 TECU

  8. Asian School of Nuclear Medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of organisations are involved in the field of nuclear medicine education. These include International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), World Federation of Nuclear Medicine and Biology (WFNMB), Asia-Oceania Federation of Nuclear Medicine and Biology (AOFNMB), Society of Nuclear Medicine (SNM in USA), European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM). Some Universities also have M.Sc courses in Nuclear Medicine. In the Asian Region, an Asian Regional Cooperative Council for Nuclear Medicine (ARCCNM) was formed in 2000, initiated by China, Japan and Korea, with the main aim of fostering the spread of Nuclear Medicine in Asia. The Asian School of Nuclear Medicine (ASNM) was formed in February 2003, with the ARCCNM as the parent body. The Aims of ASNM are: to foster Education in Nuclear Medicine among the Asian countries, particularly the less developed regions; to promote training of Nuclear Medicine Physicians in cooperation with government agencies, IAEA and universities and societies; to assist in national and regional training courses, award continuing medical education (CME) points and provide regional experts for advanced educational programmes; and to work towards awarding of diplomas or degrees in association with recognised universities by distance learning and practical attachments, with examinations. There are 10 to 12 teaching faculty members from each country comprising of physicists, radio pharmacists as well as nuclear medicine physicians. From this list of potential teaching experts, the Vice-Deans and Dean of ASNM would then decide on the 2 appropriate teaching faculty member for a given assignment or a course in a specific country. The educational scheme could be in conjunction with the ARCCNM or with the local participating countries and their nuclear medicine organisations, or it could be a one-off training course in a given country. This teaching faculty is purely voluntary with no major expenses paid by the ASNM; a token contribution could be

  9. Complex networks of earthquakes and aftershocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Baiesi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We invoke a metric to quantify the correlation between any two earthquakes. This provides a simple and straightforward alternative to using space-time windows to detect aftershock sequences and obviates the need to distinguish main shocks from aftershocks. Directed networks of earthquakes are constructed by placing a link, directed from the past to the future, between pairs of events that are strongly correlated. Each link has a weight giving the relative strength of correlation such that the sum over the incoming links to any node equals unity for aftershocks, or zero if the event had no correlated predecessors. A correlation threshold is set to drastically reduce the size of the data set without losing significant information. Events can be aftershocks of many previous events, and also generate many aftershocks. The probability distribution for the number of incoming and outgoing links are both scale free, and the networks are highly clustered. The Omori law holds for aftershock rates up to a decorrelation time that scales with the magnitude, m, of the initiating shock as tcutoff~10β m with β~-3/4. Another scaling law relates distances between earthquakes and their aftershocks to the magnitude of the initiating shock. Our results are inconsistent with the hypothesis of finite aftershock zones. We also find evidence that seismicity is dominantly triggered by small earthquakes. Our approach, using concepts from the modern theory of complex networks, together with a metric to estimate correlations, opens up new avenues of research, as well as new tools to understand seismicity.

  10. Asian nursing students in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Saad, H; Kayser-Jones, J; Tien, J

    1982-09-01

    It is obvious that there is a great need to familiarize faculty and students with the Asian culture and heritage and to sensitize them to the difficulties and problems that Asian nursing students encounter in their adjustment to the university nursing program in the United States. Recommendations and strategies to achieve the above goals are: (1) Organizing cross-cultural courses for Asians and non-Asians to familiarize them with different cultures, (2) sensitizing faculty and counselors to the detrimental effects of existing nursing programs on international students, and (3) helping Asian nursing students better adjust to the American culture by providing English tutorial classes, support groups and host families that will act as socializing agents during the student's adjustment process. Through such educational and support programs, it is hoped that Asian nursing students will experience fewer difficulties which in turn will make their studies more meaningful and applicable. PMID:6288640

  11. The 2015 Gorkha Nepal Earthquake: Insights from Earthquake Damage Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuichiro eGoda

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The 2015 Gorkha Nepal earthquake caused tremendous damage and loss. To gain valuable lessons from this tragic event, an earthquake damage investigation team was dispatched to Nepal from 1 May 2015 to 7 May 2015. A unique aspect of the earthquake damage investigation is that first-hand earthquake damage data were obtained 6 to 11 days after the mainshock. To gain deeper understanding of the observed earthquake damage in Nepal, the paper reviews the seismotectonic setting and regional seismicity in Nepal and analyzes available aftershock data and ground motion data. The earthquake damage observations indicate that the majority of the damaged buildings were stone/brick masonry structures with no seismic detailing, whereas the most of RC buildings were undamaged. This indicates that adequate structural design is the key to reduce the earthquake risk in Nepal. To share the gathered damage data widely, the collected damage data (geo-tagged photos and observation comments are organized using Google Earth and the kmz file is made publicly available.

  12. Subdiffusion of volcanic earthquakes

    CERN Document Server

    Abe, Sumiyoshi

    2016-01-01

    A comparative study is performed on volcanic seismicities at Mt.Eyjafjallajokull in Iceland and Mt. Etna in Sicily, Italy, from the viewpoint of science of complex systems, and the discovery of remarkable similarities between them regarding their exotic spatio-temporal properties is reported. In both of the volcanic seismicities as point processes, the jump probability distributions of earthquakes are found to obey the exponential law, whereas the waiting-time distributions follow the power law. In particular, a careful analysis is made about the finite size effects on the waiting-time distributions, and accordingly, the previously reported results for Mt. Etna [S. Abe and N. Suzuki, EPL 110, 59001 (2015)] are reinterpreted. It is shown that spreads of the volcanic earthquakes are subdiffusive at both of the volcanoes. The aging phenomenon is observed in the "event-time-averaged" mean-squared displacements of the hypocenters. A comment is also made on presence/absence of long term memories in the context of t...

  13. Summary Report: Asian Pacific Islander Workers Hearing

    OpenAIRE

    Asian Pacific American Labor Alliance; AFL-CIO; UCLA Labor Center

    2002-01-01

    The first ever California State Assembly Hearing on Asian Pacific Islander Workers was convened by the Labor Employment Committee and the Asian Pacific Islander Legislative Caucus, at the request of Assembly member Judy Chu. The Hearing brought together Asian Pacific Islander workers and advocates from all over California. Their stories are a snapshot of millions of workers. The testimonies gave a glimpse of the detrimental impact that worker exploitation has on families and communities. Most...

  14. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    APJTB Monthly Aims&Scope Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine(APJTB)aims to set up and provide an international academic communication platform for physicians,medical scientists,allied health scientists and public health workers,especially those in the Asian Pacific region and worldwide on tropical biomedicine,infectious diseases and public health,and to meet the growing challenges of understanding,preventing and controlling the dramatic global emergence and reemergence of infectious diseases in the Asian Pacific region.

  15. Correlates of Suicidal Behaviors Among Asian Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Duldulao, Aileen Alfonso; Takeuchi, David T.; Hong, Seunghye

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the correlates of suicidal ideation, suicide plan and suicide attempt among Asian Americans focusing on nativity and gender. Analyses are performed on data from the National Latino and Asian American Study (N=2095), the first ever study conducted on the mental health of a national sample of Asian Americans. The sample is comprised of adults with 998 men (47%) and 1,097 (53%) women. Weighted logistic regression analyses reveal that US-born women have a higher percentage tha...

  16. Heterogeneity within the Asian American community

    OpenAIRE

    Oh Gia; Nguyen Tammy; Ryujin Lisa; Sadler Georgia; Paik Grace; Kustin Brenda

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Background Educational interventions are grounded on scientific data and assumptions about the community to be served. While the Pan Asian community is composed of multiple, ethnic subgroups, it is often treated as a single group for which one health promotion program will be applicable for all of its cultural subgroups. Compounding this stereotypical view of the Pan Asian community, there is sparse data about the cultural subgroups' similarities and dissimilarities. The Asian Grocer...

  17. Immigration and Mental Disorders among Asian Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Takeuchi, David T.; Zane, Nolan; Hong, Seunghye; Chae, David H.; Gong, Fang; Gee, Gilbert C.; Walton, Emily; Sue, Stanley; Alegria, Margarita

    2007-01-01

    Objectives. We examined lifetime and 12-month rates of any depressive, anxiety, and substance abuse disorders in a national sample of Asian Americans. We focused on factors related to nativity and immigration as possible correlates of mental disorders. Methods. Data were derived from the National Latino and Asian American Study, the first national epidemiological survey of Asian Americans in the United States. Results. The relationships between immigration-related factors and mental disorders...

  18. A South Asian American diasporic aesthetic community?

    OpenAIRE

    Murthy, Dhiraj

    2007-01-01

    Abstract In the late 1990s, a diverse group of British South Asian musicians began to gain notoriety in the UK for their distinctive blends of synthesized beats with what were considered South Asian elements (e.g. tabla, sitar and `Hindustani' samples). Following these successes, the British media industries engaged in discourses on whether these South Asian musicians should be labelled under pre-existing musical genres such as acid jazz and electronic music or under an ethnically ...

  19. Earthquake early warning for Romania - most recent improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmureanu, Alexandru; Elia, Luca; Martino, Claudio; Colombelli, Simona; Zollo, Aldo; Cioflan, Carmen; Toader, Victorin; Marmureanu, Gheorghe; Marius Craiu, George; Ionescu, Constantin

    2014-05-01

    EWS for Vrancea earthquakes uses the time interval (28-32 sec.) between the moment when the earthquake is detected by the local seismic network installed in the epicenter area (Vrancea) and the arrival time of the seismic waves in the protected area (Bucharest) to send earthquake warning to users. In the last years, National Institute for Earth Physics (NIEP) upgraded its seismic network in order to cover better the seismic zones of Romania. Currently the National Institute for Earth Physics (NIEP) operates a real-time seismic network designed to monitor the seismic activity on the Romania territory, dominated by the Vrancea intermediate-depth (60-200 km) earthquakes. The NIEP real-time network consists of 102 stations and two seismic arrays equipped with different high quality digitizers (Kinemetrics K2, Quanterra Q330, Quanterra Q330HR, PS6-26, Basalt), broadband and short period seismometers (CMG3ESP, CMG40T, KS2000, KS54000, KS2000, CMG3T,STS2, SH-1, S13, Ranger, gs21, Mark l22) and acceleration sensors (Episensor). Recent improvement of the seismic network and real-time communication technologies allows implementation of a nation-wide EEWS for Vrancea and other seismic sources from Romania. We present a regional approach to Earthquake Early Warning for Romania earthquakes. The regional approach is based on PRESTo (Probabilistic and Evolutionary early warning SysTem) software platform: PRESTo processes in real-time three channel acceleration data streams: once the P-waves arrival have been detected, it provides earthquake location and magnitude estimations, and peak ground motion predictions at target sites. PRESTo is currently implemented in real- time at National Institute for Earth Physics, Bucharest for several months in parallel with a secondary EEWS. The alert notification is issued only when both systems validate each other. Here we present the results obtained using offline earthquakes originating from Vrancea area together with several real

  20. Stomach cancer incidence rates among Americans, Asian Americans and Native Asians from 1988 to 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Yeerae; Park, Jinju; Nam, Byung-Ho; Ki, Moran

    2015-01-01

    Stomach cancer is the second most common cancer in Eastern Asia, accounting for approximately 50% of all new cases of stomach cancer worldwide. Our objective was to compare the stomach cancer incidence rates of Asian Americans in Los Angeles with those of native Asians to assess the etiology of stomach cancer from 1988 to 2011. To examine these differences, Asian Americans (Korean, Japanese, Chinese, and Filipino Americans living in Los Angeles, California, USA) and native Asians (from Korea,...

  1. Negotiating Intra-Asian Games Networks: On Cultural Proximity, East Asian Games Design, and Chinese Farmers

    OpenAIRE

    Dean Chan

    2006-01-01

    A key feature of networked games in East Asia is the relationship between the adaptation of regional Asian aesthetic and narrative forms in game content, and the parallel growth in more regionally-focused marketing and distribution initiatives. This essay offers a contextual analysis of intra-Asian games networks, with reference to the production, marketing and circulation of Asian MMORPGs. My discussion locates these networks as part of broader discourses on regionalism, East Asian cultural ...

  2. Asian Greek Sisterhoods: Archives, Affects, and Belongings in Asian American Sororities, 1929-2015

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Vivian

    2015-01-01

    The dissertation, Asian Greek Sisterhoods: Archives, Affects, and Belongings in Asian American Sororities, 1929-2015, examines the kinds of archives produced by Asian American women in single-gender social organizations or Asian Greek-letter sororities, reconceiving them as transformative acts of affects: embodied memory-keeping practices that transmit knowledge, traditions, cultural practices, and social customs as collective identities and communal histories across time and space, among dif...

  3. Counseling Asians: psychotherapy in the context of racism and Asian-American history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toupin, E S

    1980-01-01

    The historical experience of Asian immigrants to the United States is outlined, and implications for counseling and psychotherapy with Asian-Americans are considered. It is suggested that, in charting therapeutic goals for Asians, three major factors must be taken into account: 1) when and why Asians migrated to the United States, and where they settled; 2) the number of years, and the impact, of public education; and 3) conflicting cultural norms that complicate the acculturation process. PMID:7356003

  4. Determination of Design Basis Earthquake ground motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Muneaki [Japan Atomic Power Co., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    This paper describes principle of determining of Design Basis Earthquake following the Examination Guide, some examples on actual sites including earthquake sources to be considered, earthquake response spectrum and simulated seismic waves. In sppendix of this paper, furthermore, seismic safety review for N.P.P designed before publication of the Examination Guide was summarized with Check Basis Earthquake. (J.P.N.)

  5. PRECURSORS OF EARTHQUAKES: VLF SIGNALSIONOSPHERE IONOSPHERE RELATION

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa ULAS; ATA, Fikret; Hasan Hüseyin BALIK

    2013-01-01

    lot of people have died because of earthquakes every year. Therefore It is crucial to predict the time of the earthquakes reasonable time before it had happed. This paper presents recent information published in the literature about precursors of earthquakes. The relationships between earthquakes and ionosphere are targeted to guide new researches in order to study further to find novel prediction methods.

  6. Asian dust effect on cause-specific mortality in five cities across South Korea and Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashima, Saori; Yorifuji, Takashi; Bae, Sanghyuk; Honda, Yasushi; Lim, Youn-Hee; Hong, Yun-Chul

    2016-03-01

    Desert dust is considered to be potentially toxic and its toxicity may change during long-range transportation. In Asian countries, the health effects of desert dust in different locations are not well understood. We therefore evaluated the city-combined and city-specific effects of Asian dust events on all-cause and cause-specific mortality in five populous cities in South Korea (Seoul) and Japan (Nagasaki, Matsue, Osaka and Tokyo). We obtained daily mean concentrations of Asian dust using light detection and ranging (lidar) between 2005 and 2011. We then evaluated city-specific and pooled associations of Asian dust with daily mortality for elderly residents (≥65 years old) using time-series analyses. Each 10 μg/m3 increase in the concentration of same-day (lag 0) or previous-day (lag 1) Asian dust was significantly associated with an elevated pooled risk of all-cause mortality (relative risk (RR): 1.003 [95% CI: 1.001-1.005] at lag 0 and 1.001 [95% CI: 1.000-1.003] at lag 1) and cerebrovascular disease (RR: 1.006 [95% CI: 1.000-1.011] at lag 1). This association was especially apparent in Seoul and western Japan (Nagasaki and Matsue). Conversely, no significant associations were observed in Tokyo, which is situated further from the origin of Asian dust and experiences low mean concentrations of Asian dust. Adverse health effects on all-cause and cerebrovascular disease mortality were observed in South Korea and Japan. However, the effects of Asian dust differed across the cities and adverse effects were more apparent in cities closer to Asian dust sources.

  7. Transcriptome analysis of genes responding to NNV infection in Asian seabass epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peng; Wang, Le; Kwang, Jimmy; Yue, Gen Hua; Wong, Sek-Man

    2016-07-01

    Asian seabass is an important food fish in Southeast Asia. Viral nervous necrosis (VNN) disease, triggered by nervous necrosis virus (NNV) infection, has caused mass mortality of Asian seabass larvae, resulting in enormous economic losses in the Asian seabass industry. In order to better understand the complex molecular interaction between Asian seabass and NNV, we investigated the transcriptome profiles of Asian seabass epithelial cells, which play an essential role in immune regulation, after NNV infection. Using the next generation sequencing (NGS) technology, we sequenced mRNA from eight samples (6, 12, 24, 48 h post-inoculation) of mock and NNV-infected Asian seabass epithelial cell line, respectively. Clean reads were de novo assembled into a transcriptome consisting of 89026 transcripts with a N50 of 2617 bp. Furthermore, 251 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in response to NNV infection were identified. Top DEGs include protein asteroid homolog 1-like (ASTE1), receptor-transporting protein 3 (RTP3), heat shock proteins 30 (HSP30) and 70 (HSP70), Viperin, interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) and other genes related to innate immunity. Our data suggest that abundant and diverse genes corresponding to NNV infection. The results of this study could also offer vital information not only for identification of novel genes involved in Asian seabass-NNV interaction, but also for our understanding of the molecular mechanism of Asian seabass' response to viral infection. In addition, 24807 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were detected in the assembled transcriptome, providing valuable resources for studying genetic variations and accelerating quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping for disease resistance in Asian seabass in the future. PMID:27109582

  8. Numerical Algorithm for Delta of Asian Option

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boxiang Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the numerical solution of the Greeks of Asian options. In particular, we derive a close form solution of Δ of Asian geometric option and use this analytical form as a control to numerically calculate Δ of Asian arithmetic option, which is known to have no explicit close form solution. We implement our proposed numerical method and compare the standard error with other classical variance reduction methods. Our method provides an efficient solution to the hedging strategy with Asian options.

  9. Seismic swarm associated with the 2008 eruption of Kasatochi Volcano, Alaska: earthquake locations and source parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, Natalia G.; Prejean, Stephanie G.; Hansen, Roger A.

    2011-01-01

    An energetic seismic swarm accompanied an eruption of Kasatochi Volcano in the central Aleutian volcanic arc in August of 2008. In retrospect, the first earthquakes in the swarm were detected about 1 month prior to the eruption onset. Activity in the swarm quickly intensified less than 48 h prior to the first large explosion and subsequently subsided with decline of eruptive activity. The largest earthquake measured as moment magnitude 5.8, and a dozen additional earthquakes were larger than magnitude 4. The swarm exhibited both tectonic and volcanic characteristics. Its shear failure earthquake features were b value = 0.9, most earthquakes with impulsive P and S arrivals and higher-frequency content, and earthquake faulting parameters consistent with regional tectonic stresses. Its volcanic or fluid-influenced seismicity features were volcanic tremor, large CLVD components in moment tensor solutions, and increasing magnitudes with time. Earthquake location tests suggest that the earthquakes occurred in a distributed volume elongated in the NS direction either directly under the volcano or within 5-10 km south of it. Following the MW 5.8 event, earthquakes occurred in a new crustal volume slightly east and north of the previous earthquakes. The central Aleutian Arc is a tectonically active region with seismicity occurring in the crusts of the Pacific and North American plates in addition to interplate events. We postulate that the Kasatochi seismic swarm was a manifestation of the complex interaction of tectonic and magmatic processes in the Earth's crust. Although magmatic intrusion triggered the earthquakes in the swarm, the earthquakes failed in context of the regional stress field.

  10. "How Asian Am I?": Asian American Youth Cultures, Drug Use, and Ethnic Identity Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Geoffrey; Moloney, Molly; Evans, Kristin

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes the construction of ethnic identity in the narratives of 100 young Asian Americans in a dance club/rave scene. Authors examine how illicit drug use and other consuming practices shape their understanding of Asian American identities, finding three distinct patterns. The first presents a disjuncture between Asian American…

  11. 2010 Chile Earthquake Aftershock Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barientos, Sergio

    2010-05-01

    The Mw=8.8 earthquake off the coast of Chile on 27 February 2010 is the 5th largest megathrust earthquake ever to be recorded and provides an unprecedented opportunity to advance our understanding of megathrust earthquakes and associated phenomena. The 2010 Chile earthquake ruptured the Concepcion-Constitucion segment of the Nazca/South America plate boundary, south of the Central Chile region and triggered a tsunami along the coast. Following the 2010 earthquake, a very energetic aftershock sequence is being observed in an area that is 600 km along strike from Valparaiso to 150 km south of Concepcion. Within the first three weeks there were over 260 aftershocks with magnitude 5.0 or greater and 18 with magnitude 6.0 or greater (NEIC, USGS). The Concepcion-Constitucion segment lies immediately north of the rupture zone associated with the great magnitude 9.5 Chile earthquake, and south of the 1906 and the 1985 Valparaiso earthquakes. The last great subduction earthquake in the region dates back to the February 1835 event described by Darwin (1871). Since 1835, part of the region was affected in the north by the Talca earthquake in December 1928, interpreted as a shallow dipping thrust event, and by the Chillan earthquake (Mw 7.9, January 1939), a slab-pull intermediate depth earthquake. For the last 30 years, geodetic studies in this area were consistent with a fully coupled elastic loading of the subduction interface at depth; this led to identify the area as a mature seismic gap with potential for an earthquake of magnitude of the order 8.5 or several earthquakes of lesser magnitude. What was less expected was the partial rupturing of the 1985 segment toward north. Today, the 2010 earthquake raises some disturbing questions: Why and how the rupture terminated where it did at the northern end? How did the 2010 earthquake load the adjacent segment to the north and did the 1985 earthquake only partially ruptured the plate interface leaving loaded asperities since

  12. The U.S. Earthquake Prediction Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesson, R.L.; Filson, J.R.

    1981-01-01

    Following on from the concepts of plate tectonics, the earth sciences are now embarking on a challenging course- the time prediction of geologic phenomena. Earthquake prediction is an outstanding example of this. However, earthquake prediction is not the only scientific goal. The destructive power of a large earthquake requires that we also take mitigating actions; these include earthquake engineering research to design construction that will resist earthquake shaking. Nevertheless, earthquake prediction has a vital role to play not only in the saving of lives, but in the reduction of economic loss and social disruption from large earthquakes.

  13. Ionospheric phenomena before strong earthquakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Silina

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A statistical analysis of several ionospheric parameters before earthquakes with magnitude M > 5.5 located less than 500 km from an ionospheric vertical sounding station is performed. Ionospheric effects preceding "deep" (depth h > 33 km and "crust" (h 33 km earthquakes were analysed separately. Data of nighttime measurements of the critical frequencies foF2 and foEs, the frequency fbEs and Es-spread at the middle latitude station Dushanbe were used. The frequencies foF2 and fbEs are proportional to the square root of the ionization density at heights of 300 km and 100 km, respectively. It is shown that two days before the earthquakes the values of foF2 averaged over the morning hours (00:00 LT–06:00 LT and of fbEs averaged over the nighttime hours (18:00 LT–06:00 LT decrease; the effect is stronger for the "deep" earthquakes. Analysing the coefficient of semitransparency which characterizes the degree of small-scale turbulence, it was shown that this value increases 1–4 days before "crust" earthquakes, and it does not change before "deep" earthquakes. Studying Es-spread which manifests itself as diffuse Es track on ionograms and characterizes the degree of large-scale turbulence, it was found that the number of Es-spread observations increases 1–3 days before the earthquakes; for "deep" earthquakes the effect is more intensive. Thus it may be concluded that different mechanisms of energy transfer from the region of earthquake preparation to the ionosphere occur for "deep" and "crust" events.

  14. Fracking, wastewater disposal, and earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarr, Arthur

    2016-03-01

    In the modern oil and gas industry, fracking of low-permeability reservoirs has resulted in a considerable increase in the production of oil and natural gas, but these fluid-injection activities also can induce earthquakes. Earthquakes induced by fracking are an inevitable consequence of the injection of fluid at high pressure, where the intent is to enhance permeability by creating a system of cracks and fissures that allow hydrocarbons to flow to the borehole. The micro-earthquakes induced during these highly-controlled procedures are generally much too small to be felt at the surface; indeed, the creation or reactivation of a large fault would be contrary to the goal of enhancing permeability evenly throughout the formation. Accordingly, the few case histories for which fracking has resulted in felt earthquakes have been due to unintended fault reactivation. Of greater consequence for inducing earthquakes, modern techniques for producing hydrocarbons, including fracking, have resulted in considerable quantities of coproduced wastewater, primarily formation brines. This wastewater is commonly disposed by injection into deep aquifers having high permeability and porosity. As reported in many case histories, pore pressure increases due to wastewater injection were channeled from the target aquifers into fault zones that were, in effect, lubricated, resulting in earthquake slip. These fault zones are often located in the brittle crystalline rocks in the basement. Magnitudes of earthquakes induced by wastewater disposal often exceed 4, the threshold for structural damage. Even though only a small fraction of disposal wells induce earthquakes large enough to be of concern to the public, there are so many of these wells that this source of seismicity contributes significantly to the seismic hazard in the United States, especially east of the Rocky Mountains where standards of building construction are generally not designed to resist shaking from large earthquakes.

  15. Climate Change Signal Analysis for Northeast Asian Surface Temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jeong-Hyeong LEE; Byungsoo KIM; Keon-Tae SOHN; Won-Tae KOWN; Seung-Ki MIN

    2005-01-01

    Climate change detection, attribution, and prediction were studied for the surface temperature in the Northeast Asian region using NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data and three coupled-model simulations from ECHAM4/OPYC3, HadCM3, and CCCma GCMs (Canadian Centre for Climate Modeling and Analysis general circulation model). The Bayesian fingerprint approach was used to perform the detection and attribution test for the anthropogenic climate change signal associated with changes in anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) and sulfate aerosol (SO42-) concentrations for the Northeast Asian temperature. It was shown that there was a weak anthropogenic climate change signal in the Northeast Asian temperature change. The relative contribution of CO2 and SOl- effects to total temperature change in Northeast Asia was quantified from ECHAM4/OPYC3 and CCCma GCM simulations using analysis of variance. For the observed temperature change for the period of 1959-1998, the CO2 effect contributed 10%-21% of the total variance and the direct cooling effect of SO42- played a less important role (0% 7%) than the CO2effect. The prediction of surface temperature change was estimated from the second CO2+SO24- scenario run of ECHAM4/OPYC3 which has the least error in the simulation of the present-day temperature field near the Korean Peninsula. The result shows that the area-mean surface temperature near the Korean Peninsula will increase by about 1.1° by the 2040s relative to the 1990s.

  16. [Earthquakes--a historical review, environmental and health effects, and health care measures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nola, Iskra Alexandra; Doko Jelinić, Jagoda; Žuškin, Eugenija; Kratohvil, Mladen

    2013-06-01

    Earthquakes are natural disasters that can occur at any time, regardless of the location. Their frequency is higher in the Circum-Pacific and Mediterranean/Trans-Asian seismic belt. A number of sophisticated methods define their magnitude using the Richter scale and intensity using the Mercani-Cancani-Sieberg scale. Recorded data show a number of devastating earthquakes that have killed many people and changed the environment dramatically. Croatia is located in a seismically active area, which has endured a series of historical earthquakes, among which several occurred in the Zagreb area. The consequences of an earthquake depend mostly on the population density and seismic resistance of buildings in the affected area. Environmental consequences often include air, water, and soil pollution. The effects of this kind of pollution can have long-term health effects. The most dramatic health consequences result from the demolition of buildings. Therefore, quick and efficient aid depends on well-organized health professionals as well as on the readiness of the civil defence, fire department, and Mountain Rescue Service members. Good coordination among these services can save many lives Public health interventions must include effective control measures in the environment as secondary prevention methods for health problems caused by unfavourable environmental factors. The identification and control of long-term hazards can reduce chronic health effects. The reduction of earthquake-induced damages includes setting priorities in building seismically safe buildings.

  17. Rapid response to the earthquake emergency of May 2012 in the Po Plain, northern Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Milena Moretti; et al.

    2012-01-01

    Rapid-response seismic networks are an important element in the response to seismic crises. They temporarily improve the detection performance of permanent monitoring systems during seismic sequences. The improvement in earthquake detection and location capabilities can be important for decision makers to assess the current situation, and can provide invaluable data for scientific studies related to hazard, tectonics and earthquake physics. Aftershocks and the clustering of the locations of s...

  18. Earthquake Zoning Maps of Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earthquake Zoning Maps (1945, 1947, 1963, 1972 and 1996) and Specifications for Construction in Disaster Areas (1947, 1953, 1962, 1968, 1975, 1996, 1997 and 2006) have been changed many times following the developments in engineering seismology, tectonic and seismo-tectonic invention and improved earthquake data collection. The aim of this study is to give information about this maps, which come into force at different dates since the introduction of the firs official Earthquake Zoning Map published in 1945 and is to assist for better understanding of the development phases of these maps

  19. Predicting the Impact of Earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Consistently monitor seismicity over the world to alert civilian security forces, assess hazards, model and test building and industrial facilities behavior in the event of an earthquake. Thanks to instruments unique in Europe, CEA researchers acquired extensive know-how and international renown in the field. The recent commissioning of the CENALT Tsunami Warning Center and the setup of the SEISM Institute for research on earthquake hazards is just another proof of their expertise. For want of being able to predict earthquakes, these organizations aim at limiting losses in human lives and material damage. (authors)

  20. Fractal Models of Earthquake Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharya, Pathikrit; Kamal,; Samanta, Debashis

    2009-01-01

    Our understanding of earthquakes is based on the theory of plate tectonics. Earthquake dynamics is the study of the interactions of plates (solid disjoint parts of the lithosphere) which produce seismic activity. Over the last about fifty years many models have come up which try to simulate seismic activity by mimicking plate plate interactions. The validity of a given model is subject to the compliance of the synthetic seismic activity it produces to the well known empirical laws which describe the statistical features of observed seismic activity. Here we present a review of two such models of earthquake dynamics with main focus on a relatively new model namely The Two Fractal Overlap Model.

  1. Historical earthquake investigation and research in China

    OpenAIRE

    J. Wang

    2004-01-01

    China is one of the countries with the longest tradition of culture and has suffered many earthquake disasters, so many earthquake documents have therefore been conserved. In this paper we try to outline some basic information of historical earthquake investigation and research in China, such as collection of historical earthquake data from archives, historical earthquake catalogues, seismic intensity scales. We introduce briefly the huge accomplishments of historical research and discuss ...

  2. Earthquakes trigger the loss of groundwater biodiversity

    OpenAIRE

    Galassi, Diana M. P.; Paola Lombardo; Barbara Fiasca; Alessia Di Cioccio; Tiziana Di Lorenzo; Marco Petitta; Piero Di Carlo

    2014-01-01

    Earthquakes are among the most destructive natural events. The 6 April 2009, 6.3-Mw earthquake in L'Aquila (Italy) markedly altered the karstic Gran Sasso Aquifer (GSA) hydrogeology and geochemistry. The GSA groundwater invertebrate community is mainly comprised of small-bodied, colourless, blind microcrustaceans. We compared abiotic and biotic data from two pre-earthquake and one post-earthquake complete but non-contiguous hydrological years to investigate the effects of the 2009 earthquake ...

  3. EARTHQUAKE-INDUCED DEFORMATION STRUCTURES AND RELATED TO EARTHQUAKE MAGNITUDES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savaş TOPAL

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Earthquake-induced deformation structures which are called seismites may helpful to clasify the paleoseismic history of a location and to estimate the magnitudes of the potention earthquakes in the future. In this paper, seismites were investigated according to the types formed in deep and shallow lake sediments. Seismites are observed forms of sand dikes, introduced and fractured gravels and pillow structures in shallow lakes and pseudonodules, mushroom-like silts protruding laminites, mixed layers, disturbed varved lamination and loop bedding in deep lake sediments. Earthquake-induced deformation structures, by benefiting from previous studies, were ordered according to their formations and earthquake magnitudes. In this order, the lowest eartquake's record is loop bedding and the highest one is introduced and fractured gravels in lacustrine deposits.

  4. Seismicity patterns before MD >= 4.1 earthquakes in the Friuli-Venezia Giulia (northeastern Italy) and western Slovenia areas

    OpenAIRE

    Gentili, Stefania; Bressan, Gianni

    2007-01-01

    International audience The spatial-temporal pattern of seismicity, preceding 5 moderate-sized earthquakes with MD ≥ 4.1, that occurred in the Friuli-Venezia Giulia region (northeastern Italy) and in western Slovenia, is investigated with the Region-Time-Length (RTL) and the PI algorithms. These algorithms were originally formulated to reveal the variation of seismicity patterns before large earthquakes. The RTL algorithm detects seismic quiescences before the 1996 Claut earthquake (MD 4.3)...

  5. Electron and ion density variations before strong earthquakes (M>6.0) using DEMETER and GPS data

    OpenAIRE

    Akhoondzadeh, M; Parrot, M.; M. R. Saradjian

    2010-01-01

    Using IAP (plasma analyzer) and ISL (Langmuir probe) experiments onboard DEMETER (Detection of Electromagnetic Emissions Transmitted from Earthquake Regions) satellite and GPS (Global Positioning System) measurements, we have statistically analyzed the variations of the electron and ion densities to search for disturbances in the vicinity of four large earthquakes prior to events. The indices Dst and Kp were used to distinguish pre-earthquake anomalies from the other anomalies related to the ...

  6. Asian student migration to Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, J; Hawthorne, L

    1996-01-01

    "This paper presents an overview of Asian student migration to Australia, together with an analysis of political and educational aspects of the overseas student programme. It focuses on some significant consequences of this flow for Australia. The characteristics of key student groups are contrasted to provide some perspective of the diversity of historical and cultural backgrounds, with the source countries of Malaysia, Indonesia and PRC [China] selected as case studies. Since the issue of PRC students in Australia has attracted considerable public attention and policy consideration, particular focus is placed on their experience." (SUMMARY IN FRE AND SPA) PMID:12291796

  7. Acoustics of old Asian bells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossing, Thomas D.

    2001-05-01

    The art of casting bronze bells developed to a high level of sophistication in China during the Shang dynasty (1766-1123 BC). Many chimes of two-tone bells remain from the Western and Eastern Zhou dynasties (1122-249 BC). With the spread of Buddhism from the third century, large round temple bells developed in China and later in Korea, Japan, and other Asian countries. Vibrational modes of some of these bells have been studied by means of holographic interferometry and experimental modal testing. Their musical as well as acoustical properties are discussed.

  8. Changing mobilities in Asian cities

    OpenAIRE

    Boquet, Yves

    2010-01-01

    Asian countries have experienced tremendous changes in their mobility patterns in recent years. As economic development has allowed a rise in the standards of living of a god part of the population, the rate of motorzation has increased very quickly. At the sametime, cities populations continue to grow at a fast pace, and the spread of the urbanized area requires more and more to be able to travel on distances too long for walking or even bicycling. Given the high density of many central citi...

  9. Introduction to Asian Herpetological Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuezhao WANG; Shengxian ZHONG

    2011-01-01

    Asian Herpetological Research (AHR),an international English language journal,is published quarterly by the Chengdu Institute of Biology (CIB),Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Science Press of China,cooperated with the Asiatic Herpetological Research Society (AHRS),with its registered numbers:CN 51-1735/Q and ISSN 2095-0357,and post distribution code:62-218.AHR has an international Editorial Board consisting of many top herpetologists from different countries in the world.The journal's website can be found at:http://www.ahr-journal.com.

  10. Earthquake, GIS and multimedia. The 1883 Casamicciola earthquake

    OpenAIRE

    M. Rebuffat; Martini, M. G.; Cubellis, E.; 0; S. Castenetto; F. Bramerini; P SODDU

    1995-01-01

    A series of multimedia monographs concerning the main seismic events that have affected the Italian territory are in the process of being produced for the Documental Integrated Multimedia Project (DIMP) started by the Italian National Seismic Survey (NSS). The purpose of the project is to reconstruct the historical record of earthquakes and promote an earthquake public education. Producing the monographs. developed in ARC INFO and working in UNIX. involved designing a special filing and manag...

  11. Earthquakes in cities revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Wirgin, Armand

    2016-01-01

    During the last twenty years, a number of publications of theoretical-numerical nature have appeared which come to the apparently-reassuring conclusion that seismic motion on the ground in cities is smaller than what this motion would be in the absence of the buildings (but for the same underground and seismic load). Other than the fact that this finding tells nothing about the motion within the buildings, it must be confronted with the overwhelming empirical evidence (e.g, earthquakes in Sendai (2011), Kathmandu (2015), Tainan City (2016), etc.) that shaking within buildings of a city is often large enough to damage or even destroy these structures. I show, on several examples, that theory can be reconciled with empirical evidence, and suggest that the crucial subject of seismic response in cities is in need of more thorough research.

  12. Culture and Personality Among European American and Asian American Men

    OpenAIRE

    Eap, Sopagna; DeGarmo, David S.; Kawakami, Ayaka; Hara, Shelley N.; Hall, Gordon C.N.; Teten, Andra L.

    2008-01-01

    Personality differences between Asian American (N = 320) and European American men (N = 242) and also among Asian American ethnic groups (Korean, Chinese, Japanese, Filipino, and mixed Asian) are examined on the Big Five personality dimension. Personality structures for Asian Americans and European Americans closely replicate established norms. However, congruence is greater for European American and highly acculturated Asian American men than for low acculturated Asian American men. Similar ...

  13. Discussion on Earthquake Forecasting and Early Warning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Xiaodong; Jiang Haikun; Li Mingxiao

    2008-01-01

    Through analysis of natural and social attributes of earthquake forecasting,the relationship between the natural and social attributes of earthquake forecasting (early warning) has been discussed.Regarding the natural attributes of earthquake forecasting,it only attempts to forecast the magnitude,location and occurrence time of future earthquake based on the aualysis of observational data and relevant theories and taking into consideration the present understanding of seismogeny and earthquake generation.It need not consider the consequences an earthquake forecast involves,and its purpose is to check out the level of scientific understanding of earthquakes.In respect of the social aspect of earthquake forecasting,people also focus on the consequence that the forecasting involves,in addition to its natural aspect,such as the uncertainty of earthquake prediction itself,the impact of earthquake prediction,and the earthquake resistant capability of structures (buildings),lifeline works,etc.In a word,it highlights the risk of earthquake forecasting and tries to mitigate the earthquake hazard as much as possible.In this paper,the authors also discuss the scientific and social challenges faced in earthquake prediction and analyze preliminarily the meanings and content of earthquake early warning.

  14. Sichuan Earthquake in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The Sichuan earthquake in China occurred on May 12, 2008, along faults within the mountains, but near and almost parallel the mountain front, northwest of the city of Chengdu. This major quake caused immediate and severe damage to many villages and cities in the area. Aftershocks pose a continuing danger, but another continuing hazard is the widespread occurrence of landslides that have formed new natural dams and consequently new lakes. These lakes are submerging roads and flooding previously developed lands. But an even greater concern is the possible rapid release of water as the lakes eventually overflow the new dams. The dams are generally composed of disintegrated rock debris that may easily erode, leading to greater release of water, which may then cause faster erosion and an even greater release of water. This possible 'positive feedback' between increasing erosion and increasing water release could result in catastrophic debris flows and/or flooding. The danger is well known to the Chinese earthquake response teams, which have been building spillways over some of the new natural dams. This ASTER image, acquired on June 1, 2008, shows two of the new large landslide dams and lakes upstream from the town of Chi-Kua-Kan at 32o12'N latitude and 104o50'E longitude. Vegetation is green, water is blue, and soil is grayish brown in this enhanced color view. New landslides appear bright off-white. The northern (top) lake is upstream from the southern lake. Close inspection shows a series of much smaller lakes in an elongated 'S' pattern along the original stream path. Note especially the large landslides that created the dams. Some other landslides in this area, such as the large one in the northeast corner of the image, occur only on the mountain slopes, so do not block streams, and do not form lakes.

  15. Earthquakes in Switzerland and surrounding regions during 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report of the Swiss Seismological Service summarizes the seismic activity in Switzerland and surrounding regions during 2011. During this period, 522 earthquakes and 92 quarry blasts were detected and located in the region under consideration. With a total of only 10 events with ML ≥ 2.5, the seismic activity in the year 2011 was far below the average over the previous 36 years. Most noteworthy were the earthquake sequence of Sierre (VS) in January, with two events of ML 3.3 and 3.2, the ML 3.3 earthquake at a depth of 31 km below Bregenz, and the ML 3.1 event near Delémont. The two strongest events near Sierre produced shaking of intensity IV. (authors)

  16. HF Doppler observations of acoustic waves excited by the earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichinose, T.; Takagi, K.; Tanaka, T.; Okuzawa, T.; Shibata, T.; Sato, Y.; Nagasawa, C.; Ogawa, T.

    1985-01-01

    Ionospheric disturbances caused by the earthquake of a relatively small and large epicentral distance have been detected by a network of HF-Doppler sounders in central Japan and Kyoto station, respectively. The HF-Doppler data of a small epicentral distance, together with the seismic data, have been used to formulate a mechanism whereby ionospheric disturbances are produced by the Urakawa-Oki earthquake in Japan. Comparison of the dynamic spectra of these data has revealed experimentally that the atmosphere acts as a low-pass filter for upward-propagating acoustic waves. By surveying the earthquakes for which the magnitude M is larger than 6.0, researchers found the ionospheric effect in 16 cases of 82 seismic events. As almost all these effects have occurred in the daytime, it is considered that it may result from the filtering effect of the upward-propagating acoustic waves.

  17. Bam earthquake: Surface deformation measurement using radar interferometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Ye

    2005-01-01

    On the 26th December 2003 an earthquake with Mw=6.5 shook a large area of the Kerman Province in Iran. The epicenter of the devastating earthquake was located near the city of Bam. This paper described the application of differential synthetic aperture radar interferometry (D-INSAR) and ENVISAT ASAR data to map the coseismic surface deformation caused by the Bam earthquake including the interferometric data processing and results in detail. Based on the difference in the coherence images before and after the event and edge search of the deformation field, a new fault ruptured on the surface was detected and used as a data source for parameter extraction of a theoretical seismic modeling. The simulated deformation field from the model perfectly coincides with the result derived from the SAR interferometric measurement.

  18. Asian Studies Unit One: Asian Man and His Environment, Pilot Program; [And] Asian Studies Unit Two: Cultural Patterns of Asian Man, Field Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicago Board of Education, IL.

    Two units of Asian materials for secondary students comprise this document. The first unit presents a brief history of Asian man and his environment, including geography, climate, ethnic groups, resources, food, and population. Following the historical narrative are community references and various learning experiences and activities which further…

  19. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    <正>APJTB Monthly Aims&Scope Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine(APJTB)aims to set up and provide an international academic communication platform for physicians,medical scientists,allied health scientists and public health workers,especially those in the Asian Pacific region and worldwide on tropical biomedicine,infectious diseases and public

  20. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    Aims & Scope Asian Pacific Journal of TropicalBiomedicine(APJTB) aims to set up and provide an international academic communication plaffom for physicians,medical scientisis,allied health scientists and public health workers,especially those in the Asian Pacific region and worldwide on tropical biomedicine,infectious diseases and public health,and to meet the growing challenges

  1. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    <正>Aims&Scope Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine(APJTB)aims to set up and provide an international academic communication platform for physicians,medical scientists,allied health scientists and public health workers,especially those in the Asian Pacific region and worldwide on tropical biomedicine,infectious diseases and public health,and to meet the growing challenges of understanding

  2. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    APJTB MonthlyAims&Scope Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine(APJTB)aims to set up and provide an international academic communication platform for physicians,medical scientists,allied health scientists and public health workers,especially those in the Asian Pacific region and worldwide on tropical biomedicine,infectious diseases and public health,and to meet the growing challenges

  3. Beyond Bound Feet: Relocating Asian American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazumdar, Sucheta

    1996-01-01

    Attempts to correct the limited and stereotypical portrayal of Asian American women found in most histories. Reveals that women often played a more central and active role in the Asian American experience. Discusses little-known facets of this experience (e.g., many immigrants returned home after achieving financial security). (MJP)

  4. Regional conditions in East Asian development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søborg, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    The present volume contains case studies of how government og firms in a number of Asian countries have responded to challenges of globalisation and how that has affected their economic transformation.......The present volume contains case studies of how government og firms in a number of Asian countries have responded to challenges of globalisation and how that has affected their economic transformation....

  5. Asian American Literature: Questions of Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongo, Garrett

    1994-01-01

    Argues that Asian American literature is too narrowly defined to include the wide range of diversity it contains and calls for Asian writers to produce work from a more generous interpretive perspective. American poetry is extolled for its beauty of language and its effect on the emotions to both energize and sadden. (GR)

  6. Immunizations and Asians and Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Program Grants Other Grants Planning and Evaluation Grantee Best Practices Asian American Asthma Cancer Chronic Liver Disease Diabetes ... 13 to 17 years who ever received the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination, 2014 - Males #doses Asian Males ... 240-453-2882 Office of Minority Health Resource Center Toll Free: 1-800-444-6472 / Fax: ...

  7. Asian Cinema and the Social Imaginary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissanayake, Wimal

    2009-01-01

    There is growing interest by schools and universities in understanding Asian societies and cultures. One way of deepening this interest productively is through the imaginative use of cinema. In this article, the author explores how cinema can be a window into the dynamics of contemporary Asian societies and cultures. Through "aesthetic…

  8. Electrostatics in sandstorms and earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinbrot, Troy; Thyagu, Nirmal; Paehtz, Thomas; Herrmann, Hans

    2010-11-01

    We present new data demonstrating (1) that electrostatic charging in sandstorms is a necessary outcome in a class of rapid collisional flows, and (2) that electrostatic precursors to slip events - long reported in earthquakes - can be reproduced in the laboratory.

  9. Behavior of Columns During Earthquakes

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The behavior of columns during earthquakes is very important since column failures may lead to additional structural failures and result in total building...

  10. Magnetotelluric studies in the epicenter zone of 2001, Bhuj earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Kapil; Rastogi, B. K.; Chaudhary, Peush

    2015-02-01

    Some earthquakes to Mw5 level are occurring along two faults viz. Kachchh Mainland Fault and South Wagad Fault near the epicenter of Mw7.7 Bhuj earthquake of 2001. These faults are not the causative fault of the 2001 earthquake and suspect for future large earthquake. In absence of detail geophysical surveys, the sub-surface orientation of these faults was not known and MT profiles have proved useful in delineating the subsurface trends. Two MT profiles having lengths of 24 km and 15 km (with an inter station spacing of 1-3 km) are taken about 10 km east and west of the epicenter of Mw7.7, 2001 Bhuj earthquake, respectively. The profiles are in nearly N-S direction to detect the faults which trend E-W in the area. From 2-D inversion of MT data of 23 stations, it is found that there are two distinctive conductive features matching with the South Wagad Fault and Kachchh Mainland Fault south of it both being about 10 km apart. The South Wagad Fault is seen extending to Banni low lying area 30 km west of the present trace.

  11. Fractal Nature of Earthquake Occurrence in Andaman Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Samuel Selvaraj,

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The Andaman region (92º to 94º East Longitude and 6º to 14º North Latitude has seen many earthquakes in past ranging from low to very high magnitude causing massive losses. Earthquakes in Andaman aremainly caused due to release of elastic strain energy created and replenished by persistent collision of the Indo- Australian plate with the Eurasian plate. In this paper the fractal analysis were done for earthquakes (mb>3 occurred during 1980 – 2007, which led to the detection of a clustering events in four consecutive one hundred andfifty events window having low correlation dimension (Dc value ranging from 0.611 to 0.277 during the period between 20.1.2005 to 02.02.2005.Spatio-temporal clustering of events apparently indicates a highly stressed region, leading to increase of shear strain causing weak zone from where the rupture propagation may eventually nucleatecausing large earthquake. This kind of clustering pattern study using well-constrained catalogue data for the Andaman fault systems of seismically active region can eventually help in the preparedness and mitigation of earthquake hazard.

  12. Active tectonics and earthquake potential of the Myanmar region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Sieh, Kerry; Tun, Soe Thura; Lai, Kuang-Yin; Myint, Than

    2014-04-01

    This paper describes geomorphologic evidence for the principal neotectonic features of Myanmar and its immediate surroundings. We combine this evidence with published structural, geodetic, and seismic data to present an overview of the active tectonic architecture of the region and its seismic potential. Three tectonic systems accommodate oblique collision of the Indian plate with Southeast Asia and extrusion of Asian territory around the eastern syntaxis of the Himalayan mountain range. Subduction and collision associated with the Sunda megathrust beneath and within the Indoburman range and Naga Hills accommodate most of the shortening across the transpressional plate boundary. The Sagaing fault system is the predominant locus of dextral motion associated with the northward translation of India. Left-lateral faults of the northern Shan Plateau, northern Laos, Thailand, and southern China facilitate extrusion of rocks around the eastern syntaxis of the Himalaya. All of these systems have produced major earthquakes within recorded history and continue to present major seismic hazards in the region.

  13. Pseudotachylytes and Earthquake Source Mechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Di Toro, G.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Roma1, Roma, Italia; Pennacchioni, G.; Nielsen, S.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Roma1, Roma, Italia

    2008-01-01

    Destructive earthquakes nucleate at depth (10-15 km), therefore monitoring active faults at the Earth’s surface, or interpreting seismic waves, yields only limited information on earthquake mechanics. Tectonic pseudotachylytes (solidified friction-induced melts) decorate some exhumed ancient faults and remain, up to now, the only fault rocks recognized as the unambiguous signature of seismic slip. It follows that pseudotachylyte-bearing fault networks might retain a wealth of info...

  14. Post-earthquake dilatancy recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, C. H.

    1974-01-01

    Geodetic measurements of the 1964 Niigata, Japan earthquake and of three other examples are briefly examined. They show exponentially decaying subsidence for a year after the quakes. The observations confirm the dilatancy-fluid diffusion model of earthquake precursors and clarify the extent and properties of the dilatant zone. An analysis using one-dimensional consolidation theory is included which agrees well with this interpretation.

  15. The GIS and analysis of earthquake damage distribution of the 1303 Hongtong M=8 earthquake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高孟潭; 金学申; 安卫平; 吕晓健

    2004-01-01

    The geography information system of the 1303 Hongtong M=8 earthquake has been established. Using the spatial analysis function of GIS, the spatial distribution characteristics of damage and isoseismal of the earthquake are studied. By comparing with the standard earthquake intensity attenuation relationship, the abnormal damage distribution of the earthquake is found, so the relationship of the abnormal distribution with tectonics, site condition and basin are analyzed. In this paper, the influence on the ground motion generated by earthquake source and the underground structures near source also are studied. The influence on seismic zonation, anti-earthquake design, earthquake prediction and earthquake emergency responding produced by the abnormal density distribution are discussed.

  16. China reshapes the East Asian production network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐海燕; 张会清

    2009-01-01

    From the perspective of intra-product specialization and with in-depth analysis of trade statistics,this paper investigates the influence of China’s rise on the East Asian production network.Our conclusions suggest that in integrating into the East Asian production network,China has gradually emerged as the manufacturing center of East Asia,weakening the regional influence of the Four Asian Tigers.Meanwhile,the competitive effect of China’s rise has helped promote the specialization levels of the network’s members and even the network as a whole.With cooperation in various processes of intra-product specialization,internal connections of the East Asian production network were further strengthened.In addition,China became an export platform of East Asia,transforming the export pattern of the East Asian production network to world markets from "bilateral trade" into "triangular trade," trade via China.

  17. Seismological study on earthquake engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chi, Heon Cheol; Lee, Hee Il; Jeon, Jeong Soo; Shin, In Chul; Kim, Dong Kyun; Park, Jung Ho; Kim, Geun Young [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    Building Code was recently amended in order to secure the safety and/or tolerance against disastrous earthquake. For the adequate but economical earthquake-resistant design, the possible maximum earthquake and the relevant waveform are crucial as input data with site characteristics. In this paper, the future plan of seismic observation network is proposed with both velocity and acceleration recordings : KIGAM, KEPRI and universities are presently involved in this plan. Nuclear power plant is fortified against earthquake since its failure results in unpredictable catastrophe. Nuclear power plant is strong enough to keep its function from big earthquake if the epicentral distance is greater than 15 Km. Here, the geological features around Youngkwang, Kori, Weolsung and Uljin nuclear power sites within 15 Km are described with geological map. Internet communications is rapidly popular at Korea. For efficient data exchange and convenient maintenance. the standard configuration of seismic station with TCP/IP communication is suggested. The procedure of constructing station is also explained with the emphasis of earth grounding. KIGAM purchased the automatic data retrieving and processing software, so-called Korea Earthquake Monitoring System (KEMS), with source code. KEMS uses CSS 3.0 schema for relational database with Oracle SQL engine. KIGAM is in charge of distributing down-sizing KEMS to seismic research universities. KIGAM is willing to supply the modified KEMS to any institute which wants to make network with KIGAM. Here, the networking through Internet is explained by sharing KEMS. (author). 85 refs., 15 tabs., 71 figs.

  18. Building with Earthquakes in Mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangieri, Nicholas

    2016-04-01

    Earthquakes are some of the most elusive and destructive disasters humans interact with on this planet. Engineering structures to withstand earthquake shaking is critical to ensure minimal loss of life and property. However, the majority of buildings today in non-traditional earthquake prone areas are not built to withstand this devastating force. Understanding basic earthquake engineering principles and the effect of limited resources helps students grasp the challenge that lies ahead. The solution can be found in retrofitting existing buildings with proper reinforcements and designs to deal with this deadly disaster. The students were challenged in this project to construct a basic structure, using limited resources, that could withstand a simulated tremor through the use of an earthquake shake table. Groups of students had to work together to creatively manage their resources and ideas to design the most feasible and realistic type of building. This activity provided a wealth of opportunities for the students to learn more about a type of disaster they do not experience in this part of the country. Due to the fact that most buildings in New York City were not designed to withstand earthquake shaking, the students were able to gain an appreciation for how difficult it would be to prepare every structure in the city for this type of event.

  19. Earthquake damage to underground facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential seismic risk for an underground nuclear waste repository will be one of the considerations in evaluating its ultimate location. However, the risk to subsurface facilities cannot be judged by applying intensity ratings derived from the surface effects of an earthquake. A literature review and analysis were performed to document the damage and non-damage due to earthquakes to underground facilities. Damage from earthquakes to tunnels, s, and wells and damage (rock bursts) from mining operations were investigated. Damage from documented nuclear events was also included in the study where applicable. There are very few data on damage in the subsurface due to earthquakes. This fact itself attests to the lessened effect of earthquakes in the subsurface because mines exist in areas where strong earthquakes have done extensive surface damage. More damage is reported in shallow tunnels near the surface than in deep mines. In mines and tunnels, large displacements occur primarily along pre-existing faults and fractures or at the surface entrance to these facilities.Data indicate vertical structures such as wells and shafts are less susceptible to damage than surface facilities. More analysis is required before seismic criteria can be formulated for the siting of a nuclear waste repository

  20. Intracontinental basins and strong earthquakes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓起东; 高孟潭; 赵新平; 吴建春

    2004-01-01

    The September 17, 1303 Hongtong M=8 earthquake occurred in Linfen basin of Shanxi down-faulted basin zone. It is the first recorded M=8 earthquake since the Chinese historical seismic records had started and is a great earthquake occurring in the active intracontinental basin. We had held a Meeting of the 700th Anniversary of the 1303 Hongtong M=8 Earthquake in Shanxi and a Symposium on Intracontinental Basins and Strong Earthquakes in Taiyuan City of Shanxi Province on September 17~18, 2003. The articles presented on the symposium discussed the relationships between active intracontinental basins of different properties, developed in different regions, including tensional graben and semi-graben basins in tensile tectonic regions, compression-depression basins and foreland basins in compressive tectonic regions and pull-apart basins in strike-slip tectonic zones, and strong earthquakes in China. In this article we make a brief summary of some problems. The articles published in this special issue are a part of the articles presented on the symposium.

  1. Earthquakes - Volcanoes (Causes and Forecast)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiapas, E.

    2009-04-01

    EARTHQUAKES - VOLCANOES (CAUSES AND FORECAST) ELIAS TSIAPAS RESEARCHER NEA STYRA, EVIA,GREECE TEL.0302224041057 tsiapas@hol.gr The earthquakes are caused by large quantities of liquids (e.g. H2O, H2S, SO2, ect.) moving through lithosphere and pyrosphere (MOHO discontinuity) till they meet projections (mountains negative projections or projections coming from sinking lithosphere). The liquids are moved from West Eastward carried away by the pyrosphere because of differential speed of rotation of the pyrosphere by the lithosphere. With starting point an earthquake which was noticed at an area and from statistical studies, we know when, where and what rate an earthquake may be, which earthquake is caused by the same quantity of liquids, at the next east region. The forecast of an earthquake ceases to be valid if these components meet a crack in the lithosphere (e.g. limits of lithosphere plates) or a volcano crater. In this case the liquids come out into the atmosphere by the form of gasses carrying small quantities of lava with them (volcano explosion).

  2. Seafloor Geodetic Approaches to Subduction Thrust Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, H.

    2014-03-01

    Observation systems and some observed results of seafloor geodesy are reviewed with a focus on the research activities of Japanese groups, especially those of Tohoku University. Seafloor acoustic ranging has been adopted as the simplest way to continuously monitor local crustal activities. The GPS-Acoustic (GPSA) method has been the most important for seafloor positioning. It seems that commercial technologies can be used to lessen the considerable differences in repeatability and spatio-temporal resolution of GPSA and land based GPS. Ocean bottom pressure sensors have been used to continuously monitor vertical crustal movements. Improvements in the resolution and long-term stability of pressure sensors will lead to monitoring slow slip events and interplate locking. Ocean bottom and underwater gravimeters have been developed for precise gravity mapping and monitoring mass change beneath the seafloor. The 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake is an historical event demonstrating that seafloor geodetic observations are crucial to understanding the mechanism of giant earthquakes. Coseismic displacements detected through geodetic observations on the seafloor have indicated huge slips on the shallow part of the plate boundary. A slow slip event near the zone of the coseismic slip preceding the main event has been detected from slight pressure variations. This illustrates the importance of real-time monitoring with a cabled seafloor observatory, which is also a key to establishing a reliable early tsunami warning system.

  3. Very short-term earthquake precursors from GPS signal interference: Case studies on moderate and large earthquakes in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Yu-Lien; Cheng, Kai-Chien; Wang, Wei-Hau; Yu, Shui-Beih

    2016-04-01

    We set up a GPS network with 17 Continuous GPS (CGPS) stations in southwestern Taiwan to monitor real-time crustal deformation. We found that systematic perturbations in GPS signals occurred just a few minutes prior to the occurrence of several moderate and large earthquakes, including the recent 2013 Nantou (ML = 6.5) and Rueisuei (ML = 6.4) earthquakes in Taiwan. The anomalous pseudorange readings were several millimeters higher or lower than those in the background time period. These systematic anomalies were found as a result of interference of GPS L-band signals by electromagnetic emissions (EMs) prior to the mainshocks. The EMs may occur in the form of harmonic or ultra-wide-band radiation and can be generated during the formation of Mode I cracks at the final stage of earthquake nucleation. We estimated the directivity of the likely EM sources by calculating the inner product of the position vector from a GPS station to a given satellite and the vector of anomalous ground motions recorded by the GPS. The results showed that the predominant inner product generally occurred when the satellite was in the direction either toward or away from the epicenter with respect to the GPS network. Our findings suggest that the GPS network may serve as a powerful tool to detect very short-term earthquake precursors and presumably to locate a large earthquake before it occurs.

  4. Validating of Atmospheric Signals Associated with some of the Major Earthquakes in Asia (2003-2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouzounov, D. P.; Pulinets, S.; Liu, J. Y.; Hattori, K.; Oarritm N,; Taylor, P. T.

    2010-01-01

    The recent catastrophic earthquake in Haiti (January 2010) has provided and renewed interest in the important question of the existence of precursory signals related to strong earthquakes. Latest studies (VESTO workshop in Japan 2009) have shown that there were precursory atmospheric signals observed on the ground and in space associated with several recent earthquakes. The major question, still widely debated in the scientific community is whether such signals systematically precede major earthquakes. To address this problem we have started to validate the anomalous atmospheric signals during the occurrence of large earthquakes. Our approach is based on integration analysis of several physical and environmental parameters (thermal infrared radiation, electron concentration in the ionosphere, Radon/ion activities, air temperature and seismicity) that were found to be associated with earthquakes. We performed hind-cast detection over three different regions with high seismicity Taiwan, Japan and Kamchatka for the period of 2003-2009. We are using existing thermal satellite data (Aqua and POES); in situ atmospheric data (NOAA/NCEP); and ionospheric variability data (GPS/TEC and DEMETER). The first part of this validation included 42 major earthquakes (M greater than 5.9): 10 events in Taiwan, 15 events in Japan, 15 events in Kamchatka and four most recent events for M8.0 Wenchuan earthquake (May 2008) in China and M7.9 Samoa earthquakes (Sep 2009). Our initial results suggest a systematic appearance of atmospheric anomalies near the epicentral area, 1 to 5 days prior to the largest earthquakes, that could be explained by a coupling process between the observed physical parameters, and the earthquake preparation processes.

  5. Systematical Search for remotely triggered earthquakes in Tibet Plateau following the 2004 M9.2 Sumatra and the 2005 M8.6 Nias earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, D.; Peng, Z.; Meng, X.

    2013-12-01

    The continuous collision between the Indian Plate and Eurasian Plate gives rise to the formation of Tibet Plateau, one of the most complex tectonic environments in the world. In this study, we search for remotely triggered earthquakes in Tibet Plateau following the 2004 M9.2 Sumatra and the 2005 M8.6 Nias Earthquakes. During 2002 to 2005, the Hi-CLIMB (Himalayan-Tibetan Continental Lithosphere during Mountain Building) experiment (IRIS network code XF) was operated in South-Central Tibet, extending from the Ganges lowland, across the Himalayas and into the central Tibetan plateau. Over 200 sites were occupied over this experiment, providing unprecedented continuous recordings around the 2004 Sumatra and the 2005 Nias Earthquakes. On April 7th 2005, nearly 10 days after the 2005 Nias Earthquake, Zhongba was shaken by an Mw 6.3 Earthquake, raising the question on whether this event was delay-triggered by the Nias Earthquake. The Zhongba region is characterized by many NS-trending rift systems that accommodate EW extension, and several moderate-size earthquakes since 2004 suggest that this region is seismically active. Here we use a recently developed matched filter technique to examine seismicity rate changes associated with the 2004 Sumatra and 2005 Nias earthquakes. Specifically, we use 32 relocated earthquakes in Zhongba as templates to detect additional local events between 12/2004 and 05/2005. Although we have detected more than 45 times more events during this time period, we find no statistically significant change in the seismicity rate following the Nias earthquake and before the 2005 Zhongba mainshock. Hence, it is difficult to establish a triggering relationship between these two events. However, after manual inspection of the continuous data during the surface wave trains of the 2004 Sumatra and the 2005 Nias earthquakes, we identify many triggered microearthquakes 350 km north of Zhongba. These dynamically triggered events were located in southern part

  6. Observation of Asian dust properties by using multi-wavelength LIDAR system at anmyeon island, Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Asian dust affect climate both directly and indirectly because they act as effective ice nuclei and forms ice cloud. However, little is known about spatial distribution and trajectory because few measurement data are available in the free troposphere over East Asia, where a large amount of Asian dust are transported form desert regions in Asian continent. LIDAR system is an effective tool for remotely measuring the vertical distribution of aerosol optical properties. For measurement of Asian dust optical properties, a multi-wavelength LIDAR system developed by the Advanced Environment Monitoring Research Center (ADEMRC), Gwangju Institute Science and Technology (GIST), Korea. This paper presents the results of ground-based multi-wavelength LIDAR measurements of the Asian dust aerosol over Anmyeon Island (36.40N, 126.10E) during the spring of 2004. To discriminate between Asian dust and cloud, depolarization ratio is useful for the detection of these particles and the LIDAR ratio. Also, we discuss the relationship between LIDAR ratio and other optical properties from LIDAR measurement, i.e., the depolarization ratio, aerosol extinction coefficient and LIDAR ratio

  7. Ionospheric Disturbances Observed during Earthquakes and Solar Eclipses at Tashkent and Kitab GPS Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmedov, Bobomurat

    2016-07-01

    Since the Global Positioning System (GPS) data can be used to measure the ionospheric TEC, the technique has received our attention as a potential tool to detect ionospheric perturbations related to the earthquakes and we mainly analysed GPS derived TEC disturbances from two GPS stations located in Tashkent and Kitab, for possible earthquake ionospheric precursors. This talk reports the ionospheric anomalies observed during strong local earthquakes (M greater than 5.0) which occurred mostly in and around Uzbekistan in seismically active zones, during years 2010 to 2015 within 1000 km from the observing GPS stations located in Tashkent and Kitab. The solar and geomagnetic conditions were quiet during occurrence of the selected more than 30 earthquakes. We produced TEC time series over both sites and apply them to detect anomalous TEC signals preceding or accompanying the earthquakes. The results show anomalous enhancements which are examined in the earthquakes. In general the anomalies occurred 1-6 days before the earthquakes as ionospheric electromagnetic precursors. To identify the anomalous values of TEC we calculated differential TEC (dTEC). dTEC is obtained by subtracting 15 days backward running mean of vTEC from the values of observed vTEC at each epoch. This procedure removes normal variations in TEC. For a detail study of the data, we have calculated dTEC values for all the months and examined the anomalous TEC variations before the earthquakes. A thorough analysis of the data shows abnormal variations in TEC and ionospheric anomalies, such as variations in the electron density few days before the earthquakes, may play a role of one of the electromagnetic precursory signals of earthquakes. TEC decrease during the solar eclipses is also obtained from data at GPS station in Tashkent and Kitab. During the solar flares occurrence the amplitude of TEC is amplified with compare to the nondisturbed initial monthly mean background value after the flare.

  8. The Electronic Encyclopedia of Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benthien, M.; Marquis, J.; Jordan, T.

    2003-12-01

    The Electronic Encyclopedia of Earthquakes is a collaborative project of the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC), the Consortia of Universities for Research in Earthquake Engineering (CUREE) and the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS). This digital library organizes earthquake information online as a partner with the NSF-funded National Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) Digital Library (NSDL) and the Digital Library for Earth System Education (DLESE). When complete, information and resources for over 500 Earth science and engineering topics will be included, with connections to curricular materials useful for teaching Earth Science, engineering, physics and mathematics. Although conceived primarily as an educational resource, the Encyclopedia is also a valuable portal to anyone seeking up-to-date earthquake information and authoritative technical sources. "E3" is a unique collaboration among earthquake scientists and engineers to articulate and document a common knowledge base with a shared terminology and conceptual framework. It is a platform for cross-training scientists and engineers in these complementary fields and will provide a basis for sustained communication and resource-building between major education and outreach activities. For example, the E3 collaborating organizations have leadership roles in the two largest earthquake engineering and earth science projects ever sponsored by NSF: the George E. Brown Network for Earthquake Engineering Simulation (CUREE) and the EarthScope Project (IRIS and SCEC). The E3 vocabulary and definitions are also being connected to a formal ontology under development by the SCEC/ITR project for knowledge management within the SCEC Collaboratory. The E3 development system is now fully operational, 165 entries are in the pipeline, and the development teams are capable of producing 20 new, fully reviewed encyclopedia entries each month. Over the next two years teams will

  9. A Prospect of Earthquake Prediction Research

    CERN Document Server

    Ogata, Yosihiko

    2013-01-01

    Earthquakes occur because of abrupt slips on faults due to accumulated stress in the Earth's crust. Because most of these faults and their mechanisms are not readily apparent, deterministic earthquake prediction is difficult. For effective prediction, complex conditions and uncertain elements must be considered, which necessitates stochastic prediction. In particular, a large amount of uncertainty lies in identifying whether abnormal phenomena are precursors to large earthquakes, as well as in assigning urgency to the earthquake. Any discovery of potentially useful information for earthquake prediction is incomplete unless quantitative modeling of risk is considered. Therefore, this manuscript describes the prospect of earthquake predictability research to realize practical operational forecasting in the near future.

  10. Comparison of two large earthquakes: the 2008 Sichuan Earthquake and the 2011 East Japan Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, Yuki; Ando, Takayuki; Atobe, Kaori; Haiden, Akina; Kao, Sheng-Yuan; Saito, Kohei; Shimanuki, Marie; Yoshimoto, Norifumi; Fukunaga, Koichi

    2012-01-01

    Between August 15th and 19th, 2011, eight 5th-year medical students from the Keio University School of Medicine had the opportunity to visit the Peking University School of Medicine and hold a discussion session titled "What is the most effective way to educate people for survival in an acute disaster situation (before the mental health care stage)?" During the session, we discussed the following six points: basic information regarding the Sichuan Earthquake and the East Japan Earthquake, differences in preparedness for earthquakes, government actions, acceptance of medical rescue teams, earthquake-induced secondary effects, and media restrictions. Although comparison of the two earthquakes was not simple, we concluded that three major points should be emphasized to facilitate the most effective course of disaster planning and action. First, all relevant agencies should formulate emergency plans and should supply information regarding the emergency to the general public and health professionals on a normal basis. Second, each citizen should be educated and trained in how to minimize the risks from earthquake-induced secondary effects. Finally, the central government should establish a single headquarters responsible for command, control, and coordination during a natural disaster emergency and should centralize all powers in this single authority. We hope this discussion may be of some use in future natural disasters in China, Japan, and worldwide.

  11. Ionospheric Anomalies around the Time of the Powerful Nabro's Eruption Triggered by June 12, 2011 Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elemo, Enoch

    2016-07-01

    Ionospheric variability resulting from earthquake events is a known phenomenon as revealed by various seismo-ionospheric coupling studies. Variations resulting from seismo-ionospheric couplings are known to be much weaker, and noted to occur only locally in an area that is specified by the magnitude of the earthquake. Whereas disturbances generated by other sources like geomagnetic storms, exhibit a more global behaviour. For this study, GPS-TEC data of 31 days (15 days before and 15 days after the occurrence of June 12, 2011 earthquakes) were examined. There were 14 earthquakes within 6 hours of that day that triggered the eruption that occurred on the 19th and 20th. This eruption produced the highest level of sulfur dioxide emissions in the earth's atmosphere that was ever detected from space. Any correlation between the identified TEC anomalies and the earthquakes were examined. The results showed an anomaly which started two days before the earthquakes. There was a consistent decrease in the GPS-TEC two days before the earthquake. The day of the earthquake also witnessed the most anomalous decrease during the days understudy. The 19th day of June 2011 eruptions however reflected in the ionosphere through the decrease in electron concentrations.

  12. Food, water, and fault lines: Remote sensing opportunities for earthquake-response management of agricultural water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Jenna; Ustin, Susan; Sandoval-Solis, Samuel; O'Geen, Anthony Toby

    2016-09-15

    Earthquakes often cause destructive and unpredictable changes that can affect local hydrology (e.g. groundwater elevation or reduction) and thus disrupt land uses and human activities. Prolific agricultural regions overlie seismically active areas, emphasizing the importance to improve our understanding and monitoring of hydrologic and agricultural systems following a seismic event. A thorough data collection is necessary for adequate post-earthquake crop management response; however, the large spatial extent of earthquake's impact makes challenging the collection of robust data sets for identifying locations and magnitude of these impacts. Observing hydrologic responses to earthquakes is not a novel concept, yet there is a lack of methods and tools for assessing earthquake's impacts upon the regional hydrology and agricultural systems. The objective of this paper is to describe how remote sensing imagery, methods and tools allow detecting crop responses and damage incurred after earthquakes because a change in the regional hydrology. Many remote sensing datasets are long archived with extensive coverage and with well-documented methods to assess plant-water relations. We thus connect remote sensing of plant water relations to its utility in agriculture using a post-earthquake agrohydrologic remote sensing (PEARS) framework; specifically in agro-hydrologic relationships associated with recent earthquake events that will lead to improved water management. PMID:27241204

  13. Food, water, and fault lines: Remote sensing opportunities for earthquake-response management of agricultural water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Jenna; Ustin, Susan; Sandoval-Solis, Samuel; O'Geen, Anthony Toby

    2016-09-15

    Earthquakes often cause destructive and unpredictable changes that can affect local hydrology (e.g. groundwater elevation or reduction) and thus disrupt land uses and human activities. Prolific agricultural regions overlie seismically active areas, emphasizing the importance to improve our understanding and monitoring of hydrologic and agricultural systems following a seismic event. A thorough data collection is necessary for adequate post-earthquake crop management response; however, the large spatial extent of earthquake's impact makes challenging the collection of robust data sets for identifying locations and magnitude of these impacts. Observing hydrologic responses to earthquakes is not a novel concept, yet there is a lack of methods and tools for assessing earthquake's impacts upon the regional hydrology and agricultural systems. The objective of this paper is to describe how remote sensing imagery, methods and tools allow detecting crop responses and damage incurred after earthquakes because a change in the regional hydrology. Many remote sensing datasets are long archived with extensive coverage and with well-documented methods to assess plant-water relations. We thus connect remote sensing of plant water relations to its utility in agriculture using a post-earthquake agrohydrologic remote sensing (PEARS) framework; specifically in agro-hydrologic relationships associated with recent earthquake events that will lead to improved water management.

  14. Gas injection may have triggered earthquakes in the Cogdell oil field, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Wei; Frohlich, Cliff

    2013-11-19

    Between 1957 and 1982, water flooding was conducted to improve petroleum production in the Cogdell oil field north of Snyder, TX, and a contemporary analysis concluded this induced earthquakes that occurred between 1975 and 1982. The National Earthquake Information Center detected no further activity between 1983 and 2005, but between 2006 and 2011 reported 18 earthquakes having magnitudes 3 and greater. To investigate these earthquakes, we analyzed data recorded by six temporary seismograph stations deployed by the USArray program, and identified 93 well-recorded earthquakes occurring between March 2009 and December 2010. Relocation with a double-difference method shows that most earthquakes occurred within several northeast-southwest-trending linear clusters, with trends corresponding to nodal planes of regional focal mechanisms, possibly indicating the presence of previously unidentified faults. We have evaluated data concerning injection and extraction of oil, water, and gas in the Cogdell field. Water injection cannot explain the 2006-2011 earthquakes, especially as net volumes (injection minus extraction) are significantly less than in the 1957-1982 period. However, since 2004 significant volumes of gases including supercritical CO2 have been injected into the Cogdell field. The timing of gas injection suggests it may have contributed to triggering the recent seismic activity. If so, this represents an instance where gas injection has triggered earthquakes having magnitudes 3 and larger. Further modeling studies may help evaluate recent assertions suggesting significant risks accompany large-scale carbon capture and storage as a strategy for managing climate change.

  15. ZHANG Heng's Seismometer and Longxi earthquake in AD 134

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Rui; YU Yan-xiang

    2006-01-01

    Longxi earthquake was the only earthquake example, which ZHANG Heng's Seismometer had detected. Therefore this event attracted the attention of the academic circle and also served as crucial evidence to examine the rationality of the reconstructed model of the seismometer. But for a long time, owing to the fact that the Jincheng-Longxi earthquake on February 28, AD 138 was mistaken as the event went against the historical records, it was refuted by the researches of both in China and abroad. By making careful textual research of historical records, especially by analyzing the description of Longxi earthquake of Houhan Shu, by studying the historical background exposed by historical literatures at that time, ZHANG Heng's biography, his poems and place names of Han Dynasty, by comparing five earthquakes occurred in Qing Dynasty and their attenuation of seismic intensity, the conclusion can be drawn that the Longxi earthquake should take place on December 13, AD 134 (the third year of Yangjia reign). As a rough assessment, the epicenter was in Tianshui area and the magnitude was about 7. Due to the political corruption and inability to scientifically explain earthquake phenomenon at the end of Eastern Han Dynasty, a tragedy occurred during the later years of ZHANG Heng's life that had direct relations with the earthquake successively occurred in AD 133 and AD 134 after invention of seismometer in AD 132. In order to analyze the ground motion at Lingtai caused by the event in AD 134, the digital broad-band seismic records of three Longxi earthquakes in recent years recorded by Luoyang seismic station are used. The numerical modelings are made from three aspects of seismic magnitude definition, digital broad-band seismograms and empirical Green's function method. The results have shown that the maximum horizontal displacement at Lingtai is between 6~8 mm, and the maximum acceleration is less than 10-2 rn/s2. These results have played an important role in quantitative

  16. Earthquake, GIS and multimedia. The 1883 Casamicciola earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rebuffat

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available A series of multimedia monographs concerning the main seismic events that have affected the Italian territory are in the process of being produced for the Documental Integrated Multimedia Project (DIMP started by the Italian National Seismic Survey (NSS. The purpose of the project is to reconstruct the historical record of earthquakes and promote an earthquake public education. Producing the monographs. developed in ARC INFO and working in UNIX. involved designing a special filing and management methodology to integrate heterogeneous information (images, papers, cartographies, etc.. This paper describes the possibilities of a GIS (Geographic Information System in the filing and management of documental information. As an example we present the first monograph on the 1883 Casamicciola earthquake. on the island of Ischia (Campania, Italy. This earthquake is particularly interesting for the following reasons: I historical-cultural context (first destructive seismic event after the unification of Italy; 2 its features (volcanic earthquake; 3 the socioeconomic consequences caused at such an important seaside resort.

  17. Extreme value statistics and thermodynamics of earthquakes: large earthquakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. H. Lavenda

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available A compound Poisson process is used to derive a new shape parameter which can be used to discriminate between large earthquakes and aftershock sequences. Sample exceedance distributions of large earthquakes are fitted to the Pareto tail and the actual distribution of the maximum to the Fréchet distribution, while the sample distribution of aftershocks are fitted to a Beta distribution and the distribution of the minimum to the Weibull distribution for the smallest value. The transition between initial sample distributions and asymptotic extreme value distributions shows that self-similar power laws are transformed into nonscaling exponential distributions so that neither self-similarity nor the Gutenberg-Richter law can be considered universal. The energy-magnitude transformation converts the Fréchet distribution into the Gumbel distribution, originally proposed by Epstein and Lomnitz, and not the Gompertz distribution as in the Lomnitz-Adler and Lomnitz generalization of the Gutenberg-Richter law. Numerical comparison is made with the Lomnitz-Adler and Lomnitz analysis using the same Catalogue of Chinese Earthquakes. An analogy is drawn between large earthquakes and high energy particle physics. A generalized equation of state is used to transform the Gamma density into the order-statistic Fréchet distribution. Earthquaketemperature and volume are determined as functions of the energy. Large insurance claims based on the Pareto distribution, which does not have a right endpoint, show why there cannot be a maximum earthquake energy.

  18. From Multi-Sensors Observations Towards Cross-Disciplinary Study of Pre-Earthquake Signals. What have We Learned from the Tohoku Earthquake?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouzounov, D.; Pulinets, S.; Papadopoulos, G.; Kunitsyn, V.; Nesterov, I.; Hayakawa, M.; Mogi, K.; Hattori, K.; Kafatos, M.; Taylor, P.

    2012-01-01

    The lessons we have learned from the Great Tohoku EQ (Japan, 2011) how this knowledge will affect our future observation and analysis is the main focus of this presentation.We present multi-sensors observations and multidisciplinary research in our investigation of phenomena preceding major earthquakes. These observations revealed the existence of atmospheric and ionospheric phenomena occurring prior to theM9.0 Tohoku earthquake of March 11, 2011, which indicates s new evidence of a distinct coupling between the lithosphere and atmosphere/ionosphere, as related to underlying tectonic activity. Similar results have been reported before the catastrophic events in Chile (M8.8, 2010), Italy (M6.3, 2009) and Sumatra (M9.3, 2004). For the Tohoku earthquake, our analysis shows a synergy between several independent observations characterizing the state of the lithosphere /atmosphere coupling several days before the onset of the earthquakes, namely: (i) Foreshock sequence change (rate, space and time); (ii) Outgoing Long wave Radiation (OLR) measured at the top of the atmosphere; and (iii) Anomalous variations of ionospheric parameters revealed by multi-sensors observations. We are presenting a cross-disciplinary analysis of the observed pre-earthquake anomalies and will discuss current research in the detection of these signals in Japan. We expect that our analysis will shed light on the underlying physics of pre-earthquake signals associated with some of the largest earthquake events

  19. Fatal elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus-1 and -4 co-infection in a juvenile Asian elephant in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seilern-Moy, Katharina; Bertelsen, Mads Frost; Leifsson, Páll S.;

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus-1 (EEHV-1) is one of the major causes of fatality in juvenile Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). On occasions, other EEHV genotypes, i.e. EEHV-3, -4 and -5, have also been reported as the cause of Asian elephant deaths. In this case report we......; both viruses presented the highest load in the mesenteric lymph nodes. Conclusion: Detection of EEHV-4 in this fatal case in Europe underlines the importance of inclusion of all known Asian EEHVs in routine blood monitoring to facilitate early therapeutic intervention....

  20. Obesity and Dyslipidemia in South Asians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anoop Misra

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and dyslipidemia are emerging as major public health challenges in South Asian countries. The prevalence of obesity is more in urban areas than rural, and women are more affected than men. Further, obesity in childhood and adolescents is rising rapidly. Obesity in South Asians has characteristic features: high prevalence of abdominal obesity, with more intra-abdominal and truncal subcutaneous adiposity than white Caucasians. In addition, there is greater accumulation of fat at “ectopic” sites, namely the liver and skeletal muscles. All these features lead to higher magnitude of insulin resistance, and its concomitant metabolic disorders (the metabolic syndrome including atherogenic dyslipidemia. Because of the occurrence of type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia and other cardiovascular morbidities at a lower range of body mass index (BMI and waist circumference (WC, it is proposed that cut-offs for both measures of obesity should be lower (BMI 23–24.9 kg/m2 for overweight and ≥25 kg/m2 for obesity, WC ≥80 cm for women and ≥90 cm for men for abdominal obesity for South Asians, and a consensus guideline for these revised measures has been developed for Asian Indians. Increasing obesity and dyslipidemia in South Asians is primarily driven by nutrition, lifestyle and demographic transitions, increasingly faulty diets and physical inactivity, in the background of genetic predisposition. Dietary guidelines for prevention of obesity and diabetes, and physical activity guidelines for Asian Indians are now available. Intervention programs with emphasis on improving knowledge, attitude and practices regarding healthy nutrition, physical activity and stress management need to be implemented. Evidence for successful intervention program for prevention of childhood obesity and for prevention of diabetes is available for Asian Indians, and could be applied to all South Asian countries with similar cultural and lifestyle profiles. Finally, more

  1. Urinalysis in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedner, Ellen; Alleman, A Rick; Isaza, Ramiro

    2009-12-01

    Urine was collected from 22 healthy female adult Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) and analyzed for the purpose of determining normal biochemical and microscopic parameters. Findings included urine that was less concentrated compared to other mammals, predominantly alkaline pH, crystalluria of varying types in all samples, and minimal cellularity. Glucose and urobilinogen were not detected in any samples. Trace ketones and trace bilirubin occurred in two different samples. Trace blood was identified in another sample. Three samples tested positive for protein via dipstick but were confirmed negative through the sulfosalicylic acid test. Two samples contained mucus threads. Bacteria were seen microscopically in four samples, and could be cultured from six others, but, because of the lack of an associated inflammatory response and the heterogeneous populations of organisms observed, were considered to be contaminants from the distal urethra, the vestibulovulva, or the environment. Because of the variability in elephant urine, baseline values for elephants within captive herds should be obtained and regular assessments should be performed over time to allow trending of data. Establishment of normal urine values provides an important tool in elephant health care. PMID:20063811

  2. Explosion-Earthquake Discrimination at Local Distances

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Rourke, C. T.; Baker, G. E.; Sheehan, A. F.; Harder, S. H.

    2014-12-01

    Event discrimination research has largely focused on regional distances over the last couple of decades. Most regional discriminants have not been thoroughly tested at local distances, and a recent investigation of P/S ratios from the Source Physics Experiment (SPE) found that they were less effective locally. As discrimination thresholds are reduced, local methods will need to be validated and the physical bases for their performance will need to be understood. We are assessing new and existing methods of source discrimination at 10 to 200 km distance. We use data from a temporary array deployed around the Bighorn Mountains in Wyoming and from nearby US Array stations. Small magnitude local earthquakes, coal mine explosions, and controlled borehole shots were recorded at over 200 broadband and short-period seismometers spaced at 5-35 km intervals across the tectonically complex area. We assess the local discrimination performance of the P/S amplitude ratio, the presence of the fundamental Rayleigh wave Rg, and the signature of scattered Rg in the coda. P/S amplitudes are used because earthquakes typically have higher S-wave energy relative to P than shallow explosions, but the separation of populations is not always effective at local distances. Site effects have a significant impact that may need to be accounted for, along with propagation effects. Specifically, relative P and S site amplifications at basin and mountain stations vary in such a way that they limit separation of the event populations. The Rg phase is only excited by near-surface events, so its presence indicates the likelihood of a man-made source since most earthquakes occur at too great a depth to excite Rg. We implement two methods for detecting Rg: one that uses the cross-correlation of the Hilbert transformed vertical and the radial seismograms, and one that scans a time-frequency representation for the signature of scattered Rg in the coda. These methods are effective in low signal

  3. Exalting in atmospheric tides as earthquake precursor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. F. Biagi

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available During February–March 1998, we observed a significant increase (6–8 dB in the electric field of the CZE (f = 270 kHz, Czech Republic broadcasting station at a site named AS and located in central Italy. On 13 March 1998 an earthquake (M = 5.2 occurred in Slovenia, starting a strong seismic crisis (M = 6.0 on 12 April, M = 5.1 on 6 May. The distances of the epicentres from the radio receiver were over 400 km, but the epicentres are located in a zone that is in the middle of the CZE-AS path. Previously, we advanced the hypothesis that the increase of radio-signal electric field detected could be a precursor of the Slovenia seismic crisis. At the purpose to precise the connection between this radio anomaly and the preparatory phase of the earthquakes, we analysed in detail the data collected. At first we carried out a FFT on the data and clear harmonic components with period 0.5d, 1d, 14d, 28d and 365d were revealed. These periods are characteristic of gravity tides and therefore, it seems reasonable to consider the previous harmonics in the electric field of the radio signal as components related to tides of the atmosphere, assuming as tides of the atmosphere only the linear action of gravity tides on atmosphere. Then, we carried out band pass filters on our data and we discovered that the February–March 1998 increase is mainly related to an exalting of the harmonics with period 0.5d, 1d, 14d and 28d, i.e. of the (semimonthly and (semidiurnal atmospheric tidal components in the radio signal. Supposing that this exalting is produced by a corresponding exalting of the atmospheric tides we propose a model able to explain the production of such an effect during the preparatory phase of the Slovenia earthquakes.

  4. Institutional Racism and Mental Health: An Asian-American Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Jean Lau

    Positive stereotypes of contemporary Asian Americans have negative consequences for this minority group. The belief that Asian Americans are successful and have overcome prejudice and discrimination obscures the historical fact that legislation has curtailed Asian American civil rights and sanctioned harassment of Asians by public authorities and…

  5. ACE Minority Concerns Report: New Demographics Reveal the "Invisible" Asians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokuyama, M. Yukie

    1989-01-01

    The dramatic shift in immigration patterns is discussed. By the end of the 1980s Asian refugees will account for 75.2 percent and Southeast Asians will total 60 percent of immigrants. The new Asians are too often excluded from special programs and scholarships and forced to compete with native-born Asians. (MLW)

  6. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    <正>Aims&Scope Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine(APJTB)aims to set up and provide an international academic communication platform for physicians,medical scientists,allied health scientists and public health workers,especially those in the Asian Pacific region and worldwide on tropical biomedicine,infectious diseases and public health,and to meet the growing challenges of understanding,preventing and controlling the dramatic global emergence and reemergence of infectious diseases in the Asian Pacific region.APJTB publishes new findings in both basic and clinical(including modern,traditional and epidemiological)research

  7. The music of earthquakes and Earthquake Quartet #1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    Earthquake Quartet #1, my composition for voice, trombone, cello, and seismograms, is the intersection of listening to earthquakes as a seismologist and performing music as a trombonist. Along the way, I realized there is a close relationship between what I do as a scientist and what I do as a musician. A musician controls the source of the sound and the path it travels through their instrument in order to make sound waves that we hear as music. An earthquake is the source of waves that travel along a path through the earth until reaching us as shaking. It is almost as if the earth is a musician and people, including seismologists, are metaphorically listening and trying to understand what the music means.

  8. Seismo-ionospheric anomalies in DEMETER observationsduring the Wenchuan M7.9 earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, C. C.; Liu, J. Y. G.

    2014-12-01

    This paper examines pre-earthquake ionospheric anomalies (PEIAs) observed by the French satellite DEMETER (Detection of Electro-Magnetic Emissions Transmitted from Earthquake Regions) during the 12 May 2008 M7.9 Wenchuan earthquake. Both daytime and nighttime electron density (Ne), electron temperature (Te), ion density (Ni) and ion temperature (Ti) are investigated. A statistical analysis of the box-and-whisker method is utilized to see if the four DEMETER datasets 1-6 days before and after the earthquake are significantly different. The analysis is employed to investigate the epicenter and three reference areas along the same magnetic latitude and to discriminate the earthquake-related anomalies from global effects. Results show that the nighttime Ne and Ni over the epicenter significantly decrease 1-6 days before the earthquake. The ionospheric total electron content (TEC) of global ionosphere map (GIM) over the epicenter is further inspected to find the sensitive local time for detecting the PEIAs of the M7.9 Wenchuan earthquake.

  9. Earthquake and Tsunami booklet based on two Indonesia earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Y.; Aci, M.

    2014-12-01

    Many destructive earthquakes occurred during the last decade in Indonesia. These experiences are very important precepts for the world people who live in earthquake and tsunami countries. We are collecting the testimonies of tsunami survivors to clarify successful evacuation process and to make clear the characteristic physical behaviors of tsunami near coast. We research 2 tsunami events, 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami and 2010 Mentawai slow earthquake tsunami. Many video and photographs were taken by people at some places in 2004 Indian ocean tsunami disaster; nevertheless these were few restricted points. We didn't know the tsunami behavior in another place. In this study, we tried to collect extensive information about tsunami behavior not only in many places but also wide time range after the strong shake. In Mentawai case, the earthquake occurred in night, so there are no impressive photos. To collect detail information about evacuation process from tsunamis, we contrived the interview method. This method contains making pictures of tsunami experience from the scene of victims' stories. In 2004 Aceh case, all survivors didn't know tsunami phenomena. Because there were no big earthquakes with tsunami for one hundred years in Sumatra region, public people had no knowledge about tsunami. This situation was highly improved in 2010 Mentawai case. TV programs and NGO or governmental public education programs about tsunami evacuation are widespread in Indonesia. Many people know about fundamental knowledge of earthquake and tsunami disasters. We made drill book based on victim's stories and painted impressive scene of 2 events. We used the drill book in disaster education event in school committee of west Java. About 80 % students and teachers evaluated that the contents of the drill book are useful for correct understanding.

  10. Book review: Earthquakes and water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekins, Barbara A.

    2012-01-01

    It is really nice to see assembled in one place a discussion of the documented and hypothesized hydrologic effects of earthquakes. The book is divided into chapters focusing on particular hydrologic phenomena including liquefaction, mud volcanism, stream discharge increases, groundwater level, temperature and chemical changes, and geyser period changes. These hydrologic effects are inherently fascinating, and the large number of relevant publications in the past decade makes this summary a useful milepost. The book also covers hydrologic precursors and earthquake triggering by pore pressure. A natural need to limit the topics covered resulted in the omission of tsunamis and the vast literature on the role of fluids and pore pressure in frictional strength of faults. Regardless of whether research on earthquake-triggered hydrologic effects ultimately provides insight into the physics of earthquakes, the text provides welcome common ground for interdisciplinary collaborations between hydrologists and seismologists. Such collaborations continue to be crucial for investigating hypotheses about the role of fluids in earthquakes and slow slip. 

  11. Retrospection on the Conclusions of Earthquake Tendency Forecast before the Wenchuan Ms8.0 Earthquake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Jie; Guo Tieshuan; Yang Liming; Su Youjin; Li Gang

    2009-01-01

    The reason for the failure to forecast the Wenchuan Ms8.0 earthquake is under study, based on the systematically collection of the seismicity anomalies and their analysis results from annual earthquake tendency forecasts between the 2001 Western Kuulun Mountains Pass Ms8.1 earthquake and the 2008 Wenchuan Ms8.0 earthquake. The results show that the earthquake tendency estimation of Chinese Mainland is for strong earthquakes to occur in the active stage, and that there is still potential for the occurrence of a Ms8.0 large earthquake in Chinese Mainland after the 2001 Western Kunlun Mountains Pass earthquake. However the phenomena that many large earthquakes occurred around Chinese Mainland, and the 6-year long quietude of Ms7.0 earthquake and an obvious quietude of Ms5.0 and Ms6.0 earthquakes during 2002 ~2007 led to the distinctly lower forecast estimation of earthquake tendency in Chinese Mainland after 2006. The middle part in the north-south seismic belt has been designated a seismic risk area of strong earthquake in recent years, but, the estimation of the risk degree in Southwestern China is insufficient after the Ning'er Ms6.4 earthquake in Yunnan in 2007. There are no records of earthquakes with Ms≥7.0 in the Longmenshan fault, which is one of reasons that this fault was not considered a seismic risk area of strong earthquakes in recent years.

  12. Coseismic ionospheric and geomagnetic disturbances caused by great earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Yongqiang; Zhang, Donghe; Xiao, Zuo

    2016-04-01

    Despite primary energy disturbances from the Sun, oscillations of the Earth surface due to a large earthquake will couple with the atmosphere and therefore the ionosphere, then the so-called coseismic ionospheric disturbances (CIDs) can be detected in the ionosphere. Using a combination of techniques, total electron content, HF Doppler, and ground magnetometer, a new time-sequence of such effects propagation were developed on observational basis and ideas on explanation provided. In the cases of 2008 Wenchuan and 2011 Tohoku earthquakes, infrasonic waves accompanying the propagation of seismic Rayleigh waves were observed in the ionosphere by all the three kinds of techniques. This is the very first report to present CIDs recorded by different techniques at co-located sites and profiled with regard to changes of both ionospheric plasma and current (geomagnetic field) simultaneously. Comparison between the oceanic (2011 Tohoku) and inland (2008 Wenchuan) earthquakes revealed that the main directional lobe of latter case is more distinct which is perpendicular to the direction of the fault rupture. We argue that the different fault slip (inland or submarine) may affect the way of couplings of lithosphere with atmosphere. References Zhao, B., and Y. Hao (2015), Ionospheric and geomagnetic disturbances caused by the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake: A revisit, J. Geophys. Res. Space Physics, 120, doi:10.1002/2015JA021035. Hao, Y. Q., Z. Xiao, and D. H. Zhang (2013), Teleseismic magnetic effects (TMDs) of 2011 Tohoku earthquake, J. Geophys. Res. Space Physics, 118, 3914-3923, doi:10.1002/jgra.50326. Hao, Y. Q., Z. Xiao, and D. H. Zhang (2012), Multi-instrument observation on co-seismic ionospheric effects after great Tohoku earthquake, J. Geophys. Res., 117, A02305, doi:10.1029/2011JA017036.

  13. Earthquakes in Central California, 1980-1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — There have been many earthquake occurrences in central California. This set of slides shows earthquake damage from the following events: Livermore, 1980, Coalinga,...

  14. Intra-day response of foreign exchange markets after the Tohoku-Oki earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Shuhei; Hirata, Yoshito; Iwayama, Koji; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2015-02-01

    Although an economy is influenced by a natural disaster, the market response to the disaster during the first 24 hours is not clearly understood. Here we show that an earthquake quickly causes temporal changes in a foreign exchange market by examining the case of the Tohoku-Oki earthquake. Recurrence plots and statistical change point detection independently show that the United States dollar-Japanese yen market responded to the earthquake activity without delay and with the delay of about 2 minutes, respectively. These findings support that the efficient market hypothesis nearly holds now in the time scale of minutes.

  15. Using 1-Hz GPS data to measure deformations caused by the denali fault earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, K.M.; Bodin, P.; Gomberg, J.

    2003-01-01

    The 3 November 2002 moment magnitude 7.9 Denali fault earthquake generated large, permanent surface displacements in Alaska and large-amplitude surface waves throughout western North America. We find good agreement between strong ground-motion records integrated to displacement and 1-hertz Global Positioning System (GPS) position estimates collected ??? 140 kilometers from the earthquake epicenter. One-hertz GPS receivers also detected seismic surface waves 750 to 3800 kilometers from the epicenter, whereas these waves saturated many of the seismic instruments in the same region. High-frequency GPS increases the dynamic range and frequency bandwidth of ground-motion observations, providing another tool for studying earthquake processes.

  16. Unipolar magnetic field pulses as transient signals prior to the 2009 Aquila earthquake shock

    CERN Document Server

    Nenovski, Petko

    2016-01-01

    Unipolar pre-seismic magnetic field pulses have been observed first by Bleier et al. (2009) and Villante et al. (2010) and Nenovski et al. (2013). In the present study a detailed analysis of the pulses is conducted looking for signatures of transient signals similar to that recorded at the 2009 Aquila earthquake main shock (Nenovski, 2015). Various magnetic field data around the Aquila earthquake provide an instrumental basis for such an analysis. In addition to fluxgate magnetometer data (already examined in previous studies), overhauser magnetometer data are involved. The result is a detection and discrimination of transient signals of diffusive form that appear prior to the earthquake main shock.

  17. The Koryak strong earthquake of April 20 (21), 2006: Preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogozhin, E. A.; Gordeev, E. I.; Chebrov, V. N.

    2007-02-01

    A number of terrain features and objects of the settlements of Tilichiki and Korf and the village of Khailino in the epicentral zone of the strongest earthquake in the north of the Kamchatka region were examined in the first days after the earthquake. Primary and secondary coseismic ruptures were identified on the surface. An outcrop of the seismic source was discovered in the form of an extended seismic fault about 140 km in traceable length. The settlements were inspected for the purpose of elucidating the macroseismic effect, structural maps were compiled, and the main types of ruptures were identified. The network of seismic stations on Kamchatka and in eastern Russia recorded a few thousand aftershocks. The gathered data provide insight into the structure of the source and its tectonic position at the Asian active continental margin.

  18. Earthquake geology: science, society and critical facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Grützner

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Earthquake geology studies the effects, the mechanics and the impacts of earthquakes in the geological environment. Its role is also to decode the fault history, therefore its approach is fault specific and its outcomes are of decisive value for seismic hazard assessment and planning. The term Earthquake geology includes aspects of modern instrumental studies, tectonics and structural geology, historical surface deformation and tectonic geomorphology, whereas paleoseismology is considered part of earthquake geology [...].

  19. Evaluating the Economic Response to Japan's Earthquake

    OpenAIRE

    Molly K. SCHNELL; David E. Weinstein

    2012-01-01

    This paper compares the 1995 Kobe earthquake with the more recent one in Tohoku. The impact of the recent earthquake on industrial production was much larger and long-lasting than that of the 1995 earthquake. We find that very little of this can be explained by differences in government expenditures or private consumption. However, we find very substantial differences in energy production in the wake of the two earthquakes. The substantial and persistent drop in energy output is likely to hav...

  20. The October 12, 1992, Dahshur, Egypt, Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thenhaus, P.C.; Celebi, M.; Sharp, R.V.

    1993-01-01

    Cairo and northeastern Egypt experienced a rare, damaging earthquake on October 12, 1992. The earthquake, which measured 5.9 on the Richter magnitude scale, was centered near the village of Dahshur, about 18 km south of Cairo. The computed hypocentral depth of the earthquake, about 25 km, is consistent with the fact that fault rupture associated with the earthquake did not reach the surface. 

  1. PRECURSORS OF EARTHQUAKES: VLF SIGNALSIONOSPHERE IONOSPHERE RELATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa ULAS

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available lot of people have died because of earthquakes every year. Therefore It is crucial to predict the time of the earthquakes reasonable time before it had happed. This paper presents recent information published in the literature about precursors of earthquakes. The relationships between earthquakes and ionosphere are targeted to guide new researches in order to study further to find novel prediction methods.

  2. Globalisation and the Challenge of Asian Legal Transplants in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Prakash

    2005-01-01

    This article reviews the main patterns of Asian migration to Europe and the ways in which Europe today has become multicultured with Afro-Asian legal diversities. It discusses the limited role which Asian states have played in these processes of emigration and settlement. It further examines the status of the laws transplanted by Asian migrants and their descendants in Europe and the ways in which Asian diasporas in Europe are engaging in new hybrid patterns of socio-legal navigation and reco...

  3. Figuring Futures: Early Asian American Mixed-Race Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Poulsen, Melissa Eriko

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation examines figurations of Asian mixed race during the long period of Asian exclusion and enforced anti-miscegenation in the United States, when racial mixing was legally proscribed. During this time of U.S. expansion into Asia, and of unprecedented Asian immigration into the United States, such proscription helped maintain normative white identity while rendering the Asian American mixed-race body illegible, making cultural production one of the few sites where Asian American ...

  4. Ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and overweight in Asian American adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Cook, Won Kim; Tseng, Winston; Bautista, Roxanna; John, Iyanrick

    2016-01-01

    Asian American children and adolescents are an under-investigated subpopulation in obesity research. This study aimed to identify specific profiles of Asian subgroups at high risk of adolescent overweight with special attention to Asian ethnicity, socioeconomic status (SES), and their interaction. Multiple logistic regression models were fitted using a sample of 1533 Asian American adolescents ages 12–17 from the 2007–2012 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS). In addition to Asian ethnic...

  5. Blind detection of liquefaction sites by existing methods for the 22 Feb.2011 Ms 6.3 New Zealand earthquake%液化识别方法盲测对比——以2011年2月22日新西兰6.3级地震为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙锐; 袁晓铭; 唐福辉

    2011-01-01

    液化实时监测作为减轻地震灾害的新手段,其核心技术是建立依据强震记录识别场地液化的方法,但目前所提出的方法十分有限,可靠性也缺少实际地震检验.2011年新西兰地震中液化及其震害现象显著,为检验现有液化识别方法提供了条件.目前已有并可供程使用的四种液化识别方法为:Miyajima法、Suzuki法、KY法(Kostadinov和Yamazaki方法)以及SY法(孙锐和袁晓铭方法).利用该次地震震中距小于50 km的全部27条原始加速度记录,对加速度记录场地液化情况进行盲测,为检验和改进方法提供基础.盲测结果表明:对于3个已报道液化的场地,KY法和SY法给出了正确结果,对1个已报道为非液化的场地,Suzuki法和SY法给出了正确结果;全部四种方法和三种方法识别结果相同的场地个数分别为4个和10个,占总数的52%,这14个结果中均包含SY法;几个方法总体识别结果差异较明显,差异最大的场地有5个,包括了不液化、疑似液化、液化可能性非常高等多种识别结果;对实际液化情况未知的23个场地,盲测结果是否正确还有待事实检验.%The real-time liquefaction monitoring and wanning techniques are developing ways to mitigate liquefaction hazard. The key point for the techniques is to establish a reverse liquefaction detection method based on seismic records. However,the liquefaction detection methods now available are quite limited and the reliability of the methods is lack of verification by earthquake records. There is serious liquefaction damage during New Zealand earthquake in 2011, which creates a wonderful chance to examine the existing liquefaction detection methods. The 27 acceleration records within 50km from epicenter in the earthquake are employed to perform a blind detection for the four available methods,including Miyajima method, Suzuki method, KY ( Kostadinov and Yamazaki) method as well as SY (Sun and Yuan) method . The

  6. Historical earthquake investigations in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Makropoulos

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The active tectonics of the area of Greece and its seismic activity have always been present in the country?s history. Many researchers, tempted to work on Greek historical earthquakes, have realized that this is a task not easily fulfilled. The existing catalogues of strong historical earthquakes are useful tools to perform general SHA studies. However, a variety of supporting datasets, non-uniformly distributed in space and time, need to be further investigated. In the present paper, a review of historical earthquake studies in Greece is attempted. The seismic history of the country is divided into four main periods. In each one of them, characteristic examples, studies and approaches are presented.

  7. Complex networks of earthquakes and aftershocks

    CERN Document Server

    Baiesi, M; Baiesi, Marco; Paczuski, Maya

    2004-01-01

    We invoke a metric to quantify the correlation between any two earthquakes. This provides a simple and straightforward alternative to using space-time windows to detect aftershock sequences and obviates the need to distinguish main shocks from aftershocks. Directed networks of earthquakes are constructed by placing a link, directed from the past to the future, between pairs of events that are strongly correlated. Each link has a weight giving the relative strength of correlation such that the sum over the incoming links to any node equals unity for aftershocks, or zero if the event had no correlated predecessors. Events can be aftershocks of many previous events, and also generate many aftershocks. The probability distribution for the number of incoming and outgoing links are both scale free, and the networks are highly clustered and modular. The Omori law holds for aftershock rates with a decorrelation time that grows with the magnitude of the initiating shock. Another scaling law is found for the fat-tailed...

  8. Central Asian Snow Cover from Hydrometeorological Surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Central Asian Snow Cover from Hydrometeorological Surveys data are based on observations made by personnel for three river basins: Amu Darya, Sir Darya, and...

  9. Asian Employment Forum Held in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ From August 13 through 15,2007,the Asian Employment Forum sponsored by the International Labor Organization (ILO) and hosted by the Ministry of Labor and Social Security of China was held in Beijing.

  10. PERSPECTIVES ON EAST-ASIAN MONETARY INTEGRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Masini

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Increasing trade interdependence among East-Asian countries suggests the urge to design some monetary arrangement to stabilize the macroeconomic framework of an extremely heterogeneously growing area. The paper reviews the literature and analyses several directions of East-Asian integration process, especially in relation to the European model. We argue that a more comprehensive economic and political world-scenario should be considered and a multi-speed policy approach should be implemented in the area. Around the pivotal role of China, a wide agreement should be reached for an Asian single-currency, which might be rapidly issued and provide a reference target for other East-Asian countries.

  11. Somatomedin C deficiency in Asian sisters.

    OpenAIRE

    McGraw, M E; Price, D A; D. J. Hill

    1986-01-01

    Two sisters of Asian origin showed typical clinical and biochemical features of primary somatomedin C (SM-C) deficiency (Laron dwarfism). Abnormalities of SM-C binding proteins were observed, one sister lacking the high molecular weight (150 Kd) protein.

  12. Asian Banks: Leading the Way to Recovery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ The global financial crisis has rocked the American and European Union banking system leaving many Western banks teetering on the verge of bankruptcy.But in the East,Asian banks have fared well so far.

  13. Heart Disease and Asians and Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... HIV/AIDS Immunizations Infant Heath & Mortality Mental Health Obesity Organ and ... heart disease and they are less likely to die from heart disease. In general, Asian American adults have lower rates of being overweight or obese, lower rates of ...

  14. China and Its Northeast Asian Neighbors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Bojiang; Li Baowen

    2007-01-01

    @@ Ⅰ Northeast Asian countries have held an important position on China's diplomatic chessboard. Their bilateral relations can be traced back to the ancient times, and they are important for China's national security strategy.

  15. Asian-American Women in Educational Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Lily

    1980-01-01

    Provides information on the immigration history, education, income, and occupation representation in the social sciences and cultural and language barriers of Asian American women educational researchers. Includes recommendations to facilitate their entry into the social sciences in general. (MJL)

  16. Minority Women's Health: Asian-Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Asian-Americans overall are at lower risk. Genes, culture, environment, and access to care play a role ... Mental health problems and suicide Osteoporosis Overweight and obesity Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) Stomach cancer Tuberculosis (TB) ...

  17. Asian American Evangelicals in Multiracial Church Ministry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Garces-Foley

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1990s, evangelical efforts to create multiracial churches (MRCs have grown exponentially. This article analyzes the experiences of Asian American evangelical ministers leading MRCs. Through interviews we explore how Asian American evangelicals came to be involved in MRC-ministry and how they approach issues of racial diversity in this context. We compare the racial attitudes of Asian American evangelical ministers leading MRCs with those of White and Black evangelicals delineated in Emerson and Smith’s Divide by Faith. Rather than conform to the colorblind approach of many White evangelicals, the majority of our respondents utilize structural explanations for social inequality and promote a colorconscious approach to diversity. We conclude that Asian American evangelicals utilize a unique framework for MRC-ministry, what we call a ‘racialized multiculturalism,’ that has much to offer American evangelicalism.

  18. Did the Mentawai 2010 earthquake produce an ionospheric tsunami that would have helped identify it as a rare tsunami earthquake?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manta, Fabio; Hill, Emma M.; Occhipinti, Giovanni; Feng, Lujia; Taisne, Benoit

    2016-04-01

    On October 25th 2010, an earthquake of Mw 7.8 was generated by rupture of the shallow portion of the Sunda megathrust seaward of the Mentawai islands, Sumatra, Indonesia. The maximum tsunami run-up was ~16 m (Hill et al., 2012) along the southwestern coasts of the Pagai Islands; the tsunami claimed >400 lives. Previously, on April 2010, a similar magnitude earthquake (also Mw 7.8) occurred near the Banyak Islands, offshore northern Sumatra. This event, however, did not generate a tsunami and caused only minor damages. The main difference between these two events is related to the location of the rupture on the megathrust: for the 2010 Banyaks event it was too deep, and located under the islands, to generate significant uplift of the seafloor; on the other hand, the 2010 Mentawai event ruptured a very shallow portion of the megathrust and resulted in large uplifts of the seafloor. The Mentawai event generated only mild, long-period seismic shaking, and (due to its distance) from the stations, relatively small GPS displacements, and its moderate magnitude meant that it was not immediately identified being capable of generating an outsize tsunami. Did these two events induce gravity waves in the ionosphere that would have been useful to identify the Mentawai event as a tsunami earthquake? In this work, we analyzed the ionospheric responses to both events to look for the presence and magnitude of induced travel ionosphere disturbances (TIDs) in the ionosphere total electron content (TEC). Our results show that the Mentawai earthquake induced waves in the ionosphere that start ~8 minutes after the mainshock and propagate with the velocity of acoustic waves (~1 km/sec). Contrarily, the Banyaks earthquake did not produce any recognizable signature in the ionospheric TEC. Our results suggest that the important differences in the style of the two earthquakes can be detected by monitoring variations in the ionospheric TEC.

  19. 13 CFR 120.174 - Earthquake hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Earthquake hazards. 120.174... Applying to All Business Loans Requirements Imposed Under Other Laws and Orders § 120.174 Earthquake..., the construction must conform with the “National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program...

  20. Earthquake insurance and post-disaster housing in the case of canterbury earthquakes in new zealand

    OpenAIRE

    Otani, Junko

    2016-01-01

    The Canterbury earthquake, which struck New Zealand on February 22nd, 2011 took 186 lives. Of this number, 28 were Japanese overseas students. Looking simply at the number of casualties, this may appear to have been a minor earthquake which seems incomparable with respect to other major earthquakes. However, this was one of the most violent and costly earthquakes recorded in recent years. This was also major one in a regional context. The situation was grave: this earthquake caused the collap...

  1. Triggering of Aftershocks of the Japan 2011 Earthquake by Earth Tides

    CERN Document Server

    Datta, Arjun

    2011-01-01

    The aftershock sequence of the devastating Japan earthquake of March 2011 is analyzed for the presence of periodicities at the Earth tide periods. We use spectral analysis as well as a time-domain method KORRECT developed earlier to detect presence of diurnal and semi-diurnal periodicities in the sequence of aftershocks (M \\geq 4). This suggests that large aftershocks in the fault zone of the Japan 2011 earthquake were strongly influenced by Earth tides.

  2. Recursive formula for arithmetic Asian option prices

    OpenAIRE

    Kyungsub Lee

    2013-01-01

    We derive a recursive formula for arithmetic Asian option prices with finite observation times in semimartingale models. The method is based on the relationship between the risk-neutral expectation of the quadratic variation of the return process and European option prices. The computation of arithmetic Asian option prices is straightforward whenever European option prices are available. Applications with numerical results under the Black-Scholes framework and the exponential L\\'evy model are...

  3. Asian women medical migrants in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Raghuram, Parvati

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: The volume and geographical spread of Asian female migration as well as its impact on the sending countries has led to a rapid growth in research on such migration (Limand Oishi 1996; Yamanaka and Piper 2003). Broadly speaking, there are two strands to this literature, that which focuses on intra-Asian migration (Huang and Yeoh 2003; Wickramasekara 2002; Chin 2003) and that which follows the broad contours of brain drain migration, from countries of the Third World to the First ...

  4. The Migration of Highly Skilled Asian Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Horáková, Jana

    2012-01-01

    This thesis is focused on migration of highly skilled workforce. The aim of this work to show current migration flows of highly skilled workers and particularly flows of highly skilled Asian migrants. First chapter explains migration terms and examines highly skilled migration causes through migration theories. Second chapter studies international migration flows and their long-term development. Last chapter is focused on migration flows of highly skilled Asians to OECD countries and within A...

  5. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    <正>APJTB Monthly Aims&Scope Asian Pacific Jounrnal of Tropical Biomedicine(APJTB)aims to set up and provide an international academic communication platform for physicians,medical scientists,allied health scientists and public health workers,especially those in the Asian Pacific region and worldwide on tropical biomedicine,infectious diseases and public health,and to meet the growing challenges

  6. Asian banking in challenging financial times

    OpenAIRE

    Chris Sigur

    2009-01-01

    On June 25, 2009, the Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco held a symposium entitled “Asian Banking in Challenging Financial Times.” The symposium was part of the Country Analysis Unit’s Asia Program, which aims to share information on issues and developments in Asian financial sectors with business and community leaders in the 12th Federal Reserve District and more broadly. This Asia Focus provides a brief summary report on the discussions held at that symposium.

  7. Asian Motility Studies in Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Oh Young

    2010-01-01

    Altered motility remains one of the important pathophysiologic factors in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) who commonly complain of abdominal pain and stool changes such as diarrhea and constipation. The prevalence of IBS has increased among Asian populations these days. Gastrointestinal (GI) physiology may vary between Asian and Western populations because of differences in diets, socio-cultural backgrounds, and genetic factors. The characteristics and differences of GI dysmotili...

  8. Congenital hypothyroidism: increased incidence in Asian families.

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenthal, M; Addison, G. M.; Price, D. A.

    1988-01-01

    Screening in the North West health region of England showed a significantly higher incidence of congenital hypothyroidism in Asian families--1/918 compared with 1/3391 in non-Asians. This could only in part be explained by consanguinity. No differences were found in birth order, season of birth, gestational age, or birth weight between normal infants and those with congenital hypothyroidism. There was a significantly higher incidence of additional congenital abnormalities (9%) and a significa...

  9. Interdependence of South Asian Equity Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Ghulam Ali; Haroon Hussain; Talat Islam

    2014-01-01

    This Study aimed at exploring the relationship between South Asian Equity Markets. Four major South Asian Equity Markets (Karachi Stock Exchange, Bombay Stock Exchange, Colombo Stock Exchange and Dhaka Stock Exchange) were taken to explore this relationship. Data was taken from the year 1999 to 2009 on monthly basis. Data Analysis was conducted using co-integration Analysis for the long run relationship and VECM (Vector Error Correction Model) for the short run relationship. For the purpose o...

  10. Strategic Relevance of Asian Economic Integration

    OpenAIRE

    Eric Teo Chu Cheow

    2005-01-01

    As the spread of SARS had shown last year, the longer-term goal of an East Asian Community (ASEAN, China, Japan and South Korea) may already be crystallizing much faster than was initially thought, thanks to increasing people-to-people contacts and the freer movement of goods, services, tourists and expatriates across the whole region. India appears poised to be joining this Asian movement too.

  11. Apparent Clustering and Apparent Background Earthquakes Biased by Undetected Seismicity

    CERN Document Server

    Sornette, D

    2005-01-01

    In models of triggered seismicity and in their inversion with empirical data, the detection threshold m_d is commonly equated to the magnitude m_0 of the smallest triggering earthquake. This unjustified assumption neglects the possibility of shocks below the detection threshold triggering observable events. We introduce a formalism that distinguishes between the detection threshold m_d and the minimum triggering earthquake m_0 < m_d. By considering the branching structure of one complete cascade of triggered events, we derive the apparent branching ratio n_a (which is the apparent fraction of aftershocks in a given catalog) and the apparent background source S_a that are observed when only the structure above the detection threshold m_d is known due to the presence of smaller undetected events that are capable of triggering larger events. If earthquake triggering is controlled in large part by the smallest magnitudes as several recent analyses have shown, this implies that previous estimates of the cluster...

  12. Ionospheric anomalies related to the (M = 7.3), August 27, 2012, Puerto earthquake, (M = 6.8), August 30, 2012 Jan Mayen Island earthquake, and (M = 7.6), August 31, 2012, Philippines earthquake: two-dimensional principal component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jyh-Woei

    2013-01-01

    Two-dimensional principal component analysis (2DPCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) are used to examine the ionospheric total electron content (TEC) data during the time period from 00:00 on August 21 to 12: 45 on August 31 (UT), which are 10 days before the M = 7.6 Philippines earthquake at 12:47:34 on August 31, 2012 (UT) with the depth at 34.9 km. From the results by using 2DPCA, a TEC precursor of Philippines earthquake is found during the time period from 4:25 to 4:40 on August 28, 2012 (UT) with the duration time of at least 15 minutes. Another earthquake-related TEC anomaly is detectable for the time period from 04:35 to 04:40 on August 27, 2012 (UT) with the duration time of at least 5 minutes during the Puerto earthquake at 04: 37:20 on August 27, 2012 (UT) (M(w) = 7.3) with the depth at 20.3 km. The precursor of the Puerto earthquake is not detectable. TEC anomaly is not to be found related to the Jan Mayen Island earthquake (M w = 6.8) at 13:43:24 on August 30, 2012 (UT). These earthquake-related TEC anomalies are detectable by using 2DPCA rather than PCA. They are localized nearby the epicenters of the Philippines and Puerto earthquakes.

  13. Earthquake Education in Prime Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, R.; Abbott, P.; Benthien, M.

    2004-12-01

    Since 2001, the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) has collaborated on several video production projects that feature important topics related to earthquake science, engineering, and preparedness. These projects have also fostered many fruitful and sustained partnerships with a variety of organizations that have a stake in hazard education and preparedness. The Seismic Sleuths educational video first appeared in the spring season 2001 on Discovery Channel's Assignment Discovery. Seismic Sleuths is based on a highly successful curriculum package developed jointly by the American Geophysical Union and The Department of Homeland Security Federal Emergency Management Agency. The California Earthquake Authority (CEA) and the Institute for Business and Home Safety supported the video project. Summer Productions, a company with a reputation for quality science programming, produced the Seismic Sleuths program in close partnership with scientists, engineers, and preparedness experts. The program has aired on the National Geographic Channel as recently as Fall 2004. Currently, SCEC is collaborating with Pat Abbott, a geology professor at San Diego State University (SDSU) on the video project Written In Stone: Earthquake Country - Los Angeles. Partners on this project include the California Seismic Safety Commission, SDSU, SCEC, CEA, and the Insurance Information Network of California. This video incorporates live-action demonstrations, vivid animations, and a compelling host (Abbott) to tell the story about earthquakes in the Los Angeles region. The Written in Stone team has also developed a comprehensive educator package that includes the video, maps, lesson plans, and other supporting materials. We will present the process that facilitates the creation of visually effective, factually accurate, and entertaining video programs. We acknowledge the need to have a broad understanding of the literature related to communication, media studies, science education, and

  14. Easily magnetic anomalies earthquake prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Min

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Low power consumption long time offset magnetic field detector (earthquake prediction .The design of the hardware circuit of the magnetic field detector seismic geomagnetic acquisition and pre processing module mainly includes. Electronic compass, compass. monitoring device while the magnetic azimuth for monitoring and analyzing the object, GSM, but it can also be applied to other seismic precursor information analysis, such as earthquake precursory infrasound abnormality, only need infrasound abnormality intelligent sensor replace geomagnetic anomaly intelligent sensor, and modify the relevant parameters can be.

  15. Detecting Significant Stress Drop Variations in Large Micro-Earthquake Datasets: A Comparison Between a Convergent Step-Over in the San Andreas Fault and the Ventura Thrust Fault System, Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, T. H. W.; Hauksson, E.; Plesch, A.; Shaw, J. H.

    2016-06-01

    A key parameter in engineering seismology and earthquake physics is seismic stress drop, which describes the relative amount of high-frequency energy radiation at the source. To identify regions with potentially significant stress drop variations, we perform a comparative analysis of source parameters in the greater San Gorgonio Pass (SGP) and Ventura basin (VB) in southern California. The identification of physical stress drop variations is complicated by large data scatter as a result of attenuation, limited recording bandwidth and imprecise modeling assumptions. In light of the inherently high uncertainties in single stress drop measurements, we follow the strategy of stacking large numbers of source spectra thereby enhancing the resolution of our method. We analyze more than 6000 high-quality waveforms between 2000 and 2014, and compute seismic moments, corner frequencies and stress drops. Significant variations in stress drop estimates exist within the SGP area. Moreover, the SGP also exhibits systematically higher stress drops than VB and shows more scatter. We demonstrate that the higher scatter in SGP is not a generic artifact of our method but an expression of differences in underlying source processes. Our results suggest that higher differential stresses, which can be deduced from larger focal depth and more thrust faulting, may only be of secondary importance for stress drop variations. Instead, the general degree of stress field heterogeneity and strain localization may influence stress drops more strongly, so that more localized faulting and homogeneous stress fields favor lower stress drops. In addition, higher loading rates, for example, across the VB potentially result in stress drop reduction whereas slow loading rates on local fault segments within the SGP region result in anomalously high stress drop estimates. Our results show that crustal and fault properties systematically influence earthquake stress drops of small and large events and should

  16. Heterogeneity within the Asian American community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oh Gia

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Educational interventions are grounded on scientific data and assumptions about the community to be served. While the Pan Asian community is composed of multiple, ethnic subgroups, it is often treated as a single group for which one health promotion program will be applicable for all of its cultural subgroups. Compounding this stereotypical view of the Pan Asian community, there is sparse data about the cultural subgroups' similarities and dissimilarities. The Asian Grocery Store based cancer education program evaluation data provided an opportunity to compare data collected under identical circumstances from members of six Asian American cultural groups. Methods A convenience sample of 1,202 Asian American women evaluated the cultural alignment of a cancer education program, completing baseline and follow-up surveys that included questions about their breast cancer knowledge, attitudes, and screening behaviors. Participants took part in a brief education program that facilitated adherence to recommended screening guidelines. Results Unique recruitment methods were needed to attract participants from each ethnic group. Impressions gained from the aggregate data revealed different insights than the disaggregate data. Statistically significant variations existed among the subgroups' breast cancer knowledge, attitudes, and screening behaviors that could contribute to health disparities among the subgroups and within the aggregate Pan Asian community. Conclusion Health promotion efforts of providers, educators, and policy makers can be enhanced if cultural differences are identified and taken into account when developing strategies to reduce health disparities and promote health equity.

  17. Chest wall secondary chondrosarcoma arising from enchondroma in a young Asian female

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih Chiang Nieh

    2014-01-01

    CONCLUSION: Secondary chondrosarcoma in a young Asian female arising from a benign solitary enchondroma in the absence of multiple enchondromatosis, such as Ollier disease or Maffucci syndrome, is extremely rare. Regular follow up including physical assessment and radiological imaging can result in earlier detection of malignant transformation obviating the need for aggressive surgical treatment involving multiple rib resections.

  18. Birth weights of infants of first generation Asian women in Britain compared with second generation Asian women.

    OpenAIRE

    Dhawan, S

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To compare birth weights of infants of first generation Asian women (women born in the Indian subcontinent) with those of infants of second generation Asian women (born in the United Kingdom). DESIGN--Retrospective case note study. SETTING--Bolton District General Hospital. SUBJECTS--331 Asian women who gave birth between January 1989 and December 1989: 220 of these women were first generation Asians and 111 were second generation Asians. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Birth weights of bab...

  19. Awareness and understanding of earthquake hazards at school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraò, Angela; Peruzza, Laura; Barnaba, Carla; Bragato, Pier Luigi

    2014-05-01

    selected students as communicators so that they can transfer simple educational messages on the seismic risk reduction to other students and/or to the whole community. The experiment is taking place in North East Italy, an area on which OGS detect earthquakes for seismological study and seismic alarm purposes. Teachers and students participating in the project are expected to present their achieved experience during a public event, at University of Udine (Italy).

  20. 4 Earthquake: Major offshore earthquakes recall the Aztec myth

    Science.gov (United States)

    United States Department of Commerce

    1970-01-01

    Long before the sun clears the eastern mountains of April 29, 1970, the savanna highlands of Chiapas tremble from a magnitude 6.7 earthquake centered off the Pacific coast near Mexico’s southern border. Then, for a few hours, he Isthmus of Tehuantepec is quiet.

  1. Dancing Earthquake Science Assists Recovery from the Christchurch Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Candice J.; Quigley, Mark C.

    2015-01-01

    The 2010-2012 Christchurch (Canterbury) earthquakes in New Zealand caused loss of life and psychological distress in residents throughout the region. In 2011, student dancers of the Hagley Dance Company and dance professionals choreographed the performance "Move: A Seismic Journey" for the Christchurch Body Festival that explored…

  2. Exacerbation of daily cough and allergic symptoms in adult patients with chronic cough by Asian dust: A hospital-based study in Kanazawa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashi, Tomomi; Kambayashi, Yasuhiro; Ohkura, Noriyuki; Fujimura, Masaki; Nakanishi, Sayaka; Yoshizaki, Tomokazu; Saijoh, Kiyofumi; Hayakawa, Kazuichi; Kobayashi, Fumihisa; Michigami, Yoshimasa; Hitomi, Yoshiaki; Nakamura, Hiroyuki

    2014-11-01

    The health effects associated with Asian dust have attracted attention due to the rapid increase in the number of Asian dust events in East Asia in recent years. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between Asian dust and daily cough, as well as allergic symptoms, in adult patients who suffer from chronic cough. We enrolled 86 adult patients from Kanazawa University Hospital, Japan, who were diagnosed with asthma, cough variant asthma, atopic cough or a combination of these conditions. From January to June 2011, subjects recorded their symptoms in a diary every day. Asian dust and non-Asian dust periods were defined according to the dust extinction coefficient, measured using the light detection and ranging (LIDAR). The daily levels of total suspended particulates, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and coexisting factors related to allergies, such as the Japanese cedar pollen count, were measured. McNemar's test showed that there were significantly more cough-positive patients during Asian dust periods than during the non-Asian dust period (p = 0.022). In addition, during Asian dust periods when the daily levels of Japanese cedar pollen, Japanese cypress pollen and PAHs were elevated, there were significantly more patients who experienced itchy eyes than during the non-Asian dust period (p triggers cough and allergic symptoms in adult patients with chronic cough.

  3. Long Period Earthquakes Beneath California's Young and Restless Volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitt, A. M.; Dawson, P. B.; Shelly, D. R.; Hill, D. P.; Mangan, M.

    2013-12-01

    The newly established USGS California Volcano Observatory has the broad responsibility of monitoring and assessing hazards at California's potentially threatening volcanoes, most notably Mount Shasta, Medicine Lake, Clear Lake Volcanic Field, and Lassen Volcanic Center in northern California; and Long Valley Caldera, Mammoth Mountain, and Mono-Inyo Craters in east-central California. Volcanic eruptions occur in California about as frequently as the largest San Andreas Fault Zone earthquakes-more than ten eruptions have occurred in the last 1,000 years, most recently at Lassen Peak (1666 C.E. and 1914-1917 C.E.) and Mono-Inyo Craters (c. 1700 C.E.). The Long Valley region (Long Valley caldera and Mammoth Mountain) underwent several episodes of heightened unrest over the last three decades, including intense swarms of volcano-tectonic (VT) earthquakes, rapid caldera uplift, and hazardous CO2 emissions. Both Medicine Lake and Lassen are subsiding at appreciable rates, and along with Clear Lake, Long Valley Caldera, and Mammoth Mountain, sporadically experience long period (LP) earthquakes related to migration of magmatic or hydrothermal fluids. Worldwide, the last two decades have shown the importance of tracking LP earthquakes beneath young volcanic systems, as they often provide indication of impending unrest or eruption. Herein we document the occurrence of LP earthquakes at several of California's young volcanoes, updating a previous study published in Pitt et al., 2002, SRL. All events were detected and located using data from stations within the Northern California Seismic Network (NCSN). Event detection was spatially and temporally uneven across the NCSN in the 1980s and 1990s, but additional stations, adoption of the Earthworm processing system, and heightened vigilance by seismologists have improved the catalog over the last decade. LP earthquakes are now relatively well-recorded under Lassen (~150 events since 2000), Clear Lake (~60 events), Mammoth Mountain

  4. DEMETER Satellite Observations of Particle Burst Prior to Chile Earthquake

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Zhenxia; Shen, Xuhui; Ma, Yuqian; Chen, Huaran; You, Xinzhao; Yuan, Yahong

    2010-01-01

    The lithosphere activity during seismogenic or occurrence of one earthquake may emit electromagnetic wave which propagate to ionosphere and radiation belt, then induce disturbance of electric and magnetic field and the precipitation of high energy charged particles. This paper, based on the data detected by DEMETER satellite, present the high energy charged particle burst(PB) with 4 to 6 times enhancement over the average value observed about ten days days before Chile earthquake. The obvious particle burst was also observed in the northern hemisphere mirror points conjugate of epicenter and no PB events in different years over the same epicenter region was found. The energy spectra of the PBs are different from the one averaged within the first three months in 2010. At the same time, the disturbance of the VLF electric spectrum in ionosphere over the epicenter detected by the DEMETER satellite are also observed in the same two orbits. Those observations from energetic PB and VLF electric spectrum disturbance...

  5. Historical earthquake investigation and research in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Wang

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available China is one of the countries with the longest tradition of culture and has suffered many earthquake disasters, so many earthquake documents have therefore been conserved. In this paper we try to outline some basic information of historical earthquake investigation and research in China, such as collection of historical earthquake data from archives, historical earthquake catalogues, seismic intensity scales. We introduce briefly the huge accomplishments of historical research and discuss some problems encountered. Through examples, we illustrate the solutions to some typical problems. There are some suggestions on further work.

  6. Fractal clustering pattern of Earthquakes in Haiti Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singha Roy, P. N.; Agrawal, M.

    2011-12-01

    12 January 2010 earthquake was a catastrophic magnitude (Mw =7.0) earthquake with an epicenter near the town of Leogane(18.44N, 72.57W), with the depth of earthquake was 13Km on the blind thrust faults associated with the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden fault system. Modern tectonic activity is forced by the convergent movements between the plates: The Caribbean tectonic plate shifts eastward in relation to North American plate. Highly complex geodynamic process of this region makes it well suited for fractal seismic analysis. Data between March 2000 to December 2009, prior to main shock, was studied for the entire Caribbean-North America plate boundary in the region of Hispaniola using spatial fractal correlation dimension (Dc) approach for the detection of clustering pattern in the narrow time span prior to the main strong events. Based on the spatio-temporal clustering pattern indicated by relatively low Dc (very close to the value of 1) of the past intermediate size events prior to strong event, the potential for future large events can also be assessed. Spatio-temporal clustering pattern of events apparently indicates a highly stressed region, an asperity or weak zone from where the rupture propagation may have eventually nucleated, causing strong earthquake may be used as clue for going detail hazard study.

  7. Earthquake Damage Assessment Using Very High Resolution Satelliteimagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiroiu, L.; André, G.; Bahoken, F.; Guillande, R.

    Various studies using satellite imagery were applied in the last years in order to assess natural hazard damages, most of them analyzing the case of floods, hurricanes or landslides. For the case of earthquakes, the medium or small spatial resolution data available in the recent past did not allow a reliable identification of damages, due to the size of the elements (e.g. buildings or other structures), too small compared with the pixel size. The recent progresses of remote sensing in terms of spatial resolution and data processing makes possible a reliable damage detection to the elements at risk. Remote sensing techniques applied to IKONOS (1 meter resolution) and IRS (5 meters resolution) imagery were used in order to evaluate seismic vulnerability and post earthquake damages. A fast estimation of losses was performed using a multidisciplinary approach based on earthquake engineering and geospatial analysis. The results, integrated into a GIS database, could be transferred via satellite networks to the rescue teams deployed on the affected zone, in order to better coordinate the emergency operations. The methodology was applied to the city of Bhuj and Anjar after the 2001 Gujarat (India) Earthquake.

  8. Loss estimation of Membramo earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damanik, R.; Sedayo, H.

    2016-05-01

    Papua Tectonics are dominated by the oblique collision of the Pacific plate along the north side of the island. A very high relative plate motions (i.e. 120 mm/year) between the Pacific and Papua-Australian Plates, gives this region a very high earthquake production rate, about twice as much as that of Sumatra, the western margin of Indonesia. Most of the seismicity occurring beneath the island of New Guinea is clustered near the Huon Peninsula, the Mamberamo region, and the Bird's Neck. At 04:41 local time(GMT+9), July 28th 2015, a large earthquake of Mw = 7.0 occurred at West Mamberamo Fault System. The earthquake focal mechanism are dominated by northwest-trending thrust mechanisms. GMPE and ATC vulnerability curve were used to estimate distribution of damage. Mean of estimated losses was caused by this earthquake is IDR78.6 billion. We estimated insurance loss will be only small portion in total general due to deductible.

  9. Fast Registration of Remotely Sensed Images for Earthquake Damage Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasaei Shohreh

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the multispectral remotely sensed images of the areas destroyed by an earthquake is proved to be a helpful tool for destruction assessments. The performance of such methods is highly dependant on the preprocess that registers the two shots before and after an event. In this paper, we propose a new fast and reliable change detection method for remotely sensed images and analyze its performance. The experimental results show the efficiency of the proposed algorithm.

  10. Family Violence: Psychological Consequences and Beliefs in Asian and Asian-American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maker, Azmaira; Heiple, Becky

    This study specifically explored the relationships among childhood trauma, long-term psychological consequences, beliefs about family violence, and gender role stereotypes in Asian and Asian American women. A prediction was made that childhood physical violence and witnessing family violence would create long-term negative symptoms; higher levels…

  11. Invisible Asian Americans: The Intersection of Sexuality, Race, and Education among Gay Asian Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocampo, Anthony C.; Soodjinda, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Most research on Asian American education has centered on addressing and deconstructing the model minority stereotype. While recent studies have highlighted the socioeconomic and cultural heterogeneity among Asian American students, few have examined how sexual identity and masculinity mitigate their academic experiences. In this article, we draw…

  12. A Review on Tidal Triggering of Earthquakes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Jin; Jiang Haikun

    2012-01-01

    Research of tidal triggering of earthquakes in recent years is systematically reviewed, focusing on the relationship between the phases of the moon and seismic activity, earthquakes triggered by tidal forces and its components, based on the large sample statistics to discuss the tidal triggering of an earthquake. The relationship between the phase of the moon and seismic activity is a preliminary study of tidal triggering of earthquakes, and the modulation ratio is a quantitative description of it. Using the resolution of tidal stress to study seismic activity is a way to reveal the relationship between the tides and earthquakes from the mechanics point of view. Large sample statistics is another way to study the relationship between the tidal and earthquake from the view of statistics. In many statistical methods, Schuster's test is used more widely, which takes many factors into account, such as focal mechanism, tidal stress, and statistical tests to quantitatively analyze the tidal triggering effect on earthquakes.

  13. HYDROACOUSTIC OBSERVATIONS OF WEAK EARTHQUAKES IN SHALLOW WATERS OF THE SOUTHERN KURIL ISLANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander S. Borisov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Results of hydroacoustic observations of signals from weak earthquakes in natural conditions in the region of the Southern Kuril Islands are presented. Some earthquakes were registered by the the Yuzhno-Kurilsk Seismic Station, other were only recorded by hydrophone stations. The observations were specific as seismic signals were recorded in shallow waters, i.e. in high noise level conditions. Hydrophones were installed in Lake Lagunnoe (Kunashir and Khromovaya Bay (Shikotan. Our analysis of hydroacoustic records received from the hydrophone stations revealed no evident precursory response of the geological medium to weak distant events. This means that neither before the period of earthquake preparation nor during the earthquake preparation period, any geoacoustic emission was not detected. It is shown that despite the unfavourable noise level conditions, even distant weak earthquakes can be confidently registered by hydrophone stations, and pending application of proper signal processing techniques, it can be possible to determine arrival times of seismic waves and to measure parameters of seismic waves. It is also established that the frequency spectrum of acoustic signals from the weak earthquakes recordable by the hydrophone stations is continuous and of noise type in the frequency range up to 90–100 Hz. It is revealed that in some cases, weak earthquakes and microearthquakes may be forerun by low frequency signals.

  14. Correlation between Earthquakes and AE Monitoring of Historical Buildings in Seismic Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Lacidogna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this contribution a new method for evaluating seismic risk in regional areas based on the acoustic emission (AE technique is proposed. Most earthquakes have precursors, i.e., phenomena of changes in the Earth’s physical-chemical properties that take place prior to an earthquake. Acoustic emissions in materials and earthquakes in the Earth’s crust, despite the fact that they take place on very different scales, are very similar phenomena; both are caused by a release of elastic energy from a source located in a medium. For the AE monitoring, two important constructions of Italian cultural heritage are considered: the chapel of the “Sacred Mountain of Varallo” and the “Asinelli Tower” of Bologna. They were monitored during earthquake sequences in their relative areas. By using the Grassberger-Procaccia algorithm, a statistical method of analysis was developed that detects AEs as earthquake precursors or aftershocks. Under certain conditions it was observed that AEs precede earthquakes. These considerations reinforce the idea that the AE monitoring can be considered an effective tool for earthquake risk evaluation.

  15. Solar eruptions - soil radon - earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the first time a new natural phenomenon was established: a contrasting increase in the soil radon level under the influence of solar flares. Such an increase is one of geochemical indicators of earthquakes. Most researchers consider this a phenomenon of exclusively terrestrial processes. Investigations regarding the link of earthquakes to solar activity carried out during the last decade in different countries are based on the analysis of statistical data ΣΕ (t) and W (t). As established, the overall seismicity of the Earth and its separate regions depends of an 11-year long cycle of solar activity. Data provided in the paper based on experimental studies serve the first step on the way of experimental data on revealing cause-and-reason solar-terrestrials bonds in a series solar eruption-lithosphere radon-earthquakes. They need further collection of experimental data. For the first time, through radon constituent of terrestrial radiation objectification has been made of elementary lattice of the Hartmann's network contoured out by bio location method. As found out, radon concentration variations in Hartmann's network nodes determine the dynamics of solar-terrestrial relationships. Of the three types of rapidly running processes conditioned by solar-terrestrial bonds earthquakes are attributed to rapidly running destructive processes that occur in the most intense way at the juncture of tectonic massifs, along transformed and deep failures. The basic factors provoking the earthquakes are both magnetic-structural effects and a long-term (over 5 months) bombing of the surface of lithosphere by highly energetic particles of corpuscular solar flows, this being approved by photometry. As a result of solar flares that occurred from 29 October to 4 November 2003, a sharply contrasting increase in soil radon was established which is an earthquake indicator on the territory of Yerevan City. A month and a half later, earthquakes occurred in San-Francisco, Iran, Turkey

  16. How citizen seismology is transforming rapid public earthquake information and interactions between seismologists and society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossu, Rémy; Steed, Robert; Mazet-Roux, Gilles; Roussel, Fréderic; Caroline, Etivant

    2015-04-01

    Historical earthquakes are only known to us through written recollections and so seismologists have a long experience of interpreting the reports of eyewitnesses, explaining probably why seismology has been a pioneer in crowdsourcing and citizen science. Today, Internet has been transforming this situation; It can be considered as the digital nervous system comprising of digital veins and intertwined sensors that capture the pulse of our planet in near real-time. How can both seismology and public could benefit from this new monitoring system? This paper will present the strategy implemented at Euro-Mediterranean Seismological Centre (EMSC) to leverage this new nervous system to detect and diagnose the impact of earthquakes within minutes rather than hours and how it transformed information systems and interactions with the public. We will show how social network monitoring and flashcrowds (massive website traffic increases on EMSC website) are used to automatically detect felt earthquakes before seismic detections, how damaged areas can me mapped through concomitant loss of Internet sessions (visitors being disconnected) and the benefit of collecting felt reports and geolocated pictures to further constrain rapid impact assessment of global earthquakes. We will also describe how public expectations within tens of seconds of ground shaking are at the basis of improved diversified information tools which integrate this user generated contents. A special attention will be given to LastQuake, the most complex and sophisticated Twitter QuakeBot, smartphone application and browser add-on, which deals with the only earthquakes that matter for the public: the felt and damaging earthquakes. In conclusion we will demonstrate that eyewitnesses are today real time earthquake sensors and active actors of rapid earthquake information.

  17. Very short-term earthquake precursors from GPS signal interference based on the 2013 Nantou and Rueisuei earthquakes, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Yu-Lien; Cheng, Kai-Chien; Wang, Wei-Hau; Yu, Shui-Beih

    2015-12-01

    We set up a GPS network with 17 Continuous GPS (CGPS) stations in southwestern Taiwan to monitor real-time crustal deformation. We found that systematic perturbations in GPS signals occurred just a few minutes prior to the 2013 Nantou (ML = 6.5) and Rueisuei (ML = 6.4) earthquakes in Taiwan. The anomalous pseudorange readings were several millimeters higher or lower than those in the background time period. These systematic anomalies were found as a result of interference of GPS L-band signals by electromagnetic emissions (EMs) prior to the mainshocks. The EMs may occur in the form of harmonic or ultra-wide-band radiation and can be generated during the formation of Mode I cracks at the final stage of earthquake nucleation. We estimated the directivity of the likely EM sources by calculating the inner product of the position vector from a GPS station to a given satellite and the vector of anomalous ground motions recorded by the GPS. The results showed that the predominant inner product generally occurred when the satellite was in the direction either toward or away from the epicenter with respect to the GPS network. Our findings suggest that the GPS network may serve as a powerful tool to detect very short-term earthquake precursors and presumably to locate a large earthquake before it occurs. Nevertheless, a direct measurement of EMs at the site of the GPS array is required in future studies to confirm this hypothesis.

  18. Demonstration of the Cascadia G‐FAST geodetic earthquake early warning system for the Nisqually, Washington, earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowell, Brendan; Schmidt, David; Bodin, Paul; Vidale, John; Gomberg, Joan S.; Hartog, Renate; Kress, Victor; Melbourne, Tim; Santillian, Marcelo; Minson, Sarah E.; Jamison, Dylan

    2016-01-01

    A prototype earthquake early warning (EEW) system is currently in development in the Pacific Northwest. We have taken a two‐stage approach to EEW: (1) detection and initial characterization using strong‐motion data with the Earthquake Alarm Systems (ElarmS) seismic early warning package and (2) the triggering of geodetic modeling modules using Global Navigation Satellite Systems data that help provide robust estimates of large‐magnitude earthquakes. In this article we demonstrate the performance of the latter, the Geodetic First Approximation of Size and Time (G‐FAST) geodetic early warning system, using simulated displacements for the 2001Mw 6.8 Nisqually earthquake. We test the timing and performance of the two G‐FAST source characterization modules, peak ground displacement scaling, and Centroid Moment Tensor‐driven finite‐fault‐slip modeling under ideal, latent, noisy, and incomplete data conditions. We show good agreement between source parameters computed by G‐FAST with previously published and postprocessed seismic and geodetic results for all test cases and modeling modules, and we discuss the challenges with integration into the U.S. Geological Survey’s ShakeAlert EEW system.

  19. Sustainability in South Asian city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Akhmat

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available City brings about the most complex interplay of social, cultural, and political dimensions of space. It will have to accommodate around one billion humans only in South Asia by the year 2030. Therefore it needs to be prepared to absorb huge increases in urban population and resulting pressure on basic infrastructure and livelihood opportunities. In order to secure a better future and to improve the quality of life of all the citizens, city needs to be reinvented, by incorporating creativity and innovation with the approaches, we use in its planning. Here we present an overview of the progress, challenges and some key interventions to reinvent the city in South Asian region as well as in the developing world, with the examples of the most populous countries in the region: India, Pakistan and Bangladesh. Planning transforms geometric space in city into lived space. City planning in South Asia is as old as the human settlement itself, but the current situation is well below the level to be admired. Most of the city plans have been faulty with poor economic base and implementability, and fostered unintended city within the city, whose growth rate shadows the growth rate of the city itself. City in the developing world desperately needs to follow a sustainable development pattern which satisfies the requirement for equity; meets basic human needs; allows social and ethnic self-determination; promotes environmental awareness, integrity and inter-linkages between various living beings across time and space. It requires a combination of strategic policy making, supported by a system that combines personal opinion with scientific knowledge. It needs to reset the basis for the articulation of the initiatives of all relevant stakeholders to seek synergies for its development.

  20. Statistical investigation of the ionospheric density recorded by DEMETER in the magnetically conjugated areas of earthquake epicenters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrot, Michel; Li, Mei

    2016-04-01

    There is a link between the two hemispheres of the Earth due to the magnetic field lines, and waves which are emitted in a hemisphere have a tendency to propagate along these magnetic field lines to be observed in the opposite hemisphere. It means that a perturbation observed in a hemisphere may have its counterpart in the opposite hemisphere close to its magnetically conjugated point. In this paper we will check if perturbations around the magnetically conjugated points of the earthquake epicenters could be observed. In a first step, ionospheric density peaks are automatically searched in the complete DEMETER data set (6.5 years). Then perturbations during large geomagnetic activity are eliminated. In a second step we search if a perturbation could be attributed to an earthquake, and if there are perturbations in the magnetically conjugated area of this earthquake epicenter. The outputs of this statistical analysis as function of the earthquake magnitude are the number of good detections (one perturbation corresponds to one earthquake), the number of false alarms (one perturbation but no earthquake), and the number of bad detections (no perturbation but one earthquake). As it was expected, the ratio between the number of earthquakes with good detections and the total number of earthquakes is less than the same ratio calculated in the epicenter hemisphere but this ratio also increases with the earthquake magnitude. This means that it is possible to check perturbations in the conjugated region of the seismic areas. This could be useful because a satellite does not stay a long time above epicenter areas.