WorldWideScience

Sample records for asian continental ancestry group

  1. Ancestry Informative Marker Sets for Determining Continental Origin and Admixture Proportions in Common Populations in America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosoy, Roman; Nassir, Rami; Tian, Chao; White, Phoebe A; Butler, Lesley M.; Silva, Gabriel; Kittles, Rick; Alarcon-Riquelme, Marta E.; Gregersen, Peter K.; Belmont, John W.; De La Vega, Francisco M.; Seldin, Michael F.

    2011-01-01

    To provide a resource for assessing continental ancestry in a wide variety of genetic studies we identified, validated and characterized a set of 128 ancestry informative markers (AIMs). The markers were chosen for informativeness, genome-wide distribution, and genotype reproducibility on two platforms (TaqMan® assays and Illumina arrays). We analyzed genotyping data from 825 subjects with diverse ancestry, including European, East Asian, Amerindian, African, South Asian, Mexican, and Puerto Rican. A comprehensive set of 128 AIMs and subsets as small as 24 AIMs are shown to be useful tools for ascertaining the origin of subjects from particular continents, and to correct for population stratification in admixed population sample sets. Our findings provide general guidelines for the application of specific AIM subsets as a resource for wide application. We conclude that investigators can use TaqMan assays for the selected AIMs as a simple and cost efficient tool to control for differences in continental ancestry when conducting association studies in ethnically diverse populations. PMID:18683858

  2. The Hmong Diaspora: preserved South-East Asian genetic ancestry in French Guianese Asians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brucato, Nicolas; Mazières, Stéphane; Guitard, Evelyne; Giscard, Pierre-Henri; Bois, Etienne; Larrouy, Georges; Dugoujon, Jean-Michel

    2012-01-01

    The Hmong Diaspora is one of the widest modern human migrations. Mainly localised in South-East Asia, the United States of America, and metropolitan France, a small community has also settled the Amazonian forest of French Guiana. We have biologically analysed 62 individuals of this unique Guianese population through three complementary genetic markers: mitochondrial DNA (HVS-I/II and coding region SNPs), Y-chromosome (SNPs and STRs), and the Gm allotypic system. All genetic systems showed a high conservation of the Asian gene pool (Asian ancestry: mtDNA=100.0%; NRY=99.1%; Gm=96.6%), without a trace of founder effect. When compared across various Asian populations, the highest correlations were observed with Hmong-Mien groups still living in South-East Asia (Fst<0.05; P-value<0.05). Despite a long history punctuated by exodus, the French Guianese Hmong have maintained their original genetic diversity. PMID:23199638

  3. CoAIMs: a cost-effective panel of ancestry informative markers for determining continental origins.

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    Eric R Londin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genetic ancestry is known to impact outcomes of genotype-phenotype studies that are designed to identify risk for common diseases in human populations. Failure to control for population stratification due to genetic ancestry can significantly confound results of disease association studies. Moreover, ancestry is a critical factor in assessing lifetime risk of disease, and can play an important role in optimizing treatment. As modern medicine moves towards using personal genetic information for clinical applications, it is important to determine genetic ancestry in an accurate, cost-effective and efficient manner. Self-identified race is a common method used to track and control for population stratification; however, social constructs of race are not necessarily informative for genetic applications. The use of ancestry informative markers (AIMs is a more accurate method for determining genetic ancestry for the purposes of population stratification. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we introduce a novel panel of 36 microsatellite (MSAT AIMs that determines continental admixture proportions. This panel, which we have named Continental Ancestry Informative Markers or CoAIMs, consists of MSAT AIMs that were chosen based upon their measure of genetic variance (F(st, allele frequencies and their suitability for efficient genotyping. Genotype analysis using CoAIMs along with a Bayesian clustering method (STRUCTURE is able to discern continental origins including Europe/Middle East (Caucasians, East Asia, Africa, Native America, and Oceania. In addition to determining continental ancestry for individuals without significant admixture, we applied CoAIMs to ascertain admixture proportions of individuals of self declared race. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: CoAIMs can be used to efficiently and effectively determine continental admixture proportions in a sample set. The CoAIMs panel is a valuable resource for genetic researchers performing case

  4. Developing a set of ancestry-sensitive DNA markers reflecting continental origins of humans

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    den Dunnen Johan T

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The identification and use of Ancestry-Sensitive Markers (ASMs, i.e. genetic polymorphisms facilitating the genetic reconstruction of geographical origins of individuals, is far from straightforward. Results Here we describe the ascertainment and application of five different sets of 47 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs allowing the inference of major human groups of different continental origin. For this, we first used 74 cell lines, representing human males from six different geographical areas and screened them with the Affymetrix Mapping 10K assay. In addition to using summary statistics estimating the genetic diversity among multiple groups of individuals defined by geography or language, we also used the program STRUCTURE to detect genetically distinct subgroups. Subsequently, we used a pairwise FST ranking procedure among all pairs of genetic subgroups in order to identify a single best performing set of ASMs. Our initial results were independently confirmed by genotyping this set of ASMs in 22 individuals from Somalia, Afghanistan and Sudan and in 919 samples from the CEPH Human Genome Diversity Panel (HGDP-CEPH Conclusion By means of our pairwise population FST ranking approach we identified a set of 47 SNPs that could serve as a panel of ASMs at a continental level.

  5. Multiplex genotyping system for efficient inference of matrilineal genetic ancestry with continental resolution

    OpenAIRE

    van Oven Mannis; Vermeulen Mark; Kayser Manfred

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background In recent years, phylogeographic studies have produced detailed knowledge on the worldwide distribution of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variants, linking specific clades of the mtDNA phylogeny with certain geographic areas. However, a multiplex genotyping system for the detection of the mtDNA haplogroups of major continental distribution that would be desirable for efficient DNA-based bio-geographic ancestry testing in various applications is still missing. Results Three mult...

  6. Multiplex genotyping system for efficient inference of matrilineal genetic ancestry with continental resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Oven Mannis

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, phylogeographic studies have produced detailed knowledge on the worldwide distribution of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA variants, linking specific clades of the mtDNA phylogeny with certain geographic areas. However, a multiplex genotyping system for the detection of the mtDNA haplogroups of major continental distribution that would be desirable for efficient DNA-based bio-geographic ancestry testing in various applications is still missing. Results Three multiplex genotyping assays, based on single-base primer extension technology, were developed targeting a total of 36 coding-region mtDNA variants that together differentiate 43 matrilineal haplo-/paragroups. These include the major diagnostic haplogroups for Africa, Western Eurasia, Eastern Eurasia and Native America. The assays show high sensitivity with respect to the amount of template DNA: successful amplification could still be obtained when using as little as 4 pg of genomic DNA and the technology is suitable for medium-throughput analyses. Conclusions We introduce an efficient and sensitive multiplex genotyping system for bio-geographic ancestry inference from mtDNA that provides resolution on the continental level. The method can be applied in forensics, to aid tracing unknown suspects, as well as in population studies, genealogy and personal ancestry testing. For more complete inferences of overall bio-geographic ancestry from DNA, the mtDNA system provided here can be combined with multiplex systems for suitable autosomal and, in the case of males, Y-chromosomal ancestry-sensitive DNA markers.

  7. Ancestry of the Iban is predominantly Southeast Asian: genetic evidence from autosomal, mitochondrial, and Y chromosomes.

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    Tatum S Simonson

    Full Text Available Humans reached present-day Island Southeast Asia (ISEA in one of the first major human migrations out of Africa. Population movements in the millennia following this initial settlement are thought to have greatly influenced the genetic makeup of current inhabitants, yet the extent attributed to different events is not clear. Recent studies suggest that south-to-north gene flow largely influenced present-day patterns of genetic variation in Southeast Asian populations and that late Pleistocene and early Holocene migrations from Southeast Asia are responsible for a substantial proportion of ISEA ancestry. Archaeological and linguistic evidence suggests that the ancestors of present-day inhabitants came mainly from north-to-south migrations from Taiwan and throughout ISEA approximately 4,000 years ago. We report a large-scale genetic analysis of human variation in the Iban population from the Malaysian state of Sarawak in northwestern Borneo, located in the center of ISEA. Genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers analyzed here suggest that the Iban exhibit greatest genetic similarity to Indonesian and mainland Southeast Asian populations. The most common non-recombining Y (NRY and mitochondrial (mt DNA haplogroups present in the Iban are associated with populations of Southeast Asia. We conclude that migrations from Southeast Asia made a large contribution to Iban ancestry, although evidence of potential gene flow from Taiwan is also seen in uniparentally inherited marker data.

  8. Ancestry of the Iban is predominantly Southeast Asian: genetic evidence from autosomal, mitochondrial, and Y chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonson, Tatum S; Xing, Jinchuan; Barrett, Robert; Jerah, Edward; Loa, Peter; Zhang, Yuhua; Watkins, W Scott; Witherspoon, David J; Huff, Chad D; Woodward, Scott; Mowry, Bryan; Jorde, Lynn B

    2011-01-01

    Humans reached present-day Island Southeast Asia (ISEA) in one of the first major human migrations out of Africa. Population movements in the millennia following this initial settlement are thought to have greatly influenced the genetic makeup of current inhabitants, yet the extent attributed to different events is not clear. Recent studies suggest that south-to-north gene flow largely influenced present-day patterns of genetic variation in Southeast Asian populations and that late Pleistocene and early Holocene migrations from Southeast Asia are responsible for a substantial proportion of ISEA ancestry. Archaeological and linguistic evidence suggests that the ancestors of present-day inhabitants came mainly from north-to-south migrations from Taiwan and throughout ISEA approximately 4,000 years ago. We report a large-scale genetic analysis of human variation in the Iban population from the Malaysian state of Sarawak in northwestern Borneo, located in the center of ISEA. Genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers analyzed here suggest that the Iban exhibit greatest genetic similarity to Indonesian and mainland Southeast Asian populations. The most common non-recombining Y (NRY) and mitochondrial (mt) DNA haplogroups present in the Iban are associated with populations of Southeast Asia. We conclude that migrations from Southeast Asia made a large contribution to Iban ancestry, although evidence of potential gene flow from Taiwan is also seen in uniparentally inherited marker data. PMID:21305013

  9. Hybrid accretionary/collisional mechanism of Paleozoic Asian continental growth

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    Schulmann, Karel; Lexa, Ondrej; Janousek, Vojtech; Pavla, Stipska; Yingde, Jiang; Alexandra, Guy; Min, Sun

    2016-04-01

    Continental crust is formed above subduction zones by well-known process of "juvenile crust growth". This new crust is in modern Earth assembled into continents by two ways: (i) short-lived collisions of continental blocks with the Eurasian continent along the "Alpine-Himalayan collisional/interior orogens" in the heart of the Pangean continental plates realm; and (ii) long lived lateral accretion of ocean-floor fragments along "circum-Pacific accretionary/peripheral orogens" at the border of the Pacific oceanic plate. This configuration has existed since the late Proterozoic, when the giant accretionary Terra Australis Orogen developed at periphery of an old Palaeo-Pacific ocean together with collisional Caledonian and Variscan orogens. At the same time, the large (ca. 9 millions km2) Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) developed in the NE part of the Pangea. This orogen reveals features of both peripheral and interior orogens, which implies that the generally accepted "peripheral-accretionary" and "interior- collisional" paradigm is not applicable here. To solve this conundrum a new model of unprecedented Phanerozoic continental growth is proposed. In this model, the CAOB precursor evolved at the interface of old exterior and young interior oceans. Subsequently, the new lithospheric domain was transferred by advancing subduction into the interior of the Pangean mostly continental realm. During this process the oceanic crust was transformed into continental crust and it was only later when this specific lithosphere was incorporated into the Asian continent. If true, this concept represents revolutionary insight into processes of crustal growth explaining the enigma of anchoring hybrid lithosphere inside a continent without its subduction or Tibetan-type thickening.

  10. Estimates of Continental Ancestry Vary Widely among Individuals with the Same mtDNA Haplogroup

    OpenAIRE

    Emery, Leslie S.; Magnaye, Kevin M.; Bigham, Abigail W.; Akey, Joshua M.; Bamshad, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    The association between a geographical region and an mtDNA haplogroup(s) has provided the basis for using mtDNA haplogroups to infer an individual’s place of origin and genetic ancestry. Although it is well known that ancestry inferences using mtDNA haplogroups and those using genome-wide markers are frequently discrepant, little empirical information exists on the magnitude and scope of such discrepancies between multiple mtDNA haplogroups and worldwide populations. We compared genetic-ances...

  11. Autosomal and X-linked single nucleotide polymorphisms reveal a steep Asian-Melanesian ancestry cline in eastern Indonesia and a sex bias in admixture rates.

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    Cox, Murray P; Karafet, Tatiana M; Lansing, J Stephen; Sudoyo, Herawati; Hammer, Michael F

    2010-05-22

    The geographical region between mainland Asia and New Guinea is characterized by numerous small islands with isolated human populations. Phenotypically, groups in the west are similar to their neighbours in mainland Southeast Asia, eastern groups near New Guinea are similar to Melanesians, and intervening populations are intermediate in appearance. A long-standing question is whether this pattern primarily reflects mixing between groups with distinct origins or whether natural selection has shaped this range of variation by acting differentially on populations across the region. To address this question, we genotyped a set of 37 single nucleotide polymorphisms that are evolutionarily independent, putatively neutral and highly informative for Asian-Melanesian ancestry in 1430 individuals from 60 populations spanning mainland Asia to Melanesia. Admixture analysis reveals a sharp transition from Asian to Melanesian genetic variants over a narrow geographical region in eastern Indonesia. Interestingly, this admixture cline roughly corresponds to the human phenotypic boundary noted by Alfred Russell Wallace in 1869. We conclude that this phenotypic gradient probably reflects mixing of two long-separated ancestral source populations-one descended from the initial Melanesian-like inhabitants of the region, and the other related to Asian groups that immigrated during the Paleolithic and/or with the spread of agriculture. A higher frequency of Asian X-linked markers relative to autosomal markers throughout the transition zone suggests that the admixture process was sex-biased, either favouring a westward expansion of patrilocal Melanesian groups or an eastward expansion of matrilocal Asian immigrants. The matrilocal marriage practices that dominated early Austronesian societies may be one factor contributing to this observed sex bias in admixture rates.

  12. Developing a set of ancestry-sensitive DNA markers reflecting continental origins of humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Kersbergen (Paula); K. van Duijn (Kate); A. Kloosterman (Ate); J.T. den Dunnen (Johan); M.H. Kayser (Manfred); P. de Knijff (Peter)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The identification and use of Ancestry-Sensitive Markers (ASMs), i.e. genetic polymorphisms facilitating the genetic reconstruction of geographical origins of individuals, is far from straightforward. Results: Here we describe the ascertainment and application of five differe

  13. Straightforward inference of ancestry and admixture proportions through ancestry-informative insertion deletion multiplexing.

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    Rui Pereira

    Full Text Available Ancestry-informative markers (AIMs show high allele frequency divergence between different ancestral or geographically distant populations. These genetic markers are especially useful in inferring the likely ancestral origin of an individual or estimating the apportionment of ancestry components in admixed individuals or populations. The study of AIMs is of great interest in clinical genetics research, particularly to detect and correct for population substructure effects in case-control association studies, but also in population and forensic genetics studies. This work presents a set of 46 ancestry-informative insertion deletion polymorphisms selected to efficiently measure population admixture proportions of four different origins (African, European, East Asian and Native American. All markers are analyzed in short fragments (under 230 basepairs through a single PCR followed by capillary electrophoresis (CE allowing a very simple one tube PCR-to-CE approach. HGDP-CEPH diversity panel samples from the four groups, together with Oceanians, were genotyped to evaluate the efficiency of the assay in clustering populations from different continental origins and to establish reference databases. In addition, other populations from diverse geographic origins were tested using the HGDP-CEPH samples as reference data. The results revealed that the AIM-INDEL set developed is highly efficient at inferring the ancestry of individuals and provides good estimates of ancestry proportions at the population level. In conclusion, we have optimized the multiplexed genotyping of 46 AIM-INDELs in a simple and informative assay, enabling a more straightforward alternative to the commonly available AIM-SNP typing methods dependent on complex, multi-step protocols or implementation of large-scale genotyping technologies.

  14. Asian Students' Perceptions of Group Work and Group Assignments in a New Zealand Tertiary Institution

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    Li, Mingsheng; Campbell, Jacqui

    2008-01-01

    This study, conducted in 2005 in a New Zealand tertiary institution, examines Asian students' perceptions of the much-promulgated cooperative learning concepts in the form of group work and group assignments. Twenty-two Asian students participated in one-hour individual face-to-face semi-structured interviews. The study found that Asian students…

  15. Asian Americans as a Minority Group

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    Sue, Stanley; And Others

    1975-01-01

    The stated purpose of this article is to argue for a more realistic appraisal of the status of Asian Americans, by examining the 1970 statistics concerning income, education, interracial marriage, and mental health among the 435,000 Chinese, 343,000 Filipinos, and 591,000 Japanese in the U.S. (Author/JM)

  16. Tectonic-geodynamic settings of OIB-magmatism on the eastern Asian continental margin during the Cretaceous-Paleogene transition

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    Filatova, N. I.

    2015-11-01

    At the Cretaceous-Paleogene transition, the convergent boundary between the Asian and Pacific plates was replaced by a transform boundary to determine destruction of the continental margin including the Okhotsk-Chukotka Cretaceous subduction-related belt along left-lateral strike-slip and downdip-strikeslip faults. The newly formed East Asian rift system (EARS) continues in the easterly direction the Mongol-Okhotsk zone of left-lateral strike-slip faults, a former transform boundary of the Asian continent. Basaltoids of the East Asian rift system that erupted through fractures onto the former active margin are similar intraplate OIB volcanics related to the lower mantle source. The specific feature of OIB-type magmatism in the system consists in its continental marginal position near the transform boundary.

  17. Gondwanaland origin, dispersion, and accretion of East and Southeast Asian continental terranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, I.

    1994-10-01

    East and Southeast Asia is a complex assembly of allochthonous continental terranes, island arcs, accretionary complexes and small ocean basins. The boundaries between continental terranes are marked by major fault zones or by sutures recognized by the presence of ophiolites, mélanges and accretionary complexes. Stratigraphical, sedimentological, paleobiogeographical and paleomagnetic data suggest that all of the East and Southeast Asian continental terranes were derived directly or indirectly from the Iran-Himalaya-Australia margin of Gondwanaland. The evolution of the terranes is one of rifting from Gondwanaland, northwards drift and amalgamation/accretion to form present day East Asia. Three continental silvers were rifted from the northeast margin of Gondwanaland in the Silurian-Early Devonian (North China, South China, Indochina/East Malaya, Qamdo-Simao and Tarim terranes), Early-Middle Permian (Sibumasu, Lhasa and Qiangtang terranes) and Late Jurassic (West Burma terrane, Woyla terranes). The northwards drift of these terranes was effected by the opening and closing of three successive Tethys oceans, the Paleo-Tethys, Meso-Tethys and Ceno-Tethys. Terrane assembly took place between the Late Paleozoic and Cenozoic, but the precise timings of amalgamation and accretion are still contentious. Amalgamation of South China and Indochina/East Malaya occurred during the Early Carboniferous along the Song Ma Suture to form "Cathaysialand". Cathaysialand, together with North China, formed a large continental region within the Paleotethys during the Late Carboniferous and Permian. Paleomagnetic data indicate that this continental region was in equatorial to low northern paleolatitudes which is consistent with the tropical Cathaysian flora developed on these terranes. The Tarim terrane (together with the Kunlun, Qaidam and Ala Shan terranes) accreted to Kazakhstan/Siberia in the Permian. This was followed by the suturing of Sibumasu and Qiangtang to Cathaysialand in the

  18. Recent Advances in Sarcopenia Research in Asia: 2016 Update From the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia.

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    Chen, Liang-Kung; Lee, Wei-Ju; Peng, Li-Ning; Liu, Li-Kuo; Arai, Hidenori; Akishita, Masahiro

    2016-08-01

    Sarcopenia was recently classified a geriatric syndrome and is a major challenge to healthy aging. Affected patients tend to have worse clinical outcomes and higher mortality than those without sarcopenia. Although there is general agreement on the principal diagnostic characteristics, initial thresholds for muscle mass, strength, and physical performance were based on data from populations of predominantly Europid ancestry and may not apply worldwide. The Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia (AWGS) issued regional consensus guidelines in 2014, and many more research studies from Asia have since been published; this review summarizes recent progress. The prevalence of sarcopenia estimated by the AWGS criteria ranges between 4.1% and 11.5% of the general older population; however, prevalence rates were higher in Asian studies that used European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People cut-offs. Risk factors include age, sex, heart disease, hyperlipidemia, daily alcohol consumption, and low protein or vitamin intake; physical activity is protective. Adjusting skeletal muscle mass by weight rather than height is better in showing the effect of older age in sarcopenia and identifying sarcopenic obesity; however, some Asian studies found no significant skeletal muscle loss, and muscle strength might be a better indicator. Although AWGS 2014 diagnostic cut-offs were generally well accepted, some may require further revision in light of conflicting evidence from some studies. The importance of sarcopenia in diverse therapeutic areas is increasingly evident, with strong research interest in sarcopenic obesity and the setting of malignancy. Pharmacologic interventions have been unsatisfactory, and the core management strategies remain physical exercise and nutritional supplementation; however, further research is required to determine the most beneficial approaches. PMID:27372539

  19. Data on the parasite fauna of the European common carp Cyprinus carpio carpio and Asian common carp Cyprinus carpio haematopterus support an Asian ancestry of the species

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    Kalman Molnár

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The common carp subspecies (Cyprinus carpio carpio has been regarded as an autochtonous species of Europe. Evidence obtained by comparing the parasite fauna of the European and the Asian subspecies (Cyprinus carpio haematopterus establish that such fish in the Far East harbour a significantly richer array of parasite species, and were the exclusive hosts of most of the specific parasites, including all monogenean and myxosporean spp., until recent intensive fish translocations from the Far East. I therefore propose that the common carp originated in the Far-East. The commoncarp would have originally inhabited only the Far East freshwaters, arriving in Europe in the Middle Ages by anthropogenic transfers. During the long trip from China to Europe, the common carp lost its original parasite fauna. In its new habitat, it acquired some parasite from the crucian carp, Carassius carassius, a closely related fish. Infection of the European subspecies with the Asian parasites that had been lost in Europe recommenced only in the middle of the last century, when the Amur wild carp and the coloured carp variations became introduced to Europe. The examination of the parasite fauna of fishes is an excellent tool for surveying the origin of fishes.

  20. Genomic study of the Ket: a Paleo-Eskimo-related ethnic group with significant ancient North Eurasian ancestry

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    Flegontov, Pavel; Changmai, Piya; Zidkova, Anastassiya; Logacheva, Maria D.; Altınışık, N. Ezgi; Flegontova, Olga; Gelfand, Mikhail S.; Gerasimov, Evgeny S.; Khrameeva, Ekaterina E.; Konovalova, Olga P.; Neretina, Tatiana; Nikolsky, Yuri V.; Starostin, George; Stepanova, Vita V.; Travinsky, Igor V.; Tříska, Martin; Tříska, Petr; Tatarinova, Tatiana V.

    2016-01-01

    The Kets, an ethnic group in the Yenisei River basin, Russia, are considered the last nomadic hunter-gatherers of Siberia, and Ket language has no transparent affiliation with any language family. We investigated connections between the Kets and Siberian and North American populations, with emphasis on the Mal’ta and Paleo-Eskimo ancient genomes, using original data from 46 unrelated samples of Kets and 42 samples of their neighboring ethnic groups (Uralic-speaking Nganasans, Enets, and Selkups). We genotyped over 130,000 autosomal SNPs, identified mitochondrial and Y-chromosomal haplogroups, and performed high-coverage genome sequencing of two Ket individuals. We established that Nganasans, Kets, Selkups, and Yukaghirs form a cluster of populations most closely related to Paleo-Eskimos in Siberia (not considering indigenous populations of Chukotka and Kamchatka). Kets are closely related to modern Selkups and to some Bronze and Iron Age populations of the Altai region, with all these groups sharing a high degree of Mal’ta ancestry. Implications of these findings for the linguistic hypothesis uniting Ket and Na-Dene languages into a language macrofamily are discussed. PMID:26865217

  1. Genomic study of the Ket: a Paleo-Eskimo-related ethnic group with significant ancient North Eurasian ancestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flegontov, Pavel; Changmai, Piya; Zidkova, Anastassiya; Logacheva, Maria D; Altınışık, N Ezgi; Flegontova, Olga; Gelfand, Mikhail S; Gerasimov, Evgeny S; Khrameeva, Ekaterina E; Konovalova, Olga P; Neretina, Tatiana; Nikolsky, Yuri V; Starostin, George; Stepanova, Vita V; Travinsky, Igor V; Tříska, Martin; Tříska, Petr; Tatarinova, Tatiana V

    2016-01-01

    The Kets, an ethnic group in the Yenisei River basin, Russia, are considered the last nomadic hunter-gatherers of Siberia, and Ket language has no transparent affiliation with any language family. We investigated connections between the Kets and Siberian and North American populations, with emphasis on the Mal'ta and Paleo-Eskimo ancient genomes, using original data from 46 unrelated samples of Kets and 42 samples of their neighboring ethnic groups (Uralic-speaking Nganasans, Enets, and Selkups). We genotyped over 130,000 autosomal SNPs, identified mitochondrial and Y-chromosomal haplogroups, and performed high-coverage genome sequencing of two Ket individuals. We established that Nganasans, Kets, Selkups, and Yukaghirs form a cluster of populations most closely related to Paleo-Eskimos in Siberia (not considering indigenous populations of Chukotka and Kamchatka). Kets are closely related to modern Selkups and to some Bronze and Iron Age populations of the Altai region, with all these groups sharing a high degree of Mal'ta ancestry. Implications of these findings for the linguistic hypothesis uniting Ket and Na-Dene languages into a language macrofamily are discussed. PMID:26865217

  2. A Grounded Theory of Western-Trained Asian Group Leaders Leading Groups in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taephant, Nattasuda; Rubel, Deborah; Champe, Julia

    2015-01-01

    This grounded theory research explored the experiences of Western-trained Asian group leaders leading groups in Asia. A total of 6 participants from Japan, Taiwan, and Thailand were interviewed 3 times over 9 months. The recursive process of data collection and analysis yielded substantive theory describing the participants' process of…

  3. Ancestry analysis reveals a predominant Native American component with moderate European admixture in Bolivians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, Tanja; Alvarez-Iglesias, Vanesa; Pardo-Seco, Jacobo; Taboada-Echalar, Patricia; Gómez-Carballa, Alberto; Torres-Balanza, Antonio; Rocabado, Omar; Carracedo, Angel; Vullo, Carlos; Salas, Antonio

    2013-09-01

    We have genotyped 46 Ancestry Informative Markers (AIMs) in two of the most populated areas in Bolivia, namely, La Paz (Andean region; n=105), and Chuquisaca (Sub-Andean region; n=73). Using different analytical tools, we inferred admixture proportions of these two American communities by comparing the genetic profiles with those publicly available from the CEPH (Centre d'Etude du Polymorphisme Humain) panel representing three main continental groups (Africa, Europe, and America). By way of simulations, we first evaluated the minimum sample size needed in order to obtain accurate estimates of ancestry proportions. The results indicated that sample sizes above 30 individuals could be large enough to estimate main continental ancestry proportions using the 46 AIMs panel. With the exception of a few individuals, the results also indicated that Bolivians showed a predominantly Native American ancestry with variable levels of European admixture. The proportions of ancestry were statistically different in La Paz and Chuquisaca: the Native American component was 86% and 77% (Mann-Whitney U-test: un-adjusted P-value=2.1×10(-5)), while the European ancestry was 13% and 21% (Mann-Whitney U-test: un-adjusted P-value=3.6×10(-5)), respectively. The African ancestry in Bolivians captured by the AIMs analyzed in the present study was below 2%. The inferred ancestry of Bolivians fits well with previous studies undertaken on haplotype data, indicating a major proportion of Native American lineages. The genetic differences observed in these two groups suggest that forensic genetic analysis should be better performed based on local databases built in the main Bolivian areas.

  4. Outlining the Ancestry Landscape of Colombian Admixed Populations

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    Ossa, Humberto; Aquino, Juliana; Pereira, Rui; Ibarra, Adriana; Ossa, Rafael H; Pérez, Luz Adriana; Granda, Juan David; Lattig, Maria Claudia; Groot, Helena; Fagundes de Carvalho, Elizeu; Gusmão, Leonor

    2016-01-01

    The ancestry of the Colombian population comprises a large number of well differentiated Native communities belonging to diverse linguistic groups. In the late fifteenth century, a process of admixture was initiated with the arrival of the Europeans, and several years later, Africans also became part of the Colombian population. Therefore, the genepool of the current Colombian population results from the admixture of Native Americans, Europeans and Africans. This admixture occurred differently in each region of the country, producing a clearly stratified population. Considering the importance of population substructure in both clinical and forensic genetics, we sought to investigate and compare patterns of genetic ancestry in Colombia by studying samples from Native and non-Native populations living in its 5 continental regions: the Andes, Caribe, Amazonia, Orinoquía, and Pacific regions. For this purpose, 46 AIM-Indels were genotyped in 761 non-related individuals from current populations. Previously published genotype data from 214 Colombian Natives from five communities were used for population comparisons. Significant differences were observed between Native and non-Native populations, among non-Native populations from different regions and among Native populations from different ethnic groups. The Pacific was the region with the highest African ancestry, Amazonia harboured the highest Native ancestry and the Andean and Orinoquían regions showed the highest proportion of European ancestry. The Andean region was further sub-divided into 6 sub-regions: North East, Central West, Central East, West, South West and South East. Among these regions, the South West region showed a significantly lower European admixture than the other regions. Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and variance values of ancestry among individuals within populations showed a potential stratification of the Pacific population. PMID:27736937

  5. Frequencies of HID-ion ampliseq ancestry panel markers among greenlanders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Espregueira Themudo, Gonçalo; Smidt Mogensen, Helle; Børsting, Claus;

    2016-01-01

    set of 89 individuals and a test set of 15 individuals. All loci showed genotype distributions consistent with Hardy-Weinberg expectations. Linkage disequilibrium tests indicated that 14 pairs of loci were in association in Greenlanders. Population assignment of the training set to populations......The HID-Ion AmpliSeq Ancestry Panel from Life Techologies includes 123 SNPs from the Seldin panel and 55 SNPs from Kidd panel in a single multiplex assay that helps to determine the continental biogeographic ancestry of individuals. We tested the panel on 104 Greenlanders, divided into a training...... included in the HID SNP genotyper plugin placed most individuals in American, Asian, and in a few cases European populations. By including the genotype frequencies of this training set as a possible population of origin, all 15 individuals from the test set were correctly predicted to be Greenlanders using...

  6. Asian affinities and continental radiation of the four founding Native American mtDNAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torroni, A.; Schurr, T.G.; Cabell, M.F.; Brown, M.D.; Larsen, M.; Wallace, D.C. (Emory Univ., Atlanta GA (United States)); Neel, J.V. (Univ. of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)); Smith, D.G. (Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)); Vullo, C.M. (Universidad Nacional de Cordoba (Argentina))

    1993-09-01

    The mtDNA variation of 321 individuals from 17 Native American populations was examined by high-resolution restriction endonuclease analysis. All mtDNAs were amplified from a variety of sources by using PCR. The mtDNA of a subset of 38 of these individuals was also analyzed by D-loop sequencing. The resulting data were combined with previous mtDNA data from five other Native American tribes, as well as with data from a variety of Asian populations, and were used to deduce the phylogenetic relationships between mtDNAs and to estimate sequence divergences. This analysis revealed the presence of four haplotype groups (haplogroups A, B, C, and D) in the Amerind, but only one haplogroup (A) in the Na-Dene, and confirmed the independent origins of the Amerinds and the Na-Dene. Further, each haplogroup appeared to have been founded by a single mtDNA haplotype, a result which is consistent with a hypothesized founder effect. Most of the variation within haplogroups was tribial specific, that is, it occurred as tribal private polymorphisms. These observations suggest that the process of tribalization began early in the history of the Amerinds, with relatively little intertribal genetic exchange occurring subsequently. The sequencing of 341 nucleotides in the mtDNA D-loop revealed that the D-loop sequence variation correlated strongly with the four haplogroups defined by restriction analysis, and it indicated that the D-loop variation, like the haplotype variation, arose predominately after the migration of the ancestral Amerinds across the Bering land bridge. 74 refs., 5 figs., 9 tabs.

  7. Nativity, US Length of Residence, and BMI Among Diverse Asian American Ethnic Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas, Lisa G; Sanchez-Vaznaugh, Emma V; Sánchez, Brisa N

    2015-10-01

    Little is known about body mass index (BMI) patterns by nativity and length of US residence among Asian American ethnic groups. We used linear regression to examine the association of BMI with nativity and length of residence across six ethnic groups (Filipinos, Japanese, Chinese, Koreans, South Asians, and Vietnamese) using data from the California Health Interview Study. There was significant heterogeneity in the nativity/length of residence patterns in unadjusted BMI across ethnic groups (p immigrants with the exception of South Asians. Longer US residence was positively associated with BMI among all groups, though only significant among Filipinos and Koreans. Programs targeting Asian Americans should take into consideration BMI patterns by nativity and US length of residence among diverse Asian American ethnic groups. PMID:25192818

  8. Her earnings: Exploring variation in wives' earning contributions across six major Asian groups and Whites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Veena S

    2015-07-01

    Previous research on understanding race-ethnic differentials in employment and economic contributions by married women has primarily focused on Blacks, Hispanics, or Whites. This study investigates variations in wives' earning contributions as measured by wives earnings as a proportion of total annual household earnings among six Asian groups, Asian Indian, Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, and Vietnamese relative to native born non-Hispanic White. I disaggregate the six Asian groups by their ethnicity and nativity status. Using pooled data from 2009-2011 American Community Survey, the findings show significance of human capital, hours of paid labor market engagement and nativity status. There is strong and negative association between husbands' human capital and labor supply with wives' earning contributions suggesting near universality of male-breadwinner status. Notwithstanding the commonalities, there is significant intergroup diversity. While foreign born and native born Filipina wives despite their spouses' reasonably high human capital and work hours, contribute one of the highest shares, the same cannot be said for the Asian Indians and Japanese. For foreign born Asian Indian and to some extent Japanese women, their high human capital is not translated to high earning contribution after controlling for husband's human capital. Further, nativity status impacts groups differentially. Native born Vietnamese wives contribute the greatest. Overall, the findings underscore the relevance of employing multiple conceptual frameworks in understanding earning contributions of foreign and native born Asian wives belonging to the six Asian groups, Asian Indian, Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, and Vietnamese. PMID:26004479

  9. The residential segregation of detailed Hispanic and Asian groups in the United States: 1980-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Iceland

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Racial and ethnic diversity continues to grow in communities across the United States,raising questions about the extent to which different ethnic groups will become residentially integrated. Objective: While a number of studies have examined the residential patterns of pan-ethnic groups, our goal is to examine the segregation of several Asian and Hispanic ethnic groups - Cubans, Dominicans, Mexicans, Puerto Ricans, Salvadorans, Asian Indians, Chinese, Filipinos, Japanese, Koreans, and Vietnamese. We gauge the segregation of each group from several alternative reference groups using two measures over the 1980 to 2010 period. Results: We find that the dissimilarity of Hispanics and Asians from other groups generally held steady or declined, though, because most Hispanic and Asian groups are growing, interaction with Whites also often declined. Our analyses also indicate that pan-ethnic segregation indexes do not always capture the experience of specific groups. Among Hispanics, Mexicans are typically less residentially segregated (as measured using the dissimilarity index from Whites, Blacks, Asians, and other Hispanics than are other Hispanic-origin groups. Among Asian ethnic groups, Japanese and Filipinos tend to have lower levels of dissimilarity from Whites, Blacks, and Hispanics than other Asian groups. Examining different dimensions of segregation also indicates that dissimilarity scores alone often do not capture to what extent various ethnic groups are actually sharing neighborhoods with each other. Finally, color lines vary across groups in some important ways, even as the dominant trend has been toward reduced racial and ethnic residential segregation over time. Conclusions: The overarching trend is that ethnic groups are becoming more residentially integrated,suggestive of assimilation, though there is significant variation across ethnic groups.

  10. Accuracy of administratively-assigned ancestry for diverse populations in an electronic medical record-linked biobank.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob B Hall

    Full Text Available Recently, the development of biobanks linked to electronic medical records has presented new opportunities for genetic and epidemiological research. Studies based on these resources, however, present unique challenges, including the accurate assignment of individual-level population ancestry. In this work we examine the accuracy of administratively-assigned race in diverse populations by comparing assigned races to genetically-defined ancestry estimates. Using 220 ancestry informative markers, we generated principal components for patients in our dataset, which were used to cluster patients into groups based on genetic ancestry. Consistent with other studies, we find a strong overall agreement (Kappa  = 0.872 between genetic ancestry and assigned race, with higher rates of agreement for African-descent and European-descent assignments, and reduced agreement for Hispanic, East Asian-descent, and South Asian-descent assignments. These results suggest caution when selecting study samples of non-African and non-European backgrounds when administratively-assigned race from biobanks is used.

  11. Asian College Students’ Perceived Peer Group Cohesion, Cultural Identity, and College Adjustment

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Xin

    2012-01-01

    Despite the increase in Asian college student population, this group remains one of the most understudied, due to the myth of “model minority.” Many Asian students adjust well academically but often experience high levels of stress, anxiety, or depression due to factors such as acculturation to Western culture, pressure from parents to succeed, ethnic identity issues, intergenerational conflict, immigration status, racism, and discrimination. This study examined the role of five dimensions of...

  12. Group Work with Survivors of the 2004 Asian Tsunami: Reflections of an American-Trained Counselor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Delini M.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a support group for Sri Lankan women survivors of the 2004 Asian Tsunami. The article discusses unique leader challenges in doing group work in a diverse and foreign setting, and presents leader reflections, recommendations, and implications for group workers who may work with disaster survivors.

  13. The More (Social Group Memberships), the Merrier: Is This the Case for Asians?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Melissa X.-L.; Jetten, Jolanda; Cruwys, Tegan; Haslam, Catherine; Praharso, Nurul

    2016-01-01

    While previous studies have consistently shown that belonging to multiple groups enhances well-being, the current research proposes that for Asians, multiple group memberships (MGM) may confer fewer well-being benefits. We suggest that this is due, in part, to Asian norms about relationships and support seeking, making Asians more reluctant to enlist social support due to concerns about burdening others. Overall, MGM was associated with enhanced well-being in Westerners (Study 2), but not Asians (Studies 1–3). Study 2 showed that social support mediated the relationship between MGM and well-being for Westerners only. In Study 3, among Asians, MGM benefited the well-being of those who were least reluctant to enlist support. Finally, reviewing the MGM evidence-base to date, relative to Westerners, MGM was less beneficial for the well-being of Asians. The evidence underscores the importance of culture in influencing how likely individuals utilize their group memberships as psychological resources. PMID:27462281

  14. The More (Social Group Memberships), the Merrier: Is This the Case for Asians?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Melissa X-L; Jetten, Jolanda; Cruwys, Tegan; Haslam, Catherine; Praharso, Nurul

    2016-01-01

    While previous studies have consistently shown that belonging to multiple groups enhances well-being, the current research proposes that for Asians, multiple group memberships (MGM) may confer fewer well-being benefits. We suggest that this is due, in part, to Asian norms about relationships and support seeking, making Asians more reluctant to enlist social support due to concerns about burdening others. Overall, MGM was associated with enhanced well-being in Westerners (Study 2), but not Asians (Studies 1-3). Study 2 showed that social support mediated the relationship between MGM and well-being for Westerners only. In Study 3, among Asians, MGM benefited the well-being of those who were least reluctant to enlist support. Finally, reviewing the MGM evidence-base to date, relative to Westerners, MGM was less beneficial for the well-being of Asians. The evidence underscores the importance of culture in influencing how likely individuals utilize their group memberships as psychological resources. PMID:27462281

  15. Malagasy Genetic Ancestry Comes from an Historical Malay Trading Post in Southeast Borneo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brucato, Nicolas; Kusuma, Pradiptajati; Cox, Murray P; Pierron, Denis; Purnomo, Gludhug A; Adelaar, Alexander; Kivisild, Toomas; Letellier, Thierry; Sudoyo, Herawati; Ricaut, François-Xavier

    2016-09-01

    Malagasy genetic diversity results from an exceptional protoglobalization process that took place over a thousand years ago across the Indian Ocean. Previous efforts to locate the Asian origin of Malagasy highlighted Borneo broadly as a potential source, but so far no firm source populations were identified. Here, we have generated genome-wide data from two Southeast Borneo populations, the Banjar and the Ngaju, together with published data from populations across the Indian Ocean region. We find strong support for an origin of the Asian ancestry of Malagasy among the Banjar. This group emerged from the long-standing presence of a Malay Empire trading post in Southeast Borneo, which favored admixture between the Malay and an autochthonous Borneo group, the Ma'anyan. Reconciling genetic, historical, and linguistic data, we show that the Banjar, in Malay-led voyages, were the most probable Asian source among the analyzed groups in the founding of the Malagasy gene pool. PMID:27381999

  16. Worldwide patterns of ancestry, divergence, and admixture in domesticated cattle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared E Decker

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The domestication and development of cattle has considerably impacted human societies, but the histories of cattle breeds and populations have been poorly understood especially for African, Asian, and American breeds. Using genotypes from 43,043 autosomal single nucleotide polymorphism markers scored in 1,543 animals, we evaluate the population structure of 134 domesticated bovid breeds. Regardless of the analytical method or sample subset, the three major groups of Asian indicine, Eurasian taurine, and African taurine were consistently observed. Patterns of geographic dispersal resulting from co-migration with humans and exportation are recognizable in phylogenetic networks. All analytical methods reveal patterns of hybridization which occurred after divergence. Using 19 breeds, we map the cline of indicine introgression into Africa. We infer that African taurine possess a large portion of wild African auroch ancestry, causing their divergence from Eurasian taurine. We detect exportation patterns in Asia and identify a cline of Eurasian taurine/indicine hybridization in Asia. We also identify the influence of species other than Bos taurus taurus and B. t. indicus in the formation of Asian breeds. We detect the pronounced influence of Shorthorn cattle in the formation of European breeds. Iberian and Italian cattle possess introgression from African taurine. American Criollo cattle originate from Iberia, and not directly from Africa with African ancestry inherited via Iberian ancestors. Indicine introgression into American cattle occurred in the Americas, and not Europe. We argue that cattle migration, movement and trading followed by admixture have been important forces in shaping modern bovine genomic variation.

  17. Genome-wide trans-ancestry meta-analysis provides insight into the genetic architecture of type 2 diabetes susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Anubha; Go, Min Jin; Zhang, Weihua; Below, Jennifer E; Gaulton, Kyle J; Ferreira, Teresa; Horikoshi, Momoko; Johnson, Andrew D; Ng, Maggie C Y; Prokopenko, Inga; Saleheen, Danish; Wang, Xu; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Abecasis, Goncalo R; Adair, Linda S; Almgren, Peter; Atalay, Mustafa; Aung, Tin; Baldassarre, Damiano; Balkau, Beverley; Bao, Yuqian; Barnett, Anthony H; Barroso, Ines; Basit, Abdul; Been, Latonya F; Beilby, John; Bell, Graeme I; Benediktsson, Rafn; Bergman, Richard N; Boehm, Bernhard O; Boerwinkle, Eric; Bonnycastle, Lori L; Burtt, Noël; Cai, Qiuyin; Campbell, Harry; Carey, Jason; Cauchi, Stephane; Caulfield, Mark; Chan, Juliana C N; Chang, Li-Ching; Chang, Tien-Jyun; Chang, Yi-Cheng; Charpentier, Guillaume; Chen, Chien-Hsiun; Chen, Han; Chen, Yuan-Tsong; Chia, Kee-Seng; Chidambaram, Manickam; Chines, Peter S; Cho, Nam H; Cho, Young Min; Chuang, Lee-Ming; Collins, Francis S; Cornelis, Marylin C; Couper, David J; Crenshaw, Andrew T; van Dam, Rob M; Danesh, John; Das, Debashish; de Faire, Ulf; Dedoussis, George; Deloukas, Panos; Dimas, Antigone S; Dina, Christian; Doney, Alex S; Donnelly, Peter J; Dorkhan, Mozhgan; van Duijn, Cornelia; Dupuis, Josée; Edkins, Sarah; Elliott, Paul; Emilsson, Valur; Erbel, Raimund; Eriksson, Johan G; Escobedo, Jorge; Esko, Tonu; Eury, Elodie; Florez, Jose C; Fontanillas, Pierre; Forouhi, Nita G; Forsen, Tom; Fox, Caroline; Fraser, Ross M; Frayling, Timothy M; Froguel, Philippe; Frossard, Philippe; Gao, Yutang; Gertow, Karl; Gieger, Christian; Gigante, Bruna; Grallert, Harald; Grant, George B; Grrop, Leif C; Groves, Chrisropher J; Grundberg, Elin; Guiducci, Candace; Hamsten, Anders; Han, Bok-Ghee; Hara, Kazuo; Hassanali, Neelam; Hattersley, Andrew T; Hayward, Caroline; Hedman, Asa K; Herder, Christian; Hofman, Albert; Holmen, Oddgeir L; Hovingh, Kees; Hreidarsson, Astradur B; Hu, Cheng; Hu, Frank B; Hui, Jennie; Humphries, Steve E; Hunt, Sarah E; Hunter, David J; Hveem, Kristian; Hydrie, Zafar I; Ikegami, Hiroshi; Illig, Thomas; Ingelsson, Erik; Islam, Muhammed; Isomaa, Bo; Jackson, Anne U; Jafar, Tazeen; James, Alan; Jia, Weiping; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Jonsson, Anna; Jowett, Jeremy B M; Kadowaki, Takashi; Kang, Hyun Min; Kanoni, Stavroula; Kao, Wen Hong L; Kathiresan, Sekar; Kato, Norihiro; Katulanda, Prasad; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Kirkka M; Kelly, Ann M; Khan, Hassan; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Khor, Chiea-Chuen; Kim, Hyung-Lae; Kim, Sangsoo; Kim, Young Jin; Kinnunen, Leena; Klopp, Norman; Kong, Augustine; Korpi-Hyövälti, Eeva; Kowlessur, Sudhir; Kraft, Peter; Kravic, Jasmina; Kristensen, Malene M; Krithika, S; Kumar, Ashish; Kumate, Jesus; Kuusisto, Johanna; Kwak, Soo Heon; Laakso, Markku; Lagou, Vasiliki; Lakka, Timo A; Langenberg, Claudia; Langford, Cordelia; Lawrence, Robert; Leander, Karin; Lee, Jen-Mai; Lee, Nanette R; Li, Man; Li, Xinzhong; Li, Yun; Liang, Junbin; Liju, Samuel; Lim, Wei-Yen; Lind, Lars; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Lindholm, Eero; Liu, Ching-Ti; Liu, Jian Jun; Lobbens, Stéphane; Long, Jirong; Loos, Ruth J F; Lu, Wei; Luan, Jian'an; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Ma, Ronald C W; Maeda, Shiro; Mägi, Reedik; Männisto, Satu; Matthews, David R; Meigs, James B; Melander, Olle; Metspalu, Andres; Meyer, Julia; Mirza, Ghazala; Mihailov, Evelin; Moebus, Susanne; Mohan, Viswanathan; Mohlke, Karen L; Morris, Andrew D; Mühleisen, Thomas W; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Musk, Bill; Nakamura, Jiro; Nakashima, Eitaro; Navarro, Pau; Ng, Peng-Keat; Nica, Alexandra C; Nilsson, Peter M; Njølstad, Inger; Nöthen, Markus M; Ohnaka, Keizo; Ong, Twee Hee; Owen, Katharine R; Palmer, Colin N A; Pankow, James S; Park, Kyong Soo; Parkin, Melissa; Pechlivanis, Sonali; Pedersen, Nancy L; Peltonen, Leena; Perry, John R B; Peters, Annette; Pinidiyapathirage, Janini M; Platou, Carl G; Potter, Simon; Price, Jackie F; Qi, Lu; Radha, Venkatesan; Rallidis, Loukianos; Rasheed, Asif; Rathman, Wolfgang; Rauramaa, Rainer; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Rayner, N William; Rees, Simon D; Rehnberg, Emil; Ripatti, Samuli; Robertson, Neil; Roden, Michael; Rossin, Elizabeth J; Rudan, Igor; Rybin, Denis; Saaristo, Timo E; Salomaa, Veikko; Saltevo, Juha; Samuel, Maria; Sanghera, Dharambir K; Saramies, Jouko; Scott, James; Scott, Laura J; Scott, Robert A; Segrè, Ayellet V; Sehmi, Joban; Sennblad, Bengt; Shah, Nabi; Shah, Sonia; Shera, A Samad; Shu, Xiao Ou; Shuldiner, Alan R; Sigurđsson, Gunnar; Sijbrands, Eric; Silveira, Angela; Sim, Xueling; Sivapalaratnam, Suthesh; Small, Kerrin S; So, Wing Yee; Stančáková, Alena; Stefansson, Kari; Steinbach, Gerald; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Stirrups, Kathleen; Strawbridge, Rona J; Stringham, Heather M; Sun, Qi; Suo, Chen; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Takayanagi, Ryoichi; Takeuchi, Fumihiko; Tay, Wan Ting; Teslovich, Tanya M; Thorand, Barbara; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Tikkanen, Emmi; Trakalo, Joseph; Tremoli, Elena; Trip, Mieke D; Tsai, Fuu Jen; Tuomi, Tiinamaija; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Valladares-Salgado, Adan; Vedantam, Sailaja; Veglia, Fabrizio; Voight, Benjamin F; Wang, Congrong; Wareham, Nicholas J; Wennauer, Roman; Wickremasinghe, Ananda R; Wilsgaard, Tom; Wilson, James F; Wiltshire, Steven; Winckler, Wendy; Wong, Tien Yin; Wood, Andrew R; Wu, Jer-Yuarn; Wu, Ying; Yamamoto, Ken; Yamauchi, Toshimasa; Yang, Mingyu; Yengo, Loic; Yokota, Mitsuhiro; Young, Robin; Zabaneh, Delilah; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, Rong; Zheng, Wei; Zimmet, Paul Z; Altshuler, David; Bowden, Donald W; Cho, Yoon Shin; Cox, Nancy J; Cruz, Miguel; Hanis, Craig L; Kooner, Jaspal; Lee, Jong-Young; Seielstad, Mark; Teo, Yik Ying; Boehnke, Michael; Parra, Esteban J; Chambers, Jonh C; Tai, E Shyong; McCarthy, Mark I; Morris, Andrew P

    2014-03-01

    To further understanding of the genetic basis of type 2 diabetes (T2D) susceptibility, we aggregated published meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies (GWAS), including 26,488 cases and 83,964 controls of European, east Asian, south Asian and Mexican and Mexican American ancestry. We observed a significant excess in the directional consistency of T2D risk alleles across ancestry groups, even at SNPs demonstrating only weak evidence of association. By following up the strongest signals of association from the trans-ethnic meta-analysis in an additional 21,491 cases and 55,647 controls of European ancestry, we identified seven new T2D susceptibility loci. Furthermore, we observed considerable improvements in the fine-mapping resolution of common variant association signals at several T2D susceptibility loci. These observations highlight the benefits of trans-ethnic GWAS for the discovery and characterization of complex trait loci and emphasize an exciting opportunity to extend insight into the genetic architecture and pathogenesis of human diseases across populations of diverse ancestry. PMID:24509480

  18. Frequencies of HID-ion ampliseq ancestry panel markers among greenlanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espregueira Themudo, Gonçalo; Smidt Mogensen, Helle; Børsting, Claus; Morling, Niels

    2016-09-01

    The HID-Ion AmpliSeq Ancestry Panel from Life Techologies includes 123 SNPs from the Seldin panel and 55 SNPs from Kidd panel in a single multiplex assay that helps to determine the continental biogeographic ancestry of individuals. We tested the panel on 104 Greenlanders, divided into a training set of 89 individuals and a test set of 15 individuals. All loci showed genotype distributions consistent with Hardy-Weinberg expectations. Linkage disequilibrium tests indicated that 14 pairs of loci were in association in Greenlanders. Population assignment of the training set to populations included in the HID SNP genotyper plugin placed most individuals in American, Asian, and in a few cases European populations. By including the genotype frequencies of this training set as a possible population of origin, all 15 individuals from the test set were correctly predicted to be Greenlanders using the Seldin SNPs, and nine were classified as Greenlanders using the Kidd SNPs. Population structure analysis indicated that Greenlanders have a genetic profile that is distinguishable from those of populations from America or Asia. PMID:27326551

  19. Recommendations on vaccination for Asian small animal practitioners: a report of the WSAVA Vaccination Guidelines Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, M J; Karkare, U; Schultz, R D; Squires, R; Tsujimoto, H

    2015-02-01

    In 2012 and 2013, the World Small Animal Veterinary Association (WSAVA) Vaccination Guidelines Group (VGG) undertook fact-finding visits to several Asian countries, with a view to developing advice for small companion animal practitioners in Asia related to the administration of vaccines to dogs and cats. The VGG met with numerous first opinion practitioners, small animal association leaders, academic veterinarians, government regulators and industry representatives and gathered further information from a survey of almost 700 veterinarians in India, China, Japan and Thailand. Although there were substantial differences in the nature and magnitude of the challenges faced by veterinarians in each country, and also differences in the resources available to meet those challenges, overall, the VGG identified insufficient undergraduate and postgraduate training in small companion animal microbiology, immunology and vaccinology. In most of the countries, there has been little academic research into small animal infectious diseases. This, coupled with insufficient laboratory diagnostic support, has limited the growth of knowledge concerning the prevalence and circulating strains of key infectious agents in most of the countries visited. Asian practitioners continue to recognise clinical infections that are now considered uncommon or rare in western countries. In particular, canine rabies virus infection poses a continuing threat to animal and human health in this region. Both nationally manufactured and international dog and cat vaccines are variably available in the Asian countries, but the product ranges are small and dominated by multi-component vaccines with a licensed duration of immunity (DOI) of only 1 year, or no description of DOI. Asian practitioners are largely unaware of current global trends in small animal vaccinology or of the WSAVA vaccination guidelines. Consequently, most practitioners continue to deliver annual revaccination with both core and non

  20. Genomics assisted ancestry deconvolution in grape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Sawler

    Full Text Available The genus Vitis (the grapevine is a group of highly diverse, diploid woody perennial vines consisting of approximately 60 species from across the northern hemisphere. It is the world's most valuable horticultural crop with ~8 million hectares planted, most of which is processed into wine. To gain insights into the use of wild Vitis species during the past century of interspecific grape breeding and to provide a foundation for marker-assisted breeding programmes, we present a principal components analysis (PCA based ancestry estimation method to calculate admixture proportions of hybrid grapes in the United States Department of Agriculture grape germplasm collection using genome-wide polymorphism data. We find that grape breeders have backcrossed to both the domesticated V. vinifera and wild Vitis species and that reasonably accurate genome-wide ancestry estimation can be performed on interspecific Vitis hybrids using a panel of fewer than 50 ancestry informative markers (AIMs. We compare measures of ancestry informativeness used in selecting SNP panels for two-way admixture estimation, and verify the accuracy of our method on simulated populations of admixed offspring. Our method of ancestry deconvolution provides a first step towards selection at the seed or seedling stage for desirable admixture profiles, which will facilitate marker-assisted breeding that aims to introgress traits from wild Vitis species while retaining the desirable characteristics of elite V. vinifera cultivars.

  1. Trans-ancestry genome-wide association study identifies 12 genetic loci influencing blood pressure and implicates a role for DNA methylation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kato, Norihiro; Loh, Marie; Takeuchi, Fumihiko; Verweij, Niek; Wang, Xu; Zhang, Weihua; Kelly, Tanika N.; Saleheen, Danish; Lehne, Benjamin; Leach, Irene Mateo; Drong, Alexander W.; Abbott, James; Wahl, Simone; Tan, Sian-Tsung; Scott, William R.; Campanella, Gianluca; Chadeau-Hyam, Marc; Afzal, Uzma; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S.; Bonder, Marc Jan; Chen, Peng; Dehghan, Abbas; Edwards, Todd L.; Esko, Tonu; Go, Min Jin; Harris, Sarah E.; Hartiala, Jaana; Kasela, Silva; Kasturiratne, Anuradhani; Khor, Chiea-Chuen; Kleber, Marcus E.; Li, Huaixing; Mok, Zuan Yu; Nakatochi, Masahiro; Sapari, Nur Sabrina; Saxena, Richa; Stewart, Alexandre F. R.; Stolk, Lisette; Tabara, Yasuharu; Teh, Ai Ling; Wu, Ying; Wu, Jer-Yuarn; Zhang, Yi; Aits, Imke; Alves, Alexessander Da Silva Couto; Das, Shikta; Dorajoo, Rajkumar; Hopewell, Jemma C.; Kim, Yun Kyoung; Koivula, Robert W.; Luan, Jian'an; Lyytikainen, Leo-Pekka; Nguyen, Quang N.; Pereira, Mark A.; Postmus, Iris; Raitakari, Olli T.; Bryan, Molly Scannell; Scott, Robert A.; Sorice, Rossella; Tragante, Vinicius; Traglia, Michela; White, Jon; Yamamoto, Ken; Zhang, Yonghong; Adair, Linda S.; Ahmed, Alauddin; Akiyama, Koichi; Asif, Rasheed; Aung, Tin; Barroso, Ines; Bjonnes, Andrew; Braun, Timothy R.; Cai, Hui; Chang, Li-Ching; Chen, Chien-Hsiun; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Chong, Yap-Seng; Collins, Rory; Courtney, Regina; Davies, Gail; Delgado, Graciela; Do, Loi D.; Doevendans, Pieter A.; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Gao, Yu-Tang; Grammer, Tanja B.; Grarup, Niels; Grewal, Jagvir; Gu, Dongfeng; Wander, Gurpreet S.; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Hazen, Stanley L.; He, Jing; Heng, Chew-Kiat; Hixson, James E.; Hofman, Albert; Hsu, Chris; Huang, Wei; Husemoen, Lise L. N.; Hwang, Joo-Yeon; Ichihara, Sahoko; Igase, Michiya; Isono, Masato; Justesen, Johanne M.; Katsuy, Tomohiro; Kibriya, Muhammad G.; Kim, Young Jin; Kishimoto, Miyako; Koh, Woon-Puay; Kohara, Katsuhiko; Kumari, Meena; Kwek, Kenneth; Lee, Nanette R.; Lee, Jeannette; Liao, Jiemin; Lieb, Wolfgang; Liewald, David C. M.; Matsubara, Tatsuaki; Matsushita, Yumi; Meitinger, Thomas; Mihailov, Evelin; Milani, Lili; Mills, Rebecca; Mononen, Nina; Mueller-Nurasyid, Martina; Nabika, Toru; Nakashima, Eitaro; Ng, Hong Kiat; Nikus, Kjell; Nutile, Teresa; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Ohnaka, Keizo; Parish, Sarah; Paternoster, Lavinia; Peng, Hao; Peters, Annette; Pham, Son T.; Pinidiyapathirage, Mohitha J.; Rahman, Mahfuzar; Rakugi, Hiromi; Rolandsson, Olov; Rozario, Michelle Ann; Ruggiero, Daniela; Sala, Cinzia F.; Sarju, Ralhan; Shimokawa, Kazuro; Snieder, Harold; Sparso, Thomas; Spiering, Wilko; Starr, John M.; Stott, David J.; Stram, Daniel O.; Sugiyama, Takao; Szymczak, Silke; Tang, W. H. Wilson; Tong, Lin; Trompet, Stella; Turjanmaa, Vaino; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Umemura, Satoshi; Vaarasmaki, Marja; van Dam, Rob M.; van Gilst, Wiek H.; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Viikari, Jorma S.; Waldenberger, Melanie; Wang, Yiqin; Wang, Aili; Wilson, Rory; Wong, Tien-Yin; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Yamaguchi, Shuhei; Ye, Xingwang; Young, Robin D.; Young, Terri L.; Yuan, Jian-Min; Zhou, Xueya; Asselbergs, Folkert W.; Ciullo, Marina; Clarke, Robert; Deloukas, Panos; Franke, Andre; Franks, Paul W.; Franks, Steve; Friedlander, Yechiel; Gross, Myron D.; Guo, Zhirong; Hansen, Torben; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Jorgensen, Torben; Jukema, J. Wouter; Kahonen, Mika; Kajio, Hiroshi; Kivimaki, Mika; Lee, Jong-Young; Lehtimaki, Terho; Linneberg, Allan; Miki, Tetsuro; Pedersen, Oluf; Samani, Nilesh J.; Sorensen, Thorkild I. A.; Takayanagi, Ryoichi; Toniolo, Daniela; Ahsan, Habibul; Allayee, Hooman; Chen, Yuan-Tsong; Danesh, John; Deary, Ian J.; Franco, Oscar H.; Franke, Lude; Heijman, Bastiaan T.; Holbrook, Joanna D.; Isaacs, Aaron; Kim, Bong-Jo; Lin, Xu; Liu, Jianjun; Maerz, Winfried; Metspalu, Andres; Mohlke, Karen L.; Sanghera, Dharambir K.; Shu, Xiao-Ou; van Meurs, Joyce B. J.; Vithana, Eranga; Wickremasinghe, Ananda R.; Wijmenga, Cisca; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. W.; Yokota, Mitsuhiro; Zheng, Wei; Zhu, Dingliang; Vineis, Paolo; Kyrtopoulos, Soterios A.; Kleinjans, Jos C. S.; McCarthy, Mark I.; Soong, Richie; Gieger, Christian; Scott, James; Teo, Yik-Ying; He, Jiang; Elliott, Paul; Tai, E. Shyong; van der Harst, Pim; Kooner, Jaspal S.; Chambers, John C.; Doevendans, PAFM

    2015-01-01

    We carried out a trans-ancestry genome-wide association and replication study of blood pressure phenotypes among up to 320,251 individuals of East Asian, European and South Asian ancestry. We find genetic variants at 12 new loci to be associated with blood pressure (P = 3.9 x 10(-11) to 5.0 x 10(-21

  2. Trans-ancestry genome-wide association study identifies 12 genetic loci influencing blood pressure and implicates a role for DNA methylation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Kato (Norihiro); M. Loh (Marie); F. Takeuchi (Fumihiko); N. Verweij (Niek); X. Wang (Xu); W. Zhang (Weihua); T. NKelly (Tanika); D. Saleheen; B. Lehne (Benjamin); I.M. Leach (Irene Mateo); A. Drong (Alexander); J. Abbott (James); S. Wahl (Simone); S.-T. Tan (Sian-Tsung); W.R. Scott (William R.); G. Campanella (Gianluca); M. Chadeau-Hyam (Marc); U. Afzal (Uzma); T.S. Ahluwalia (Tarunveer Singh); M.J. Bonder (Marc Jan); P. Chen (Ping); A. Dehghan (Abbas); T.L. Edwards (Todd L.); T. Esko (Tõnu); M.J. Go (Min Jin); S.E. Harris (Sarah); J. Hartiala (Jaana); S. Kasela (Silva); A. Kasturiratne (Anuradhani); C.C. Khor; M.E. Kleber (Marcus); H. Li (Huaixing); Z.Y. Mok (Zuan Yu); M. Nakatochi (Masahiro); N.S. Sapari (Nur Sabrina); R. Saxena (Richa); A.F. Stewart (Alexandre F.); L. Stolk (Lisette); Y. Tabara (Yasuharu); A.L. Teh (Ai Ling); Y. Wu (Ying); J.-Y. Wu (Jer-Yuarn); Y. Zhang (Yi); I. Aits (Imke); A. Da Silva Couto Alves (Alexessander); S. Das; R. Dorajoo (Rajkumar); J. CHopewell (Jemma); Y.K. Kim (Yun Kyoung); R. WKoivula (Robert); J. Luan (Jian'An); L.-P. Lyytikäinen (Leo-Pekka); Q. NNguyen (Quang); M.A. Pereira (Mark A); D. Postmus (Douwe); O. TRaitakari (Olli); M. Scannell Bryan (Molly); R.A. Scott (Robert); R. Sorice; V. Tragante (Vinicius); M. Traglia (Michela); J. White (Jon); K. Yamamoto (Ken); Y. Zhang (Yonghong); L.S. Adair (Linda); A. Ahmed (Alauddin); K. Akiyama (Koichi); R. Asif (Rasheed); T. Aung (Tin); I. Barroso (Inês); A. Bjonnes (Andrew); T.R. Braun (Timothy R.); H. Cai (Hui); L.-C. Chang (Li-Ching); C.-H. Chen; C-Y. Cheng (Ching-Yu); Y.-S. Chong (Yap-Seng); F.S. Collins (Francis); R. Courtney (Regina); G. Davies (Gail); G. Delgado; L.D. Do (Loi D.); P.A. Doevendans (Pieter); R.T. Gansevoort (Ron); Y. Gao; T.B. Grammer (Tanja B); N. Grarup (Niels); J. Grewal (Jagvir); D. Gu (D.); G. SWander (Gurpreet); A.L. Hartikainen; S.L. Hazen (Stanley); J. He (Jing); C.K. Heng (Chew-Kiat); E.J.A. Hixso (E. James Ames); A. Hofman (Albert); C. Hsu (Chris); W. Huang (Wei); L.L.N. Husemoen (Lise Lotte); J.-Y. Hwang (Joo-Yeon); S. Ichihara (Sahoko); M. Igase (Michiya); M. Isono (Masato); J.M. Justesen (Johanne M.); T. Katsuya (Tomohiro); M. GKibriya (Muhammad); Y.J. Kim; M. Kishimoto (Miyako); W.-P. Koh (Woon-Puay); K. Kohara (Katsuhiko); M. Kumari (Meena); K. Kwek (Kenneth); N.R. Lee (Nanette); J. Lee (Jeannette); J. Liao (Jie); W. Lieb (Wolfgang); D.C. Liewald (David C.); T. Matsubara (Tatsuaki); Y. Matsushita (Yumi); T. Meitinger (Thomas); E. Mihailov (Evelin); L. Milani (Lili); R. Mills (Rebecca); K. Mononen (Kari); M. Müller-Nurasyid (Martina); T. Nabika (Toru); E. Nakashima (Eitaro); H.K. Ng (Hong Kiat); K. Nikus (Kjell); T. Nutile; T. Ohkubo (Takayoshi); K. Ohnaka (Keizo); S. Parish (Sarah); L. Paternoster (Lavinia); H. Peng (Hao); A. Peters (Annette); S. TPham (Son); M.J. Pinidiyapathirage (Mohitha J.); M. Rahman (Mahfuzar); H. Rakugi (Hiromi); O. Rolandsson (Olov); M.A. Rozario (Michelle Ann); D. Ruggiero; C. Sala (Cinzia); R. Sarju (Ralhan); K. Shimokawa (Kazuro); H. Snieder (Harold); T. Sparsø (Thomas); W. Spiering (Wilko); J.M. Starr (John); D.J. Stott (David J.); D. OStram (Daniel); T. Sugiyama (Takao); S. Szymczak (Silke); W.H.W. Tang (W.H. Wilson); L. Tong (Lin); S. Trompet (Stella); V. Turjanmaa (Väinö); H. Ueshima (Hirotsugu); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); S. Umemura (Satoshi); M. Vaarasmaki (Marja); R.M. Dam (Rob Mvan); W.H. van Gilst (Wiek); D.J. van Veldhuisen (Dirk); J. Viikari (Jorma); M. Waldenberger (Melanie); Y. Wang (Yiqin); A. Wang (Aili); R. Wilson (Rory); T.-Y. Wong (Tien-Yin); Y.-B. Xiang (Yong-Bing); S. Yamaguchi (Shuhei); X. Ye (Xingwang); R. Young (Robin); T.L. Young (Terri); J.-M. Yuan (Jian-Min); X. Zhou (Xueya); F.W. Asselbergs (Folkert); M. Ciullo; R. Clarke (Robert); P. Deloukas (Panagiotis); A. Franke (Andre); W.F. Paul (W. Frank); S. Franks (Steve); Y. Friedlander (Yechiel); M.D. Gross (Myron D.); Z. Guo (Zhirong); T. Hansen (T.); M.-R. Jarvelin (Marjo-Riitta); T. Jørgensen (Torben); J.W. Jukema (Jan Wouter); M. Kähönen (Mika); H. Kajio (Hiroshi); M. Kivimaki (Mika); J.-Y. Lee (Jong-Young); T. Lehtimäki (Terho); A. Linneberg (Allan); T. Miki (Tetsuro); O. Pedersen (Oluf); N.J. Samani (Nilesh); T.I.A. Sørensen (Thorkild); R. Takayanagi (Ryoichi); D. Toniolo (Daniela); H. Ahsan (Habibul); H. Allayee (Hooman); Y.-T. Chen (Yuan-Tsong); J. Danesh (John); I.J. Deary (Ian J.); O.H. Franco (Oscar); L. Franke (Lude); B. THeijman (Bastiaan); J.D. Holbrook (Joanna D.); A.J. Isaacs (Aaron); B.-J. Kim (Bong-Jo); X. Lin (Xu); J. Liu (Jianjun); W. März (Winfried); A. Metspalu (Andres); K.L. Mohlke (Karen); K. Sangher; D. Harambir (Dharambir); X.-O. Shu (Xiao-Ou); J.B.J. van Meurs (Joyce); E.N. Vithana (Eranga); A.R. Wickremasinghe (Ananda); C. Wijmenga (Cisca); B.H.W. Wolffenbuttel (Bruce H.W.); M. Yokota (Mitsuhiro); W. Zheng (Wei); D. Zhu (Dingliang); P. Vineis (Paolo); S.A. Kyrtopoulos (Soterios A.); J.C.S. Kleinjans (Jos C.S.); M.I. McCarthy (Mark); R. Soong (Richie); C. Gieger (Christian); J. Scott (James); Y.Y. Teo (Yik Ying); J. He (Jiang); P. Elliott (Paul); E.S. Tai (Shyong); P. van der Harst (Pim); J.S. Kooner (Jaspal S.); J.C. Chambers (John)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractWe carried out a trans-ancestry genome-wide association and replication study of blood pressure phenotypes among up to 320,251 individuals of East Asian, European and South Asian ancestry. We find genetic variants at 12 new loci to be associated with blood pressure (P = 3.9 × 10 -11 to 5

  3. Trans-ancestry genome-wide association study identifies 12 genetic loci influencing blood pressure and implicates a role for DNA methylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kato, Norihiro; Loh, Marie; Takeuchi, Fumihiko;

    2015-01-01

    We carried out a trans-ancestry genome-wide association and replication study of blood pressure phenotypes among up to 320,251 individuals of East Asian, European and South Asian ancestry. We find genetic variants at 12 new loci to be associated with blood pressure (P = 3.9 × 10(-11) to 5.0 × 10(...

  4. Tibet and Beyond: Magmatic Records from CIA (Caucasus-Iran-Anatolia) and Southern Tibet with Implications for Asian Orogeny and Continental Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Sun-Lin

    2016-04-01

    This study, based on an ongoing joint research project "Tibet and Beyond", presents a synthesis of principal magmatic records from the CIA (Caucasus-Iran-Anatolia) and Tibet-Himalaya orogens resulting from the continental collisions of Arabia and India, respectively, with Eurasia. In both orogens, through this and other recent studies, the temporal and spatial variations in magmatism pre-, syn- and post-dating the collisions can now be much better defined, thus improving our understanding of collision zone magmatism that appears to have evolved with changes in the lithospheric structures over time and space by collisional processes. The two "collisional" Tethyan orogens were preceded by accretionary orogenic processes, which not only had produced a substantial amount of juvenile continental crust but also fulfill the "orogenic cycle" that evolved from an accretionary into a collisional system. Geochemical data reveal that in contrast to generating vast portions of juvenile crust in the early, accretionary stages of orogenic development, crustal recycling plays a more important role in the later, collisional stages. The latter, as exemplified in SE Turkey and southern Tibet, involves addition of older continental crust material back into the mantle, which subsequently melted and caused compositional transformation of the juvenile crust produced in the accretionary stages. Similar features are observed in young volcanic rocks from eastern Taiwan, the northern Luzon arc complex and part of the active subduction/accretion/collision system in Southeast Asia that may evolve one day to resemble the eastern Tethyan and central Asian orogenic belts by collision with the advancing Australian continent.

  5. Properties of organic matter in PM 2.5 at Changdao Island, China—A rural site in the transport path of the Asian continental outflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jialiang; Guo, Zhigang; Chan, Chak K.; Fang, Ming

    Fifty-five seasonal PM 2.5 samples were collected March 2003-January 2004 at Changdao, a resort island located at the demarcation line between Bohai Sea and Yellow Sea in Northern China. Changdao is in the transport path of the continental aerosols heading toward the Pacific Ocean in winter and spring due to the East Asia Monsoon. Solvent-extractable organic compounds (SEOC), organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC) and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) were analyzed for source identification based on molecular markers. This data set provides useful information for the downstream site researchers of the Asian continental outflow. Total carbon (TC, OC+EC) was ˜18 μg m -3 in winter, ˜9 μg m -3 in spring and autumn and a large part of the TC was WSOC (33% in winter, >45% in the other seasons). Winter and spring were the high SEOC seasons with n-fatty acids the highest at ˜290 and ˜170 ng m -3, respectively, followed by n-alkanes at ˜210 and ˜90 ng m -3, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were also at high at ˜120 and ˜30 ng m -3. High WSOC/TC, low C 18:1/C 18 of fatty acids, and low concentrations of labile PAHs such as benzo(a)pyrene, together with back trajectory analysis suggested that the aerosols were aged and transported. PAHs, triterpane and sterane distributions provided evidence that coal burning was the main source of the continental outflow. The detection of levoglucosan and β-sitosterol in nearly all the samples showed the impact of biomass burning.

  6. The Southeast Asian Pholcus halabala species group (Araneae, Pholcidae: new data from field observations and ultrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard A. Huber

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Southeast Asian Pholcus halabala species group is revised and re-delimited, based mainly on field observations (life color pattern, web design, position of egg-sac when carried by female, microhabitat and ultrastructure (silk spigots, modifications of male cheliceral apophyses. The core group includes six leafdwelling species that have distinctive color patterns in life specimens (black and white or yellowish abdominal marks, dark pattern on posterior half of carapace and build round to oval silk platforms on the undersides of leaves. Seven further species are tentatively assigned to the group pending further study. Several species originally assigned to the Pholcus halabala group are transferred to three newly proposed species groups, the Ph. krabi, Ph. buatong, and Ph. andulau groups. Nine species are newly described, four in the Ph. halabala group (Ph. khaolek Huber, sp. nov.; Ph. kuhapimuk Huber, sp. nov.; Ph. lintang Huber, sp. nov.; Ph. ubin Huber, sp. nov.; three in the Ph. krabi group (Ph. kipungit Huber, sp. nov.; Ph. krabi Huber, sp. nov.; Ph. narathiwat Huber, sp. nov.; one in the Ph. buatong group (Ph. buatong Huber, sp. nov.; and one in the Ph. andulau group (Ph. lambir Huber, sp. nov.. The females of Ph. satun Huber, 2011 and Ph. schwendingeri Huber, 2011 (both members of the buatong group are newly described.

  7. Enhanced methods for local ancestry assignment in sequenced admixed individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Brown

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Inferring the ancestry at each locus in the genome of recently admixed individuals (e.g., Latino Americans plays a major role in medical and population genetic inferences, ranging from finding disease-risk loci, to inferring recombination rates, to mapping missing contigs in the human genome. Although many methods for local ancestry inference have been proposed, most are designed for use with genotyping arrays and fail to make use of the full spectrum of data available from sequencing. In addition, current haplotype-based approaches are very computationally demanding, requiring large computational time for moderately large sample sizes. Here we present new methods for local ancestry inference that leverage continent-specific variants (CSVs to attain increased performance over existing approaches in sequenced admixed genomes. A key feature of our approach is that it incorporates the admixed genomes themselves jointly with public datasets, such as 1000 Genomes, to improve the accuracy of CSV calling. We use simulations to show that our approach attains accuracy similar to widely used computationally intensive haplotype-based approaches with large decreases in runtime. Most importantly, we show that our method recovers comparable local ancestries, as the 1000 Genomes consensus local ancestry calls in the real admixed individuals from the 1000 Genomes Project. We extend our approach to account for low-coverage sequencing and show that accurate local ancestry inference can be attained at low sequencing coverage. Finally, we generalize CSVs to sub-continental population-specific variants (sCSVs and show that in some cases it is possible to determine the sub-continental ancestry for short chromosomal segments on the basis of sCSVs.

  8. Inter-laboratory evaluation of the EUROFORGEN Global ancestry-informative SNP panel by massively parallel sequencing using the Ion PGM™.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eduardoff, M; Gross, T E; Santos, C; de la Puente, M; Ballard, D; Strobl, C; Børsting, C; Morling, N; Fusco, L; Hussing, C; Egyed, B; Souto, L; Uacyisrael, J; Syndercombe Court, D; Carracedo, Á; Lareu, M V; Schneider, P M; Parson, W; Phillips, C; Parson, W; Phillips, C

    2016-07-01

    The EUROFORGEN Global ancestry-informative SNP (AIM-SNPs) panel is a forensic multiplex of 128 markers designed to differentiate an individual's ancestry from amongst the five continental population groups of Africa, Europe, East Asia, Native America, and Oceania. A custom multiplex of AmpliSeq™ PCR primers was designed for the Global AIM-SNPs to perform massively parallel sequencing using the Ion PGM™ system. This study assessed individual SNP genotyping precision using the Ion PGM™, the forensic sensitivity of the multiplex using dilution series, degraded DNA plus simple mixtures, and the ancestry differentiation power of the final panel design, which required substitution of three original ancestry-informative SNPs with alternatives. Fourteen populations that had not been previously analyzed were genotyped using the custom multiplex and these studies allowed assessment of genotyping performance by comparison of data across five laboratories. Results indicate a low level of genotyping error can still occur from sequence misalignment caused by homopolymeric tracts close to the target SNP, despite careful scrutiny of candidate SNPs at the design stage. Such sequence misalignment required the exclusion of component SNP rs2080161 from the Global AIM-SNPs panel. However, the overall genotyping precision and sensitivity of this custom multiplex indicates the Ion PGM™ assay for the Global AIM-SNPs is highly suitable for forensic ancestry analysis with massively parallel sequencing. PMID:27208666

  9. The origin of the early differentiation of ivies (Hedera L.) and the radiation of the Asian Palmate group (Araliaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valcárcel, Virginia; Fiz-Palacios, Omar; Wen, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The Asian Palmate group is one of the four major clades of the family Araliaceae that is formed by 18 genera, including ivies (Hedera L.). The Mediterranean diversity centre and temperate affinity of ivies contrast with the inferred Asian centre of diversity of the primarily tropical and subtropical Asian Palmate group. We herein investigated the sister-group relationships of Hedera to reconstruct the evolutionary context for its origin and early diversification. Seven nuclear and plastid DNA regions were analyzed in 61 Araliaceae samples including all the 18 Asian Palmate genera. Maximum Parsimony, Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Inference were run together with a battery of topology testing analyses constraining the expected Hedera's sister-group relationships. Additionally, Bayesian polytomy resolvability and divergence time analyses were also conducted. Genome incongruence and hard nuclear and plastid basal polytomies are detected for the Asian Palmate group where the lineage of Hedera is placed. Topology testing analyses do not allow rejecting any of the tentative sisters of Hedera. An early radiation with inter-lineage hybridization and genome doubling is suggested for the Asian Palmate group where all the seven temperate genera, including Hedera, seem to have played an important role. The radiation took placed during the Upper Cretaceous in Asia under a general cooling and the eastern Asian mountain uplift that produced new temperate environments and promoted lineage connections. This allows us to hypothesize that the origin of the Hedera lineage may fit in a temperate niche conservatism scenario where the combination of the radiation with lineage admixtures prevents us from discovering its sister-group. PMID:24184542

  10. Mesoproterozoic continental arc magmatism and crustal growth in the eastern Central Tianshan Arc Terrane of the southern Central Asian Orogenic Belt: Geochronological and geochemical evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhen-Yu; Klemd, Reiner; Zhang, Ze-Ming; Zong, Ke-Qing; Sun, Li-Xin; Tian, Zuo-Lin; Huang, Bo-Tao

    2015-11-01

    Numerous microcontinents are known to occur in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB), one of the largest accretionary orogens and the most significant area of Paleozoic crustal growth in the world. The evolution of the Precambrian crust in these microcontinents is central to understanding the accretionary and collisional tectonics of the CAOB. Here, we present systematic zircon U-Pb dating and Hf isotope studies of Mesoproterozoic gneissic granitoids from the eastern Central Tianshan Arc Terrane (CTA) of the southern CAOB. The investigated intermediate to felsic (SiO2 = 60.48-78.92 wt.%) granitoids belong to the calcic- to calc-alkaline series and usually have pronounced negative Nb, Ta and Ti anomalies, relative enrichments of light rare earth elements (LREEs) and large ion lithophile elements (LILEs) while heavy rare earth elements (HREEs) and high field strength elements (HFSEs) are depleted, revealing typical active continental margin magmatic arc geochemical characteristics. These spatially-distant rocks show consistent zircon U-Pb crystallization ages from ca. 1.45 to 1.40 Ga and thus constitute a previously unknown Mesoproterozoic continental magmatic arc covering hundreds of kilometers in the eastern segment of the CTA. Furthermore the high and mainly positive zircon εHf(t) values between - 1.0 and + 8.6 and the zircon Hf model ages of 1.95 to 1.55 Ga, which are slightly older than their crystallization ages, suggest that they were mainly derived from rapid reworking of juvenile material with a limited input of an ancient crustal component. Therefore, the formation of these granitoids defines an extensive Mesoproterozoic intermediate to felsic, subduction-related intrusive magmatic arc activity that was active from at least 1.45 to 1.40 Ga, involving significant juvenile continental growth in the eastern segment of the CTA. Furthermore the zircon U-Pb and Hf isotopic data challenge the common belief that the CTA was part of the Tarim Craton during Paleo

  11. Multi-Modal Spatial Analysis of Metals within Individual Aerosol Particles Sampled from the Asian Continental Outflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffet, R.; Harder, T.; Williams, G.; Chen-Wiegart, Y. C. K.; Furutani, H.; Gilles, M. K.; Laskin, A.; Schoonen, M. A.; Thieme, J.; Uematsu, M.

    2015-12-01

    Aerosols represent an important source of iron and other metals into oceanic surface waters. In some regions of the ocean, the productivity is limited by iron. Thus, iron is an important variable in the carbon cycles of both marine and atmospheric environments. Here, we build upon previous work characterizing the source and oxidation state of iron in atmospheric particles to provide more information on the mineralogy of the iron phases using the newly built Sub-Micron Resolution X-ray Spectroscopy (SRX) beamline at the National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS II). The SRX beamline covers energies from 4.6 to 24 keV, allowing mapping of elements from Z=15 (P) to Z=95 (Am) at a sub-micrometer and a sub-100 nm spatial scale. This new method of aerosol analysis will provide outstanding performance for the spectromicroscopy of trace elements. Moreover, this technique will provide multiple modes of detection (fluorescence, absorption, diffraction, and tomographic imaging) to allow for a more complete characterization of the molecular nature of natural samples having nanometer scale structural features. Simultaneously measured X-ray absorption and fluorescence spectra from Asian mineral dust standards and deposited atmospheric particles will be presented. Application of this technique to atmospheric particle samples will broaden the scope of elements over which detailed spectral information can be obtained at a high spatial resolution and will complement existing imaging methods used to determine aerosol chemical and physical properties.

  12. The Ethnic Identity, Other-Group Attitudes, and Psychosocial Functioning of Asian American Emerging Adults from Two Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juang, Linda P.; Nguyen, Huong H.; Lin, Yunghui

    2006-01-01

    Drawing from two samples of Asian American emerging adults, one in an ethnically concentrated context (n = 108) and the other in an ethnically-dispersed, mainly White context (n = 153), we examined (a) how ethnic identity and other-group attitudes were related to psychosocial functioning (i.e., depression, self-esteem, and connectedness to…

  13. Crustal nature and origin of the Russian Altai: Implications for the continental evolution and growth of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Keda; Sun, Min; Buslov, M. M.; Jahn, Bor-ming; Xiao, Wenjiao; Long, Xiaoping; Chen, Huayong; Wan, Bo; Chen, Ming; Rubanova, E. S.; Kulikova, A. V.; Voytishek, E. E.

    2016-04-01

    The Central Asian Orogenic Belt is a gigantic tectonic collage of numerous accreted terranes. However, its geodynamic evolution has been hotly debated primarily due to incomplete knowledge on the nature of these enigmatic terranes. This work presents new detrital zircon U-Pb and Hf isotopic data to constrain the crustal nature and origin of the Russian Altai, a critical segment of Altai-Mongolian terrane. The youngest zircon 206Pb/238U ages of 470 Ma constrain that the Terekta Formation, previously envisaged as Precambrian basement, was actually deposited after the Middle Ordovician. As for the three more sedimentary sequences above the Terekta Formation, they have youngest zircon 206Pb/238U ages of 425 Ma, 440 Ma and 380 Ma, respectively, indicating their depositions likely in the Late Silurian to Devonian. From all analyses, it is noted that many zircon U-Pb ages cluster at ca. 520 Ma and ca. 800 Ma, and these zircons display oscillatory zoning and have subhedral to euhedral morphology, which, collectively, suggests that adjacent Neoproterozoic to Paleozoic igneous rocks were possibly dominant in the sedimentary provenance. Additionally, a few rounded Archean to Mesoproterozoic zircon grains are characterized by complex texture, which are interpreted as recycling materials probably derived from the Tuva-Mongolian microcontinent. Precambrian rocks have not been identified in the Russian Altai, Chinese Altai and Mongolian Altai so far, therefore, Precambrian basement may not exist in the Altai-Mongolian terrane, but this terrane probably represents a large subduction-accretion complex built on the margin of the Tuva-Mongolian microcontinent in the Early Paleozoic. Multiple episodes of ridge-trench interaction may have caused inputs of mantle-derived magmas to trigger partial melting of the newly accreted crustal materials, which contributed to the accretionary complex. During accretionary orogenesis of the CAOB, formation of such subduction-accretion complex is

  14. Devonian granitoids and their hosted mafic enclaves in the Gorny Altai terrane, northwestern Central Asian Orogenic Belt: crust-mantle interaction in a continental arc setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming; Sun, Min

    2016-04-01

    Granitoids are a major component in the upper continental crust and hold key information on how did the continental crust grow and differentiate. This study focuses on the Yaloman intrusive complex from the Gorny Altai terrane, northwestern Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). The association of granitoids and mafic enclaves can provide important clues on the source nature, petrogenetic processes and geodynamic setting of the Yaloman intrusive complex, which in turn will shed light on the crustal evolution in the northwestern CAOB. Zircon U-Pb dating shows that the granitoids, including quartz diorites and granodiorites, were emplaced in ca. 389-387 Ma. The moderate Na2O + K2O contents and low A/CNK values indicate that these rocks belong to the sub-alkaline series with metaluminous to weakly peraluminous compositions. The granitoids yield two-stage zircon Hf model ages of ca. 0.79-1.07 Ga and whole-rock Nd model ages of ca. 0.90-0.99 Ga, respectively, implying that they were mainly sourced from Neoproterozoic juvenile crustal materials. The mafic enclaves show an almost identical crystallization age of ca. 389 Ma. The identification of coarse-grained xenocrysts and acicular apatites, together with the fine-grained texture, makes us infer that these enclaves are likely to represent magmatic globules commingled with the host magmas. The low SiO2 and high MgO contents of the mafic enclaves further suggest that substantial mantle-derived mafic melts were probably involved in their formation. Importantly, the SiO2 contents of the granitoids and mafic enclaves are well correlated with other major elements and most of the trace elements. Also a broadly negative correlation exists between the SiO2 contents and whole-rock epsilon Nd (390 Ma) values of the granitoids. Given the observation of reversely zoned plagioclases within the granitoids and the common occurrence of igneous mafic enclaves, we propose that magma mixing probably played an important role in the formation

  15. Continental dynamics and continental earthquakes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张东宁; 张国民; 张培震

    2003-01-01

    Two key research projects in geoscience field in China since the IUGG meeting in Birmingham in 1999, the project of "East Asian Continental Geodynamics" and the project of "Mechanism and Prediction of Strong Continental Earthquakes" are introduced in this paper. Some details of two projects, such as their sub-projects, some initial research results published are also given here. Because of the large magnitude of the November 14, 2001 Kunlun Mountain Pass MS=8.1 earthquake, in the third part of this paper, some initial research results are reviewed for the after-shock monitoring and the multi-discipline field survey, the impact and disaster of this earthquake on the construction site of Qinghai-Xizang (Tibet) railway and some other infrastructure.

  16. Role of Social Support in Examining Acculturative Stress and Psychological Distress Among Asian American Immigrants and Three Sub-groups: Results from NLAAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shipra; McBride, Kimberly; Kak, Vivek

    2015-12-01

    This study examined the impact of acculturative stress and social support (family and friend) on psychological distress among Asian American immigrants and three Asian sub-groups (Vietnamese, Filipino and Chinese) immigrants. The National Latino and Asian American Study 2002-2003 dataset was used. The study findings were: (1) among all Asian American immigrants high language barrier and discrimination stress were associated with increased level of psychological distress, but similar association was not present for legal stress; (2) among all Asian American immigrants high family social support decreased the levels of psychological distress, and in addition, friend social support buffered the relationship of discrimination and psychological distress; and (3) among Vietnamese, Filipino, and Chinese, differential association of social support and acculturative stress to psychological distress were observed. These findings highlight the importance of social support among Asian American immigrants, while also paying attention to the variation that may exist between different sub-groups. PMID:25910620

  17. Mental health of Asian American and Pacific Islander military veterans: brief review of an understudied group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jack; Kong, Grace

    2012-11-01

    The mental health of American military soldiers and veterans is of widespread concern; yet, there has been no prior review of studies on Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders (AAPIs) veterans. This article provides a brief, but comprehensive review of the mental health of AAPI veterans. An exhaustive literature search was conducted using the major medical and mental health literature databases. Of 13 identified articles, nine were empirical studies on either post-traumatic stress disorder among AAPI Vietnam veterans or health functioning of AAPI veterans based on national veteran surveys. Findings from these studies showed that some AAPI veterans who served during the Vietnam War encountered racism from fellow soldiers and race-related stressors were associated with more severe post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms. As a group, AAPI veterans were found to be physically healthier than other veterans, but reported poorer mental health and were less likely to use mental health services. However, these findings were limited by the paucity of studies on AAPI veterans and suggest a need for more research on this subpopulation. PMID:23198528

  18. Genome-wide trans-ancestry meta-analysis provides insight into the genetic architecture of type 2 diabetes susceptibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahajan, Anubha; Go, Min Jin; Zhang, Weihua;

    2014-01-01

    To further understanding of the genetic basis of type 2 diabetes (T2D) susceptibility, we aggregated published meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies (GWAS), including 26,488 cases and 83,964 controls of European, east Asian, south Asian and Mexican and Mexican American ancestry. We obs...

  19. Explaining disparities in colorectal cancer screening among five Asian ethnic groups: A population-based study in California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Cynthia M

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data from the California Health Interview Survey (CHIS indicate that levels and temporal trends in colorectal cancer (CRC screening prevalence vary among Asian American groups; however, the reasons for these differences have not been fully investigated. Methods Using CHIS 2001, 2003 and 2005 data, we conducted hierarchical regression analyses progressively controlling for demographic characteristics, English proficiency and access to care in an attempt to identify factors explaining differences in screening prevalence and trends among Chinese, Filipino, Vietnamese, Korean and Japanese Americans (N = 4,188. Results After controlling for differences in gender and age, all Asian subgroups had significantly lower odds of having ever received screening in 2001 than the reference group of Japanese Americans. In addition, Korean Americans were the only subgroup that had a statistically significant decline in screening prevalence from 2001 to 2005 compared to the trend among Japanese Americans. After controlling for differences in education, marital status, employment status and federal poverty level, Korean Americans were the only group that had significantly lower screening prevalence than Japanese Americans in 2001, and their trend to 2005 remained significantly depressed. After controlling for differences in English proficiency and access to care, screening prevalences in 2001 were no longer significantly different among the Asian subgroups, but the trend among Korean Americans from 2001 to 2005 remained significantly depressed. Korean and Vietnamese Americans were less likely than other groups to report a recent doctor recommendation for screening and more likely to cite a lack of health problems as a reason for not obtaining screening. Conclusions Differences in CRC screening trends among Asian ethnic groups are not entirely explained by differences in demographic characteristics, English proficiency and access to care. A

  20. Phylogenetic analysis of human group C rotavirus circulating in Brazil reveals a potential unique NSP4 genetic variant and high similarity with Asian strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchs, Adriana; do Carmo Sampaio Tavares Timenetsky, Maria

    2015-06-01

    Group C rotaviruses (RVC) cause gastroenteritis in humans and animals worldwide, and the evidence for a possible zoonotic role has been recently provided. To gain information on the genetic diversity and relationships between human and animal RVC, we sequenced the VP4, VP7, and NSP4 genes of 12, 19, and 15 human strains, respectively, detected in São Paulo state during historical (1988 and 1993) and recent (2007 and 2008) Brazilian rotavirus surveillance. All RVC strains analyzed in the present study grouped into human genotype (G4-P[2]-E2), and did not show any evidence of animal ancestry. Phylogenetic analysis showed that RVC samples detected in 1988 and 1993 clustered together with strains from distinct continents, indicating that historical RVC strains circulating in São Paulo were closely related to those strains circulating worldwide. All three genes (VP7, VP4 and NSP4) of São Paulo RVC strains isolated in 2007-2008 exhibited close phylogenetic relationship with human RVC strains isolated in China and Japan, suggesting that they are genetically linked, and that a gene flow could be occurring between this Asian countries and Brazil. We identified two distinct clusters in the NSP4 phylogenetic tree. One cluster formed exclusively by human Brazilian strains detected in 1997 and 2003-2004 in Rio de Janeiro, Bahia, and Rio Grande do Sul states (Subgroup II) previously described in a different study, that displayed low sequence identities to other human strains formerly published, and to the Brazilian RVC strains (Subgroup I) characterized in the present study. These data suggests the circulation of two genetic profiles of the NSP4 gene in Brazil. High sequence diversity in NSP4 gene was previously reported in Asia, and additional diversity in NSP4 RVC strains spreading in the world should be expected. More in-depth molecular and epidemiological analysis of human RVC throughout the world will be needed to understand their diversity and clarify their evolution

  1. Crustal melting and magma mixing in a continental arc setting: Evidence from the Yaloman intrusive complex in the Gorny Altai terrane, Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming; Sun, Min; Buslov, Mikhail M.; Cai, Keda; Zhao, Guochun; Kulikova, Anna V.; Rubanova, Elena S.

    2016-05-01

    Granitoids and their hosted mafic enclaves may retain important information on crust-mantle interaction, and thus are significant for study of crustal growth and differentiation. An integrated petrological, geochronological and geochemical study on the granitoid plutons of the Yaloman intrusive complex from the Gorny Altai terrane, northwestern Central Asian Orogenic Belt, was conducted to determine their source nature, petrogenesis and geodynamics. Mafic enclaves are common in the plutons, and a zircon U-Pb age (389 Ma ± 4 Ma) indicates that they are coeval with their granitoid hosts (ca. 393-387 Ma). Petrographic observations reveal that these mafic enclaves probably represent magmatic globules commingled with their host magmas. The relatively low SiO2 contents (46.0-60.7 wt.%) and high Mg# (38.9-56.5) further suggest that mantle-derived mafic melts served as a crucial component in the formation of these mafic enclaves. The granitoid hosts, including quartz diorites and granodiorites, are I-type in origin, possessing higher SiO2 contents (60.2-69.9 wt.%) and lower Mg# (32.0-44.2). Their zircon Hf and whole-rock Nd isotopic compositions indicate that the magmas were dominated by remelting of Neoproterozoic (0.79-1.07 Ga) crustal materials. Meanwhile, the geochemical modeling, together with the common occurrence of igneous mafic enclaves and the observation of reversely zoned plagioclases, suggests that magma mixing possibly contributed significantly to the geochemical variation of the granitoid hosts. Our results imply that mafic magmas from the mantle not only provided substantial heat to melt the lower crust, but also mixed with the crust-derived melts to form the diverse granitoids. The oxidizing and water-enriched properties inferred from the mineral assemblages and compositions imply that the granitoid plutons of the Yaloman intrusive complex were possibly formed in a continental arc-related setting, which is also supported by their geochemistry. The

  2. What Is The Proximate Cause Of Begging Behaviour In A Group Of Captive Asian Short-Clawed Otters?

    OpenAIRE

    Gothard Nicola

    2007-01-01

    The study aimed to ascertain the proximate cause of ‘begging’ behaviour in a group of captive Asian short-clawed otters (Aonyx cinereus). Two alternative hypotheses were tested by manipulating aspects of husbandry in three experimental conditions. Condition 1 served as a baseline for comparison. In Condition 2 meal worms and crickets were provided every hour to stimulate natural foraging and hunting behaviour and alleviate boredom. During Condition 3 the food allowance was increased by 7.5% o...

  3. Effects of cis and trans genetic ancestry on gene expression in African Americans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alkes L Price

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Variation in gene expression is a fundamental aspect of human phenotypic variation. Several recent studies have analyzed gene expression levels in populations of different continental ancestry and reported population differences at a large number of genes. However, these differences could largely be due to non-genetic (e.g., environmental effects. Here, we analyze gene expression levels in African American cell lines, which differ from previously analyzed cell lines in that individuals from this population inherit variable proportions of two continental ancestries. We first relate gene expression levels in individual African Americans to their genome-wide proportion of European ancestry. The results provide strong evidence of a genetic contribution to expression differences between European and African populations, validating previous findings. Second, we infer local ancestry (0, 1, or 2 European chromosomes at each location in the genome and investigate the effects of ancestry proximal to the expressed gene (cis versus ancestry elsewhere in the genome (trans. Both effects are highly significant, and we estimate that 12+/-3% of all heritable variation in human gene expression is due to cis variants.

  4. Genetic ancestry, self-reported race and ethnicity in African Americans and European Americans in the PCaP cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara E Sucheston

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Family history and African-American race are important risk factors for both prostate cancer (CaP incidence and aggressiveness. When studying complex diseases such as CaP that have a heritable component, chances of finding true disease susceptibility alleles can be increased by accounting for genetic ancestry within the population investigated. Race, ethnicity and ancestry were studied in a geographically diverse cohort of men with newly diagnosed CaP. METHODS: Individual ancestry (IA was estimated in the population-based North Carolina and Louisiana Prostate Cancer Project (PCaP, a cohort of 2,106 incident CaP cases (2063 with complete ethnicity information comprising roughly equal numbers of research subjects reporting as Black/African American (AA or European American/Caucasian/Caucasian American/White (EA from North Carolina or Louisiana. Mean genome wide individual ancestry estimates of percent African, European and Asian were obtained and tested for differences by state and ethnicity (Cajun and/or Creole and Hispanic/Latino using multivariate analysis of variance models. Principal components (PC were compared to assess differences in genetic composition by self-reported race and ethnicity between and within states. RESULTS: Mean individual ancestries differed by state for self-reporting AA (p = 0.03 and EA (p = 0.001. This geographic difference attenuated for AAs who answered "no" to all ethnicity membership questions (non-ethnic research subjects; p = 0.78 but not EA research subjects, p = 0.002. Mean ancestry estimates of self-identified AA Louisiana research subjects for each ethnic group; Cajun only, Creole only and both Cajun and Creole differed significantly from self-identified non-ethnic AA Louisiana research subjects. These ethnicity differences were not seen in those who self-identified as EA. CONCLUSIONS: Mean IA differed by race between states, elucidating a potential contributing factor to these differences in AA

  5. Genetic ancestry, social classification, and racial inequalities in blood pressure in Southeastern Puerto Rico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarence C Gravlee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The role of race in human genetics and biomedical research is among the most contested issues in science. Much debate centers on the relative importance of genetic versus sociocultural factors in explaining racial inequalities in health. However, few studies integrate genetic and sociocultural data to test competing explanations directly. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We draw on ethnographic, epidemiologic, and genetic data collected in Southeastern Puerto Rico to isolate two distinct variables for which race is often used as a proxy: genetic ancestry versus social classification. We show that color, an aspect of social classification based on the culturally defined meaning of race in Puerto Rico, better predicts blood pressure than does a genetic-based estimate of continental ancestry. We also find that incorporating sociocultural variables reveals a new and significant association between a candidate gene polymorphism for hypertension (alpha(2C adrenergic receptor deletion and blood pressure. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study addresses the recognized need to measure both genetic and sociocultural factors in research on racial inequalities in health. Our preliminary results provide the most direct evidence to date that previously reported associations between genetic ancestry and health may be attributable to sociocultural factors related to race and racism, rather than to functional genetic differences between racially defined groups. Our results also imply that including sociocultural variables in future research may improve our ability to detect significant allele-phenotype associations. Thus, measuring sociocultural factors related to race may both empower future genetic association studies and help to clarify the biological consequences of social inequalities.

  6. Development of a panel of genome-wide ancestry informative markers to study admixture throughout the Americas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Mark Galanter

    Full Text Available Most individuals throughout the Americas are admixed descendants of Native American, European, and African ancestors. Complex historical factors have resulted in varying proportions of ancestral contributions between individuals within and among ethnic groups. We developed a panel of 446 ancestry informative markers (AIMs optimized to estimate ancestral proportions in individuals and populations throughout Latin America. We used genome-wide data from 953 individuals from diverse African, European, and Native American populations to select AIMs optimized for each of the three main continental populations that form the basis of modern Latin American populations. We selected markers on the basis of locus-specific branch length to be informative, well distributed throughout the genome, capable of being genotyped on widely available commercial platforms, and applicable throughout the Americas by minimizing within-continent heterogeneity. We then validated the panel in samples from four admixed populations by comparing ancestry estimates based on the AIMs panel to estimates based on genome-wide association study (GWAS data. The panel provided balanced discriminatory power among the three ancestral populations and accurate estimates of individual ancestry proportions (R² > 0.9 for ancestral components with significant between-subject variance. Finally, we genotyped samples from 18 populations from Latin America using the AIMs panel and estimated variability in ancestry within and between these populations. This panel and its reference genotype information will be useful resources to explore population history of admixture in Latin America and to correct for the potential effects of population stratification in admixed samples in the region.

  7. Development of a Panel of Genome-Wide Ancestry Informative Markers to Study Admixture Throughout the Americas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galanter, Joshua Mark; Fernandez-Lopez, Juan Carlos; Gignoux, Christopher R.; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill; Fernandez-Rozadilla, Ceres; Via, Marc; Hidalgo-Miranda, Alfredo; Contreras, Alejandra V.; Figueroa, Laura Uribe; Raska, Paola; Jimenez-Sanchez, Gerardo; Silva Zolezzi, Irma; Torres, Maria; Ponte, Clara Ruiz; Ruiz, Yarimar; Salas, Antonio; Nguyen, Elizabeth; Eng, Celeste; Borjas, Lisbeth; Zabala, William; Barreto, Guillermo; Rondón González, Fernando; Ibarra, Adriana; Taboada, Patricia; Porras, Liliana; Moreno, Fabián; Bigham, Abigail; Gutierrez, Gerardo; Brutsaert, Tom; León-Velarde, Fabiola; Moore, Lorna G.; Vargas, Enrique; Cruz, Miguel; Escobedo, Jorge; Rodriguez-Santana, José; Rodriguez-Cintrón, William; Chapela, Rocio; Ford, Jean G.; Bustamante, Carlos; Seminara, Daniela; Shriver, Mark; Ziv, Elad; Gonzalez Burchard, Esteban; Haile, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Most individuals throughout the Americas are admixed descendants of Native American, European, and African ancestors. Complex historical factors have resulted in varying proportions of ancestral contributions between individuals within and among ethnic groups. We developed a panel of 446 ancestry informative markers (AIMs) optimized to estimate ancestral proportions in individuals and populations throughout Latin America. We used genome-wide data from 953 individuals from diverse African, European, and Native American populations to select AIMs optimized for each of the three main continental populations that form the basis of modern Latin American populations. We selected markers on the basis of locus-specific branch length to be informative, well distributed throughout the genome, capable of being genotyped on widely available commercial platforms, and applicable throughout the Americas by minimizing within-continent heterogeneity. We then validated the panel in samples from four admixed populations by comparing ancestry estimates based on the AIMs panel to estimates based on genome-wide association study (GWAS) data. The panel provided balanced discriminatory power among the three ancestral populations and accurate estimates of individual ancestry proportions (R2>0.9 for ancestral components with significant between-subject variance). Finally, we genotyped samples from 18 populations from Latin America using the AIMs panel and estimated variability in ancestry within and between these populations. This panel and its reference genotype information will be useful resources to explore population history of admixture in Latin America and to correct for the potential effects of population stratification in admixed samples in the region. PMID:22412386

  8. What Is Genetic Ancestry Testing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... type of test because Y chromosome and mitochondrial DNA test results, which represent only single ancestral lines, do ... relationships. On a larger scale, combined genetic ancestry test results from many people can be used ... promotes the use of DNA testing in genealogy. The American Society of Human ...

  9. Sources of Health Information Among Select Asian American Immigrant Groups in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Nadia S; Patel, Shilpa; Wyatt, Laura C; Sim, Shao-Chee; Mukherjee-Ratnam, Runi; Chun, Kay; Desai, Bhairavi; Tandon, S Darius; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau; Pollack, Henry; Kwon, Simona C

    2016-01-01

    Health information can potentially mitigate adverse health outcomes among ethnic minority populations, but little research has examined how minorities access health information. The aim of this study was to examine variations in the use of health information sources among Asian American (AA) subgroups and to identify differences in characteristics associated with the use of these sources. We analyzed data from a foreign-born community sample of 219 Asian Indians, 216 Bangladeshis, 484 Chinese, and 464 Koreans living in New York City. Results found that use of health information sources varied by AA subgroup. Print media source use, which included newspapers, magazines, and/or journals, was highest among Chinese (84%), Koreans (75%), and Bangladeshis (80%), while radio was most utilized by Chinese (48%) and Koreans (38%). Television utilization was highest among Bangladeshis (74%) and Koreans (64%). Koreans (52%) and Chinese (40%) were most likely to use the Internet to access health information. Radio use was best explained by older age and longer time lived in the United States, while print media were more utilized by older individuals. Results also highlighted differences in native-language versus non-native-language media sources for health information by subgroup. Media sources can be used as a vehicle to disseminate health information among AAs. PMID:26266574

  10. Sources of Health Information Among Select Asian American Immigrant Groups in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Nadia S; Patel, Shilpa; Wyatt, Laura C; Sim, Shao-Chee; Mukherjee-Ratnam, Runi; Chun, Kay; Desai, Bhairavi; Tandon, S Darius; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau; Pollack, Henry; Kwon, Simona C

    2016-01-01

    Health information can potentially mitigate adverse health outcomes among ethnic minority populations, but little research has examined how minorities access health information. The aim of this study was to examine variations in the use of health information sources among Asian American (AA) subgroups and to identify differences in characteristics associated with the use of these sources. We analyzed data from a foreign-born community sample of 219 Asian Indians, 216 Bangladeshis, 484 Chinese, and 464 Koreans living in New York City. Results found that use of health information sources varied by AA subgroup. Print media source use, which included newspapers, magazines, and/or journals, was highest among Chinese (84%), Koreans (75%), and Bangladeshis (80%), while radio was most utilized by Chinese (48%) and Koreans (38%). Television utilization was highest among Bangladeshis (74%) and Koreans (64%). Koreans (52%) and Chinese (40%) were most likely to use the Internet to access health information. Radio use was best explained by older age and longer time lived in the United States, while print media were more utilized by older individuals. Results also highlighted differences in native-language versus non-native-language media sources for health information by subgroup. Media sources can be used as a vehicle to disseminate health information among AAs.

  11. Ancestry reported by white adults with cutaneous melanoma and control subjects in central Alabama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hollowell William W

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We sought to evaluate the hypothesis that the high incidence of cutaneous melanoma in white persons in central Alabama is associated with a predominance of Irish and Scots descent. Methods Frequencies of country of ancestry reports were tabulated. The reports were also converted to scores that reflect proportional countries of ancestry in individuals. Using the scores, we computed aggregate country of ancestry indices as estimates of group ancestry composition. HLA-DRB1*04 allele frequencies and relationships to countries of ancestry were compared in probands and controls. Results were compared to those of European populations with HLA-DRB1*04 frequencies. Results Ninety evaluable adult white cutaneous melanoma probands and 324 adult white controls reported countries of ancestry of their grandparents. The respective frequencies of Ireland, and Scotland and "British Isles" reported countries of ancestry were significantly greater in probands than in controls. The respective frequencies of Wales, France, Italy and Poland were significantly greater in controls. 16.7% of melanoma probands and 23.8% of controls reported "Native American" ancestry; the corresponding "Native American" country of ancestry index was not significantly different in probands and controls. The frequency of HLA-DRB1*04 was significantly greater in probands, but was not significantly associated with individual or aggregate countries of ancestry. The frequency of DRB1*04 observed in Alabama was compared to DRB1*04 frequencies reported from England, Wales, Ireland, Orkney Island, France, Germany, and Australia. Conclusion White adults with cutaneous melanoma in central Alabama have a predominance of Irish, Scots, and "British Isles" ancestry and HLA-DRB1*04 that likely contributes to their high incidence of cutaneous melanoma.

  12. Race, Ethnicity and Ancestry in Unrelated Transplant Matching for the National Marrow Donor Program: A Comparison of Multiple Forms of Self-Identification with Genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollenbach, Jill A; Saperstein, Aliya; Albrecht, Mark; Vierra-Green, Cynthia; Parham, Peter; Norman, Paul J; Maiers, Martin

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a nationwide study comparing self-identification to genetic ancestry classifications in a large cohort (n = 1752) from the National Marrow Donor Program. We sought to determine how various measures of self-identification intersect with genetic ancestry, with the aim of improving matching algorithms for unrelated bone marrow transplant. Multiple dimensions of self-identification, including race/ethnicity and geographic ancestry were compared to classifications based on ancestry informative markers (AIMs), and the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes, which are required for transplant matching. Nearly 20% of responses were inconsistent between reporting race/ethnicity versus geographic ancestry. Despite strong concordance between AIMs and HLA, no measure of self-identification shows complete correspondence with genetic ancestry. In certain cases geographic ancestry reporting matches genetic ancestry not reflected in race/ethnicity identification, but in other cases geographic ancestries show little correspondence to genetic measures, with important differences by gender. However, when respondents assign ancestry to grandparents, we observe sub-groups of individuals with well- defined genetic ancestries, including important differences in HLA frequencies, with implications for transplant matching. While we advocate for tailored questioning to improve accuracy of ancestry ascertainment, collection of donor grandparents' information will improve the chances of finding matches for many patients, particularly for mixed-ancestry individuals.

  13. Genome-wide association analysis of blood-pressure traits in African-ancestry individuals reveals common associated genes in African and non-African populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franceschini, Nora; Fox, Ervin; Zhang, Zhaogong; Edwards, Todd L; Nalls, Michael A; Sung, Yun Ju; Tayo, Bamidele O; Sun, Yan V; Gottesman, Omri; Adeyemo, Adebawole; Johnson, Andrew D; Young, J Hunter; Rice, Ken; Duan, Qing; Chen, Fang; Li, Yun; Tang, Hua; Fornage, Myriam; Keene, Keith L; Andrews, Jeanette S; Smith, Jennifer A; Faul, Jessica D; Guangfa, Zhang; Guo, Wei; Liu, Yu; Murray, Sarah S; Musani, Solomon K; Srinivasan, Sathanur; Velez Edwards, Digna R; Wang, Heming; Becker, Lewis C; Bovet, Pascal; Bochud, Murielle; Broeckel, Ulrich; Burnier, Michel; Carty, Cara; Chasman, Daniel I; Ehret, Georg; Chen, Wei-Min; Chen, Guanjie; Chen, Wei; Ding, Jingzhong; Dreisbach, Albert W; Evans, Michele K; Guo, Xiuqing; Garcia, Melissa E; Jensen, Rich; Keller, Margaux F; Lettre, Guillaume; Lotay, Vaneet; Martin, Lisa W; Moore, Jason H; Morrison, Alanna C; Mosley, Thomas H; Ogunniyi, Adesola; Palmas, Walter; Papanicolaou, George; Penman, Alan; Polak, Joseph F; Ridker, Paul M; Salako, Babatunde; Singleton, Andrew B; Shriner, Daniel; Taylor, Kent D; Vasan, Ramachandran; Wiggins, Kerri; Williams, Scott M; Yanek, Lisa R; Zhao, Wei; Zonderman, Alan B; Becker, Diane M; Berenson, Gerald; Boerwinkle, Eric; Bottinger, Erwin; Cushman, Mary; Eaton, Charles; Nyberg, Fredrik; Heiss, Gerardo; Hirschhron, Joel N; Howard, Virginia J; Karczewsk, Konrad J; Lanktree, Matthew B; Liu, Kiang; Liu, Yongmei; Loos, Ruth; Margolis, Karen; Snyder, Michael; Psaty, Bruce M; Schork, Nicholas J; Weir, David R; Rotimi, Charles N; Sale, Michele M; Harris, Tamara; Kardia, Sharon L R; Hunt, Steven C; Arnett, Donna; Redline, Susan; Cooper, Richard S; Risch, Neil J; Rao, D C; Rotter, Jerome I; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Reiner, Alex P; Levy, Daniel; Keating, Brendan J; Zhu, Xiaofeng

    2013-09-01

    High blood pressure (BP) is more prevalent and contributes to more severe manifestations of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in African Americans than in any other United States ethnic group. Several small African-ancestry (AA) BP genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have been published, but their findings have failed to replicate to date. We report on a large AA BP GWAS meta-analysis that includes 29,378 individuals from 19 discovery cohorts and subsequent replication in additional samples of AA (n = 10,386), European ancestry (EA) (n = 69,395), and East Asian ancestry (n = 19,601). Five loci (EVX1-HOXA, ULK4, RSPO3, PLEKHG1, and SOX6) reached genome-wide significance (p < 1.0 × 10(-8)) for either systolic or diastolic BP in a transethnic meta-analysis after correction for multiple testing. Three of these BP loci (EVX1-HOXA, RSPO3, and PLEKHG1) lack previous associations with BP. We also identified one independent signal in a known BP locus (SOX6) and provide evidence for fine mapping in four additional validated BP loci. We also demonstrate that validated EA BP GWAS loci, considered jointly, show significant effects in AA samples. Consequently, these findings suggest that BP loci might have universal effects across studied populations, demonstrating that multiethnic samples are an essential component in identifying, fine mapping, and understanding their trait variability.

  14. Forensic ancestry analysis with two capillary electrophoresis ancestry informative marker (AIM) panels: Results of a collaborative EDNAP exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, C; Fondevila, M; Ballard, D; Banemann, R; Bento, A M; Børsting, C; Branicki, W; Brisighelli, F; Burrington, M; Capal, T; Chaitanya, L; Daniel, R; Decroyer, V; England, R; Gettings, K B; Gross, T E; Haas, C; Harteveld, J; Hoff-Olsen, P; Hoffmann, A; Kayser, M; Kohler, P; Linacre, A; Mayr-Eduardoff, M; McGovern, C; Morling, N; O'Donnell, G; Parson, W; Pascali, V L; Porto, M J; Roseth, A; Schneider, P M; Sijen, T; Stenzl, V; Court, D Syndercombe; Templeton, J E; Turanska, M; Vallone, P M; van Oorschot, R A H; Zatkalikova, L; Carracedo, Á; Phillips, C

    2015-11-01

    There is increasing interest in forensic ancestry tests, which are part of a growing number of DNA analyses that can enhance routine profiling by obtaining additional genetic information about unidentified DNA donors. Nearly all ancestry tests use single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), but these currently rely on SNaPshot single base extension chemistry that can fail to detect mixed DNA. Insertion-deletion polymorphism (Indel) tests have been developed using dye-labeled primers that allow direct capillary electrophoresis detection of PCR products (PCR-to-CE). PCR-to-CE maintains the direct relationship between input DNA and signal strength as each marker is detected with a single dye, so mixed DNA is more reliably detected. We report the results of a collaborative inter-laboratory exercise of 19 participants (15 from the EDNAP European DNA Profiling group) that assessed a 34-plex SNP test using SNaPshot and a 46-plex Indel test using PCR-to-CE. Laboratories were asked to type five samples with different ancestries and detect an additional mixed DNA sample. Statistical inference of ancestry was made by participants using the Snipper online Bayes analysis portal plus an optional PCA module that analyzes the genotype data alongside calculation of Bayes likelihood ratios. Exercise results indicated consistent genotyping performance from both tests, reaching a particularly high level of reliability for the Indel test. SNP genotyping gave 93.5% concordance (compared to the organizing laboratory's data) that rose to 97.3% excluding one laboratory with a large number of miscalled genotypes. Indel genotyping gave a higher concordance rate of 99.8% and a reduced no-call rate compared to SNP analysis. All participants detected the mixture from their Indel peak height data and successfully assigned the correct ancestry to the other samples using Snipper, with the exception of one laboratory with SNP miscalls that incorrectly assigned ancestry of two samples and did not obtain

  15. Strong genetic admixture in the Altai at the Middle Bronze Age revealed by uniparental and ancestry informative markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollard, Clémence; Keyser, Christine; Giscard, Pierre-Henri; Tsagaan, Turbat; Bayarkhuu, Noost; Bemmann, Jan; Crubézy, Eric; Ludes, Bertrand

    2014-09-01

    The Altai Mountains have been a long-term boundary zone between the Eurasian Steppe populations and South and East Asian populations. To disentangle some of the historical population movements in this area, 14 ancient human specimens excavated in the westernmost part of the Mongolian Altai were studied. Thirteen of them were dated from the Middle to the End of the Bronze Age and one of them to the Eneolithic period. The environmental conditions encountered in this region led to the good preservation of DNA in the human remains. Therefore, a multi-markers approach was adopted for the genetic analysis of identity, ancestry and phenotype markers. Mitochondrial DNA analyses revealed that the ancient Altaians studied carried both Western (H, U, T) and Eastern (A, C, D) Eurasian lineages. In the same way, the patrilineal gene pool revealed the presence of different haplogroups (Q1a2a1-L54, R1a1a1b2-Z93 and C), probably marking different origins for the male paternal lineages. To go further in the search of the origin of these ancient specimens, phenotypical characters (i.e. hair and eye color) were determined. For this purpose, we adapted the HIrisPlex assay recently described to MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. In addition, some ancestry informative markers were analyzed with this assay. The results revealed mixed phenotypes among this group confirming the probable admixed ancestry of the studied Altaian population at the Middle Bronze Age. The good results obtained from ancient DNA samples suggest that this approach might be relevant for forensic casework too. PMID:25016250

  16. "Don't Mistake the Finger Pointing at the Moon for the Moon" -- Zen Buddhist Saying. On Understanding Minority Group Experiences: The Asian American Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Isao

    1971-01-01

    Author employs a Zen quotation to indicate a gap in research on race relations; the minority group (emphasizing Asian-Americans) is but the finger pointing at the larger society. Research on minority groups is incomplete without examining broader segments of American Society. (DM)

  17. Shared epitope alleles remain a risk factor for anti-citrullinated proteins antibody (ACPA--positive rheumatoid arthritis in three Asian ethnic groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Too Chun-Lai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To investigate the associations between HLA-DRB1 shared epitope (SE alleles and rheumatoid arthritis in subsets of rheumatoid arthritis defined by autoantibodies in three Asian populations from Malaysia. METHODS: 1,079 rheumatoid arthritis patients and 1,470 healthy controls were included in the study. Levels of antibodies to citrullinated proteins (ACPA and rheumatoid factors were assessed and the PCR-SSO method was used for HLA-DRB1 genotyping. RESULTS: The proportion of ACPA positivity among Malay, Chinese and Indian rheumatoid arthritis patients were 62.9%, 65.2% and 68.6%, respectively. An increased frequency of SE alleles was observed in ACPA-positive rheumatoid arthritis among the three Asian ethnic groups. HLA-DRB1*10 was highly associated with rheumatoid arthritis susceptibility in these Asian populations. HLA-DRB1*0405 was significantly associated with susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis in Malays and Chinese, but not in Indians. HLA-DRB1*01 did not show any independent effect as a risk factor for rheumatoid arthritis in this study and HLA-DRB1*1202 was protective in Malays and Chinese. There was no association between SE alleles and ACPA- negative rheumatoid arthritis in any of the three Asian ethnic groups. CONCLUSION: The HLA-DRB1 SE alleles increase the risk of ACPA-positive rheumatoid arthritis in all three Asian populations from Malaysia.

  18. Global divergence of the human follicle mite Demodex folliculorum: Persistent associations between host ancestry and mite lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palopoli, Michael F; Fergus, Daniel J; Minot, Samuel; Pei, Dorothy T; Simison, W Brian; Fernandez-Silva, Iria; Thoemmes, Megan S; Dunn, Robert R; Trautwein, Michelle

    2015-12-29

    Microscopic mites of the genus Demodex live within the hair follicles of mammals and are ubiquitous symbionts of humans, but little molecular work has been done to understand their genetic diversity or transmission. Here we sampled mite DNA from 70 human hosts of diverse geographic ancestries and analyzed 241 sequences from the mitochondrial genome of the species Demodex folliculorum. Phylogenetic analyses recovered multiple deep lineages including a globally distributed lineage common among hosts of European ancestry and three lineages that primarily include hosts of Asian, African, and Latin American ancestry. To a great extent, the ancestral geography of hosts predicted the lineages of mites found on them; 27% of the total molecular variance segregated according to the regional ancestries of hosts. We found that D. folliculorum populations are stable on an individual over the course of years and that some Asian and African American hosts maintain specific mite lineages over the course of years or generations outside their geographic region of birth or ancestry. D. folliculorum haplotypes were much more likely to be shared within families and between spouses than between unrelated individuals, indicating that transmission requires close contact. Dating analyses indicated that D. folliculorum origins may predate modern humans. Overall, D. folliculorum evolution reflects ancient human population divergences, is consistent with an out-of-Africa dispersal hypothesis, and presents an excellent model system for further understanding the history of human movement. PMID:26668374

  19. What Is The Proximate Cause Of Begging Behaviour In A Group Of Captive Asian Short-Clawed Otters?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gothard Nicola

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to ascertain the proximate cause of ‘begging’ behaviour in a group of captive Asian short-clawed otters (Aonyx cinereus. Two alternative hypotheses were tested by manipulating aspects of husbandry in three experimental conditions. Condition 1 served as a baseline for comparison. In Condition 2 meal worms and crickets were provided every hour to stimulate natural foraging and hunting behaviour and alleviate boredom. During Condition 3 the food allowance was increased by 7.5% of the otters’ body weight and they were fed every hour to more accurately represent their natural foraging ecology. The results show that both Condition 2 and Condition 3 reduced ‘begging’ behaviour, however the reduction was significantly greater in Condition 3. Thus indicating that the main cause of ‘begging’ behaviour was hunger, however lack of stimulation is also likely to be a contributing factor. Inconsistency in feeding times might have contributed to the ‘begging’ problem as well, although a further long-term study is needed to determine the extent to which this is a factor. Some recommendations for changing aspects of husbandry and diet are provided

  20. Typing of 111 ancestry informative markers in an Albanian population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ribeiro, Joana; Pereira, V.; Kondili, A.;

    2015-01-01

    Genetically based prediction of ancestry has a great potential in forensic genetics and may be used as an investigative lead in crime case work or missing person identification.The EUROFORGEN-NoE consortium developed four PCR and SBE multiplexes for typing of 111 ancestry informative markers (AIMs...... set and, at the same time, the performance of each SNP assay was evaluated. After PCR and SBE, samples were typed using the Sequenom MassARRAY®. All samples were typed at least two times. The mass spectra were analyzed using Typer 4 and the genotype calls were further analyzed with a custom designed...... script in the software R.The results were compared to other population samples previously typed for the same markers. The panel of AIMs was capable of differentiating the Albanian population from other population groups except for the Greek population. These results were expected due to the history...

  1. Ancestry dependent DNA methylation and influence of maternal nutrition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khyobeni Mozhui

    Full Text Available There is extensive variation in DNA methylation between individuals and ethnic groups. These differences arise from a combination of genetic and non-genetic influences and potential modifiers include nutritional cues, early life experience, and social and physical environments. Here we compare genome-wide DNA methylation in neonatal cord blood from African American (AA; N = 112 and European American (EA; N = 91 participants of the CANDLE Study (Conditions Affecting Neurocognitive Development and Learning in Early Childhood. Our goal is to determine if there are replicable ancestry-specific methylation patterns that may implicate risk factors for diseases that have differential prevalence between populations. To identify the most robust ancestry-specific CpG sites, we replicate our results in lymphoblastoid cell lines from Yoruba African and CEPH European panels of HapMap. We also evaluate the influence of maternal nutrition--specifically, plasma levels of vitamin D and folate during pregnancy--on methylation in newborns. We define stable ancestry-dependent methylation of genes that include tumor suppressors and cell cycle regulators (e.g., APC, BRCA1, MCC. Overall, there is lower global methylation in African ancestral groups. Plasma levels of 25-hydroxy vitamin D are also considerably lower among AA mothers and about 60% of AA and 40% of EA mothers have concentrations below 20 ng/ml. Using a weighted correlation analysis, we define a network of CpG sites that is jointly modulated by ancestry and maternal vitamin D. Our results show that differences in DNA methylation patterns are remarkably stable and maternal micronutrients can exert an influence on the child epigenome.

  2. Autosomal and X-linked single nucleotide polymorphisms reveal a steep Asian–Melanesian ancestry cline in eastern Indonesia and a sex bias in admixture rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Murray P.; Karafet, Tatiana M.; Lansing, J. Stephen; Sudoyo, Herawati; Hammer, Michael F.

    2010-01-01

    The geographical region between mainland Asia and New Guinea is characterized by numerous small islands with isolated human populations. Phenotypically, groups in the west are similar to their neighbours in mainland Southeast Asia, eastern groups near New Guinea are similar to Melanesians, and intervening populations are intermediate in appearance. A long-standing question is whether this pattern primarily reflects mixing between groups with distinct origins or whether natural selection has shaped this range of variation by acting differentially on populations across the region. To address this question, we genotyped a set of 37 single nucleotide polymorphisms that are evolutionarily independent, putatively neutral and highly informative for Asian–Melanesian ancestry in 1430 individuals from 60 populations spanning mainland Asia to Melanesia. Admixture analysis reveals a sharp transition from Asian to Melanesian genetic variants over a narrow geographical region in eastern Indonesia. Interestingly, this admixture cline roughly corresponds to the human phenotypic boundary noted by Alfred Russell Wallace in 1869. We conclude that this phenotypic gradient probably reflects mixing of two long-separated ancestral source populations—one descended from the initial Melanesian-like inhabitants of the region, and the other related to Asian groups that immigrated during the Paleolithic and/or with the spread of agriculture. A higher frequency of Asian X-linked markers relative to autosomal markers throughout the transition zone suggests that the admixture process was sex-biased, either favouring a westward expansion of patrilocal Melanesian groups or an eastward expansion of matrilocal Asian immigrants. The matrilocal marriage practices that dominated early Austronesian societies may be one factor contributing to this observed sex bias in admixture rates. PMID:20106848

  3. Forensic ancestry analysis with two capillary electrophoresis ancestry informative marker (AIM) panels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santos, C; Fondevila, M; Ballard, D;

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing interest in forensic ancestry tests, which are part of a growing number of DNA analyses that can enhance routine profiling by obtaining additional genetic information about unidentified DNA donors. Nearly all ancestry tests use single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), but these...

  4. Empirical Selection of Informative Microsatellite Markers within Co-ancestry Pig Populations Is Required for Improving the Individual Assignment Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y H; Chu, H P; Jiang, Y N; Lin, C Y; Li, S H; Li, K T; Weng, G J; Cheng, C C; Lu, D J; Ju, Y T

    2014-05-01

    The Lanyu is a miniature pig breed indigenous to Lanyu Island, Taiwan. It is distantly related to Asian and European pig breeds. It has been inbred to generate two breeds and crossed with Landrace and Duroc to produce two hybrids for laboratory use. Selecting sets of informative genetic markers to track the genetic qualities of laboratory animals and stud stock is an important function of genetic databases. For more than two decades, Lanyu derived breeds of common ancestry and crossbreeds have been used to examine the effectiveness of genetic marker selection and optimal approaches for individual assignment. In this paper, these pigs and the following breeds: Berkshire, Duroc, Landrace and Yorkshire, Meishan and Taoyuan, TLRI Black Pig No. 1, and Kaohsiung Animal Propagation Station Black pig are studied to build a genetic reference database. Nineteen microsatellite markers (loci) provide information on genetic variation and differentiation among studied breeds. High differentiation index (FST) and Cavalli-Sforza chord distances give genetic differentiation among breeds, including Lanyu's inbred populations. Inbreeding values (FIS) show that Lanyu and its derived inbred breeds have significant loss of heterozygosity. Individual assignment testing of 352 animals was done with different numbers of microsatellite markers in this study. The testing assigned 99% of the animals successfully into their correct reference populations based on 9 to 14 markers ranking D-scores, allelic number, expected heterozygosity (HE) or FST, respectively. All miss-assigned individuals came from close lineage Lanyu breeds. To improve individual assignment among close lineage breeds, microsatellite markers selected from Lanyu populations with high polymorphic, heterozygosity, FST and D-scores were used. Only 6 to 8 markers ranking HE, FST or allelic number were required to obtain 99% assignment accuracy. This result suggests empirical examination of assignment-error rates is required if

  5. Genetic ancestry analysis in non-alcoholic fatty liver diseasepatients from Brazil and Portuga

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    AIM To study the association between genetic ancestry,non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) metaboliccharacteristics in two cohorts of patients, from Brazil andPortugal.METHODS: We included 131 subjects from Brazil [(n =45 with simple steatosis (S. Steatosis) and n = 86 withnonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)] and 90 patientsfrom Portugal (n = 66, S. Steatosis; n = 24, NASH).All patients had biopsy-proven NAFLD. In histologicevaluation NAFLD activity score was used to assesshistology and more than 5 points defined NASH in thisstudy. Patients were divided into two groups accordingto histology diagnosis: simple steatosis or non-alcoholicstatohepatitis. Genetic ancestry was assessed usingreal-time polymerase chain reaction. Seven ancestryinformative markers (AT3-I/D, LPL, Sb19.3, APO, FYNull,PV92, and CKMM) with the greatest ethnicgeographicaldifferential frequencies (≥ 48%) wereused to define genetic ancestry. Data were analyzedusing R PROJECTS software. Ancestry allele frequenciesbetween groups were analyzed by GENEPOP online and the estimation of genetic ancestry contribution wasevaluated by ADMIX-95 software. The 5% alpha-errorwas considered as significant (P 〈 0.05).RESULTS: In the Brazilian sample, NASH was significantlymore frequent among the elderly patients withdiabetes (NASH 56 ± 1.1 years old vs S. Steatosis 51± 1.5 years old, P = 3.7 x 10-9), dyslipidemia (NASH63% vs S. Steatosis 37%, P = 0.009), higher fastingglucose levels (NASH 124 ± 5.2 vs S. Steatosis 106 ±5.3, P = 0.001) and Homeostatic Model of Assessmentindex 〉 2.5 [NASH 5.3 (70.8%) vs S. Steatosis 4.6(29.2%) P = 0.04]. In the Portuguese study population,dyslipidemia was present in all patients with NASH(P = 0.03) and hypertension was present in a largerpercentage of subjects in the S. Steatosis group (P =0.003, respectively). The genetic ancestry contributionamong Brazilian and Portuguese individuals with NASHwas similar

  6. Geography and genography: prediction of continental origin using randomly selected single nucleotide polymorphisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramoni Marco F

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies have shown that when individuals are grouped on the basis of genetic similarity, group membership corresponds closely to continental origin. There has been considerable debate about the implications of these findings in the context of larger debates about race and the extent of genetic variation between groups. Some have argued that clustering according to continental origin demonstrates the existence of significant genetic differences between groups and that these differences may have important implications for differences in health and disease. Others argue that clustering according to continental origin requires the use of large amounts of genetic data or specifically chosen markers and is indicative only of very subtle genetic differences that are unlikely to have biomedical significance. Results We used small numbers of randomly selected single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs from the International HapMap Project to train naïve Bayes classifiers for prediction of ancestral continent of origin. Predictive accuracy was tested on two independent data sets. Genetically similar groups should be difficult to distinguish, especially if only a small number of genetic markers are used. The genetic differences between continentally defined groups are sufficiently large that one can accurately predict ancestral continent of origin using only a minute, randomly selected fraction of the genetic variation present in the human genome. Genotype data from only 50 random SNPs was sufficient to predict ancestral continent of origin in our primary test data set with an average accuracy of 95%. Genetic variations informative about ancestry were common and widely distributed throughout the genome. Conclusion Accurate characterization of ancestry is possible using small numbers of randomly selected SNPs. The results presented here show how investigators conducting genetic association studies can use small numbers of arbitrarily

  7. Empirical Selection of Informative Microsatellite Markers within Co-ancestry Pig Populations Is Required for Improving the Individual Assignment Efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Y. H. Li; Chu, H. P.; Jiang, Y. N.; Lin, C.Y.; Li, S. H.; Li, K. T.; Weng, G. J.; Cheng, C. C.; Lu, D. J.; Ju, Y. T.

    2014-01-01

    The Lanyu is a miniature pig breed indigenous to Lanyu Island, Taiwan. It is distantly related to Asian and European pig breeds. It has been inbred to generate two breeds and crossed with Landrace and Duroc to produce two hybrids for laboratory use. Selecting sets of informative genetic markers to track the genetic qualities of laboratory animals and stud stock is an important function of genetic databases. For more than two decades, Lanyu derived breeds of common ancestry and crossbreeds hav...

  8. Chromosome Connections: Compelling Clues to Common Ancestry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flammer, Larry

    2013-01-01

    Students compare banding patterns on hominid chromosomes and see striking evidence of their common ancestry. To test this, human chromosome no. 2 is matched with two shorter chimpanzee chromosomes, leading to the hypothesis that human chromosome 2 resulted from the fusion of the two shorter chromosomes. Students test that hypothesis by looking for…

  9. Quantification of Maxillary Dental Arcade Curvature and the Estimation of Biological Ancestry in Forensic Anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Melissa A; Guatelli-Steinberg, Debbie; Hubbe, Mark; Stout, Sam

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that palate shape is a useful indicator of biological ancestry in human remains. This study evaluates interobserver error in ancestry estimation using palate shape and explores palate shape variation in Gullah (descendants of West Africans) and Seminole (Indigenous American) population samples using geometric morphometric analysis. Ten participants were asked to ascribe biological ancestry and shape to 28 dental casts based on a classification scheme employed in previous studies. The mean correct classification was 42.0%, indicating that the likelihood of assigning the correct ancestry is very poor and not significantly different from random assignment (p = 0.12). The accuracy analysis based on categorical classification of the casts was complemented by geometric morphometric analysis of nine 3D landmarks reflecting palate shape of 158 casts. Principal component analysis results show no difference between populations regarding palate shape, and cross-validated discriminant function analysis correctly classified only 62.0% of the specimens. Combined, these results show that previous methods to estimate ancestry are inaccurate and that this inaccuracy is probably due to a lack of palate shape differences between groups, rather than limitation of the analytical method per se. Therefore, we recommend caution should be used when choosing to apply the analysis of palate shape in forensically relevant contexts. PMID:26259114

  10. Deciphering and dating the red panda's ancestry and early adaptive radiation of Musteloidea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Jun J; Wolsan, Mieczyslaw; Minami, Shinji; Hosoda, Tetsuji; Sinaga, Martua H; Hiyama, Kozue; Yamaguchi, Yasunori; Suzuki, Hitoshi

    2009-12-01

    Few species have been of more disputed affinities than the red or lesser panda (Ailurus fulgens), an endangered endemic Southeast Asian vegetarian member of the placental mammalian order Carnivora. This peculiar carnivoran has mostly been classified with raccoons (Procyonidae) or bears (Ursidae), grouped with the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) in their own family, or considered a separate lineage of equivocal ancestry. Recent molecular studies have indicated a close affinity of the red panda to a clade of procyonids and mustelids (weasels, otters, martens, badgers, and allies), but have failed to unambiguously resolve the position of this species relative to mephitids (skunks and stink badgers). We examined the relationship of the red panda to other extant species of the carnivoran suborder Caniformia using a set of concatenated approximately 5.5-kb sequences from protein-coding exons of five nuclear genes. Bayesian, maximum likelihood, and parsimony phylogenetic analyses strongly supported the red panda as the closest living relative of a clade containing Procyonidae and Mustelidae to the exclusion of Mephitidae. These three families together with the red panda (which is classified here as a single extant species of a distinct family, Ailuridae) compose the superfamily Musteloidea, a clade strongly supported by all our phylogenetic analyses as sister to the monophyletic Pinnipedia (seals, sea lions, walruses). The approximately unbiased, Kishino-Hasegawa, and Templeton topology tests rejected (Pfossil evidence that extends the early adaptive radiation of the total clade of musteloids to the Eocene-Oligocene transition and also suggests Asia as a center of this radiation. PMID:19699810

  11. Information system agnostic ancestry for digital objects

    OpenAIRE

    Heuscher, S J B

    2010-01-01

    More and more information is becoming available in digital form, most of it derived from digital sources. Digital information is made available as digital objects composed of a sequence of bits and managed by information systems. To date, these digital objects have no independent identification which can be refered outside of a specific information system. However, they normally outlive these systems and can be copied to other systems. In order for the ancestry of digital information to span ...

  12. Continental drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoemaker, E.M. (ed.)

    1975-01-01

    The Workshop on Continental Drilling was convened to prepare a report for submission to the US Geodynamics Committee with respect to the contribution that could be made by land drilling to resolve major problems of geodynamics and consider the mechanisms by which the responsibility for scientific planning, establishment of priorities, administration, and budgeting for a land-drilling program within the framework of the aims of the Geodynamics Project would best be established. A new and extensive program to study the continental crust is outlined in this report. The Workshop focused on the following topics: processes in the continental crust (mechanism of faulting and earthquakes, hydrothermal systems and active magma chambers); state and structure of the continental crust (heat flow and thermal structure of the crust; state of ambient stress in the North American plate; extent, regional structure, and evolution of crystalline continental crust); short hole investigations; present state and needs of drilling technology; drill hole experimentation and instrumentation; suggestions for organization and operation of drilling project; and suggested level of effort and funding. Four recommendations are set down. 8 figures, 5 tables. (RWR)

  13. Continental tectonics and continental kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a model of continental growth which combines the results of geochemical studies and tectonic ideas about the evolution of continents through geological time. The process of continental growth is mainly controlled by surface phenomena. Continental material is extracted from the mantle along subduction zones at the periphery of oceans, and is destroyed in collision zones where it is remobilized and made available for subduction. We derive an equation for S, the portion of the Earth's surface occupied by continents, which reads as follows: dS/dt=a . √(1-S)-b . S. Coefficients a and b depend on the geometry of plates, on their number and on their velocities. We assume that they decrease exponentially with time with the same time-scale α. This model satisfies both geochemical and tectonic constraints, and allows the integration of several current observations in a single framework. (orig.)

  14. Maximum-likelihood estimation of recent shared ancestry (ERSA)

    OpenAIRE

    Huff, Chad D.; Witherspoon, David J.; Simonson, Tatum S.; Xing, Jinchuan; Watkins, W Scott; Zhang, Yuhua; Tuohy, Therese M; Neklason, Deborah W.; Burt, Randall W.; Guthery, Stephen L; Woodward, Scott R.; Jorde, Lynn B

    2011-01-01

    Accurate estimation of recent shared ancestry is important for genetics, evolution, medicine, conservation biology, and forensics. Established methods estimate kinship accurately for first-degree through third-degree relatives. We demonstrate that chromosomal segments shared by two individuals due to identity by descent (IBD) provide much additional information about shared ancestry. We developed a maximum-likelihood method for the estimation of recent shared ancestry (ERSA) from the number a...

  15. The Myanmar continental shelf

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaswamy, V.; Rao, P.S.

    mostly on the continental shelf. These rivers have contributed significantly to the deep Andaman Basin in the past, especially during low sea- level stands (Rodolfo, 1969a). The continental shelf of Myanmar is strongly influenced by monsoonal processes... the Andaman Sea and the hilly Shan Plateau to the north (Fig. 1 inset). The Western Mountain Belt includes a group of low mountains called the Rakhine Mountains (Arakan Yoma) which extend from the Myanmar-India Border to the Bay of Bengal. This belt also...

  16. European ancestry predominates in neuromyelitis optica and multiple sclerosis patients from Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doralina Guimarães Brum

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Neuromyelitis optica (NMO is considered relatively more common in non-Whites, whereas multiple sclerosis (MS presents a high prevalence rate, particularly in Whites from Western countries populations. However, no study has used ancestry informative markers (AIMs to estimate the genetic ancestry contribution to NMO patients. METHODS: Twelve AIMs were selected based on the large allele frequency differences among European, African, and Amerindian populations, in order to investigate the genetic contribution of each ancestral group in 236 patients with MS and NMO, diagnosed using the McDonald and Wingerchuck criteria, respectively. All 128 MS patients were recruited at the Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto (MS-RP, Southeastern Brazil, as well as 108 healthy bone marrow donors considered as healthy controls. A total of 108 NMO patients were recruited from five Neurology centers from different Brazilian regions, including Ribeirão Preto (NMO-RP. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: European ancestry contribution was higher in MS-RP than in NMO-RP (78.5% vs. 68.7% patients. In contrast, African ancestry estimates were higher in NMO-RP than in MS-RP (20.5% vs. 12.5% patients. Moreover, principal component analyses showed that groups of NMO patients from different Brazilian regions were clustered close to the European ancestral population. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate that European genetic contribution predominates in NMO and MS patients from Brazil.

  17. Buttock Reshaping With Intramuscular Gluteal Augmentation in an Asian Ethnic Group: A Six-Year Experience With 130 Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Tae Hwan; Whang, Kwi Whan

    2016-09-01

    Although the definition of what constitutes "beautiful buttocks" has been changing with time, the buttocks are generally perceived as an important element of sexual attraction and beauty in every culture. In Asian culture, "beautiful buttocks" are defined by an aggregate of the following 4 components: S-shaped curvature from the lower back to the buttocks, sufficient muscle volume, sufficient fat volume, and appropriate skin elasticity. The goal of our gluteal augmentation was therefore to restore the back curvature, provide sufficient hip volume (projection), and reposition the point of maximal gluteal projection to be higher than the pubic hair. The purpose of this study was to review the authors' 6-year (2008-2014) experience with intramuscular gluteal augmentation techniques using an oval-shaped smooth-surface silicon elastomer. After intergluteal fusiform incisions were made, we bluntly dissected the subcutaneous tissue deep down to the gluteus maximus muscle by using the xyz method introduced by Dr. Gonzalez. Most of the patients in this case series underwent additional procedures at the time of the gluteal augmentation, whereas 90% of patients underwent concomitant liposuction. The results were assessed objectively using serial photography and subjectively according to patients' assessment on a 5-score scale.The mean rating for patient satisfaction with the procedure was 4.6 of 5, whereas consensus ratings by 2 independent plastic surgeons showed a mean score of 4.2 of 5. The intramuscular gluteal augmentation technique using an oval-shaped smooth surface silicon elastomer resulted in excellent cosmetic outcomes and permitted successful reshaping of the buttocks. PMID:25536198

  18. The Role of Ethnic and National Identifications in Perceived Discrimination for Asian Americans: Toward a Better Understanding of the Buffering Effect of Group Identifications on Psychological Distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Que-Lam; Devos, Thierry; Goldberg, Robyn

    2014-09-01

    A robust relationship between perceived racial discrimination and psychological distress has been established. Yet, mixed evidence exists regarding the extent to which ethnic identification moderates this relationship, and scarce attention has been paid to the moderating role of national identification. We propose that the role of group identifications in the perceived discrimination-psychological distress relationship is best understood by simultaneously and interactively considering ethnic and national identifications. A sample of 259 Asian American students completed measures of perceived discrimination, group identifications (specific ethnic identification stated by respondents and national or "mainstream American" identification), and psychological distress (anxiety and depression symptoms). Regression analyses revealed a significant three-way interaction of perceived discrimination, ethnic identification, and national identification on psychological distress. Simple-slope analyses indicated that dual identification (strong ethnic and national identifications) was linked to a weaker relationship between perceived discrimination and psychological distress compared with other group identification configurations. These findings underscore the need to consider the interconnections between ethnic and national identifications to better understand the circumstances under which group identifications are likely to buffer individuals against the adverse effects of racial discrimination. PMID:25258674

  19. Socioeconomic and nutritional factors account for the association of gastric cancer with Amerindian ancestry in a Latin American admixed population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latife Pereira

    Full Text Available Gastric cancer is one of the most lethal types of cancer and its incidence varies worldwide, with the Andean region of South America showing high incidence rates. We evaluated the genetic structure of the population from Lima (Peru and performed a case-control genetic association study to test the contribution of African, European, or Native American ancestry to risk for gastric cancer, controlling for the effect of non-genetic factors. A wide set of socioeconomic, dietary, and clinic information was collected for each participant in the study and ancestry was estimated based on 103 ancestry informative markers. Although the urban population from Lima is usually considered as mestizo (i.e., admixed from Africans, Europeans, and Native Americans, we observed a high fraction of Native American ancestry (78.4% for the cases and 74.6% for the controls and a very low African ancestry (<5%. We determined that higher Native American individual ancestry is associated with gastric cancer, but socioeconomic factors associated both with gastric cancer and Native American ethnicity account for this association. Therefore, the high incidence of gastric cancer in Peru does not seem to be related to susceptibility alleles common in this population. Instead, our result suggests a predominant role for ethnic-associated socioeconomic factors and disparities in access to health services. Since Native Americans are a neglected group in genomic studies, we suggest that the population from Lima and other large cities from Western South America with high Native American ancestry background may be convenient targets for epidemiological studies focused on this ethnic group.

  20. Culture and Personality Among European American and Asian American Men

    OpenAIRE

    Eap, Sopagna; DeGarmo, David S.; Kawakami, Ayaka; Hara, Shelley N.; Hall, Gordon C.N.; Teten, Andra L.

    2008-01-01

    Personality differences between Asian American (N = 320) and European American men (N = 242) and also among Asian American ethnic groups (Korean, Chinese, Japanese, Filipino, and mixed Asian) are examined on the Big Five personality dimension. Personality structures for Asian Americans and European Americans closely replicate established norms. However, congruence is greater for European American and highly acculturated Asian American men than for low acculturated Asian American men. Similar ...

  1. Worldwide Estimates Relative to Five Continental-Scale Populations

    OpenAIRE

    Steele, Christopher D.; Court, Denise Syndercombe; Balding, David J.

    2014-01-01

    We estimate the population genetics parameter (also referred to as the fixation index) from short tandem repeat (STR) allele frequencies, comparing many worldwide human subpopulations at approximately the national level with continental-scale populations. is commonly used to measure population differentiation, and is important in forensic DNA analysis to account for remote shared ancestry between a suspect and an alternative source of the DNA. We estimate comparing subpopulations with a hypot...

  2. Local Ancestry Inference in a Large US-Based Hispanic/Latino Study: Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, Sharon R; Grinde, Kelsey; Plantinga, Anna; Gogarten, Stephanie M; Stilp, Adrienne M; Kaplan, Robert C; Avilés-Santa, M Larissa; Browning, Brian L; Laurie, Cathy C

    2016-01-01

    We estimated local ancestry on the autosomes and X chromosome in a large US-based study of 12,793 Hispanic/Latino individuals using the RFMix method, and we compared different reference panels and approaches to local ancestry estimation on the X chromosome by means of Mendelian inconsistency rates as a proxy for accuracy. We developed a novel and straightforward approach to performing ancestry-specific PCA after finding artifactual behavior in the results from an existing approach. Using the ancestry-specific PCA, we found significant population structure within African, European, and Amerindian ancestries in the Hispanic/Latino individuals in our study. In the African ancestral component of the admixed individuals, individuals whose grandparents were from Central America clustered separately from individuals whose grandparents were from the Caribbean, and also from reference Yoruba and Mandenka West African individuals. In the European component, individuals whose grandparents were from Puerto Rico diverged partially from other background groups. In the Amerindian ancestral component, individuals clustered into multiple different groups depending on the grandparental country of origin. Therefore, local ancestry estimation provides further insight into the complex genetic structure of US Hispanic/Latino populations, which must be properly accounted for in genotype-phenotype association studies. It also provides a basis for admixture mapping and ancestry-specific allele frequency estimation, which are useful in the identification of risk factors for disease. PMID:27172203

  3. Depression among Asian Americans: Review and Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zornitsa Kalibatseva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a review of the prevalence and manifestation of depression among Asian Americans and discusses some of the existing issues in the assessment and diagnosis of depression among Asian Americans. The authors point out the diversity and increasing numbers of Asian Americans and the need to provide better mental health services for this population. While the prevalence of depression among Asian Americans is lower than that among other ethnic/racial groups, Asian Americans receive treatment for depression less often and its quality is less adequate. In addition, the previous belief that Asians somatize depression may become obsolete as more evidence appears to support that Westerners may “psychologize” depression. The cultural validity of the current DSM-IV conceptualization of depression is questioned. In the course of the review, the theme of complexity emerges: the heterogeneity of ethnic Asian American groups, the multidimensionality of depression, and the intersectionality of multiple factors among depressed Asian Americans.

  4. Asian Pacific American Women's Health Concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pian, Canta

    This paper discusses the adjustment and acculturation problems of Asian Pacific American women and how these problems relate to their health concerns. Information presented in the article is based on the observations of health service providers to the Asian community. The paper suggests that the diversity of Asian Americans (age, ethnic group, and…

  5. Association of genetic ancestry with breast cancer in ethnically diverse women from Chicago.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umaima Al-Alem

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Non-Hispanic (nH Black and Hispanic women are disproportionately affected by early onset disease, later stage, and with more aggressive, higher grade and ER/PR negative breast cancers. The purpose of this analysis was to examine whether genetic ancestry could account for these variation in breast cancer characteristics, once data were stratified by self-reported race/ethnicity and adjusted for potential confounding by social and behavioral factors. METHODS: We used a panel of 100 ancestry informative markers (AIMs to estimate individual genetic ancestry in 656 women from the "Breast Cancer Care in Chicago" study, a multi-ethnic cohort of breast cancer patients to examine the association between individual genetic ancestry and breast cancer characteristics. In addition we examined the association of individual AIMs and breast cancer to identify genes/regions that may potentially play a role in breast cancer disease disparities. RESULTS: As expected, nH Black and Hispanic patients were more likely than nH White patients to be diagnosed at later stages, with higher grade, and with ER/PR negative tumors. Higher European genetic ancestry was protective against later stage at diagnosis (OR 0.7 95%CI: 0.54-0.92 among Hispanic patients, and higher grade (OR 0.73, 95%CI: 0.56-0.95 among nH Black patients. After adjustment for multiple social and behavioral risk factors, the association with later stage remained, while the association with grade was not significant. We also found that the AIM SNP rs10954631 on chromosome 7 was associated with later stage (p = 0.02 and higher grade (p = 0.012 in nH Whites and later stage (p = 0.03 in nH Blacks. CONCLUSION: Non-European genetic ancestry was associated with later stage at diagnosis in ethnic minorities. The relation between genetic ancestry and stage at diagnosis may be due to genetic factors and/or unmeasured environmental factors that are overrepresented within certain racial

  6. The effects of socioeconomic status, clinical factors, and genetic ancestry on pulmonary tuberculosis disease in northeastern Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonnie N Young

    Full Text Available Diverse socioeconomic and clinical factors influence susceptibility to tuberculosis (TB disease in Mexico. The role of genetic factors, particularly those that differ between the parental groups that admixed in Mexico, is unclear. The objectives of this study are to identify the socioeconomic and clinical predictors of the transition from latent TB infection (LTBI to pulmonary TB disease in an urban population in northeastern Mexico, and to examine whether genetic ancestry plays an independent role in this transition. We recruited 97 pulmonary TB disease patients and 97 LTBI individuals from a public hospital in Monterrey, Nuevo León. Socioeconomic and clinical variables were collected from interviews and medical records, and genetic ancestry was estimated for a subset of 142 study participants from 291,917 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. We examined crude associations between the variables and TB disease status. Significant predictors from crude association tests were analyzed using multivariable logistic regression. We also compared genetic ancestry between LTBI individuals and TB disease patients at 1,314 SNPs in 273 genes from the TB biosystem in the NCBI BioSystems database. In crude association tests, 12 socioeconomic and clinical variables were associated with TB disease. Multivariable logistic regression analyses indicated that marital status, diabetes, and smoking were independently associated with TB status. Genetic ancestry was not associated with TB disease in either crude or multivariable analyses. Separate analyses showed that LTBI individuals recruited from hospital staff had significantly higher European genetic ancestry than LTBI individuals recruited from the clinics and waiting rooms. Genetic ancestry differed between individuals with LTBI and TB disease at SNPs located in two genes in the TB biosystem. These results indicate that Monterrey may be structured with respect to genetic ancestry, and that genetic

  7. Measures for regional security and arms control in the North-East Asian Area. Report of working group I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following specific topics were of utmost interest in Working Group I: the possibility of establishing some kind of multilateral security mechanism in North-East Asia; elements of Korean reconciliation; non-proliferation of weapons; openness, transparency and confidence-building measures; general principles of norms of conduct for peace and security in the region; nuclear weapons and security measures; cooperative measures for regional security and stability

  8. RENEWABLE ENERGY CONSUMPTION, POLITICAL AND INSTITUTIONAL FACTORS: EVIDENCE FROM A GROUP OF EUROPEAN, ASIAN AND LATIN AMERICAN COUNTRIES

    OpenAIRE

    NICHOLAS APERGIS; SOFIA ELEFTHERIOU

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the dynamic relationships between renewable energy consumption and a number of institutional and political factors for a group of countries from Europe, Asia and Latin America spanning the period 1995–2011. The paper employs the methodology of long and short-run panel causality approach as well as the methodology of the panel Error Correction model. The empirical findings provide strong evidence that, after controlling the economic environment, both political and instituti...

  9. Continental Rifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosendahl, B. R.

    Continental Rifts, edited by A. M. Quennell, is a new member of the Benchmark Papers in Geology Series, edited in toto by R. W. Fairbridge. In this series the individual volume editors peruse the literature on a given topic, select a few dozen papers of ostensibly benchmark quality, and then reorder them in some sensible fashion. Some of the original papers are republished intact, but many are chopped into “McNuggets™” of information. Depending upon the volume editor, the chopping process can range from a butchering job to careful and prudent pruning. The collecting, sifting, and reorganizing tasks are, of course, equally editor-sensitive. The end product of this series is something akin to a set of Reader's Digest of Geology.

  10. Identification, replication, and fine-mapping of Loci associated with adult height in individuals of african ancestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    N'Diaye, Amidou; Chen, Gary K; Palmer, Cameron D; Ge, Bing; Tayo, Bamidele; Mathias, Rasika A; Ding, Jingzhong; Nalls, Michael A; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Adoue, Véronique; Ambrosone, Christine B; Atwood, Larry; Bandera, Elisa V; Becker, Lewis C; Berndt, Sonja I; Bernstein, Leslie; Blot, William J; Boerwinkle, Eric; Britton, Angela; Casey, Graham; Chanock, Stephen J; Demerath, Ellen; Deming, Sandra L; Diver, W Ryan; Fox, Caroline; Harris, Tamara B; Hernandez, Dena G; Hu, Jennifer J; Ingles, Sue A; John, Esther M; Johnson, Craig; Keating, Brendan; Kittles, Rick A; Kolonel, Laurence N; Kritchevsky, Stephen B; Le Marchand, Loic; Lohman, Kurt; Liu, Jiankang; Millikan, Robert C; Murphy, Adam; Musani, Solomon; Neslund-Dudas, Christine; North, Kari E; Nyante, Sarah; Ogunniyi, Adesola; Ostrander, Elaine A; Papanicolaou, George; Patel, Sanjay; Pettaway, Curtis A; Press, Michael F; Redline, Susan; Rodriguez-Gil, Jorge L; Rotimi, Charles; Rybicki, Benjamin A; Salako, Babatunde; Schreiner, Pamela J; Signorello, Lisa B; Singleton, Andrew B; Stanford, Janet L; Stram, Alex H; Stram, Daniel O; Strom, Sara S; Suktitipat, Bhoom; Thun, Michael J; Witte, John S; Yanek, Lisa R; Ziegler, Regina G; Zheng, Wei; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Zmuda, Joseph M; Zonderman, Alan B; Evans, Michele K; Liu, Yongmei; Becker, Diane M; Cooper, Richard S; Pastinen, Tomi; Henderson, Brian E; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Lettre, Guillaume; Haiman, Christopher A

    2011-10-01

    Adult height is a classic polygenic trait of high heritability (h(2) approximately 0.8). More than 180 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), identified mostly in populations of European descent, are associated with height. These variants convey modest effects and explain approximately10% of the variance in height. Discovery efforts in other populations, while limited, have revealed loci for height not previously implicated in individuals of European ancestry. Here, we performed a meta-analysis of genome-wide association (GWA) results for adult height in 20,427 individuals of African ancestry with replication in up to 16,436 African Americans. We found two novel height loci (Xp22-rs12393627, P = 3.4×10(-12) and 2p14-rs4315565, P = 1.2×10(-8)). As a group, height associations discovered in European-ancestry samples replicate in individuals of African ancestry (P = 1.7×10(-4) for overall replication). Fine-mapping of the European height loci in African-ancestry individuals showed an enrichment of SNPs that are associated with expression of nearby genes when compared to the index European height SNPs (P<0.01). Our results highlight the utility of genetic studies in non-European populations to understand the etiology of complex human diseases and traits.

  11. Identification, replication, and fine-mapping of Loci associated with adult height in individuals of african ancestry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amidou N'Diaye

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Adult height is a classic polygenic trait of high heritability (h(2 approximately 0.8. More than 180 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, identified mostly in populations of European descent, are associated with height. These variants convey modest effects and explain approximately10% of the variance in height. Discovery efforts in other populations, while limited, have revealed loci for height not previously implicated in individuals of European ancestry. Here, we performed a meta-analysis of genome-wide association (GWA results for adult height in 20,427 individuals of African ancestry with replication in up to 16,436 African Americans. We found two novel height loci (Xp22-rs12393627, P = 3.4×10(-12 and 2p14-rs4315565, P = 1.2×10(-8. As a group, height associations discovered in European-ancestry samples replicate in individuals of African ancestry (P = 1.7×10(-4 for overall replication. Fine-mapping of the European height loci in African-ancestry individuals showed an enrichment of SNPs that are associated with expression of nearby genes when compared to the index European height SNPs (P<0.01. Our results highlight the utility of genetic studies in non-European populations to understand the etiology of complex human diseases and traits.

  12. Novel European SLC1A4 variant: infantile spasms and population ancestry analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, Judith; Allen, Nicholas M; Gorman, Kathleen; O'Halloran, Eoghan; Shahwan, Amre; Lynch, Bryan; Lynch, Sally A; Ennis, Sean; King, Mary D

    2016-08-01

    SLC1A4 deficiency is a recently described neurodevelopmental disorder associated with microcephaly, global developmental delay, abnormal myelination, thin corpus callosum and seizures. It has been mainly reported in the Ashkenazi-Jewish population with affected individuals homozygous for the p.Glu256Lys variant. Exome sequencing performed in an Irish proband identified a novel homozygous nonsense SLC1A4 variant [p.Trp453*], confirming a second case of SLC1A4-associated infantile spasms. As this is the first European identified, population ancestry analysis of the Exome Aggregation Consortium database was performed to determine the wider ethnic background of SLC1A4 deficiency carriers. p.Glu256Lys was found in Hispanic and South Asian populations. Other potential disease-causing variants were also identified. Investigation for SLC1A4 deficiency should be performed regardless of ethnicity and extend to include unexplained early-onset epileptic encephalopathy.

  13. Institutional Racism and Mental Health: An Asian-American Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Jean Lau

    Positive stereotypes of contemporary Asian Americans have negative consequences for this minority group. The belief that Asian Americans are successful and have overcome prejudice and discrimination obscures the historical fact that legislation has curtailed Asian American civil rights and sanctioned harassment of Asians by public authorities and…

  14. Adipocyte Hypertrophy, Fatty Liver and Metabolic Risk Factors in South Asians: The Molecular Study of Health and Risk in Ethnic Groups (mol-SHARE)

    OpenAIRE

    Sonia S Anand; Tarnopolsky, Mark A.; Shirya Rashid; Schulze, Karleen M.; Dipika Desai; Andrew Mente; Sandy Rao; Salim Yusuf; Gerstein, Hertzel C.; Sharma, Arya M.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine if differences in the distribution and characteristics of adipose tissue between South Asians and white Caucasians account for differences in risk factors for cardiovascular disease. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We recruited 108 healthy South Asians (36.8 years) and white Caucasians (34.2 years) within three BMI strata. Body composition, adipocyte size, abdominal fat area, and hepatic adiposity were assessed and related to fasting glucose, insulin, lipids and...

  15. Disparities in Birth Weight and Gestational Age by Ethnic Ancestry in South American countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehby, George L.; Gili, Juan A.; Pawluk, Mariela; Castilla, Eduardo E.; López-Camelo, Jorge S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective We examine disparities in birth weight and gestational age by ethnic ancestry in 2000–2011 in eight South American countries. Methods The sample included 60480 singleton live-births. Regression models were estimated to evaluate differences in birth outcomes by ethnic ancestry controlling for time trends. Results Significant disparities were found in seven countries. In four countries – Brazil, Ecuador, Uruguay, and Venezuela – we found significant disparities in both low birth weight and preterm birth. Disparities in preterm birth alone were observed in Argentina, Bolivia, and Colombia. Several differences in continuous birth weight, gestational age, and fetal growth rate were also observed. There were no systematic patterns of disparities between the evaluated ethnic ancestry groups across the study countries, in that no racial/ethnic group consistently had the best or worst outcomes in all countries. Conclusions Racial/ethnic disparities in infant health are common in several South American countries. Differences across countries suggest that racial/ethnic disparities are driven by social and economic mechanisms. Researchers and policymakers should acknowledge these disparities and develop research and policy programs to effectively target them. PMID:25542227

  16. Emerging from the Shadows: The Visual Arts and Asian American History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon H Chang

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Asian American Art: A History, 1850-1970, the book from which this foreword is excerpted, is the first comprehensive study of the lives and artistic production of artists of Asian ancestry active in the United States before 1970. The publication features original essays by ten leading scholars, biographies of more than 150 artists, and over 400 reproductions of artwork, ephemera, and images of the artists. Aside from a few artists such as Dong Kingman, Yasuo Kuniyoshi, Isamu Noguchi, and Yun Gee, artists of Asian ancestry have received inadequate historical attention, even though many of them received wide critical acclaim during their productive years. This pioneering work recovers the extraordinarily impressive artistic production of numerous Asian Americans, and offers richly informed interpretations of a long-neglected art history. To unravel the complexity of Asian American art expression and its vital place in American art, the texts consider aesthetics, the social structures of art production and criticism, and national and international historical contexts. Without a doubt, Asian American Art will profoundly influence our understanding of the history of art in America and the Asian American experience for years to come. Chang, Gordon H., Mark Johnson, and Paul Karlstrom, eds. Asian American Art: A History, 1850-1970. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 2008. Reprinted with the permission of Stanford University Press. http://www.sup.org

  17. Emerging from the Shadows: The Visual Arts and Asian American History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon H Chang

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Asian American Art: A History, 1850-1970, the book from which this foreword is excerpted, is the first comprehensive study of the lives and artistic production of artists of Asian ancestry active in the United States before 1970. The publication features original essays by ten leading scholars, biographies of more than 150 artists, and over 400 reproductions of artwork, ephemera, and images of the artists. Aside from a few artists such as Dong Kingman, Yasuo Kuniyoshi, Isamu Noguchi, and Yun Gee, artists of Asian ancestry have received inadequate historical attention, even though many of them received wide critical acclaim during their productive years. This pioneering work recovers the extraordinarily impressive artistic production of numerous Asian Americans, and offers richly informed interpretations of a long-neglected art history. To unravel the complexity of Asian American art expression and its vital place in American art, the texts consider aesthetics, the social structures of art production and criticism, and national and international historical contexts. Without a doubt, Asian American Art will profoundly influence our understanding of the history of art in America and the Asian American experience for years to come. Chang, Gordon H., Mark Johnson, and Paul Karlstrom, eds. Asian American Art: A History, 1850-1970. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 2008. Reprinted with the permission of Stanford University Press. http://www.sup.org

  18. Genome-Wide Association of the Laboratory-Based Nicotine Metabolite Ratio in Three Ancestries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baurley, James W.; Edlund, Christopher K.; Pardamean, Carissa I.; Conti, David V.; Krasnow, Ruth; Javitz, Harold S.; Hops, Hyman; Swan, Gary E.; Benowitz, Neal L.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Metabolic enzyme variation and other patient and environmental characteristics influence smoking behaviors, treatment success, and risk of related disease. Population-specific variation in metabolic genes contributes to challenges in developing and optimizing pharmacogenetic interventions. We applied a custom genome-wide genotyping array for addiction research (Smokescreen), to three laboratory-based studies of nicotine metabolism with oral or venous administration of labeled nicotine and cotinine, to model nicotine metabolism in multiple populations. The trans-3′-hydroxycotinine/cotinine ratio, the nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR), was the nicotine metabolism measure analyzed. Methods: Three hundred twelve individuals of self-identified European, African, and Asian American ancestry were genotyped and included in ancestry-specific genome-wide association scans (GWAS) and a meta-GWAS analysis of the NMR. We modeled natural-log transformed NMR with covariates: principal components of genetic ancestry, age, sex, body mass index, and smoking status. Results: African and Asian American NMRs were statistically significantly (P values ≤ 5E-5) lower than European American NMRs. Meta-GWAS analysis identified 36 genome-wide significant variants over a 43 kilobase pair region at CYP2A6 with minimum P = 2.46E-18 at rs12459249, proximal to CYP2A6. Additional minima were located in intron 4 (rs56113850, P = 6.61E-18) and in the CYP2A6-CYP2A7 intergenic region (rs34226463, P = 1.45E-12). Most (34/36) genome-wide significant variants suggested reduced CYP2A6 activity; functional mechanisms were identified and tested in knowledge-bases. Conditional analysis resulted in intergenic variants of possible interest (P values genome-wide association of CYP2A6 single nucleotide and insertion–deletion polymorphisms. We identify three regions of genome-wide significance: proximal, intronic, and distal to CYP2A6. We replicate the top-ranking single nucleotide polymorphism

  19. Forensic ancestry analysis with two capillary electrophoresis ancestry informative marker (AIM) panels:Results of a collaborative EDNAP exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, C.; Fondevila, M; Ballard, D; Banemann, R; Bento, A. M.; Børsting, C; Branicki, W.; Brisighelli, F.; Burrington, M.; Capal, T.; Chaitanya, L; Daniel, R; Decroyer, V.; R. England; Gettings, K. B.

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing interest in forensic ancestry tests, which are part of a growing number of DNA analyses that can enhance routine profiling by obtaining additional genetic information about unidentified DNA donors. Nearly all ancestry tests use single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), but these currently rely on SNaPshot single base extension chemistry that can fail to detect mixed DNA. Insertion-deletion polymorphism (Indel) tests have been developed using dye-labeled primers that allow di...

  20. TERRAIN TECTONICS OF THE CENTRAL ASIAN FOLDED BELT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Buslov

    2015-09-01

    -Baikal continent. The base of the Kazakhstan-Baikal continent was formed in the Vend-Cambrian due to subduction of the oceanic crust of the Paleo-Asian Ocean, including the Precambrian microcontinents and terrains of the Gondvana group, underneath the south-eastern margin of the Siberian continent (in the current coordinates. Due to subduction followed by collision of the microcontinents with the Kazakhstan-Tuva-Mongolia island arc, the crust had consolidated, and a complex continent was formed. Another major plate is the plate of the Paleo-Pacific Ocean. It is characterized by the long-term tectono-magmatic evolution without any involvement of the continental crust and by complex processes of the formation of the continental margins. Its evolution resulted in the formation of the Vend-Paleozoic continental margin complexes of the western segment of the Siberian continent which comprise the Vend-Cambrian Kuznetsk-Altai island arc and a complex of rocks of the Ordovic-Early Devonian passive margin and the Devon-Early Carbonic active margin. In the accretional wedges of the Kuznetsk-Altai island arc, abundant are only fragments of the Vend-Early Cambrian oceanic crust including ophiolites and paleo-oceanic uplifts. The contemporary analogue of the Central Asian folded belt is the south-eastern margin of Asia, represented by the junction area of the Indo-Australian and Pacific plates.  

  1. Body size accounts for most differences in bone density between Asian and Caucasian women. The EPIC (Early Postmenopausal Interventional Cohort) Study Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ross, P D; He, Y; Yates, A J;

    1996-01-01

    We compared bone mineral density (BMD) of the whole body (and subregions: arm, leg, and pelvis), hip, spine, lateral spine, wrist, and forearm among Caucasian and Asian women at four geographic centers (Honolulu, HI; Nottingham, UK; Portland, OR; Copenhagen, Denmark). Data were derived from...

  2. Multiplex genotyping system for efficient inference of matrilineal genetic ancestry with continental resolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van Oven (Mannis); M. Vermeulen (Mark); M.H. Kayser (Manfred)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractAbstract Background: In recent years, phylogeographic studies have produced detailed knowledge on the worldwide distribution of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variants, linking specific clades of the mtDNA phylogeny with certain geographic areas. However, a multiplex genotyping system for the

  3. Detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology and stratigraphy of the Cretaceous Sanjiang Basin in NE China: Provenance record of an abrupt tectonic switch in the mode and nature of the NE Asian continental margin evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng-Qi; Chen, Han-Lin; Batt, Geoffrey E.; Dilek, Yildirim; A, Min-Na; Sun, Ming-Dao; Yang, Shu-Feng; Meng, Qi-An; Zhao, Xue-Qin

    2015-12-01

    The age spectra obtained from 505 spots of detrital zircon U-Pb ages of five representative sandstone samples from the Sanjiang Basin in NE China point to a significant change in its provenance during the Coniacian-Santonian. The predominant detrital source for the Sanjiang Basin during the early Cretaceous was the Zhangguangcai Range magmatic belt and Jiamusi Block along its western and southern periphery, whereas it changed in the late Cretaceous to its eastern periphery. The timing of these inferred changes in the detrital source regions and drainage patterns nearly coincide with the age of a regional unconformity in and across the basin. The time interval of non-deposition and unconformity development was coeval with a transitional period between an extensional tectonic regime in the early Cretaceous and a contractional deformation episode in the late Cretaceous. The Sanjiang Basin evolved during this time window from a backarc to a foreland basin. The migration of the coastal orogenic belt and the fold and thrust belt development farther inland during the late Cretaceous marked the onset of regional-scale shortening and surface uplift in the upper plate of a flat (or very shallow-dipping) subduction zone. The stratigraphic record, the detrital source and geochronology of the basinal strata, and the internal structure of the Sanjiang Basin present, therefore, an important record of a tectonic switch in the nature of continental margin evolution of Northeast Asia during the late Mesozoic.

  4. Heterogeneity within the Asian American community

    OpenAIRE

    Oh Gia; Nguyen Tammy; Ryujin Lisa; Sadler Georgia; Paik Grace; Kustin Brenda

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Background Educational interventions are grounded on scientific data and assumptions about the community to be served. While the Pan Asian community is composed of multiple, ethnic subgroups, it is often treated as a single group for which one health promotion program will be applicable for all of its cultural subgroups. Compounding this stereotypical view of the Pan Asian community, there is sparse data about the cultural subgroups' similarities and dissimilarities. The Asian Grocer...

  5. A South Asian American diasporic aesthetic community?

    OpenAIRE

    Murthy, Dhiraj

    2007-01-01

    Abstract In the late 1990s, a diverse group of British South Asian musicians began to gain notoriety in the UK for their distinctive blends of synthesized beats with what were considered South Asian elements (e.g. tabla, sitar and `Hindustani' samples). Following these successes, the British media industries engaged in discourses on whether these South Asian musicians should be labelled under pre-existing musical genres such as acid jazz and electronic music or under an ethnically ...

  6. Exploring the Y Chromosomal Ancestry of Modern Panamanians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grugni, Viola; Battaglia, Vincenza; Perego, Ugo Alessandro; Raveane, Alessandro; Lancioni, Hovirag; Olivieri, Anna; Ferretti, Luca; Woodward, Scott R; Pascale, Juan Miguel; Cooke, Richard; Myres, Natalie; Motta, Jorge; Torroni, Antonio; Achilli, Alessandro; Semino, Ornella

    2015-01-01

    Geologically, Panama belongs to the Central American land-bridge between North and South America crossed by Homo sapiens >14 ka ago. Archaeologically, it belongs to a wider Isthmo-Colombian Area. Today, seven indigenous ethnic groups account for 12.3% of Panama's population. Five speak Chibchan languages and are characterized by low genetic diversity and a high level of differentiation. In addition, no evidence of differential structuring between maternally and paternally inherited genes has been reported in isthmian Chibchan cultural groups. Recent data have shown that 83% of the Panamanian general population harbour mitochondrial DNAs (mtDNAs) of Native American ancestry. Considering differential male/female mortality at European contact and multiple degrees of geographical and genetic isolation over the subsequent five centuries, the Y-chromosome Native American component is expected to vary across different geographic regions and communities in Panama. To address this issue, we investigated Y-chromosome variation in 408 modern males from the nine provinces of Panama and one indigenous territory (the comarca of Kuna Yala). In contrast to mtDNA data, the Y-chromosome Native American component (haplogroup Q) exceeds 50% only in three populations facing the Caribbean Sea: the comarca of Kuna Yala and Bocas del Toro province where Chibchan languages are spoken by the majority, and the province of Colón where many Kuna and people of mixed indigenous-African-and-European descent live. Elsewhere the Old World component is dominant and mostly represented by western Eurasian haplogroups, which signal the strong male genetic impact of invaders. Sub-Saharan African input accounts for 5.9% of male haplotypes. This reflects the consequences of the colonial Atlantic slave trade and more recent influxes of West Indians of African heritage. Overall, our findings reveal a local evolution of the male Native American ancestral gene pool, and a strong but geographically

  7. Exploring the Y Chromosomal Ancestry of Modern Panamanians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viola Grugni

    Full Text Available Geologically, Panama belongs to the Central American land-bridge between North and South America crossed by Homo sapiens >14 ka ago. Archaeologically, it belongs to a wider Isthmo-Colombian Area. Today, seven indigenous ethnic groups account for 12.3% of Panama's population. Five speak Chibchan languages and are characterized by low genetic diversity and a high level of differentiation. In addition, no evidence of differential structuring between maternally and paternally inherited genes has been reported in isthmian Chibchan cultural groups. Recent data have shown that 83% of the Panamanian general population harbour mitochondrial DNAs (mtDNAs of Native American ancestry. Considering differential male/female mortality at European contact and multiple degrees of geographical and genetic isolation over the subsequent five centuries, the Y-chromosome Native American component is expected to vary across different geographic regions and communities in Panama. To address this issue, we investigated Y-chromosome variation in 408 modern males from the nine provinces of Panama and one indigenous territory (the comarca of Kuna Yala. In contrast to mtDNA data, the Y-chromosome Native American component (haplogroup Q exceeds 50% only in three populations facing the Caribbean Sea: the comarca of Kuna Yala and Bocas del Toro province where Chibchan languages are spoken by the majority, and the province of Colón where many Kuna and people of mixed indigenous-African-and-European descent live. Elsewhere the Old World component is dominant and mostly represented by western Eurasian haplogroups, which signal the strong male genetic impact of invaders. Sub-Saharan African input accounts for 5.9% of male haplotypes. This reflects the consequences of the colonial Atlantic slave trade and more recent influxes of West Indians of African heritage. Overall, our findings reveal a local evolution of the male Native American ancestral gene pool, and a strong but

  8. Adipocyte hypertrophy, fatty liver and metabolic risk factors in South Asians: the Molecular Study of Health and Risk in Ethnic Groups (mol-SHARE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia S Anand

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine if differences in the distribution and characteristics of adipose tissue between South Asians and white Caucasians account for differences in risk factors for cardiovascular disease. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We recruited 108 healthy South Asians (36.8 years and white Caucasians (34.2 years within three BMI strata. Body composition, adipocyte size, abdominal fat area, and hepatic adiposity were assessed and related to fasting glucose, insulin, lipids and adiponectin. RESULTS: After adjustment for age, sex, and BMI, South Asians compared to white Caucasians had higher ln fasting insulin (mean difference (MD: 0.44; 95% CI: 0.20-0.69, lower HDL cholesterol (md: -0.13; 95% CI:-0.26 to -0.01, and lower adiponectin (md: -2.38; 95% CI: -3.59 to -1.17. South Asians also had more body fat (md: 2.69; 95% CI: 0.70 to 4.69, lower lean muscle mass (md: -3.25; 95%CI: -5.35 to -1.14, increased waist to hip ratio (md: 0.03; 95% CI: 0.01-0.05, less superficial subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (md: -2.94; 95% CI: -5.56 to-0.32, more deep/visceral to superficial adipose tissue ratio (md 0.34; 95% CI: 0.02 to 0.65, and more liver fat (md: 7.43%; 95% CI: 2.30 to 12.55%. Adipocyte area was increased in South Asians compared to white Caucasians (md: 64.26; 95% CI: 24.3 to 104.1 units(2. Adjustment for adipocyte area attenuated the ethnic differences in insulin (md: 0.22; 95% CI: -0.07 to 0.51, HDL (md: -0.01; 95% CI: -0.16 to 0.13 and adiponectin (md: -1.11; 95% CI: -2.61 to 0.39. Adjustment for differences in adipocyte area and fat distribution attenuated the ethnic difference in liver fat (md: 5.19; 95% CI: 0.31 to 10.06. CONCLUSION: South Asians have an increased adipocyte area compared to white Caucasians. This difference accounts for the ethnic differences in insulin, HDL cholesterol, adiponectin, and ectopic fat deposition in the liver.

  9. Explaining the visible and the invisible: Public knowledge of genetics, ancestry, physical appearance and race in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz-Marín, Ernesto; Wade, Peter

    2015-12-01

    Using data from focus groups conducted in Colombia, we explore how educated lay audiences faced with scenarios about ancestry and genetics draw on widespread and dominant notions of nation, race and belonging in Colombia to ascribe ancestry to collectivities and to themselves as individuals. People from a life sciences background tend to deploy idioms of race and genetics more readily than people from a humanities and race-critical background. When they considered individuals, people tempered or domesticated the more mechanistic explanations about racialized physical appearance, ancestry and genetics that were apparent at the collective level. Ideas of the latency and manifestation of invisible traits were an aspect of this domestication. People ceded ultimate authority to genetic science, but deployed it to work alongside what they already knew. Notions of genetic essentialism co-exist with the strategic use of genetic ancestry in ways that both fix and unfix race. Our data indicate the importance of attending to the different epistemological stances through which people define authoritative knowledge and to the importance of distinguishing the scale of resolution at which the question of diversity is being posed.

  10. Associations of PON1 and genetic ancestry with obesity in early childhood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Huen

    Full Text Available Obesity in children has become an epidemic in the U.S. and is particularly prominent in minority populations such as Mexican-Americans. In addition to physical activity and diet, genetics also plays a role in obesity etiology. A few studies in adults and adolescents suggest a link between obesity and paraoxonase 1 (PON1, a multifunctional enzyme that can metabolize organophosphate pesticides and also has antioxidant properties. We determined PON1192 genotype and arylesterase levels (ARYase, measure of PON1 enzyme quantity, to characterize the relationship between PON1 and obesity in young Mexican-American children (n = 373 living in an agricultural community in California. Since PON1 polymorphisms and obesity both vary between ethnic groups, we estimated proportional genetic ancestry using 106 ancestral informative markers (AIMs. Among children, PON1192 allele frequencies were 0.5 for both alleles, and the prevalence of obesity was high (15% and 33% at ages two and five, respectively. The average proportion of European, African, and Native American ancestry was 0.40, 0.09, and 0.51, yet there was wide inter-individual variation. We found a significantly higher odds of obesity (9.3 and 2.5- fold in PON1192QQ children compared to PON1192RR children at ages two and five, respectively. Similar relationships were seen with BMI Z-scores at age two and waist circumference at age five. After adjusting for genetic ancestry in models of PON1 and BMI Z-score, effect estimates for PON1192 genotype changed 15% and 9% among two and five year old children, respectively, providing evidence of genetic confounding by population stratification. However even after adjustment for genetic ancestry, the trend of increased BMI Z-scores with increased number of PON1192 Q alleles remained. Our findings suggest that PON1 may play a role in obesity independent of genetic ancestry and that studies of PON1 and health outcomes, especially in admixed populations, should

  11. Continental Divide Trail

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This shapefile was created to show the proximity of the Continental Divide to the Continental Divide National Scenic Trail in New Mexico. This work was done as part...

  12. Detection of ancestry informative HLA alleles confirms the admixed origins of Japanese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakaoka, Hirofumi; Mitsunaga, Shigeki; Hosomichi, Kazuyoshi; Shyh-Yuh, Liou; Sawamoto, Taiji; Fujiwara, Tsutomu; Tsutsui, Naohisa; Suematsu, Koji; Shinagawa, Akira; Inoko, Hidetoshi; Inoue, Ituro

    2013-01-01

    The polymorphisms in the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region are powerful tool for studying human evolutionary processes. We investigated genetic structure of Japanese by using five-locus HLA genotypes (HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1, and -DPB1) of 2,005 individuals from 10 regions of Japan. We found a significant level of population substructure in Japanese; particularly the differentiation between Okinawa Island and mainland Japanese. By using a plot of the principal component scores, we identified ancestry informative alleles associated with the underlying population substructure. We examined extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD) between pairs of HLA alleles on the haplotypes that were differentiated among regions. The LDs were strong and weak for pairs of HLA alleles characterized by low and high frequencies in Okinawa Island, respectively. The five-locus haplotypes whose alleles exhibit strong LD were unique to Japanese and South Korean, suggesting that these haplotypes had been recently derived from the Korean Peninsula. The alleles characterized by high frequency in Japanese compared to South Korean formed segmented three-locus haplotype that was commonly found in Aleuts, Eskimos, and North- and Meso-Americans but not observed in Korean and Chinese. The serologically equivalent haplotype was found in Orchid Island in Taiwan, Mongol, Siberia, and Arctic regions. It suggests that early Japanese who existed prior to the migration wave from the Korean Peninsula shared ancestry with northern Asian who moved to the New World via the Bering Strait land bridge. These results may support the admixture model for peopling of Japanese Archipelago. PMID:23577161

  13. Detection of ancestry informative HLA alleles confirms the admixed origins of Japanese population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirofumi Nakaoka

    Full Text Available The polymorphisms in the human leukocyte antigen (HLA region are powerful tool for studying human evolutionary processes. We investigated genetic structure of Japanese by using five-locus HLA genotypes (HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1, and -DPB1 of 2,005 individuals from 10 regions of Japan. We found a significant level of population substructure in Japanese; particularly the differentiation between Okinawa Island and mainland Japanese. By using a plot of the principal component scores, we identified ancestry informative alleles associated with the underlying population substructure. We examined extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD between pairs of HLA alleles on the haplotypes that were differentiated among regions. The LDs were strong and weak for pairs of HLA alleles characterized by low and high frequencies in Okinawa Island, respectively. The five-locus haplotypes whose alleles exhibit strong LD were unique to Japanese and South Korean, suggesting that these haplotypes had been recently derived from the Korean Peninsula. The alleles characterized by high frequency in Japanese compared to South Korean formed segmented three-locus haplotype that was commonly found in Aleuts, Eskimos, and North- and Meso-Americans but not observed in Korean and Chinese. The serologically equivalent haplotype was found in Orchid Island in Taiwan, Mongol, Siberia, and Arctic regions. It suggests that early Japanese who existed prior to the migration wave from the Korean Peninsula shared ancestry with northern Asian who moved to the New World via the Bering Strait land bridge. These results may support the admixture model for peopling of Japanese Archipelago.

  14. Shared Epitope Alleles Remain A Risk Factor for Anti-Citrullinated Proteins Antibody (ACPA) – Positive Rheumatoid Arthritis in Three Asian Ethnic Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Too Chun-Lai; Leonid Padyukov; Jasbir Singh Dhaliwal; Emeli Lundström; Abqariyah Yahya; Nor Asiah Muhamad; Lars Klareskog; Lars Alfredsson; Per Tobias Larsson; Shahnaz Murad

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To investigate the associations between HLA-DRB1 shared epitope (SE) alleles and rheumatoid arthritis in subsets of rheumatoid arthritis defined by autoantibodies in three Asian populations from Malaysia. METHODS: 1,079 rheumatoid arthritis patients and 1,470 healthy controls were included in the study. Levels of antibodies to citrullinated proteins (ACPA) and rheumatoid factors were assessed and the PCR-SSO method was used for HLA-DRB1 genotyping. RESULTS: The proportion of ACPA ...

  15. Grupos tróficos de peixes demersais da plataforma continental interna de Ubatuba, Brasil: I. Chondrichthyes Throphic groups of demersal fish community from the continental shelf: Ubatuba, Brazil. I. Chrondrichthyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Satiko Hashimoto Soares

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de detectar grupos tróficos, foram analisadas amostras de conteúdos estomacais de sete espécies de peixes cartilaginosos. Os exemplares foram coletados no período de Outubro/85 a Julho/87 na plataforma interna de Ubatuba, SP, Brasil (da costa, até a isóbata de 50 m. A importância dos itens alimentares foi analisada através da freqüência numérica (FN e da freqüência de ocorrência (FO. As espécies foram agrupadas em três grupos distintos: Piscívoros: Squalus cubensis; comedores de peixes e crustáceos bentônicos: Raja castelnaui, Raja cyclophora, Raja agassizi; comedores de invertebrados bentônicos: Psammobatis glansdissimilis, Rhinobatos horkelii, Zapteryx brevirostris.Stomach contents of seven cartilaginous fish species were analysed with the aim to detect trophic groups. Sampling was effectuated between October/85 and July/87 off the coast of Ubatuba (São Paulo, Brazil in waters up 50 m depth. The relative importance of different components of the diet was expressed as a percentage frequency of occurrence and percentage number. The seven species were grouped in: fish feeders - Squalus cubensis; benthonic crustacean and fish feeders - Raja castelnaui, Raja cyclophora, Raja agassizi; benthonic invertebrate feeders - Rhinobatos horkelii, Zapteryx brevirostris, Psammobatis glansdissimilis.

  16. Asian nursing students in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Saad, H; Kayser-Jones, J; Tien, J

    1982-09-01

    It is obvious that there is a great need to familiarize faculty and students with the Asian culture and heritage and to sensitize them to the difficulties and problems that Asian nursing students encounter in their adjustment to the university nursing program in the United States. Recommendations and strategies to achieve the above goals are: (1) Organizing cross-cultural courses for Asians and non-Asians to familiarize them with different cultures, (2) sensitizing faculty and counselors to the detrimental effects of existing nursing programs on international students, and (3) helping Asian nursing students better adjust to the American culture by providing English tutorial classes, support groups and host families that will act as socializing agents during the student's adjustment process. Through such educational and support programs, it is hoped that Asian nursing students will experience fewer difficulties which in turn will make their studies more meaningful and applicable. PMID:6288640

  17. Anthropogenic impacts on continental surface water fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddeland, Ingjerd; Skaugen, Thomas; Lettenmaier, Dennis P.

    2006-04-01

    Impacts of reservoirs and irrigation water withdrawals on continental surface water fluxes are studied within the framework of the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model for a part of North America, and for Asia. A reservoir model, designed for continental-scale simulations, is developed and implemented in the VIC model. The model successfully simulates irrigation water requirements, and captures the main effects of reservoir operations and irrigation water withdrawals on surface water fluxes, although consumptive irrigation water use is somewhat underestimated. For the North American region, simulated irrigation water requirements and consumptive irrigation water uses are 191 and 98 km3year-1, while the corresponding numbers for the Asian region are 810 and 509 km3year-1, respectively. The consumptive uses represent a decrease in river discharge of 4.2 percent for the North American region, and 2.8 percent for the Asian region. The largest monthly decrease is about 30 percent, for the area draining the Western USA in June. The maximum monthly increase in streamflow (28 percent) is in March for the Asian Arctic region.

  18. Compact Ancestry Labeling Schemes for Trees of Small Depth

    CERN Document Server

    Fraigniaud, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    An {\\em ancestry labeling scheme} labels the nodes of any tree in such a way that ancestry queries between any two nodes in a tree can be answered just by looking at their corresponding labels. The common measure to evaluate the quality of an ancestry labeling scheme is by its {\\em label size}, that is the maximal number of bits stored in a label, taken over all $n$-node trees. The design of ancestry labeling schemes finds applications in XML search engines. In the context of these applications, even small improvements in the label size are important. In fact, the literature about this topic is interested in the exact label size rather than just its order of magnitude. As a result, following the proposal of an original scheme of size $2\\log n$ bits, a considerable amount of work was devoted to improve the bound on the label size. The current state of the art upper bound is $\\log n + O(\\sqrt{\\log n})$ bits which is still far from the known $\\log n + \\Omega(\\log\\log n)$ lower bound. Moreover, the hidden constan...

  19. Building a forensic ancestry panel from the ground up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phillips, C; Parson, W; Lundsberg, Birgitte Møller;

    2014-01-01

    Emerging next-generation sequencing technologies will enable DNA analyses to add pigmentation predictive and ancestry informative (AIM) SNPs to the range of markers detectable from a single PCR test. This prompted us to re-appraise current forensic and genomics AIM-SNPs and from the best sets, to...

  20. Asian Studies Unit One: Asian Man and His Environment, Pilot Program; [And] Asian Studies Unit Two: Cultural Patterns of Asian Man, Field Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicago Board of Education, IL.

    Two units of Asian materials for secondary students comprise this document. The first unit presents a brief history of Asian man and his environment, including geography, climate, ethnic groups, resources, food, and population. Following the historical narrative are community references and various learning experiences and activities which further…

  1. Worldwide F-ST Estimates Relative to Five Continental-Scale Populations

    OpenAIRE

    Steele, C. D.; Court, D. S.; Balding, D. J.

    2014-01-01

    We estimate the population genetics parameter inline image (also referred to as the fixation index) from short tandem repeat (STR) allele frequencies, comparing many worldwide human subpopulations at approximately the national level with continental-scale populations. inline image is commonly used to measure population differentiation, and is important in forensic DNA analysis to account for remote shared ancestry between a suspect and an alternative source of the DNA. We estimate inline imag...

  2. Ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and overweight in Asian American adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Won Kim; Tseng, Winston; Bautista, Roxanna; John, Iyanrick

    2016-12-01

    Asian American children and adolescents are an under-investigated subpopulation in obesity research. This study aimed to identify specific profiles of Asian subgroups at high risk of adolescent overweight with special attention to Asian ethnicity, socioeconomic status (SES), and their interaction. Multiple logistic regression models were fitted using a sample of 1533 Asian American adolescents ages 12-17 from the 2007-2012 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS). In addition to Asian ethnicity and socioeconomic status (assessed by family income and parental education level), age, gender, nativity, and two lifestyle variables, fast food consumption and physical activity, were also controlled for in these models. Key predictors of overweight in Asian American adolescents included certain Asian ethnicities (Southeast Asian, Filipino, and mixed ethnicities), low family income (< 300% of the Federal Poverty Level), and being male. Multiplicative interaction terms between low family income and two ethnicities, Southeast Asian and Vietnamese that had the lowest SES among Asian ethnic groups, were significantly associated with greatly elevated odds of being overweight (ORs = 12.90 and 6.67, respectively). These findings suggest that high risk of overweight in Asian American adolescents associated with low family incomes may be further elevated for those in low-income ethnic groups. Future research might investigate ethnic-group SES as a meaningful indicator of community-level socioeconomic disparities that influence the health of Asian Americans. PMID:27413687

  3. Continental margins: linking ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly-Gerreyn, Boris; Rabalais, Nancy; Middelburg, Jack; Roy, Sylvie; Liu, Kon-Kee; Thomas, Helmut; Zhang, Jing

    2008-01-01

    Impacts of Global, Local and Human Forcings on Biogeochemical Cycles and Ecosystems, IMBER/LOICZ Continental Margins Open Science Conference; Shanghai, China, 17–21 September 2007; More than 100 scientists from 25 countries came together to address global, regional, local, and human pressures interactively affecting continental margin biogeochemical cycles, marine food webs, and society. Continental margins cover only 12% of the global ocean area yet account for more than 30% of global oceani...

  4. Narrow genetic basis for the Australian dingo confirmed through analysis of paternal ancestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardalan, Arman; Oskarsson, Mattias; Natanaelsson, Christian; Wilton, Alan N; Ahmadian, Afshin; Savolainen, Peter

    2012-03-01

    The dingo (Canis lupus dingo) is an iconic animal in the native culture of Australia, but archaeological and molecular records indicate a relatively recent history on the continent. Studies of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) imply that the current dingo population was founded by a small population of already tamed dogs from Southeast Asia. However, the maternal genetic data might give a unilateral picture, and the gene pool has yet to be screened for paternal ancestry. We sequenced 14,437 bp of the Y-chromosome (Y-chr) from two dingoes and one New Guinea Singing Dog (NGSD). This positioned dingo and NGSD within the domestic dog Y-chr phylogeny, and produced one haplotype not detected before. With this data, we characterized 47 male dingoes in 30 Y-chr single-nucleotide polymorphism sites using protease-mediated allele-specific extension technology. Only two haplotypes, H3 and H60, were found among the dingoes, at frequencies of 68.1 and 31.9 %, respectively, compared to 27 haplotypes previously established in the domestic dog. While H3 is common among Southeast Asian dogs, H60 was specifically found in dingoes and the NGSD, but was related to Southeast Asian dog Y-chr haplotypes. H3 and H60 were observed exclusively in the western and eastern parts of Australia, respectively, but had a common range in Southeast. Thus, the Y-chr diversity was very low, similar to previous observations for d-loop mtDNA. Overall genetic evidence suggests a very restricted introduction of the first dingoes into Australia, possibly from New Guinea. This study further confirms the dingo as an isolated feral dog.

  5. Do general treatment guidelines for Asian American families have applications to specific ethnic groups? The case of culturally-competent therapy with Korean Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Elena Young-Kyong; Bean, Roy A; Harper, James M

    2004-07-01

    To serve Korean American families effectively, marriage and family therapists need to develop a level of cultural competence. This content analysis of the relevant treatment literature was conducted to discover the most common expert recommendations for family therapy with Asian Americans and to examine their application to Korean Americans. Eleven specific guidelines were generated: Assess support systems, assess immigration history establish professional credibility, provide role induction, facilitate "saving face," accept somatic complaints, be present/problem focused, be directive, respect family structure, be nonconfrontational, and provide positive reframes. Empirical support (clinical and nonclinical research) and conceptual support for each guideline are discussed, and conclusions are reached regarding culturally competent therapy with Korean American families. PMID:15293653

  6. Differences in optic nerve structure between individuals of predominantly African and European ancestry: Implications for disease detection and pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher A Girkin

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Christopher A GirkinUniversity of Alabama at Birmingham School of Medicine, Birmingham, AL, USAAbstract: Glaucoma disproportionately affects individual of African ancestry. Additionally, racial differences in the optic nerve head have been well described that may alter the vulnerability to intraocular pressure related injury and, in addition, alter the clinical ability to detect the presence of early optic nerve injury. This paper will review the literature describing racial differences in the optic nerve head between individuals of African and European ancestry with regards to the potential effects of these differences on the ability to detect glaucoma in different racial groups and to potential differences in the pathogenesis of glaucomatous injury.Keywords: primary open angle glaucoma, African American, optic nerve, optic disc, retinal nerve fiber layer

  7. Obesity and Asian Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Asian American > Obesity Obesity and Asian Americans Non-Hispanic whites are 60% ... youthonline . [Accessed 05/25/2016] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  8. Ancestry Analysis in the 11-M Madrid Bomb Attack Investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher Phillips; Lourdes Prieto; Manuel Fondevila; Antonio Salas; Antonio Gómez-Tato; José Alvarez-Dios; Antonio Alonso; Alejandro Blanco-Verea; María Brión; Marta Montesino; Angel Carracedo; María Victoria Lareu

    2009-01-01

    The 11-M Madrid commuter train bombings of 2004 constituted the second biggest terrorist attack to occur in Europe after Lockerbie, while the subsequent investigation became the most complex and wide-ranging forensic case in Spain. Standard short tandem repeat (STR) profiling of 600 exhibits left certain key incriminatory samples unmatched to any of the apprehended suspects. A judicial order to perform analyses of unmatched samples to differentiate European and North African ancestry became a...

  9. Empirical testing of a 23-AIMs panel of SNPs for ancestry evaluations in four major US populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiangpei; Warshauer, David H; King, Jonathan L; Churchill, Jennifer D; Chakraborty, Ranajit; Budowle, Bruce

    2016-07-01

    Ancestry informative markers (AIMs) can be used to determine population affiliation of the donors of forensic samples. In order to examine ancestry evaluations of the four major populations in the USA, 23 highly informative AIMs were identified from the International HapMap project. However, the efficacy of these 23 AIMs could not be fully evaluated in silico. In this study, these 23 SNPs were multiplexed to test their actual performance in ancestry evaluations. Genotype data were obtained from 189 individuals collected from four American populations. One SNP (rs12149261) on chromosome 16 was removed from this panel because it was duplicated on chromosome 1. The resultant 22-AIMs panel was able to empirically resolve the four major populations as in the in silico study. Eight individuals were assigned to a different group than indicated on their samples. The assignments of the 22 AIMs for these samples were consistent with AIMs results from the ForenSeq(TM) panel. No departures from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) and linkage disequilibrium (LD) were detected for all 22 SNPs in four US populations (after removing the eight problematic samples). The principal component analysis (PCA) results indicated that 181 individuals from these populations were assigned to the expected groups. These 22 SNPs can contribute to the candidate AIMs pool for potential forensic identification purposes in major US populations. PMID:26914801

  10. Determining ancestry proportions in complex admixture scenarios in South Africa using a novel proxy ancestry selection method.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emile R Chimusa

    Full Text Available Admixed populations can make an important contribution to the discovery of disease susceptibility genes if the parental populations exhibit substantial variation in susceptibility. Admixture mapping has been used successfully, but is not designed to cope with populations that have more than two or three ancestral populations. The inference of admixture proportions and local ancestry and the imputation of missing genotypes in admixed populations are crucial in both understanding variation in disease and identifying novel disease loci. These inferences make use of reference populations, and accuracy depends on the choice of ancestral populations. Using an insufficient or inaccurate ancestral panel can result in erroneously inferred ancestry and affect the detection power of GWAS and meta-analysis when using imputation. Current algorithms are inadequate for multi-way admixed populations. To address these challenges we developed PROXYANC, an approach to select the best proxy ancestral populations. From the simulation of a multi-way admixed population we demonstrate the capability and accuracy of PROXYANC and illustrate the importance of the choice of ancestry in both estimating admixture proportions and imputing missing genotypes. We applied this approach to a complex, uniquely admixed South African population. Using genome-wide SNP data from over 764 individuals, we accurately estimate the genetic contributions from the best ancestral populations: isiXhosa [Formula: see text], ‡Khomani SAN [Formula: see text], European [Formula: see text], Indian [Formula: see text], and Chinese [Formula: see text]. We also demonstrate that the ancestral allele frequency differences correlate with increased linkage disequilibrium in the South African population, which originates from admixture events rather than population bottlenecks.The collective term for people of mixed ancestry in southern Africa is "Coloured," and this is officially recognized in South

  11. Ancestry analysis in the 11-M Madrid bomb attack investigation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Phillips

    Full Text Available The 11-M Madrid commuter train bombings of 2004 constituted the second biggest terrorist attack to occur in Europe after Lockerbie, while the subsequent investigation became the most complex and wide-ranging forensic case in Spain. Standard short tandem repeat (STR profiling of 600 exhibits left certain key incriminatory samples unmatched to any of the apprehended suspects. A judicial order to perform analyses of unmatched samples to differentiate European and North African ancestry became a critical part of the investigation and was instigated to help refine the search for further suspects. Although mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA and Y-chromosome markers routinely demonstrate informative geographic differentiation, the populations compared in this analysis were known to show a proportion of shared mtDNA and Y haplotypes as a result of recent gene-flow across the western Mediterranean, while any two loci can be unrepresentative of the ancestry of an individual as a whole. We based our principal analysis on a validated 34plex autosomal ancestry-informative-marker single nucleotide polymorphism (AIM-SNP assay to make an assignment of ancestry for DNA from seven unmatched case samples including a handprint from a bag containing undetonated explosives together with personal items recovered from various locations in Madrid associated with the suspects. To assess marker informativeness before genotyping, we predicted the probable classification success for the 34plex assay with standard error estimators for a naïve Bayesian classifier using Moroccan and Spanish training sets (each n = 48. Once misclassification error was found to be sufficiently low, genotyping yielded seven near-complete profiles (33 of 34 AIM-SNPs that in four cases gave probabilities providing a clear assignment of ancestry. One of the suspects predicted to be North African by AIM-SNP analysis of DNA from a toothbrush was identified late in the investigation as Algerian in origin. The

  12. Trans-ancestry genome-wide association study identifies 12 genetic loci influencing blood pressure and implicates a role for DNA methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Norihiro; Loh, Marie; Takeuchi, Fumihiko; Verweij, Niek; Wang, Xu; Zhang, Weihua; Kelly, Tanika N; Saleheen, Danish; Lehne, Benjamin; Mateo Leach, Irene; Drong, Alexander W; Abbott, James; Wahl, Simone; Tan, Sian-Tsung; Scott, William R; Campanella, Gianluca; Chadeau-Hyam, Marc; Afzal, Uzma; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S; Bonder, Marc Jan; Chen, Peng; Dehghan, Abbas; Edwards, Todd L; Esko, Tõnu; Go, Min Jin; Harris, Sarah E; Hartiala, Jaana; Kasela, Silva; Kasturiratne, Anuradhani; Khor, Chiea-Chuen; Kleber, Marcus E; Li, Huaixing; Mok, Zuan Yu; Nakatochi, Masahiro; Sapari, Nur Sabrina; Saxena, Richa; Stewart, Alexandre F R; Stolk, Lisette; Tabara, Yasuharu; Teh, Ai Ling; Wu, Ying; Wu, Jer-Yuarn; Zhang, Yi; Aits, Imke; Da Silva Couto Alves, Alexessander; Das, Shikta; Dorajoo, Rajkumar; Hopewell, Jemma C; Kim, Yun Kyoung; Koivula, Robert W; Luan, Jian'an; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Nguyen, Quang N; Pereira, Mark A; Postmus, Iris; Raitakari, Olli T; Bryan, Molly Scannell; Scott, Robert A; Sorice, Rossella; Tragante, Vinicius; Traglia, Michela; White, Jon; Yamamoto, Ken; Zhang, Yonghong; Adair, Linda S; Ahmed, Alauddin; Akiyama, Koichi; Asif, Rasheed; Aung, Tin; Barroso, Inês; Bjonnes, Andrew; Braun, Timothy R; Cai, Hui; Chang, Li-Ching; Chen, Chien-Hsiun; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Chong, Yap-Seng; Collins, Rory; Courtney, Regina; Davies, Gail; Delgado, Graciela; Do, Loi D; Doevendans, Pieter A; Gansevoort, Ron T; Gao, Yu-Tang; Grammer, Tanja B; Grarup, Niels; Grewal, Jagvir; Gu, Dongfeng; Wander, Gurpreet S; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Hazen, Stanley L; He, Jing; Heng, Chew-Kiat; Hixson, James E; Hofman, Albert; Hsu, Chris; Huang, Wei; Husemoen, Lise L N; Hwang, Joo-Yeon; Ichihara, Sahoko; Igase, Michiya; Isono, Masato; Justesen, Johanne M; Katsuya, Tomohiro; Kibriya, Muhammad G; Kim, Young Jin; Kishimoto, Miyako; Koh, Woon-Puay; Kohara, Katsuhiko; Kumari, Meena; Kwek, Kenneth; Lee, Nanette R; Lee, Jeannette; Liao, Jiemin; Lieb, Wolfgang; Liewald, David C M; Matsubara, Tatsuaki; Matsushita, Yumi; Meitinger, Thomas; Mihailov, Evelin; Milani, Lili; Mills, Rebecca; Mononen, Nina; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Nabika, Toru; Nakashima, Eitaro; Ng, Hong Kiat; Nikus, Kjell; Nutile, Teresa; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Ohnaka, Keizo; Parish, Sarah; Paternoster, Lavinia; Peng, Hao; Peters, Annette; Pham, Son T; Pinidiyapathirage, Mohitha J; Rahman, Mahfuzar; Rakugi, Hiromi; Rolandsson, Olov; Rozario, Michelle Ann; Ruggiero, Daniela; Sala, Cinzia F; Sarju, Ralhan; Shimokawa, Kazuro; Snieder, Harold; Sparsø, Thomas; Spiering, Wilko; Starr, John M; Stott, David J; Stram, Daniel O; Sugiyama, Takao; Szymczak, Silke; Tang, W H Wilson; Tong, Lin; Trompet, Stella; Turjanmaa, Väinö; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Uitterlinden, André G; Umemura, Satoshi; Vaarasmaki, Marja; van Dam, Rob M; van Gilst, Wiek H; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J; Viikari, Jorma S; Waldenberger, Melanie; Wang, Yiqin; Wang, Aili; Wilson, Rory; Wong, Tien-Yin; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Yamaguchi, Shuhei; Ye, Xingwang; Young, Robin D; Young, Terri L; Yuan, Jian-Min; Zhou, Xueya; Asselbergs, Folkert W; Ciullo, Marina; Clarke, Robert; Deloukas, Panos; Franke, Andre; Franks, Paul W; Franks, Steve; Friedlander, Yechiel; Gross, Myron D; Guo, Zhirong; Hansen, Torben; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Jørgensen, Torben; Jukema, J Wouter; Kähönen, Mika; Kajio, Hiroshi; Kivimaki, Mika; Lee, Jong-Young; Lehtimäki, Terho; Linneberg, Allan; Miki, Tetsuro; Pedersen, Oluf; Samani, Nilesh J; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Takayanagi, Ryoichi; Toniolo, Daniela; Ahsan, Habibul; Allayee, Hooman; Chen, Yuan-Tsong; Danesh, John; Deary, Ian J; Franco, Oscar H; Franke, Lude; Heijman, Bastiaan T; Holbrook, Joanna D; Isaacs, Aaron; Kim, Bong-Jo; Lin, Xu; Liu, Jianjun; März, Winfried; Metspalu, Andres; Mohlke, Karen L; Sanghera, Dharambir K; Shu, Xiao-Ou; van Meurs, Joyce B J; Vithana, Eranga; Wickremasinghe, Ananda R; Wijmenga, Cisca; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H W; Yokota, Mitsuhiro; Zheng, Wei; Zhu, Dingliang; Vineis, Paolo; Kyrtopoulos, Soterios A; Kleinjans, Jos C S; McCarthy, Mark I; Soong, Richie; Gieger, Christian; Scott, James; Teo, Yik-Ying; He, Jiang; Elliott, Paul; Tai, E Shyong; van der Harst, Pim; Kooner, Jaspal S; Chambers, John C

    2015-11-01

    We carried out a trans-ancestry genome-wide association and replication study of blood pressure phenotypes among up to 320,251 individuals of East Asian, European and South Asian ancestry. We find genetic variants at 12 new loci to be associated with blood pressure (P = 3.9 × 10(-11) to 5.0 × 10(-21)). The sentinel blood pressure SNPs are enriched for association with DNA methylation at multiple nearby CpG sites, suggesting that, at some of the loci identified, DNA methylation may lie on the regulatory pathway linking sequence variation to blood pressure. The sentinel SNPs at the 12 new loci point to genes involved in vascular smooth muscle (IGFBP3, KCNK3, PDE3A and PRDM6) and renal (ARHGAP24, OSR1, SLC22A7 and TBX2) function. The new and known genetic variants predict increased left ventricular mass, circulating levels of NT-proBNP, and cardiovascular and all-cause mortality (P = 0.04 to 8.6 × 10(-6)). Our results provide new evidence for the role of DNA methylation in blood pressure regulation. PMID:26390057

  13. From Bows to Sound-Chests: Tracing the Ancestry of the Violin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janelle R. Finley

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The ancestry of the violin is a subject that has been studied, researched, debated, and written about in great detail. However, despite all of the research and study, the ancestry of the violin is still not certain. This paper presents two schools of thought that propose different theories as to how the ancestry of the violin should be determined and what instruments should be included in the ancestry of the violin. The first school of thought proposes that the violin’s ancestry should be traced through the bow. The second theory proposes that the violin’s ancestry should be traced through the sound-chest of the violin. This paper also presents the different arguments for and against each theory, the importance of this topic, and the paper’s position on this topic. Research for this paper was accomplished through the use of scholarly books on the subject of the history of the violin.

  14. Overcoming Barriers to Cervical Cancer Screening Among Asian American Women

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, Carolyn Y.; Ma, Grace X.; Tan, Yin

    2011-01-01

    Significant disparities in cervical cancer incidence and mortality exist among ethnic minority women, and in particular, among Asian American women. These disparities have been attributed primarily to differences in screening rates across ethnic/racial groups. Asian American women have one of the lowest rates of screening compared to other ethnic/racial groups. Yet Asian Americans, who comprise one of the fastest growing populations in the United States, have received the least attention in c...

  15. New Evidence on the Common Ancestry of Tetrapods and Lungfish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Baohua

    2002-01-01

    @@ As reported in a recent issue of Nature (Aug. 15, 2002),two Chinese scientists pinpoint their newly discovered fossil fish as the most direct piece of evi dence on the common ancestry shared by tetrapods (all land verte brates including human beings) and lungfish. This latest advance in studying the origin and evolution of early fishes was jointly made by Professor Zhu Min from the CAS Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology & Paleoanthropology and his colleague Yu Xiaobo, now a Professor at the Biology Department of Kean University (New Jersey, USA).

  16. Multi-layered population structure in Island Southeast Asians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricaut, Francois-Xavier; Yngvadottir, Bryndis; Harney, Eadaoin; Castillo, Cristina; Hoogervorst, Tom; Antao, Tiago; Kusuma, Pradiptajati; Razafindrazaka, Harilanto; Cardona, Alexia; Pierron, Denis; Letellier, Thierry; Wee, Joseph; Abdullah, Syafiq; Metspalu, Mait; Kivisild, Toomas

    2016-01-01

    The history of human settlement in Southeast Asia has been complex and involved several distinct dispersal events. Here we report the analyses of 1825 individuals from Southeast Asia including new genome-wide genotype data for 146 individuals from three Mainland Southeast Asian (Burmese, Malay and Vietnamese) and four Island Southeast Asian (Dusun, Filipino, Kankanaey and Murut) populations. While confirming the presence of previously recognized major ancestry components in the Southeast Asian population structure, we highlight the Kankanaey Igorots from the highlands of the Philippine Mountain Province as likely the closest living representatives of the source population that may have given rise to the Austronesian expansion. This conclusion rests on independent evidence from various analyses of autosomal data and uniparental markers. Given the extensive presence of trade goods, cultural and linguistic evidence of Indian influence in Southeast Asia starting from 2.5kya we also detect traces of a South Asian signature in different populations in the region dating to the last couple of thousand years. PMID:27302840

  17. Exercise capacity and selected physiological factors by ancestry and residential altitude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bianba; Berntsen, Sveinung; Andersen, Lars Bo;

    2014-01-01

    (maximal power output) and selected physiological factors (arterial oxygen saturation and heart rate at rest and during maximal exercise, resting hemoglobin concentration, and forced vital capacity) in groups of native Tibetan children living at different residential altitudes (3700 vs. 4300 m above sea...... m) participated in two cross-sectional studies. The maximal power output (W max) was assessed using an ergometer cycle. RESULTS: Lhasa Tibetan children had a 20% higher maximal power output (watts/kg) than Tingri Tibetan and 4% higher than Lhasa Han Chinese. Maximal heart rate, arterial oxygen...... level) and across ancestry (native Tibetan vs. Han Chinese children living at the same altitude of 3700 m). METHODS: A total of 430 9-10-year-old native Tibetan children from Tingri (4300 m) and 406 native Tibetan- and 406 Han Chinese immigrants (77% lowland-born and 33% highland-born) from Lhasa (3700...

  18. Heterogeneity within the Asian American community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oh Gia

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Educational interventions are grounded on scientific data and assumptions about the community to be served. While the Pan Asian community is composed of multiple, ethnic subgroups, it is often treated as a single group for which one health promotion program will be applicable for all of its cultural subgroups. Compounding this stereotypical view of the Pan Asian community, there is sparse data about the cultural subgroups' similarities and dissimilarities. The Asian Grocery Store based cancer education program evaluation data provided an opportunity to compare data collected under identical circumstances from members of six Asian American cultural groups. Methods A convenience sample of 1,202 Asian American women evaluated the cultural alignment of a cancer education program, completing baseline and follow-up surveys that included questions about their breast cancer knowledge, attitudes, and screening behaviors. Participants took part in a brief education program that facilitated adherence to recommended screening guidelines. Results Unique recruitment methods were needed to attract participants from each ethnic group. Impressions gained from the aggregate data revealed different insights than the disaggregate data. Statistically significant variations existed among the subgroups' breast cancer knowledge, attitudes, and screening behaviors that could contribute to health disparities among the subgroups and within the aggregate Pan Asian community. Conclusion Health promotion efforts of providers, educators, and policy makers can be enhanced if cultural differences are identified and taken into account when developing strategies to reduce health disparities and promote health equity.

  19. New World cattle show ancestry from multiple independent domestication events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McTavish, Emily Jane; Decker, Jared E; Schnabel, Robert D; Taylor, Jeremy F; Hillis, David M

    2013-04-01

    Previous archeological and genetic research has shown that modern cattle breeds are descended from multiple independent domestication events of the wild aurochs (Bos primigenius) ∼10,000 y ago. Two primary areas of domestication in the Middle East/Europe and the Indian subcontinent resulted in taurine and indicine lines of cattle, respectively. American descendants of cattle brought by European explorers to the New World beginning in 1493 generally have been considered to belong to the taurine lineage. Our analyses of 47,506 single nucleotide polymorphisms show that these New World cattle breeds, as well as many related breeds of cattle in southern Europe, actually exhibit ancestry from both the taurine and indicine lineages. In this study, we show that, although European cattle are largely descended from the taurine lineage, gene flow from African cattle (partially of indicine origin) contributed substantial genomic components to both southern European cattle breeds and their New World descendants. New World cattle breeds, such as Texas Longhorns, provide an opportunity to study global population structure and domestication in cattle. Following their introduction into the Americas in the late 1400s, semiferal herds of cattle underwent between 80 and 200 generations of predominantly natural selection, as opposed to the human-mediated artificial selection of Old World breeding programs. Our analyses of global cattle breed population history show that the hybrid ancestry of New World breeds contributed genetic variation that likely facilitated the adaptation of these breeds to a novel environment. PMID:23530234

  20. Asian American Women's Retrospective Reports of Their Sexual Socialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Janna L.

    2009-01-01

    This study used qualitative research methods to investigate the sexual socialization experiences of young Asian American women, a group often overlooked in psychological research on sexuality. Focus group interviews were conducted with 30 ethnically diverse young Asian American women to explore their perceptions and interpretations of the direct…

  1. Assessing the reliability of eBURST using simulated populations with known ancestry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Connor Thomas R

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The program eBURST uses multilocus sequence typing data to divide bacterial populations into groups of closely related strains (clonal complexes, predicts the founding genotype of each group, and displays the patterns of recent evolutionary descent of all other strains in the group from the founder. The reliability of eBURST was evaluated using populations simulated with different levels of recombination in which the ancestry of all strains was known. Results For strictly clonal simulations, where all allelic change is due to point mutation, the groups of related strains identified by eBURST were very similar to those expected from the true ancestry and most of the true ancestor-descendant relationships (90–98% were identified by eBURST. Populations simulated with low or moderate levels of recombination showed similarly high performance but the reliability of eBURST declined with increasing recombination to mutation ratio. Populations simulated under a high recombination to mutation ratio were dominated by a single large straggly eBURST group, which resulted from the incorrect linking of unrelated groups of strains into the same eBURST group. The reliability of the ancestor-descendant links in eBURST diagrams was related to the proportion of strains in the largest eBURST group, which provides a useful guide to when eBURST is likely to be unreliable. Conclusion Examination of eBURST groups within populations of a range of bacterial species showed that most were within the range in which eBURST is reliable, and only a small number (e.g. Burkholderia pseudomallei and Enterococcus faecium appeared to have such high rates of recombination that eBURST is likely to be unreliable. The study also demonstrates how three simple tests in eBURST v3 can be used to detect unreliable eBURST performance and recognise populations in which there appears to be a high rate of recombination relative to mutation.

  2. Asian American Women: A Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yung, Judy, Comp.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Listed in this bibliography are materials available on Asian American women at the Asian Community Library (Oakland Public Library) and the Asian American Studies Library (University of California, Berkeley). (Author/EB)

  3. Enhanced ectodysplasin-A receptor (EDAR) signaling alters multiple fiber characteristics to produce the East Asian hair form

    OpenAIRE

    Mou, Chunyan; Thomason, Helen A; Willan, Pamela M.; Clowes, Christopher; Harris, W. Edwin; Drew, Caroline F.; Dixon, Jill; Dixon, Michael J; Headon, Denis J

    2008-01-01

    Hair morphology differs dramatically between human populations: people of East Asian ancestry typically have a coarse hair texture, with individual fibers being straight, of large diameter, and cylindrical when compared to hair of European or African origin. Ectodysplasin-A receptor (EDAR) is a cell surface receptor of the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) family involved in the development of hair follicles, teeth, and sweat glands. Analyses of genome-wide polymorphism data from multiple...

  4. Measurement Uncertainty in Racial and Ethnic Identification among Adolescents of Mixed Ancestry: A Latent Variable Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, Allison J.; Erkut, Sumru; Porche, Michelle V.; Kim, Jo; Charmaraman, Linda; Grossman, Jennifer M.; Ceder, Ineke; Garcia, Heidie Vazquez

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we operationalize identification of mixed racial and ethnic ancestry among adolescents as a latent variable to (a) account for measurement uncertainty, and (b) compare alternative wording formats for racial and ethnic self-categorization in surveys. Two latent variable models were fit to multiple mixed-ancestry indicator data from…

  5. Effective strategies for recruiting of Asian cancer patients in internet research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hyun Ju; Lin, Chia-Ju; Liu, Yi; Chee, Wonshik; Im, Eun-Ok

    2006-01-01

    This poster is aims to provide directions for effective strategies for recruiting Asian cancer patients in Internet study among Asian American cancer patients. In the study, we used four different strategies to recruit Asian cancer participants: (a) general and ethnic specific Internet cancer support groups; (b) Asian Internet communities/groups; (c) Asian physician clinics, Asian community and culture center; and (d) community consultants. The most effective recruitment strategy among them was the recruitment through community consultant. The findings support the importance of using key persons in ethnic minority communities to recruit ethnic minority participants.

  6. Asian American Cultural Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libretti, Tim

    1997-01-01

    Explores the encounter of Marxism and Asian American literary theory and imagines an Asian American Marxism. To do so requires theorizing race, class, and gender not as substantive categories of antagonisms but as complementary and coordinated elements of a totality of social relations structuring racial patriarchal capitalism. (SLD)

  7. Consensus on Current Injectable Treatment Strategies in the Asian Face

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Woffles T. L.; Liew, Steven; Chan, Henry H.; Ho, Wilson W. S.; Supapannachart, Nantapat; Lee, Hong-Ki; Prasetyo, Adri; Yu, Jonathan Nevin; Rogers, John D.; ,

    2016-01-01

    Background The desire for and use of nonsurgical injectable esthetic facial treatments are increasing in Asia. The structural and anatomical features specific to the Asian face, and differences from Western populations in facial aging, necessitate unique esthetic treatment strategies, but published recommendations and clinical evidence for injectable treatments in Asians are scarce. Method The Asian Facial Aesthetics Expert Consensus Group met to discuss current practices and consensus opinio...

  8. Evolutionary ancestry and novel functions of the mammalian glucose transporter (GLUT family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patron Nicola

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In general, sugar porters function by proton-coupled symport or facilitative transport modes. Symporters, coupled to electrochemical energy, transport nutrients against a substrate gradient. Facilitative carriers transport sugars along a concentration gradient, thus transport is dependent upon extracellular nutrient levels. Across bacteria, fungi, unicellular non-vertebrates and plants, proton-coupled hexose symport is a crucial process supplying energy under conditions of nutrient flux. In mammals it has been assumed that evolution of whole body regulatory mechanisms would eliminate this need. To determine whether any isoforms bearing this function might be conserved in mammals, we investigated the relationship between the transporters of animals and the proton-coupled hexose symporters found in other species. Results We took a comparative genomic approach and have performed the first comprehensive and statistically supported phylogenetic analysis of all mammalian glucose transporter (GLUT isoforms. Our data reveals the mammalian GLUT proteins segregate into five distinct classes. This evolutionary ancestry gives insight to structure, function and transport mechanisms within the groups. Combined with biological assays, we present novel evidence that, in response to changing nutrient availability and environmental pH, proton-coupled, active glucose symport function is maintained in mammalian cells. Conclusions The analyses show the ancestry, evolutionary conservation and biological importance of the GLUT classes. These findings significantly extend our understanding of the evolution of mammalian glucose transport systems. They also reveal that mammals may have conserved an adaptive response to nutrient demand that would have important physiological implications to cell survival and growth.

  9. The Role of Ethnic and National Identifications in Perceived Discrimination for Asian Americans: Toward a Better Understanding of the Buffering Effect of Group Identifications on Psychological Distress

    OpenAIRE

    Huynh, Que-Lam; Devos, Thierry; Goldberg, Robyn

    2013-01-01

    A robust relationship between perceived racial discrimination and psychological distress has been established. Yet, mixed evidence exists regarding the extent to which ethnic identification moderates this relationship, and scarce attention has been paid to the moderating role of national identification. We propose that the role of group identifications in the perceived discrimination–psychological distress relationship is best understood by simultaneously and interactively considering ethnic ...

  10. Desi Women on the Forty Acres: Exploring Intergenerational Issues and Identity Development of South Asian American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzicka, Smita Sundaresan

    2011-01-01

    South Asian Americans are one of the fastest growing sub-groups within the Asian American population in the United States today. Between 1960 and 1990, the South Asian American population witnessed an increase of approximately 900% (Leonard, 1997). This increase in population also corresponds with the increase in South Asian American students…

  11. A simple and optimal ancestry labeling scheme for trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlgaard, Søren; Knudsen, Mathias Bæk Tejs; Rotbart, Noy Galil

    2015-01-01

    We present a lg n + 2 lg lg n + 3 ancestry labeling scheme for trees. The problem was first presented by Kannan et al. [STOC 88’] along with a simple 2 lg n solution. Motivated by applications to XML files, the label size was improved incrementally over the course of more than 20 years by a series...... of papers. The last, due to Fraigniaud and Korman [STOC 10’], presented an asymptotically optimal lg n+4 lg lg n+ O(1) labeling scheme using non-trivial tree-decomposition techniques. By providing a framework generalizing interval based labeling schemes, we obtain a simple, yet asymptotically optimal...... solution to the problem. Furthermore, our labeling scheme is attained by a small modification of the original 2 lg n solution....

  12. Geochemical and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic evidence for ancient lower continental crust beneath the Xi Ujimqin area of NE China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiaofeng; Guo, Feng; Xiao, Peixi; Kang, Lei; Xi, Rengang

    2016-05-01

    The Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) is the largest Phanerozoic accretionary orogen on Earth. The role that Precambrian continental microblocks played in its formation, however, remains a highly controversial topic. New zircon U-Pb age data and whole-rock geochemical and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic studies on Permian (253-251 Ma) andesites from the Xi Ujimqin area provide the first evidence for the existence of a continental lower mafic crust in the eastern segment of the CAOB. These Permian lavas generally have chemical compositions similar to experimental melts of garnet pyroxenites. Based on Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic compositional differences, they can be further subdivided into two groups. Group 1 has moderately radiogenic Sr (87Sr/86Sr(i) = 0.7060-0.7062) and nonradiogenic Nd (εNd(t) = - 9.0-8.3) and Pb (e.g., 206Pb/204Pb = 17.18-17.23) isotopic compositions similar to the ancient lower mafic crust beneath the North China Craton (NCC). Compared with Group 1, Group 2 has less radiogenic Sr (87Sr/86Sr(i) = 0.7051-0.7055), and more radiogenic Nd (εNd(t) = - 0.2-+1.4) and Pb (e.g., 206Pb/204Pb = 18.04-18.20) isotopic compositions as observed in the Phanerozoic granitoids and felsic lavas of the CAOB. The combined geochemical and isotopic data indicate that Group 1 was derived from ancient lower mafic crust of the NCC affinity, with a residual assemblage of pyroxene + plagioclase + amphibole. The source for Group 2 was a mixture of ancient lower mafic crust and a juvenile crustal component, and melting left a residue of orthopyroxene + clinopyroxene + plagioclase + garnet + amphibole. Generation of these two types of late Permian andesites favors a model whereby breakoff of a subducted slab and subsequent lithospheric extension triggered extensive asthenospheric upwelling and melting of the continental mafic lower crust of the eastern CAOB. The discovery of ancient lower continental crust of the NCC affinity in the CAOB implies that the NCC experienced continental breakup during

  13. Continental magnetic anomaly constraints on continental reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonfrese, R. R. B.; Hinze, W. J.; Olivier, R.; Bentley, C. R.

    1985-01-01

    Crustal magnetic anomalies mapped by the MAGSAT satellite for North and South America, Europe, Africa, India, Australia and Antarctica and adjacent marine areas were adjusted to a common elevation of 400 km and differentially reduced to the radial pole of intensity 60,000 nT. These radially polarized anomalies are normalized for differential inclination, declination and intensity effects of the geomagnetic field, so that in principle they directly reflected the geometric and magnetic polarization attributes of sources which include regional petrologic variations of the crust and upper mantle, and crustal thickness and thermal perturbations. Continental anomalies demonstrate remarkably detailed correlation of regional magnetic sources across rifted margins when plotted on a reconstruction of Pangea. Accordingly, they suggest further fundamental constraints on the geologic evolution of the continents and their reconstructions.

  14. Racial microaggressions and the Asian American experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sue, Derald Wing; Bucceri, Jennifer; Lin, Annie I; Nadal, Kevin L; Torino, Gina C

    2007-01-01

    Racial microaggressions were examined through a focus group analysis of 10 self-identified Asian American participants using a semistructured interview and brief demographic questionnaire. Results identified 8 major microaggressive themes directed toward this group: (a) alien in own land, (b) ascription of intelligence, (c) exoticization of Asian women, (d) invalidation of interethnic differences, (e) denial of racial reality, (f) pathologizing cultural values/communication styles, (g) second class citizenship, and (h) invisibility. A ninth category, "undeveloped incidents/responses" was used to categorize microaggressions that were mentioned by only a few members. There were strong indications that the types of subtle racism directed at Asian Americans may be qualitatively and quantitatively different from other marginalized groups. Implications are discussed. PMID:17227179

  15. InterContinental Cuisine for Charity 2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Cuisine for Charity is one of the most important annual events for InterContinental Hotels Group (IHG) hotels in Beijing. It is a good opportunity not only for chefs to showcase them-selves, learn from each other and improve their cooking skills, but also to show that we take care of our social responsibilities.

  16. Genotyping of 75 SNPs using arrays for individual identification in five population groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwa, Hsiao-Lin; Wu, Lawrence Shih Hsin; Lin, Chun-Yen; Huang, Tsun-Ying; Yin, Hsiang-I; Tseng, Li-Hui; Lee, James Chun-I

    2016-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) typing offers promise to forensic genetics. Various strategies and panels for analyzing SNP markers for individual identification have been published. However, the best panels with fewer identity SNPs for all major population groups are still under discussion. This study aimed to find more autosomal SNPs with high heterozygosity for individual identification among Asian populations. Ninety-six autosomal SNPs of 502 DNA samples from unrelated individuals of five population groups (208 Taiwanese Han, 83 Filipinos, 62 Thais, 69 Indonesians, and 80 individuals with European, Near Eastern, or South Asian ancestry) were analyzed using arrays in an initial screening, and 75 SNPs (group A, 46 newly selected SNPs; groups B, 29 SNPs based on a previous SNP panel) were selected for further statistical analyses. Some SNPs with high heterozygosity from Asian populations were identified. The combined random match probability of the best 40 and 45 SNPs was between 3.16 × 10(-17) and 7.75 × 10(-17) and between 2.33 × 10(-19) and 7.00 × 10(-19), respectively, in all five populations. These loci offer comparable power to short tandem repeats (STRs) for routine forensic profiling. In this study, we demonstrated the population genetic characteristics and forensic parameters of 75 SNPs with high heterozygosity from five population groups. This SNPs panel can provide valuable genotypic information and can be helpful in forensic casework for individual identification among these populations. PMID:26297200

  17. Genotyping of 75 SNPs using arrays for individual identification in five population groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwa, Hsiao-Lin; Wu, Lawrence Shih Hsin; Lin, Chun-Yen; Huang, Tsun-Ying; Yin, Hsiang-I; Tseng, Li-Hui; Lee, James Chun-I

    2016-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) typing offers promise to forensic genetics. Various strategies and panels for analyzing SNP markers for individual identification have been published. However, the best panels with fewer identity SNPs for all major population groups are still under discussion. This study aimed to find more autosomal SNPs with high heterozygosity for individual identification among Asian populations. Ninety-six autosomal SNPs of 502 DNA samples from unrelated individuals of five population groups (208 Taiwanese Han, 83 Filipinos, 62 Thais, 69 Indonesians, and 80 individuals with European, Near Eastern, or South Asian ancestry) were analyzed using arrays in an initial screening, and 75 SNPs (group A, 46 newly selected SNPs; groups B, 29 SNPs based on a previous SNP panel) were selected for further statistical analyses. Some SNPs with high heterozygosity from Asian populations were identified. The combined random match probability of the best 40 and 45 SNPs was between 3.16 × 10(-17) and 7.75 × 10(-17) and between 2.33 × 10(-19) and 7.00 × 10(-19), respectively, in all five populations. These loci offer comparable power to short tandem repeats (STRs) for routine forensic profiling. In this study, we demonstrated the population genetic characteristics and forensic parameters of 75 SNPs with high heterozygosity from five population groups. This SNPs panel can provide valuable genotypic information and can be helpful in forensic casework for individual identification among these populations.

  18. Genetic ancestry-smoking interactions and lung function in African Americans: a cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda C Aldrich

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Smoking tobacco reduces lung function. African Americans have both lower lung function and decreased metabolism of tobacco smoke compared to European Americans. African ancestry is also associated with lower pulmonary function in African Americans. We aimed to determine whether African ancestry modifies the association between smoking and lung function and its rate of decline in African Americans. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We evaluated a prospective ongoing cohort of 1,281 African Americans participating in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition (Health ABC Study initiated in 1997. We also examined an ongoing prospective cohort initiated in 1985 of 1,223 African Americans in the Coronary Artery Disease in Young Adults (CARDIA Study. Pulmonary function and tobacco smoking exposure were measured at baseline and repeatedly over the follow-up period. Individual genetic ancestry proportions were estimated using ancestry informative markers selected to distinguish European and West African ancestry. African Americans with a high proportion of African ancestry had lower baseline forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV₁ per pack-year of smoking (-5.7 ml FEV₁/ smoking pack-year compared with smokers with lower African ancestry (-4.6 ml in FEV₁/ smoking pack-year (interaction P value  = 0.17. Longitudinal analyses revealed a suggestive interaction between smoking, and African ancestry on the rate of FEV(1 decline in Health ABC and independently replicated in CARDIA. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: African American individuals with a high proportion of African ancestry are at greater risk for losing lung function while smoking.

  19. Paternal lineages signal distinct genetic contributions from British Loyalists and continental Africans among different Bahamian islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simms, Tanya M; Martinez, Emanuel; Herrera, Kristian J; Wright, Marisil R; Perez, Omar A; Hernandez, Michelle; Ramirez, Evelyn C; McCartney, Quinn; Herrera, Rene J

    2011-12-01

    Over the past 500 years, the Bahamas has been influenced by a wide array of settlers, some of whom have left marked genetic imprints throughout the archipelago. To assess the extent of each group's genetic contributions, high-resolution Y-chromosome analyses were performed, for the first time, to delineate the patriarchal ancestry of six islands in the Northwest (Abaco and Grand Bahama) and Central (Eleuthera, Exuma, Long Island, and New Providence) Bahamas and their genetic relationships with previously published reference populations. Our results reveal genetic signals emanating primarily from African and European sources, with the predominantly sub-Saharan African and Western European haplogroups E1b1a-M2 and R1b1b1-M269, respectively, accounting for greater than 75% of all Bahamian patrilineages. Surprisingly, we observe notable discrepancies among the six Bahamian populations in their distribution of these lineages, with E1b1a-M2 predominating Y-chromosomes in the collections from Abaco, Exuma, Eleuthera, Grand Bahama, and New Providence, whereas R1b1b1-M269 is found at elevated levels in the Long Island population. Substantial Y-STR haplotype variation within sub-haplogroups E1b1a7a-U174 and E1b1ba8-U175 (greater than any continental African collection) is also noted, possibly indicating genetic influences from a variety of West and Central African groups. Furthermore, differential European genetic contributions in each island (with the exception of Exuma) reflect settlement patterns of the British Loyalists subsequent to the American Revolution.

  20. Mentoring Asian and Euro-American College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Belle; Tracy, Allison; Kauh, Tina; Taylor, Catherine; Williams, Linda M.

    2006-01-01

    This study examines differences in the mentoring relationships of Asian American and Euro-American college women. Findings showed that the groups view mentoring as equally important but that fewer Asians report having a mentor. However, those who have mentors find them to be just as valuable as do their Euro-American counterparts. (Contains 2…

  1. Asian Megatrends and Management Education of Overseas Chinese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannesson, Jokull; Palona, Iryna

    2010-01-01

    Asian megatrends are necessitating the development of management education of ethnic groups like the overseas Chinese and, universities need to change accordingly. This article identifies five Asian megatrends and their impact on the management education of overseas Chinese. The megatrends are: the emergence of women in politics and business; a…

  2. Family and Asian Students' Educational Performance: A Consideration of Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Sampson Lee; Qian, Zhenchao

    1998-01-01

    Examines variation in educational performance among students of Chinese, Filipino, Korean, Southeast Asian, and Japanese ethnicities using a sample of Asian American students from the 1992 wave of the National Educational Longitudinal Study. Finds significant differences in educational performance across the five groups. Examines causes of these…

  3. What Ancestry Can Tell Us About the Genetic Origins of Inter-Ethnic Differences in Asthma Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Pacheco, Natalia; Flores, Carlos; Oh, Sam S; Burchard, Esteban G; Pino-Yanes, Maria

    2016-07-01

    Differences in asthma prevalence have been described across different populations, suggesting that genetic ancestry can play an important role in this disease. In fact, several studies have demonstrated an association between African ancestry with increased asthma susceptibility and severity, higher immunoglobulin E levels, and lower lung function. In contrast, Native American ancestry has been shown to have a protective role for this disease. Genome-wide association studies have allowed the identification of population-specific genetic variants with varying allele frequency among populations. Additionally, the correlation of genetic ancestry at the chromosomal level with asthma and related traits by means of admixture mapping has revealed regions of the genome where ancestry is correlated with the disease. In this review, we discuss the evidence supporting the association of genetic ancestry with asthma susceptibility and asthma-related traits, and highlight the regions of the genome harboring ancestry-specific genetic risk factors. PMID:27393700

  4. The South Asian genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John C Chambers

    Full Text Available The genetic sequence variation of people from the Indian subcontinent who comprise one-quarter of the world's population, is not well described. We carried out whole genome sequencing of 168 South Asians, along with whole-exome sequencing of 147 South Asians to provide deeper characterisation of coding regions. We identify 12,962,155 autosomal sequence variants, including 2,946,861 new SNPs and 312,738 novel indels. This catalogue of SNPs and indels amongst South Asians provides the first comprehensive map of genetic variation in this major human population, and reveals evidence for selective pressures on genes involved in skin biology, metabolism, infection and immunity. Our results will accelerate the search for the genetic variants underlying susceptibility to disorders such as type-2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease which are highly prevalent amongst South Asians.

  5. Glaucoma in Asian Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Us Donate In This Section Glaucoma In Asian Populations email Send this article to a friend by ... an even more serious problem as the world population and longevity increases. The other major glaucoma type ...

  6. Central Asian Republic Info

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — CAR Info is designed and managed by the Central Asian Republic Mission to fill in the knowledge and reporting gaps in existing agency systems for that Mission. It...

  7. Risk group characteristics and viral transmission clusters in South-East Asian patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) circulating recombinant form (CRF) 01_AE and subtype B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyomopito, Rebecca A; Chen, Yen-Ju; Sungkanuparph, Somnuek; Kantor, Rami; Merati, Tuti; Yam, Wing-Cheong; Sirisanthana, Thira; Li, Patrick C K; Kantipong, Pacharee; Phanuphak, Praphan; Lee, Chris K C; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Ditangco, Rossana; Huang, Szu-Wei; Sohn, Annette H; Law, Matthew; Chen, Yi Ming A

    2015-09-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 epidemics in Asian countries are driven by varying exposures. The epidemiology of the regional pandemic has been changing with the spread of HIV-1 to lower-risk populations through sexual transmission. Common HIV-1 genotypes include subtype B and circulating recombinant form (CRF) 01_AE. Our objective was to use HIV-1 genotypic data to better quantify local epidemics. TASER-M is a multicenter prospective cohort of HIV-infected patients. Associations between HIV exposure, patient sex, country of sample origin and HIV-1 genotype were evaluated by multivariate logistic regression. Phylogenetic methods were used on genotypic data to investigate transmission relationships. A total of 1086 patients from Thailand, Hong Kong, Malaysia and the Philippines were included in analyses. Proportions of male patients within countries varied (Thailand: 55.6%, Hong Kong: 86.1%, Malaysia: 81.4%, Philippines: 93.8%; p < 0.001) as did HIV exposures (heterosexual contact: Thailand: 85.7%, Hong Kong, 46.2%, Malaysia: 47.8%, Philippines: 25.0%; p < 0.001). After adjustment, we found increased subtype B infection among men who have sex with men, relative to heterosexual-reported exposures (odds ratio = 2.4, p < 0.001). We further describe four transmission clusters of eight to 15 treatment naïve, predominantly symptomatic patients (two each for subtype B and CRF01_AE). Risk-group subpopulations differed with respect to the infecting HIV-1 genotype. Homosexual exposure patients had higher odds of being infected with subtype B. Where HIV-1 genotypes circulate within countries or patient risk-groups, local monitoring of genotype-specific transmissions may play a role in focusing public health prevention strategies. Phylogenetic evaluations provide complementary information for surveillance and monitoring of viruses with high mutation rates such as HIV-1 and Ebola. PMID:26362956

  8. Mosaic maternal ancestry in the Great Lakes region of East Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Verónica; Pala, Maria; Salas, Antonio; Álvarez-Iglesias, Vanesa; Amorim, António; Gómez-Carballa, Alberto; Carracedo, Ángel; Clarke, Douglas J; Hill, Catherine; Mormina, Maru; Shaw, Marie-Anne; Dunne, David W; Pereira, Rui; Pereira, Vânia; Prata, Maria João; Sánchez-Diz, Paula; Rito, Teresa; Soares, Pedro; Gusmão, Leonor; Richards, Martin B

    2015-09-01

    The Great Lakes lie within a region of East Africa with very high human genetic diversity, home of many ethno-linguistic groups usually assumed to be the product of a small number of major dispersals. However, our knowledge of these dispersals relies primarily on the inferences of historical, linguistics and oral traditions, with attempts to match up the archaeological evidence where possible. This is an obvious area to which archaeogenetics can contribute, yet Uganda, at the heart of these developments, has not been studied for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation. Here, we compare mtDNA lineages at this putative genetic crossroads across 409 representatives of the major language groups: Bantu speakers and Eastern and Western Nilotic speakers. We show that Uganda harbours one of the highest mtDNA diversities within and between linguistic groups, with the various groups significantly differentiated from each other. Despite an inferred linguistic origin in South Sudan, the data from the two Nilotic-speaking groups point to a much more complex history, involving not only possible dispersals from Sudan and the Horn but also large-scale assimilation of autochthonous lineages within East Africa and even Uganda itself. The Eastern Nilotic group also carries signals characteristic of West-Central Africa, primarily due to Bantu influence, whereas a much stronger signal in the Western Nilotic group suggests direct West-Central African ancestry. Bantu speakers share lineages with both Nilotic groups, and also harbour East African lineages not found in Western Nilotic speakers, likely due to assimilating indigenous populations since arriving in the region ~3000 years ago. PMID:26188410

  9. Early diversification trend and Asian origin for extent bat lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, W; Wu, Y; Yang, G

    2014-10-01

    Bats are a unique mammalian group, which belong to one of the largest and most diverse mammalian radiations, but their early diversification is still poorly understood, and conflicting hypotheses have emerged regarding their biogeographic history. Understanding their diversification is crucial for untangling the enigmatic evolutionary history of bats. In this study, we elucidated the rate of diversification and the biogeographic history of extant bat lineages using genus-level chronograms. The results suggest that a rapid adaptive radiation persisted from the emergence of crown bats until the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum, whereas there was a major deceleration in diversification around 35-49 Ma. There was a positive association between changes in the palaeotemperature and the net diversification rate until 35 Ma, which suggests that the palaeotemperature may have played an important role in the regulation of ecological opportunities. By contrast, there were unexpectedly higher diversification rates around 25-35 Ma during a period characterized by intense and long-lasting global cooling, which implies that intrinsic innovations or adaptations may have released some lineages from the intense selective pressures associated with these severe conditions. Our reconstruction of the ancestral distribution suggests an Asian origin for bats, thereby indicating that the current panglobal but disjunct distribution pattern of extant bats may be related to events involving seriate cross-continental dispersal and local extinction, as well as the influence of geological events and the expansion and contraction of megathermal rainforests during the Tertiary.

  10. Brazilian continental cretaceous

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petri, Setembrino; Campanha, Vilma A.

    1981-04-01

    Cretaceous deposits in Brazil are very well developed, chiefly in continental facies and in thick sequences. Sedimentation occurred essentially in rift-valleys inland and along the coast. Three different sequences can be distinguished: (1) a lower clastic non-marine section, (2) a middle evaporitic section, (3) an upper marine section with non-marine regressive lithosomes. Continental deposits have been laid down chiefly between the latest Jurassic and Albian. The lower lithostratigraphic unit is represented by red shales with occasional evaporites and fresh-water limestones, dated by ostracods. A series of thick sandstone lithosomes accumulated in the inland rift-valleys. In the coastal basins these sequences are often incompletely preserved. Uplift in the beginning of the Aptian produced a widespread unconformity. In many of the inland rift-valleys sedimentation ceased at that time. A later transgression penetrated far into northeastern Brazil, but shortly after continental sedimentation continued, with the deposition of fluvial sandstones which once covered large areas of the country and which have been preserved in many places. The continental Cretaceous sediments have been laid down in fluvial and lacustrine environments, under warm climatic conditions which were dry from time to time. The fossil record is fairly rich, including besides plants and invertebrates, also reptiles and fishes. As faulting tectonism was rather strong, chiefly during the beginning of the Cretaceous, intercalations of igneous rocks are frequent in some places. Irregular uplift and erosion caused sediments belonging to the remainder of this period to be preserved only in tectonic basins scattered across the country.

  11. Upper Palaeolithic Siberian genome reveals dual ancestry of Native Americans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raghavan, Maanasa; Skoglund, Pontus; Graf, Kelly E.;

    2014-01-01

    The origins of the First Americans remain contentious. Although Native Americans seem to be genetically most closely related to east Asians, there is no consensus with regard to which specific Old World populations they are closest to. Here we sequence the draft genome of an approximately 24...... this ancient population. This is likely to have occurred after the divergence of Native American ancestors from east Asian ancestors, but before the diversification of Native American populations in the New World. Gene flow from the MA-1 lineage into Native American ancestors could explain why several crania......,000-year-old individual (MA-1), from Mal'ta in south-central Siberia, to an average depth of 1×. To our knowledge this is the oldest anatomically modern human genome reported to date. The MA-1 mitochondrial genome belongs to haplogroup U, which has also been found at high frequency among Upper Palaeolithic...

  12. Hidden Disadvantage: Asian American Unemployment and the Great Recession. EPI Issue Brief #277

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Algernon

    2010-01-01

    Nationally, Asian Americans have the lowest unemployment rate of the major racial groups. But a closer look at unemployment by educational attainment shows a more complicated picture. Asian Americans with bachelor's degrees have a higher unemployment rate than whites with comparable education, but Asian American high school dropouts are more…

  13. Asian student migration to Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, J; Hawthorne, L

    1996-01-01

    "This paper presents an overview of Asian student migration to Australia, together with an analysis of political and educational aspects of the overseas student programme. It focuses on some significant consequences of this flow for Australia. The characteristics of key student groups are contrasted to provide some perspective of the diversity of historical and cultural backgrounds, with the source countries of Malaysia, Indonesia and PRC [China] selected as case studies. Since the issue of PRC students in Australia has attracted considerable public attention and policy consideration, particular focus is placed on their experience." (SUMMARY IN FRE AND SPA) PMID:12291796

  14. Comparison of measures of marker informativeness for ancestry and admixture mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding Lili

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Admixture mapping is a powerful gene mapping approach for an admixed population formed from ancestral populations with different allele frequencies. The power of this method relies on the ability of ancestry informative markers (AIMs to infer ancestry along the chromosomes of admixed individuals. In this study, more than one million SNPs from HapMap databases and simulated data have been interrogated in admixed populations using various measures of ancestry informativeness: Fisher Information Content (FIC, Shannon Information Content (SIC, F statistics (FST, Informativeness for Assignment Measure (In, and the Absolute Allele Frequency Differences (delta, δ. The objectives are to compare these measures of informativeness to select SNP markers for ancestry inference, and to determine the accuracy of AIM panels selected by each measure in estimating the contributions of the ancestors to the admixed population. Results FST and In had the highest Spearman correlation and the best agreement as measured by Kappa statistics based on deciles. Although the different measures of marker informativeness performed comparably well, analyses based on the top 1 to 10% ranked informative markers of simulated data showed that In was better in estimating ancestry for an admixed population. Conclusions Although millions of SNPs have been identified, only a small subset needs to be genotyped in order to accurately predict ancestry with a minimal error rate in a cost-effective manner. In this article, we compared various methods for selecting ancestry informative SNPs using simulations as well as SNP genotype data from samples of admixed populations and showed that the In measure estimates ancestry proportion (in an admixed population with lower bias and mean square error.

  15. Inferring Geographic Coordinates of Origin for Europeans Using Small Panels of Ancestry Informative Markers

    OpenAIRE

    Petros Drineas; Jamey Lewis; Peristera Paschou

    2010-01-01

    Recent large-scale studies of European populations have demonstrated the existence of population genetic structure within Europe and the potential to accurately infer individual ancestry when information from hundreds of thousands of genetic markers is used. In fact, when genomewide genetic variation of European populations is projected down to a two-dimensional Principal Components Analysis plot, a surprising correlation with actual geographic coordinates of self-reported ancestry has been r...

  16. Neither self-reported ethnicity nor declared family origin are reliable indicators of genomic ancestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Bruna Ribeiro de Andrade; D'Elia, Maria Paula Barbieri; Amador, Marcos Antônio Trindade; Santos, Ney Pereira Carneiro; Santos, Sidney Emanuel Batista; da Cruz Castelli, Erick; Witkin, Steven S; Miot, Hélio Amante; Miot, Luciane Donida Bartoli; da Silva, Márcia Guimarães

    2016-06-01

    Ancestry information can be useful in investigations of diseases with a genetic or infectious background. As the Brazilian population is highly admixed physical traits tend to be poor indicators of ancestry. The assessment of ancestry by ancestry informative markers (AIMs) can exclude the subjectivity of self-declared ethnicity and reported family origin. We aimed to evaluate the reliability of self-reported ethnicity or reported family origin as indicators of genomic ancestry in a female population from the Southeast of Brazil. Two cohorts were included: 404 women asked to self-report their ethnicity (Pop1) and 234 women asked to report their family's origin (Pop2). Identification of AIMs was performed using a panel of 61 markers and results were plotted against parental populations-Amerindian, Western European and Sub-Saharan African-using Structure v2.3.4. In Pop1 57.4 % of women self-reported as white, 34.6 % as brown and 8.0 % as black. Median global European, Amerindian and African contributions were 66.8, 12.6 and 16.6 %. In Pop2, 66.4 % of women declared European origin, 23.9 % African origin and 26.9 % Amerindian. Median global European, Amerindian and African contributions were 80.8, 7.3 and 7.6 %, respectively. Only 31.0 and 21.0 % of the global variation in African and European contributions, respectively, could be explained by self-reported ethnicity and reported family origin only accounted for 20.0 and 5.0 % of the variations observed in African and European ancestries, respectively. Amerindian ancestry did not influence self-reported ethnicity or declared family origin. Neither self-reported ethnicity nor declared family origin are reliable indicators of genomic ancestry in these Brazilian populations. PMID:26984822

  17. The Genomic Ancestry of Individuals from Different Geographical Regions of Brazil Is More Uniform Than Expected

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena, Sérgio D. J.; Di Pietro, Giuliano; Fuchshuber-Moraes, Mateus; Genro, Julia Pasqualini; Hutz, Mara H.; Kehdy, Fernanda de Souza Gomes; Kohlrausch, Fabiana; Magno, Luiz Alexandre Viana; Montenegro, Raquel Carvalho; Moraes, Manoel Odorico; de Moraes, Maria Elisabete Amaral; de Moraes, Milene Raiol; Ojopi, Élida B.; Perini, Jamila A.; Racciopi, Clarice; Ribeiro-dos-Santos, Ândrea Kely Campos; Rios-Santos, Fabrício; Romano-Silva, Marco A.; Sortica, Vinicius A.; Suarez-Kurtz, Guilherme

    2011-01-01

    Based on pre-DNA racial/color methodology, clinical and pharmacological trials have traditionally considered the different geographical regions of Brazil as being very heterogeneous. We wished to ascertain how such diversity of regional color categories correlated with ancestry. Using a panel of 40 validated ancestry-informative insertion-deletion DNA polymorphisms we estimated individually the European, African and Amerindian ancestry components of 934 self-categorized White, Brown or Black Brazilians from the four most populous regions of the Country. We unraveled great ancestral diversity between and within the different regions. Especially, color categories in the northern part of Brazil diverged significantly in their ancestry proportions from their counterparts in the southern part of the Country, indicating that diverse regional semantics were being used in the self-classification as White, Brown or Black. To circumvent these regional subjective differences in color perception, we estimated the general ancestry proportions of each of the four regions in a form independent of color considerations. For that, we multiplied the proportions of a given ancestry in a given color category by the official census information about the proportion of that color category in the specific region, to arrive at a “total ancestry” estimate. Once such a calculation was performed, there emerged a much higher level of uniformity than previously expected. In all regions studied, the European ancestry was predominant, with proportions ranging from 60.6% in the Northeast to 77.7% in the South. We propose that the immigration of six million Europeans to Brazil in the 19th and 20th centuries - a phenomenon described and intended as the “whitening of Brazil” - is in large part responsible for dissipating previous ancestry dissimilarities that reflected region-specific population histories. These findings, of both clinical and sociological importance for Brazil, should also be

  18. Neither self-reported ethnicity nor declared family origin are reliable indicators of genomic ancestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Bruna Ribeiro de Andrade; D'Elia, Maria Paula Barbieri; Amador, Marcos Antônio Trindade; Santos, Ney Pereira Carneiro; Santos, Sidney Emanuel Batista; da Cruz Castelli, Erick; Witkin, Steven S; Miot, Hélio Amante; Miot, Luciane Donida Bartoli; da Silva, Márcia Guimarães

    2016-06-01

    Ancestry information can be useful in investigations of diseases with a genetic or infectious background. As the Brazilian population is highly admixed physical traits tend to be poor indicators of ancestry. The assessment of ancestry by ancestry informative markers (AIMs) can exclude the subjectivity of self-declared ethnicity and reported family origin. We aimed to evaluate the reliability of self-reported ethnicity or reported family origin as indicators of genomic ancestry in a female population from the Southeast of Brazil. Two cohorts were included: 404 women asked to self-report their ethnicity (Pop1) and 234 women asked to report their family's origin (Pop2). Identification of AIMs was performed using a panel of 61 markers and results were plotted against parental populations-Amerindian, Western European and Sub-Saharan African-using Structure v2.3.4. In Pop1 57.4 % of women self-reported as white, 34.6 % as brown and 8.0 % as black. Median global European, Amerindian and African contributions were 66.8, 12.6 and 16.6 %. In Pop2, 66.4 % of women declared European origin, 23.9 % African origin and 26.9 % Amerindian. Median global European, Amerindian and African contributions were 80.8, 7.3 and 7.6 %, respectively. Only 31.0 and 21.0 % of the global variation in African and European contributions, respectively, could be explained by self-reported ethnicity and reported family origin only accounted for 20.0 and 5.0 % of the variations observed in African and European ancestries, respectively. Amerindian ancestry did not influence self-reported ethnicity or declared family origin. Neither self-reported ethnicity nor declared family origin are reliable indicators of genomic ancestry in these Brazilian populations.

  19. Genetic dating indicates that the Asian-Papuan admixture through Eastern Indonesia corresponds to the Austronesian expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shuhua; Pugach, Irina; Stoneking, Mark; Kayser, Manfred; Jin, Li

    2012-03-20

    Although the Austronesian expansion had a major impact on the languages of Island Southeast Asia, controversy still exists over the genetic impact of this expansion. The coexistence of both Asian and Papuan genetic ancestry in Eastern Indonesia provides a unique opportunity to address this issue. Here, we estimate recombination breakpoints in admixed genomes based on genome-wide SNP data and date the genetic admixture between populations of Asian vs. Papuan ancestry in Eastern Indonesia. Analyses of two genome-wide datasets indicate an eastward progression of the Asian admixture signal in Eastern Indonesia beginning about 4,000-3,000 y ago, which is in excellent agreement with inferences based on Austronesian languages. The average rate of spread of Asian genes in Eastern Indonesia was about 0.9 km/y. Our results indicate that the Austronesian expansion had a strong genetic as well as linguistic impact on Island Southeast Asia, and they significantly advance our understanding of the biological origins of human populations in the Asia-Pacific region. PMID:22396590

  20. Paraoxonase1 Genetic Polymorphisms in a Mixed Ancestry African Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Macharia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Paraoxonase 1 (PON1 activity is markedly influenced by coding polymorphisms, Q/R at position 192 and M/L at position 55 of the PON1 gene. We investigated the frequencies of these polymorphisms and their effects on PON1 and antioxidant activities in 844 South African mixed ancestry individuals. Genotyping was done using allele-specific TaqMan technology, PON1 activities were measured using paraoxon and phenylacetate, oxidative status was determined by measuring the antioxidant activities of ferric reducing antioxidant power and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, and lipid peroxidation markers included malondialdehyde and oxidized LDL. The frequencies of Q192R and L55M were 47.6% and 28.8%, respectively, and the most common corresponding alleles were 192R (60.4% and 55M (82.6%. The Q192 was significantly associated with 5.8 units’ increase in PON1 concentration and 15.4 units’ decrease in PONase activity after adjustment for age, sex, BMI, and diabetes, with suggestion of differential effects by diabetes status. The PON1 L55 variant was associated with none of the measured indices. In conclusion, we have shown that the Q192R polymorphism is a determinant of both PON1 concentration and activity and this association appeared to be enhanced in subjects with diabetes.

  1. Resolving the ancestry of Austronesian-speaking populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Pedro A; Trejaut, Jean A; Rito, Teresa; Cavadas, Bruno; Hill, Catherine; Eng, Ken Khong; Mormina, Maru; Brandão, Andreia; Fraser, Ross M; Wang, Tse-Yi; Loo, Jun-Hun; Snell, Christopher; Ko, Tsang-Ming; Amorim, António; Pala, Maria; Macaulay, Vincent; Bulbeck, David; Wilson, James F; Gusmão, Leonor; Pereira, Luísa; Oppenheimer, Stephen; Lin, Marie; Richards, Martin B

    2016-03-01

    There are two very different interpretations of the prehistory of Island Southeast Asia (ISEA), with genetic evidence invoked in support of both. The "out-of-Taiwan" model proposes a major Late Holocene expansion of Neolithic Austronesian speakers from Taiwan. An alternative, proposing that Late Glacial/postglacial sea-level rises triggered largely autochthonous dispersals, accounts for some otherwise enigmatic genetic patterns, but fails to explain the Austronesian language dispersal. Combining mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), Y-chromosome and genome-wide data, we performed the most comprehensive analysis of the region to date, obtaining highly consistent results across all three systems and allowing us to reconcile the models. We infer a primarily common ancestry for Taiwan/ISEA populations established before the Neolithic, but also detected clear signals of two minor Late Holocene migrations, probably representing Neolithic input from both Mainland Southeast Asia and South China, via Taiwan. This latter may therefore have mediated the Austronesian language dispersal, implying small-scale migration and language shift rather than large-scale expansion. PMID:26781090

  2. Sensitive detection of chromosomal segments of distinct ancestry in admixed populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alkes L Price

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Identifying the ancestry of chromosomal segments of distinct ancestry has a wide range of applications from disease mapping to learning about history. Most methods require the use of unlinked markers; but, using all markers from genome-wide scanning arrays, it should in principle be possible to infer the ancestry of even very small segments with exquisite accuracy. We describe a method, HAPMIX, which employs an explicit population genetic model to perform such local ancestry inference based on fine-scale variation data. We show that HAPMIX outperforms other methods, and we explore its utility for inferring ancestry, learning about ancestral populations, and inferring dates of admixture. We validate the method empirically by applying it to populations that have experienced recent and ancient admixture: 935 African Americans from the United States and 29 Mozabites from North Africa. HAPMIX will be of particular utility for mapping disease genes in recently admixed populations, as its accurate estimates of local ancestry permit admixture and case-control association signals to be combined, enabling more powerful tests of association than with either signal alone.

  3. Amerind ancestry, socioeconomic status and the genetics of type 2 diabetes in a Colombian population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desmond D Campbell

    Full Text Available The "thrifty genotype" hypothesis proposes that the high prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D in Native Americans and admixed Latin Americans has a genetic basis and reflects an evolutionary adaptation to a past low calorie/high exercise lifestyle. However, identification of the gene variants underpinning this hypothesis remains elusive. Here we assessed the role of Native American ancestry, socioeconomic status (SES and 21 candidate gene loci in susceptibility to T2D in a sample of 876 T2D cases and 399 controls from Antioquia (Colombia. Although mean Native American ancestry is significantly higher in T2D cases than in controls (32% v 29%, this difference is confounded by the correlation of ancestry with SES, which is a stronger predictor of disease status. Nominally significant association (P1 was observed for markers selected from previous T2D genome-wide association studies, consistent with a role for Old World variants in susceptibility to T2D in Latin Americans. No association was found to the only known Native American-specific gene variant previously associated with T2D in a Mexican sample (rs9282541 in ABCA1. An admixture mapping scan with 1,536 ancestry informative markers (AIMs did not identify genome regions with significant deviation of ancestry in Antioquia. Exclusion analysis indicates that this scan rules out ~95% of the genome as harboring loci with ancestry risk ratios >1.22 (at P < 0.05.

  4. The Asian Student in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, Dolores Muga

    1988-01-01

    Educators can better meet the educational needs of Asian American students through greater awareness and understanding of their cultural heritage. Teachers and counselors can best serve these students through specific strategies, such as directive rather than group counseling, that reflect sensitivity to cultural differences and that will foster…

  5. Asian American Career Development: A Qualitative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouad, Nadya A.; Kantamneni, Neeta; Smothers, Melissa K.; Chen, Yung-Lung; Fitzpatrick, Mary; Terry, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    This study used a modified version of consensual qualitative research design to examine how contextual, cultural, and personal variables influence the career choices of a diverse group of 12 Asian Americans. Seven domains of influences on career choices emerged including family, culture, external factors, career goals, role models, work values,…

  6. British Asians, Covert Racism and Exclusion in English Professional Football

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Kilvington

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the exclusion of British Asians from English professional football. At present, there are eight British Asians with professional contracts out of over 4,000 players. This statistic is increasingly noteworthy when we consider that, first, football is extremely popular across British Asian groups and, second, Britain is home to over 4 million British Asians (the UK’s largest minority ethnic group. Following a brief introduction as well as a discussion of racisms, the work will provide an overview of the barriers that have excluded British Asian football communities from the professional ranks. In particular, I shall discuss some of the key obstacles including overt racism, ‘all-Asian’ football structures and cultural differences. However, the focus of this paper is to explore the impact and persist-ing nature of institutional racism within football. With the aid of oral testimonies, this work shall present British Asian experiences of covert racism in the game. I shall therefore demonstrate that coaches/scouts (as gatekeepers have a tendency to stereotype and racialize British Asian footballers, thus exacerbating the British Asian football exclusion. Finally, the article will offer policy recommendations for reform. These recommendations, which have come out of primary and secondary research, aspire to challenge institutional racism and combat inequalities within the game.

  7. Asian Pacific Islander American Students and U.S. High Schools. Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This fact sheet highlights the statistics of the status of the Asian Pacific Islander American high school students living in the continental United States in terms of: population; graduation, dropouts, and preparedness; schools, segregation, and teacher quality; special education and learning disabilities; and English language learners. Because…

  8. Asian American-Pacific American Relations: The Asian American Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Sucheng

    This paper examines the migration and settlement history of Asians into the United States and the interaction of the major Asian immigrants with each other and with American society. An important thesis is that, because the differences between Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders are much greater than the similarities between them, they should no…

  9. Cutaneous Melanoma in Asians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Yub; Yun, Sook Jung

    2016-09-01

    Malignant melanoma is a rare disease in Asians but potentially the most aggressive form of skin cancer worldwide. It can occur in any melanocyte-containing anatomic site. Four main cutaneous melanoma subtypes are recognized: lentigo maligna melanoma, superficial spreading melanoma, acral lentiginous melanoma (ALM), and nodular melanoma. Generally, excessive exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation increases the risk of melanoma. The exception is ALM, which is the most common melanoma subtype in Asians and is not associated with UV radiation. ALM presents as dark brownish to black, irregular maculopatches, nodules, or ulcers on the palms, soles, and nails. The lesions may be misdiagnosed as more benign lesions, such as warts, ulcers, hematomas, foreign bodies, or fungal infections, especially in amelanotic acral melanomas where black pigments are absent. The aim of this brief review is to improve understanding and the rate of early detection thereby reducing mortality, especially regarding cutaneous melanoma in Asians. PMID:27689028

  10. Rationale and design of South Asian Birth Cohort (START: a Canada-India collaborative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Sonia S

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background People who originate from the Indian subcontinent (South Asians suffer among the highest rates of type 2 diabetes in the world. Prior evidence suggests that metabolic risk factors develop early in life and are influenced by maternal and paternal behaviors, the intrauterine environment, and genetic factors. The South Asian Birth Cohort Study (START will investigate the environmental and genetic basis of adiposity among 750 South Asian offspring recruited from highly divergent environments, namely, rural and urban India and urban Canada. Methods Detailed information on health behaviors including diet and physical activity, and blood samples for metabolic parameters and DNA are collected from pregnant women of South Asian ancestry who are free of significant chronic disease. They also undergo a provocative test to diagnose impaired glucose tolerance and gestational diabetes. At delivery, cord blood and newborn anthropometric indices (i.e. birth weight, length, head circumference and skin fold thickness are collected. The mother and growing offspring are followed prospectively and information on the growth trajectory, adiposity and health behaviors will be collected annually up to age 3 years. Our aim is to recruit a minimum of 750 mother-infant pairs equally divided between three divergent environments: rural India, urban India, and Canada. Summary The START cohort will increase our understanding of the environmental and genetic determinants of adiposity and related metabolic abnormalities among South Asians living in India and Canada.

  11. The continental lithosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Artemieva, Irina

    2009-01-01

    The goal of the present study is to extract non-thermal signal from seismic tomography models in order to distinguish compositional variations in the continental lithosphere and to examine if geochemical and petrologic constraints on global-scale compositional variations in the mantle are consist......The goal of the present study is to extract non-thermal signal from seismic tomography models in order to distinguish compositional variations in the continental lithosphere and to examine if geochemical and petrologic constraints on global-scale compositional variations in the mantle...... are consistent with modern geophysical data. In the lithospheric mantle of the continents, seismic velocity variations of a non-thermal origin (calculated from global Vs seismic tomography data [Grand S.P., 2002. Mantle shear-wave tomography and the fate of subducted slabs. Philosophical Transactions...... of the Royal Society of London. Series A, 360, 2475–2491.; Shapiro N.M., Ritzwoller M.H. 2002. Monte-Carlo inversion for a global shear velocity model of the crust and upper mantle. Geophysical Journal International 151, 1–18.] and lithospheric temperatures [Artemieva I.M., Mooney W.D., 2001. Thermal structure...

  12. Palate Shape and Depth: A Shape-Matching and Machine Learning Method for Estimating Ancestry from Human Skeletal Remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Christopher A; Zhang, Kang; Manhein, Mary H; Li, Xin

    2015-09-01

    In the past, assessing ancestry relied on the naked eye and observer experience; however, replicability has become an important aspect of such analysis through the application of metric techniques. This study examines palate shape and assesses ancestry quantitatively using a 3D digitizer and shape-matching and machine learning methods. Palate curves and depths were recorded, processed, and tested for 376 individuals. Palate shape was an accurate indicator of ancestry in 58% of cases. Cluster analysis revealed that the parabolic, hyperbolic, and elliptical shapes are discrete from one another. Preliminary results indicate that palate depth in Hispanic individuals is greatest. Palate shape appears to be a useful indicator of ancestry, particularly when assessed by a computer. However, these data suggest that palate shape is not useful for assessing ancestry in Hispanic individuals. Although ancestry may be determined from palate shape, the use of multiple features is recommended and more reliable.

  13. Current Update in Asian Rhinoplasty

    OpenAIRE

    Clyde H. Ishii, MD, FACS

    2014-01-01

    Summary: There has been a tremendous growth of cosmetic surgery among Asians worldwide. Rhinoplasty is second only to blepharoplasty in terms of popularity among Asians regarding cosmetic surgical procedures. Most Asians seek to improve their appearance while maintaining the essential features of their ethnicity. There are considerable ethnic nasal and facial variations in this population alone. Successful rhinoplasty in Asians must take into account underlying anatomic differences between As...

  14. Patterns of ancestry, signatures of natural selection, and genetic association with stature in Western African pygmies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph P Jarvis

    Full Text Available African Pygmy groups show a distinctive pattern of phenotypic variation, including short stature, which is thought to reflect past adaptation to a tropical environment. Here, we analyze Illumina 1M SNP array data in three Western Pygmy populations from Cameroon and three neighboring Bantu-speaking agricultural populations with whom they have admixed. We infer genome-wide ancestry, scan for signals of positive selection, and perform targeted genetic association with measured height variation. We identify multiple regions throughout the genome that may have played a role in adaptive evolution, many of which contain loci with roles in growth hormone, insulin, and insulin-like growth factor signaling pathways, as well as immunity and neuroendocrine signaling involved in reproduction and metabolism. The most striking results are found on chromosome 3, which harbors a cluster of selection and association signals between approximately 45 and 60 Mb. This region also includes the positional candidate genes DOCK3, which is known to be associated with height variation in Europeans, and CISH, a negative regulator of cytokine signaling known to inhibit growth hormone-stimulated STAT5 signaling. Finally, pathway analysis for genes near the strongest signals of association with height indicates enrichment for loci involved in insulin and insulin-like growth factor signaling.

  15. Patterns of ancestry, signatures of natural selection, and genetic association with stature in Western African pygmies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Joseph P; Scheinfeldt, Laura B; Soi, Sameer; Lambert, Charla; Omberg, Larsson; Ferwerda, Bart; Froment, Alain; Bodo, Jean-Marie; Beggs, William; Hoffman, Gabriel; Mezey, Jason; Tishkoff, Sarah A

    2012-01-01

    African Pygmy groups show a distinctive pattern of phenotypic variation, including short stature, which is thought to reflect past adaptation to a tropical environment. Here, we analyze Illumina 1M SNP array data in three Western Pygmy populations from Cameroon and three neighboring Bantu-speaking agricultural populations with whom they have admixed. We infer genome-wide ancestry, scan for signals of positive selection, and perform targeted genetic association with measured height variation. We identify multiple regions throughout the genome that may have played a role in adaptive evolution, many of which contain loci with roles in growth hormone, insulin, and insulin-like growth factor signaling pathways, as well as immunity and neuroendocrine signaling involved in reproduction and metabolism. The most striking results are found on chromosome 3, which harbors a cluster of selection and association signals between approximately 45 and 60 Mb. This region also includes the positional candidate genes DOCK3, which is known to be associated with height variation in Europeans, and CISH, a negative regulator of cytokine signaling known to inhibit growth hormone-stimulated STAT5 signaling. Finally, pathway analysis for genes near the strongest signals of association with height indicates enrichment for loci involved in insulin and insulin-like growth factor signaling.

  16. Genetic evidence for a mitochondriate ancestry in the 'amitochondriate' flagellate Trimastix pyriformis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Hampl

    Full Text Available Most modern eukaryotes diverged from a common ancestor that contained the alpha-proteobacterial endosymbiont that gave rise to mitochondria. The 'amitochondriate' anaerobic protist parasites that have been studied to date, such as Giardia and Trichomonas harbor mitochondrion-related organelles, such as mitosomes or hydrogenosomes. Yet there is one remaining group of mitochondrion-lacking flagellates known as the Preaxostyla that could represent a primitive 'pre-mitochondrial' lineage of eukaryotes. To test this hypothesis, we conducted an expressed sequence tag (EST survey on the preaxostylid flagellate Trimastix pyriformis, a poorly-studied free-living anaerobe. Among the ESTs we detected 19 proteins that, in other eukaryotes, typically function in mitochondria, hydrogenosomes or mitosomes, 12 of which are found exclusively within these organelles. Interestingly, one of the proteins, aconitase, functions in the tricarboxylic acid cycle typical of aerobic mitochondria, whereas others, such as pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase and [FeFe] hydrogenase, are characteristic of anaerobic hydrogenosomes. Since Trimastix retains genetic evidence of a mitochondriate ancestry, we can now say definitively that all known living eukaryote lineages descend from a common ancestor that had mitochondria.

  17. Genetic evidence for a mitochondriate ancestry in the 'amitochondriate' flagellate Trimastix pyriformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampl, Vladimir; Silberman, Jeffrey D; Stechmann, Alexandra; Diaz-Triviño, Sara; Johnson, Patricia J; Roger, Andrew J

    2008-01-01

    Most modern eukaryotes diverged from a common ancestor that contained the alpha-proteobacterial endosymbiont that gave rise to mitochondria. The 'amitochondriate' anaerobic protist parasites that have been studied to date, such as Giardia and Trichomonas harbor mitochondrion-related organelles, such as mitosomes or hydrogenosomes. Yet there is one remaining group of mitochondrion-lacking flagellates known as the Preaxostyla that could represent a primitive 'pre-mitochondrial' lineage of eukaryotes. To test this hypothesis, we conducted an expressed sequence tag (EST) survey on the preaxostylid flagellate Trimastix pyriformis, a poorly-studied free-living anaerobe. Among the ESTs we detected 19 proteins that, in other eukaryotes, typically function in mitochondria, hydrogenosomes or mitosomes, 12 of which are found exclusively within these organelles. Interestingly, one of the proteins, aconitase, functions in the tricarboxylic acid cycle typical of aerobic mitochondria, whereas others, such as pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase and [FeFe] hydrogenase, are characteristic of anaerobic hydrogenosomes. Since Trimastix retains genetic evidence of a mitochondriate ancestry, we can now say definitively that all known living eukaryote lineages descend from a common ancestor that had mitochondria. PMID:18167542

  18. Genomic Insights into the Ancestry and Demographic History of South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homburger, Julian R; Moreno-Estrada, Andrés; Gignoux, Christopher R; Nelson, Dominic; Sanchez, Elena; Ortiz-Tello, Patricia; Pons-Estel, Bernardo A; Acevedo-Vasquez, Eduardo; Miranda, Pedro; Langefeld, Carl D; Gravel, Simon; Alarcón-Riquelme, Marta E; Bustamante, Carlos D

    2015-12-01

    South America has a complex demographic history shaped by multiple migration and admixture events in pre- and post-colonial times. Settled over 14,000 years ago by Native Americans, South America has experienced migrations of European and African individuals, similar to other regions in the Americas. However, the timing and magnitude of these events resulted in markedly different patterns of admixture throughout Latin America. We use genome-wide SNP data for 437 admixed individuals from 5 countries (Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Chile, and Argentina) to explore the population structure and demographic history of South American Latinos. We combined these data with population reference panels from Africa, Asia, Europe and the Americas to perform global ancestry analysis and infer the subcontinental origin of the European and Native American ancestry components of the admixed individuals. By applying ancestry-specific PCA analyses we find that most of the European ancestry in South American Latinos is from the Iberian Peninsula; however, many individuals trace their ancestry back to Italy, especially within Argentina. We find a strong gradient in the Native American ancestry component of South American Latinos associated with country of origin and the geography of local indigenous populations. For example, Native American genomic segments in Peruvians show greater affinities with Andean indigenous peoples like Quechua and Aymara, whereas Native American haplotypes from Colombians tend to cluster with Amazonian and coastal tribes from northern South America. Using ancestry tract length analysis we modeled post-colonial South American migration history as the youngest in Latin America during European colonization (9-14 generations ago), with an additional strong pulse of European migration occurring between 3 and 9 generations ago. These genetic footprints can impact our understanding of population-level differences in biomedical traits and, thus, inform future medical

  19. Genomic Insights into the Ancestry and Demographic History of South America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian R Homburger

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available South America has a complex demographic history shaped by multiple migration and admixture events in pre- and post-colonial times. Settled over 14,000 years ago by Native Americans, South America has experienced migrations of European and African individuals, similar to other regions in the Americas. However, the timing and magnitude of these events resulted in markedly different patterns of admixture throughout Latin America. We use genome-wide SNP data for 437 admixed individuals from 5 countries (Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Chile, and Argentina to explore the population structure and demographic history of South American Latinos. We combined these data with population reference panels from Africa, Asia, Europe and the Americas to perform global ancestry analysis and infer the subcontinental origin of the European and Native American ancestry components of the admixed individuals. By applying ancestry-specific PCA analyses we find that most of the European ancestry in South American Latinos is from the Iberian Peninsula; however, many individuals trace their ancestry back to Italy, especially within Argentina. We find a strong gradient in the Native American ancestry component of South American Latinos associated with country of origin and the geography of local indigenous populations. For example, Native American genomic segments in Peruvians show greater affinities with Andean indigenous peoples like Quechua and Aymara, whereas Native American haplotypes from Colombians tend to cluster with Amazonian and coastal tribes from northern South America. Using ancestry tract length analysis we modeled post-colonial South American migration history as the youngest in Latin America during European colonization (9-14 generations ago, with an additional strong pulse of European migration occurring between 3 and 9 generations ago. These genetic footprints can impact our understanding of population-level differences in biomedical traits and, thus, inform

  20. Asian oil demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This conference presentation examined global oil market development and the role of Asian demand. It discussed plateau change versus cyclical movement in the global oil market; supply and demand issues of OPEC and non-OPEC oil; if high oil prices reduce demand; and the Asian oil picture in the global context. Asian oil demand has accounted for about 50 per cent of the global incremental oil market growth. The presentation provided data charts in graphical format on global and Asia-Pacific incremental oil demand from 1990-2005; Asia oil demand growth for selected nations; real GDP growth in selected Asian countries; and, Asia-Pacific oil production and net import requirements. It also included charts in petroleum product demand for Asia-Pacific, China, India, Japan, and South Korea. Other data charts included key indicators for China's petroleum sector; China crude production and net oil import requirements; China's imports and the share of the Middle East; China's oil exports and imports; China's crude imports by source for 2004; China's imports of main oil products for 2004; India's refining capacity; India's product balance for net-imports and net-exports; and India's trade pattern of oil products. tabs., figs

  1. Asian Americans in Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnow, Stanley; Yoshihara, Nancy

    This booklet is a detailed primer on the Asian American experience in the United States covering history, family and acculturation, education, culture and the arts, economics, discrimination and violence, and politics. An introduction reviews some basic demographics and looks at racial issues in light of the riots in Los Angeles (California) in…

  2. Gifted Asian American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitano, Margie K.

    1997-01-01

    Presents an analysis of personal, socialization, and structural factors affecting the lifespan achievement of 15 Asian American women identified as gifted. Their families' intense focus on educational achievement and hard work are described, and the need for better preparation to overcome obstacles in the workplace is discussed. (Author/CR)

  3. Asian Institute of Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Naval Research, London (England).

    The Asian Institute of Technology is a notable success for that part of the world where success is not too common. It is an excellent example of not only the initiative and organization of a technical university, but also of the success of a foreign aid program. This report gives details of this organization and accomplishments. (Author)

  4. Asian Yellow Goat Cloned

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ It was released on August 24,2005 by Prof. CHEN Dayuan (Da-Yuan Chen) from the CAS Institute of Zoology that the first success in cloning the Asian Yellow Goat by nuclear transfer had recently been achieved in east China's Shandong Province.

  5. Profile: Asian Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Program Grants Other Grants Planning and Evaluation Grantee Best Practices Asian American Asthma Cancer Chronic Liver Disease Diabetes ... Phone: 240-453-2882 Office of Minority Health Resource Center Toll Free: 1-800-444-6472 / Fax: 301-251-2160 Email: info@minorityhealth.hhs.gov Stay Connected ... FOIA | Accessibility | Site Map | Contact Us | Viewers & Players

  6. Malaysian Cinema, Asian Film

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heide, van der William

    2002-01-01

    This title series departs from traditional studies of national cinema by accentuating the intercultural and intertextual links between Malaysian films and Asian (as well as European and American) film practices. Using cross-cultural analysis, the author characterizes Malaysia as a pluralist society

  7. Asian fungal fermented food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nout, M.J.R.; Aidoo, K.E.

    2010-01-01

    In Asian countries, there is a long history of fermentation of foods and beverages. Diverse micro-organisms, including bacteria, yeasts and moulds, are used as starters, and a wide range of ingredients can be made into fermented foods. The main raw materials include cereals, leguminous seeds, vegeta

  8. Continental Drift”: Translation and Kimiko Hahn’s Transcultural Poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiwen Mai

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the expanding discourse of transnational Asian American Studies, this essay studies Kimiko Hahn, particularly her engagement with East Asian traditions in her poetry, and shows how her work exemplifies a transcultural Asian American literature that requires reading beyond the domestic boundaries of the United States. Drawing on Walter Benjamin's and Gayatri Spivak’s translation studies, it examines how Hahn critiques the assimilationist representation of Asian women in translations of Asian texts such as Arthur Waley’s version of Lady Murasaki’s The Tale of Genji. It then reads how, based on her thoughts about literary translation, Hahn experiments with creative practices of “translation,” including a retranslation of Ezra Pound’s Chinese images and untranslation of zuihitsu. Rewriting Ezra Pound’s Chinese images, Hahn reconstructs women’s voice in ancient Chinese writings. Undoing the simplistic interpretation of the classical Japanese form zuihitsu, her restorative untranslation of the form makes connections between the discursive agency of ancient Asian women writers and contemporary women poets. Thus, Hahn’s translational writing reveals a poetics of “continental drift,” a poetics that calls attention to the necessity of reading Asian American literature in transnational and transcultural contexts.

  9. Articulating Asianness: Young Asian Dutch and non-homeland Asian popular media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.A. Kartosen; E.S.H. Tan

    2013-01-01

    This study explores Asian Dutch young people’s ethnic-cultural identification in relation to their media consumption, and specifically their consumption of popular media from Asian countries other than their country of origin. A survey was conducted among 486 Asian Dutch (18-35 years old). In concur

  10. Admixture mapping of end stage kidney disease genetic susceptibility using estimated mutual information ancestry informative markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geiger Dan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The question of a genetic contribution to the higher prevalence and incidence of end stage kidney disease (ESKD among African Americans (AA remained unresolved, until recent findings using admixture mapping pointed to the association of a genomic locus on chromosome 22 with this disease phenotype. In the current study we utilize this example to demonstrate the utility of applying a multi-step admixture mapping approach. Methods A multi-step case only admixture mapping study, consisted of the following steps was designed: 1 Assembly of the sample dataset (ESKD AA; 2 Design of the estimated mutual information ancestry informative markers (n = 2016 screening panel 3; Genotyping the sample set whose size was determined by a power analysis (n = 576 appropriate for the initial screening panel; 4 Inference of local ancestry for each individual and identification of regions with increased AA ancestry using two different ancestry inference statistical approaches; 5 Enrichment of the initial screening panel; 6 Power analysis of the enriched panel 7 Genotyping of additional samples. 8 Re-analysis of the genotyping results to identify a genetic risk locus. Results The initial screening phase yielded a significant peak using the ADMIXMAP ancestry inference program applying case only statistics. Subgroup analysis of 299 ESKD patients with no history of diabetes yielded peaks using both the ANCESTRYMAP and ADMIXMAP ancestry inference programs. The significant peak was found on chromosome 22. Genotyping of additional ancestry informative markers on chromosome 22 that took into account linkage disequilibrium in the ancestral populations, and the addition of samples increased the statistical significance of the finding. Conclusions A multi-step admixture mapping analysis of AA ESKD patients replicated the finding of a candidate risk locus on chromosome 22, contributing to the heightened susceptibility of African Americans to develop non

  11. Southeast continental shelf studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzel, D.W.

    1979-02-12

    Research efforts on the southeast continental shelf currently describe the manner in which fluctuations in Gulf Stream motion influence biological and chemical processes. Current meter arrays are maintained in the Georgia Bight and in Onslow Bay to describe general circulation patterns and to identify forcing functions. biological studies describe processes affecting temporal and spatial variations on the shelf and have attempted to track the biological history of intruded Gulf Stream water masses. Chemical studies examine the influence of both physical and biological variables on the distribution and fate of trace elements. The current state of knowledge is reviewed, the hypotheses developed and are described, a rationale for testing these hypotheses is given. 1 figure, 1 table.

  12. NSF Continental Lithosphere Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayhew, Michael; MacGregor, Ian

    For several months the Continental Lithosphere Program (CL) of the National Science Foundation has been subject to a major review. The process was stimulated by a series of budget setbacks over the past few years. Although Presidential budget requests have been very favorable for the Division of Earth Sciences (EAR), and there has been strong support within the National Science Foundation and Congress, actual appropriations by Congress have been disappointing.In each year the final allocation to EAR has been affected by external factors beyond the control of the Foundation. In the four fiscal years from 1986 through 1989 the factors include reductions tied to the Gramm-Rudman deficit reduction measures, congressional reaction to the October 1987 stock market crash, and two years of protection for the Ocean Sciences part of the NSF budget that was paid for from the budgets of the Atmospheric and Earth Sciences divisions.

  13. Ancestry Estimation in Forensic Anthropology: Geometric Morphometric versus Standard and Nonstandard Interlandmark Distances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katherine Spradley, M; Jantz, Richard L

    2016-07-01

    Standard cranial measurements are commonly used for ancestry estimation; however, 3D digitizers have made cranial landmark data collection and geometric morphometric (GM) analyses more popular within forensic anthropology. Yet there has been little focus on which data type works best. The goal of the present research is to test the discrimination ability of standard and nonstandard craniometric measurements and data derived from GM analysis. A total of 31 cranial landmarks were used to generate 465 interlandmark distances, including a subset of 20 commonly used measurements, and to generate principal component scores from procrustes coordinates. All were subjected to discriminant function analysis to ascertain which type of data performed best for ancestry estimation of American Black and White and Hispanic males and females. The nonstandard interlandmark distances generated the highest classification rates for females (90.5%) and males (88.2%). Using nonstandard interlandmark distances over more commonly used measurements leads to better ancestry estimates for our current population structure.

  14. Ancestry Estimation in Forensic Anthropology: Geometric Morphometric versus Standard and Nonstandard Interlandmark Distances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katherine Spradley, M; Jantz, Richard L

    2016-07-01

    Standard cranial measurements are commonly used for ancestry estimation; however, 3D digitizers have made cranial landmark data collection and geometric morphometric (GM) analyses more popular within forensic anthropology. Yet there has been little focus on which data type works best. The goal of the present research is to test the discrimination ability of standard and nonstandard craniometric measurements and data derived from GM analysis. A total of 31 cranial landmarks were used to generate 465 interlandmark distances, including a subset of 20 commonly used measurements, and to generate principal component scores from procrustes coordinates. All were subjected to discriminant function analysis to ascertain which type of data performed best for ancestry estimation of American Black and White and Hispanic males and females. The nonstandard interlandmark distances generated the highest classification rates for females (90.5%) and males (88.2%). Using nonstandard interlandmark distances over more commonly used measurements leads to better ancestry estimates for our current population structure. PMID:27364267

  15. Translating Population Difference: The Use and Re-Use of Genetic Ancestry in Brazilian Cancer Genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbon, Sahra

    2016-01-01

    In the past ten years, there has been an expansion of scientific interest in population genetics linked to both understanding histories of human migration and the way that population difference and diversity may account for and/or be implicated in health and disease. In this article, I examine how particular aspects of a globalizing research agenda related to population differences and genetic ancestry are taken up in locally variant ways in the nascent field of Brazilian cancer genetics. Drawing on a broad range of ethnographic data from clinical and nonclinical contexts in the south of Brazil, I examine the ambiguities that attention to genetic ancestry generates, so revealing the disjunctured and diverse ways a global research agenda increasingly orientated to questions of population difference and genetic ancestry is being used and reused.

  16. Pharmacogenomic diversity among Brazilians: Influence of ancestry, self-reported Color and geographical origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme eSuarez-Kurtz

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available By virtue of being the product of the genetic admixture of three ancestral roots: Europeans, Africans and Amerindians, the present day Brazilian population displays very high levels of genomic diversity, which have important pharmacogenetic/-genomic (PGx implications. Recognition of this fact has prompted the creation of the Brazilian Pharmacogenomics Network (Refargen, a nationwide consortium of research groups, with the mission to provide leadership in PGx research and education in Brazil, with a population heath impact. Here, we present original data and review published results from a Refargen comprehensive study of the distribution of PGx polymorphisms in a representative cohort of the Brazilian people, comprising 1,034 healthy, unrelated adults, self-identified as white, brown or black, according to the Color categories adopted by the Brazilian Census. Multinomial log-linear regression analysis was applied to infer the statistical association between allele, genotype and haplotype distributions among Brazilians (response variables and self-reported Color, geographical region and biogeographical ancestry (explanatory variables, whereas Wright´s FST statistics was used to assess the extent of PGx divergence among different strata of the Brazilian population. Major PGx implications of these findings are: first, extrapolation of data from relatively well-defined ethnic groups is clearly not applicable to the majority of Brazilians; second, the frequency distribution of polymorphisms in several pharmacogenes of clinical relevance (e.g. ABCB1, CYP3A5, CYP2C9, VKORC varies continuously among Brazilians and is not captured by race/Color self-identification; third, the intrinsic heterogeneity of the Brazilian population must be acknowledged in the design and interpretation of PGx studies in order to avoid spurious conclusions based on improper matching of study cohorts.

  17. Genetic analysis of ancestry, admixture and selection in Bolivian and Totonac populations of the New World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watkins W

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Populations of the Americas were founded by early migrants from Asia, and some have experienced recent genetic admixture. To better characterize the native and non-native ancestry components in populations from the Americas, we analyzed 815,377 autosomal SNPs, mitochondrial hypervariable segments I and II, and 36 Y-chromosome STRs from 24 Mesoamerican Totonacs and 23 South American Bolivians. Results and Conclusions We analyzed common genomic regions from native Bolivian and Totonac populations to identify 324 highly predictive Native American ancestry informative markers (AIMs. As few as 40–50 of these AIMs perform nearly as well as large panels of random genome-wide SNPs for predicting and estimating Native American ancestry and admixture levels. These AIMs have greater New World vs. Old World specificity than previous AIMs sets. We identify highly-divergent New World SNPs that coincide with high-frequency haplotypes found at similar frequencies in all populations examined, including the HGDP Pima, Maya, Colombian, Karitiana, and Surui American populations. Some of these regions are potential candidates for positive selection. European admixture in the Bolivian sample is approximately 12%, though individual estimates range from 0–48%. We estimate that the admixture occurred ~360–384 years ago. Little evidence of European or African admixture was found in Totonac individuals. Bolivians with pre-Columbian mtDNA and Y-chromosome haplogroups had 5–30% autosomal European ancestry, demonstrating the limitations of Y-chromosome and mtDNA haplogroups and the need for autosomal ancestry informative markers for assessing ancestry in admixed populations.

  18. The Intersections of Race, Ethnicity, and Gender: Asian American Attitudes toward Affirmative Action

    OpenAIRE

    Tomisek, Ashley Marie

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the potential differences in attitudes that Asian American ethnic groups, and men and women within those groups, have toward Affirmative Action policies in the United States. My research question was: How do ethnicity and gender effect Asian American attitudes toward Affirmative Action? Using the Pilot National Asian American Political Survey (PNAAPS), 2000-2001, as well as conducting semi-structured interviews, I found that there are differences in attitudes toward Aff...

  19. Asian American Women: Stereotyping Asian Women; Chinese Immigrants; Issei--the First Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, Robert B.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    The first of the three parts of this article provides a brief outline of the stereotypes applied to Asian American Women and a useful backdrop on the other two parts. The second part on Chinese immigrants focuses on the strong family ties of tgis ethnic group. The third and last part concerns the quietness and modesty of the Issei--equated with…

  20. Asian Media Productions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This work consists of 12 essays on different aspects of Asian media by Japanese, European, and American scholars, many of whom have themselves been involved in the production of media forms. Working in the fields of anthropology, media and cultural studies, and on the basis of hands-on research, ......, they have written a book on the social practices and cultural attitudes of people producing, reading, watching and listening to different kinds of media in Japan, China, Taiwan, Indonesia, Vietnam, Singapore and India.......This work consists of 12 essays on different aspects of Asian media by Japanese, European, and American scholars, many of whom have themselves been involved in the production of media forms. Working in the fields of anthropology, media and cultural studies, and on the basis of hands-on research...

  1. Is Asian Currency Unit Attractive to East Asian Economies?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin Zhang; Fan He

    2007-01-01

    Pegging the RMB exchange rate to the Asian currency unit (ACU) has not, at least in the short term, been proved a better solution than pegging to the US dollar or pegging to a G-3 (US$, Japaneseyen and euro) currency basket. Although the Asian currency unit can help Asian economies to keep the relative price of regional currencies stable, the cost of joining a formal regional monetary cooperation is the relinquishment of the autonomy of their domestic policies. Asian monetary cooperation needs to provide more potential benefits if it is to attract Asian economies. We argue that Asian monetary cooperation should be designed to solve the problem of regional trade imbalance, and regional exchange rate policy coordination should be adopted as the first step towards exchange rate cooperation.

  2. Leading Causes of Death among Asian American Subgroups (2003-2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine G Hastings

    Full Text Available Our current understanding of Asian American mortality patterns has been distorted by the historical aggregation of diverse Asian subgroups on death certificates, masking important differences in the leading causes of death across subgroups. In this analysis, we aim to fill an important knowledge gap in Asian American health by reporting leading causes of mortality by disaggregated Asian American subgroups.We examined national mortality records for the six largest Asian subgroups (Asian Indian, Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese and non-Hispanic Whites (NHWs from 2003-2011, and ranked the leading causes of death. We calculated all-cause and cause-specific age-adjusted rates, temporal trends with annual percent changes, and rate ratios by race/ethnicity and sex. Rankings revealed that as an aggregated group, cancer was the leading cause of death for Asian Americans. When disaggregated, there was notable heterogeneity. Among women, cancer was the leading cause of death for every group except Asian Indians. In men, cancer was the leading cause of death among Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese men, while heart disease was the leading cause of death among Asian Indians, Filipino and Japanese men. The proportion of death due to heart disease for Asian Indian males was nearly double that of cancer (31% vs. 18%. Temporal trends showed increased mortality of cancer and diabetes in Asian Indians and Vietnamese; increased stroke mortality in Asian Indians; increased suicide mortality in Koreans; and increased mortality from Alzheimer's disease for all racial/ethnic groups from 2003-2011. All-cause rate ratios revealed that overall mortality is lower in Asian Americans compared to NHWs.Our findings show heterogeneity in the leading causes of death among Asian American subgroups. Additional research should focus on culturally competent and cost-effective approaches to prevent and treat specific diseases among these growing diverse populations.

  3. A genome-wide association study of breast cancer in women of African ancestry

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Fang; Chen, Gary K.; Stram, Daniel O.; Millikan, Robert C.; Ambrosone, Christine B.; John, Esther M; Bernstein, Leslie; Zheng, Wei; Palmer, Julie R.; Jennifer J Hu; Rebbeck, Tim R.; Ziegler, Regina G.; Nyante, Sarah; Bandera, Elisa V.; Sue A Ingles

    2012-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in diverse populations are needed to reveal variants that are more common and/or limited to defined populations. We conducted a GWAS of breast cancer in women of African ancestry, with genotyping of > 1,000,000 SNPs in 3,153 African American cases and 2,831 controls, and replication testing of the top 66 associations in an additional 3,607 breast cancer cases and 11,330 controls of African ancestry. Two of the 66 SNPs replicated (p < 0.05) in stage 2, wh...

  4. Asian American Adolescent Identity

    OpenAIRE

    Ohm, Julie Juhye

    1999-01-01

    The formation of ego identity in Asian American late adolescents attending Virginia Tech was examined within the frameworks of Erikson's psychosocial theory and Berry, Trimble, and Olmedo's model of acculturation. Ego identity was measured using the Achieved sub-scale of the Revised Version of the Extended Objective Measure of Ego Identity Status, an instrument based on the theoretical constructs of Erikson. Ethnic identity was measured using the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure and Ameri...

  5. Asian material culture

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    This exciting, richly illustrated volume gives the reader a unique insight into the materiality of Asian cultures and the ways in which objects and practices can simultaneously embody and exhibit aesthetic and functional characteristics, everyday and spiritual aspirations. Material culture is examined from a variety of perspectives and the authors rigorously investigate the creation and meaning of material object, and their associated practices within the context of time and place. All chapte...

  6. Palaeomagnetism and the continental crust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piper, J.D.A.

    1987-01-01

    This book is an introduction to palaeomagnetism offering treatment of theory and practice. It analyzes the palaeomagnetic record over the whole of geological time, from the Archaean to the Cenozoic, and goes on to examine the impact of past geometries and movements of the continental crust at each geological stage. Topics covered include theory of rock and mineral magnetism, field and laboratory methods, growth and consolidation of the continental crust in Archaean and Proterozoic times, Palaeozoic palaeomagnetism and the formation of Pangaea, the geomagnetic fields, continental movements, configurations and mantle convection.

  7. Dynamics of continental accretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moresi, L; Betts, P G; Miller, M S; Cayley, R A

    2014-04-10

    Subduction zones become congested when they try to consume buoyant, exotic crust. The accretionary mountain belts (orogens) that form at these convergent plate margins have been the principal sites of lateral continental growth through Earth's history. Modern examples of accretionary margins are the North American Cordilleras and southwest Pacific subduction zones. The geologic record contains abundant accretionary orogens, such as the Tasmanides, along the eastern margin of the supercontinent Gondwana, and the Altaïdes, which formed on the southern margin of Laurasia. In modern and ancient examples of long-lived accretionary orogens, the overriding plate is subjected to episodes of crustal extension and back-arc basin development, often related to subduction rollback and transient episodes of orogenesis and crustal shortening, coincident with accretion of exotic crust. Here we present three-dimensional dynamic models that show how accretionary margins evolve from the initial collision, through a period of plate margin instability, to re-establishment of a stable convergent margin. The models illustrate how significant curvature of the orogenic system develops, as well as the mechanism for tectonic escape of the back-arc region. The complexity of the morphology and the evolution of the system are caused by lateral rollback of a tightly arcuate trench migrating parallel to the plate boundary and orthogonally to the convergence direction. We find geological and geophysical evidence for this process in the Tasmanides of eastern Australia, and infer that this is a recurrent and global phenomenon. PMID:24670638

  8. A meta-analysis identifies new loci associated with body mass index in individuals of African ancestry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monda, Keri L.; Chen, Gary K.; Taylor, Kira C.; Palmer, Cameron; Edwards, Todd L.; Lange, Leslie A.; Ng, Maggie C. Y.; Adeyemo, Adebowale A.; Allison, Matthew A.; Bielak, Lawrence F.; Chen, Guanjie; Graff, Mariaelisa; Irvin, Marguerite R.; Rhie, Suhn K.; Li, Guo; Liu, Yongmei; Liu, Youfang; Lu, Yingchang; Nalls, Michael A.; Sun, Yan V.; Wojczynski, Mary K.; Yanek, Lisa R.; Aldrich, Melinda C.; Ademola, Adeyinka; Amos, Christopher I.; Bandera, Elisa V.; Bock, Cathryn H.; Britton, Angela; Broeckel, Ulrich; Cai, Quiyin; Caporaso, Neil E.; Carlson, Chris S.; Carpten, John; Casey, Graham; Chen, Wei-Min; Chen, Fang; Chen, Yii-Der I.; Chiang, Charleston W. K.; Coetzee, Gerhard A.; Demerath, Ellen; Deming-Halverson, Sandra L.; Driver, Ryan W.; Dubbert, Patricia; Feitosa, Mary F.; Feng, Ye; Freedman, Barry I.; Gillanders, Elizabeth M.; Gottesman, Omri; Guo, Xiuqing; Haritunians, Talin; Harris, Tamara; Harris, Curtis C.; Hennis, Anselm J. M.; Hernandez, Dena G.; McNeill, Lorna H.; Howard, Timothy D.; Howard, Barbara V.; Howard, Virginia J.; Johnson, Karen C.; Kang, Sun J.; Keating, Brendan J.; Kolb, Suzanne; Kuller, Lewis H.; Kutlar, Abdullah; Langefeld, Carl D.; Lettre, Guillaume; Lohman, Kurt; Lotay, Vaneet; Lyon, Helen; Manson, Joann E.; Maixner, William; Meng, Yan A.; Monroe, Kristine R.; Morhason-Bello, Imran; Murphy, Adam B.; Mychaleckyj, Josyf C.; Nadukuru, Rajiv; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Nayak, Uma; N'Diaye, Amidou; Nemesure, Barbara; Wu, Suh-Yuh; Leske, M. Cristina; Neslund-Dudas, Christine; Neuhouser, Marian; Nyante, Sarah; Ochs-Balcom, Heather; Ogunniyi, Adesola; Ogundiran, Temidayo O.; Ojengbede, Oladosu; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.; Palmer, Julie R.; Ruiz-Narvaez, Edward A.; Palmer, Nicholette D.; Press, Michael F.; Rampersaud, Evandine; Rasmussen-Torvik, Laura J.; Rodriguez-Gil, Jorge L.; Salako, Babatunde; Schadt, Eric E.; Schwartz, Ann G.; Shriner, Daniel A.; Siscovick, David; Smith, Shad B.; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Speliotes, Elizabeth K.; Spitz, Margaret R.; Sucheston, Lara; Taylor, Herman; Tayo, Bamidele O.; Tucker, Margaret A.; Van Den Berg, David J.; Edwards, Digna R. Velez; Wang, Zhaoming; Wiencke, John K.; Winkler, Thomas W.; Witte, John S.; Wrensch, Margaret; Wu, Xifeng; Yang, James J.; Levin, Albert M.; Young, Taylor R.; Zakai, Neil A.; Cushman, Mary; Zanetti, Krista A.; Zhao, Jing Hua; Zhao, Wei; Zheng, Yonglan; Zhou, Jie; Ziegler, Regina G.; Zmuda, Joseph M.; Fernandes, Jyotika K.; Gilkeson, Gary S.; Kamen, Diane L.; Hunt, Kelly J.; Spruill, Ida J.; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Ambs, Stefan; Arnett, Donna K.; Atwood, Larry; Becker, Diane M.; Berndt, Sonja I.; Bernstein, Leslie; Blot, William J.; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Bottinger, Erwin P.; Bowden, Donald W.; Burke, Gregory; Chanock, Stephen J.; Cooper, Richard S.; Ding, Jingzhong; Duggan, David; Evans, Michele K.; Fox, Caroline; Garvey, W. Timothy; Bradfield, Jonathan P.; Hakonarson, Hakon; Grant, Struan F. A.; Hsing, Ann; Chu, Lisa; Hu, Jennifer J.; Huo, Dezheng; Ingles, Sue A.; John, Esther M.; Jordan, Joanne M.; Kabagambe, Edmond K.; Kardia, Sharon L. R.; Kittles, Rick A.; Goodman, Phyllis J.; Klein, Eric A.; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Le Marchand, Loic; Liu, Simin; McKnight, Barbara; Millikan, Robert C.; Mosley, Thomas H.; Padhukasahasram, Badri; Williams, L. Keoki; Patel, Sanjay R.; Peters, Ulrike; Pettaway, Curtis A.; Peyser, Patricia A.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Redline, Susan; Rotimi, Charles N.; Rybicki, Benjamin A.; Sale, Michele M.; Schreiner, Pamela J.; Signorello, Lisa B.; Singleton, Andrew B.; Stanford, Janet L.; Strom, Sara S.; Thun, Michael J.; Vitolins, Mara; Zheng, Wei; Moore, Jason H.; Williams, Scott M.; Ketkar, Shamika; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Zonderman, Alan B.; Kooperberg, Charles; Papanicolaou, George J.; Henderson, Brian E.; Reiner, Alex P.; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Loos, Ruth J. F.; North, Kari E.; Haiman, Christopher A.

    2013-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 36 loci associated with body mass index (BMI), predominantly in populations of European ancestry. We conducted a meta-analysis to examine the association of >3.2 million SNPs with BMI in 39,144 men and women of African ancestry and followed up t

  9. Complex Ancestries of Lager-Brewing Hybrids Were Shaped by Standing Variation in the Wild Yeast Saccharomyces eubayanus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Peris

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Lager-style beers constitute the vast majority of the beer market, and yet, the genetic origin of the yeast strains that brew them has been shrouded in mystery and controversy. Unlike ale-style beers, which are generally brewed with Saccharomyces cerevisiae, lagers are brewed at colder temperatures with allopolyploid hybrids of Saccharomyces eubayanus x S. cerevisiae. Since the discovery of S. eubayanus in 2011, additional strains have been isolated from South America, North America, Australasia, and Asia, but only interspecies hybrids have been isolated in Europe. Here, using genome sequence data, we examine the relationships of these wild S. eubayanus strains to each other and to domesticated lager strains. Our results support the existence of a relatively low-diversity (π = 0.00197 lineage of S. eubayanus whose distribution stretches across the Holarctic ecozone and includes wild isolates from Tibet, new wild isolates from North America, and the S. eubayanus parents of lager yeasts. This Holarctic lineage is closely related to a population with higher diversity (π = 0.00275 that has been found primarily in South America but includes some widely distributed isolates. A second diverse South American population (π = 0.00354 and two early-diverging Asian subspecies are more distantly related. We further show that no single wild strain from the Holarctic lineage is the sole closest relative of lager yeasts. Instead, different parts of the genome portray different phylogenetic signals and ancestry, likely due to outcrossing and incomplete lineage sorting. Indeed, standing genetic variation within this wild Holarctic lineage of S. eubayanus is responsible for genetic variation still segregating among modern lager-brewing hybrids. We conclude that the relationships among wild strains of S. eubayanus and their domesticated hybrids reflect complex biogeographical and genetic processes.

  10. Complex Ancestries of Lager-Brewing Hybrids Were Shaped by Standing Variation in the Wild Yeast Saccharomyces eubayanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peris, David; Langdon, Quinn K; Moriarty, Ryan V; Sylvester, Kayla; Bontrager, Martin; Charron, Guillaume; Leducq, Jean-Baptiste; Landry, Christian R; Libkind, Diego; Hittinger, Chris Todd

    2016-07-01

    Lager-style beers constitute the vast majority of the beer market, and yet, the genetic origin of the yeast strains that brew them has been shrouded in mystery and controversy. Unlike ale-style beers, which are generally brewed with Saccharomyces cerevisiae, lagers are brewed at colder temperatures with allopolyploid hybrids of Saccharomyces eubayanus x S. cerevisiae. Since the discovery of S. eubayanus in 2011, additional strains have been isolated from South America, North America, Australasia, and Asia, but only interspecies hybrids have been isolated in Europe. Here, using genome sequence data, we examine the relationships of these wild S. eubayanus strains to each other and to domesticated lager strains. Our results support the existence of a relatively low-diversity (π = 0.00197) lineage of S. eubayanus whose distribution stretches across the Holarctic ecozone and includes wild isolates from Tibet, new wild isolates from North America, and the S. eubayanus parents of lager yeasts. This Holarctic lineage is closely related to a population with higher diversity (π = 0.00275) that has been found primarily in South America but includes some widely distributed isolates. A second diverse South American population (π = 0.00354) and two early-diverging Asian subspecies are more distantly related. We further show that no single wild strain from the Holarctic lineage is the sole closest relative of lager yeasts. Instead, different parts of the genome portray different phylogenetic signals and ancestry, likely due to outcrossing and incomplete lineage sorting. Indeed, standing genetic variation within this wild Holarctic lineage of S. eubayanus is responsible for genetic variation still segregating among modern lager-brewing hybrids. We conclude that the relationships among wild strains of S. eubayanus and their domesticated hybrids reflect complex biogeographical and genetic processes. PMID:27385107

  11. The Relationship between Skin Symptoms and Allergic Reactions to Asian Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, Shinji; Onishi, Kazunari; Mu, Haosheng; Yokoyama, Yae; Hosoda, Takenobu; Okamoto, Mikizo; Kurozawa, Youichi

    2012-01-01

    Asian dust events result from displacement of atmospheric pollutants from the Chinese and Mongolian deserts, causing associated health issues throughout Northeast Asia. We investigated the relationship between skin symptoms in Asian dust events and contact allergy to Asian dust and associated metals. Increases in atmospheric levels of heavy metals such as Ni, Al, and Fe occurred during the severe Asian dust event on March 21, 2010. We conducted a case–control study (n = 62) with patch testing to compare skin symptoms on an Asian dust day with metal allergic reactions. Skin symptoms were observed in 18/62 subjects. Nine subjects with skin symptoms (group A) and 11 without (group B) were patch tested for six metals and Asian dust particles. Metal and dust samples were applied to the subjects’ backs for 2 days and the reactions were scored according to the International Contact Dermatitis Research Group guidelines. Differences in the positive rates between the groups were analyzed. Skin reactions to ferric chloride (p = 0.015), aluminum chloride (p = 0.047), nickel sulfate (p = 0.008), and Asian dust particles (p = 0.047) were more common in group A than in group B. Skin symptoms during Asian dust events may be allergic reactions to Asian dust particle-bound metals. PMID:23222253

  12. The Relationship between Skin Symptoms and Allergic Reactions to Asian Dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youichi Kurozawa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Asian dust events result from displacement of atmospheric pollutants from the Chinese and Mongolian deserts, causing associated health issues throughout Northeast Asia. We investigated the relationship between skin symptoms in Asian dust events and contact allergy to Asian dust and associated metals. Increases in atmospheric levels of heavy metals such as Ni, Al, and Fe occurred during the severe Asian dust event on March 21, 2010. We conducted a case–control study (n = 62 with patch testing to compare skin symptoms on an Asian dust day with metal allergic reactions. Skin symptoms were observed in 18/62 subjects. Nine subjects with skin symptoms (group A and 11 without (group B were patch tested for six metals and Asian dust particles. Metal and dust samples were applied to the subjects’ backs for 2 days and the reactions were scored according to the International Contact Dermatitis Research Group guidelines. Differences in the positive rates between the groups were analyzed. Skin reactions to ferric chloride (p = 0.015, aluminum chloride (p = 0.047, nickel sulfate (p = 0.008, and Asian dust particles (p = 0.047 were more common in group A than in group B. Skin symptoms during Asian dust events may be allergic reactions to Asian dust particle-bound metals.

  13. Immigrant Asian Indians in the U.S.: A Population at Risk for Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Ranjita

    2009-01-01

    Asian Indians are the third largest and fastest growing Asian subgroup in the U.S. and considered the model minority due to their high education and income level. Unlike other Asian immigrants, they are a more heterogeneous group with a genetic predisposition for diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Current national surveys are incapable of…

  14. Streetwise Model Minority: Hip Hop and Afro-Asian Encounters

    OpenAIRE

    Woo, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines Hip Hop as a social space with mixed implications for contemporary Asian-Black relations. Through establishing common grounds based on mutual interests and shared cultural identities, Hip Hop bears the potential to facilitate meaningful cross-racial exchange. Concurrently it may exacerbate existing tensions, shaped by dominant cultural politics that have situated these groups in tandem. The growing emergence of Asian American rappers has brought accusations of cultural mis...

  15. South Asian populations in Canada: migration and mental health

    OpenAIRE

    Islam, Farah; Khanlou, Nazilla; Tamim, Hala

    2014-01-01

    Background South Asian populations are the largest visible minority group in Canada; however, there is very little information on the mental health of these populations. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence rates and characteristics of mental health outcomes for South Asian first-generation immigrant and second-generation Canadian-born populations. Methods The Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) 2011 was used to calculate the estimated prevalence rates of the follow...

  16. Comparison of flight design of Asian honeybee drones

    OpenAIRE

    Radloff, Sarah; Randall Hepburn, H.; Koeniger, Gudrun

    2003-01-01

    International audience The excess power index (integrating body dry mass, thorax-to-body dry mass and wing surface area) was compared in drones of seven Asian Apis species. There are two statistically distinct groups of drones: drones of the dwarf honeybees form one class, all other Asian species belong to the second. Drones of dwarf honeybees have a 36% ergonomic advantage in power availability and 20% advantage in available excess power over all other drones. Comparisons of flight dimens...

  17. Reassessment of stable continental regions of Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, R.L.

    2011-01-01

    Probabilistic seismic-hazard assessments of the central and eastern United States (CEUS) require estimates of the size of the largest possible earthquake (Mmax). In most of the CEUS, sparse historical seismicity does not provide a record of moderate and large earthquakes that is sufficient to constrain Mmax. One remedy for the insufficient catalog is to combine the catalog of moderate to large CEUS earthquakes with catalogs from other regions worldwide that are tectonically analogous to the CEUS (stable continental regions, or SCRs). After the North America SCR, the largest contribution of earthquakes to this global SCR catalog comes from a Southeast Asian SCR that extends from Indochina to southeasternmost Russia. Integration and interpretation of recently published geological and geophysical results show that most of these Southeast Asian earthquakes occurred in areas exposing abundant alkaline igneous rocks and extensional faults, both of Neogene age (last 23 million years). The implied Neogene extension precludes classification of the areas as SCR crust. The extension also reduces the number of moderate and large Southeast Asian historical earthquakes that are available to constrain CEUS Mmax by 86 percent, from 43 to six.

  18. Continental United States Hurricane Strikes

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Continental U.S. Hurricane Strikes Poster is our most popular poster which is updated annually. The poster includes all hurricanes that affected the U.S. since...

  19. Heavy Drinking, Poor Mental Health, and Substance Use Among Asian Americans in the NLAAS: A Gender-Based Comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Alice W.; Lee, Christina S.; Iwamoto, Derek K.

    2012-01-01

    The severity of heavy drinking among Asian Americans has often been dismissed because of relatively low rates compared to other racial/ethnic groups. However, higher depression and suicide rates among Asian Americans and their association to alcohol use suggest serious detrimental effects of heavy alcohol use among Asian Americans. Gender differences in heavy drinking have been documented among other immigrant based ethnic minorities, little is known of this pattern for Asian Americans. The p...

  20. Common genetic determinants of breast-cancer risk in East Asian women: a collaborative study of 23 637 breast cancer cases and 25 579 controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wei; Zhang, Ben; Cai, Qiuyin; Sung, Hyuna; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Shi, Jiajun; Choi, Ji-Yeob; Long, Jirong; Dennis, Joe; Humphreys, Manjeet K.; Wang, Qin; Lu, Wei; Gao, Yu-Tang; Li, Chun; Cai, Hui; Park, Sue K.; Yoo, Keun-Young; Noh, Dong-Young; Han, Wonshik; Dunning, Alison M.; Benitez, Javier; Vincent, Daniel; Bacot, Francois; Tessier, Daniel; Kim, Sung-Won; Lee, Min Hyuk; Lee, Jong Won; Lee, Jong-Young; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Zheng, Ying; Wang, Wenjin; Ji, Bu-Tian; Matsuo, Keitaro; Ito, Hidemi; Iwata, Hiroji; Tanaka, Hideo; Wu, Anna H.; Tseng, Chiu-chen; Van Den Berg, David; Stram, Daniel O.; Teo, Soo Hwang; Yip, Cheng Har; Kang, In Nee; Wong, Tien Y.; Shen, Chen-Yang; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Huang, Chiun-Sheng; Hou, Ming-Feng; Hartman, Mikael; Miao, Hui; Lee, Soo Chin; Putti, Thomas Choudary; Muir, Kenneth; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Stewart-Brown, Sarah; Siriwanarangsan, Pornthep; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Shen, Hongbing; Chen, Kexin; Wu, Pei-Ei; Ren, Zefang; Haiman, Christopher A.; Sueta, Aiko; Kim, Mi Kyung; Khoo, Ui Soon; Iwasaki, Motoki; Pharoah, Paul D.P.; Wen, Wanqing; Hall, Per; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Easton, Douglas F.; Kang, Daehee

    2013-01-01

    In a consortium including 23 637 breast cancer patients and 25 579 controls of East Asian ancestry, we investigated 70 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 67 independent breast cancer susceptibility loci recently identified by genome-wide association studies (GWASs) conducted primarily in European-ancestry populations. SNPs in 31 loci showed an association with breast cancer risk at P < 0.05 in a direction consistent with that reported previously. Twenty-one of them remained statistically significant after adjusting for multiple comparisons with the Bonferroni-corrected significance level of <0.0015. Eight of the 70 SNPs showed a significantly different association with breast cancer risk by estrogen receptor (ER) status at P < 0.05. With the exception of rs2046210 at 6q25.1, the seven other SNPs showed a stronger association with ER-positive than ER-negative cancer. This study replicated all five genetic risk variants initially identified in Asians and provided evidence for associations of breast cancer risk in the East Asian population with nearly half of the genetic risk variants initially reported in GWASs conducted in European descendants. Taken together, these common genetic risk variants explain ∼10% of excess familial risk of breast cancer in Asian populations. PMID:23535825

  1. -induced continental warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamae, Youichi; Watanabe, Masahiro; Kimoto, Masahide; Shiogama, Hideo

    2014-11-01

    In this the second of a two-part study, we examine the physical mechanisms responsible for the increasing contrast of the land-sea surface air temperature (SAT) in summertime over the Far East, as observed in recent decades and revealed in future climate projections obtained from a series of transient warming and sensitivity experiments conducted under the umbrella of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5. On a global perspective, a strengthening of land-sea SAT contrast in the transient warming simulations of coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation models is attributed to an increase in sea surface temperature (SST). However, in boreal summer, the strengthened contrast over the Far East is reproduced only by increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration. In response to SST increase alone, the tropospheric warming over the interior of the mid- to high-latitude continents including Eurasia are weaker than those over the surrounding oceans, leading to a weakening of the land-sea SAT contrast over the Far East. Thus, the increasing contrast and associated change in atmospheric circulation over East Asia is explained by CO2-induced continental warming. The degree of strengthening of the land-sea SAT contrast varies in different transient warming scenarios, but is reproduced through a combination of the CO2-induced positive and SST-induced negative contributions to the land-sea contrast. These results imply that changes of climate patterns over the land-ocean boundary regions are sensitive to future scenarios of CO2 concentration pathways including extreme cases.

  2. Comparison of efficacy and safety of two starting insulin regimens in non-Asian, Asian Indian, and East Asian patients with type 2 diabetes: a post hoc analysis of the PARADIGM study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Linong; Min, Kyung Wan; Oliveira, Juliana; Lew, Thomas; Duan, Ran

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to explore the efficacy and safety of insulin lispro mix 25 (25% insulin lispro and 75% insulin lispro protamine suspension [LM25]) or insulin glargine plus insulin lispro (G+L) in insulin-naïve patients with type 2 diabetes from different racial/ethnic groups. Methods Three subgroups from the PARADIGM study were analyzed post hoc: non-Asian (n=130), Asian Indian (n=106), and East Asian (n=89). Results All subgroups recorded glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) reductions: non-Asian (LM25, −2.07%; G+L, −2.05%), Asian Indian (LM25, −1.75%; G+L, −1.60%), and East Asian (LM25, −2.03%; G+L, −1.76%); end point HbA1c values were higher in Asian Indians and East Asians than in non-Asians. Fewer Asian Indians (LM25, 43.2%; G+L, 29.2%) and East Asians (LM25, 37.5%; G+L, 36.1%) reached HbA1c <7% versus non-Asians (LM25, 51.7%; G+L, 48.1%); differences were not significant (P=0.12 and P=0.06, respectively). The mean total daily insulin dose (U/kg) for non-Asians was 0.67 (LM25) and 0.61 (G+L), for Asian Indians was 0.91 (LM25) and 0.90 (G+L), and for East Asians was 0.53 (LM25) and 0.59 (G+L). The ratio of mealtime to total insulin dose in the G+L arm for non-Asians was 0.19±0.23, for Asian Indians was 0.33±0.25, and for East Asians was 0.34±0.27. Overall incidence (%) of hypoglycemia in non-Asians was 94.1 (LM25) and 91.8 (G+L), in Asian Indians was 90.4 (LM25) and 88.5 (G+L), and in East Asians was 69.8 (LM25) and 77.3 (G+L). Conclusion Asian Indians showed least improvement in glycemic HbA1c reduction despite greater insulin use. East Asians and non-Asians achieved similar HbA1c reduction in the LM25 arm with a lower rate of hypoglycemia. Asians required more mealtime insulin coverage than non-Asians. This study added important insight into the effect of ethnicity on insulin treatment outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes.

  3. Comparison of efficacy and safety of two starting insulin regimens in non-Asian, Asian Indian, and East Asian patients with type 2 diabetes: a post hoc analysis of the PARADIGM study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji L

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Linong Ji,1 Kyung Wan Min,2 Juliana Oliveira,3 Thomas Lew,4 Ran Duan3 1Department of Endocrinology, Peking University People's Hospital, Beijing, People's Republic of China; 2Department of Endocrinology, Eulji Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 3Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, USA; 4Eli Lilly and Company, Taipei, Songshan District, Taiwan Objective: The objective of this study was to explore the efficacy and safety of insulin lispro mix 25 (25% insulin lispro and 75% insulin lispro protamine suspension [LM25] or insulin glargine plus insulin lispro (G+L in insulin-naïve patients with type 2 diabetes from different racial/ethnic groups. Methods: Three subgroups from the PARADIGM study were analyzed post hoc: non-Asian (n=130, Asian Indian (n=106, and East Asian (n=89. Results: All subgroups recorded glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c reductions: non-Asian (LM25, -2.07%; G+L, -2.05%, Asian Indian (LM25, -1.75%; G+L, -1.60%, and East Asian (LM25, -2.03%; G+L, -1.76%; end point HbA1c values were higher in Asian Indians and East Asians than in non-Asians. Fewer Asian Indians (LM25, 43.2%; G+L, 29.2% and East Asians (LM25, 37.5%; G+L, 36.1% reached HbA1c ,7% versus non-Asians (LM25, 51.7%; G+L, 48.1%; differences were not significant (P=0.12 and P=0.06, respectively. The mean total daily insulin dose (U/kg for non-Asians was 0.67 (LM25 and 0.61 (G+L, for Asian Indians was 0.91 (LM25 and 0.90 (G+L, and for East Asians was 0.53 (LM25 and 0.59 (G+L. The ratio of mealtime to total insulin dose in the G+L arm for non-Asians was 0.19±0.23, for Asian Indians was 0.33±0.25, and for East Asians was 0.34±0.27. Overall incidence (% of hypoglycemia in non-Asians was 94.1 (LM25 and 91.8 (G+L, in Asian Indians was 90.4 (LM25 and 88.5 (G+L, and in East Asians was 69.8 (LM25 and 77.3 (G+L. Conclusion: Asian Indians showed least improvement in glycemic HbA1c reduction despite greater insulin use. East Asians and non-Asians achieved similar HbA1c reduction in the

  4. Two ancient human genomes reveal Polynesian ancestry among the indigenous Botocudos of Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malaspinas, Anna-Sapfo; Lao, Oscar; Schroeder, Hannes;

    2014-01-01

    find that their genomic ancestry is Polynesian, with no detectable Native American component. Radiocarbon analysis of the skulls shows that the individuals had died prior to the beginning of the 19th century. Our findings could either represent genomic evidence of Polynesians reaching South America...

  5. South Asian Cluster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionel Sergiu Pirju

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at presenting the South Asian cluster composed of India, Indonesia, Iran and Malaysia, the intercultural values that characterizes it, the supported leadership style and tracing the main macroeconomic considerations which characterizes them. The research is synchronic, analysing the contemporary situation of these countries without reference to their evolution in time, by using the positivist paradigm that explains the reality at one point. It will be analysed the overall cluster with the existing interactions between the countries that composes it, while the article being one of information will avoid building recommendation, or new theories.

  6. Variation in APOL1 Contributes to Ancestry-Level Differences in HDLc-Kidney Function Association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Rebecca Bentley

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Low levels of high-density cholesterol (HDLc accompany chronic kidney disease, but the association between HDLc and the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR in the general population is unclear. We investigated the HDLc-eGFR association in nondiabetic Han Chinese (HC, n=1100, West Africans (WA, n=1497, and African Americans (AA, n=1539. There were significant differences by ancestry: HDLc was positively associated with eGFR in HC (β=0.13, P<0.0001, but negatively associated among African ancestry populations (WA: −0.19, P<0.0001; AA: −0.09, P=0.02. These differences were also seen in nationally-representative NHANES data (among European Americans: 0.09, P=0.005; among African Americans −0.14, P=0.03. To further explore the findings in African ancestry populations, we investigated the role of an African ancestry-specific nephropathy risk variant, rs73885319, in the gene encoding HDL-associated APOL1. Among AA, an inverse HDLc-eGFR association was observed only with the risk genotype (−0.38 versus 0.001; P=0.03. This interaction was not seen in WA. In summary, counter to expectation, an inverse HDLc-eGFR association was observed among those of African ancestry. Given the APOL1 × HDLc interaction among AA, genetic factors may contribute to this paradoxical association. Notably, these findings suggest that the unexplained mechanism by which APOL1 affects kidney-disease risk may involve HDLc.

  7. Social Anxiety and Mental Health Service Use Among Asian American High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brice, Chad; Masia Warner, Carrie; Okazaki, Sumie; Ma, Pei-Wen Winnie; Sanchez, Amanda; Esseling, Petra; Lynch, Chelsea

    2015-10-01

    Asian American adults endorse more symptoms of social anxiety (SA) on self-report measures than European Americans, but demonstrate lower prevalence rates of SA disorder in epidemiological studies. These divergent results create ambiguity concerning the mental health needs of Asian Americans. The present study is the first to investigate this issue in adolescents through assessment of self-reported SA in Asian American high school students. Parent and self-ratings of impairment related to SA and self-reported mental health service use for SA were also measured. Asian American students endorsed a greater number of SA symptoms and scored in the clinical range more frequently than other ethnic groups. Also, Asian American and Latino students endorsed more school impairment related to SA than other ethnic groups. No differences in parent-reported impairment or service utilization were identified. Implications for future research and treatment for SA among Asian American adolescents are discussed.

  8. Racial stereotypes and interracial attraction: phenotypic prototypicality and perceived attractiveness of Asians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Clara L; Chan, Joy F; Kaiser, Cheryl R

    2011-10-01

    What does it take to find a member of a different race attractive? In this research, we suggest that for Whites, attraction to Asians may be based, in part, on stereotypes and variations in Asians' racial appearance. Study 1 reveals that Asians are stereotyped as being more feminine and less masculine than other racial groups-characteristics considered appealing for women but not for men to possess. Study 2 examines how variation in racial appearance, phenotypic prototypicality (PP), shapes the degree to which Asians are gender stereotyped and how PP relates to perceptions of attractiveness. Higher PP Asian men are perceived as being less masculine and less physically attractive than lower PP Asian men. These findings inform theory on how within-group variation in racial appearance affects stereotyping and other social outcomes.

  9. Ethnocentric approach to address South Asian health issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, A

    2012-09-01

    South Asian populations have distinct healthcare requirements to other ethnic demographics. Epidemiologically they constitute a high-risk group for many public health diseases such as cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease and diabetes mellitus. Despite individuals of South Asian backgrounds encompassing many individual countries, cultures, religions and backgrounds they share many common health concerns that are poorly tackled in established models of healthcare delivery. To successfully address this burgeoning public health burden, it is important for healthcare professionals and providers to appreciate the need for an ethnocentric approach to South Asian health requirements. Key stakeholders need to understand the need for an integrated ethnocentric approach to challenge the poor health status of this population. Appreciation of the socio-cultural dimension to South Asian healthcare requirements should help guide targeted and focused strategies to improve the outlook for this unique population at high public health risk. PMID:22753671

  10. Grupo operativo como estratégia pedagógica em um curso graduação em enfermagem: um continente para as vivências dos alunos quartanistas Grupo operativo como estrategia pedagógica en un curso de graduación en enfermería: un continente para las vivencias de los alumnos del cuarto ano Operative group as a pedagogical strategy in a nursing graduation course: a continent for the fourth-year students' experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roselma Lucchese

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo oferecer um espaço para a expressão vivencial do aluno de quarto ano de graduação em enfermagem. Espaço operacionalizado por meio da técnica de grupo operativo, no qual os sujeitos do estudo, centrados na tarefa trocaram experiências e avaliaram sua participação nos grupos. Para compreender o vivencial dos alunos optou-se pela pesquisa qualitativa, utilizando-se como método a pesquisa-ação. A problemática do estudo envolveu o conceito de que a aprendizagem é um processo de socialização que requer mudanças, sendo mobilizadora de sentimentos do aprendiz. O grupo operativo funcionou como espaço continente das vivências dos alunos que explicitaram sentimentos mobilizados em seu processo de formação, impossíveis de serem ignorados pelo educador em enfermagem.Eate estudio tuvo como obetivo ofrecer un espacio para la expresión vivencial del alumno de cuarto año de la graduación en enfermería. Espacio operacionalizado por medio de la técnica de grupo operativo, en el cual los sujetos el estudio, centrados en la tares, intercambiaron experiencias y evaluaron su participación en los grupos. Para comprender el vivencial de los alumnos fue elegida la pesquisa cualitativa, utilizándose como método la pesquisa-acción. La problemática del estudio implicó el concepto de que el aprendizaje es un proceso de socialización que requiere cambios, siendo capaz de mobilizar los sentimientos del aprendiz. El grupo operativo funcionó como um continente de las vivencias de los alumnos que explicitaron sentimientos estos conocidos por el educador en enfermería.The objetive of this study is to offer a space for the fourth-year students of the nursing school to express their experiences. A space was put in operation by the use of an operative group technique, and the subjects of the study,. centered in the task, exchange experiences and evaluate their participation in the groups. To understand the students

  11. South Asian Families in Diaspora

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    2008-01-01

      South Asian Family in Diaspora: Retreat from marriage, myth or reality?   This paper proposes to explore the dynamics of close ties in the South Asian families in the Nordic countries, especially Denmark through intimate partnership formation in the context of late modern societal discourse...

  12. PETROCHINA TOPS ASIAN COMPETITIVENESS RANKING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    PetroChina, the largest oil producer in China, ranks first in a competitiveness report of listed Asian enterprises recently published by the Research Institute of Boao Forum for Asia. The oil giant tops the ranks in the Asian Competitiveness: Annual Repor

  13. Admixture in Latin America: geographic structure, phenotypic diversity and self-perception of ancestry based on 7,342 individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Ruiz-Linares

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The current genetic makeup of Latin America has been shaped by a history of extensive admixture between Africans, Europeans and Native Americans, a process taking place within the context of extensive geographic and social stratification. We estimated individual ancestry proportions in a sample of 7,342 subjects ascertained in five countries (Brazil, Chile, Colombia, México and Perú. These individuals were also characterized for a range of physical appearance traits and for self-perception of ancestry. The geographic distribution of admixture proportions in this sample reveals extensive population structure, illustrating the continuing impact of demographic history on the genetic diversity of Latin America. Significant ancestry effects were detected for most phenotypes studied. However, ancestry generally explains only a modest proportion of total phenotypic variation. Genetically estimated and self-perceived ancestry correlate significantly, but certain physical attributes have a strong impact on self-perception and bias self-perception of ancestry relative to genetically estimated ancestry.

  14. Admixture in Latin America: Geographic Structure, Phenotypic Diversity and Self-Perception of Ancestry Based on 7,342 Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Linares, Andrés; Adhikari, Kaustubh; Acuña-Alonzo, Victor; Quinto-Sanchez, Mirsha; Jaramillo, Claudia; Arias, William; Fuentes, Macarena; Pizarro, María; Everardo, Paola; de Avila, Francisco; Gómez-Valdés, Jorge; León-Mimila, Paola; Hunemeier, Tábita; Ramallo, Virginia; Silva de Cerqueira, Caio C.; Burley, Mari-Wyn; Konca, Esra; de Oliveira, Marcelo Zagonel; Veronez, Mauricio Roberto; Rubio-Codina, Marta; Attanasio, Orazio; Gibbon, Sahra; Ray, Nicolas; Gallo, Carla; Poletti, Giovanni; Rosique, Javier; Schuler-Faccini, Lavinia; Salzano, Francisco M.; Bortolini, Maria-Cátira; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Rothhammer, Francisco; Bedoya, Gabriel; Balding, David; Gonzalez-José, Rolando

    2014-01-01

    The current genetic makeup of Latin America has been shaped by a history of extensive admixture between Africans, Europeans and Native Americans, a process taking place within the context of extensive geographic and social stratification. We estimated individual ancestry proportions in a sample of 7,342 subjects ascertained in five countries (Brazil, Chile, Colombia, México and Perú). These individuals were also characterized for a range of physical appearance traits and for self-perception of ancestry. The geographic distribution of admixture proportions in this sample reveals extensive population structure, illustrating the continuing impact of demographic history on the genetic diversity of Latin America. Significant ancestry effects were detected for most phenotypes studied. However, ancestry generally explains only a modest proportion of total phenotypic variation. Genetically estimated and self-perceived ancestry correlate significantly, but certain physical attributes have a strong impact on self-perception and bias self-perception of ancestry relative to genetically estimated ancestry. PMID:25254375

  15. The Genetics of Mexico Recapitulates Native American Substructure and Affects Biomedical Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Estrada, Andrés; Gignoux, Christopher R.; Fernández-López, Juan Carlos; Zakharia, Fouad; Sikora, Martin; Contreras, Alejandra V.; Acuña-Alonzo, Victor; Sandoval, Karla; Eng, Celeste; Romero-Hidalgo, Sandra; Ortiz-Tello, Patricia; Robles, Victoria; Kenny, Eimear E.; Nuño-Arana, Ismael; Barquera-Lozano, Rodrigo; Macín-Pérez, Gastón; Granados-Arriola, Julio; Huntsman, Scott; Galanter, Joshua M.; Via, Marc; Ford, Jean G.; Chapela, Rocío; Rodriguez-Cintron, William; Rodríguez-Santana, Jose R.; Romieu, Isabelle; Sienra-Monge, Juan José; Navarro, Blanca del Rio; London, Stephanie J.; Ruiz-Linares, Andrés; Garcia-Herrera, Rodrigo; Estrada, Karol; Hidalgo-Miranda, Alfredo; Jimenez-Sanchez, Gerardo; Carnevale, Alessandra; Soberón, Xavier; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Rangel-Villalobos, Héctor; Silva-Zolezzi, Irma; Burchard, Esteban Gonzalez; Bustamante, Carlos D.

    2014-01-01

    Mexico harbors great cultural and ethnic diversity, yet fine-scale patterns of human genome-wide variation from this region remain largely uncharacterized. We studied genomic variation within Mexico from over 1,000 individuals representing 20 indigenous and 11 mestizo populations. We found striking genetic stratification among indigenous populations within Mexico at varying degrees of geographic isolation. Some groups were as differentiated as Europeans are from East Asians. Pre-Columbian genetic substructure is recapitulated in the indigenous ancestry of admixed mestizo individuals across the country. Furthermore, two independently phenotyped cohorts of Mexicans and Mexican Americans showed a significant association between sub-continental ancestry and lung function. Thus, accounting for fine-scale ancestry patterns is critical for medical and population genetic studies within Mexico, in Mexican-descent populations, and likely in many other populations worldwide. PMID:24926019

  16. Investigation of Genetic Variation Underlying Central Obesity amongst South Asians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, William R.; Zhang, Weihua; Loh, Marie; Tan, Sian-Tsung; Lehne, Benjamin; Afzal, Uzma; Peralta, Juan; Saxena, Richa; Ralhan, Sarju; Wander, Gurpreet S.; Bozaoglu, Kiymet; Sanghera, Dharambir K.; Elliott, Paul; Scott, James; Chambers, John C.; Kooner, Jaspal S.

    2016-01-01

    South Asians are 1/4 of the world’s population and have increased susceptibility to central obesity and related cardiometabolic disease. Knowledge of genetic variants affecting risk of central obesity is largely based on genome-wide association studies of common SNPs in Europeans. To evaluate the contribution of DNA sequence variation to the higher levels of central obesity (defined as waist hip ratio adjusted for body mass index, WHR) among South Asians compared to Europeans we carried out: i) a genome-wide association analysis of >6M genetic variants in 10,318 South Asians with focused analysis of population-specific SNPs; ii) an exome-wide association analysis of ~250K SNPs in protein-coding regions in 2,637 South Asians; iii) a comparison of risk allele frequencies and effect sizes of 48 known WHR SNPs in 12,240 South Asians compared to Europeans. In genome-wide analyses, we found no novel associations between common genetic variants and WHR in South Asians at P<5x10-8; variants showing equivocal association with WHR (P<1x10-5) did not replicate at P<0.05 in an independent cohort of South Asians (N = 1,922) or in published, predominantly European meta-analysis data. In the targeted analyses of 122,391 population-specific SNPs we also found no associations with WHR in South Asians at P<0.05 after multiple testing correction. Exome-wide analyses showed no new associations between genetic variants and WHR in South Asians, either individually at P<1.5x10-6 or grouped by gene locus at P<2.5x10−6. At known WHR loci, risk allele frequencies were not higher in South Asians compared to Europeans (P = 0.77), while effect sizes were unexpectedly smaller in South Asians than Europeans (P<5.0x10-8). Our findings argue against an important contribution for population-specific or cosmopolitan genetic variants underlying the increased risk of central obesity in South Asians compared to Europeans. PMID:27195708

  17. Investigation of Genetic Variation Underlying Central Obesity amongst South Asians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William R Scott

    Full Text Available South Asians are 1/4 of the world's population and have increased susceptibility to central obesity and related cardiometabolic disease. Knowledge of genetic variants affecting risk of central obesity is largely based on genome-wide association studies of common SNPs in Europeans. To evaluate the contribution of DNA sequence variation to the higher levels of central obesity (defined as waist hip ratio adjusted for body mass index, WHR among South Asians compared to Europeans we carried out: i a genome-wide association analysis of >6M genetic variants in 10,318 South Asians with focused analysis of population-specific SNPs; ii an exome-wide association analysis of ~250K SNPs in protein-coding regions in 2,637 South Asians; iii a comparison of risk allele frequencies and effect sizes of 48 known WHR SNPs in 12,240 South Asians compared to Europeans. In genome-wide analyses, we found no novel associations between common genetic variants and WHR in South Asians at P<5x10-8; variants showing equivocal association with WHR (P<1x10-5 did not replicate at P<0.05 in an independent cohort of South Asians (N = 1,922 or in published, predominantly European meta-analysis data. In the targeted analyses of 122,391 population-specific SNPs we also found no associations with WHR in South Asians at P<0.05 after multiple testing correction. Exome-wide analyses showed no new associations between genetic variants and WHR in South Asians, either individually at P<1.5x10-6 or grouped by gene locus at P<2.5x10-6. At known WHR loci, risk allele frequencies were not higher in South Asians compared to Europeans (P = 0.77, while effect sizes were unexpectedly smaller in South Asians than Europeans (P<5.0x10-8. Our findings argue against an important contribution for population-specific or cosmopolitan genetic variants underlying the increased risk of central obesity in South Asians compared to Europeans.

  18. Neighborhoods and Mental Health: Exploring Ethnic Density, Poverty, and Social Cohesion among Asian Americans and Latinos

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Seunghye; Zhang, Wei; Walton, Emily

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the associations of neighborhood ethnic density and poverty with social cohesion and self-rated mental health among Asian Americans and Latinos. Path analysis is employed to analyze data from the 2002–2003 National Latino and Asian American Study (NLAAS) and the 2000 U.S. Census (N=2095 Asian Americans living in N=259 neighborhoods; N=2554 Latinos living in N=317 neighborhoods). Findings reveal that neighborhood ethnic density relates to poor mental health in both groups. ...

  19. Model Minority at Risk: Expressed Needs of Mental Health by Asian American Young Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Sunmin; Juon, Hee-Soon; Martinez, Genevieve; Hsu, Chiehwen E.; Robinson, E. Stephanie; Bawa, Julie; Ma, Grace X.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study is to obtain and discuss in-depth information on mental health problems, including the status, barriers, and potential solutions in 1.5 and 2nd generation Asian American young adults. As a part of the Health Needs Assessment project, the researchers conducted two focus groups with 17 young adults (mainly 1.5 or 2nd generation) from eight Asian American communities (Asian Indian, Cambodian, Chinese, Indonesian, Korean, Taiwanese, Thai, and Vietnamese) in Montgomery ...

  20. Bioenergetics of Continental Serpentinites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardace, D.; Meyer-Dombard, D. R.

    2011-12-01

    Serpentinization is the aqueous alteration of ultramafic (Fe- and Mg-rich) rocks, resulting in secondary mineral assemblages of serpentine, brucite, iron oxyhydroxides and magnetite, talc, and possibly carbonate and silica-rich veins and other minor phases-all depending on the evolving pressure-temperature-composition of the system. The abiotic evolution of hydrogen and possibly organic compounds via serpentinization (McCollom and Bach, 2009) highlights the relevance of this geologic process to carbon and energy sources for the deep biosphere. Serpentinization may fuel life over long stretches of geologic time, throughout the global seabed and in exposed, faulted peridotite blocks (as at Lost City Hydrothermal Field, Kelley et al., 2005), and in obducted oceanic mantle units in ophiolites (e.g., Tiago et al., 2004). Relatively little work has been published on life in continental serpentinite settings, though they likely host a unique resident microbiota. In this work, we systematically model the serpentinizing fluid as an environmental niche. Reported field data for high and moderate pH serpentinizing fluids were modeled from Cyprus, the Philippines, Oman, Northern California, New Caledonia, Yugoslavia, Portugal, Italy, Newfoundland Canada, New Zealand, and Turkey. Values for Gibbs Energy of reaction (ΔGr), kJ per mole of electrons transferred for a given metabolism, are calculated for each field site. Cases are considered both for (1) modest assumptions of 1 nanomolar hydrogen and 1 micromolar methane, based on unpublished data for a similar northern California field site (Cardace and Hoehler, in prep.) and (2) an upper estimate of 10 nanomolar hydrogen and 500 micromolar methane. We survey the feasibility of microbial metabolisms for key steps in the nitrogen cycle, oxidation of sulfur in pyrite, iron oxidation or reduction reactions, sulfate reduction coupled to hydrogen or methane oxidation, methane oxidation coupled to the reduction of oxygen, and

  1. A Meta-Analysis Identifies New Loci Associated with Body Mass index in Individuals of African Ancestry

    OpenAIRE

    Keri L Monda; Chen, Gary K.; Taylor, Kira C.; Palmer, Cameron; Edwards, Todd L.; Lange, Leslie A.; Ng, Maggie C. Y.; Adeyemo, Adebowale A.; Allison, Matthew A.; Bielak, Lawrence F; Chen, Guanji; Graff, Mariaelisa; Irvin, Marguerite R.; Rhie, Suhn K.; Li, Guo

    2013-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 36 loci associated with body mass index (BMI), predominantly in populations of European ancestry. We conducted a meta-analysis to examine the association of >3.2 million SNPs with BMI in 39,144 men and women of African ancestry, and followed up the most significant associations in an additional 32,268 individuals of African ancestry. We identified one novel locus at 5q33 (GALNT10, rs7708584, p=3.4×10−11) and another at 7p15 when combined ...

  2. Highly discrepant proportions of female and male Scandinavian and British Isles ancestry within the isolated population of the Faroe Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als, Thomas D; Jorgensen, Tove H; Børglum, Anders D;

    2006-01-01

    a frequency-based admixture approach taking private haplotypes into account by the use of phylogenetic information. While previous studies have suggested an excess of Scandinavian ancestry among the male settlers of the Faroe Islands, the current study indicates an excess of British Isles ancestry among...... the female settlers of the Faroe Islands. Compared to other admixed populations of the North Atlantic region, the population of the Faroe Islands appears to have the highest level of asymmetry in Scandinavian vs British Isles ancestry proportions among female and male settlers of the archipelago....

  3. Association between Plasma 25-Hydroxyvitamin D, Ancestry and Aggressive Prostate Cancer among African Americans and European Americans in PCaP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan E Steck

    Full Text Available African Americans (AAs have lower circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OHD3] concentrations and higher prostate cancer (CaP aggressiveness than other racial/ethnic groups. The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between plasma 25(OHD3, African ancestry and CaP aggressiveness among AAs and European Americans (EAs.Plasma 25(OHD3 was measured using LC-MS/MS (Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry in 537 AA and 663 EA newly-diagnosed CaP patients from the North Carolina-Louisiana Prostate Cancer Project (PCaP classified as having either 'high' or 'low' aggressive disease based on clinical stage, Gleason grade and prostate specific antigen at diagnosis. Mean plasma 25(OHD3 concentrations were compared by proportion of African ancestry. Logistic regression was used to calculate multivariable adjusted odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI for high aggressive CaP by tertile of plasma 25(OHD3.AAs with highest percent African ancestry (>95% had the lowest mean plasma 25(OHD3 concentrations. Overall, plasma 25(OHD3 was associated positively with aggressiveness among AA men, an association that was modified by calcium intake (ORT 3vs.T1: 2.23, 95%CI: 1.26-3.95 among men with low calcium intake, and ORT 3vs.T1: 0.19, 95%CI: 0.05-0.70 among men with high calcium intake. Among EAs, the point estimates of the ORs were <1.0 for the upper tertiles with CIs that included the null.Among AAs, plasma 25(OHD3 was associated positively with CaP aggressiveness among men with low calcium intake and inversely among men with high calcium intake. The clinical significance of circulating concentrations of 25(OHD3 and interactions with calcium intake in the AA population warrants further study.

  4. Early Mesozoic granitoid and rhyolite magmatism of the Bureya Terrane of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt: Age and geodynamic setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokin, A. A.; Kotov, A. B.; Kudryashov, N. M.; Kovach, V. P.

    2016-09-01

    Early Mesozoic granitoids and volcanic rocks are widespread throughout the structures of all of the continental massifs in the eastern part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt, although its tectonic setting is not yet clear. Generally, they are associated with subduction and plume processes or rifting. Such uncertainty is mostly explained by the unequal investigation of Early Mesozoic magmatism. This paper presents the results of geochemical, Sm-Nd isotope, and U-Pb geochronologic (ID-TIMS) studies of "key-type" Early Mesozoic magmatic rock complexes of the Bureya Terrane. This is one of the largest continental massifs in the eastern Central Asian Orogenic Belt and knowledge of its geological structure is of fundamental importance in understanding the history of its formation. It has been established that the leucogranites of the Altakhtinsky Complex and the trachyrhyolites of the Talovsky Complex are practically coeval (~ 209-208 Ma). The subalkaline leucogranites of the Kharinsky Complex have a slightly younger age of ~ 199 Ma. These data correspond to the general stage of Early Mesozoic magmatic and metamorphic events (236-180 Ma) in most continental massifs in the eastern Central Asian Orogenic Belt. We believe that large-scale Early Mesozoic events were related to the amalgamation of the continental massifs of the eastern Central Asian Orogenic Belt into a single continental structure (the Amur superterrane or microcontinent Amuria) and collision with the North Asian Craton. It should be noted that the collision processes were followed by crustal thickening, thus creating the conditions for metamorphism and formation of magmatic rock complexes of various geochemical types.

  5. Association and ancestry analysis of sequence variants in ADH and ALDH using alcohol-related phenotypes in a Native American community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Qian; Gizer, Ian R; Libiger, Ondrej; Bizon, Chris; Wilhelmsen, Kirk C; Schork, Nicholas J; Ehlers, Cindy L

    2014-12-01

    Higher rates of alcohol use and other drug-dependence have been observed in some Native American (NA) populations relative to other ethnic groups in the US. Previous studies have shown that alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) genes and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) genes may affect the risk of development of alcohol dependence, and that polymorphisms within these genes may differentially affect risk for the disorder depending on the ethnic group evaluated. We evaluated variations in the ADH and ALDH genes in a large study investigating risk factors for substance use in a NA population. We assessed ancestry admixture and tested for associations between alcohol-related phenotypes in the genomic regions around the ADH1-7 and ALDH2 and ALDH1A1 genes. Seventy-two ADH variants showed significant evidence of association with a severity level of alcohol drinking-related dependence symptoms phenotype. These significant variants spanned across the entire 7 ADH gene cluster regions. Two significant associations, one in ADH and one in ALDH2, were observed with alcohol dependence diagnosis. Seventeen variants showed significant association with the largest number of alcohol drinks ingested during any 24-hour period. Variants in or near ADH7 were significantly negatively associated with alcohol-related phenotypes, suggesting a potential protective effect of this gene. In addition, our results suggested that a higher degree of NA ancestry is associated with higher frequencies of potential risk variants and lower frequencies of potential protective variants for alcohol dependence phenotypes.

  6. Human cranial vault thickness in a contemporary sample of 1097 autopsy cases: relation to body weight, stature, age, sex and ancestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Boer, H H Hans; Van der Merwe, A E Lida; Soerdjbalie-Maikoe, V Vidija

    2016-09-01

    The relation between human cranial vault thickness (CVT) and various elements of the physical anthropological biological profile is subject of ongoing discussion. Some results seem to indicate no correlation between CVT and the biological profile of the individual, whereas other results suggest that CVT measurements might be useful for identification purposes. This study assesses the correlation between CVT and body weight, stature, age, sex, and ancestry by reviewing data of 1097 forensic autopsies performed at the Netherlands Forensic Institute (NFI). In subadults (younger than 19 years of age at the time of death), all frontal, temporal, and occipital CVT measurements correlated moderately to strongly with indicators of growth (body weight, stature, and age). Neither sex nor ancestry correlated significantly with cranial thickness. In adults, body weight correlated with all CVT measurements. No meaningful correlation was found between CVT and stature or age. Females showed to have thicker frontal bones, and the occipital region was thicker in the Negroid subsample. All correlation in the adult group was weak, with the distribution of cranial thickness overlapping for a great deal between the groups. Based on these results, it was concluded that CVT generally cannot be used as an indicator for any part of the biological profile.

  7. Human cranial vault thickness in a contemporary sample of 1097 autopsy cases: relation to body weight, stature, age, sex and ancestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Boer, H H Hans; Van der Merwe, A E Lida; Soerdjbalie-Maikoe, V Vidija

    2016-09-01

    The relation between human cranial vault thickness (CVT) and various elements of the physical anthropological biological profile is subject of ongoing discussion. Some results seem to indicate no correlation between CVT and the biological profile of the individual, whereas other results suggest that CVT measurements might be useful for identification purposes. This study assesses the correlation between CVT and body weight, stature, age, sex, and ancestry by reviewing data of 1097 forensic autopsies performed at the Netherlands Forensic Institute (NFI). In subadults (younger than 19 years of age at the time of death), all frontal, temporal, and occipital CVT measurements correlated moderately to strongly with indicators of growth (body weight, stature, and age). Neither sex nor ancestry correlated significantly with cranial thickness. In adults, body weight correlated with all CVT measurements. No meaningful correlation was found between CVT and stature or age. Females showed to have thicker frontal bones, and the occipital region was thicker in the Negroid subsample. All correlation in the adult group was weak, with the distribution of cranial thickness overlapping for a great deal between the groups. Based on these results, it was concluded that CVT generally cannot be used as an indicator for any part of the biological profile. PMID:26914798

  8. The Confucian Asian cluster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionel Sergiu Pirju

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Confucian Asian cluster consists of China, Hong Kong, Japan, Singapore, South Korea, and Taiwan. Confucian tradition countries were defined by achieving a consistent performance in the global economy, they still representing the major competitors in the EU and North American countries. Their progress is defined by a great national management that was able to influence beneficial management systems applied in organizations, these rules characterized by authority; aims to ensure the confidence in business. This article will present the intercultural values characterizing it, the leadership style and also tracing major macroeconomic considerations. The research is synchronic, analysing the contemporary situation of these countries, and the analysis will be interdisciplinary exploratory, identifying specific regional cultural elements.

  9. Ancestry and diversity of the HMG box superfamily

    OpenAIRE

    Laudet, V; Stehelin, D.; Clevers, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    The HMG box is a novel type of DNA-binding domain found in a diverse group of proteins. The HMG box superfamily comprises a.o. the High Mobility Group proteins HMG1 and HMG2, the nucleolar transcription factor UBF, the lymphoid transcription factors TCF-1 and LEF-1, the fungal mating-type genes mat-Mc and MATA1, and the mammalian sex-determining gene SRY. The superfamily dates back to at least 1,000 million years ago, as its members appear in animals, plants and yeast. Alignment of all known ...

  10. Sarcoidosis in Caucasians, Blacks and Asians in London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmondstone, W M; Wilson, A G

    1985-01-01

    The incidence and clinical features of sarcoidosis were studied in a retrospective survey of 156 patients attending two South London hospitals between 1969 and 1982. Sixty-eight patients were Caucasian, 59 were Black West Indian or African immigrants and 29 were immigrants racially derived from Indo-Pakistan (Asians). The annual incidence of sarcoidosis in the local community in 1977-78 was 19.8 per 10(5) for Blacks and 16.8 per 10(5) for Asians compared with 1.5 per 10(5) for Caucasians. Erythema nodosum was a more common presenting feature in Caucasians than in Blacks (P less than 0.001) or Asians (P less than 0.05). Blacks developed sarcoidosis at a later age than Caucasians (P less than 0.05) and were less likely to present as a chance finding on a chest radiograph (P less than 0.05). They had more widespread extrathoracic disease than Caucasians (P less than 0.001) and were more commonly treated with corticosteroids (P less than 0.001). In the Asians there was a male predominance compared with Caucasians (P less than 0.01). Asians also had more extrathoracic sarcoidosis than Caucasians (P less than 0.001) and more of them were treated with corticosteroids (P less than 0.05). A stage 2 chest radiograph at presentation (P less than 0.05) and skin sarcoidosis (P less than 0.05) were less common in Asians than in Blacks, but otherwise there were no significant differences between the two groups. In this study the incidence of sarcoidosis in Asians approached that in Blacks, while the clinical features were intermediate in severity between Blacks and Caucasians. In both Blacks and Asians the disease was more common, more severe and more extensive than in Caucasians.

  11. Too big to be noticed: cryptic invasion of Asian camel crickets in North American houses

    OpenAIRE

    Mary Jane Epps; Menninger, Holly L.; Nathan LaSala; Dunn, Robert R.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the rapid expansion of the built environment, we know little about the biology of species living in human-constructed habitats. Camel crickets (Rhaphidophoridae) are commonly observed in North American houses and include a range of native taxa as well as the Asian Diestrammena asynamora (Adelung), a species occasionally reported from houses though considered to be established only in greenhouses. We launched a continental-scale citizen science campaign to better understand the relativ...

  12. Taking Stock and Moving Forward: Research on Asian American Child Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Vivian; Kiang, Lisa; Mistry, Jayanthi; Mistry, Rashmita S; Wang, Yijie; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu

    2016-07-01

    With this Special Section, the Asian Caucus of the Society for Research in Child Development seeks to promote a more inclusive, expanded, and holistic developmental science that can account for the diversity of developmental trajectories among Asian Americans. The articles elucidate, in turn, historical, conceptual, and methodological issues in studying Asian American child development. Although the articles foreground Asian Americans, the ideas should help advance theoretical and empirical work for other racial and ethnic groups, thereby contributing to a more valid understanding of child development. PMID:27392794

  13. ASIAN AMERICAN-WHITE DIFFERENCES IN THE EFFECT OF MOTHERHOOD ON CAREER OUTCOMES

    OpenAIRE

    Greenman, Emily

    2011-01-01

    U.S.-born Asian Americans are unique among American minority groups in that they lack earnings disadvantages relative to Whites with similar education levels. Controlling for education and age, there is little difference in the earnings of U.S.-born Asian and White men, but Asian women have higher earnings than comparable White women. Using data from SESTAT, this study tests the hypothesis that Asian American women’s high earnings may result from adjusting their labor supply less than White w...

  14. Racism and Asian American Student Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jennifer Y.

    2014-01-01

    This article provides a theoretical analysis and ethnographic account of Asian American student leadership in higher education. Existing literature highlights Asian and Asian American leadership styles as cultural differences. I shift the analysis from culture to racism in order to work toward a more socially just conception of Asian American…

  15. Diabetes and Asians and Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... diabetes per 100 population (2014) Asian American White Asian American/White Ratio Men 5.8 6.3 0.9 Women 5.7 5.3 1.1 Total 5.8 5.7 1.0 Source: CDC 2016. National Diabetes Surveillance ... Asian American/Pacific Islanders Non-Hispanic White Asian American/Pacific ...

  16. Current Progresses in Study of Impacts of the Tibetan Plateau on Asian Summer Climate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Guoxiong; MAO Jiangyu; DUAN Anmin; ZHANG Qiong

    2006-01-01

    The current progresses in the study of impacts of the Tibetan Plateau on Asian summer climate in the last decade are reviewed. By analyzing evolution of the transitional zone between westerly to the north and easterly to the south (WEB), it is shown that due to the strong heating over the Tibetan Plateau in spring, the overturning in the prevailing wind direction from easterly in winter to westerly in summer occurs firstly over the eastern Bay of Bengal (BOB), accompanied with vigorous convective precipitation to its east. The area between eastern BOB and western Indo-China Peninsula thus becomes the area with the earliest onset of Asian monsoon, which may be referred as BOB monsoon in short. It is shown that the summertime circulations triggered by the thermal forcing of the Iranian Plateau and the Tibetan Plateau are embedded in phase with the continental-scale circulation forced by the diabatic heating over the Eurasian Continent. As a result, the East Asian summer monsoon is intensified and the drought climate over the western and central Asian areas is enhanced. Together with perturbations triggered by the Tibetan Plateau,the above scenarios and the associated heating have important influences on the climate patterns over Asia.Furthermore, the characteristics of the Tibetan mode of the summertime South Asian high are compared with those of Iranian mode. Results demonstrate that corresponding to each of the bimodality of the South Asian high, the rainfall anomaly distributions over Asia exhibit different patterns.

  17. 77 FR 64826 - Notice on Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Gas Lease Sales

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) Notice on Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Gas Lease Sales AGENCY... with any entity in any of the other following groups at Outer Continental Shelf oil and gas lease...

  18. 75 FR 24966 - Notice on Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Gas Lease Sales

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Minerals Management Service Notice on Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Gas Lease Sales AGENCY: Minerals... in any other of the following groups at Outer Continental Shelf oil and gas lease sales to be...

  19. Asian Indians in America: The influence of values and culture on mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Rohit M; Arora, Lily; Mehta, Urvakhsh M; Asnaani, Anu; Radhakrishnan, Rajiv

    2016-08-01

    Asian Indians represent a significant portion of the largest growing race of Asians in the past decade in the United States. This selective review examines major cultural themes related to first- and second-generation Asian Indians living in the United States as they impact psychological and psychiatric dysfunction in this population. Specifically, we review the impact of Asian Indian culture on mental health, discuss the impact of acculturation and ethnic identity development on the mental health of Indian-Americans, and focus on typical mental health problems of Asian Indian adolescents, women and elderly in America. Finally, we provide a brief overview of empirically-supported treatment approaches and cultural considerations for additional treatments relevant to this population. This review is intended to provide an important foundation for more systematic empirically-driven investigation into better understanding how Asian Indian cultural themes impact mental health for Indian-Americans, and how to develop effective treatments for these issues in this cultural group.

  20. The challenges of disaster management in south Asian countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The type of this research work reflects an overview of disasters in South Asian countries. This outlines geographical aspects and institutional structures briefly in each country, and identifies gaps in disaster management regimes. Identified of these gaps is expected to give insights to the media to develop more informal disaster communications in South Asian Countries. Natural disasters have become a severe global problem. Deaths, displacements and damages resulting from natural disasters are colossal. During the 1990s global economic losses from major natural catastrophes averaged more than US $ 40 billion a year. The current Tsunami disaster has broken all previous records particularly in Indonesia, Sri Lanka and India. This paper focuses particularly on sub continental countries in the South Asian countries, how they are managed and mismanaged, and aims to provide condensed resource material on the subject. In such countries issues related to natural disasters are covered under the legal frameworks for environment, land use, water resources and human settlements. The shift from emergency management to disaster preparedness requires coordination between various government building departments and ministries and with other international organization and various community organizations. (author)

  1. Clines of nuclear DNA markers suggest a largely Neolithic ancestry of the European gene pool

    OpenAIRE

    Chikhi, Lounès; Destro-Bisol, Giovanni; Bertorelle, Giorgio; Pascali, Vincenzo; Barbujani, Guido

    1998-01-01

    Comparisons between archaeological findings and allele frequencies at protein loci suggest that most genes of current Europeans descend from populations that have been expanding in Europe in the last 10,000 years, in the Neolithic period. Recent mitochondrial data have been interpreted as indicating a much older, Paleolithic ancestry. In a spatial autocorrelation study at seven hypervariable loci in Europe (four microsatellites, two larger, tandem-repeat loci, and a sequence polymorphism) bro...

  2. Validation of two prediction models of undiagnosed chronic kidney disease in mixed-ancestry South Africans

    OpenAIRE

    Mogueo, Amelie; Echouffo-Tcheugui, Justin B; Matsha, Tandi E.; Erasmus, Rajiv T; Kengne, Andre P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a global challenge. Risk models to predict prevalent undiagnosed CKD have been published. However, none was developed or validated in an African population. We validated the Korean and Thai CKD prediction model in mixed-ancestry South Africans. Methods Discrimination and calibration were assessed overall and by major subgroups. CKD was defined as ‘estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)

  3. Common Ancestry of Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato Strains from North America and Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Postic, D; Ras, N. Marti; Lane, R S; Humair, P.-F.; Wittenbrink, M. M.; Baranton, G

    1999-01-01

    Ten atypical European Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (Borrelia spp.) strains were genetically characterized, and the diversity was compared to that encountered among related Borrelia spp. from North America. Phylogenetic analyses of a limited region of the genome and of the whole genome extend existing knowledge about borrelial diversity reported earlier in Europe and the United States. Our results accord with the evidence that North American and European strains may have a common ancestry.

  4. Inferring geographic coordinates of origin for Europeans using small panels of ancestry informative markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petros Drineas

    Full Text Available Recent large-scale studies of European populations have demonstrated the existence of population genetic structure within Europe and the potential to accurately infer individual ancestry when information from hundreds of thousands of genetic markers is used. In fact, when genomewide genetic variation of European populations is projected down to a two-dimensional Principal Components Analysis plot, a surprising correlation with actual geographic coordinates of self-reported ancestry has been reported. This substructure can hamper the search of susceptibility genes for common complex disorders leading to spurious correlations. The identification of genetic markers that can correct for population stratification becomes therefore of paramount importance. Analyzing 1,200 individuals from 11 populations genotyped for more than 500,000 SNPs (Population Reference Sample, we present a systematic exploration of the extent to which geographic coordinates of origin within Europe can be predicted, with small panels of SNPs. Markers are selected to correlate with the top principal components of the dataset, as we have previously demonstrated. Performing thorough cross-validation experiments we show that it is indeed possible to predict individual ancestry within Europe down to a few hundred kilometers from actual individual origin, using information from carefully selected panels of 500 or 1,000 SNPs. Furthermore, we show that these panels can be used to correctly assign the HapMap Phase 3 European populations to their geographic origin. The SNPs that we propose can prove extremely useful in a variety of different settings, such as stratification correction or genetic ancestry testing, and the study of the history of European populations.

  5. Genome-Wide Association of Body Fat Distribution in African Ancestry Populations Suggests New Loci

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Ching-Ti; Keri L Monda; Taylor, Kira C.; Lange, Leslie; Demerath, Ellen W; Palmas, Walter; Wojczynski, Mary K.; Jaclyn C Ellis; Mara Z Vitolins; Liu, Simin; Papanicolaou, George J.; Irvin, Marguerite R.; Xue, Luting; Griffin, Paula J.; Michael A Nalls

    2013-01-01

    Central obesity, measured by waist circumference (WC) or waist-hip ratio (WHR), is a marker of body fat distribution. Although obesity disproportionately affects minority populations, few studies have conducted genome-wide association study (GWAS) of fat distribution among those of predominantly African ancestry (AA). We performed GWAS of WC and WHR, adjusted and unadjusted for BMI, in up to 33,591 and 27,350 AA individuals, respectively. We identified loci associated with fat distribution in...

  6. Attitudes toward Rape: Gender and Ethnic Differences across Asian and Caucasian College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Lisa; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examined 302 Asian and Caucasian college students' attitudes towards rape victims and belief in rape myths. Results show significant differences between both groups. Asians more often endorsed negative attitudes toward rape victims than whites, and males endorsed more negative attitudes and more acceptance of rape myths than females. Results are…

  7. Maternal and Child Health of Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians, and Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to 16.2 per 1,000 for all Asian American and Pacific Islander women. This represents a 1% decline from the birth ... decline from 1980. 4 The birth rate for Asian American and Pacific Islander women is higher than for all other groups except ...

  8. Rights-Based Education for South Asian Sponsored Wives in International Arranged Marriages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merali, Noorfarah

    2008-01-01

    The Family Class Category of Canada's Immigration Policy exists with the key objective of family unification. Among Canada's second largest immigrant group, the South Asians, the cultural practice of arranged marriage is applied across international borders, leading to spousal sponsorship. Existing research on South Asian sponsored wives suggests…

  9. The Role of Adipose Tissue in Insulin Resistance in Women of African Ancestry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia H. Goedecke

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Women of African ancestry, particularly those living in industrialized countries, experience a disproportionately higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D compared to their white counterparts. Similarly, obesity and insulin resistance, which are major risk factors for T2D, are greater in black compared to white women. The exact mechanisms underlying these phenomena are not known. This paper will focus on the role of adipose tissue biology. Firstly, the characteristic body fat distribution of women of African ancestry will be discussed, followed by the depot-specific associations with insulin resistance. Factors involved in adipose tissue biology and their relation to insulin sensitivity will then be explored, including the role of sex hormones, glucocorticoid metabolism, lipolysis and adipogenesis, and their consequent effects on adipose tissue hypoxia, oxidative stress, and inflammation. Finally the role of ectopic fat deposition will be discussed. The paper proposes directions for future research, in particular highlighting the need for longitudinal and/or intervention studies to better understand the mechanisms underlying the high prevalence of insulin resistance and T2D in women of African ancestry.

  10. Ancestry informative markers and complete blood count parameters in Brazilian blood donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela E. S. Felix

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A complete blood count is very useful in clinical diagnoses when reference ranges are well established for the population. Complete blood counts and allele frequencies of Ancestry Informative Markers (AIMs were analyzed in Brazilians with the aim of characterizing the hematological values of an admixed population. Positive associations were observed between gender and neutrophils, monocytes, eosinophils, erythrocytes, hemoglobin, hematocrit, MCV, MCHC and platelet counts. No significant differences were found for age, alcohol consumption, educational status, ethnicity, smoking in respect to the complete blood count values. In general, men had higher red blood cell values, while women had higher values for white blood cells and platelets. The study of the population was highly heterogeneous with mean proportions (± SE of African, European and Amerindian ancestry being 49.0 ± 3.0%, 44.0 ± 9.0% and 7.0 ± 9.0%, respectively. Amerindian ancestry showed limited contribution to the makeup of the population, but estimated ancestral proportions were statistically significant (r = 0.9838; P<0.001. These hematologic values are similar to Afro-Americans, another admixed population.

  11. Pricing American and Asian Options

    OpenAIRE

    Pat Muldowney

    2015-01-01

    An analytic method for pricing American call options is provided; followed by an empirical method for pricing Asian call options. The methodology is the pricing theory presented in "A Modern Theory of Random Variation", by Patrick Muldowney, 2012.

  12. Job satisfaction of Asian Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, C N; Hinson, S

    2000-04-01

    Since Asian Americans have demographic and labor force characteristics more similar to Euro-Americans than African Americans, one might predict that their job satisfaction would be more like the former than the latter. And, because Asian Americans originating from different countries are heterogeneous in language, culture, and recency of immigration, one might predict that they may report obtaining different amounts of satisfaction from their jobs. However, data from 21 nationally representative opinion surveys from 1972 through 1996 suggest the opposite. Asian Americans (n = 199) reported job satisfaction more like African Americans (n = 1,231) than Euro-Americans (n = 10,709), and Asian Americans from China (n = 53), Japan (n = 44), India (n = 55), and the Philippines (n = 47) reported similar job satisfaction. These differences persisted when age, education, occupation, and personal income were held constant.

  13. Age-dependent dose coefficients for tritium in Asian populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trivedi, A

    1999-10-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publications 56 (1989) and 67 (1993) have prescribed the biokinetic models and age-dependent dose coefficients for tritiated water and organically bound tritium. The dose coefficients are computed from values selected to specify the anatomical, morphological and physiological characteristics of a three-month-old, one-year-old, five-year-old, 10-year-old, 15-year-old and adult (Reference Man) Caucasian living in North America and Western Europe. However, values for Reference Man and other age groups are not directly applicable to Asians, because of differences in race, custom, dietary habits and climatic conditions. An Asian Man model, including five age groups, has been proposed by Tanaka and Kawamura (1996, 1998) for use in internal dosimetry. The basic concept of the ICRP Reference Man and the system describing body composition in ICRP Publication 23 (1975) were used. Reference values for Asians were given for the body weight and height, the mass of soft tissue, the mass of body water and the daily fluid balance, and are used to compute the dose coefficients for tritium. The age-dependent dose coefficients for Asians for tritiated water intakes are smaller by 20 to 30% of the currently prescribed values (Trivedi, 1998). The reduction in the dose coefficient values is caused by the increased daily fluid balance among Asians. The dose coefficient for tritiated water is 1.4 x 10{sup -11} Sv Bq{sup -1} for Asian Man compared to 2.0 x 10{sup -11} Sv Bq{sup -1} for Reference Man. The dose coefficients for organically bound tritium are only marginally different from those of the ICRP values. The dose coefficient for organically bound tritium for Asian Man is 4.0 x 10{sup -11} Sv Bq{sup -11} compared to 4.6 x 10{sup -11} Sv Bq{sup -1} for Reference Man. (author)

  14. BUSINESS PLAN: SOUTH ASIAN ARTS

    OpenAIRE

    Saran, Sabrina

    2009-01-01

    The intention of this paper is to provide an understanding of South Asian Arts as an organization in the Arts industry in Vancouver. Elements of the company and the industry are explored in order to further comprehend the potential target markets and why they are as such. Due to the current surge in popularity of South Asian arts within mainstream culture, there is great potential in this company. Discussion segues into marketing initiatives that are necessary to compete with key players that...

  15. Alcohol and the Asian Glow

    OpenAIRE

    Young, Brian

    1999-01-01

    Facial flushing is a common hypersensitivity reaction that may be observed in many Asians following low to moderate alcohol consumption. Flushing can be accompanied by other symptoms such as tachycardia, nausea, and dizziness. Recent studies have shown that this flushing reaction is due to the presence of ALDH2*2, an inactive allele for the alcohol dehydrogenase gene found in approximately 50% of Asians. Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) is an important enzyme in alcohol metabolism, and deficienc...

  16. Lessons from the "Asian Flu"

    OpenAIRE

    Bekić, Darko

    1998-01-01

    What has been underlying the syntagms "Japanese challenge ", " Asian miracle " or " Seven Asian tigers " in the past thirty years or so ? There are a number of economic, sociological and political explanations of the phenomenon. In Asia, the systems of traditional values, modern market economy and state are successfully combined. Some forecasters predicted last year that the future growth of the Chinese economy at a constant rate of between 8 and 12 per cent a year, combined with the Japanese...

  17. Performance of the U.S. Office of Management and Budget's Revised Race and Ethnicity Categories in Asian Populations*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holup, Joan L; Press, Nancy; Vollmer, William M; Harris, Emily L; Vogt, Thomas M; Chen, Chuhe

    2007-09-01

    OBJECTIVES: The U.S. Office of Management and Budget (OMB) guidelines for collecting and reporting race and ethnicity information recently divided the "Asian or Pacific Islander" category into "Asian" and "Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander". The OMB's decision to disaggregate the "Asian or Pacific Islander" category was the first step toward providing these communities with information to better serve their needs. However, whether individuals who formerly made up the combined group categorize themselves as the new guidelines intend is a question analyzed in this report. METHODS: A subset of adults participating in the Hemochromatosis and Iron Overload Screening Study completed both the OMB-minimum and the expanded race and ethnicity measure used in the National Health Interview Survey. We compared responses on the expanded measure contained within the OMB "Asian" definition (Filipino, Korean, Vietnamese, Japanese, Asian Indian, Chinese, and/or Other Asian) to "Asian" responses on the OMB-minimum measure. RESULTS: Mixed heritage Asians less often marked "Asian". Among mixed heritage Japanese, Chinese, and Filipinos, 27%, 49%, and 52% did not mark "Asian" on the OMB measure, respectively. Eleven percent of single-heritage Filipinos did not mark "Asian." CONCLUSIONS: Many individuals formerly making up the combined "Asian or Pacific Islander" group do not categorize themselves as the revised OMB guidelines intend. This is particularly evident among Filipinos and among Asians of mixed heritage. This research illuminates the reliability and utility of the broad "Asian" category and points to possible consequences of collapsing groups into a single category, i.e., missed information and/or erroneous generalization. PMID:18037976

  18. GWAS in an Amerindian ancestry population reveals novel systemic lupus erythematosus risk loci and the role of European admixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcón-Riquelme, Marta E.; Ziegler, Julie T.; Molineros, Julio; Howard, Timothy D.; Moreno-Estrada, Andrés; Sánchez-Rodríguez, Elena; Ainsworth, Hannah C.; Ortiz-Tello, Patricia; Comeau, Mary E.; Rasmussen, Astrid; Kelly, Jennifer A.; Adler, Adam; Acevedo-Vázquez, Eduardo; Cucho, Jorge Mariano; García-De la Torre, Ignacio; Cardiel, Mario H.; Miranda, Pedro; Catoggio, Luis; Maradiaga-Ceceña, Marco; Gaffney, Patrick; Vyse, Timothy; Criswell, Lindsey A.; Tsao, Betty P.; Sivils, Kathy L.; Bae, Sang-Cheol; James, Judith A.; Kimberly, Robert; Kaufman, Ken; Harley, John B.; Esquivel-Valerio, Jorge; Moctezuma, José F.; García, Mercedes A.; Berbotto, Guillermo; Babini, Alejandra; Scherbarth, Hugo; Toloza, Sergio; Baca, Vicente; Nath, Swapan K.; Salinas, Carlos Aguilar; Orozco, Lorena; Tusié-Luna, Teresa; Zidovetzki, Raphael; Pons-Estel, Bernardo A.; Langefeld, Carl D.; Jacob, Chaim O.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune disease with a strong genetic component. Our aim was to perform the first genome-wide association study on individuals from the Americas enriched for Native American heritage. MATERIALS and METHODS We analyzed 3,710 individuals from four countries of Latin America and the Unites States diagnosed with SLE and healthy controls. Samples were genotyped with the HumanOmni1 BeadChip. Data of out-of-study controls was obtained for the HumanOmni2.5. Statistical analyses were performed using SNPTEST and SNPGWA. Data was adjusted for genomic control and FDR. Imputation was done using IMPUTE2, and HiBAG for classical HLA alleles. RESULTS The IRF5-TNPO3 region showed the strongest association and largest odds ratio (OR) (rs10488631, Pgcadj = 2.61×10−29, OR = 2.12, 95% CI: 1.88–2.39) followed by the HLA class II on the DQA2-DQB1 loci (rs9275572, Pgcadj = 1.11 × 10−16, OR = 1.62, 95% CI: 1.46–1.80; rs9271366, Pgcadj=6.46 × 10−12, OR = 2.06, 95% CI: 1.71–2.50). Other known SLE loci associated were ITGAM, STAT4, TNIP1, NCF2 and IRAK1. We identified a novel locus on 10q24.33 (rs4917385, Pgcadj =1.4×10−8) with a eQTL effect (Peqtl=8.0 × 10−37 at USMG5/miR1307), and describe novel loci. We corroborate SLE-risk loci previously identified in European and Asians. Local ancestry estimation showed that HLA allele risk contribution is of European ancestral origin. Imputation of HLA alleles suggested that autochthonous Native American haplotypes provide protection. CONCLUSIONS Our results show the insight gained by studying admixed populations to delineate the genetic architecture that underlies autoimmune and complex diseases. PMID:26606652

  19. Bounds for Asian basket options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deelstra, Griselda; Diallo, Ibrahima; Vanmaele, Michèle

    2008-09-01

    In this paper we propose pricing bounds for European-style discrete arithmetic Asian basket options in a Black and Scholes framework. We start from methods used for basket options and Asian options. First, we use the general approach for deriving upper and lower bounds for stop-loss premia of sums of non-independent random variables as in Kaas et al. [Upper and lower bounds for sums of random variables, Insurance Math. Econom. 27 (2000) 151-168] or Dhaene et al. [The concept of comonotonicity in actuarial science and finance: theory, Insurance Math. Econom. 31(1) (2002) 3-33]. We generalize the methods in Deelstra et al. [Pricing of arithmetic basket options by conditioning, Insurance Math. Econom. 34 (2004) 55-57] and Vanmaele et al. [Bounds for the price of discrete sampled arithmetic Asian options, J. Comput. Appl. Math. 185(1) (2006) 51-90]. Afterwards we show how to derive an analytical closed-form expression for a lower bound in the non-comonotonic case. Finally, we derive upper bounds for Asian basket options by applying techniques as in Thompson [Fast narrow bounds on the value of Asian options, Working Paper, University of Cambridge, 1999] and Lord [Partially exact and bounded approximations for arithmetic Asian options, J. Comput. Finance 10 (2) (2006) 1-52]. Numerical results are included and on the basis of our numerical tests, we explain which method we recommend depending on moneyness and time-to-maturity.

  20. Ethnicity and type 2 diabetes: focus on Asian Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abate, N; Chandalia, M

    2001-01-01

    Though the overall prevalence of type 2 diabetes is increasing in US and in all other westernized countries, significant differences are noted among different ethnic groups. The reasons for ethnic differences in the risk of type 2 diabetes are not entirely understood. For example, Asian Indians (people from India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh) have remarkably high prevalence of type 2 diabetes compared to Caucasians. However, the incidence of obesity, an important risk factor in the development of type 2 diabetes, is significantly lower in Asian Indians compared to Caucasians. Though westernization of lifestyle with dietary changes and lack of exercise may play a role in increased prevalence of type 2 diabetes in migrant Asian Indians, various epidemiological studies have shown that these factors alone are not sufficient to explain this trend. One important factor contributing to increased type 2 diabetes in Asian Indians is excessive insulin resistance compared to Caucasians. This difference in the degree of insulin resistance may be explained by either an environmental or a genetic factor or by combination of both. The understanding of the etiology and mechanisms causing increased insulin resistance in Asian Indians will provide clues to more effective prevention and treatment of diabetes in this ethnic group. Furthermore, the information may help in understanding the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes in other ethnic groups and improve methods of treatment and prevention in all ethnic groups. Since the ethnic mix of the US population is changing rapidly and it is estimated that by the year 2020, over 50% of US population will include non-Caucasian ethnicity, the identification of the mechanism involved in the excessive development of type 2 diabetes in non-Caucasians becomes important. In this review, possible etiology of excessive insulin resistance and role of free fatty acids (FFA) in insulin resistance in Asian Indians is discussed. Finally, the role of

  1. Getting the message: media images and stereotypes and their effect on Asian Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, T A

    1998-01-01

    Mass media sources such as television and movies arguably offer up little in the way of positive Asian/Asian American images or role models. This article contends that the media do not often portray the diversity that is inherent within the Asian American culture and that such a paucity of Asian images may greatly affect perceptions Asian Americans may hold both of their own racial group and of the larger society. This article examines both media images of Asians and Asian Americans and autobiographical information from Asian American literature to illustrate the potentially detrimental effects of being a person of color in a society that emphasizes a monoracial standard of beauty. Information gleaned from first-hand accounts from Asian Americans often points to the media as a potent source of information as to how attractiveness is defined and measured. This article concludes with a discussion of some brief case examples and ethical imperatives for mental health workers in terms of both self-awareness and education as well as considerations for culturally sensitive therapy.

  2. The Coupling of Subduction Dynamics and Large-scale Continental Tectonics during Tethys Closure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capitanio, F. A.

    2015-12-01

    The closure of Tethys Ocean and following collision is associated with the most remarkable examples of large-scale continental tectonics of our planet. It is known that this is the result of the coupling between oceanic subduction, where largest tectonic forces are generated, and continents, however why only some segments of the Asian margin display tectonics migration in the interiors remains unknown. Using numerical modeling the dynamics of the subducting and upper plates interactions is probed, emphasizing the role forces such as subducting slabs' buoyancy, viscous mantle drag, ridge push and far-field forces have in plate margins-interiors coupling. The perturbations to the force balance following slab breakoff, continent subduction and trench land-locking during oceanic closure leads to a range of different strain regimes in the upper plate, from large-scale extrusion to thickening along the collisional margin. The models support the combined interpretation of closing plates, subduction histories and continental tectonics, which is relevant to examples of Asian continent, where similar coupled subduction and upper plate tectonics evolutions are found. It is inferred that the subduction dynamics during Tethys closure strongly controlled the emergence of lithospheric faulting and thickening, indentation, extrusion and extension in the Asian continent.

  3. Impacts of East Asian aerosols on the Asian monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Rachel; Bollasina, Massimo; Booth, Ben; Dunstone, Nick; Marenco, Franco

    2016-04-01

    Over recent decades, aerosol emissions from Asia have increased rapidly. Aerosols are able to alter radiative forcing and regional hydroclimate through direct and indirect effects. Large emissions within the geographical region of the Asian monsoon have been found to impact upon this vital system and have been linked to observed drying trends. The interconnected nature of smaller regional monsoon components (e.g. the Indian monsoon and East Asian monsoon) presents the possibility that aerosol sources could have far-reaching impacts. Future aerosol emissions are uncertain and may continue to dominate regional impacts on the Asian monsoon. Standard IPCC future emissions scenarios do not take a broad sample of possible aerosol pathways. We investigate the sensitivity of the Asian monsoon to East Asian aerosol emissions. Experiments carried out with HadGEM2-ES use three time-evolving future anthropogenic aerosol emissions scenarios with similar time-evolving greenhouse gases. We find a wetter summer over southern China and the Indochina Peninsula associated with increased sulfate aerosol over China. The southern-flood-northern-drought pattern seen in observations is reflected in these results. India is found to be drier in the summer overall, although wetter in June. These precipitation changes are linked to the increase in sulfate through the alteration of large scale dynamics. Sub-seasonal changes are also seen, with an earlier withdrawal of the monsoon over East Asia.

  4. South Asian High and Asian-Pacific-American Climate Teleconnection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Growing evidence indicates that the Asian monsoon plays an important role in affecting the weather and climate outside of Asia. However, this active role of the monsoon has not been demonstrated as thoroughly as has the variability of the monsoon caused by various impacting factors such as sea surface temperature and land surface. This study investigates the relationship between the Asian monsoon and the climate anomalies in the Asian-Pacific-American (APA) sector. A hypothesis is tested that the variability of the upper-tropospheric South Asian high (SAH), which is closely associated with the overall heating of the large-scale Asian monsoon, is linked to changes in the subtropical western Pacific high (SWPH), the midPacific trough, and the Mexican high. The changes in these circulation systems cause variability in surface temperature and precipitation in the APA region. A stronger SAH is accompanied by a stronger and more extensive SWPH. The enlargement of the SWPH weakens the mid-Pacific trough. As a result, the southern portion of the Mexican high becomes stronger. These changes are associated with changes in atmospheric teleconnections, precipitation, and surface temperature throughout the APA region. When the SAH is stronger, precipitation increases in southern Asia, decreases over the Pacific Ocean, and increases over the Central America. Precipitation also increases over Australia and central Africa and decreases in the Mediterranean region. While the signals in surface temperature are weak over the tropical land portion,they are apparent in the mid latitudes and over the eastern Pacific Ocean.

  5. Adapting health promotion interventions for ethnic minority groups: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing Jing; Davidson, Emma; Bhopal, Raj; White, Martin; Johnson, Mark; Netto, Gina; Sheikh, Aziz

    2016-06-01

    Adaptation of health interventions has garnered international support across academic disciplines and among various health organizations. Through semi-structured interviews, we sought to explore and understand the perspectives of 26 health researchers and promoters located in the USA, UK, Australia, New Zealand and Norway, working with ethnic minority populations, specifically African-, South Asian- and Chinese-origin populations in the areas of smoking cessation, increasing physical activity and healthy eating, to better understand how adaptation works in practice. We drew on the concepts of intersectionality, representation and context from feminist, sociology and human geography literature, respectively, to help us understand how adaptations for ethnic groups approach the variable of ethnicity. Findings include (i) the intersections of ethnicity and demographic variables such as age and gender highlight the different ways in which people interact, interpret and participate in adapted interventions; (ii) the representational elements of ethnicity such as ancestry or religion are more complexly lived than they are defined in adapted interventions and (iii) the contextual experiences surrounding ethnicity considerations shape the receptivity, durability and continuity of adapted interventions. In conclusion, leveraging the experience and expertise of health researchers and promoters in light of three social science concepts has deepened our understanding of how adaptation works in principle and in practice for ethnic minority populations. PMID:25561680

  6. Genotype and ancestry modulate brain's DAT availability in healthy humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Shumay

    Full Text Available The dopamine transporter (DAT is a principal regulator of dopaminergic neurotransmission and its gene (the SLC6A3 is a strong biological candidate gene for various behavioral- and neurological disorders. Intense investigation of the link between the SLC6A3 polymorphisms and behavioral phenotypes yielded inconsistent and even contradictory results. Reliance on objective brain phenotype measures, for example, those afforded by brain imaging, might critically improve detection of DAT genotype-phenotype association. Here, we tested the relationship between the DAT brain availability and the SLC6A3 genotypes using an aggregate sample of 95 healthy participants of several imaging studies. These studies employed positron emission tomography (PET with [¹¹C]cocaine wherein the DAT availability was estimated as Bmax/Kd; while the genotype values were obtained on two repeat polymorphisms--3-UTR- and intron 8--VNTRs. The main findings are the following: 1 both polymorphisms analyzed as single genetic markers and in combination (haplotype modulate DAT density in midbrain; 2 ethnic background and age influence the strength of these associations; and 3 age-related changes in DAT availability differ in the 3-UTR and intron 8--genotype groups.

  7. Colonization of Asian freshwaters by the Mytilidae (Bivalvia): a comparison of Sinomytilus harmandi from the Tonle-Sap River, Phnom Penh, Cambodia, with Limnoperna fortunei

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morton, Brian; Dinesen, Grete E.

    2010-01-01

    China. Because L. fortunei has a Devonian (~345-395 mya) modioline ancestry and S. harmandi is derived from a Permo-Trias (~265–225 mya) ancient mytiline ancestor it appears that Asian freshwater systems have been colonized by representatives of the Mytilidae on two separate temporal occasions....... the Yangtse River in China. Limnoperna fortunei is a highly opportunistic species that has been introduced into many locations outside its mainland Chinese borders, for example, Japan, Taiwan and South America. We suggest the possibility that L. fortunei has also been introduced into tropical Indochina from...

  8. NERO’S ANCESTRY AND THE CONSTRUCTION OF IMPERIAL IDEOLOGY IN THE EARLY EMPIRE. A METHODOLOGICAL CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Hekster

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Within the discipline of ancient history, diverse types of sources, such as coins, inscriptions, portraits and texts, are often combined to create a coherent image of a particular ruler. A good example of how such a process works is the way in which reconstructions by modern scholars of the emperor Nero tend to look for a clearly defined ‘Neronian image’, by bringing together various types of primary evidence without paying sufficient attention to these sources’ medial contexts. This article argues that such a reconstruction does not do justice to the complex and multi-layered image of the last Julio-Claudian. By focusing on one particular aspect of Neronian imagery, the propagation of this emperor’s ancestry, we will argue that different types of sources, stemming from varying contexts and addressing different groups, cannot unproblematically be combined. Through an investigation of the ancestral messages spread by imperial and provincial coins, epigraphic evidence and portraiture, it becomes clear that systematic analysis of ancient media, their various contexts and inconsistencies is needed before combining them. Such an analysis reveals patterns within the different sources and shows that, in creating imperial images, rulers were constrained by both medial and local traditions. Modern studies of ancient images should therefore consider this medial and geographical variety in order to do justice to the multi-faceted phenomenon of imperial representation.

  9. East Eurasian ancestry in the middle of Europe: genetic footprints of Steppe nomads in the genomes of Belarusian Lipka Tatars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankratov, Vasili; Litvinov, Sergei; Kassian, Alexei; Shulhin, Dzmitry; Tchebotarev, Lieve; Yunusbayev, Bayazit; Möls, Märt; Sahakyan, Hovhannes; Yepiskoposyan, Levon; Rootsi, Siiri; Metspalu, Ene; Golubenko, Maria; Ekomasova, Natalia; Akhatova, Farida; Khusnutdinova, Elza; Heyer, Evelyne; Endicott, Phillip; Derenko, Miroslava; Malyarchuk, Boris; Metspalu, Mait; Davydenko, Oleg; Villems, Richard; Kushniarevich, Alena

    2016-01-01

    Medieval era encounters of nomadic groups of the Eurasian Steppe and largely sedentary East Europeans had a variety of demographic and cultural consequences. Amongst these outcomes was the emergence of the Lipka Tatars—a Slavic-speaking Sunni-Muslim minority residing in modern Belarus, Lithuania and Poland, whose ancestors arrived in these territories via several migration waves, mainly from the Golden Horde. Our results show that Belarusian Lipka Tatars share a substantial part of their gene pool with Europeans as indicated by their Y-chromosomal, mitochondrial and autosomal DNA variation. Nevertheless, Belarusian Lipkas still retain a strong genetic signal of their nomadic ancestry, witnessed by the presence of common Y-chromosomal and mitochondrial DNA variants as well as autosomal segments identical by descent between Lipkas and East Eurasians from temperate and northern regions. Hence, we document Lipka Tatars as a unique example of former Medieval migrants into Central Europe, who became sedentary, changed language to Slavic, yet preserved their faith and retained, both uni- and bi-parentally, a clear genetic echo of a complex population interplay throughout the Eurasian Steppe Belt, extending from Central Europe to northern China. PMID:27453128

  10. Glycemic Associations With Endothelial Function and Biomarkers Among 5 Ethnic Groups: The Multi‐Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and the Mediators of Atherosclerosis in South Asians Living in America Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Kanaya, Alka M.; Dobrosielski, Devon A.; Ganz, Peter; Creasman, Jennifer; Gupta, Ritu; Nelacanti, Vidya; Vogel‐Claussen, Jens; Herrington, David

    2013-01-01

    Background The association of prediabetic states with endothelial dysfunction measured by flow‐mediated dilation (FMD) or endothelial biomarker levels remains controversial. We examined data from 5 ethnic groups to determine the association between glucose categories and FMD or endothelial biomarkers. We determined whether these associations vary by ethnic group or body mass index. Methods and Results We used data from 3516 participants from 5 race/ethnic groups with brachial FMD, endothelial...

  11. Acculturation Stress and Depression among Asian Immigrant Elders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mui, Ada C.; Kang, Suk-Young

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the association between acculturation stress and depressive symptoms in a regional probability sample (n = 407) of six groups of Asian immigrant elders (Chinese, Korean, Indian, Filipino, Vietnamese, and Japanese). Findings suggest that about 40 percent of the sample were depressed, indicating higher depression rates than found…

  12. 76 FR 28449 - Notice on Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Gas Lease Sales

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-17

    ... Oil and Gas Lease Sales AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement... with any entity in any other of the following groups at Outer Continental Shelf oil and gas lease...

  13. 76 FR 4129 - Notice on Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Gas Lease Sales

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-24

    ... Gas Lease Sales AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement, Interior... any entity in any other of the following groups at Outer Continental Shelf oil and gas lease sales...

  14. First report on Cretaceous paleoweathering rates in western Panthalassa: Evidence of global enhancement of continental weathering during OAE 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, T.

    2013-12-01

    Mid-Cretaceous is characterized by intensified oceanic anoxia (Oceanic Anoxic Events: OAEs) that raised global deposition of organic black shales. Several models have been proposed to explain the cause of the OAEs in conjunction with Cretaceous global warmth, active volcanism, sea-level changes and others. For example, Weissert et al. (1998) proposed a mechanism called 'weathering hypothesis'. In this model, the cause of the OAEs is explained in a following chain reaction, (1) global warmth and increase in atmospheric CO2 enhanced weathering of continental crust, (2) enhanced land weathering led excessive influx of nutrients from continents to oceans, (3) eutrophication enhanced primary productivity, (4) the excessive primary producers consumed dissolved oceanic oxygen that finally led to the OAEs. Several studies, in fact, revealed a causal relation between enhanced weathering and OAEs in northern Tethys region. However, it is necessary to collect worldwide information to unravel the global response of weathering hypothesis as a cause of OAEs. For such reason, the present contribution conducted measurements of the degree of hinterland paleoweathering during OAEs in northern Japan, for the purpose to provide a first report on the relation between continental weathering and OAEs in open ocean, the western Panthalassa Ocean. Aptian to Campanian forearc basin mudstones (Yezo Group) were analyzed by XRF and the degree of hinterland weathering was evaluated by geochemical weathering index (W index; Ohta and Arai, 2007). The W values obtained for the Yezo Group are 30~50, which is equivalent to the W values of recent soils developed in temperate mid-latitude climate. The W values show a fluctuation pattern that is concordant with the Cretaceous paleotemperature changes. This match indicates that the change in paleotemperature governed the weathering rates of East Asian continental crust. In addition, hinterland weathering rates show instantaneous increase during the OAE

  15. A Model of Teaching and Learning Online in Asian Context

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Md Kabirul Islam

    2005-01-01

    Online teaching and learning practices in Asian universities are different from that in western universities. Western universities give emphasis on student-student interaction for learning. Online courses offered by most Asian universities are a kind of mixed mode that comprised simultaneous face-to-face tutorials and online interaction facility. In this situation most students use the online facility to collect resources and to contact their teachers. The quantity of student-student interaction was sporadic in many courses. So research is needed to improve the situation and create an environment for students where they can learn what peer group interaction is and practice it. This paper has presented a model of teaching and learning online for Asian universities. Possible barriers in teaching and learning situations in Asia and students' abilities have been considered to develop the model.

  16. Genetic association for renal traits among participants of African ancestry reveals new loci for renal function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Ti Liu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease (CKD is an increasing global public health concern, particularly among populations of African ancestry. We performed an interrogation of known renal loci, genome-wide association (GWA, and IBC candidate-gene SNP association analyses in African Americans from the CARe Renal Consortium. In up to 8,110 participants, we performed meta-analyses of GWA and IBC array data for estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, CKD (eGFR 30 mg/g and interrogated the 250 kb flanking region around 24 SNPs previously identified in European Ancestry renal GWAS analyses. Findings were replicated in up to 4,358 African Americans. To assess function, individually identified genes were knocked down in zebrafish embryos by morpholino antisense oligonucleotides. Expression of kidney-specific genes was assessed by in situ hybridization, and glomerular filtration was evaluated by dextran clearance. Overall, 23 of 24 previously identified SNPs had direction-consistent associations with eGFR in African Americans, 2 of which achieved nominal significance (UMOD, PIP5K1B. Interrogation of the flanking regions uncovered 24 new index SNPs in African Americans, 12 of which were replicated (UMOD, ANXA9, GCKR, TFDP2, DAB2, VEGFA, ATXN2, GATM, SLC22A2, TMEM60, SLC6A13, and BCAS3. In addition, we identified 3 suggestive loci at DOK6 (p-value = 5.3×10(-7 and FNDC1 (p-value = 3.0×10(-7 for UACR, and KCNQ1 with eGFR (p = 3.6×10(-6. Morpholino knockdown of kcnq1 in the zebrafish resulted in abnormal kidney development and filtration capacity. We identified several SNPs in association with eGFR in African Ancestry individuals, as well as 3 suggestive loci for UACR and eGFR. Functional genetic studies support a role for kcnq1 in glomerular development in zebrafish.

  17. Prostate Cancer Susceptibility in Men of African Ancestry at 8q24.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ying; Rand, Kristin A; Hazelett, Dennis J; Ingles, Sue A; Kittles, Rick A; Strom, Sara S; Rybicki, Benjamin A; Nemesure, Barbara; Isaacs, William B; Stanford, Janet L; Zheng, Wei; Schumacher, Fredrick R; Berndt, Sonja I; Wang, Zhaoming; Xu, Jianfeng; Rohland, Nadin; Reich, David; Tandon, Arti; Pasaniuc, Bogdan; Allen, Alex; Quinque, Dominique; Mallick, Swapan; Notani, Dimple; Rosenfeld, Michael G; Jayani, Ranveer Singh; Kolb, Suzanne; Gapstur, Susan M; Stevens, Victoria L; Pettaway, Curtis A; Yeboah, Edward D; Tettey, Yao; Biritwum, Richard B; Adjei, Andrew A; Tay, Evelyn; Truelove, Ann; Niwa, Shelley; Chokkalingam, Anand P; John, Esther M; Murphy, Adam B; Signorello, Lisa B; Carpten, John; Leske, M Cristina; Wu, Suh-Yuh; Hennis, Anslem J M; Neslund-Dudas, Christine; Hsing, Ann W; Chu, Lisa; Goodman, Phyllis J; Klein, Eric A; Zheng, S Lilly; Witte, John S; Casey, Graham; Lubwama, Alex; Pooler, Loreall C; Sheng, Xin; Coetzee, Gerhard A; Cook, Michael B; Chanock, Stephen J; Stram, Daniel O; Watya, Stephen; Blot, William J; Conti, David V; Henderson, Brian E; Haiman, Christopher A

    2016-07-01

    The 8q24 region harbors multiple risk variants for distinct cancers, including >8 for prostate cancer. In this study, we conducted fine mapping of the 8q24 risk region (127.8-128.8Mb) in search of novel associations with common and rare variation in 4853 prostate cancer case patients and 4678 control subjects of African ancestry. All statistical tests were two-sided. We identified three independent associations at P values of less than 5.00×10(-8), all of which were replicated in studies from Ghana and Uganda (combined sample = 5869 case patients, 5615 control subjects; rs114798100: risk allele frequency [RAF] = 0.04, per-allele odds ratio [OR] = 2.31, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.04 to 2.61, P = 2.38×10(-40); rs72725879: RAF = 0.33, OR = 1.37, 95% CI = 1.30 to 1.45, P = 3.04×10(-27); and rs111906932: RAF = 0.03, OR = 1.79, 95% CI = 1.53 to 2.08, P = 1.39×10(-13)). Risk variants rs114798100 and rs111906923 are only found in men of African ancestry, with rs111906923 representing a novel association signal. The three variants are located within or near a number of prostate cancer-associated long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), including PRNCR1, PCAT1, and PCAT2. These findings highlight ancestry-specific risk variation and implicate prostate-specific lncRNAs at the 8q24 prostate cancer susceptibility region.

  18. Phylogeographic and Demographic Analysis of the Asian Black Bear (Ursus thibetanus Based on Mitochondrial DNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaqi Wu

    Full Text Available The Asian black bear Ursus thibetanus is widely distributed in Asia and is adapted to broad-leaved deciduous forests, playing an important ecological role in the natural environment. Several subspecies of U. thibetanus have been recognized, one of which, the Japanese black bear, is distributed in the Japanese archipelago. Recent molecular phylogeographic studies clarified that this subspecies is genetically distantly related to continental subspecies, suggesting an earlier origin. However, the evolutionary relationship between the Japanese and continental subspecies remained unclear. To understand the evolution of the Asian black bear in relation to geological events such as climatic and transgression-regression cycles, a reliable time estimation is also essential. To address these issues, we determined and analyzed the mt-genome of the Japanese subspecies. This indicates that the Japanese subspecies initially diverged from other Asian black bears in around 1.46Ma. The Northern continental population (northeast China, Russia, Korean peninsula subsequently evolved, relatively recently, from the Southern continental population (southern China and Southeast Asia. While the Japanese black bear has an early origin, the tMRCAs and the dynamics of population sizes suggest that it dispersed relatively recently in the main Japanese islands: during the late Middle and Late Pleistocene, probably during or soon after the extinction of the brown bear in Honshu in the same period. Our estimation that the population size of the Japanese subspecies increased rapidly during the Late Pleistocene is the first evidential signal of a niche exchange between brown bears and black bears in the Japanese main islands. This interpretation seems plausible but was not corroborated by paleontological evidence that fossil record of the Japanese subspecies limited after the Late Pleistocene. We also report here a new fossil record of the oldest Japanese black bear from the

  19. Familial Hypercholesterolemia in Asian Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Mengge; Zhao, Dong

    2016-05-01

    Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is the most common autosomal disorder characterized by an elevated low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol level and a high risk of premature cardiovascular disease. In this review, we summarize information on FH studies in Asian countries, focusing on mean cholesterol level, FH frequency, diagnostic criteria, genotypes, and clinical care of FH patients in Asian populations. Compared with Western countries, most Asian countries had lower mean cholesterol levels, with a significant variation between different countries. In the limited studies reported, a frequency of 1/900 was reported in Hokuriku district, Japan in 1977 and a frequency of 1/85 among Christian Lebanese in 1979. Recently, a population study in China reported frequencies of 0.47% and 0.28%. However, the different FH frequencies reported were based on different diagnostic criteria. Of 28 publications from 16 Asian countries or regions, 14 used self-defined FH criteria. Only one specific guideline for FH was available, which was developed by Japanese scientists. Six Asian countries joined the Make Early Diagnosis to Prevent Early Deaths program in the late 1990s, and the estimated diagnosis rates of FH ranged from 3% to 10% in these countries. A more recent study explored the awareness, knowledge, and perception of FH among practitioners in Japan, Korea, and Taiwan. The study found that the correct rates of these FH-related questions were low and concluded that lack of country-specific criteria and guidelines may contribute to the lack of FH knowledge in the present survey. More attention and resources should be focused on raising awareness, improving care, and increasing FH research in Asian populations. PMID:27075771

  20. Culturally Speaking: Asian Pacific American Heritage Month

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Sherry

    2004-01-01

    The celebration of the Asian Pacific American heritage month is to be held in May 2004. The librarians are advised to include authentic literature by and about Asian Americans for cross-cultural understanding.

  1. The contribution of ancestry, chance, and past and ongoing selection to adaptive evolution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Amitabh Joshi; Robinson B. Castillo; Laurence D. Mueller

    2003-12-01

    The relative contributions of ancestry, chance, and past and ongoing selection to variation in one adaptive (larval feeding rate) and one seemingly nonadaptive (pupation height) trait were determined in populations of Drosophila melanogaster adapting to either low or high larval densities in the laboratory. Larval feeding rates increased rapidly in response to high density, and the effects of ancestry, past selection and chance were ameliorated by ongoing selection within 15–20 generations. Similarly, in populations previously kept at high larval density, and then switched to low larval density, the decline of larval feeding rate to ancestral levels was rapid (15–20 generations) and complete, providing support for a previously stated hypothesis regarding the costs of faster feeding in Drosophila larvae. Variation among individuals was the major contributor to variation in pupation height, a trait that would superficially appear to be nonadaptive in the environmental context of the populations used in this study because it did not diverge between sets of populations kept at low versus high larval density for many generations. However, the degree of divergence among populations ($F_{\\text{ST}}$) for pupation height was significantly less than expected for a selectively neutral trait, and we integrate results from previous studies to suggest that the variation for pupation height among populations is constrained by stabilizing selection, with a flat, plateau-like fitness function that, consequently, allows for substantial phenotypic variation within populations. Our results support the view that the genetic imprints of history (ancestry and past selection) in outbreeding sexual populations are typically likely to be transient in the face of ongoing selection and recombination. The results also illustrate the heuristic point that different forms of selection—for example directional versus stabilizing selection—acting on a trait in different populations may

  2. Screening for the beta-thalassaemia trait: hazards among populations of West African Ancestry

    OpenAIRE

    Gibson, Felicea; Mason, Karlene; Serjeant, Beryl; Kulozik, Andreas; Happich, Margit; Tolle, Gabriele; Hambleton, Ian; Serjeant, Graham

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the accuracy and characteristics of detecting the beta-thalassaemia trait in populations of West African ancestry. School children, aged 16–19 years, in Manchester Parish, Jamaica were screened to detect the genes which could give rise to offspring with sickle cell disease. Haematological indices and HbA2 levels in subjects with an MCH ≤ 26 pg and an RDW G in 19 (25%), −90 C>T in 7 (9%), the IVS II-849 A>G in 5 (6%) with smaller contributions from five oth...

  3. Asian and Non-Asian Attitudes toward Rape, Sexual Harassment, and Sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, M. Alexis; Gorzalka, Boris B.

    2002-01-01

    Explored potential differences between Asian and non-Asian Canadian university students regarding their attitudes toward coercive and noncoercive sexual behavior. Student surveys indicated that Asian students' attitudes were significantly more conservative. Asian students were more tolerant of rape myths and sexual harassment. They demonstrated…

  4. Cost study - Norwegian continental shelf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rolstadas, A.

    1983-01-01

    Offshore development projects completed on the Norwegian continental shelf by the end of 1979 reported cost increases of 178% above initial estimates. To clarify the reasons for these huge escalations, Norway evaluated the cost development, technical solution, and project execution for the Ekofisk, Frigg, Statfjord, Valhall, and Murchison projects. Comparative data were also obtained for the British Brent, Beryl, Forties, and Ninian field developments, which showed cost increases of 179%. Only 48% of the escalation proved to be caused by inflation. The rest was due to cost overruns in manpower and resources because of poor management, incomplete planning, weather conditions, logistical problems in obtaining goods, and enforcement of new safety regulations.

  5. Acculturative stress and psychotic-like experiences among Asian and Latino immigrants to the United States

    OpenAIRE

    DeVylder, Jordan E.; Oh, Hans Y.; Yang, Lawrence H.; Cabassa, Leopoldo J.; Chen, Fang-Pei; Lukens, Ellen P.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have shown variation in the prevalence and incidence of psychosis across immigrant groups, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Stress related to acculturation may increase risk for psychosis among immigrant groups. In this study we examine the association between acculturative stress and psychotic-like experiences in a sample of Latino- and Asian-American immigrants to the United States in the National Latino and Asian American Study (n = 2434). Acculturat...

  6. Potentials in Asian Export Credit Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    "Mekong River Regional Development Project advocated by Asian Development Bank (ADB) has been implemented. Trans-Asia Railway and Trans-Asia Highway are being discussed. It is a good opportunity for Asian Export Credit Agencies (ECAs) to cooperate and financing these large crossboarder projects."On May 11, at the 10th Annual Meeting of Asian Export Credit Agencies,

  7. Properties of middle-late Proterozoic volcanic rocks in South Qinling and the Precambrian continental break-up

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏林圻; 夏祖春; 徐学义

    1996-01-01

    In South Qinling, the volcanic series of the middle-late Proterozoic Yunxi Group, Yaolinghe Group, Xi.xiang Group and Bikou Group have characteristics of the continental rift volcanic rocks or continental flood basalts and are formed in continental intraplate tensional setting. The enrichment of incompatible elements, high εNd values and low-medium 87Sr/86Sr initial ratios of these volcanic rocks indicate that they were derived from asthenospheric plume. Under the action of the intense pull-apart in lithosphere, the mantle plume upwelled, quickly decompressed and melted, and finally produced magma. This tensional process made the continental crust break and eventually led to an oceanic basin in late Proterozoic. The middle-late Proterozoic volcanism is a precursor of Precarabrian continental break-up in the South Qinling.

  8. South Asians in College Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad-Stout, David J.; Nath, Sanjay R.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this article is to provide information on the assessment and treatment of South Asian college students for mental health practitioners. We provide a brief historical review of the cultures from which these students come and the process of migration to the United States and also make recommendations for work with these students in the…

  9. Educational Planning: The Asian Experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Jansen (Karel)

    1976-01-01

    textabstractThis article intends to present a discussion of various approaches to educational planning against the background of the experience of the Asian countries.l It may be, however, that some of our arguments apply to other parts of the Third World as well.

  10. The influence of climate on age at menarche: Augmented with the influence of ancestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Kitae

    2016-08-01

    Samples representative of South Korea, Indonesia, and Peninsular Malaysia were analyzed and the influence of climate on age at menarche was investigated. The sample size was 24,651 for Korea (birth years 1941-1992), for Indonesia 8331 (birth years 1944-1988) plus 20,519 (birth years 1978-1997), and 2842 for Peninsular Malaysia (birth years 1927-1968). Respondents recalled their age at menarche. The mean age at menarche was calculated for each birth year by country, and for Malaysia, additionally by ancestry. It has been found that mean ages at menarche for the early birth years were much younger in Indonesia than in Korea despite similar levels of socioeconomic conditions (proxied by GDP per capita). For example, for the birth year 1944, the mean age at menarche was 14.45 years for Indonesia and 16.19 years for Korea-a difference of 1.74 years. It was necessary to double the Korean GDP per capita to make the Korean mean age at menarche the same as the Indonesian one. Chinese and Malay women in Peninsular Malaysia were further analyzed, and the results provided indirect evidence that the difference between Korea and Indonesia was not due to ancestry differences. Results in multivariate settings provided consistent results. It has been concluded that climate exerts a significant influence on age at menarche because the relatively easy availability of food in the tropics increases energy intake while the absence of cold weather decreases energy expenditure on maintenance and activity.

  11. Highly discrepant proportions of female and male Scandinavian and British Isles ancestry within the isolated population of the Faroe Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als, Thomas D; Jorgensen, Tove H; Børglum, Anders D;

    2006-01-01

    that the Faroese mtDNA pool has been affected by genetic drift, and is among the most homogenous and isolated in the North Atlantic region. This will have implications for attempts to locate genes for complex disorders. To obtain estimates of Scandinavian vs British Isles ancestry proportions, we applied...... Isles ancestry. In the present study we used 122 new and 19 previously published hypervariable region I sequences of the mitochondrial control region to analyse the genetic diversity of the Faroese population and compare it with other populations in the North Atlantic region. The analyses suggested...

  12. Association between Plasma 25-Hydroxyvitamin D, Ancestry and Aggressive Prostate Cancer among African Americans and European Americans in PCaP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steck, Susan E.; Arab, Lenore; Zhang, Hongmei; Bensen, Jeannette T.; Fontham, Elizabeth T. H.; Johnson, Candace S.; Mohler, James L.; Smith, Gary J.; Su, Joseph L.; Trump, Donald L.; Woloszynska-Read, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Background African Americans (AAs) have lower circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH)D3] concentrations and higher prostate cancer (CaP) aggressiveness than other racial/ethnic groups. The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between plasma 25(OH)D3, African ancestry and CaP aggressiveness among AAs and European Americans (EAs). Methods Plasma 25(OH)D3 was measured using LC-MS/MS (Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry) in 537 AA and 663 EA newly-diagnosed CaP patients from the North Carolina-Louisiana Prostate Cancer Project (PCaP) classified as having either ‘high’ or ‘low’ aggressive disease based on clinical stage, Gleason grade and prostate specific antigen at diagnosis. Mean plasma 25(OH)D3 concentrations were compared by proportion of African ancestry. Logistic regression was used to calculate multivariable adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) for high aggressive CaP by tertile of plasma 25(OH)D3. Results AAs with highest percent African ancestry (>95%) had the lowest mean plasma 25(OH)D3 concentrations. Overall, plasma 25(OH)D3 was associated positively with aggressiveness among AA men, an association that was modified by calcium intake (ORT3vs.T1: 2.23, 95%CI: 1.26–3.95 among men with low calcium intake, and ORT3vs.T1: 0.19, 95%CI: 0.05–0.70 among men with high calcium intake). Among EAs, the point estimates of the ORs were <1.0 for the upper tertiles with CIs that included the null. Conclusions Among AAs, plasma 25(OH)D3 was associated positively with CaP aggressiveness among men with low calcium intake and inversely among men with high calcium intake. The clinical significance of circulating concentrations of 25(OH)D3 and interactions with calcium intake in the AA population warrants further study. PMID:25919866

  13. Southeast Asian origins of five Hill Tribe populations and correlation of genetic to linguistic relationships inferred with genome-wide SNP data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Listman, J B; Malison, R T; Sanichwankul, K; Ittiwut, C; Mutirangura, A; Gelernter, J

    2011-02-01

    In Thailand, the term Hill Tribe is used to describe populations whose members traditionally practice slash and burn agriculture and reside in the mountains. These tribes are thought to have migrated throughout Asia for up to 5,000 years, including migrations through Southern China and/or Southeast Asia. There have been continuous migrations southward from China into Thailand for approximately the past thousand years and the present geographic range of any given tribe straddles multiple political borders. As none of these populations have autochthonous scripts, written histories have until recently, been externally produced. Northern Asian, Tibetan, and Siberian origins of Hill Tribes have been proposed. All purport endogamy and have nonmutually intelligible languages. To test hypotheses regarding the geographic origins of these populations, relatedness and migrations among them and neighboring populations, and whether their genetic relationships correspond with their linguistic relationships, we analyzed 2,445 genome-wide SNP markers in 118 individuals from five Thai Hill Tribe populations (Akha, Hmong, Karen, Lahu, and Lisu), 90 individuals from majority Thai populations, and 826 individuals from Asian and Oceanean HGDP and HapMap populations using a Bayesian clustering method. Considering these results within the context of results ofrecent large-scale studies of Asian geographic genetic variation allows us to infer a shared Southeast Asian origin of these five Hill Tribe populations as well ancestry components that distinguish among them seen in successive levels of clustering. In addition, the inferred level of shared ancestry among the Hill Tribes corresponds well to relationships among their languages.

  14. Southeast Asian origins of five Hill Tribe populations and correlation of genetic to linguistic relationships inferred with genome-wide SNP data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Listman, J B; Malison, R T; Sanichwankul, K; Ittiwut, C; Mutirangura, A; Gelernter, J

    2011-02-01

    In Thailand, the term Hill Tribe is used to describe populations whose members traditionally practice slash and burn agriculture and reside in the mountains. These tribes are thought to have migrated throughout Asia for up to 5,000 years, including migrations through Southern China and/or Southeast Asia. There have been continuous migrations southward from China into Thailand for approximately the past thousand years and the present geographic range of any given tribe straddles multiple political borders. As none of these populations have autochthonous scripts, written histories have until recently, been externally produced. Northern Asian, Tibetan, and Siberian origins of Hill Tribes have been proposed. All purport endogamy and have nonmutually intelligible languages. To test hypotheses regarding the geographic origins of these populations, relatedness and migrations among them and neighboring populations, and whether their genetic relationships correspond with their linguistic relationships, we analyzed 2,445 genome-wide SNP markers in 118 individuals from five Thai Hill Tribe populations (Akha, Hmong, Karen, Lahu, and Lisu), 90 individuals from majority Thai populations, and 826 individuals from Asian and Oceanean HGDP and HapMap populations using a Bayesian clustering method. Considering these results within the context of results ofrecent large-scale studies of Asian geographic genetic variation allows us to infer a shared Southeast Asian origin of these five Hill Tribe populations as well ancestry components that distinguish among them seen in successive levels of clustering. In addition, the inferred level of shared ancestry among the Hill Tribes corresponds well to relationships among their languages. PMID:20979205

  15. 76 FR 2919 - Outer Continental Shelf Official Protraction Diagram and Supplemental Official Outer Continental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-18

    ... Protraction Diagram and Supplemental Official Outer Continental Shelf Block Diagrams AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean... American Datum of 1983 (NAD 83) Outer Continental Shelf Official Protraction Diagram and Supplemental Official Outer Continental Shelf Block Diagrams. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that effective with...

  16. Astronomical and Hydrological Perspective of Mountain Impacts on the Asian Summer Monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Bian; Wu, Guoxiong; Liu, Yimin; Bao, Qing

    2015-12-01

    The Asian summer monsoon has great socioeconomic impacts. Understanding how the huge Tibetan and Iranian Plateaus affect the Asian summer monsoon is of great scientific value and has far-reaching significance for sustainable global development. One hypothesis considers the plateaus to be a shield for monsoon development in India by blocking cold-dry northerly intrusion into the tropics. Based on astronomical radiation analysis and numerical modeling, here we show that in winter the plateaus cannot block such a northerly intrusion; while in summer the daily solar radiation at the top of the atmosphere and at the surface, and the surface potential temperature to the north of the Tibetan Plateau, are higher than their counterparts to its south, and such plateau shielding is not needed. By virtue of hydrological analysis, we show that the high energy near the surface required for continental monsoon development is maintained mainly by high water vapor content. Results based on potential vorticity-potential temperature diagnosis further demonstrate that it is the pumping of water vapor from sea to land due to the thermal effects of the plateaus that breeds the Asian continental monsoon.

  17. Dominant control of the South Asian monsoon by orographic insulation versus plateau heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boos, William R; Kuang, Zhiming

    2010-01-14

    The Tibetan plateau, like any landmass, emits energy into the atmosphere in the form of dry heat and water vapour, but its mean surface elevation is more than 5 km above sea level. This elevation is widely held to cause the plateau to serve as a heat source that drives the South Asian summer monsoon, potentially coupling uplift of the plateau to climate changes on geologic timescales. Observations of the present climate, however, do not clearly establish the Tibetan plateau as the dominant thermal forcing in the region: peak upper-tropospheric temperatures during boreal summer are located over continental India, south of the plateau. Here we show that, although Tibetan plateau heating locally enhances rainfall along its southern edge in an atmospheric model, the large-scale South Asian summer monsoon circulation is otherwise unaffected by removal of the plateau, provided that the narrow orography of the Himalayas and adjacent mountain ranges is preserved. Additional observational and model results suggest that these mountains produce a strong monsoon by insulating warm, moist air over continental India from the cold and dry extratropics. These results call for both a reinterpretation of how South Asian climate may have responded to orographic uplift, and a re-evaluation of how this climate may respond to modified land surface and radiative forcings in coming decades. PMID:20075917

  18. Conflict management styles of Asian and Asian American nurses: implications for the nurse manager.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yu; Davidhizar, Ruth

    2004-01-01

    Foreign nurses and American nurses who are culturally diverse make up an increasing number of the US nursing workforce. Of foreign nurses, Asians constitute the largest number. Conflict is an inevitable aspect of human relations in health care settings. Nurses and other health team members with diverse cultural background bring to the workplace different conflict behaviors that directly impact the outcomes of conflicts. It is essential for health care team members and managers to be cognizant of different conflict behaviors as well as different conflict management styles so that strategies can be designed to build a culturally diverse health care team that is able to effectively achieve group and organizational objectives. PMID:15035348

  19. Worldwide cutaneous malignant melanoma incidences analyzed by sex, age, and skin type over time (1955–2007): Is HPV infection of androgenic hair follicular melanocytes a risk factor for developing melanoma exclusively in people of European-ancestry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Stephen J.; Subramanian, Madhan; Godar, Dianne E.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) incidence has been increasing in an exponential manner in certain populations around the world for over 7 decades. To help illuminate the etiology, we performed worldwide temporal (1955–2007) CMM incidence analysis by sex, age (0–14, 15–29, 30–49, 50–69, 70–85+), and skin type on 6 continents using data from the International Agency for Research on Cancer. We observe an exponential increase in the CMM incidence over time and an increase of about 2 orders of magnitude between age groups 0–14 and 15–29 exclusively in European-ancestry populations around the world independent of skin type (I–III or III–IV). Other populations like the Chinese (III-IV) had much lower CMM incidences that either remained stable or temporally decreased but did not display a dramatic increase between the youngest age groups. The dramatic increase in the incidence between the youngest age groups found only in European-ancestry populations suggests one of the most important risk factors for CMM may be developing androgenic hair, the occurrence of which appears to correlate with the distribution of CMM over male and female body sites. Besides that potential new risk factor, the increasing CMM incidence with increasing age, known not to be from cumulative UV doses, may be associated with age-related changes to skin, i.e., thinning epidermis causing lower vitamin D3 levels, and hair, i.e., whitening from higher reactive oxygen species. The temporal exponential increasing CMM incidence in European-ancestry populations may be due to Human Papilloma Virus infection of follicular hair melanocytes, found in CMM biopsies. PMID:27588159

  20. Worldwide cutaneous malignant melanoma incidences analyzed by sex, age, and skin type over time (1955-2007): Is HPV infection of androgenic hair follicular melanocytes a risk factor for developing melanoma exclusively in people of European-ancestry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Stephen J; Subramanian, Madhan; Godar, Dianne E

    2016-01-01

    The cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) incidence has been increasing in an exponential manner in certain populations around the world for over 7 decades. To help illuminate the etiology, we performed worldwide temporal (1955-2007) CMM incidence analysis by sex, age (0-14, 15-29, 30-49, 50-69, 70-85+), and skin type on 6 continents using data from the International Agency for Research on Cancer. We observe an exponential increase in the CMM incidence over time and an increase of about 2 orders of magnitude between age groups 0-14 and 15-29 exclusively in European-ancestry populations around the world independent of skin type (I-III or III-IV). Other populations like the Chinese (III-IV) had much lower CMM incidences that either remained stable or temporally decreased but did not display a dramatic increase between the youngest age groups. The dramatic increase in the incidence between the youngest age groups found only in European-ancestry populations suggests one of the most important risk factors for CMM may be developing androgenic hair, the occurrence of which appears to correlate with the distribution of CMM over male and female body sites. Besides that potential new risk factor, the increasing CMM incidence with increasing age, known not to be from cumulative UV doses, may be associated with age-related changes to skin, i.e., thinning epidermis causing lower vitamin D3 levels, and hair, i.e., whitening from higher reactive oxygen species. The temporal exponential increasing CMM incidence in European-ancestry populations may be due to Human Papilloma Virus infection of follicular hair melanocytes, found in CMM biopsies. PMID:27588159

  1. How Continental Bank outsourced its "crown jewels.".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, R L

    1993-01-01

    No industry relies more on information than banking does, yet Continental, one of America's largest banks, outsources its information technology. Why? Because that's the best way to service the customers that form the core of the bank's business, says vice chairman Dick Huber. In the late 1970s and early 1980s, Continental participated heavily with Penn Square Bank in energy investments. When falling energy prices burst Penn Square's bubble in 1982, Continental was stuck with more than $1 billion in bad loans. Eight years later when Dick Huber came on board, Continental was working hard to restore its once solid reputation. Executives had made many tough decisions already, altering the bank's focus from retail to business banking and laying off thousands of employees. Yet management still needed to cut costs and improve services to stay afloat. Regulators, investors, and analysts were watching every step. Continental executives, eager to focus on the bank's core mission of serving business customers, decided to outsource one after another in-house service--from cafeteria services to information technology. While conventional wisdom holds that banks must retain complete internal control of IT, Continental bucked this argument when it entered into a ten-year, multimillion-dollar contract with Integrated Systems Solutions Corporation. Continental is already reaping benefits from outsourcing IT. Most important, Continental staffers today focus on their true core competencies: intimate knowledge of customers' needs and relationships with customers.

  2. Evolution of Oxidative Continental Weathering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konhauser, Kurt; Lalonde, Stefan

    2014-05-01

    The Great Oxidation Event (GOE) is currently viewed as a protracted process during which atmospheric oxygen levels increased above 10-5 times the present atmospheric level. This value is based on the loss of sulphur isotope mass independent fractionation (S-MIF) from the rock record, beginning at 2.45 Ga and disappearing by 2.32 Ga. However, a number of recent papers have pushed back the timing for oxidative continental weathering, and by extension, the onset of atmospheric oxygenation several hundreds of million years earlier despite the presence of S-MIF (e.g., Crowe et al., 2013). This apparent discrepancy can, in part, be resolved by the suggestion that recycling of older sedimentary sulphur bearing S-MIF might have led to this signal's persistence in the rock record for some time after atmospheric oxygenation (Reinhard et al., 2013). Here we suggest another possibility, that the earliest oxidative weathering reactions occurred in environments at profound redox disequilibrium with the atmosphere, such as biological soil crusts, riverbed and estuarine sediments, and lacustrine microbial mats. We calculate that the rate of O2 production via oxygenic photosynthesis in these terrestrial microbial ecosystems provides largely sufficient oxidizing potential to mobilise sulphate and a number of redox-sensitive trace metals from land to the oceans while the atmosphere itself remained anoxic with its attendant S-MIF signature. These findings reconcile geochemical signatures in the rock record for the earliest oxidative continental weathering with the history of atmospheric sulphur chemistry, and demonstrate the plausible antiquity of a terrestrial biosphere populated by cyanobacteria. Crowe, S.A., Dossing, L.N., Beukes, N.J., Bau, M., Kruger, S.J., Frei, R. & Canfield, D.E. Atmospheric oxygenation three billion years ago. Nature 501, 535-539 (2013). Reinhard, C.T., Planavsky, N.J. & Lyons, T.W. Long-term sedimentary recycling of rare sulphur isotope anomalies. Nature 497

  3. Academic Expectations of Australian Students from Aboriginal, Asian and Anglo Backgrounds: Perspectives of Teachers, Trainee-Teachers and Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandy, Justine; Durkin, Kevin; Barber, Bonnie L.; Houghton, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    There are ethnic group differences in academic achievement among Australian students, with Aboriginal students performing substantially below and Asian students above their peers. One factor that may contribute to these effects is societal stereotypes of Australian Asian and Aboriginal students, which may bias teachers' evaluations and…

  4. East Asian Heritage Language Education for a Plurilingual Reality in the United States: Practices, Potholes, and Possibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guofang; Wen, Keying

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on research about East Asian (mainly Chinese, Korean, and Japanese) heritage language (HL) teaching and learning in three contexts--the home, community heritage language schools, and programs in U.S. K-12 schools--this article discusses the challenges that East Asian subethnic groups face in improving HL education in each context.…

  5. Appropriate body mass index cut-offs to determine thinness, overweight and obesity in South Asian children in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilde, J.A. de; Dommelen, P. van; Middelkoop, B.J.C.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Asian populations have an increased risk of developing cardiometabolic disorders at a lower body mass index (BMI) than other ethnic groups. Therefore, lower adult BMI cut-offs to determine overweight and obesity are recommended to assess the associated health risks for Asian (23 and 27.5

  6. The Impact of Social Capital on the Access, Adjustment, and Success of Southeast Asian American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Robert T.; Maramba, Dina C.

    2015-01-01

    Given that Southeast Asian American (SEAA) students are severely underrepresented in higher education and less likely to persistence to graduation compared to other ethnic groups in the Asian American Pacific Islander (AAPI) community, this study explored critical factors to their college success. Indeed, several themes emerged from this national…

  7. When did India and Asia collide? Re-evaluating constraints from the Indus Group of the Indus-Tsangpo Suture zone, Indian Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, A.; Najman, Y.; Parrish, R.; Foster, G. L.; Garzanti, E.; Andò, S.

    2009-04-01

    The Indus Group includes marine and terrestrial Tertiary sedimentary rocks which were deposited in an evolving late-forearc to intermontane basin setting during the closure of Neo-Tethys and onset of India-Asia collision (Brookfield and Andrews-Speed 1984, Van Haver 1984, Searle 1990, Sinclair and Jaffey 2001, Clift et al. 2002). Clift et al. (2002) have constrained the age of collision by determining the lowermost stratigraphic point in the Indus Group that contains detritus from both Indian and Asian plates, and also by identifying where the Asian margin derived Indus Group unconformably overlies Indian margin sediments. The Chogdo Formation, dated by an overlying limestone at older than 54.9 Ma (O. Green, unpublished data cited in Sinclair and Jaffey 2001) is identified by Clift et al. (2001), to be the oldest unit of the Indus Group to contain detritus from both the Indian and Asian plates, and to stratigraphically overly Lamayuru Group Indian slope turbidites and Jurutze forearc basin rocks, thereby pinpointing the timing of continental collision to the Late Paleocene. However, despite its importance, these previous evaluations of the Indus Group have been hampered by poor stratigraphic knowledge and uncertain lateral correlations, largely due to the relatively complex deformation of the rocks and poor biostratigraphic control, and by application of only a limited number of techniques to assess provenance. We use a combination of geological mapping, biostratigraphy, facies analysis, petrography, bulk rock geochemistry, and isotopic characterisation of single detrital grains to 1) create an accurate and more widely representative stratigraphy for the Indus Group, 2) determine the nature of the contacts which separate the overlying Indus Group from underlying Indian and Asian Plate formations and 3) determine the provenance of the Group, in particular the stratigraphic level within the Indus Group at which both Indian and Asian plate detrital minerals occur

  8. Binge Drinking and Alcohol-Related Problems among U.S-Born Asian Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Iwamoto, Derek; Takamatsu, Stephanie; Castellanos, Jeanett

    2012-01-01

    Binge drinking (five drinks or more in a 2-hour sitting for men, or four or more drinks in a 2-hour sitting for women) and alcohol-related problems are a growing problem among Asian American young adults. The current study examines the socio-cultural (i.e., generational status and ethnic identity) determinants of binge drinking and alcohol-related problems across U.S.-born, young adult, Asian American ethnic groups. Data were collected from 1,575 Asian American undergraduates from a public un...

  9. Mineral content of the forearms of babies born to Asian and white mothers.

    OpenAIRE

    Congdon, P; Horsman, A; Kirby, P A; Dibble, J; Bashir, T

    1983-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is common in pregnant Asian women. The effect of maternal vitamin D deficiency on fetal skeletal mineralisation was assessed by measuring the bone mineral content of babies born to 45 Asian women, 19 Asian women who had received 1000 units of vitamin D during the last trimester, and 12 white women. The mean cord blood concentrations of 25-hydroxy vitamin D in the three groups were 5.9 +/- SE 0.9 nmol/l (2.4 +/- SE 0.4 ng/ml), 15.2 +/- 3.2 nmol/l (6.1 +/- 1.3 ng/ml), and 3...

  10. Continental Growth and the Sedimentary Record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhuime, B.; Hawkesworth, C. J.; Robinson, R. A. J.; Cawood, P. A.

    2014-12-01

    Detrital sedimentary rocks provide average samples of the continental crust formed at different times and in different places. Some materials are more susceptible to erosion and/or to preservation bias than others, and one issue is to understand how the compositions of a range of source rocks are then recorded in the sediments. Here we considered two different approaches to model the growth of the continental crust: (i) The variation of Nd isotopes in continental shales with different deposition ages, which requires a correction of the bias induced by preferential erosion of younger rocks through an erosion parameter usually referred to as 'K'. The determination of K, and the extent to which it varies in different erosion systems, thus have fundamental implications for the models of continental growth based on radiogenic isotopes in continental sediments. (ii) The variations in U-Pb, Hf and O isotopes in detrital zircons, from 'modern' sediments sampled worldwide. In this approach, O isotopes are used to screen 'hybrid' Hf model ages (i.e. ages resulting from mixing processes of crustal material from different ages) from Hf model ages that represent actual crust formation ages. These two approaches independently suggest that the continental crust has been generated continuously, but with a marked decrease in the continental growth rate at ~3 Ga. The >4 Ga to ~3 Ga period is characterised by relatively high net rates of continental growth (~3.0 km3.a-1), which are similar to the rates at which new crust is generated, and destroyed, at the present time. Net growth rates are much lower since 3 Ga (~0.8 km3.a-1), which may be attributed to higher rates of destruction of continental crust. The inflexion in the continental growth curve at ~3 Ga indicates a change in the way the crust was generated and preserved. This change may be linked to onset of subduction-driven plate tectonics and discrete subduction zones.

  11. Proportioning whole-genome single-nucleotide-polymorphism diversity for the identification of geographic population structure and genetic ancestry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O. Lao Grueso (Oscar); K. van Duijn (Kate); P. Kersbergen (Paula); P. de Knijff (Peter); M.H. Kayser (Manfred)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractThe identification of geographic population structure and genetic ancestry on the basis of a minimal set of genetic markers is desirable for a wide range of applications in medical and forensic sciences. However, the absence of sharp discontinuities in the neutral genetic diversity among

  12. A meta-analysis identifies new loci associated with body mass index in individuals of African ancestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monda, Keri L; Chen, Gary K; Taylor, Kira C; Palmer, Cameron; Edwards, Todd L; Lange, Leslie A; Ng, Maggie C Y; Adeyemo, Adebowale A; Allison, Matthew A; Bielak, Lawrence F; Chen, Guanjie; Graff, Mariaelisa; Irvin, Marguerite R; Rhie, Suhn K; Li, Guo; Liu, Yongmei; Liu, Youfang; Lu, Yingchang; Nalls, Michael A; Sun, Yan V; Wojczynski, Mary K; Yanek, Lisa R; Aldrich, Melinda C; Ademola, Adeyinka; Amos, Christopher I; Bandera, Elisa V; Bock, Cathryn H; Britton, Angela; Broeckel, Ulrich; Cai, Quiyin; Caporaso, Neil E; Carlson, Chris S; Carpten, John; Casey, Graham; Chen, Wei-Min; Chen, Fang; Chen, Yii-Der I; Chiang, Charleston W K; Coetzee, Gerhard A; Demerath, Ellen; Deming-Halverson, Sandra L; Driver, Ryan W; Dubbert, Patricia; Feitosa, Mary F; Feng, Ye; Freedman, Barry I; Gillanders, Elizabeth M; Gottesman, Omri; Guo, Xiuqing; Haritunians, Talin; Harris, Tamara; Harris, Curtis C; Hennis, Anselm J M; Hernandez, Dena G; McNeill, Lorna H; Howard, Timothy D; Howard, Barbara V; Howard, Virginia J; Johnson, Karen C; Kang, Sun J; Keating, Brendan J; Kolb, Suzanne; Kuller, Lewis H; Kutlar, Abdullah; Langefeld, Carl D; Lettre, Guillaume; Lohman, Kurt; Lotay, Vaneet; Lyon, Helen; Manson, Joann E; Maixner, William; Meng, Yan A; Monroe, Kristine R; Morhason-Bello, Imran; Murphy, Adam B; Mychaleckyj, Josyf C; Nadukuru, Rajiv; Nathanson, Katherine L; Nayak, Uma; N'diaye, Amidou; Nemesure, Barbara; Wu, Suh-Yuh; Leske, M Cristina; Neslund-Dudas, Christine; Neuhouser, Marian; Nyante, Sarah; Ochs-Balcom, Heather; Ogunniyi, Adesola; Ogundiran, Temidayo O; Ojengbede, Oladosu; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I; Palmer, Julie R; Ruiz-Narvaez, Edward A; Palmer, Nicholette D; Press, Michael F; Rampersaud, Evandine; Rasmussen-Torvik, Laura J; Rodriguez-Gil, Jorge L; Salako, Babatunde; Schadt, Eric E; Schwartz, Ann G; Shriner, Daniel A; Siscovick, David; Smith, Shad B; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Speliotes, Elizabeth K; Spitz, Margaret R; Sucheston, Lara; Taylor, Herman; Tayo, Bamidele O; Tucker, Margaret A; Van Den Berg, David J; Edwards, Digna R Velez; Wang, Zhaoming; Wiencke, John K; Winkler, Thomas W; Witte, John S; Wrensch, Margaret; Wu, Xifeng; Yang, James J; Levin, Albert M; Young, Taylor R; Zakai, Neil A; Cushman, Mary; Zanetti, Krista A; Zhao, Jing Hua; Zhao, Wei; Zheng, Yonglan; Zhou, Jie; Ziegler, Regina G; Zmuda, Joseph M; Fernandes, Jyotika K; Gilkeson, Gary S; Kamen, Diane L; Hunt, Kelly J; Spruill, Ida J; Ambrosone, Christine B; Ambs, Stefan; Arnett, Donna K; Atwood, Larry; Becker, Diane M; Berndt, Sonja I; Bernstein, Leslie; Blot, William J; Borecki, Ingrid B; Bottinger, Erwin P; Bowden, Donald W; Burke, Gregory; Chanock, Stephen J; Cooper, Richard S; Ding, Jingzhong; Duggan, David; Evans, Michele K; Fox, Caroline; Garvey, W Timothy; Bradfield, Jonathan P; Hakonarson, Hakon; Grant, Struan F A; Hsing, Ann; Chu, Lisa; Hu, Jennifer J; Huo, Dezheng; Ingles, Sue A; John, Esther M; Jordan, Joanne M; Kabagambe, Edmond K; Kardia, Sharon L R; Kittles, Rick A; Goodman, Phyllis J; Klein, Eric A; Kolonel, Laurence N; Le Marchand, Loic; Liu, Simin; McKnight, Barbara; Millikan, Robert C; Mosley, Thomas H; Padhukasahasram, Badri; Williams, L Keoki; Patel, Sanjay R; Peters, Ulrike; Pettaway, Curtis A; Peyser, Patricia A; Psaty, Bruce M; Redline, Susan; Rotimi, Charles N; Rybicki, Benjamin A; Sale, Michèle M; Schreiner, Pamela J; Signorello, Lisa B; Singleton, Andrew B; Stanford, Janet L; Strom, Sara S; Thun, Michael J; Vitolins, Mara; Zheng, Wei; Moore, Jason H; Williams, Scott M; Ketkar, Shamika; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Zonderman, Alan B; Kooperberg, Charles; Papanicolaou, George J; Henderson, Brian E; Reiner, Alex P; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Loos, Ruth J F; North, Kari E; Haiman, Christopher A

    2013-06-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 36 loci associated with body mass index (BMI), predominantly in populations of European ancestry. We conducted a meta-analysis to examine the association of >3.2 million SNPs with BMI in 39,144 men and women of African ancestry and followed up the most significant associations in an additional 32,268 individuals of African ancestry. We identified one new locus at 5q33 (GALNT10, rs7708584, P = 3.4 × 10(-11)) and another at 7p15 when we included data from the GIANT consortium (MIR148A-NFE2L3, rs10261878, P = 1.2 × 10(-10)). We also found suggestive evidence of an association at a third locus at 6q16 in the African-ancestry sample (KLHL32, rs974417, P = 6.9 × 10(-8)). Thirty-two of the 36 previously established BMI variants showed directionally consistent effect estimates in our GWAS (binomial P = 9.7 × 10(-7)), five of which reached genome-wide significance. These findings provide strong support for shared BMI loci across populations, as well as for the utility of studying ancestrally diverse populations.

  13. Proportioning whole-genome single-nucleotide-polymorphism diversity for the identification of geographic population structure and genetic ancestry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O. Lao Grueso (Oscar); K. van Duijn (Kate); P. Kersbergen; P. de Knijff (Peter); M.H. Kayser (Manfred)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractThe identification of geographic population structure and genetic ancestry on the basis of a minimal set of genetic markers is desirable for a wide range of applications in medical and forensic sciences. However, the absence of sharp discontinuities in the neutral genet

  14. African Ancestry, Social Factors, and Hypertension Among Non-Hispanic Blacks in the Health and Retirement Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marden, Jessica R; Walter, Stefan; Kaufman, Jay S; Glymour, M Maria

    2016-01-01

    The biomedical literature contains much speculation about possible genetic explanations for the large and persistent black-white disparities in hypertension, but profound social inequalities are also hypothesized to contribute to this outcome. Our goal is to evaluate whether socioeconomic status (SES) differences provide a plausible mechanism for associations between African ancestry and hypertension in a U.S. cohort of older non-Hispanic blacks. We included only non-Hispanic black participants (N = 998) from the Health and Retirement Study who provided genetic data. We estimated percent African ancestry based on 84,075 independent single nucleotide polymorphisms using ADMIXTURE V1.23, imposing K = 4 ancestral populations, and categorized into quartiles. Hypertension status was self-reported in the year 2000. We used linear probability models (adjusted for age, sex, and southern birth) to predict prevalent hypertension with African ancestry quartile, before and after accounting for a small set of SES measures. Respondents with the highest quartile of African ancestry had 8 percentage points' (RD = 0.081; 95% CI: -0.001, 0.164) higher prevalence of hypertension compared to the lowest quartile. Adjustment for childhood disadvantage, education, income, and wealth explained over one-third (RD = 0.050; 95% CI: -0.034, 0.135) of the disparity. Explanations for the residual disparity remain unspecified and may include other indicators of SES or diet, lifestyle, and psychosocial mechanisms. PMID:27050031

  15. Metabolic syndrome in South Asians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushik Pandit

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available South Asia is home to one of the largest population of people with metabolic syndrome (MetS. The prevalence of MetS in South Asians varies according to region, extent of urbanization, lifestyle patterns, and socioeconomic/cultural factors. Recent data show that about one-third of the urban population in large cities in India has the MetS. All classical risk factors comprising the MetS are prevalent in Asian Indians residing in India. The higher risk in this ethnic population necessitated a lowering of the cut-off values of the risk factors to identify and intervene for the MetS to prevent diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Some pharmacological and nonpharmacological interventions are underway in MetS to assess the efficacy in preventing the diabetes and cardiovascular disease in this ethnic population.

  16. South Asian Diaspora in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    2005-01-01

    and exclusion, individualization and interdependency, these relationships are delineated on the basis of two empirical projects, combined with an array of secondary sources. South Asian youth are becoming a part of the receiving society along with developing their complex diaspora identities through strategies......This article throws light on the psychological situation of South Asian youth in Scandinavia, primarily in Denmark, and to some extent in Norway, through the youths’ interethnic and intergenerational relationships. Within the social psychological conceptualisation of transmigration, inclusion...... like forming relationships across ethnic borders, youth organisations, and media consumption. Intergenerational relationships indicate negotiations for most, combining individualization with interdependency, but with serious conflicts for some. The conclusions pin point the challenges for Scandinavian...

  17. Exploring Asian American racial identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Grace A; Lephuoc, Paul; Guzmán, Michele R; Rude, Stephanie S; Dodd, Barbara G

    2006-07-01

    In this study the authors used cluster analysis to create racial identity profiles for a sample of Asian Americans using the People of Color Racial Identity Attitudes Scale (PCRIAS). A four-cluster solution was chosen: each cluster corresponded to one PCRIAS subscale and was named accordingly. Scores on the Asian American Racism-Related Stress Inventory and the Color-Blind Racial Attitudes Scale were compared across clusters. As expected, the Dissonance and Immersion clusters were characterized by relatively high racism-related stress and low levels of color-blind attitudes; the Conformity cluster showed roughly the opposite pattern. Surprisingly, the Internalization cluster showed a pattern similar to that for Conformity and thus may reflect "pseudoindependence" as discussed by Helms. PMID:16881750

  18. Asian Media Influence in the Global Context

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘璟; 韩澄

    2013-01-01

    Introduction:“Today the world we live in is a global vil age where no nation, group or culture can remain anonymous.”(qtd. in Jones&Quach 5) With the fast development of digital media, Asian entertainment media is enjoying warm welcome in the worldwide. Japan is considered as a manga superpower.“It has replaced the United states as the world's largest exporter of comics and animation.”(qtd. in Wong 42) Chinese blockbusters receive success not only within China, but in the global box office. In addition, entertainment media in China and Japan have great impact on the development of intercultural dialogue, in terms of providing an open and respectful exchange platform for different cultural backgrounds with aims of developing deeper understanding of diverse perspectives and practices and diminishing barriers of intercultural communication.

  19. Path Integral and Asian Options

    OpenAIRE

    Peng Zhang

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we analytically study the problem of pricing an arithmetically averaged Asian option in the path integral formalism. By a trick about the Dirac delta function, the measure of the path integral is defined by an effective action functional whose potential term is an exponential function. This path integral is evaluated by use of the Feynman-Kac theorem. After working out some auxiliary integrations involving Bessel and Whittaker functions, we arrive at the spectral expansion for t...

  20. The Rise of Asian SMEs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Export-oriented Asian SMEs-and the vital role they play in generating growth and employment-traversed difficult financial terrain in 2008-09.But with the global financial crisis behind them,their outlook is only looking more prospective with time.Som Subroto,global head of SME Banking of Standard Chartered Bank,explained SMEs’function and difficulties in an exclusive article for Beijing Review.Edited excerpts follow

  1. The Rise of Asian SMEs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Export-oriented Asian SMEs-and the vital role they play in generating growth and employment-traversed difficult financial terrain in 2008-09.But with the global financial crisis behind them,their outlook is only looking more prospective with time.Sore Subroto,global head of SME Banking of Standard Chartered Bank,explained SMEs' function and difficulties in an exclusive article for Beijing Review.

  2. Sustainability in South Asian city

    OpenAIRE

    Ghulam Akhmat; Muhammad Mahroof Khan; Mumtaz Ali

    2011-01-01

    South Asia is one of most densely populated region in the world. Currently, 28.33% of the South Asian population lives in urban areas, with an annual growth rate of 2.92%. Shifting of jobs from agriculture to industry and the concentration of economic opportunities in urban areas are causing tremendous increase in urbanisation in the region, which is seriously affecting the environment, and poses strong challenges to governments in terms of the infrastructure and services. In this article, we...

  3. Passives in South Asian languages:

    OpenAIRE

    Chandra, Pritha; Anindita SAHOOA

    2013-01-01

    Haspelmath (2010) debates whether universal (descriptive) categories of the types that generativists (cf. Newmeyer, 2007) envisage are real and needed for cross-linguistic studies. Instead every language has its own unique set of categories. We raise doubt on this “categorial particularism” position by drawing on underlying similarities of passive constructions of three South Asian languages - Oriya (Indo-Aryan), Malayalam (Dravidian) and Kharia (Austro-Asiatic). Unlike English-type passives,...

  4. Asian School of Nuclear Medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Asian School of Nuclear Medicine (ASNM) was formed in February 2003, with the ARCCNM as the parent body. Aims of ASNM: 1. To foster Education in Nuclear Medicine among the Asian countries, particularly the less developed ones. 2. To promote training of Nuclear Medicine Physicians in cooperation with government agencies, IAEA and universities and societies. 3. To assist in national and regional training courses, award continuing medical education (CME) points and provide regional experts for advanced educational programmes. 4. To work towards awarding of diplomas or degrees in association with recognized universities by distance learning and practical attachments, with examinations. The ASNM works toward a formal training courses leading to the award of a certificate in the long term. The most fundamental job of the ASNM remains the transfer of knowledge from the more developed countries to the less developed ones in the Asian region. The ASNM could award credit hours to the participants of training courses conducted in the various countries and conduct electronic courses and examinations. CME programmes may also be conducted as part of the regular ARCCNM meetings and the ASNM will award CME credit points for such activities

  5. Ancestry inference in complex admixtures via variable-length Markov chain linkage models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Jesse M; Bercovici, Sivan; Elmore, Megan; Batzoglou, Serafim

    2013-03-01

    Inferring the ancestral origin of chromosomal segments in admixed individuals is key for genetic applications, ranging from analyzing population demographics and history, to mapping disease genes. Previous methods addressed ancestry inference by using either weak models of linkage disequilibrium, or large models that make explicit use of ancestral haplotypes. In this paper we introduce ALLOY, an efficient method that incorporates generalized, but highly expressive, linkage disequilibrium models. ALLOY applies a factorial hidden Markov model to capture the parallel process producing the maternal and paternal admixed haplotypes, and models the background linkage disequilibrium in the ancestral populations via an inhomogeneous variable-length Markov chain. We test ALLOY in a broad range of scenarios ranging from recent to ancient admixtures with up to four ancestral populations. We show that ALLOY outperforms the previous state of the art, and is robust to uncertainties in model parameters. PMID:23421795

  6. A few laced genes: women's standpoint in the feminist ancestry of Dorothy E. Smith.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smythe, Deirdre

    2009-04-01

    This article looks at the feminist activism of particular women in the ancestry of the eminent Canadian sociologist, Dorothy E. Smith, and at the archival data that confirm the traces of their influence found in her theory-building. Using the method of interpretative historical sociology and a conceptual framework drawn from Marx called the "productive forces," the article examines the feminist theology of her Quaker ancestor, Margaret Fell, and the militant suffrage activism of her mother and her grandmother, Dorothy Foster Place and Lucy Ellison Abraham, respectively. The article argues that the household labour of the remarkable women in her family line became a "productive force" that facilitated her imagining of the feminist theory, "the standpoint of women". PMID:19999830

  7. The dynamics of mergers and acquisitions: ancestry as the seminal determinant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viegas, Eduardo; Cockburn, Stuart P.; Jensen, Henrik J.; West, Geoffrey B.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the fundamental mechanisms behind the complex landscape of corporate mergers and acquisitions is of crucial importance to economies across the world. Adapting ideas from the fields of complexity and evolutionary dynamics to analyse business ecosystems, we show here that ancestry, i.e. the cumulative sum of historical mergers across all ancestors, is the key characteristic to company mergers and acquisitions. We verify this by comparing an agent-based model to an extensive range of business data, covering the period from the 1830s to the present day and a range of industries and geographies. This seemingly universal mechanism leads to imbalanced business ecosystems, with the emergence of a few very large, but sluggish ‘too big to fail’ entities, and very small, niche entities, thereby creating a paradigm where a configuration akin to effective oligopoly or monopoly is a likely outcome for free market systems. PMID:25383025

  8. The influence of climate on age at menarche: Augmented with the influence of ancestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Kitae

    2016-08-01

    Samples representative of South Korea, Indonesia, and Peninsular Malaysia were analyzed and the influence of climate on age at menarche was investigated. The sample size was 24,651 for Korea (birth years 1941-1992), for Indonesia 8331 (birth years 1944-1988) plus 20,519 (birth years 1978-1997), and 2842 for Peninsular Malaysia (birth years 1927-1968). Respondents recalled their age at menarche. The mean age at menarche was calculated for each birth year by country, and for Malaysia, additionally by ancestry. It has been found that mean ages at menarche for the early birth years were much younger in Indonesia than in Korea despite similar levels of socioeconomic conditions (proxied by GDP per capita). For example, for the birth year 1944, the mean age at menarche was 14.45 years for Indonesia and 16.19 years for Korea-a difference of 1.74 years. It was necessary to double the Korean GDP per capita to make the Korean mean age at menarche the same as the Indonesian one. Chinese and Malay women in Peninsular Malaysia were further analyzed, and the results provided indirect evidence that the difference between Korea and Indonesia was not due to ancestry differences. Results in multivariate settings provided consistent results. It has been concluded that climate exerts a significant influence on age at menarche because the relatively easy availability of food in the tropics increases energy intake while the absence of cold weather decreases energy expenditure on maintenance and activity. PMID:27369814

  9. Phylogenomic analyses reveal convergent patterns of adaptive evolution in elephant and human ancestries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Morris; Sterner, Kirstin N; Islam, Munirul; Uddin, Monica; Sherwood, Chet C; Hof, Patrick R; Hou, Zhuo-Cheng; Lipovich, Leonard; Jia, Hui; Grossman, Lawrence I; Wildman, Derek E

    2009-12-01

    Specific sets of brain-expressed genes, such as aerobic energy metabolism genes, evolved adaptively in the ancestry of humans and may have evolved adaptively in the ancestry of other large-brained mammals. The recent addition of genomes from two afrotherians (elephant and tenrec) to the expanding set of publically available sequenced mammalian genomes provided an opportunity to test this hypothesis. Elephants resemble humans by having large brains and long life spans; tenrecs, in contrast, have small brains and short life spans. Thus, we investigated whether the phylogenomic patterns of adaptive evolution are more similar between elephant and human than between either elephant and tenrec lineages or human and mouse lineages, and whether aerobic energy metabolism genes are especially well represented in the elephant and human patterns. Our analyses encompassed approximately 6,000 genes in each of these lineages with each gene yielding extensive coding sequence matches in interordinal comparisons. Each gene's nonsynonymous and synonymous nucleotide substitution rates and dN/dS ratios were determined. Then, from gene ontology information on genes with the higher dN/dS ratios, we identified the more prevalent sets of genes that belong to specific functional categories and that evolved adaptively. Elephant and human lineages showed much slower nucleotide substitution rates than tenrec and mouse lineages but more adaptively evolved genes. In correlation with absolute brain size and brain oxygen consumption being largest in elephants and next largest in humans, adaptively evolved aerobic energy metabolism genes were most evident in the elephant lineage and next most evident in the human lineage.

  10. ObStruct: a method to objectively analyse factors driving population structure using Bayesian ancestry profiles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velimir Gayevskiy

    Full Text Available Bayesian inference methods are extensively used to detect the presence of population structure given genetic data. The primary output of software implementing these methods are ancestry profiles of sampled individuals. While these profiles robustly partition the data into subgroups, currently there is no objective method to determine whether the fixed factor of interest (e.g. geographic origin correlates with inferred subgroups or not, and if so, which populations are driving this correlation. We present ObStruct, a novel tool to objectively analyse the nature of structure revealed in Bayesian ancestry profiles using established statistical methods. ObStruct evaluates the extent of structural similarity between sampled and inferred populations, tests the significance of population differentiation, provides information on the contribution of sampled and inferred populations to the observed structure and crucially determines whether the predetermined factor of interest correlates with inferred population structure. Analyses of simulated and experimental data highlight ObStruct's ability to objectively assess the nature of structure in populations. We show the method is capable of capturing an increase in the level of structure with increasing time since divergence between simulated populations. Further, we applied the method to a highly structured dataset of 1,484 humans from seven continents and a less structured dataset of 179 Saccharomyces cerevisiae from three regions in New Zealand. Our results show that ObStruct provides an objective metric to classify the degree, drivers and significance of inferred structure, as well as providing novel insights into the relationships between sampled populations, and adds a final step to the pipeline for population structure analyses.

  11. A Method to Exploit the Structure of Genetic Ancestry Space to Enhance Case-Control Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodea, Corneliu A; Neale, Benjamin M; Ripke, Stephan; Daly, Mark J; Devlin, Bernie; Roeder, Kathryn

    2016-05-01

    One goal of human genetics is to understand the genetic basis of disease, a challenge for diseases of complex inheritance because risk alleles are few relative to the vast set of benign variants. Risk variants are often sought by association studies in which allele frequencies in case subjects are contrasted with those from population-based samples used as control subjects. In an ideal world we would know population-level allele frequencies, releasing researchers to focus on case subjects. We argue this ideal is possible, at least theoretically, and we outline a path to achieving it in reality. If such a resource were to exist, it would yield ample savings and would facilitate the effective use of data repositories by removing administrative and technical barriers. We call this concept the Universal Control Repository Network (UNICORN), a means to perform association analyses without necessitating direct access to individual-level control data. Our approach to UNICORN uses existing genetic resources and various statistical tools to analyze these data, including hierarchical clustering with spectral analysis of ancestry; and empirical Bayesian analysis along with Gaussian spatial processes to estimate ancestry-specific allele frequencies. We demonstrate our approach using tens of thousands of control subjects from studies of Crohn disease, showing how it controls false positives, provides power similar to that achieved when all control data are directly accessible, and enhances power when control data are limiting or even imperfectly matched ancestrally. These results highlight how UNICORN can enable reliable, powerful, and convenient genetic association analyses without access to the individual-level data. PMID:27087321

  12. The Genetics of Bene Israel from India Reveals Both Substantial Jewish and Indian Ancestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldman, Yedael Y; Biddanda, Arjun; Davidson, Natalie R; Billing-Ross, Paul; Dubrovsky, Maya; Campbell, Christopher L; Oddoux, Carole; Friedman, Eitan; Atzmon, Gil; Halperin, Eran; Ostrer, Harry; Keinan, Alon

    2016-01-01

    The Bene Israel Jewish community from West India is a unique population whose history before the 18th century remains largely unknown. Bene Israel members consider themselves as descendants of Jews, yet the identity of Jewish ancestors and their arrival time to India are unknown, with speculations on arrival time varying between the 8th century BCE and the 6th century CE. Here, we characterize the genetic history of Bene Israel by collecting and genotyping 18 Bene Israel individuals. Combining with 486 individuals from 41 other Jewish, Indian and Pakistani populations, and additional individuals from worldwide populations, we conducted comprehensive genome-wide analyses based on FST, principal component analysis, ADMIXTURE, identity-by-descent sharing, admixture linkage disequilibrium decay, haplotype sharing and allele sharing autocorrelation decay, as well as contrasted patterns between the X chromosome and the autosomes. The genetics of Bene Israel individuals resemble local Indian populations, while at the same time constituting a clearly separated and unique population in India. They are unique among Indian and Pakistani populations we analyzed in sharing considerable genetic ancestry with other Jewish populations. Putting together the results from all analyses point to Bene Israel being an admixed population with both Jewish and Indian ancestry, with the genetic contribution of each of these ancestral populations being substantial. The admixture took place in the last millennium, about 19-33 generations ago. It involved Middle-Eastern Jews and was sex-biased, with more male Jewish and local female contribution. It was followed by a population bottleneck and high endogamy, which can lead to increased prevalence of recessive diseases in this population. This study provides an example of how genetic analysis advances our knowledge of human history in cases where other disciplines lack the relevant data to do so.

  13. Multiplex APLP System for High-Resolution Haplogrouping of Extremely Degraded East-Asian Mitochondrial DNAs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuneo Kakuda

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA serves as a powerful tool for exploring matrilineal phylogeographic ancestry, as well as for analyzing highly degraded samples, because of its polymorphic nature and high copy numbers per cell. The recent advent of complete mitochondrial genome sequencing has led to improved techniques for phylogenetic analyses based on mtDNA, and many multiplex genotyping methods have been developed for the hierarchical analysis of phylogenetically important mutations. However, few high-resolution multiplex genotyping systems for analyzing East-Asian mtDNA can be applied to extremely degraded samples. Here, we present a multiplex system for analyzing mitochondrial single nucleotide polymorphisms (mtSNPs, which relies on a novel amplified product-length polymorphisms (APLP method that uses inosine-flapped primers and is specifically designed for the detailed haplogrouping of extremely degraded East-Asian mtDNAs. We used fourteen 6-plex polymerase chain reactions (PCRs and subsequent electrophoresis to examine 81 haplogroup-defining SNPs and 3 insertion/deletion sites, and we were able to securely assign the studied mtDNAs to relevant haplogroups. Our system requires only 1×10-13 g (100 fg of crude DNA to obtain a full profile. Owing to its small amplicon size (<110 bp, this new APLP system was successfully applied to extremely degraded samples for which direct sequencing of hypervariable segments using mini-primer sets was unsuccessful, and proved to be more robust than conventional APLP analysis. Thus, our new APLP system is effective for retrieving reliable data from extremely degraded East-Asian mtDNAs.

  14. Multiplex APLP System for High-Resolution Haplogrouping of Extremely Degraded East-Asian Mitochondrial DNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakuda, Tsuneo; Shojo, Hideki; Tanaka, Mayumi; Nambiar, Phrabhakaran; Minaguchi, Kiyoshi; Umetsu, Kazuo; Adachi, Noboru

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) serves as a powerful tool for exploring matrilineal phylogeographic ancestry, as well as for analyzing highly degraded samples, because of its polymorphic nature and high copy numbers per cell. The recent advent of complete mitochondrial genome sequencing has led to improved techniques for phylogenetic analyses based on mtDNA, and many multiplex genotyping methods have been developed for the hierarchical analysis of phylogenetically important mutations. However, few high-resolution multiplex genotyping systems for analyzing East-Asian mtDNA can be applied to extremely degraded samples. Here, we present a multiplex system for analyzing mitochondrial single nucleotide polymorphisms (mtSNPs), which relies on a novel amplified product-length polymorphisms (APLP) method that uses inosine-flapped primers and is specifically designed for the detailed haplogrouping of extremely degraded East-Asian mtDNAs. We used fourteen 6-plex polymerase chain reactions (PCRs) and subsequent electrophoresis to examine 81 haplogroup-defining SNPs and 3 insertion/deletion sites, and we were able to securely assign the studied mtDNAs to relevant haplogroups. Our system requires only 1×10-13 g (100 fg) of crude DNA to obtain a full profile. Owing to its small amplicon size (<110 bp), this new APLP system was successfully applied to extremely degraded samples for which direct sequencing of hypervariable segments using mini-primer sets was unsuccessful, and proved to be more robust than conventional APLP analysis. Thus, our new APLP system is effective for retrieving reliable data from extremely degraded East-Asian mtDNAs. PMID:27355212

  15. MS in South Asians in England: early disease onset and novel pattern of myelin autoimmunity

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholas, Richard S; Kostadima, Vassiliki; Hanspal, Maya; Wakerley, Benjamin R; Sergeant, Ruhena; Decuypere, Saskia; Malik, Omar; Boyton, Rosemary J; Altmann, Daniel M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Epidemiological studies describe a latitude gradient for increased MS prevalence and a preponderance of disease in Caucasian individuals. However, individuals from other ethnic backgrounds and low-risk regions can acquire a raised risk through migration. Nearly a fifth of the London population is of Asian/Asian-British origin and a significant proportion of referrals are from this group. Methods We investigated whether there were differences in timing, presentation, severity, and i...

  16. Low-income South Asian parents' concept of 'making it' in Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Alka

    2012-01-01

    This thesis addresses academic underachievement by ethnic minorities, a persistent sociological problem, in the context of low-income South Asian students in Hong Kong. South Asians have deep roots in the history of Hong Kong; however lower income groups among them find few opportunities for upward social mobility. Students from this community attend ‘designated’ local public schools, which do not seem to offer them a challenging academic environment. Hence, these students generally show poo...

  17. Gender and ethnic differences in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes among Asian subgroups in California

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Sarah E.; Liu, Michael; Palaniappan, Latha P; Wang, Elsie J.; Wong, Nathan D.

    2013-01-01

    AimsTo investigate gender and ethnic type 2 diabetes (DM) prevalences among California Asian subgroups versus other ethnic groups and if risk factors explain these differences.MethodsWe identified the prevalence of DM and associated risk factors, stratified by gender, among Chinese, Filipino, South Asian, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese, Mexican, Other Hispanic, African American, Caucasian, and Native American adults in a large survey conducted in 2009 (n=46,091, projected n= 26.6 mil).ResultsTh...

  18. Asian School of Nuclear Medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of organisations are involved in the field of nuclear medicine education. These include International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), World Federation of Nuclear Medicine and Biology (WFNMB), Asia-Oceania Federation of Nuclear Medicine and Biology (AOFNMB), Society of Nuclear Medicine (SNM in USA), European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM). Some Universities also have M.Sc courses in Nuclear Medicine. In the Asian Region, an Asian Regional Cooperative Council for Nuclear Medicine (ARCCNM) was formed in 2000, initiated by China, Japan and Korea, with the main aim of fostering the spread of Nuclear Medicine in Asia. The Asian School of Nuclear Medicine (ASNM) was formed in February 2003, with the ARCCNM as the parent body. The Aims of ASNM are: to foster Education in Nuclear Medicine among the Asian countries, particularly the less developed regions; to promote training of Nuclear Medicine Physicians in cooperation with government agencies, IAEA and universities and societies; to assist in national and regional training courses, award continuing medical education (CME) points and provide regional experts for advanced educational programmes; and to work towards awarding of diplomas or degrees in association with recognised universities by distance learning and practical attachments, with examinations. There are 10 to 12 teaching faculty members from each country comprising of physicists, radio pharmacists as well as nuclear medicine physicians. From this list of potential teaching experts, the Vice-Deans and Dean of ASNM would then decide on the 2 appropriate teaching faculty member for a given assignment or a course in a specific country. The educational scheme could be in conjunction with the ARCCNM or with the local participating countries and their nuclear medicine organisations, or it could be a one-off training course in a given country. This teaching faculty is purely voluntary with no major expenses paid by the ASNM; a token contribution could be

  19. Summary Report: Asian Pacific Islander Workers Hearing

    OpenAIRE

    Asian Pacific American Labor Alliance; AFL-CIO; UCLA Labor Center

    2002-01-01

    The first ever California State Assembly Hearing on Asian Pacific Islander Workers was convened by the Labor Employment Committee and the Asian Pacific Islander Legislative Caucus, at the request of Assembly member Judy Chu. The Hearing brought together Asian Pacific Islander workers and advocates from all over California. Their stories are a snapshot of millions of workers. The testimonies gave a glimpse of the detrimental impact that worker exploitation has on families and communities. Most...

  20. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    APJTB Monthly Aims&Scope Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine(APJTB)aims to set up and provide an international academic communication platform for physicians,medical scientists,allied health scientists and public health workers,especially those in the Asian Pacific region and worldwide on tropical biomedicine,infectious diseases and public health,and to meet the growing challenges of understanding,preventing and controlling the dramatic global emergence and reemergence of infectious diseases in the Asian Pacific region.

  1. Correlates of Suicidal Behaviors Among Asian Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Duldulao, Aileen Alfonso; Takeuchi, David T.; Hong, Seunghye

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the correlates of suicidal ideation, suicide plan and suicide attempt among Asian Americans focusing on nativity and gender. Analyses are performed on data from the National Latino and Asian American Study (N=2095), the first ever study conducted on the mental health of a national sample of Asian Americans. The sample is comprised of adults with 998 men (47%) and 1,097 (53%) women. Weighted logistic regression analyses reveal that US-born women have a higher percentage tha...

  2. Immigration and Mental Disorders among Asian Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Takeuchi, David T.; Zane, Nolan; Hong, Seunghye; Chae, David H.; Gong, Fang; Gee, Gilbert C.; Walton, Emily; Sue, Stanley; Alegria, Margarita

    2007-01-01

    Objectives. We examined lifetime and 12-month rates of any depressive, anxiety, and substance abuse disorders in a national sample of Asian Americans. We focused on factors related to nativity and immigration as possible correlates of mental disorders. Methods. Data were derived from the National Latino and Asian American Study, the first national epidemiological survey of Asian Americans in the United States. Results. The relationships between immigration-related factors and mental disorders...

  3. Multicultural/multiethnic grey literature : An Asian-American perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Marjorie H. (Rutgers University); GreyNet, Grey Literature Network Service

    1996-01-01

    Grey literature while very useful and extremely valuable, unfortunately, may never find its way into the usual review channels. Quite often it is this body of literature - commissioned reports, theses, publications of political activist groups, associations and organizations' newsletters an pamphlets, and ethnic print and non-print media - that are the most useful in recording the history and culture of peoples who have suffered discrimination and exclusion. The Asian-American, as well as the...

  4. Asian Banks:Leading the Way to Recovery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The global financial crisis has rocked the American and European Union banking system leaving many Western banks teetering on the verge of bankruptcy. But in the East, Asian banks have fared well so far. But what’s the secret to their success in riding out the crisis? Karen Fawcett, Group Head of Transaction Banking of Standard Chartered Bank, gave her answers in the following article with Beijing Review. Edited excerpts follow:

  5. Internet Recruitment of Asian American Breast Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Eun-Ok; Lee, Yaelim; Ji, Xiaopeng; Zhang, Jingwen; Kim, Sangmi; Chee, Eunice; Chee, Wonshik; Tsai, Hsiu-Min; Nishigaki, Masakazu; Yeo, Seon Ae; Shapira, Marilyn M; Mao, Jun James

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to identify practical issues in Internet recruitment of racial/ethnic minorities by analyzing an Internet intervention study conducted with Asian American breast cancer survivors, and to propose directions for recruitment of racial/ethnic minorities for future Internet research. Six practical issues were identified: (a) a relatively fewer number of Internet communities/groups; (b) hindrances in establishing authenticity; PMID:27490884

  6. Differences in coagulation among Asians and Caucasians and the implication for reconstructive microsurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Dhruv; Smorodinsky, Emmanuil; Guo, Lifei

    2011-01-01

    Microvascular reconstructive surgery has seen a revival with the introduction of muscle-sparing perforator flaps. Recognition of potential ethnic differences in coagulation profiles would be important to a microvascular surgeon. Based on clinical observations, we hypothesize that Asian patients have a less thrombogenic coagulation profile than Caucasians. An extensive retrospective review was performed. The annual incidence of venous thromboembolism in the United States is generally accepted to range from 70 to 120 events per 100,000 people versus 16 to 17 events per 100,000 persons in Asia. Autopsy analysis of pulmonary embolism incidence was noted to be 15% in North Americans and less than 1% in Asian populations. Thromboelastography analysis of Asian and Caucasian patients undergoing cholecystectomy revealed different hemostatic mechanisms. Comparison of Asians and Caucasians undergoing the Fontan procedure revealed significantly lower postoperative factor levels in Asians than Caucasians. Baseline comparison of factor and serum levels revealed Asians with the least thrombogenic profiles compared with other ethnic groups. Asians and Caucasians demonstrate different baseline rates of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, different hemostatic responses to surgery, and different baseline levels of clotting factors. Further study may lead to better pre-, intra-, and postoperative care of the free flap patient based on their ethnic coagulation profile.

  7. Potential evapotranspiration and continental drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milly, P. C. D.; Dunne, K. A.

    2016-10-01

    By various measures (drought area and intensity, climatic aridity index, and climatic water deficits), some observational analyses have suggested that much of the Earth’s land has been drying during recent decades, but such drying seems inconsistent with observations of dryland greening and decreasing pan evaporation. `Offline’ analyses of climate-model outputs from anthropogenic climate change (ACC) experiments portend continuation of putative drying through the twenty-first century, despite an expected increase in global land precipitation. A ubiquitous increase in estimates of potential evapotranspiration (PET), driven by atmospheric warming, underlies the drying trends, but may be a methodological artefact. Here we show that the PET estimator commonly used (the Penman-Monteith PET for either an open-water surface or a reference crop) severely overpredicts the changes in non-water-stressed evapotranspiration computed in the climate models themselves in ACC experiments. This overprediction is partially due to neglect of stomatal conductance reductions commonly induced by increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations in climate models. Our findings imply that historical and future tendencies towards continental drying, as characterized by offline-computed runoff, as well as other PET-dependent metrics, may be considerably weaker and less extensive than previously thought.

  8. Ethnic variations of a retinoblastoma susceptibility gene (RB1) polymorphism in eight Asian populations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Priya Kadam-Pai; Xin-Yi Su; Jasmin Jiji Miranda; Agustinus Soemantri; Nilmani Saha; Chew-Kiat Heng; Poh-San Lai

    2003-04-01

    An A → G single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at nucleotide 153,104 in the retinoblastoma susceptibility locus (RB1) at 13q14 was previously reported to be present only in Asians. In this study, we determined the distribution of this SNP in normal Southeast Asian populations (Chinese, Malay, Javanese, Thai, Filipino), in South Asian populations (Bangladeshi, Pakistani Pushtun and Indian) and in Chinese retinoblastoma cases and control subjects. The RB1 SNP was present in all populations at an overall frequency of ≤ 0.18. Heterozygosity was higher in the Southeast Asian groups (0.14–0.34) than in the South Asian groups (Bangladeshi and Indian) (0.04–0.06). Significant differences in allele frequencies were found between the two population groups. Interestingly, our Pakistani population comprised of ethnic Pushtuns from northwest Pakistan was significantly different from the neighbouring Bangladeshi and Indian populations. No significant difference was found between Chinese case patients and control subjects. This RB1 SNP appears to be an ethnic variant prevalent in Southeast Asian populations and may be useful for studying RB1 inheritance by pedigree analysis.

  9. Stomach cancer incidence rates among Americans, Asian Americans and Native Asians from 1988 to 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Yeerae; Park, Jinju; Nam, Byung-Ho; Ki, Moran

    2015-01-01

    Stomach cancer is the second most common cancer in Eastern Asia, accounting for approximately 50% of all new cases of stomach cancer worldwide. Our objective was to compare the stomach cancer incidence rates of Asian Americans in Los Angeles with those of native Asians to assess the etiology of stomach cancer from 1988 to 2011. To examine these differences, Asian Americans (Korean, Japanese, Chinese, and Filipino Americans living in Los Angeles, California, USA) and native Asians (from Korea,...

  10. Negotiating Intra-Asian Games Networks: On Cultural Proximity, East Asian Games Design, and Chinese Farmers

    OpenAIRE

    Dean Chan

    2006-01-01

    A key feature of networked games in East Asia is the relationship between the adaptation of regional Asian aesthetic and narrative forms in game content, and the parallel growth in more regionally-focused marketing and distribution initiatives. This essay offers a contextual analysis of intra-Asian games networks, with reference to the production, marketing and circulation of Asian MMORPGs. My discussion locates these networks as part of broader discourses on regionalism, East Asian cultural ...

  11. Asian Greek Sisterhoods: Archives, Affects, and Belongings in Asian American Sororities, 1929-2015

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Vivian

    2015-01-01

    The dissertation, Asian Greek Sisterhoods: Archives, Affects, and Belongings in Asian American Sororities, 1929-2015, examines the kinds of archives produced by Asian American women in single-gender social organizations or Asian Greek-letter sororities, reconceiving them as transformative acts of affects: embodied memory-keeping practices that transmit knowledge, traditions, cultural practices, and social customs as collective identities and communal histories across time and space, among dif...

  12. Counseling Asians: psychotherapy in the context of racism and Asian-American history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toupin, E S

    1980-01-01

    The historical experience of Asian immigrants to the United States is outlined, and implications for counseling and psychotherapy with Asian-Americans are considered. It is suggested that, in charting therapeutic goals for Asians, three major factors must be taken into account: 1) when and why Asians migrated to the United States, and where they settled; 2) the number of years, and the impact, of public education; and 3) conflicting cultural norms that complicate the acculturation process. PMID:7356003

  13. Numerical Algorithm for Delta of Asian Option

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boxiang Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the numerical solution of the Greeks of Asian options. In particular, we derive a close form solution of Δ of Asian geometric option and use this analytical form as a control to numerically calculate Δ of Asian arithmetic option, which is known to have no explicit close form solution. We implement our proposed numerical method and compare the standard error with other classical variance reduction methods. Our method provides an efficient solution to the hedging strategy with Asian options.

  14. "How Asian Am I?": Asian American Youth Cultures, Drug Use, and Ethnic Identity Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Geoffrey; Moloney, Molly; Evans, Kristin

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes the construction of ethnic identity in the narratives of 100 young Asian Americans in a dance club/rave scene. Authors examine how illicit drug use and other consuming practices shape their understanding of Asian American identities, finding three distinct patterns. The first presents a disjuncture between Asian American…

  15. Dermoscopy of Melanomas on the Trunk and Extremities in Asians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mun, Je-Ho; Ohn, Jungyoon; Kim, Woo-Il; Park, Sung-Min; Kim, Moon-Bum

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of melanoma among the Asian population is lower compared to that among the Western European population. These populations differed in their most common histopathologic subtypes, acral lentiginous melanoma being the most common in the Asian population. Although the dermoscopic features of the melanomas on the acral skin have been thoroughly investigated in the Asian population, studies concerning the dermoscopic patterns of melanomas on the non-acral skin have been scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate the dermoscopic patterns of melanomas on the trunk and extremities in the Asian population. To achieve this, we evaluated the dermoscopic patterns of 22 primary melanomas diagnosed at two university hospitals in Korea. In addition, 100 benign melanocytic lesions were included as the control group for comparative analysis. A P value less than 0.05 was regarded as statistically significant. Melanoma-associated dermoscopic features such as asymmetry (odds ratio [OR], 30.00), multicolor pattern (OR, 30.12), blotches (OR, 13.50), blue white veils (OR, 15.75), atypical pigment networks (OR, 9.71), irregular peripheral streaks (OR, 6.30), atypical vascular patterns (OR, 11.50), ulcers (OR, 15.83), atypical dots/globules (OR, 3.15), shiny white lines (OR, 5.88), and regression structures (OR, 7.06) were more commonly observed in patients with melanomas than in patients of the control group. The mean dermoscopic scores obtained on the 7-point checklist, revised 7-point checklist, 3-point checklist, ABCD rule, and CASH algorithm were 5.36, 3.41, 2.05, 6.89, and 9.68, respectively, in the primary melanomas, and 1.33, 0.93, 0.46, 2.45, and 3.60, respectively, in the control group (all, P < 0.001). The present study showed that melanoma-related dermoscopic patterns were common in Asian patients. Dermoscopy is a reliable diagnostic tool for the melanomas of the trunk and extremities in the Asian populations. PMID:27391775

  16. Dermoscopy of Melanomas on the Trunk and Extremities in Asians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Je-Ho Mun

    Full Text Available The incidence of melanoma among the Asian population is lower compared to that among the Western European population. These populations differed in their most common histopathologic subtypes, acral lentiginous melanoma being the most common in the Asian population. Although the dermoscopic features of the melanomas on the acral skin have been thoroughly investigated in the Asian population, studies concerning the dermoscopic patterns of melanomas on the non-acral skin have been scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate the dermoscopic patterns of melanomas on the trunk and extremities in the Asian population. To achieve this, we evaluated the dermoscopic patterns of 22 primary melanomas diagnosed at two university hospitals in Korea. In addition, 100 benign melanocytic lesions were included as the control group for comparative analysis. A P value less than 0.05 was regarded as statistically significant. Melanoma-associated dermoscopic features such as asymmetry (odds ratio [OR], 30.00, multicolor pattern (OR, 30.12, blotches (OR, 13.50, blue white veils (OR, 15.75, atypical pigment networks (OR, 9.71, irregular peripheral streaks (OR, 6.30, atypical vascular patterns (OR, 11.50, ulcers (OR, 15.83, atypical dots/globules (OR, 3.15, shiny white lines (OR, 5.88, and regression structures (OR, 7.06 were more commonly observed in patients with melanomas than in patients of the control group. The mean dermoscopic scores obtained on the 7-point checklist, revised 7-point checklist, 3-point checklist, ABCD rule, and CASH algorithm were 5.36, 3.41, 2.05, 6.89, and 9.68, respectively, in the primary melanomas, and 1.33, 0.93, 0.46, 2.45, and 3.60, respectively, in the control group (all, P < 0.001. The present study showed that melanoma-related dermoscopic patterns were common in Asian patients. Dermoscopy is a reliable diagnostic tool for the melanomas of the trunk and extremities in the Asian populations.

  17. A Cross-National Comparative Study of Blood Pressure and Hypertension Between English and Dutch South-Asian- and African-Origin Populations: The Role of National Context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Agyemang; A. Kunst; R. Bhopal; P. Zaninotto; N. Unwin; J. Nazroo; M. Nicolaou; W.K. Redekop; K. Stronks

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND We compare patterns of blood pressure (BP) and prevalence of hypertension between white-Dutch and their South-Asian and African minority groups with their corresponding white-English and their South-Asian and African ethnic minority groups; and the contribution of physical activity, body

  18. Ethnic differences in bone geometry between White, Black and South Asian men in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zengin, A; Pye, S R; Cook, M J; Adams, J E; Wu, F C W; O'Neill, T W; Ward, K A

    2016-10-01

    Relatively little is known about the bone health of ethnic groups within the UK and data are largely restricted to women. The aim of this study was to investigate ethnic differences in areal bone mineral density (aBMD), volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD), bone geometry and strength in UK men. White European, Black Afro-Caribbean and South Asian men aged over 40years were recruited from Greater Manchester, UK. aBMD at the spine, hip, femoral neck and whole body were measured by DXA. Bone geometry, strength and vBMD were measured at the radius and tibia using pQCT at the metaphysis (4%) and diaphysis (50% radius; 38% tibia) sites. Adjustments were made for age, weight and height. Black men had higher aBMD at the whole body, total hip and femoral neck compared to White and South Asian men independent of body size adjustments, with no differences between the latter two groups. White men had longer hip axis lengths than both Black and South Asian men. There were fewer differences in vBMD but White men had significantly lower cortical vBMD at the tibial diaphysis than Black and South Asian men (p<0.001). At the tibia and radius diaphysis, Black men had larger bones with thicker cortices and greater bending strength than the other groups. There were fewer differences between White and South Asian men. At the metaphysis, South Asian men had smaller bones (p=0.02) and lower trabecular vBMD at the tibia (p=0.003). At the diaphysis, after size-correction, South Asian men had similar sized bones but thinner cortices than White men; measures of strength were not broadly reduced in the South Asian men. Combining pQCT and DXA measurements has given insight into differences in bone phenotype in men from different ethnic backgrounds. Understanding such differences is important in understanding the aetiology of male osteoporosis. PMID:27457689

  19. Atlantic NAD 83 Continental Shelf Boundary (CSB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains Continental Shelf Boundary (CSB) lines in ESRI shapefile format for the BOEM Atlantic Region. The CSB defines the seaward limit of federally...

  20. Continental Shelf Boundary - Alaska NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains Continental Shelf Boundaries (CSB) lines in ESRI shapefile format for the BOEM Alaska Region. The CSB defines the seaward limit of federally...

  1. Modeling the dynamics of continental shelf carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Eileen E; Cahill, Bronwyn; Fennel, Katja; Friedrichs, Marjorie A M; Hyde, Kimberly; Lee, Cindy; Mannino, Antonio; Najjar, Raymond G; O'Reilly, John E; Wilkin, John; Xue, Jianhong

    2011-01-01

    Continental margin systems are important contributors to global nutrient and carbon budgets. Effort is needed to quantify this contribution and how it will be modified under changing patterns of climate and land use. Coupled models will be used to provide projections of future states of continental margin systems. Thus, it is appropriate to consider the limitations that impede the development of realistic models. Here, we provide an overview of the current state of modeling carbon cycling on continental margins as well as the processes and issues that provide the next challenges to such models. Our overview is done within the context of a coupled circulation-biogeochemical model developed for the northeastern North American continental shelf region. Particular choices of forcing and initial fields and process parameterizations are used to illustrate the consequences for simulated distributions, as revealed by comparisons to observations using quantitative statistical metrics. PMID:21329200

  2. Freshwater peat on the continental shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, K.O.; Wigley, R.L.; Bartlett, A.S.; Rubin, M.; Barghoorn, E.S.

    1967-01-01

    Freshwater peats from the continental shelf off northeastern United States contain the same general pollen sequence as peats from ponds that are above sea level and that are of comparable radiocarbon ages. These peats indicate that during glacial times of low sea level terrestrial vegetation covered the region that is now the continental shelf in an unbroken extension from the adjacent land areas to the north and west.

  3. Stakeholder views on factors influencing the wellbeing and health sector engagement of young Asian New Zealanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiris-John, Roshini; Wong, Agnes; Sobrun-Maharaj, Amritha; Ameratunga, Shanthi

    2016-03-01

    INTRODUCTION In New Zealand, while the term 'Asians' in popular discourse means East and South-east Asian peoples, Statistics New Zealand's definition includes people of many nationalities from East, South and South-east Asia, all with quite different cultural norms, taboos and degrees of conservatism. In a context where 'Asian' youth data are typically presented in aggregate form, there are notable gaps in knowledge regarding the contextual determinants of health in this highly heterogeneous group. This qualitative study explored key stakeholder views on issues that would be most useful to explore on the health and wellbeing of Asian youth and processes that would foster engagement of Asian youth in health research. METHODS Interviews were conducted with six key stakeholders whose professional activities were largely focused on the wellbeing of Asian people. The general inductive approach was used to identify and analyse themes in the qualitative text data. FINDINGS Six broad themes were identified from the key stakeholder interviews framed as priority areas that need further exploration: cultural identity, integration and acculturation; barriers to help-seeking; aspects to consider when engaging Asian youth in research (youth voice, empowerment and participatory approach to research); parental influence and involvement in health research; confidentiality and anonymity; and capacity building and informing policy. CONCLUSION With stakeholders strongly advocating the engagement of Asian youth in the health research agenda this study highlights the importance of engaging youth alongside service providers to collaborate on research and co-design responsive primary health care services in a multicultural setting. KEYWORDS Asian youth; New Zealand; health research; minority health; Community and social participation.

  4. Stakeholder views on factors influencing the wellbeing and health sector engagement of young Asian New Zealanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiris-John, Roshini; Wong, Agnes; Sobrun-Maharaj, Amritha; Ameratunga, Shanthi

    2016-03-01

    INTRODUCTION In New Zealand, while the term 'Asians' in popular discourse means East and South-east Asian peoples, Statistics New Zealand's definition includes people of many nationalities from East, South and South-east Asia, all with quite different cultural norms, taboos and degrees of conservatism. In a context where 'Asian' youth data are typically presented in aggregate form, there are notable gaps in knowledge regarding the contextual determinants of health in this highly heterogeneous group. This qualitative study explored key stakeholder views on issues that would be most useful to explore on the health and wellbeing of Asian youth and processes that would foster engagement of Asian youth in health research. METHODS Interviews were conducted with six key stakeholders whose professional activities were largely focused on the wellbeing of Asian people. The general inductive approach was used to identify and analyse themes in the qualitative text data. FINDINGS Six broad themes were identified from the key stakeholder interviews framed as priority areas that need further exploration: cultural identity, integration and acculturation; barriers to help-seeking; aspects to consider when engaging Asian youth in research (youth voice, empowerment and participatory approach to research); parental influence and involvement in health research; confidentiality and anonymity; and capacity building and informing policy. CONCLUSION With stakeholders strongly advocating the engagement of Asian youth in the health research agenda this study highlights the importance of engaging youth alongside service providers to collaborate on research and co-design responsive primary health care services in a multicultural setting. KEYWORDS Asian youth; New Zealand; health research; minority health; Community and social participation. PMID:27477373

  5. Stratigraphic Modelling of Continental Rifting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondy, Luke; Duclaux, Guillaume; Salles, Tristan; Thomas, Charmaine; Rey, Patrice

    2013-04-01

    Interlinks between deformation and sedimentation have long been recognised as an important factor in the evolution of continental rifts and basins development. However, determining the relative impact of tectonic and climatic forcing on the dynamics of these systems remains a major challenge. This problem in part derives from a lack of modelling tools capable of simulated high detailed surface processes within a large scale (spatially and temporally) tectonic setting. To overcome this issue an innovative framework has been designed using two existing numerical forward modelling codes: Underworld, capable of simulating 3D self-consistent tectonic and thermal lithospheric processes, and Tellus, a forward stratigraphic and geomorphic modelling framework dedicated to simulating highly detailed surface dynamics. The coupling framework enables Tellus to use Underworld outputs as internal and boundary conditions, thereby simulating the stratigraphic and geomorphic evolution of a realistic, active tectonic setting. The resulting models can provide high-resolution data on the stratigraphic record, grain-size variations, sediment provenance, fluvial hydrometric, and landscape evolution. Here we illustrate a one-way coupling method between active tectonics and surface processes in an example of 3D oblique rifting. Our coupled model enables us to visualise the distribution of sediment sources and sinks, and their evolution through time. From this we can extract and analyse at each simulation timestep the stratigraphic record anywhere within the model domain. We find that even from a generic oblique rift model, complex fluvial-deltaic and basin filling dynamics emerge. By isolating the tectonic activity from landscape dynamics with this one-way coupling, we are able to investigate the influence of changes in climate or geomorphic parameters on the sedimentary and landscape record. These impacts can be quantified in part via model post-processing to derive both instantaneous and

  6. Acoustics of old Asian bells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossing, Thomas D.

    2001-05-01

    The art of casting bronze bells developed to a high level of sophistication in China during the Shang dynasty (1766-1123 BC). Many chimes of two-tone bells remain from the Western and Eastern Zhou dynasties (1122-249 BC). With the spread of Buddhism from the third century, large round temple bells developed in China and later in Korea, Japan, and other Asian countries. Vibrational modes of some of these bells have been studied by means of holographic interferometry and experimental modal testing. Their musical as well as acoustical properties are discussed.

  7. Changing mobilities in Asian cities

    OpenAIRE

    Boquet, Yves

    2010-01-01

    Asian countries have experienced tremendous changes in their mobility patterns in recent years. As economic development has allowed a rise in the standards of living of a god part of the population, the rate of motorzation has increased very quickly. At the sametime, cities populations continue to grow at a fast pace, and the spread of the urbanized area requires more and more to be able to travel on distances too long for walking or even bicycling. Given the high density of many central citi...

  8. Introduction to Asian Herpetological Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuezhao WANG; Shengxian ZHONG

    2011-01-01

    Asian Herpetological Research (AHR),an international English language journal,is published quarterly by the Chengdu Institute of Biology (CIB),Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Science Press of China,cooperated with the Asiatic Herpetological Research Society (AHRS),with its registered numbers:CN 51-1735/Q and ISSN 2095-0357,and post distribution code:62-218.AHR has an international Editorial Board consisting of many top herpetologists from different countries in the world.The journal's website can be found at:http://www.ahr-journal.com.

  9. Metabolic syndrome and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease:Asian deifnitions and Asian studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Gao Fan; Yong-De Peng

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), as conventionally recognized, is a metabolic disorder largely conifned to residents of aflfuent industrialized Western countries. However, obesity and insulin resistance are not restricted to the West, as witnessed by their increasingly universal distribution. In particular, there has been an upsurge in metabolic syndrome in the Asia-Paciifc region, although there are critical differences in the extent of adiposity between Eastern and Western populations. DATA SOURCES:An English-language literature search using PubMed (1999-2007) on obesity, metabolic syndrome and NAFLD, focusing on Asian deifnitions and Asian studies. RESULTS:NAFLD appears to be of long-standing insulin resistance and likely represents the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome. With insulin resistance as a common factor, the disease is associated with atherosclerosis and cardiovascular risk. All features of the metabolic syndrome and related events are assessed for practical management of NAFLD, although the criteria for the diagnosis of obesity and central obesity differ across racial groups. CONCLUSIONS:The increasing prevalence of obesity, coupled with diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension and ultimately metabolic syndrome, puts a very large population at risk of developing NAFLD in the coming decades. The simultaneous identiifcation and appropriate treatment of the components of metabolic syndrome are crucial to reduce hepatic as well as cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.

  10. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    <正>APJTB Monthly Aims&Scope Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine(APJTB)aims to set up and provide an international academic communication platform for physicians,medical scientists,allied health scientists and public health workers,especially those in the Asian Pacific region and worldwide on tropical biomedicine,infectious diseases and public

  11. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    Aims & Scope Asian Pacific Journal of TropicalBiomedicine(APJTB) aims to set up and provide an international academic communication plaffom for physicians,medical scientisis,allied health scientists and public health workers,especially those in the Asian Pacific region and worldwide on tropical biomedicine,infectious diseases and public health,and to meet the growing challenges

  12. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    <正>Aims&Scope Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine(APJTB)aims to set up and provide an international academic communication platform for physicians,medical scientists,allied health scientists and public health workers,especially those in the Asian Pacific region and worldwide on tropical biomedicine,infectious diseases and public health,and to meet the growing challenges of understanding

  13. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    APJTB MonthlyAims&Scope Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine(APJTB)aims to set up and provide an international academic communication platform for physicians,medical scientists,allied health scientists and public health workers,especially those in the Asian Pacific region and worldwide on tropical biomedicine,infectious diseases and public health,and to meet the growing challenges

  14. Beyond Bound Feet: Relocating Asian American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazumdar, Sucheta

    1996-01-01

    Attempts to correct the limited and stereotypical portrayal of Asian American women found in most histories. Reveals that women often played a more central and active role in the Asian American experience. Discusses little-known facets of this experience (e.g., many immigrants returned home after achieving financial security). (MJP)

  15. Regional conditions in East Asian development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søborg, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    The present volume contains case studies of how government og firms in a number of Asian countries have responded to challenges of globalisation and how that has affected their economic transformation.......The present volume contains case studies of how government og firms in a number of Asian countries have responded to challenges of globalisation and how that has affected their economic transformation....

  16. Asian American Literature: Questions of Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongo, Garrett

    1994-01-01

    Argues that Asian American literature is too narrowly defined to include the wide range of diversity it contains and calls for Asian writers to produce work from a more generous interpretive perspective. American poetry is extolled for its beauty of language and its effect on the emotions to both energize and sadden. (GR)

  17. Immunizations and Asians and Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Program Grants Other Grants Planning and Evaluation Grantee Best Practices Asian American Asthma Cancer Chronic Liver Disease Diabetes ... 13 to 17 years who ever received the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination, 2014 - Males #doses Asian Males ... 240-453-2882 Office of Minority Health Resource Center Toll Free: 1-800-444-6472 / Fax: ...

  18. Asian Cinema and the Social Imaginary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissanayake, Wimal

    2009-01-01

    There is growing interest by schools and universities in understanding Asian societies and cultures. One way of deepening this interest productively is through the imaginative use of cinema. In this article, the author explores how cinema can be a window into the dynamics of contemporary Asian societies and cultures. Through "aesthetic…

  19. Genome-wide association of body fat distribution in African ancestry populations suggests new loci.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Ti Liu

    Full Text Available Central obesity, measured by waist circumference (WC or waist-hip ratio (WHR, is a marker of body fat distribution. Although obesity disproportionately affects minority populations, few studies have conducted genome-wide association study (GWAS of fat distribution among those of predominantly African ancestry (AA. We performed GWAS of WC and WHR, adjusted and unadjusted for BMI, in up to 33,591 and 27,350 AA individuals, respectively. We identified loci associated with fat distribution in AA individuals using meta-analyses of GWA results for WC and WHR (stage 1. Overall, 25 SNPs with single genomic control (GC-corrected p-values<5.0 × 10(-6 were followed-up (stage 2 in AA with WC and with WHR. Additionally, we interrogated genomic regions of previously identified European ancestry (EA WHR loci among AA. In joint analysis of association results including both Stage 1 and 2 cohorts, 2 SNPs demonstrated association, rs2075064 at LHX2, p = 2.24×10(-8 for WC-adjusted-for-BMI, and rs6931262 at RREB1, p = 2.48×10(-8 for WHR-adjusted-for-BMI. However, neither signal was genome-wide significant after double GC-correction (LHX2: p = 6.5 × 10(-8; RREB1: p = 5.7 × 10(-8. Six of fourteen previously reported loci for waist in EA populations were significant (p<0.05 divided by the number of independent SNPs within the region in AA studied here (TBX15-WARS2, GRB14, ADAMTS9, LY86, RSPO3, ITPR2-SSPN. Further, we observed associations with metabolic traits: rs13389219 at GRB14 associated with HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, and fasting insulin, and rs13060013 at ADAMTS9 with HDL-cholesterol and fasting insulin. Finally, we observed nominal evidence for sexual dimorphism, with stronger results in AA women at the GRB14 locus (p for interaction = 0.02. In conclusion, we identified two suggestive loci associated with fat distribution in AA populations in addition to confirming 6 loci previously identified in populations of EA. These findings reinforce the concept

  20. Genome-wide association of body fat distribution in African ancestry populations suggests new loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ching-Ti; Monda, Keri L; Taylor, Kira C; Lange, Leslie; Demerath, Ellen W; Palmas, Walter; Wojczynski, Mary K; Ellis, Jaclyn C; Vitolins, Mara Z; Liu, Simin; Papanicolaou, George J; Irvin, Marguerite R; Xue, Luting; Griffin, Paula J; Nalls, Michael A; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Liu, Jiankang; Li, Guo; Ruiz-Narvaez, Edward A; Chen, Wei-Min; Chen, Fang; Henderson, Brian E; Millikan, Robert C; Ambrosone, Christine B; Strom, Sara S; Guo, Xiuqing; Andrews, Jeanette S; Sun, Yan V; Mosley, Thomas H; Yanek, Lisa R; Shriner, Daniel; Haritunians, Talin; Rotter, Jerome I; Speliotes, Elizabeth K; Smith, Megan; Rosenberg, Lynn; Mychaleckyj, Josyf; Nayak, Uma; Spruill, Ida; Garvey, W Timothy; Pettaway, Curtis; Nyante, Sarah; Bandera, Elisa V; Britton, Angela F; Zonderman, Alan B; Rasmussen-Torvik, Laura J; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Ding, Jingzhong; Lohman, Kurt; Kritchevsky, Stephen B; Zhao, Wei; Peyser, Patricia A; Kardia, Sharon L R; Kabagambe, Edmond; Broeckel, Ulrich; Chen, Guanjie; Zhou, Jie; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Neuhouser, Marian L; Rampersaud, Evadnie; Psaty, Bruce; Kooperberg, Charles; Manson, Joann E; Kuller, Lewis H; Ochs-Balcom, Heather M; Johnson, Karen C; Sucheston, Lara; Ordovas, Jose M; Palmer, Julie R; Haiman, Christopher A; McKnight, Barbara; Howard, Barbara V; Becker, Diane M; Bielak, Lawrence F; Liu, Yongmei; Allison, Matthew A; Grant, Struan F A; Burke, Gregory L; Patel, Sanjay R; Schreiner, Pamela J; Borecki, Ingrid B; Evans, Michele K; Taylor, Herman; Sale, Michele M; Howard, Virginia; Carlson, Christopher S; Rotimi, Charles N; Cushman, Mary; Harris, Tamara B; Reiner, Alexander P; Cupples, L Adrienne; North, Kari E; Fox, Caroline S

    2013-01-01

    Central obesity, measured by waist circumference (WC) or waist-hip ratio (WHR), is a marker of body fat distribution. Although obesity disproportionately affects minority populations, few studies have conducted genome-wide association study (GWAS) of fat distribution among those of predominantly African ancestry (AA). We performed GWAS of WC and WHR, adjusted and unadjusted for BMI, in up to 33,591 and 27,350 AA individuals, respectively. We identified loci associated with fat distribution in AA individuals using meta-analyses of GWA results for WC and WHR (stage 1). Overall, 25 SNPs with single genomic control (GC)-corrected p-values<5.0 × 10(-6) were followed-up (stage 2) in AA with WC and with WHR. Additionally, we interrogated genomic regions of previously identified European ancestry (EA) WHR loci among AA. In joint analysis of association results including both Stage 1 and 2 cohorts, 2 SNPs demonstrated association, rs2075064 at LHX2, p = 2.24×10(-8) for WC-adjusted-for-BMI, and rs6931262 at RREB1, p = 2.48×10(-8) for WHR-adjusted-for-BMI. However, neither signal was genome-wide significant after double GC-correction (LHX2: p = 6.5 × 10(-8); RREB1: p = 5.7 × 10(-8)). Six of fourteen previously reported loci for waist in EA populations were significant (p<0.05 divided by the number of independent SNPs within the region) in AA studied here (TBX15-WARS2, GRB14, ADAMTS9, LY86, RSPO3, ITPR2-SSPN). Further, we observed associations with metabolic traits: rs13389219 at GRB14 associated with HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, and fasting insulin, and rs13060013 at ADAMTS9 with HDL-cholesterol and fasting insulin. Finally, we observed nominal evidence for sexual dimorphism, with stronger results in AA women at the GRB14 locus (p for interaction = 0.02). In conclusion, we identified two suggestive loci associated with fat distribution in AA populations in addition to confirming 6 loci previously identified in populations of EA. These findings reinforce the concept

  1. Physician contact by older Asian Americans: the effects of perceived mental health need

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duy Nguyen

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Duy NguyenSilver School of Social Work, New York University, New York, NY, USAObjective: The use of physicians is more common than of behavioral specialists, especially in underserved Asian American communities. Despite a rapidly aging Asian American population, research has overlooked older people. This study examines the way mental health need affects the number of physician contacts by older Asian Americans.Method: This study uses data on self-identified Asian Americans aged over age 50 years derived from the 2001 California Health Interview Survey. A total of 1191 Asian Americans from Chinese, Filipino, Korean, and Vietnamese backgrounds were studied. Replicate weights were applied to account for the survey’s complex sampling methods. Linear regression was used to identify the number of physician contacts.Results: Overall, respondents had seen a doctor an average of five times in the previous 12 months; 7% perceived that they had a mental health need. Perceiving a mental health need was associated with a decreased number of physician contacts for Filipino and Korean Americans.Conclusion: This study revealed interethnic differences among older Asian Americans’ contact with physicians. As older Filipino and Korean Americans who perceive a mental health need have fewer contacts with their physician, correctly identifying mental health needs in the health care system for these groups is crucial. Health and mental health professionals can work toward reducing mental health disparities by accounting for older Asian Americans’ help-seeking patterns when designing evidence-based interventions.Keywords: minority groups, Asians, health service use

  2. Social meanings of marijuana use for Southeast Asian youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Juliet P; Kirkpatrick, Sean

    2005-01-01

    The paper describes findings from a pilot study of drug use and environment for Southeast Asian youths in the San Francisco Bay Area. From interviews with 31 drug-involved youths living in two low-income predominantly ethnic minority neighborhoods, smoking marijuana emerged as pervasive and highly normative. Smoking marijuana provided a means for coping with the stresses of home and community life, and located youths, moreover, within an alternative ghetto lifestyle of rap music, marijuana smoking, and youth crime, as modeled by co-resident ethnic minority peers, with which many Southeast Asian youths identified. The findings indicate the importance of the social environment as well as social status in the substance use of this group of second-generation youth. PMID:16537331

  3. Identification of bifidobacteria isolated from Asian elephant (Elephas maximus)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vera Bunesova; Eva Vlkova; Vojtech Rada; Jiri Killer; Vladimir Kmet

    2013-06-01

    Bifidobacteria are considered as one of the key genera in intestinal tracts of animals, and their species composition vary depending on the host. The aim of this study was to identify faecal bifidobacteria from Asian elephants (Elephas maximus), housed in Zoological gardens (Ostrava, Czech Republic). Using culturing, bifidobacteria were found in counts 7.60±0.56 log CFU/g. Twenty-six pure strains were isolated from faeces of Asian elephant. The isolates were clustered into two groups according to fingerprinting profiles and fermentation characteristic. Bacteria were identified by a combination of MALDI-TOF MS, PCR methods and sequencing as B. boum (12 isolates) and B. adolescentis (14 isolates). Elephant strains showed different fingerprinting profiles than type and collection strains. Since these two species are frequently isolated from gastrointestinal tract of herbivores, they seem to be typical of animals fed plant diets.

  4. China reshapes the East Asian production network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐海燕; 张会清

    2009-01-01

    From the perspective of intra-product specialization and with in-depth analysis of trade statistics,this paper investigates the influence of China’s rise on the East Asian production network.Our conclusions suggest that in integrating into the East Asian production network,China has gradually emerged as the manufacturing center of East Asia,weakening the regional influence of the Four Asian Tigers.Meanwhile,the competitive effect of China’s rise has helped promote the specialization levels of the network’s members and even the network as a whole.With cooperation in various processes of intra-product specialization,internal connections of the East Asian production network were further strengthened.In addition,China became an export platform of East Asia,transforming the export pattern of the East Asian production network to world markets from "bilateral trade" into "triangular trade," trade via China.

  5. Geological features and geophysical signatures of continental margins of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Krishna, K.S.

    and classification of continental margins are in general dependent on style of continental splitting, rifting, subsidence and their proximity to the tectonic plate boundaries, at times the margins undergo for modifications by sediment deposition and volcanic... of super-continents or larger continental masses and rift apart by the formation of new ocean basins in between (Fig. 2). The shape of continental margins is in general constrained by style of continental breakup, rifting, stretching and following...

  6. The genetic legacy of Lonesome George survives: Giant tortoises with Pinta Island ancestry identified in Galápagos

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, DL; Benavides, E; Garrick, RC; Gibbs, JP; Russello, MA; Dion, KB; Hyseni, C; Flanagan, JP; Tapia, W. (ed.); Caccone, A

    2013-01-01

    The death of Lonesome George, the last known purebred individual of Chelonoidis abingdoni native to Pinta Island, marked the extinction of one of 10 surviving giant tortoise species from the Galápagos Archipelago. Using a DNA reference dataset including historical C. abingdoni and >1600 living Volcano Wolf tortoise samples, a site on Isabela Island known to harbor hybrid tortoises, we discovered 17 individuals with ancestry in C. abingdoni. These animals belong to various hybrid categories, i...

  7. SEPP1 influences breast cancer risk among women with greater native american ancestry: the breast cancer health disparities study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Pellatt

    Full Text Available Selenoproteins are a class of proteins containing a selenocysteine residue, many of which have been shown to have redox functions, acting as antioxidants to decrease oxidative stress. Selenoproteins have previously been associated with risk of various cancers and redox-related diseases. In this study we evaluated possible associations between breast cancer risk and survival and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the selenoprotein genes GPX1, GPX2, GPX3, GPX4, SELS, SEP15, SEPN1, SEPP1, SEPW1, TXNRD1, and TXNRD2 among Hispanic/Native American (2111 cases, 2597 controls and non-Hispanic white (NHW (1481 cases, 1586 controls women in the Breast Cancer Health Disparities Study. Adaptive Rank Truncated Product (ARTP analysis was used to determine both gene and pathway significance with these genes. The overall selenoprotein pathway PARTP was not significantly associated with breast cancer risk (PARTP = 0.69, and only one gene, GPX3, was of borderline significance for the overall population (PARTP =0.09 and marginally significant among women with 0-28% Native American (NA ancestry (PARTP=0.06. The SEPP1 gene was statistically significantly associated with breast cancer risk among women with higher NA ancestry (PARTP=0.002 and contributed to a significant pathway among those women (PARTP=0.04. GPX1, GPX3, and SELS were associated with Estrogen Receptor-/Progesterone Receptor+ status (PARTP = 0.002, 0.05, and 0.01, respectively. Four SNPs (GPX3 rs2070593, rsGPX4 rs2074451, SELS rs9874, and TXNRD1 rs17202060 significantly interacted with dietary oxidative balance score after adjustment for multiple comparisons to alter breast cancer risk. GPX4 was significantly associated with breast cancer survival among those with the highest NA ancestry (PARTP = 0.05 only. Our data suggest that SEPP1 alters breast cancer risk among women with higher levels of NA ancestry.

  8. Sex-specific Effects of Exercise Ancestry on Metabolic, Morphological, and Gene Expression Phenotypes in Multiple Generations of Mouse Offspring

    OpenAIRE

    Guth, Lisa M.; Andrew T. Ludlow; Witkowski, Sarah; Marshall, Mallory R.; Lima, Laila C. J.; Venezia, Andrew C.; Xiao, Tao; Lee, Mei-Ling Ting; Spangenburg, Espen E.; Roth, Stephen M.

    2013-01-01

    Early life and pre-conception environmental stimuli can affect adult health-related phenotypes. Exercise training is an environmental stimulus affecting many systems throughout the body and appears to alter offspring phenotypes. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of parental exercise training, or “exercise ancestry,” on morphological and metabolic phenotypes in two generations of mouse offspring. F0 C57BL/6 mice were exposed to voluntary exercise or sedentary lifestyle and bre...

  9. Identification, replication, and fine-mapping of Loci associated with adult height in individuals of african ancestry.

    OpenAIRE

    Amidou N'Diaye; Chen, Gary K.; Palmer, Cameron D; Bing Ge; Bamidele Tayo; Rasika A Mathias; Jingzhong Ding; Michael A Nalls; Adebowale Adeyemo; Véronique Adoue; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Larry Atwood; Bandera, Elisa V.; Becker, Lewis C.; Berndt, Sonja I.

    2011-01-01

    Adult height is a classic polygenic trait of high heritability (h(2) approximately 0.8). More than 180 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), identified mostly in populations of European descent, are associated with height. These variants convey modest effects and explain approximately10% of the variance in height. Discovery efforts in other populations, while limited, have revealed loci for height not previously implicated in individuals of European ancestry. Here, we performed a meta-analy...

  10. Identification, Replication, and Fine-Mapping of Loci Associated with Adult Height in Individuals of African Ancestry

    OpenAIRE

    N'Diaye, Amidou; Chen, Gary K.; Palmer, Cameron D; Ge, Bing; Tayo, Bamidele; Rasika A Mathias; Ding, Jingzhong; Michael A Nalls; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Adoue, Véronique; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Atwood, Larry; Bandera, Elisa V.; Becker, Lewis C.; Berndt, Sonja I.

    2011-01-01

    Author Summary Adult height is an ideal phenotype to improve our understanding of the genetic architecture of complex diseases and traits: it is easily measured and usually available in large cohorts, relatively stable, and mostly influenced by genetics (narrow-sense heritability of height h 2∼0.8). Genome-wide association (GWA) studies in individuals of European ancestry have identified >180 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with height. In the current study, we continued to ...

  11. Food Safety Program in Asian Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Ryuji; Hwang, Lucy Sun

    2015-01-01

    By using the ILSI network in Asia, we are holding a session focused on food safety programs in several Asian areas. In view of the external environment, it is expected to impact the global food system in the near future, including the rapid increase in food demand and in public health services due to population growth, as well as the threats to biosecurity and food safety due to the rapid globalization of the food trade. Facilitating effective information sharing holds promise for the activation of the food industry. At this session, Prof. Hwang shares the current situation of Food Safety and Sanitation Regulations in Taiwan. Dr. Liu provides a talk on the role of risk assessment in food regulatory control focused on aluminum-containing food additives in China. After the JECFA evaluation of aluminum-containing food additives in 2011, each country has carried out risk assessment based on dietary intake surveys. Ms. Chan reports on the activities of a working group on Food Standards Harmonization in ASEAN. She also explains that the ILSI Southeast Asia Region has actively supported the various ASEAN Working Groups in utilizing science to harmonize food standards. Prof. Park provides current research activities in Korea focused on the effect of climate change on food safety. Climate change is generally seen as having a negative impact on food security, particularly in developing countries. We use these four presentations as a springboard to vigorous discussion on issues related to Food Safety in Asia. PMID:26598886

  12. Food Safety Program in Asian Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Ryuji; Hwang, Lucy Sun

    2015-01-01

    By using the ILSI network in Asia, we are holding a session focused on food safety programs in several Asian areas. In view of the external environment, it is expected to impact the global food system in the near future, including the rapid increase in food demand and in public health services due to population growth, as well as the threats to biosecurity and food safety due to the rapid globalization of the food trade. Facilitating effective information sharing holds promise for the activation of the food industry. At this session, Prof. Hwang shares the current situation of Food Safety and Sanitation Regulations in Taiwan. Dr. Liu provides a talk on the role of risk assessment in food regulatory control focused on aluminum-containing food additives in China. After the JECFA evaluation of aluminum-containing food additives in 2011, each country has carried out risk assessment based on dietary intake surveys. Ms. Chan reports on the activities of a working group on Food Standards Harmonization in ASEAN. She also explains that the ILSI Southeast Asia Region has actively supported the various ASEAN Working Groups in utilizing science to harmonize food standards. Prof. Park provides current research activities in Korea focused on the effect of climate change on food safety. Climate change is generally seen as having a negative impact on food security, particularly in developing countries. We use these four presentations as a springboard to vigorous discussion on issues related to Food Safety in Asia.

  13. Dietary energy nutrient distribution, calcium, iron and zinc in young and old Asians

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu-Tso, P.; Fuentes-Cano, M.; Tam, C.F. (California State Univ., Los Angeles (United States))

    1992-02-26

    The objective of this study is to examine whether ethnic eating patterns influence dietary nutrient intakes in young and old Asians. The authors experimental groups included young CSLA Asian students and their parents or close relatives. Most of them lived in the same households. Three-day dietary records were analyzed for protein, fat, carbohydrate, calcium, iron, and zinc by the Nutritionist III computer program and statistically analyzed using Mustat. No statistical difference was observed in the KCAL distribution of protein, fat, and carbohydrate and both groups met the guidelines of 20%, 30%, and 50%, respectively. However, mean KCAL intakes of both groups were found to be about 79% of NRC-RDA. No statistical difference was found in % RDA for Ca and Zn between groups, except % RDA for Fe. With respect to RDA, the older Asians consumed more Fe than the younger Asians. It is noteworthy that they did not meet the RDA requirements for Ca and Zn. Since recent Asian immigrants and refugees often suffer from a high incidence of infectious disease such as tuberculosis, these observations of low intakes of KCAL, Ca, and Zn, may, at least in part, contribute to disease.

  14. Comparing genetic ancestry and self-reported race/ethnicity in a multiethnic population in New York City

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yin Leng Lee; Susan Teitelbaum; Mary S. Wolff; James G. Wetmur; Jia Chen

    2010-12-01

    Self-reported race/ethnicity is frequently used in epidemiological studies to assess an individual’s background origin. However, in admixed populations such as Hispanic, self-reported race/ethnicity may not accurately represent them genetically because they are admixed with European, African and Native American ancestry. We estimated the proportions of genetic admixture in an ethnically diverse population of 396 mothers and 188 of their children with 35 ancestry informative markers (AIMs) using the STRUCTURE version 2.2 program. The majority of the markers showed significant deviation from Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium in our study population. In mothers self-identified as Black and White, the imputed ancestry proportions were 77.6% African and 75.1% European respectively, while the racial composition among self-identified Hispanics was 29.2% European, 26.0% African, and 44.8% Native American.We also investigated the utility of AIMs by showing the improved fitness of models in paraoxanase-1 genotype–phenotype associations after incorporating AIMs; however, the improvement was moderate at best. In summary, a minimal set of 35 AIMs is sufficient to detect population stratification and estimate the proportion of individual genetic admixture; however, the utility of these markers remains questionable.

  15. Quality controlled glacier inventory in high Asian mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, A.; Nuimura, T.; Taniguchi, K.; Lamsal, D.; Nagai, H.; Tsutaki, S.; Kozawa, A.; Hoshina, Y.; Takenaka, S.; Omiya, S.; Tsunematsu, K.; Tshering, P.; Fujita, K.; Okamoto, S.

    2013-12-01

    Glacier inventories provide a basic information for the water resources, glacier mass balance and ice volume at continental areas. Although glaciers in the Asian mountain are thought to play an important role for the regional water resources (Immerzeel et al., 2010), glacier distribution in the Asia have been poorly understood. Our GAMDAM (Glacier Area Mapping for Discharge in Asian Mountains) project have conducted to establish a glacier inventory with the aim of estimating glacier runoff contribution to river runoff. Our target region covers the High Mountain Asia, extending from 27 to 52 degrees N and from 68 to 104 degrees E. Glacier outlines were manually delineated using more than 260 of LANDSAT images taken from 1999 to 2003. Thermal infrared band was also used to delineate termini of debris-covered glaciers with help of high resolution images on Google Earth. The manual delineation has been conducted for more than two years by 5-7 operators. We conducted several tests, along which the operators delineated the same regions, and assessed the quality and criteria, and fed them back to the operators. At the end of June 2013, the inventory was completed 80% with about 63000 glaciers covering 7.8 × 10^4 km^2. Median elevation of glaciers has been interpreted as a proxy for the equilibrium line altitude (ELA), at which the accumulation and ablation were equal and thus the mass balance was zero (Braithwaite and Raper, 2009). Distribution of the median altitude derived from the GAMDAM glacier inventory was well consistent with that previously reported (Shi et al., 1980).

  16. HLA class II sequence variants influence tuberculosis risk in populations of European ancestry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sveinbjornsson, Gardar; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F.; Halldorsson, Bjarni V.; Kristinsson, Karl G.; Gottfredsson, Magnus; Barrett, Jeffrey C.; Gudmundsson, Larus J.; Blondal, Kai; Gylfason, Arnaldur; Gudjonsson, Sigurjon Axel; Helgadottir, Hafdis T.; Jonasdottir, Adalbjorg; Jonasdottir, Aslaug; Karason, Ari; Kardum, Ljiljana Bulat; Knežević, Jelena; Kristjansson, Helgi; Kristjansson, Mar; Love, Arthur; Luo, Yang; Magnusson, Olafur T.; Sulem, Patrick; Kong, Augustine; Masson, Gisli; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Dembic, Zlatko; Nejentsev, Sergey; Blondal, Thorsteinn; Jonsdottir, Ingileif; Stefansson, Kari

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) infections cause 9.0 million new tuberculosis (TB) cases and 1.5 million deaths annually1. To search for sequence variants that confer risk of TB we tested 28.3 million variants identified through whole-genome sequencing of 2,636 Icelanders for association with TB (8,162 cases and 277,643 controls), pulmonary TB (PTB), and M. tuberculosis infection. We found association of three sequence variants in the HLA class II region: rs557011[T] (MAF=40.2%) with M. tuberculosis infection (OR =1.14, P=3.1×10-13) and PTB (OR=1.25, P=5.8×10-12) and rs9271378[G] (MAF=32.5%) with PTB (OR=0.78, P=2.5×10-12), both located between HLA-DQA1 and HLA-DRB1. Finally, a missense variant p.Ala210Thr in HLA-DQA1, (MAF=19.1%, rs9272785) shows association with M. tuberculosis infection (P=9.3×10-9, OR=1.14). The association of these variants with PTB was replicated in large samples of European ancestry from Russia and Croatia (Ptuberculosis, possibly through reduced presentation of protective M. tuberculosis antigens to T cells. PMID:26829749

  17. A SNP test to identify Africanized honeybees via proportion of 'African' ancestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Nadine C; Harpur, Brock A; Lim, Julianne; Rinderer, Thomas E; Allsopp, Michael H; Zayed, Amro; Oldroyd, Benjamin P

    2015-11-01

    The honeybee, Apis mellifera, is the world's most important pollinator and is ubiquitous in most agricultural ecosystems. Four major evolutionary lineages and at least 24 subspecies are recognized. Commercial populations are mainly derived from subspecies originating in Europe (75-95%). The Africanized honeybee is a New World hybrid of A. m. scutellata from Africa and European subspecies, with the African component making up 50-90% of the genome. Africanized honeybees are considered undesirable for bee-keeping in most countries, due to their extreme defensiveness and poor honey production. The international trade in honeybees is restricted, due in part to bans on the importation of queens (and semen) from countries where Africanized honeybees are extant. Some desirable strains from the United States of America that have been bred for traits such as resistance to the mite Varroa destructor are unfortunately excluded from export to countries such as Australia due to the presence of Africanized honeybees in the USA. This study shows that a panel of 95 single nucleotide polymorphisms, chosen to differentiate between the African, Eastern European and Western European lineages, can detect Africanized honeybees with a high degree of confidence via ancestry assignment. Our panel therefore offers a valuable tool to mitigate the risks of spreading Africanized honeybees across the globe and may enable the resumption of queen and bee semen imports from the Americas. PMID:25846634

  18. Genome-Wide DNA Methylation in Mixed Ancestry Individuals with Diabetes and Prediabetes from South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pheiffer, Carmen; Humphries, Stephen E.; Gamieldien, Junaid; Erasmus, Rajiv T.

    2016-01-01

    Aims. To conduct a genome-wide DNA methylation in individuals with type 2 diabetes, individuals with prediabetes, and control mixed ancestry individuals from South Africa. Methods. We used peripheral blood to perform genome-wide DNA methylation analysis in 3 individuals with screen detected diabetes, 3 individuals with prediabetes, and 3 individuals with normoglycaemia from the Bellville South Community, Cape Town, South Africa, who were age-, gender-, body mass index-, and duration of residency-matched. Methylated DNA immunoprecipitation (MeDIP) was performed by Arraystar Inc. (Rockville, MD, USA). Results. Hypermethylated DMRs were 1160 (81.97%) and 124 (43.20%), respectively, in individuals with diabetes and prediabetes when both were compared to subjects with normoglycaemia. Our data shows that genes related to the immune system, signal transduction, glucose transport, and pancreas development have altered DNA methylation in subjects with prediabetes and diabetes. Pathway analysis based on the functional analysis mapping of genes to KEGG pathways suggested that the linoleic acid metabolism and arachidonic acid metabolism pathways are hypomethylated in prediabetes and diabetes. Conclusions. Our study suggests that epigenetic changes are likely to be an early process that occurs before the onset of overt diabetes. Detailed analysis of DMRs that shows gradual methylation differences from control versus prediabetes to prediabetes versus diabetes in a larger sample size is required to confirm these findings.

  19. Genome-Wide DNA Methylation in Mixed Ancestry Individuals with Diabetes and Prediabetes from South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tandi E. Matsha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To conduct a genome-wide DNA methylation in individuals with type 2 diabetes, individuals with prediabetes, and control mixed ancestry individuals from South Africa. Methods. We used peripheral blood to perform genome-wide DNA methylation analysis in 3 individuals with screen detected diabetes, 3 individuals with prediabetes, and 3 individuals with normoglycaemia from the Bellville South Community, Cape Town, South Africa, who were age-, gender-, body mass index-, and duration of residency-matched. Methylated DNA immunoprecipitation (MeDIP was performed by Arraystar Inc. (Rockville, MD, USA. Results. Hypermethylated DMRs were 1160 (81.97% and 124 (43.20%, respectively, in individuals with diabetes and prediabetes when both were compared to subjects with normoglycaemia. Our data shows that genes related to the immune system, signal transduction, glucose transport, and pancreas development have altered DNA methylation in subjects with prediabetes and diabetes. Pathway analysis based on the functional analysis mapping of genes to KEGG pathways suggested that the linoleic acid metabolism and arachidonic acid metabolism pathways are hypomethylated in prediabetes and diabetes. Conclusions. Our study suggests that epigenetic changes are likely to be an early process that occurs before the onset of overt diabetes. Detailed analysis of DMRs that shows gradual methylation differences from control versus prediabetes to prediabetes versus diabetes in a larger sample size is required to confirm these findings.

  20. Prokaryotic ancestry and gene fusion of a dual localized peroxiredoxin in malaria parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carine F. Djuika

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Horizontal gene transfer has emerged as a crucial driving force for the evolution of eukaryotes. This also includes Plasmodium falciparum and related economically and clinically relevant apicomplexan parasites, whose rather small genomes have been shaped not only by natural selection in different host populations but also by horizontal gene transfer following endosymbiosis. However, there is rather little reliable data on horizontal gene transfer between animal hosts or bacteria and apicomplexan parasites. Here we show that apicomplexan homologues of peroxiredoxin 5 (Prx5 have a prokaryotic ancestry and therefore represent a special subclass of Prx5 isoforms in eukaryotes. Using two different immunobiochemical approaches, we found that the P. falciparum Prx5 homologue is dually localized to the parasite plastid and cytosol. This dual localization is reflected by a modular Plasmodium-specific gene architecture consisting of two exons. Despite the plastid localization, our phylogenetic analyses contradict an acquisition by secondary endosymbiosis and support a gene fusion event following a horizontal prokaryote-to-eukaryote gene transfer in early apicomplexans. The results provide unexpected insights into the evolution of apicomplexan parasites as well as the molecular evolution of peroxiredoxins, an important family of ubiquitous, usually highly concentrated thiol-dependent hydroperoxidases that exert functions as detoxifying enzymes, redox sensors and chaperones.

  1. Mitochondrial control region genetic diversity and maternal ancestry of a Brangus-Ibage cattle populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Ernani Henkes

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The genetic diversity of 277 nucleotides in the mitochondrial DNA control region (nt 15,964 to 16,240 in reference sequence was analyzed in crossbreed beef cattle (Brangus-Ibage, 5/8 Bos primigenius taurus x 3/8 Bos primigenius indicus as well as in some Nellore samples (B. p. indicus. Fifty-seven mutations were found in Brangus-Ibage comprising 18 haplotypes (haplotype diversity, h = 0.851 ± 0.041 and nucleotide diversity, ntd = 0.009 ± 0.006 and 66 in Nellore (h = 1.00 ± 0.27, ntd = 0.014 ± 0.012. These data indicated sequence identities of 99.6 and 92.1% between the B. p. taurus' reference sequence and Brangus-Ibage and Nellore, respectively. The comparison of our data with sequence data for 612 individuals recovered from GenBank showed a total of 205 haplotypes defined by 99 polymorphic sites. Most of the variability (53% was due to differentiation within breeds. The phylogenetic tree constructed using the neighbor-joining method showed clearly the well-known dichotomy between B. p. taurus and B. p. indicus. The Brangus-Ibage clustered with B. p. taurus lineages; however, the displacement of Nellore from B. p. indicus branch probably indicates a substantial B. p. taurus maternal ancestry in some Nellore samples (obtained from GenBank and reflects the primarily male-driven introduction of this breed in Brazil.

  2. Continental Margin of Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia: the Mode and Nature of Crustal Growth in the Accretionary Orogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinovskaya, E. A.; Bindeman, I. N.

    2001-12-01

    Tectonic accretion of island arc terranes is the process widely developed in Pacific Rim in the present and in the past. The mode and nature of crustal growth of continental margins during arc accretion are various and essentially determined by deformation of the margin. The Cenozoic Kamchatka orogen formed by the accretion of two island arc terranes: Achaivayam-Valaginskaya arc (A-V, Eocene) (2) and Kronotskaya arc (terminal Miocene) to the continental margin of Asia. During the Early Eocene, the southern segment of the A-V arc collided with the Sredinny metamorphic massif, which was the frontal part of the Asian continental margin (3). New results from SHRIMP dating of zircons (1) from metamorphic rocks of Sredinny massif (Kolpakovskaya series) show that the massif contains an abundance of Archean, Proterozoic and Phanerozoic detrital zircon cores, and ubiquitous 77 Ma rims. The youngest ages are from four 47-53 Ma unzoned zircon cores, with dull cathodoluminescence, and irregular morphology. We regard the 47-53 Ma episode of zircon growth in the Sredinny massif as evidence for superimposed metamorphism induced by continental margin subduction at the beginning of its collision with the A-V arc in the early Eocene. Physical modeling experiments of arc-continent collision suggest that deformation at continental margin is controlled by strength of the subducting crust. Failure, accretion and erosion-activated extrusion/exhumation of the subducted crust occur in the continental margin in the case when the margin is weakened by pre-existing faulting, extension, or heating. At the beginning of the continental margin subduction, crust of the margin fails along the continent-vergent thrust. The subducted crustal slice is, then, completely scraped from the mantle base and accreted to the fore-arc block. Subsequent thrusting and thickening of the subducting crust within the continental margin lead to formation of the accretionary orogen composed of crustal slices in front

  3. High Prevalence of HBsAg during Pregnancy in Asian Communities at Cayenne Hospital, French Guiana

    OpenAIRE

    Mahamat, Aba; Louvel, Dominique; Vaz, Tania; Demar, Magalie; Nacher, Mathieu; Djossou, Félix

    2010-01-01

    We described hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) prevalence among 2,347 pregnant women having delivered at the Cayenne hospital in 2007 according to ethnicity. With 11.0% HBsAg prevalence, Asian women (Hmong and Chinese) were the group with the highest risk of hepatitis B virus (HBV) perinatal transmission compared with other ethnic groups.

  4. Death Beliefs and Practices from an Asian Indian American Hindu Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rashmi

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to explore Asian Indian American Hindu (AIAH) cultural views related to death and dying. Three focus group interviews were conducted with AIAH persons living in the southern region of United States. The focus group consisted of senior citizens, middle-aged adults, and young adults. Both open-ended and semistructured…

  5. Phylogenetic relationships of Asian and European pig breeds determined by mitochondrial DNA D-loop sequence polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K I; Lee, J H; Li, K; Zhang, Y P; Lee, S S; Gongora, J; Moran, C

    2002-02-01

    Phylogenetic relationships among Asian and European pig breeds were assessed using 1036 bp of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop sequences. An unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) tree was constructed on the basis of maximum likelihood distances using sequences determined for three Cheju (Korea), 11 Chinese, one Westran (Australian feral origin) and two European pigs (Berkshire and Welsh), and also published sequences for four Japanese (including two Wild Boars), one Yucatan miniature, five European (including Large White, Landrace, Duroc, Swedish and Wild Boar) and two Meishan pigs. The Colombian collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu) sequence was also determined and used as an outgroup. The maximum parsimony with heuristic search method was used to determine bootstrap support values. Asian-type pigs clustered together (bootstrap support 33%), but were separate from European-type pigs that also clustered together (93%). The Westran pig, derived from the feral descendants of pigs inhabiting Kangaroo Island of South Australia, clustered with Asian pigs, demonstrating Asian origin of their mitochondria. Berkshire and Large White clustered with Asian pigs, indicating that Asian pigs were involved in the development of these breeds. Our findings clearly demonstrate that pigs indigenous to China, Korea and Japan are only recently diverged from each other and distinctly different from European-type pigs. European pig breeds consist of pigs with mitochondria of Asian and non-Asian type, some of which were formed from closely related maternal ancestors, if not from a single ancestor.

  6. Sex education among Asian American college females: who is teaching them and what is being taught.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Christine; Tran, Denise Yen; Thoi, Deanna; Chang, Melissa; Wu, Lisa; Trieu, Sang Leng

    2013-04-01

    Many parents are reluctant to educate their Asian American adolescents on sexual health topics because sexuality is taboo in most Asian cultures. A survey was conducted with Chinese, Filipina, Korean, and Vietnamese college females ages 18-25 to assess sources of abstinence and birth control education and age of sexual debut. Parents were the least reported source of sex education for all four ethnic groups, with the majority of respondents reporting school as their source of sex education. Respondents who reported family as their source of abstinence education had a sexual debut of 6 months later than those who did not. Females who reported family as their source of birth control education began having sex more than 7 months later than those who reported other sources. Disaggregation of data by Asian ethnic groups and examining differences in delivery of sex education among ethnic groups may improve school curricula and sexual health.

  7. Under-Researched Demographics: Heavy Episodic Drinking and Alcohol-Related Problems Among Asian Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, Derek Kenji; Kaya, Aylin; Grivel, Margaux; Clinton, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    Asian Americans represent the fastest- growing population in the United States (Le 2010). At the same time, there is evidence that problematic drinking rates are increasing among young-adult Asian Americans (Grant et al. 2004). Accordingly, it is essential to understand the etiological determinants and mechanisms of risk that may help explain this growth in problematic alcohol use among this group. The high prevalence of the ALDH2*2 and ADH1B*2 alleles in a large percentage of Asian subgroups has been studied as a potential protective factors against alcohol abuse, yet some individuals who possess these genes still engage in problematic alcohol use (Wall et al. 2001). Other social and psychological factors may account for this discrepancy. Thus, some factors, such as negative physiological alcohol expectancies, are protective against alcohol abuse in this population (Hendershot et al. 2009). Sociocultural factors such as acculturation and nativity also may help explain drinking patterns among this group. The literature suggests that vast and significant within-group differences exist among Asian Americans, such that individuals who were born in the United States and/or are more acculturated are at elevated risk for alcohol abuse and related problems (Hahm et al. 2003). Differences also have been observed among Asian-American ethnic subgroups, with some groups (e.g., Japanese, Korean, and multi-Asian Americans) reporting higher rates of drinking compared with others (e.g., Chinese and Vietnamese Americans) (Iwamoto et al. 2012). Furthermore, Asian Americans who report higher levels of depressive symptoms, psychological distress, and perceived discrimination seem to be at a heightened risk for abusing alcohol (Iwamoto et al. 2011a; Nishimura et al. 2005; Yoo et al. 2010). Finally, an emerging body of research examining gender-relevant factors, including feminine and masculine norms, may help explain within-group differences among Asian-American women and men. Thus

  8. Does mortality vary between Asian subgroups in New Zealand: an application of hierarchical Bayesian modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jatrana, Santosh; Richardson, Ken; Blakely, Tony; Dayal, Saira

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to see whether all-cause and cause-specific mortality rates vary between Asian ethnic subgroups, and whether overseas born Asian subgroup mortality rate ratios varied by nativity and duration of residence. We used hierarchical Bayesian methods to allow for sparse data in the analysis of linked census-mortality data for 25-75 year old New Zealanders. We found directly standardised posterior all-cause and cardiovascular mortality rates were highest for the Indian ethnic group, significantly so when compared with those of Chinese ethnicity. In contrast, cancer mortality rates were lowest for ethnic Indians. Asian overseas born subgroups have about 70% of the mortality rate of their New Zealand born Asian counterparts, a result that showed little variation by Asian subgroup or cause of death. Within the overseas born population, all-cause mortality rates for migrants living 0-9 years in New Zealand were about 60% of the mortality rate of those living more than 25 years in New Zealand regardless of ethnicity. The corresponding figure for cardiovascular mortality rates was 50%. However, while Chinese cancer mortality rates increased with duration of residence, Indian and Other Asian cancer mortality rates did not. Future research on the mechanisms of worsening of health with increased time spent in the host country is required to improve the understanding of the process, and would assist the policy-makers and health planners. PMID:25140523

  9. Does mortality vary between Asian subgroups in New Zealand: an application of hierarchical Bayesian modelling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Jatrana

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to see whether all-cause and cause-specific mortality rates vary between Asian ethnic subgroups, and whether overseas born Asian subgroup mortality rate ratios varied by nativity and duration of residence. We used hierarchical Bayesian methods to allow for sparse data in the analysis of linked census-mortality data for 25-75 year old New Zealanders. We found directly standardised posterior all-cause and cardiovascular mortality rates were highest for the Indian ethnic group, significantly so when compared with those of Chinese ethnicity. In contrast, cancer mortality rates were lowest for ethnic Indians. Asian overseas born subgroups have about 70% of the mortality rate of their New Zealand born Asian counterparts, a result that showed little variation by Asian subgroup or cause of death. Within the overseas born population, all-cause mortality rates for migrants living 0-9 years in New Zealand were about 60% of the mortality rate of those living more than 25 years in New Zealand regardless of ethnicity. The corresponding figure for cardiovascular mortality rates was 50%. However, while Chinese cancer mortality rates increased with duration of residence, Indian and Other Asian cancer mortality rates did not. Future research on the mechanisms of worsening of health with increased time spent in the host country is required to improve the understanding of the process, and would assist the policy-makers and health planners.

  10. Efficacy and safety of once-daily inhaled umeclidinium/vilanterol in Asian patients with COPD: results from a randomized, placebo-controlled study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jinping; Zhong, Nanshan; Newlands, Amy; Church, Alison; Goh, Aik H

    2015-01-01

    Background Combination of the inhaled long-acting muscarinic antagonist umeclidinium (UMEC; GSK573719) with the long-acting β2-agonist vilanterol (VI) is an approved maintenance treatment for COPD in the US and EU. We compared the efficacy and safety of UMEC/VI with placebo in patients with COPD of Asian ancestry. Patients and methods In this 24-week, Phase III, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study, patients were randomized 1:1:1 to UMEC/VI 125/25 μg, UMEC/VI 62.5/25 μg, or placebo. The primary efficacy end point was trough forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) on day 169; secondary end points were Transition Dyspnea Index (TDI) focal score at week 24 and weighted mean (WM) FEV1 over 0–6 hours postdose on day 1. Additional end points and safety were also assessed. Results Both UMEC/VI 125/25 μg and UMEC/VI 62.5/25 μg statistically significantly improved trough FEV1 at day 169 versus placebo (UMEC/VI 125/25 μg, 0.216 L, [95% confidence interval [CI] 0.175–0.257]; UMEC/VI 62.5/25 μg, 0.151 L, 95% CI 0.110–0.191; both P<0.001). Statistically significant improvements in TDI score were observed for both UMEC/VI groups versus placebo (UMEC/VI 125/25 μg, 0.9, 95% CI 0.3–1.4, P=0.002; UMEC/VI 62.5/25 μg, 0.7, 95% CI 0.1–1.2, P=0.016). On day 1, both UMEC/VI groups improved 0–6-hour WM FEV1 versus placebo (UMEC/VI 125/25 μg, 0.182 L 95% CI 0.161–0.203; UMEC/VI 62.5/25 μg, 0.160 L, 95% CI 0.139–0.181; both P<0.001). Statistically significant improvements for UMEC/VI groups versus placebo were observed for rescue albuterol use at weeks 1–24 (puffs/day, both P<0.001). The incidence of adverse events was similar across groups. Conclusion In Asian patients with COPD, once-daily UMEC/VI 125/25 μg and UMEC 62.5/25 μg resulted in clinically meaningful and statistically significant improvements in lung-function end points versus placebo. Symptomatic and quality of life measures also improved. The safety

  11. Obesity and Dyslipidemia in South Asians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anoop Misra

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and dyslipidemia are emerging as major public health challenges in South Asian countries. The prevalence of obesity is more in urban areas than rural, and women are more affected than men. Further, obesity in childhood and adolescents is rising rapidly. Obesity in South Asians has characteristic features: high prevalence of abdominal obesity, with more intra-abdominal and truncal subcutaneous adiposity than white Caucasians. In addition, there is greater accumulation of fat at “ectopic” sites, namely the liver and skeletal muscles. All these features lead to higher magnitude of insulin resistance, and its concomitant metabolic disorders (the metabolic syndrome including atherogenic dyslipidemia. Because of the occurrence of type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia and other cardiovascular morbidities at a lower range of body mass index (BMI and waist circumference (WC, it is proposed that cut-offs for both measures of obesity should be lower (BMI 23–24.9 kg/m2 for overweight and ≥25 kg/m2 for obesity, WC ≥80 cm for women and ≥90 cm for men for abdominal obesity for South Asians, and a consensus guideline for these revised measures has been developed for Asian Indians. Increasing obesity and dyslipidemia in South Asians is primarily driven by nutrition, lifestyle and demographic transitions, increasingly faulty diets and physical inactivity, in the background of genetic predisposition. Dietary guidelines for prevention of obesity and diabetes, and physical activity guidelines for Asian Indians are now available. Intervention programs with emphasis on improving knowledge, attitude and practices regarding healthy nutrition, physical activity and stress management need to be implemented. Evidence for successful intervention program for prevention of childhood obesity and for prevention of diabetes is available for Asian Indians, and could be applied to all South Asian countries with similar cultural and lifestyle profiles. Finally, more

  12. The Sikhote-Alin orogenic belt, Russian South East: Terranes and the formation of continental lithosphere based on geological and isotopic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanchuk, A. I.; Kemkin, I. V.; Kruk, N. N.

    2016-04-01

    The Sikhote-Alin orogenic belt, Russian South East, consists of folded terranes made up of Jurassic and Early Cretaceous accretionary prisms, turbidite basins, and island arc terranes that are overlapped unconformably by undeformed upper Cenomanian to Cenozoic volcanic deposits. The Jurassic and Early Cretaceous accretionary prisms, together with the Early Cretaceous island arc, are related to subduction of the Paleo-Pacific plate. The turbidite basin, which began to form at the beginning of the Early Cretaceous, is related to left-lateral movement of the Paleo-Pacific plate along the Paleo-Asian continental margin. The collage of terranes that make up the Sikhote-Alin orogenic belt was amalgamated in two stages. The first began after Jurassic subduction beneath the Asian continent was terminated, and the second took place in the late Albian, when the Early Cretaceous island arc collided with the continental margin. Intense deformation of the terranes took place along the continental margin in the form of large-scale translations from south to north, together with oroclinal folding. The deformation resulted in rapid thickening of sediments in the upper crust, resulting in turn in the formation of granitic-metamorphic material in the continental lithosphere. In the southwestern part of the Sikhote-Alin orogen, granites were intruded during the Hauterivian-Aptian, while the entire orogenic belt was affected by intrusions in the late Albian-early Cenomanian. Synorogenic intraplate volcanic rocks and alkaline ultramafic-mafic intrusions also testify to the fact that the orogenic processes in the Sikhote-Alin were related to a transform continental margin, and not to subduction. Geochemical and Nd isotopic data indicate, the primary continental crust of the Sikhote-Alin was of a "hybrid" nature, consisting of juvenile basic components accreted from an oceanic plate and recycled sedimentary material derived from the erosion of ancient blocks.

  13. ACE Minority Concerns Report: New Demographics Reveal the "Invisible" Asians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokuyama, M. Yukie

    1989-01-01

    The dramatic shift in immigration patterns is discussed. By the end of the 1980s Asian refugees will account for 75.2 percent and Southeast Asians will total 60 percent of immigrants. The new Asians are too often excluded from special programs and scholarships and forced to compete with native-born Asians. (MLW)

  14. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    <正>Aims&Scope Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine(APJTB)aims to set up and provide an international academic communication platform for physicians,medical scientists,allied health scientists and public health workers,especially those in the Asian Pacific region and worldwide on tropical biomedicine,infectious diseases and public health,and to meet the growing challenges of understanding,preventing and controlling the dramatic global emergence and reemergence of infectious diseases in the Asian Pacific region.APJTB publishes new findings in both basic and clinical(including modern,traditional and epidemiological)research

  15. Vitamin D Status in South Asian Populations - Risks and Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Saeed

    2016-08-17

    Human body acquires a significant amount of vitamin D by cutaneous synthesis under the action of sunlight and less is supplied through nutritional sources. Diversified sociocultural and economic determinants have been identified that limit the dietary intake of vitamin D and enough distribution of sunlight to maintain optimal levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D). Consequently, the world has witnessed a high prevalence of hypovitaminosis D in resource-limited South Asian countries. The purpose of this review is to provide a South Asian perspective of vitamin D status, critically examining India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka, and to shed light on potential determinants (latitude and season, sunshine exposure habits, age, gender, and genetic factors) leading to hypovitaminosis D among a variety of population groups. Literature search was carried out using bibliographic databases "PubMed," "Google Scholar," and "ScienceDirect.com." Serum 25(OH)D level, 20-50 nmol/L, was mainly taken as vitamin D deficiency, and determinants of low serum 25(OH)D concentration of the population under study were also considered. The review concludes that vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent among South Asian populations and global efforts are needed to overcome hypovitaminosis in the region. In addition, dietary diversification, supplementation and fortification of foods with vitamin D, adequate exposure to sunlight, and consumption of animal foods were suggested as viable approaches to maintain 25(OH)D levels for optimal health. PMID:25746099

  16. Prospective study of risk factors for hepatitis C virus acquisition by Caucasian, Hispanic, and Asian American patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, E Y; Ha, N B; Ahmed, A; Ayoub, W; Daugherty, T; Garcia, G; Cooper, A; Keeffe, E B; Nguyen, M H

    2012-02-01

    Commonly known risk factors for infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) include blood transfusion, injection drug use, intranasal cocaine use, and body tattoos. We hypothesized that Asian Americans infected with HCV may not identify with these established risk factors present in Caucasians and Hispanics, and our aim was to conduct a survey of risk factors in HCV-infected patients in these ethnic groups. In this prospective study, 494 patients infected with HCV completed a detailed risk assessment questionnaire at a liver centre in Northern California from 2001 to 2008. Among subjects participating in this study, 55% identified themselves as Caucasian, 20% as Hispanic, and 25% as Asian. Asian Americans were older, less likely to smoke or consume alcohol, and have a family history of cancer compared with Caucasians and Hispanics. The laboratory profiles were similar, and genotype 1 was the most common infection in all groups (74-75%). The great majority of Caucasians (94%) and Hispanics (86%) identified with commonly known risk factors, which was in contrast to 67% of Asians (P Asians were blood transfusions (50%) and acupuncture (50%). Furthermore, 74% of Caucasians and 66% of Hispanics identified more than one major risk factor, while only 20% of Asians reported having more than one risk factor (P Asian Americans. These findings may guide the development of HCV screening in our increasingly diverse population. PMID:22239506

  17. Understanding the Experiences and Needs of South Asian Families Caring for a Child with Learning Disabilities in the United Kingdom: An Experiential-Contextual Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heer, Kuljit; Rose, John; Larkin, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of learning disabilities amongst South Asian communities in the United Kingdom is thought to be almost three times higher than in any other community. Despite this, service utilisation amongst this group remains low and working cross-culturally can pose unique challenges for service providers. The experiences of South Asian families…

  18. Trends in body mass index distribution and prevalence of thinness, overweight and obesity in two cohorts of Surinamese South Asian children in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilde, J.A. de; Zandbergen-Harlaar, S.; Buuren, S. van; Middelkoop, B.J.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Asians have a smaller muscle mass and a larger fat mass at the same body mass index (BMI) than most other ethnic groups. Due to a resulting higher cardiometabolic risk, the BMI cut-offs for overweight and obesity were lowered for adults. For Asian children universal criteria apply. The o

  19. Globalisation and the Challenge of Asian Legal Transplants in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Prakash

    2005-01-01

    This article reviews the main patterns of Asian migration to Europe and the ways in which Europe today has become multicultured with Afro-Asian legal diversities. It discusses the limited role which Asian states have played in these processes of emigration and settlement. It further examines the status of the laws transplanted by Asian migrants and their descendants in Europe and the ways in which Asian diasporas in Europe are engaging in new hybrid patterns of socio-legal navigation and reco...

  20. Figuring Futures: Early Asian American Mixed-Race Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Poulsen, Melissa Eriko

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation examines figurations of Asian mixed race during the long period of Asian exclusion and enforced anti-miscegenation in the United States, when racial mixing was legally proscribed. During this time of U.S. expansion into Asia, and of unprecedented Asian immigration into the United States, such proscription helped maintain normative white identity while rendering the Asian American mixed-race body illegible, making cultural production one of the few sites where Asian American ...

  1. Ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and overweight in Asian American adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Cook, Won Kim; Tseng, Winston; Bautista, Roxanna; John, Iyanrick

    2016-01-01

    Asian American children and adolescents are an under-investigated subpopulation in obesity research. This study aimed to identify specific profiles of Asian subgroups at high risk of adolescent overweight with special attention to Asian ethnicity, socioeconomic status (SES), and their interaction. Multiple logistic regression models were fitted using a sample of 1533 Asian American adolescents ages 12–17 from the 2007–2012 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS). In addition to Asian ethnic...

  2. Central Asian Snow Cover from Hydrometeorological Surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Central Asian Snow Cover from Hydrometeorological Surveys data are based on observations made by personnel for three river basins: Amu Darya, Sir Darya, and...

  3. Asian Employment Forum Held in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ From August 13 through 15,2007,the Asian Employment Forum sponsored by the International Labor Organization (ILO) and hosted by the Ministry of Labor and Social Security of China was held in Beijing.

  4. PERSPECTIVES ON EAST-ASIAN MONETARY INTEGRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Masini

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Increasing trade interdependence among East-Asian countries suggests the urge to design some monetary arrangement to stabilize the macroeconomic framework of an extremely heterogeneously growing area. The paper reviews the literature and analyses several directions of East-Asian integration process, especially in relation to the European model. We argue that a more comprehensive economic and political world-scenario should be considered and a multi-speed policy approach should be implemented in the area. Around the pivotal role of China, a wide agreement should be reached for an Asian single-currency, which might be rapidly issued and provide a reference target for other East-Asian countries.

  5. Somatomedin C deficiency in Asian sisters.

    OpenAIRE

    McGraw, M E; Price, D A; D. J. Hill

    1986-01-01

    Two sisters of Asian origin showed typical clinical and biochemical features of primary somatomedin C (SM-C) deficiency (Laron dwarfism). Abnormalities of SM-C binding proteins were observed, one sister lacking the high molecular weight (150 Kd) protein.

  6. Asian Banks: Leading the Way to Recovery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ The global financial crisis has rocked the American and European Union banking system leaving many Western banks teetering on the verge of bankruptcy.But in the East,Asian banks have fared well so far.

  7. Heart Disease and Asians and Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... HIV/AIDS Immunizations Infant Heath & Mortality Mental Health Obesity Organ and ... heart disease and they are less likely to die from heart disease. In general, Asian American adults have lower rates of being overweight or obese, lower rates of ...

  8. China and Its Northeast Asian Neighbors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Bojiang; Li Baowen

    2007-01-01

    @@ Ⅰ Northeast Asian countries have held an important position on China's diplomatic chessboard. Their bilateral relations can be traced back to the ancient times, and they are important for China's national security strategy.

  9. Asian-American Women in Educational Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Lily

    1980-01-01

    Provides information on the immigration history, education, income, and occupation representation in the social sciences and cultural and language barriers of Asian American women educational researchers. Includes recommendations to facilitate their entry into the social sciences in general. (MJL)

  10. Minority Women's Health: Asian-Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Asian-Americans overall are at lower risk. Genes, culture, environment, and access to care play a role ... Mental health problems and suicide Osteoporosis Overweight and obesity Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) Stomach cancer Tuberculosis (TB) ...

  11. Asian American Evangelicals in Multiracial Church Ministry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Garces-Foley

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1990s, evangelical efforts to create multiracial churches (MRCs have grown exponentially. This article analyzes the experiences of Asian American evangelical ministers leading MRCs. Through interviews we explore how Asian American evangelicals came to be involved in MRC-ministry and how they approach issues of racial diversity in this context. We compare the racial attitudes of Asian American evangelical ministers leading MRCs with those of White and Black evangelicals delineated in Emerson and Smith’s Divide by Faith. Rather than conform to the colorblind approach of many White evangelicals, the majority of our respondents utilize structural explanations for social inequality and promote a colorconscious approach to diversity. We conclude that Asian American evangelicals utilize a unique framework for MRC-ministry, what we call a ‘racialized multiculturalism,’ that has much to offer American evangelicalism.

  12. The abrupt onset of the modern South Asian Monsoon winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betzler, Christian; Eberli, Gregor P.; Kroon, Dick; Wright, James D.; Swart, Peter K.; Nath, Bejugam Nagender; Alvarez-Zarikian, Carlos A.; Alonso-García, Montserrat; Bialik, Or M.; Blättler, Clara L.; Guo, Junhua Adam; Haffen, Sébastien; Horozal, Senay; Inoue, Mayuri; Jovane, Luigi; Lanci, Luca; Laya, Juan Carlos; Mee, Anna Ling Hui; Lüdmann, Thomas; Nakakuni, Masatoshi; Niino, Kaoru; Petruny, Loren M.; Pratiwi, Santi D.; Reijmer, John J. G.; Reolid, Jesús; Slagle, Angela L.; Sloss, Craig R.; Su, Xiang; Yao, Zhengquan; Young, Jeremy R.

    2016-07-01

    The South Asian Monson (SAM) is one of the most intense climatic elements yet its initiation and variations are not well established. Dating the deposits of SAM wind-driven currents in IODP cores from the Maldives yields an age of 12. 9 Ma indicating an abrupt SAM onset, over a short period of 300 kyrs. This coincided with the Indian Ocean Oxygen Minimum Zone expansion as revealed by geochemical tracers and the onset of upwelling reflected by the sediment’s content of particulate organic matter. A weaker ‘proto-monsoon’ existed between 12.9 and 25 Ma, as mirrored by the sedimentary signature of dust influx. Abrupt SAM initiation favors a strong influence of climate in addition to the tectonic control, and we propose that the post Miocene Climate Optimum cooling, together with increased continentalization and establishment of the bipolar ocean circulation, i.e. the beginning of the modern world, shifted the monsoon over a threshold towards the modern system.

  13. Recursive formula for arithmetic Asian option prices

    OpenAIRE

    Kyungsub Lee

    2013-01-01

    We derive a recursive formula for arithmetic Asian option prices with finite observation times in semimartingale models. The method is based on the relationship between the risk-neutral expectation of the quadratic variation of the return process and European option prices. The computation of arithmetic Asian option prices is straightforward whenever European option prices are available. Applications with numerical results under the Black-Scholes framework and the exponential L\\'evy model are...

  14. Asian women medical migrants in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Raghuram, Parvati

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: The volume and geographical spread of Asian female migration as well as its impact on the sending countries has led to a rapid growth in research on such migration (Limand Oishi 1996; Yamanaka and Piper 2003). Broadly speaking, there are two strands to this literature, that which focuses on intra-Asian migration (Huang and Yeoh 2003; Wickramasekara 2002; Chin 2003) and that which follows the broad contours of brain drain migration, from countries of the Third World to the First ...

  15. The Migration of Highly Skilled Asian Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Horáková, Jana

    2012-01-01

    This thesis is focused on migration of highly skilled workforce. The aim of this work to show current migration flows of highly skilled workers and particularly flows of highly skilled Asian migrants. First chapter explains migration terms and examines highly skilled migration causes through migration theories. Second chapter studies international migration flows and their long-term development. Last chapter is focused on migration flows of highly skilled Asians to OECD countries and within A...

  16. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    <正>APJTB Monthly Aims&Scope Asian Pacific Jounrnal of Tropical Biomedicine(APJTB)aims to set up and provide an international academic communication platform for physicians,medical scientists,allied health scientists and public health workers,especially those in the Asian Pacific region and worldwide on tropical biomedicine,infectious diseases and public health,and to meet the growing challenges

  17. Asian banking in challenging financial times

    OpenAIRE

    Chris Sigur

    2009-01-01

    On June 25, 2009, the Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco held a symposium entitled “Asian Banking in Challenging Financial Times.” The symposium was part of the Country Analysis Unit’s Asia Program, which aims to share information on issues and developments in Asian financial sectors with business and community leaders in the 12th Federal Reserve District and more broadly. This Asia Focus provides a brief summary report on the discussions held at that symposium.

  18. Asian Motility Studies in Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Oh Young

    2010-01-01

    Altered motility remains one of the important pathophysiologic factors in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) who commonly complain of abdominal pain and stool changes such as diarrhea and constipation. The prevalence of IBS has increased among Asian populations these days. Gastrointestinal (GI) physiology may vary between Asian and Western populations because of differences in diets, socio-cultural backgrounds, and genetic factors. The characteristics and differences of GI dysmotili...

  19. Congenital hypothyroidism: increased incidence in Asian families.

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenthal, M; Addison, G. M.; Price, D. A.

    1988-01-01

    Screening in the North West health region of England showed a significantly higher incidence of congenital hypothyroidism in Asian families--1/918 compared with 1/3391 in non-Asians. This could only in part be explained by consanguinity. No differences were found in birth order, season of birth, gestational age, or birth weight between normal infants and those with congenital hypothyroidism. There was a significantly higher incidence of additional congenital abnormalities (9%) and a significa...

  20. Interdependence of South Asian Equity Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Ghulam Ali; Haroon Hussain; Talat Islam

    2014-01-01

    This Study aimed at exploring the relationship between South Asian Equity Markets. Four major South Asian Equity Markets (Karachi Stock Exchange, Bombay Stock Exchange, Colombo Stock Exchange and Dhaka Stock Exchange) were taken to explore this relationship. Data was taken from the year 1999 to 2009 on monthly basis. Data Analysis was conducted using co-integration Analysis for the long run relationship and VECM (Vector Error Correction Model) for the short run relationship. For the purpose o...