WorldWideScience

Sample records for ashes total contents

  1. Rapid determination of carbohydrates, ash, and extractives contents of straw using attenuated total reflectance fourier transform mid-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaki, Yukihiro; Mazza, Giuseppe

    2011-06-22

    Analysis of the chemical components of lignocellulosic biomass is essential to understanding its potential for utilization. Mid-infrared spectroscopy and partial least-squares regression were used for rapid measurement of the carbohydrate (total glycans; glucan; xylan; galactan; arabinan; mannan), ash, and extractives content of triticale and wheat straws. Calibration models for total glycans, glucan, and extractives showed good and excellent predictive performance on the basis of slope, r², RPD, and R/SEP criteria. The xylan model showed good and acceptable predictive performance. However, the ash model was evaluated as providing only approximate quantification and screening. The models for galactan, arabinan, and mannan indicated poor and insufficient prediction for application. Most models could predict both triticale and wheat straw samples with the same degree of accuracy. Mid-infrared spectroscopic techniques coupled with partial least-squares regression can be used for rapid prediction of total glycans, glucan, xylan, and extractives in triticale and wheat straw samples.

  2. Leachability of antimony from energy ashes. Total contents, leachability and remedial suggestions; Lakning av antimon fraan energiaskor. Totalhalter, lakbarhet samt foerslag till aatgaerder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeckstroem, Mattias [Oerebro Univ. (Sweden)

    2006-01-15

    In the current project total concentrations for antimony in 31 energy ashes have been compiled. The average concentration of antimony in boiler fly ash and grate boiler fly ash is 192 and 1,140 mg/kg, respectively. The corresponding antimony concentrations for boiler ashes and grate bottom ashes are 86,5 and 61,8 mg/kg, respectively. Multivariate calculations clearly pointed out waste as the major source for antimony in ashes. The difference between total antimony concentration in fly ash and bottom ash is greatest for grate boilers, in average 18 times higher in the fly ash. The difference for CFB/BFB-boilers is only slightly more than 2. However, based on amount, 75% of the total antimony inventory is recovered in the fly ashes for both CFB/BFB and grate boilers. Eleven (eight of which were bottom ashes) out of the 31 samples exceeded the guidelines for inert waste. It is clear that the higher ionic strength in the solutions from the fly ashes contribute to decrease the solubility for critical minerals retaining antimony. In addition, the fly ashes have considerably larger effective surface able to sorb trace elements. A clear and positive covariance was discovered between aluminium and antimony. Furthermore, it was noted that antimony showed no typical anionic behaviour despite the fact that it according to the geochemical calculations should be present as SbO{sub 3}{sup -}. At L/S 10, a maximum of 1% of the total antimony concentration is leached. This should be compared to chloride that had 94% of the total concentration leached at L/S 10. There was no correlation between the leached antimony concentrations and the total antimony concentrations. The sequential extractions also suggest a low leachability for antimony from the ashes. In average only 9,6% is released at pH 7, 7,3% at pH 5, 3,6% during reducing conditions and 3,2% during oxidising conditions. In total, only 24% of the total antimony concentrations is released during the four extraction steps. The

  3. Estimates of total ash content from 2006 and 2009 explosion events at Bezymianny volcano with use of a regional atmospheric modeling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moiseenko, K. B.; Malik, N. A.

    2014-01-01

    The December 24, 2006, and December 16, 2009, strong explosion events at Bezymianny Volcano (Kamchatka Peninsula) were accompanied by extensive ash-falls in proximal and medium-distal area (events and quantify effects of atmospheric dispersal, gravitational settling, and particle aggregation on the observed ash-fall deposit patterns. It was found that the orography-induced atmospheric disturbances provided first-order influence on ash dispersal regime in the events owing to enhanced turbulence rates in a free troposphere above mountains and low-level airflows generated by mesoscale pressure perturbations. A total mass of ash from these eruptions is inverted based on grain-size sample data and model-calculated Green's function for atmospheric transport with use of a multiple regression approach. We demonstrate that in the absence of precise data on individual and collective settling rates the proposed inversion technique, which explicitly constrains fall velocity spectrum within individual sieve classes and aggregated modes, provides more reliable estimate for total erupted mass compared to procedures employing constant shape factor or prescribed settling rates within the framework of a simple linear regression model.

  4. Fire severity effects on ash extractable Total Phosphorous

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Paulo; Úbeda, Xavier; Martin, Deborah

    2010-05-01

    Phosphorous (P) is a crucial element to plant nutrition and limits vegetal production. The amounts of P in soil are lower and great part of this nutrient is absorbed or precipitated. It is well known that fire has important implications on P cycle, that can be lost throughout volatilization, evacuated with the smoke, but also more available to transport after organic matter mineralization imposed by the fire. The release of P depends on ash pH and their chemical and physical characteristics. Fire temperatures impose different severities, according to the specie affected and contact time. Fire severity is often evaluated by ash colour and this is a low-cost and excellent methodology to assess the fire effects on ecosystems. The aim of this work is study the ash properties physical and chemical properties on ash extractable Total Phosphorous (TP), collected in three wildfires, occured in Portugal, (named, (1) Quinta do Conde, (2) Quinta da Areia and (3) Casal do Sapo) composed mainly by Quercus suber and Pinus pinaster trees. The ash colour was assessed using the Munsell color chart. From all three plots we analyzed a total of 102 ash samples and we identified 5 different ash colours, ordered in an increasing order of severity, Very Dark Brown, Black, Dark Grey, Very Dark Grey and Light Grey. In order to observe significant differences between extractable TP and ash colours, we applied an ANOVA One Way test, and considered the differences significant at a p<0.05. The results showed that significant differences in the extractable TP among the different ash colours. Hence, to identify specific differences between each ash colour, we applied a post-hoc Fisher LSD test, significant at a p<0.05. The results obtained showed significant differences between the extractable TP from Very dark Brown and Black ash, produced at lower severities, in relation to Dark Grey, Very Dark Grey and Light Grey ash, generated at higher severities. The means of the first group were higher

  5. Determination of Total Solids and Ash in Algal Biomass: Laboratory Analytical Procedure (LAP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Wychen, S.; Laurens, L. M. L.

    2013-12-01

    This procedure describes the methods used to determine the amount of moisture or total solids present in a freeze-dried algal biomass sample, as well as the ash content. A traditional convection oven drying procedure is covered for total solids content, and a dry oxidation method at 575?C is covered for ash content.

  6. Analysis of Content of Selected Critical Elements in Fly Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makowska Dorota

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Pursuant to the new mineral policy of the European Union, searching for new sources of raw materials is required. Coal fly ash has long been considered as a potential source of a number of critical elements. Therefore, it is important to monitor the contents of the critical elements in fly ash from coal combustion. The paper presents the results of examinations of the contents of selected elements, i.e. beryllium, cobalt, chromium and germanium in fly ash from Polish power plants. The results of the conducted investigations indicate that the examined ash samples from bituminous coal combustion cannot be treated as a potential source of the analysed critical elements. The content of these elements in ash, though slightly higher than their average content in the sedimentary rocks, is, however, not high enough to make their recovery technologically and economically justified at this moment.

  7. Effects of Wood Ash Biomass Application on Growth Indices and Chlorophyll Content of Maize and Lima bean Intercrop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasheedat Ajala

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Wood ash generated from wood industries have enormous potential which can be utilized due to its properties which influences soil chemistry and fertility status of tropical acidic soils. Field experiments were conducted on an acidic sandy loam alfisol to investigate the effects of wood ash on the growth indices and chlorophyll content of maize and lima beans intercrop during the late and early seasons of 2014 and 2015 at Akure in the rainforest zone of southwestern Nigeria. The treatments were 100% sole maize with ash, 100% sole maize without ash, 75% maize + 25% lima beans with ash, 75% + 25% lima beans without ash, 50% maize + 50% lima beans with ash, 50% maize + 50% lima beans without ash, 25% maize + 75% lima beans with ash and 25% maize + 75% lima beans without ash. Wood ash was applied at 2.4kg/plot. Wood ash increased chlorophyll content in all amended treatments except in amended 25:75% maize-lima beans intercrop and 25:75% maize –lima beans intercrop without ash, however 75:25% maize-lima beans amended with wood ash significantly (P≥0.05 recorded the highest chlorophyll content. Growth parameters such as plant height, number of leaves, leaf area, leaf area index, leaf length, stem diameter, number of flowers, number of pods, weight of plant and total biomass of amended maize-lima beans intercrop were significantly (P≥0.05 increased by wood ash application. Based on experimental findings, 25:75% maize-lima beans intercrop and 75%:25% maize-lima beans intercrop amended with wood ash was concluded to be more recommendable in the study area.

  8. LONG-TIME EFFECT OF HARD COAL ASH ON THE CONTENT OF SOME ELEMENTS IN SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosław Wyszkowski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the long-time effect of meliorating doses of hard coal ash (0, 100, 200, 400, 600 and 800 t · ha-1 on the content of some elements in soil with the application of different organic substances: manure, straw and bark. Nineteen years after the application of ash there was still an increase in the total content of all elements in soil. Its magnitude depended on soil horizon and it was highest in the humus horizon. The increase in the content of nutrients was, in general, proportional to the applied doses of ash. In the surface layer of soil, the increase was particularly high for sodium and subsequently for calcium, magnesium, sulphur, potassium and phosphorus, arranged in the order of decreasing values. The content of elements in deeper soil layers was significantly lower than in the 0-25 cm zone. A gradual reduction in the content, together with the increase in depth, was recorded only for magnesium and sulphur. The lowest concentration of phosphorus and calcium was detected in the 51-75 cm layer, while in the case of potassium it was in the 26-50 cm zone. The substances introduced into the soil in order to reduce the impact of ash generated by hard coal combustion did not exert any significant impact on the content of elements 19 years following their application.

  9. Role of total reactive oxide ratios on strength development in activated fly ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhagath Singh G.V.P.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of individual reactive components and process variables such as molarity and temperature on alkaline activation of different low-calcium fly ash is explored. The oxide ratios in the activated system, based on the total silica (total SiO2 in the system consisting of the reactive silica contributed by fly ash and the reactive alumina in fly ash are shown to provide consistent results for achieving the highest strength. For a given total SiO2 content in the system, an increase in the sodium content above a certain dosage does not influence the ultimate compressive strength. An optimum (total SiO2 to Na2O ratio, equal to 2.66 is established for achieving maximum strength. The role of temperature within the range of 60°C-85°C is not significant when the molarity of NaOH is high. A N-A-S-H type gel with Si/Al ratio ranging between 2.5 to 3.0 and the Al/Na ratio varying between 1.30 to 0.9 is formed on decreasing the (total SiO2/Na2O ratio from 6.55 to 2.66

  10. Ash Content and Calorific Energy of Corn Stover Components in Eastern Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Luc Lizotte

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Corn stover is an abundant agricultural residue that could be used on the farm for heating and crop drying. Ash content and calorific energy of corn grain and six stover components were measured from standing plants during the grain maturing period, between mid-September and mid-November. Ash of stover in standing corn averaged 4.8% in a cool crop heat unit zone (2300–2500 crop heat units (CHU and 7.3% in a warmer zone (2900–3100 CHU. The corn cob had the lowest ash content (average of 2.2% while leaves had the highest content (from 7.7% to 12.6%. In the fall, ash content of mowed and raked stover varied between 5.5% and 11.7%. In the following spring, ash content of stover mowed, raked and baled in May averaged 3.6%. The cob and stalk located below the first ear contained the highest calorific energy with 17.72 MJ·kg−1. Leaves and grain had the lowest energy with an average of 16.99 MJ·kg−1. The stover heat of combustion was estimated at 17.47 MJ·kg−1 in the cool zone and 17.26 MJ·kg−1 in the warm zone. Based on presented results, a partial “cob and husk” harvest system would collect less energy per unit area than total stover harvest (44 vs. 156 GJ·ha−1 and less biomass (2.51 vs. 9.13 t·dry matter (DM·ha−1 but the fuel quality would be considerably higher with a low ash-to-energy ratio (1.45 vs. 4.27 g·MJ−1.

  11. Effect of Carbon Ash Content on the Thermal and Combustion Properties of Waste Wood Particle / Recycled Polypropylene Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Kuo-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study effect of carbon ash content on the thermal stability and combustion behavior of waste wood particle / recycled polypropylene composites was investigated using TGA, DTG, LOI and cone calorimeter. The TGA shows that, as carbon ash content increases, the thermal stability of composites increases, while the residual weight significantly increases, with the residual weight rate of waste wood particle / recycled polypropylene composites increases from 13.97% to 41.02% at 800 ℃ According to cone calorimeter results, in the 50 kW/M2 thermal flow, when carbon ash adding to 70%, peak heat release rate and total heat release quantity, decreases by 68% and 52%, respectively. The LOI of waste wood particle / recycled polypropylene composites improves by about 34%, Conforming UL-94 flammability standard, V-0 rating. The residual weight rate increases by 202.8%, which the significant role of carbon ash in flame retardant.

  12. Prediction total specific pore volume of geopolymers produced from waste ashes by fuzzy logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Nazari

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, total specific pore volume of inorganic polymers (geopolymers made from seeded fly ash and rice husk bark ash has been predicted by fuzzy logic. Different specimens, made from a mixture of fly ash and rice husk bark ash in fine and coarse form together with alkali activator made of water glass and NaOH solution, were subjected to porosimetry tests at 7 and 28 days of curing. The curing regime was different: one set of the specimens were cured at room temperature until reaching to 7 and 28 days and the other sets were oven cured for 36 hours at the range of 40-90 °C and then cured at room temperature until 7 and 28 days. A model based on fuzzy logic for predicting the total specific pore volume of the specimens has been presented. To build the model, training and testing using experimental results from 120 specimens were conducted. The used data as the inputs of fuzzy logic models are arranged in a format of six parameters that cover the percentage of fine fly ash in the ashes mixture, the percentage of coarse fly ash in the ashes mixture, the percentage of fine rice husk bark ash in the ashes mixture, the percentage of coarse rice husk bark ash in the ashes mixture, the temperature of curing and the time of water curing. According to the input parameters, in the fuzzy logic model, the pore volume of each specimen was predicted. The training and testing results in the fuzzy logic model have shown a strong potential for predicting the total specific pore volume of the geopolymer specimens in the considered range.

  13. Bench-scale synthesis of zeolite A from subbituminous coal ashes with high crystalline silica content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chareonpanich, M.; Jullaphan, O.; Tang, C. [Kasetsart University, Bangkok (Thailand). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2011-01-15

    In this present work, fly ash and bottom ash with high crystalline silica content were obtained from the coal-fired boilers within the paper industries in Thailand. These coal ashes were used as the basic raw materials for synthetic zeolite production. The crystal type and crystallinity, specific surface area and pore size, and textural properties of zeolite products were characterized by using X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD), N{sub 2} sorption analysis, and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), respectively. It was found that sodalite octahydrate was selectively formed via the direct conventional (one-step) synthesis, whereas through a two-step, sodium silicate preparation and consecutive zeolite A synthesis process, 94 and 72 wt.% zeolite A products could be produced from the fly ash and bottom ash, respectively. The cation-exchange capacity (CEC) of fly ash and bottom ash-derived zeolite A products were closely similar to that of the commercial grade zeolite A.

  14. US-Total Electron Content Product (USTEC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The US Total Electron Content (US-TEC) product is designed to specify TEC over the Continental US (CONUS) in near real-time. The product uses a Kalman Filter data...

  15. [Total purine content in selected foods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfram, G; Colling, M

    1987-12-01

    For the dietary treatment of hyperuricemia and gout, it is necessary to know the total purine content of food. A new method determining the purine content enzymatically, as uric acid, allows routine analysis. Many foods of animal and plant origin were brought in usual or alternative stores and analysed.

  16. classical optimization of bagasse ash content in cement- stabilized ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Optimzation and the use of bagasse ash gave a cost benefit of 9.24% with a better mix. The classical .... more complex in that the minerals present in the soil and the bagasse ash .... unit coefficients, required to make up the left-hand side to the ...

  17. Geotechnical approaches to coal ash content control in mining of complex structure deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batugin, SA; Gavrilov, VL; Khoyutanov, EA

    2017-02-01

    Coal deposits having complex structure and nonuniform quality coal reserves require improved processes of production quality control. The paper proposes a method to present coal ash content as components of natural and technological dilution. It is chosen to carry out studies on the western site of Elginsk coal deposit, composed of four coal beds of complex structure. The reported estimates of coal ash content in the beds with respect to five components point at the need to account for such data in confirmation exploration, mine planning and actual mining. Basic means of analysis and control of overall ash content and its components are discussed.

  18. Estimating particle sizes, concentrations, and total mass of ash in volcanic clouds using weather radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, D. M.; Rose, W. I., Jr.

    1983-12-01

    Radar observations of the March 19, 1982 ash eruption of Mount St. Helens were used to estimate the volume of the ash cloud (2000 + or - 500 cu km), the concentration of ash (0.2-0.6 g/cu m), and the total mass of ash erupted (3-10 x 10 to the 11th g). Previously published ashfall data for the May 18, 1980 Mount St. Helens eruption were studied using an inversion technique to estimate 6-hr mean particle concentration (3 g/cu m), the size distribution, the total ashfall mass (5 x 10 to the 14th g), and radar reflectivity factors for the ash cloud. Because volcanic ash clouds with particle concentrations of at least 0.2 g/cu m are produced in very small (in terms of total ashfall mass) eruptions of duration less than 1 min, volcanic ash clouds must be considered an extremely serious hazard to in-flight aircraft, regardless of the eruption magnitude.

  19. Total Monomeric Anthocyanin and Total Flavonoid Content of Processed Purple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potato Florentina Damşa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that processing change physical and chemical composition of foods, thus affecting the content in bioactive substances. Potatoes are almost always consumed after processing (baked, fried or boiled making it critical to understand the effect of such processing techniques on the containing in bioactive compounds. In order to determine the influence of processing on the content of anthocyanin pigments and flavonoids was achieved the extraction of these compounds from boiled and baked purple potato tuber (Albastru-Violet de Galanesti variety. Also, in order to obtain the maximum amount of anthocyanin pigments and flavonoids from processed potatoes was applied ultrasonic extraction (20 kHz and was performed the mathematical modeling (central composite design using SigmaXL software. The total anthocyanins content were determined spectrophotometrically by the pH differential method and the total flavonoids content were determine colorimetric by AlCl3 method. This study proves that the potato processing decreases the content of anthocyanin pigments and flavonoids.

  20. Effect of ash content on protein quality of meat and bone meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirley, R B; Parsons, C M

    2001-05-01

    The effect of ash concentration on amino acid (AA) composition, true AA digestibility, and protein efficiency ratio (PER; weight gain per unit of protein intake) of meat and bone meal (MBM) was evaluated. Commercially rendered MBM samples containing 16 to 44% ash were obtained from two sources. Additional samples of MBM varying in ash from 9 to 63% were obtained by chloroform floatation or lab screening of a beef crax sample. Protein quality of selected MBM samples was assessed by determining true AA digestibility using the precision-fed cecectomized rooster assay and by a PER chick growth assay wherein chicks were fed 10% CP diets containing a MBM as the only source of dietary protein from 8 to 18 d of age. Increases in Ala, Pro, Gly, and Arg as a percentage of CP were observed in all MBM samples as ash percentage increased, with Pro and Gly accounting for most of the increase. In contrast, the levels (% of CP) of all essential AA, other than Arg, decreased as ash level increased. For example, Lys concentrations per unit of CP decreased from 5.7 to 4.0% as ash increased from 9 to 63%. There was little or no effect of ash content on AA digestibility of MBM varying in ash from 9 to 44%. The PER of MBM markedly decreased from 3.34 to 0.72 as ash increased from 16 to 44%, and most of the effects of ash on PER were not due to differences in dietary Ca and P levels. The results indicate that the reduction in protein quality of MBM as ash content increases is almost entirely due to a decrease in analyzed essential AA per unit of CP, not a decrease in digestibility of AA.

  1. Extracting coal ash content from laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) spectra by multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Shunchun; Lu, Jidong; Dong, Meirong; Chen, Kai; Li, Junyan; Li, Jun

    2011-10-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) combined with partial least squares (PLS) analysis has been applied for the quantitative analysis of the ash content of coal in this paper. The multivariate analysis method was employed to extract coal ash content information from LIBS spectra rather than from the concentrations of the main ash-forming elements. In order to construct a rigorous partial least squares regression model and reduce the calculation time, different spectral range data were used to construct partial least squares regression models, and then the performances of these models were compared in terms of the correlation coefficients of calibration and validation and the root mean square errors of calibration and cross-validation. Afterwards, the prediction accuracy, reproducibility, and the limit of detection of the partial least squares regression model were validated with independent laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy measurements of four unknown samples. The results show that a good agreement is observed between the ash content provided by thermo-gravimetric analyzer and the LIBS measurements coupled to the PLS regression model for the unknown samples. The feasibility of extracting coal ash content from LIBS spectra is approved. It is also confirmed that this technique has good potential for quantitative analysis of the ash content of coal.

  2. Reduction of Ash Content in Raw Coal Using Acids and Alkali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. H. Shivaprasad

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ash, an inorganic matter present in coal is amenable for dissolution using suitable reagents. Thus the dissolution of ash and its subsequent removal reduces the release of many toxic elements into the environment by coal based industries. Removal of ash also enhances the calorific value. In the present investigation an attempt has been made to reduce the ash content of raw coal obtained from nearest thermal power by using hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid and sodium hydroxide. A series of leaching experiments were conducted on coal of different size fractions by varying the parameters like concentration, temperature and time of leaching. The results indicate that it is possible to remove nearly 75% of ash from coal sample by leaching.

  3. Wide-scale utilization of MSWI fly ashes in cement production and its impact on average heavy metal contents in cements: The case of Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederer, Jakob; Trinkel, Verena; Fellner, Johann

    2017-02-01

    A number of studies present the utilization of fly ashes from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) in cement production as a recycling alternative to landfilling. While there is a lot of research on the impact of MSWI fly ashes utilization in cement production on the quality of concrete or the leaching of heavy metals, only a few studies have determined the resulting heavy metal content in cements caused by this MSWI fly ashes utilization. Making use of the case of Austria, this study (1) determines the total content of selected heavy metals in cements currently produced in the country, (2) designs a scenario and calculates the resulting heavy metal contents in cements assuming that all MSWI fly ashes from Austrian grate incinerators were used as secondary raw materials for Portland cement clinker production and (3) evaluates the legal recyclability of demolished concretes produced from MSWI fly ash amended cements based on their total heavy metal contents. To do so, data from literature and statistics are combined in a material flow analysis model to calculate the average total contents of heavy metals in cements and in the resulting concretes according to the above scenario. The resulting heavy metal contents are then compared (i) to their respective limit values for cements as defined in a new technical guideline in Austria (BMLFUW, 2016), and (ii) to their respective limit values for recycling materials from demolished concrete. Results show that MSWI fly ashes utilization increases the raw material input in cement production by only +0.9%, but the total contents of Cd by +310%, and Hg, Pb, and Zn by +70% to +170%. However these and other heavy metal contents are still below their respective limit values for Austrian cements. The same legal conformity counts for recycling material derived from concretes produced from the MSWI fly ash cements. However, if the MSWI fly ash ratio in all raw materials used for cement production were increased from 0.9% to 22

  4. X-ray powder diffraction-based method for the determination of the glass content and mineralogy of coal (co)-combustion fly ashes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O. Font; N. Moreno; X. Querol; M. Izquierdo; E. Alvarez; S. Diez; J. Elvira; D. Antenucci; H. Nugteren; F. Plana; A. Lopez; P. Coca; F.G. Pena [Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDA-CSIC), Barcelona (Spain)

    2010-10-15

    The relevance of Al-Si glass in a number of fly ash applications, such as use as a pozzolanic material, zeolite synthesis, and geopolymer production, necessitated research towards investigation of methods for an easy and consistent determination of the glass content in this coal (co)-combustion by-products. A glass standard-addition X-ray powder diffraction (XRD)-based method is proposed in this study as an alternative to the non straightforward procedure of conventional methods for determining the amorphous components, mainly by difference of the total mass and the addition of quantified crystalline species. A >99% Al-Si glass slag sample was selected as a standard for glass. A number of glass standard/fly ash mixtures were performed on Fluidized Bed Combustion (FBC) and pulverized coal combustion (PCC) fly ashes and subsequently analyzed by XRD. The method provides results closer to quantitative proportions of the Al-Si amorphous material of this (co)-combustion by-product, with a range of values <3% when compared with those obtained by the conventional Reference Intensity Method (RIM) method, demonstrating suitability and consistence of the procedure. The mineralogy of FBC and PCC fly ash was also investigated using the RIM method. The occurrence and proportions of the crystalline components in fly ash are in line with the combustion technology and their inherent operational parameters, especially the (co)-combustion temperature. The FBC fly ash shows the highest content of relic phases from feed coal (quartz, illite, calcite, and feldspars) and lower contents of amorphous components. The PCC fly ash are characterized by the highest proportions of mullite and Al-Si glass and low contents of quartz an other relict phases. The occurrence and distribution of anhydrite and Fe-oxide species appears to be related to the content of Ca and Fe in the feed fuels, showing slightly higher contents in FBC than in PCC fly ash. 26 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. Contribution of Ash Content Related to Methane Adsorption Behaviors of Bituminous Coals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanyan Feng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Methane adsorption isotherms on coals with varying ash contents were investigated. The textural properties were characterized by N2 adsorption/desorption isotherm at 77 K, and methane adsorption characteristics were measured at pressures up to 4.0 MPa at 298 K, 313 K, and 328 K, respectively. The Dubinin-Astakhov model and the Polanyi potential theory were employed to fit the experimental data. As a result, ash content correlated strongly to methane adsorption capacity. Over the ash range studied, 9.35% to 21.24%, the average increase in methane adsorption capacity was 0.021 mmol/g for each 1.0% rise in ash content. With the increasing ash content range of 21.24%~43.47%, a reduction in the maximum adsorption capacities of coals was observed. In addition, there was a positive correlation between the saturated adsorption capacity and the specific surface area and micropore volume of samples. Further, this study presented the heat of adsorption, the isosteric heat of adsorption, and the adsorbed phase specific heat capacity for methane adsorption on various coals. Employing the proposed thermodynamic approaches, the thermodynamic maps of the adsorption processes of coalbed methane were conducive to the understanding of the coal and gas simultaneous extraction.

  6. Measures to reduce carbon content of fly ash in CFB boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, L.; Liu, D.C.; Zhang, S.H.; Chen, H.P. [HuaZhong Univ. of Science and Technology, National Laboratory of Coal Combustion (China); Huang, Y.P.; Liu, C.M. [Da Ye Power Plant, Hu-Bei (China); Winter, F. [Vienna Technical Univ., Vienna (Austria)

    2002-07-01

    There is a significant need to develop clean coal combustion technology in China, given that the major energy source is coal, accounting for 75 per cent of primary energy. Circulating fluidized bed (CFB) combustion offers high combustion intensity with low pollutant emissions. It also has good combustion stability and excellent fuel flexibility. However, the high carbon content of the fly ash and the low boiler heat efficiency are two problems that must be addressed, particularly for middle and small sized CFB boilers. This study examined several reasons for high carbon content of fly ash in CFB boilers, including the distribution of particle size, the heating value of the coal and the fractional return of cold material to the combustion chamber. Operating conditions of the fly ash circulating combustion system were also examined. Proven effective measures to reduce carbon content were then suggested. 4 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs.

  7. Attenuated total reflectance fourier transform infrared analysis of fly ash geopolymer gel aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Catherine A; Provis, John L; Lukey, Grant C; van Deventer, Jannie S J

    2007-07-17

    Structural changes in fly ash geopolymers activated with different sodium hydroxide and silicate concentrations are investigated using attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy over a period of 200 days. A strong correlation is found between the concentration of silicate monomer in the activating solution and the position of the main Si-O-T stretching band in the FTIR spectrum, which gives an indication of the relative changes in the gel Si/Al ratio. The FTIR spectra of geopolymer samples with activating solution concentrations of up to 1.2 M SiO2 indicate that an Al-rich gel forms before the final gel composition is reached. The time required for the system to reach a steady gel composition depends on the silicate activating solution concentration and speciation. Geopolymers activated with solutions containing predominantly high-order silicate species rapidly reach a steady gel composition without first forming an Al-rich gel. A minimum silicate monomer concentration of approximately 0.6 M is required to shift the geopolymer synthesis mechanism from hydroxide activation to silicate activation. Silicate speciation in the activating solutions also affects zeolite formation and geopolymer microstructures, with a more homogeneous microstructure and less zeolite formation observed at a higher SiO2 content.

  8. The method of soft sensor modeling for fly ash carbon content based on ARMA deviation prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiu; Yang, Wei

    2017-03-01

    The carbon content of fly ash is an important parameter in the process of boiler combustion. Aiming at the existing problems of fly ash detection, the soft measurement model was established based on PSO-SVM, and the method of deviation correction based on ARMA model was put forward on this basis, the soft sensing model was calibrated by the values which were obtained by off-line analysis at intervals. The 600 MW supercritical sliding pressure boiler was taken for research objects, the auxiliary variables were selected and the data which collected by DCS were simulated. The result shows that the prediction model for the carbon content of fly ash based on PSO-SVM is good in effect of fitting, and introducing the correction module is helpful to improve the prediction accuracy.

  9. Effect of size of fly ash particle on enhancement of mullite content and glass formation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Parveen Sultana; Sukhen Das; Biswajoy Bagchi; Alakananda Bhattacharya; Ruma Basu; Papiya Nandy

    2011-12-01

    Quartz is widely replaced by fly ash in traditional porcelain composite. Increased strength and stability of the fly ash-mixed composite depends on the quantity and crystallinity of the mullite phase in the fly ash. Our aim in this investigation is to increase the formation of mullite in nanocrystalline form and study the effect of temperature. Quantitative estimation of mullite and residual quartz content were done by Xray diffraction (XRD) and nanostructure and crystallization were studied using differential thermal analysis (DTA), field effect scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), XRD and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The results show that fly ash sieved through 250 holes/cm2 mesh contain more mullite initially and growth of mullite as well as glass formation was faster in this sample compared to coarse fly ash. The maximum mullite in these samples was formed at 1600°C. Transformation of quartz and cristobalite phases into glassy phase was also faster for smaller particle sizes of fly ash.

  10. Results of radiometric ash-content measurements at the Dudar coal mine, Hungary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Csoti, T. (Veszpremi Szenbanyak Dudari Banyauezeme, Dudar (Hungary))

    1983-12-01

    The regression analysis of the results of calorimetric and radiometric ash-content measurements of 1239 coal samples have shown that the calorific values which cannot be measured easily with traditional means can be approximated reasonably from the more easily measured radiometric data. The introduction of the radiometric measurements can be recommended for coal deposits. 6 refs.

  11. Valorization of MSWI bottom ash for biogas desulfurization: Influence of biogas water content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontseré Obis, Marta; Germain, Patrick; Troesch, Olivier; Spillemaecker, Michel; Benbelkacem, Hassen

    2017-02-01

    In this study an alternative valorization of Municipal Solid Waste Incineration (MSWI) Bottom Ash (BA) for H2S elimination from landfill biogas was evaluated. Emphasis was given to the influence of water content in biogas on H2S removal efficiency by BA. A small-scale pilot was developed and implemented in a landfill site located in France. A new biogas analyzer was used and allowed real-time continuous measurement of CH4, CO2, O2, H2S and H2O in raw and treated biogas. The H2S removal efficiency of bottom ash was evaluated for different inlet biogas humidities: from 4 to 24gwater/m(3). The biogas water content was found to greatly affect bottom ash efficiency regarding H2S removal. With humid inlet biogas the H2S removal was almost 3 times higher than with a dry inlet biogas. Best removal capacity obtained was 56gH2S/kgdryBA. A humid inlet biogas allows to conserve the bottom ash moisture content for a maximum H2S retention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Influence of processing on total and extractable mineral content of products prepared from potato flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakra, Poonam; Sehgal, Salil

    2011-12-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum) flour developed was used for preparing doughnuts, sevian, cutlet, kofta and vadi along with defatted soy (Glycine max) flour and corn (Zea mays) flour. Frying and fermentation were the major processing techniques employed for the development of these products. Significant differences in protein, ash and fat contents of all the products were observed due to their compositional differences. Processing did not affect on total mineral content. Processing increased (p mineral availability. Processed products had lower amount of anti nutrients as compared to raw counterparts and thus, higher mineral availability.

  13. Effect of ash content on the combustion process of simulated MSW in the fixed bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Rui; Ismail, Tamer M; Ren, Xiaohan; Abd El-Salam, M

    2016-02-01

    This paper experimentally and numerically investigates the effects of ash content on the combustion process of simulated Municipal Solid Waste (MSW). A fixed-bed experimental reactor was utilized to reveal the combustion characteristics. Temperature distributions, ignition front velocity, and the characteristics of gas species' release were measured and simulated during the combustion process. In the present work, the two-dimensional unsteady mathematical heterogeneous model was developed to simulate the combustion process in the bed, including the process rate model as well as NOx production model. The simulation results in the bed are accordant with the experimental results. The results show that as ash content increases, the lower burning rate of fuel results in char particles leaving the grate without being fully burned, causing a loss of combustible material in the MSW in a fixed bed and therefore reducing the combustion efficiency and increasing the burning time of the MSW. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. [Caloric value and ash content of dominant plants in plantation communities in Heshan of Guangdong, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiao-ping; Cai, Xi-an; Zhao, Ping; Rao, Xing-quan

    2009-03-01

    Different parts of twenty dominant plant species in five plantation communities on the subtropical hilly lands in Heshan of Gunagdong as well as the litters from three of the five plantation communities were sampled, and their gross caloric value (GCV) and ash content were measured by using a PARR-1281 oxygen bomb calorimeter and a muffle furnace. Based on the measurements, the ash-free caloric value (AFCV) of the samples was calculated, and the characteristics of caloric value and ash content of the samples, according to plant part, individual, and plant growth form, were analyzed. The results showed that the GCV and AFCV of leaf, branch, stem wood, stem bark, and root were in the range of 10.7-22.17 kJ x g(-1) and 13.89-23.04 kJ x g(-1), respectively. The GCV and AFCV of leaf were significantly higher than those of other parts (P shrub layer (19.46 kJ x g(-1) > herb layer (18.77 kJ x g(-1)), with indigenous coniferous tree (19.86 kJ x g(-1)) > indigenous broad-leaved tree (19.55 kJ x g(-1)) > exotic eucalyptus (19.18 kJ x g(-1)), while the mean ash content was just the opposite. In Acacia mangium, coniferous, and Schima plantation communities, the GCV and AFCV of litters were higher than those of various plant parts (P mangium and coniferous plantations had higher mean GCV and AFCV than the litters and fresh leaves of tree layer, while the fresh leaves of tree layer in Schima plantation showed higher mean GCV and AFCV.

  15. Physical pretreatments of wastewater algae to reduce ash content and improve thermal decomposition characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wan-Ting; Ma, Junchao; Zhang, Yuanhui; Gai, Chao; Qian, Wanyi

    2014-10-01

    Previous study showed high ash content in wastewater algae (WA) has a negative effect on bio-crude oil formation in hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL). This study explored the effect of different pretreatments on ash reduction and the thermal decomposition of WA. Single-stage (e.g. centrifugation) and two-stage pretreatments (e.g. centrifugation followed by ultrasonication, C+U) were used. The apparent activation energy of the thermal decomposition (E(a)) of pretreated algae was determined. HTL was conducted to study how different pretreatments may impact on bio-crude oil formation. Compared to untreated samples, the ash content of algae with centrifugation was reduced from 28.6% to 18.6%. With C+U pretreatments, E(a) was decreased from 50.2 kJ/mol to 35.9 kJ/mol and the bio-crude oil yield was increased from 30% to 55%. These results demonstrate that pretreatments of C+U can improve the thermal decomposition behavior of WA and enhance the bio-crude oil conversion efficiency. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The Effects of Design Strength, Fly Ash Content and Curing Method on Compressive Strength of High Volume Fly Ash Concrete: A Design of Experimental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solikin Mochamad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available High volume fly ash concrete becomes one of alternatives to produce green concrete as it uses waste material and significantly reduces the utilization of Portland cement in concrete production. Although using less cement, its compressive strength is comparable to ordinary Portland cement (hereafter OPC and the its durability increases significantly. This paper reports investigation on the effect of design strength, fly ash content and curing method on compressive strength of High Volume Fly Ash Concrete. The experiment and data analysis were prepared using minitab, a statistic software for design of experimental. The specimens were concrete cylinder with diameter of 15 cm and height of 30 cm, tested for its compressive strength at 56 days. The result of the research demonstrates that high volume fly ash concrete can produce comparable compressive strength which meets the strength of OPC design strength especially for high strength concrete. In addition, the best mix proportion to achieve the design strength is the combination of high strength concrete and 50% content of fly ash. Moreover, the use of spraying method for curing method of concrete on site is still recommended as it would not significantly reduce the compressive strength result.

  17. INVESTIGATION OF FLY ASH HEAVY METALS CONTENT AND PHYSICO CHEMICAL PROPERTIES FROM THERMAL POWER PLANT, REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TENA SIJAKOVA-IVANOVA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The main intention of this research was to determinate the contents of heavy metals and physico chemical properties of coal fly ash and to find out if it is possible to reuse it in embankments, soil stabilization, flow able fill, asphalt, geopolymers and so on.The chemical properties included in this study were: pH, Electrical conductivity, Organic carbon, and Cation exchange capacity. A physical property such as specific gravity was determined.Four samples of coal fly ash were analysed for the presence of As, Cr, Mn, Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni and Co. We made comparison between concentration of heavy metals in coal fly ash in Macedonia and concentration of these metals in coal fly ash from Spain, Greece, India, Philippines and the UK, given in literatures. The concentrationof As in the fly ash from thermal power plant MEC - Bitola in Macedonia is lower than the contents of this element in the fly ash in thermal power plants from the Philippines and the UK. The contents of other heavy metals is in the range same as theirs. Cation exchange capacity (CEC and ammonium exchange capacity (AEC values for fly ash from investigation thermal power plant are in the range of 0.19-0.28 meq/ g for CECs and 0.17-0.33 meq/g for AECs. Ec 0.13-0.15mmhos/cm, Organic carbon 3.17-3.85 and specific gravity 2.04-2.37g/cm3. Every year in Macedonia 900 000 – 1 100 000 t of coal fly ash are produced. Only 10% of coal fly ash is used in cement products which are far below the global utilization rate (25%. We hope that the results of this study will be the basis for further research aimed at increasing the percentage of utilization of coal ash.

  18. The relationship between mineral contents, particle matter and bottom ash distribution during pellet combustion: molar balance and chemometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeguirim, Mejdi; Kraiem, Nesrine; Lajili, Marzouk; Guizani, Chamseddine; Zorpas, Antonis; Leva, Yann; Michelin, Laure; Josien, Ludovic; Limousy, Lionel

    2017-03-21

    This paper aims to identify the correlation between the mineral contents in agropellets and particle matter and bottom ash characteristics during combustion in domestic boilers. Four agrifood residues with higher mineral contents, namely grape marc (GM), tomato waste (TW), exhausted olive mill solid waste (EOMSW) and olive mill wastewater (OMWW), were selected. Then, seven different pellets were produced from pure residues or their mixture and blending with sawdust. The physico-chemical properties of the produced pellets were analysed using different analytical techniques, and a particular attention was paid to their mineral contents. Combustion tests were performed in 12-kW domestic boiler. The particle matter (PM) emission was characterised through the particle number and mass quantification for different particle size. The bottom ash composition and size distribution were also characterised. Molar balance and chemometric analyses were performed to identify the correlation between the mineral contents and PM and bottom ash characteristics. The performed analyses indicate that K, Na, S and Cl are released partially or completely during combustion tests. In contrast, Ca, Mg, Si, P, Al, Fe and Mn are retained in the bottom ash. The chemometric analyses indicate that, in addition to the operating conditions and the pellet ash contents, K and Si concentrations have a significant effect on the PM emissions as well as on the agglomeration of bottom ash.

  19. Belite cement clinker from coal fly ash of high Ca content. Optimization of synthesis parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Guerrero; S. Goni; I. Campillo; A. Moragues [Instituto de Ciencias de la Construccion ' Eduardo Torroja' (CSIC), Madrid (Spain)

    2004-06-01

    The optimization of parameters of synthesis of belite cement clinker from Spanish coal fly ash of high Ca content is presented in this paper. The investigations were prompted by a need to reduce the CO{sub 2} emissions produced by the cement industry. Belite Ca{sub 2}SiO{sub 4} synthesis produces less CO{sub 2} than alite, the main component of Portland cement clinker. The synthesis process is based on the hydrothermal-calcination-route of the fly ash without extra additions. The hydrothermal treatment was carried out in demineralized water and a 1 M NaOH solution for 4 h at the temperatures of 100, 150, and 200{sup o} C. The precursors obtained during the hydrothermal treatment were heated at temperatures of 700, 800, 900, and 1000{sup o}C. The changes of fly ash composition after the different treatments were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), FT infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, surface area (BET-N{sub 2}), and thermal analyses. From the results obtained it was concluded that the optimum temperature of the hydrothermal treatment was 200{sup o}C, and the optimum temperature for obtaining the belite cement clinker was 800{sup o}C. 12 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. CHANGES IN THE CONTENTS OF SELECTED HEAVY METALS IN TEST PLANTS FERTILISED WITH SEWAGE SLUDGE AND HARD COAL ASH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Godlewska

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed at determining changes in the contents of selected metals in the biomass of test plants due to fertilisation with fresh and composted sewage sludge, hard coal ash, and sludge-ash mixture, as well as liming at a background of mineral nutrition. The experimental design was a completely randomised arrangement with three replicates. The following factors were examined: fertilisation with organic and mineral materials (fresh sewage sludge; composted sewage sludge; hard coal ash; calcium carbonate and mineral fertilisation (no fertilisation; NPK fertilisation. An application of sewage sludge, hard coal ash, and sludge-ash mixture significantly increased maize content of barium. Addition of hard coal ash into sewage sludge contributed to an increase in lead content determined in cocksfoot biomass harvested from the first and second cut, and barium in maize biomass. Soil liming significantly affected barium content the biomass of plants harvested from the first and second cut, as well as in maize biomass. NPK nutrition significantly increased barium concentrations in the biomass of test plants and maize.

  1. Total Suspended Solid Content in Raha Waters, Northeast of Celebes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Measurement on Total Suspended Solid (TSS in Raha waters were carried out in May 2001. The results showed that the content of total suspended solid varied between 74,8 – 78,9 ppm with averages content is 76,5 ppm. This content is still suited to the threshold value stated by government decree in 1988 for fishery and sea conservation park, but not suitable for recreation (swimming, diving activity.

  2. Total N, total P and organic matters content in floodplain soils of Xianghai Nature Reserve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Soil sediment samples of 10 layers with a spacing of 10 cm each were collected in different floodplain zones adjacent to Huolin River in the Xianghai Nature Reserve, and contents of total N, total P and organic matters were analyzed. The results showed that contents of total N, total P and organic matters were generally decreasing with the increase of distance from sample locations to the river channel, and contents of the three items were generally higher in the upper soil layer than that in the lower soil layer. The content variations displayed how flooding functions influenced nutrient matter content variations in floodplain soils since the flood inundation frequencies of the sample locations varied. The correlation analysis displayed that there were remarkable relativities between total N, total P and organic matters within definite spatial distance from the Huolin River channel.

  3. Total phenols, flavonoids, anthocyanins, ascorbic acid contents and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mmpa

    2014-03-05

    Mar 5, 2014 ... properties of the methanol extracts of R. kurdica Boiss for flowers and .... Total phenolic contents of the extract and the oil were determined using the .... Antioxidants and antiradicals in almond hull and shell. (Amygdalus ...

  4. [Relativity among starch quantity, polysaccharides content and total alkaloid content of Dendrobium loddigesii].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hua; Teng, Jianbei; Cai, Yi; Liang, Jie; Zhu, Yilin; Wei, Tao

    2011-12-01

    To find out the relativity among starch quantity, polysaccharides content and total alkaloid content of Dendrobium loddigesii. Microscopy-counting process was applied to starch quantity statistics, sulfuric acid-anthrone colorimetry was used to assay polysaccharides content and bromocresol green colorimetry was used to assay alkaloid content. Pearson product moment correlation analysis, Kendall's rank correlation analysis and Spearman's concordance coefficient analysis were applied to study their relativity. Extremely significant positive correlation was found between starch quantity and polysaccharides content, and significant negative correlation between alkaloid content and starch quantity was discovered, as well was between alkaloid content and polysaccharides content.

  5. Nutritional advantages of sous-vide cooking compared to boiling on cereals and legumes: Determination of ashes and metals content in ready-to-eat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondanelli, Mariangela; Daglia, Maria; Meneghini, Silvia; Di Lorenzo, Arianna; Peroni, Gabriella; Faliva, Milena Anna; Perna, Simone

    2017-05-01

    In order to guarantee the highest quality of ready-to-eat cereals and legumes, two different cooking methods have been applied: traditional cooking and sous-vide. Ashes and metals content (magnesium, potassium, iron, zinc, and copper) has been determined and compared in 50 samples of red lentils, peas, Borlotti beans, pearl barley, and cereals soup. All the samples cooked with sous-vide showed a significant increase in the content of minerals with the exception of potassium in cereal soup, iron in Borlotti beans, and magnesium in pearl barley. Ash content increased in legumes and in cereal soup cooked with sous-vide method. The higher different ashes concentration between total samples cooked with traditional cooking and with sous-vide was registered in zinc (+862 mg), iron (+314 mg), potassium (+109 mg), and copper (+95 mg). Sous-vide is preferred as it provides products with a higher concentration of metals compared to the ones cooked with traditional cooking.

  6. Total and soluble oxalate content of some Indian spices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh Das, Sumana; Savage, G P

    2012-06-01

    Spices, such as cinnamon, cloves, cardamom, garlic, ginger, cumin, coriander and turmeric are used all over the world as flavouring and colouring ingredients in Indian foods. Previous studies have shown that spices contain variable amounts of total oxalates but there are few reports of soluble oxalate contents. In this study, the total, soluble and insoluble oxalate contents of ten different spices commonly used in Indian cuisine were measured. Total oxalate content ranged from 194 (nutmeg) to 4,014 (green cardamom) mg/100 g DM, while the soluble oxalate contents ranged from 41 (nutmeg) to 3,977 (green cardamom) mg/100 g DM. Overall, the percentage of soluble oxalate content of the spices ranged from 4.7 to 99.1% of the total oxalate content which suggests that some spices present no risk to people liable to kidney stone formation, while other spices can supply significant amounts of soluble oxalates and therefore should be used in moderation.

  7. Prewashing enhances the liquid hot water pretreatment efficiency of waste wheat straw with high free ash content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chen; Wu, Xinxing; Huang, Yang; Lai, Chenhuan; Li, Xin; Yong, Qiang

    2016-11-01

    The effect of prewashing process prior to the liquid hot water (LHW) pretreatment of high free ash content waste wheat straw (WWS) was investigated. It was found that prewashing process decreased the ash content of WWS greatly, from 29.48% to 9.82%. This contributed to the lower pH value of prehydrolyzate and higher xylan removal in the following LHW pretreatment. More importantly, the prewashing process effectively increased the cellulose enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency of pretreated WWS, from 53.04% to 84.15%. The acid buffering capacity (ABC) and cation exchange capacity (CEC) of raw and prewashed WWS were examined. The majority of free ash removal from WWS by prewashing resulted in the decrease of the ABC of the WWS from 211.74 to 61.81mmol/pH-kg, and potentially enhancing the efficiency of the follow-up LHW pretreatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The evaluation of geopolymer properties prepared by alkali activation of black coal ashes with high content of loss on ignition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michalíková Františka

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of fly ashes in Slovakia is lower than in other countries and dumping of fly ashes prevails. The dumping changeschemical and phase composition of fly ashes and so it decreases possibilities for their utilization. Fly ashes are mainly used in buildingindustry, where the content of loss on ignition (LOI is limited due to standards. Black coal fly ashes produced in Slovakia have a highcontent of loss on ignition – more than 20 % - so they straight utilization in building industry is not possible. The current possibility fortheir utilization is in geopolymer synthesis. Products with 28-day compression strength of 35.7 MPa and 180-day compression strengthof 55.0 MPa were obtained by alkali activation of fly ashes with 23.25 % LOI with 8 wt% Na2O and their next hardening in temperatureof 80 °C during 6 hours. Products have a great frost-resistance and aggressive environments resistance (NaCl a H2SO4 solutions.

  9. total contents of phenolics, flavonoids, tannins and antioxidant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and korefe (a malt beverage like beer) are made from a mixture of enkuro (a dark brown toasted ... reactions [10, 11], which are important sources of active oxygen radicals. .... Spectrophotometric measurements were performed on a UV-Vis spectrophotometer ( .... Both spirits and areke have low content of total phenolics.

  10. Total mercury content in fish und molluscs from Adriatic sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vedrina-Dragojevic, I. [Zagreb Univ. (Croatia). Dept. of Food Chemistry; Dragojevic, D. [Water Quality Dept., Waterworks, Zagreb (Croatia); Bujan, M. [Zagreb Univ. (Croatia). Dept. of Chemistry

    2002-07-01

    In regard to a long known and still persisting problem of the ecosystem loaded with mercury, total mercury contents in different species of fish and molluscs in the Adriatic Sea have been followed in an interval of 12 years. Total mercury concentrations were determined by cold vapour atomic adsorption spectrometry (CVAAS) at 253. 7 nm after digestion of the edible of fish tissues. The results of analysis reveal positive shifts and unlike the samples in a previous study all the investigated samples meet the conditions of the Public Health Regulations on the quantity of pesticides, mycotoxins, metals, histamine and similar substances that may occur in foodstuff and on other conditions as to the standards of foodstuff and objects of general use, which fixed the total Hg content at maximum of 0.5 mg/kg on the basis of fresh mass. (orig.)

  11. Application of Bokashi Botom Ash for Increasing Upland Rice Yield and Decreasing Grain Pb Content in Vitric Hapludans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunung Sondari

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouse experiment was conducted at Agricultural Faculty of Winaya Mukti University Tanjungsari SumedangRegency, from May to October 2009. The objective of this experiment was to study the effect of bokashi bottom ashon the growth, yield, and Pb content of upland rice. The experiment used a Randomized completely Block Design(RBD which consisted of five treatments and five replications. The treatments were level of bokashi bottom ash i.e.0, 5, 10, 15, and 20 Mg ha-1. The results showed that the application of bokashi bottom ash increased the growth andyield of upland rice of Situbagendit variety except plant height at age of 21 days after seedling (DAS. Application15 Mg ha -1 of bokashi bottom ash gave the best effect to the plant height, number of leaves, number of tillers andshoot/root ratio, while applications of 10, 15 and 20 Mg ha -1 increased number of productive tillers, amount of filledgrains, and weight of grains. Bokashi bottom ash did not affect the heavy metal content of upland rice grain ofSitubagendit variety.

  12. Influence of Bottom Ash Replacements as Fine Aggregate on the Property of Cellular Concrete with Various Foam Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patchara Onprom

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This research focuses on evaluating the feasibility of utilizing bottom ash from coal burning power plants as a fine aggregate in cellular concrete with various foam contents. Flows of all mixtures were controlled within 45 ± 5% and used foam content at 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, and 70% by volume of mixture. Bottom ash from Mae Moh power plant in Thailand was used to replace river sand at the rates of 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% by volume of sand. Compressive strength, water absorption, and density of cellular concretes were determined at the ages of 7, 14, and 28 days. Nonlinear regression technique was developed to construct the mathematical models for predicting the compressive strength, water absorption, and density of cellular concrete. The results revealed that the density of cellular concrete decreased while the water absorption increased with an increase in replacement level of bottom ash. From the experimental results, it can be concluded that bottom ash can be used as fine aggregate in the cellular concrete. In addition, the nonlinear regression models give very high degree of accuracy (R2>0.99.

  13. Slant total electron content for Sirio-Mortelliccio ray path

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Spalla

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The Total Electron Content (TEC is used to indicate the ionisation of the ionosphere. TEC is a quantity that concern for predicting space weather effects on telecommunications, improving the accuracy of satellite navigation, fly control vehicles and other systems that use transionospheric signals, because the ionospheric layer affects the mentioned signals. In this work the Slant Total Electron Content (STEC was calculated with a technique that uses so-called «auxiliaries stations model», and a Chapman layer with scale height equal to atomic oxygen scale height (CHO. The validity was checked with STEC measurements obtained from geosynchronous satellite signals, for SIRIO-Mortelliccio link considering solstices and equinox, in high solar activity period. In general, the deviations between predictions and measurements were lower than 30% for 16 h per day (average. The results suggest that additional studies for other links and solar activity are required in order to improve the model predictions.

  14. Effect of extraction solvent on total phenol content, total flavonoid content, and antioxidant activity of Limnophila aromatica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quy Diem Do

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Limnophila aromatica is commonly used as a spice and a medicinal herb in Southeast Asia. In this study, water and various concentrations (50%, 75%, and 100% of methanol, ethanol, and acetone in water were used as solvent in the extraction of L. aromatica. The antioxidant activity, total phenolic content, and total flavonoid content of the freeze-dried L. aromatica extracts were investigated using various in vitro assays. The extract obtained by 100% ethanol showed the highest total antioxidant activity, reducing power and DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity. The same extract also exhibited the highest phenolic content (40.5 mg gallic acid equivalent/g of defatted L. aromatica and the highest flavonoid content (31.11 mg quercetin equivalent/g of defatted L. aromatica. The highest extraction yield was obtained by using 50% aqueous acetone. These results indicate that L. aromatica can be used in dietary applications with a potential to reduce oxidative stress.

  15. Total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of polish apple ciders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Kowalczyk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of three apple ciders produced in Poland were examined. The total phenolic content was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteau method and results were expressed in gallic acid equivalents with range from 0.21±0.003 to 0.30±0.004 mg/ml and Trolox equivalents ranging 0.88±0.012 to 1.24±0.015 mg/ml. The antioxidant activity was estimated by two methods: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay with results expressed as EC50(ml/assay and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid method with results expressed as Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity. The antioxidant properties of tested ciders were correlated with total phenolic content. Additionally, the correlation between 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging methods was estimated.

  16. Total Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Capacity of Polish Apple Ciders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczyk, A; Ruszkiewicz, M; Biskup, I

    2015-01-01

    The total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of three apple ciders produced in Poland were examined. The total phenolic content was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteau method and results were expressed in gallic acid equivalents with range from 0.21±0.003 to 0.30±0.004 mg/ml and Trolox equivalents ranging 0.88±0.012 to 1.24±0.015 mg/ml. The antioxidant activity was estimated by two methods: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay with results expressed as EC50(ml/assay) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid method with results expressed as Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity. The antioxidant properties of tested ciders were correlated with total phenolic content. Additionally, the correlation between 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging methods was estimated.

  17. Total and soluble fluoride content in commercial dentifrices in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrera, Carola A; Giacaman, Rodrigo A; Muñoz-Sandoval, Cecilia; Cury, Jaime A

    2012-12-01

    Regardless of the total amount of fluoride (F) in a dentifrice, only the soluble fraction presents anti-caries activity and its concentration must be above 1000 ppm. No information regarding the quality of F in Chilean toothpastes is available. The aim of this study, therefore, was to determine the F concentration present in commercially-available toothpastes in Chile. Eighteen toothpastes of five different brands were tested, each purchased from three different chain drugstores in Chile. For each toothpaste, total, total soluble and ionic F concentrations were assessed and expressed as ppm of F (μg F/g). Among the dentifrices evaluated, 77.8% contained NaF (sodium fluoride), 16.7% MFP (monofluorphosphate) and 5.6% both types of F salts; 77.2% of the dentifrices showed similar total F content to that declared by the manufacturer in the labeling with only five with lower concentration than expected, beyond a 5% disagreement tolerance range. Total soluble F ranged from 958.8-1496.3 ppm (mean ± SD: 1270.5 ± 183.7). Five toothpastes showed lower total soluble F than total F. Only one toothpaste showed soluble salt levels below the recommended dose for this type of dentifrice. Most Chilean dentifrices evaluated contained soluble F within the range of 1000-1500 ppm and, therefore, may have anti-caries activity.

  18. Proximate composition, total phenolic content, and antioxidant activity of seagrape (Caulerpa lentillifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Van Tang; Ueng, Jinn-Pyng; Tsai, Guo-Jane

    2011-09-01

    The proximate composition of seagrape (Caulerpa lentillifera) from culture ponds in Penghu, Taiwan was analyzed. The phenolic content and the antioxidant activities including the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazil (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, ferric ion-reducing activity, hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity, and ferrous ion chelating (FIC) activity of the ethanolic extracts of dry seagrape samples using 2 drying methods of freeze drying and thermal drying were compared with the ethanolic extract of Oolong tea as a reference. The contents (dry weight basis) of carbohydrate, crude protein, crude lipid, crude fiber, and ash of seagrape obtained from culture ponds in Taiwan were 64.00%, 9.26%, 1.57%, 2.97%, and 22.20%, respectively. The total phenolic content (1.30 mg gallic acid equivalent [GAE]/g dry weight) of the ethanolic extract of thermally dried seagrape was significantly lower (P Caulerpa lentillifera) in Taiwan were determined in this research to indicate nutritionally of this edible seaweed to human health, and compared these results to previous studies. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  19. Effect of coal quality on maintenance costs at utility plants. Final report. [Effect of ash and sulfur content of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holt, E.C. Jr.

    1980-06-01

    In an attempt to determine if correlation exists between coal quality, as measured by its ash and sulfur contents, and the maintenance cost at utility plants, an examination was made of the actual maintenance cost experience of selected portions of five TVA coal-fired power plants as a function of the fuel quality consumed during an extended period of time. The results indicate that, according to our decision rules developed in compliance with accepted statistical practices, correlation does exist in many portions of the coal-fired plants for which sufficient maintenance cost records were available. The degree of correlation varies significantly among the individual portions of a particular plant as well as among the various plants. However, the indicators are sufficient to confirm that a change (within the design constraints of the unit) in the ash and/or sulfur content of the coal being consumed by a utility boiler will have a proportionate effect on the maintenance cost at the plant. In the cases examined, each percent variation in ash content could have a monetary effect of from $0.05 to $0.10 per ton of coal consumed. Similarly, each percent variation in sulfur content could influence maintenance costs from $0.30 to $0.50 per ton of coal. Since these values are based on preliminary analysis of limited data, they must be approached with caution and not removed from the context in which they are presented. However, if borne out by further study, the potential magnitude of such savings may be sufficient to justify the acquisition of superior coal supplies, either by changing the source and/or using preparation to obtain a lower ash and sulfur fuel.

  20. ORAChromatography and total phenolics content of peanut root extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Kevin W; Balota, Maria; Eigel, William N; Mallikarjunan, Parameswarakumar; Tanko, James M; Zhou, Kequan; O'Keefe, Sean F

    2011-04-01

    A large number of compounds have been reported in peanut plants. Many of these compounds are phytoalexins, which are produced by plants experiencing environmental stress and often exhibit antioxidant activity. It is difficult to determine which of the many compounds has the greatest impact on total antioxidant capacity in a mixture. The objectives of this research were to examine the oxygen-radical absorbing capacity (ORAC) value and total phenolic contents of peanut root extracts and peanut root extract fractions collected via HPLC. Peanut roots were extracted from four different cultivars (Brantley, NC-12, Phillips, and Wilson) with 70% aqueous ethanol with ultrasonic assistance. Each cultivar was sampled in duplicate. The extracts were fractionated into 18 3-min fractions by HPLC using a C-18 column. Fractions and crude extracts were freeze dried. ORAC values and total phenolic content were then determined for all fractions and crude extracts. Fractions had a significant effect on the μM TE/mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE). ORAC values ranged from -46.89 μM TE to 185 μM TE in HPLC fractions. ORAChromatography can be used to focus on antioxidants in complex samples.

  1. The Effect of Variation of Molarity of Alkali Activator and Fine Aggregate Content on the Compressive Strength of the Fly Ash: Palm Oil Fuel Ash Based Geopolymer Mortar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iftekhair Ibnul Bashar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of molarity of alkali activator, manufactured sand (M-sand, and quarry dust (QD on the compressive strength of palm oil fuel ash (POFA and fly ash (FA based geopolymer mortar was investigated and reported. The variable investigated includes the quantities of replacement levels of M-sand, QD, and conventional mining sand (N-sand in two concentrated alkaline solutions; the contents of alkaline solution, water, POFA/FA ratio, and curing condition remained constant. The results show that an average of 76% of the 28-day compressive strength was found at the age of 3 days. The rate of strength development from 3 to 7 days was found between 12 and 16% and it was found much less beyond this period. The addition of 100% M-sand and QD shows insignificant strength reduction compared to mixtures with 100% N-sand. The particle angularity and texture of fine aggregates played a significant role in the strength development due to the filling and packing ability. The rough texture and surface of QD enables stronger bond between the paste and the fine aggregate. The concentration of alkaline solution increased the reaction rate and thus enhanced the development of early age strength. The use of M-sand and QD in the development of geopolymer concrete is recommended as the strength variation between these waste materials and conventional sand is not high.

  2. Total body and regional bone mineral content in hemodialysis patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagiwara, Satoshi; Aratani, Hideyui; Miki, Takami; Nishizawa, Yoshiki; Okamura, Terue; Koizumi, Yoshiko; Ochi, Hironobu; Morii, Hirotoshi (Osaka City Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1994-02-01

    Bone mineral content (BMC) in the total body and lumbar spine was evaluated in 126 hemodialysis patients (60 males, 66 females) by dual photon absorptiometry with the Norland DBD 2600. Measurements of: (1) total body BMC divided by lean body mass (BMC[sub TB]/LBM), (2) bone mineral density (BMD) of total body, (3) BMD of four regional sections (head, trunk, pelvis, and legs), and (4) BMD of lumbar spine, generally showed a significant decrease in the hemodialysis patients compared to the reference population. However, arm BMD did not show a significant difference between patients and control populations. The z-score of BMC[sub TB]/LBM declined significantly throughout the duration of hemodialysis, although that of the lumbar spine BMD did not. It should be noted that the degree of decrease in BMC was more prominent in the total body measurement than in the lumbar spine measurement. There was preferential osteopenia of the total body in the hemodialysis patients. Although the lumbar spine BMD showed a lower value than the control population, the lumbar spine is not the recommended region to monitor the BMD change in hemodialysis patients. (author).

  3. Antioxidant activity, total phenolic and total flavonoid contents of whole plant extracts Torilis leptophylla L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Naima

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to screen various solvent extracts of whole plant of Torilis leptophylla to display potent antioxidant activity in vitro and in vivo, total phenolic and flavonoid contents in order to find possible sources for future novel antioxidants in food and pharmaceutical formulations. Material and methods A detailed study was performed on the antioxidant activity of the methanol extract of whole plant of Torilis leptophylla (TLM and its derived fractions {n-hexane (TLH, chloroform (TLC ethyl acetate (TLE n-butanol (TLB and residual aqueous fraction (TLA} by in vitro chemical analyses and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 induced hepatic injuries (lipid peroxidation and glutathione contents in male Sprague-Dawley rat. The total yield, total phenolic (TPC and total flavonoid contents (TFC of all the fractions were also determined. TLM was also subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening test for various constituents. Results The total phenolic contents (TPC (121.9±3.1 mg GAE/g extract of TLM while total flavonoid contents (TFC of TLE (60.9 ±2.2 mg RTE/g extract were found significantly higher as compared to other solvent fractions. Phytochemical screening of TLM revealed the presence of alkaloids, anthraquinones, cardiac glycosides, coumarins, flavonoids, saponins, phlobatannins, tannins and terpenoids. The EC50 values based on the DPPH (41.0±1 μg/ml, ABTS (10.0±0.9 μg/ml and phosphomolybdate (10.7±2 μg/ml for TLB, hydroxyl radicals (8.0±1 μg/ml for TLC, superoxide radicals (57.0±0.3 μg/ml for TLM and hydrogen peroxide radicals (68.0±2 μg/ml for TLE were generally lower showing potential antioxidant properties. A significant but marginal positive correlation was found between TPC and EC50 values for DPPH, hydroxyl, phosphomolybdate and ABTS, whereas another weak and positive correlation was determined between TFC and EC50 values for superoxide anion and hydroxyl radicals. Results of in vivo

  4. The Ash Content of the Main Muscle Groups and Edible Offal Collected From Hares (Lepus europaeus Pallas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Tărnăuceanu Frunză

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The availability of hares (Lepus europaeus Pallas, unlike that of domestic rabbits, is restricted by hunting seasons. Rabbit meat, according to research from Spain, is a rich source of K, P, Fe and Mg, but poor in Na, being recommended for people with hypertension. The largest quantity of macro minerals studied in rabbit meat was determined for K and P, and the most abundant micro minerals were Zn, Fe, Cu and Mn. In hare meat, ash content is not sufficiently studied. The current low level of knowledge motivated the present study. The aim of this study was to establish the ash content for major muscle groups and edible offal of hares. The biological material used was collected from 49 hares with an average weight of 5.6 kg, at the age of reproductive maturity (adults: 11-12 months. Different muscle groups (the muscles Cervicalis, Intercostalis, Longissimus Dorsi, Psoas major, Triceps Brachi, Biceps femoris, Semimembranosus and the main edible offal (heart, liver, kidney were sampled. The ash was determined by calcination (in Supertherm C311 oven calcination at 5500C. The results obtained were interpreted statistically (arithmetic mean (X, standard deviation (s, variance (s2 and coefficient of variation (V% and the statistical significance of differences was tested using the ANOVA Single Factor algorithm (p>0.05; p<0.01; p<0.001. Ash content for the main muscle groups analysed varied from the lowest average values of 1.095% for the Intercostalis muscles, to the highest average values of 1.256%, for Triceps brachii muscles.

  5. COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT OF TOTAL PHENOLIC CONTENT IN SELECTED MEDICINAL PLANTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C E; Oladeinde, F O; Kinyua, A M; Michelin, R; Makinde, J M; Jaiyesimi, A A; Mbiti, W N; Kamau, G N; Kofi-Tsekpo, W M; Pramanik, S; Williams, A; Kennedy, A; Bronner, Y; Clarke, K; Fofonoff, P; Nemerson, D

    2008-01-01

    This study was to compare the total phenolic (TP) content in extracts from eleven plant materials collected at different geographical locations in Kenya, Nigeria, and USA. These plants have been selected because the majority of them are highly pigmented, from yellow to purple, and would therefore have economic value in industries for producing antioxidants and surfactants. Two of them were collected from the industrial and domestic waste outlets. Each analysis was achieved using the Folin-Ciocalteau technique. The order of decreasing phenolic acid content as gallic acid concentration (mg/g dry weight) was Prunus africana (55.14) > Acacia tortilis (42.11) > Khaya grandifoliola (17.54) > Curcuma longa (17.23) > Vernonia amygdalina (14.9)> Russelia equisetiformis (14.03) > Calendula officinalis (7.96) >Phragmites australis (control) (7.09) > Rauwolfia vomitoria (6.69) > Phragmites australis (industrial) (6.21) > Cnidoscolus aconitifolius (5.6). The TP contents of Spartina alterniflora species were below the detection limit.

  6. Total uncertainty budget calculation for the determination of mercury in incineration ash (BCR 176R) by atomic fluorescence spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirez, Kristof; Beutels, Filip; Brusten, Wilfried; Noten, Bart; De Brucker, Nicole

    2002-11-01

    The mercury mass fraction has been determined by atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS) in the framework of the project "Certification of a reference material (trace elements in fly ash) in replacement of BCR CRM 176". Calculation of the uncertainty budget, as described in this manuscript, emphasizes a practical and realistic approach to estimation of uncertainty components on the basis of statistical assumptions. GUM Workbench software was used, and resulted in a mercury mass fraction of 1.58+/-0.11 mg kg(-1) (with coverage factor k=2.2, 95% probability) related to dry mass, submitted in the certification exercise. The calculated total uncertainty budget applies to analogous samples analyzed by this procedure.

  7. Estimation of the ash and sulphur contents of coal using kriging method; Kriging yontemi ile komur kul ve kukurt iceriklerinin tahmini

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yalcin, E.; Saydam, S.; Kose, H.

    1996-12-31

    Prediction of ash and sulphur content of coal used in coal fired power plants is important for the precautions to be taken to prevent environmental pollution. In this study, the ash and sulphur content of coal from the Collolar Coal Area were estimated using the Kriging method at different block dimensions. The effect of block dimensions on the estimations was determined. 6 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Ash agglomeration during fluidized bed gasification of high sulphur content lignites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marinov, V.; Marinov, S.P.; Lazarov, L.; Stefanova, M. (SRTI Energydesign, Sofia (Bulgaria))

    1992-09-01

    Intensive ash agglomeration has hampered the fluidized bed gasification of lignites from the Elhovo deposit (Bulgaria) containing 5.9 wt% sulphur in the dry state. Samples of slag and agglomerates from the pilot plant have been examined by means of chemical, X-ray analysis, IR spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Pyrrhotite (FeS) and wustite (FeO) have been established in the agglomerates, where junctions between ash particles have been found to consist of magnetite, spinel and garnet grains. The chemical reactions leading to garnet formation have been studied. Centres of sintering and centres of melting during the ash agglomeration process have been distinguished. The pyrite product, an eutectic of FeS and FeO melting at 924[degree]C, is assumed to be responsible for the cessation of lignite gasification with steam and air under pressure at a bed temperature of 930[degree]. 11 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  9. Total Hydrocarbon Content (THC) Testing in Liquid Oxygen (LOX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneghelli, B. J.; Obregon, R. E.; Ross, H. R.; Hebert, B. J.; Sass, J. P.; Dirschka, G. E.

    2016-01-01

    The measured Total Hydrocarbon Content (THC) levels in liquid oxygen (LOX) systems at Stennis Space Center (SSC) have shown wide variations. Examples of these variations include the following: 1) differences between vendor-supplied THC values and those obtained using standard SSC analysis procedures; and 2) increasing THC values over time at an active SSC test stand in both storage and run vessels. A detailed analysis of LOX sampling techniques, analytical instrumentation, and sampling procedures will be presented. Additional data obtained on LOX system operations and LOX delivery trailer THC values during the past 12-24 months will also be discussed. Field test results showing THC levels and the distribution of the THC's in the test stand run tank, modified for THC analysis via dip tubes, will be presented.

  10. Total antioxidant capacity, total phenolic content and mineral elements in the fruit peel of Myrciaria cauliflora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clináscia Rodrigues Rocha Araújo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro antioxidant capacity, total phenolic content and mineral elements of the fruit peel of Myrciaria cauliflora were investigated. The antioxidant capacity was analyzed by the diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP and β-carotene methods. The assays based on the DPPH (EC50 = 3.18 g sample/g DPPH, ABTS•+ (1017 μmol Trolox/g sample, FRAP (1676 µM Fe2SO4/g sample and β-carotene/linoleic acid (70% of oxidation inhibition methods indicated a high antioxidant capacity of the fruit peel extract of the plant. The Folin-Denis method was more efficient in determining the total phenolic compound contents in the different solvents than the Folin-Ciocalteu one. Extractions made with 4:1 methanol-water, 4:1 ethanol-water, 3:2 ethanol-water and 3:2 acetone-water solutions using the Folin-Denis method exhibited high contents of phenolic compounds (18.95, 14.06, 12.93 and 11.99 mg GAE/g, respectively. Potassium was the major element found in the fruit peel, followed by phosphorus, calcium, magnesium and iron, in that order. As a result, the fruit peel of M. cauliflora can be considered as an important source of natural antioxidants and essential elements of easy access for the population and for application in the food industry.

  11. Ionospheric total electron content: Spatial patterns of variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lean, J. L.; Meier, R. R.; Picone, J. M.; Sassi, F.; Emmert, J. T.; Richards, P. G.

    2016-10-01

    The distinctive spatial patterns of the ionosphere's total electron content (TEC) response to solar, seasonal, diurnal, and geomagnetic influences are determined across the globe using a new statistical model constructed from 2-hourly TEC observations from 1998 to 2015. The model combines representations of the physical solar EUV photon and geomagnetic activity drivers with solar-modulated sinusoidal parameterizations of four seasonal cycles and solar-modulated and seasonally modulated parameterizations of three diurnal cycles. The average absolute residual of the data-model differences is 2.1 total electron content unit, 1 TECU = 1016 el m-2 (TECU) (9%) and the root-mean-square error is 3.5 TECU (15%). Solar and geomagnetic variability, the semiannual oscillation and the diurnal and semidiurnal oscillations all impact TEC most at low magnetic latitudes where TEC itself maximizes, with differing degrees of longitudinal inhomogeneity. In contrast, the annual oscillation manifests primarily in the Southern Hemisphere with maximum amplitude over midlatitude South America, extending to higher southern latitudes in the vicinity of the Weddell Sea. Nighttime TEC levels in the vicinity of the Weddell Sea exceed daytime levels every year in Southern Hemisphere summer as a consequence of the modulation of the diurnal oscillations by the seasonal oscillations. The anomaly, which is present at all phases of the solar cycle, commences sooner and ends later under solar minimum conditions. The model minus data residuals maximize at tropical magnetic latitudes in four geographical regions similar to the ionosphere pattern generated by lower atmospheric meteorology. Enhanced residuals at northern midlatitudes during winter are consistent with an influence of atmospheric gravity waves.

  12. Experiments on effects of coal particle ash content on ash formation during fluidized bed combustion%流化床燃烧中煤含灰量对灰渣形成特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王勤辉; 徐志; 刘彦鹏; 骆仲泱; 倪明江

    2012-01-01

    为了研究煤颗粒灰质量分数对煤在流化床燃烧过程中灰渣形成特性的影响,在一台小型流化床反应炉上进行煤的灰质量分数对灰渣形成特性的实验.按煤颗粒的灰质量分数,把义马烟煤分为6个颗粒组,并选用各颗粒组的3个粒径范围的煤颗粒进行燃烧实验,研究煤颗粒的灰质量分数对底渣质量分数、底渣与飞灰中的碳量质量分数和粒径分布的影响.结果表明,随着煤颗粒灰质量分数的增加,燃烧形成的底渣质量分数增加,而煤颗粒的燃尽率和飞灰中的碳质量分数都降低.在粒径和燃烧时间相同的条件下,随着颗粒灰质量分数的增加,底渣中留在本粒径档的颗粒质量分数明显增加,而细颗粒的质量分数明显减少.而颗粒灰质量分数对飞灰的粒径分布没有明显的影响.%To investigate the influences of coal particle ash content on the ash formation behaviors during fluidized bed combustion, experiments were conducted on a bench-scale fluidized bed combustor. Yima bituminous coal samples were divided into 6 ranks with different ash content. For every rank of coal sample, 3 size ranges were used in the experiments. The results show that the mass fraction of the bottom residue increases with the ash content of the coal particles, while the burnout of coal particles and the carbon content of the fly ash decrease with the ash content of coal particles. The mass fraction of the bottom residues which have the same size range as the initial size range of the coal particles increases with the ash content. While the ash content of coal particles has no obvious influence on the size distribution of the fly ash.

  13. A comprehensive study on the contents and leaching of trace elements from fly-ash originating from Polish hard coal by NAA and AAS methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dybczynski, R; Kulisa, K; Małusecka, M; Mandecka, M; Polkowska-Motrenko, H; Sterlinski, S; Szopa, Z

    1990-01-01

    In order to assess the environmental risks associated with the emission of fly-ash into the atmosphere and its storage on waste heaps, the trace element contents of fly-ashes from burning Polish hard coal were determined by a newly developed INAA method. Leaching of trace elements from the fly-ash by water and H2SO4 solution (pH approximately 2.5) simulating acid rain, respectively, was studied using AAS and spectrophotometric methods. Analogous experiments were done with neutron-irradiated fly-ash, following the composition of the eluate gamma-spectrometrically. The new fine fly-ash (CTA-FFA-1) candidate reference material was prepared, and the certification was undertaken on the basis of an international intercomparison run. Preliminary evaluation of results shows that at least 38 elements will be certified and, in addition, the "information values" for at least 12 elements will be given.

  14. Predicted and measured total electron content over Havana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezquer, R. G.; Jakowski, N.; Jadur, C. A.

    1997-03-01

    The total electron content (TEC) of the ionosphere is a parameter often used to check the validity of ionospheric models. Moreover, it is very important for the systems which use transionospheric radio waves. In this paper, TEC measurements obtained with Faraday technique at Havana (23.1°N, 277.5°E, geomagnetic latitude: 34.2°), Cuba, during 1982-1983 period are used to check the validity of two ionospheric models to predict TEC over this station. Havana is a low latitude station but it is not affected by the equatorial anomaly (EA). The models considered are the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) and a Chapman layer with scale height equal to atomic oxygen scale height (CHOEA). Measured values of the critical frequency of the F2 ionospheric region obtained at San José de Las Lajas (23.0°N, 277.9°E, geomagnetic latitude: 34.1°), Cuba, are used as input coefficients in the models. The results show that the models have different performances as predictors of TEC over Havana. In general, the IRI gives very good predictions for the period around the daily minimum, and for the maximum TEC hours CHOEA is a very good predictor. Taking into account the simplicity of the calculations with CHOEA, this model would be an adequate alternative to predict TEC over stations which are not affected by the EA, as Havana, at least for the solar activity conditions considered.

  15. Effects of an experimental phytase on performance, egg quality, tibia ash content and phosphorus bioavailability in laying hens fed on maize- or barley-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francesch, M; Broz, J; Brufau, J

    2005-06-01

    A 24-week performance trial was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of an experimental phytase on performance, egg quality, tibia ash content and phosphorus excretion in laying hens fed on either a maize- or a barley-based diet. At the end of the trial, an ileal absorption assay was conducted in order to determine the influence of phytase supplementation on the apparent absorption of calcium and total phosphorus (P). Each experimental diet was formulated either as a positive control containing 3.2 g/kg non-phytate phosphorus (NPP), with the addition of dicalcium phosphate (DCP), or as a low P one, without DCP addition. Both low P diets (containing 1.3 or 1.1 g/kg NPP) were supplemented with microbial phytase at 0, 150, 300 and 450 U/kg. The birds were housed in cages, allocating two hens per cage as the experimental unit. Each of 10 dietary treatments was assigned to 16 replicates. Low dietary NPP (below 1.3 g/kg) was not able to support optimum performance of hens during the laying cycle (from 22 to 46 weeks of age), either in maize or barley diets. Rate of lay, daily egg mass output, feed consumption, tibia ash percentage and weight gain were reduced in hens fed low NPP diets. The adverse effects of a low P diet were more severe in hens on a maize diet than in those on a barley diet. Low dietary NPP reduced egg production, weight gain, feed consumption and tibia ash content and microbial phytase supplementation improved these parameters. Hens given low NPP diets supplemented with phytase performed as well as the hens on positive control diets containing 3.2 g/kg of NPP. A 49% reduction of excreta P content was achieved by feeding hens on low NPP diets supplemented with phytase, without compromising performance. Phytase addition to low NPP diets increased total phosphorus absorption at the ileal level, from 0.25 to 0.51 in the maize diet and from 0.34 to 0.58 in the barley diet. Phosphorus absorption increased linearly with increasing levels of dietary phytase

  16. Heavy metal content in ash of energy crops growing in sewage-contaminated natural wetlands: Potential applications in agriculture and forestry?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonanno, Giuseppe, E-mail: bonanno.giuseppe@unict.it [Department of Biological, Geological and Environmental Sciences, University of Catania, Via Longo 19, 95125, Catania (Italy); Cirelli, Giuseppe Luigi; Toscano, Attilio [Department of Agri-Food and Environmental Systems Management, University of Catania, Via Santa Sofia 100, 95123, Catania (Italy); Giudice, Rosa Lo; Pavone, Pietro [Department of Biological, Geological and Environmental Sciences, University of Catania, Via Longo 19, 95125, Catania (Italy)

    2013-05-01

    One of the greatest current challenges is to find cost-effective and eco-friendly solutions to the ever increasing needs of modern society. Some plant species are suitable for a multitude of biotechnological applications such as bioenergy production and phytoremediation. A sustainable practice is to use energy crops to clean up polluted lands or to treat wastewater in constructed wetlands without claiming further arable land for biofuel production. However, the disposal of combustion by-products may add significant costs to the whole process, especially when it deals with toxic waste. This study aimed to investigate the possibility of recycling ash from energy biomass as a fertilizer for agriculture and forestry. In particular, the concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn were analyzed in the plant tissues and corresponding ash of the grasses Phragmites australis and Arundo donax, collected in an urban stream affected by domestic sewage. Results showed that the metal concentration in ash is 1.5–3 times as high as the values in plant tissues. However, metal enriched ash showed much lower element concentrations than the legal limits for ash reutilization in agriculture and forestry. This study found that biomass ash from constructed wetlands may be considered as a potential fertilizer rather than hazardous waste. Energy from biomass can be a really sustainable and clean option not only through the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, but also through ash recycling for beneficial purposes, thus minimizing the negative impacts of disposal. - Highlights: • Metal content in ash reflects the element concentrations in Phragmites australis and Arundo donax. • Metal enriched ash of both species may be recycled as fertilizers in agriculture and forestry. • Constructed wetlands may produce a large amount of plant ash-based fertilizers from P. australis and A. donax.

  17. High filler concrete using fly ash. Chloride penetration and microstructure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valcke, S.L.A.; Polder, R.B.; Nijland, T.G.; Leegwater, G.A.; Visser, J.H.M.; Bigaj-van Vliet, A.J.

    2012-01-01

    Most high filler concrete studies are based on relatively high contents of powder (cement + filler) (>400 kg m-3). This paper aims to increase the total fly ash content relative to the clinker content, while simultaneously minimizing the total powder content in the concrete to values lower than 300

  18. Trace element partitioning in ashes from boilers firing pure wood or mixtures of solid waste with respect to fuel composition, chlorine content and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saqib, Naeem; Bäckström, Mattias

    2014-12-01

    Trace element partitioning in solid waste (household waste, industrial waste, waste wood chips and waste mixtures) incineration residues was investigated. Samples of fly ash and bottom ash were collected from six incineration facilities across Sweden including two grate fired and four fluidized bed incinerators, to have a variation in the input fuel composition (from pure biofuel to mixture of waste) and different temperature boiler conditions. As trace element concentrations in the input waste at the same facilities have already been analyzed, the present study focuses on the concentration of trace elements in the waste fuel, their distribution in the incineration residues with respect to chlorine content of waste and combustion temperature. Results indicate that Zn, Cu and Pb are dominating trace elements in the waste fuel. Highly volatile elements mercury and cadmium are mainly found in fly ash in all cases; 2/3 of lead also end up in fly ash while Zn, As and Sb show a large variation in distribution with most of them residing in the fly ash. Lithophilic elements such as copper and chromium are mainly found in bottom ash from grate fired facilities while partition mostly into fly ash from fluidized bed incinerators, especially for plants fuelled by waste wood or ordinary wood chips. There is no specific correlation between input concentration of an element in the waste fuel and fraction partitioned to fly ash. Temperature and chlorine content have significant effects on partitioning characteristics by increasing the formation and vaporization of highly volatile metal chlorides. Zinc and cadmium concentrations in fly ash increase with the incineration temperature. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Quantification of total phenol,flavonoid content and pharmacognostical evaluation including HPTLC fingerprinting for the standardization of Piper nigrum Linn fruits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aftab; Ahmad; Asif; Husain; Mohd; Mujeeb; Shah; Alam; Khan; Hani; Abdullah; Anber; Alhadrami; Anil; Bhandari

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To carry out the physicochemical and phytochemical standardization with high performance thin layer chromatography fingerprinting of Piper nigrum L.(P.nigrum)fruits in order to ascertain the standard pharmacognostical parameters of this king of spices.Methods:Many standardization parameters like extractive values,total ash value,water soluble ash value and acid insoluble ash,moisture content,loss on drying and pH values of P.nigrum L.fruits were analyzed.The method of Harborne was adopted for the preliminary phytochemicals screening.Analysis of total phenolic and flavonoid contents,pesticides residues,aflatoxin and heavy metals were also performed.CAMAG-high performance thin layer chromatography system was used for fingerprinting of methanolic extract of P.nigrum L.fruits.Results:The results of phytochemicals testing indicated the presence of carbohydrates,phenolic compounds,flavonoids,alkaloids,proteins,saponins,lipids,sterols and tannins in various solvent extracts.Total phenolic and flavonoid contents in methanolic extract were found to be 1.728 1 mg/g and 1.087 ug/g,respectively.Heavy metals concentrations were found to be within standard limits.Aflatoxins and pesticides residues were absent.Conclusions:The outcome of this study might prove beneficial in herbal industries for identification,purification and standardization of P.nigrum L.fruits.

  20. Different tree ages and change of ash content in Cinnamomi Cortex%肉桂树龄与其灰分含量变化的关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玲; 杨炯珍; 姜平川

    2012-01-01

    objective To describe the relation between different tree ages and quality of Cinnamomi Cortex. Methods The ash of cinnamon of different ages in 16 Guangxi geographic mark protection was determined. Results When the age of cinnamon was less than 10 years, the ash content was in line with the Pharmacopoeia; when the tree age of cinnamon more than 15 years, the ash content of most did not meet the Pharmacopoeia. Conclusion We suggest that Chinese Pharmacopoeia for the total ash part of cinnamon should be modified.%目的 对肉桂树龄与其灰分含量变化的关系进行研究.方法 对广西肉桂地理标志保护范围内的16个地区、市、县的不同树龄的肉桂进行灰分测定.结果 当肉桂树龄<10年,其总灰分含量符合药典规定;而当肉桂树龄≥15年时,其灰分含量大多数不符合药典规定.结论 建议对中国药典2010版一部中对于肉桂检查项下的总灰分部分的相关规定进行修改.

  1. Experimental evidence for de novo synthesis of PBDD/PBDF and PXDD/PXDF as well as dioxins in the thermal processes of ash samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamoto, K.; Ishikawa, N. [National Inst. for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2005-07-01

    Fly ash in gasification-melting plants and conventional incineration plants can form dioxins through a process known as de novo synthesis. This paper investigated the de novo synthesis of dioxins formed as a result of fly ash catalysis activities. Thermal experiments using fly ash were performed using a flow-through reactor to investigate the formation of brominated and chlorinated-brominated dibenzodioxins (PBDD/F) and dibenzofurans (PXDD/F). Ash samples were collected at conventional stoker incineration and gasification-melting plants. Samples included ash from a bag filter (Ash A); ash from a fluidized gasification and melting furnace plant (Ash C); boiler ash (Ash B); and ash containing tetrabromobisphenol (Ash D). Samples were subjected to a thermal treatment at 300 degrees C. Results showed that dioxin levels were very high for Ash A, which suggested that temperature had a significant influence on de novo synthesis. Dioxin concentrations for Ash C had a relatively low carbon content. Considerable concentrations of PXDD/PXDF were determined for Ash A. High PBDD, PBDF, PXDD and PXDF were observed for Ash D and Ash B. The total amount of dioxins in Ash A were relatively slow to change before and after the thermal treatment of the sample. The homologue distribution patterns of PCDD and PCDF in Ash A showed significant alterations after treatment. It was concluded that de novo dioxin synthesis occurred during the experimental procedure. Results suggested that carbon content plays an important role in the production of dioxins. 3 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs.

  2. Associative properties of {sup 137}Cs in biofuel ashes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravila, A.; Holm, E. [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Radiation Physics

    1999-07-01

    The present study aims to reveal how radiocesium is associated to the ash particles derived from biofuel combustion. A sequential extraction procedure was carried out for the characterisation of radiocesium speciation in ash generated by different fuels and burner types. The ash types considered were fly ash and bottom ash collected from Swedish district heating plants using bark wood or peat as fuel. A fraction of the radiocesium in biofuel ash can easily become solubilised and mobilised by water and also, a significant fraction of the radionuclides can be bound to the ash particles in cation-exchangeable forms. Therefore, at using the ash derived from biofuels to recycle mineral nutrients for forestry or short rotation coppicing, radiocesium solubilised and leached from the ash by rains has a potential to rather quickly enter the rooting zone of forest vegetation or energy crops. On the other hand, radiocesium strongly bound to the ash will migrate slowly into the soil column with the successive accumulation of litter and in the process act to maintain the external dose rate at an elevated level for a long time. The results of the sequential extraction procedure and activity determination of the different extracted fractions implies that the bioavailable fraction of radiocesium in ash from bark, wood or peat is in the range between 20-85% of the total ash contents. Peat ash collected from a powder burner strongly retained a large fraction (70-90%) of its radiocesium content while the peat ash from a continuos fluidized bed type burner retained nearly 100% of the radiocesium in the bottom ash and only about 15% in the fly ash.

  3. Improved processing methods to reduce the total cyanide content of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PierGuido

    2013-05-08

    May 8, 2013 ... Health Organization (WHO) has set the safe level of cyanogens in cassava flour ..... the cyanide content of cassava chips. Int. J. Food Technol. 13: 299 ... Tropical root and tuber crops : cassava, sweet potato, yams and aroids.

  4. Determining Total Phenolics, Anthocyanin Content and Ascorbic Acid Content in Some Plum Genotypes Grown in Ardahan Ecological Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. T. ABACI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, total phenol content, total anthocyanin content, brix, pH, titrable acidity and total ascorbic acid content in the five plum genotypes cultivated in Ardahan City are determined and sustenance of the plums are revealed. Total phenol content was determined with folin-ciocalteu’s method, total anthocyanin content was determined with pH differential method and total ascorbic acid was determined with 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol method.It is detected that the genotype with the highest brix content (%13.9 and lowest acidity (%0.98 is cancur, the genotype with the lowest brix content (%11 and highest acidity (%2.06 is wild plum, the genotype with the highest content of total anthocyanin, total phenolic substance and ascorbic acid is the wild plum and the genotype with the least content of these is the water plum. As a result of the study, it is revealed that the plum fruit has high levels of phenolic substance, anthocyanin and ascorbic acid content, so it has a high sustenance.

  5. Effect of artichoke (Cynara scolymus L. by-product on the quality and total phenol content of bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maroua Boubaker

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Legume flours, due to their phenol and fibre content, are ideal ingredients for improving the nutritional value of bakery products. In this study, artichoke stem powder (ASP was used to substitute 0%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5% and 10% of wheat flour for making breads. Proximate composition of wheat flour and ASP were determined. Bread qualities and total phenols content were analyzed and compared with those of wheat bread. Results show that ASP contained 10.37% moisture, 10.28% ash, 11.53% protein, 0.86% fat, 51.29% fibre and 1350 mg EAG/100g d.m. ASP addition considerably modified the bread quality: altered appearance and texture, darker crumb and more intense odour were observed. From the sensory evaluation, tastes of bread with higher content of ASP (7.5 and 10% were the most acceptable for assessors. Total phenol contents of breads significantly increased with the addition of ASP. Therefore ASP may be considered as valuable ingredients for industrial manufacture of functional foods.

  6. Particle dispersion at road building using fly ash - model review, investigation of influence of humidity content for dust emission and fly ash particle characterisation; Partikelspriding vid byggnation av vaeg med aska - modelloeversikt, undersoekning av fuktighetsgradens betydelse foer damning och karaktaerisering av partiklar fraan flygaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafsson, Mats; Wik, Ola; Frogner-Kockum, Paul

    2009-03-15

    Ashes from incineration may have very good properties, such as building materials in roads. This use assumes that the ashes do not have serious environmental and health effects. Since ash might generate large amounts of dust in handling the issue on the extent of dusting and dust properties has proved to be important to assess the risks of environmental impacts during use. Inhalable particles in the ambient air are a problem that has attracted much attention and is regarded as one of the most serious health related air pollutants. The present project has aimed to: describe appropriate models for calculating the emission and dispersion of dust in the air during the construction of ash containing roads, evaluate a new method to examine the importance of moisture for dusting from fly ash and investigate the properties of fly ash, making it possible to identify ash in samples of airborne particles. The target audience is ash manufacturers, contractors and consultants with a need for knowledge of ash dusting. Project modules have included: a literature review to identify appropriate modelling tools to describe the emission and dispersion of dust from road building with ash a method study in which a piece of equipment called Duster, have been evaluated for assessing the significance of the ash humidity to dusting, and an electron microscope study where morphology and composition of some ashes, cement and Merit have been studied to find ways to identify ash particles in dust samples. The results show that there is a lack of overall model tools that can describe the emissions from all the management operations of ashes at road building and that existing models sometimes lack key variables. Also, because of high silt content of ashes, some models are deemed inferior compared to when used for ordinary mineral material. Furthermore, attempts with the Duster shows that the method works, but with limited precision, and that dusting from the ash samples was reduced significantly

  7. Levels and patterns of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in coal-fired power plant bottom ash and fly ash from Huainan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruwei, Wang; Jiamei, Zhang; Jingjing, Liu; Liu, Guijian

    2013-08-01

    Fly ash and bottom ash samples were collected from a coal-fired power plant located in Anhui province, China. Mineral phases and morphologies of the samples were determined by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. Sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH; 16 compounds specified in United States Environmental Protection Agency Method 610) properties in ash samples were investigated. In fly ashes, ∑16PAH (total amount of 16 PAHs) and ∑CPAH (total amount of 8 carcinogenic PAHs) levels varied from 0.93 to 2.08 μg/g and from 0.26 to 0.87 μg/g, respectively. In bottom ashes, ∑16PAH and ∑CPAH levels varied from 2.83 to 5.32 and 1.76 to 3.76 μg/g, respectively. Fly ashes were dominated by medium molecular-weight PAHs and low molecular-weight PAHs, whereas bottom ashes were abundant in 5- and 6-ring PAH species. The CPAHs levels of some ashes, especially bottom ashes, are greater than the limits regulated by several countries, indicating that this type of coal combustion product requires special treatment before landfill. PAH levels and patterns in fly ash were evidently affected by particle size, and total organic content had a closer correlation with PAH content than particle size in bottom and fly ash, which may be due to unburned carbon existing in bottom ash.

  8. The cumulative ash curve: a best tool to evaluate complete mill performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakhare, Suresh D; Inamdar, Aashitosh A

    2014-04-01

    Slick test is carried out by a flour miller to qualitatively segregate the flour from different streams in a roller flour mill. This test is done manually by pressing flour samples on tray using thin bladed paddle (the slick) and inspecting color or dress of the sample. However, the test is subjective and totally depends on human judgment. Cumulative ash curve relates to cumulative flour ash content and cumulative flour yield, which could help a flour miller to be more precise while selecting flour streams for different needs. In this study, cleaning and conditioning of wheat was carried out in the pilot plant of International School of Milling Technology (ISMT). Further, roller flour milling of wheat was done. Flour from different streams (four breaks, five reductions) was collected. Each flour stream was analyzed for ash content using standard AACC methods. The analytical values of ash content were used to plot the cumulative ash curve. It was found that ash content increased in the break passages from first to last break, with exception of first break (ash content 0.71%). An increase in percentage of ash was observed in the reduction passages (C1 to C5), however, C3 ash (0.76%) was slightly higher than that of C4 (0.65%). Higher yield of flour with minimum ash content was obtained from the front reduction passages C1 and C2; whereas, the break passages and the tail end reduction passages produce less flour with higher ash content.

  9. Modeling the metabolic fate of dietary phosphorus and calcium and the dynamics of body ash content in growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Létourneau-Montminy, M P; Narcy, A; Dourmad, J Y; Crenshaw, T D; Pomar, C

    2015-03-01

    A better understanding of the fate of dietary P use by growing pigs will allow an optimization of P use and enhance sustainable practices. The optimization of P utilization is complicated by the multiple criteria, such as growth performance, bone mineralization, and manure P used for assessment of needs. Mathematical modeling is a useful tool to describe relevant biological mechanisms and predict relationships that describe the whole system behavior. Modeling allows development of robust multicriteria approaches to optimize P utilization, feeding cost, and manure application cost. This paper describes and evaluates a model developed to simulate the fate of dietary P, that is, to simulate its digestive and metabolic utilization through digestion, soft tissue, and ash modules. The digestion module takes into account the varied sources of dietary minerals including responses to microbial and plant phytase and Ca and P interactions and predicts absorption and fecal excretion. The soft tissue module simulates the growth of the protein and is based on InraPorc model principles. The ash module simulates the partitioning of absorbed Ca and P into the bone, protein, and lipid compartments as well as urinary excretion. Model behavior showed that the model was able to accurately represent the impact of Lys deficiency on P retention, of Ca and P imbalances, and of Ca and P depletion and repletion sequences. The model's prediction capabilities in simulating whole-body protein, Ca, P, and ash based on published data showed high accuracy, with a slope and intercept that did not differ from 1 and 0, respectively, and an error due to disturbance (ED; variance not accounted for by regression of observed on predicted values). The model's prediction capabilities in simulating balance trial data showed good accuracy for apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of P (observed = -0.77 + 1.06 predicted) and P retention coefficient (observed = -4.5 + 1.15 predicted) with an ED of 89% for

  10. Total Electron Content Lunar Variation at Two Midlatitude Stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-10-30

    the critical frequency, the virtual height or the height of the maximum of the layer. lNo- re recently, Huang (1978) made an analysis of the total...at libro has a zero value in the afternodnbet ween 15hr and 16hr local solar time, Besides the zero of the 8hr-10hr local solar time.The pha se in

  11. Prediction of the ash content of wheat flours using spectral and chemometric methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALINA MOROI

    Full Text Available Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy has been considered an important method in evaluating structural properties of biomolecules. The assignment of the spectra indicated combination bands of the chemical bonds (O–H, C–H, C–C, etc. that compose the chemical constituents of biomass. This paper presents, for several regional common wheat varieties (Triticum aestivum L.: Crina, Dropia, Flamura, Gruia, Haiduc and wheat from Vaslui area, the comparative analyses of the infrared absorption spectra for two spectral ranges: near-infrared (NIR region, in the corresponding wavelength of 700-1000 nm, and middle-infrared (MIR region, in the corresponding wavenumber 600-1600 cm-1. The positions of the characteristic absorption peaks were observed at 877.49 and 941.03 nm in NIR region and 756.50, 857.86, 929.75, 999.83, 1076.34, 1150.08, 1244.92, 1336.95, 1415.46 and 1538.35 cm-1 in MIR region. The information obtained from the analysis of NIR-MIR spectra is used to rapidly determine some of physicochemical parameters of the wheat species-specific part. The aim of this study is to apply FT-NIR and FT-MIR spectroscopy to correlate those signals by the StatCorr analyze. A fast technique such as chemometric analysis on the basis of NIR and MIR spectra was used to predict the amount of ash from the flour sample. R square of prediction model is 0.7 and Root Mean Square Error of Prediction (RMSEP using two Principal Component PCs is 1.5 % which certifies the calibration model.

  12. Total lead (Pb) concentration in oil shale ash samples based on correlation to isotope Pb-210 gamma-spectrometric measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaasma, T.; Kiisk, M.; Tkaczyk, A.H. [University of Tartu (Estonia); Bitjukova, L. [Tallinn University of Technology (Estonia)

    2014-07-01

    Estonian oil shale consists of organic matter and mineral material and contains various amounts of heavy metals as well as natural radionuclides (from the U-238 and Th-232 series and K-40). Previous research has shown that burning oil shale in the large power plants causes these radionuclides to become enriched in different ash fractions and be partially emitted to the atmosphere via fly ash and flue gases. The activity concentrations (Bq/kg) of these nuclides in different oil shale ash fractions vary significantly. This is influenced by the boiler parameters and combustion conditions - prevailing temperatures, pressure, ash circulating mechanisms, fly ash particle size, chemical composition of ash and coexistence of macro and micro components. As with radionuclides, various heavy metals remain concentrated in the ash fractions and are released to the atmosphere (over 20 tons of Pb per year from Estonian oil shale power plants). Lead is a heavy metal with toxic influence on the nervous system, reproductive system and different organs in human body. Depending on the exposure pathways, lead could pose a long term health hazard. Ash samples are highly heterogeneous and exhibit great variability in composition and particle size. Determining the lead concentration in ash samples by modern methods like inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS), flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS), graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy (GFAAS) and other techniques often requires time consuming, multistage and complex chemical sample preparation. The list of possible methods to use is lengthy, but it is a challenge to choose a suitable one to meet measurement needs and practical considerations. The detection limits, capital costs and maintenance expenses vary between the instruments. This work presents the development of an alternative measurement technique for our oil shale ash samples. Oil shale ash was collected from different boilers using pulverized fuel

  13. Nutritional attributes of ash (Fraxinus spp.) outer bark and phloem and their relationships to resistance against the emerald ash borer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Amy L; Whitehill, Justin G A; Opiyo, Stephen O; Phelan, P Larry; Bonello, Pierluigi

    2012-12-01

    The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, EAB) is an alien, invasive wood-boring insect that is responsible for killing millions of ash trees since its discovery in North America in 2002. All North American ash species (Fraxinus spp.) that EAB has encountered have shown various degrees of susceptibility, while Manchurian ash (Fraxinus mandshurica Ruprecht), which shares a co-evolutionary history with this insect, is resistant. Recent studies have looked into constitutive resistance mechanisms in Manchurian ash, concentrating on the secondary phloem, which is the feeding substrate for the insect. In addition to specialized metabolism and defense-related components, primary metabolites and nutritional summaries can also be important to understand the feeding behavior of insect herbivores. Here, we have compared the nutritional characteristics (water content, total protein, free amino acids, total soluble sugars and starch, percent carbon and nitrogen, and macro- and micronutrients) of outer bark and phloem from black, green, white and Manchurian ash to determine their relevance to resistance or susceptibility to EAB. Water content and concentrations of Al, Ba, Cu, Fe, K, Li, tryptophan and an unknown compound were found to separate black and Manchurian ash from green and white ash in a principal component analysis (PCA), confirming their phylogenetic placements into two distinct clades. The traits that distinguished Manchurian ash from black ash in the PCA were water content and concentrations of total soluble sugars, histidine, lysine, methionine, ornithine, proline, sarcosine, tyramine, tyrosol, Al, Fe, K, Na, V and an unknown compound. However, only proline, tyramine and tyrosol were significantly different, and higher, in Manchurian ash than in black ash.

  14. Effects of different surface modification and contents on municipal solid waste incineration fly ash/epoxy composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, C K; Valavan, S E; Low, T K; Tang, L H

    2016-12-01

    Incineration fly ash, a waste from municipal solid waste incineration plant can be used to replace conventional filler as reinforcing filler to enhance the mechanical strength of a composite. Surface modification was performed on the incineration fly ash before mixing into the soft polymer matrix so as to improve interfacial bond of the filler and epoxy resin. In this study, detailed characterisation of mechanical, morphological and leaching behaviours of municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash infused composite has been carried out. Flexural and tensile test was conducted to determine the effect on mechanical properties of the composite by varying the concentration of incineration fly ash filler added into polymer matrix and surface modification of incineration fly ash filler using silane coupling agent and colloidal mesoporous silica (CMS). The results indicated that composite infused with incineration fly ash filler surface treated with CMS shown improvement on the tensile and flexural strengths. In addition, SEM images showed that surface modification of incineration fly ash with colloidal mesoporous silica enhanced the interfacial bonding with polymer resin which explained the improvement of mechanical strength. Leaching test showed result of toxic metals such as Pb, Zn, Fe, Cu, Cr, Cd and Rb immobilised in the polymer matrix of the composite. Hence, the use of MSWI fly ash as reinforcing filler in the composite appears green and sustainable because this approach is a promising opportunity to substitute valuable raw material with MSWI fly ash. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Computational Investigation of the Influence of Fly Ash Silica Content and Shape on the Erosion Behaviour of Indian Coal Fired Boiler Grade Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Amrita; Das, Suchandan Kumar; Srivastava, Prem Kumar

    2016-07-01

    A mathematical model has been developed to characterize the erosion behaviour of fly ash on boiler grade steel surfaces incorporating various ductile erosion mechanisms. These mechanisms constitute cutting wear, repeated plastic deformation and effect of operating temperature on the mechanical properties of the substrate. Parametric analysis has been carried out to study the erosion response of some typical steel grades as a function of particle impact parameters such as particle impact velocity, angle of impingement coupled with the effect of temperature on the tensile properties. Further, effects of fly ash properties such as hardness (silica content) and shape (angularity) on the erosion response have been also investigated along with the ballistic parameters. These investigations show that a small increment in the fly ash hardness can considerably augment the erosion rate of the steel surface under a given particle impingement condition. This vindicates that hardness of fly ash is one of the most critical parameter which has a direct impact in enhancing the erosion rate of boiler grade steels. The effect of fly ash shape on the erosion behaviour is also studied in conjunction with the particle hardness. This shows that the composite action of these parameters augment the erosion rate significantly.

  16. The content of chromium and copper in plants and soil fertilized with sewage sludge with addition of various amounts of CaO and lignite ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wysokiński Andrzej

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The influence of fertilization with fresh sewage sludge with the addition of calcium oxide and lignite ash in the proportions dry mass 6:1, 4:1, 3:1 and 2:1 on the content of chromium and copper in plants and soil and uptake of these elements was investigated in pot experiment. Sewage sludge were taken from Siedlce (sludge after methane fermentation and Łuków (sludge stabilized in oxygenic conditions, eastern Poland. The chromium content in the biomass of the test plants (maize, sunflower and oat was higher following the application of mixtures of sewage sludge with ash than of the mixtures with CaO. The copper content in plants most often did not significantly depend on the type of additives to the sludge. Various amounts of additives to the sewage sludge did not have a significant effect on the contents of either of the studied trace elements in plants. The contents of chromium and copper in soil after 3 years of cultivation of plants were higher than before the experiment, but these amounts were not significantly differentiated depending on the type and the amount of the used additive (i.e. CaO vs. ash to sewage sludge.

  17. Dynamic QTL analysis for fruit lycopene content and total soluble solid content in a Solanum lycopersicum x S. pimpinellifolium cross.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Y D; Liang, Y; Wu, J M; Li, Y Z; Cui, X; Qin, L

    2012-10-11

    Fruit lycopene content and total soluble solid content are important factors determining fruit quality of tomatoes; however, the dynamic quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling lycopene and soluble solid content have not been well studied. We mapped the chromosomal regions controlling these traits in different periods in F(2:3) families derived from a cross between the domestic and wild tomato species Solanum lycopersicum and S. pimpinellifolium. Fifteen QTLs for lycopene and soluble solid content and other related traits analyzed at three different fruit ripening stages were detected with a composite interval mapping method. These QTLs explained 7-33% of the individual phenotypic variation. QTLs detected in the color-changing period were different from those detected in the other two periods. On chromosome 1, the soluble solid content QTL was located in the same region during the color-changing and full-ripe periods. On chromosome 4, the same QTL for lycopene content was found during the color-changing and full-ripe periods. The QTL for lycopene content on chromosome 4 co-located with the QTL for soluble solid content during the full-ripe period. Co-location of lycopene content QTL and soluble solid content QTLs may be due to pleiotropic effects of a single gene or a cluster of genes via physiological relationships among traits. On chromosome 9, the same two QTLs for lycopene content at two different fruit ripening periods may reflect genes controlling lycopene content that are always expressed in tomato fruit development.

  18. Ash Properties of Alternative Biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capablo, Joaquin; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Pedersen, Kim Hougaard

    2009-01-01

    The ash behavior during suspension firing of 12 alternative solid biofuels, such as pectin waste, mash from a beer brewery, or waste from cigarette production have been studied and compared to wood and straw ash behavior. Laboratory suspension firing tests were performed on an entrained flow...... analysis into three main groups depending upon their ash content of silica, alkali metal, and calcium and magnesium. To further detail the biomass classification, the relative molar ratio of Cl, S, and P to alkali were included. The study has led to knowledge on biomass fuel ash composition influence...... on ash transformation, ash deposit flux, and deposit chlorine content when biomass fuels are applied for suspension combustion....

  19. Potential of phosphorus recovery from sewage sludge and manure ash by thermochemical treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havukainen, Jouni; Nguyen, Mai Thanh; Hermann, Ludwig; Horttanainen, Mika; Mikkilä, Mirja; Deviatkin, Ivan; Linnanen, Lassi

    2016-03-01

    All life forms require phosphorus (P), which has no substitute in food production. The risk of phosphorus loss from soil and limited P rock reserves has led to the development of recycling P from industrial residues. This study investigates the potential of phosphorus recovery from sewage sludge and manure ash by thermochemical treatment (ASH DEC) in Finland. An ASH DEC plant could receive 46-76 kt/a of sewage sludge ash to produce 51-85 kt/a of a P-rich product with a P2O5 content of 13-18%, while 320-750 kt/a of manure ash could be supplied to produce 350-830 kt/a of a P-rich product with a P content of 4-5%. The P2O5 potential in the total P-rich product from the ASH DEC process using sewage sludge and manure ash is estimated to be 25-47 kt/a, which is significantly more than the P fertilizer demand in Finland's agricultural industries. The energy efficiency of integrated incineration and the ASH DEC process is more dependent on the total solid content and the subsequent need for mechanical dewatering and thermal drying than on the energy required by the ASH DEC process. According to the results of this study, the treated sewage sludge and manure ash using the ASH DEC process represent significant potential phosphorus sources for P fertilizer production.

  20. Changes in total plasma content of electrolytes and proteins with maximal exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Beaumont, W.; Strand, J. C.; Petrofsky, J. S.; Hipskind, S. G.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1973-01-01

    To determine to what extent the increases in concentration of plasma proteins and electrolytes with short maximal work were a result of hemoconcentration, the changes in plasma volume and total content of the plasma constituents were simultaneously evaluated. The results obtained from six human subjects indicated that in comparison to preexercise values there was a net decrease in total content of plasma protein, sodium, and chloride in the first 2 min of the postexercise period, due primarily to a significant loss (13-15%) of plasma fluid. The total plasma potassium content was increased immediately after exercise but was significantly below the preexercise plasma content after 2 min of recovery.

  1. Spectroscopic measurements of the total methane content in the atmosphere over St. Petersburg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makarova, M.V.; Poberovskii, A.V.; Timofeev, Y.M. [St. Petersburg State University, St Petersburg (Russian Federation). Research Institute of Physics

    2001-07-01

    The results of the ground-based spectroscopic measurements of the total methane content in the atmosphere over St. Petersburg are given. The characteristics of seasonal cycles and the estimates of the rate of increase in the total methane content are obtained for the observation period between 1991 and 1999. 13 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Effects of particle size, ash content, and processing pressure on the bioavailability of phosphorus in meat and bone meal for swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traylor, S L; Cromwell, G L; Lindemann, M D

    2005-11-01

    Meat and bone meal (MBM), when supplemented with tryptophan, is an excellent protein source for pigs. It is also a rich source of Ca and P, but some research has suggested that the bioavailability of P is variable. Three experiments were conducted to determine whether particle size, ash content, or processing pressure of MBM influences the bioavailability of P. Each experiment involved six replications of six treatments with individually penned pigs initially averaging 13 to 17 kg of BW. A low-P basal diet was fed with or without 0.1 or 0.2% added P (as-fed basis) from monosodium phosphate (MSP) or with three types of MBM added at levels that supplied 0.2% P (as-fed basis). The Ca level was 0.70%, and the lysine level was 0.95% in all diets. Pigs were allowed to consume their diets (meal form) on an ad libitum basis. At the end of the study, pigs were killed, and femurs and third and fourth metacarpals and metatarsals were removed for determination of breaking strength and ash content. Bone traits were regressed on added P intake for each P source, and slope-ratio procedures were used to estimate the bioavailability of P in MBM relative to that in MSP. In Exp. 1, a blended source of MBM ground to three particle sizes (amount that passed through 6-, 8-, or 12-mesh screens) was evaluated. In Exp. 2, low-ash MBM of porcine origin, high-ash MBM of bovine origin, and a 1:1 blend of the two sources were assessed. In Exp. 3, normally processed MBM was subjected to an additional 2.1 and 4.2 kg/cm2 of pressure for 20 min to determine whether excessive heat treatment would influence the bioavailability of P. Fineness of grind of MBM or processing pressure did not influence the relative bioavailability of P in this study; however, ash content of MBM affected P bioavailability. The relative availability of P in low-ash MBM of porcine origin (with composition typical of meat meal) was approximately 15 percentage units less than that in high-ash MBM of bovine origin. Overall

  3. Preparation of activated carbon with low ash content and high specific surface area from coal in the presence of KOH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Qiang(解强); CHEN Qing-ru(陈清如); GONG Guo-zhuo(宫国卓); ZHANG Xiang-lan(张香兰); XU De-ping(许德平)

    2003-01-01

    An activated carbon with ash content less than 10% and specific surface area more than 1 600 m2/g was prepared from coal and the effect of K-containing compounds in preparation of coal-based activated carbon was investigated in detail in this paper. KOH was used in co-carbonization with coal, changes in graphitic crystallites in chars derived from carbonization of coal with and without KOH were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique, activation rates of chars with different contents of K-containing compounds were deduced, and resulting activated carbons were characterized by nitrogen adsorption isotherms at 77 K and iodine numbers. The results showed that the addition of KOH to the coal before carbonization can realize the intensive removal of inorganic matters from chars under mild conditions, especially the efficient removal of dispersive quartz, an extremely difficult separated mineral component in other processes else. Apart from this, KOH demonstrates a favorable effect in control over coal carbonization with the goal to form nongraphitizable isotropic carbon precursor, which is a necessary prerequisite for the formation and development of micro pores. However, the K-containing compounds such as K2CO3 and K2O remaining in chars after carbonization catalyze the reaction between carbon and steam in activation, which leads to the formation of macro pores. In the end an innovative method, in which KOH is added to coal before carbonization and K-containing compounds are removed by acid washing after carbonization, was proposed for the synthesis of quality coal-based activated carbon.

  4. Total phenol content and antioxidant activity of water solutions of plant extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Kopjar, Mirela; Piližota, Vlasta; Hribar, J.; Simčić, M.

    2009-01-01

    Water solutions of extracts were investigated for total phenol content, flavonoid content and antioxidant activity. Susceptibility to degradation of water solutions of plant extracts, under light and in the dark, during storage at room temperature was investigated in order to determine their stability prior to their application for fortification of food products. Large dispersion of total phenol (TP) content in the investigated model solutions of selected extracts (olive leaves, green tea, re...

  5. Total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of six wild Mentha species (Lamiaceae) from northeast of Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Amina Benabdallah; Chaabane Rahmoune; Mahieddine Boumendjel; Oumayma Aissi; Chokri Messaoud

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the total phenolics, flavonoids and tannins content and the in vitro antioxidant activities of methanolic extracts of six wild Mentha species which are Mentha aquatica, Mentha arvensis, Mentha piperita, Mentha pulegium, Mentha rotundifolia and Mentha villosa. Methods: The Folin–Ciocalteu method was used to determine the total phenols content while flavonoids were estimated according to the aluminum chloride colorimetric method. To evaluate tannins content, vanilli...

  6. Total polyphenolic (flavonoids content and antioxidant capacity of different Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuge Tian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This paper investigates the total polyphenolic and flavonoid content as well as the antioxidant activity of Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. extracts of different polarity. Materials and Methods: The total polyphenolic content was analysed using the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Total flavonoid content analysis was performed using the colorimetric method. Results: The total polyphenolic content of Z. clinopodioides is concentrated in parts of ethyl acetate (19.27%, chloroform (4.99% and n-butanol extracts (3.94% containing a small amount of the total polyphenolic content. The petroleum ether (0.23% and ethanol extracts (1.64% contain almost no polyphenolic content. The total flavonoid content of Z. clinopodioides is concentrated in parts of ethyl acetate (65.61%, chloroform (14.36% and n-butanol extracts (10.76% containing a small amount of the total polyphenolic content. The Z. clinopodioides Lam. ethyl acetate extract exhibits a good antioxidant activity. Conclusion: Ethyl acetate extracts contain a large number of polyphenolic compounds (19.27% and flavonoids (65.61% owing to good antioxidant capacity.

  7. 微波马弗炉应用于合成树脂灰分的测定%Determination of Plastic Ash Content by Microwave Muffle Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王燕来

    2012-01-01

    采用微波马弗炉,测试聚丙烯树脂、聚丙烯树脂粉料、聚乙烯树脂和聚酯切片的灰分,分析研究了微波马弗炉测定灰分的实验技术,与通用马弗炉相比,更具有操作简便、空气污染小的优势.%Using microwave muffle furnace, the ash content of polypropylene resin, polyethylene resin powder materials, polyethylene resin and polyester chip was tested, analysis and study on the ash content determination was made by experiment technology of the microwave muffle furnace, and compared with the general muffle furnace, it has more advantage of simple operation and small air pollution.

  8. Basic Physical – Mechanical Properties of Geopolymers Depending on the Content of Ground Fly Ash and Fines of Sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sičáková Alena

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The binding potential of fly ash (FA as a typical basic component of building mixtures can be improved in mechanical way, which unfolds new possibilities of its utilization. This paper presents the possibilities of preparing the geopolymer mixtures based on ground (dm = 31.0 μm FA, used in varying percentages to the original (unground; dm = 74.1 μm one. As a modification, fine-grain sludge from the process of washing the crushed aggregates was used as filler in order to obtain mortar-type material. The basic physical-mechanical properties of mixtures are presented and discussed in the paper, focusing on time dependence. The following standard tests were executed after 2, 7, 28, and 120 days: density, total water absorption, flexural strength, and compressive strength. Ground FA provided for positive effect in all tested parameters, while incorporation of fine portion of sludge into the geopolymer mixture does not offer a significant technical profit. On the other hand, it does not cause the decline in the properties, so the environmental effect (reduction of environmental burden can be applied through its incorporation into the geopolymer mixtures.

  9. Research on municipal solid waste composting with coal ash

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾光明; 袁兴中; 李彩亭; 黄国和; 李建兵; 尚谦; 陈耀宁

    2003-01-01

    Considering the fact that there is much coal ash in the municipal solid waste (MSW) in some cities of China, the feasibility of composting in this situation was studied and the effect of content of the coal ash on the composting process and some basic relative technological parameters were investigated. The values of the moisture, the total organic matter, the content of coal ash, the C/N ratio and the ventilation were suggested to be 50%-60%, 40%-60%, 40%-60%, (25∶1)-(35∶1) and 0.05-0.20m3/(min*m3), respectively.

  10. Hydration of fly ash cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etsuo Sakai; Shigeyoshi Miyahara; Shigenari Ohsawa; Seung-Heun Lee; Masaki Daimon [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan). Department of Metallurgy and Ceramics Science, Graduate School of Science and Engineering

    2005-06-01

    It is necessary to establish the material design system for the utilization of large amounts of fly ash as blended cement instead of disposing of it as a waste. Cement blended with fly ash is also required as a countermeasure to reduce the amount of CO{sub 2} generation. In this study, the influences of the glass content and the basicity of glass phase on the hydration of fly ash cement were clarified and hydration over a long curing time was characterized. Two kinds of fly ash with different glass content, one with 38.2% and another with 76.6%, were used. The hydration ratio of fly ash was increased by increasing the glass content in fly ash in the specimens cured for 270 days. When the glass content of fly ash is low, the basicity of glass phase tends to decrease. Reactivity of fly ash is controlled by the basicity of the glass phase in fly ash during a period from 28 to 270 days. However, at an age of 360 days, the reaction ratios of fly ash show almost identical values with different glass contents. Fly ash also affected the hydration of cement clinker minerals in fly ash cement. While the hydration of alite was accelerated, that of belite was retarded at a late stage.

  11. Investigations into NOx emissions and burnout for coals with high ash content in a bench scale test facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greul, U.; Kluger, F.; Peter, G.; Spliethoff, H.; Hein, K.R.G. [University of Stuttgart, Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. fuer Verfahrenstechnik und Dampfkesselwesen

    2000-07-01

    At the Stuttgart University's Institute of Process Engineering and Power Plant Technology (IVD) investigations of in-furnace DeNOx technologies with regard to their NOx reduction efficiency are carried out using an electrically heated bench-scale test facility to evaluate the effect of different process parameters independently. The DeNOx technologies of air and fuel staging have been demonstrated to be effective control techniques to reduce NOx from stationary sources. For a wide range of brown and hard coals from Europe, South Africa and Australia test runs with air-staged combustion have been carried out. The ash content of the hard coals used was in the range between 8 and 28%. The investigated parameters were temperature (1000-1300{degree}C), stoichiometry (1.25-0.55), and residence time (1-6 s) in the fuel rich primary zone. With increasing temperatures and residence times in fuel-rich conditions in air-staged combustion NOx emissions below 300 mg/m{sup 3} can be achieved even with hard coals. For a few brown coals NOx values lower than 100 mg/m{sup 3} are possible. Dependent on the coal rank individual parameters are more important than others. For low and medium volatile hard coals the increasing of the residence time is more effective than higher temperature or lower air ratios in the primary zone. However, with high volatile hard coal or brown coal as primary fuel the influence of temperature and stoichiometry in the primary zone plays a key role for NOx reduction effectiveness. The burnout led to restrictions in large scale applications for air-staged combustion especially with hard coals as primary fuel. Investigations at different primary air ratios and temperatures show the effect of these parameters on the burnout values along the course of combustion. 7 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Fly ash carbon passivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Count, Robert B; Baltrus, John P; Kern, Douglas G

    2013-05-14

    A thermal method to passivate the carbon and/or other components in fly ash significantly decreases adsorption. The passivated carbon remains in the fly ash. Heating the fly ash to about 500 and 800 degrees C. under inert gas conditions sharply decreases the amount of surfactant adsorbed by the fly ash recovered after thermal treatment despite the fact that the carbon content remains in the fly ash. Using oxygen and inert gas mixtures, the present invention shows that a thermal treatment to about 500 degrees C. also sharply decreases the surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash even though most of the carbon remains intact. Also, thermal treatment to about 800 degrees C. under these same oxidative conditions shows a sharp decrease in surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash due to the fact that the carbon has been removed. This experiment simulates the various "carbon burnout" methods and is not a claim in this method. The present invention provides a thermal method of deactivating high carbon fly ash toward adsorption of AEAs while retaining the fly ash carbon. The fly ash can be used, for example, as a partial Portland cement replacement in air-entrained concrete, in conductive and other concretes, and for other applications.

  13. Variability of total flavonoid and mucilage content of wild growing chamomile (Matricaria recutita L. populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gosztola, Beáta

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available During our investigation 50 wild growing chamomile populations’ active substance content, among them total flavonoid content and swelling index referring to mucilage content were examined in 2009 in the main chamomile collection areas of Hungary. Swelling index was determined according to the general and specified descriptions of Althaeae folium monograph of European Pharmacopoeia, while total flavonoid content was measured by the method described in the monograph of Crataegi folium cum flore. The 50 Hungarian wild growing chamomile populations proved to be very heterogeneous in terms of the examined features. The swelling index of their flower drug samples changed between 15.8 and 80.8 and their total flavonoid content varied from 0.94 to 2.28 %. Significant correlation was also found between meteorological conditions and evaluated characteristics: there was medium strong positive correlation between spring total heat unit (sum of daily 10 °C higher average temperatures of the period lasted from 1st of March, 2009 until the day before flower collection as well as total heat unit of 10 days before harvest and swelling index (r = 0.50-0.56, furthermore medium strong negative connection could be seen between total heat units and total flavonoid content (r = -0.60-0.65. Based on these findings it can be ascertained that raising temperature affects the mucilage accumulation positively, however, it has a negative effect on the amount of flavonoids.

  14. Antioxidations and Their Correlations with Total Flavones and Anthocyanin Contents in Different Black Rice Varieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The antioxidations and their correlations with total flavones and anthocyanin contents in different black rice varieties were studied. The results indicated that the great differences in total antioxidant capacity (TAC), scavenging free radical capacity (SFRC), total flavones and anthocyanin contents existed among 242 black rice varieties. Comparisons of TAC,SFRC, total flavones and anthocyanin contents of different black rice types showed that the differences between black rice and white rice, indica one and japonica one, and nonglutinous one and glutinous one were significant at 0.01 levels,respectively. This showed that the TAC, SFRC, total flavones and anthocyanin contents of japonica type were higher than those of indica one, and nonglutinous type were higher than glutinous one. According to the fast clustering procedure, 242 black rice varieties could be clustered into 10 clusters, 184 indica rice varieties into 10 clusters, and 58japonica rice varieties into 6 clusters. Most significant (P<0.01) correlations existed between TAC and total flavones and anthocyanin contents, and between SFRC and total flavones and anthocyanin contents of black rice, respectively. This showed that the antioxidation of black rice was closely correlated with its active compositions of flavones and anthocyanin.

  15. Correlation Between Antioxidation and the Content of Total Phenolics and Anthocyanin in Black Soybean Accessions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Jin-rui; ZHANG Ming-wei; LIU Xing-hua; LIU Zhang-xiong; ZHANG Rui-fen; SUN Ling; QIU Li-juan

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the correlations between antioxidations and the contents of the total phenolics and anthocyanin in 127 accessions of black soybean. A T-test, a fast clustering procedure, and a correlation coefficient analysis were used for experimentation. The variation ranges of the total antioxidant capacity (TAC), the total phenolics, and anthocyanin contents in 127 black soybean accessions were 0.44-3.56, 7.05-74.82, and 0.22-1.87mg g-1, respectively, displaying significant genotype differences. The major differences in TAC, the total phenolics,and the anthocyanin contents existed among various types of accessions from geographical regions. The differences between the accessions from black and yellow soybeans, spring and autumn, summer and autumn, Dongbeichun and Nanfangchun, Dongbeichun and Nanfangxia, Beifangchun and Nanfangchun, and Beifangchun and Nanfangxia were significant at 0.01 or 0.05 levels, respectively. The general tendency was that the TAC, the total phenolics, and the anthocyanin contents of Beifangchun accessions were higher than that of Dongbeichun ones, while that of Nanfangchun accessions were the worst. 127 black soybean accessions could be clustered into 6 clusters, which consisted of 3, 24,20, 31, 37, and 12 accessions, respectively. The most significant (P < 0.01) correlations existed respectively between the TAC and the total phenolics content, and the TAC and the anthocyanin content of black soybean. The results showed that the total phenolics and anthocyanin in black soybean seed coat were the important antioxidation substances.

  16. Analysis of Time-Resolved Terahertz Spectroscopy of Ash Contents and Carbon Contents of Coal%利用太赫兹技术研究煤炭中的灰分含量与碳含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    滕学明; 赵昆; 赵卉; 宝日玛; 田璐

    2011-01-01

    Terahertz time domain spectroscopy(THz-TDS) is a new far infrared coherent spectral technique based on femtosecond laser technology.In this paper,the optical characteristics of five kinds of coal reference materials in 0.2-1.5 THz have been investigated through THz-TDS.Experimental results showed that the time delay and absorption spectrum of those five materials are totally different.The slope values of absorption spectrum K strongly depend on the types of coal reference materials with different ash and carbon contents.After careful fitting of the data,the K could be seen to exponential increase and exponential decrease with ash and carbon contents,respectively.It is demonstrated that the THz-TDS is highly sensitive to minor changes of coal types and can be used in identification of coal quality and type research.%太赫兹时域光谱(THz-TDS)是以飞秒激光为基础的新型的相干远红外光谱测量技术。本文运用THz-TDS技术研究了5种不同种类的煤炭样品在THz波段的光谱特征,结果表明光谱通过各种煤炭样品后有不同的延迟时间和吸收曲线,样品吸收曲线斜率值(K)与样品中灰分含量与碳含量有密切关系。吸收曲线斜率值(K)随灰分含量成指数关系递增,随碳含量成指数关系递减。THz-TDS技术能够分辨煤质的微小差异,可以应用于煤质检测和分析,为煤炭品质和种类的鉴定提供了新的实验方法。

  17. A new simplified approach for simultaneous retrieval of SO2 and ash content of tropospheric volcanic clouds: an application to the Mt Etna volcano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pugnaghi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A new procedure is presented for simultaneous estimation of SO2 and ash abundance in a volcanic plume, using thermal infrared (TIR MODIS data. Plume altitude and temperature are the only two input parameters required to run the procedure, while surface emissivity, temperature, atmospheric profiles, ash optical properties, and radiative transfer models are not necessary to perform the atmospheric corrections. The procedure gives the most reliable results when the surface under the plume is uniform, for example above the ocean, but still produces fairly good estimates in more challenging and not easily modelled conditions, such as above land or meteorological cloud layers. The developed approach was tested on the Etna volcano. By linearly interpolating the radiances surrounding a detected volcanic plume, the volcanic plume removal (VPR procedure described here computes the radiances that would have been measured by the sensor in the absence of a plume, and reconstructs a new image without plume. The new image and the original data allow computation of plume transmittance in the TIR-MODIS bands 29, 31, and 32 (8.6, 11.0 and 12.0 μm by applying a simplified model consisting of a uniform plume at a fixed altitude and temperature. The transmittances are then refined with a polynomial relationship obtained by means of MODTRAN simulations adapted for the geographical region, ash type, and atmospheric profiles. Bands 31 and 32 are SO2 transparent and, from their transmittances, the effective ash particle radius (Re, and aerosol optical depth at 550 nm (AOD550 are computed. A simple relation between the ash transmittances of bands 31 and 29 is demonstrated and used for SO2 columnar content (cs estimation. Comparing the results of the VPR procedure with MODTRAN simulations for more than 200 000 different cases, the frequency distribution of the differences shows the following: the Re error is less than ±0.5 μm in more than 60% of cases; the AOD550 error

  18. Effect of unburned carbon content in fly ash on the retention of 12 elements out of coal-combustion flue gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lucie Barto(n)ová; Bohumír (C)ech; Lucie Ruppenthalová; Vendula Majvelderová; Dagmar Juchelková; Zdeněk Klika

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether unburned carbon particles present in fly ash can help in the retention of S,CI,Br,As,Se,Cu,Ni,Zn,Ga,Ge,Rb,and Pb out of flue gas during the coal combustion at fluidised-bed power station where the coal was combusted along with limestone.The competitive influence of 10%-25% CaO in fly ashes on the distribution of studied elements was studied as well to be clear which factor governs behaviour of studied elements.Except of S (with significant association with CaO) and Rb and Pb (with major affinity to Al2O3) the statistically significant and positive correlation coefficients were calculated for the relations between unburned carbon content and Br (0.959),Cl (0.957),Cu (0.916),Se (0.898),Ni (0.866),As (0.861),Zn (0.742),Ge (0.717),and Ga (0.588) content.The results suggest that the unburned carbon is promising material in terms of flue gas cleaning even if contained in highly calcareous fly ashes.

  19. Effect of unburned carbon content in fly ash on the retention of 12 elements out of coal-combustion flue gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartonová, Lucie; Cech, Bohumír; Ruppenthalová, Lucie; Majvelderová, Vendula; Juchelková, Dagmar; Klika, Zdenek

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether unburned carbon particles present in fly ash can help in the retention of S, Cl, Br, As, Se, Cu, Ni, Zn, Ga, Ge, Rb, and Pb out of flue gas during the coal combustion at fluidised-bed power station where the coal was combusted along with limestone. The competitive influence of 10%-25% CaO in fly ashes on the distribution of studied elements was studied as well to be clear which factor governs behaviour of studied elements. Except of S (with significant association with CaO) and Rb and Pb (with major affinity to Al2O3) the statistically significant and positive correlation coefficients were calculated for the relations between unburned carbon content and Br (0.959), Cl (0.957), Cu (0.916), Se (0.898), Ni (0.866), As (0.861), Zn (0.742), Ge (0.717), and Ga (0.588) content. The results suggest that the unburned carbon is promising material in terms of flue gas cleaning even if contained in highly calcareous fly ashes.

  20. Assessment of total and soluble fluoride content in commercial dentifrices in Davangere: A cross sectional survey

    OpenAIRE

    D J Veeresh; Umesh Wadgave

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The major reason for decline in dental caries across globe is because of widespread use of fluoride dentifrices. For a fluoride dentifrice to be effective in the control of dental caries, an adequate concentration of the fluoride must be soluble. Objective: To assess soluble fluoride and total fluoride content in selected commercial dentifrices in Davangere. Materials and Methods: The soluble fluoride and total fluoride content in six selected commercial dentifrices in Davangere...

  1. ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY, TOTAL PHENOLIC AND FLAVONOID CONTENT OF MORINDA CITRIFOLIA FRUIT EXTRACTS FROM VARIOUS EXTRACTION PROCESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRAVEEN K. RAMAMOORTHY

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Soxhlet, Ultrasonic extract of Morinda citrifolia L. fruit and four extracts from high pressure extraction at 10 MPa using ethanol, ethyl acetate as solvent and dried by vacuum oven and spray dryer were analyzed for their antioxidant activity by peroxide value method and diphenylpicrylhydrazyl radical scavenging method. The five extracts along with the reference samples, butylated hydroxyl toluene and tannic acid were further analyzed to determine their total phenolic content by Folin-Ciocalteau method and total flavonoid content by Dowd method. The M. citrifolia extract by high pressure extraction with ethyl acetate as solvent and spray dried was found to exhibit highest antioxidant activity and total flavonoid content. High total phenolic content was determined in the high pressure extract using ethyl acetate as solvent and vacuum dried. It was interesting to note that ultrasonic extract exhibited significant antioxidant activity, total phenolic and flavonoid content. High pressure extracted M. citrifolia in ethanol was found to express lesser values comparatively. The significant difference in activity among the high pressure extracts was found to be due to the polarity of the solvents used for extraction as M. citrifolia fruit contains relatively larger quantity of non-polar antioxidant compounds. It was also found that the drying methods had significant impact on the antioxidant activity, total phenolic and flavonoid content of the extracts.

  2. Preservation of semi-liquid Aloe gel: total phenolic and emodin content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana I.W Rakhmani

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Semi liquid Aloe gel (LBSC was preserved using sodium chloride (1, 2 and 3% and sugar (10, 20 and 30% for 7 weeks at 4ºC. Physical observations (color, odor and gas and chemical analysis (total phenolic and emodin were performed every week during preservation. Changing color was observed at the fourth week and until the seventh week. The total phenolic content decreased by 23.2, 12.9 and 19.0% in LBSC with 1, 2 and 3% salt respectively. The total phenolic content in LBSC with 10, 20 and 30% sugar decreased by 64.0, 53.8 and 30.4% respectively. The emodin content decreased by 60.7% for control (LBSC alone, but in LBSC with 1, 2 and 3% salt it was decreased by 26.2, 19.2 and 50.8% respectively. The emodin content in LBSC with 10, 20 and 30% sugar decreased by 70.5, 67.4 dan 82.4% respectively. Emodin was more unstable than total phenolic. Preservation using sugar was not preserve the availability of emodin, while salt could inhibit the decrease of emodin concentration in LBSC. Preservation of LBSC with 2% table salt gave the lowest decrease of emodin and total phenolic contents

  3. The application study of fly ash content light foam concrete%粉煤灰轻质泡沫混凝土的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯辉红; 黄起; 屈少华

    2016-01-01

    Energy saving,environmental protection,light and thermal insulation are the major research di-rection of building insulation materials,development of fly ash content light foam concrete is well adapted to this trend.The combination of industrial waste and insulation material foam concrete made each kinds of materials from each other,and well improved the unity of building insulation materials.Analysis of the composition,characteristics and existing problems of the fly ash content light foam concrete,studied the application prospect of the domestic foam concrete as building insulation materials,and the future applica-tion prospect of fly ash content light foam concrete.%节能、环保、轻质、保温隔热是建筑保温材料的主要研究方向,粉煤灰轻质泡沫混凝土的研制很好地适应了这个课题,集工业废料与保温隔热材料泡沫混凝土相结合,各种材料取长补短,很好地改善了建筑保温材料的单一性.分析了粉煤灰轻质泡沫混凝土的组成、特性以及目前存在的问题,研究了国内泡沫混凝土作为建筑保温材料的应用情况,并展望了粉煤灰轻质泡沫混凝土的未来应用前景.

  4. Total Phenolics and Total Flavonoids Contents and Hypnotic Effect in Mice of Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. Seed Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aye Moh Moh San

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The seeds of Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. have been traditionally used for treatment of various complications including insomnia and anxiety. They are popularly used as sedative and hypnotic drugs in China, Korea, Myanmar, Vietnam, and other Asian countries. However, no scientific proof on hypnotic activity of Z. mauritiana seeds (ZMS was reported. In this study, the hypnotic activity of 50% ethanolic extract from ZMS was observed on the loss of righting reflex in mice using pentobarbital-induced sleep mice method. The contents of total phenolics and total flavonoids in the extract were also determined. The results showed that the 50% ethanolic extract from ZMS contained total phenolics  mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE/g extract and total flavonoids  mg quercetin equivalent (QE/g extract. Oral administration of the extract at the dose of 200 mg/kg significantly increased the sleeping time in mice intraperitoneally administered with sodium pentobarbital (50 mg/kg body weight. These results supported the traditional use of ZMS for the treatment of insomnia. The seeds of Z. mauritiana should be further developed as an alternative sedative and/or hypnotic product.

  5. Blackberry wines mineral and heavy metal content determination after dry ashing: multivariate data analysis as a tool for fruit wine quality control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amidžić Klarić, Daniela; Klarić, Ilija; Mornar, Ana; Velić, Darko; Velić, Natalija

    2015-08-01

    This study brings out the data on the content of 21 mineral and heavy metal in 15 blackberry wines made of conventionally and organically grown blackberries. The objective of this study was to classify the blackberry wine samples based on their mineral composition and the applied cultivation method of the starting raw material by using chemometric analysis. The metal content of Croatian blackberry wine samples was determined by AAS after dry ashing. The comparison between an organic and conventional group of investigated blackberry wines showed statistically significant difference in concentrations of Si and Li, where the organic group contained higher concentrations of these compounds. According to multivariate data analysis, the model based on the original metal content data set finally included seven original variables (K, Fe, Mn, Cu, Ba, Cd and Cr) and gave a satisfactory separation of two applied cultivation methods of the starting raw material.

  6. Continuous measurements of the total ozone content in the full moon period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishov, Alexander G.

    1994-01-01

    Presented are the experimental data on the total ozone content obtained during continuous measurements (day-night-...-night-day) by Brewer 044 spectrophotometer near the Issyk Kul Lake (42.59N, 77.04W) at 1650 m above the sea level at full moon from 13 to 18 October 1989 under anomalously high transparent atmospheric conditions (the horizontal visibility range exceeded 50 km). At night the total O3 content decreased regularly to about 20 percent of the average daytime values. The minimum values at night were observed in 1-2 hours after the maximum solar dip below the horizon. In the daytime the measurements were carried out from direct Sun, at night - from the Moon. The values of the total ozone content for adjacent measurements from the Sun and from the Moon in the evening as well as in the morning are in good agreement.

  7. Total phenolic contents and antioxidant capacities of herbal and tea infusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Li; Xu, Bo-Tao; Gan, Ren-You; Zhang, Yuan; Xu, Xiang-Rong; Xia, En-Qin; Li, Hua-Bin

    2011-01-01

    In order to supply new information on the antioxidant function of selected beverages for nutritionists and the general public, total phenolic contents of 51 kinds of herbal and tea infusions made in China were measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, and their antioxidant capacities were evaluated using ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assays. A significant correlation between FRAP and TEAC values suggested that antioxidant components in these beverages were capable of reducing oxidants and scavenging free radicals. The high correlation between antioxidant capacities and total phenolic contents indicated that phenolic compounds could be one of the main components responsible for antioxidant activities of these beverages. Generally, these beverages had high antioxidant capacities and total phenolic contents, and could be important dietary sources of antioxidant phenolics for prevention of diseases caused by oxidative stress.

  8. Gas generation in incinerator ash; Gasbildning i aska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arm, Maria; Lindeberg, Johanna; Rodin, Aasa; Oehrstroem, Anna; Backman, Rainer; Oehman, Marcus; Bostroem, Dan

    2006-02-15

    other reactive metals in addition to aluminium (iron, copper and led were tested), the combination of high total aluminium content of an ash material and low volume of gas generation is possible, since the total aluminium content comprises both the elemental and the non-elemental aluminium and it is only the elemental aluminium that generates gas, aluminium particles can survive incineration without melting and without substantial oxidation of the particle surface, solid aluminium oxide (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) is the stable form of aluminium in a boiler. Based on the results in this project the following recommendations for handling the ash can be given to decrease the gas generation and to prevent the risk for explosion: The content of elemental aluminium or the potential of gas generation should be analysed regularly for ash materials from municipal waste incineration plants; Metal separation - including non-magnetic metals - of the fuel for waste incineration plants is necessary; Good ventilation of the ash after wetting, together with storage in oxygen rich environment is desirable.

  9. Optimization of supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of Piper Betel Linn leaves oil and total phenolic content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, A. H. A.; Yunus, M. A. C.; Arsad, N. H.; Lee, N. Y.; Idham, Z.; Razak, A. Q. A.

    2016-11-01

    Supercritical Carbon Dioxide (SC-CO2) Extraction was applied to extract piper betel linn leaves. The piper betel leaves oil was used antioxidant, anti-diabetic, anticancer and antistroke. The aim of this study was to optimize the conditions of pressure, temperature and flowrate for oil yield and total phenolic content. The operational conditions of SC-CO2 studied were pressure (10, 20, 30 MPa), temperature (40, 60, 80 °C) and flowrate carbon dioxide (4, 6, 8 mL/min). The constant parameters were average particle size and extraction regime, 355pm and 3.5 hours respectively. First order polynomial expression was used to express the extracted oil while second order polynomial expression was used to express the total phenolic content and the both results were satisfactory. The best conditions to maximize the total extraction oil yields and total phenolic content were 30 MPa, 80 °C and 4.42 mL/min leading to 7.32% of oil and 29.72 MPa, 67.53 °C and 7.98 mL/min leading to 845.085 mg GAE/g sample. In terms of optimum condition with high extraction yield and high total phenolic content in the extracts, the best operating conditions were 30 MPa, 78 °C and 8 mL/min with 7.05% yield and 791.709 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g sample. The most dominant condition for extraction of oil yield and phenolic content were pressure and CO2 flowrate. The results show a good fit to the proposed model and the optimal conditions obtained were within the experimental range with the value of R2 was 96.13% for percentage yield and 98.52% for total phenolic content.

  10. Nondestructive Determination of Total Chlorophyll Content in Maize Using Three-Wavelength Diffuse Reflectance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, D.-D.; Wang, W.-Z.; Hu, J.-D.; Zhang, X.-M.; Wang, J.-B.; Wang, B.-S.

    2016-09-01

    Chlorophyll in leaves plays a vital role in plant growth and can be used as an indicator of a plant's nutritional status. In this paper, an experimental setup for measuring total chlorophyll content using three-wavelength diffuse reflectance is proposed, for which light-emitting diodes with peak wavelengths of 640, 660, and 940 nm are used. Two different maize strains, Zhengdan-958 and Xundan-20, fertilized at different levels before the jointing stage, were used to validate this setup. Regression analyses between remission function values of diffuse reflectance and SPAD values, as well as remission function values of diffuse reflectance and the actual total chlorophyll content, were performed. The determination coefficients between remission function values and the actual total chlorophyll content were 0.9766 for Zhengdan-958 leaves and 0.9612 for Xundan-20 leaves. The experimental results validated the feasibility of using the diffuse reflectance spectrum to determine the total chlorophyll content. This paper also provides guidance for the development of a portable instrument to determine the actual chlorophyll content.

  11. Total phenolic, anthocyanin contents and antioxidant capacity of selected elderberry (Sambucus canadensis L. accessions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Ozgen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fourteen purple-black American elderberry accessions (Sambucus canadensis L. obtained from various sites in midwestern USA and then grown at a single Ohio production site in USA were analyzed for their total phenolic (TP and total monomeric anthocyanin (TMA contents and for their antioxidant capacity by the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP and DPPH radical scavenging assays. Total phenolic and anthocyanin contents were measured using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and the pH differential methods, respectively. Overall, the phytonutrient contents and antioxidant capacity of our elderberry accessions were similar to those typically reported for black raspberries, blackberries and other dark-fleshed small fruits. Variability among accessions was greatest for TMA content (CV 37.5%; individuals ranged nearly threefold from 1308 to 4004 μg cy3-GE/g on a fresh weight basis. Variation among accessions was also evident for TP, FRAP and DPPH values (CV 14.4, 21.7 and 26.8%, respectively. TP and TMA values were very highly correlated (r = 0.93, although individuals differed in the estimated proportion of total phenolics attributable to anthocyanins. Both TP and TMA also highly correlated to antioxidant capacity values (r = 0.70-0.85. Within this limited study of 14 accessions, variability for phytonutrient content and antioxidant capacity suggested the employment of wild germplasm within an elderberry improvement program to incorporate an array of superior horticultural, post-harvest or processing traits into new or existing cultivars with superior phytonutrient profiles.

  12. Total nitrogen vs. amino-acid profile as indicator of protein content of beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Nicolette G; Schönfeldt, Hettie C

    2013-10-01

    In most cited food composition studies and tables, the proximate system measures protein as total nitrogen (N) (determined by Kjeldahl or Dumas method) multiplied by a specific factor. A factor of 6.25 is used for determining total protein from total N (Jones, Munsey, & Walker, 1942). Although more expensive, it is considered more accurate to base protein content of foods on amino acid data (Greenfield & Southgate, 2003). A study on the nutrient composition of beef analysed the full amino-acid profile of fifteen retail cuts from three age groups and six fat codes, as well as determined total nitrogen content to determine proximate protein composition. For all cuts, the correlation coefficient of total amino acids to protein (N×6.25) was 0.635. This indicates a poor correlation for predicting actual protein content (as determined by total amino acid count), based on the nitrogen factor of 6.25. On average, the sum of amino acids per cut amounted to 91% of total determined protein (N×6.25) for the same cut.

  13. Total and Free Sugar Content of Canadian Prepackaged Foods and Beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodi T. Bernstein

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A number of recommendations for policy and program interventions to limit excess free sugar consumption have emerged, however there are a lack of data describing the amounts and types of sugar in foods. This study presents an assessment of sugar in Canadian prepackaged foods including: (a the first systematic calculation of free sugar contents; (b a comprehensive assessment of total sugar and free sugar levels; and (c sweetener and free sugar ingredient use, using the University of Toronto’s Food Label Information Program (FLIP database 2013 (n = 15,342. Food groups with the highest proportion of foods containing free sugar ingredients also had the highest median total sugar and free sugar contents (per 100 g/mL: desserts (94%, 15 g, and 12 g, sugars and sweets (91%, 50 g, and 50 g, and bakery products (83%, 16 g, and 14 g, proportion with free sugar ingredients, median total sugar and free sugar content in Canadian foods, respectively. Free sugar accounted for 64% of total sugar content. Eight of 17 food groups had ≥75% of the total sugar derived from free sugar. Free sugar contributed 20% of calories overall in prepackaged foods and beverages, with the highest at 70% in beverages. These data can be used to inform interventions aimed at limiting free sugar consumption.

  14. Intra- and inter-unit variation in fly ash petrography and mercury adsorption: Examples from a western Kentucky power station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hower, J.C.; Finkelman, R.B.; Rathbone, R.F.; Goodman, J.

    2000-01-01

    Fly ash was collected from eight mechanical and 10 baghouse hoppers at each of the twin 150-MW wall-fired units in a western Kentucky power station. The fuel burned at that time was a blend of many low-sulfur, high-volatile bituminous Central Appalachian coals. The baghouse ash showed less variation between units than the mechanical hoppers. The mechanical fly ash, coarser than the baghouse ash, showed significant differences in the amount of total carbon and in the ratio of isotropic coke to both total carbon and total coke - the latter excluding inertinite and other unburned, uncoked coal. There was no significant variation in proportions of inorganic fly ash constituents. The inter-unit differences in the amount and forms of mechanical fly ash carbon appear to be related to differences in pulverizer efficiency, leading to greater amounts of coarse coal, therefore unburned carbon, in one of the units. Mercury capture is a function of both the total carbon content and the gas temperature at the point of fly ash separation, mercury content increasing with an increase in carbon for a specific collection system. Mercury adsorption on fly ash carbon increases at lower flue-gas temperatures. Baghouse fly ash, collected at a lower temperature than the higher-carbon mechanically separated fly ash, contains a significantly greater amount of Hg.

  15. THE RESEARCH OF TOTAL POLYPHENOLS CONTENT AND THEIR CHANGES IN DIFFERENT VARIETIES OF POTATOES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beáta Volnová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenols are secondary metabolites of plants with antioxidant properties. In this work we research the changes in the content of total polyphenols in five varieties of potatoes (Rumelia, Arwen, Megan, Malvína, Erídia. Potatoes were grown at the stage of full maturity from Matejovce nad Hornádom, region of Poprad. Total polyphenols we determined in whole peeled potatoes; in the outside part of peeled potato tubers (1 cm; in inside part of potato tubers (mean 2 cm and in the whole peel-boiled potatoes. The total polyphenols content was determined by spectrophotometry (λ = 765 nm and it was used lyophilized samples in ethanol extracts. In whole peeled potatoes was the content of total polyphenols in the range from 243.34 mg.kg-1 DM (cv. Rumelia to 446.38 mg.kg-1 DM (cv. Megan, in the outside part of peeled potato tubers was content in the range from 190.45 mg.kg-1 (cv. Rumelia to 446.84 mg.kg-1 DM (cv. Malvína and in inside part of potato tubers from 245.51 mg.kg-1 to 446.26 mg.kg-1 DM (Arwen < Rumelia < Megan < Erídia < Malvína. In the whole peel-boiled potatoes was the lowest content of total polyphenols in variety Rumelia (252.5 mg.kg-1 DM and the highest content in variety Megan (440.54 mg.kg-1 DM. Results were statistically evaluated by the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA – Multiple Range Tests, Method: 95.0 percent LSD using statistical software STATGRAPHICS (Centurion XVI.I, USA and the regression and correlation analysis (Microsoft Excel was used.

  16. Genetic variability among sorghum accessions for seed starch and stalk total sugar content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abe Shegro Gerrano

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench is a staple food grain in many semi-arid and tropical areas of the world, notably in sub-Saharan Africa because of its adaptation to harsh environments. Among important biochemical components for sorghum for processors are the levels of starch (amylose and amylopectin and total sugar contents. The aim of this study was to determine the genetic variation for total starch in the seed, its components and total sugar in the stalks of the sorghum accessions from Ethiopia and South Africa. Samples of 22 sorghum accessions were evaluated. Significant variations were observed in total starch (31.01 to 64.88 %, amylose (14.05 to 18.91 %, the amylose/amylopectin ratio (0.31 to 0.73 and total stalk sugar content (9.36 to 16.84 %. Multivariate analysis showed a wide genetic variation within and among germplasm accessions which could be used in the selection of parental lines for the improvement of traits of interest through breeding. The variation found among the sorghum accessions shows that an improved total starch and starch components and stalk sugar contents can be achieved through crossing these selected genotypes.

  17. Total Oil Content and Fatty Acid Profile of some Almond (Amygdalus Communis L. Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yildirim Adnan Nurhan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the total oil contents and fatty acid compositions of some commercial almond cultivars. The total oil contents changed significantly (p<0.05 by year in all cultivars with the exception of cultivar Ferrastar. Total oil contents were changed from 50.90% (Picantili to 62.01% (Supernova in 2008 and from 52.44% (Lauranne to 63.18% (Cristomorto in 2009. While predominant unsaturated fatty acids were oleic and linoleic acids, predominant saturated fatty acid was palmitic acid. The highest amount of oleic acid was obtained in Glorieta in both 2008 (83.35% and 2009 (72.74%. Linoleic acid content varied by year and the highest content was recorded in Picantili (26.08% in 2008 and Yaltinski (30.01% in 2009. The highest amount of palmitic acid was detected in cultivar Sonora in both years, i.e. as 7.76% in 2008 and 10.11% in 2009. The mean UFA:SFA ratio was 11.73 in 2008 but 7.59 in 2009. Principal component (PC analysis indicated that palmitic acid, palmitoleic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, arachidic acid, unsaturated fatty acid (UFA, saturated fatty acid (SFA and UFA:SFA ratio were primarily responsible for the separation on PC1

  18. Nutritional composition and total collagen content of three commercially important edible jellyfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khong, Nicholas M H; Yusoff, Fatimah Md; Jamilah, B; Basri, Mahiran; Maznah, I; Chan, Kim Wei; Nishikawa, Jun

    2016-04-01

    The study aimed to evaluate nutraceutical potential of three commercially significant edible jellyfish species (Acromitus hardenbergi, Rhopilema hispidum and Rhopilema esculentum). The bell and oral arms of these jellyfishes were analyzed for their proximate composition, calorific value, collagen content, amino acid profile, chemical score and elemental constituent. In general, all jellyfish possessed low calorific values (1.0-4.9 kcal/g D.W.) and negligible fat contents (0.4-1.8 g/100 g D.W.), while protein (20.0-53.9 g/100 g D.W.) and minerals (15.9-57.2g/100g D.W.) were found to be the richest components. Total collagen content of edible jellyfish varied from 122.64 to 693.92 mg/g D.W., accounting for approximately half its total protein content. The dominant amino acids in both bell and oral arms of all jellyfish studied includes glycine, glutamate, threonine, proline, aspartate and arginine, while the major elements were sodium, potassium, chlorine, magnesium, sulfur, zinc and silicon. Among the jellyfish, A. hardenbergi exhibited significantly higher total amino acids, chemical scores and collagen content (pjellyfish is an appealing source of nutritive ingredients for the development of oral formulations, nutricosmetics and functional food.

  19. Total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of myrtle (Myrtus communis) extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amensour, Mahassine; Sendra, Esther; Abrini, Jamal; Bouhdid, Samira; Pérez-Alvarez, José Angel; Fernández-López, Juana

    2009-06-01

    The total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of methanolic, ethanolic and aqueous extracts of myrtle (Myrtus communis) leaves and berries were measured to find new potential sources of natural antioxidants. Total phenolic content was assessed by the Folin-Ciocalteau assay, while the antioxidant activity was evaluated by three methods: diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity assay, the reducing antioxidant power assay and beta-carotene linoleic acid assay. The total phenol content of myrtle extracts ranged between 9.0 and 35.6 mg GAE per g extract. For each solvent, leaf extracts contained significantly higher amount of total phenolic compounds than berry extracts. All of the extracts presented antioxidant capacity assessed by the three methods, but at different levels depending on the concentration, the extraction solvent and the part of the plant used. Generally, leaf extracts showed higher antioxidant activities than berry extracts, while the overall antioxidant strength was in the order methanol > water > ethanol in leaf extracts and methanol > ethanol > water in berry extracts. The phenolic content exhibited a positive correlation with the antioxidant activity: DPPH assay showed the highest correlation (r = 0.949), followed by the reducing power assay (r = 0.914) and the lowest for the beta-carotene linoleic acid assay (r = 0.722).

  20. Detection of ionospheric signatures from GPS-derived total electron content maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durgonics, Tibor; Prates, G.; Berrocoso, M.

    2014-01-01

    Geographical Information Systems (GIS) are employed to build hourly ionospheric Total Electron Content (TEC) maps for 2011 over the southern Iberian Peninsula. The maps used GPS-derived geometryfree linear combinations attained from station data from the Algarve, Alentejo (Portugal), Andalusia, Murcia...

  1. Harmonic analysis of total electron contents time series: methodology and results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amiri-Simkooei, A.R.; Asgari, J.

    2011-01-01

    In an attempt to model regular variations of the ionosphere, the least-squares harmonic estimation is applied to the time series of the total electron contents (TEC) provided by the JPL analysis center. Multivariate and modulated harmonic estimation spectra are introduced and estimated for the serie

  2. Analysis of antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of some homoeopathic mother tinctures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Antioxidant compounds are widely used in health protection. Homoeopathic mother tinctures are commonly prescribed for prevention and cure of many illnesses. Objective: The present study focused to determine the antioxidant potential of six commonly prescribed mother tinctures. i.e. Syzygium jambolanum, Damiana, Cinchona officinalis, Chelidonium majus, Convallaria majalis, Coca. Materials and Methods: Antioxidant activity was estimated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH inhibition assay. A volume of 0.1 mM solution of DPPH was used while mother tinctures (5, 2.5, and 1.25 μl volumes were used for estimating antioxidant activity. Quercetin was taken as a standard control in antioxidant activity. Total phenolic content was measured by Folin–Ciocalteu reagent assay. Total phenolic content of mother tinctures was measured in comparison to gallic acid. Results: Results of the study showed the significant antioxidant activity and high total phenolic content of all tested mother tinctures in the following order: Syzygium jambolanum, Damiana, Cinchona officinalis, Chelidonium majus, Convallaria majalis, Coca. Conclusion: Antioxidant potential of mother tinctures is related to total phenolic content present in them, and their role in prevention and cure of diseases may link through their antioxidant activity. Among six selected mother tinctures, S. jambolanum has highest antioxidant potential.

  3. Photoacoustic approach in direct determination of the total phenolic content in Red Sorghum Flours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doka, O.; Bicanic, D.D.; Dicko, M.H.; Slingerland, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    Photoacoustic (PA) spectroscopy in the ultraviolet and visible was demonstrated to be a suitable tool for direct determination of total phenolic content in red sorghum flours. The PA spectra obtained feature two characteristic peaks: the first centered at 285 nm is due to the aromatic amino acids,

  4. Antioxidant activities and total phenol content of Inula viscosa extracts selected from three regions of Morocco

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Naima; Chahmi; Jaouad; Anissi; Sanae; Jennan; Abdellah; Farah; Khalid; Sendide; Mohammed; El; Hassouni

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate antioxidant activity,total phenolic and flavonoid content of ethanol(E) and ethyl acetate(A) extracts of Inula viscosa aerial parts selected from three regions of Morocco(Imouzzer.Sefrou and Taounate).Methods:Antioxidants properties were measured by three different test systems of assay namely free radical scavenging activities against 2,2-diphenyI-1-picrylhydrazyl,total antioxidant capacity and iron-reducing capacity.Total phenolic content was measured by FolinCiocalteu reagent.Results:All the extracts showed significant antioxidant activities and contained important levels of phenols.The ethanol extract(0.3 mg/mL) from Sefrou showed the greatest antioxidant capacity in the three systems of assay,which was probably due to its high content of polyphenols(274.39±6.94) mg gallic acid equivalent/g dry extract.Total flavonoid content was found equal for all extracts.Conclusions:Our results of antioxidant assays were justified and partially supported the popular usage of the tested plants.The high antioxidant activity found in the plant from Sefrou and its great biomass in this region suggested that Inula viscosa is a good source of natural antioxidants compounds which might have benefits for health.

  5. AOAC SMPR 2015.009: Estimation of total phenolic content using Folin-C Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    This AOAC Standard Method Performance Requirements (SMPR) is for estimation of total soluble phenolic content in dietary supplement raw materials and finished products using the Folin-C assay for comparison within same matrices. SMPRs describe the minimum recommended performance characteristics to b...

  6. Non-destructive Measurement of Total Carotenoid Content in Processed Tomato Products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bicanic, D.; Streza, M.; Dóka, O.; Valinger, D.; Luterotti, S.; Ajtony, Zs; Kurtanjek, Z.; Dadarlat, D.

    2015-01-01

    Carotenes found in a diversity of fruits and vegetables are among important natural antioxidants. In a study described in this paper, the total carotenoid content (TCC) in seven different products derived from thermally processed tomatoes was determined using laser photoacoustic spectroscopy (LPA

  7. Effects of Shuanghuangbu on the total protein content and ultrastructure in cultured human periodontal ligament cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许彦枝; 邹慧儒; 王小玲; 刘世正; 王永军

    2004-01-01

    Background Successful periodontal regeneration depends on the migration, proliferation and differentiation of periodontal ligament cells in periodontal defects. The total protein content and the ultrastructure demonstrate the metabolizability and activity of periodontal ligament cells. This study was conducted to observe the effects of Shuanghuangbu, a mixture of medicinal herbs, on the total protein content and the ultrastructure of human periodontal ligament cells.Methods Periodontal ligament cells were grown to confluence and then cultured in Dulbecco's modified eagle medium (DMEM) supplemented with Shuanghuangbu over the concentration range of 0 to 1000 μg/ml. The total protein content in cultured cells was determined by using Coommasie brilliant blue technique. Periodontal ligament cells were incubated in 0 and 100 μg/ml Shuanghuangbu decoction for 5 days, then observed through transmission electron microscope.Results The total protein content of human periodontal ligament cells increased in each experiment group added 10-1000 μg/ml Shuanghuangbu respectively, and the effect of 100 μg/ml was excellent. Under the transmission electron microscope, there were more rough endoplasmic reticulums and mitochodrias in the experiment group than those in the control group. Conclusion Shuanghuangbu stimulates the protein synthesis of human periodontal ligament cells and improves human periodontal ligament cells' metabolizability and activity.

  8. Quantitative analysis of total starch content in wheat flour by reaction headspace gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wei-Qi; Gong, Yi-Xian; Yu, Kong-Xian

    2017-07-10

    This paper proposed a new reaction headspace gas chromatographic (HS-GC) method for efficiently quantifying the total starch content in wheat flours. A certain weight of wheat flour was oxidized by potassium dichromate in an acidic condition in a sealed headspace vial. The results show that the starch in wheat flour can be completely transferred to carbon dioxide at the given conditions (at 100 °C for 40 min) and the total starch content in wheat flour sample can be indirectly quantified by detecting the CO2 formed from the oxidation reaction. The data showed that the relative standard deviation of the reaction HS-GC method in the precision test was less than 3.06%, and the relative differences between the new method and the reference method (titration method) were no more than 8.90%. The new reaction HS-GC method is automated, accurate, and can be a reliable tool for determining the total starch content in wheat flours in both laboratory and industrial applications. Graphical abstract The total starch content in wheat flour can be indirectly quantified by the GC detection of the CO2 formed from the oxidation reaction between wheat flour and potassium dichromate in an acidic condition.

  9. Machine vision analysis for industrial beet color change kinetics and total soluble solid content

    Science.gov (United States)

    A machine vision system (MVS) for the measurement of color change kinetics in crushed industrial beet to evaluate the total soluble solid content (°Brix) was developed in this study. It is expected that higher the °Brix faster the color change and modeling this color change kinetics helps in assessi...

  10. Antioxidant Activity, Total Phenolic and Flavonoid Contents of Three Onobrychis Species from Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roya Karamian , Mostafa Asadbegy

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Plant phenolic compounds are a main group of plant natural products and flavonoids are the largest and best studied natural phenols. These substances possess a series of biological properties and act on biological systems as antioxidants. In present research, the aim is to determine in vitro total phenolics content and antioxidant activity of the methanolic extracts of three Onobrychis species belonging to the family Fabaceae, namely O. sosnovskyi Grossh., O. viciifolia Scop. and O. melanotricha Boiss. Furthermore, an attempt was made to identify any correlations between total phenolic content of the extracts with their antioxidant activities Methods: Total phenol and flavonoid contents of the extracts were determined by Folin-Ciocalteu and aluminum chloride methods, respectively. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by three different test systems, namely 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging (DPPH, metal-chelation activity and ß-carotene/linoleic acid model. Results: Results indicated that O. viciifolia extract contains the highest total phenolic content (10.38 ± 0.33mg GAE/g of dry extract. However, the species are not remarkable different (P 0.55 to 0.98. Conclusion: Our results showed that the examined Onobrychis extracts represent strong antioxidant activity; hence, they can be suggested as antioxidant agents for special use in future.

  11. Non-destructive Measurement of Total Carotenoid Content in Processed Tomato Products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bicanic, D.; Streza, M.; Dóka, O.; Valinger, D.; Luterotti, S.; Ajtony, Zs; Kurtanjek, Z.; Dadarlat, D.

    2015-01-01

    Carotenes found in a diversity of fruits and vegetables are among important natural antioxidants. In a study described in this paper, the total carotenoid content (TCC) in seven different products derived from thermally processed tomatoes was determined using laser photoacoustic spectroscopy

  12. Changes of Gibberellin and Total Sugar Content in Flower Developmental Stages of Mangosteen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I NYOMAN RAI

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this experiment were to study the changes of gibberellic acid and total sugar content in flower developmental stages of mangosteen. The result showed that flower development of mangosteen consisted of four stages: induction, differentiation, maturition of flower organs, and anthesis. Floral induction was microscopically characterized by the swelling of the basal structure of the new shoot. It was found that induction stage of mangosteen flowering was characterized by sharp decrease of gibberellic acid (GA3, GA5, GA7 and increase of total sugar content of leaf. On the other hand, it was found that leaf of the non-flowering shoot apices had high gibbrellic acid and low total sugar.

  13. Effect of Fly Ash on the Electrical Conductivity of Concretes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The fly ash occasionally has high content of iron oxide and carbon that are good electrical conducting components. This paper investigates the effect of the fly ash used as mineral admixtures on the electrical conductivity of concretes. The electrical properties of concretes using 3 kinds of fly ash with different iron oxide contents have been studied. Experimental results show that at the same fly ash dosage the resistivity of concrete using fly ash with high content of iron oxide is slightly lower than that with low content of iron oxide. However, the concrete resistivity after 14d increases as fly ash dosage increases regardless of iron oxide content in fly ash.

  14. Study of Commercial Wheat Flour Milling Process:Relation of Flour Yield,Ash and Protein Contents of Flour Mill and Characteristics of Wheat Blend%Study of Commercial Wheat Flour Milling Process: Relation of Flour Yield, Ash and Protein Contents of Flour Mill and Characteristics of Wheat Blend

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y S Kim; C W Deyoe; O K Chung; E Haque

    2006-01-01

    The profit margin in the flour milling industry is quite narrow, so high-quality raw materials and efficiency of milling operations are crucial for every company. Many flour mills, especially those which import wheat from other countries and have limited storage space for the different varieties or classes of wheat, can not afford to buy low quality wheat. Consequently, a mathematical model which can test the impact and interactions of raw materials, in technical point of view, would be a useful decision-making tool for the milling industry. A flour miller tests wheat for physical and chemical characteristics, cleanness and soundness. The miller also performs experimental milling, if available, to have some idea how the given wheat will behave during commercial milling. Based on these test results, the miller can only guess the commercial milling results such as flour yields and flour ash and protein contents. Thus, the objective of this study was to develop empirical equations to estimate commercial milling results, using the physical, chemical and experimental milling data of the given wheat blend and also, additionally, flour ash and protein specifications of the end-user. This was done by using the actual commercial milling procedures and their wheat physical, chemical, experimental milling data, and other vital data. Data were collected from a commercial mill located in East Asia that had four production lines and used wheat blend combinations from five different wheat classes, i.e. Hard Red Winter (HRW),Dark Northern Spring (DNS), Soft White (SW), Australian Soft (AS), and Australian Standard White (ASW) wheat to produce over 40 different products. The wheat physical and chemical characteristics included test weight, thousand kernel weight, ash and protein contents. The experimental milling data were straight-grade and patent flour yields, along with patent flour ash and protein contents from a Buhler experimental mill. The commercial milling results included

  15. Effect of sulfite treatment on total antioxidant capacity, total oxidant status, lipid hydroperoxide, and total free sulfydryl groups contents in normal and sulfite oxidase-deficient rat plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herken, Emine Nur; Kocamaz, Erdogan; Erel, Ozcan; Celik, Hakim; Kucukatay, Vural

    2009-08-01

    Sulfites, which are commonly used as preservatives, are continuously formed in the body during the metabolism of sulfur-containing amino acids. Sulfite oxidase (SOX) is an essential enzyme in the pathway of the oxidative degradation of sulfite to sulfate protecting cells from sulfite toxicity. This article investigated the effect of sulfite on total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total oxidant status, lipid hydroperoxide (LOOH), and total free sulfydryl groups (-SH) levels in normal and SOX-deficient male albino rat plasma. For this purpose, rats were divided into four groups: control, sulfite-treated, SOX-deficient, and sulfite-treated SOX-deficient groups. SOX deficiency was established by feeding rats a low molybdenum diet and adding to their drinking water 200 ppm tungsten. Sulfite (70 mg/kg) was administered to the animals via their drinking water. SOX deficiency together with sulfite treatment caused a significant increase in the plasma LOOH and total oxidant status levels. -SH content of rat plasma significantly decreased by both sulfite treatment and SOX deficiency compared to the control. There was also a significant decrease in plasma TAC level by sulfite treatment. In conclusion, sulfite treatment affects the antioxidant/oxidant balance of the plasma cells of the rats toward oxidants in SOX-deficient groups.

  16. Free radical scavenging activity, total phenolic and flavonoid contents of mulberry (Morus spp. L., Moraceae extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radojković Marija M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mulberry (Morus spp. L., Moraceae fruits, leaves, bark and branch have been used in traditional medicine as diuretic, hypoglycemic and hypotensive. The mechanism of their effects is correlated with the content of active components. Objective of this work was to evaluate and compare antioxidant properties of different extracts of two Morus species growing in Serbia: Morus alba L. (white mulberry and Morus nigra L. (black mulberry. Potential antioxidant activity, content of antioxidant compounds (phenolics and flavonoids and radical scavenging capacity, tested by DPPH method, were evaluated. The phenolic and flavonoid composition of different Morus extracts was determined by the HPLC method. The extracts prepared from fruits, leaves and roots of M. alba and M. nigra exhibited different characteristics. The highest extraction yield was achieved by M. alba leaves extraction (23.40%. M. nigra roots extract shown the highest total phenolics (186.30 mg CAE/g, while highest total flavonoids content (67.37 mg RE/g was determined for M. nigra leaves extracts. In addition, black mulberry leaves extracts with the highest antioxidant activity had the highest phenolic acids contents. The dominant phenolic components in the samples were rutin and chlorogenic acid. All investigated mulberry dry extracts shown high content of phenolic compounds and significant antioxidant activity. This work contributes to knowledge of the antioxidant properties of Morus species. The obtained results may be useful in the evaluation of new dietary supplements and food products.

  17. Total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of six wild Mentha species (Lamiaceae) from northeast of Algeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amina Benabdallah; Chaabane Rahmoune; Mahieddine Boumendjel; Oumayma Aissi; Chokri Messaoud

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the total phenolics, flavonoids and tannins content and the in vitro antioxidant activities of methanolic extracts of six wild Mentha species which are Mentha aquatica, Mentha arvensis, Mentha piperita, Mentha pulegium, Mentha rotun-difolia and Mentha villosa. Methods: The Folin–Ciocalteu method was used to determine the total phenols content while flavonoids were estimated according to the aluminum chloride colorimetric method. To evaluate tannins content, vanillin and HCl were added to methanolic extracts. The antioxidant potential was measured by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging, ferrous ion chelating and the inhibition ofβ-carotene bleaching assays. Results: The methanol extracts of Algerian mints were rich in phenolic compounds and exhibited powerful antioxidant activity ranging from 7.5μg/mL to 44.66μg/mL, which varied significantly among species. Mentha aquatica stood out with efficient antioxidant ability which was correlated to the high total phenolics content, followed by Mentha arvensis and Mentha piperita with very close values, comparing to Mentha pulegium, Mentha rotundifolia and Mentha villosa with lowest values. Conclusions: These results show that methanolic extracts of Mentha species from Algeria have a great potential of polyphenols which can be used as a natural food pre-servative and antioxidant source.

  18. Influence of Drying Temperature on Total Phenolic Content And Antioxidant Capacity of Grape Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilara Konuk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Grape seed, which is an organic waste arise from production of wine, juice and molasses, is considered as a functional food ingredient in food formulations because of its rich content of bioactive compounds. This study was performed in order to evaluate the effect of air-drying temperature on the bioactive compounds of grape seeds. In the study, total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of grape seeds that are dehydrated at different drying temperatures (40, 50 and 60°C were determined. When comparing the fresh grape seeds with the corresponding dehydrated samples, it was shown that the drying operation led to reduction of total phenolic contents and the total phenolic contents decreased with an increase of the drying temperature. According to ABTS radical scavenging method, Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC was found to be highest for fresh grape seeds and presented lower values for grape seeds dried at three different temperatures. As a result of the study, it was demonstrated that grape seed is a powerful antioxidant source and it has still high antioxidant activity after drying process. However, drying at low temperatures was put forward to be advantageous in order to reduce the losses of phenolic components.

  19. Determination of fat and total protein content in milk using conventional digital imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kucheryavskiy, Sergey; Melenteva, Anastasiia; Bogomolov, Andrey

    2014-01-01

    The applicability of conventional digital imaging to quantitative determination of fat and total protein in cow’s milk, based on the phenomenon of light scatter, has been proved. A new algorithm for extracting features from digital images of milk samples has been developed. The algorithm takes...... with cross-validated R2=0.890 for fat content and R2=0.720 for protein content). The results have been compared with previously published Vis/SW-NIR spectroscopic study of similar samples....

  20. Assessment of total and soluble fluoride content in commercial dentifrices in Davangere: A cross sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D J Veeresh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The major reason for decline in dental caries across globe is because of widespread use of fluoride dentifrices. For a fluoride dentifrice to be effective in the control of dental caries, an adequate concentration of the fluoride must be soluble. Objective: To assess soluble fluoride and total fluoride content in selected commercial dentifrices in Davangere. Materials and Methods: The soluble fluoride and total fluoride content in six selected commercial dentifrices in Davangere were assessed and expressed as ppm of fluoride (F (mgF/g. Total fluoride and soluble fluoride was determined using an ion-specific electrode. Descriptive statistics applied to assess the mean total fluoride and soluble fluoride. Results: The total fluoride and soluble fluoride concentrations were approximately near to 1,000 ppm. Among the six dentifrices evaluated, four contained sodium fluoride (NaF and two contained sodium monofluorophosphate (Na MFP as fluoride compound. Conclusions: All the fluoridated dentifrices evaluated in this study contain adequate amount of soluble and total fluoride.

  1. Antioxidant Activity and Total Phenolic and Flavonoid Contents of Hieracium pilosella L. Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasna Čanadanovic-Brunet

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant activity ofwater, ethanol and methanol Hieracium pilosella L.extracts is reported. The antioxidative activity was tested by spectrophotometrically measuring their ability to scavenge a stable DPPH· free radical and a reactive hydroxyl radical trapped by DMPO during the Fenton reaction, using the ESR spectroscopy. Total phenolic content and total flavonoid content were evaluated according to the Folin-Ciocalteu procedure, and a colorimetric method, respectively. A HPLC method was used for identification of some phenolic compounds (chlorogenic acid, apigenin-7-O-glucoside and umbelliferone. The antioxidant activity of the investigated extracts slightly differs depending on the solvent used. The concentration of 0.30 mg/mL of water, ethanol and methanol extract is less effective in scavenging hydroxyl radicals (56.35, 58.73 and 54.35%, respectively in comparison with the DPPH· radical scavenging activity (around 95% for all extracts. The high contents of total phenolic compounds (239.59–244.16 mg GAE/g of dry extract and total flavonoids (79.13–82.18 mg RE/g of dry extract indicated that these compounds contribute to the antioxidative activity.

  2. Geographical variation in total and inorganic arsenic content of polished (white) rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meharg, Andrew A; Williams, Paul N; Adomako, Eureka; Lawgali, Youssef Y; Deacon, Claire; Villada, Antia; Cambell, Robert C J; Sun, Guoxin; Zhu, Yong-Guan; Feldmann, Joerg; Raab, Andrea; Zhao, Fang-Jie; Islam, Rafiqul; Hossain, Shahid; Yanai, Junta

    2009-03-01

    An extensive data set of total arsenic analysis for 901 polished (white) grain samples, originating from 10 countries from 4 continents, was compiled. The samples represented the baseline (i.e., notspecifically collected from arsenic contaminated areas), and all were for market sale in major conurbations. Median total arsenic contents of rice varied 7-fold, with Egypt (0.04 mg/kg) and India (0.07 mg/kg) having the lowest arsenic content while the U.S. (0.25 mg/kg) and France (0.28 mg/kg) had the highest content. Global distribution of total arsenic in rice was modeled by weighting each country's arsenic distribution by that country's contribution to global production. A subset of 63 samples from Bangladesh, China, India, Italy, and the U.S. was analyzed for arsenic species. The relationship between inorganic arsenic contentversus total arsenic contentsignificantly differed among countries, with Bangladesh and India having the steepest slope in linear regression, and the U.S. having the shallowest slope. Using country-specific rice consumption data, daily intake of inorganic arsenic was estimated and the associated internal cancer risk was calculated using the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) cancer slope. Median excess internal cancer risks posed by inorganic arsenic ranged 30-fold for the 5 countries examined, being 0.7 per 10,000 for Italians to 22 per 10,000 for Bangladeshis, when a 60 kg person was considered.

  3. IN VITRO ANTIOXIDANT, TOTAL PHENOLIC CONTENT AND BRINE SHRIMP LETHALITY STUDIES OF SYNEDRELLA NODIFLORA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Hassan Kawsar et al.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant activity of methanol extract of whole plant of Synedrella nodiflora as well as its petroleum ether, carbon tetrachloride, dichloro-methane and aqueous soluble partitionates were evaluated by DPPH of (1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and phosphomolybdenum total antioxidant assay and compared with standard antioxidants butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT and ascorbic acid (ASA. The total phenolic content was also determined and expressed in gallic acid equivalent (mg of GAE/g of sample. A great variance was observed for polyphenol content as well as antioxidant activity (1.574-9.4136 mg GAE/g and DPPH IC50 10.52-31.25 μg/ml depending on the nature of solvent used to fractionate the crude extract. The result demonstrated that dichloromethane soluble fraction revealed the highest amount of phenolic compounds (9.4136 mg GAE/g and also had significant free radical scavenging activity (IC50 10.52 μg/ml. A positive correlation was observed between total phenolic content and total antioxidant activity of S. nodiflora having correlation coefficient (R2 of 0.9270. The general toxicity of the extractive was studied by brine shrimp lethality bioassay and from the results (LC50 0.023-0.122 μg/ml, it can be well predicted that the crude extract and the partitionate fractions contain cytotoxic principles and have considerable toxic potencies which supported the insecticidal uses of plant by the indigenous people.

  4. Environmental impacts of the Tennessee Valley Authority Kingston coal ash spill. 2. Effect of coal ash on methylmercury in historically contaminated river sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deonarine, Amrika; Bartov, Gideon; Johnson, Thomas M; Ruhl, Laura; Vengosh, Avner; Hsu-Kim, Heileen

    2013-02-19

    The Tennessee Valley Authority Kingston coal ash spill in December 2008 deposited approximately 4.1 million m(3) of fly ash and bottom ash into the Emory and Clinch River system (Harriman, Tennessee, U.S.A.). The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of the ash on surface water and sediment quality over an eighteen month period after the spill, with a specific focus on mercury and methylmercury in sediments. Our results indicated that surface water quality was not impaired with respect to total mercury concentrations. However, in the sediments of the Emory River near the coal ash spill, total mercury concentrations were 3- to 4-times greater than sediments several miles upstream of the ash spill. Similarly, methylmercury content in the Emory and Clinch River sediments near the ash spill were slightly elevated (up to a factor of 3) at certain locations compared to upstream sediments. Up to 2% of the total mercury in sediments containing coal ash was present as methylmercury. Mercury isotope composition and sediment geochemical data suggested that elevated methylmercury concentrations occurred in regions where native sediments were mixed with coal ash (e.g., less than 28% as coal ash in the Emory River). This coal ash may have provided substrates (such as sulfate) that stimulated biomethylation of mercury. The production of methylmercury in these areas is a concern because this neurotoxic organomercury compound can be highly bioaccumulative. Future risk assessments of coal ash spills should consider not only the leaching potential of mercury from the wastes but also the potential for methylmercury production in receiving waters.

  5. Seasonal Variations in Total Antioxidant Capacity and Total Phenolics Content of Leaves of Phyllostachys Taxa Using Different Extraction Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    András NEMÉNYI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Changes in total phenolic content (TP and total antioxidant capacity (AC during the vegetation period (April-November were analysed in Phyllostachys aureosulcata f. aureocaulis (PAA, P. flexuosa (PF, P. humilis (PH, P. sulphurea var. sulphurea (PSS. Different extraction methods were compared: infusion or decoction with water or aqueous methanol. The highest significant value for TP was measured in the case of infusion at 90 °C for 5 min, which lead to the highest value for AC. During the vegetation period the highest values of TP were measured in April and May in the case of PAA (409.5; 314.9 and 258.7; 119.0 μg GA/ml and PH (388.4; 411.6 and 252.9; 253.3 μg GA/ml. There was a clear trend in the changes of TP, with high values in April and November and a peak during August-September. Similar to TP, the highest values of AC were measured in April and May in PH (519.7; 566.3 and 513.5; 510.4 μg AA/ml and PAA (534.5; 337.8 and 394.9; 275.4 μg AA/ml. We compared the change of TP in all taxa with stress index values derived from daily maximum and minimum air temperature, cumulative precipitation plus irrigation and cumulative evapotranspiration values. A close correlation R2 = 0.32 (p=0.001 was found between stress index values and the change in TP of all taxa. The correlation is even closer R2 = 0.52 (p=0.001 with PF, PH and PSS. Our results with PAA can be explained by possible inter/intra-specific differences in freeze tolerance and cold-acclimation.

  6. Effect of total proteose-peptone content on the variability of bovine milk foaming property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arianna Buccioni

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Several authors demonstrated a strong linkage between proteose-peptones content and foaming properties of cow milk; this is of great interest for Italian dairy industries to create a new line of fresh milk characterized by a particular foaming property and, hence, particularly appreciate in catering industry. The aim of this trial was to quantify the relation between total concentration of proteose-peptones and the entity of foaming attitude in cow fresh milk. Ninety samples of raw bulk milk were analysed for proteose-peptones content, plasmin activity, fatty acid profile and foaming attitude. A negative relation was found among proteose-peptones percentage and foaming attitude which decreased with the increase of plasmin activity and somatic cell content in milk.

  7. [Analysis of effect of topographical conditions on content of total alkaloid in Coptidis Rhizoma in Chongqin, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Huang, He; Yang, Yan-fang; Wu, He-zhen

    2014-12-01

    To study ecology suitability rank dividing of the total alkaloid content of Coptis Rhizoma for selecting artificial planting base and high-quality industrial raw material in Chongqing province. Based on the investigation of PCB and DEM data of Chongqing province, the relationship between the total alkaloid content in Coptis Rhizoma and topographical conditions was analyzed by statistical analysis. The geographic information systems (GIS)-based assessment and landscape ecological principles were applied to assess eco logy suitability areas of Coptis Rhizoma in Chongqing. slope, aspect and altitude are main topographical factors that affect the content of the total alkaloid content in Coptis Rhizoma The total alkaloid content in Coptis Rhizoma is higher in the lower altitude, shady slope and bigger slope areas. The total alkaloid content is higher in the south areas of Chongqing province and lower in the northeast. Terrain conditions of the southern region of Chongqing are most suitable for The accumulated of total alkaloid Coptis Rhizoma content.

  8. Phenolic acids as bioindicators of fly ash deposit revegetation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. Djurdjevic; M. Mitrovic; P. Pavlovic; G. Gajic; O. Kostic [Institute for Biological Research ' Sinisa Stankovic,' Belgrade (Serbia and Montenegro). Department of Ecology

    2006-05-15

    The floristic composition, the abundance, and the cover of pioneer plant species of spontaneously formed plant communities and the content of total phenolics and phenolic acids, as humus constituents, of an ash deposit after 7 years of recultivation were studied. The restoration of both the soil and the vegetation on the ash deposits of the 'Nikola Tesla-A' thermoelectric power plant in Obrenovac (Serbia) is an extremely slow process. Unfavorable physical and chemical characteristics, the toxicity of fly ash, and extreme microclimatic conditions prevented the development of compact plant cover. The abundance and cover of plants increased from the central part of the deposit towards its edges. Festuca rubra L., Crepis setosa Hall., Erigeron canadensis L., Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop., Calamagrostis epigeios (L.) Roth., and Tamarix gallica L. were the most abundant species, thus giving the highest cover. Humus generated during the decomposition process of plant remains represents a completely new product absent in the ash as the starting material. The amount of total phenolics and phenolic acids in fly ash increased from the center of the deposit towards its edges in correlation with the increase in plant abundance and cover. The presence of phenolic acids indicates the ongoing process of humus formation in the ash, in which the most abundant pioneer plants of spontaneously formed plant communities play the main role. Phenolic compounds can serve as reliable bioindicators in an assessment of the success of the recultivation process of thermoelectric power plants' ash deposits.

  9. Mineral Composition, Total Phenol Content and Antioxidant Activity of a Macrolichen Everniastrum cirrhatum (Fr. Hale (Parmeliaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. R. Prashith Kekuda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we investigated for the first time mineral composition, total phenol content and antioxidant activity of a foliose macrolichen Everniastrum cirrhatum (Fr. Hale (Parmeliaceae from Bhadra wildlife sanctuary, Karnataka, India. Mineral content of the lichen was estimated by Atomic absorption spectrophotometer after acid digestion. The secondary metabolites were detected by thin layer chromatography (TLC and phytochemical assays. The lichen material was extracted with methanol in soxhlet apparatus. Total phenol content was estimated by folin ciocalteu method. Antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH, Ferric reducing and metal chelating assays. Among the principal elements, calcium was found in high concentration followed by magnesium, potassium and phosphorus. Among trace elements, iron was detected in high amount followed by zinc, manganese and copper. The DPPH radical scavenging activity was found to be dose dependent with an IC50 of 6.73 μg/mL. In ferric reducing assay, the absorbance increased with the concentration of extract suggesting reducing power. The extract exhibited good metal chelating activity with an IC50 value of 29.28 μg/mL. Total phenol content was 101.2 mg tannic acid equivalents per gram of extract. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, tannins and terpenoids. TLC revealed atranorin, salazinic acid and protolichesterinic acid. The lichen can be consumed as a source of minerals required for the body as appreciable amount of minerals has been detected. The marked antioxidant activity may be attributed to the presence of phenol content in the extract. Further studies on isolation of metabolites and their bioactivities are under investigation.

  10. Comparison of total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of Kappaphycus alvarezii from Langkawi and Semporna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Norhidayu; Abdullah, Aminah

    2016-11-01

    The total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of Kappaphycus alvarezii obtained from Langkawi, Kedah and Semporna, Sabah were evaluated. The total phenolic content (TPC) of the extracts were determined according to the Folin Ciocalteau method and results were expressed as gallic acid equivalents. The antioxidant activities of the extracts were determined by three methods namely Free Radical Scavenging Activity (DPPH), Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) and Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC). Both of the TPC and FRAP assays showed that seaweed from Semporna, Sabah significantly (p0.05) between the samples. Pearson coefficient correlation test, showed that there was a positive correlation (p<0.01) between TPC and antioxidant activity (FRAP assay) (r=0.980) and thus it can be concluded that the phenolic compounds was a contributor of the antioxidant activity in Kappaphycus alvarezii.

  11. Content of total carotenoids in Calendula officinalis L. from different countries cultivated in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raal, Ain; Kirsipuu, Kadri; Must, Reelika; Tenno, Silvi

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the content of total carotenoids in different collections of pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) inflorescences. Commercial seeds (42 samples) of C. officinalis were obtained from nine countries and cultivated in private gardens in three different counties of Estonia. The content of total carotenoids, determined spectrophotometrically (lambda=455 nm) varied in the investigated collections from 0.20 to 3.51%. The amount of pigments may depend on the type of plants, the importing company, the color of the ligulate and tubular florets, and the place and time of cultivation. For medicinal purposes, C. officinalis with brownish-yellow ligulate and tubular florets should be preferred. The best was found to be 'Golden Emperor' from Finland.

  12. New enzymatic method for the determination of total phenolic content in tea and wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevanato, Roberto; Fabris, Sabrina; Momo, Federico

    2004-10-06

    A new spectrophotometric enzymatic method for the determination of total phenol content in tea and wine has been developed. The method is based on the peroxidase-catalyzed oxidation, by hydrogen peroxide, of phenols to phenoxyl radicals, which can react with aromatic substrates to form intensely colored adducts. In comparison with the widely used Folin-Ciocalteu method, this method appears to be more specific and more rapid and as a whole is not affected by the common interfering substances such as ascorbate, citrate, and sulfite. Numerous samples of teas and wines were analyzed by using the new method, and the results compared with those obtained by using the Folin and scavenging of DPPH methods. The differences of the total phenols content found by applying the three methods are discussed in terms of the different specificities of the analytical basis.

  13. Abts cation scavenging activity and total phenolic content of three moss species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdanović-Pristov Jelena

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A limited number of mosses have ever been studied in regard to antioxidant activity; with only few belonging to the European species. As part of our on-going screening of bryophytes as natural antioxidant resources, a relevant biological activity investigation was conducted on the three moss species, namely Brachythecium rutabulum (Hedw. Schimp. (Brachytheciaceae, Calliergonella cuspidata (Hedw. Loeske (Hypnaceae and Hypnum mammillatum (Brid. Loeske (Hypnaceae, collected in Germany. The antioxidant activity of corresponding lyophilised aqueous extracts (teas was evaluated on the basis of their ABTS [2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid] cation scavenging activities. The total phenolic contents were determined as well. This study led to the detection of a moderate total phenolic content of the moss B. rutabulum, indicating for the first time its potential in searching for novel antioxidant agents.

  14. Identification of QTLs for resistant starch and total alkaloid content in brown and polished rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Y W; Sun, D; Du, J; Pu, X Y; Yang, S M; Yang, X M; Yang, T; Yang, J Z

    2016-07-29

    An F3 population consisting of 117 F2:3 families derived from a cross between two varieties of rice, Gongmi No. 3 and Diantun 502, with a large difference in their resistant starch and total alkaloid content, was used for quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping. Two QTLs of resistant starch for rice (qRS7-1, qRS7-2) were identified in a linkage group on chromosome 7, which could explain phenotypic variance from 7.6 to 17.3%, due to additive effects for resistant starch from Gongmi No. 3 or over-dominance effects for qRS7-2 of the marker interval (RM3404-RM478) on chromosome 7 from Gongmi No. 3, accounting for 13.8-17.3% of the phenotypic variance. Two QTLs of total alkaloids for brown rice (qALb7-1, qALb7-2) were identified in the same linkage group, which could explain phenotypic variance from 7.7 and 19.3%, respectively, due to dominance or over-dominance effects for total alkaloids on chromosome 7 from Diantun 502. To our knowledge, these are the first QTLs to be identified, which are related to resistant starch and total alkaloid content in rice. These results are beneficial for understanding the genetic basis of, as well as for developing markers linked with, resistant starch and total alkaloids of functional components for marker-assisted selection breeding in rice.

  15. 40 CFR 60.4360 - How do I determine the total sulfur content of the turbine's combustion fuel?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... content of the turbine's combustion fuel? 60.4360 Section 60.4360 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Standards of Performance for Stationary Combustion Turbines Monitoring § 60.4360 How do I determine the total sulfur content of the turbine's combustion fuel? You must monitor the total sulfur content of the...

  16. IN VITRO ANTIOXIDANT, TOTAL PHENOLIC AND FLAVONOID CONTENTS OF SIX ALLIUM SPECIES GROWING IN EGYPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahfouz Abdel-Gawad

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was designated to determine the total phenolic and flavonoid contents as well as evaluation the in vitro antioxidant activity of the defatted methanolic extracts of six Allium species growing in Egypt. Three of them are subspecies of Allium cepa L. (ssp. red onion, ssp. white onion and ssp. green onion, the other three species are Allium sativum L. (garlic, Allium porrum L. (leek and Allium kurrat L. (kurrat baladi. The results exhibited that A. cepa (ssp. red onion and A. porrum have the highest phenolic contents. On the other hand, in vitro antioxidant activity using three methods, 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical, phosphomolybdate and reducing power assays revealed that A. cepa (ssp. red onion and A. porrum have high antioxidant activities. Moreover, there was positive correlation between the antioxidant activity and total phenolic contents of the tested Allium species. Therefore, the two plant species A. cepa (ssp. red onion and A. porrum were submitted to fractionation process using chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol. The results showed that the ethyl acetate fractions of the two plants have high phenolic and flavonoid contents as well as have high antioxidant activities. Also, the preliminary phytochemical screening of the tested Allium species showed that A. cepa (ssp. red onion and A. porrum have high quantities of flavonoids, steroids, terpenoids and saponins.

  17. TOTAL POLYPHENOL CONTENT AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF WILD AND CULTIVATED ASPARAGUS IN CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorica Jurković

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Asparagus is an interesting vegetable as a part of a healthy diet and has been widely studied due to the high nutritional value and potential positive effects on human health. Wild asparagus (Asparagus acutifolius L. grows along the Adriatic coast and islands, while the cultivated asparagus (A. officinalis L. is mostly grown in the eastern region of Croatia. The aim of this study was to determine total polyphenol content (measured spectrophotometrically and antioxidant activity (DPPH in wild and cultivated asparagus. No significant differences in total polyphenol content were found between wild and cultivated asparagus. The highest content of polyphenols in wild asparagus was 6.20 [mg GAE/g fresh weight] and 49.60 [mg GAE/g dry weight], and in cultivated asparagus it was 4.52 [mg GAE/g fresh weight] and 50.93 [mg GAE/g dry weight]. Antioxidant activity measured using DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl method showed statistically significant difference. Higher antioxidant activity was measured in cultivated than in wild asparagus. The results also indicate that increased polyphenol content leads to higher antioxidant activity, but more so in the cultivated asparagus. Based on the results, the cultivated asparagus is an excellent alternative to wild asparagus that should be protected from over-harvesting, thus preventing devastation of plant diversity of islands and coast.

  18. Detection of ionospheric signatures from GPS-derived total electron content maps

    OpenAIRE

    Durgonics T.; Prates G.; Berrocoso M.

    2014-01-01

    The processing of measurement data from satellite constellations such as Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), including the well-known Global Positioning System (GPS), have been successfully applied to virtually all areas of geophysical sciences. In this work, a method is described where Geographical Information Systems (GIS) are employed to build hourly ionospheric Total Electron Content (TEC) maps for 2011 over the southern Iberian Peninsula. The maps used GPS...

  19. The Content of U .S. Library's Total Quality Management and Its Developmental Barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Yung Fan

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available The total quality management (TQM is a process, a technique, a management style, a goal and a tool. Most important of all, TQM means quality service. However, these are concepts largely unfamiliar to libraries but which seem to have strong potential to offer new insights and strategies in library management. This paper attempts toexpound the theoretical advantages of TQM and the barriers of its application in U.S. libraries. [Article content in Chinese

  20. Total Nitorgen Content from Earthworm (Eisenia Foetida) Using The Kjeldahl Method

    OpenAIRE

    Zarina Zakaria; Alina Rahayu Mohamed; Noor Hasyierah Mohd Salleh; Siti Nursheela Abu Mansor

    2013-01-01

    In the fish aquaculture management, fish feed is identified as a major problem. The high cost and scarcity of fishmeal in formulated feeds have led to the use of other protein sources such as earthworms and animal by-product. Earthworm is an alternative protein source to replace the fish meal in the fish feed formulation. In this study, total nitrogen content in earthworm powder is determined using the Kjeldahl method by employing the statistical software, Full Factorial Design (FFD) which co...

  1. Comparison of total phenolic content and antiradical capacity of powders and "chocolates" from cocoa and cupuassu

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Inés Genovese; Suzana Caetano da Silva Lannes

    2009-01-01

    Polyphenolic compounds seem to be related to the health benefits produced by the cocoa due to their antioxidant properties. Cupuassu powder, prepared from Theobroma grandiflorum seeds, is a very promising cocoa powder substitute. In order to assess the potential health benefits of the cupuassu powder, a comparison was performed between cocoa, chocolate, and cupuassu powders in relation to the content of total phenolic compounds, flavonoids and DPPH scavenging capacity of methanolic extracts. ...

  2. Total Phenolic Contents and Antioxidant Capacities of Herbal and Tea Infusions

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    In order to supply new information on the antioxidant function of selected beverages for nutritionists and the general public, total phenolic contents of 51 kinds of herbal and tea infusions made in China were measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, and their antioxidant capacities were evaluated using ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assays. A significant correlation between FRAP and TEAC values suggested that antioxidant components i...

  3. [Study on estimation of deserts soil total phosphorus content from thermal-infrared emissivity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Yan-jun; Tiyip, Tashpolat; Zhang, Fei; Sawut, Mamat; Nurmemet, Ilyas

    2015-02-01

    Soil phosphorus provides nutrient elements for plants, is one of important parameters for evaluating soil quality. The traditional method for soil total phosphorus content (STPC) measurement is not effective and time-consuming. However, remote sensing (RS) enables us to determine STPC in a fast and efficient way. Studies on the estimation of STPC in near-infrared spectroscopy have been developed by scholars, but model accuracy is still poor due to the low absorption coefficient and unclear absorption peak of soil phosphorus in near-infrared. In order to solve the deficiency which thermal-infrared emissivity estimate desert soil total phosphorus content, and could improve precision of estimation deserts soil total phosphorus. In this paper, characteristics of soil thermal-infrared emissivity are analyzed on the basis of laboratory processing and spectral measurement of deserts soil samples from the eastern Junggar Basin. Furthermore, thermal-infrared emissivity based RS models for STPC estimation are established and accuracy assessed. Results show that: when STPC is higher than 0.200 g x kg(-1), the thermal-infrared emissivity increases with the increase of STPC on the wavelength between 8.00 microm and 13 microm, and the emissivity is more sensitive to STPC on the wavelength between 9.00 and 9.6 microm; the estimate mode based on multiple stepwise regression was could not to estimate deserts soil total phosphorus content from thermal-infrared emissivity because the estimation effects of them were poor. The estimation accuracy of model based on partial least squares regression is higher than the model based on multiple stepwise regression. However, the accuracy of second-order differential estimation model based on partial least square regression is higher than based on multiple stepwise regression; The first differential of continuous remove estimation model based on partial least squares regression is the best model with R2 of correction and verification are up to

  4. Total phenolic content, radical scavenging properties, and essential oil composition of Origanum species from different populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dambolena, José S; Zunino, María P; Lucini, Enrique I; Olmedo, Rubén; Banchio, Erika; Bima, Paula J; Zygadlo, Julio A

    2010-01-27

    The aim of this work was to compare the antiradical activity, total phenol content (TPC), and essential oil composition of Origanum vulgare spp. virens, Origanum x applii, Origanum x majoricum, and O. vulgare spp. vulgare cultivated in Argentina in different localities. The experiment was conducted in the research station of La Consulta (INTA-Mendoza), the research station of Santa Lucia (INTA-San Juan), and Agronomy Faculty of National University of La Pampa, from 2007 to 2008. The composition of the essential oils of oregano populations was independent of cultivation conditions. In total, 39 compounds were identified in essential oils of oregano from Argentina by means of GC-MS. Thymol and trans-sabinene hydrate were the most prominent compounds, followed by gamma-terpinene, terpinen-4-ol, and alpha-terpinene. O. vulgare vulgare is the only Origanum studied which is rich in gamma-terpinene. Among tested oregano, O. x majoricum showed the highest essential oil content, 3.9 mg g(-1) dry matter. The plant extract of O. x majoricum had greater total phenol content values, 19.36 mg/g dry weight, than the rest of oregano studied. To find relationships among TPC, free radical scavenging activity (FRSA), and climate variables, canonical correlations were calculated. The results obtained allow us to conclude that 70% of the TPC and FRSA variability can be explained by the climate variables (R(2) = 0.70; p = 8.3 x 10(-6)), the temperature being the most important climatic variable.

  5. The total and freely dissolved polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons content in residues from biogas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefaniuk, Magdalena; Oleszczuk, Patryk

    2016-01-01

    In the situation of increasing agricultural utilization of residues from biogas production (RBP) it is important to determine the concentration of contaminants, which could occur in these materials. The group of contaminants that requires special attention are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). The objective of the study was to determine the total and freely dissolved (Cfree) of PAHs in RBP from 6 different biogas plants operating under various temperature conditions and without or with the separation into the solid and liquid fractions. The freely dissolved PAHs were determined using polyoxymethylene (POM method). The total content of the Σ16 PAHs in RBP varied from 449 to 6147 μg/kgdw, while that of Cfree PAHs was at the level from 57 to 653 ng/L. No significant differences were noted in the content of the Σ16 PAHs (total) between the solid and the liquid fractions. This indicates that in the course of the separation, the PAHs are distributed proportionally between the fractions. However in the case of Cfree, PAHs content in the solid fraction was over twice as high as in the liquid fraction. This was probably due to the greater affinity of the particles present in the liquid fraction to the analysed PAHs than to the particles of the solid fraction. Higher affinity to liquid fraction was also confirmed by the distribution coefficients KTOC determined on the basis of Cfree.

  6. Antioxidant Activities and Total Phenolic Content of Aqueous Extract of Pleurotus ostreatus (Cultivated Oyster Mushroom).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, H S; Chye, F Y; Tan, C T; Ng, Y C; Ho, C W

    2010-08-01

    Pleurotus ostreatus better known as oyster mushroom is widely cultivated and consumed as food in Malaysia. The present study aims to assess the antioxidative potential and total phenolic content of P. ostreatus aqueous extract. The antioxidant activities were evaluated against DPPH and ABTS radical-scavenging activity, ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and β-carotene-linoleate bleaching assay, and the Folin-Ciocalteu method for total phenolic content (TPC). The DPPH and ABTS radical-scavenging activity was found to be 63.20% and 87.29% respectively; antioxidant activity using FRAP at 1.45 mM FE/100g and β-carotenelinoleate bleaching assay was 83.51%, while the TPC was found to be 798.55 mg GAE/100g. These antioxidant activities were compared to synthetic antioxidant, BHA and ascorbic acid. Ascorbic acid showed highest scavenging effects on DPPH and ABTS radical, followed by P. ostreatus and BHA (at maximum safety limit). The ferric reducing power of P. ostreatus was significantly higher than BHA and ascorbic acid. The antioxidant activity as assessed in β-carotene-linoleate bleaching assay was found to be higher in BHA compared to P. ostreatus. The aqueous extract of P. ostreatus was found to respond differently in antioxidant assays. The antioxidative activity of the aqueous extract of P. ostreatus correlated with its total phenolic content. Generally, the antioxidant activities of P. ostreatus' aqueous extract are comparable to that of BHA and ascorbic acid to a certain extent.

  7. Total phenolic, chromium contents and antioxidant activity of raw and processed sugars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munawar Iqbal

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Processing improves the visual quality of food; however, the ingredient and nutritional values may alter. In present study, the sugar samples (refined, raw, gur (Jaggery/jaggeree and molasses were collected from 20 different agro-climatic regions of Pakistan and analyzed for the chromium concentration, total phenolic and antioxidant activity, in order to evaluate the processing effect. The concentration of Cr was determined by digestion method using atomic absorption spectrophotometer, while antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and reducing power. It was observed that chromium content in Jaggery was 74% higher than raw sugar, while molasses showed 21.27% higher concentration versus jaggery. The total phenolic contents were found considerably higher in molasses (3751 μg GAE/g followed by Jaggery (3285 μg GAE/g, raw sugar (27.75 μg GAE/g and refined sugar (23.81 μg GAE/g. The DPPH scavenging activity and reducing power was also found dependent to sugar type. Form results, it can be concluded that processing significantly affected the chromium contents, total phenolics and antioxidant activity.

  8. Comparison of total polyphenol contents And antioxidant activity in cruciferous vegetables grown in diversified ecological conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Kapusta-Duch

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background.The aim of this study was to compare total polyphenol contents and antioxidant activity of three species of cruciferous vegetables grown under diversified ecological conditions for three consecutive years. Material and methods. Methanol extracts were prepared to be used to determine (spectrometrically the content of total phenolics, using the Folin-Ciocalteau reagent and antioxidant activity by identifying the sam- ple’s ability to extinguish an ABTS•+free radical. Results.All these species of cruciferous vegetables contained similar total polyphenols amounts regardless of its origin. Only red cabbage from organic farms was characterized by significantly higher antioxidant activity compared to vegetables purchased from local retailers in Cracow and similar or those cultivated near the steelworks. In white cabbage from farms located in a former steelworks protection zone a higher antioxidant activity was found than in organically grown vegetables and similar to that in vegetables available in retail. Brussels sprouts was characterised by a similar antioxidant activity regardless of its origin. Conclusions. On the basis of the present study, it cannot be concluded that organically grown cruciferous vegetables generally have higher contents of health-promoting secondary metabolites in comparison with the conventionally cultivated ones.

  9. Ash analysis of flour sample by using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilge, Gonca; Sezer, Banu; Eseller, Kemal Efe; Berberoglu, Halil; Koksel, Hamit; Boyaci, Ismail Hakki

    2016-10-01

    Ash content is a measure of total mineral content in flour. It is also an important quality parameter in terms of nutritional labeling as well as processing properties of various cereal products. However, laboratory analysis takes a long time (5-6 h) and results in considerable waste of energy. Therefore, the aim of the study was to develop a new method for ash analysis in wheat flour by using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). LIBS is a multi-elemental, quick and simple spectroscopic method. Unlike basic ash analysis method, it has the potential to analyze a sample in a considerably short time. In the study, wheat flours with different ash contents were analyzed using LIBS and the spectra were evaluated with partial least squares (PLS) method. The results were correlated with the ones taken from standard ash analysis method. Calibration graph showed good linearity with the ash content between 0.48 and 1.39%, and 0.992 coefficient of determination (R2). Limit of detection for ash analysis was calculated as 0.026%. The results indicated that LIBS is a promising and reliable method with high sensitivity for routine ash analysis in flour samples.

  10. Bioaccessibility and health risk of heavy metals in ash from the incineration of different e-waste residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Xiao-Qing; Shen, Dong-Sheng; Shentu, Jia-Li; Long, Yu-Yang; Feng, Yi-Jian; Shen, Chen-Chao

    2015-03-01

    Ash from incinerated e-waste dismantling residues (EDR) may cause significant health risks to people through ingestion, inhalation, and dermal contact exposure pathways. Ashes of four classified e-waste types generated by an incineration plant in Zhejiang, China were collected. Total contents and the bioaccessibilities of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in ashes were measured to provide crucial information to evaluate the health risks for incinerator workers and children living in vicinity. Compared to raw e-waste in mixture, ash was metal-enriched by category incinerated. However, the physiologically based extraction test (PBET) indicates the bioaccessibilities of Ni, Pb, and Zn were less than 50 %. Obviously, bioaccessibilities need to be considered in noncancer risk estimate. Total and PBET-extractable contents of metal, except for Pb, were significantly correlated with the pH of the ash. Noncancer risks of ash from different incinerator parts decreased in the order bag filter ash (BFA) > cyclone separator ash (CFA) > bottom ash (BA). The hazard quotient for exposure to ash were decreased as ingestion > dermal contact > inhalation. Pb in ingested ash dominated (>80 %) noncancer risks, and children had high chronic risks from Pb (hazard index >10). Carcinogenic risks from exposure to ash were under the acceptable level (<10(-6)) both for children and workers. Exposure to ash increased workers' cancer risks and children's noncancer risks. Given the risk estimate is complex including toxicity/bioaccessibility of metals, the ways of exposure, and many uncertainties, further researches are required before any definite decisions on mitigating health risks caused by exposure to EDR incinerated ash are made.

  11. Total Dietary Fiber Content of Selected Traditional Beverages in Egypt: A Brief Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basil H. Aboul-Enein

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Escalating obesity rates have become a major public health concern in North Africa and the Middle East. Culturally-congruent dietary health education and strategies continue to be warranted to address this increasing public health crisis. Knowledge and familiarity with traditional foods and their nutritive value would assist public health practitioners in becoming culturally competent when educating on healthy eating patterns. The aim of this study is to provide a brief dietary profile of the total dietary fiber (TDF contents of selected traditional beverages in Egypt. Five cookbooks for Egyptian food recipes were reviewed for traditional beverages. Beverage recipes (n = 19 were selected and reviewed for their TDF content using the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (Release 27. The published values for TDF content were tabulated and reported per 100 mL of consumable portions. The highest TDF content was found in carob juice (8.0 g and the lowest found in peppermint tea (0.0 g with an overall TDF mean content of 2.8 g. Traditional beverages could be regarded as important sources of TDF within a healthy Egyptian dietary pattern. Cultural awareness and familiarities to traditional foods and their respective dietary profiles should be encouraged as an objective towards building culturally-competent health professionals and combating obesity in Egypt. Furthermore, developments of a traditional Egyptian food nutrient database for public access should be explored.

  12. Comparison of the Proximate Composition, Total Carotenoids and Total Polyphenol Content of Nine Orange-Fleshed Sweet Potato Varieties Grown in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Khairul Alam

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to develop the food composition table for Bangladesh, the nutritional composition of nine varieties of orange-fleshed sweet potato was analyzed together with total carotenoids (TCC and total polyphenol content (TPC. Each variety showed significant variation in different nutrient contents. The quantification of the TCC and TPC was done by spectrophotometric measurement, and the proximate composition was done by the AOAC method. The obtained results showed that total polyphenol content varied from 94.63 to 136.05 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE/100 g fresh weight. Among the selected sweet potatoes, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute (BARI Sweet Potato 7 (SP7 contained the highest, whereas BARI SP6 contained the lowest amount of total polyphenol content. The obtained results also revealed that total carotenoids content ranged from 0.38 to 7.24 mg/100 g fresh weight. BARI SP8 showed the highest total carotenoids content, whereas BARI SP6 showed the lowest. Total carotenoids content was found to be higher in dark orange-colored flesh varieties than their light-colored counterparts. The results of the study indicated that selected sweet potato varieties are rich in protein and carbohydrate, low in fat, high in polyphenol and carotenoids and, thus, could be a good source of dietary antioxidants to prevent free radical damage, which leads to chronic diseases, and also to prevent vitamin A malnutrition.

  13. Phenolic acids as bioindicators of fly ash deposit revegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djurdjević, L; Mitrović, M; Pavlović, P; Gajić, G; Kostić, O

    2006-05-01

    The floristic composition, the abundance, and the cover of pioneer plant species of spontaneously formed plant communities and the content of total phenolics and phenolic acids, as humus constituents, of an ash deposit after 7 years of recultivation were studied. The restoration of both the soil and the vegetation on the ash deposits of the "Nikola Tesla-A" thermoelectric power plant in Obrenovac (Serbia) is an extremely slow process. Unfavorable physical and chemical characteristics, the toxicity of fly ash, and extreme microclimatic conditions prevented the development of compact plant cover. The abundance and cover of plants increased from the central part of the deposit towards its edges (ranging from 1-80%). Festuca rubra L., Crepis setosa Hall., Erigeron canadensis L., Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop., Calamagrostis epigeios (L.) Roth., and Tamarix gallica L. were the most abundant species, thus giving the highest cover. Humus generated during the decomposition process of plant remains represents a completely new product absent in the ash as the starting material. The amount of total phenolics and phenolic acids (38.07-185.16 microg/g of total phenolics and 4.12-27.28 microg/g of phenolic acids) in fly ash increased from the center of the deposit towards its edges in correlation with the increase in plant abundance and cover. Ash samples contained high amounts of ferulic, vanillic, and p-coumaric acid, while the content of both p-hydroxybenzoic and syringic acid was relatively low. The presence of phenolic acids indicates the ongoing process of humus formation in the ash, in which the most abundant pioneer plants of spontaneously formed plant communities play the main role. Phenolic compounds can serve as reliable bioindicators in an assessment of the success of the recultivation process of thermoelectric power plants' ash deposits.

  14. The Antioxidant Capacities and Total Phenolic Contents of Some Medicinal Plants in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mirzaei

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Free radicals are highly reactive molecules may cause great damage to cell membranes and DNA and Result in inducing oxidation DNA mutations leading to cancer, degenerative, and other diseases. Plant antioxidant derived may be preventive of free radical damages. Methods & Materials: The Stems and flower sample of plants air-dried, finely ground and were extracted by ethanol: water (70:30 for 48 h. Extracts were filtered and dried under vacuum. The antioxidant activity of five ethanolic extract of medicinal plants (Descurainia Sophia, Plantago major, Trachyspermum copticum L, Coriandrum sativum and Trigonella foenum-graecum from Iran were analysed by five different methods [1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical, 2,2,azinobis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS radical cation, Ferric-reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP, phosphomolybdenum (PMB and reducing power (RP]. In addition, for determination of antioxidant components total phenolic content was also analyzed. Results: The total phenolic content of medicinal plant ranges from 74 to 154.3 mg Gallic acid/g extract as measured by the Folin–Ciocalteau method. Values of DPPH varied from 15.5 to 19.6 µmol trolex/g. FRAP ranged from 124.2 to 753 µmol of Fe(II/g extract. Antioxidant activity of the Plantago major was always higher compared to the other plants extracts values of total phenols content and antioxidant capacity by DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, (154.33 mg GAE/g, 1856 µmol trolox, 750 µmol trolox and 1169 µmol of Fe(II/g, extract respectively. The range of total antioxidant activity by phosphomolybdenum method was 513.3 to 870 µmol trolox/g. The reducing ability of the tested extracts was between 0.31-1.26. Plantago majorwas also highest activity in both tests. Conclusion: This study clearly demonstrated that Plantago major crude extract exhibit significant antioxidant activity.

  15. Total polyphenols contents in different grapevine varieties in highlands of southern brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brighenti Emilio

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds are one of the main parameters of wine quality and contribute to the organoleptic characteristics, particularly color, astringency and body. In the highlands of southern Brazil, low temperatures and high accumulation of global solar radiation favor the synthesis of total polyphenols in grapes. The objective of this work was to evaluate the concentration of total polyphenols of 10 white varieties and 13 red varieties produced in high altitude regions of southern Brazil. The vineyard is located in the Experimental Station of Santa Catarina State Agricultural Research and Rural Extension Agency (EPAGRI, in the city of São Joaquim (28∘ 16′30′′S, 49∘ 56′09′′W, Altitude 1,400 m, the evaluations occurred in 2015/2016 growing season. The content of total polyphenols was determined as proposed by Singleton & Rossi (1965, using the Folin-Ciocalteu method, with spectrophotometer readings. Polyphenol content ranged from 283.56 to 1,387.31 mg/L for white varieties, the varieties with the highest concentrations were Greco di Tufo (1,378.31 mg/L, Trebbiano Toscano (995.59 mg/L and Ribola Gialla (737.48 mg/L. For the red varieties, the total polyphenol content ranged from 523.87 to 4,929.57 mg/L, Ancellotta (4,929.57 mg/L, Uva di Troia (2,722.27 mg/L and Croatina (2,410 mg/L stood out for presenting the highest levels.

  16. Comparative content of total polyphenols and dietary fiber in tropical fruits and persimmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorinstein, S; Zemser, M; Haruenkit, R; Chuthakorn, R; Grauer, F; Martin-Belloso, O; Trakhtenberg, S

    1999-06-01

    Recent studies have shown that dietary fiber and polyphenols of vegetables and fruits improve lipid metabolism and prevent the oxidation of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), which hinder the development of atherosclerosis. The goal of this study was to measure the total polyphenol and dietary fiber contents of some tropical fruits (i.e., pineapple, wax apple, rambutan, lichi, guava, and mango) and compare the results to the content of these substances in the better characterized persimmon. It was found that lichi, guava, and ripe mango (cv. Keaw) have 3.35, 4.95, and 6.25 mg of total polyphenols in 100 g fresh fruit, respectively. This is significantly higher than in persimmon, pineapple, wax apple, mature green mango, and rambutan [P pineapple (Smooth Cayene variant), wax apple, persimmon, rambutan, mature green mango (cv. Keaw); the value of P pineapple (Phuket, Queen variant)]. The same relationship was observed for the contents of gallic acid and of dietary fiber. It can be supposed that among the studied fruit, lichi, guava, and ripe mango may be preferable for dietary prevention of atherosclerosis.

  17. Antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of different varieties of Portulaca grandiflora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choon Kiat Lim

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Crude extracts from the whole plant of five different varieties (white, purple red, orange, pink and red of Portulaca grandiflora were screened for their in vitro antioxidant and total phenolic content. These plants were extracted by methanol, acetone and ethanol, respectively. Their total phenolic content as determined by Folin-Ciocalteu reagent, were ranging from 46.39-82.19 mg GAE/100 g, 36.72-56.45 mg GAE/100 g, and 41.46-85.70 mg GAE/100 g for methanolic, acetone and ethanolic extract, respectively. The antioxidant activity of plant extracts as determined by DPPH scavenging assay were ranging from 0.69-2.14 mg/mL, 1.40-4.38 mg gallic acid/g, and 7.32-29.21 mg ascorbic acid/g when expressed as IC50, GEAC and AEAC, respectively. The highest antioxidant activity was observed in acetone extract of orange variety (PG 3. Therefore, each part of the PG 3, i.e. leaf, stem and flower was separated and further evaluated. The results showed that the leaf of PG 3 contained the highest phenolic content and antioxidant activity. The present study suggests that extracts from P. grandiflora could be utilised as natural sources for antioxidant.

  18. The content of total polyphenols and antioxidant activity in red beetroot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Kavalcová

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Red beetroot (Beta vulgaris rubra is an important raw material of plant origin with proven positive effects on the human body. They can be eaten raw, boiled, steamed and roasted. Red beetrooot is a rich source of minerals substances (manganese, sodium, potassium, magnesium, iron, copper. Beetroot contains a lot of antioxidants, vitamins (A, C, B, fiber and natural dyes. Red beetroot is also rich in phenol compounds, which have antioxidant properties. These colorful root vegetables help protect against heart disease and certain cancers (colon cancer. In this work we evaluated content of total polyphenols and antioxidant activity in red beetroot. Samples of plant material were collected at full maturity stages from areas of Zohor, Sihelné, and Sliač. Zohor, Sihelné, and Sliač are areas without negative influences and emission sources. Samples of fresh red beetroot were homogenized and were prepared as an extract: 50 g cut beetroot extracted by 100 ml 80% ethanol for sixteen hours. These extracts were used for analyses. The content of the total polyphenols was determined by using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent (FCR. The absorbance was measured at 765 nm of wavelength against blank. Antioxidant activity was measured using a compound DPPH˙ (2.2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl at 515.6 nm in the    spectrophotometer. In the present experiment it was detected, that total polyphenols content in samples ranges from 820.10 mg/kg to 1280.56 mg/kg. Statistically significant highest value of total polyphenols was recorded in beetroot in variety of Renova from locality of Sliač (1280.56 ±28.78 mg/kg. Statistically significant the lowest content of total polyphenols was recorded in beetroot in variety of Renova from the village Sihelné (820.10 ±37.57 mg/kg. In this experiment the antioxidant activity in beetroot was evaluated and compared. The values of antioxidant activity were in interval from 19.63% to 29.82%.

  19. Effect of increasing total solids contents on anaerobic digestion of food waste under mesophilic conditions: performance and microbial characteristics analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Yi

    Full Text Available The total solids content of feedstocks affects the performances of anaerobic digestion and the change of total solids content will lead the change of microbial morphology in systems. In order to increase the efficiency of anaerobic digestion, it is necessary to understand the role of the total solids content on the behavior of the microbial communities involved in anaerobic digestion of organic matter from wet to dry technology. The performances of mesophilic anaerobic digestion of food waste with different total solids contents from 5% to 20% were compared and the microbial communities in reactors were investigated using 454 pyrosequencing technology. Three stable anaerobic digestion processes were achieved for food waste biodegradation and methane generation. Better performances mainly including volatile solids reduction and methane yield were obtained in the reactors with higher total solids content. Pyrosequencing results revealed significant shifts in bacterial community with increasing total solids contents. The proportion of phylum Chloroflexi decreased obviously with increasing total solids contents while other functional bacteria showed increasing trend. Methanosarcina absolutely dominated in archaeal communities in three reactors and the relative abundance of this group showed increasing trend with increasing total solids contents. These results revealed the effects of the total solids content on the performance parameters and the behavior of the microbial communities involved in the anaerobic digestion of food waste from wet to dry technologies.

  20. Effect of Increasing Total Solids Contents on Anaerobic Digestion of Food Waste under Mesophilic Conditions: Performance and Microbial Characteristics Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jingwei; Dai, Xiaohu

    2014-01-01

    The total solids content of feedstocks affects the performances of anaerobic digestion and the change of total solids content will lead the change of microbial morphology in systems. In order to increase the efficiency of anaerobic digestion, it is necessary to understand the role of the total solids content on the behavior of the microbial communities involved in anaerobic digestion of organic matter from wet to dry technology. The performances of mesophilic anaerobic digestion of food waste with different total solids contents from 5% to 20% were compared and the microbial communities in reactors were investigated using 454 pyrosequencing technology. Three stable anaerobic digestion processes were achieved for food waste biodegradation and methane generation. Better performances mainly including volatile solids reduction and methane yield were obtained in the reactors with higher total solids content. Pyrosequencing results revealed significant shifts in bacterial community with increasing total solids contents. The proportion of phylum Chloroflexi decreased obviously with increasing total solids contents while other functional bacteria showed increasing trend. Methanosarcina absolutely dominated in archaeal communities in three reactors and the relative abundance of this group showed increasing trend with increasing total solids contents. These results revealed the effects of the total solids content on the performance parameters and the behavior of the microbial communities involved in the anaerobic digestion of food waste from wet to dry technologies. PMID:25051352

  1. Combustion of Biosolids in a Bubbling Fluidized Bed, Part 1: Main Ash-Forming Elements and Ash Distribution with a Focus on Phosphorus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    This is the first in a series of three papers describing combustion of biosolids in a 5-kW bubbling fluidized bed, the ash chemistry, and possible application of the ash produced as a fertilizing agent. This part of the study aims to clarify whether the distribution of main ash forming elements from biosolids can be changed by modifying the fuel matrix, the crystalline compounds of which can be identified in the raw materials and what role the total composition may play for which compounds are formed during combustion. The biosolids were subjected to low-temperature ashing to investigate which crystalline compounds that were present in the raw materials. Combustion experiments of two different types of biosolids were conducted in a 5-kW benchscale bubbling fluidized bed at two different bed temperatures and with two different additives. The additives were chosen to investigate whether the addition of alkali (K2CO3) and alkaline-earth metal (CaCO3) would affect the speciation of phosphorus, so the molar ratios targeted in modified fuels were P:K = 1:1 and P:K:Ca = 1:1:1, respectively. After combustion the ash fractions were collected, the ash distribution was determined and the ash fractions were analyzed with regards to elemental composition (ICP-AES and SEM-EDS) and part of the bed ash was also analyzed qualitatively using XRD. There was no evidence of zeolites in the unmodified fuels, based on low-temperature ashing. During combustion, the biosolid pellets formed large bed ash particles, ash pellets, which contained most of the total ash content (54%–95% (w/w)). This ash fraction contained most of the phosphorus found in the ash and the only phosphate that was identified was a whitlockite, Ca9(K,Mg,Fe)(PO4)7, for all fuels and fuel mixtures. With the addition of potassium, cristobalite (SiO2) could no longer be identified via X-ray diffraction (XRD) in the bed ash particles and leucite (KAlSi2O6) was formed. Most of the alkaline-earth metals calcium and

  2. Optoelectronic system of online measurements of unburned carbon in coal fly ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golas, Janusz; Jankowski, Henryk; Niewczas, Bogdan; Piechna, Janusz; Skiba, Antoni; Szkutnik, Wojciech; Szkutnik, Zdzislaw P.; Wartak, Ryszarda; Worek, Cezary

    2001-08-01

    Carbon-in-ash level is an important consideration for combustion efficiency as well as ash marketing. The optoelectronic analyzing system for on-line determination and monitoring of the u burned carbon content of ash samples is presented. The apparatus operates on the principle that carbon content is proportional to the reflectance of IR light. Ash samples are collected iso kinetically from the flue gas duct and placed in a sample tube with a flat glass bottom. The same is then exposed to a light. The reflectance intensity is used by the system's computer to determine residual carbon content from correlation curves. The sample is then air purged back to the duct or to the attached sample canister to enable laboratory check analysis. The total cycle time takes between 5 and 10 minutes. Real time result of carbon content with accuracy 0.3-0.7 percent are reported and can be used for boiler controlling.

  3. Total Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity of Some Malvaceae Family Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Maria Fernandes de Oliveira

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant activity of four species of the Malvaceae family (Sidastrum micranthum (A. St.-Hil. Fryxell, Wissadula periplocifolia (L. C. Presl, Sida rhombifolia (L. E. H. L and Herissantia crispa L. (Brizicky were studied using the total phenolic content, DPPH radical scavenging activity and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC assays. The antioxidant activity of the crude extract, phases and two isolated flavonoids, kaempferol 3,7-di-O-α-l-rhamnopyranoside (lespedin and kaempferol 3-O-β-d-(6''-E-p-coumaroil glucopyranoside (tiliroside was determined. The results showed that there is a strong correlation between total polyphenol contents and antioxidant activity of the crude extract of Sidastrum micranthum and Wissadula periplocifolia; however, this was not observed between Sida rhombifolia and Herissantia crispa. The ethyl acetate (EaF phase showed the best antioxidant effect in the total phenolics, DPPH and TEAC assays, followed by the chloroform (CfF phase, in most species tested. Lespedin, isolated from the EaF phase of W. periplocifolia and H. crispa may not be responsible for the antioxidant activity due to its low antioxidant activity (IC50: DPPH: 1,019.92 ± 68.99 mg/mL; TEAC: 52.70 ± 0.47 mg/mL; whereas tiliroside, isolated from W. periplocifolia, H. crispa and S. micrantum presented a low IC50 value (1.63 ± 0.86 mg/mL compared to ascorbic acid in the TEAC assay.

  4. Total Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity of Some Malvaceae Family Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes de Oliveira, Adriana Maria; Sousa Pinheiro, Lilian; Souto Pereira, Charlane Kelly; Neves Matias, Wemerson; Albuquerque Gomes, Roosevelt; Souza Chaves, Otemberg; Vanderlei de Souza, Maria de Fátima; Nóbrega de Almeida, Reinaldo; Simões de Assis, Temilce

    2012-10-26

    The antioxidant activity of four species of the Malvaceae family (Sidastrum micranthum (A. St.-Hil.) Fryxell, Wissadula periplocifolia (L.) C. Presl, Sida rhombifolia (L.) E. H. L and Herissantia crispa L. (Brizicky)) were studied using the total phenolic content, DPPH radical scavenging activity and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assays. The antioxidant activity of the crude extract, phases and two isolated flavonoids, kaempferol 3,7-di-O-α-l-rhamnopyranoside (lespedin) and kaempferol 3-O-β-d-(6''-E-p-coumaroil) glucopyranoside (tiliroside) was determined. The results showed that there is a strong correlation between total polyphenol contents and antioxidant activity of the crude extract of Sidastrum micranthum and Wissadula periplocifolia; however, this was not observed between Sida rhombifolia and Herissantia crispa. The ethyl acetate (EaF) phase showed the best antioxidant effect in the total phenolics, DPPH and TEAC assays, followed by the chloroform (CfF) phase, in most species tested. Lespedin, isolated from the EaF phase of W. periplocifolia and H. crispa may not be responsible for the antioxidant activity due to its low antioxidant activity (IC50: DPPH: 1,019.92 ± 68.99 mg/mL; TEAC: 52.70 ± 0.47 mg/mL); whereas tiliroside, isolated from W. periplocifolia, H. crispa and S. micrantum presented a low IC50 value (1.63 ± 0.86 mg/mL) compared to ascorbic acid in the TEAC assay.

  5. Total phenolic, flavonoids and tannin contents in different extracts of Artemisia absinthium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Singh

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The A. absinthium is commonly known as wormwood having antipyretic, antimicrobial, antifungal, diuretic and anti-inflammatory properties. Natural bioactive compounds like phenols and flavonoids are the important secondary metabolites in plant posses high scavenging ability of free radical and reactive oxygen species produced in mammals. To maximize these agents in the extract different solvents viz. aqueous, ethanolic and chloroform are used for the extraction procedure (among these different extractions. Current study was aimed to determine the levels of total phenolic, flavonoids and tannin contents. Observations suggested that ethanolic extract has significantly high (P<0.05 concentration of flavonoids, phenolic and tannin contents as compared to aqueous and chloroform extracts. Therefore, ethanolic extract of A. absinthium has greater potential to scavenge free radicals/ ROS and can produce more beneficial effects as compared to aqueous and chloroform extracts. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2012; 1(2.000: 101-104

  6. Content Variation of Catechin Markers, Total Phenolics and Caffeine in Green Tea Dietary Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abourashed, Ehab A; Roberson, Cindy Leslie A; Elsharkawy, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    Green tea (Camellia sinensis) preparations are among the top selling products in the United States dietary supplements market. Numerous manufacturers claim different levels of specific catechin markers in their products while many others use total phenolic concentration instead, or not at all. Limited quality control results have been published for green tea dietary supplements over the past seven years. Thus, the goal of this work was to correlate determined levels of phenolics, catechins, and caffeine with manufacturer label claims for selected dietary supplement products (26 total) purchased in the United States. The Folin-Ciocalteu (FC) method was used to determine the total phenolic content while reversed-phase (RP) HPLC was used to quantify the major catechins: epicatechin (EC), epigallocatechin (EGC), epicatechin gallate (ECG), epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG). The developed HPLC method was validated for accuracy and precision. It utilized a C8 column with gradient elution of acetonitrile in 0.1% aqueous formic acid over 11 min total run time. Peak detection was performed at 280 nm. Caffeine was also included in the HPLC method as another non-phenolic alkaloid marker commonly found in green tea. Both methods showed a good correlation between the content of catechins and polyphenolic compounds in the selected products. The ranges of total catechins and polyphenol concentrations were 3.8-70.2% and 3.6-95.8%, respectively, while that of caffeine was 0.8-11.2%. The selected products displayed a wide range of marker levels. A lack of conformity in disclosing the actual levels of marker compounds was also noticed in the labeling of many products.

  7. Leaching from biomass combustion ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maresca, Alberto; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2014-01-01

    The use of biomass combustion ashes for fertilizing and liming purposes has been widely addressed in scientific literature. Nevertheless, the content of potentially toxic compounds raises concerns for a possible contamination of the soil. During this study five ash samples generated at four...

  8. BioElectronic Tongue for the quantification of total polyphenol content in wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetó, Xavier; Céspedes, Francisco; del Valle, Manel

    2012-09-15

    This work reports the application of a BioElectronic Tongue (BioET) in the estimation of polyphenol content in wine. The approach used an array of enzyme biosensors capable of giving a wide and complete response of the analyzed species, plus a chemometric processing tool able to interpret the chemical signals and extract meaningful data from the complex readings. In our case, the proposed BioET was formed by an array of four voltammetric enzymatic biosensors based on epoxy-graphite composites, one blank electrode and the other three bulk-modified with tyrosinase and laccase on one side, and copper nanoparticles on the other; these modifiers were used in order to incorporate differentiated or catalytic response to different polyphenols present in wine and aimed to the determination of its total polyphenol content value. The obtained voltammetric responses were pre-processed employing the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT); this was used to compress the relevant information whereas the obtained coefficients fed an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model that accomplished the quantification of total polyphenol content. For comparison purposes, obtained polyphenol content was compared against the one assessed by two different reference methods: Folin-Ciocalteu and UV polyphenol index (I(280)); good prediction ability was attained with correlation coefficients higher than 0.949 when comparing against reference methods. Qualitative discrimination of individual polyphenols found in wine was also assessed by means of Principal Component Analysis which allowed the discrimination of the individual polyphenols under study. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of interfacial properties on mechanical stability of ash deposit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ontiveros-Ortega

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a study on the cohesion of volcanic ash particles using surface free energy determination and zeta potential analyses. This is a subject of great interest in physical volcanology, as many researches on volcanic particle aggregation are frequently reported. In this case, special attention is paid to the role of structural or hydration forces between hydrophilic surfaces, which are a consequence of the electron-donor/electron-acceptor character of the interface. From this point of view, the results are potentially interesting as they could give valuable insights into this process. The results are presented in terms of the total energy of interaction between dispersed particles, computed from the extended DLVO theory. Contributions to the total free energy of interaction were determined from the zeta potential and surface free energy of ash, measured under different experimental conditions. Two samples of basaltic volcanic ash (black and white with silica contents of 44% and 63% respectively are studied. The surface free energy and zeta potential were analysed for ashes immersed in different electrolytes (NaCl, CaCl2, FeCl3. The presence of electrolytes changes the surface properties of the solid materials. The analysis of total interaction energy between the ash particles in aqueous medium shows that soil cohesion strongly depends on ash surface properties, chemical nature, the adsorbed cation on the surface, and pH value.

  10. The regulation of total creatine content in a myoblast cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odoom, J E; Kemp, G J; Radda, G K

    1996-05-24

    Total cellular creatine content is an important bioenergetic parameter in skeletal muscle. To understand its regulation we investigated creatine transport and accumulation in the G8 cultured skeletal myoblast line. Like other cell types, these contain a creatine transporter, whose activity, measured using a radiolabelling technique, was saturable (Km = 110 +/- 25 microM) and largely dependent on extracellular [Na+]. To study sustained influences on steady state creatine concentration we measured total cellular creatine content using a fluorimetric method in 48 h incubations. We found that the total cellular creatine content was relatively independent of extracellular creatine concentration, consistent with high affinity sodium-dependent uptake balanced by slow passive efflux. Accordingly, in creatine-free incubations net creatine efflux was slow (5 +/- 1% of basal creatine content per day over 6 days), while creatine content in 48 h incubations was reduced by 28 +/- 13% of control by the Na+, K(+)-ATPase inhibitor ouabain. Creatine accumulation after 48 h was stimulated by treatment with the mixed alpha- and beta-adrenergic agonist noradrenaline, the beta-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol, the beta 2-agonist clenbuterol and the cAMP analogue N6,2'-O-dibutyryladenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate, but was unaffected by the alpha 1 adrenergic agonist methoxamine. The noradrenaline enhancement of creatine accumulation at 48 h was inhibited by the mixed alpha- and beta-antagonist labetalol and by the beta-antagonist propranolol, but was unaffected by the alpha 2 antagonist phentolamine; greater inhibition was caused by the beta 2 antagonist butoxamine than the beta 1 antagonist atenolol. Creatine accumulation at 48 h was increased to 230 +/- 6% of control by insulin and by 140 +/- 13% by IGF-I (both at 3 nM). Creatine accumulation at 48 h was also increased to 280 +/- 40% of control by 3,3',5-triiodothyronine (at 70 microM) and to 220 +/- 35% of control by amylin (60 n

  11. In vitro antibacterial, antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of some essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Upma; Ojha, Swati; Tripathi, N N; Singh, Pooja

    2015-11-01

    In vitro antibacterial activity of 16 essential oils was investigated by disc diffusion method against two Gram positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus and two Gram negative bacteria, Shigella flexneri and Escherichia coli. Oils of Cymbopogon citratus and Ocimum basilicum showed highest antibacterial activity. Gram positive bacteria were found to be more sensitive than Gram negative. Antioxidant activities were tested by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay and ABTS radical cation decolourization assay while Folin-Ciocalteu method was used to determine the total phenolic content. In DPPH assay, highest antioxidant activity was observed in 0. basilicum oil followed by Azeratum conyzoides, A. marmelos and C. citratus, with percent inhibition and IC50 value ranging from 66.11-71.93% and 14.10-17.92 µl ml(-1) respectively. In ABTS assay, similar results were obtained but with higher percent inhibition which ranged from 67.48-76.23% and lower IC50 value (12.12-17.21 µ ml(-1)). Moreover, radical scavenging activity of essential oils was lower than that observed for the synthetic antioxidant BHA and BHT. The total phenolic content of the essential oils as GAE in mg 100 µl(-1) of EO was found to be highest in O. basilicum (0.406) oil followed byA. conyzoides (0.322), A. marmelos (0.238) and C. citratus (0.231). The results provide evidence that the oils of C. citratus and O. basilicum can be further commended for treatment of infections caused by these bacterial pathogens and are potential source of natural antioxidants having appreciable amount of total phenolic content.

  12. Research into the automation of the proximate analysis of coal (II): the establishment of a method for the rapid determination of ash in coal, and combustion residues in coal ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hase, Y.

    1986-01-01

    The JIS method for coal ash analysis requires 2.5-3 hours for ashing and a total of 3-3.5 hours for the complete determination. The author reports a new method in which ashing time is reduced to about 3 minutes and overall analysis time to approximately 30 minutes. The former is achieved by employing oxygen and using a new type of ashing vessel, while the latter time reduction is due to the introduction of cooling. Measurement precision with the new method is adequate for all practical purposes, apart from in the case of Miike coal, which has a particularly high sulfur content. 2 references, 4 figures, 17 tables.

  13. Insulating brick from fly ash of thermal power stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukherjee, S.N.; Majumdar, A.; Majumdar, S.K.

    1986-04-01

    Disposal of fly ash, a major byproduct of thermal power stations burning high ash pulverized fuel, has posed a serious problem of storage space required on one hand and the cost involved on the other. Fly ash possesses pozzolanic property. R and D work on utilization of fly ash in the form of sand-lime brick or cellular concrete has been already done. Other avenues of utilization are cement and concrete industry. All these are based on pozzolanic property of fly ash which decreases with the increase of unburnt carbon content in the same. The overall present consumption of fly ash is barely 5-7 per cent of the total production. A process has been developed to utilize fly ash with comparatively higher amount of carbonaceous matter in particular, to make insulating/semi-insulating bricks of standard size through use of other normal ingredients like clay (a plastic material), sulphite lye, molasses, etc. as binder along with some propertion of saw dust. The bricks made so far have been tested for their normal properties and these conform to a product of semi-insulating type. 21 refs., 2 tabs.

  14. High-throughput analysis of total nitrogen content that replaces the classic Kjeldahl method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuhara, T; Nokihara, K

    2001-10-01

    A high-throughput method for determination of total nitrogen content has been developed. The method involves decomposition of samples, followed by trapping and quantitative colorimetric determination of the resulting ammonia. The present method is rapid, facile, and economical. Thus, it can replace the classic Kjeldahl method through its higher efficiency for determining multiple samples. Compared to the classic method, the present method is economical and environmentally friendly. Based on the present method, a novel reactor was constructed to realize routine high-throughput analyses of multiple samples such as those found for pharmaceutical materials, foods, and/or excrements.

  15. Ionospheric Slant Total Electron Content Analysis Using Global Positioning System Based Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Lawrence C. (Inventor); Mannucci, Anthony J. (Inventor); Komjathy, Attila (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A method, system, apparatus, and computer program product provide the ability to analyze ionospheric slant total electron content (TEC) using global navigation satellite systems (GNSS)-based estimation. Slant TEC is estimated for a given set of raypath geometries by fitting historical GNSS data to a specified delay model. The accuracy of the specified delay model is estimated by computing delay estimate residuals and plotting a behavior of the delay estimate residuals. An ionospheric threat model is computed based on the specified delay model. Ionospheric grid delays (IGDs) and grid ionospheric vertical errors (GIVEs) are computed based on the ionospheric threat model.

  16. Controlling formaldehyde emissions with boiler ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Jennifer; Abu-Daabes, Malyuba; Banerjee, Sujit

    2005-07-01

    Fluidized wood ash reduces formaldehyde in air from about 20 to formaldehyde reduction increases with increasing moisture content of the ash. Sorption of formaldehyde to ash can be substantially accounted for by partitioning to the water contained in the ash followed by rate-controlling binding to the ash solids. Adsorption occurs at temperatures of up to 165 degrees C; oxidation predominates thereafter. It is proposed that formaldehyde could be stripped from an air stream in a fluidized bed containing ash, which could then be returned to a boiler to incinerate the formaldehyde.

  17. Evaluation of Antioxidant Compounds and Total Sugar Content in a Nectarine [Prunus persica (L. Batsch] Progeny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Gogorcena

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies suggest that consumption of fruit rich in phenolic compounds is associated with health-protective effects due to their antioxidant properties. For these reasons quality evaluation has become an important issue in fruit industry and in breeding programs. Phytochemical traits such as total phenolics, flavonoids, anthocyanins, L-ascorbic acid, sugar content and relative antioxidant capacity (RAC were analyzed over four years in flesh fruit of an F1 population “Venus” × “Big Top” nectarines. Other traits such as harvesting date, yield, fruit weight, firmness, soluble solids concentration (SSC, pH, titratable acidity (TA and ripening index (RI were also determined in the progeny. Results showed high variability among genotypes for all analyzed traits. Total phenolics and flavonoids showed significant positive correlations with RAC implying that both are important antioxidant bioactive compounds in peaches. We found genotypes with enhanced antioxidant capacity and a better performance than progenitors, and in consequence the best marketability.

  18. The starch and total sugar content of Mexican fruit and vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Castillo, C P; Dewey, P J; Finnie, S; Solano, M L; James, W P

    1997-06-01

    The starch and total sugar contents of 20 types of fruit, 28 types of vegetables and six different herbs, grown in Mexico, were analysed. The selection was based on dietary surveys to identify those foods most widely consumed. Starch was determined by an enzymatic method whilst total sugar was determined gravimetrically. The foods were grouped according to the Southgate classification. Fruits contained little starch (range 0-4 g/100 g fresh weight (FW) except in the case of the plantain (31 g/100 g FW starch), whereas vegetables showed a higher concentration with tubers in the range 10-20 g/100 g FW starch. Legumes contained 0-5 g/100 g FW; amongst the capsicum group the chilli poblano had the highest concentration at 1.3 g/100 g FW starch. The concentration of sugars in fruits ranged from 0.6 g/100 g FW to 21.1 g/100 g FW.

  19. Analysis of total contents of hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol in olive oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Concepción; Brenes, Manuel

    2012-09-12

    The most abundant phenolic compounds in olive oils are the phenethyl alcohols hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol. An optimized method to quantify the total concentration of these substances in olive oils has been described. It consists of the acid hydrolysis of the aglycons and the extraction of phenethyl alcohols with a 2 M HCl solution. Recovery of the phenethyl alcohols from oils was very high (tyrosol, respectively. Precision values, both intraday and interday, remained below 3% for both compounds. The final optimized method allowed for the analysis of several types of commercial olive oils to evaluate their hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol contents. The results show that this method is simple, robust, and reliable for a routine analysis of the total concentration of these substances in olive oils.

  20. Variations of Microbial Communities and the Contents and Isotopic Compositions of Total Organic Carbon and Total Nitrogen in Soil Samples during Their Preservation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAO Qianye; LI Yumei; WANG Guo'an; QIAO Yuhui; LIU Tung-Sheng

    2009-01-01

    Semi-sealed preservation of soil samples at difierent moisture of 4%and 23%,respectively, was simulated to observe the variations of soil microbiaI communities and determine the contents and isotopic compositions of the total organic carbon and total nitrogen on the 7th and 30th day, respectively.The results show that during preservation,the quantity of microbial communities tended to increase first and then decrease,with a wider variation range at higher moisture(23%).At the moisture content of 23%,the microbial communities became more active on the 7th day.but less after 30 days,and their activity Was stable with little fluctuation at the moisture content of 4%.However. there were no significant changes in the contents and isotopic compositions of the total organic carbon and total nitrogen.During preservation.the responses of soil microbes to the environment are more sensitive to changes in the total nitrogen and organic carbon contents.It is thus suggested that the variations of microbial communities have not exerted remarkable impacts on the isotope compositions of the total nitrogen and total organic carbon.

  1. Influence of mineral and chemical composition of coal ashes on their fusibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vassilev, S.V.; Kitano, K.; Takeda, S.; Tsurue, T. [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria). Institute of Applied Mineralogy

    1995-10-01

    The relationships between ash-fusion temperature (AFT) and mineral and chemical composition of coals and coal ashes from a wide variety of deposits (41) were studied by a melting test, X-ray diffractometry, light microscopy, differential-thermal, thermogravimetric and chemical analyses. A reliable explanation and prediction of AFT only from the total chemical composition of coal ash is inadequate because most important are the modes of elemental combination (minerals and phases) in coal and coal ash, as well as their behaviour during heating. The coals, which have low-melting temperature ashes, are lower rank coals with increased concentrations of S, Ca, Mg, Fe and Na and respectively, sulphates, carbonates, sulphides, oxides, montmorillonite, and feldspars. The coals with high-melting temperature ashes have an advanced rank and increased contents of Si, Al and Ti and respectively, quartz, kaolinite, illite and rutile, as well as some Fe oxides and siderite. The behaviour of chemical components and various coal and coal-ash minerals during heating is discussed, and their refractory and fluxing influence on ash fusibility is described. Lower AFT is related to increased proportions of the fluxing sulphate, silicate and oxide minerals such as anhydrite, acid plagioclases, K feldspars, Ca silicates and hematite in high-temperature coal ashes. Higher AFT is a result of decreased fluxing minerals and increased refractory minerals such as quartz, metakaolinite, mullite, and rutile in these ashes. Defined softening, hemispherical and fluid ash-fusion temperatures fit various processes of inorganic transformations which are discussed. A reliable explanation and prediction of ash-fusion characteristics can be made when the coal and coal-ash minerals and their amounts, as well as their refractory and fluxing action during heating, are known. 31 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. Antioxidant activities, metal contents, total phenolics and flavonoids of seven Morchella species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gursoy, Nevcihan; Sarikurkcu, Cengiz; Cengiz, Mustafa; Solak, M Halil

    2009-09-01

    Seven Morchella species were analyzed for their antioxidant activities in different test systems namely beta-carotene/linoleic acid, DPPH, reducing power, chelating effect and scavenging effect (%) on the stable ABTS*(+), in addition to their heavy metals, total phenolic and flavonoid contents. In beta-carotene/linoleic acid system, the most active mushrooms were M. esculenta var. umbrina and M.angusticeps. In the case of DPPH, methanol extract of M. conica showed high antioxidant activity. The reducing power of the methanol extracts of mushrooms increased with concentration. Chelating capacity of the extracts was also increased with the concentration. On the other hand, in 40 microg ml(-1) concentration, methanol extract of M. conica, exhibited the highest radical scavenging activity (78.66+/-2.07%) when reacted with the ABTS*(+) radical. Amounts of seven elements (Cu, Mn, Co, Zn, Fe, Ca, and Mg) and five heavy metals (Ni, Pb, Cd, Cr, and Al) were also determined in all species. M. conica was found to have the highest phenolic content among the samples. Flavonoid content of M. rotunda was also found superior (0.59+/-0.01 microg QEs/mg extract).

  3. Phytochemical Screening, Total Phenolic Content, Antioxidant Activities and Cytotoxicity of Dendrobium signatum Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chimsook Thitiphan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the leaves of Dendrobium signatum were extracted with ethanol by maceration; called M; and by sonication-maceration for 30 and 45 mins; called MS30 and MS45. Some biological activities of extracts were investigated. The results showed that the sonication for 30 mins and then maceration 72 hr gave the highest yield at 7.32%. The phytochemical investigation revealed that the bioactive compound from M, MS30 and MS45 were similar which composed of carbohydrates, coumarins, alkaloids, flavonoids, phenolics, sterols and glycosides, respectively. The total phenolic contents were assessed by Folin – Ciocalteau method using gallic acid as the chemical standards. The results showed that MS30 displayed the highest total phenolic contents at the value of 8.83 gGAE/100 g extract. The antioxidant activity was measured using DPPH assay. The results showed that MS30 had the stronger free radical scavenging activity than M and MS45 and had moderate radical scavenging ability compared to ascorbic acid. The cytotoxicity was performed against human cancer cell lines using MTT assay. The results showed that all ethanol extracts displayed weak anticancer activity against MCF-7 and NCI-H187 cell lines, compared to the standard drug doxorubicin. In addition, they showed no activity against KB cell lines.

  4. Volatile flavor compounds, total polyphenolic contents and antioxidant activities of a China gingko wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu; Xie, Kelin; Zhuang, Haining; Ye, Ran; Fang, Zhongxiang; Feng, Tao

    2015-09-01

    The volatile compounds in gingko wine, a novel functional wine, were extracted by head-space solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) coupled with odor activity value (OAV) and relative odor contribution (ROC) analyses. In addition, the total polyphenolic content of gingko wine was determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent, and its antioxidant capacity was evaluated by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) assays. Fifty-eight compounds were tentatively identified, including 13 esters, 10 alcohols, 11 acids, 12 carbonyl compounds, 2 lactones, 2 phenols, and 8 hydrocarbons. Ethyl hexanoate, ethyl pentanoate, nonanal, ethyl butyrate and ethyl heptanoate were the major contributors to the gingko wine aroma based on the results of OAV and ROC. The total phenols content of the gingko wine was 456 mg/L gallic acid equivalents, and its antioxidant capacity was higher than those of typical Chinese liquors analyzed in this paper. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The total antioxidant content of more than 3100 foods, beverages, spices, herbs and supplements used worldwide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barikmo Ingrid

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A plant-based diet protects against chronic oxidative stress-related diseases. Dietary plants contain variable chemical families and amounts of antioxidants. It has been hypothesized that plant antioxidants may contribute to the beneficial health effects of dietary plants. Our objective was to develop a comprehensive food database consisting of the total antioxidant content of typical foods as well as other dietary items such as traditional medicine plants, herbs and spices and dietary supplements. This database is intended for use in a wide range of nutritional research, from in vitro and cell and animal studies, to clinical trials and nutritional epidemiological studies. Methods We procured samples from countries worldwide and assayed the samples for their total antioxidant content using a modified version of the FRAP assay. Results and sample information (such as country of origin, product and/or brand name were registered for each individual food sample and constitute the Antioxidant Food Table. Results The results demonstrate that there are several thousand-fold differences in antioxidant content of foods. Spices, herbs and supplements include the most antioxidant rich products in our study, some exceptionally high. Berries, fruits, nuts, chocolate, vegetables and products thereof constitute common foods and beverages with high antioxidant values. Conclusions This database is to our best knowledge the most comprehensive Antioxidant Food Database published and it shows that plant-based foods introduce significantly more antioxidants into human diet than non-plant foods. Because of the large variations observed between otherwise comparable food samples the study emphasizes the importance of using a comprehensive database combined with a detailed system for food registration in clinical and epidemiological studies. The present antioxidant database is therefore an essential research tool to further elucidate the potential

  6. The total antioxidant content of more than 3100 foods, beverages, spices, herbs and supplements used worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsen, Monica H; Halvorsen, Bente L; Holte, Kari; Bøhn, Siv K; Dragland, Steinar; Sampson, Laura; Willey, Carol; Senoo, Haruki; Umezono, Yuko; Sanada, Chiho; Barikmo, Ingrid; Berhe, Nega; Willett, Walter C; Phillips, Katherine M; Jacobs, David R; Blomhoff, Rune

    2010-01-22

    A plant-based diet protects against chronic oxidative stress-related diseases. Dietary plants contain variable chemical families and amounts of antioxidants. It has been hypothesized that plant antioxidants may contribute to the beneficial health effects of dietary plants. Our objective was to develop a comprehensive food database consisting of the total antioxidant content of typical foods as well as other dietary items such as traditional medicine plants, herbs and spices and dietary supplements. This database is intended for use in a wide range of nutritional research, from in vitro and cell and animal studies, to clinical trials and nutritional epidemiological studies. We procured samples from countries worldwide and assayed the samples for their total antioxidant content using a modified version of the FRAP assay. Results and sample information (such as country of origin, product and/or brand name) were registered for each individual food sample and constitute the Antioxidant Food Table. The results demonstrate that there are several thousand-fold differences in antioxidant content of foods. Spices, herbs and supplements include the most antioxidant rich products in our study, some exceptionally high. Berries, fruits, nuts, chocolate, vegetables and products thereof constitute common foods and beverages with high antioxidant values. This database is to our best knowledge the most comprehensive Antioxidant Food Database published and it shows that plant-based foods introduce significantly more antioxidants into human diet than non-plant foods. Because of the large variations observed between otherwise comparable food samples the study emphasizes the importance of using a comprehensive database combined with a detailed system for food registration in clinical and epidemiological studies. The present antioxidant database is therefore an essential research tool to further elucidate the potential health effects of phytochemical antioxidants in diet.

  7. Experiment study on the performance of pebble concrete with different fly ash content%粉煤灰掺量对卵石混凝土性能影响的试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红梅; 李树山; 贾明晓; 解伟; 陈爱玖

    2016-01-01

    Through some experiments on performance of the pebble concrete with different fly ash content,effects of fly ash content on the slump,compressive strength,splitting tensile strength,static compressive modulus of elasticity and temperature rise of hydration heat of the pebble concrete were investigated.The results show that the unit water in the concrete is alleviated effectively due to adding volume of fly ash,when the slump of the fresh concrete is kept constant.The early strength of concrete decreases much more with the increasing of fly ash content.When the fly ash content is less than 30%,compressive strength of 180 days is gradually close to pure cement concrete. When the fly ash content is increased,the temperature rise of hydration heat can be significantly reduced,when the fly ash content is 40%, the peak temperature is reduced by 5~7 ℃.%开展粉煤灰不同掺量下卵石混凝土材料性能试验,研究粉煤灰掺量对卵石混凝土坍落度、抗压强度、劈拉强度、静力抗压弹模以及混凝土水化热温升的影响规律。试验结果表明,保持新拌混凝土坍落度不变时,掺粉煤灰有效降低混凝土的单位用水量;随着粉煤灰掺量的增加,混凝土早期抗压强度降低较多;当粉煤灰掺量不超过30%时,180 d强度逐渐接近纯水泥混凝土的强度;增加粉煤灰的掺量,可显著降低混凝土水化热温升,掺量为40%时,峰值温度平均降低5~7℃。

  8. Utilization of ash fractions from alternative biofuels used in power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolaisen, L.; Hinge, J.; Christensen, I. (Danish Technological Inst., Aarhus (Denmark)); Dahl, J. (Force Technology, Broendby (Denmark)); Arendt Jensen, P. (DTU-CHEC, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)); Soendergaard Birkmose, T. (Dansk Landbrugsraadgivning, Landscentret, Aarhus (Denmark)); Sander, B. (DONG Energy, Fredericia (Denmark)); Kristensen, O. (Kommunekemi A/S, Nyborg (Denmark))

    2008-07-15

    It is expected, that demand for the traditional biomass resources wood and straw will increase over the next years. In other projects a number of agro industrial waste products has been tested and characterized as fuels for power plants. The annual production in Denmark of these fuels is estimated at roughly 400.000 tons of Dry Matter per year, so the potential is substantial. The agro industrial biomass products include: Grain screening waste, pea shells, soy waste, cocoa waste, sugar beet waste, sunflower waste, shea waste, coffee waste, olive waste, rice shell waste, potato waste, pectin waste, carrageen waste, tobacco waste, rape seed waste and mash from breweries. In the PSO project 5075, 5 different types of fuel pellets was produced, which were rendered suitable for combustion in power plants. In this project, ash is produced from the above mentioned 5 mixtures together with another 2 mixtures produced especially for this project. From the 5 mixtures from PSO 5075, ash is produced at Danish Technological Institute's slag analyzer. These ash products are rendered comparable to ash from grate fired boilers at power plants. The ash/slag from the combustion in the slag analyzer was then grinded - thus resulting in a total of 5 ash products. At DTU CHEC's Entrained Flow Reactor, ash products from the 5+2 mixtures were produced. These ash products are rendered comparable to ash produced form suspension fired boilers at power plants. For each of the 7 mixtures, bottom-, cyclone and filter ash was taken out separately resulting in a total of 21 ash samples. The produced ashes have been evaluated for their properties as directly applied fertilizer. Furthermore, scenarios have been set up to assess the feasibility in producing artificial fertilizer from the ash products, based on known processes. In the main components the content of Na, S, Cl and K is significantly higher in filter ashes, whereas the content of Mg, Al, Si and Ca is significantly lower. The

  9. ROBUST hot wire probe efficiency for total water content measurements in glaciated conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, Delphine; Lilie, Lyle; Weber, Marc; Schwarzenboeck, Alfons; Strapp, J. Walter

    2017-04-01

    During the two High Altitude Ice Crystals (HAIC, Dezitter et al. 2013)/High Ice Water Content (HIWC, Strapp et al., 2016a) international flight campaigns that investigated deep convection in the tropics, the French Falcon 20 research aircraft was equipped with two different devices measuring the Total Water Content (TWC): - the IKP-2 (Isokinetic Probe, Davison et al. 2008, 2016), - and the hot wire ROBUST probe (Strapp et al. 2008; Grandin et al. 2014). The IKP-2 probe is an evaporator that has been specifically designed to measure high ice water content (Strapp et al. 2016b) with a collection efficiency near unity. It has undergone extensive performance assessment in liquid and glaciated conditions in several wind tunnels. The Robust probe was initially developed by Science Engineering Associates to estimate high ice water content in a high speed wind tunnel, in harsh conditions where other hot-wires had been observed to suffer failures. It was known at the outset that, like other hot-wire TWC probes, it would measure only a quasi-constant fraction of the true ice water content. Early wind tunnel and flight experience with the ROBUST probe revealed that this fraction was the order of 40% for ice crystals. During the HAIC/HIWC campaigns (Leroy et al. 2016, 2017), supercooled liquid water conditions were documented according to a detailed analysis of a Rosemount Ice detector (RICE) and a Cloud Droplet Probe (CDP) measurements, and were found to be rare. Thus, the HAIC/HIWC dataset represents a unique opportunity to study in more detail the ROBUST efficiency in glaciated conditions, using the IKP-2 values as a comparative reference. Comparison of IKP-2 and ROBUST measurements will show that the ROBUST behavior differs between low (below 1.5 g/m3) and high (above 2 g/m3) ice content conditions and is also sensitive to temperature. The sensitivity of the ROBUST collection efficiency to ice particles size could also be explored as optical imaging probes were part of the

  10. Development of an automatic measuring device for total sugar content in chlortetracycline fermenter based on STM32

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruochen; Chen, Xiangguang; Yao, Minpu; Huang, Suyi; Ma, Deshou; Zhou, Biao

    2017-01-01

    Because fermented liquid in chlortetracycline fermenter has high viscosity and complex composition, conventional instruments can't directly measure its total sugar content of fermented liquid. At present, offline artificial sampling measurement is usually the way to measuring total sugar content in chlortetracycline Fermenter. it will take too much time and manpower to finish the measurement., and the results will bring the lag of control process. To realize automatic measurement of total sugar content in chlortetracycline fermenter, we developed an automatic measuring device for total sugar content based on STM32 microcomputer. It can not only realize the function of automatic sampling, filtering, measuring of fermented liquid and automatic washing of the device, but also can make the measuring results display in the field and finish data communication. The experiment results show that the automatic measuring device of total sugar content in chlortetracycline fermenter can meet the demand of practical application.

  11. Total polyphenols content, antioxidant activity and stability of a grape pomace incorporated in animal feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica-Sanda Chedea

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Grape pomace (GP, resulting from wine making, is rich in antioxidant polyphenols originating from the input material, the grapes. Because of the high production volumes of grape pomace, environmental impact and nutritional content, new ways for its valorization are experimented. In order to incorporate it in animal feed (cow and pig, we determined its content in total polyphenols by the Folin Ciocalteu method, the antioxidant activity by the DPPH assay and its stability using the UV-Vis spectroscopy for different extraction media. In terms of total polyphenols the acetone extraction was the best (4667.1 mg GAE/100g sample comparing with ethanol and water (2140.4 mg GAE/100g sample respectively 2083.9 mg GAE/100g sample, and the ruminal fluid (732.9 mg GAE/100g sample and pepsin (712.2 mg GAE/100g sample. The highest antioxidant activity expressed as an antiradical activity against the DPPH radical, was registered for the acetone extract (32.8 μM Trolox Equivalents(TE, followed by the ethanol (6.5 μM TE and water extraction equal with pepsin extraction (4 μM TE, and the mixture of ruminal fluid (0.5 μM TE. The results show that even though the extraction of polyphenols in organic solvents is the best, when applied to the digestive media the situation changes. In both ruminal fluid and pepsin were measured almost the same amount of total polyphenols but the antioxidant activity was much lower in the ruminal fluid - 8 times lower. The UV-Vis spectroscopy shows that the acetone extract is stable over time when kept at – 20 ͦC.

  12. 采用离子色谱法检测电除尘飞灰中的氨含量%Application of Ion-Chromatography Method in Detecting Ammonia Content in Electrostatic Precipitator Fly Ash

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周飞梅; 曹志勇; 汤治; 郑志明; 汪景婷

    2014-01-01

    根据离子色谱法检测电除尘飞灰中氨含量的原理,进行检测条件优化试验,得出影响飞灰中氨含量的主要因素有溶液pH值、搅拌时间、水灰比等。在得出最佳试验条件后,进行重复性测试和加标回收率测试,结果表明离子色谱法测定飞灰中氨含量的方法具有较高的精密度和准确度,可作为监测脱硝系统氨逃逸的一种手段。%By applying the principle of ion-chromatography method for testing ammonia content in electrostatic precipitator fly ash, tests to optimize detecting conditions is carried on. It is concluded that the main factors influencing ammonia content in fly ash are pH of solution, mixing time, water and ash ratio and so forth. Af-ter optimal test condition is obtained, repeatability test and adding standard recovery rate test are conducted. The results show that ion-chromatography method is of high precision and accuracy in testing ammonia con-tent in electrostatic precipitator fly ash and it can be used to monitor ammonia escape in desulfurization system.

  13. Measurement of temperature conditions in grate zone of a 1 MW wood-pellets boiler fired with high ash content wood-pellets

    OpenAIRE

    Skotland, Christer Heen

    2009-01-01

    The combustion of biomass could in some cases lead to ash problems induced by high temperatures such as ash sintering, agglomeration and melting. The degrees of these problems depend on the fuel feedstock and are highly dependent on the amount of potassium, sodium and chlorine in the biomass. Straw, grass, bark, branches and wood residues are typical examples of biomass fuels that are connected to the mentioned ash problems.Addition of additives in the problematic fuels is a possible measure ...

  14. Total polyphenolic contents and in vitro antioxidant properties of eight Sida species from Western Ghats, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanya, M D; Pai, Sandeep R; Upadhya, Vinayak; Ankad, Gireesh M; Bhagwat, Shalini S; Hegde, Harsha V

    2015-01-01

    Sida L., is a medicinally important genus, the species of which are widely used in traditional systems of medicine in India. Pharmacologically, roots are known for anti-tumor, anti-HIV, hepatoprotective, and many other properties. Phenolic antioxidants help in reducing oxidative stress occurring during treatment of such diseases. The study aimed to evaluate and compare polyphenol contents and antioxidant properties of eight selected species of Sida from Western Ghats, India. Methanolic root extracts (10% w/v) of Sida species, viz., S. acuta, S. cordata, S. cordifolia, S. indica, S. mysorensis, S. retusa, S. rhombifolia, and S. spinosa were analyzed. Sida cordifolia possessed highest total phenolic content (TPC: 1.92 ± 0.10 mg Caffeic Acid Equivalent/g and 2.13 ± 0.11 mg Tannic Acid Equivalant/g), total flavonoid content (TF: 2.60 ± 0.13 mg Quercetin Equivalent/g) and also possessed highest antioxidant activities in 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging (51.31 ± 2.57% Radical Scavenging Activity, (RSA); Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity: 566.25 ± 28.31μM; Ascorbic acid Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity: 477.80 ± 23.89 μM) and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power assays (TEAC: 590.67 ± 29.53 μM; AEAC: 600.67 ± 30.03 μM). Unlike DPPH and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) activity, 2, 2'-Azinobis (3-ethyl Benzo Thiazoline-6-Sulfonic acid) ABTS(+) antioxidant activity was highest in S. indica (TEAC: 878.44 ± 43.92 μM; AEAC 968.44 ± 48.42 μM). It was significant to note that values of AEAC (μM) for all the antioxidant activities analyzed were higher than that of TEAC. The high contents of phenolic compounds in the root extracts of selected Sida species have direct correlation with their antioxidant properties. Conclusively, roots of S. cordifolia can be considered as the potential source of polyphenols and antioxidants.

  15. Total polyphenolic contents and in vitro antioxidant properties of eight Sida species from Western Ghats, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M D Subramanya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sida L., is a medicinally important genus, the species of which are widely used in traditional systems of medicine in India. Pharmacologically, roots are known for anti-tumor, anti-HIV, hepatoprotective, and many other properties. Phenolic antioxidants help in reducing oxidative stress occurring during treatment of such diseases. Objective: The study aimed to evaluate and compare polyphenol contents and antioxidant properties of eight selected species of Sida from Western Ghats, India. Materials and Methods: Methanolic root extracts (10% w/v of Sida species, viz., S. acuta, S. cordata, S. cordifolia, S. indica, S. mysorensis, S. retusa, S. rhombifolia, and S. spinosa were analyzed. Results: Sida cordifolia possessed highest total phenolic content (TPC: 1.92 ± 0.10 mg Caffeic Acid Equivalent/g and 2.13 ± 0.11 mg Tannic Acid Equivalant/g, total flavonoid content (TF: 2.60 ± 0.13 mg Quercetin Equivalent/g and also possessed highest antioxidant activities in 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging (51.31 ± 2.57% Radical Scavenging Activity, (RSA; Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity: 566.25 ± 28.31μM; Ascorbic acid Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity: 477.80 ± 23.89 μM and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power assays (TEAC: 590.67 ± 29.53 μM; AEAC: 600.67 ± 30.03 μM. Unlike DPPH and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP activity, 2, 2Ͳ-Azinobis (3-ethyl Benzo Thiazoline-6-Sulfonic acid ABTS + antioxidant activity was highest in S. indica (TEAC: 878.44 ± 43.92 μM; AEAC 968.44 ± 48.42 μM. It was significant to note that values of AEAC (μM for all the antioxidant activities analyzed were higher than that of TEAC. Conclusion: The high contents of phenolic compounds in the root extracts of selected Sida species have direct correlation with their antioxidant properties. Conclusively, roots of S. cordifolia can be considered as the potential source of polyphenols and antioxidants.

  16. Studies on Total Polyphenols Content and Antioxidant Activity of Methanolic Extracts from Selected Salvia Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Viorica Pop Cuceu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Salvia is one of the largest genera in the family of Labiatae, comprising about 900 species distributed widely throughout the world. Many species of Salvia are commonly used as herbal tea and for food flavoring, as well as in cosmetics, perfumery and in the pharmaceutical industry. The present study compares the antioxidant properties of four methanolic extracts, obtained by two extraction methods, from Salvia elegans, Salvia officinalis Purpurascens, Salvia officinalis Tricolor and Salvia lavandulifolia. The amount of total phenolics was quantified using the Folin-Ciocalteu method, while the antioxidant activity of selected herbs was determined with 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH reagent. The total amount of phenolics was between 1122.50 and 3672.16 mg GAE/100g dry plant for the first methanolic extract, while for the second extract was between 767.66 and 2725.04mg GAE/100g dry plant. A positive linear correlation was observed between total phenolics content and antioxidant activity of the extracts. The results suggested that the extracts of Salvia species, notably Salvia officinalis Tricolor with the highest antioxidant activity, can be used as natural antioxidants in the food industry.

  17. Evaluation of antimicrobial, cytotoxic, thrombolytic, diuretic properties and total phenolic content of Cinnamomum tamala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmudur Rahman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The leaves of Cinnamomum tamala are aromatic, carminative, stimulant, diuretic, diaphoretic, lactagogue, and deobstruent. Other parts of the plant are also used as traditional remedies for various diseases. Aim: The aim of our study was to carry out the evaluation of the preliminary phytochemical and some pharmacological properties including cytotoxicity, antibacterial and antifungal sensitivity, total phenolic content, clot lysis and diuretic potential of the leaves of C. tamala. Materials and Methods: Phytochemical screening of ethanol extract was carried out by standard chromogenic reagents and total phenolic content was estimated in term of gallic acid equivalent by using Folin Ciocalteu′s reagent. Brine shrimp lethality assay method was used to determine the degree of cytotoxicity. Antibacterial and antifungal sensitivity test was performed using disc diffusion method in agar medium and minimum inhibitory concentration was determined by micro dilution method. Clot lysis and diuretic potential were compared with streptokinase and furosemide, respectively. Statistical Analysis: The results were statistically interpreted using Student′s " t" test. Results: The extract contained alkaloids, steroids, tannins and reducing sugars. Total phenolic content was found to be 276 gallic acid equivalent/100 g of dried plant material. In brine shrimp lethality assay, it showed moderate toxicity (LC 50 = 40 μg/ml and LC 90 = 160 μg/ml. The extract inhibited growth of tests bacteria and fungi with significant zones of inhibition. Highest activity was observed against the bacteria Salmonella typhi and the fungus Aspergillus niger. In-vitro clot lysis action of extract was comparable with streptokinase (48.22 ± 2.98% and maximum effect (24.75 ± 1.27% was found at a dose of 10 mg/ml. The extract showed diuretic activity which responded 29.16% and 37.50% diuretic activity in comparison with control (water which indicates the plant mild

  18. ESTIMATION OF TOTAL POLYPHENOLIC CONTENT IN AQUEOUS AND METHANOLIC EXTRACTS FROM THE BARK OF ACACIA NILOTICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayank Tenguria et al

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Plant polyphenols have been studied largely because of the possibility that they might underlie the protective effects afforded by fruit and vegetable intake against cancer and other chronic diseases. The objective of the present study is to estimate the total polyphenolic content in aqueous and methanolic extract prepared from the bark of Acacia nilotica plant species. Acacia nilotica (L. Willd. ex Del commonly known as babul, kikar or Indian gum Arabic tree, has been recognized worldwide as a multipurpose tree. Mostly it occurs as an isolated tree and rarely found in patches to a limited extent in forests and has been widely planted on farms throughout the plains of the Indian subcontinent. The bark, root, gum, leaves and flowers have found use for skin diseases, diarrhoea, dysentery, cough, diabetes, eczema, wound healing, burning sensation and as an astringent, demulcent, anti-asthmatic. For present work the bark of well identified A. nilotica (L plant for the extraction of phytochemicals was done from the village Khargawali (Hoshangabad district. 20-20 grams of the fine powdered sample were subjected to soxhlet extraction with 200 ml distilled water and 40% methanol separately at 70oC and 50oC respectively, for 24 hours and concentrated. The percentage yield so obtained was 35 and 32.5% respectively. The extracts were then subjected for preliminary phytochemical screening of alkaloids, tannins, terpenoids, saponins, flavonoids and glycosides the results of which refers to data given in this article. The total phenolic content of the extracts was determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu method with suitable modification. When compared with the gallic acid standard curve the aqueous extract of 0.01 mg/ml dilution contains 0.323 mg/ml approx of total polyphenol content and that of the methanolic extract of the same concentration shows 0.422 mg/ml approx concentration of TPC. Thus from the present study it can be concluded that the aqueous and

  19. AKTIVITAS ANTIOKSIDAN DAN KADAR FENOLIK TOTAL DARI GANGGANG MERAH (Gracilaria verrucosa L. [Antioxidant Activity and Total Phenolic Content of Red Sea Weed (Gracilaria verrucosa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Ninan Lestario*

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to compare the antioxidant activity and the total phenolic content of red sea weed (Gracilaria verrucosa L. from extract of methanol, ethanol, acetone, chloroform and hexane; and the correlation between total phenolic content and the antioxidant activity of each extract; then to determine the chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and carotene content of each extract and their correlation with the free radical scavenging activity as well. The antioxidant activity were measured by free radical scavenging method with DPPH and by reducing power method with K4Fe(CN6 as standard, whereas the total phenolic content was measured by Folin Ciocalteu method with gallic acid as standard. Chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and carotene were determined by spectrophotometric method based on Lambert-Beer law. The data of antioxidant activity and total phenolic content were statistically analyzed by Randomized Completely Block Design (RCBD with five kinds of solvents as treatments and five replications. Honestly Significant Difference Test (HSDT was used to compare the difference of treatments; whereas the chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and carotene content were not statistically analyzed since they were only supplement data. The results showed that the highest of the antioxidant activity by free radical scavenging method was found in acetone extract : 43.43% (BHT: 84.15%; whereas by reducing power method was found in chloroform extract : 0.1756 meq K4Fe(CN6/g extract (BHT : 6.1767 meq K4Fe(CN6/g extract; and the highest of the total phenolic content was also found in acetone extract : 45.29 mg /g extract. There were close correlation between phenolic content and antioxidant activity both by free radical scavenging method and by reducing power method with r (coefficient correlation respectivelly 0.89 and 0.91.Chlorophyll a and carotene had also close correlation with the free radical scaveging activity, but not for chlorophyll b.

  20. Influence of Bed Ash and Fly Ash Replacement in Mortars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Summoogum-Utchanah

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluates the influence of fly ash and bottom ash as partial cement substitutes in mortars by studying the particle size distribution, consistency, flow, fresh density, air content, compressive strength and flexural strength characteristics. The results revealed that fly ash and cement had relatively the same particle size distribution unlike bottom ash. In the fresh state, as the amount of pozzolans increased in the mixtures, the mortars showed an enhancement in workability, were susceptible to water loss by bleeding, and exhibited a decline in fresh density. The early strength gains of the fly ash samples were low but reached higher than the control after 28 days of curing. The flexural strength increased as the fly ash content rose to reach a maximum at 20 % replacement. However, the 2-day compressive strength of bottom ash samples was higher than the control but decreased after 28 days of curing while the flexural strength declined with addition of bottom ash except at 5 % substitution.

  1. Electrodialytic remediation of fly ash from co-combustion of wood and straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Wan; Jensen, Pernille Erland; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2015-01-01

    The heavy metal content in fly ash from biomass combustion, such as straw, wood and sludge, often needs reducing before the ash can be used as fertilizer for agricultural land or as a component in the production of construction materials. In this study, fly ash from a boiler fueled with wood chips...... and straw was treated either by electrodialytic remediation (EDR) directly or by a combination of EDR and pre-wash with distilled water to investigate the possibilities of reducing the heavy metal content and reusing nutrients as fertilizer and bulk material in construction materials. Different experimental...... set-ups were tested for EDR treatment primarily of Cd and Pb as well as of Cu and Zn. Elemental contents such as K, P and Ni were compared in ash samples before and after treatment. The results showed that pre-washing caused an increase in total concentrations of most heavy metals because the highly...

  2. Characterization of GPS total electron content (GPS-TEC in Antarctica from 2004 to 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emília Correia

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The vertical total electron content (VTEC obtained from 2004 to 2011 at Comandante Ferraz Brazilian Antarctic Station (62.1°S, 58.4°W is analyzed to study the mean diurnal, seasonal and annual variations. The maximum daytime VTEC had an annual variation that decreased from 2004 to 2008, and then starting to increase in 2009, which followed the variation of the solar activity. The daily VTEC shows good linear correlation with solar radiation intensity, which is also dependent on the solar zenithal angle. The mean diurnal VTEC shows a semiannual variation, with larger peaks in equinoxes for all years; no winter anomaly was observed, and in summer, there was no clear diurnal variation. The semiannual variation of the VTEC is also modulated by solar activity, with larger VTEC peaks when the solar activity was higher.

  3. Principal component analysis of global maps of the total electronic content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslennikova, Yu. S.; Bochkarev, V. V.

    2014-03-01

    In this paper we present results of the spatial distribution analysis of the total electron content (TEC) performed by the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) with the use of global maps of TEC provided by the JPL laboratory (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, NASA, USA) for the period from 2004 to 2010. We show that the obtained components of the decomposition of TEC essentially depend on the representation of the initial data and the method of their preliminary processing. We propose a technique for data centering that allows us to take into account the influence of diurnal and seasonal factors. We establish a correlation between amplitudes of the first components of the decomposition of TEC (connected with the equatorial anomaly) and the solar activity index F10.7, as well as with the flow of high energy particles of the solar wind.

  4. Total Content of Carotenoids in Corn Landraces and Their Potential Health Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stăncuța Scrob

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The research was designed to quantify the carotenoid compounds from the experimental variability of the corn genotypes. The experimental material for the present investigation consisted of 19 corn hybrids from Agricultural Research and Development Station (ARDSTurda, Romania. The experiment was carried out during two seasons 2011 and 2012. Corn hybrids Turda 215, Mold Turda 188, Turda 200, Turda SU 181 and HS 105 were noticed by the fact that in the year of culture 2012, they showed a beginning of accumulation of total content of carotenoids more than 27 µg/g DW as compared to 15 µg/g DW corresponding to the year o culture 2011 due to soil and climate conditions favoring the accumulation of carotenoid compounds. According to our study, the highest concentration of TC was recorded in light yellow, dark yellow and orange hybrids.

  5. Total mercury content in cultured oysters from NW Mexico: health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Álvarez, C G; Ruelas-Inzunza, J; Osuna-López, J I; Voltolina, D; Frías-Espericueta, M G

    2015-02-01

    The total mercury (Hg) content of the soft tissues of cultured oysters of the genus Crassostrea obtained during the dry and rainy seasons at sampling sites of NW Mexico with different degrees of urbanization, was determined by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Hg levels ranged from 0.05 to 0.37 µg/g (dry weight) and no significant differences (p > 0.05) related to season and sampling site were observed. The values did not exceed the limit of 1.0 µg/g (wet weight) established by Mexican legislation and by the Food and Drug Agency (FDA), and the hazard quotient was between 0.001 and 0.002. The estimated hazard quotient for MeHg ranged approximately from 0.002 to 0.01.

  6. The ratio of clay content to total organic carbon content is a useful parameter to predict adsorption of the herbicide butachlor in soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhongzhen; He, Yan; Xu, Jianming; Huang, Panming; Jilani, Ghulam

    2008-03-01

    Thirteen soils collected from 11 provinces in eastern China were used to investigate the butachlor adsorption. The results indicated that the total organic carbon (TOC) content, clay content, amorphous Fe2O3 content, silt content, CEC, and pH had a combined effect on the butachlor sorption on soil. Combination of the data obtained from the 13 soils in the present study with other 23 soil samples reported by other researchers in the literature showed that Koc would be a poor predictive parameter for butachlor adsorption on soils with TOC content higher than 4.0% and lower than 0.2%. The soils with the ratio of clay content to TOC content (RCO) values less than 60 adsorbed butachlor mainly by the partition into soil organic matter matrix. The soils with RCO values higher than 60 apparently adsorbed butachlor by the combination of the partition into soil organic matter matrix and adsorption on clay surface.

  7. Rapid, accurate, and direct determination of total lycopene content in tomato paste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicanic, D.; Anese, M.; Luterotti, S.; Dadarlat, D.; Gibkes, J.; Lubbers, M.

    2003-01-01

    Lycopene that imparts red color to the tomato fruit is the most potent antioxidant among carotenes, an important nutrient and also used as a color ingredient in many food formulations. Since cooked and processed foods derived from tomatoes were shown to provide optimal lycopene boost, products such as paste, puree, juice, etc. are nowadays gaining popularity as dietary sources. The analysis of lycopene in tomato paste (partially dehydrated product prepared by vacuum concentrating tomato juice) is carried out using either high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC), spectrophotometry, or by evaluating the color. The instability of lycopene during processes of extraction, etc., handling, and disposal of organic solvents makes the preparation of a sample for the analysis a delicate task. Despite a recognized need for accurate and rapid assessment of lycopene in tomato products no such method is available at present. The study described here focuses on a direct determination of a total lycopene content in different tomato pastes by means of the laser optothermal window (LOW) method at 502 nm. The concentration of lycopene in tomato paste ranged between 25 and 150 mg per 100 g product; the results are in excellent agreement with those obtained by spectrophotometry. The time needed to complete LOW analysis is very short, so that decomposition of pigment and the formation of artifacts are minimized. Preliminary results indicate a good degree of reproducibility making the LOW method suitable for routine assays of lycopene content in tomato paste.

  8. Use of near-infrared spectroscopy for determining the total arsenic content in prostrate amaranth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Font, R.; Del Rio, M.; Velez, D.; Montoro, R.; De Haro, A

    2004-07-05

    The potential of near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) for determining the total arsenic (As) content in the prostrate amaranth (Amaranthus blitoides S. Watson) was assessed. Seventy-four samples belonging to this species, were harvested at different maturity stages along the polluted area, and then were scanned by NIRS. Their As reference values were obtained by atomic absorption spectrometry and they were regressed against different spectral transformations using modified partial least square (MPLS) regression. First derivative transformation equation of the raw optical data, previously standardized by standard normal variate (SNV) and De-trending (DT) transformations, resulted in a coefficient of determination (r{sup 2}) in the external validation of 0.63, indicative of equations that can be used for a correct separation of the samples into low, medium and high groups. The standard deviation to standard error of prediction ratio (RPD) and range to standard error of prediction ratio (RER) for the first derivative equation were similar to those obtained for other trace metal calibrations reported in NIRS reflectance. Major cell components such as chlorophyll, lipids, starch and proteins were used by MPLS for modeling the equations. The use of NIRS for the determination of the As content in A. blitoides plants offers an important saving of time and cost of analysis.

  9. Antioxidant activity and total phenolic and flavonoid contents of Salvia amplexicaulis Lam. extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alimpić Ana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to examine the in vitro antioxidant DPPH free radical-scavenging activity, and the total phenolic and flavonoid content of ethanol and methanol extracts of Salvia amplexicaulis Lam. in the whole plant and different parts, leaves, stems and flowers. The largest amounts of extract yield were obtained from the flowers, 14.14% and 12.00 % (w/w in the ethanol of methanol extracts, respectively. The ethanol extract of leaves (16.07 μg/ml and methanol extract of the whole plant (21.28 μg/ml showed the highest activity against the DPPH radical. The ethanol extract of the leaves was the richest in phenols (222.40 mg GAE/g and flavonoids (49.81 mg QE/g, whereas the methanol extract of the whole plant contained the highest amount of phenolics (180.89 mg GAE/g and flavonoids (38.15 mg QE/g. A very strong linear correlation between antioxidant activity and the phenolic content of the extracts was established. The obtained results suggest that S. amplexicaulis could be regarded as an important source of natural antioxidants. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173029

  10. Quantitative trait loci analysis of individual and total isoflavone contents in soybean seeds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hai Jun Zhang; Jing Wen Li; Ya Jing Liu; Wen Zhu Jiang; Xing Lin Du; Lin Li; Xiao Wei Li; Lian Tai Su; Qing Yu Wang; Ying Wang

    2014-08-01

    Soybean isoflavones play diverse roles in human health, including cancers, osteoporosis, heart disease, menopausal symptoms and pabulums. The objective of this study was to identify the quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with the isoflavones daidzein (DC), genistein (GeC), glycitein (GlC) and total isoflavone contents (TIC) in soybean seeds. A population of 184 F2:10 recombinant inbred lines derived from a ‘Xiaoheidou’ × ‘GR8836’ cross was planted in pot and field conditions to evaluate soybean isoflavones. Twenty-one QTL were detected by composite interval mapping. Several QTL were associated with the traits for DC, GeC, GlC and TIC only. QDGeGlTIC4_1 and QDGlTIC12_1 are reported first in this study and were associated with the DC, GeC, GlC and TIC traits simultaneously. The QTL identified have potential value for marker-assisted selection to develop soybean varieties with desirable isoflavone content.

  11. Relationship between total phenolic content, antioxidant potential, and antiglycation abilities of common culinary herbs and spices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramkissoon, Jugjeet S; Mahomoodally, Mohamad Fawzi; Ahmed, Nessar; Subratty, Anwar H

    2012-12-01

    Advanced glycation endproducts and oxidative stress contribute to the pathogenesis of diabetic complications. The total phenolic content (TPC), antioxidant, and antiglycation properties of crude ethanolic extracts of 10 common culinary herbs and spices from Mauritius were investigated in vitro. Fluorescence at 370 nm/440 nm was used as an index of albumin glycation. Allium sativum had the highest TPC (3.1 mg GAE/mL), whereas Allium cepa L. showed the highest radical scavenging capacity (72%) and Zingiber officinale had the most potent ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP; 2.99 mg AAE/mL). In contrast, Thymus vulgaris and Petroselinum crispum had the most potent antiglycation activity with IC(50) values of 21.8 and 200 mg/mL, respectively. There was no significant correlation between TPC (r=0.001), FRAP (r=0.161), and the antiglycation activity (r=0.034) for the extracts studied. Therefore, the results showed that antiglycation properties of plant-derived extracts cannot always be attributed to their phenolic content or antioxidant potential.

  12. Measuring GNSS ionospheric total electron content at Concordia, and application to L-band radiometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Romano

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of the project BIS - Bipolar Ionospheric Scintillation and Total Electron Content Monitoring, the ISACCO-DMC0 and ISACCO-DMC1 permanent monitoring stations were installed in 2008. The principal scope of the stations is to measure the ionospheric total electron content (TEC and to monitor the ionospheric scintillations, using high-sampling-frequency global positioning system (GPS ionospheric scintillation and TEC monitor (GISTM receivers. The disturbances that the ionosphere can induce on the electromagnetic signals emitted by the Global Navigation Satellite System constellations are due to the presence of electron density anomalies in the ionosphere, which are particularly frequent at high latitudes, where the upper atmosphere is highly sensitive to perturbations coming from outer space. With the development of present and future low-frequency space-borne microwave missions (e.g., Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity [SMOS], Aquarius, and Soil Moisture Active Passive missions, there is an increasing need to estimate the effects of the ionosphere on the propagation of electromagnetic waves that affects satellite measurements. As an example, how the TEC data collected at Concordia station are useful for the calibration of the European Space Agency SMOS data within the framework of an experiment promoted by the European Space Agency (known as DOMEX will be discussed. The present report shows the ability of the GISTM station to monitor ionospheric scintillation and TEC, which indicates that only the use of continuous GPS measurements can provide accurate information on TEC variability, which is necessary for continuous calibration of satellite data.

  13. Solar activity variability in the IRI at high latitudes: Comparisons with GPS total electron content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Themens, David R.; Jayachandran, P. T.

    2016-04-01

    Total electron content (TEC) measurements from 10 dual-frequency GPS receivers in the Canadian High Arctic Ionospheric Network (CHAIN) are used to evaluate the performance of International Reference Ionosphere (IRI)-2007 within the Canadian sector. Throughout the region, we see systematic underestimation of daytime TEC, particularly at solar maximum, where summer and equinox root-mean-square errors reach as high as 14 total electron content units, 1 TECU = 1016 el m-2 (TECU). It is also shown that the use of a monthly IG index, in place of the IRI's standard IG12 index, leads to an improvement in TEC specification by up to 3 TECU in the polar cap and up to 6 TECU in the subauroral region during periods of short-term, large amplitude changes in solar activity. On diurnal timescales, variability in TEC is found to be underestimated by the IRI, during equinox periods, by up to 40% at subauroral latitudes and up to 70% in the polar cap region. During the winter, diurnal variations are overestimated by up to 40% in the subauroral region and are underestimated within the polar cap by up to 80%. Using collocated ionosonde data, we find IRI bottomside TEC to be within 1 TECU of observation with errors largest during the equinoxes. For the topside we find good agreement during the winter but significant underestimation of topside TEC by the IRI during summer and equinox periods, exceeding 6 TECU at times. By ingesting measured NmF2 into the IRI, we show that the topside thickness parameterization is the source of the bulk of the observed TEC errors.

  14. Effects of plasma total ammonia content and pH on urea excretion in Nile tilapia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, D J; Piraccini, G; Felskie, A; Romano, P; Bronzi, P; Bolis, C L

    1999-01-01

    Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were infused with ammonium salts, acid, and base to investigate the effects of changes in arterial plasma total ammonia content (Tamm) and pH (pHa) on plasma urea-nitrogen (urea-N) levels and urea-N excretory fluxes (Jurea-N). The tilapia did not possess a functional hepatic ornithine urea-cycle (no significant carbamyl phosphate synthetase III activity). Infused substances were dissolved in a saline vehicle and injected twice (5 mL kg-1), the first infusion to "prime" the animal and promote a more marked response to the second infusion, given 2.5 h later. The results reported are those of the second infusion. Infusion of 200 mM NH4Cl increased Tamm, reduced pHa, and increased plasma urea-N and Jurea-N. Two hundred mM NH4HCO3 increased Tamm and arterial plasma total CO2 content (TaCO2), reduced pHa, and increased Jurea-N. Fifty mM HCl reduced pHa but had no effects on urea dynamics. Fifty mM NaOH increased pHa, plasma urea-N levels, and Jurea-N. Two hundred mM NaHCO3 increased pHa, TaCO2, plasma urea-N levels, and Jurea-N. Infusion of the saline vehicle was without effect. The results indicate that ammonia loading and plasma alkalosis both stimulate urea excretion in uricolytic fish. The responses to hyperammonemia or alkalosis were not modified when combined with elevated plasma bicarbonate levels.

  15. Total Nitorgen Content from Earthworm (Eisenia Foetida Using The Kjeldahl Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarina Zakaria

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the fish aquaculture management, fish feed is identified as a major problem. The high cost and scarcity of fishmeal in formulated feeds have led to the use of other protein sources such as earthworms and animal by-product. Earthworm is an alternative protein source to replace the fish meal in the fish feed formulation. In this study, total nitrogen content in earthworm powder is determined using the Kjeldahl method by employing the statistical software, Full Factorial Design (FFD which could provide the significant information about the studied parameters. The parameters are the digestion time (min and the volume of sulfuric acid (H2SO4 (ml. From the analysis of variance (ANOVA, the volume of H2SO4and the interaction between digestion time and the volume of H2SO4arefound to be important parameters in the nitrogen determination process via the Kjeldahl method. The highest nitrogen content obtained was 12.23% when using 15 ml H2SO4 and 60 mins of digestion time. The value of R2 is 0.9986 which shows that the selected parameters (the digestion time and the volume of H2SO4 and its corresponding levels are highly correlated to the percentage nitrogen content in earthworm powder using the Kjeldahl method. ABSTRAK:Dalam pengurusan akuakultur ikan, makanan telah dikenalpasti sebagai masalah utama. Kos yang tinggi serta kekurangan sumber makanan telah menggalakkan pencarian sumber protein baru seperti cacing tanah dan hasil sampingan sembelihan haiwan ternakan. Cacing adalah sumber protein alternatif menggantikan ramuan ikan (fish meal dalam formulasi makanan ikan. Dalam kajian ini, kandungan jumlah nitrogen dalam serbuk cacing tanah telah dianalisa menggunakan kaedah Kjeldahl dengan menggunapakai perisian statistikal iaitu Full Factorial Design (FFD yang boleh memberikan maklumat yang penting berkenaan dengan parameter-parameter yang dikaji. Parameter-parameter tersebut adalah masa pencernaan (min dan isipadu asid sulfurik (H2SO4 (ml. Daripada

  16. Spatial and temporal analysis of the total electron content over China during 2011-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jianchang; Zhao, Biqiang; Xiong, Bo; Wan, Weixing

    2016-06-01

    In the present work we investigate variations of ionospheric total electron content (TEC) with empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis, the four-year TEC data are derived from ∼250 GPS observations of the crustal movement observation network of China (CMONOC) over East Asian area (30-55°N, 70-140°E) during the period from 2011, January to 2014, December. The first two EOF components together account for ∼93.78% of total variance of the original TEC data set, and it is found that the first EOF component represents a spatial variability of semi-annual variation and the second EOF component exhibits pronounced east-west longitudinal difference with respect to zero valued geomagnetic declination line. In addition, climatology of the vertical plasma drift velocity vdz induced by HWM zonal wind field (∼300 km) are studied in the paper. Results shows vdz displays significant east-west longitudinal difference at 10:00 LT and 20:00 LT, and its daytime temporal variation is consistent with the second EOF principal component, which suggests that the east-west longitudinal variability is partly caused by the thermospheric zonal wind and geomagnetic declination. It is expected that with this dense GPS network, local ionospheric variability can be described more accurately and a more realistic ionospheric model can be constructed and used for the satellite navigation and radio propagation.

  17. Pharmacological Evaluation of Total Alkaloids from Nux Vomica: Effect of Reducing Strychnine Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Chen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the possibility of improving the therapeutic efficacy of the total alkaloid fraction (TAF extracted from processed nux vomica by reducing the strychnine contents. Most strychnine was removed from TAF to obtain the modified total alkaloid fraction (MTAF. The toxicity and pharmacokinetics of TAF and MTAF were further investigated and compared besides their antitumor, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. The results showed that the ratios of brucine to strychnine were 1:2.05 and 2.2:1 for TAF and MTAF, respectively, and the toxicity of TAF was about 3.17-fold higher than that of MTAF. Compared to brucine alone, the elimination of brucine was found to be inhibited by other alkaloids in TAF or MTAF except strychnine. Significantly increased pharmacological activities when administered by the oral route were obtained with MTAF in comparison to TAF and nux vomica powder (NVP. In summary, MTAF might replace NVP and TAF in the clinical application of Chinese medicine to obtain much higher efficacy.

  18. Antioxidant Properties and Total Phenolic Content of Three Varieties of Carob Tree Leaves from Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brahim El Bali

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro antioxidant activity and the total phenolic content (Folin−Ciocalteu method of three successive extracts of three varieties of Ceratonia siliqua L. leaves ( grafted female, spontaneous female, spontaneous male grown in Morocco were investigated by using in-vitro antioxidant models including 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH scavenging assay, reducing power and total antioxidant capacity . T he global polyphenols concentration ranged from 0.45 to 2.64 (g/L GAE in the three categories of the extracts . In each variety, ethyl acetate fraction exhibited the highest antioxidant activity compared to other fractions. Grafted female trees globally showed a higher polyphenols concentration than the spontaneous female and spontaneous male ones. Our results clearly demonstrate that all extracts have antioxidant capacity. Among the categores, the ethyl acetate extracts of carob tree leaves exhibited strong scavenging effect on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH than the diethyl ether and dichloromethane extracts. Carob leaf extracts contain high amounts of polyphenols with strong antiradical, antioxidant capacity and reducing properties which might constitute an important source of natural antioxidants.

  19. Pharmacological evaluation of total alkaloids from nux vomica: effect of reducing strychnine contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Qu, Yange; Wang, Dongyue; Peng, Pei; Cai, Hao; Gao, Ying; Chen, Zhipeng; Cai, Baochang

    2014-04-10

    The aim of the study was to investigate the possibility of improving the therapeutic efficacy of the total alkaloid fraction (TAF) extracted from processed nux vomica by reducing the strychnine contents. Most strychnine was removed from TAF to obtain the modified total alkaloid fraction (MTAF). The toxicity and pharmacokinetics of TAF and MTAF were further investigated and compared besides their antitumor, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. The results showed that the ratios of brucine to strychnine were 1:2.05 and 2.2:1 for TAF and MTAF, respectively, and the toxicity of TAF was about 3.17-fold higher than that of MTAF. Compared to brucine alone, the elimination of brucine was found to be inhibited by other alkaloids in TAF or MTAF except strychnine. Significantly increased pharmacological activities when administered by the oral route were obtained with MTAF in comparison to TAF and nux vomica powder (NVP). In summary, MTAF might replace NVP and TAF in the clinical application of Chinese medicine to obtain much higher efficacy.

  20. Total phenolic content, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Blepharis edulis extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohaddese Mahboubi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Blepharis edulis is traditionally used as an antiseptic, purgative, aphrodisiac and anti-inflammatory agent. The extractsof plant aerial parts were screened for total phenolic content (TPC gallic acid equivalents (GAE, total flavonoid compound(TFC quercetin equivalents (QE, antioxidant capacity and its antimicrobial activity by micro broth dilution assay. The 50%-inhibition values of BHT and 70% (v/v aqueous ethanol, 70% (v/v aqueous methanol, methanol, and water extracts of B.edulis according to the DPPH method were found to be 19.6, 71.2, 73.7, 81.4, and 218.4 g/ml, respectively. TPC ranged from38.9 to 102.7 mg GAE/g dry extracts. The antimicrobial activity showed that yeast and fungi were sensitive and resistantmicroorganisms to the extracts. The 70%-methanol extract showed more drastic antimicrobial activity than the others. Theantimicrobial activity of ethanolic extract is the same as of the methanolic extract; water extract had the weakest antimicrobialactivity.

  1. Evaluation of the Antioxidant capacities and Total Phenolic Contents of beech and oak Barks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Fazli

    2013-05-01

    Background & aim: Anti-oxidant compounds prevent prevalence of chronic diseases and food spoiling. The aim of this study was to evaluate the total phenolic and flavonoid content and antioxidant activity of beech and oak barks. Methods: In this experimental study, the skin of beech and oak trees were prepared and then acetone extraction was obtained using Soxhle method. At the beginning, total phenol and flavonoid of extracts were determined and the anti-oxidant properties of the extracts were then evaluated by three methods (methods Biphenyl Pykryl Hydrosol, regenerative power produced- and nitric oxide. Results: The amount of phenolic was higher in bark of beech trees, but flavonoids were higher in oaks. The result of test to trap free radicals of Biphenyl Pykryl Hydrazyl showed the inhibitory concentration 50% of acetone extract of the bark of beech and oak, were 92.19 and 33.7 mg/L respectively. Beech extracts had greater regenerative power than oak. In Nitric oxide trap test acetone extract inhibited 50% in bark of beech trees was 98/23 and the oak extract was 92/90 mg/L respectively. Conclusion: Acetone extract of the bark in three models showed varying degrees of anti - oxidant activity. Beech extract had better antioxidant activity compared with oak extract. Key words: Anti-oxidant Activity, Phenols, Flavonoids, Beech, Oak

  2. The ratio of clay content to total organic carbon content is a useful parameter to predict adsorption of the herbicide butachlor in soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Zhongzhen; He Yan [College of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Xu Jianming [College of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China)], E-mail: jmxu@zju.edu.cn; Huang Panming [Department of Soil Science, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5A8 (Canada); Jilani Ghulam [College of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China)

    2008-03-15

    Thirteen soils collected from 11 provinces in eastern China were used to investigate the butachlor adsorption. The results indicated that the total organic carbon (TOC) content, clay content, amorphous Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} content, silt content, CEC, and pH had a combined effect on the butachlor sorption on soil. Combination of the data obtained from the 13 soils in the present study with other 23 soil samples reported by other researchers in the literature showed that K{sub oc} would be a poor predictive parameter for butachlor adsorption on soils with TOC content higher than 4.0% and lower than 0.2%. The soils with the ratio of clay content to TOC content (RCO) values less than 60 adsorbed butachlor mainly by the partition into soil organic matter matrix. The soils with RCO values higher than 60 apparently adsorbed butachlor by the combination of the partition into soil organic matter matrix and adsorption on clay surface. - The relative importance of organic matter and clay in butachlor adsorption in soil will depend on the ratio of clay content to total organic carbon content.

  3. Determination of antibacterial activity, total phenolic, flavonoid and saponin contents in leaves of Anogeissus leiocarpus (DC.) Guill and Perr

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Theresa Ibibia Edewor; Oghenerobor Benjamin Akpor; Stephen Olugbemiga Owa

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To ascertain the antibacterial property and quantify the contents of the total phenolics, flavonoids and saponins in leaves ofAnogeissus leiocarpus (DC.) Guill and Perr. Methods: Preliminary phytochemical screening was performed by the method described by Harborne in 1999. Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method was used for assaying the antibacterial activity. Folin-Ciocalteau reagent and aluminium chloride colorimetric methods were employed for the estimation of the total phenolic and flavonoid contents, respectively. Vanillin-acetic acid and perchloric acid mixture was employed in the determination of the total saponin content. Results: The preliminary phytochemical screening revealed the presence of glycosides, tannins, flavonoids, saponins, terpenoids and steroids in the methanolic extract while alkaloids were absent. Only steroids were identified in then-hexane extract. The methanolic leaf extract was active againstPseudomonas aeruginosa,Staphylococcus aureus,Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus vulgaris while then-hexane was inactive. The total phenolic content obtained was (47.75 ± 0.12) mg gallic acid equivalent/mg extract, the total flavonoid content was (121.50 ± 0.11) mg quercetin equivalent/mg extract, while the total saponin content was (63.42 ± 0.15) mg ginsenoside Rb 1 equivalent/mg extract. Conclusions:The leaves ofAnogeissus leiocarpus have high contents of saponins and flavonoids.

  4. Measuring the ash content of coal using natural gamma radiation. Medida del contenido de cenizas de carbones mediante radioactividad gamma natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legazpi, P.V.

    1990-10-01

    The receipt of consignments of coal at a power station can present serious problems. These concern not only the vast quantities of material involved and the associated problem of analysis, but also the decision as to whether the consignment is acceptable or not. A method based on natural radioactivity can provide an approximate analysis of ash content in under five minutes. In discussing approximate values it must be remembered that about 5% of the consignment is analysed, which implies some minimal sampling errors. This is also a technique which can be readily automated and adapted for use on lorries, rail cars and conveyors to provide a complete sampling system. It does not require special certification for the use of radiation equipment or any form of special protection. The accumulated error when using this method is amply compensated for by manpower costs and other expenditure resulting from sampling errors and the ease with which other methods may be fixed. The system yields very favourable economic benefits in the short term. 7 figs.

  5. Experience of coal mine operation in the Ukraine in the field of reducing ash content of run-of-mine coal in the tenth five year plan. Opyt raboty shakht minugleproma USSR po snizheniyu zol'nosti dobyvaemykh uglei v desyutoi pyutiletke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smirnov, A.I.; Krivchenko, A.A.; Kuznetsov, N.V.

    1981-01-01

    In the period from 1975 to 1979 ash content of coal extracted from Ukrainian coal mines increased from 21.2 to 21.9% or by 0.7%, and ash content of run-of-mine coal from 29.1% to 31.7% or by 2.6%. Causes of increasing ash content in coal are analyzed. Investigations carried out in the Ukraine indicate that increasing proportion of coal mined by narrow web coal cutters causes an average increase in ash content in coal of 0.1%. Introducing powered supports causes ash content increase in coal by about 3.3% in comparison to coal mined at faces with hydraulic props. Influence of introducing high capacity heading machines as well as using various types of coal haulage is also analyzed. The results are given in 5 tables. The following measures aimed at reducing ash content in coal are discussed: use of KD-80, KSD, M-88 and M-103 powered supports, K-103, MK-67 and BKT face systems, KSU support systems for face ends, mobile bunker used for selective belt conveyor haulage of rock and coal from development workings, using AZUK, ZAZ, and VSKZ measuring instruments for continuous determination of ash content in coal, selective coal mining, roof bolting combined with chemical methods of reinforcing roofs of coal seams by means of resin injections, leaving a 0.05 to 0.1 m thick protective coal bench in the roof.

  6. Determination of total flavonoids content in fresh Ginkgo biloba leaf with different colors using near infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ji-yong; Zou, Xiao-bo; Zhao, Jie-wen; Mel, Holmes; Wang, Kai-liang; Wang, Xue; Chen, Hong

    Total flavonoids content is often considered an important quality index of Ginkgo biloba leaf. The feasibility of using near infrared (NIR) spectra at the wavelength range of 10,000-4000 cm-1 for rapid and nondestructive determination of total flavonoids content in G. biloba leaf was investigated. 120 fresh G. biloba leaves in different colors (green, green-yellowish and yellow) were used to spectra acquisition and total flavonoids determination. Partial least squares (PLS), interval partial least squares (iPLS) and synergy interval partial least squares (SiPLS) were used to develop calibration models for total flavonoids content in two colors leaves (green-yellowish and yellow) and three colors leaves (green, green-yellowish and yellow), respectively. The level of total flavonoids content for green, green-yellowish and yellow leaves was in an increasing order. Two characteristic wavelength regions (5840-6090 cm-1 and 6620-6880 cm-1), which corresponded to the absorptions of two aromatic rings in basic flavonoid structure, were selected by SiPLS. The optimal SiPLS model for total flavonoids content in the two colors leaves (r2 = 0.82, RMSEP = 2.62 mg g-1) had better performance than PLS and iPLS models. It could be concluded that NIR spectroscopy has significant potential in the nondestructive determination of total flavonoids content in fresh G. biloba leaf.

  7. Wildland fire ash: Production, composition and eco-hydro-geomorphic effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodi, Merche B.; Martin, Deborah; Balfour, Victoria N.; Santin, Cristina; Doerr, Stefan H.; Pereira, Paulo; Cerda, Artemi; Mataix-Solera, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Fire transforms fuels (i.e. biomass, necromass, soil organic matter) into materials with different chemical and physical properties. One of these materials is ash, which is the particulate residue remaining or deposited on the ground that consists of mineral materials and charred organic components. The quantity and characteristics of ash produced during a wildland fire depend mainly on (1) the total burned fuel (i.e. fuel load), (2) fuel type and (3) its combustion completeness. For a given fuel load and type, a higher combustion completeness will reduce the ash organic carbon content, increasing the relative mineral content, and hence reducing total mass of ash produced. The homogeneity and thickness of the ash layer can vary substantially in space and time and reported average thicknesses range from close to 0 to 50 mm. Ash is a highly mobile material that, after its deposition, may be incorporated into the soil profile, redistributed or removed from a burned site within days or weeks by wind and water erosion to surface depressions, footslopes, streams, lakes, reservoirs and, potentially, into marine deposits.Research on the composition, properties and effects of ash on the burned ecosystem has been conducted on material collected in the field after wildland and prescribed fires as well as on material produced in the laboratory. At low combustion completeness (typically T  450 °C), most organic carbon is volatized and the remaining mineral ash has elevated pH when in solution. It is composed mainly of calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, silicon and phosphorous in the form of inorganic carbonates, whereas at T > 580 °C the most common forms are oxides. Ash produced under lower combustion completeness is usually darker, coarser, and less dense and has a higher saturated hydraulic conductivity than ash with higher combustion completeness, although physical reactions with CO2 and when moistened produce further changes in ash characteristics.As a new

  8. Total phenolic content and in-vitro antioxidant activities from methanolic extract of alligator pipefish, Syngnathoides biaculeatus (Bloch, 1785)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sanaye, S.V.; Pise, N.M.; Pawar, A.P.; Parab, P.P.; Sreepada, R.A.; Pawar, H.B.; Murugan, A.

    Alligator pipefish, Syngnathoides biaculeatus (Bloch, 1785) is one of the heavily traded and expensive ingredient in traditional Chinese medicines and there were no reports on its antioxidant activities Total phenolic content (TPC) and in...

  9. Ionospheric Total Electron Content (TEC Anomalies Associated with Earthquakes through Karhunen-Loeve Transform (KLT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyh-Woei Lin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This research uses eigenvalue characteristics of the Karhunen-Loéve Transform of ionosphereic total electron content (TEC to investigate precursors for 12 earth quakes of Richter magnitude scale M ³ 5.0 in a local region of latitude 23.00 to 24.00°N and longitude 120.00 to 121.50°E for 1 January 2002 to 31 December 2003. Previous researchers have found that in the 5 days be fore these earth quakes (i.e., prior to M ³ 5.0, pre cursors of clear ionospheric anomalies showing sparser total electron content (TEC were detected through statistical investigation. This was evidenced through two is sues from Liu and his partners in 2001 and 2006. These is sues gave credible evidence of such precursors. The pre cursor days having clear extreme eigenvalues of the Karhunen-Loéve Transform as the precursors in stead of the sparser ionospheric TEC were also mostly in the 5 days be fore the 12 earth quakes of greater than M ³ 5.0. The precursors of Chi-Chi Earth quake (Mw = 7.6 with clear extreme eigenvalues were detected on the 1st, 3rd, and 4th days be fore this earth quake. These results are consistent with the analyses of Liu and his partner_?s issue in 2001. These findings verify the validity of the Karhunen-Loéve Trans form. To further verify this approach, the Karhunen-Loéve Trans form is applied to an earth quake in Japan. Precursors to the Japan Iwate-Miyagi Nairiku earth quake (Mj = 7.2, with clear extreme eigenvalues are detected on the 1st, 2nd, and 5th days be fore the earth quake, respectively. However, after detailed analysis, precursors of earthquakes of Richter magnitude scale M < 5 are not easy to identify using extreme eigenvalues because of existence of other ionospheric features not caused by earthquakes.

  10. Study of the Total Electron Content in Mars ionosphere from MARSIS data set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeot, Nicolas; Witasse, Olivier; Kofman, Wlodek; Grima, Cyril; Mouginot, Jeremie; Peter, Kerstin; Pätzold, Martin; Dehant, Véronique

    2016-04-01

    Centimeter level accuracy on the signal delay will be required on X-band radio link for future Mars landers such as InSIGHT, aiming at better determining the interior structure of Mars. One of the main error sources in the estimated signal delay is directly linked to the Total Electron Content (TEC) values at Earth and Mars ionosphere level. While the Earth ionosphere is now well modeled and monitored at regional and global scales, this is not the case concerning the Mars' upper atmosphere. The present paper aims at establishing the basis to model the climatological behavior of the TEC on a global scale in the Mars' ionosphere. For that we analyzed ˜8.5 years of data (mid-2005 to 2014) of the vertical Total Electron Content (vTEC) expressed in TEC units (1 TECu = 1016e-.m-2) from the Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionospheric Sounding (MARSIS) radar. Our study takes advantage of the double data set of EUV solar index and Mars vTEC data to develop an empirical Model of Mars Ionosphere (MoMo). The finality of this model is to predict the vTEC at a given latitude, solar zenith angle and season taking only F10.7P solar index as input. To minimize the differences during the least-square adjustment between the modeled and observed vTEC, we considered (1) a 4th-order polynomial function to describe the vTEC diurnal behavior (2) a discretization with respect to Mars seasons (depending on Ls) and (3) two latitudinal sectors (North and South hemispheres). The mean of the differences between the model and the observations is 0.00±0.07 TECu with an error of the model around 0.1 TECu depending on the Solar Zenith Angle (SZA), season and hemisphere of interest (e.g. rms 0.12 TECu for SZA equal to 50°±5° in the Northern hemisphere during the spring season). Additionally, comparison with 250 Mars Express radio occultation data shows differences with MoMo predictions of 0.02±0.06 TECu for solar zenith angles below 50 degrees. Using the model we (1) highlighted

  11. Melting Behavior of Volcanic Ash relevant to Aviation Ash Hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, W.; Hess, K.; Lavallee, Y.; Cimarelli, C.; Dingwell, D. B.

    2013-12-01

    Volcanic ash is one of the major hazards caused by volcanic eruptions. In particular, the threat to aviation from airborne volcanic ash has been widely recognized and documented. In the past 12 years, more than 60 modern jet airplanes, mostly jumbo jets, have been damaged by drifting clouds of volcanic ash that have contaminated air routes and airport facilities. Seven of these encounters are known to have caused in-flight loss of engine power to jumbo jets carrying a total of more than 2000 passengers. The primary cause of engine thrust loss is that the glass in volcanic ash particles is generated at temperatures far lower than the temperatures in the combustion chamber of a jet engine ( i.e. > 1600 oC) and when the molten volcanic ash particles leave this hottest section of the engine, the resolidified molten volcanic ash particles will be accumulated on the turbine nozzle guide vanes, which reduced the effective flow of air through the engine ultimately causing failure. Thus, it is essential to investigate the melting process and subsequent deposition behavior of volcanic ash under gas turbine conditions. Although few research studies that investigated the deposition behavior of volcanic ash at the high temperature are to be found in public domain, to the best our knowledge, no work addresses the formation of molten volcanic ash. In this work, volcanic ash produced by Santiaguito volcano in Guatemala in November 8, 2012 was selected for study because of their recent activity and potential hazard to aircraft safety. We used the method of accessing the behavior of deposit-forming impurities in high temperature boiler plants on the basis of observations of the change in shape and size of a cylindrical coal ash to study the sintering and fusion phenomena as well as determine the volcanic ash melting behavior by using characteristic temperatures by means of hot stage microscope (HSM), different thermal analysis (DTA) and Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) to

  12. Ash in the Soil System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, P.

    2012-04-01

    Ash is the organic and inorganic residue produced by combustion, under laboratory and field conditions. This definition is far away to be accepted. Some researchers consider ash only as the inorganic part, others include also the material not completely combusted as charcoal or biochar. There is a need to have a convergence about this question and define clear "what means ash". After the fire and after spread ash onto soil surface, soil properties can be substantially changed depending on ash properties, that can be different according to the burned residue (e.g wood, coal, solid waste, peppermill, animal residues), material treatment before burning, time of exposition and storage conditions. Ash produced in boilers is different from the produced in fires because of the material diferent propertie and burning conditions. In addition, the ash produced in boilers is frequently treated (e.g pelletization, granulation, self curing) previously to application, to reduce the negative effects on soil (e.g rapid increase of pH, mycorrhiza, fine roots of trees and microfauna). These treatments normally reduce the rate of nutrients dissolution. In fires this does not happen. Thus the implications on soil properties are logically different. Depending on the combustion temperature and/or severity, ash could have different physical (e.g texture, wettability) and chemical properties (e.g amount and type of total and leached nutrients) and this will have implications on soil. Ash can increase and decrease soil aggregation, wettablity and water retention, bulk density, runoff and water infiltration. Normally, ash increases soil pH, Electrical Conductivity, and the amount of some basic nutrients as calcium, magnesium, sodium and potassium. However it is also a potential source of heavy metals, especially if ash pH is low. However the effect of ash on soil in space and time depends especially of the ash amount and characteristics, fire temperature, severity, topography, aspect

  13. Fly ash quality and utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barta, L.E.; Lachner, L.; Wenzel, G.B. [Inst. for Energy, Budapest (Hungary); Beer, M.J. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    The quality of fly ash is of considerable importance to fly ash utilizers. The fly ash puzzolanic activity is one of the most important properties that determines the role of fly ash as a binding agent in the cementing process. The puzzolanic activity, however is a function of fly ash particle size and chemical composition. These parameters are closely related to the process of fly ash formation in pulverized coal fired furnaces. In turn, it is essential to understand the transformation of mineral matter during coal combustion. Due to the particle-to-particle variation of coal properties and the random coalescence of mineral particles, the properties of fly ash particles e.g. size, SiO{sub 2} content, viscosity can change considerably from particle to particle. These variations can be described by the use of the probability theory. Since the mean values of these randomly changing parameters are not sufficient to describe the behavior of individual fly ash particles during the formation of concrete, therefore it is necessary to investigate the distribution of these variables. Examples of these variations were examined by the Computer Controlled Scanning Electron Microscopy (CCSEM) for particle size and chemical composition for Texas lignite and Eagel Butte mineral matter and fly ash. The effect of combustion on the variations of these properties for both the fly ash and mineral matter were studied by using a laminar flow reactor. It is shown in our paper, that there are significant variations (about 40-50% around the mean values) of the above-listed properties for both coal samples. By comparing the particle size and chemical composition distributions of the mineral matter and fly ash, it was possible to conclude that for the Texas lignite mineral matter, the combustion did not effect significantly the distribution of these properties, however, for the Eagel Butte coal the combustion had a major impact on these mineral matter parameters.

  14. Comparative Antioxidant Activity and Total Flavonoid Content of Persian Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) Cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams Ardekani, Mohammad Reza; Hajimahmoodi, Mannan; Oveisi, Mohammad Reza; Sadeghi, Naficeh; Jannat, Behrooz; Ranjbar, Ali Mohammad; Gholam, Narges; Moridi, Tahereh

    2011-01-01

    Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.), Lythraceae, is mainly grown in Mediterranean region. It is one of the major cultivated productions of Iran, which have been used in folk medicine for many centuries. It has been proved that pomegranate has a high antioxidant activity and is effective in the prevention of atherosclerosis. This study compares the antioxidant activity, total phenolic and flavonoid contents of nine different pomegranate cultivars grown in Iran. Aqueous solutions of known Fe(+2) concentration, vitamin E, vitamin C, gallic acid and catechin were used for calibration. The results showed that Sour summer pulp cultivar had the most antioxidant effect with significant difference with the other cultivar (p < 0.05) which can be introduced as a potent source of natural antioxidants, and the peel of three cultivars (Sweet saveh malas, Sour summer and Black peel) as a suitable source for extraction and purification of phenolic and flavonoid compound. The antioxidant capacity of pomegranate peel extract is 10 times higher than the pulp extract.

  15. Effect of hydrothermally ‘Hass” avocado about antioxidant capacity, total phenolic content and coloration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Augusta Tremocoldi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the antioxidant activity, total phenolic compounds and color in avocado ‘Hass’ hydrothermally treated. The fruits were hydrothermally treated at 45oC for 5, 10, 15 and 20 min. After treatment, fruit were stored at room temperature (21±1ºC and 70±5% relative humidity and cold (10°C±1 and 90±5% relative humidity. The fruits were analyzed for their antioxidant capacity by DPPH method and phenolic compounds at 0, 3, 9 and 12 days. The fruits color was measured at 0, 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 days. The control fruits had higher antioxidant capacity and content of phenolic compounds during the storage period, compared to the fruits hydrothermally treated. The hydrothermally treatment altered the behavior as for the maintenance of the antioxidant activity in relation to the fruits control. In spite of superior values of antioxidant activity for the fruits maintained at 21±1ºC and 70±5% relative humidity, those refrigerated presented better aspect for commercialization. The refrigerated fruits presented better aspect for commercialization in relation to the maintained under room temperature. The brightness, color a * and b * values decreased with the storage days. Values color superiors were observed for the fruits control and those maintained under refrigeration. As it increased the irradiation dose reduced the fruits antioxidant activity and coloration.

  16. On forecasting ionospheric total electron content responses to high-speed solar wind streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Xing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Conditions in the ionosphere have become increasingly important to forecast, since more and more spaceborne and ground-based technological systems rely on ionospheric weather. Here we explore the feasibility of ionospheric forecasts with the current generation of physics-based models. In particular, we focus on total electron content (TEC predictions using the Global Ionosphere-Thermosphere Model (GITM. Simulations are configured in a forecast mode and performed for four typical high-speed-stream events during 2007–2012. The simulated TECs are quantified through a metric, which divides the globe into a number of local regions and robustly differentiates between quiet and disturbed periods. Proposed forecast products are hourly global maps color-coded by the TEC disturbance level of each local region. To assess the forecasts, we compare the simulated TEC disturbances with global TEC maps derived from Global Positioning System (GPS satellite observations. The forecast performance is found to be merely acceptable, with a large number of regions where the observed variations are not captured by the simulations. Examples of model-data agreements and disagreements are investigated in detail, aiming to understand the model behavior and improve future forecasts. For one event, we identify two adjacent regions with similar TEC observations but significant differences in how local chemistry versus plasma transport contribute to electron density changes in the simulation. Suggestions for further analysis are described.

  17. Total electron content obtained from the USU-GAIM data assimilation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherliess, Ludger; Eccles, Vince; Schunk, Robert; Zhu, Lie; Gardner, Larry

    2016-07-01

    Physics-based data assimilation models have been used in meteorology and oceanography for several decades and are now also prevalent for specifications and forecasts of the ionosphere. This increased use of ionospheric data assimilation models coincides with the increase in data suitable for assimilation. At USU we have developed several different data assimilation models, including the Global Assimilation on Ionospheric Measurements Gauss-Markov (GAIM-GM) and Full Physics (GAIM-FP) models. Both models assimilate a variety of different data types, including ground-based GPS/TEC, occultation, bottomside electron density profiles from ionosondes, in-situ electron densities, and space-based UV radiance measurements and provide specifications and forecasts on a spatial grid that can be global, regional, or local. The GAIM-GM model is a simpler model that uses the physics-based Ionosphere Forecast Model (IFM) as a background model but uses a statistical process in the Kalman filter. The GAIM-FP model is a more sophisticated model that uses a physics-based ionosphere-plasmasphere model (IPM) and an Ensemble Kalman filter. The primary GAIM-FP output is in the form of 3-dimensional electron density distributions from 90 km to near geosynchronous altitude. The 3-d densities can be used to obtain the total electron content (TEC) over the globe. We will present the differences and similarities of TEC obtained from our models and compare them with independent observations.

  18. On forecasting ionospheric total electron content responses to high-speed solar wind streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xing; Mannucci, Anthony J.; Verkhoglyadova, Olga P.; Tsurutani, Bruce T.

    2016-04-01

    Conditions in the ionosphere have become increasingly important to forecast, since more and more spaceborne and ground-based technological systems rely on ionospheric weather. Here we explore the feasibility of ionospheric forecasts with the current generation of physics-based models. In particular, we focus on total electron content (TEC) predictions using the Global Ionosphere-Thermosphere Model (GITM). Simulations are configured in a forecast mode and performed for four typical high-speed-stream events during 2007-2012. The simulated TECs are quantified through a metric, which divides the globe into a number of local regions and robustly differentiates between quiet and disturbed periods. Proposed forecast products are hourly global maps color-coded by the TEC disturbance level of each local region. To assess the forecasts, we compare the simulated TEC disturbances with global TEC maps derived from Global Positioning System (GPS) satellite observations. The forecast performance is found to be merely acceptable, with a large number of regions where the observed variations are not captured by the simulations. Examples of model-data agreements and disagreements are investigated in detail, aiming to understand the model behavior and improve future forecasts. For one event, we identify two adjacent regions with similar TEC observations but significant differences in how local chemistry versus plasma transport contribute to electron density changes in the simulation. Suggestions for further analysis are described.

  19. Correlation Analysis for Total Electron Content Anomalies on 11th March, 2011

    CERN Document Server

    Iwata, Takuya

    2016-01-01

    We can observe the changes of Total Electron Content, TEC, in ionosphere by analyzing the data from GNSS satellites. There are many reports about TEC anomalies after earthquakes, i.e. large earthquakes often disturb the ionosphere. Up to now, preseismic TEC anomalies have been reported in several papers. However, they are not so clear as coseismic TEC anomalies, and their analysis methods have some problems for practical earthquake prediction. One factor making it difficult to detect TEC anomalies is large noises in TEC data. Non-negligible TEC disturbances are caused by many natural mechanisms. To overcome this difficulty, we propose correlation analyses between one GNSS station and GNSS stations surrounding it. First, we model TEC time series over a few hours using polynomial functions of time. Second, we calculate prediction errors as the departure of the TEC time series from the models over time scale of a few minutes, and define it as the TEC anomaly. Third, we calculate the correlation between anomaly o...

  20. Determination of total sulfur content of sedimentary rocks by a combustion method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coller, M.E.; Leininger, R.K.

    1955-01-01

    Total sulfur has been determined in common sedimentary rocks by a combustion method. Sulfur contents range from 0.001 to 5.0%. Experiments show that the combustion method can be used in analyzing sedimentary rocks in which sulfur is present as sulfide, sulfate, or both. Pulverized samples from 0.100 to 0.500 gram in weight are used in this method. Each sample is placed in a No. 6 Leco combustion boat and covered with two fluxes: 0.50 gram of standard ingot iron and approximately 1.0 gram of 30-mesh granular tin. The boat with sample then is placed in the combustion tube of a Burrell Unit Package Model T29A tube furnace which is controlled at a temperature of 1310?? to 1320?? C. After the sample has been heated for 1 minute, oxygen is admitted at a rate of about 1 liter per minute. The sulfur dioxide formed is absorbed in a starch solution and is titrated with standard potassium iodate in a Leco sulfur determinator. Thirteen values obtained for National Bureau of Standards standard sample 1a, argillaceous limestone, range from 0.273 to 0.276% sulfur (certificate value 0.27% by calculation).

  1. Correlation analysis for preseismic total electron content anomalies around the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Takuya; Umeno, Ken

    2016-09-01

    We can observe the changes of Total Electron Content, TEC, in ionosphere by analyzing the data from Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) satellites. Up to now, preseismic TEC anomalies have been reported in several papers. However, they are not so clear as coseismic TEC anomalies, and their analysis methods have some problems for practical earthquake prediction. One factor making it difficult to detect TEC anomalies is large noises in TEC data. Nonnegligible TEC disturbances are caused by many natural mechanisms. To overcome this difficulty, we propose correlation analyses between one GNSS station and GNSS stations surrounding it. First, we model TEC time series over a few hours using polynomial functions of time. Second, we calculate prediction errors as the departure of the TEC time series from the models over time scale of a few minutes and define it as the TEC anomaly. Third, we calculate the correlation between anomaly of one GNSS station and those at the surrounding stations. Although such a correlation method has long been used for radio communications, in particular for spread spectrum communications and very long baseline interferometry to increase signal-to-noise ratio, it has not been widely applied for TEC analysis. As a result of our method, we demonstrate that the correlation analysis can detect preseismic anomalies about 1 h before the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake on 11 March (Mw 9.0), 20 min before the foreshock on 9 March and 40 min before the aftershock on 7 April (Mw 7.3).

  2. Acidulant and oven type affect total anthocyanin content of blue corn cookies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Walker, Chuck E; Faubion, Jon M

    2011-01-15

    Anthocyanins, pink to purple water-soluble flavonoids, are naturally occurring pigments with claimed health benefits. However, they are sensitive to degradation by high pH, light and temperature. Blue corn (maize) contains high levels of anthocyanins. Cookies are popular snacks and might serve as a vehicle to deliver antioxidants. A cookie formula with a high level of blue corn was developed with added acidulents and baked in ovens with different heat transfer coefficients. The best whole-grain blue corn flour/wheat pastry flour ratio (80:20 w/w), guar gum level (10 g kg(-1), flour weight basis) and water level (215 g kg(-1), flour weight basis) were determined based on response surface methodology analysis. The interactions of citric and lactic acids and glucono-δ-lactone with three oven types having different heat transfer coefficients (impingement oven 179 °C/4 min, reel oven 204 °C/10 min and convection oven 182 °C/4 min) influenced the total anthocyanin content (TAC) remaining in blue corn-containing cookies after baking. Cookies baked with citric acid in the convection oven retained the maximum TAC (227 ± 3 mg kg(-1)). By baking rapidly at lower temperatures and adding acidulents, it may be possible to increase residual natural source antioxidants in baked foods. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Response of lightning energy and total electron content with sprites over Antarctic Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suparta, W.; Yusop, N.

    2017-05-01

    This paper investigates the response of the lightning energy with the total electron content (TEC) derived from GPS over Antarctic Peninsula during St Patrick’s geomagnetic storm. During this event, sprite as one of the mesospheric transient luminous events (TLEs) associated with positive cloud-to-ground (+CG) lightning discharges can be generated. In this work, GPS and lightning data for the period from 14 to 20 March 2015 is analyzed. Geomagnetic activity and electric field data are also processed to relate the geomagnetic storm and lightning. Results show that during St Patrick’s geomagnetic storm, the lighting energy was produced up to ∼257 kJ. The ionospheric TEC was obtained 60 TECU, 38 TECU and 78 TECU between 18:00 and 21:00 UT for OHI3, PALV and ROTH stations, respectively. The peak of lightning energy was observed 14 hours after peaked of TEC. Sprite possibly generated through the electrical coupling process between the top cloud, middle and upper atmosphere with the DC electric field found to be ∼10 mVm-1 which leading to the sprite generation after the return strokes on 18 March 2015.

  4. [Determination of total protein content in soya-bean milk via visual moving reaction boundary titration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chengye; Wang, Houyu; Zhang, Lei; Fan, Liuyin; Cao, Chengxi

    2013-11-01

    A visual, rapid and accurate moving reaction boundary titration (MRBT) method was used for the determination of the total protein in soya-bean milk. During the process, moving reaction boundary (MRB) was formed by hydroxyl ions in the catholyte and soya-bean milk proteins immobilized in polyacrylamide gel (PAG), and an acid-base indicator was used to denote the boundary motion. The velocity of MRB has a relationship with protein concentration, which was used to obtain a standard curve. By paired t-test, there was no significant difference of the protein content between MRBT and Kjeldahl method at 95% confidence interval. The procedure of MRBT method required about 10 min, and it had linearity in the range of 2.0-14.0 g/L, low limit of detection (0.05 g/L), good precision (RSD of intra-day protein nitrogen (NPN) such as melamine added into the soya-bean milk had weak influence on MRBT results.

  5. GPS scintillations and total electron content climatology in the southern low, middle and high latitude regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Spogli

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, several groups have installed high-frequency sampling receivers in the southern middle and high latitude regions, to monitor ionospheric scintillations and the total electron content (TEC changes. Taking advantage of the archive of continuous and systematic observations of the ionosphere on L-band by means of signals from the Global Positioning System (GPS, we present the first attempt at ionospheric scintillation and TEC mapping from Latin America to Antarctica. The climatology of the area considered is derived through Ground-Based Scintillation Climatology, a method that can identify ionospheric sectors in which scintillations are more likely to occur. This study also introduces the novel ionospheric scintillation 'hot-spot' analysis. This analysis first identifies the crucial areas of the ionosphere in terms of enhanced probability of scintillation occurrence, and then it studies the seasonal variation of the main scintillation and TEC-related parameters. The results produced by this sophisticated analysis give significant indications of the spatial/ temporal recurrences of plasma irregularities, which contributes to the extending of current knowledge of the mechanisms that cause scintillations, and consequently to the development of efficient tools to forecast space-weather-related ionospheric events.

  6. Laboratory Studies of Ice Nucleation on Volcanic Ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolbert, M. A.; Schill, G. P.; Genareau, K. D.

    2014-12-01

    Ice nucleation on volcanic ash controls both ash aggregation and cloud glaciation, which affect human respiratory health, atmospheric transport, and global climate. We have performed laboratory studies of the depositional and immersion freezing efficiency of three distinct samples of volcanic ash using Raman Microscopy coupled to an environmental cell. Ash from the Fuego (Basaltic Ash, Guatemala), Soufriere Hills (Andesetic Ash, Montserrat), and Taupo (Rhyolitic Ash, New Zealand) volcanoes were chosen to represent different geographical locations and silica content. All ash samples were quantitatively analyzed for both percent crystallinity and mineralogy using X-ray diffraction. We find that all three samples of volcanic ash are excellent depositional ice nuclei, nucleating ice at ice saturation ratios of 1.05 ± 0.1. For immersion freezing, however, only the Taupo ash exhibited efficient heterogeneous ice nucleation activity. Similar to recent studies on mineral dust, we suggest that the mineralogy of volcanic ash may dictate its ice nucleation activity in the immersion mode.

  7. Behavior study of trace elements in pulverized lignite, bottom ash, and fly ash of Amyntaio power station, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megalovasilis, Pavlos; Papastergios, Georgios; Filippidis, Anestis

    2013-07-01

    The Kozani-Ptolemais-Amyntaio basin constitutes the principal coal field of Greece. Approximately 50% of the total power production of Greece is generated by five power stations operating in the area. Lignite samples, together with the corresponding fly ash and bottom ash were collected, over a period of 3 months, from the power plant of Amyntaio and analyzed for their content in 16 trace elements. The results indicate that Y, Nb, U, Rb, Zr, Ni, Pb, Ba, Zn, Sr, Cu, and Th demonstrate an organic affinity during the combustion of lignite, while V has an inorganic affinity. Three elements (Co, Cr, and Sc) show an intermediate affinity.

  8. Traveling Wave Packets of Total Electron Content Disturbances As Deduced From Global GPS Network Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afraimovich, E.; Lesyuta, O.; Lipko, Yu.; Perevalova, N.; Voyeikov, S.; Vodyannikov, V.; Yakovets, A.; Jacobi, Ch.

    This report discusses the experimental research results on the morphology and physi- cal origin of total electron content (TEC) pulsations as measured using the data from the global GPS network. Periodic electron density oscillations of the type of wave packets were investigated previously in terms of the hypothesis of their association with geomagnetic field (GP) pulsations. The greater part of evidence of the association between GP ad periodic electron density oscillations in the ionosphere was obtained by recording the frequency Doppler shift if the ionosphere-reflected radio signal and TEC variations measured using signals from geostationary satellites. However, many years of investigations have not yet provided thorough insight into the mechanisms ac- counting for the linkage between GP and ionospheric variations. One reason for that is the difficulty associated with obtaining statistically significant sets of experimental data. The use of the international ground-based network of two-frequency receivers of the navigation GPS system which comprised no less than 900 site as of August 2001 and is currently placing the data on the Internet, opens up a new era of a global, con- tinuous and fully computerized monitoring of ionospheric disturbances of a different class. This report presents a global morphology of TEC pulsations for 50 days with a different level of geomagnetic activity and the number of stations of the global GPS network from 100 to 300. A total number of the "receiver - GPS satellites" radio paths used in the analysis is about 500,000. Quasi-periodic TEC variations in the range of periods from 10 to 20 min are investigated, which is dictated by the fact that the data from the global GPS network are placed on the Internet with a standard temporal res- olution of 30 s. Most often, the observed TEC pulsations represent wave packets with a duration on the order of 1 hour. It was found that such TEC pulsations are a rela- tively rare event and are

  9. 玉米杆灰中全钾量的快速测定方法的研究%THE STUDY FAST-SPEED TO TAKE MEASURES OF POTASSIUM-CONTENT IN MAIZE ASH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴凤山; 冯桂荷

    2001-01-01

    钾是农作物所必需的三大营养元素之一,本文叙述了快速测定玉米杆灰中钾含量的方法.%Potassium is one of the element in the three essential nutrients for growth of the ugriclitural produce.In this articles,give a description of way on fast-speed to take measures of potassium-content in maize ash.

  10. 粉煤灰基多元复合胶结剂在全尾砂充填中的应用%Application of Fly Ash-based Compound Cementation Materials in Total-tailing Filling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨春保; 朱春启; 陈贤树

    2011-01-01

    简述了粉煤灰基多元复合胶结剂的生产工艺过程,及其在矿山全尾砂胶结充填中的应用.实践表明,粉煤灰基多元复合胶结剂性能良好、生产成本低廉,完全替代水泥用于矿山全尾砂充填,可用超低的灰砂比,有更好的流动输送性能,更低的充填成本.%The production process of the fly ash-based compound cementation material and its application in total-tailing filling are described briefly. It is indicated that fly ash-based compound cementation material had an excellent performance and a low cost. It can entirely replace cement used as mine total tailing filling with a lower ash-sand ratio, better performance of flow and transport and lower filling costs.

  11. Physicochemical characterization of Spanish fly ashes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Querol, X.; Umana, J.C.; Alastuey, A.; Bertrana, C.; Lopez-Soler, A.; Plana, F.

    1999-12-01

    This article summarizes the results obtained from the physical, chemical, and mineralogical characterization of 14 fly ash samples. Major features that influence the utilization of each fly ash for zeolite synthesis are evidenced, and several fly ash types were selected as potential high-quality starting material for zeolite synthesis and ceramic applications. The main parameters influencing this selection were relatively small grain size; high Al and Si contents; high glass content; low CaO, S, and Fe contents; and relatively low heavy metal concentration. The Compostilla and Cou He fly ashes have high potential applications because of the low content of major impurities (such as Ca, Fe, and S) and the low content of soluble hazardous elements. The Espiel, Escucha, Los Barrios, As Pontes, Soto de Ribera, Meirama, Narcea, and Teruel fly ashes have important application potential, but this potential is slightly limited by the intermediate content of nonreactive impurities, such as Fe and Ca. The La Robla fly ash is of moderate interest, since the relatively high Ca and Fe oxide contents may reduce its potential applications. Finally, the Puertollano fly ash also has limited application because of the very high concentration of some heavy metals such as As, Cd, Ge, Hg, Pb, and Zn. From a mineralogical point of view, the Compostilla, Espiel, and Soto de Ribera fly ashes show the highest aluminum-silicate glass content and, consequently, the highest industrial application potential.

  12. Physiochemical characterization of Spanish fly ashes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Querol, X.; Umana, J.C.; Alastuey, A.; Bertrana, C.; Lopez Soler, A.; Plana, F.

    1999-12-01

    This article summarizes the results obtained from the physical, chemical, and mineralogical characterization of 14 fly ash samples. Major features that influence the utilization of each fly ash for zeolite synthesis are evidenced, and several fly ash types were selected as potential high-quality starting material for zeolite synthesis and ceramic applications. The main parameters influencing this selection were relatively small grain size; high Al and Si contents; high glass content; low CaO, S, and Fe contents; and relatively low heavy metal concentration. The Compostilla and Dou He fly ashes have high potential applications because of the low content of major impurities (such as Ca, Fe, and S) and the low content of soluble hazardous elements. The Espiel, Escucha, Los Barrios, As Pontes, Soto de Ribera, Meirama, Narcea, and Teruel fly ashes have important application potential, but this potential is slightly limited by the intermediate content of nonreactive impurities, such as Fe and Ca. The La Robla fly ash is of moderate interest, since the relatively high Ca and Fe oxide contents may reduce its potential applications. Finally, the Puertollano fly ash also has limited application because of the very high concentration of some heavy metals such as As, Cd, Ge, Hg, Pb, and Zn. From a mineralogical point of view, the Compostilla, Espiel, and Soto de Ribera fly ashes show the highest aluminum-silicate glass content and, consequently, the highest industrial application potential. (author)

  13. Application of zeolitised coal fly ashes to the depuration of liquid wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emilia Otal; Luis F. Vilches; Natalia Moreno; Xavier Querol; Jose Valea; Constantino Fernandez-Pereira [Universidad de Sevilla, Seville (Spain). Dpto. Ingenieria Quimica y Ambiental, E.S. Ingenieros Industriales

    2005-08-01

    In this study, the application of some zeolitised fly ashes and synthetic zeolites to the decontamination of the leachate produced in a municipal solid waste (MSW) treatment plant and to the liquid waste from a pig farm was analyzed. Thus, the reduction of organic matter (BOD and COD), ammonium and total nitrogen, phosphorus and metals contents after a zeolite treatment was evaluated. Several synthetic zeolites were tested: some commercial zeolites and other synthetic zeolites and zeolitised ashes obtained after a coal fly ash alkaline hydrothermal process. Two forms of contact between the zeolitic material and the liquid waste were tested: in a stirred tank and in a column. In addition, other variables determined were the amount of zeolite and the residence time. The results showed that zeolites, especially zeolitised fly ash, clearly produced a strong reduction in the leachate nitrogen and phosphorus content. 14 refs., 1 fig., 9 tabs.

  14. Certification of total arsenic, dimethylarsinic acid and arsenobetaine contents in a tuna fish powder (BCR-CRM 627)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lagarde, F.; Amran, M. B.; Leroy, M. J. F.

    1999-01-01

    verified with regards to the total arsenic, dimethylarsinic acid and arsenobetaine contents. Ten laboratories participated in the certification study. All participants had demonstrated beforehand their ability to produce accurate results for the As speciation in fish tissue. The certified values are: total...

  15. Ash transformation during co-firing coal and straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Yuanjing; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Jensen, Anker Degn;

    2007-01-01

    Co-firing straw with coal in pulverized fuel boilers can cause problems related to fly ash utilization, deposit formation, corrosion and SCR catalyst deactivation due to the high contents of Cl and K in the ash. To investigate the interaction between coal and straw ash and the effect of coal...... quality on fly ash and deposit properties, straw was co-fired with three kinds of coal in an entrained flow reactor. The compositions of the produced ashes were compared to the available literature data to find suitable scaling parameters that can be used to predict the composition of ash from straw...... importantly, by reaction with Al and Si in the fly ash. About 70-80% K in the fly ash appears as alumina silicates while the remainder K is mainly present as sulphate. Lignite/straw co-firing produces fly ash with relatively high Cl content. This is probably because of the high content of calcium...

  16. Derivation of an equation to estimate marrow content of bovine cervical vertebrae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebault, R A; Field, R A; Means, W J; Russell, W C

    1998-08-01

    Marrow content of bovine cervical vertebrae from Choice- and Select-grade carcasses weighing 294 to 343 kg was determined so that a method to monitor the amount of marrow in meat from advanced meat/bone separation machinery and recovery (AMR) systems could be developed. The marrow determination requires cleaning and then ashing bones. Because a large difference in ash content of bone and bone marrow exists and because cartilage content of cervical vertebrae in Choice and Select beef is relatively constant, it was possible to derive the following equation: Weight of marrow = [weight of cartilage (% ash in cartilage - % ash in bone) + % ash in bone (total weight) - (total ash)]/[(% ash in bone - % ash in marrow)]. Constants for ash in fresh bone, marrow, and cartilage were 58.51, .57, and 2.14% with SD of 2.23, .15, and .30%, respectively. A cartilage content of 9.5% along with cervical vertebrae weight and total ash weight were also used to calculate 33.9% marrow in cervical vertebrae. Means for marrow pressed or centrifuged from bovine cervical vertebrae were lower than those obtained from the equation. Therefore, pressing and centrifuging left some marrow in spongy bone. Our ashing method for determining the amount of marrow in whole cervical vertebrae should be useful for determining marrow remaining in cervical vertebrae of bone cakes from AMR systems. Percentage ash in pressed bones is higher and the calculated marrow content is lower when pressed bones are compared to cervical vertebrae that are not pressed. The amount of marrow in whole cervical vertebrae minus the amount left in cervical vertebrae from bone cakes equals the amount in meat from AMR systems.

  17. Total polyphenol content and antioxidant activity of commercial Noni (Morinda citrifolia L. juice and its components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Bramorski

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The plant Morinda citrifolia L. (noni has been the focus of many recent studies due to its potential effects on treatment and prevention of several diseases. However, there are few in vivo and in vitro studies concerning its composition and antioxidant capacity. The aim of the present study was to determine the total polyphenol content (TPC and antioxidant capacity of a juice commercialized as noni juice, but containing grape, blueberry and noni fruits. Commercial noni juice was compared against its separate constituents of blueberry and grape juice. Folin-Ciocalteu and DPPH• methods were used to determine the concentration of total polyphenol content and antioxidant activity, respectively. Commercial noni juice presented higher values of TPC (91.90 mg of gallic acid/100 mL juice and antioxidant activity (5.85 mmol/L compared to its 5% diluted constituents. Concentrated blueberry juice presented higher TPC and antioxidant activity than the other juices analyzed. Considering that the blueberry and grape juices account for only 10% in the composition of commercial noni juice, it can be inferred that these two components contribute significantly to the antioxidant activity. Therefore, additional studies are necessary in order to elucidate the contribution of the noni juice as an antioxidant.A planta Morinda citrifolia L. tem sido objeto de muitas pesquisas decorrente de seus efeitos benéficos no tratamento e prevenção de muitas doenças. No entanto, são escassos os estudos in vivo e in vitro sobre os compostos presentes e sua capacidade de atuar como antioxidante. Objetivou-se com este trabalho determinar o índice de polifenóis totais (IPT e a capacidade antioxidante do suco de noni comercial, constituído de uva, mirtilo e a fruta do noni. O suco de noni comercial foi comparado com seus constituintes (mirtilo e suco de uva separadamente. Os métodos Folin-Ciocalteu e DPPH• foram utilizados para determinar a concentração de polifen

  18. Temperature-dependent studies on the total phenolics, flavonoids, antioxidant activities, and sugar content in six onion varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavita Sharma

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Heating effect on total phenol, flavonoids, antioxidant activity, and sugar content of six onion varieties has been quantitatively investigated to explore the effect of different temperatures. The onion varieties comprised one red-skinned variety, two white-skinned varieties, and three yellow-skinned varieties. The heating temperature was scanned at 80°C, 100°C, 120°C, and 150°C for 30 minutes each, and quantitative analysis was performed relative to the powdered onion at ambient temperature. Quercetin, glucosides and sugar content were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography. The total phenolic and antioxidant content increased in all six varieties. The total flavonoid levels showed a considerable change. On heating the onion samples at 120°C for 30 minutes, the red-skinned variety showed the highest level of total phenolic content [13712.67 ± 1034.85 μg of gallic acid equivalent/g dry weight (μg GAE/g DW] and total flavonoids [3456.00 ± 185.82 μg of quercetin equivalents/g dry weight (μg Q/g DW], whereas the content of total phenolics and total flavonoids were 13611.83 ± 341.61 μg GAE/g DW and 3482.87 ± 117.17 μg Q/g DW, respectively, for the yellow-skinned (Sunpower variety. Quercetin and its glucoside contents increased up to 120°C and then decreased at 150°C, whereas the sugar content continuously decreased with heating. All cultivars showed the same pattern in the heating effect, and the predominant flavonoids were destroyed at higher temperatures. Therefore, it is improper to expose onion powder to a temperature higher than 120°C.

  19. Geotechnical engineering properties of incinerator ash mixes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhunthan, B; Taha, R; Said, J

    2004-08-01

    The incineration of solid waste produces large quantities of bottom and fly ash. Landfilling has been the primary mode of disposal of these waste materials. Shortage in landfill space and the high cost of treatment have, however, prompted the search for alternative uses of these waste materials. This study presents an experimental program that was conducted to determine the engineering properties of incinerator ash mixes for use as construction materials. Incinerator ash mixes were tested as received and around optimum compacted conditions. Compaction curves, shear strength, and permeability values of fly ash, bottom ash, and their various blends were investigated. Bottom ash tends to achieve maximum dry density at much lower water content than does fly ash. The mixes displayed a change in their cohesion and friction angle values when one of the two mix components was altered or as a result of the addition of water. The permeability of bottom ash is quite comparable to that of sand. The permeability of fly ash lies in the range of those values obtained for silts and clays. A 100% bottom ash compacted at the optimum water content has a lower density value and yields a higher friction angle and cohesion values than most construction fills. This would encourage the use of bottom ash as a fill or embankment material because free drainage of water will prevent the buildup of pore water pressures.

  20. Feasibility study for the quantification of total protein content by multiple prompt gamma-ray analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toh, Y., E-mail: toh.yosuke@jaea.go.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Nuclear Science and Engineering Directorate, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Murakami, Y. [University of Fukui, Research Institute of Nuclear Engineering, 3-9-1 Bunkyo, Fukui City, Fukui 910-8507 (Japan); Furutaka, K.; Kimura, A.; Koizumi, M.; Hara, K.; Kin, T.; Nakamura, S.; Harada, H. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Nuclear Science and Engineering Directorate, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)

    2012-06-15

    Protein is an important nutrient in foods. The classical nitrogen analysis method is the Kjeldahl technique, which is time-consuming and inconvenient. As a convenient method to quantify protein content in biological samples, the feasibility of application of multiple prompt gamma-ray analysis (MPGA) to the quantification was studied. Results for protein content are reported for several reference materials and prove the method to be reliable. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nitrogen contents were analyzed by multiple prompt gamma-ray analysis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effect of neutron scattering was evaluated by Monte Carlo simulation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Protein content can be calculated by nitrogen content. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The protein contents of standard materials agreed with the certified values. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The method is a rapid, non-destructive, feasible method to quantify protein.

  1. Storm-time total electron content and its response to penetration electric fields over South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. M. de Siqueira

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work the response of the ionosphere due to the severe magnetic storm of 7–10 November 2004 is investigated by analyzing GPS Total Electron Content (TEC maps constructed for the South America sector. In order to verify the disturbed zonal electric fields in South America during the superstorm, ionospheric vertical drift data obtained from modeling results are used in the analysis. The vertical drifts were inferred from ΔH magnetometer data (Jicamarca-Piura following the methodology presented by Anderson et al. (2004. Also used were vertical drifts measured by the Jicamarca ISR. Data from a digisonde located at São Luís, Brazil (2.33° S, 44.2° W, dip latitude 0.25° are presented to complement the Jicamarca equatorial data. Penetration electric fields were observed by the comparison between the equatorial vertical drifts and the Interplanetary Electric Field (IEF. The TEC maps obtained from GPS data reflect the ionospheric response over the South America low-latitude and equatorial region. They reveal unexpected plasma distributions and TEC levels during the main phase of the superstorm on 7 November, which is coincident with the local post-sunset hours. At this time an increase in the pre-reversal enhancement was expected to develop the Equatorial Ionization Anomaly (EIA but we observed the absence of EIA. The results also reveal well known characteristics of the plasma distributions on 8, 9, and 10 November. The emphasized features are the expansion and intensification of EIA due to prompt penetration electric fields on 9 November and the inhibition of EIA during post-sunset hours on 7, 8, and 10 November. One important result is that the TEC maps provided a bi-dimensional view of the ionospheric changes offering a spatial description of the electrodynamics involved, which is an advantage over TEC measured by isolated GPS receivers.

  2. A new regional total electron content empirical model in northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jiandi; Wang, Zhengtao; Jiang, Weiping; Zhao, Zhenzhen; Zhang, Bingbing

    2016-10-01

    Using total electron content (TEC) data over one and a half solar cycles (1999-2015) provided by the Center for Orbit Determination in Europe (CODE), this paper proposes a new empirical TEC model for northeast China (40-50N, 120-130E). The model, called TECM-NEC, involves the multiplication of four separable components, including diurnal variation, seasonal variation, geomagnetic field dependency, and solar dependency. Diurnal variation is composed of three parts: the typical daily variation of TEC; corrections of Mid-latitude Summer Nighttime Anomaly (MSNA) that depend on geographic location, season, and local time; and corrections of day-to-night ratio under different seasons and solar activities. Four sub-harmonics of the year with annual, semiannual, four-, and three-month periods are used to describe seasonal variations. For geomagnetic variation, geomagnetic latitude is based on the latest International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF12) model. Compared with similar empirical models, the solar proxy index F10.7P = (F10.7 + F10.7A)/2, where F10.7A is the 81-day running mean of daily F10.7, is chosen as having linear relationship with TEC for the model. This model has 43 coefficients, which are determined by nonlinear least squares fitting (NLSF) technique. The TECM-NEC model fits with the TEC/CODE input data with a bias of 0.03TECU and a RMS deviation of 2.76TECU. The proposed TECM-NEC model can reproduce the MSNA and nighttime TEC enhancements phenomenon over northeast China.

  3. Empirical models of Total Electron Content based on functional fitting over Taiwan during geomagnetic quiet condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Kakinami

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Empirical models of Total Electron Content (TEC based on functional fitting over Taiwan (120° E, 24° N have been constructed using data of the Global Positioning System (GPS from 1998 to 2007 during geomagnetically quiet condition (Dst>−30 nT. The models provide TEC as functions of local time (LT, day of year (DOY and the solar activity (F, which are represented by 1–162 days mean of F10.7 and EUV. Other models based on median values have been also constructed and compared with the models based on the functional fitting. Under same values of F parameter, the models based on the functional fitting show better accuracy than those based on the median values in all cases. The functional fitting model using daily EUV is the most accurate with 9.2 TECu of root mean square error (RMS than the 15-days running median with 10.4 TECu RMS and the model of International Reference Ionosphere 2007 (IRI2007 with 14.7 TECu RMS. IRI2007 overestimates TEC when the solar activity is low, and underestimates TEC when the solar activity is high. Though average of 81 days centered running mean of F10.7 and daily F10.7 is often used as indicator of EUV, our result suggests that average of F10.7 mean from 1 to 54 day prior and current day is better than the average of 81 days centered running mean for reproduction of TEC. This paper is for the first time comparing the median based model with the functional fitting model. Results indicate the functional fitting model yielding a better performance than the median based one. Meanwhile we find that the EUV radiation is essential to derive an optimal TEC.

  4. Variations of total electron content in the equatorial anomaly region in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhary, V. Rajesh; Tripathi, N. K.; Arunpold, Sanit; Raju, Durairaju Kumaran

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the first results of total electron content (TEC), derived by analyzing dual frequency Novatel GSV4004 GPS receiver's data which were installed by the SCINDA project, located at the Asian Institute of Technology, Bangkok (AITB, 14.079N, 100.612E) and Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai (CHGM, 18.480N, 98.570E) with magnetic latitude of 4.13°N and 8.61°N respectively in Thailand, for the year 2011. These two stations are separated by 657 km in the equatorial anomaly region. The highest TEC values occurred from 1500 to 1900 LT throughout the study period. The diurnal, monthly and seasonal GPS-TEC have been plotted and analyzed. The diurnal peaks in GPS-TEC is observed to be maximum during equinoctial months (March, April, September and October) and minimum in solstice months (January, February, June, July and December). These high TEC values have been attributed to the solar extreme ultra-violet ionization coupled with the upward vertical E × B drift. A comparison of both station's TEC has been carried out and found that CHGM station experiences higher values of TEC than AITB station, due to formation of ionization crest over the CHGM station. Also, TEC values have shown increasing trend due to approaching solar maximum. These results from both stations were also compared with the TEC derived from the International Reference Ionosphere's (IRI) recently released, IRI-2012 model. Results have shown positive correlation with IRI-2012 model. Although, IRI-model does not show any response to geomagnetic activity, the IRI model normally remains smooth and underestimates TEC during a storm.

  5. Attribution of interminimum changes in global and hemispheric total electron content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmert, J. T.; Mannucci, A. J.; McDonald, S. E.; Vergados, P.

    2017-02-01

    We use a new data product of electron column density (total electron content, or TEC) maps to estimate and attribute the interminimum changes (the differences between annual averages centered on the 2008 and 1996 solar minima) in TEC global and hemispheric averages (dividing the globe in three different ways). We attribute the observed changes to corresponding changes in solar and geomagnetic activity. The new TEC map product was constructed with temporally consistent processing, and it resolves some of the apparent inconsistencies of earlier studies. The estimated global average TEC interminimum change is -19.3% ± 1.0% (2σ uncertainty), of which -9.1% is attributable to the interminimum change in solar extreme ultraviolet (EUV) irradiance (as represented by the F10.7 index), -2.2% is attributable to the change in geomagnetic activity (Kp index), and -9.3% remains unattributed. The hemispheric results are very similar to the global results, but the values tend to be slightly larger in the Southern Hemisphere, at low latitudes, and at night, compared to the opposing respective hemispheres. The interminimum changes and temporal variations of thermospheric mass density anomalies (i.e., the difference between the data and the empirical model) are very similar to those of the global and hemispheric TEC residuals, suggesting that they are driven by a common, globally distributed mechanism. Thermospheric composition changes and additional (unobserved) decreases in solar EUV irradiance are possible mechanisms behind the TEC and mass density unattributed changes; we estimate a plausible range of -6% to -13% for the solar EUV irradiance interminimum change.

  6. Backprojection of GNSS total-electron content signals for recent large earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikesell, T. D.; Rolland, L.; Haney, M. M.; Larmat, C. S.; Lee, R.

    2015-12-01

    It is well known that earthquakes and tsunamis couple energy into the dynamically fluid atmosphere. This energy can propagate up to the ionosphere where we can observe perturbations in the total-electron content (TEC) signals measured by global navigation space systems (GNSS). Recent emphasis has been placed on using these new observables to characterize earthquake and tsunami hazards from space, as well as for planetary exploration. Backprojection is an array-based imaging technique used in seismology to characterize the seismic source location, including complex energy release patterns from large earthquakes. Here we present TEC backprojection results from 3 recent earthquakes - 1) 2009 Samoa triggered doublet (Mw 8.1), 2) 2011 Van dip-slip event (Mw 7.1) and 3) 2012 Haida Gwaii strike-slip underthrust event (Mw 7.8). Each of these events presents new obstacles to overcome if backprojection is to be used routinely to monitor hazards from space. We will discuss these obstacles in detail and present approaches to overcome them. For instance, one problem arises from the fact that the observation point is non-stationary in time because the satellites are moving. Another problem stems from the relative geometry of the geomagnetic field and the incoming acoustic wave at the ionosphere. Finally, we present array-based methods to reduce artifacts in the backprojection images, e.g. array deconvolution, and we show that under favorable circumstances, this approach can be used to characterize motion at the Earth surface from space with high temporal and spatial resolution.

  7. [Estimating total nitrogen content in wetland vegetation based on measured reflectance spectra].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ke; Zhao, Wen-ji; Guo, Xiao-yu; Wang, Yi-hong; Sun, Yong-hua; Miao, Qian

    2012-02-01

    More and more urban wetlands have been supplied with reclaimed water. And monitoring the growth condition of large-area wetland vegetation is playing a very important role in wetland restoration and reconstruction. Recently, remote sensing technology has become an important tool for vegetation growth monitoring. The South Wetland in the Olympic Park, a typical wetland using reused water, was selected as the research area. The leaf reflectance spectra and were acquired for the main wetland plants reed (Phragmites australis) and cattail (Typha angustifolia) with an ASD FieldSpec 3 spectrometer (350 2 500 nm). The total nitrogen (TN) content of leaf samples was determined by Kjeldahl method subsequently. The research established univariate models involving simple ratio spectral index (SR) model and normalized difference spectral index (ND) model, as well as multivariate models including stepwise multiple linear regression (SMLR) model and partial least squares regression (PLSR) model. Moreover, the accuracy of all the models was tested through cross-validated coefficient of determination (R2(CV)) and cross-validated root mean square error (RMSE(CV)). The results showed that (1) comparing different types of wetland plants, the accuracy of all established prediction models using Phragmites australis reflectance spectra was higher than that using Typha angustifolia reflectance spectra. (2) compared with univariate techniques, multivariate regressions improved the estimation of TN concentration in leaves. (3) among the various investigated models, the accuracy of PLSR model was the highest (R2(CV) = 0.80, RMSE(CV) = 0.24). PLSR provided the most useful explorative tool for unraveling the relationship between spectral reflectance and TN consistence of leaves. The result would not only provide a scientific basis for remote sensing retrieval of biochemical variables of wetland vegetation, but also provide a strong scientific basis for the monitoring and management of urban

  8. Spectrophotometric determination of the total flavonoid content in Ocimum basilicum L. (Lamiaceae leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Layzon Silva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The chemical characterization is essential to validate the pharmaceutical use of vegetable raw materials. Ultraviolet spectroscopy is an important technique to determine flavonoids, which are important active compounds from Ocimum basilicum. Objective: The objective of this work was to optimize a spectrophotometric method, based on flavonoid-aluminum chloride (AlCl 3 complexation to determine the total flavonoid content (TFC in leaves of O. basilicum (herbal material, using response surface methodology. Materials and Methods: The effects of (1 the herbal material: Solvent ratio (0.02, 0.03, 0.05, 0.07, and 0.08 g/mL, (2 stock solution volume (0.8, 2.3, 4.4, 6.5, and 8.0 mL and (3 AlCl 3 volume (0.8, 1.0, 1.2, 1.4, and 1.6 mL on the TFC were evaluated. The analytical performance parameters precision, linearity and robustness of the method were tested. Results: The herbal material: Solvent ratio and stock solution volume showed an important influence on the method response. After choosing the optimized conditions, the method exhibited a precision (RSD% lower than 6% for repeatability (RSD% and lower than 8% for intermediate precision (on the order of literature values for biotechnological methods, coefficient of correlation of 0.9984, and no important influence could be observed for variations of the time of complexation with AlCl 3 . However, the time and temperature of extraction were critical for TFC method and must be carefully controlled during the analysis. Conclusion: Thus, this study allowed the optimization of a simple, fast and precise method for the determination of the TFC in leaves of O. basilicum, which can be used to support the quality assessment of this herbal material.

  9. Permeation Properties and Pore Structure of Surface Layer of Fly Ash Concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Qiu, Qiwen; Xing, Feng; Pan, Dong

    2014-05-30

    This paper presents an experimental study on the nature of permeation properties and pore structure of concrete surface layers containing fly ash. Concretes containing different dosages of fly ash as a replacement for cement (15% and 30% by weight of total cement materials, respectively) were investigated. Concrete without any fly ash added was also employed as the reference specimen. Laboratory tests were conducted to determine the surface layer properties of concrete including chloride transport, apparent water permeability and pore structure. The results demonstrate that incorporation of fly ash, for the early test period, promotes the chloride ingress at the surface layer of concrete but substituting proportions of fly ash may have little impact on it. With the process of chloride immersion, the chloride concentration at the surface layer of concrete with or without fly ash was found to be nearly the same. In addition, it is suggested that the water permeability at the concrete surface area is closely related to the fly ash contents as well as the chloride exposure time. Pore structure was characterized by means of mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) test and the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images. The modification of pore structure of concrete submersed in distilled water is determined by the pozzolanic reaction of fly ash and the calcium leaching effect. The pozzolanic reaction was more dominant at the immersion time of 180 days while the calcium leaching effect became more evident after 270 days.

  10. Permeation Properties and Pore Structure of Surface Layer of Fly Ash Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Liu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental study on the nature of permeation properties and pore structure of concrete surface layers containing fly ash. Concretes containing different dosages of fly ash as a replacement for cement (15% and 30% by weight of total cement materials, respectively were investigated. Concrete without any fly ash added was also employed as the reference specimen. Laboratory tests were conducted to determine the surface layer properties of concrete including chloride transport, apparent water permeability and pore structure. The results demonstrate that incorporation of fly ash, for the early test period, promotes the chloride ingress at the surface layer of concrete but substituting proportions of fly ash may have little impact on it. With the process of chloride immersion, the chloride concentration at the surface layer of concrete with or without fly ash was found to be nearly the same. In addition, it is suggested that the water permeability at the concrete surface area is closely related to the fly ash contents as well as the chloride exposure time. Pore structure was characterized by means of mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP test and the scanning electron microscopy (SEM images. The modification of pore structure of concrete submersed in distilled water is determined by the pozzolanic reaction of fly ash and the calcium leaching effect. The pozzolanic reaction was more dominant at the immersion time of 180 days while the calcium leaching effect became more evident after 270 days.

  11. [Intake of folic acid in the total daily diet--effect of food preparation on its folic acid content].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, H

    1995-03-01

    The folic acid content of total daily diet was determined by means of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The contents of tetrahydrofolic acid (THF), 5-methyl-THF and 5-formyl-THF were differentiated. The mean of the folic acid content of the total daily diet samples determined analytically was 205 +/- 60 micrograms and the mean of the individual ingredients of the samples was 401 +/- 78 micrograms, which implies that about 50% of folic acid is destroyed by common household food preparation methods. If the contents of pteroylglutamic acid (PteGlu) and 10-formyl-PteGlu (which cannot be determined analytically) are added, it can be assumed that the folic acid content with only be reduced by about 40%. THF and 5-methyl-THF proved to be less stable than 5-formyl-THF. The monoglutamate portion of the total folat content was higher in the total diet samples than in the individual foodstuffs as a consequence of the action of the enzyme "deconjugase" which is released when the matrix of food-stuffs is destroyed.

  12. Total Content of Polyphenols and Antioxidant Activity of Different Melliferous Plants

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    In this study polyphenols content and antioxidant activity of melliferous plants for the following: mint (Mentha pulegium), burdock (Arctium lappa), comfrey (Symphytum officinale), plantain (Pantago lanceolata), thyme (Thymus vulgaris), sage (Salvia officinalis), marigold (Calendula officinalis), small marshmallow (Althaea officinalis), echinacea (Echinaceea angustifolia) and black popular (Populus nigra) were investigated, using two different extraction methods. High content of polyp...

  13. Study of total phenol, flavonoids contents and phytochemical screening of various leaves crude extracts of locally grown Thymus vulgaris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Amzad Hossain; Khulood Ahmed Salim AL-Raqmi; Zawan Hamood AL-Mijizy; Afaf Mohammed Weli; Qasim Al-Riyami

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To prepare various crude extracts using different polarities of solvent and to quantitatively evaluate their total phenol, flavonoids contents and phytochemical screening of Thymus vulgaris collected from Al Jabal Al Akhdar, Nizwa, Sultanate of Oman. Methods:The leave sample was extracted with methanol and evaporated. Then it was defatted with water and extracted with different polarities organic solvents with increasing polarities. The prepare hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, butanol and methanol crude extracts were used for their evaluation of total phenol, flavonoids contents and phytochemical screening study. The established conventional methods were used for quantitative determination of total phenol, flavonoids contents and phytochemical screening. Results: Phytochemical screening for various crude extracts were tested and shown positive result for flavonoids, saponins and steroids compounds. The result for total phenol content was the highest in butanol and the lowest in methanol crude extract whereas the total flavonoids contents was the highest in methanol and the lowest hexane crude extract. Conclusions:The crude extracts from locally grown Thymus vulgaris showed high concentration of flavonoids and it could be used as antibiotics for different curable and uncurable diseases.

  14. Evaluation and comparison of the content of total polyphenols and antioxidant activity of selected species of the genus Allium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna LENKOVÁ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The species of the genus Allium are very important crops for human health. They contain many health beneficial substances, such as polyphenols (especially flavonoids, sulphur compounds, vitamins, mineral substances and substances with antioxidant activity. This work has focused on the comparison of total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of selected species of the genus Allium – garlic (Allium sativum L., chives (Allium schoenoprasum L., ramson (Allium ursinum L. and red, yellow and white onion (Allium cepa L.. Samples of plant material were collected at the stage of full maturity in the area of Nitra. Total polyphenols content was determined using the spectrophotometric method of Folin-Ciocalteu agents. Determined the content of total polyphenols were in the range 444.3 - 1591 mg*kg-1. Total polyphenols content in the observed crops declined in the following order: chives > red onion > garlic > yellow onion > ramson > white onion. Antioxidant activity was measured by the spectrophotometric method using a compound DPPH (2.2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl. Determined the value of antioxidant activity ranged 12.29 – 76.57%. Antioxidant activity observed in crops declined in the following order: chives > ramson > red onion > yellow onion > garlic > white onion. In all the analysed crop plants was confirmed by the strong dependence of the antioxidant activity and the total content of polyphenolic substances.

  15. Research on arsenic content and its speciation distribution characteristics in overlying coal and fly ash recycling soil%覆煤及粉煤灰回用土壤砷质量比与赋存形态研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王明仕; 张晓; 杨娜娜; 钦凡; 刘克武

    2012-01-01

    higher than the natural background val-ues of arsenic content in the soil. Soil arsenic pollution of the study area has been becoming more serious. It is caused by the higher arsenic content of sandstone and silty sandstone in the study area, as well as wide distribution of overlying coal and a large amount of reused fly ash in the farmland. Soil arsenic in this study area mainly exists as residue state(72.16%), which is followed by sulfide combination state, iron manganese oxide combination state (5.89 % ) , organic state(3.06% ), carbonate combination state(2.51 % )and water soluble and exchangeable state (0.93 % ) . They can be arranged in order as: residue state arsenic > sulfide combination state arsenic > iron manganese oxide combination state arsenic > organic state arsenic > carbonate combination state arsenic > water soluble and exchangeable state arsenic. Although the total soil arsenic content of this area is too high, the arsenic transformation ability in residual state which arsenic mainly exists in is relatively weak. Therefore, its harm to the environment and human health has yet been in discussion.

  16. Total antioxidant capacity, total phenolic content and iron and zinc dialyzability in selected Greek varieties of table olives, tomatoes and legumes from conventional and organic farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drakou, Marina; Birmpa, Angeliki; Koutelidakis, Antonios E; Komaitis, Michael; Panagou, Efstathios Z; Kapsokefalou, Maria

    2015-03-01

    The objective was to compare 10 types of table olives, 11 types of tomatoes and tomato products and 18 types of legumes from conventional or organic farming for selected nutritional properties. All products were tested for their total antioxidant capacity (TAC) (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) assay) and total phenolic content (Folin-Ciocalteau method). Tomatoes and legumes were further tested for iron and zinc dialyzability after in vitro digestion. Ascorbic acid content of tomatoes was also measured. The study resulted that the nutritional properties of olives, tomatoes and legumes tested were different among the various cultivars but, in most cases, not between products from organic or conventional farming. Natural black olives, cherry and santorini tomatoes and lentils exhibited superior nutritional properties.

  17. Biochemical changes and energy content of the mangrove, Rhizophora mucronata, leaves during decomposition

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sumitra-Vijayaraghavan; Ramadhas, V.; Krishnakumari, L.; Royan, J.P.

    Decomposition of Rhizophora mucronata leaves both in the laboratory and in the field resulted in the loss of organic carbon and ash and increase in total nitrogen, organic matter, protein and caloric content. In the decomposed leaves, relatively...

  18. Bottom ash from fluidising bed boilers as filler material in district heating pipe culverts. Chemical and geotechnical characterisation; Pannsand som kringfyllnadsmaterial foer fjaerrvaermeroergravar. Kemisk och geoteknisk karaktaerisering av fluidbaeddsand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersson, Roger; Rogbeck, Jan; Suer, Pascal

    2004-01-01

    Bottom ashes from fluid bed boilers have been characterised, both geotechnically and chemically, in order to investigate the possibility to use them as filler material in district heating pipe culverts. Bottom ashes from both biofuel boilers and waste boilers are represented in this project. The companies which ashes have been characterised are Sundsvall Energi AB, Sydkraft OestVaerme AB, Sydkraft MaelarVaerme AB, Eskilstuna Miljoe och Energi, Stora Enso Fors, Soederenergi and Fortum Vaerme. A total of ten ashes have been analysed where three ashes originates from Sundsvall Energi AB, two from Sydkraft OestVaerme AB and one from the each of the remaining companies. The chemical analyses have been performed both on fresh ashes and on ashes aged for three months. The geotechnical analyses performed are grain size distribution, packing abilities and permeability. Chemical analyses performed are total content, available content, leaching tests (leaching both by shaking method and column procedure) and organic analyses (PAH, EOX, TOC, dioxin and fenol). The geotechnical analyses show that the ashes fulfils the demands that are put on the filler material used in district heating pipe culverts. When using the ashes in applications, light compaction should be performed due to the risk of crushing the material which may cause an increased amount of fine material. The leachability of fine material is larger than for coarse material. The ashes are relatively insensitive to precipitation. Bio fuel based bottom ashes have a lower content of environmental affecting substances than waste fuel based ashes. This is also shown in the leaching analyses. The leaching water from fresh ashes contains a higher concentration of leachable components than aged ashes. When aged the pH in the ashes decreases due to carbon uptake and hydration and this makes metals as Pb, Cu, Cr and Zn less mobile. On the other hand, an increase in leachability of Sb, Mo and SO{sub 4} is shown when the ashes

  19. Fruit quality, anthocyanin and total phenolic contents, and antioxidant activities of 45 blueberry cultivars grown in Suwon, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Gook; Kim, Hong Lim; Kim, Su Jin; Park, Kyo-Sun

    2013-09-01

    Blueberry fruits from 45 commercial cultivars (39 northern highbush and 6 half highbush blueberry) grown in Suwon, Korea were analyzed for fruit size, soluble solids content, titratable acidity, total anthocyanin content, total phenolic content, and antioxidant activity. Fruit characteristics varied widely among the 45 blueberry cultivars. Fruit weight ranged from 0.9 to 3.6 g, soluble solids content from 8.3 to 14.3 °Brix, and titratable acidity from 0.8% to 3.6%. Antioxidant activity ranged from 0.7 to 2.1 mg of quercetin equivalents per gram of fresh berries in different blueberry cultivars. Among the 45 blueberry cultivars, high amounts of anthocyanins and polyphenols, and high antioxidant activity were observed in 'Elliott', 'Rubel', 'Rancocas', and 'Friendship'.

  20. Fruit quality, anthocyanin and total phenolic contents, and antioxidant activities of 45 blueberry cultivars grown in Suwon, Korea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Gook KIM; Hong Lim KIM; Su Jin KIM; Kyo-Sun PARK

    2013-01-01

    Blueberry fruits from 45 commercial cultivars (39 northern highbush and 6 half highbush blueberry) grown in Suwon,Korea were analyzed for fruit size,soluble solids content,titratable acidity,total anthocyanin content,total phenolic content,and antioxidant activity.Fruit characteristics varied widely among the 45 blueberry cultivars.Fruit weight ranged from 0.9 to 3.6 g,soluble solids content from 8.3 to 14.3°Brix,and titratable acidity from 0.8% to 3.6%.Antioxidant activity ranged from 0.7 to 2.1 mg of quercetin equivalents per gram of fresh berries in different blueberry cultivars.Among the 45 blueberry cultivars,high amounts of anthocyanins and polyphenols,and high antioxidant activity were observed in ‘Elliott’,‘Rubel’,‘Rancocas’,and ‘Friendship’.

  1. Features of annual and semiannual variations derived from the global ionospheric maps of total electron content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Zhao

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work we use the NASA-JPL global ionospheric maps of total electron content (TEC, firstly to construct TEC maps (TEC vs. magnetic local time MLT, and magnetic latitude MLAT in the interval from 1999 to 2005. These TEC maps were, in turn, used to estimate the annual-to-mean amplitude ratio, A1, and the semiannual-to-mean amplitude ratio, A2, as well as the latitudinal symmetrical and asymmetrical parts, A' and A" of A1. Thus, we investigated in detail the TEC climatology from maps of these indices, with an emphasis on the quantitative presentation for local time and latitudinal changes in the seasonal, annual and semiannual anomalies of the ionospheric TEC. Then we took the TEC value at 14:00 LT to examine various anomalies at a global scale following the same procedure. Results reveal similar features appearing in NmF2, such as that the seasonal anomaly is more significant in the near-pole regions than in the far-pole regions and the reverse is true for the semiannual anomaly; the winter anomaly has least a chance to be observed at the South America and South Pacific areas. The most impressive feature is that the equinoctial asymmetry is most prominent at the East Asian and South Australian areas. Through the analysis of the TIMED GUVI columnar [O/N2] data, we have investigated to what extent the seasonal, annual and semiannual variations can be explained by their counterparts in [O/N2]. Results revealed that the [O/N2] variation is a major contributor to the daytime winter anomaly of TEC, and it also contributes to some of the semiannual and annual anomalies. The contribution to the anomalies unexplained by the [O/N2] data could possibly be due to the dynamics associated with thermospheric winds and electric fields.

  2. Station Based Polynomial Modeling of the local ionospheric Vertical Total Electron Content (VTEC) using Particle Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdogan, Eren; Onur Karslioglu, Mahmut; Durmaz, Murat; Aghakarimi, Armin

    2014-05-01

    parameters, Ionospheric VTEC map covering the predefined region has been produced by interpolation. VTEC values at a grid node of the map have been computed based on the four closest ground stations by means of inverse distance squared weighted average. The GPS data which is acquired from ground based stations have been made available from the International GNSS Service (IGS) and the Reference Frame Sub-commission for Europe (EUREF). Raw GPS observations have been preprocessed to detect cycle slips and to form geometry-free linear combinations of observables for each continuous arc. Then the obtained pseudoranges have been smoothed with the carrier to code leveling method. Finally, the performance of the particle filter to investigate the local characteristics of the ionospheric Vertical Total Electron Content (VTEC) has been evaluated and the result has been compared with the result of a standard Kalman filter. Keywords: ionosphere, GPS , Particle filer, VTEC modeling

  3. The total alkaloid and anagyrine contents of some bitter and sweet selections of lupin species used as food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeler, R F; Gross, R

    1980-01-01

    The total alkaloid and anagyrine contents of bitter and sweet Lupinus luteus, Lupinus angustifolius, Lupinus albus, Lupinus mutabilis, Lupinus polyphyllus, and Lupinus perennis were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and mass spectrometry. No anagyrine was detected in any of the samples. The GC peak in some of the samples which corresponded to anagyrine in retention of time seems to be identical to 17-oxolupanine. The alkaloid content of samples ranged from 3.17 to 0.003 percent.

  4. Long-term effect of tillage, nitrogen fertilization and cover crops on soil organic carbon and total nitrogen content

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Metadata only record No-till practices, in conjunction with cover crops and nitrogen fertilization, have been shown to augment soil organic carbon content and total nitrogen content. However, interactions between these components in a no-till system are not well-known. This study offers a long-term (1993-2008) comparative analysis of conventional versus no-till practices as well as a some insight regarding the synergies between no-till, nitrogen fertilization, and cover crops. Maize, wheat...

  5. Ash after forest fires. Effects on soil hydrology and erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodí, Merche B.

    2013-04-01

    from certain Eucaliptus and Pinus), or if clog soil pores (depending also on the soil type). If ash is wettable, it can store even 80% of its volume and then it will delay and reduce overland flow proportionally to the thickness of the ash layer. Once ash gets saturated, the flow tends to adjust to an infiltration rate similar to the soil itself, or sometimes higher due to the protection of ash that can reduce soil water repellency and soil sealing (Bodí et al. 2011, 2012). Still, many other aspects on ash remain unknown and ash present us more questions like, what it is its role on the carbon cycle? what is the extent of the ahs effects at basin scale? what is the fate of ash and how long it remains in the ecosystem? are there specific effects of ash depending on the ecosystem and so the type of ash? Acknowledgements This work was supported financially by a research fellowship (AP2007-04602) from the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation (M.B. Bodí) and the projects PT2009-0073 and CGL2010-21670-C02-01. References Bodí, M.B., Mataix-Solera, J., Doerr, S.H., Cerdà, A., 2011, The wettability of ash from burned vegetation and its relationship to Mediterranean plant species type, burn severity and total organic carbon content. Geoderma 160, 599-607. Bodí, M.B., Doerr, S.H., Cerdà, A., Mataix-Solera, J., 2012, Hydrological effects of a layer of vegetation ash on underlying wettable and water repellent soil. Geoderma 191, 14-23 Cerdà, A., 1998, Changes in overland flow and infiltration after a rangeland fire in a Mediterranean scrubland. Hydrological Processes 12, 1031-1042. Cerdà, A., Doerr, S.H., 2008, The effect of ash and needle cover on surface runoff and erosion in the immediate post-fire period. Catena 74, 256-263. Woods, S.W., Balfour, V., 2008, The effect of ash on runoff and erosion after a forest wildfire, Montana, U.S.A. International Journal of Wildland Fire 17, 535-548.

  6. In vitro anthelmintic activity of Barleria buxifolia on Indian adult earthworms and estimation of total flavonoid content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purna A. Chander

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the anthelmintic activity of Barleria buxifolia leaf and to estimate the total flavonoid content. Methods: The aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts were prepared and these were analyzed for total flavonoid content by aluminium chloride colorimetric method and Pheretima posthuma was used for anthelmintic activity by using the different concentrations (10, 20, 40, 80 and 100 mg/mL. Results: All the investigational extracts showed an anthelmintic activity at concentration of 10 mg/mL. The ethanolic extract of 100 mg/mL has produced an significant effect (P<0.001 when compared to aqueous extract. The total flavonoid content was found to be 5.67 mg QE/100 g. Conclusions: From the above study, the leaf extract has shown a good anthelmintic activity.

  7. Total alkyl dibenzothiophenes content tracing the filling pathway of condensate reservoir in the Fushan Depression,South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The condensates are generally characterized by high maturity,low concentration of steranes and ter-panes biomarkers and low content of non-hydrocarbon fraction. In this case commonly used steranes,terpanes and carbazoles parameters cannot be effectively applied in the reservoir-filling tracing. The hydrogen bond formed by sulfur atom in the dibenzothiophenes (DBTs) results in molecule adsorption and fractionation during oil migration in reservoir. Like carbazoles,total DBTs content decreases with the increasing of oil migration distance. Therefore,a new parameter——total DBTs content is proposed to be used to trace the oil migration orientation and filling pathway. In present study,total DBTs con-tents of condensates and light oils are obtained by adding internal standard——eight deuterium atoms substituted DBT during Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry analysis of aromatic fraction. Except for a few samples with much lower content of non-hydrocarbon fraction,the total DBTs content shows a fine positive correlation with that of carbazoles. Large errors can be caused in the process of pyrrolic nitrogen compounds separation. The application of this new parameter in the Fushan Depression of Beibu Gulf Basin,South China Sea indicates that this parameter is a reliable one to trace filling pathway in condensate reservoirs. Combined with other DBTs-related parameters,such as 4-/1-methydibenzo-thiophene and 2,4-/1,4-dimethyldibenzothiophene,oil migration orientation and filling pathway of the Fushan Depression was determined. The accumulations of Huachang oil field in the Fushan Depres-sion are mainly migrated and charged from northeast to southeast along the Huachang uplift. It can be predicated that the light oil and condensates in the Huachang oil field should be sourced from the source kitchen at the Bailian Sag. It shows that total DBTs content is an effective parameter to tracing oil migration orientation and filling pathway.

  8. Combustion of stoker ash in a CFBC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, L.; Anthony, E.J. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET Energy Technology Centre

    2002-07-01

    The ash generated from petroleum coke fired stokers at Georgia Pacific in Wisconsin has an elevated carbon content and a higher fuel value. This paper presents results of a study in which the stoker ash was test fired at the CANMET Energy Technology Centre in a bench scale circulating fluidized bed combustor (CFBC). The objective was to determine if firing the stoker ash in its 'as received' state (with a 40 per cent moisture content) is a viable fuel option for Georgia Pacific's FBC boiler to save fuel costs, or if it should be co-fired with petroleum coke. Mixtures of the stoker ash and petroleum coke were also test fired. Results indicate that the stoker ash alone cannot sustain combustion. However, good ignition and even bed temperature is possible with premixed coke and 10 per cent less moisture content. Emissions of sulphur dioxides, nitrogen oxides carbon monoxide were the same as for firing petroleum coke alone. In addition, the co-firing of stoker ash and petroleum coke did not negatively affect the tendency to foul, compared to firing coke alone. The amount of ash generated from the FBC boiler was high due to the high ash content. An economic evaluation showed that firing a 20/80 coke/stoker ash mixture can save approximately 22 per cent of the limestone usage compared to coke firing alone, if the Ca/S molar ratio remain the same. 8 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig.

  9. Simulated Impacts of Emerald Ash Borer on Throughfall and Stemflow Inputs of Water and Nitrogen in Black Ash Wetlands in Northern Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pypker, T. G.; Davis, J.; Van Grinsven, M. J.; Bolton, N. W.; Shannon, J.; Kolka, R. K.; Nelson, J.; Wagenbrenner, J. W.

    2014-12-01

    Emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (EAB)) is an invasive insect that effectively kills ash trees (genus: Fraxinus) greater than 2.5 cm in diameter, resulting in near-complete stand mortality within 3-4 years. Black ash wetlands occupy approximately 270,000 ha in Michigan, and have 40 to 90% of the basal area occupied by black ash (F. nigra Marshall); hence the loss of black ash may result in dramatic changes in the canopy hydrology and nutrient deposition. We assessed the impact of a simulated EAB invasion on throughfall and stemflow quantity and nitrogen (N) content in 9 uninfected black ash wetlands located in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. Within the 9 stands, 3 stands were left untreated ('Control'), 3 stands had all the black ash trees manually girdled ('Girdled') and 3 had all the black ash trees felled by chainsaw ('Clearcut'). We measured the quantity and inorganic-N content of throughfall using an array of randomly placed collectors (n = 16 per site). Stemflow was monitored at 2 sites (n = 12 trees) on the 3 most common tree species (black ash, yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis Britt.) and red maple (Acer rubra L.)). Preliminary results indicate that relative to the Control, average monthly throughfall was 25% and 1% greater in the Clearcut and Girdled sites, respectively. While the loss of the ash trees resulted in greater throughfall inputs in the Clearcut sites, water table heights did not significantly change as a result of the treatments. Stemflow from live black ash trees was lower than from the yellow birch and red maple trees. As a result, we predict stemflow will increase over time as species with smoother bark and less upright branching begin replacing the black ash. Hence, the change in tree species may result in a greater concentration of inorganic-N inputs to the base of the trees, thereby altering the distribution of inorganic-N inputs into the wetland. Our preliminary results show no significant change in the total

  10. Transcriptomic signatures of ash (Fraxinus spp. phloem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Bai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ash (Fraxinus spp. is a dominant tree species throughout urban and forested landscapes of North America (NA. The rapid invasion of NA by emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis, a wood-boring beetle endemic to Eastern Asia, has resulted in the death of millions of ash trees and threatens billions more. Larvae feed primarily on phloem tissue, which girdles and kills the tree. While NA ash species including black (F. nigra, green (F. pennsylvannica and white (F. americana are highly susceptible, the Asian species Manchurian ash (F. mandshurica is resistant to A. planipennis perhaps due to their co-evolutionary history. Little is known about the molecular genetics of ash. Hence, we undertook a functional genomics approach to identify the repertoire of genes expressed in ash phloem. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using 454 pyrosequencing we obtained 58,673 high quality ash sequences from pooled phloem samples of green, white, black, blue and Manchurian ash. Intriguingly, 45% of the deduced proteins were not significantly similar to any sequences in the GenBank non-redundant database. KEGG analysis of the ash sequences revealed a high occurrence of defense related genes. Expression analysis of early regulators potentially involved in plant defense (i.e. transcription factors, calcium dependent protein kinases and a lipoxygenase 3 revealed higher mRNA levels in resistant ash compared to susceptible ash species. Lastly, we predicted a total of 1,272 single nucleotide polymorphisms and 980 microsatellite loci, among which seven microsatellite loci showed polymorphism between different ash species. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: The current transcriptomic data provide an invaluable resource for understanding the genetic make-up of ash phloem, the target tissue of A. planipennis. These data along with future functional studies could lead to the identification/characterization of defense genes involved in resistance of ash to A. planipennis

  11. Determination of Total Volatile Basic Nitrogen (TVB-N) Content in Beef by Hyperspectral Imaging Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Liu Shanmei; Gan Lu

    2016-01-01

    Non-destructive determination of TVB-N content in beef using hyperspectral imaging (HSI) technique was evaluated. In order to create a robust model to predict the TVB-N content in beef, partition of sample set, spectral pretreatment, and the optimum wavelength selection were discussed. After the beef sample set was parted by concentration gradient (CG) algortithm, and the spectra of beef samples were preprocessed by standard normalized variate (SNV) combined with auto scale(AS), the partial l...

  12. Feasibility study for the quantification of total protein content by multiple prompt gamma-ray analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh, Y; Murakami, Y; Furutaka, K; Kimura, A; Koizumi, M; Hara, K; Kin, T; Nakamura, S; Harada, H

    2012-06-01

    Protein is an important nutrient in foods. The classical nitrogen analysis method is the Kjeldahl technique, which is time-consuming and inconvenient. As a convenient method to quantify protein content in biological samples, the feasibility of application of multiple prompt gamma-ray analysis (MPGA) to the quantification was studied. Results for protein content are reported for several reference materials and prove the method to be reliable.

  13. Total flavonoid content in varieties of Calendula officinalis L. originating from different countries and cultivated in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raal, Ain; Kirsipuu, Kadri

    2011-03-01

    Total flavonoid contents in the inflorescences of different varieties of Calendula officinalis L. were investigated. The commercial seeds (20 samples) of varieties of C. officinalis originating from eight European countries were cultivated in home gardens in two different counties of Estonia. Total flavonoid contents, determined spectrophotometrically (λ = 370 nm), varied from each other by more than three times (0.21-0.68%) in the investigated varieties. The variety with the highest flavonoid content was 'Kablouna', produced by the Finnish company Siemen (0.68%). Other varieties with high flavonoid content, such as 'Touch of Red' produced by the Latvian company Kurzemes Seklas (0.55%), 'Golden Emperor' produced by the Finnish company Suvipiha (0.50%), 'Pomyk' from Poland (0.50%), etc., may also be preferred for cultivation as natural sources, as they are also rich in flavonoids. The amount of total flavonoids depends on the variety and/or the place and time of cultivation. There appeared to be no conclusive relationship between the total flavonoid content and the colour of ligulate and tubular florets of C. officinalis.

  14. Wood ash treatment, a cost-effective way to deactivate tannins in Acacia cyanophylla Lindl. foliage and to improve digestion by Barbarine sheep

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Salem, H. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie (INRAT), Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres, Ariana (Tunisia)]. E-mail: bensalem.hichem@iresa.agrinet.tn; Abidi, S. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie (INRAT), Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres, Ariana (Tunisia); Ecole Superieure d' Agriculture de Mateur, Mateur (Tunisia); Makkar, H.P.S. [Animal Production and Health Section, Joint FAO/IAEA Division, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Nefzaoui, A. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie (INRAT), Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres, Ariana (Tunisia)

    2005-08-19

    Three in vitro experiments and one in vivo experiment were carried out to study the effect of wood ash sources (6 L wood ash solution/kg fresh plant leaves) and levels and treatment duration on the nutritive value of acacia leaves. In Experiment 1, samples of fresh (F), dried (D), or dried and ground (DG) acacia were soaked for 6 h in water or acacia wood ash solution (120 g of wood ash dry matter/L of water). Soaking acacia in water decreased total extractable phenols (TP), total extractable tannins (TT) and extractable condensed tannins (CT). Wood ash treatment led to a further decrease of these phenolic compounds and was highest with DG acacia. Experiment 2 investigated different levels of acacia wood ash (0, 120, 180 and 240 g wood ash dry matter/L of water) and treatment duration (1, 2 and 3 days). The higher the level of wood ash, the lower proportion of TP and CT in acacia was noted. In Experiment 3, two sources of wood ash (i.e., acacia and Aleppo pine) and the same solution of each source of wood ash were used eight times. The two sources of wood ash had similar deactivating effect on TP and CT. The rate of decrease of TP and CT was highest when the same wood ash solution was used four consecutive times and decreased progressively thereafter. In these three experiments, water and wood ash treatment reduced organic matter and crude protein content but substantially increased the neutral detergent fibre (NDFom) content of treated acacia. In the fourth experiment, we treated acacia with acacia wood ash (180 g/L of water for 2 days) and the same solution was used five times. Treated and untreated acacia were air-dried and fed ad libitum to two groups, each of four Barbarine rams together with 300 g of concentrate. Wood ash treatment did not affect intake and OM digestibility of the diet but increased crude protein and NDFom digestibility (P < 0.05). Feeding untreated acacia resulted in negative N balances but with wood ash treatment, N balance was positive

  15. Synchronous measurements of total ozone content in the tropical and the midlatitude zones during March-May 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishov, A. G.; Perov, S. P.; Semenov, V. K.

    1992-07-01

    A series of synchronous measurements of the total ozone content over Lake Issyk-Kul' (Kyrgyzstan) and Tumba (India), both located at 77 deg W but at widely separated latitudes (42.62 deg N and 8.53 deg N, respectively) was carried out using a high-sensitivity Brewer spectrophotometer and the SFSU ozonometric instrument. A statistical correlation was demonstrated between the daily mean total ozone content over Lake Issyk-Kul' and the 2800 MHz solar radiation flux. No statistically significant correlation was observed for the Tumba location.

  16. Radioactivity of wood ash; Puun tuhkan radioaktiivisuus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rantavaara, A.; Moring, M

    2000-01-01

    STUK (Finnish Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority) has investigated natural and artificial radioactivity in wood ash and radiation exposure from radionuclides in ash since 1996. The aim was to consider both handling of ash and different ways of using ash. In all 87 ash samples were collected from 22 plants using entirely or partially wood for their energy production in 1996-1997. The sites studied represented mostly chemical forest industry, sawmills or district heat production. Most plants used fluidised bed combustion technique. Samples of both fly ash and bottom ash were studied. The activity concentrations of radionuclides in samples of, e.g., dried fly ash from fuel containing more than 80% wood were determined. The means ranged from 2000 to less than 50 Bq kg{sup -1}, in decreasing order: {sup 137}Cs, {sup 40}K, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 210}Pb,{sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th, {sup 134}Cs, {sup 235}U. In bott radionuclide contents decreased in the same order as in fly ash, but were smaller, and {sup 210}Pb was hardly detectable. The NH{sub 4}Ac extractable fractions of activities for isotopes of alkaline elements (K, Cs) in bottom ash were lower than in fly ash, whereas solubility of heavier isotopes was low. Safety requirements defined by STUK in ST-guide 12.2 for handling of peat ash were fulfilled at each of the sites. Use of ash for land-filling and construction of streets was minimal during the sampling period. Increasing this type of ash use had often needed further investigations, as description of the use of additional materials that attenuate radiation. Fertilisation of forests with wood ash adds slightly to the external irradiation in forests, but will mostly decrease doses received through use of timber, berries, mushrooms and game meat. (orig.)

  17. Radioactivity of wood ash; Puun tuhkan radioaktiivisuus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rantavaara, A.; Moring, M

    2000-01-01

    STUK (Finnish Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority) has investigated natural and artificial radioactivity in wood ash and radiation exposure from radionuclides in ash since 1996. The aim was to consider both handling of ash and different ways of using ash. In all 87 ash samples were collected from 22 plants using entirely or partially wood for their energy production in 1996-1997. The sites studied represented mostly chemical forest industry, sawmills or district heat production. Most plants used fluidised bed combustion technique. Samples of both fly ash and bottom ash were studied. The activity concentrations of radionuclides in samples of, e.g., dried fly ash from fuel containing more than 80% wood were determined. The means ranged from 2000 to less than 50 Bq kg{sup -1}, in decreasing order: {sup 137}Cs, {sup 40}K, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 210}Pb,{sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th, {sup 134}Cs, {sup 235}U. In bott radionuclide contents decreased in the same order as in fly ash, but were smaller, and {sup 210}Pb was hardly detectable. The NH{sub 4}Ac extractable fractions of activities for isotopes of alkaline elements (K, Cs) in bottom ash were lower than in fly ash, whereas solubility of heavier isotopes was low. Safety requirements defined by STUK in ST-guide 12.2 for handling of peat ash were fulfilled at each of the sites. Use of ash for land-filling and construction of streets was minimal during the sampling period. Increasing this type of ash use had often needed further investigations, as description of the use of additional materials that attenuate radiation. Fertilisation of forests with wood ash adds slightly to the external irradiation in forests, but will mostly decrease doses received through use of timber, berries, mushrooms and game meat. (orig.)

  18. Total Phenolics, Flavonoids, Tannin Contents and Antioxidant Properties of Pleurotus ostreatus Cultivated on Different Wastes and Sawdust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşenur Yılmaz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the usage possibilities of some agro-industrial wastes such as; peanut wastes, potatoes farm wastes, walnut and orange tree sawdust in Pleurotus ostreatus cultivation were investigated and total phenolic, flavonoid, condensed tannin content and antioxidant properties of these methanolic mushroom extracts were examined. For the determination of the total phenolic contents, the Folin-Ciocalteau procedure was used. The content of total flavonoid present in the methanolic extracts was measured using a spectrophotometric assay. Condensed tannins were determined according to the method by Julkunen-Tıtto. The antioxidant capacity was determined using ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP and free radical scavenging activity of DPPH. The highest total phenolic content (2.672 ± 0.003 mg GAE/g was found in mushroom cultivated on walnut sawdust. The highest condensed tannin (1.011 ± 0.088 CE mg/g and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP (12.332 ± 0.017 μmol FeSO4.7H2O/g were observed in the same mushroom extract. The highest total flavonoid and free radical scavenging activity of DPPH were found in extract of mushroom cultivated on potatoes handle. Bioactive properties of P. ostreatus cultivated on walnut tree sawdust were generally exhibited remarkable results.

  19. Antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of aqueous and methanolic extracts of Jordanian plants: an ICBG project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alali, Feras Q; Tawaha, Khaled; El-Elimat, Tamam; Syouf, Maha; El-Fayad, Mosa; Abulaila, Khaled; Nielsen, Samara Joy; Wheaton, William D; Falkinham, Joseph O; Oberlies, Nicholas H

    2007-10-01

    As part of an International Cooperative Biodiversity Groups (ICBG) program to study Jordan's biodiversity, the relative levels of antioxidant activity and the total phenolic content of aqueous and methanolic extracts of a total of 95 plant species, all of Jordanian origin and those collected at random, have been measured. The total phenolic content of aqueous and methanolic extracts of the investigated plant species ranged from 4.4 to 78.3 mg and from 2.1 to 52.8 mg gallic acid equivalents g(-1) dry weight, respectively, while the total antioxidant capacity ranged from 20.0 to 916.7 and from 15.1 to 915.6 micromol Trolox equivalents g(-1) dry weight, respectively. Based on this collection, approximately 5% of assayed plants showed high levels of antioxidant activity. There was a significant linear correlation between antioxidant activity and total phenolic content for aqueous and methanolic extracts, suggesting that phenolic compounds were the predominant antioxidant components in the investigated plant species. Interestingly, a few of the collected plants had high-antioxidant activity yet "low" phenolic content includes Ceratonia siliqua and Viscum cruciatum. These plants may serve as sources of antioxidants with new chemotypes.

  20. Oral bioavailability of arsenic, antimony and a selection of metals in ashes; Oral biotillgaenglighet av arsenik, antimon och ett urval av metaller i askor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson, Christel; Bendz, David; Jones, Celia

    2008-06-15

    In an earlier study, financed by Varmeforsk, 'Q4-238 Environmental guidelines for reuse of ash in civil engineering applications', the total content of arsenic and lead was shown to determine whether or not reuse of some of the ashes in construction work is feasible. The model used to calculate the guidelines uses the total concentration of metals to evaluate the health risks resulting from exposure to the ashes. The use of total concentration can lead to overly conservative risk assessments if a significant fraction of the total metal content is not bioavailable. Better precision in the risk assessment can be given by the use of the bioavailable fraction of arsenic and lead in the model. As a result, ashes which are rejected on the basis of total metal concentration may be acceptable for use in engineering construction when the assessment is based on the bioavailable fraction. The purpose of the study was to (i) compile information on the oral bioavailability of arsenic, antimony and a selection of metals in ashes and similar materials, and on in vitro methods for determination of oral bioavailability, and (ii) experimentally estimate oral bioavailability of arsenic, antimony and some metals in a selection of ashes by analysis of the gastrointestinal bioaccessibility of these elements. The investigated elements were antimony, arsenic, lead, cadmium, copper, chromium, nickel and zinc. In the literature study performed within the project a number of static and dynamic in vitro methods simulating gastrointestinal processes of contaminants were compiled. The methods include one or several segments, i.e. mouth, stomach and intestine. Among the compiled methods, the RIVM (Rijksinstituut voor volksgesundheid en milieu) in vitro method was used in the experimental part of the project. The advantages with the method was that: the method to a high degree mimicked the human gastrointestinal processes (the method included three segments mouth, stomach, and intestine

  1. Comparison between ATR-IR, Raman, concatenated ATR-IR and Raman spectroscopy for the determination of total antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content of Chinese rice wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhengzong; Xu, Enbo; Long, Jie; Pan, Xiaowei; Xu, Xueming; Jin, Zhengyu; Jiao, Aiquan

    2016-03-01

    The application of attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR), Raman spectroscopy (RS) and combination of ATR-IR and RS for measurements of total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and total phenolic content (TPC) of Chinese rice wine (CRW) were investigated in this study. Synergy interval partial least-squares (SiPLS), support vector machine (SVM) and principal component analysis (PCA) were applied to process the merged data from two individual instruments. It was observed that the performances of models based on the RS spectra were better than those based on the ATR-IR spectra. In addition, SVM models based on the efficient information extracted from ATR-IR and RS spectra were superior to PLS models based on the same information and PLS models based on ATR-IR or RS spectra. The overall results demonstrated that integrating ATR-IR and RS was possible and could improve the prediction accuracy of TAC and TPC in CRWs.

  2. Identifying glass compositions in fly ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine eAughenbaugh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, four Class F fly ashes were studied with a scanning electron microscope; the glassy phases were identified and their compositions quantified using point compositional analysis with k-means clustering and multispectral image analysis. The results showed that while the bulk oxide contents of the fly ashes were different, the four fly ashes had somewhat similar glassy phase compositions. Aluminosilicate glasses (AS, calcium aluminosilicate glasses (CAS, a mixed glass, and, in one case, a high iron glass were identified in the fly ashes. Quartz and iron crystalline phases were identified in each fly ash as well. The compositions of the three main glasses identified, AS, CAS, and mixed glass, were relatively similar in each ash. The amounts of each glass were varied by fly ash, with the highest calcium fly ash containing the most of calcium-containing glass. Some of the glasses were identified as intermixed in individual particles, particularly the calcium-containing glasses. Finally, the smallest particles in the fly ashes, with the most surface area available to react in alkaline solution, such as when mixed with portland cement or in alkali-activated fly ash, were not different in composition than the large particles, with each of the glasses represented. The method used in the study may be applied to a fly ash of interest for use as a cementing material in order to understand its potential for reactivity.

  3. The role of total fats, saturated/unsaturated fatty acids and cholesterol content in chicken meat as cardiovascular risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milićević, Dragan; Vranić, Danijela; Mašić, Zoran; Parunović, Nenad; Trbović, Dejana; Nedeljković-Trailović, Jelena; Petrović, Zoran

    2014-03-03

    The objective of the study was to present information about the chemical composition, the fatty acids profile, and cholesterol content of chicken meat in order to investigate the impact of chicken meat consumption on cardiovascular risk in the general population. A total of 48 6-wk-old broiler chickens broilers from two farms in June to November of 2012, and February of 2013, were used in this trial. Total lipid content was determined by extraction of fat by petrol ether (Soxhlet) after acid hydrolysis of samples. Fatty acids were determined by capillary gas chromatography. Cholesterol determination was performed by using HPLC/PDA system. The results indicate that the total free cholesterol content in raw breast and drumstick of chickens was in the range of 37,41-79,9 mg/100 g and 48,35-99,5 mg/100 g, respectively. The main fatty acids identified in all cuts were C18:1c9, C18:2n6, C16:0, C18:0, and C16:1. Decreasing the dietary n-6/n-3 clearly decreased the content in breast and drumstick muscle of C18:2n6, C18:3n3, and C20: 3n6, but increased that of C16:0, C18:0, and C20:2. Also, the major saturated fatty acid (SFA) (C16:0 and C18:0) was significantly differ among the four treatments. Our study shows that dietary fat and fatty acid composition influence the concentrations of total cholesterol content, total fat content, and fatty acid composition in broiler muscle. This information will aid in determining the burden of chicken meat as a cardiovascular risk factors disease and act as a planning tool for public-health Programmes.

  4. Monitoring and Imaging Ionospheric Total Electron Content Without the Thin-Shell Approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, L.

    2008-12-01

    The thin-shell model of the ionosphere relies on the coarse approximation that ionospheric electron density is non-negligible only in the vicinity of a specified reference height (typically the peak of the F-layer). The utility of this approximation resides primarily in the ease with which measurements of slant total electron content (TEC) may be converted into estimates of vertical TEC: if we identify the ionospheric pierce point (IPP) where a signal raypath intersects the shell height, then the vertical TEC at this IPP is estimated by scaling the TEC measured along the raypath by a simple geometric factor that depends upon the elevation angle of the signal. Developed to ensure the accuracy and integrity of user position estimates based upon global navigation satellite system (GNSS) measurements, all satellite-based augmentation systems (SBAS) to date, such as the United States' Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS), the European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service (EGNOS), and the Multi-Functional Satellite Augmentation System (MSAS) in Japan, use the thin-shell model as the basis for estimating vertical ionospheric delay at a specified set of regularly-spaced intervals in latitude and longitude, i.e., ionospheric grid points (IGPs). The vertical delay estimate at each IGP is calculated from a planar fit of neighboring slant delay measurements projected to vertical using the standard thin-shell obliquity factor. For an estimate of vertical TEC based upon the thin-shell approximation to be valid, two conditions must generally be satisfied: (1) the ionospheric electron density must be azimuthally symmetric with respect to the IPP; and (2) the choice of shell height must be appropriate. The successful operation of WAAS over the past fives years is a testament to the fact that these conditions are roughly satisfied under nominal ionospheric conditions at mid-latitudes. In the presence of significant horizontal electron density gradients, however, distinct

  5. The effect of processing on total organic acids content and mineral availability of simulated cassava-vegetable diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adewusi, S R; Ojumu, T V; Falade, O S

    1999-01-01

    Changes in pH, titratable acidity and mineral content (Ca, Fe, Mg, Zn) were estimated in processed cassava products while the mineral content of raw and blanched amaranthus vegetable was determined. pH of fresh cassava (6.5) decreased as total organic acid (0.07%) increased with fermentation period. Fufu and lafun had the lowest pH and the highest total organic acids contents. Fermentation of cassava increased the total calcium and iron contents, reduced magnesium level while zinc remained fairly constant in grated cassava but was reduced when soaked in water (for the preparation of fufu and lafun). Fermentation also increased the availability of these selected minerals in both cassva products and simulated cassava-vegetable diets. Blanching reduced the mineral content of amaranthus vegetable but increased mineral availability. Fermentation of cassava and blanching of vegetables play an important role in making minerals more available and these processing methods should be encouraged to potentially ameliorate the disease states associated with mineral deficiency.

  6. Determination of Total Volatile Basic Nitrogen (TVB-N Content in Beef by Hyperspectral Imaging Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Shanmei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-destructive determination of TVB-N content in beef using hyperspectral imaging (HSI technique was evaluated. In order to create a robust model to predict the TVB-N content in beef, partition of sample set, spectral pretreatment, and the optimum wavelength selection were discussed. After the beef sample set was parted by concentration gradient (CG algortithm, and the spectra of beef samples were preprocessed by standard normalized variate (SNV combined with auto scale(AS, the partial least square regression (PLSR model was established using the full spectral range, which had the best prediction abilities with Rcv2 of 0.9124, Rp2 of 0.8816, RMSECV of 1.5889, and RMSEP of 1.7719, respectively. After the optimum wavelengths which is closely related to the TVB-N content of beef samples was obtained using the competitive adaptive re-weighted (CARS algorithm, a new PLSR model was established using the optimum wavelengths, which had outstanding prediction abilities with Rcv2 of 0.9235, Rp2 of 0.9241, RMSECV of 1.4881, and RMSEP of 1.4882, respectively.The study showed that HSI is a powerful technique to predict the TVB-N content in beef by a nondestructive way.

  7. An Evaluation of Total Solar Reflectance and Spectral Band Ratioing Techniques for Estimating Soil Water Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reginato, R. J.; Vedder, J. F.; Idso, S. B.; Jackson, R. D.; Blanchard, M. B.; Goettelman, R.

    1977-01-01

    For several days in March of 1975, reflected solar radiation measurements were obtained from smooth and rough surfaces of wet, drying, and continually dry Avondale loam at Phoenix, Arizona, with pyranometers located 50 cm above the ground surface and a multispectral scanner flown at a 300-m height. The simple summation of the different band radiances measured by the multispectral scanner proved equally as good as the pyranometer data for estimating surface soil water content if the multispectral scanner data were standardized with respect to the intensity of incoming solar radiation or the reflected radiance from a reference surface, such as the continually dry soil. Without this means of standardization, multispectral scanner data are most useful in a spectral band ratioing context. Our results indicated that, for the bands used, no significant information on soil water content could be obtained by band ratioing. Thus the variability in soil water content should insignificantly affect soil-type discrimination based on identification of type-specific spectral signatures. Therefore remote sensing, conducted in the 0.4- to 1.0-micron wavelength region of the solar spectrum, would seem to be much More suited to identifying crop and soil types than to estimating of soil water content.

  8. Total leaf crude protein, amino acid composition and elemental content in the USDA-ARS bamboo germplasm collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamboo shoots and leaves are valuable food sources for both humans and livestock. The USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) collections hold 93 bamboo species in 20 genera. Total leaf protein, amino acid composition and elemental content for these important genetic resources had never bee...

  9. Effect of cultivar x ozone treatment interaction on the total polyphenols content and antioxidant activity of globe artichoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Lombardo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Two globe artichoke cultivars (Violet de Provence and Apollo were harvested at an experimental field in Sicily, immediately washed with ozonised water and stored in: i normal atmosphere; ii ozone-enriched atmosphere for 3 days and for the last 4 days in normal atmosphere; iii ozone-enriched atmosphere for 7 days. A control (samples unwashed and stored at room temperature was also investigated. The effect of cultivar x ozone treatment interaction on water content losses, total polyphenols content and antioxidant activity was evaluated after 0, 3 and 7 days of storage. Washing with ozonised water and storage under O3- enriched atmosphere allowed higher water retention compared with the control, especially for Violet de Provence. After 3 days of storage in ozone-enriched atmosphere, on average of cultivars, the total polyphenols content and antioxidant activity increased by 11.7% and 5.5%, respectively. By contrast, after further 4 days of storage in ozonised atmosphere, Apollo and Violet de Provence displayed a significant reduction in their level of total polyphenols and aantioxidant activity. The exposure of globe artichoke heads to an ozone-enriched atmosphere should not exceed 3 days aimed at preserving their high nutritional value, with special emphasis on total polyphenols content.

  10. Contents and retentions of free and total purine bases in lamb meat cooked by several household methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Anfossi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Concerns about the content of total and free purine bases in muscle foods and their retentions upon cooking have been since long established (Brulé et al., 1988. Recently, though, an important rôle has been acknowledged to dietary sources of preformed purines for the growth of tissues with a rapid turnover and for optimal function of the cellular immune response, up to the point that the positive features of these nutrients seem to outweigh by far the negative ones (ILSI, 1998. Scanty information exists about the total purine content of raw ovine meat, the only available sources of data being a survey by Herbel and Montag (1987 on purine and pyrimidine contents of protein-rich foods and the comprehensive collection of food composition tables compiled by Scherz and Senser (1994...

  11. Interaction mechanisms of organic contaminants with burned straw ash charcoal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenhai Huang; Baoliang Chen

    2010-01-01

    Black carbons (e.g.,charcoal) have a great impact on the transport of organic contaminants in soil and water because of its strong affinity and ubiquity in the environment.To further elucidate their interaction mechanism,sorption of polar (p-nitrotoluene,m-dinitrobenzene and nitrobenzene) and nonpolar (naphthalene) aromatic contaminants to burned straw ash charcoal under different de-ashed treatments were investigated.The sorption isotherms fitted well with Freundlich equation,and the Freundlich N values were all around 0.31-0.38,being independent of the sorbate properties and sorbent types.After sequential removal of ashes by acid treatments (HCl and HCl-HF),both adsorption and partition were enhanced due to the enrichment of charcoal component.The separated contribution of adsorption and partition to total sorption were quantified.The effective carbon content in ash charcoal functioned as adsorption sites,partition phases,and hybrid regions with adsorption and partition were conceptualized and calculated.The hybrid regions increased obviously after de-ashed treatment.The linear relationships of Freundlich N values with the charring-temperature of charcoal or biochar (the charred byproduct in biomass pyrolysis) were observed based on the current study and the cited publications which included 15 different temperatures (100-850℃),10 kinds of precursors of charcoal/biochar,and 10 organic sorbates.

  12. Interaction mechanisms of organic contaminants with burned straw ash charcoal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wenhai; Chen, Baoliang

    2010-01-01

    Black carbons (e.g., charcoal) have a great impact on the transport of organic contaminants in soil and water because of its strong affinity and ubiquity in the environment. To further elucidate their interaction mechanism, sorption of polar (p-nitrotoluene, m-dinitrobenzene and nitrobenzene) and nonpolar (naphthalene) aromatic contaminants to burned straw ash charcoal under different de-ashed treatments were investigated. The sorption isotherms fitted well with Freundlich equation, and the Freundlich N values were all around 0.31-0.38, being independent of the sorbate properties and sorbent types. After sequential removal of ashes by acid treatments (HCl and HCl-HF), both adsorption and partition were enhanced due to the enrichment of charcoal component. The separated contribution of adsorption and partition to total sorption were quantified. The effective carbon content in ash charcoal functioned as adsorption sites, partition phases, and hybrid regions with adsorption and partition were conceptualized and calculated. The hybrid regions increased obviously after de-ashed treatment. The linear relationships of Freundlich N values with the charring-temperature of charcoal or biochar (the charred byproduct in biomass pyrolysis) were observed based on the current study and the cited publications which included 15 different temperatures (100-850 degrees C), 10 kinds of precursors of charcoal/biochar, and 10 organic sorbates.

  13. Total antioxidant activity and fiber content of select Florida-grown tropical fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahattanatawee, Kanjana; Manthey, John A; Luzio, Gary; Talcott, Stephen T; Goodner, Kevin; Baldwin, Elizabeth A

    2006-09-20

    Fourteen tropical fruits from south Florida (red guava, white guava, carambola, red pitaya (red dragon), white pitaya (white dragon), mamey sapote, sapodilla, lychee, longan, green mango, ripe mango, green papaya, and ripe papaya) were evaluated for antioxidant activity, total soluble phenolics (TSP), total ascorbic acid (TAA), total dietary fiber (TDF), and pectin. ORAC (oxygen radical absorbance capacity) and DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, radical scavenging activity) assays were used to determine antioxidant activity. The TSP, ORAC, and DPPH ranged from 205.4 to 2316.7 g gallic acid equiv/g puree, pitaya (dragonfruit), lychee, and mamey sapote, these fruit being thus far uncharacterized in the literature.

  14. Experimental Study of Stabilized Soil Utilizing Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustion Desulfurization Ash with Carbide Slag and Desulfurization Gypsum

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the feasibility of preparing soil stabilizer which is circulating fluidized bed combustion ash-based, supplemented with carbide slag and desulfurization gypsum, composed entirely of complete industrial wastes. The results show that CFBC ash has better pozzolanic activity than fly ash. When stabilizer total content is 10% and the ratio of CFBC ash : carbide slag : desulfurization gypsum is 7.2 : 1.8 : 1, compressive strength of stabilized soil can reach the maximum of 2.12...

  15. Degradation of self-compacting concrete (SCC) due to sulfuric acid attack: Experiment investigation on the effect of high volume fly ash content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristiawan, S. A.; Sunarmasto; Tyas, G. P.

    2016-02-01

    Concrete is susceptible to a variety of chemical attacks. In the sulfuric acid environment, concrete is subjected to a combination of sulfuric and acid attack. This research is aimed to investigate the degradation of self-compacting concrete (SCC) due to sulfuric acid attack based on measurement of compressive strength loss and diameter change. Since the proportion of SCC contains higher cement than that of normal concrete, the vulnerability of this concrete to sulfuric acid attack could be reduced by partial replacement of cement with fly ash at high volume level. The effect of high volume fly ash at 50-70% cement replacement levels on the extent of degradation owing to sulfuric acid will be assessed in this study. It can be shown that an increase in the utilization of fly ash to partially replace cement tends to reduce the degradation as confirmed by less compressive strength loss and diameter change. The effect of fly ash to reduce the degradation of SCC is more pronounced at a later age.

  16. Characterization of fly ash from a circulating fluidized bed incinerator of municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lin; Su, Xiaowen; Zhang, Zhixuan; Liu, Siming; Xiao, Yuxin; Sun, Mingming; Su, Jixin

    2014-11-01

    Treatment and disposal of fly ash in China are becoming increasingly difficult, since its production has steadily risen and its features are uncertain. The excess pollutant components of fly ash are the key factor affecting its treatment and resource utilization. In this study, fly ash samples collected from a power plant with circulating fluidized incinerators of municipal solid waste (MSW) located in Shandong Province (eastern China) were studied. The results showed that there were no obvious seasonal differences in properties of fly ash. The content of total salt, Zn, and pH exceeded the national standards and low-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and dibenzofurans (Fs) were the main organic components of fly ash for this power plant, which posed great threats to the surrounding environment. The amount of Zn of fly ash was higher than other heavy metals, which should be due to alkaline batteries of MSW. The leachate of fly ash had low concentrations of heavy metals and the main soluble components were sulfates and chlorides. The major mineral crystals of fly ash were SiO2, CaSO4, and Fe2O3. The main organic pollutants were low-ring PAHs, polychlorinated PCDDs, and low-chlorinated PCDFs, and concentrations were lower than the limiting values of the national regulations. Additionally, the distribution of PCDD/Fs had either a positive or a negative linear correlation with fly ash and flue gas, which was associated with the chlorinated degree of PCDD/Fs. The analysis was conducted to fully understand the properties of fly ash and to take appropriate methods for further comprehensive utilization.

  17. Reference dataset of volcanic ash physicochemical and optical properties for atmospheric measurement retrievals and transport modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Andreas; Durant, Adam; Sytchkova, Anna; Diplas, Spyros; Bonadonna, Costanza; Scarnato, Barbara; Krüger, Kirstin; Kylling, Arve; Kristiansen, Nina; Stohl, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Explosive volcanic eruptions emit up to 50 wt.% (total erupted mass) of fine ash particles (threat for aviation operations. Recent volcanic eruptions, such as the 2010 Icelandic Eyjafjallajökull event, illustrated how volcanic ash can severely impact commercial air traffic. In order to manage the threat, it is important to have accurate forecast information on the spatial extent and absolute quantity of airborne volcanic ash. Such forecasts are constrained by empirically-derived estimates of the volcanic source term and the nature of the constituent volcanic ash properties. Consequently, it is important to include a quantitative assessment of measurement uncertainties of ash properties to provide realistic ash forecast uncertainty. Currently, information on volcanic ash physicochemical and optical properties is derived from a small number of somewhat dated publications. In this study, we provide a reference dataset for physical (size distribution and shape), chemical (bulk vs. surface chemistry) and optical properties (complex refractive index in the UV-vis-NIR range) of a representative selection of volcanic ash samples from 10 different volcanic eruptions covering the full variability in silica content (40-75 wt.% SiO2). Through the combination of empirical analytical methods (e.g., image analysis, Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy and UV/Vis/NIR/FTIR Spectroscopy) and theoretical models (e.g., Bruggeman effective medium approach), it was possible to fully capture the natural variability of ash physicochemical and optical characteristics. The dataset will be applied in atmospheric measurement retrievals and atmospheric transport modelling to determine the sensitivity to uncertainty in ash particle characteristics.

  18. The effect of whisky and wine consumption on total phenol content and antioxidant capacity of plasma from healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duthie, GG; Pedersen, M W; PC, Morrice

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess whether consumption of 100 ml of whisky or red wine by healthy male subjects increasedplasma total phenol content and antioxidant capacity. DESIGN: A Latin square arrangement to eliminate ordering effectswhereby, after an overnight fast, nine volunteers consumed 100 ml of red....... RESULTS: Within 30 min of consumption of the wine and whisky, there was a similar andsignificant increase in plasma total phenol content and antioxidant capacity as determined by the ferric reducing capacityof plasma (FRAP). No changes were observed following consumption of 'new make' spirit. CONCLUSIONS......:Consumption of phenolic-containing alcoholic beverages transiently raises total phenol concentration and enhances theantioxidant capacity of plasma. This is compatible with suggestions that moderate alcohol usage and increasedantioxidant intake decrease the risk of coronary heart disease....

  19. EVALUATION OF TOTAL MERCURY CONTENT IN MUSCLE TISSUE OF MARINE FISH AND ANIMALS

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Bajčan; Július Árvay; Janette Musilová

    2013-01-01

    Nowdays, a degree of contamination by heavy metals can be observed in the environment. Heavy metals have serious effects on all living organisms because they can accumulate in lethal or sublethal concentrations in the various parts of food chain and so they can cause different health problems like cardiovascular and cancer diseases. Marine fish and animals are one of the bigges source of mercury in human food. Therefore this work is focused to the rate of mercury content in muscle tisuues of ...

  20. EVALUATION OF TOTAL MERCURY CONTENT IN MUSCLE TISSUE OF MARINE FISH AND ANIMALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Bajčan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Nowdays, a degree of contamination by heavy metals can be observed in the environment. Heavy metals have serious effects on all living organisms because they can accumulate in lethal or sublethal concentrations in the various parts of food chain and so they can cause different health problems like cardiovascular and cancer diseases. Marine fish and animals are one of the bigges source of mercury in human food. Therefore this work is focused to the rate of mercury content in muscle tisuues of marine fish and animals. We analyzed mainly frozen or otherwise preserved marine fish and animals that were purchased in retail network in Slovakia. Mercury content in samples was analyzed by cold vapor AAS with mercury analyser AMA254. The contents of mercury in analysed samples were in the interval 0.0057 – 0,697 mg.kg-1. Our results shows, that no analyzed samples of marine fish and animals had over-limit concetration of Hg, so they are safe for human nutrition.

  1. Optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction of total monomeric anthocyanin (TMA) and total phenolic content (TPC) from eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) peel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dranca, Florina; Oroian, Mircea

    2016-07-01

    The present study describes the extraction of total monomeric anthocyanin (TMA) and total phenolic content (TPC) from eggplant peel using ultrasonic treatments and methanol and 2-propanol as extraction solvents. The extraction yields were optimized by varying the solvent concentration, ultrasonic frequency, temperature and time of ultrasonic treatment. Box-Behnken design was used to investigate the effect of process variables on the ultrasound-assisted extraction. The results showed that for TPC extraction the optimal condition were obtained with a methanol concentration of 76.6%, 33.88 kHz ultrasonic frequency, a temperature of 69.4 °C and 57.5 min extraction time. For TMA the optimal condition were the following: 54.4% methanol concentration, 37 kHz, 55.1 °C and process time of 44.85 min. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Modeling for Predicting the Flammable Content of Fly Ash Base on a Particle Swarm Optimized Back Propagation Neural Network%粒子群优化BP神经网络飞灰可燃物预测建模

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕太; 郭志清

    2013-01-01

    The magnitude of the flammable content of fly ash represents one of the important factors influencing the efficiency of a boiler and plays an important role in economic operation of the boiler. The authors optimized the linking weight value and threshold one between the nodes of a BP neural network by using the PSO (paricle swarm optimization) algorithm and established a BP neural network-based model optimized by using the PSO algorithm ( called as a PSO-BP model for short). The model can thoroughly give a full play of both overall optimization searching ability of the particle swarm optimization algorithm and the local searching edge of the BP algorithm. The operating parameters of a 670 t/h boiler were used to predict the flammable content of the flying ash. It has been found that compared with the BP neural network based model,the PSO-BP model is more precise and faster to come to a converging point, thus offering a feasible method for analyzing and predicting the flammable content of fly ash in large-sized utility boilers.%用PSO算法对BP神经网络结点间的连接权值和阈值进行优化,建立PSO优化BP神经网络模型(简称PSO-BP模型).此模型充分发挥了粒子群算法的全局寻优能力和BP算法的局部搜索优势.利用某670 t/h锅炉运行参数对锅炉飞灰可燃物进行预测.结果显示PSO-BP模型比BP神经网络模型预测值更精确,收敛速度更快,为大型电厂锅炉飞灰可燃物的分析和预测提供了一条可行的方法.

  3. Total Phenol Content and Antimicrobial Activity of Lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. from Several Areas in the Eastern Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éva LASLO

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the antimicrobial activity and the total phenol content of Vaccinium vitis idaea L. berry fruit from five different localities with distinct growth sites in the Eastern Carpathians. The antibacterial effect of lingonberry was studied on nine selected Gram-positive and negative, foodborne, illness causing and spoilage bacteria. The total phenol content was estimated by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. The present results showed stronger antibacterial effect of lingonberry on Gram-negative bacteria, especially on Pseudomonas fluorescens and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The total phenol content varied between 3.72 and 2.1 mM GAE/ml. As data suggested, Vaccinium vitis-idaea fruits originating from different geographic regions and environment, differ from each other in terms of bioactive compound quantity and activity. In the selection of new perspective cultivars of lingonberry, the geographical origin of fruits must be considered. Two Step Cluster analysis detected relatively well supported relationship between samples provided from similar growth sites. Correlation analysis showed no correlation between altitude, phenol content and antimicrobial activity.

  4. Measurements of the total-body potassium contents. Application of reference value with the whole-body counter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Tetsuo [Chiba Univ. (Japan). Inst. for Training Radiological Technicians; Saegusa, Kenji; Arimizu, Noboru; Kuniyasu, Yoshio; Itoh, Hisao

    2001-08-01

    The total-body potassium contents were measured in 405 healthy volunteers and 186 patients with whole body counter in Chiba University Hospital. The total-body potassium contents was expressed by the reference value (R value). The R value was calculated as measured potassium contents (g) divided by the body surface area (m{sup 2}) and adjusted by age and sex of healthy persons. The R value was 100.65{+-}9.22% in 405 healthy volunteers. Those of each disease were as follows: liver cirrhosis; 94.24{+-}11.22%, chronic hepatitis; 95.74{+-}11.24%, hyperthyroidism; 99.37{+-}10.8%, periodic paralysis; 82.0{+-}9.01%, Barter's syndrome; 93.99{+-}9.86%, myasthenia gravis; 97.34{+-}6.42% and hypo-potassemia; 90.64{+-}11.76%, respectively. The R values of other diseases such as uterine cancer, breast cancer, anemia, hypertension were 97.78{+-}11.5%, 99.22{+-}8.88%, 96.64{+-}12.73%, 98.5{+-}9.63% respectively. Fourteen patients showed especially lower R values under 75%. These were 1 liver cirrhosis, 3 hypertension, 1 diabetes mellitus, 3 hypo-potassemia, 1 periodic paralysis, 2 Barter's syndrome, 2 chemical poisoning, and 1 breast cancer. Follow-up study was performed in some patients with the lower R values. The result of follow-up study showed that there was a relationship between improvement of symptoms and increase of total body potassium contents. (author)

  5. SOME PRELIMINARY DATA ON THE TOTAL DNA CONTENT IN HYPOPHTHALMICHTHS MOLITRIX AND ARISTICHTHYS NOBILIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Vasile

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The work presents a comparative study between the total amount of DNA from five different types of tissues (gills, muscle, liver, spleen, kidneys in two cultured cyprinids species from the Ezreni accumulation, namely - silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis. The results obtained show that for both Asian cyprinids species the highest average value of the total amount of DNA is to be found in the spleeny tissue comparatively with the muscular tissue, which has the lowest average value, confirming that the spleeny tissue has a more

  6. Influence of Ash Applied to Oat Crop (Avena sativa L. Grown under Organic Fertilization with Manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoni Lixandru

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The power plant ash is an inorganic residue with a variable chemical buildup according to the type of charcoal used and quality. Depositing, stabilizing and eventually reintegrating the ash in the natural circuit raises a series of problems due to its disastrous effect on biodiversity. Even with these problems, at a moderate micro and macro mineral content, power plant ash could present interesting agro technical and ecological alternatives. For this reason, the controlled integration of ash could put a stop to pollution with ash by reintegrating the material in the agricultural ecosystems.For this purpose, in the field of research of Ecological and Forage Crops from Faculty of Animal Science and Biotechnologies Timisoara, research was conducted over the influence of the reintegration of 40 t of ash per ha, produced by C.E.T. Timisoara, on the biomass production of oatmeal (Avena sativa L, fertilized by levels of 25 and 50 t per ha of manure. After harvesting, the analysis of the total biomass quantity, both above and underground, revealed similar results in all trials. In conditions that include heavy metal concentrations beneath normal geological values, conclude that the application of 40t per ha may be an agro technical solution for the integration of power plant ash in the agricultural ecosystem.

  7. In vitro and In vivo Antioxidant Evaluation and Estimation of Total Phenolic, Flavonoidal Content of Mimosa pudica L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patro, Ganesh; Bhattamisra, Subrat Kumar; Mohanty, Bijay Kumar; Sahoo, Himanshu Bhusan

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Mimosa pudica Linn. (Mimosaceae) is traditionally used as a folk medicine to treat various ailments including convulsions, alopecia, diarrhea, dysentery, insomnia, tumor, wound healing, snake bite, etc., Here, the study was aimed to evaluate the antioxidant potential of M. pudica leaves extract against 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) (in vitro) and its modulatory effect on rat brain enzymes. Materials and Methods: Total phenolic, flavonoid contents, and in vitro antioxidant potential against DPPH radical were evaluated from various extracts of M. pudica leaves. In addition, ethyl acetate extract of Mimosa pudica leaves (EAMP) in doses of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg/day were administered orally for 7 consecutive days to albino rats and evaluated for the oxidative stress markers as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione (GSH) from rat brain homogenate. Results: The ethyl acetate extract showed the highest total phenolic content and total flavonoid content among other extracts of M. pudica leaves. The percentage inhibition and IC50 value of all the extracts were followed dose-dependency and found significant (P pudica exhibits both in vitro antioxidant activity against DPPH and in vivo antioxidant activity by modulating brain enzymes in the rat. This could be further correlated with its potential to neuroprotective activity due to the presence of flavonoids and phenolic contents in the extract. SUMMARY Total phenolic, flavonoid contents and in-vitro antioxidant potential were evaluated from various extracts of M. pudica leaves. Again, in-vivo antioxidant evaluation from brain homogenate on oxidative stress markers as TBARS, SOD, CAT and GSH from rat was investigated. Our findings revealed that M. pudica possesses both in-vitro and in-vivo antioxidant activity due to presence of phenolics and flavonoids. PMID:26941532

  8. In vitro and In vivo Antioxidant Evaluation and Estimation of Total Phenolic, Flavonoidal Content of Mimosa pudica L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patro, Ganesh; Bhattamisra, Subrat Kumar; Mohanty, Bijay Kumar; Sahoo, Himanshu Bhusan

    2016-01-01

    Mimosa pudica Linn. (Mimosaceae) is traditionally used as a folk medicine to treat various ailments including convulsions, alopecia, diarrhea, dysentery, insomnia, tumor, wound healing, snake bite, etc., Here, the study was aimed to evaluate the antioxidant potential of M. pudica leaves extract against 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) (in vitro) and its modulatory effect on rat brain enzymes. Total phenolic, flavonoid contents, and in vitro antioxidant potential against DPPH radical were evaluated from various extracts of M. pudica leaves. In addition, ethyl acetate extract of Mimosa pudica leaves (EAMP) in doses of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg/day were administered orally for 7 consecutive days to albino rats and evaluated for the oxidative stress markers as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione (GSH) from rat brain homogenate. The ethyl acetate extract showed the highest total phenolic content and total flavonoid content among other extracts of M. pudica leaves. The percentage inhibition and IC50 value of all the extracts were followed dose-dependency and found significant (P pudica exhibits both in vitro antioxidant activity against DPPH and in vivo antioxidant activity by modulating brain enzymes in the rat. This could be further correlated with its potential to neuroprotective activity due to the presence of flavonoids and phenolic contents in the extract. Total phenolic, flavonoid contents and in-vitro antioxidant potential were evaluated from various extracts of M. pudica leaves. Again, in-vivo antioxidant evaluation from brain homogenate on oxidative stress markers as TBARS, SOD, CAT and GSH from rat was investigated. Our findings revealed that M. pudica possesses both in-vitro and in-vivo antioxidant activity due to presence of phenolics and flavonoids.

  9. Antiproliferative activity in tumor cell lines, antioxidant capacity and total phenolic, flavonoid and tannin contents of Myrciaria floribunda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUIS A.C. TIETBOHL

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Myrciaria floribunda (H. West ex Willd. O. Berg, Myrtaceae, is a native plant species of the Atlantic Rain Forest, from north to south of Brazil. The lyophilized ethyl acetate extract from the leaves of M. floribunda was investigated for its antiproliferative activity in tumor cell lines, antioxidant capacity and its total phenolic, flavonoid and tannin contents. Antiproliferative activity was tested in vitro against seven human cancer cells and against immortalized human skin keratinocytes line (HaCat, no cancer cell. Antioxidant activity was determined using 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging and oxygen radical absorbing capacity (ORAC assays and total phenolic, flavonoid and tannin contents were determined by spectrophotometric techniques. Ethyl acetate extract of M. floribunda exhibited antiproliferative activity against cancer cell lines with total growth inhibition (TGI between 69.70 and 172.10 µg/mL. For HaCat cell, TGI value was 213.60 µg/mL. M. floribunda showed a strong antioxidant potential: EC50 of 45.89±0.42 µg/mL and 0.55±0.05 mmol TE/g for DPPH and ORAC, respectively. Total phenolic content was 0.23±0.013g gallic acid equivalents (GAE/g extract and exhibited 13.10±1.60% of tannins content. The content of flavonoid was 24.08±0.44% expressed as rutin equivalents. These results provide a direction for further researches about the antitumoral potential of M. floribunda.

  10. Skylarks trade size and energy content in weed seeds to maximize total ingested lipid biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaba, Sabrina; Collas, Claire; Powolny, Thibaut; Bretagnolle, François; Bretagnolle, Vincent

    2014-10-01

    The trade-off between forage quality and quantity has been particularly studied in herbivore organisms, but much less for seed eating animals, in particular seed-eating birds which constitute the bulk of wintering passerines in European farmlands. The skylark is one of the commonest farmland birds in winter, mainly feeding on seeds. We focus on weed seeds for conservation and management purposes. Weed seeds form the bulk of the diet of skylarks during winter period, and although this is still a matter for discussion, weed seed predation by granivorous has been suggested as an alternative to herbicides used to regulate weed populations in arable crops. Our objectives were to identify whether weed seed traits govern foraging decisions of skylarks, and to characterize key seed traits with respect to size, which is related to searching and handling time, and lipid content, which is essential for migratory birds. We combined a single-offer experiment and a multiple-offer one to test for feeding preferences of the birds by estimating seed intake on weed seed species differing in their seed size and seed lipid content. Our results showed (1) a selective preference for smaller seeds above a threshold of seed size or seed size difference in the pair and, (2) a significant effect of seed lipid biomass suggesting a trade-off between foraging for smaller seeds and selecting seeds rich in lipids. Skylarks foraging decision thus seems to be mainly based on seed size, that is presumably a 'proxy' for weed seed energy content. However, there are clearly many possible combinations of morphological and physiological traits that must play crucial role in the plant-bird interaction such as toxic compound or seed coat. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Total mercury and methyl-mercury contents and accumulation in polar microbial mats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, Antonio; Rochera, Carlos; Hennebelle, Raphaëlle; Ferrari, Christophe; Quesada, Antonio

    2015-03-15

    Although polar regions are considered isolated and pristine areas, the organisms that inhabit these zones are exposed to global pollution. Heavy metals, such as mercury, are global pollutants and can reach almost any location on Earth. Mercury may come from natural, volcanic or geological sources, or result from anthropogenic sources, in particular industrial or mining activities. In this study, we have investigated one of the most prominent biological non-marine communities in both polar regions, microbial mats, in terms of their Hg and methyl-mercury (MeHg) concentrations and accumulation capacities. The main hypotheses posed argued on the importance of different factors, and to test them, we have measured Hg concentrations in microbial mats that were collected from 6 locations in different ecological situations. For this purpose, the direct anthropogenic impacts, volcanic influences, proximity to the seashore, latitudinal gradients and C contents were investigated. Our results show that, other than the direct anthropogenic influence, none of the other hypotheses alone satisfactorily explains the Hg content in microbial mats. In contrast, the MeHg contents were noticeably different between the investigated locations, with a higher proportion of MeHg on the McMurdo Ice Shelf (Antarctica) and a lower proportion on Ward Hunt Island (High Arctic). Furthermore, our results from in situ experiments indicated that the microbial mats from South Shetland Islands could quickly accumulate (48 h) Hg when Hg dissolved salts were supplied. Over short-term periods, these mats do not transform Hg into MeHg under field conditions.

  12. Determination of total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of garlic (Allium sativum) and elephant garlic (Allium ampeloprasum) by attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaonan; Ross, Carolyn F; Powers, Joseph R; Aston, D Eric; Rasco, Barbara A

    2011-05-25

    The total phenolic contents and antioxidant activities of garlics from California, Oregon, Washington, and New York were determined by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy (400-4000 cm(-1)). The total phenolic content was quantified [Folin-Ciocalteu assay (FC)] and three antioxidant activity assays, 2,2-diphenyl-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assay, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), were employed for reference measurements. Four independent partial least-squares regression (PLSR) models were constructed with spectra from 25 extracts and their corresponding FC, DPPH, TEAC, and FRAP with values for 20 additional extracts predicted (R > 0.95). The standard errors of calibration and standard error of cross-validation were <1.45 (TEAC), 0.36 (FRAP), and 0.33 μmol Trolox/g FW (DPPH) and 0.55 mg gallic acid/g FW (FC). Cluster and dendrogram analyses could segregate garlic grown at different locations. Hydroxyl and phenolic functional groups most closely correlated with garlic antioxidant activity.

  13. Exploiting direct and indirect methods for the detection of the total carotenoid content in dried pasta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doka, O.; Bicanic, D.D.; Végvári, G.; Buijnsters, J.G.; Spruijt, R.B.; Luterotti, S.

    2010-01-01

    The total carotenoid concentration (TCC) of several commercially available dried pastas prepared with or without eggs was assessed by means of the two well-established destructive approaches [spectrophotometry (SP) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)] and three non-destructive, direct

  14. Exploiting direct and indirect methods for the detection of the total carotenoid content in dried pasta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doka, O.; Bicanic, D.D.; Végvári, G.; Buijnsters, J.G.; Spruijt, R.B.; Luterotti, S.

    2010-01-01

    The total carotenoid concentration (TCC) of several commercially available dried pastas prepared with or without eggs was assessed by means of the two well-established destructive approaches [spectrophotometry (SP) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)] and three non-destructive, direct

  15. Experimental study on fly ash capture mercury in flue gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mercedes; DíAZ-SOMOANO; Patricia; ABAD-VALLE; M.Rosa; MARTíNEZ-TARAZONA

    2010-01-01

    Systematic experiments were conducted on a fixed-bed reactor to investigate the interaction between fly ash and mercury,the results implied that fly ash can capture mercury effectively.Among different fly ashes,the unburned carbon in the FA2 and FA3 fly ashes has the highest mercury capture capacity,up to 10.3 and 9.36 μg/g,respectively,which is close to that of commercial activated carbon.There is no obvious relationship between mercury content and carbon content or BET surface area of fly ash.Petrography classification standard was applied to distinguish fly ash carbon particles.Carbon content is not the only variable that controls mercury capture on fly ash,there are likely significant differences in the mercury capture capacities of the various carbon forms.Mercury capture capacity mainly depends on the content of anisotropy carbon particles with porous network structure.

  16. The effect of pro-ecological procedures and insect foraging on the total content of phenol compounds in winter wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamparski, Robert; Balcerek, Maciej; Modnicki, Daniel; Kotwica, Karol; Wawrzyniak, Maria

    2015-06-01

    In laboratory conditions, the effect of pro-ecological procedures (application of effective microorganisms and Asahi SL biostimulator) and foraging by insects [cereal leaf beetle (Oulema melanopa L.) and bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi (L.)] on the total content of phenolic compounds in winter wheat, was studied. Correlations between the total content of phenolic compounds (determined by the Folin-Ciocalteau colorimetric method) expressed as the amount of pyrogallol in wheat plants: undamaged, damaged by O. melanopa, damaged by R. padi, the length of feeding scar left by cereal leaf beetle and the number of pricks made by actively feeding insects of bird cherry-oat aphid were analysed. The wheat was treated by EM inoculant and a biostimulator. The mode of application of the preparations used had a significant effect on level the total phenolic compounds in the undamaged wheat and the wheat exposed to foraging by the above-mentioned insects. The plants not exposed to insects foraging contained greater amounts of phenolic compounds than those exposed to the insects. The correlation between the total content of phenols in the wheat damaged by the insects in the 'no-choice' conditions, proved insignificant.

  17. Characterization of animal manure and cornstalk ashes as affected by incineration temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Y.; Dong, H.; Shang, B.; Zhu, Z. [Institute of Environment and Sustainable Development in Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Key Laboratory for Agro-environment and Climate Change, Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing 100081 (China); Xin, H. [Department of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States)

    2011-03-15

    Incineration has been proposed as an alternative technology to reuse animal manure by producing energy and ash fertilizers. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of incineration temperature on the physical (ash yield) and chemical (nutrient) properties of ashes for different types of animal manure and cornstalk. The source materials were incinerated in a temperature-controlled muffle furnace at the temperature of 400, 500, 600, 700, 800 or 900 C and the properties of the resultant ashes were determined following the procedures set by China National Standards. The results indicated that ash yield (AY, %), total nitrogen (TN) recovery and total potassium (K{sub 2}O) recovery all decreased with increasing incineration temperature. The ranges of AY, ash TN and K{sub 2}O recovery were, respectively, 43.6-30.2%, 6.9-0.6%, and 80-61% for laying-hen manure; 34.3-32.1%, 18.8-15.4%, and 95-56% for cattle manure; 25.3-20.7%, 14-0%, and 78-57% for swine manure; and 8.4-7.5%, 2.1-1.4%, and 37-19% for cornstalk. However, total phosphorus (P{sub 2}O{sub 5}) content of the ashes increased with incineration temperature, being 20.7-24.0% for swine manure, 4.5-7.5% for layer manure, and 2.7-3.4% for cornstalk. Animal manures have greater TN and P{sub 2}O{sub 5} volatilization but less K{sub 2}O and total sodium (Na{sub 2}O) volatilization as compared to the cornstalk. The results provide a basis for incineration as an alternative means to reuse animal manures and cornstalk and suitability of the resultant ash co-product for different applications. (author)

  18. Inhibition of α-Glucosidase, Total Phenolic Content and Flavonoid Content on Skin Fruit and Flesh Extracts of Some Varieties of Snake Fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohaeti, E.; Fauzi, M. R.; Batubara, I.

    2017-03-01

    This study aimed to determine the antidiabetic activity of the skin fruit and flesh of snack fruit through α-glucosidase inhibition and correlated with total phenolic and flavonoid content as well as thin layer chromatography bio-autography. Seven varieties of varieties of skin and flesh of the fruits each extracted by maceration using ethanol 70%. The results show the highest power of the α-glucosidase inhibition obtained at Manonjaya skin extract with IC50 value of 17.9 µg/mL. The TLC pattern indicates the presence of four active spot on skin extract and two spots on flesh extracts on the use of solvent BuOH:HAc:water (6:2:2). The highest phenolic content obtained at skin fruit extract of Salak Mawar 186.15 ± 1.66 mg of gallic acid equivalents per gram extract. The highest total flavonoid content obtained in Salak Malaka skin fruit extract that is 7:43 ± 0:04 milli gram of quercetin equivalents

  19. Total flavonoids content and biochemical screening of the leaves of tropical endemic medicinal plant Merremia borneensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Dawood Shah

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The developing and under developed countries mostly rely on traditional medicines. This herbal or traditional medicine involves the use of different types of organic extracts or the bioactive chemical constituents. This type of biochemical investigation provides health care at an affordable cost. This survey such as ethnomedicine keenly represents one of the best avenues in searching new economic plants for medicines. Keeping this view in mind, the present study is carried out in Merremia borneensis leaves of University Malaysia Sabah, Sabah, Malaysia. The plant has several beneficial properties, such as antioxidant activity. The dry powder of the leaves of M. borneensis was extracted with hexane, ethyl acetate, chloroform, butanol and aqueous ethanol. The flavonoids content of the extracts was determined by Willet method. The flavonoids content of the extracts as quercetin equivalents was found to be highest in aqueous ethanol (53.28% followed by chloroform (38.83%, ethyl acetate (24.51%, butanol (12.54% and hexane extract (3.44%. The results suggest the presence of phytochemical properties in the leaves, which are used in curing the ailments.

  20. Combined effect of heat treatment and humidity on total polyphenol content of tartary buckwheat wholeflour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea BRUNORI

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Minor crops are gaining new interest due to the high content of bioactive compounds available in their grain and the consequent opportunity to be employed as ingredients for the production of healthy foodstuff. Tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn. grain is rich in flavonoids, the most important being represented by rutin, a compound possessing a high health value. When processing bakery products added with Tartary buckwheat whole flour, the key point is to prevent rutin from being hydrolysed to quercetin. In this view, a combination of heat treatment and controlled humidity level was applied for different lengths of time, in the attempt to deactivate the enzymes catalysing the reaction. Tartary buckwheat grain contains other polyphenols also capable to confer health properties. This class of compounds has been associated with the prevention of cardiovascular diseases, cancers, neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes, and osteoporosis. In this study it was observed how the physical treatments meant to preserve rutin would influence the overall content of polyphenols in Tartary buckwheat whole flour and dough.

  1. Total Content of Polyphenols and Antioxidant Activity of Different Melliferous Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Pasca

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study polyphenols content and antioxidant activity of melliferous plants for the following: mint (Mentha pulegium, burdock (Arctium lappa, comfrey (Symphytum officinale, plantain (Pantago lanceolata, thyme (Thymus vulgaris, sage (Salvia officinalis, marigold (Calendula officinalis, small marshmallow (Althaea officinalis, echinacea (Echinaceea angustifolia and black popular (Populus nigra were investigated, using two different extraction methods. High content of polyphenols and flavones were extracted from Populus nigra, with an average of both extractions 23.14 mg GAE/g and 78.07 mg QE/g flavones. Among the studied plants, Arctium lappa registered the highest antioxidant activity (0.129 mmol Trolox/mL in alcoholic extract and Echinaceea angustifolia with a value of 0.122 mmol Trolox/mL in aqueous extract. The lowest values were recorded for the antioxidant activity of Althaea officinalis (alcoholic extract and Arctium lappa (aqueous extract. The results show that Arctium lappa, Echinaceea angustifolia and Populus nigra can be considered melliferous plants for their high biologically active compounds potential and bee products (honey and pollen that having the composition of these plants will have high antioxidant and antibacterial properties.

  2. Comparison of Phytoconstituents, Total Phenol Contents and Free Radical Scavenging Capacities between Four Arum Species from Jerusalem and Bethlehem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidal Jaradat, Murad Abualhasan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Palestine is a rich land with wild edible plants which used from the ancient times as food and medicine. Arum is a valuable genus of medicinal plants which is used in the ethnic medicine for treatment of cancer or consumed as integrated food. This work aimed to evaluate and compare the phytoconstituents, total phenols contents and free radical scavenging potential for Arum dioscoridis, Arum elongatum, Arum hygrophilum and Arum palaestinum a members of Palestinian flora. Methods: Phytoconstituents screened by using standard analytical methods, total phenols determined by using Folin Ciocalteu's method and antioxidant activities were assessed by DPPH assay. Results: The crude extracts of Arum plant studied species revealed the presence of several biologically active phytochemicals with the highest quantity of saponin, alkaloid, phenols and flavonoids. For A. dioscoridis, A. elongatum, A. hygrophilum and A. palaestinum free radical scavenging activities were 6.7±0.75µg/ml, 19.9±0.63µg/ml, 9.9±0.49µg/ml, and 6.9±0.62µg/ml respectively, while the IC50 for Trolox was 4.8±0.39µg/ml as well as the total phenols contents for these species were 60.07 ±0.12, 27.49 ±0.32, 41.75±0.12 and 53.17±0.22 (mg GAE/g extract, ±SD respectively. Conclusion: The antioxidant activities in the studied Arum plant species showed a marked correlation with their total phenols contents. A. dioscoridis and A. palaestinum had the highest antioxidant activities with high contents of total phenols and they can be used as perfect choices for manufacturing of pharmaceutical, cosmeticeuticals and nutraceutical formulations.

  3. Changes in soil physical properties of forest floor horizons due to long-term deposition of lignite fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann, Peter; Fleige, Heiner; Horn, Rainer [Inst. for Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, Christian-Albrechts-Univ. zu Kiel (Germany)

    2010-03-15

    Background, aim, and scope: From the beginning of the twentieth century until the 1990s, energy in Upper Lusatia, Saxony in Eastern Germany was produced at power plants that burnt lignite coals. As a result, alkaline fly ash and aerosols from the combustion of brown coal have accumulated in adjacent areas that are partly under forestry. We ask the question, 'how have these atmospheric depositions of fly ash influenced the soil physical properties (bulk density, particle density, saturated hydraulic conductivity, pore size distribution, and water repellency) of forest floor horizons?' Materials and methods: The experimental sites represented typical soil types and stands of the sylviculturally used areas in the region of Upper Lusatia. Three forest sites were located close to the emission sources, where high amounts of fly ashes accumulated, and three control sites were without fly ash enrichment. Pore size distribution, saturated hydraulic conductivity, and bulk density were examined with undisturbed samples (metal cylinder 100 cm{sup 3}). Disturbed samples were used for the characterization of particle density, texture, and water repellency (Wilhelmy plate method). Additionally, the carbon content was determined. Scanning electron microscopy was used to show fly ash enrichment. Results: The enrichment of mineral fly ash particles could be proven for sites close to the emission source. Using scanning electron microscopy, spherical fly ash particles could be identified. Total quantities of persistent fly ash enrichment amounted to approximately 150-280 Mg ha{sup -1}. The enrichment of fly ash affected the soil-physical characteristics. Close to the emission source (sandy fly ashes), particle density, air capacity, and saturated hydraulic conductivity were significantly increased, whereas the plant available water was significantly reduced. With increasing distance from the emission source (silty fly ashes or no ash enrichment), air capacity and saturated

  4. Radon emanation fractions from concretes containing fly ash and metakaolin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-Lange, Sarah C., E-mail: taylorlanges@utexas.edu [Department of Civil, Architectural, and Environmental Engineering, 1 University Station C1748, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Juenger, Maria C.G. [Department of Civil, Architectural, and Environmental Engineering, 1 University Station C1748, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Siegel, Jeffrey A. [Department of Civil, Architectural, and Environmental Engineering, 1 University Station C1748, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Department of Civil Engineering, 35 St. George Street, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, M5S 1A4 (Canada)

    2014-01-01

    Radon ({sup 222}Rn) and progenies emanate from soil and building components and can create an indoor air quality hazard. In this study, nine concrete constituents, including the supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) fly ash and metakaolin, were used to create eleven different concrete mixtures. We investigated the effect of constituent radium specific activity, radon effective activity and emanation fraction on the concrete emanation fraction and the radon exhalation rate. Given the serious health effects associated with radionuclide exposure, experimental results were coupled with Monte Carlo simulations to demonstrate predictive differences in the indoor radon concentration due to concrete mixture design. The results from this study show that, on average, fly ash constituents possessed radium specific activities ranging from 100 Bq/kg to 200 Bq/kg and emanation fractions ranging from 1.1% to 2.5%. The lowest emitting concrete mixture containing fly ash resulted in a 3.4% reduction in the concrete emanation fraction, owing to the relatively low emanation that exists when fly ash is part of concrete. On average, the metakaolin constituents contained radium specific activities ranging from 67 Bq/kg to 600 Bq/kg and emanation fractions ranging from 8.4% to 15.5%, and changed the total concrete emanation fraction by roughly ± 5% relative to control samples. The results from this study suggest that SCMs can reduce indoor radon exposure from concrete, contingent upon SCM radionucleotide content and emanation fraction. Lastly, the experimental results provide SCM-specific concrete emanation fractions for indoor radon exposure modeling. - Highlights: • Fly ash or metakaolin SCMs can neutralize or reduce concrete emanation fractions. • The specific activity of constituents is a poor predictor of the concrete emanation fraction. • Exhalation from fly ash concretes represents a small fraction of the total indoor radon concentration.

  5. Characterization of high-calcium fly ash and its influence on ettringite formation in portland cement pastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tishmack, Jody Kathleen

    High-calcium Class C fly ashes derived from Powder River Basin coal are currently used as supplementary cementing materials in portland cement concrete. These fly ashes tend to contain significant amounts of sulfur, calcium, and aluminum, thus they are potential sources of ettringite. Characterization of six high-calcium fly ashes originating from Powder River Basin coal have been carried out. The hydration products formed in pastes made from fly ash and water were investigated. The principal phases produced at room temperature were ettringite, monosulfate, and stratlingite. The relative amounts formed varied with the specific fly ash. Removal of the soluble crystalline sulfur bearing minerals indicated that approximately a third of the sulfur is located in the fly ash glass. Pore solution analyses indicated that sulfur concentrations increased at later ages. Three fly ashes were selected for further study based on their ability to form ettringite. Portland cement-fly ash pastes made with the selected fly ashes were investigated to evaluate ettringite and monosulfate formation. Each of the fly ashes were mixed with four different types of portland cements (Type I, I/II, II, and III) as well as three different Type I cements exhibiting a range of C3A and sulfate contents. The pastes had 25% or 35% fly ash by total weight of solids and a water:cement-fly ash ratio of 0.45. The samples were placed in a curing room (R.H. = 100, 23°C) and were then analyzed at various ages by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to determine the principal hydration products. The hydration products identified by XRD were portlandite, ettringite (an AFt phase), monosulfate, and generally smaller amounts of hemicarboaluminate and monocarboaluminate (all AFm phases). Although the amount of ettringite formed varied with the individual cement, only a modest correlation with cement sulfate content and no correlation with cement C3A content was observed. DSC

  6. Total and inorganic arsenic contents in some edible zingiberaceous rhizomes in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubonnuch, Chomkamon; Ruangwises, Suthep; Gritsanapan, Wandee; Ruangwises, Nongluck

    2013-01-01

    The arsenic accumulation in rhizomes of Zingiberaceous plants was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry interfaced with hydride generation system (HG-AAS). The raw herbal materials, rhizomes, were collected from different regions of Thailand between December 2011 and January 2012. Six well-known Zingiberaceous plants, 16 samples from each and a total of 96 samples, were analyzed Alpinia galanga (Khaa), Boesenbergia rotunda (Kra-chaai), Curcuma longa (Khamin-chan), Curcuma zedoaria (Khamin-oi), Zingiber cassumunar (Plai) and Zingiber officinale (Ginger). Concentrations of total arsenic based on dry weight were 92.4 ± 9.2, 103.5 ± 20.8, 61.7 ± 12.5, 89.8 ± 17.5, 106.7 ± 19.5 and 69.3 ± 11.8 ng/g, respectively and inorganic arsenic were 48.8 ± 7.0, 66.3 ± 12.7, 25.5 ± 5.0, 38.7 ± 4.7, 71.2 ± 11.6, and 38.5 ± 5.5 ng/g, respectively. Among these, Plai and Kra-chaai exhibited the highest levels of total arsenic and inorganic arsenic accumulation that remind consumers to be aware of excess consuming of these rhizomes. On the contrary, the lowest value found in Khamin-chan indicating natural dietary supplements and herbal medicines comprising Kamin-chan are safe from arsenic poison. All investigated amounts of total and inorganic arsenic were much lower than limits recommended by Thai Food and Drug Administration.

  7. Total and Inorganic Arsenic Contents in Some Edible Zingiberaceous Rhizomes in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chomkamon Ubonnuch

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The arsenic accumulation in rhizomes of Zingiberaceous plants was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry interfaced with hydride generation system (HG-AAS. The raw herbal materials, rhizomes, were collected from different regions of Thailand between December 2011 and January 2012. Six well-known Zingiberaceous plants, 16 samples from each and a total of 96 samples, were analyzed Alpinia galanga (Khaa, Boesenbergia rotunda (Kra-chaai, Curcuma longa (Khamin-chan, Curcuma zedoaria (Khamin-oi, Zingiber cassumunar (Plai and Zingiber officinale (Ginger. Concentrations of total arsenic based on dry weight were 92.4±9.2, 103.5±20.8, 61.7±12.5, 89.8±17.5, 106.7±19.5 and 69.3±11.8 ng/g, respectively and inorganic arsenic were 48.8±7.0, 66.3±12.7, 25.5±5.0, 38.7±4.7, 71.2±11.6, and 38.5±5.5 ng/g, respectively. Among these, Plai and Kra-chaai exhibited the highest levels of total arsenic and inorganic arsenic accumulation that remind consumers to be aware of excess consuming of these rhizomes. On the contrary, the lowest value found in Khamin-chan indicating natural dietary supplements and herbal medicines comprising Kamin-chan are safe from arsenic poison. All investigated amounts of total and inorganic arsenic were much lower than limits recommended by Thai Food and Drug Administration.

  8. Total, Soluble and Insoluble Oxalate Contents of Ripe Green and Golden Kiwifruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyễn, Hà Vũ Hồng; Savage, Geoffrey P

    2013-03-05

    Three bulk samples of two different cultivars of kiwifruit, green (Actinidia deliciosa L.) and golden (Actinidia chinensis L.) were bought ripe, ready to eat from a local market. The aim of the study was to determine the oxalate composition of each of the three fractions of kiwifruit, namely skin, pulp and seeds. The pulp consisted of 90.4% of the edible portion of the two cultivars while the skin and seeds made up a mean of 8.0% and 1.6% respectively. Total oxalate was extracted with 2.0 M HCL at 21 °C for 15 min and soluble oxalates extracted at 21 °C in water for 15 min from each fraction. The total and soluble oxalate compositions of each fraction were determined using ion exchange HPLC chromatography. The pulp of golden kiwifruit contained lower amounts of total oxalates (15.7 vs. 19.3 mg/100 g FW) and higher amounts of soluble oxalates (8.5 vs. 7.6 mg/100 g FW) when compared to the green cultivar. The skin of the green cultivar contained lower levels of insoluble oxalates (36.9 vs. 43.6 mg/100 g FW), while the seeds of the green cultivar contained higher levels of insoluble oxalates 106.7 vs. 84.7 mg/100 g FW.

  9. Total, Soluble and Insoluble Oxalate Contents of Ripe Green and Golden Kiwifruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hà Vũ Hồng Nguyễn

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Three bulk samples of two different cultivars of kiwifruit, green (Actinidia deliciosa L. and golden (Actinidia chinensis L. were bought ripe, ready to eat from a local market. The aim of the study was to determine the oxalate composition of each of the three fractions of kiwifruit, namely skin, pulp and seeds. The pulp consisted of 90.4% of the edible portion of the two cultivars while the skin and seeds made up a mean of 8.0% and 1.6% respectively. Total oxalate was extracted with 2.0 M HCL at 21 °C for 15 min and soluble oxalates extracted at 21 °C in water for 15 min from each fraction. The total and soluble oxalate compositions of each fraction were determined using ion exchange HPLC chromatography. The pulp of golden kiwifruit contained lower amounts of total oxalates (15.7 vs. 19.3 mg/100 g FW and higher amounts of soluble oxalates (8.5 vs. 7.6 mg/100 g FW when compared to the green cultivar. The skin of the green cultivar contained lower levels of insoluble oxalates (36.9 vs. 43.6 mg/100 g FW, while the seeds of the green cultivar contained higher levels of insoluble oxalates 106.7 vs. 84.7 mg/100 g FW.

  10. Comparison of leachable trace element levels in coal gasifier ash with levels in power plant ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bombaugh, K.J.; Milosavljevic, M.; Janes, T.K.

    1984-04-01

    The levels of 14 trace elements in leachates from three types of ash of a common origin coal were compared. The study was conducted over a one year period at the Kosovo plant in Obilic, Yugoslavia comparing coal gasifier ash with fly ash and bottom ash from a coal-fired power plant using lignite from the Dobro Solo mine. Results obtained indicate that levels of Sb, As, Be, Cr, Cu, Pb, Mo, Ni and Zn in gasifier ash leachate were similar to those in fly ash leachate. Barium levels in gasifier ash leachate averaged 2.7 times that in fly ash and selenium levels averaged 0.33 times. The average ratio for the total set was 0.99. The set average, relative to bottom ash, was 2.1 with the nickel ratio differing significantly from the average. Metal oxides, CaO, MgO, Na/SUB/2O, K/SUB/2O and MgO; in the Kosovo gasifier ash were found at levels similar to those in Kosovo fly ash, and except for K/SUB/2O, were approximately twice those in bottom ash. Concentration levels of all components showed relatively small variations averaging 50% of their mean annual concentration over the test period. (14 refs.)

  11. Changes in total viable count and TVB-N content in marinated chicken breast fillets during storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltić, T.; Ćirić, J.; Velebit, B.; Petronijević, R.; Lakićević, B.; Đorđević, V.; Janković, V.

    2017-09-01

    Marination is a popular technique for enhancing meat properties. Depending on the marinade type and ingredients added, marination can improve sensory, chemical and microbiological quality of meat products. In this study, the total viable count and total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) content in marinated chicken breast fillets were investigated. The possible correlation between bacterial growth and formation of TVB-N was also tested. Chicken breast fillets were immersed in a solution of table salt (as a control) orthree different marinades,which consisted of table salt, sodium tripolyphosphate and/or sodium citrate, and stored in air for nine days at 4±1°C. Analyses of the total viable count and TVB-N were performed on days0, 3, 6 and 9 day of storage. The total viable count gradually increased in all examined groups, and statistically significant differences (pchicken were significantly higher (pchicken marinated with sodium citrate was established (pchicken marinated with sodium tripolyphosphate.

  12. Certain Results of Measurements of Characteristics of Stratospheric Aerosol Layer and Total Ozone Content at Siberian Lidar Station in Tomsk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevzorov Aleksey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the results of long-term remote optical monitoring, obtained at the Siberian Lidar Station of Institute of Atmospheric Optics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences in Tomsk (56.5°N, 85.0°E. The scattering characteristics of stratospheric aerosol layer, obtained according to data of lidar measurements since 1986, are presented. We analyze the trends of changes in the total ozone (TO content over Tomsk for the period 1996-2013 according to data of spectrophotometric measurements with employment of Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS data for the period 1979-1994. We determined the periods of elevated content of stratospheric aerosol over Tomsk aftera series of explosive eruptions of volcanoes of Pacific Ring of Fire and Iceland in 2006-2011. Since the second half of 1990s, we record an increasing TO trend, equaling 0.65 DU/yr for the period 1996-2013.

  13. THE INFLUENCE OF SELENIUM ON CONTENT OF TOTAL POLYPHENOLS AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF ONION (ALLIUM CEPA L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Kavalcová

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Selenium (Se is an essential element, which is located in soil and stones, accumulated in plants and input them the food chain. Selenium significantly influences the function nearly of all the components of the immune system. Is also protects the body from the toxic effects of some metals. The content of the total polyphenols was determined by using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent (FCR. Antioxidant activity was measured using a compound DPPH˙ (2.2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl. The content of total polyphenols in samples onion moved in the range from 575.25±33.90 to 695.07±59.91. In this work was watched the influence of selenium on antioxidant activity, where values were in interval from 37.09±1.72 to 63.29±5.14.

  14. Certain Results of Measurements of Characteristics of Stratospheric Aerosol Layer and Total Ozone Content at Siberian Lidar Station in Tomsk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevzorov, Aleksey; Bazhenov, Oleg; Burlakov, Vladimir; Dolgii, Sergey

    2016-06-01

    We consider the results of long-term remote optical monitoring, obtained at the Siberian Lidar Station of Institute of Atmospheric Optics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences in Tomsk (56.5°N, 85.0°E). The scattering characteristics of stratospheric aerosol layer, obtained according to data of lidar measurements since 1986, are presented. We analyze the trends of changes in the total ozone (TO) content over Tomsk for the period 1996-2013 according to data of spectrophotometric measurements with employment of Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) data for the period 1979-1994. We determined the periods of elevated content of stratospheric aerosol over Tomsk aftera series of explosive eruptions of volcanoes of Pacific Ring of Fire and Iceland in 2006-2011. Since the second half of 1990s, we record an increasing TO trend, equaling 0.65 DU/yr for the period 1996-2013.

  15. Total antioxidant and ascorbic acid content of fresh fruits and vegetables: implications for dietary planning and food preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szeto, Yim Tong; Tomlinson, Brian; Benzie, Iris F F

    2002-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence links high intake of ascorbic acid (AA) and other antioxidant micronutrients to health promotion. It would be useful to know the overall, or 'total' antioxidant capacity of foods, to establish the contribution of AA to this, and to assess how this information may translate into dietary intakes to meet the new US daily reference intake for AA. In this study, the total antioxidant capacity, as the ferric reducing-antioxidant power (FRAP) value, and AA content of thirty-four types of fruits and vegetables were measured using a modified version of the FRAP assay, known as FRASC. This measures AA (reduced form only) simultaneously with the FRAP value. Results covered a wide range: 880-15940 micromol/kg fresh wet weight and food production, preparation, preservation, and aid dietary choices to increase antioxidant and AA intake. Furthermore, FRASC will facilitate bioavailability studies of antioxidants from different foods of known antioxidant capacity and AA content.

  16. Effects of Different Drying Methods and Storage Time on Free Radical Scavenging Activity and Total Phenolic Content of Cosmos Caudatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mediani, Ahmed; Abas, Faridah; Tan, Chin Ping; Khatib, Alfi

    2014-05-07

    The present study was conducted to determine the effect of air (AD), oven (OD) and freeze drying (FD) on the free radical scavenging activity and total phenolic content (TPC) of Cosmos caudatus and the effect of storage time by the comparison with a fresh sample (FS). Among the three drying methods that were used, AD resulted in the highest free radical scavenging activity against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) (IC50 = 0.0223 mg/mL) and total phenolic content (27.4 g GAE/100 g), whereas OD produced the lowest scavenging activity and TPC value. After three months of storage, the dried samples showed a high and consistent free radical scavenging activity when compared to stored fresh material. The drying methods could preserve the quality of C. caudatus during storage and the stability of its bioactive components can be maintained.

  17. Aut Ecology, Total Phenol and Total Flavonoid Content, Antioxidant Activity and Ethno-pharmacological Survey of Nigella sativa Linn. in Traditional Medicine of Golestan Province, North of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazandarani Masoumeh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Nigella sativa Linn., which grows wildly in a small region of the national park of Golestan has been used in traditional medicine of this province. In the present study we evaluated the ecological requirements, antioxidant activity, phytochemistry and conducted an ethno-pharmacological survey of Nigella sativa in traditional medicine of Golestan province. Materials and Methods: Ecological requirements and ethno-pharmacological survey were obtained in many field observation through interviews with practitioners and housewives in September 2013. The ripen seeds of Nigella sativa were collected from its natural habitat (560 m in North east of national park of Golestan and ethanolic extract was obtained by maceration. Total phenolics (TPs and total flavonoids (TFs contents were determined spectrophotometrically and antioxidant activity was measured by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging method. Results: Nigella sativa is usually grown wildly in a small region of the national park of Golestan (500-760 m, that has an average rain fall of 575.9-614.8 mm, Ec (electrical conductivity of soil 0.73 in sandy loam soils. The TP content is 121.3 ± 0.3 mg GAE g-1, TF contents was 194.04 ± 1.65 mg QUE g-1 and antioxidant activity (IC50 was measured in 0.13 ± 0.05 mg/ml-1. Results showed that the seeds of Nigella sativa has high content of TP and TF compounds as well as antioxidant activity, confirming the traditional use of Nigella sativa by rural healers as analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, anticonvulsant, antidiabetes and antitumour agent against breast cancer, hypertension and hyperglycaemia in north of Iran. Conclusion: Our results demonstrated that the seed extract of Nigella sativa L. could have good antioxidant potentials to prevent or control free radicals, which can produce many current inflammatory diseases such as cancer, diabetes, coronary diseases, infection, etc. So these data confirm the traditional use

  18. Total Suspended Solid Content And Sediment On The Bottom Surface Of Panimbang Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helfinalis

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The study of dynamics oceanography have been executed on June 2004 in the East season. Distribution of total suspended solid on the surface and bottom waters at the Estuary of Ciliman River is lower than Estuary of Cibungur River. Generally mud and silty mud of sediment on the bottom surface waters covered the western part of Panimbang beach. Gravel, silty sand and muddy sand with forams, fraction of mollust and corals found at the Southwest of the study area. In that area is also found many floating of Bagan Apung which is assumed as rich with fishes.

  19. Retardation signal for fluorescent determination of total protein content via rapid and sensitive chip moving reaction boundary electrophoretic titration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Houyu; Shi, Yongting; Yan, Jian; Dong, Jingyu; Li, Si; Xiao, Hua; Xie, Haiyang; Fan, Liu-Yin; Cao, Cheng-Xi

    2014-03-18

    A novel concept and theory of moving reaction boundary (MRB) retardation signal (RMRB) was advanced for determination of total protein content via MRB electrophoretic titration (MRBET). The theoretical results revealed that the retardation extent of boundary displacment, viz., the RMRB value, was as a function of protein content. Thus, the RMRB value of a sample could be used to determine its total protein content according to the relevant calibration curve. To demonstrate the concept and theoretical results, a novel microdevice was designed for the relevant experiments of MRBET. The microdevice has 30 identical work cells, each of which is composed of five ultrashort single microchannels (5 mm). In the microdevice, fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) was used to denote MRB motion and RMRB value for the first time, the polyacrylamide gel (PAG) containing protein sample was photopolymerized in microchannels, and the MRB was created with acid or alkali and target protein sample. As compared to the classic Kjeldahl method and conventional MRBET performed in glass tube, the developed titration chip has the following merits: good sensitivity (0.3-0.4 μg/mL vs 150-200 μg/mL of protein concentration, 0.6-0.8 ng vs 30-2000 μg of absolute protein content), rapid analysis (20-60 s vs 15-200 min), and portable low-power (15 V vs 200 V).

  20. Total and regional bone mineral content in healthy Spanish subjects by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguado Henche, S.; Rodriguez Torres, R.; Clemente de Arriba, C.; Gomez Pellico, L. [Universidad de Alcala, Departamento de Anatomia y Embriologia Humana, Facultad de Medicina, Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain)

    2008-11-15

    This is an observational cross-sectional study. The aim of the present study was to describe and analyze patterns of change in total and regional bone mineral content in relation to age and gender in a sedentary Spanish sample population (from the Community of Madrid). The age range of the sample population was from birth to 80 years. One thousand one hundred twenty healthy subjects were recruited and divided into 16 groups according to age. Each subject underwent whole-body densitometry using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. An analysis was made of the amount of bone mineral content (BMC) in the whole body and in different regions: the head, trunk, upper limbs, and lower limbs. Gender differences in mean values for upper limbs and lower limbs are statistically significant between 16 and 70 years of age. For the head and trunk, the mean BMC values show the most significant gender differences between 16 and 25 years of age (p{<=}0.001). Total bone mineral content (TBMC) and TBMC-to-height ratio show significant gender differences between 16 and 70 years of age. In females, TBMC values increase up to 20 years of age and in males up to 25 years of age. We have determined an evolutionary normal pattern of bone mineral content in urban Spanish people. (orig.)

  1. Determination of the total iron content of used lubricating oils by atomic-absorption with use of emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador, A; de la Guardia, M; Berenguer, V

    1983-12-01

    A new method is proposed for the determination of the total iron content of used lubricating oils. It is based on treatment of the samples with a mixture of hydrofluoric and nitric acids (without destruction of the organic matter) and emulsification, followed by atomic-absorption measurement. This allows the use of aqueous standards and provides a simple, rapid, inexpensive and accurate method, that is not affected by the particle size of the solids in the oil.

  2. [Calcium absorption by the rat from various milks in relation to their total phosphorus and lactose contents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, P; Dupuis, Y; Fournier, A

    1976-01-01

    The absorption of calcium corresponds to a strictly determined mechanism inhibited by phosphates and activited by carbohydrates. We investigate in what extent the absorption of milk calcium from various species has the same proceeding. 4 months old rats are given orally solutions of CaCl2 alone or in combination with sodium dihydrogen phosphate or lactose or these both compounds. We compare calcium absorption of these solutions to that of milk from woman, cow or sow, or to dilutions of these two latter milks. All these fluids are dosed so that they correspond each other by their respective content in total calcium, total phosphorus and lactose. Each solution contains 45Ca. Blood samples 1,30, 4, 6 and 24 hours after ingestion allow establishing the variations of plasma radioactivity. Rats are sacrified after 24 hours. In certain cases, samples from digestive tube contents and feces provide a coefficient of calcium absorption. The osseous retention is obtained from femur radioactivity. In breif, we may consider that milks from cow and sow provide calcium the absorption of which is settled after their respective content of total phosphorus and lactose. Opposed effects of these inhibitors and activators of calcium absorption compensate so that calcium from these milks is just a little better utilized by adult rat than calcium from an isocalcic solution of CaCl2. Calcium from woman milk, rich in carbohydrates, poor in total phosphorus is better absorbed than that from the two latters, however less than we might expect from its high lactose content. We may wonder that calcium utilization from cow milk is as moderate as that of a solution of CaCl2. But skeleton mineralization which may be fulfilled by milk is made better because of that: it is not chloride but calcium phosphate which ensures this mineralization, a phosphate which alone would impair this mineralization without the compensative role of lactose.

  3. Evaluation of total soluble solids content (TSSC) and endogenous pH in antimicrobials of pediatric use

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Background: The use of liquid pharmaceutical preparations is a daily occurrence for some children. Evidences show a significant relation between the intake of oral sucrose based medicines and an increase incidence in dental caries. Aim: This in vitro experimental study evaluated the Total Soluble Solids Content (TSSC) by means of Brix scale refractometry and the endogenous pH of antimicrobials of pediatric use presented as oral suspensions. Materials and Methods: Nine medications (6 c...

  4. Determination of antioxidant capacity and phenolic content of chocolate by attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transformed-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yaxi; Pan, Zhi Jie; Liao, Wen; Li, Jiaqi; Gruget, Pierre; Kitts, David D; Lu, Xiaonan

    2016-07-01

    Antioxidant capacity and phenolic content of chocolate, containing different amounts of cacao (35-100%), were determined using attenuated total reflectance (ATR)-Fourier transformed-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy (4000-550cm(-1)). Antioxidant capacities were first characterized using DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and ORAC (oxygen radical absorbance capacity) assays. Phenolic contents, including total phenol and procyanidins monomers, were quantified using the Folin-Ciocalteu assay and high performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detector (HPLC-DAD), respectively. Five partial least-squares regression (PLSR) models were constructed and cross-validated using FT-IR spectra from 18 types of chocolate and corresponding reference values determined using DPPH, ORAC, Folin-Ciocalteu, and HPLC assays. The models were validated using seven unknown samples of chocolate. PLSR models showed good prediction capability for DPPH [R(2)-P (prediction)=0.88, RMSEP (root mean squares error of prediction)=12.62μmol Trolox/g DFW], ORAC (R(2)-P=0.90, RMSEP=37.92), Folin-Ciocalteu (R(2)-P=0.88, RMSEP=5.08), and (+)-catechin (R(2)-P=0.86, RMSEP=0.10), but lacked accuracy in the prediction of (-)-epicatechin (R(2)-P=0.72, RMSEP=0.57). ATR-FT-IR spectroscopy can be used for rapid prediction of antioxidant capacity, total phenolic content, and (+)-catechin in chocolate.

  5. A novel method for rapid determination of total solid content in viscous liquids by multiple headspace extraction gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Li-Ping; Chai, Xin-Sheng; Hu, Hui-Chao; Barnes, Donald G

    2014-09-05

    This work demonstrates a novel method for rapid determination of total solid content in viscous liquid (polymer-enriched) samples. The method is based multiple headspace extraction gas chromatography (MHE-GC) on a headspace vial at a temperature above boiling point of water. Thus, the trend of water loss from the tested liquid due to evaporation can be followed. With the limited MHE-GC testing (e.g., 5 extractions) and a one-point calibration procedure (i.e., recording the weight difference before and after analysis), the total amount of water in the sample can be determined, from which the total solid contents in the liquid can be calculated. A number of black liquors were analyzed by the new method which yielded results that closely matched those of the reference method; i.e., the results of these two methods differed by no more than 2.3%. Compared with the reference method, the MHE-GC method is much simpler and more practical. Therefore, it is suitable for the rapid determination of the solid content in many polymer-containing liquid samples.

  6. Total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity in leaves and stems extract of cultivated and wild tabat barito (Ficus deltoidea Jack)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manurung, Hetty; Kustiawan, Wawan; Kusuma, Irawan W.; Marjenah

    2017-02-01

    Tabat barito (Ficus deltoidea Jack) is a name given by Dayak Tribe who lived in Borneo-Kalimantan and it is belongs to the moraceae. Almost all of the parts of F. deltoidea plant is widely used as a medicinal property. The total flavonoid content (TFC) and antioxidant activity from cultivated and wild F. deltoidea leaves and stems extract were assessed. Total flavonoid content was estimated by using Aluminium chloride colorimetric method and expressed as catechin equivalents (mg CE g-1 extract) and the antioxidant activity by the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl) method. The content of total flavonoid of leaves and stems (430.77 and 371.80 µg CE mg-1 extract) of cultivated F. deltoidea were higher than in the wild leaves and stems (114.82 and 66.67 µg CE mg-1 extract). The IC50 of leaves extract of cultivated and wild F. deltoidea, based on the DPPH assay, has a strong antioxidant activity (34.19 and 39.31 µg mL-1 extract) as compared to stems extract. These results showed that the cultivated F. deltoidea are suitable source for medicinal properties and the leaves could be exploited as source of natural antioxidants.

  7. On the Correlation between Air Content and Air Bubble Parameters Frost Resistance Performance of High Fly Ash Content Concrete%关于大掺量粉煤灰混凝土含气量、气泡参数表征抗冻能力相关性的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    艾红梅; 戴碧琳; 郭建华; 杨晨光

    2015-01-01

    鉴于冻融作用对大掺量粉煤灰混凝土( High Fly ash Content Concrete,HFCC)造成的破坏较为严重,对国内外的研究情况进行了分析,总结了现阶段大掺量粉煤灰混凝土抗冻性能的研究进展。主要对混凝土拌合物含气量和硬化混凝土气泡参数表征HFCC抗冻性的科学性和可行性进行了分析,并且对二者的相关性进行探讨。%Given the freeze-thaw effect on high fly ash content concrete ( HFCC ) is relatively serious,the paper analyzes the domestic and foreign research and summarizes the present research progress of antifreeze performance of concrete with high volume of fly ash. This paper mainly analyzes the science and feasibility of concrete mixture air content and hardened concrete bubble parameters HFCC frost resistance and explores the correlation between the two.

  8. Determination of total arsenic content in water by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) using vapour generation assembly (VGA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behari, Jai Raj; Prakash, Rajiv

    2006-03-01

    Analysis of arsenic in water is important in view of contamination of ground water with arsenic in some parts of the world including West Bengal in India and neighboring country Bangladesh. WHO has fixed the threshold for arsenic in drinking water to 10ppb (microg/l) level, hence the methodology for determination of arsenic is required to be sensitive at ppb level. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry with vapour generation assembly (AAS-VGA) is well known technique for the trace analysis of arsenic. However, total arsenic analysis [As(III)+As(V)] is very crucial and it requires reduction of As(V) to As(III) for correct analysis. As(III) is reduced to AsH3 vapours and finally to free As atoms, which are responsible for absorption signal in AAS. To accomplish this the vapour generation assembly attached to AAS has acid channel filled with 10 M HCl and the reduction channel with sodium borohydride. Further sample can be reduced either before aspiration for analysis, using potassium iodide (KI) or the sample can be introduced in the instrument directly and KI can be added in the reduction channel along with the sodium borohydride. The present work shows that samples prepared in 3 M HCl can be reduced with KI for 30 min before introduction in the instrument. Alternatively samples can be prepared in 6 M HCl and directly aspirated in AAS using KI in VGA reduction channel. The latter methodology is more useful when the sample size is large and time cycle is difficult to maintain. It is observed that the acid concentration of the sample in both the situations plays an important role. Further reduction in acid concentration and analysis time is achieved for the arsenic analysis by using modified method. Analysis in both the methods is sensitive at ppb level.

  9. Total phenolic, total flavonoid content, and antioxidant capacity of the leaves of Meyna spinosa Roxb., an Indian medicinal plant%Total phenolic,total flavonoid content,and antioxidant capacity of the leaves of Meyna spinosa Roxb.,an Indian medicinal plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Saikat Sen; Biplab De; N Devanna; Raja Chakraborty

    2013-01-01

    AIM:The objective of the present study was to determine the total phenolic and total flavonoid contents,and to evaluate the antioxidant potential of different leaf extracts of Meyna spinosa Roxb.ex Link,a traditional medicinal plant of India.METHODS:Free radical scavenging and antioxidant potential of the methanol,ethyl acetate,and petroleum ether extracts of Meyna spinosa leaves were investigated using several in vitro and ex vivo assays,including the 2,2-diphenyl-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging,superoxide anion scavenging,hydroxyl radical scavenging,nitric oxide radical scavenging,hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity,metal chelating assay,and reducing power ability method.Total antioxidant activity of the extracts was estimated by the ferric thiocyanate method.Inhibition assay of lipid peroxidation and oxidative hemolysis were also performed to confirm the protective effect of the extracts.Total phenolic and total flavonoid contents of the extracts were estimated using standard chemical assay procedures.RESULTS:Methanol extracts showed the highest polyphenolic content and possessed the better antioxidant activity than the other two extracts.Total phenolic and total flavonoid contents in the methanol extract were (90.08 ± 0.44) mg gallic acid equivalents/g and (58.50 ± 0.09) mg quercetin equivalents/g,respectively.The IC50 of the methanol extract in the DPPH,superoxide anion,hydroxyl radical,nitric oxide radical,hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity and metal chelating assays were (16.4 ± 0.41),(35.9 ± 0.19),(24.1 ± 0.33),(23.7 ± 0.09),(126.8 ± 2.92),and (117.2 ± 1.01) μg·mL-1,respectively.The methanol e.xtract showed potent reducing power ability,total antioxidant activity,and significantly inhibit lipid peroxidation and oxidative hemolysis which was similar to that of standards.CONCLUSION:The results indicated a direct correlation between the antioxidant activity and the polyphenolic content of the extracts,which may the foremost contributors to the

  10. Variation in Total Polyphenolics Contents of Aerial Parts of Potentilla Species and Their Anticariogenic Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Tomczyk

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aerial parts of selected Potentilla species (P. anserina, P. argentea, P. erecta, P. fruticosa, P. grandiflora, P. nepalensis, P. norvegica, P. pensylvanica, P. crantzii and P. thuringiaca were investigated in order to determine their contents of polyphenolic compounds. The results showed that P. fruticosa has relatively high concentrations of tannins (167.3 ± 2.0 mg/g dw, proanthocyanidins (4.6 ± 0.2 mg/g dw and phenolic acids (16.4 ± 0.8 mg/g dw, as well as flavonoids (7.0 ± 1.1 mg/g dw, calculated as quercetin. Furthermore, we investigated the in vitro inhibitory effects of aqueous extracts from these species against cariogenic Streptococcus spp. strains. It was found that the tested samples moderately inhibit the growth of oral streptococci. However, all the preparations exhibited inhibitory effects on water-insoluble α-(1→3-, α-(1→6-linked glucan (mutan and artificial dental plaque formation. The extract from P. fruticosa showed the highest anti-biofilm activities, with minimum mutan and biofilm inhibition concentrations of 6.25–25 and 50–100 µg/mL, respectively. The results indicate that the studied Potentilla species could be a potential plant material for extracting biologically active compounds, and could become a useful supplement for pharmaceutical products as a new anticariogenic agent in a wide range of oral care products.

  11. Total Body Fat Content versus BMI in 4-Year-Old Healthy Swedish Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabet Forsum

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Childhood overweight and obesity, a worldwide problem, is generally identified using BMI (body mass index. However, this application of BMI has been little investigated in children below 5 years of age due to a lack of appropriate methods to assess body composition. Therefore, we used air displacement plethysmography (ADP to study 4.4-year old boys and girls since this method is accurate in young children if they accept the requirements of the measurement. The purpose was to analyze the relationship between BMI and body fat in these children. Body composition was assessed in 76 (43 boys, 33 girls of the 84 children brought to the measurement session. Boys and girls contained 25.2±4.7 and 26.8±4.0% body fat, respectively. BMI-based cut-offs for overweight could not effectively identify children with a high body fat content. There was a significant (P<0.001 but weak (r=0.39 correlation between BMI and body fat (%. In conclusion, requirements associated with a successful assessment of body composition by means of ADP were accepted by most 4-year-olds. Furthermore, BMI-based cut-offs for overweight did not effectively identify children with a high body fatness and BMI explained only a small proportion of the variation in body fat (% in this age group.

  12. Total body fat content versus BMI in 4-year-old healthy Swedish children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsum, Elisabet; Flinke Carlsson, Eva; Henriksson, Hanna; Henriksson, Pontus; Löf, Marie

    2013-01-01

    Childhood overweight and obesity, a worldwide problem, is generally identified using BMI (body mass index). However, this application of BMI has been little investigated in children below 5 years of age due to a lack of appropriate methods to assess body composition. Therefore, we used air displacement plethysmography (ADP) to study 4.4-year old boys and girls since this method is accurate in young children if they accept the requirements of the measurement. The purpose was to analyze the relationship between BMI and body fat in these children. Body composition was assessed in 76 (43 boys, 33 girls) of the 84 children brought to the measurement session. Boys and girls contained 25.2 ± 4.7 and 26.8 ± 4.0% body fat, respectively. BMI-based cut-offs for overweight could not effectively identify children with a high body fat content. There was a significant (P BMI and body fat (%). In conclusion, requirements associated with a successful assessment of body composition by means of ADP were accepted by most 4-year-olds. Furthermore, BMI-based cut-offs for overweight did not effectively identify children with a high body fatness and BMI explained only a small proportion of the variation in body fat (%) in this age group.

  13. Amelioration of soil PAH and heavy metals by combined application of fly ash and biochar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masto, Reginald; George, Joshy; Ansari, Md; Ram, Lal

    2016-04-01

    Generation of electricity through coal combustion produces huge quantities of fly ash. Sustainable disposal and utilization of these fly ash is a major challenge. Fly ash along with other amendments like biochar could be used for amelioration of soil. In this study, fly ash and biochar were used together for amelioration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contaminated soil. Field experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of fly ash and biochar on the amelioration of soil PAH, and the yield of Zea mays. The treatments were control, biochar (4 t/ha), fly ash (4 t/ha), ash + biochar ( 2 + 2 t/ha). Soil samples were collected after the harvest of maize crop and analysed for chemical and biological parameters. Thirteen PAHs were analysed in the postharvest soil samples. Soil PAHs were extracted in a microwave oven at 120 °C using hexane : acetone (1:1) mixture. The extracted solutions were concentrated, cleaned and the 13 PAHs [Acenaphthene (Ace), fluorene (Flr), phenanthrene (Phn), anthracene(Ant), pyrene(Pyr), benz(a)anthracene (BaA), chrysene (Chy), benzo(b)fluoranthene (BbF), benzo(k)fluoranthene (BkF), benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(g,h,i)perylene (BghiP), dibenzo(a,h)anthracene, and indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene)(Inp)] were analysed using GC-MS. The mean pH increased from 6.09 in control to 6.64 and 6.58 at biochar and fly ash treated soils, respectively. N content was not affected, whereas addition of biochar alone and in combination with fly ash, has significantly increased the soil organic carbon content. P content was almost double in combined (9.06 mg/kg) treatment as compared to control (4.32 mg/kg). The increase in K due to biochar was 118%, whereas char + ash increased soil K by 64%. Soil heavy metals were decreased: Zn (-48.4%), Ni (-41.4%), Co (-36.9%), Cu (-35.7%), Mn (-34.3%), Cd (-33.2%), and Pb (-30.4%). Soil dehydrogenase activity was significantly increased by ash and biochar treatments and the maximum activity was observed for the combined

  14. In-vitro antibacterial activity on human pathogens and total phenolic, flavonoid contents of Murraya paniculata Linn. leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Manish K Gautam; Mayank Gangwar; Gopal Nath; Chandana V Rao; Raj K Goel

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To deals with in-vitro antibacterial analysis of Murraya paniculata Linn. (Rutaceae) leaves extract on human pathogens in different solvent and determination of total phenolic and flavonoid contents in petroleum ether, methanol, ethanol and hydro-alcoholic extract of the plant.Methods:These extracts were tested against various human pathogens for antimicrobial activity which was evaluated by disc diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration was calculated by micro dilution method. Phenolic content was estimated by using folin ciocalteau reagent and flavonoids by using aluminium chloride reagent against quercetin equivalent. Results: The methanolic extract of leaf showed marked antibacterial activities against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Methanolic extract of Murraya paniculata leaf contain higher phenolic content (24.80±0.64) followed by ethanolic fraction (15.40±0.38), pet. Ether (13.50±0.96) and hydro-alcoholic (9.06±1.13). Flavonoid content was found to be maximum in pet. ether extracts (3.38±1.89). Conclusions: Murraya paniculata leaves posses antibacterial properties against human pathogens with high content of phenolic and flavonoids, which have supportive action of antibacterial activity. Studying plant based antimicrobial properties provides additional information in developing nature antibiotics and discovering the alternative of antimicrobial drugs for the treatment of infectious disease.

  15. Alkali-activation potential of biomass-coal co-fired fly ash

    OpenAIRE

    Shearer, C.R.; Provis, J.L.; Bernal, S.A.; Kurtis, K.E.

    2016-01-01

    Co-fired fly ash, derived from the co-combustion of coal and biomass, is examined as a potential precursor for geopolymers. Compared to a coal fly ash, two co-fired fly ashes have a lower vitreous content and higher carbon content, primarily due to differing combustion processing variables. As a result, binders produced with these co-fired fly ashes have reduced reaction potential. Nevertheless, compressive strengths are generally highest for all ashes activated with solutions with a molar ra...

  16. Effect of fuel properties on the bottom ash generation rate by a laboratory fluidized bed combustor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozelle, P.L.; Pisupati, S.V.; Scaroni, A.W. [Penn State University, University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Energy & Geoenvironmental Engineering

    2007-06-15

    The range of fuels that can be accommodated by an FBC boiler system is affected by the ability of the fuel, sorbent, and ash-handling equipment to move the required solids through the boiler. Of specific interest is the bottom ash handling equipment, which must have sufficient capacity to remove ash from the system in order to maintain a constant bed inventory level, and must have sufficient capability to cool the ash well below the bed temperature. Quantification of a fuel's bottom ash removal requirements can be useful for plant design. The effect of fuel properties on the rate of bottom ash production in a laboratory FBC test system was examined. The work used coal products ranging in ash content from 20 to 40+ wt. %. The system's classification of solids by particle size into flyash and bottom ash was characterized using a partition curve. Fuel fractions in the size range characteristic of bottom ash were further analyzed for distributions of ash content with respect to specific gravity, using float sink tests. The fuel fractions were then ashed in a fixed bed. In each case, the highest ash content fraction produced ash with the coarsest size consist (characteristic of bottom ash). The lower ash content fractions were found to produce ash in the size range characteristic of flyash, suggesting that the high ash content fractions were largely responsible for the production of bottom ash. The contributions of the specific gravity fractions to the composite ash in the fuels were quantified. The fuels were fired in the laboratory test system. Fuels with higher amounts of high specific gravity particles, in the size ranges characteristic of bottom ash, were found to produce more bottom ash, indicating the potential utility of float sink methods in the prediction of bottom ash removal requirements.

  17. Colorimetric method for the estimation of total limonoid aglycones and glucoside contents in citrus juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breksa, Andrew P; Ibarra, Phil

    2007-06-27

    A method for estimating the total limonoid aglycone and glucoside concentrations in Citrus samples in terms of limonin and limonin glucoside equivalents is presented. The method consists of extraction followed by colorimetric quantification. The colorimetric quantification was based on the formation of red to orange colored derivatives resulting from the treatment of limonin, limonin glucoside, or a fruit extract with 4-(dimethylamino)benzaldehyde (DMAB) in the presence of perchloric and acetic acids. Absorbance maxima for the limonin and limonin glucoside derivatives were found to be 470 and 503 nm, respectively. The influence of DMAB concentration, reaction time, and solvent composition on color development and sensitivity were investigated and optimal assay conditions established. With a microplate format under these conditions, the limits of detection and quantification were determined to be 0.25 and 0.50 microg/mL for limonin and 0.50 and 1.0 microg/mL for limonin glucoside.

  18. Determination of the antioxidant capacity, total phenolic and flavonoid contents of seeds from three commercial varieties of culinary dates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacopo Mistrello

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Date seeds are a major waste product of the date industry that could offer potentially valuable material for the production of useful food ingredients. The aim of the present study was to investigate the seeds of three date varieties of the UK market (Deglet Nour, Khouat Allig, and Zahidi for their proximate composition, total phenolic (TPC, total flavonoid (TFC contents and total antioxidant capacity (TAC with a view to their eventual industrial application. Carbohydrates were present in the highest concentrations varying between 74.13 and 76.54 g 100 g-1 of date seed powder (DSP on dry weight (DW basis, followed in descending order by fats (7.64-8.84 g 100 g-1 and proteins (4.35-5.51 g 100 g-1. Potassium was found in high amounts with values ranging between 280.55 and 293.13 mg 100 g-1. The majority of the total phenolic content (2058-2984 mg GAE 100 g-1 was assumed to be composed of flavonoids (1271-1932 mg CAE 100 g-1. These families of dietary phenolics may be the major ones responsible for the high antioxidant capacity reported in date seeds, which varied from 12540 and 27699 µmol TE 100 g-1. These results suggest that date seeds can be considered a potential raw material for natural, active ingredients for food applications as well as an unexplored source of novel nutraceuticals and dietary supplements.

  19. Fluctuations in phenolic content, ascorbic acid and total carotenoids and antioxidant activity of fruit beverages during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Castro-López

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Stability of the total phenolic content, ascorbic acid, total carotenoids and antioxidant activity in eight fruit beverages was analyzed. The influence of storage temperature (4, 8 and 11 °C during the product shelf-life (20 days was evaluated. Pomegranate Juice presented the highest values for antioxidant activity by DPPH·− assay (552.93 ± 6.00 GAE μg mL−1, total carotenoids (3.18 ± 0.11 βCE μg mL−1, and total phenolic content (3967.07 ± 2.47 GAE μg mL−1; while Splash Blend recorded the highest levels of ascorbic acid (607.39 ± 2.13 AAE μg mL−1. The antioxidant capacity was stable at 4 and 8 °C for the first 8 days of storage; while carotenoids and ascorbic acid were slightly degraded through the storage time, possibly due to oxidation and/or reactions with other compounds. The results suggest that the observed variation during testing could be related to storage conditions of the final product.

  20. Evaluation of antioxidant, total phenol and flavonoid content and antimicrobial activities of Artocarpus altilis (breadfruit) of underutilized tropical fruit extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalal, Tara Kamal; Ahmed, Idris Adewale; Mikail, Maryam; Momand, Lailuma; Draman, Samsul; Isa, Muhammad Lokman Md; Abdull Rasad, Mohammad Syaiful Bahari; Nor Omar, Muhammad; Ibrahim, Muhammad; Abdul Wahab, Ridhwan

    2015-04-01

    Artocarpus altilis (breadfruit) pulp, peel and whole fruit were extracted with various solvents such as hexane, dichloromethane (DCM) and methanol. The antioxidant activity of these extracts were examined using the stable 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging test. IC50 was 55 ± 5.89 μg/ml for the pulp part of methanol extract. In the β-carotene bleaching assay, the antioxidant activity was 90.02 ± 1.51 % for the positive control (Trolox) and 88.34 ± 1.31 % for the pulp part of the fruit methanol extract. The total phenolic content of the crude extracts was determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu procedure; methanol pulp part demonstrated the highest phenol content value of 781 ± 52.97 mg GAE/g of dry sample. While the total flavonoid content was determined using the aluminium chloride colorimetric assay, the highest value of 6213.33 ± 142.22 mg QE/g was indicated by pulp part of the fruit methanol extract. The antimicrobial activity of the crude extracts was tested using disc diffusion method against pathogenic microorganisms: Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Bacillus cereus, Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia and Candida albicans. Methanol extract of pulp part was recorded to have the highest zone of inhibition against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and MBC/minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC) for the extracts were also determined using the microdilution method ranging from 4000 to 63 μg/ml against pathogenic microbes. The MBC/MFC values varied from 250 to 4000 μg/ml. A correlation between antioxidant activity assays, antimicrobial activity and phenolic content was established. The results shows that the various parts of A. altilis fruit extracts promising antioxidant activities have potential bioactivities due to high content of phenolic compounds.

  1. In vitro and In vivo Antioxidant evaluation and estimation of total phenolic, flavonoidal content of Mimosa pudica L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesh Patro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Mimosa pudica Linn. (Mimosaceae is traditionally used as a folk medicine to treat various ailments including convulsions, alopecia, diarrhea, dysentery, insomnia, tumor, wound healing, snake bite, etc., Here, the study was aimed to evaluate the antioxidant potential of M. pudica leaves extract against 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH (in vitro and its modulatory effect on rat brain enzymes. Materials and Methods: Total phenolic, flavonoid contents, and in vitro antioxidant potential against DPPH radical were evaluated from various extracts of M. pudica leaves. In addition, ethyl acetate extract of Mimosa pudica leaves (EAMP in doses of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg/day were administered orally for 7 consecutive days to albino rats and evaluated for the oxidative stress markers as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and glutathione (GSH from rat brain homogenate. Results: The ethyl acetate extract showed the highest total phenolic content and total flavonoid content among other extracts of M. pudica leaves. The percentage inhibition and IC 50 value of all the extracts were followed dose-dependency and found significant (P < 0.01 as compared to standard (ascorbic acid. The oxidative stress markers as SOD, CAT, and GSH were increased significantly (P < 0.01 at 200 and 400 mg/kg of EAMP treated animals and decreased significantly the TBARS level at 400 mg/kg of EAMP as compared to control group. Conclusion: These results revealed that the ethyl acetate extract of M. pudica exhibits both in vitro antioxidant activity against DPPH and in vivo antioxidant activity by modulating brain enzymes in the rat. This could be further correlated with its potential to neuroprotective activity due to the presence of flavonoids and phenolic contents in the extract.

  2. Determination of in vitro total phenolic, flavonoid contents and antioxidant capacity of the methanolic extract of Echium amoenum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathi H

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In traditional and modern medicine, active ingredients of medicinal plants have many applications in food, pharmaceutical, medical and industry. Antioxidants are compounds that prevent the oxidation process in the cell. Echium amoenum L. is a plant which grows in the mountainous regions of Mazandaran. This plant has different biological effects such as sedation, anti-inflammation, antidepressant and cancer preventive properties in traditional medicine. The aim of this study was to determine the total phenolic, flavonoid contents and antioxidant capacity of the methanolic extract of E.amoenum plant. Methods:In this experimental laboratory study the content of total phenolic Using the folin-siokalatio reactive at 760 nm wavelength and flavonoid With the use of aluminum chloride reagent at 420nm of E.amoenum extract were measured and antioxidant capacities of different concentrations of the extract were evaluated. Results: The results showed that total phenolic content of the extract was 429±2μg gallic acid equivalent/ml and flavonoid content was 148.56±1.52μg quercetin equivalent/ml, respectively. The radical scavenging activity by 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl hydrate (DPPH,inhibitory concentration of 50%(IC50,was determined 178.11 μg/ml. Assessment of the reducing ability of extract showed that the extract had more activity than vitamin C. The percent nitric oxide trap inhibition of the extract was 57.89% and power iron chelating properties was 51.74%,that showed statistically significant difference in comparison with vitamin C and Quercetin (P=0.0473 and (P=0.0096 respectively. Conclusion: According to the results, E.amoenum extract had remarkable antioxidant capacity and can be proposed as an antioxidant compound used in the manufacture of food and pharmaceutical products.

  3. 华南十种桉树的热值与灰分含量比较%Comparison of calorific values and ash contents of ten Eucalyptus species in South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周群英; 陈少雄; 韩斐扬

    2016-01-01

    桉树是林业生物质能源的原料之一,了解桉树的热值和灰分含量能为合理利用桉树能源林提供理论参考。该研究采用热量计和马福炉对华南尾巨桉等10种桉树的不同器官进行热值和灰分含量测定。结果表明:10种桉树树叶、树枝、树根、树干和树皮的干质量热值、去灰分热值分别为15.10~21.06 kJ.g-1和16.50~22.11 kJ.g-1,器官的平均干质量热值、去灰分热值以树叶最高(19.50和20.56 kJ.g-1)、树皮的最低(17.32和18.09 kJ.g-1),说明树叶所含的高能有机物质比其它器官多;不同器官的干质量热值与去灰分热值在不同品种中的大小排序不完全一致。灰分含量在0.14%~8.5%之间,器官平均的灰分含量以树叶最高(5.13%)、树干最低(0.30%),说明树叶所含的矿质元素较多。不同器官的热值与灰分含量均差异显著(P 0.14% to 8.5% with leaves having the highest mean value(5.13%) and stem-wood the lowest(0.30%),which indicated that leaf had more mineral elements than other organs. There were significant differences in calorific values and ash con-tents of 5 organs (P<0.05). As to the whole tree, E. urophylla had the highest GCV and AFCV(18.99 and 19.18 kJ. g-1), while Corymbia torelliana had the lowest GCV and AFCV (17.53 and 17.86 kJ.g-1);C. torelliana had the high-est ash contents(1.9%) and Eucalyptus grandis the lowest(0.61%). The results of correlation analyses showed that ash content had negative correlation with GCV and AFCV,which was not significant;GCV and AFCV had significantly posi-tive correlation ( P<0.01) . For ideal plant fuel should have the characteristics of high calorific value and low ash con-tent, of 10 species, Corymbia torelliana had low calorific values and high ash contents, which indicated that it was not ideal fuel species while Eucalyptus urophylla was the optimal species.

  4. Discrepancy between Measured Serum Total Carbon Dioxide Content and Bicarbonate Concentration Calculated from Arterial Blood Gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngho; Massie, Larry; Murata, Glen H; Tzamaloukas, Antonios H

    2015-12-07

    Large differences between the concentrations of serum total carbon dioxide (TCO2) and blood gas bicarbonate (HCO3 (-)) were observed in two consecutive simultaneously drawn sets of samples of serum and arterial blood gases in a patient who presented with severe carbon dioxide retention and profound acidemia. These differences could not be explained by the effect of the high partial pressure of carbon dioxide on TCO2, by variations in the dissociation constant of the carbonic acid/bicarbonate system or by faults caused by the algorithms of the blood gas apparatus that calculate HCO3 (-). A recalculation using the Henderson-Hasselbach equation revealed arterial blood gas HCO3 (-) values close to the corresponding serum TCO2 values and clarified the diagnosis of the acid-base disorder, which had been placed in doubt by the large differences between the reported TCO2 and HCO3 (-) values. Human error in the calculation of HCO3 (-) was identified as the source of these differences. Recalculation of blood gas HCO3 (-) should be the first step in identifying the source of large differences between serum TCO2 and blood gas HCO3 (-).

  5. Effects of red wine intake on human salivary antiradical capacity and total polyphenol content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varoni, Elena Maria; Vitalini, Sara; Contino, Daniele; Lodi, Giovanni; Simonetti, Paolo; Gardana, Claudio; Sardella, Andrea; Carrassi, Antonio; Iriti, Marcello

    2013-08-01

    The protective effects of grape polyphenols have been reported on oral health, though unreasonable alcohol consumption represents a risk factor for developing oral cancer. The possible effects of red wine consumption on salivary antiradical activity were investigated in healthy volunteers for the first time, to the best of our knowledge. Time-course (from 0 min to 240 min) changes of salivary radical-scavenging capacity were measured by the 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS(+)) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays, in twelve healthy volunteers, after the intake of red wine (125 mL), a capsule of red wine extract (300 mg) or water (125 mL). Furthermore, time-course of salivary total polyphenol levels, detected by the Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric method, was also determined. Both ABTS and DPPH tests showed that red wine consumption did not increase salivary antiradical activity in volunteers. Conversely, red wine extract administration caused a marked rise in salivary ABTS radical-scavenging capacity within 30 min, followed by a plateau up to 240 min. The same treatment also raised salivary DPPH radical-scavenging activity at any time point, though to a minor extent. The highest salivary polyphenol concentration was reached 30 min after wine drinking, followed by a steady decrease up to 240 min. Wine drinking was not associated to a reduced salivary antiradical capacity. However, wine extract greatly improved the salivary antioxidant status.

  6. Effect of extrusion-cooking in total carotenoids content in cream and orange flesh sweet potato cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos José de O Fonseca

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas is a food crop that supplies energy, minerals and vitamins C and B. Some cultivars are very rich in carotenoids (pro-vitamin A. In this study were evaluated and compared the total carotenoids content of two cultivars and the losses on the dehydrated extruded sweet potato flour. Samples from organic and conventional crops were analyzed, in the form of fresh and dehydrated extruded samples. Total carotenoids content of the fresh product, expressed on wet basis, was of 437 µg 100 g-1 for the cream cultivar and 10,12 µg 100 g-1 for the orange cultivar. After dehydration, losses of total carotenoids were of 41% and 38%, respectively. The fresh orange cultivar presented high total carotenoids content in comparison to the cream cultivar. The extruded orange sweet potato flour showed the lowest losses in total carotenoids. Therefore, the processed flour of orange sweet potato could be used to obtain pre-gelatinized extruded flour with high total carotenoids content.A batata-doce (Ipomoea batatas é um alimento fonte rico em energia, minerais, vitaminas C e B. Algumas cultivares são ricas em pró-vitamina A. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar e comparar o conteúdo de carotenóides totais em duas cultivares de batata-doce e determinar suas perdas na obtenção da farinha desidratada e processada por extrusão. Foram analisadas amostras de sistema de cultivo orgânico e convencional, tanto as frescas como as extrusadas desidratadas. O conteúdo de carotenóides totais do produto fresco, expressos em base úmida, foi de 437 µg 100 g-1 para a cultivar creme e de 10,120 µg 100g-1 para a cultivar alaranjada. Após o processo de desidratação das amostras, as perdas de carotenóides totais foram de 41% para a batata-doce creme e 38% para a alaranjada, respectivamente. Os resultados indicaram alto conteúdo de carotenóides totais para a cultivar alaranjada fresca, quando comparado com a cultivar creme. A amostra de

  7. Antioxidant capacity and total phenolic contents of oregano (Origanum vulgare), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) and lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) from Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiridon, Iuliana; Colceru, Svetlana; Anghel, Narcis; Teaca, Carmen Alice; Bodirlau, Ruxanda; Armatu, Alice

    2011-10-01

    The study reported here presents a comparative screening of three medicinal plants including oregano (Origanum vulgare L.), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) and lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) having the same geographical origin, the Southeast region of Romania, and growing in the same natural conditions. The contents of total phenolics and total flavonoids for the extracts of these were determined. Furthermore, the total antioxidant capacity was also evaluated. It was found that Origanum vulgare and Melissa officinalis extracts present the most effective antioxidant capacity in scavenging DPPH radicals, while Lavandula angustifolia is less active. High performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis was used to identify the components of extracts. Major phenolic acids identified in the analysed species were ferulic, rosmarinic, p-coumaric and caffeic, while predominant flavonoids were quercetin, apigenin kaempherol, which were present as glucosides.

  8. Determination of total plutonium content in spent nuclear fuel assemblies with the differential die-away self-interrogation instrument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, Alexis C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87544 (United States); Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, 500 S State St., Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Henzl, Vladimir; Menlove, Howard O.; Swinhoe, Martyn T.; Belian, Anthony P. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87544 (United States); Flaska, Marek; Pozzi, Sara A. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, 500 S State St., Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2014-11-11

    As a part of the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative Spent Fuel project, we simulate the response of the Differential Die-away Self-Interrogation (DDSI) instrument to determine total elemental plutonium content in an assayed spent nuclear fuel assembly (SFA). We apply recently developed concepts that relate total plutonium mass with SFA multiplication and passive neutron count rate. In this work, the multiplication of the SFA is determined from the die-away time in the early time domain of the Rossi-Alpha distributions measured directly by the DDSI instrument. We utilize MCNP to test the method against 44 pressurized water reactor SFAs from a simulated spent fuel library with a wide dynamic range of characteristic parameters such as initial enrichment, burnup, and cooling time. Under ideal conditions, discounting possible errors of a real world measurement, a root mean square agreement between true and determined total Pu mass of 2.1% is achieved.

  9. Linear relation between time constant of oxygen uptake kinetics, total creatine, and mitochondrial content in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glancy, Brian; Barstow, Thomas; Willis, Wayne T

    2008-01-01

    Following the onset of moderate aerobic exercise, the rate of oxygen consumption (J(o)) rises monoexponentially toward the new steady state with a time constant (tau) in the vicinity of 30 s. The mechanisms underlying this delay have been studied over several decades. Meyer's electrical analog model proposed the concept that the tau is given by tau = R(m) x C, where R(m) is mitochondrial resistance to energy transfer, and C is metabolic capacitance, determined primarily by the cellular total creatine pool (TCr = phosphocreatine + creatine). The purpose of this study was to evaluate in vitro the J(o) kinetics of isolated rat skeletal muscle mitochondria at various levels of TCr and mitochondrial protein. Mitochondria were incubated in a medium containing 5.0 mM ATP, TCr pools of 0-1.5 mM, excess creatine kinase, and an ATP-splitting system of glucose + hexokinase (HK). Pyruvate and malate (1 mM each) were present as oxidative substrates. J(o) was measured across time after HK was added to elicit one of two levels of J(o) (40 and 60% of state 3). At TCr levels (in mM) of 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.75, and 1.5, the corresponding tau values (s, means +/- SE) were 22.2 +/- 3.0, 36.3 +/- 2.2, 65.7 +/- 4.3, 168.1 +/- 22.2, and 287.3 +/- 25.9. Thus tau increased linearly with TCr (R(2) = 0.916). Furthermore, the experimentally observed tau varied linearly and inversely with the mitochondrial protein added. These in vitro results consistently conform to the predictions of Meyer's electrical analog model.

  10. Fatty acid profile, total cholesterol, vitamin content, and TBARS value of turkey breast muscle cured with the addition of lycopene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skiepko, N; Chwastowska-Siwiecka, I; Kondratowicz, J; Mikulski, D

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of lycopene addition for curing turkey meat on the profile of fatty acids, total cholesterol, vitamin content, and the TBARS of the final products. The analyzed material comprised 64 breast muscles, of which 16 (RBM) were immediately transported to a laboratory. Another 16 (UBM) were heat treated in a convection steam oven, and 32 muscles were cured for 3 days in two types of curing mixture: without (CBM) and with (CBM+Lyc) tomato peel extract standardized for 5% lycopene content. After completed curing, samples were steamed and grilled under the same conditions as raw samples. Statistical analysis demonstrated the highest (P≤0.01) mean content of vitamin A (0.07 μg/g) in chilled muscles. The content of vitamin E was lower (P≤0.01) in UBM samples than in CBM+Lyc and RBM. The TBARS value was the lowest (P≤0.01) in RBM muscles (0.35 mg MDA/kg of meat). Although there were no differences between products, but lower TBARS were found in CBM+Lyc samples. The content of cholesterol was higher (P≤0.01) in CBM+Lyc products than in the RBM and UBM. RBM samples contained (P≤0.01) the lowest amount of saturated, monounsaturated, and hypercholesterolemic fatty acids, and the highest of unsaturated, polyunsaturated, and hypocholesterolemic fatty acids. CBM+Lyc samples contained (P≤0.01) less hypercholesterolemic and more hypocholesterolemic fatty acids than CBM group. Higher (P≤0.01) unsaturated/saturated and hypocholesterolemic/hypercholesterolemic fatty acid ratios were also found in CBM+Lyc products. The study demonstrated that the used processing technology caused reduction (P≤0.01) of n-3 and n-6 PUFA content. Findings suggest that the addition of lycopene in the process of meat curing and heat treatment in meat industry do not change the content of vitamins and cholesterol or alter the TBARS value in turkey meat products. Nevertheless, lycopene can be used to increase the content of essential

  11. Radiological and material characterization of high volume fly ash concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignjatović, I; Sas, Z; Dragaš, J; Somlai, J; Kovács, T

    2017-03-01

    The main goal of research presented in this paper was the material and radiological characterization of high volume fly ash concrete (HVFAC) in terms of determination of natural radionuclide content and radon emanation and exhalation coefficients. All concrete samples were made with a fly ash content between 50% and 70% of the total amount of cementitious materials from one coal burning power plant in Serbia. Physical (fresh and hardened concrete density) and mechanical properties (compressive strength, splitting tensile strength and modulus of elasticity) of concrete were tested. The radionuclide content ((226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K) and radon massic exhalation of HVFAC samples were determined using gamma spectrometry. Determination of massic exhalation rates of HVFAC and its components using radon accumulation chamber techniques combined with a radon monitor was performed. The results show a beneficial effect of pozzolanic activity since the increase in fly ash content resulted in an increase in compressive strength of HVFAC by approximately 20% for the same mass of cement used in the mixtures. On the basis of the obtained radionuclide content of concrete components the I -indices of different HVFAC samples were calculated and compared with measured values (0.27-0.32), which were significantly below the recommended 1.0 index value. The prediction was relatively close to the measured values as the ratio between the calculated and measured I-index ranged between 0.89 and 1.14. Collected results of mechanical and radiological properties and performed calculations clearly prove that all 10 designed concretes with a certain type of fly ash are suitable for structural and non-structural applications both from a material and radiological point of view. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. 大掺量粉煤灰混凝土导温系数试验研究%Experimental Research on the Thermal Diffusivity of High Content Fly-ash Concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙阳; 娄宗科; 朱为勇

    2014-01-01

    In order to study the thermal conductivity of high volume of fly ash concrete ,the changing rule of the thermal conductivity of concrete is quantitatively investigated by the orthogonal test .Such testing variables as the fly ash content ,water-cement ratio , sand ratio ,water reducing agent dosage and aggregate concrete of dry and wet condition are considered in this test .The results indi-cate that sand ratio ,the content of fly ash and water reducing agent are the significant factors .The significance of these factors is as follows :sand ratio ,fly ash ,water reducing agent dosage ,aggregate concrete of dry and wet condition ,water-cement ratio .Based on the optimal combination of the maximum and minimum of thermal conductivity ,a reference is provided for the estimated thermal dif-fusivity by the regression equation regression analysis .%为研究大掺量粉煤灰混凝土的导温系数,本文利用正交试验测定在粉煤灰掺量、水胶比、砂率、减水剂掺量以及骨料干湿状态5个因素影响下混凝土导温系数的变化规律。结果表明:各因素均为混凝土导温系数的显著性影响因素,其中砂率、粉煤灰和减水剂掺量为极显著影响因素,各因素的影响顺序为:砂率>粉煤灰掺量>减水剂掺量>>骨料干湿状态>水胶比,并得到导温系数取得最大和最小时的最优配合比,最后应用回归分析得到回归方程,为大掺量粉煤灰混凝土导温系数的预估提供参考。

  13. Volcanic ash at Santiaguito dome complex, Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornby, Adrian; Kendrick, Jackie; Lavallée, Yan; Cimarelli, Corrado; von Aulock, Felix; Rhodes, Emma; Kennedy, Ben; Wadsworth, Fabian

    2015-04-01

    Dome-building volcanoes often suffer episodic explosions. Examination of eruptive activity at Santiaguito dome complex (Guatemala) reveals that gas-and-ash explosions are concordant with rapid inflation/ deflation cycles of the active dome. During these explosions strain is accommodated along marginal faults, where tensional fracture mechanisms and friction dominate, complicating the model of ash generation by bubble rupture in magma. Here, we describe textural features, morphology and petrology of ash collected before, during and after a dome collapse event at Santiaguito dome complex on the 28th November 2012. We use QEM-scan (on more than 35000 grains), laser diffraction granulometry and optical and scanning microscopy to characterise the samples. The ash samples show a bimodal size distribution and a range of textures, crystal content and morphologies. The ash particles are angular to sub-angular and are relatively dense, so do not appear to comprise of pore walls. Instead the ash is generally blocky (>70%), similar to the products of shear magma failure. The ash samples show minor variation before, during and after dome collapse, specifically having a smaller grain size and a higher fraction of phenocrysts fragments before collapse. Textural analysis shows vestiges of chemically heterogeneous glass (melt) filaments originating from the crystals and crosscut by fragmentation during volcanic ash formation. High-velocity friction can induce melting of dome lavas, producing similar disequilibrium melting textures. This work shows the importance of deformation mechanisms in ash generation at lava domes and during Vulcanian activity.

  14. Properties and Leachability of Self-Compacting Concrete Incorporated with Fly Ash and Bottom Ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadir, Aeslina Abdul; Ikhmal Haqeem Hassan, Mohd; Jamaluddin, Norwati; Bakri Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al

    2016-06-01

    The process of combustion in coal-fired power plant generates ashes, namely fly ash and bottom ash. Besides, coal ash produced from coal combustion contains heavy metals within their compositions. These metals are toxic to the environment as well as to human health. Fortunately, treatment methods are available for these ashes, and the use of fly ash and bottom ash in the concrete mix is one of the few. Therefore, an experimental program was carried out to study the properties and determine the leachability of selfcompacting concrete incorporated with fly ash and bottom ash. For experimental study, self-compacting concrete was produced with fly ash as a replacement for Ordinary Portland Cement and bottom ash as a replacement for sand with the ratios of 10%, 20%, and 30% respectively. The fresh properties tests conducted were slump flow, t500, sieve segregation and J-ring. Meanwhile for the hardened properties, density, compressive strength and water absorption test were performed. The samples were then crushed to be extracted using Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure and heavy metals content within the samples were identified accordingly using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. The results demonstrated that both fresh and hardened properties were qualified to categorize as self-compacting concrete. Improvements in compressive strength were observed, and densities for all the samples were identified as a normal weight concrete with ranges between 2000 kg/m3 to 2600 kg/m3. Other than that, it was found that incorporation up to 30% of the ashes was safe as the leached heavy metals concentration did not exceed the regulatory levels, except for arsenic. In conclusion, this study will serve as a reference which suggests that fly ash and bottom ash are widely applicable in concrete technology, and its incorporation in self-compacting concrete constitutes a potential means of adding value to appropriate mix and design.

  15. Determination of Content of Nitrate Removal of Ammonia in Ash of Boiler Flue Gas of Coal-ifred Units%燃煤机组锅炉烟气脱硝灰中氨含量测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘政修

    2015-01-01

    NOx is one of the main pollutants in the atmospheric environment, which is mainly from the thermal power generating units. Rely on low nitrogen combustion technology, far less than the emission requirements. Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology is the power plant flue gas DeNOx Technology is currently the most widely the highest efficiency and most mature, application. At present, online ammonia escape monitoring technology has many problems, affecting the ammonia escape the accuracy and stability of the monitoring data. In determining the type of fuel, furnace structure, the arrangement of heating surface, excess air, furnace air distribution and denitration catalyst type and other conditions, good control of ammonia addition amount and escape volume is the key to guarantee the NOx removal rate. Coal-fired boiler dust fly ash ammonia content can reflect the denitration ammonia escape rate conditions. According to foreign reports, under normal circumstances, the ammonia content in flue dust electricity is generally in the range of 50mg/kg-100mg/kg. The determination method of ammonia is no ash in domestic, no denitrification operation of fly ash containing ammonia affects the amount of accumulated data. In this paper, through a lot of experiments, the conditions of ammonia dissolved in ash determined (such as dissolution time, mixing state, cement water ratio, ash sample quantity and stability), developed methods for determination of ammonia in ash.%NOx是大气环境的主要污染物之一,其主要来源为火力发电机组。依靠低氮燃烧技术,远达不到排放要求。选择性催化还原脱硝(简称SCR)技术是目前效率最高、最成熟、应用最广泛的电厂烟气脱硝技术。目前,在线氨逃逸监测技术存在诸多问题,影响了氨逃逸监测数据的准确度和稳定性。在燃料种类、炉膛结构、受热面布置、过量空气量、炉膛气流分布以及脱硝催化剂类型等条件确定的情

  16. Indirect Estimates of the Total Gas Content of SDSS-IV/MaNGA Galaxies from Optical Emission Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremonti, Christina A.; Pace, Zachary; Andrews, Brett; Law, David R.; Li, Cheng; Martinsson, Thomas; Masters, Karen; Stark, David; Sanchez, Sebastian; Storchi-Bergmann, Thaisa; MaNGA Team

    2016-01-01

    To understand galaxy evolution it is critical to obtain a census of both the stellar and gaseous contents of galaxies. The SDSS-IV MaNGA survey will deliver exquisite stellar mass maps of ~10,000 nearby galaxies. However, radio surveys capable of providing matched resolution gas data for a large fraction of the MaNGA sample are a decade or more away. We are therefore exploring a new technique for obtaining maps of the total gas content directly from the MaNGA data. Following the method outlined in Brinchmann et al. 2013, we use the dust optical depth and the nebular metallicity measured from optical emission lines to estimate the total gas surface density in individual spaxels. We combine this with estimates of the stellar mass in each spaxel to produce spatially resolved estimates of the gas mass fraction. We compare trends in the global gas mass fraction with stellar mass and NUV-r color to those found in the literature. We explore how the radial gas mass fraction gradients of MaNGA galaxies correlate with other properties such as total stellar mass, specific star formation rate (SFR/M*), concentration, and environment.

  17. Inverse correlation among organochlorine pesticide levels to total lipid serum contents: a preliminary study in Veracruz, México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caba, Mario; Meza, Enrique; Waliszewski, Stefan M; Martínez-Valenzuela, Carmen

    2015-07-01

    Organochlorine pesticides, due to their hydrophobic nature and persistence, accumulate in tissues rich in lipids, which had been used as a biomarker for environmental pollution. In humans, organochlorine pesticides are continuously circulating and equilibrating among body compartments. The objective of the study was to evaluate the concentrations of organochlorine pesticides in blood serum and compare their levels to the total lipid contents in Veracruz, México inhabitants. Our hypothesis is that concentrations of organochlorine pesticides will increase just as lipid concentrations. Levels of organochlorine pesticides were divided in ascending tertils according to their total lipid content. The linear trend model applied surprisingly reveals that the average level of all organochlorine pesticides decreases as the lipid concentration increases. From one tertil to the next β-HCH, it shows a decrease of -3.19 mg kg(-1) on lipid basis, pp.'DDE levels decrease by -3.70 mg kg(-1) on lipid basis and pp.'DDT levels decrease -1.13 mg kg(-1) on lipid basis. We conclude that the levels and the orderly sequence of organochlorine pesticide distributions in the blood serum maintain an inverse relationship to total lipid blood serum concentrations.

  18. Rapid Simultaneous Mapping of Total and Myelin Water Content, T1 and T2* in Multiple Sclerosis

    CERN Document Server

    Arhelger, Volker; Gliedstein, Detlef; Lafontaine, Marie-Sofie; Tonkova, Vyara; Holz, Dietrich; Böer, Andreas; Schenk, Jochen; Neeb, Heiko; (,; Koblenz, University of Applied Sciences; Koblenz, Radiologisches Institut Hohenzollernstrasse; Engineering, Institute for Medical; Koblenz, Information Processing; Boeer, Neurologie Dr; Koblenz,

    2010-01-01

    Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging might provide a more specific insight into disease process, progression and therapeutic response of multiple sclerosis. We present an extension of a previously published approach for the simultaneous mapping of brain T1, T2* and total water content. In addition to those three parameters, the method presented in the current work allows for the measurement of myelin bound water content, a surrogate marker of tissue myelination. Myelin water was measured based on its distinct relaxation with reduced T2*, resulting in a multiexponential decay signal. However, only 10 points could be acquired on the relaxation curve within a maximum echo time of <40ms as the quantitative protocol has been adapted previously for fast acquisitions with whole brain coverage. The sparse sampling required an adaption of the optimisation approach with additional constraints necessary in order to obtain reliable results. Therefore, the corresponding pool fractions were determined using linear op...

  19. Estimation of the Total Atmospheric Water Vapor Content and Land Surface Temperature Based on AATSR Thermal Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Liu

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The total atmospheric water vapor content (TAWV and land surfacetemperature (LST play important roles in meteorology, hydrology, ecology and some otherdisciplines. In this paper, the ENVISAT/AATSR (The Advanced Along-Track ScanningRadiometer thermal data are used to estimate the TAWV and LST over the Loess Plateauin China by using a practical split window algorithm. The distribution of the TAWV isaccord with that of the MODIS TAWV products, which indicates that the estimation of thetotal atmospheric water vapor content is reliable. Validations of the LST by comparingwith the ground measurements indicate that the maximum absolute derivation, themaximum relative error and the average relative error is 4.0K, 11.8% and 5.0%respectively, which shows that the retrievals are believable; this algorithm can provide anew way to estimate the LST from AATSR data.

  20. Characterization of ashes from biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frandsen, F.J.; Hansen, L.A. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. Dept. of Chemical Engineering (Denmark); Soerensen, H.S. [Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (Denmark); Hjuler, K. [dk-TEKNIK. Energy and Environment (Denmark)

    1998-02-01

    One motivation for initiating the present project was that the international standard method of estimating the deposit propensity of solid fuels, of which a number of variants exist (e.g. ISO, ASTM, SD, DIN), has shown to be unsuitable for biomass ashes. This goal was addressed by the development of two new methods for the detection of ash fusibility behaviour based on Simultaneous Thermal Analysis (STA) and High Temperature Light Microscopy (HTLM), respectively. The methods were developed specifically for ashes from biofuels, but are suitable for coal ashes as well. They have been tested using simple salt mixtures, geological standards and samples from straw CHP and coal-straw PF combustion plants. All samples were run in a nitrogen atmosphere at a heating rate of 10 deg. C/min. In comparison with the standard method, the new methods are objective and have superior repeatability and sensitivity. Furthermore, the two methods enable the melting behavior to be characterized by a continuous measurement of melt fraction versus temperature. Due to this two-dimensional resolution of the results, the STA and HTLM methods provide more information than the standard method. The study of bottom ash and fly ash as well as deposit samples from straw test firings at the Haslev and Slagelse Combined Heat and Power plants resulted in a better understanding of mineral behaviour during straw grate firing. In these tests a number of straws were fired which had been carefully selected for having different qualities with respect to sort and potassium and chlorine contents. By studying bottom ashes from Slagelse it was found that the melting behaviour correlated with the deposition rate on a probe situated at the outlet part of the combustion zone. (EG)

  1. Volcanic ash infrared signature: porous non-spherical ash particle shapes compared to homogeneous spherical ash particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kylling, A.; Kahnert, M.; Lindqvist, H.; Nousiainen, T.

    2014-04-01

    The reverse absorption technique is often used to detect volcanic ash clouds from thermal infrared satellite measurements. From these measurements effective particle radius and mass loading may be estimated using radiative transfer modelling. The radiative transfer modelling usually assumes that the ash particles are spherical. We calculated thermal infrared optical properties of highly irregular and porous ash particles and compared these with mass- and volume-equivalent spherical models. Furthermore, brightness temperatures pertinent to satellite observing geometry were calculated for the different ash particle shapes. Non-spherical shapes and volume-equivalent spheres were found to produce a detectable ash signal for larger particle sizes than mass-equivalent spheres. The assumption of mass-equivalent spheres for ash mass loading estimates was found to underestimate mass loading compared to morphologically complex inhomogeneous ash particles. The underestimate increases with the mass loading. For an ash cloud recorded during the Eyjafjallajökull 2010 eruption, the mass-equivalent spheres underestimate the total mass of the ash cloud by approximately 30% compared to the morphologically complex inhomogeneous particles.

  2. The total protein content, protein fractions and proteases activities of drone prepupae of Apis mellifera due to varrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zółtowska, Krystyna; Lipiński, Zbigniew; Dmitryjuk, Małgorzata

    2005-01-01

    The proteins level and activities of acid and alkaline proteases in whole body extracts of drone prepupae of Apis mellifera naturally infested with Varroa destructor were studied. The infested and a non-infested group did not differ significantly in their total protein content. However, some differences in protein profiles were found. A lack of three protein fractions of moderate and lower molecular weight in infested prepupae was noted. Moreover, some differences in the quantity of protein in most of the fractions were observed. The activity of acid proteases from infested prepupae was lower (p drone had higher activity of alkaline proteases than non-infested but this difference was not statisticaly significant.

  3. Effect of cooking on total vitamin C contents and antioxidant activity of sweet chestnuts (Castanea sativa Mill.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Ana I R N A; Nunes, Fernando M; Gonçalves, Berta; Bennett, Richard N; Silva, Ana Paula

    2011-09-01

    In this work the total vitamin C contents (ascorbic acid+dehydroascorbic acid) and antioxidant activity of raw and cooked chestnuts was evaluated. The vitamin C contents of raw chestnuts varied significantly between the different cultivars (cv) studied and it varied from 400mg/kg dry weight (cv Lada) to 693mg/kg dry weight (cv Martaínha). The different cultivars behave differently during the cooking process concerning the loss of vitamin C. A significant decrease in the vitamin C content of the chestnuts was observed, 25-54% for the boiling process and 2-77% for the roasting process. Boiled and roasted chestnuts can be good sources of vitamin C since it may represent 22.4%, 16.2%, 26.8% and 19.4%, respectively, of the recommended dietary intake for an adult man and woman. The cooking process significantly changed the antioxidant activity of the chestnuts. A difference was observed between the cultivars during the cooking processes, concerning the antioxidant activity. For the raw chestnuts the variation in vitamin C content of the chestnuts explains 99% of the antioxidant activity variation but for the roasted and boiled chestnuts this percentage significantly decreases to 51% and 88%, respectively. Although a high antioxidant activity is still present in the cooked chestnuts, the cause for this antioxidant activity is less dependent on the vitamin C content of the chestnuts, probably due to the conversion of ascorbic acid to dehydroascorbic acid. The increase in gallic acid during the cooking process, presumably transferred from the peels to the fruit, also contributes to the high antioxidant activity observed for the cooked chestnuts.

  4. Effects of the addition of oil shale ash and coal ash on physic-chemical properties of CPJ45 cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabih K.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We focused our research on recycling industrial wastes, fly ash (F.A, bottom ash (B.A and oil shale ash (S.A in cement production. The study concerns physico-chemical characterization of these products and the influence of their addition on the mechanical proprieties of the CPJ45 cement. XRF allowed us to rank the three additives used according to their contents on major oxides. Coal ashes belong to the class F, and thus possess poozzolanic properties and oil shale ash belongs to the class C and possesses hydraulic and poozolanic properties. The crystalline phases constituting each ash were analysed by XRD. We observe in bottom ash the presence of quartz and mullite. The same crystals are found in fly ash with hematite and magnetite. Oil shale ash is composed of quartz, anhydrite, gehlenite, wollastonite and periclase. The microstructures of fly ash and bottom ash were studied using SEM. The bottom ash was composed respectively of fine particles that are generally irregularly shaped, their dimensions are between 5 and 28μm and of big particles(300 μm. The EDX analysis coupled with an electronic microscope provided some information about the major elements that constitute our samples. The dehydrations of anhydrous and three days hydrated cement were examined by DSC. For hydrated cements we noticed endothermic peaks related to the dehydration of CSH, CH and decomposition of carbonates. The study of the mechanical properties of CPJ45 cement by adding different proportions of fly ash, bottom ash and oil shale ash helped clarifying the percentage of ash that leaded to improve the 28 days mechanical strength. The results show that the cements studied have their maximum mechanical resistance with the addition at 7% of fly ash or 10% of oil shale ash.

  5. Sieving of municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash; Siktning av askor fraan avfallsfoerbraenning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todorovic, Jelena

    2010-07-01

    Waste-to-Energy is steadily increasing in Sweden and more than 46 % of municipal solid waste (MSW) is being incinerated. Solid residues from MSW incineration (MSWI) mainly constitute of bottom ash and air pollution control (APC) residues. Bottom ashes from MSWI amounted to 0.7 millions of tons and APC residues to 0.2 millions of tons in 2008. Bottom ashes from MSWI contain pollutants like metals (e.g. Pb, Zn, Cu), metalloids (e.g. As, Se), elements forming oxyanions (e.g. Sb, Cr, Mo) and easily soluble salts like chlorides and sulphates. These constituents can leach out polluting the environment if ash comes in contact with water. Treatment methods for decreasing the amount of pollutants in ashes or their mobility are therefore needed. Sieving was investigated as a separate or a complementary treatment method for MSWI ashes. Hypothesis was that the large share of pollutant concentrations could be removed from the ashes through separation of the finest fractions. The rest is less harmful to the environment, more acceptable as secondary construction material or less costly to landfill. Investigation included three MSWI ashes, namely bottom ash from Boraas Energy och Miljoe's plant with fluid bad, boiler ash from the same plant and bottom ash from Renova's stocker grate type plant. Ashes were sieved in 2-4 size fractions. Total content of pollutants and their leachability (batch leaching test, L/S=10 l/kg) was assessed for each of the fractions. Leaching results were compared to limit values stipulated by Swedish Environmental Protection Agency for acceptance of waste at landfills as wells as to recommendations for reuse of waste as a construction material. Results from bottom ash from the stocker grate type incinerator and from the boiler ash confirm the hypothesis that pollutants leach out in higher concentrations from the finer fractions. A large amount of pollutant could be removed from the ashes through sieving, but the goal to produce a fraction that

  6. [Effect of triterpenoid glycosides on alpha- and beta-amylase activity and total protein content in wheat seedlings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidiants, E S

    2011-01-01

    Influence of the aleanolic acid glycosides from Silphium perfoliatum L. (silphioside B, C, E and G) and their progenins on the amylase activity and total protein content in wheat seedlings was studied. Treatment of the Triticum aestivum L. seeds with 1-10 microM water solutions of mono- and diglycosides (mono- and bisdesmosines) elevated the alpha-amylase and total amylase activities in seedlings. Silphioside E containing three glucose moieties in its molecule did not change alpha-amylase activity, but it did if bis-triglycoside acetylated carbohydrate (as in silphioside C). Effects of 5-10 microM solutions of the active glycosides was comparable with that of exogenous gibberellin A3 and 6-benzylaminopurine.

  7. ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY AND TOTAL PHENOL CONTENT OF HYPTIS SPP., P. HEPTAPHYLLUM, T. PANAMENSIS, T. RHOIFOLIA, AND OCOTEA SP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geovanna Tafurt García

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the possible correlation between the antioxidant activities and the Total Phenolic Content (TPC and chemical composition of Lamiaceae (H. conferta, H. dilatata, H. mutabilis, H. suaveolens, Burseraceae (P. heptaphyllum, T. rhoifoila, T. panamensis, and Lauraceae (Ocotea sp. were evaluated. The Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity or the Total Antioxidant Activity (TAA was determined by using a colorimetric assay with the ABTS radical cation, Effective Concentration (EC50 was evaluated with the DPPH radical, and the TPC was established by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, for ethanolic extracts obtained by cold maceration and evaporation to dryness. Both the TAA and the EC50 were highly correlated with the TPC. The barks of T. rhoifolia and T. panamensis demonstrated the highest antioxidant capacities. The Burseraceae spp. exhibited the highest TPC, and the Lamiaceae (Hyptis spp. demonstrated the lowest TPC.

  8. Characterization of hot-mix asphalt concrete containing municipal solid waste incinerator ash using the dynamic modulus (E) test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassan, H.F. [Sultan Qaboos Univ., Muscat (Oman). College of Engineering

    2007-07-01

    In 2001, approximately 229 million tons of municipal solid waste (MSW) were produced in the United States. MSW consists of items such as paper, grass clippings, furniture, clothing, bottles, food scraps, appliances, paint, and batteries. MSW incinerator ash is the by-product produced during the combustion of municipal solid waste in combustor facilities and has two components, namely bottom ash and fly ash. To reduce the disposal problem, the incinerators are used to reduce the volume and weight of MSW. This is usually a self-sustained process using the waste as a fuel resulting in as much as a 90 and 75 per cent reduction in volume and weight, respectively. This paper presented the results of a study that investigated the use of incinerator ash as a partial replacement of fine aggregate in hot-mix asphalt concrete. MSW incinerator ash was collected from an incinerator facility at Sultan Qaboos University in Oman and a physical and chemical characterization of the ash was conducted. MSW ash was used in the mixture to replace fine aggregate with a percentage ranging from 0 to 40 per cent, by total aggregate weight. The mixes were designed using the Marshall mix design method and the dynamic modulus test was conducted on samples prepared at optimum asphalt contents for mixes containing different percentage of ash and at different temperatures and frequencies. Master curves for different percentages of ash in the mix were developed from the testing results. It was found that the Marshall mix design results for the mixes containing MSW ash indicated a decrease in stability, and specific gravity, and an increase in air voids. 18 refs., 10 figs.

  9. TOTAL AND FRACTIONAL CONTENTS OF PROTEINS IN BEAN SEEDS UNDER THE CONDITIONS OF VARIED FERTILISATION WITH MICROELEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech KOZERA

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Over 2003-2005 at the Experiment Station at Wierzchucinek at the University of Technology and Life Sciences in Bydgoszcz, there was performed a strict one-factor micro-plot experiment in split-splot design. The factor tested was a type of microelements [n=5: Cu, Zn, Mn, Mo, B]. The microelements were foliar sprayed in a chelated form, as the series of Symfonia fertilizers. The study aimed at comparing the effect of five agricultural-engineering basic microelements on the contents and protein composition of the seeds of Aura cultivar. The fertilization applied, boron and manganese in particular, showed an effect on the increase in the contents of total protein in bean seeds. It also modified the fractional composition of the bean seed protein. There was observed a clear increase in the fraction of albumins and globulins in seeds as a result of the microelements applied, except for boron. The fertilization with molybdenum, boron, copper and zinc reduced the content of glutelins, and the sum of glulelins and prolamines in the bean seeds.

  10. Assessment of bioaccumulation of heavy metals by different plant species grown on fly ash dump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jambhulkar, Hemlata P; Juwarkar, Asha A

    2009-05-01

    A field experiment was conducted on a 10-hectare area on fly ash dump at Khaperkheda Thermal Power Plant, Nagpur, India, where different ecologically and economically important plant species were planted using bioremediation technology. The technology involves the use of organic amendment and selection of suitable plant species along with site-specific nitrogen-fixing strains of biofertilizers. The study was conducted to find out the metal accumulation potential of different plant species. The total heavy metal contents in fly ash were determined and their relative abundance was found in the order of Fe>Mn>Zn>Cu>Ni>Cr>Pb>Cd. Fly ash samples had acidic pH, low electrical conductivity, low level of organic carbon and trace amounts of N and P. Plantation of divergent species was done on fly ash dump using the bioremediation technique. After 3 years of plantation, luxuriant growth of these species was found covering almost the entire fly ash dump. The results of the metal analysis of these species indicated that iron accumulated to the greatest extent in vegetation followed by Mn, Ni, Zn, Cu, Cr and Pb. Cassia siamea was found to accumulate all metals at higher concentrations compared to other species. The experimental study revealed that C. siamea could be used as a hyper-accumulator plant for bioremediation of fly ash dump.

  11. Recycling of ash from biomass incinerator in clay matrix to produce ceramic bricks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Villarejo, L; Eliche-Quesada, D; Iglesias-Godino, Fco J; Martínez-García, C; Corpas-Iglesias, Fco A

    2012-03-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of incorporation of ash from biomass incinerator as raw material on the production of ceramic bricks for their application in construction. So, for the fabrication of bricks, compositions were prepared with addition of increasing amounts of waste ash (0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% in wt.) in the clay body. The mixed samples were sintered using conventional powder processing based on powder compaction at 54.5 MPa and firing them at 950 °C without the addition of additives. Effect on apparent density, water absorption and mechanical properties were investigated. The results showed that water absorption increased and apparent density and compressive strength decreased with higher amounts of ash. Bricks with an ash content up to 20% meet the UNE standards compressive strength. As a result, since interesting performances were observed, the potential use of ashes from biomass incinerator up to 20 wt.% in ceramic formulations of industrial interest was confirmed. In this sense, incorporating ashes into clay body reduces environmental problems and total cost of raw material disposition. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. All-enzymatic HPLC method for determination of individual and total contents of vitamin B6 in foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huong Thi Viet Do

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background : There is a need for a reliable and accurate method for quantification of each of the seven individual vitamin B6 compounds including pyridoxine-β-glucoside in foods. Objective : To determine pyridoxal (PL, pyridoxamine (PM, pyridoxine (PN, pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (PLP, pyridoxamine 5′-phosphate (PMP, pyridoxine 5′-phosphate (PNP, and pyridoxine-β-glucoside (PNG in foods. Design : By specific enzymatic treatment, each of the seven vitamin B6 compounds was all converted into 4-pyridoxolactone, which is a highly fluorescent compound. In total, seven separate, enzymatic steps were performed for each sample. Separation and quantification were performed with reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC coupled with fluorescence detection. For each sample type the result was corrected for the recovery based on spiked samples. The method was applied for analyses of chicken liver, chicken white meat, egg yolk, egg white, dried anchovy, carrots, and garlic. Results : The recovery varied from 14 to 114% in chicken liver, chicken white meat, egg yolk, egg white, dried anchovy, carrot, and garlic. Each food showed a characteristic distribution of the seven vitamin B6 compounds. The PNG was only found in low amounts; that is, 17–29 nmol vitamin B6/g in the plant-derived foods, carrot and garlic. Only egg white showed a lower content, 3 nmol/g. Overall the content in chicken liver, chicken white meat, and egg yolk had a total content of vitamin B6 between 42 and 51 nmol/g. Both PM and PMP were high in the chicken liver. In contrast, PL and PLP were high in the chicken white meat. The main vitamin B6 in the egg yolk was PLP. The dried anchovy contained high amounts of PLP and PMP and a total content of 144 nmol/g. Conclusions : The enzymatic-based HPLC method was applied for the determination of seven vitamin B6 compounds in foods. Their distribution in the foods varied significantly.

  13. Total Phenolic, Flavonoid, Tomatine, and Tomatidine Contents and Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Extracts of Tomato Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Patricia Silva-Beltrán

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of extracts of different fractions of two tomato plant cultivars. The stems, roots, leaves, and whole-plant fractions were evaluated. Tomatine and tomatidine were identified by HPLC-DAD. The leaf extracts from the two varieties showed the highest flavonoids, chlorophyll, carotenoids, and total phenolics contents and the highest antioxidant activity determined by DPPH, ABTS, and ORAC. A positive correlation was observed between the antioxidant capacities of the extracts and the total phenolic, flavonoid, and chlorophyll contents. The Pitenza variety extracts inhibited the growth of pathogens such as E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria ivanovii, yielding inhibition halos of 8.0 to 12.9 mm in diameter and MIC values of 12.5 to 3.125 mg/mL. These results suggest that tomato plant shows well potential as sources of various bioactive compounds, antioxidants, and antimicrobials.

  14. Evaluation of Membrane Stabilizing Activity, Total Phenolic Content, Brine Shrimp Lethality Bioassay, Thrombolytic and Antimicrobial Activities of Tagetes patula L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Ruhul Kuddus

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The methanol extract of leaf of Tagetes patula L. as well as its n-hexane, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform and aqueous soluble partitionates were subjected to screening for total phenolic content, brine shrimp lethality, membrane stabilizing, thrombolytic and antimicrobial activity. The membrane stabilizing activity was assessed by hypotonic solution-and heat-induced methods and was compared with acetyl salicylic acid. In the present studies, the n-hexane soluble fraction demonstrated strong membrane stabilizing activity in both hypotonic solution-and heat-induced methods with 44.48% and 42.68% inhibition of haemolysis, respectively. The total phenolic content was also determined and expressed in gallic acid equivalent. In brine shrimp bioassay, the crude methanol extract of leaf showed strong cytotoxic activity with LC50 value of 8.58 μg/ml compared to that of 0.451 μg/ml exhibited by standard vincristine sulphate. During assay for thrombolytic activity, the n-hexane soluble fraction revealed 43.7% lysis of clot while standard streptokinase and water, used as positive and negative controls, demonstrated 65.8% and 3.62% lysis of clot, respectively. In antimicrobial assay by disc diffusion method, all the samples exhibited moderate to significant antimicrobial activity (zone of inhibition = 9.0-22.0 mm against all the test organisms. Among all the samples, the carbon tetrachloride soluble fraction displayed strong antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli (22.0 mm.

  15. [Effect of algorithms for calibration set selection on quantitatively determining asiaticoside content in Centella total glucosides by near infrared spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Xue-yan; Zhao, Na; Lin, Zhao-zhou; Wu, Zhi-sheng; Yuan, Rui-juan; Qiao, Yan-jiang

    2014-12-01

    The appropriate algorithm for calibration set selection was one of the key technologies for a good NIR quantitative model. There are different algorithms for calibration set selection, such as Random Sampling (RS) algorithm, Conventional Selection (CS) algorithm, Kennard-Stone(KS) algorithm and Sample set Portioning based on joint x-y distance (SPXY) algorithm, et al. However, there lack systematic comparisons between two algorithms of the above algorithms. The NIR quantitative models to determine the asiaticoside content in Centella total glucosides were established in the present paper, of which 7 indexes were classified and selected, and the effects of CS algorithm, KS algorithm and SPXY algorithm for calibration set selection on the accuracy and robustness of NIR quantitative models were investigated. The accuracy indexes of NIR quantitative models with calibration set selected by SPXY algorithm were significantly different from that with calibration set selected by CS algorithm or KS algorithm, while the robustness indexes, such as RMSECV and |RMSEP-RMSEC|, were not significantly different. Therefore, SPXY algorithm for calibration set selection could improve the predicative accuracy of NIR quantitative models to determine asiaticoside content in Centella total glucosides, and have no significant effect on the robustness of the models, which provides a reference to determine the appropriate algorithm for calibration set selection when NIR quantitative models are established for the solid system of traditional Chinese medcine.

  16. Determination of the total nitrogen content of hard, semihard, and processed cheese by the Kjeldahl method: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Joanna M; Barbano, David M; Fleming, J Richard

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this collaborative study was to determine interlaboratory performance statistics for a modified and optimized version of AOAC Method 920.123 for the determination of the total nitrogen content of hard, semihard, and processed cheese by Kjeldahl analysis. Details included addressing the issues of material homogeneity, test portion size (1 g), quantitative transfer (weighing on to filter paper), ensuring system suitability (nitrogen recoveries), and using AOAC Method 991.20 as the basis for nitrogen analysis. Fifteen laboratories tested 18 pairs of blind duplicate cheese materials with a crude protein content between 18 and 36%. Materials represented hard, semihard, and processed commercial cheeses with a wide range of composition. Statistical performance parameters expressed as crude protein (nitrogen x 6.38), g/100 g, with invalid and outlier data removed were mean = 26.461, repeatability standard deviation (Sr) 0.111, reproducibility standard deviation (S(R)) = 0.153, repeatability relative standard deviation (RSDr) = 0.42%, reproducibility relative standard deviation (RSDR) = 0.58%, repeatability (r) = 0.312, and reproducibility (R) = 0.428. The interlaboratory study results were acceptable and comparable to those for the milk Kjeldahl nitrogen method on a relative nitrogen basis. The Study Directors recommend that this modified method for the determination of total nitrogen in hard, semihard, and processed cheese by Kjeldahl analysis be adopted First Action as an improved method to replace Method 920.123.

  17. Effect of Transgenic Bt Cotton on Abundance of Cotton Spider Mites and Total Phenolic Content of Leaves and their Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanfang Pei

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The differences of the total phenolic content in leaves and percentage of cotton plants infested with cotton spider mites between in transgenic Bt (Ezamian No. 24F1 and in non-transgenic Bt cotton (Ek 9 parental line of Ezamian No. 24F1 plots with and without spraying acaricides were systematically investigated in Tai Lake farm, Hubei Province, China, over the period 26 May and 11 September 2011. In acaricide treated plots, transgenic Bt cotton does not result in a change of the abundance of cotton spider mites compared to that in non-transgenic Bt cotton, however, without acaricide treated plots, transgenic Bt cotton significantly increases the abundance of cotton spider mites compared to those of non-transgenic Bt cotton. The number of eggs, larva-nymph-adults, egg-larvanymph- adults and the plant damage index are independent of the total phenolic content in leaves. The results are also discussed in relation to integrated pest management. It was very necessary for nontarget cotton spider mites of transgenic Bt cotton fields to control in wetland agricultural area.

  18. Total Phenolic, Flavonoid, Tomatine, and Tomatidine Contents and Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Extracts of Tomato Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Beltrán, Norma Patricia; Ruiz-Cruz, Saul; Cira-Chávez, Luis Alberto; Estrada-Alvarado, María Isabel; Ornelas-Paz, José de Jesús; López-Mata, Marco Antonio; Del-Toro-Sánchez, Carmen Lizette; Ayala-Zavala, J. Fernando; Márquez-Ríos, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of extracts of different fractions of two tomato plant cultivars. The stems, roots, leaves, and whole-plant fractions were evaluated. Tomatine and tomatidine were identified by HPLC-DAD. The leaf extracts from the two varieties showed the highest flavonoids, chlorophyll, carotenoids, and total phenolics contents and the highest antioxidant activity determined by DPPH, ABTS, and ORAC. A positive correlation was observed between the antioxidant capacities of the extracts and the total phenolic, flavonoid, and chlorophyll contents. The Pitenza variety extracts inhibited the growth of pathogens such as E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria ivanovii, yielding inhibition halos of 8.0 to 12.9 mm in diameter and MIC values of 12.5 to 3.125 mg/mL. These results suggest that tomato plant shows well potential as sources of various bioactive compounds, antioxidants, and antimicrobials. PMID:26609308

  19. Variation in antioxidant, and antibacterial activities and total phenolic content of the bulbs of mooseer (Allium hirtifolium Boiss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdollah GHASEMI PIRBALOUTI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Allium hirtifolium Boiss. (mooseer belonging to the family Alliaceae, is an endemic species of Iran which grows wild in the Zagros Mountains range, western and southwestern Iran. The bulb of A. hirtifolium has been used as a flavouring agent, especially dairy foods and pickles by the indigenous people, southwestern Iran. In this study, the bulbs of various populations of the plant were collected from the alpine regions in Chaharmahal va Bakhtiari province, Iran. The total phenolic content of the ethanol extract was determined by Folin– Ciocalteu method, the antioxidant activity was evaluated by measuring 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, and the antibacterial activity of the extracts against four bacteria, including Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Proteus vulgaris, and Salmonella typhimurium was determined by serial dilution assay. Results indicated that the total phenolic content in the ethanol extracts of different populations of A. hirtifolium ranged between 34 to 44 mg gallic acid/g extract. In addition, the extracts of A. hirtifolium indicated moderate– to–good inhibitory activities (MICs = 0.062 to 0.250 mg/ml against four bacteria, especially against B. cereus. The antioxidant activity of the bulbs of A. hirtifolium indicated the extract acted as an effective DPPH scavenger, but were not as effective as the BHT control. This finding suggests that the bulbs of A. hirtifolium may be considered as a natural source of antioxidants and antimicrobial agents.

  20. Effect of Roasting Process on Total Phenolic Compounds and γ-tocopherol Contents of Iranian Sesame Seeds (Sesamum indicum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jannat, Behrooz; Oveisi, Mohammad Reza; Sadeghi, Naficeh; Hajimahmoodi, Mannan; Behzad, Masoomeh; Nahavandi, Bahman; Tehrani, Shirin; Sadeghi, Fatemeh; Oveisi, Morvarid

    2013-01-01

    Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) seed and oil have long been used widely as healthy foods to supply energy and prevent aging. Some of the main active anti-oxidative constituents in sesame seeds are γ-tocopherol and phenols. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between roasting temperature and time with γ-tocopherol and total phenolic compounds (TPC) of sesame seeds when roasted in a domestic electric oven. Eight cultivars of sesame seeds in this study were Darab, Dezful, Karaj, Moghan, Naz- Branching, Naz-NonBranching, Siah and Varamin. Each cultivar was divided into ten group based on the roasting time (10, 15 and 20 min) and temperatures (180, 200 and 220 °C)andunroasted one. The high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and spectrophotometeric methods were used for γ-tocopherol (n = 80) and TPC (n = 80) analysis, respectively. The γ-tocopherol content ranged from 329 ± 5 mg/L in Naz-Branching sesame oil to 1114±7 mg/L in Siah sesame oil and 169±6 to 577±1 mg/kg in sesame seed respectively. γ-tocopherol content of six cultivars increased significantly (p sesame cultivars from 20.109 ± 3.967 μM to 129.300±3.493 in Varamin and Naz- Branching sesame seed cultivars, respectively, also TPC increased from 70.953 ± 5.863 μM in unroasted Naz-Branching sesame seed to 129.300 ± 3.493 μM after roasting in 200 °C for 20 min. The present study showed that Iranian sesame seed can be considered as a good source of natural antioxidant specially after roasting. The optimum temperature and time roasting to obtain the most γ-tocopherol and total phenolic content was 200 °C for 10 and 20 min, respectively.

  1. Total phenolic, flavonoid content, and antioxidant activity of flour, noodles, and steamed bread made from different colored wheat grains by three milling methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yaoguang; Li; Dongyun; Ma; Dexiang; Sun; Chenyang; Wang; Jian; Zhang; Yingxin; Xie; Tiancai; Guo

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of wheat variety, food processing, and milling method on antioxidant properties. Black wheat variety Heibaoshi 1 had the highest total phenolic content(659.8 μg gallic acid equivalents g-1), total flavonoid content(319.3 μg rutin equivalents g-1), and antioxidant activity, whereas light purple wheat variety Shandongzimai 1 had the lowest total flavonoid content(236.2 μg rutin equivalents g-1) and antioxidant activity. Whole wheat flour and partially debranned grain flour had significantly higher total phenolic contents, total flavonoid contents, and antioxidant activity than refined flour(P < 0.05). Compared with flour, total phenolic contents, total flavonoid contents and antioxidant activity decreased in noodles and steamed bread, whereas noodles had slightly higher total phenolic and flavonoid content than steamed bread. Antioxidant activities(by ferric reducing ability of plasma assay) of steamed bread made from whole wheat flour, partially debranned grain flour, and refined flour were 23.5%, 21.1%, and 31.6% lower, respectively, than the corresponding values of flour. These results suggested that black whole wheat flour and partially debranned grain flour are beneficial to human health.

  2. Total phenolic, flavonoid content, and antioxidant activity of flour, noodles, and steamed bread made from different colored wheat grains by three milling methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yaoguang Li; Dongyun Ma; Dexiang Sun; Chenyang Wang; Jian Zhang; Yingxin Xie; Tiancai Guo

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of wheat variety, food processing, and milling method on antioxidant properties. Black wheat variety Heibaoshi 1 had the highest total phenolic content (659.8μg gallic acid equivalents g−1), total flavonoid content (319.3μg rutin equivalents g−1), and antioxidant activity, whereas light purple wheat variety Shandongzimai 1 had the lowest total flavonoid content (236.2μg rutin equivalents g−1) and antioxidant activity. Whole wheat flour and partially debranned grain flour had significantly higher total phenolic contents, total flavonoid contents, and antioxidant activity than refined flour (P<0.05). Compared with flour, total phenolic contents, total flavonoid contents and antioxidant activity decreased in noodles and steamed bread, whereas noodles had slightly higher total phenolic and flavonoid content than steamed bread. Antioxidant activities (by ferric reducing ability of plasma assay) of steamed bread made from whole wheat flour, partially debranned grain flour, and refined flour were 23.5%, 21.1%, and 31.6% lower, respectively, than the corresponding values of flour. These results suggested that black whole wheat flour and partially debranned grain flour are beneficial to human health.

  3. Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    Aim, content and methods are fundamental categories of both theoretical and practical general didactics. A quick glance in recent pedagogical literature on higher education, however, reveals a strong preoccupation with methods, i.e. how teaching should be organized socially (Biggs & Tang, 2007......; Race, 2001; Ramsden, 2003). This trend appears closely related to the ‘from-teaching-to-learning’ movement, which has had a strong influence on pedagogy since the early nineties (Keiding, 2007; Terhart, 2003). Another interpretation of the current interest in methodology can be derived from...... for selection of content (Klafki, 1985, 2000; Myhre, 1961; Nielsen, 2006). These attempts all share one feature, which is that criteria for selection of content appear very general and often, more or less explicitly, deal with teaching at the first Bologna-cycle; i.e. schooling at the primary and lower...

  4. Ultratrace element contents in rat tissues: Comparative analysis of serum and hair as indicative matrices of the total body burden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skalny Anatoly V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of ultratrace elements in rat tissues and to perform a comparative analysis of hair and serum as potential bioindicators of the total ultratrace element content. Thirty-six male Wistar rats were fed a standard chow containing 0.006±0.000, 0.001±0.000, 0.017±0.002, 0.382±0.031, 0.168±0.014, 3.211±0.134, 0.095±0.006, 0.000±0.000, 6.675±0.336, 15.327±0.564, 0.002±0.000, and 1.185±0.202 μg/g of silver (Ag, gold (Au, cesium (Cs, gallium (Ga, germanium (Ge, lanthanum (La, niobium (Nb, platinum (Pt, rubidium (Rb, titanium (Ti, thallium (Tland zirconium (Zr, respectively, from weaning to 3 months old. The ultratrace element content in the liver, kidney, muscle, heart, serum and hair was assessed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The obtained data indicate that the highest concentrations of most of the studied elements (Ti, Zr, Ge, Nb, tungsten (W, La, uranium (U, Ag, Au, Pt are in hair, whereas the lowest were observed in the serum. Statistical analysis revealed a significant association between conc