WorldWideScience

Sample records for ascomycete fungus eutypa

  1. Genetic structure of the fungal grapevine pathogen Eutypa lata from four continents

    Science.gov (United States)

    The generalist ascomycete fungus Eutypa lata causes Eutypa dieback of grapevine (Vitis vinifera) worldwide. To decipher the cosmopolitan distribution of this fungus, the population genetic structure of 17 geographic samples was investigated from four continental regions (Australia, California, Europ...

  2. A new guaiane mannoside from a Eutypa-like fungus isolated from Murraya paniculata in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Afonso D.L.; Rodrigues-Filho, Edson [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCAR), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Souza, Antonia Q.L.; Henrique-Silva, Flavio [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCAR), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Genetica e Evolucao; Pereira, Jose O. [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agrarias

    2008-07-01

    A Eutypa-like fungus was isolated from the stems of Murraya paniculata. The fungus was cultivated in liquid medium and produced the new guaiane-type sesquiterpenoid (1R,4S,5S,7R,10R)- 10-hydroxyguaianol 10-O-beta-mannopyranoside and the 3-hydroxy-5-phenylmethyl-(3S,5R)- tetrahydrofuran-2-one, a diastereomer of harzialactone A, obtained for the first time from a natural source. The structures of these metabolites were elucidated based on analysis of their spectroscopic data. (author)

  3. The genome sequence of the model ascomycete fungus Podospora anserina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Espagne, Eric; Lespinet, Olivier; Malagnac, Fabienne; Da Silva, Corinne; Jaillon, Olivier; Porcel, Betina M; Couloux, Arnaud; Aury, Jean-Marc; Ségurens, Béatrice; Poulain, Julie; Anthouard, Véronique; Grossetete, Sandrine; Khalili, Hamid; Coppin, Evelyne; Déquard-Chablat, Michelle; Picard, Marguerite; Contamine, Véronique; Arnaise, Sylvie; Bourdais, Anne; Berteaux-Lecellier, Véronique; Gautheret, Daniel; de Vries, Ronald P; Battaglia, Evy; Coutinho, Pedro M; Danchin, Etienne Gj; Henrissat, Bernard; Khoury, Riyad El; Sainsard-Chanet, Annie; Boivin, Antoine; Pinan-Lucarré, Bérangère; Sellem, Carole H; Debuchy, Robert; Wincker, Patrick; Weissenbach, Jean; Silar, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The dung-inhabiting ascomycete fungus Podospora anserina is a model used to study various aspects of eukaryotic and fungal biology, such as ageing, prions and sexual development. RESULTS: We present a 10X draft sequence of P. anserina genome, linked to the sequences of a large expressed

  4. Enzymes and bioproducts produced by the ascomycete fungus Paecilomyces variotii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera Bravo de Laguna, I; Toledo Marante, F J; Mioso, R

    2015-12-01

    Due its innate ability to produce extracellular enzymes which can provide eco-friendly solutions for a variety of biotechnological applications, Paecilomyces variotii is a potential source of industrial bioproducts. In this review, we report biotechnological records on the biochemistry of different enzymes produced by the fermentation of the P. variotii fungus, including tannases, phytases, cellulases, xylanases, chitinases, amylases and pectinases. Additionally, the main physicochemical properties which can affect the enzymatic reactions of the enzymes involved in the conversion of a huge number of substrates to high-value bioproducts are described. Despite all the background information compiled in this review, more research is required to consolidate the catalytic efficiency of P. variotii, which must be optimized so that it is more accurate and reproducible on a large scale.

  5. Antarctomyces pellizariae sp. nov., a new, endemic, blue, snow resident psychrophilic ascomycete fungus from Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Menezes, Graciéle C A; Godinho, Valéria M; Porto, Bárbara A; Gonçalves, Vívian N; Rosa, Luiz H

    2017-03-01

    In the present study, we have identified and characterised a new snow resident ascomycete blue stain fungus from Antarctica named Antarctomyces pellizariae sp. nov. Menezes, Godinho, Porto, Gonçalves and Rosa, using polyphasic taxonomy techniques. This fungal species was recovered from the seasonal snow of the Antarctic Peninsula. Antarctomyces pellizariae displayed different macro- and micromorphology when compared with A. psychrotrophicus Stchigel and Guarro, the only other Antarctomyces species reported until date. Antarctomyces pellizariae showed psychrophilic behavior and very low growth rate at 22-25 °C, quite different from A. psychrotrophicus that has a higher growth rate at mesophilic temperatures. In addition, micromorphological characteristics and the analysis of the nuclear rDNA internal transcribed spacer, β-tubulin, and RNA polymerase II regions revealed that A. pellizariae is a new species that is related to A. psychrotrophicus and Thelebolus species. Since the Antarctic Peninsula is reported to be one of the main regions of the earth experiencing the effects of global change in climate, species, such as A. pellizariae, might provide information about these effects on the endemic Antarctic biota. In addition, A. pellizariae displayed psychrophilic behavior and might be a source of interesting anti-freeze compounds that might prove useful in biotechnological processes.

  6. Mn(II) oxidation by an ascomycete fungus is linked to superoxide production during asexual reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansel, Colleen M; Zeiner, Carolyn A; Santelli, Cara M; Webb, Samuel M

    2012-07-31

    Manganese (Mn) oxides are among the most reactive minerals within the environment, where they control the bioavailability of carbon, nutrients, and numerous metals. Although the ability of microorganisms to oxidize Mn(II) to Mn(III/IV) oxides is scattered throughout the bacterial and fungal domains of life, the mechanism and physiological basis for Mn(II) oxidation remains an enigma. Here, we use a combination of compound-specific chemical assays, microspectroscopy, and electron microscopy to show that a common Ascomycete filamentous fungus, Stilbella aciculosa, oxidizes Mn(II) to Mn oxides by producing extracellular superoxide during cell differentiation. The reactive Mn oxide phase birnessite and the reactive oxygen species superoxide and hydrogen peroxide are colocalized at the base of asexual reproductive structures. Mn oxide formation is not observed in the presence of superoxide scavengers (e.g., Cu) and inhibitors of NADPH oxidases (e.g., diphenylene iodonium chloride), enzymes responsible for superoxide production and cell differentiation in fungi. Considering the recent identification of Mn(II) oxidation by NADH oxidase-based superoxide production by a common marine bacterium (Roseobacter sp.), these results introduce a surprising homology between some prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms in the mechanisms responsible for Mn(II) oxidation, where oxidation appears to be a side reaction of extracellular superoxide production. Given the versatility of superoxide as a redox reactant and the widespread ability of fungi to produce superoxide, this microbial extracellular superoxide production may play a central role in the cycling and bioavailability of metals (e.g., Hg, Fe, Mn) and carbon in natural systems.

  7. Mn(II) oxidation by an ascomycete fungus is linked to superoxide production during asexual reproduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansel, C. M.; Zeiner, C. A.; Santelli, C. M.; Webb, S. M.

    2012-07-16

    Manganese (Mn) oxides are among the most reactive minerals within the environment, where they control the bioavailability of carbon, nutrients, and numerous metals. Although the ability of microorganisms to oxidize Mn(II) to Mn(III/IV) oxides is scattered throughout the bacterial and fungal domains of life, the mechanism and physiological basis for Mn(II) oxidation remains an enigma. Here, we use a combination of compound-specific chemical assays, microspectroscopy, and electron microscopy to show that a common Ascomycete filamentous fungus, Stilbella aciculosa, oxidizes Mn(II) to Mn oxides by producing extracellular superoxide during cell differentiation. The reactive Mn oxide phase birnessite and the reactive oxygen species superoxide and hydrogen peroxide are colocalized at the base of asexual reproductive structures. Mn oxide formation is not observed in the presence of superoxide scavengers (e.g., Cu) and inhibitors of NADPH oxidases (e.g., diphenylene iodonium chloride), enzymes responsible for superoxide production and cell differentiation in fungi. Considering the recent identification of Mn(II) oxidation by NADH oxidase-based superoxide production by a common marine bacterium (Roseobacter sp.), these results introduce a surprising homology between some prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms in the mechanisms responsible for Mn(II) oxidation, where oxidation appears to be a side reaction of extracellular superoxide production. Finally, given the versatility of superoxide as a redox reactant and the widespread ability of fungi to produce superoxide, this microbial extracellular superoxide production may play a central role in the cycling and bioavailability of metals (e.g., Hg, Fe, Mn) and carbon in natural systems.

  8. Plant biomass degrading ability of the coprophilic ascomycete fungus Podospora anserina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couturier, Marie; Tangthirasunun, Narumon; Ning, Xie; Brun, Sylvain; Gautier, Valérie; Bennati-Granier, Chloé; Silar, Philippe; Berrin, Jean-Guy

    2016-01-01

    The degradation of plant biomass is a major challenge towards the production of bio-based compounds and materials. As key lignocellulolytic enzyme producers, filamentous fungi represent a promising reservoir to tackle this challenge. Among them, the coprophilous ascomycete Podospora anserina has been used as a model organism to study various biological mechanisms because its genetics are well understood and controlled. In 2008, the sequencing of its genome revealed a great diversity of enzymes targeting plant carbohydrates and lignin. Since then, a large array of lignocellulose-acting enzymes has been characterized and genetic analyses have enabled the understanding of P. anserina metabolism and development on plant biomass. Overall, these research efforts shed light on P. anserina strategy to unlock recalcitrant lignocellulose deconstruction.

  9. FgFlbD regulates hyphal differentiation required for sexual and asexual reproduction in the ascomycete fungus Fusarium graminearum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Hokyoung; Kim, Myung-Gu; Chae, Suhn-Kee; Lee, Yin-Won

    2014-11-01

    Fusarium graminearum is a filamentous fungal plant pathogen that infects major cereal crops. The fungus produces both sexual and asexual spores in order to endure unfavorable environmental conditions and increase their numbers and distribution across plants. In a model filamentous fungus, Aspergillus nidulans, early induction of conidiogenesis is orchestrated by the fluffy genes. The objectives of this study were to characterize fluffy gene homologs involved in conidiogenesis and their mechanism of action in F. graminearum. We characterized five fluffy gene homologs in F. graminearum and found that FlbD is the only conserved regulator for conidiogenesis in A. nidulans and F. graminearum. Deletion of fgflbD prevented hyphal differentiation and the formation of perithecia. Successful interspecies complementation using A. nidulans flbD demonstrated that the molecular mechanisms responsible for FlbD functions are conserved in F. graminearum. Moreover, abaA-wetA pathway is positively regulated by FgFlbD during conidiogenesis in F. graminearum. Deleting fgflbD abolished morphological effects of abaA overexpression, which suggests that additional factors for FgFlbD or an AbaA-independent pathway for conidiogenesis are required for F. graminearum conidiation. Importantly, this study led to the construction of a genetic pathway of F. graminearum conidiogenesis and provides new insights into the genetics of conidiogenesis in fungi.

  10. A review of the Mycrocylus ulei Ascomycetes fungus, causative agent of South American rubber-leaf blight Revisión sobre el hongo Microcyclus ulei, agente causal del mal suramericano de la hoja del caucho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ancízar Aristizábar Fabio

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The Microcyclus ulei Ascomycetes fungus is the causal agent of south-American leaf blight (SALB, this being one of the most important diseases affecting the natural rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis in Latina-America and has been responsible for numerous economic losses. This fungus has presented high physiological variability, suggesting its great adaptability. HCN tolerance has been described as being one of the mechanisms associated with its virulence. Resistant Hevea clones have been obtained by genetic improvement; however, the mechanisms associated with this are still not well known. Greater knowledge of this pathogen will lead to developing new control strategies and better understanding of the mechanisms associated with host resistance. Key words: Microcyclus ulei, SALB, Hevea brasiliensis.El hongo ascomycete Microcyclus ulei es el agente causal del SALB que es una de las enfermedades más importan­tes del árbol de caucho natural (Hevea brasiliensis en América Latina y ha sido responsable de numerosas pérdidas económicas. Este hongo ha presentado alta variabilidad fisiológica y se sugiere su alta adaptabilidad, dentro de los mecanismos asociados a su virulencia se ha descrito la tolerancia al HCN. Se han obtenido clones de Hevea resistentes mediante mejoramiento genético, sin embargo, aun no son bien conocidos los mecanismos asociados a ésta. Un mayor conocimiento de este patógeno permitirá el desarrollo de nuevas estrategias de control así como el mayor entendimiento de los mecanismos asociados a resistencia del hospedero. Palabras clave: Microcyclus ulei, SALB, Hevea brasiliensis.

  11. Basidiomycete yeasts in the cortex of ascomycete macrolichens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spribille, Toby; Tuovinen, Veera; Resl, Philipp; Vanderpool, Dan; Wolinski, Heimo; Aime, M Catherine; Schneider, Kevin; Stabentheiner, Edith; Toome-Heller, Merje; Thor, Göran; Mayrhofer, Helmut; Johannesson, Hanna; McCutcheon, John P

    2016-07-29

    For over 140 years, lichens have been regarded as a symbiosis between a single fungus, usually an ascomycete, and a photosynthesizing partner. Other fungi have long been known to occur as occasional parasites or endophytes, but the one lichen-one fungus paradigm has seldom been questioned. Here we show that many common lichens are composed of the known ascomycete, the photosynthesizing partner, and, unexpectedly, specific basidiomycete yeasts. These yeasts are embedded in the cortex, and their abundance correlates with previously unexplained variations in phenotype. Basidiomycete lineages maintain close associations with specific lichen species over large geographical distances and have been found on six continents. The structurally important lichen cortex, long treated as a zone of differentiated ascomycete cells, appears to consistently contain two unrelated fungi.

  12. Species distinction of the ascomycetous heterothallic yeast-like fungus Stephanoascus ciferrii complex: description of Candida allociferrii sp. nov. and reinstatement of Candida mucifera Kocková-Kratochvílová et Sláviková.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda-Nishimura, Kumiko; Mikata, Kozaburo

    2002-03-01

    The nucleotide sequences of the 18S rRNA gene (rDNA) from nine strains of the heterothallic ascomycetous Stephanoascus ciferrii complex were determined and the strains were separated into three groups according to their sequences. 18S rDNA sequences were identical within the same group. In group A the 18S rDNA sequences had no introns; in group B there was one group I intron, Sc1506-1 at position 1506; and in group C there were two group I introns, Sc943 at position 943 and Sc1506-2 at position 1506. Sc1506-1 and Sc1506-2 at position 1506 exhibited 19 base differences but were very similar. Therefore, it is suggested that these introns existed in the common ancestor of groups B and C, and that they were vertically inherited. DNA similarity values showed that the strains within the same group were of identical species. Group B included the isotype strains of Stephanoascus ciferrii and the type strains of Candida ciferrii and Sporothrix catenata; this confirmed that group B strains correspond to Stephanoascus ciferrii and that Candida ciferrii and Sporothrix catenata are synonyms of Stephanoascus ciferrii. The single member of group C, strain IFO 10918T, corresponds to the type strain of Candida mucifera and was independent of the other tested strains. Thus, Candida mucifera should be regarded as an independent species from Stephanoascus ciferrii. It is suggested that group A strains might comprise a new Stephanoascus species, but since group A strains could not form asci by themselves in this study they are described as a new species for which the name Candida allociferrii sp. nov. (type strain IFO 10194T) is proposed.

  13. Production of cellulolytic enzymes from ascomycetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Gustav Hammerich; Lübeck, Mette; Frisvad, Jens Christian;

    2015-01-01

    Optimizing production of cellulose degrading enzymes is of great interest in order to increase the feasibility of constructing biorefinery facilities for a sustainable supply of energy and chemical products. The ascomycete phylum has a large potential for the production of cellulolytic enzymes....... Although numerous enzymatic profiles have already been unraveled, the research has been covering only a limited number of species and genera, thus leaving many ascomycetes to be analyzed. Such analysis requires choosing appropriate media and cultivation methods that ensure enzyme profiles with high...... specificities and activities. However, the choice of media, cultivation methods and enzyme assays highly affect the enzyme activity profile observed. This review provides an overview of enzymatic profiles for several ascomycetes covering phylogenetically distinct genera and species. The profiles of cellulose...

  14. Discovery of Ascomycete characteristics in Sporothrix schenckii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Thibaut

    1973-12-01

    Full Text Available Sporothrix schenckii has been studied by light microscopy, and also by transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Characteristics of Ascomycetes have been oibserved at the level of the cell-wall and in the synaptic system of the hyphae. Also the perfect state has been discovered. The four spored asei are formed directly from the mycelium and there is no fructification. Dolichoascus schenckii is the name suggested for this perfect state which constitutes a new genus of the Endomycetaceae.

  15. Genomic Evolution of the Ascomycete Yeasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, Robert; Haridas, Sajeet; Salamov, Asaf; Boundy-Mills, Kyria; Goker, Markus; Hittinger, Chris; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Lopes, Mariana; Meir-Kolthoff, Jan P.; Rokas, Antonis; Rosa, Carlos; Scheuner, Carmen; Soares, Marco; Stielow, Benjamin; Wisecaver, Jennifer H.; Wolfe, Ken; Blackwell, Meredith; Kurtzman, Cletus; Grigoriev, Igor; Jeffries, Thomas

    2015-03-16

    Yeasts are important for industrial and biotechnological processes and show remarkable metabolic and phylogenetic diversity despite morphological similarities. We have sequenced the genomes of 16 ascomycete yeasts of taxonomic and industrial importance including members of Saccharomycotina and Taphrinomycotina. Phylogenetic analysis of these and previously published yeast genomes helped resolve the placement of species including Saitoella complicata, Babjeviella inositovora, Hyphopichia burtonii, and Metschnikowia bicuspidata. Moreover, we find that alternative nuclear codon usage, where CUG encodes serine instead of leucine, are monophyletic within the Saccharomycotina. Most of the yeasts have compact genomes with a large fraction of single exon genes, and a tendency towards more introns in early-diverging species. Analysis of enzyme phylogeny gives insights into the evolution of metabolic capabilities such as methanol utilization and assimilation of alternative carbon sources.

  16. Nail Fungus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... problems, a weakened immune system or, in children, Down syndrome A severe case of nail fungus can be ... possibly effective in treating nail fungus, but more study is needed. ... and file down thickened areas. Wear socks that absorb sweat. Fabrics ...

  17. Discovery of Ascomycete characteristics in Sporothrix schenckii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Thibaut

    1973-12-01

    Full Text Available Sporothrix schenckii has been studied by light microscopy, and also by transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Characteristics of Ascomycetes have been oibserved at the level of the cell-wall and in the synaptic system of the hyphae. Also the perfect state has been discovered. The four spored asei are formed directly from the mycelium and there is no fructification. Dolichoascus schenckii is the name suggested for this perfect state which constitutes a new genus of the Endomycetaceae.Sporothrix schenckii foi estudado em microscopia óptica e em microscopia eletrônica. Foram observados caracteres citológicos de Ascomicetos nas paredes das células e no aparelho sináptico dos hyphae. Foi descoberta a reprodução sexuada. Os ascos de quatro esporos são formados diretamente sobre o micélio e não há frutificação. Dolichoascus schenckii é o nome proposto para este estádio perfeito que constitui um novo gênero de Endomycetaceae.

  18. Characterization of oxylipins and dioxygenase genes in the asexual fungus Aspergillus niger

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wadman, Mayken W; de Vries, Ronald P; Kalkhove, Stefanie I C; Veldink, Gerrit A; Vliegenthart, Johannes F G

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Aspergillus niger is an ascomycetous fungus that is known to reproduce through asexual spores, only. Interestingly, recent genome analysis of A. niger has revealed the presence of a full complement of functional genes related to sexual reproduction 1. An example of such genes are the dio

  19. EVOLUTION OF VEGETATIVE INCOMPATIBILITY IN FILAMENTOUS ASCOMYCETES .1. DETERMINISTIC MODELS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NAUTA, MJ; HOEKSTRA, RF

    1994-01-01

    In ascomycetes vegetative incompatibility can prevent the somatic exchange of genetic material between conspecifics. It must occur frequently in natural populations, since in all species studied many vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs) are found. Using a population-genetic approach, this paper ex

  20. Ascoyonus monascus, a new species of Ascomycetes from Great Britain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brummelen, van J.; Richardson, M.J.

    2001-01-01

    Ascozonus monascus Brumm. & M.J. Richardson, a new coprophilous ascomycete from Scotland, is described and illustrated. It is characterized by ascomata developing only a single multispored ascus, with a subapical ring and a small operculum at the apex, and a few excipular cells near the base.

  1. [Comparison of genomes between Aspergillus nidulans and 30 filamentous ascomycetes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Zhao-Qing; Zhao, Fu-Yong; Hsiang, Tom; Yu, Zhi-He

    2010-11-01

    To investigate the conserved homologs of filamentous ascomycetes genomes, the local fungal genome database used in this analysis was established, which consisted of 31 latest and complete genome data publicly available on the Internet. An expectation value cutoff of 0.1 was used to identify significant hits. Each complete gene set of the query genome Aspergillus nidulans genome with 10,560 annotated genes was splitted into individual FASTA files with Seqverter and then compared separately against each filamentous ascomycete genome using Standalone BLASTN. The result indicated that the number of matches reflected the evolutional relationships of the filamentous ascomycetes analysed. Of 10,560 genes in Aspergillus nidulans genome, 924 had match sequences with other 30 filamentous ascomycetes ones. The number of homology sequences were 6, 3, 6, and 6 at E-values in the range of 10(-5) to 0.1, 10(-30) to 10(-5), 10(-100) to 10(-30) and 0 to 1000(-100), respectively. Six homologs at E-values ranging from 10(-5) to 0.1 and 3 at E-values ranging from 10(-30) to 10(-5) were variable, while the 6 at E-values ranging from 0 to 10(-100) were highly conserved based on the alignments using ClustalX. Six homologs were relatively conserved at E-values in the range of 10(-100) to 10(-30), which can be used in phylogeny of these filamentous ascomycetes in this study.

  2. Phylogenetic analysis of β-xylanase SRXL1 of Sporisorium reilianum and its relationship with families (GH10 and GH11) of Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Álvarez-Cervantes; Gerardo Díaz-Godínez; Yuridia Mercado-Flores; Vijai Kumar Gupta; Miguel Angel Anducho-Reyes

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the amino acid sequence of the β-xylanase SRXL1 of Sporisorium reilianum, which is a pathogenic fungus of maize was used as a model protein to find its phylogenetic relationship with other xylanases of Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes and the information obtained allowed to establish a hypothesis of monophyly and of biological role. 84 amino acid sequences of β-xylanase obtained from the GenBank database was used. Groupings analysis of higher-level in the Pfam database allowed to...

  3. Fungus Amongus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakeley, Deidra

    2005-01-01

    This role-playing simulation is designed to help teach middle level students about the typical lifecycle of a fungus. In this interactive simulation, students assume the roles of fungi, spores, living and dead organisms, bacteria, and rain. As they move around a playing field collecting food and water chips, they discover how the organisms…

  4. Inheritance of Mitochondrial DNA and Plasmids in the Ascomycetous Fungus, Epichloe Typhina

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, K. R.; Leuchtmann, A.; Schardl, C. L.

    1996-01-01

    We analyzed the inheritance of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) species in matings of the grass symbiont Epichloe typhina. Eighty progeny were analyzed from a cross in which the maternal (stromal) parent possessed three linear plasmids, designated Callan-a (7.5 kb), Aubonne-a (2.1 kb) and Bergell (2.0 kb), and the paternal parent had one plasmid, Aubonne-b (2.1 kb). Maternal transmission of all plasmids was observed in 76 progeny; two progeny possessed Bergell and Callan-a, but had the maternal Aubo...

  5. Conservation of PHO pathway in ascomycetes and the role of Pho84

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Parul Tomar; Sinha Sinha

    2014-06-01

    In budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the phosphate signalling and response pathway, known as PHO pathway, monitors phosphate cytoplasmic levels by controlling genes involved in scavenging, uptake and utilization of phosphate. Recent attempts to understand the phosphate starvation response in other ascomycetes have suggested the existence of both common and novel components of the budding yeast PHO pathway in these ascomycetes. In this review, we discuss the components of PHO pathway, their roles in maintaining phosphate homeostasis in yeast and their conservation across ascomycetes. The role of high-affinity transporter, Pho84, in sensing and signalling of phosphate has also been discussed.

  6. Mla- and Rom1-mediated control of microRNA398 and chloroplast copper/zinc superoxide dismutase regulates cell death in response to the barley powdery mildew fungus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barley Mla (Mildew resistance locus a) confers allele-specific interactions with natural variants of the ascomycete fungus, Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei (Bgh), causal agent of powdery mildew disease. Significant reprogramming of host gene expression occurs upon infection by this obligate biotrop...

  7. Phylogenetic analysis of β-xylanase SRXL1 of Sporisorium reilianum and its relationship with families (GH10 and GH11) of Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Cervantes, Jorge; Díaz-Godínez, Gerardo; Mercado-Flores, Yuridia; Gupta, Vijai Kumar; Anducho-Reyes, Miguel Angel

    2016-04-04

    In this paper, the amino acid sequence of the β-xylanase SRXL1 of Sporisorium reilianum, which is a pathogenic fungus of maize was used as a model protein to find its phylogenetic relationship with other xylanases of Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes and the information obtained allowed to establish a hypothesis of monophyly and of biological role. 84 amino acid sequences of β-xylanase obtained from the GenBank database was used. Groupings analysis of higher-level in the Pfam database allowed to determine that the proteins under study were classified into the GH10 and GH11 families, based on the regions of highly conserved amino acids, 233-318 and 180-193 respectively, where glutamate residues are responsible for the catalysis.

  8. Botryane, noreudesmane and abietane terpenoids from the ascomycete Hypoxylon rickii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhnert, Eric; Surup, Frank; Wiebach, Vincent; Bernecker, Steffen; Stadler, Marc

    2015-09-01

    In the course of our screening for new bioactive natural products, a culture of Hypoxylon rickii, a xylariaceous ascomycete collected from the Caribbean island Martinique, was identified as extraordinary prolific producer of secondary metabolites. Ten metabolites of terpenoid origin were isolated from submerged cultures of this species by preparative HPLC. Their structures were elucidated using spectral techniques including 2D NMR and HRESIMS. Three of the compounds were elucidated as new botryanes (1-3) along with three known ones, i.e. (3aS)-3a,5,5,8-tetramethyl-3,3a,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-cyclopenta[de]isochromen-1-one (4), (3aS,8R)-3a,5,5,8-tetramethyl-3,3a,4,5,7,8-hexahydro-1H-cyclopenta[de]isochromen-1-one (5) and botryenanol (6). Further three new sesquiterpenoids featured a 14-noreudesmane-type skeleton and were named hypoxylan A-C (7-9); the diterpenoid rickitin A (10) contains an abietane-type backbone. Compounds 1, 2, 3, 7, and 10 showed cytotoxic effects against murine cells.

  9. White Fungus Soup

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    Ingredients: two pieces of white fungus, a handful of Chinese wolfberry fruit, dates, dried longan, lotus seeds and peanuts. Directions: 1. Soak the dried fungus in water, remove the roots and then cook. 2. Steep the Chinese wolfberry fruit, dates, dried longan, lotus seeds and peanuts in water for a while.

  10. Genome and physiology of the ascomycete filamentous fungus Xeromyces bisporus, the most xerophilic organism isolated to date

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leong, Su-lin L.; Lantz, Henrik; Pettersson, Olga V.

    2015-01-01

    Xeromyces bisporus can grow on sugary substrates down to 0.61, an extremely low water activity. Its genome size is approximately 22 Mb. Gene clusters encoding for secondary metabolites were conspicuously absent; secondary metabolites were not detected experimentally. Thus, in its 'dry' but nutrie...

  11. The chestnut blight fungus for studies on virus/host and virus/virus interactions: from a natural to a model host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eusebio-Cope, Ana; Sun, Liying; Tanaka, Toru; Chiba, Sotaro; Kasahara, Shin; Suzuki, Nobuhiro

    2015-03-01

    The chestnut blight fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica, is an important plant pathogenic ascomycete. The fungus hosts a wide range of viruses and now has been established as a model filamentous fungus for studying virus/host and virus/virus interactions. This is based on the development of methods for artificial virus introduction and elimination, host genome manipulability, available host genome sequence with annotations, host mutant strains, and molecular tools. Molecular tools include sub-cellular distribution markers, gene expression reporters, and vectors with regulatable promoters that have been long available for unicellular organisms, cultured cells, individuals of animals and plants, and certain filamentous fungi. A comparison with other filamentous fungi such as Neurospora crassa has been made to establish clear advantages and disadvantages of C. parasitica as a virus host. In addition, a few recent studies on RNA silencing vs. viruses in this fungus are introduced.

  12. Tremella with Edible Fungus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    (Meiwei Shuang’er)Remove the tremella and edible fungus roots, clean and drain. Slice green peppers and carrots.Heat some oil in a wok, add tremella, edible fungus, green peppers and carrots, and clear stock, salt and sugar. Simmer for two minutes. Add MSG and pepper, remove to a plate, and serve.Features: Attractively black and white.Taste: Crisp and savory.

  13. The cell end marker Tea4 regulates morphogenesis and pathogenicity in the basidiomycete fungus Ustilago maydis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valinluck, Michael; Woraratanadharm, Tad; Lu, Ching-yu; Quintanilla, Rene H; Banuett, Flora

    2014-05-01

    Positional cues localized to distinct cell domains are critical for the generation of cell polarity and cell morphogenesis. These cues lead to assembly of protein complexes that organize the cytoskeleton resulting in delivery of vesicles to sites of polarized growth. Tea4, an SH3 domain protein, was first identified in fission yeast, and is a critical determinant of the axis of polarized growth, a role conserved among ascomycete fungi. Ustilago maydis is a badiomycete fungus that exhibits a yeast-like form that is nonpathogenic and a filamentous form that is pathogenic on maize and teozintle. We are interested in understanding how positional cues contribute to generation and maintenance of these two forms, and their role in pathogenicity. We identified a homologue of fission yeast tea4 in a genetic screen for mutants with altered colony and cell morphology and present here analysis of Tea4 for the first time in a basidiomycete fungus. We demonstrate that Tea4 is an important positional marker for polarized growth and septum location in both forms. We uncover roles for Tea4 in maintenance of cell and neck width, cell separation, and cell wall deposition in the yeast-like form, and in growth rate, formation of retraction septa, growth reversal, and inhibition of budding in the filamentous form. We show that Tea4::GFP localizes to sites of polarized or potential polarized growth in both forms, as observed in ascomycete fungi. We demonstrate an essential role of Tea4 in pathogencity in the absence of cell fusion. Basidiomycete and ascomycete Tea4 homologues share SH3 and Glc7 domains. Tea4 in basidiomycetes has additional domains, which has led us to hypothesize that Tea4 has novel functions in this group of fungi.

  14. DNA barcoding and isolation of vertically transmitted ascomycetes in sorghum from Burkina Faso

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokholm, Michaela Schiller; Wulff, Ednar G.; Zida, Elisabeth P.;

    2016-01-01

    -day-old seedlings was analyzed by 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) amplicon sequencing. More than 99% of the fungal rDNA was found to originate from ascomycetes. The distribution of ascomycetes at species level was subsequently analyzed by barcoding of ITS2 rDNA. Eighteen Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) were identified......Molecular identification of fungal taxa commonly transmitted through seeds of sorghum in Western Africa is lacking. In the present study, farm-saved seeds, collected from four villages in Northern Burkina Faso, were surface sterilized and the distribution of fungal DNA in seeds and seven...... samples collected in Central Burkina Faso confirming a common occurrence. E. sorghinum was highly predominant in seedlings both measured by DNA analysis and by isolation. The dominance of E. sorghinum was particularly strong in roots from poorly growing seedlings. Pathogenicity of E. sorghinum isolates...

  15. Causes and consequences of variability in peptide mating pheromones of ascomycete fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Simon H; Wingfield, Brenda D; Wingfield, Michael J; Steenkamp, Emma T

    2011-07-01

    The reproductive genes of fungi, like those of many other organisms, are thought to diversify rapidly. This phenomenon could be associated with the formation of reproductive barriers and speciation. Ascomycetes produce two classes of mating type-specific peptide pheromones. These are required for recognition between the mating types of heterothallic species. Little is known regarding the diversity or the extent of species specificity in pheromone peptides among these fungi. We compared the putative protein-coding DNA sequences of the 2 pheromone classes from 70 species of Ascomycetes. The data set included previously described pheromones and putative pheromones identified from genomic sequences. In addition, pheromone genes from 12 Fusarium species in the Gibberella fujikuroi complex were amplified and sequenced. Pheromones were largely conserved among species in this complex and, therefore, cannot alone account for the reproductive barriers observed between these species. In contrast, pheromone peptides were highly diverse among many other Ascomycetes, with evidence for both positive diversifying selection and relaxed selective constraint. Repeats of the α-factor-like pheromone, which occur in tandem arrays of variable copy number, were found to be conserved through purifying selection and not concerted evolution. This implies that sequence specificity may be important for pheromone reception and that interspecific differences may indeed be associated with functional divergence. Our findings also suggest that frequent duplication and loss causes the tandem repeats to experience "birth-and-death" evolution, which could in fact facilitate interspecific divergence of pheromone peptide sequences.

  16. The high-affinity phosphodiesterase BcPde2 has impact on growth, differentiation and virulence of the phytopathogenic ascomycete Botrytis cinerea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Harren

    Full Text Available Components of the cAMP signaling pathway, such as the adenylate cyclase Bac and the protein kinase A (PKA were shown to affect growth, morphogenesis and differentiation as well as virulence of the phytopathogenic fungus Botrytis cinerea. While loss of Bac caused drastically reduced intracellular cAMP levels, deletion of the PKA resulted in extremely increased cAMP concentrations. To regulate the intracellular level of the second messenger cAMP, a balance between its biosynthesis through adenylate cyclase activity and its hydrolysis by phosphodiesterases (PDEs is crucial. Here, we report the functional characterization of the two PDEs in the ascomycete B. cinerea, BcPde1 and BcPde2. While deletion of bcpde2 resulted in severely affected vegetative growth, conidiation, germination and virulence, the bcpde1 deletion strain displayed a wild-type-like phenotype. However, the double bcpde1/2 deletion mutant exhibited an even stronger phenotype. Localization studies revealed that BcPde2 accumulates at the plasma membrane, but is also localized in the cytoplasm. BcPde1 was shown to be distributed in the cytoplasm as well, but also accumulates in so far unknown mobile vesicles. Overexpression of bcpde1 in the Δbcpde2 background rescued the deletion phenotype, and in addition an increased transcript level of bcpde1 in the Δbcpde2 strain was observed, indicating redundant functions of both PDEs and an interdependent gene expression.

  17. Anacardic acid induces apoptosis-like cell death in the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzaffar, Suhail; Bose, Chinchu; Banerji, Ashok; Nair, Bipin G; Chattoo, Bharat B

    2016-01-01

    Anacardic acid (6-pentadecylsalicylic acid), extracted from cashew nut shell liquid, is a natural phenolic lipid well known for its strong antibacterial, antioxidant, and anticancer activities. Its effect has been well studied in bacterial and mammalian systems but remains largely unexplored in fungi. The present study identifies antifungal, cytotoxic, and antioxidant activities of anacardic acid in the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae. It was found that anacardic acid causes inhibition of conidial germination and mycelial growth in this ascomycetous fungus. Phosphatidylserine externalization, chromatin condensation, DNA degradation, and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential suggest that growth inhibition of fungus is mainly caused by apoptosis-like cell death. Broad-spectrum caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK treatment indicated that anacardic acid induces caspase-independent apoptosis in M. oryzae. Expression of a predicted ortholog of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) was upregulated during the process of apoptosis, suggesting the possibility of mitochondria dependent apoptosis via activation of apoptosis-inducing factor. Anacardic acid treatment leads to decrease in reactive oxygen species rather than increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation normally observed during apoptosis, confirming the antioxidant properties of anacardic acid as suggested by earlier reports. Our study also shows that anacardic acid renders the fungus highly sensitive to DNA damaging agents like ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS). Treatment of rice leaves with anacardic acid prevents M. oryzae from infecting the plant without affecting the leaf, suggesting that anacardic acid can be an effective antifungal agent.

  18. Antibiotic Resistance and Fungus

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-02-28

    Dr. David Denning, President of the Global Action Fund for Fungal Infections and an infectious diseases clinician, discusses antimicrobial resistance and fungus.  Created: 2/28/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 2/28/2017.

  19. The effect of growth conditions on production and excretion of extracellular antigens by three ascomycetous yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middelhoven, W J; Slingerland, R J; Notermans, S

    1988-01-01

    Ascomycetous yeasts produce extracellular antigens that are almost specific for the species. The antigen production by Hansenula wickerhamii and Stephanoascus ciferrii was independent of the carbon source and was proportional to the final cell density of the cultures. The same was true of chemostat cultures of Stephanoascus ciferrii, irrespective of the dilution rate and whether glucose or ammonia was the limiting nutrient. In cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, however, antigen excretion mainly took place in the late exponential growth phase. Large amounts of antigen were extracted from the cell wall of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A small amount was detected in the cytoplasm.

  20. Carbohydrate-active enzymes from the zygomycete fungus Rhizopus oryzae: a highly specialized approach to carbohydrate degradation depicted at genome level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrissat Bernard

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rhizopus oryzae is a zygomycete filamentous fungus, well-known as a saprobe ubiquitous in soil and as a pathogenic/spoilage fungus, causing Rhizopus rot and mucomycoses. Results Carbohydrate Active enzyme (CAZy annotation of the R. oryzae identified, in contrast to other filamentous fungi, a low number of glycoside hydrolases (GHs and a high number of glycosyl transferases (GTs and carbohydrate esterases (CEs. A detailed analysis of CAZy families, supported by growth data, demonstrates highly specialized plant and fungal cell wall degrading abilities distinct from ascomycetes and basidiomycetes. The specific genomic and growth features for degradation of easily digestible plant cell wall mono- and polysaccharides (starch, galactomannan, unbranched pectin, hexose sugars, chitin, chitosan, β-1,3-glucan and fungal cell wall fractions suggest specific adaptations of R. oryzae to its environment. Conclusions CAZy analyses of the genome of the zygomycete fungus R. oryzae and comparison to ascomycetes and basidiomycete species revealed how evolution has shaped its genetic content with respect to carbohydrate degradation, after divergence from the Ascomycota and Basidiomycota.

  1. Ascomycetous yeasts associated with naturally occurring fruits in a tropical rain forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prada, G M; Pagnocca, F C

    1997-01-01

    Fruits from twenty different species of angiosperms were collected during the period from November, 1991 to January, 1992. Two hundred and two strains of yeasts and yeast-like fungi were isolated, of which 74% showed ascomycetic affinity. Candida was the predominant genus, followed by (in descending order of occurrence): Cryptococcus, Kloeckera, Sporobolomyces, Pichia, Hanseniaspora and Bullera. Black yeasts and other strains showing basidiomycetic affinity were also isolated. The genus Candida represented the highest number of identified species and the greatest variety of associated substrates. Among the ascomycetes and their anamorphs, 38 species were identified, with Kloeckera apiculata being the most frequent among the isolates and the one which occurred in the largest variety of substrates. Some of the biotypes designated as Candida sp. A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, and Pichia sp. did not correspond to the standard species description found in the literature, and may represent new species. The strains of yeasts isolated in this study were characterized and incorporated into the Tropical Culture Collection of the Fundaao Tropical de Pesquisas e Tecnologia Andŕe Tosello, Campinas, São Paulo.

  2. Comparative Analysis of Secretome Profiles of Manganese(II)-Oxidizing Ascomycete Fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeiner, Carolyn A.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Zink, Erika M.; Paša-Tolić, Ljiljana; Chaput, Dominique L.; Haridas, Sajeet; Wu, Si; LaButti, Kurt; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Henrissat, Bernard; Santelli, Cara M.; Hansel, Colleen M.; Pöggeler, Stefanie

    2016-07-19

    Fungal secretomes contain a wide range of hydrolytic and oxidative enzymes, including cellulases, hemicellulases, pectinases, and lignin-degrading accessory enzymes, that synergistically drive litter decomposition in the environment. While secretome studies of model organisms such as Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Aspergillus species have greatly expanded our knowledge of these enzymes, few have extended secretome characterization to environmental isolates or conducted side-by-side comparisons of diverse species. Thus, the mechanisms of carbon degradation by many ubiquitous soil fungi remain poorly understood. Here we use a combination of LC-MS/MS, genomic, and bioinformatic analyses to characterize and compare the protein composition of the secretomes of four recently isolated, cosmopolitan, Mn(II)-oxidizing Ascomycetes (Alternaria alternata SRC1lrK2f, Stagonospora sp. SRC1lsM3a, Pyrenochaeta sp. DS3sAY3a, and Paraconiothyrium sporulosum AP3s5-JAC2a). We demonstrate that the organisms produce a rich yet functionally similar suite of extracellular enzymes, with species-specific differences in secretome composition arising from unique amino acid sequences rather than overall protein function. Furthermore, we identify not only a wide range of carbohydrate-active enzymes that can directly oxidize recalcitrant carbon, but also an impressive suite of redox-active accessory enzymes that suggests a role for Fenton-based hydroxyl radical formation in indirect, non-specific lignocellulose attack. Our findings highlight the diverse oxidative capacity of these environmental isolates and enhance our understanding of the role of filamentous Ascomycetes in carbon turnover in the environment.

  3. DIVERSITY OF SAPROTROPHIC ANAMORPHIC ASCOMYCETES FROM NATIVE FORESTS IN ARGENTINA: AN UPDATED REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Allegrucci

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En Argentina se reconocen ocho regiones de bosques nativos: bosque Andino-Patagónico, Talares de la Región Pampeana, Parque Chaqueño, Selva Misionera, Selva Tucumano-Boliviana, Monte, Espinal y Bosques Pluviales de los ríos Paraguay, Paraná y Uruguay. El objetivo de este trabajo ha sido reunir y revisar la información sobre la biodiversidad de microhongos saprótrofos (Ascomycetes anamórficos citados en los bosques nativos de Argentina, desde las primeras colecciones de Spegazzini hasta el presente. De las regiones anteriormente mencionadas los bosques Andino-Patagónicos, Bosques Pluviales de los ríos Paraguay, Paraná y Uruguay y recientemente los Talares de la provincia de Buenos Aires son aquellos donde se han realizado más exploraciones de microhongos saprótrofos. Por otro lado se obtuvieron muy pocos registros de especies fúngicas del resto de los bosques; para la región de Monte en particular no se han realizado hasta el presente estudios de hongos anamórficos, por lo cual no se cuenta con registros de especies anamórficas de Ascomycetes. Como resultado de una revisión bibliográfica exhaustiva, se registraron 344 especies, de las cuales 81 (23,5% son nuevas especies. Este trabajo pone de manifiesto la falta de exploraciones de áreas de importancia en nuestro país, y muestra la necesidad de incrementar estos estudios.

  4. Comparative Analysis of Secretome Profiles of Manganese(II-Oxidizing Ascomycete Fungi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn A Zeiner

    Full Text Available Fungal secretomes contain a wide range of hydrolytic and oxidative enzymes, including cellulases, hemicellulases, pectinases, and lignin-degrading accessory enzymes, that synergistically drive litter decomposition in the environment. While secretome studies of model organisms such as Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Aspergillus species have greatly expanded our knowledge of these enzymes, few have extended secretome characterization to environmental isolates or conducted side-by-side comparisons of diverse species. Thus, the mechanisms of carbon degradation by many ubiquitous soil fungi remain poorly understood. Here we use a combination of LC-MS/MS, genomic, and bioinformatic analyses to characterize and compare the protein composition of the secretomes of four recently isolated, cosmopolitan, Mn(II-oxidizing Ascomycetes (Alternaria alternata SRC1lrK2f, Stagonospora sp. SRC1lsM3a, Pyrenochaeta sp. DS3sAY3a, and Paraconiothyrium sporulosum AP3s5-JAC2a. We demonstrate that the organisms produce a rich yet functionally similar suite of extracellular enzymes, with species-specific differences in secretome composition arising from unique amino acid sequences rather than overall protein function. Furthermore, we identify not only a wide range of carbohydrate-active enzymes that can directly oxidize recalcitrant carbon, but also an impressive suite of redox-active accessory enzymes that suggests a role for Fenton-based hydroxyl radical formation in indirect, non-specific lignocellulose attack. Our findings highlight the diverse oxidative capacity of these environmental isolates and enhance our understanding of the role of filamentous Ascomycetes in carbon turnover in the environment.

  5. Comparative EST analysis provides insights into the basal aquatic fungus Blastocladiella emersonii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomes Suely L

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Blastocladiella emersonii is an aquatic fungus of the Chytridiomycete class, which is at the base of the fungal phylogenetic tree. In this sense, some ancestral characteristics of fungi and animals or fungi and plants could have been retained in this aquatic fungus and lost in members of late-diverging fungal species. To identify in B. emersonii sequences associated with these ancestral characteristics two approaches were followed: (1 a large-scale comparative analysis between putative unigene sequences (uniseqs from B. emersonii and three databases constructed ad hoc with fungal proteins, animal proteins and plant unigenes deposited in Genbank, and (2 a pairwise comparison between B. emersonii full-length cDNA sequences and their putative orthologues in the ascomycete Neurospora crassa and the basidiomycete Ustilago maydis. Results Comparative analyses of B. emersonii uniseqs with fungi, animal and plant databases through the two approaches mentioned above produced 166 B. emersonii sequences, which were identified as putatively absent from other fungi or not previously described. Through these approaches we found: (1 possible orthologues of genes previously identified as specific to animals and/or plants, and (2 genes conserved in fungi, but with a large difference in divergence rate in B. emersonii. Among these sequences, we observed cDNAs encoding enzymes from coenzyme B12-dependent propionyl-CoA pathway, a metabolic route not previously described in fungi, and validated their expression in Northern blots. Conclusion Using two different approaches involving comparative sequence analyses, we could identify sequences from the early-diverging fungus B. emersonii previously considered specific to animals or plants, and highly divergent sequences from the same fungus relative to other fungi.

  6. Saccharification of Lignocelluloses by Carbohydrate Active Enzymes of the White Rot Fungus Dichomitus squalens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rytioja, Johanna; Hildén, Kristiina; Mäkinen, Susanna; Vehmaanperä, Jari; Hatakka, Annele; Mäkelä, Miia R.

    2015-01-01

    White rot fungus Dichomitus squalens is an efficient lignocellulose degrading basidiomycete and a promising source for new plant cell wall polysaccharides depolymerizing enzymes. In this work, we focused on cellobiohydrolases (CBHs) of D. squalens. The native CBHI fraction of the fungus, consisting three isoenzymes, was purified and it maintained the activity for 60 min at 50°C, and was stable in acidic pH. Due to the lack of enzyme activity assay for detecting only CBHII activity, CBHII of D. squalens was produced recombinantly in an industrially important ascomycete host, Trichoderma reesei. CBH enzymes of D. squalens showed potential in hydrolysis of complex lignocellulose substrates sugar beet pulp and wheat bran, and microcrystalline cellulose, Avicel. Recombinant CBHII (rCel6A) of D. squalens hydrolysed all the studied plant biomasses. Compared to individual activities, synergistic effect between rCel6A and native CBHI fraction of D. squalens was significant in the hydrolysis of Avicel. Furthermore, the addition of laccase to the mixture of CBHI fraction and rCel6A significantly enhanced the amount of released reducing sugars from sugar beet pulp. Especially, synergy between individual enzymes is a crucial factor in the tailor-made enzyme mixtures needed for hydrolysis of different plant biomass feedstocks. Our data supports the importance of oxidoreductases in improved enzyme cocktails for lignocellulose saccharification. PMID:26660105

  7. Description of Taphrina antarctica f.a. sp. nov., a new anamorphic ascomycetous yeast species associated with Antarctic endolithic microbial communities and transfer of four Lalaria species in the genus Taphrina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selbmann, Laura; Turchetti, Benedetta; Yurkov, Andrey; Cecchini, Clarissa; Zucconi, Laura; Isola, Daniela; Buzzini, Pietro; Onofri, Silvano

    2014-07-01

    In the framework of a large-scale rock sampling in Continental Antarctica, a number of yeasts have been isolated. Two strains that are unable to grow above 20 °C and that have low ITS sequence similarities with available data in the public domain were found. The D1/D2 LSU molecular phylogeny placed them in an isolated position in the genus Taphrina, supporting their affiliation to a not yet described species. Because the new species is able to grow in its anamorphic state only, the species Taphrina antarctica f.a. (forma asexualis) sp. nov. has been proposed to accommodate both strains (type strain DBVPG 5268(T), DSM 27485(T) and CBS 13532(T)). Lalaria and Taphrina species are dimorphic ascomycetes, where the anamorphic yeast represents the saprotrophic state and the teleomorph is the parasitic counterpart on plants. This is the first record for this genus in Antarctica; since plants are absent on the continent, we hypothesize that the fungus may have focused on the saprotrophic part of its life cycle to overcome the absence of its natural host and adapt environmental constrains. Following the new International Code of Nomenclature for Algae, Fungi and Plants (Melbourne Code 2011) the reorganization of Taphrina-Lalaria species in the teleomorphic genus Taphrina is proposed. We emend the diagnosis of the genus Taphrina to accommodate asexual saprobic states of these fungi. Taphrina antarctica was registered in MycoBank under MB 808028.

  8. Conserved and essential transcription factors for cellulase gene expression in ascomycete fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Coradetti, Samuel T.; Craig, James P.; Xiong, Yi; Shock, Teresa; Tian, Chaoguang; Glass, N. Louise

    2012-01-01

    Rational engineering of filamentous fungi for improved cellulase production is hampered by our incomplete knowledge of transcriptional regulatory networks. We therefore used the model filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa to search for uncharacterized transcription factors associated with cellulose deconstruction. A screen of a N. crassa transcription factor deletion collection identified two uncharacterized zinc binuclear cluster transcription factors (clr-1 and clr-2) that were required for ...

  9. Molecular and ultrastructural characterization of two ascomycetes found on sunken wood off Vanuatu islands in the deep Pacific ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont, Joëlle; Magnin, Sandrine; Rousseau, Florence; Zbinden, Magali; Frebourg, Ghislaine; Samadi, Sarah; de Forges, Bertrand Richer; Jones, E B Gareth

    2009-12-01

    A new genus of a deep-sea ascomycete with one new species, Alisea longicolla, is described based on analyses of 18S and 28S rDNA sequences and morphological characters. A. longicolla was found together with Oceanitis scuticella, on small twigs and sugar cane debris trawled from the bottom of the Pacific Ocean off Vanuatu Islands. Molecular and morphological characters indicate that both fungi are members of Halosphaeriaceae. Within this family, O. scuticella is phylogenetically related to Ascosalsum and shares similar ascospore morphology and appendage ontogeny. The genus Ascosalsum is considered congeneric with Oceanitis and Ascosalsum cincinnatulum, Ascosalsum unicaudatum and Ascosalsum viscidulum are transferred to Oceanitis, an earlier generic name.

  10. Rab-GDI complex dissociation factor expressed through translational frameshifting in filamentous ascomycetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabienne Malagnac

    Full Text Available In the model fungus Podospora anserina, the PaYIP3 gene encoding the orthologue of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae YIP3 Rab-GDI complex dissociation factor expresses two polypeptides, one of which, the long form, is produced through a programmed translation frameshift. Inactivation of PaYIP3 results in slightly delayed growth associated with modification in repartition of fruiting body on the thallus, along with reduced ascospore production on wood. Long and short forms of PaYIP3 are expressed in the mycelium, while only the short form appears expressed in the maturing fruiting body (perithecium. The frameshift has been conserved over the evolution of the Pezizomycotina, lasting for over 400 million years, suggesting that it has an important role in the wild.

  11. Rab-GDI complex dissociation factor expressed through translational frameshifting in filamentous ascomycetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malagnac, Fabienne; Fabret, Céline; Prigent, Magali; Rousset, Jean-Pierre; Namy, Olivier; Silar, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    In the model fungus Podospora anserina, the PaYIP3 gene encoding the orthologue of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae YIP3 Rab-GDI complex dissociation factor expresses two polypeptides, one of which, the long form, is produced through a programmed translation frameshift. Inactivation of PaYIP3 results in slightly delayed growth associated with modification in repartition of fruiting body on the thallus, along with reduced ascospore production on wood. Long and short forms of PaYIP3 are expressed in the mycelium, while only the short form appears expressed in the maturing fruiting body (perithecium). The frameshift has been conserved over the evolution of the Pezizomycotina, lasting for over 400 million years, suggesting that it has an important role in the wild.

  12. Biosynthesis and accumulation of ergoline alkaloids in a mutualistic association between Ipomoea asarifolia (Convolvulaceae) and a clavicipitalean fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markert, Anne; Steffan, Nicola; Ploss, Kerstin; Hellwig, Sabine; Steiner, Ulrike; Drewke, Christel; Li, Shu-Ming; Boland, Wilhelm; Leistner, Eckhard

    2008-05-01

    Ergoline alkaloids occur in taxonomically unrelated taxa, such as fungi, belonging to the phylum Ascomycetes and higher plants of the family Convolvulaceae. The disjointed occurrence can be explained by the observation that plant-associated epibiotic clavicipitalean fungi capable of synthesizing ergoline alkaloids colonize the adaxial leaf surface of certain Convolvulaceae plant species. The fungi are seed transmitted. Their capacity to synthesize ergoline alkaloids depends on the presence of an intact differentiated host plant (e.g. Ipomoea asarifolia or Turbina corymbosa [Convolvulaceae]). Here, we present independent proof that these fungi are equipped with genetic material responsible for ergoline alkaloid biosynthesis. The gene (dmaW) for the determinant step in ergoline alkaloid biosynthesis was shown to be part of a cluster involved in ergoline alkaloid formation. The dmaW gene was overexpressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the encoded DmaW protein purified to homogeneity, and characterized. Neither the gene nor the biosynthetic capacity, however, was detectable in the intact I. asarifolia or the taxonomically related T. corymbosa host plants. Both plants, however, contained the ergoline alkaloids almost exclusively, whereas alkaloids are not detectable in the associated epibiotic fungi. This indicates that a transport system may exist translocating the alkaloids from the epibiotic fungus into the plant. The association between the fungus and the plant very likely is a symbiotum in which ergoline alkaloids play an essential role.

  13. Functions and regulation of the Nox family in the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina: a new role in cellulose degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, Sylvain; Malagnac, Fabienne; Bidard, Frédérique; Lalucque, Hervé; Silar, Philippe

    2009-10-01

    NADPH oxidases are enzymes that produce reactive oxygen species. Studies in mammals, plants and fungi have shown that they play important roles in differentiation, defence, host/pathogen interaction and mutualistic symbiosis. In this paper, we have identified a Podospora anserina mutant strain impaired for processes controlled by PaNox1 and PaNox2, the two Nox isoforms characterized in this model ascomycete. We show that the gene mutated is PaNoxR, the homologue of the gene encoding the regulatory subunit p67(phox), conserved in mammals and fungi, and that PaNoxR regulates both PaNox1 and PaNox2. Genome sequence analysis of P. anserina reveals that this fungus posses a third Nox isoform, PaNox3, related to human Nox5/Duox and plant Rboh. We have generated a knock-out mutant of PaNox3 and report that PaNox3 plays a minor role in P. anserina, if any. We show that PaNox1 and PaNox2 play antagonist roles in cellulose degradation. Finally, we report for the first time that a saprobic fungus, P. anserina, develops special cell structures dedicated to breach and to exploit a solid cellulosic substrate, cellophane. Importantly, as for similar structures present in some plant pathogens, their proper differentiation requires PaNox1, PaNox2, PaNoxR and the tetraspanin PaPls1.

  14. A putative transcription factor MYT1 is required for female fertility in the ascomycete Gibberella zeae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Lin

    Full Text Available Gibberella zeae is an important pathogen of major cereal crops. The fungus produces ascospores that forcibly discharge from mature fruiting bodies, which serve as the primary inocula for disease epidemics. In this study, we characterized an insertional mutant Z39P105 with a defect in sexual development and identified a gene encoding a putative transcription factor designated as MYT1. This gene contains a Myb DNA-binding domain and is conserved in the subphylum Pezizomycotina of Ascomycota. The MYT1 protein fused with green fluorescence protein localized in nuclei, which supports its role as a transcriptional regulator. The MYT1 deletion mutant showed similar phenotypes to the wild-type strain in vegetative growth, conidia production and germination, virulence, and mycotoxin production, but had defect in female fertility. A mutant overexpressing MYT1 showed earlier germination, faster mycelia growth, and reduced mycotoxin production compared to the wild-type strain, suggesting that improper MYT1 expression affects the expression of genes involved in the cell cycle and secondary metabolite production. This study is the first to characterize a transcription factor containing a Myb DNA-binding domain that is specific to sexual development in G. zeae.

  15. Kretzschmaria quercicola sp. nov., an Undescribed Fungus from Living Oak in Mt. Daeryong, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Ji Ho; Jo, Jong Won; Lee, Jin Heung; Han, Sang Kuk; Kim, Dae Ho; Lee, Jong Kyu

    2016-06-01

    We encountered an unfamiliar ascomycete fruiting body, fitting characteristics of the genus Kretzschmaria, which features in a stipitate ascigerous stroma with carbonaceous interior and disintegrating perithecia. In this study, we report and characterize a new species of the decaying fungus. Compared to other species, one of the notable features of this specimen (TPML150908-046) is its stromatal size (up to 15 cm). Although TPML150908-046 is morphologically similar to K. milleri and K. sandvicensis, it differs sharply from both species in apical ring size (TPML150908-046, 6.5~10.5 µm; K. milleri, 11~16 µm) and ascospore width (TPML150908-046, 10.5~17 µm; K. sandvicensis, 8.5~11.5 µm). Phylogenetic trees based on β-tubulin, ITS, and RPB2 sequences showed that our collection clustered with K. sandvicensis, with the respective similarities for these sequences being 95.6%, 91.3%, and 97.7%, signifying it as another species. With these results, we report it as a new species, which we call Kretzschmaria quercicola sp. nov.

  16. Genome sequence of the insect pathogenic fungus Cordyceps militaris, a valued traditional chinese medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Species in the ascomycete fungal genus Cordyceps have been proposed to be the teleomorphs of Metarhizium species. The latter have been widely used as insect biocontrol agents. Cordyceps species are highly prized for use in traditional Chinese medicines, but the genes responsible for biosynthesis of bioactive components, insect pathogenicity and the control of sexuality and fruiting have not been determined. Results Here, we report the genome sequence of the type species Cordyceps militaris. Phylogenomic analysis suggests that different species in the Cordyceps/Metarhizium genera have evolved into insect pathogens independently of each other, and that their similar large secretomes and gene family expansions are due to convergent evolution. However, relative to other fungi, including Metarhizium spp., many protein families are reduced in C. militaris, which suggests a more restricted ecology. Consistent with its long track record of safe usage as a medicine, the Cordyceps genome does not contain genes for known human mycotoxins. We establish that C. militaris is sexually heterothallic but, very unusually, fruiting can occur without an opposite mating-type partner. Transcriptional profiling indicates that fruiting involves induction of the Zn2Cys6-type transcription factors and MAPK pathway; unlike other fungi, however, the PKA pathway is not activated. Conclusions The data offer a better understanding of Cordyceps biology and will facilitate the exploitation of medicinal compounds produced by the fungus. PMID:22112802

  17. Biodegradation of Phenolic Compounds in Creosote Treated Wood Waste by a Composting Microbial Culture Augmented with the Fungus Thermoascus aurantiacus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel E. Ghaly

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Creosote is used as a wood preservative and water proof agent in railway sleepers, utility poles, buildings foundations and fences and garden furniture. It is a mixture of over 300 hydrocarbons which include 75% polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, 2-17% phenolic compounds and 10-18% heterocyclic organic compounds. Exposure to creosote may result in several health problems including damage to kidney, liver, eyes and skin. Potential contamination of soil and water exist from creosote treated wood from construction and demolition sites. Approach: The possibility of using an invessel composting process augmented with the ascomycetous fungus Thermoascus aurantiacus as a mesophilic/thermophilic bioremediation option for the degradation of phenolic compounds in creosote treated wood waste was evaluated. Results: The temperatures of bioremediation process reached thermophilic phase and the mesophilic and thermophilic lag phases were clearly identified. The moisture content decreased significantly indicating that the water produced by microbial respiration did not compensate for the water lost as vapor with the exhaust gases. Initial increases in pH due to the breakdown of organic nitrogen to ammonium and final drop in pH due to the formation of organic acids and the loss of ammonium with the exhaust gases in the latter stage were observed. Different degradation rates were observed in the mesophilic and thermophilic stages of composting. The control experiment achieved higher reductions of volatile solids, total carbon and TKN and higher degradation of phenolic compounds, cellulose and lignin, indicating a higher level of activity of microorganisms during the composting process compared with the inoculated experimental trial. The stability and maturity of the product of the control experiment were also better than those of the product from the inoculated experimental trial. Conclusion: The inoculation of the cellulolyticthermophilic

  18.   The fungus Trichoderma spp. on vegetables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winding, Anne

      The fungus Trichoderma spp. on vegetables   Anne Winding, National Environmental Research Institute, Roskilde, AU   Trichoderma spp. is a naturally occurring fungus in soil and T. harzianum is an active ingredient in microbial pest control agents (MPCA) active against root pathogenic fungi....... The MPCA is administered to the plants by watering. The fungus establishes in the root zone and exerts its beneficial effect by general increase of resistance against pathogenic fungi. The natural occurrence of Trichoderma spp. and the fate and survival of the introduced T. harzianum on vegetables...

  19. Microsatellite Primers for Fungus-Growing Ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villesen Fredsted, Palle; Gertsch, Pia J.; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan (Koos)

    2002-01-01

    We isolated five polymorphic microsatellite loci from a library of two thousand recombinant clones of two fungus-growing ant species, Cyphomyrmex longiscapus and Trachymyrmex cf. zeteki. Amplification and heterozygosity were tested in five species of higher attine ants using both the newly...... developed primers and earlier published primers that were developed for fungus-growing ants. A total of 20 variable microsatellite loci, developed for six different species of fungus-growing ants, are now available for studying the population genetics and colony kin-structure of these ants....

  20. Microsatellite primers for fungus-growing ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villesen, Palle; Gertsch, P J; Boomsma, JJ

    2002-01-01

    We isolated five polymorphic microsatellite loci from a library of two thousand recombinant clones of two fungus-growing ant species, Cyphomyrmex longiscapus and Trachymyrmex cf. zeteki. Amplification and heterozygosity were tested in five species of higher attine ants using both the newly...... developed primers and earlier published primers that were developed for fungus-growing ants. A total of 20 variable microsatellite loci, developed for six different species of fungus-growing ants, are now available for studying the population genetics and colony kin-structure of these ants....

  1. Entomology: A Bee Farming a Fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldroyd, Benjamin P; Aanen, Duur K

    2015-11-16

    Farming is done not only by humans, but also by some ant, beetle and termite species. With the discovery of a stingless bee farming a fungus that provides benefits to its larvae, bees can be added to this list.

  2. A New Macrocyclic Trichochecene from Soil Fungus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TaoWANG; YiZHANG; 等

    2002-01-01

    From fermentation broth of soil fungus 254-2 obtained from Yunnan province, a new macrocylic trichochecene was isolated. The structure was determined on the basis of spectroscopie evidences especially the 2-D NMR spectra.

  3. A new macrocyclic trichochecene from soil fungus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    From fermentation broth of soil fungus 254-2 obtained from Yunnan province,a new macrocylic trichochecene was isolated.The structure was determined on the basis of spectroscopic evidences especially the 2-D NMR spectra.

  4. Metabolites from marine fungus Aspergillus sp.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wahidullah, S.; Rajmanickam, R.; DeSouza, L.

    Chemical examination of a methanolic extract of the marine fungus, Aspergillus sp., isolated from marine grass environment, yielded a steroid, ergosterol peroxide (1), and a mixture of known glyceride esters (2,3) of unsaturated fatty acids...

  5. Effect of the L499M mutation of the ascomycetous Botrytis aclada laccase on redox potential and catalytic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osipov, Evgeny [A. N. Bach Institute of Biochemistry, Leninsky Prospect 33/2, Moscow 119071 (Russian Federation); Polyakov, Konstantin [A. N. Bach Institute of Biochemistry, Leninsky Prospect 33/2, Moscow 119071 (Russian Federation); Engelhardt Institute of Molecular Biology, Vavilova Str. 32, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Kittl, Roman [BOKU – University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Muthgasse 18, 1190 Wien (Austria); Shleev, Sergey [RSC ‘Kurchatov Institute’, Acad. Kurchatov Sq. 1, Moscow 123182 (Russian Federation); Malmö University, 205 06 Malmö (Sweden); Dorovatovsky, Pavel [RSC ‘Kurchatov Institute’, Acad. Kurchatov Sq. 1, Moscow 123182 (Russian Federation); Tikhonova, Tamara, E-mail: ttikhonova@inbi.ras.ru [A. N. Bach Institute of Biochemistry, Leninsky Prospect 33/2, Moscow 119071 (Russian Federation); Hann, Stephan; Ludwig, Roland [BOKU – University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Muthgasse 18, 1190 Wien (Austria); Popov, Vladimir [A. N. Bach Institute of Biochemistry, Leninsky Prospect 33/2, Moscow 119071 (Russian Federation); RSC ‘Kurchatov Institute’, Acad. Kurchatov Sq. 1, Moscow 123182 (Russian Federation)

    2014-11-01

    The structures of the ascomycetous B. aclada laccase and its L499M T1-site mutant have been solved at 1.7 Å resolution. The mutant enzyme shows a 140 mV lower redox potential of the type 1 copper and altered kinetic behaviour. The wild type and the mutant have very similar structures, which makes it possible to relate the changes in the redox potential to the L499M mutation Laccases are members of a large family of multicopper oxidases that catalyze the oxidation of a wide range of organic and inorganic substrates accompanied by the reduction of dioxygen to water. These enzymes contain four Cu atoms per molecule organized into three sites: T1, T2 and T3. In all laccases, the T1 copper ion is coordinated by two histidines and one cysteine in the equatorial plane and is covered by the side chains of hydrophobic residues in the axial positions. The redox potential of the T1 copper ion influences the enzymatic reaction and is determined by the nature of the axial ligands and the structure of the second coordination sphere. In this work, the laccase from the ascomycete Botrytis aclada was studied, which contains conserved Ile491 and nonconserved Leu499 residues in the axial positions. The three-dimensional structures of the wild-type enzyme and the L499M mutant were determined by X-ray crystallography at 1.7 Å resolution. Crystals suitable for X-ray analysis could only be grown after deglycosylation. Both structures did not contain the T2 copper ion. The catalytic properties of the enzyme were characterized and the redox potentials of both enzyme forms were determined: E{sub 0} = 720 and 580 mV for the wild-type enzyme and the mutant, respectively. Since the structures of the wild-type and mutant forms are very similar, the change in the redox potential can be related to the L499M mutation in the T1 site of the enzyme.

  6. High-coverage ITS primers for the DNA-based identification of ascomycetes and basidiomycetes in environmental samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirokazu Toju

    Full Text Available The kingdom Fungi is estimated to include 1.5 million or more species, playing key roles as decomposers, mutualists, and parasites in every biome on the earth. To comprehensively understand the diversity and ecology of this huge kingdom, DNA barcoding targeting the internal transcribed spacer (ITS region of the nuclear ribosomal repeat has been regarded as a prerequisite procedure. By extensively surveying ITS sequences in public databases, we designed new ITS primers with improved coverage across diverse taxonomic groups of fungi compared to existing primers. An in silico analysis based on public sequence databases indicated that the newly designed primers matched 99% of ascomycete and basidiomycete ITS taxa (species, subspecies or varieties, causing little taxonomic bias toward either fungal group. Two of the newly designed primers could inhibit the amplification of plant sequences and would enable the selective investigation of fungal communities in mycorrhizal associations, soil, and other types of environmental samples. Optimal PCR conditions for the primers were explored in an in vitro investigation. The new primers developed in this study will provide a basis for ecological studies on the diversity and community structures of fungi in the era of massive DNA sequencing.

  7. Gene Overexpression and RNA Silencing Tools for the Genetic Manipulation of the S-(+-Abscisic Acid Producing Ascomycete Botrytis cinerea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong-Tao Ding

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The phytopathogenic ascomycete Botrytis cinerea produces several secondary metabolites that have biotechnical significance and has been particularly used for S-(+-abscisic acid production at the industrial scale. To manipulate the expression levels of specific secondary metabolite biosynthetic genes of B. cinerea with Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation system, two expression vectors (pCBh1 and pCBg1 with different selection markers and one RNA silencing vector, pCBSilent1, were developed with the In-Fusion assembly method. Both expression vectors were highly effective in constitutively expressing eGFP, and pCBSilent1 effectively silenced the eGFP gene in B. cinerea. Bcaba4, a gene suggested to participate in ABA biosynthesis in B. cinerea, was then targeted for gene overexpression and RNA silencing with these reverse genetic tools. The overexpression of bcaba4 dramatically induced ABA formation in the B. cinerea wild type strain Bc-6, and the gene silencing of bcaba4 significantly reduced ABA-production in an ABA-producing B. cinerea strain.

  8. Functional and biophysical studies on four ceratoplatanins from the fungus Moniliophthora perniciosa, causal agent of the Witche's broom disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barsottini, M.; Zaparoli, G.; Garcia, O.; Pereira, G.A.G. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil); Oliveira, J.F.; Tiezzi, H.O.; Ambrosio, A.L.B.; Dias, S.M.G. [Laboratorio Nacional de Biociencias - LNBIO, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Full text: Ceratoplatanin (CP) is a secreted protein of 12.4 kDa initially identified in culture filtrates of the disease ascomycete Ceratocystis fimbriata f. sp. platani, etiological agent of the canker stain disease. CP is also the founding member of the namesake protein family, which contains fungal-secreted proteins involved in various stages of the host-fungus interaction and may act as phytotoxins or elicitors of defense response. Besides the low molecular weight, CPs have a high percentage of hydrophobic residues and share two conserved intramolecular disulfide bonds. It has been suggested that CPs have important physiological functions, including interaction with cell wall or cell membrane and manipulation of the host's defense system. Furthermore, a recent work showed that the ceratoplatanin from C. fimbriata has some degree of affinity for the saccharide 4-N-acetylglucosamine. However, its precise molecular function remains elusive. Five putative CPs have been identified in Moniliophthora perniciosa a basidiomycete fungus responsible for great economic losses in cocoa industry in the form of Witches' broom disease (WBD) , four of which had their crystal structures resolved by our group. In this work we report biophysical and functional studies on these MpCPs aiming at understanding their role and importance during the WBD progression. (author)

  9. RESEARCH ON THE INFLUENCE OF H+ IONS CONCENTRATION ON THE DYNAMICS OF THE ACTIVITIES OF CERTAIN DEHYDROGENASES OF THE KREBS CYCLE IN THE MONILINIA LAXA (ADERH. & RUHL. HONEY FUNGUS PARASITIC ON PLUM TREES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tutu Elena

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available During the process of nutrition, thus in that of their growth, microorganisms are subject to the influences of certain environmental factors that condition the microbial activity determining either the growth and reproduction, or the inhibition of activity and the inactivation of microorganisms. A well known means of expressing the H+ ions concentration in a certain environment is the pH, an important chemical factor that is closely observed when growing ascomycetes, for any alteration of its value entails conformational alterations of their enzymes, the characteristics of the substrate, such that they can no longer interact with the active site of the enzyme or be subject to catalysis. The present study comprises the results of our research on certain oxidoreductase implied in the steps of the Krebs cycle in the Monilinia laxa (Aderh.&Ruhl. Honey, a fungus that parasites the prune. The enzymatic determinations took place at 7 and 14 days from the mycelium of the fungus cultivated in Leonian media, whose pH was adjusted to values between 2.0 and 9.0 by using NaOH 1N and HCl 0,1N solutions. We registered different values of the dehydrogenasic activity, directly correlated with the physiological condition of the fungus (given its age and with the initial pH value of the culture’s environment.

  10. The cross-pathway control system regulates production of the secondary metabolite toxin, sirodesmin PL, in the ascomycete, Leptosphaeria maculans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fox Ellen M

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sirodesmin PL is a secondary metabolite toxin made by the ascomycetous plant pathogen, Leptosphaeria maculans. The sirodesmin biosynthetic genes are clustered in the genome. The key genes are a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase, sirP, and a pathway-specific transcription factor, sirZ. Little is known about regulation of sirodesmin production. Results Genes involved in regulation of sirodesmin PL in L. maculans have been identified. Two hundred random insertional T-DNA mutants were screened with an antibacterial assay for ones producing low levels of sirodesmin PL. Three such mutants were isolated and each transcribed sirZ at very low levels. One of the affected genes had high sequence similarity to Aspergillus fumigatus cpcA, which regulates the cross-pathway control system in response to amino acid availability. This gene was silenced in L. maculans and the resultant mutant characterised. When amino acid starvation was artificially-induced by addition of 3-aminotriazole for 5 h, transcript levels of sirP and sirZ did not change in the wild type. In contrast, levels of sirP and sirZ transcripts increased in the silenced cpcA mutant. After prolonged amino acid starvation the silenced cpcA mutant produced much higher amounts of sirodesmin PL than the wild type. Conclusions Production of sirodesmin PL in L. maculans is regulated by the cross pathway control gene, cpcA, either directly or indirectly via the pathway-specific transcription factor, sirZ.

  11. The mating-type chromosome in the filamentous ascomycete Neurospora tetrasperma represents a model for early evolution of sex chromosomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrius Menkis

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available We combined gene divergence data, classical genetics, and phylogenetics to study the evolution of the mating-type chromosome in the filamentous ascomycete Neurospora tetrasperma. In this species, a large non-recombining region of the mating-type chromosome is associated with a unique fungal life cycle where self-fertility is enforced by maintenance of a constant state of heterokaryosis. Sequence divergence between alleles of 35 genes from the two single mating-type component strains (i.e. the homokaryotic mat A or mat a-strains, derived from one N. tetrasperma heterokaryon (mat A+mat a, was analyzed. By this approach we were able to identify the boundaries and size of the non-recombining region, and reveal insight into the history of recombination cessation. The non-recombining region covers almost 7 Mbp, over 75% of the chromosome, and we hypothesize that the evolution of the mating-type chromosome in this lineage involved two successive events. The first event was contemporaneous with the split of N. tetrasperma from a common ancestor with its outcrossing relative N. crassa and suppressed recombination over at least 6.6 Mbp, and the second was confined to a smaller region in which recombination ceased more recently. In spite of the early origin of the first "evolutionary stratum", genealogies of five genes from strains belonging to an additional N. tetrasperma lineage indicate independent initiations of suppressed recombination in different phylogenetic lineages. This study highlights the shared features between the sex chromosomes found in the animal and plant kingdoms and the fungal mating-type chromosome, despite fungi having no separate sexes. As is often found in sex chromosomes of plants and animals, recombination suppression of the mating-type chromosome of N. tetrasperma involved more than one evolutionary event, covers the majority of the mating-type chromosome and is flanked by distal regions with obligate crossovers.

  12. Network-based data integration for selecting candidate virulence associated proteins in the cereal infecting fungus Fusarium graminearum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artem Lysenko

    Full Text Available The identification of virulence genes in plant pathogenic fungi is important for understanding the infection process, host range and for developing control strategies. The analysis of already verified virulence genes in phytopathogenic fungi in the context of integrated functional networks can give clues about the underlying mechanisms and pathways directly or indirectly linked to fungal pathogenicity and can suggest new candidates for further experimental investigation, using a 'guilt by association' approach. Here we study 133 genes in the globally important Ascomycete fungus Fusarium graminearum that have been experimentally tested for their involvement in virulence. An integrated network that combines information from gene co-expression, predicted protein-protein interactions and sequence similarity was employed and, using 100 genes known to be required for virulence, we found a total of 215 new proteins potentially associated with virulence of which 29 are annotated as hypothetical proteins. The majority of these potential virulence genes are located in chromosomal regions known to have a low recombination frequency. We have also explored the taxonomic diversity of these candidates and found 25 sequences, which are likely to be fungal specific. We discuss the biological relevance of a few of the potentially novel virulence associated genes in detail. The analysis of already verified virulence genes in phytopathogenic fungi in the context of integrated functional networks can give clues about the underlying mechanisms and pathways directly or indirectly linked to fungal pathogenicity and can suggest new candidates for further experimental investigation, using a 'guilt by association' approach.

  13. Interspecific Comparison and annotation of two complete mitochondrial genome sequences from the plant pathogenic fungus Mycosphaerella graminicola

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millenbaugh, Bonnie A; Pangilinan, Jasmyn L.; Torriani, Stefano F.F.; Goodwin, Stephen B.; Kema, Gert H.J.; McDonald, Bruce A.

    2007-12-07

    The mitochondrial genomes of two isolates of the wheat pathogen Mycosphaerella graminicola were sequenced completely and compared to identify polymorphic regions. This organism is of interest because it is phylogenetically distant from other fungi with sequenced mitochondrial genomes and it has shown discordant patterns of nuclear and mitochondrial diversity. The mitochondrial genome of M. graminicola is a circular molecule of approximately 43,960 bp containing the typical genes coding for 14 proteins related to oxidative phosphorylation, one RNA polymerase, two rRNA genes and a set of 27 tRNAs. The mitochondrial DNA of M. graminicola lacks the gene encoding the putative ribosomal protein (rps5-like), commonly found in fungal mitochondrial genomes. Most of the tRNA genes were clustered with a gene order conserved with many other ascomycetes. A sample of thirty-five additional strains representing the known global mt diversity was partially sequenced to measure overall mitochondrial variability within the species. Little variation was found, confirming previous RFLP-based findings of low mitochondrial diversity. The mitochondrial sequence of M. graminicola is the first reported from the family Mycosphaerellaceae or the order Capnodiales. The sequence also provides a tool to better understand the development of fungicide resistance and the conflicting pattern of high nuclear and low mitochondrial diversity in global populations of this fungus.

  14. Effects of Secondary Metabolites from the Fungus Septofusidium berolinense on DNA Cleavage Mediated by Human Topoisomerase IIα.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vann, Kendra R; Ekiz, Güner; Zencir, Sevil; Bedir, Erdal; Topcu, Zeki; Osheroff, Neil

    2016-03-21

    Two metabolites from the ascomycete fungus Septofusidium berolinense were recently identified as having antineoplastic activity [Ekiz et al. (2015) J. Antibiot. , DOI: 10.1038/ja.2015.84]. However, the basis for this activity is not known. One of the compounds [3,6-dihydroxy-2-propylbenzaldehyde (GE-1)] is a hydroquinone, and the other [2-hydroxymethyl-3-propylcyclohexa-2,5-diene-1,4-dione (GE-2)] is a quinone. Because some hydroquinones and quinones act as topoisomerase II poisons, the effects of GE-1 and GE-2 on DNA cleavage mediated by human topoisomerase IIα were assessed. GE-2 enhanced DNA cleavage ∼4-fold and induced scission with a site specificity similar to that of the anticancer drug etoposide. Similar to other quinone-based topoisomerase II poisons, GE-2 displayed several hallmark characteristics of covalent topoisomerase II poisons, including (1) the inability to poison a topoisomerase IIα construct that lacks the N-terminal domain, (2) the inhibition of DNA cleavage when the compound was incubated with the enzyme prior to the addition of plasmid, and (3) the loss of poisoning activity in the presence of a reducing agent. In contrast to GE-2, GE-1 did not enhance DNA cleavage mediated by topoisomerase IIα except at very high concentrations. However, the activity and potency of the metabolite were dramatically enhanced under oxidizing conditions. These results suggest that topoisomerase IIα may play a role in mediating the cytotoxic effects of these fungal metabolites.

  15. Nuclear flow in a filamentous fungus

    CERN Document Server

    Hickey, Patrick C; Read, Nick; Glass, N Louise; Roper, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    The syncytial cells of a filamentous fungus consist of a mass of growing, tube-like hyphae. Each extending tip is fed by a continuous flow of nuclei from the colony interior, pushed by a gradient in turgor pressure. The myco-fluidic flows of nuclei are complex and multidirectional, like traffic in a city. We map out the flows in a strain of the model filamentous fungus {\\it N. crassa} that has been transformed so that nuclei express either hH1-dsRed (a red fluorescent nuclear protein) or hH1-GFP (a green-fluorescent protein) and report our results in a fluid dynamics video.

  16. A relationship between carotenoid accumulation and the distribution of species of the fungus Neurospora in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque, Eva M; Gutiérrez, Gabriel; Navarro-Sampedro, Laura; Olmedo, María; Rodríguez-Romero, Julio; Ruger-Herreros, Carmen; Tagua, Víctor G; Corrochano, Luis M

    2012-01-01

    The ascomycete fungus Neurospora is present in many parts of the world, in particular in tropical and subtropical areas, where it is found growing on recently burned vegetation. We have sampled the Neurospora population across Spain. The sampling sites were located in the region of Galicia (northwestern corner of the Iberian peninsula), the province of Cáceres, the city of Seville, and the two major islands of the Canary Islands archipelago (Tenerife and Gran Canaria, west coast of Africa). The sites covered a latitude interval between 27.88° and 42.74°. We have identified wild-type strains of N. discreta, N. tetrasperma, N. crassa, and N. sitophila and the frequency of each species varied from site to site. It has been shown that after exposure to light Neurospora accumulates the orange carotenoid neurosporaxanthin, presumably for protection from UV radiation. We have found that each Neurospora species accumulates a different amount of carotenoids after exposure to light, but these differences did not correlate with the expression of the carotenogenic genes al-1 or al-2. The accumulation of carotenoids in Neurospora shows a correlation with latitude, as Neurospora strains isolated from lower latitudes accumulate more carotenoids than strains isolated from higher latitudes. Since regions of low latitude receive high UV irradiation we propose that the increased carotenoid accumulation may protect Neurospora from high UV exposure. In support of this hypothesis, we have found that N. crassa, the species that accumulates more carotenoids, is more resistant to UV radiation than N. discreta or N. tetrasperma. The photoprotection provided by carotenoids and the capability to accumulate different amounts of carotenoids may be responsible, at least in part, for the distribution of Neurospora species that we have observed across a range of latitudes.

  17. Open-Ended Experimentation with the Fungus Pilobolus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coble, Charles R.; Bland, Charles E.

    This paper describes open-ended experimentation with the fungus Pilobolus for laboratory work by high school students. The fungus structure and reproduction is described and sources of the fungus are suggested. Four areas for investigation are suggested: the effect of a diffuse light source, the effect of a point light source, the effect of light…

  18. Genome-wide microsatellite identification in the fungus Anisogramma anomala using Illumina sequencing and genome assembly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guohong Cai

    Full Text Available High-throughput sequencing has been dramatically accelerating the discovery of microsatellite markers (also known as Simple Sequence Repeats. Both 454 and Illumina reads have been used directly in microsatellite discovery and primer design (the "Seq-to-SSR" approach. However, constraints of this approach include: 1 many microsatellite-containing reads do not have sufficient flanking sequences to allow primer design, and 2 difficulties in removing microsatellite loci residing in longer, repetitive regions. In the current study, we applied the novel "Seq-Assembly-SSR" approach to overcome these constraints in Anisogramma anomala. In our approach, Illumina reads were first assembled into a draft genome, and the latter was then used in microsatellite discovery. A. anomala is an obligate biotrophic ascomycete that causes eastern filbert blight disease of commercial European hazelnut. Little is known about its population structure or diversity. Approximately 26 M 146 bp Illumina reads were generated from a paired-end library of a fungal strain from Oregon. The reads were assembled into a draft genome of 333 Mb (excluding gaps, with contig N50 of 10,384 bp and scaffold N50 of 32,987 bp. A bioinformatics pipeline identified 46,677 microsatellite motifs at 44,247 loci, including 2,430 compound loci. Primers were successfully designed for 42,923 loci (97%. After removing 2,886 loci close to assembly gaps and 676 loci in repetitive regions, a genome-wide microsatellite database of 39,361 loci was generated for the fungus. In experimental screening of 236 loci using four geographically representative strains, 228 (96.6% were successfully amplified and 214 (90.7% produced single PCR products. Twenty-three (9.7% were found to be perfect polymorphic loci. A small-scale population study using 11 polymorphic loci revealed considerable gene diversity. Clustering analysis grouped isolates of this fungus into two clades in accordance with their geographic origins

  19. Genome-wide microsatellite identification in the fungus Anisogramma anomala using Illumina sequencing and genome assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Guohong; Leadbetter, Clayton W; Muehlbauer, Megan F; Molnar, Thomas J; Hillman, Bradley I

    2013-01-01

    High-throughput sequencing has been dramatically accelerating the discovery of microsatellite markers (also known as Simple Sequence Repeats). Both 454 and Illumina reads have been used directly in microsatellite discovery and primer design (the "Seq-to-SSR" approach). However, constraints of this approach include: 1) many microsatellite-containing reads do not have sufficient flanking sequences to allow primer design, and 2) difficulties in removing microsatellite loci residing in longer, repetitive regions. In the current study, we applied the novel "Seq-Assembly-SSR" approach to overcome these constraints in Anisogramma anomala. In our approach, Illumina reads were first assembled into a draft genome, and the latter was then used in microsatellite discovery. A. anomala is an obligate biotrophic ascomycete that causes eastern filbert blight disease of commercial European hazelnut. Little is known about its population structure or diversity. Approximately 26 M 146 bp Illumina reads were generated from a paired-end library of a fungal strain from Oregon. The reads were assembled into a draft genome of 333 Mb (excluding gaps), with contig N50 of 10,384 bp and scaffold N50 of 32,987 bp. A bioinformatics pipeline identified 46,677 microsatellite motifs at 44,247 loci, including 2,430 compound loci. Primers were successfully designed for 42,923 loci (97%). After removing 2,886 loci close to assembly gaps and 676 loci in repetitive regions, a genome-wide microsatellite database of 39,361 loci was generated for the fungus. In experimental screening of 236 loci using four geographically representative strains, 228 (96.6%) were successfully amplified and 214 (90.7%) produced single PCR products. Twenty-three (9.7%) were found to be perfect polymorphic loci. A small-scale population study using 11 polymorphic loci revealed considerable gene diversity. Clustering analysis grouped isolates of this fungus into two clades in accordance with their geographic origins. Thus, the

  20. Solanapyrone analogues from a Hawaiian fungicolous fungus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four new solanayrone analogues (solanapyrones J-M; 1-4) have been isolated from an unidentified fungicolous fungus collected in Hawaii. The structures and relative configurations of these compounds were determined by analysis of ID NMR, 2D NMR, and MS data. Solanapyrone J(1) showed antifungal acti...

  1. Death from Fungus in the Soil

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-12-17

    Dr. Shira Shafir, Assistant Professor of Epidemiology at the UCLA Fielding School of Public Health, discusses her study about fungus found in soil.  Created: 12/17/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 12/18/2012.

  2. Spread of Rare Fungus from Vancouver Island

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2006-12-20

    Cryptococcus gattii, a rare fungus normally found in the tropics, has infected people and animals on Vancouver Island, Canada. Dr. David Warnock, Director, Division of Foodborne, Bacterial, and Mycotic Diseases, CDC, discusses public health concerns about further spread of this organism.  Created: 12/20/2006 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 12/29/2006.

  3. Candida auris sp. nov., a novel ascomycetous yeast isolated from the external ear canal of an inpatient in a Japanese hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Kazuo; Makimura, Koichi; Hasumi, Yayoi; Nishiyama, Yayoi; Uchida, Katsuhisa; Yamaguchi, Hideyo

    2009-01-01

    A single strain of a novel ascomycetous yeast species belonging to the genus Candida was isolated from the external ear canal of an inpatient in a Japanese hospital. Analyses of the 26S rDNA D1/D2 domain, nuclear ribosomal DNA ITS region sequences, and chemotaxonomic studies indicated that this strain represents a new species with a close phylogenetic relationship to Candida ruelliae and Candida haemulonii in the Metschnikowiaceae clade. This strain grew well at 40 degrees C, but showed slow and weak growth at 42 degrees C. The taxonomic description of Candida auris sp. nov. is proposed (type strain JCM15448T= CBS10913T= DSM21092T).

  4. Ant-fungus species combinations engineer physiological activity of fungus gardens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seal, J N; Schiøtt, M; Mueller, U G

    2014-07-15

    Fungus-gardening insects are among the most complex organisms because of their extensive co-evolutionary histories with obligate fungal symbionts and other microbes. Some fungus-gardening insect lineages share fungal symbionts with other members of their lineage and thus exhibit diffuse co-evolutionary relationships, while others exhibit little or no symbiont sharing, resulting in host-fungus fidelity. The mechanisms that maintain this symbiont fidelity are currently unknown. Prior work suggested that derived leaf-cutting ants in the genus Atta interact synergistically with leaf-cutter fungi (Attamyces) by exhibiting higher fungal growth rates and enzymatic activities than when growing a fungus from the sister-clade to Attamyces (so-called 'Trachymyces'), grown primarily by the non-leaf cutting Trachymyrmex ants that form, correspondingly, the sister-clade to leaf-cutting ants. To elucidate the enzymatic bases of host-fungus specialization in leaf-cutting ants, we conducted a reciprocal fungus-switch experiment between the ant Atta texana and the ant Trachymyrmex arizonensis and report measured enzymatic activities of switched and sham-switched fungus gardens to digest starch, pectin, xylan, cellulose and casein. Gardens exhibited higher amylase and pectinase activities when A. texana ants cultivated Attamyces compared with Trachymyces fungi, consistent with enzymatic specialization. In contrast, gardens showed comparable amylase and pectinase activities when T. arizonensis cultivated either fungal species. Although gardens of leaf-cutting ants are not known to be significant metabolizers of cellulose, T. arizonensis were able to maintain gardens with significant cellulase activity when growing either fungal species. In contrast to carbohydrate metabolism, protease activity was significantly higher in Attamyces than in Trachymyces, regardless of the ant host. Activity of some enzymes employed by this symbiosis therefore arises from complex interactions between the

  5. Pulmonary infections by the fungus aspergillus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao P

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available Five cases of respiratory infection by Aspergillus fumigates are described. Species of aspergillus is ubiquitous in nature. Therefore, repeated demonstration of fungus, serological evidence tend radiological findings are essential for diagnosis. Potassium iodide is a useful drug in aspergillus infection of the lung when other drugs are not available. Injection Emetine hydrochloride is promising as a therapeutic agent in pulmonary aspergillosis, where the lung parenchyma is involved.

  6. Fungus-Growing Termites Originated in African Rain Forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanen, Duur Kornelis; Eggleton, Paul

    2005-01-01

    are consumed (cf. [ [1] and [2] ]). Fungus-growing termites are found throughout the Old World tropics, in rain forests and savannas, but are ecologically dominant in savannas [ 3 ]. Here, we reconstruct the ancestral habitat and geographical origin of fungus-growing termites. We used a statistical model......Fungus-growing termites (subfamily Macrotermitinae, Isoptera) cultivate fungal crops (genus Termitomyces, Basidiomycotina) in gardens inside their colonies. Those fungus gardens are continuously provided with plant substrates, whereas older parts that have been well decomposed by the fungus...... extant savanna species are found in most genera, this moreover suggests that the savanna has repeatedly been colonized by fungus-growing termites. Furthermore, at least four independent "out-of-Africa" migrations into Asia, and at least one independent migration to Madagascar, have occurred. Although...

  7. Decomposition of Plant Debris by the Nematophagous Fungus ARF

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Kening; Riggs, R. D.; Crippen, Devany

    2004-01-01

    In the study of the biological control of plant-parasitic nematodes, knowledge of the saprophytic ability of a nematophagous fungus is necessary to understand its establishment and survival in the soil. The objectives of this study were (i) to determine if the nematophagous fungus ARF (Arkansas Fungus) shows differential use of plant residues; and (ii) to determine if ARF still existed in the soil of a field in which ARF was found originally and in which the population level of Heterodera gly...

  8. The mitochondrial genome of the ethanol-metabolizing, wine cellar mold Zasmidium cellare is the smallest for a filamentous ascomycete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodwin, Stephen; McCorison, Cassandra B.; Cavaletto, Jessica R.; Culley, David E.; LaButti, Kurt M.; Baker, Scott E.; Grigoriev, Igor V.

    2016-05-20

    Fungi in the class Dothideomycetes often live in extreme environments or have unusual physiology. One of these, the wine cellar mold Zasmidium cellare, produces thick curtains of mycelial growth in cellars with high humidity, and its ability to metabolize volatile organic compounds including alcohols, esters and formaldehyde is thought to improve air quality. It grows slowly but appears to outcompete ordinarily faster-growing species under anaerobic conditions.Whether these abilities have affected its mitochondrial genome is not known.To fill this gap, its mitochondrial genome was assembled as part of a whole- genome shotgun-sequencing project.The circular-mapping mitochondrial genome of Z. cellare, at only 23,743 bp, is the smallest yet reported for a filamentous fungus.It contains the complete set of 14 protein-coding genes seen typically in other filamentous fungi, along with genes for large and small ribosomal RNA subunits, 25 predicted tRNA genes capable of decoding all 20 amino acids, and a single open reading frame potentially coding for a protein of unknown function.The Z. cellare mitochondrial genome had genes encoded on both strands with a single change of direction, different from most other fungi but consistent with the Dothideomycetes. The high synteny among mitochondrial genomes of fungi in the Eurotiomycetes broke down almost completely in the Dothideomycetes.Only a low level of microsynteny was observed among protein-coding and tRNA genes in comparison with Mycosphaerella graminicola (synonym Zymoseptoria tritici), the only other fungus in the order Capnodiales with a sequenced mitochondrial genome, involving the three gene pairs atp8-atp9, nad2-nad3, and nad4L-nad5.However, even this low level of microsynteny did not extend to other fungi in the Dothideomycetes and Eurotiomycetes. Phylogenetic analysis of concatenated protein-coding genes confirmed the relationship between Z. cellare and M. graminicola in the Capnodiales, although conclusions were

  9. Symbiotic fungi produce laccases potentially involved in phenol degradation in fungus combs of fungus-growing termites in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taprab, Yaovapa; Johjima, Toru; Maeda, Yoshimasa; Moriya, Shigeharu; Trakulnaleamsai, Savitr; Noparatnaraporn, Napavarn; Ohkuma, Moriya; Kudo, Toshiaki

    2005-12-01

    Fungus-growing termites efficiently decompose plant litter through their symbiotic relationship with basidiomycete fungi of the genus Termitomyces. Here, we investigated phenol-oxidizing enzymes in symbiotic fungi and fungus combs (a substrate used to cultivate symbiotic fungi) from termites belonging to the genera Macrotermes, Odontotermes, and Microtermes in Thailand, because these enzymes are potentially involved in the degradation of phenolic compounds during fungus comb aging. Laccase activity was detected in all the fungus combs examined as well as in the culture supernatants of isolated symbiotic fungi. Conversely, no peroxidase activity was detected in any of the fungus combs or the symbiotic fungal cultures. The laccase cDNA fragments were amplified directly from RNA extracted from fungus combs of five termite species and a fungal isolate using degenerate primers targeting conserved copper binding domains of basidiomycete laccases, resulting in a total of 13 putative laccase cDNA sequences being identified. The full-length sequences of the laccase cDNA and the corresponding gene, lcc1-2, were identified from the fungus comb of Macrotermes gilvus and a Termitomyces strain isolated from the same fungus comb, respectively. Partial purification of laccase from the fungus comb showed that the lcc1-2 gene product was a dominant laccase in the fungus comb. These findings indicate that the symbiotic fungus secretes laccase to the fungus comb. In addition to laccase, we report novel genes that showed a significant similarity with fungal laccases, but the gene product lacked laccase activity. Interestingly, these genes were highly expressed in symbiotic fungi of all the termite hosts examined.

  10. Sterols from the Fungus Catathelasma imperiale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG, Sheng-Ping; XU, Jun; YUE, Jian-Min

    2003-01-01

    Eight ergostane-type sterols and three their derivatives (one mono-linoleate and two mono-glucosides) were isolated from the ethyl acetate soluble fraction of the fungus Catathelasma imperiale. Two of them are novel compounds, namely 22E, 24R-ergosta-7,22-diene-3β, 5α-diol-6β-linoleate (1) and 22E, 24R-ergosta-7,22-diene-3β,5β,6α-triol (5) with an uncommon cisfused A/B ring. Structures of these compounds were demonstrated on the basis of their chemical evidences and spectroscopic methods, especially 2D NMR techniques.

  11. Metabolites from mangrove endophytic fungus Dothiorella sp.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUQingyan; WANGJianfeng; HUANGYaojian; ZHENGZhonghui; SONGSiyang; ZHANGYongmin; SUWenjin

    2004-01-01

    Mangroves are special woody plant communities in the intertidal zone of tropical and subtropical coasts. They prove to be a natural microorganisms and new metabolites storage. In the study of mangrove endophytic fungi metabolites, four new compounds, Compounds 1, 2, 3 and 4, as well as a known octaketide, cytosporone B (5), are isolated from an endophytic fungus, Dothiorella sp., HTF3. They all show cytotoxic activities. The elucidation of these structures is mainly based on 1D/2D NMR and ESI-MS spectral analyses.

  12. Genome Sequence of the Pathogenic Fungus Sporothrix schenckii (ATCC 58251).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuomo, Christina A; Rodriguez-Del Valle, Nuri; Perez-Sanchez, Lizaida; Abouelleil, Amr; Goldberg, Jonathan; Young, Sarah; Zeng, Qiandong; Birren, Bruce W

    2014-05-22

    Sporothrix schenckii is a pathogenic dimorphic fungus that grows as a yeast and as mycelia. This species is the causative agent of sporotrichosis, typically a skin infection. We report the genome sequence of S. schenckii, which will facilitate the study of this fungus and of the Sporothrix schenckii group.

  13. Expanding Distribution of Lethal Amphibian Fungus Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitzen-van der Sluijs, Annemarieke; Martel, An; Asselberghs, Johan; Bales, Emma K; Beukema, Wouter; Bletz, Molly C; Dalbeck, Lutz; Goverse, Edo; Kerres, Alexander; Kinet, Thierry; Kirst, Kai; Laudelout, Arnaud; Marin da Fonte, Luis F; Nöllert, Andreas; Ohlhoff, Dagmar; Sabino-Pinto, Joana; Schmidt, Benedikt R; Speybroeck, Jeroen; Spikmans, Frank; Steinfartz, Sebastian; Veith, Michael; Vences, Miguel; Wagner, Norman; Pasmans, Frank; Lötters, Stefan

    2016-07-01

    Emerging fungal diseases can drive amphibian species to local extinction. During 2010-2016, we examined 1,921 urodeles in 3 European countries. Presence of the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans at new locations and in urodeles of different species expands the known geographic and host range of the fungus and underpins its imminent threat to biodiversity.

  14. Fungus-associated bacteriome in charge of their host behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulz-Bohm, Kristin; Tyc, Olaf; Boer, Wietse de; Peereboom, Nils; Debets, Fons; Zaagman, Niels; Janssens, Thierry K.S.; Garbeva, Paolina

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Bacterial-fungal interactions are widespread in nature and there is a growing number of studies reporting distinct fungus-associated bacteria. However, little is known so far about how shifts in the fungus-associated bacteriome will affect the fungal host’s lifestyle. In the present study,

  15. Fungus-associated bacteriome in charge of their host behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulz-Bohm, Kristin; Tyc, Olaf; Boer, de Wietse; Peereboom, Nils; Debets, Fons; Zaagman, Niels; Janssens, Thierry K.S.; Garbeva, Paolina

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial-fungal interactions are widespread in nature and there is a growing number of studies reporting distinct fungus-associated bacteria. However, little is known so far about how shifts in the fungus-associated bacteriome will affect the fungal host’s lifestyle. In the present study, we descri

  16. Reciprocal genomic evolution in the ant-fungus agricultural symbiosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Sanne; Hu, Haofu; Li, Cai;

    2016-01-01

    The attine ant-fungus agricultural symbiosis evolved over tens of millions of years, producing complex societies with industrial-scale farming analogous to that of humans. Here we document reciprocal shifts in the genomes and transcriptomes of seven fungus-farming ant species and their fungal...

  17. Reciprocal genomic evolution in the ant-fungus agricultural symbiosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Sanne; Hu, Haofu; Li, Cai;

    2016-01-01

    The attine ant-fungus agricultural symbiosis evolved over tens of millions of years, producing complex societies with industrial-scale farming analogous to that of humans. Here we document reciprocal shifts in the genomes and transcriptomes of seven fungus-farming ant species and their fungal cul...

  18. Application of response surface methodology for rapid chrysene biodegradation by newly isolated marine-derived fungus Cochliobolus lunatus strain CHR4D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Jwalant K; Ghevariya, Chirag M; Dudhagara, Dushyant R; Rajpara, Rahul K; Dave, Bharti P

    2014-11-01

    For the first time, Cochliobolus lunatus strain CHR4D, a marine-derived ascomycete fungus isolated from historically contaminated crude oil polluted shoreline of Alang-Sosiya ship-breaking yard, at Bhavnagar coast, Gujarat has been reported showing the rapid and enhanced biodegradation of chrysene, a four ringed high molecular weight (HMW) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH). Mineral Salt Broth (MSB) components such as ammonium tartrate and glucose along with chrysene, pH and trace metal solution have been successfully optimized by Response Surface Methodology (RSM) using central composite design (CCD). A validated, two-step optimization protocol has yielded a substantial 93.10% chrysene degradation on the 4(th) day, against unoptimized 56.37% degradation on the 14(th) day. The results depict 1.65 fold increase in chrysene degradation and 1.40 fold increase in biomass with a considerable decrement in time. Based on the successful laboratory experiments, C. lunatus strain CHR4D can thus be predicted as a potential candidate for mycoremediation of HMW PAHs impacted environments.

  19. The Tomato Wilt Fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici shares Common Ancestors with Nonpathogenic F. oxysporum isolated from Wild Tomatoes in the Peruvian Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inami, Keigo; Kashiwa, Takeshi; Kawabe, Masato; Onokubo-Okabe, Akiko; Ishikawa, Nobuko; Pérez, Enrique Rodríguez; Hozumi, Takuo; Caballero, Liliana Aragón; de Baldarrago, Fatima Cáceres; Roco, Mauricio Jiménez; Madadi, Khalid A.; Peever, Tobin L.; Teraoka, Tohru; Kodama, Motoichiro; Arie, Tsutomu

    2014-01-01

    Fusarium oxysporum is an ascomycetous fungus that is well-known as a soilborne plant pathogen. In addition, a large population of nonpathogenic F. oxysporum (NPF) inhabits various environmental niches, including the phytosphere. To obtain an insight into the origin of plant pathogenic F. oxysporum, we focused on the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and its pathogenic F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (FOL). We collected F. oxysporum from wild and transition Solanum spp. and modern cultivars of tomato in Chile, Ecuador, Peru, Mexico, Afghanistan, Italy, and Japan, evaluated the fungal isolates for pathogenicity, VCG, mating type, and distribution of SIX genes related to the pathogenicity of FOL, and constructed phylogenies based on ribosomal DNA intergenic spacer sequences. All F. oxysporum isolates sampled were genetically more diverse than FOL. They were not pathogenic to the tomato and did not carry SIX genes. Certain NPF isolates including those from wild Solanum spp. in Peru were grouped in FOL clades, whereas most of the NPF isolates were not. Our results suggested that the population of NPF isolates in FOL clades gave rise to FOL by gaining pathogenicity. PMID:24909710

  20. Molecular and functional characterization of a Rho GDP dissociation inhibitor in the filamentous fungus Tuber borchii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stocchi Vilberto

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Small GTPases of the Rho family function as tightly regulated molecular switches that govern important cellular functions in eukaryotes. Several families of regulatory proteins control their activation cycle and subcellular localization. Members of the guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitor (GDI family sequester Rho GTPases from the plasma membrane and keep them in an inactive form. Results We report on the characterization the RhoGDI homolog of Tuber borchii Vittad., an ascomycetous ectomycorrhizal fungus. The Tbgdi gene is present in two copies in the T. borchii genome. The predicted amino acid sequence shows high similarity to other known RhoGDIs. Real time PCR analyses revealed an increased expression of Tbgdi during the phase preparative to the symbiosis instauration, in particular after stimulation with root exudates extracts, that correlates with expression of Tbcdc42. In a translocation assay TbRhoGDI was able to solubilize TbCdc42 from membranes. Surprisingly, TbRhoGDI appeared not to interact with S. cerevisiae Cdc42, precluding the use of yeast as a surrogate model for functional studies. To study the role of TbRhoGDI we performed complementation experiments using a RhoGDI null strain of Dictyostelium discoideum, a model organism where the roles of Rho signaling pathways are well established. For comparison, complementation with mammalian RhoGDI1 and LyGDI was also studied in the null strain. Although interacting with Rac1 isoforms, TbRhoGDI was not able to revert the defects of the D. discoideum RhoGDI null strain, but displayed an additional negative effect on the cAMP-stimulated actin polymerization response. Conclusion T. borchii expresses a functional RhoGDI homolog that appears as an important modulator of cytoskeleton reorganization during polarized apical growth that antecedes symbiosis instauration. The specificity of TbRhoGDI actions was underscored by its inability to elicit a growth defect in S

  1. Ribonucleic acids in different tea fungus beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malbaša Radomir V.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In human nutrition, nucleic acids have to be balanced and limited up to 2 g/day because purines are degraded to urate, and excessive production of urate is a cause of gout which primarily affects adult males. Tea fungus beverage is a well known drink with high nutritional value and certain curative effects. Its benefits have been proved in a number of studies but it is still necessary to examine some potential harmful effects of this beverage. The aim of this paper was to investigate content of ribonucleic acids (RNA produced during tea fungus fermentation on a usual substrate sweetened black tea, and on Jerusalem artichoke tubers (J.A.T extract using method by Munro and Fleck (1966. pH, ribonucleic acids and also the production of proteins that affect purity of nucleic acids preparations were monitored. A higher value of RNA has been noticed in J.A.T. beverage (0.57 mg/ml and with observation of usual daily dose of the beverage it is completely safe and useful one.

  2. Antimicrobial chemical constituents from endophytic fungus Phomasp.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hidayat Hussain; Siegfried Draeger; Barbara Schulz; Karsten Krohn; Ines Kock; Ahmed Al-Harrasi; Ahmed Al-Rawahi; Ghulam Abbas; Ivan R Green; Afzal Shah; Amin Badshah; Muhammad Saleem

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the antimicrobial potential of different extracts of the endophytic fungus Phomasp. and the tentative identification of their active constituents.Methods:The extract and compounds were screened for antimicrobial activity using theAgarWellDiffusionMethod. Four compounds were purified using column chromatography and their structures were assigned using1H and13CNMR spectra,DEPT,2DCOSY,HMQC andHMBC experiments.Results:The ethyl acetate fraction ofPhomasp. showed good antifungal, antibacterial, and algicidal properties.One new dihydrofuran derivative, named phomafuranol(1), together with three known compounds, phomalacton(2),(3R)-5-hydroxymellein(3) and emodin(4) were isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction ofPhomasp.Preliminary studies indicated that phomalacton(2) displayed strong antibacterial, good antifungal and antialgal activities.Similarly(3R)-5-hydroxymellein (3) and emodin(4) showed good antifungal, antibacterial and algicidal properties.Conclusions:Antimicrobial activities of the ethyl acetate fraction of the endophytic fungusPhomasp. and isolated compounds clearly demonstrate thatPhomasp. and its active compounds represent a great potential for the food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries.

  3. New Development Trend of Edible Fungus Industry in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    We elaborate support system of edible fungus industry from outlook on ecological economic development, legislation and standardization of variety approval, multiple-function innovation platform of industrial development research, and perfect talent cultivation and education system. Besides, we analyze the development trend of edible fungus industry from competitive advantages, position and role in national food security, industrial development trend driven by internal demand, diversified industrial development model, division of labor within the industry, and expansion of industrial chain. Then, from the point of zoning and planning of edible fungus industry, we put forward suggestions that it should start from modern industrial system and take the industrial cluster development and optimization as guidance. In addition, we present technical innovation direction of industrial development. It is proposed to strengthen propaganda, build industrial cultural atmosphere, and expand social cognition degree of edible fungus industry to promote its redevelopment. Finally, it is expected to promote international influence of edible fungus industry through experts appealing for policy support.

  4. Chemical composition of metapleural gland secretions of fungus-growing and non-fungus-growing ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Alexsandro S; Morgan, E David; Drijfhout, Falko P; Camargo-Mathias, Maria I

    2012-10-01

    The metapleural gland is exclusive to ants, and unusual among exocrine glands in having no mechanism for closure and retention of secretion. As yet, no clear conclusion has been reached as to the function of metapleural gland secretion. Metapleural gland secretions were investigated for fungus-growing ants representing the derived attines Trachymyrmex fuscus, Atta laevigata, and Acromyrmex coronatus, the basal attines Apterostigma pilosum and Mycetarotes parallelus, and non-fungus-growing ants of the tribes Ectatommini (Ectatomma brunneum) and Myrmicini (Pogonomyrmex naegeli). Our results showed that the secretions of leaf-cutting ants (A. laevigata and A. coronatus) and the derived attine, T. fuscus, contain a greater variety and larger quantities of volatile compounds than those of myrmicine and ectatommine ants. The most abundant compounds found in the metapleural glands of A. laevigata and A. coronatus were hydroxyacids, and phenylacetic acid (only in A. laevigata). Indole was present in all groups examined, while skatole was found in large quantities only in attines. Ketones and aldehydes are present in the secretion of some attines. Esters are present in the metapleural gland secretion of all species examined, although mainly in A. laevigata, A. coronatus, and T. fuscus. Compared with basal attines and non-fungus-growing ants, the metapleural glands of leaf-cutting ants produce more acidic compounds that may have an antibiotic or antifungal function.

  5. SYSTEMIC INFECTION AND RELATED FUNGUS: AN OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saha Rajsekhar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A fungus is a member of a large group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds (British English: moulds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms. These organisms are classified as a kingdom, Fungi, which are separate from plants, animals, and bacteria. One major difference is that fungal cells have cell walls that contain chitin, unlike the cell walls of plants, which contain cellulose. Many fungi play a crucial role in decomposition (breaking things down and returning nutrients to the soil. They are also used in medicine, an example is the antibiotic penicillin, as well as in industry and food preparation. In the present time the microbes are to be seen as disease causing organisms harming the mankind. The harm done by this community cannot be taken lightly as they are also useful in many ways. The above article is an effort to bring out the various fungal issued related to human.

  6. Bioactive Triterpenes from the Fungus Piptoporus betulinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeyad Alresly

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical investigation of the ethyl acetate extract of the fruiting bodies from the basidiomycete Piptoporus betulinus led to the isolation of a new bioactive lanostane triterpene identified as 3 b -acetoxy-16-hydroxy-24-oxo-5α-lanosta-8- ene-21-oic acid (1. In addition, ten known triterpenes, polyporenic acid A (5, polyporenic acid C (4, three derivatives of polyporenic acid A (8, 10, 11, betulinic acid (3, betulin (2, ergosterol peroxide (6, 9,11-dehydroergosterol peroxide (7, and fomefficinic acid (9, were also isolated from the fungus. All isolated compounds were tested for antimicrobial activity against some Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as against a fungal strain. The new triterpene and some of the other compounds showed antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria.

  7. Comparative studies of the secretome of fungus-growing ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linde, Tore; Grell, Morten Nedergaard; Schiøtt, Morten;

    2009-01-01

    Leafcutter ants of the species Acromyrmex echinatior live in symbiosis with the fungus Leucoagaricus gongylophorus. The ants harvest fragments of leaves and carry them to the nest where they place the material on the fungal colony. The fungus secretes a wide array of proteins to degrade the leaves...... into nutrients that the ants can feed on. The focus of this study is to discover, characterize and compare the secreted proteins. In order to do so cDNA libraries are constructed from mRNA extracted from the fungus material. The most efficient technology to screen cDNA libraries selectively for secreted...

  8. The role of mites in insect-fungus associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstetter, R W; Moser, J C

    2014-01-01

    The interactions among insects, mites, and fungi are diverse and complex but poorly understood in most cases. Associations among insects, mites, and fungi span an almost incomprehensible array of ecological interactions and evolutionary histories. Insects and mites often share habitats and resources and thus interact within communities. Many mites and insects rely on fungi for nutrients, and fungi benefit from them with regard to spore dispersal, habitat provision, or nutrient resources. Mites have important impacts on community dynamics, ecosystem processes, and biodiversity within many insect-fungus systems. Given that mites are understudied but highly abundant, they likely have bigger, more important, and more widespread impacts on communities than previously recognized. We describe mutualistic and antagonistic effects of mites on insect-fungus associations, explore the processes that underpin ecological and evolutionary patterns of these multipartite communities, review well-researched examples of the effects of mites on insect-fungus associations, and discuss approaches for studying mites within insect-fungus communities.

  9. Evolutionary patterns of proteinase activity in attine ant fungus gardens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Semenova, Tatyana; Hughes, David Peter; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan;

    2011-01-01

    hypothesized that fungal proteinase activity may have been under selection for efficiency and that different classes of proteinases might be involved. Results: We determined proteinase activity profiles across a wide pH range for fungus gardens of 14 Panamanian species of fungus-growing ants, representing...... activities than the lower attine symbionts. Their total in vitro proteinase activity peaked at pH values around 5, which is close to the pH that the ants maintain in their fungus gardens, suggesting that the pH optimum of fungal proteinases may have changed after the irreversible domestication...... of evolutionary more derived fungal symbionts. This notion is also supported by buffering capacities of fungus gardens at pH 5.2 being remarkably high, and suggests that the fungal symbiont actively helps to maintain garden acidity at this specific level. Metalloproteinases dominated the activity profiles...

  10. An insect parasitoid carrying an ochratoxin producing fungus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Fernando E.; Posada, Francisco; Gianfagna, Thomas J.; Chaves, Fabio C.; Peterson, Stephen W.

    2006-06-01

    The insect parasitoid Prorops nasuta has been introduced from Africa to many coffee-producing countries in an attempt to control the coffee berry borer. In this paper, we report on the sequencing of the ITS LSU-rDNA and beta-tubulin loci used to identify a fungus isolated from the cuticle of a P. nasuta that emerged from coffee berries infected with the coffee berry borer. The sequences were compared with deposits in GenBank and the fungus was identified as Aspergillus westerdijkiae. The fungus tested positive for ochratoxin A production, with varying levels depending on the media in which it was grown. These results raise the possibility that an insect parasitoid might be disseminating an ochratoxin-producing fungus in coffee plantations.

  11. Biological active anthraquinone analogs from the fungus Eurotium sp.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parameswaran, P.S.; Gawas, D.; Tilvi, S.; Naik, C.G.

    Four known anthraquinones: Physcion, fluoroglaucin, catenarin and alaternin as well as a cyclic dipeptide with a triprenylated indole moiety, echinulin were purified from acetone extract of the mycelial mats of the fungus Eurotium sp. isolated from...

  12. PaTrx1 and PaTrx3, two cytosolic thioredoxins of the filamentous ascomycete Podospora anserina involved in sexual development and cell degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malagnac, Fabienne; Klapholz, Benjamin; Silar, Philippe

    2007-12-01

    In various organisms, thioredoxins are known to be involved in the reduction of protein disulfide bonds and in protecting the cell from oxidative stress. Genes encoding thioredoxins were found by searching the complete genome sequence of the filamentous ascomycete Podospora anserina. Among them, PaTrx1, PaTrx2, and PaTrx3 are predicted to be canonical cytosolic proteins without additional domains. Targeted disruption of PaTrx1, PaTrx2, and PaTrx3 shows that PaTrx1 is the major thioredoxin involved in sulfur metabolism. Deletions have no effect on peroxide resistance; however, data show that either PaTrx1 or PaTrx3 is necessary for sexual reproduction and for the development of the crippled growth cell degeneration (CG), processes that also required the PaMpk1 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. Since PaTrx1 PaTrx3 mutants show not an enhancement but rather an impairment in CG, it seems unlikely that PaTrx1 and PaTrx3 thioredoxins participate in the inhibition of this MAPK pathway. Altogether, these results underscore a role for thioredoxins in fungal development.

  13. Revisión taxonómica del género Pseudocyphellaria Vain. (Lobariaceae-Ascomycetes liquenizados para Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forero Enrique

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta la revisión taxonómica del género Pseudocyphellaria (Ascomycetes liqenizados para Colombia. El género Pseudocyphellaria Vain., con cerca de 110 especies en el mundo, hace parte de la familia Lobariaceae, una
    familia de líquenes de distribución cosmopolita, con mayor número de especies en la región austral. Para Colombia,
    con este estudio, se reconocen seis especies (P. aurata (Ach. Vain., P. crocata (L. Vain., P. intricata (Del. Vain., P. arvidssonii D. Galloway, P. clathrata (De Not. Malme, y P. encoensis R. Sant., de las cuales tres, P. arvidssonii D. Galloway, P. clathrata (De Not. Malme, y P. encoensis R. Sant., constituyen nuevos registros para el país. De igual manera, se presentan descripciones morfoanatómicas, complementadas con datos de pruebas químicas con K, P, C, KC y cromatografías en capa fina de las especies encontradas, así como, comentarios de datos ecológicos y de distribución geográfica. Se incluye una clave genérica ilustrada que permite el fácil reconocimiento del género dentro de la familia Lobariaceae y una clave ilustrada para las especies de Pseudocyphellaria que crecen en Colombia.

  14. Metabolites from nematophagous fungi and nematicidal natural products from fungi as an alternative for biological control. Part I: metabolites from nematophagous ascomycetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degenkolb, Thomas; Vilcinskas, Andreas

    2016-05-01

    Plant-parasitic nematodes are estimated to cause global annual losses of more than US$ 100 billion. The number of registered nematicides has declined substantially over the last 25 years due to concerns about their non-specific mechanisms of action and hence their potential toxicity and likelihood to cause environmental damage. Environmentally beneficial and inexpensive alternatives to chemicals, which do not affect vertebrates, crops, and other non-target organisms, are therefore urgently required. Nematophagous fungi are natural antagonists of nematode parasites, and these offer an ecophysiological source of novel biocontrol strategies. In this first section of a two-part review article, we discuss 83 nematicidal and non-nematicidal primary and secondary metabolites found in nematophagous ascomycetes. Some of these substances exhibit nematicidal activities, namely oligosporon, 4',5'-dihydrooligosporon, talathermophilins A and B, phomalactone, aurovertins D and F, paeciloxazine, a pyridine carboxylic acid derivative, and leucinostatins. Blumenol A acts as a nematode attractant. Other substances, such as arthrosporols and paganins, play a decisive role in the life cycle of the producers, regulating the formation of reproductive or trapping organs. We conclude by considering the potential applications of these beneficial organisms in plant protection strategies.

  15. Survey reveals the situation of Chinese caterpillar fungus resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Following its investigation of aweto (or Chinese caterpillar fungus) resources carried out from May to July 2007 on the Tibetan(or Qinghai-Tibet) Plateau,the central producing area of this precious ingredient for traditional Chinese medicine (TCM),the Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden (XTBG)under CAS conducted a further survey from May to July 2008 in the marginal habitats of this fungus.

  16. Contributions to the study of Pseudopeziza trifolii (Bernh. Fuck. fungus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga PALL

    1966-08-01

    Full Text Available The present paper communicates the results of the laboratory experiments concerning the behaviour of the Pseudopeziza trifolii (Bernh. Fuck. fungus that produces the clover brown leaf spot, in different culture mediums. The mycelium of the fungus develops at its best on the peptone-glucose-agar medium. The appearance of pycnides of Sporonema phacidioides Desm. type in vitro, has been reported for the fourth time in Romania especially developing on the potatoe-dextrosis-agar and plum-agar mediums.

  17. Biological control of Ascaris suum eggs by Pochonia chlamydosporia fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Sebastião Rodrigo; de Araújo, Jackson Victor; Braga, Fábio Ribeiro; Araujo, Juliana Milani; Frassy, Luiza Neme; Ferreira, Aloízio Soares

    2011-12-01

    Ascaris suum is a gastrointestinal nematode parasite of swines. The aim of this study was to observe Pochonia chlamydosporia fungus on biological control of A. suum eggs after fungus passage through swines gastrointestinal tract. Eighteen pigs, previously dewormed, were randomly divided into three groups: group 1, treated with the fungus isolate VC4; group 2, treated with the fungus isolate VC1 and group 3 did not receive fungus (control). In the treated groups, each animal received a 9 g single dose of mycelium mass containing P. chlamydosporia (VC1 or VC4). Thereafter, animal fecal samples were collected at the following intervals: 8, 12, 24, 36, 48, 72 and 96 h after treatment beginning and these were poured in Petri dishes containing 2% water-agar culture medium. Then, 1,000 A. suum eggs were poured into each dish and kept in an incubator at 26 °C and in the dark for 30 days. After this period, approximately 100 eggs were removed from each Petri dish and morphologically analyzed under light microscopy following the ovicidal activity parameters. The higher percentage observed for isolated VC4 eggs destruction was 57.5% (36 h) after fungus administration and for isolate VC1 this percentage was 45.8% (24 h and 72 h) (p > 0.01). P. chlamydosporia remained viable after passing through the gastrointestinal tract of swines, maintaining its ability of destroying A. suum eggs.

  18. Solubilization of diabase and phonolite dust by filamentous fungus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Andréia Vrba Brandão

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the fungus Aspergillus niger strain CCT4355 in the release of nutrients contained in two types of rock powder (diabase and phonolite by means of in vitro solubilization trials. The experimental design was completely randomized in a 5 x 4 factorial design with three replications. It was evaluated five treatments (phonolite dust + culture medium; phonolite dust + fungus + culture medium; diabase powder + culture medium; diabase powder + fungus + culture medium and fungus + culture medium and four sampling dates (0, 10, 20 and 30 days. Rock dust (0.4% w/v was added to 125 mL Erlenmeyer flasks containing 50 mL of liquid culture medium adapted to A. niger. The flasks were incubated at 30°C for 30 days, and analysis of pH (in water, titratable acidity, and concentrations of soluble potassium, calcium, magnesium, zinc, iron and manganese were made. The fungus A. niger was able to produce organic acids that solubilized ions. This result indicates its potential to alter minerals contained in rock dust, with the ability to interact in different ways with the nutrients. A significant increase in the amount of K was found in the treatment with phonolite dust in the presence of the fungus. The strain CCT4355 of A. niger can solubilize minerals contained in these rocks dust.

  19. Influence of soil saprophyte fungus Chaetomium cochliodes on associative system "Triticum aestivum – Azospirillum brasilense"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. P. Kopylov

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In laboratory and vegetative experiments the ability of soil ascomycete C. cochliodes 3250 to promote the penetration of Azospirillum nitrogen-fixing bacteria into roots’ inner tissues was shown. At the same time the endophytic association: spring wheat – Azospirillum nitrogen-fixing bacteria – soil saprophyte ascomycete C. cochliodes 3250 is forming. It allows activating the nitrogen fixation in the spring wheat roots zone and biosynthetic processes in plants, in particular: to raise glutamine synthetase activity, chlorophylls content in leaves and plants’ productivity.

  20. Candicidin-producing Streptomyces support leaf-cutting ants to protect their fungus garden against the pathogenic fungus Escovopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Haeder, Susanne; Wirth, Rainer; Herz, Hubert; Spiteller, Dieter

    2009-01-01

    Leaf-cutting ants such as Acromyrmex octospinosus live in obligate symbiosis with fungi of the genus Leucoagaricus, which they grow with harvested leaf material. The symbiotic fungi, in turn, serve as a major food source for the ants. This mutualistic relation is disturbed by the specialized pathogenic fungus Escovopsis sp., which can overcome Leucoagaricus sp. and thus destroy the ant colony. Microbial symbionts of leaf-cutting ants have been suggested to protect the fungus garden against Es...

  1. Isolated Polynucleotides and Methods of Promoting a Morphology in a Fungus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasure, Linda L [Fall City, WA; Dai, Ziyu [Richland, WA

    2008-10-21

    The invention includes isolated polynucleotide molecules that are differentially expressed in a native fungus exhibiting a first morphology relative to the native fungus exhibiting a second morphology. The invention includes a method of enhancing a bioprocess utilizing a fungus. A transformed fungus is produced by transforming a fungus with a recombinant polynucleotide molecule. The recombinant polynucleotide molecule contains an isolated polynucleotide sequence linked operably to a promoter. The polynucleotide sequence is expressed to promote a first morphology. The first morphology of the transformed fungus enhances a bioprocess relative to the bioprocess utilizing a second morphology.

  2. Allergens of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keyhani Nemat O

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Beauveria bassiana is an important entomopathogenic fungus currently under development as a bio-control agent for a variety of insect pests. Although reported to be non-toxic to vertebrates, the potential allergenicity of Beauveria species has not been widely studied. Methods IgE-reactivity studies were performed using sera from patients displaying mould hypersensitivity by immunoblot and immunoblot inhibition. Skin reactivity to B. bassiana extracts was measured using intradermal skin testing. Results Immunoblots of fungal extracts with pooled as well as individual sera showed a distribution of IgE reactive proteins present in B. bassiana crude extracts. Proteinase K digestion of extracts resulted in loss of IgE reactive epitopes, whereas EndoH and PNGaseF (glycosidase treatments resulted in minor changes in IgE reactive banding patterns as determined by Western blots. Immunoblot inhibitions experiments showed complete loss of IgE-binding using self protein, and partial inhibition using extracts from common allergenic fungi including; Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus fumigatus, Cladosporium herbarum, Candida albicans, Epicoccum purpurascens, and Penicillium notatum. Several proteins including a strongly reactive band with an approximate molecular mass of 35 kDa was uninhibited by any of the tested extracts, and may represent B. bassiana specific allergens. Intradermal skin testing confirmed the in vitro results, demonstrating allergenic reactions in a number of individuals, including those who have had occupational exposure to B. bassiana. Conclusions Beauveria bassiana possesses numerous IgE reactive proteins, some of which are cross-reactive among allergens from other fungi. A strongly reactive potential B. bassiana specific allergen (35 kDa was identified. Intradermal skin testing confirmed the allergenic potential of B. bassiana.

  3. Rapid identification of ascomycetous yeasts from clinical specimens by a molecular method based on flow cytometry and comparison with identifications from phenotypic assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Brent T; Shields, Christine E; Merz, William G; Kurtzman, Cletus P

    2006-09-01

    This study was designed to compare the identification of ascomycetous yeasts recovered from clinical specimens by using phenotypic assays (PA) and a molecular flow cytometric (FC) method. Large-subunit rRNA domains 1 and 2 (D1/D2) gene sequence analysis was also performed and served as the reference for correct strain identification. A panel of 88 clinical isolates was tested that included representatives of nine commonly encountered species and six infrequently encountered species. The PA included germ tube production, fermentation of seven carbohydrates, morphology on corn meal agar, urease and phenoloxidase activities, and carbohydrate assimilation tests when needed. The FC method (Luminex) employed species-specific oligonucleotides attached to polystyrene beads, which were hybridized with D1/D2 amplicons from the unidentified isolates. The PA identified 81 of 88 strains correctly but misidentified 4 of Candida dubliniensis, 1 of C. bovina, 1 of C. palmioleophila, and 1 of C. bracarensis. The FC method correctly identified 79 of 88 strains and did not misidentify any isolate but did not identify nine isolates because oligonucleotide probes were not available in the current library. The FC assay takes approximately 5 h, whereas the PA takes from 2 h to 5 days for identification. In conclusion, PA did well with the commonly encountered species, was not accurate for uncommon species, and takes significantly longer than the FC method. These data strongly support the potential of FC technology for rapid and accurate identification of medically important yeasts. With the introduction of new antifungals, rapid, accurate identification of pathogenic yeasts is more important than ever for guiding antifungal chemotherapy.

  4. Spore-killing meiotic drive factors in a natural population of the fungus Podospora anserina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaag, van der M.; Debets, A.J.M.; Oosterhof, J.; Slakhorst, S.M.; Thijssen, J.A.G.M.; Hoekstra, R.F.

    2000-01-01

    In fungi, meiotic drive is observed as spore killing. In the secondarily homothallic ascomycete Podospora anserina it is characterized by the abortion of two of the four spores in the ascus. We have identified seven different types of meiotic drive elements (Spore killers). Among 99 isolates from na

  5. Potential for nitrogen fixation in fungus-growing termite symbioses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis Sapountzis

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Termites host a gut microbiota of diverse and essential symbionts that enable specialization on dead plant material; an abundant, but nutritionally imbalanced food source. To supplement the severe shortage of dietary nitrogen (N, some termite species make use of diazotrophic bacteria to fix atmospheric nitrogen (N2. Fungus-growing termites (subfamily Macrotermitinae host a fungal exosymbiont (genus Termitomyces that provides digestive services and the main food source for the termites. This has been thought to obviate the need for N2-fixation by bacterial symbionts. Here we challenge this notion by performing acetylene reduction assays of live colony material to show that N2 fixation is present in two major genera (Macrotermes and Odontotermes of fungus-growing termites. We compare and discuss fixation rates in relation to those obtained from other termites, and suggest avenues of research that may lead to a better understanding of N2 fixation in fungus-growing and other termites.

  6. Evolutionary patterns of proteinase activity in attine ant fungus gardens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Semenova, Tatyana; Hughes, David Peter; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan;

    2011-01-01

    hypothesized that fungal proteinase activity may have been under selection for efficiency and that different classes of proteinases might be involved. Results: We determined proteinase activity profiles across a wide pH range for fungus gardens of 14 Panamanian species of fungus-growing ants, representing...... eight genera. We mapped these activity profiles on an independently obtained molecular phylogeny of the symbionts and show that total proteinase activity in lower attine symbionts peaks at ca. pH 6. The higher attine symbionts that have no known free-living relatives had much higher proteinase...... activities than the lower attine symbionts. Their total in vitro proteinase activity peaked at pH values around 5, which is close to the pH that the ants maintain in their fungus gardens, suggesting that the pH optimum of fungal proteinases may have changed after the irreversible domestication...

  7. Rock Phosphate Solubilization Mechanisms of One Fungus and One Bacterium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Qi-mei; ZHAO Xiao-rong; ZHAO Zi-juan; LI Bao-guo

    2002-01-01

    Many microorganisms can dissolve the insoluble phosphates like apatite. However, the mechanisms are still not clear. This study was an attempt to investigate the mechanisms of rock phosphate solubilization by an Aspergillus 2TCiF2 and an Arthrobacter1TCRi7. The results indicated that the fungus produced a large amount of organic acids, mainly oxalic acid. The total quantity of the organic acids produced by the fungus was 550 times higher than that by the bacterium. Different organic acids had completely different capacities to solubilize the rock. Oxalic acid and citric acid had stronger capacity to dissolve the rock than malic acid, tartaric acid, lactic acid, acetic acid, malonic acid and succinic acid. The fungus solubilized the rock through excreting both proton and organic acids. The rock solubilization of the bacterium depended on only proton.

  8. Isolation and identification of iron ore-solubilising fungus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damase Khasa

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Potential mineral-solubilising fungi were successfully isolated from the surfaces of iron ore minerals. Four isolates were obtained and identified by molecular and phylogenetic methods as close relatives of three different genera, namely Penicillium (for isolate FO, Alternaria (for isolates SFC2 and KFC1 and Epicoccum (for isolate SFC2B. The use of tricalcium phosphate (Ca3(PO42in phosphate-solubilising experiments confirmed isolate FO as the only phosphate solubiliser among the isolated fungi. The bioleaching capabilities of both the fungus and its spent liquid medium were tested and compared using two types of iron ore materials, conglomerate and shale, from the Sishen Iron Ore Mine as sources of potassium (K and phosphorus (P. The spent liquid medium removed more K (a maximum of 32.94% removal, from conglomerate, than the fungus (a maximum of 21.36% removal, from shale. However, the fungus removed more P (a maximum of 58.33% removal, from conglomerate than the spent liquid medium (a maximum of 29.25% removal, from conglomerate. The results also indicated a potential relationship between the removal of K or P and the production of organic acids by the fungus. A high production of gluconic acid could be related to the ability of the fungus to reduce K and P. Acetic, citric and maleic acids were also produced by the fungus, but in lower quantities. In addition, particle size and iron ore type were also shown to have significant effects on the removal of potassium and phosphorus from the iron ore minerals. We therefore conclude that the spent liquid medium from the fungal isolate FO can potentially be used for biobeneficiation of iron ore minerals.

  9. Exploring the Potential for Actinobacteria as Defensive Symbionts in Fungus-Growing Termites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A.A.; Mesquita Nobre, T.; Currie, C.R.; Aanen, D.K.; Poulsen, M.

    2012-01-01

    In fungus-growing termites, fungi of the subgenus Pseudoxylaria threaten colony health through substrate competition with the termite fungus (Termitomyces). The potential mechanisms with which termites suppress Pseudoxylaria have remained unknown. Here we explore if Actinobacteria potentially play a

  10. Pseudoxylaria as stowaway of the fungus-growing termite nest:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visser, Anna A.; Kooij, Pepijn Wilhelmus; Debets, Alfons J. M.

    2011-01-01

    Though inconspicuous in healthy nests, Pseudoxylaria species are almost always present and overgrow deteriorating fungus-growing termite gardens. Whether these fungi are detrimental to the fungus-garden, benign, or even beneficial is unclear. We hypothesize that Pseudoxylaria is a stowaway...... that practices a sit-and-wait strategy to survive in the termite nest. Using isolates from three different termite genera to test our hypothesis, we compared Pseudoxylaria’s growth on 40 carbon sources with that of Termitomyces and tested its interaction with Termitomyces. The C-source use of both fungi largely...

  11. From Alaska to Antarctica: Species boundaries and genetic diversity of Prasiola (Trebouxiophyceae), a foliose chlorophyte associated with the bipolar lichen-forming fungus Mastodia tessellata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido-Benavent, Isaac; Pérez-Ortega, Sergio; de Los Ríos, Asunción

    2017-02-01

    Symbiotic associations between green algae (Chlorophyta) and fungi give rise to morphologically and eco-physiologically distinct entities, or so-called, lichens. In one of the most peculiar of these associations, the partners are species of the macroscopic genus Prasiola (Trebouxiophyceae) and the ascomycete Mastodia tessellata (Verrucariaceae). This is the only known case of a lichen symbiosis involving a foliose green alga. Despite intense research targeted at understanding the biology of this particular association, little is known about the genetic variability of its symbionts. This study focuses on the photobiont partner of this lichen and was designed to explore and compare its genetic diversity along a latitudinal axis from Alaska to Antarctica. Molecular sequence data were generated for three loci: two nuclear markers (nrITS, RPL10A) and one plastid-encoded marker (tufA). The usefulness of the Prasiola nrITS and RPL10A data was examined at the species and intraspecific levels. We used the population assignment tests implemented in BAPS and STRUCTURE and two algorithmic species delimitation procedures (ABGD, GMYC) to generate species boundary discovery hypotheses, which were subsequently tested using Bayes factors. Population genetic differentiation and structure were also assessed through fixation indices, polymorphism statistics and haplotype networks. Based on the results of the species validation method, we propose that at least two species of Prasiola associate with the lichen-forming fungus Mastodia tessellata. Of these, P. borealis is broadly distributed in Alaska, Tierra del Fuego and the Antarctic Peninsula, whereas the second, undescribed, species is restricted to the Antarctic Peninsula. We detected significant phylogeographic substructure in P. borealis, including greater haplotype diversity in the Tierra del Fuego populations. Our findings provide new data that will be useful to unravel the cryptic diversity and phylogeographic patterns of the

  12. Current Situations of Edible Fungus Production in Lianyungang City and Development Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Guan-xi; GE Xiong-can; WEI Liang-zhi

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of characteristics of edible fungus production in Lianyungang City, we analyzed its advantages and disadvantages and put forward suggestions and countermeasures for development of edible fungus industry, mainly including strengthening guidance and leadership of government, introducing professional personnel, and developing the edible fungus industry through science and technology.

  13. Carbon starvation in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nitsche, Benjamin Manuel

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated carbon starvation in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger during submerged cultivation in bioreactor batch cultures. The work described in this thesis can be discussed as follows: (I) Establishment of computational resources for omics data analysis and interpretation in c

  14. Fun Microbiology: How To Measure Growth of a Fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, James K.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Describes an experiment to demonstrate a simple method for measuring fungus growth by monitoring the effect of temperature on the growth of Trichoderma viride. Among the advantages that this experimental model provides is introducing students to the importance of using the computer as a scientific tool for analyzing and presenting data. (AIM)

  15. OXIDATION OF PERSISTANT ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS BY A WHITE ROT FUNGUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium degraded DDT [1,1,-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-2,2,2-trichloroethane], 3,4,3',4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl, 2,4,5,2',-4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, lindane (1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachlorocylohexane), and benzo[a]pyrene t...

  16. Controlling fungus on channel catfish eggs with peracetic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is much interest in the use of peracetic acid (PAA) to treat pathogens in aquaculture. It is a relatively new compound and is approved for use in Europe, but not in the United States. This study determined the effectiveness of PAA for fungus control on channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus egg...

  17. DNA dependent RNA polymerases from the fungus Aspergillus nidulans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stunnenberg, H.G.

    1981-01-01

    The aim of the work presented here was the isolation and characterization of the DNA-dependent RNA polymerases from the fungus Aspergillus nidulans, which was a part of a project concerning the regulation of gene expression in this lower eukaryote.The transcription of a genome and the regulation mec

  18. A Brazilian social bee must cultivate fungus to survive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Cristiano; Vollet-Neto, Ayrton; Marsaioli, Anita Jocelyne; Zampieri, Davila; Fontoura, Isabela Cardoso; Luchessi, Augusto Ducati; Imperatriz-Fonseca, Vera Lucia

    2015-11-02

    The nests of social insects provide suitable microenvironments for many microorganisms as they offer stable environmental conditions and a rich source of food [1-4]. Microorganisms in turn may provide several benefits to their hosts, such as nutrients and protection against pathogens [1, 4-6]. Several examples of symbiosis between social insects and microorganisms have been found in ants and termites. These symbioses have driven the evolution of complex behaviors and nest structures associated with the culturing of the symbiotic microorganisms [5, 7, 8]. However, while much is known about these relationships in many species of ants and termites, symbiotic relationships between microorganisms and social bees have been poorly explored [3, 4, 9, 10]. Here, we report the first case of an obligatory relationship between the Brazilian stingless bee Scaptotrigona depilis and a fungus of the genus Monascus (Ascomycotina). Fungal mycelia growing on the provisioned food inside the brood cell are eaten by the larva. Larvae reared in vitro on sterilized larval food supplemented with fungal mycelia had a much higher survival rate (76%) compared to larvae reared under identical conditions but without fungal mycelia (8% survival). The fungus was found to originate from the material from which the brood cells are made. Since the bees recycle and transport this material between nests, fungus would be transferred to newly built cells and also to newly founded nests. This is the first report of a fungus cultivation mutualism in a social bee.

  19. Leucopaxillus lepistoides, a new steppe fungus in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Łuszczyński

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents information on Leucopaxillus lepistoides (Maire Singer, a new species for Poland. This fungus was found in two localities: the neighbourhood of Busko Zdrój and Chęciny (Little Polish Upland, S-Poland. Both localities were in the xerothermic grasslands belonging to the Cirsio-Brachypodion Order, Festuco-Brometea Class.

  20. Volatile antimicrobials from Muscodor crispans, a novel endophytic fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Angela M; Strobel, Gary A; Moore, Emily; Robison, Richard; Sears, Joe

    2010-01-01

    Muscodor crispans is a recently described novel endophytic fungus of Ananas ananassoides (wild pineapple) growing in the Bolivian Amazon Basin. The fungus produces a mixture of volatile organic compounds (VOCs); some of the major components of this mixture, as determined by GC/MS, are propanoic acid, 2-methyl-, methyl ester; propanoic acid, 2-methyl-; 1-butanol, 3-methyl-;1-butanol, 3-methyl-, acetate; propanoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2-methylbutyl ester; and ethanol. The fungus does not, however, produce naphthalene or azulene derivatives as has been observed with many other members of the genus Muscodor. The mixture of VOCs produced by M. crispans cultures possesses antibiotic properties, as does an artificial mixture of a majority of the components. The VOCs of the fungus are effective against a wide range of plant pathogens, including the fungi Pythium ultimum, Phytophthora cinnamomi, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Mycosphaerella fijiensis (the black sigatoka pathogen of bananas), and the serious bacterial pathogen of citrus, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri. In addition, the VOCs of M. crispans killed several human pathogens, including Yersinia pestis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Staphylococcus aureus. Artificial mixtures of the fungal VOCs were both inhibitory and lethal to a number of human and plant pathogens, including three drug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The gaseous products of Muscodor crispans potentially could prove to be beneficial in the fields of medicine, agriculture, and industry.

  1. Rethinking crop-disease management in fungus-growing ants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boomsma, J.J.; Aanen, D.K.

    2009-01-01

    Ant fungus farming has become a prominent model for studying the evolution of mutualistic cooperation, with recent advances in reconstructing the evolutionary origin and elaborations of the symbiosis (1, 2), discovering additional partners and clarifying their interactions (3, 4), and analyzing host

  2. The role of enzymes in fungus-growing ant evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Fine Licht, Henrik Hjarvard

    behaviour. Here we report the first large-scale comparative study on fungus garden enzyme profiles and show that various interesting changes can be documented. A more detailed analysis of laccase expression, an enzyme that is believed to oxidize phenols in defensive secondary plant compounds such as tannins...

  3. Analysis of a Functional Lactate Permease in the Fungus Rhizopus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fungus Rhizopus is frequently used for fermentative production of lactic acid, but little is known about the mechanisms or proteins for transporting this carboxylic acid. Since transport of the lactate anion across the plasma membrane is critical to prevent acidification of the cytoplasm, we ev...

  4. An Abietane Diterpene and a Sterol from Fungus Phellinus igniarius

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A new abietane diterpene 12-hydroxy-7-oxo-5, 8, 11, 13-tetraene-18, 6-abietanolide,together with a new natural sterol stigmasta-7, 22-diene-3β, 5α, 6α-triol have been isolated from the fruiting body of the fungus Phellinus igniarius. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including 2D NMR techniques.

  5. Endophytic fungus-vascular plant-insect interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, A; Wheatley, W; Popay, A

    2012-06-01

    Insect association with fungi has a long history. Theories dealing with the evolution of insect herbivory indicate that insects used microbes including fungi as their principal food materials before flowering plants evolved. Subtlety and the level of intricacy in the interactions between insects and fungi indicate symbiosis as the predominant ecological pattern. The nature of the symbiotic interaction that occurs between two organisms (the insect and the fungus), may be either mutualistic or parasitic, or between these two extremes. However, the triangular relationship involving three organisms, viz., an insect, a fungus, and a vascular plant is a relationship that is more complicated than what can be described as either mutualism or parasitism, and may represent facets of both. Recent research has revealed such a complex relationship in the vertically transmitted type-I endophytes living within agriculturally important grasses and the pestiferous insects that attack them. The intricacy of the association depends on the endophytic fungus-grass association and the insect present. Secondary compounds produced in the endophytic fungus-grass association can provide grasses with resistance to herbivores resulting in mutualistic relationship between the fungus and the plant that has negative consequences for herbivorous insects. The horizontally transmitted nongrass type-II endophytes are far less well studied and as such their ecological roles are not fully understood. This forum article explores the intricacy of dependence in such complex triangular relationships drawing from well-established examples from the fungi that live as endophytes in vascular plants and how they impact on the biology and evolution of free-living as well as concealed (e.g., gall-inducing, gall-inhabiting) insects. Recent developments with the inoculation of strains of type-I fungal endophytes into grasses and their commercialization are discussed, along with the possible roles the endophytic

  6. Can vessel dimension explain tolerance toward fungal vascular wilt diseases in woody plants? Lessons from Dutch elm disease and esca disease in grapevine

    OpenAIRE

    Jerome ePouzoulet; Alexandria ePivovaroff; Louis eSantiago; Philippe Eric Rolshausen

    2014-01-01

    This review illuminates key findings in our understanding of grapevine xylem resistance to fungal vascular wilt diseases. Grapevine (Vitis spp.) vascular diseases such as esca, botryosphaeria dieback, and eutypa dieback, are caused by a set of taxonomically unrelated ascomycete fungi. Fungal colonization of the vascular system leads to a decline of the plant host because of a loss of the xylem function and subsequent decrease in hydraulic conductivity. Fungal vascular pathogens use different ...

  7. Fungus-associated asthma: overcoming challenges in diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Haruhiko; Fujimura, Masaki; Ohkura, Noriyuki; Satoh, Kazuo; Makimura, Koichi

    2014-05-01

    With regard to fungal colonization and fungal sensitization, the goals of fungus-associated asthma management are as follows: 1) to survey fungi colonizing the airways of patients repeatedly; 2) to evaluate the tendency of the colonizing fungi to sensitize patients and the influence on clinical manifestations of asthma; 3) to follow disease development to allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis or sinobronchial allergic mycosis; and 4) to determine whether fungal eradication from the airway of patients is beneficial from the viewpoints of future risk factors. Recent developments in molecular biological analyses have facilitated the identification of basidiomycetous fungi that were not previously thought to be of concern in fungal allergy. The total control of fungus-associated asthma will be accomplished by environmental management established from the viewpoint of both the ecology and life cycle of the responsible fungi.

  8. Formulation of the endophytic fungus Cladosporium oxysporum Berk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bensaci Oussama Ali

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Two formulations containing culture filtrates and conidial suspensions of the endophytic fungus Cladosporium oxysporum Berk. & M.A. Curtis, isolated previously from stems of Euphorbia bupleuroides subsp. luteola (Kralik Maire, were experimentally tested for their aphicid activity against the black bean aphid Aphis fabae Scop. found in Algeria. It was shown that invert emulsions are more effective against aphids, than using aqueous suspensions. This was especially true for formulations containing culture filtrates. The relatively insignificant mortalities obtained by formulations containing conidial suspensions indicated a low infectious potential towards the aphids. The proteolytic activity seemed to be more important than the chitinolytic activity of the fungus against the black bean aphid A. fabae

  9. Synthetic dye decolorization capacity of white rot fungus Dichomitus squalens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichlerová, Ivana; Homolka, Ladislav; Nerud, Frantisek

    2006-11-01

    The ability to decolorize eight chemically different synthetic dyes (Orange G, Amaranth, Orange I, Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR), Cu-phthalocyanin, Poly R-478, Malachite Green and Crystal Violet) by the white rot fungus Dichomitus squalens was evaluated on agar plates. The fungus showed high decolorization capacity and was able to decolorize all dyes tested, but not to the same extent. Some of the dyes did not limit the decolorization capacity of the strain tested even at a concentration of 2g/l. The presence of the dyes in solid media reduced the mycelial growth rate of D. squalens; a positive correlation was found between the growth rate and the decolorization ability. Decolorization of Orange G and RBBR was studied also in liquid culture, where both dyes caused an enhancement of ligninolytic enzyme and overall hydrogen peroxide production and a decrease of biomass production. RBBR was removed to a higher extent than Orange G.

  10. Potential for nitrogen fixation in fungus-growing termite symbiosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sapountzis, Panagiotis; de Verges, Jane; Rousk, Kathrin

    2016-01-01

    Termites host a gut microbiota of diverse and essential symbionts that enable specialization on dead plant material; an abundant, but nutritionally imbalanced food source. To supplement the severe shortage of dietary nitrogen (N), some termite species make use of diazotrophic bacteria to fix...... atmospheric nitrogen (N2). Fungus-growing termites (subfamily Macrotermitinae) host a fungal exosymbiont (genus Termitomyces) that provides digestive services and the main food source for the termites. This has been thought to obviate the need for N2-fixation by bacterial symbionts. Here, we challenge...... this notion by performing acetylene reduction assays of live colony material to show that N2 fixation is present in two major genera (Macrotermes and Odontotermes) of fungus-growing termites. We compare and discuss fixation rates in relation to those obtained from other termites, and suggest avenues...

  11. EVOLUTIONARY TRANSITIONS IN ENZYME ACTIVITY OF ANT FUNGUS GARDENS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Fine Licht, Henrik H; Schiøtt, Morten; Mueller, Ulrich G

    2010-01-01

    an association with a monophyletic clade of specialized symbionts. In conjunction with the transition to specialized symbionts, the ants advanced in colony size and social complexity. Here we provide a comparative study of the functional specialization in extracellular enzyme activities in fungus gardens across...... the attine phylogeny. We show that, relative to sister clades, gardens of higher-attine ants have enhanced activity of protein-digesting enzymes, whereas gardens of leaf-cutting ants also have increased activity of starch-digesting enzymes. However, the enzyme activities of lower-attine fungus gardens...... are targeted primarily towards partial degradation of plant cell walls, reflecting a plesiomorphic state of non-domesticated fungi. The enzyme profiles of the higher-attine and leaf-cutting gardens appear particularly suited to digest fresh plant materials and to access nutrients from live cells without major...

  12. Secondary metabolite arsenal of an opportunistic pathogenic fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bignell, Elaine; Cairns, Timothy C; Throckmorton, Kurt; Nierman, William C; Keller, Nancy P

    2016-12-05

    Aspergillus fumigatus is a versatile fungus able to successfully exploit diverse environments from mammalian lungs to agricultural waste products. Among its many fitness attributes are dozens of genetic loci containing biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) producing bioactive small molecules (often referred to as secondary metabolites or natural products) that provide growth advantages to the fungus dependent on environment. Here we summarize the current knowledge of these BGCs-18 of which can be named to product-their expression profiles in vivo, and which BGCs may enhance virulence of this opportunistic human pathogen. Furthermore, we find extensive evidence for the presence of many of these BGCs, or similar BGCs, in distantly related genera including the emerging pathogen Pseudogymnoascus destructans, the causative agent of white-nose syndrome in bats, and suggest such BGCs may be predictive of pathogenic potential in other fungi.This article is part of the themed issue 'Tackling emerging fungal threats to animal health, food security and ecosystem resilience'.

  13. A New Pyrone Derivative from Fungus Cephalosporium sp. AL031

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A novel pyrone derivative was isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of a culture broth of a strain of the fungus Cephalosporium sp. AL031. Its structure was characterized as 7-hydroxy-9-methoxyl-10-methyl-2H, 4aH, 6H, 10bH-pyrano[5, 6-c][2]benzopyran-2, 6-dione by spectroscopic analysis including IR, MS, 1D and 2D NMR spectra.

  14. Cytochalasin derivatives from a jellyfish-derived fungus Phoma sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun La; Wang, Haibo; Park, Ju Hee; Hong, Jongki; Choi, Jae Sue; Im, Dong Soon; Chung, Hae Young; Jung, Jee H

    2015-01-01

    Four new cytochalasin derivatives (1-4), together with proxiphomin (5), were isolated from a jellyfish-derived fungus Phoma sp. The planar structures and relative stereochemistry were established by analysis of 1D and 2D NMR data. The absolute configuration was defined by the modified Mosher's method. The compounds showed moderate cytotoxicity against a small panel of human solid tumor cell lines (A549, KB, and HCT116).

  15. Identification and characterization of glucoamylase from the fungus, Thermomyces lanuginosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Thor Seneca; Johnsen, Anders; Josefsen, K.;

    2006-01-01

    The glucoamylase from the thermophilic fungus Thermomyces lanuginosus has a molecular weight of 66 kDa and was characterized with isoelectric point, pH and temperature optimum of 3.8-4.0, 5.0 and 70 °C, respectively. In addition, the activation energy is 60.4 kJ/mol, Km is 3.5 mM and kcat is 25.3...

  16. Biotransformation of fluorene by the fungus Cunninghamella elegans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pothuluri, J.V.; Freeman, J.P.; Evans, F.E.; Cerniglia, C.E. (Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR (United States))

    1993-06-01

    Fluorene, a tricyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, is formed during the combustion of fossil fuels and is an important pollutant of aquatic ecosystems where it is highly toxic to fish and algae. Few studies on microbial biodegradation of fluorene have been reported. This investigation describes the metabolism of fluorene by the fungus Cunninghamella elegans ATCC 36112 and the identification of major metabolites. 26 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Four Novel Hydropyranoindeno- Derivatives from Marine Fungus Aspergillus versicolor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    From the cultured filtrates of fungus Aspergillus versicolor,isolated from marine sponge Xestospongia exigua,four novel secondary metabolites,namely aspergillone 1,aspergillodiol 2, aspergillol 3 and 12-acetyl-aspergillol 4,have been isolated by column chromatographic separation.The structures of all the new compounds are established on the basis of extensive 2D NMR spectroscopy in conjugation with MS,UV spectral analysis.The basic structure pattern of those compounds possessed an hydroindenoisopyran nucleus.

  18. Biodegradation of polyethylene microplastics by the marine fungus Zalerion maritimum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paço, Ana; Duarte, Kátia; da Costa, João P; Santos, Patrícia S M; Pereira, R; Pereira, M E; Freitas, Ana C; Duarte, Armando C; Rocha-Santos, Teresa A P

    2017-05-15

    Plastic yearly production has surpassed the 300milliontons mark and recycling has all but failed in constituting a viable solution for the disposal of plastic waste. As these materials continue to accumulate in the environment, namely, in rivers and oceans, in the form of macro-, meso-, micro- and nanoplastics, it becomes of the utmost urgency to find new ways to curtail this environmental threat. Multiple efforts have been made to identify and isolate microorganisms capable of utilizing synthetic polymers and recent results point towards the viability of a solution for this problem based on the biodegradation of plastics resorting to selected microbial strains. Herein, the response of the fungus Zalerion maritimum to different times of exposition to polyethylene (PE) pellets, in a minimum growth medium, was evaluated, based on the quantified mass differences in both the fungus and the microplastic pellets used. Additionally, molecular changes were assessed through attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR-ATR) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR). Results showed that, under the tested conditions, Z. maritimum is capable of utilizing PE, resulting in the decrease, in both mass and size, of the pellets. These results indicate that this naturally occurring fungus may actively contribute to the biodegradation of microplastics, requiring minimum nutrients.

  19. Symbiotic Fungus of Marine Sponge Axinella sp. Producing Antibacterial Agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trianto, A.; Widyaningsih, S.; Radjasa, OK; Pribadi, R.

    2017-02-01

    The emerging of multidrug resistance pathogenic bacteria cause the treatment of the diseaseshave become ineffective. There for, invention of a new drug with novel mode of action is an essential for curing the disease caused by an MDR pathogen. Marine fungi is prolific source of bioactive compound that has not been well explored. This study aim to obtain the marine sponges-associated fungus that producing anti-MDR bacteria substaces. We collected the sponge from Riung water, NTT, Indonesia. The fungus was isolated with affixed method, followed with purification with streak method. The overlay and disk diffusion agar methods were applied for bioactivity test for the isolate and the extract, respectively. Molecular analysis was employed for identification of the isolate. The sponge was identified based on morphological and spicular analysis. The ovelay test showed that the isolate KN15-3 active against the MDR Staphylococcus aureus and Eschericia coli. The extract of the cultured KN15-3 was also inhibited the S. aureus and E. coli with inhibition zone 2.95 mm and 4.13 mm, respectively. Based on the molecular analysis, the fungus was identified as Aspergillus sydowii. While the sponge was identified as Axinella sp.

  20. Evolutionary transitions in enzyme activity of ant fungus gardens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Fine Licht, Henrik H; Schiøtt, Morten; Mueller, Ulrich G; Boomsma, Jacobus J

    2010-07-01

    Fungus-growing (attine) ants and their fungal symbionts passed through several evolutionary transitions during their 50 million year old evolutionary history. The basal attine lineages often shifted between two main cultivar clades, whereas the derived higher-attine lineages maintained an association with a monophyletic clade of specialized symbionts. In conjunction with the transition to specialized symbionts, the ants advanced in colony size and social complexity. Here we provide a comparative study of the functional specialization in extracellular enzyme activities in fungus gardens across the attine phylogeny. We show that, relative to sister clades, gardens of higher-attine ants have enhanced activity of protein-digesting enzymes, whereas gardens of leaf-cutting ants also have increased activity of starch-digesting enzymes. However, the enzyme activities of lower-attine fungus gardens are targeted primarily toward partial degradation of plant cell walls, reflecting a plesiomorphic state of nondomesticated fungi. The enzyme profiles of the higher-attine and leaf-cutting gardens appear particularly suited to digest fresh plant materials and to access nutrients from live cells without major breakdown of cell walls. The adaptive significance of the lower-attine symbiont shifts remains unclear. One of these shifts was obligate, but digestive advantages remained ambiguous, whereas the other remained facultative despite providing greater digestive efficiency.

  1. Decomposition of Plant Debris by the Nematophagous Fungus ARF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kening; Riggs, R D; Crippen, Devany

    2004-09-01

    In the study of the biological control of plant-parasitic nematodes, knowledge of the saprophytic ability of a nematophagous fungus is necessary to understand its establishment and survival in the soil. The objectives of this study were (i) to determine if the nematophagous fungus ARF (Arkansas Fungus) shows differential use of plant residues; and (ii) to determine if ARF still existed in the soil of a field in which ARF was found originally and in which the population level of Heterodera glycines had remained very low, despite 15 years of continuous, susceptible soybean. Laboratory studies of the decomposition of wheat straw or soybean root by ARF were conducted in two separate experiments, using a CO collection apparatus, where CO-free air was passed through sterilized cotton to remove the microorganisms in the air and then was passed over the samples, and evolved CO was trapped by KOH. Milligrams of C as CO was used to calculate the percentage decomposition of the plant debris by ARF. Data indicated ARF decomposed 11.7% of total organic carbon of the wheat straw and 20.1% of the soybean roots in 6 weeks. In the field soil study, 21 soil samples were taken randomly from the field. Only 3 months after the infestation of the soil with H. glycines, the percentage of parasitized eggs of H. glycines reached 64 +/- 19%, and ARF was isolated from most parasitized eggs of H. glycines. Research results indicated ARF could use plant residues to survive.

  2. Purification, biochemical characterization, and gene cloning of a new extracellular thermotolerant and glucose tolerant maltooligosaccharide-forming alpha-amylase from an endophytic ascomycete Fusicoccum sp. BCC4124.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champreda, Verawat; Kanokratana, Pattanop; Sriprang, Rutchadaporn; Tanapongpipat, Sutipa; Eurwilaichitr, Lily

    2007-08-01

    An endophytic fungus, Fusicoccum sp. BCC4124, showed strong amylolytic activity when cultivated on multi-enzyme induction enriched medium and agro-industry substrates. alpha-Amylase and alpha-glucosidase activities were highly induced in the presence of maltose and starch. The purified target alpha-amylase, Amy-FC1, showed strong hydrolytic activity on soluble starch (kcat/Km=6.47 x 10(3) min(-1)(ml/mg)) and selective activity on gamma- and beta-cyclodextrins, but not on alpha-cyclodextrin. The enzyme worked optimally at 70 degrees C in a neutral pH range with t(1/2) of 240 min in the presence of Ca(2+) and starch. Maltose, matotriose, and maltotetraose were the major products from starch hydrolysis but prolonged reaction led to the production of glucose, maltose, and maltotriose from starch, cyclodextrins, and maltooligosaccharides (G3-G7). The amylase showed remarkable glucose tolerance up to 1 M, but was more sensitive to inhibition by maltose. The deduced protein primary structure from the putative gene revealed that the enzyme shared moderate homology between alpha-amylases from Aspergilli and Lipomyces sp. This thermotolerant, glucose tolerant maltooligosaccharide-forming alpha-amylase is potent for biotechnological application.

  3. Comparison and Selection of Organization Modes in Edible Fungus Industry of Shandong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanxiang; GE; Jilian; HU; Zhijian; GUO

    2013-01-01

    China is the largest producer and exporter of edible fungus in the world,and Shandong is the largest producer of edible fungus in China.This study is intended to select suitable organization mode for edible fungus industry of Shandong Province.On the basis of types and characteristics of existing edible fungus production modes in China,it is concluded that Shandong Province should take following measures:(1)giving priority to development of integrated organization mode;(2)steadily promoting park and factory mode in economically developed regions;(3)developing circular agriculture in regions with solid foundation of agriculture and animal husbandry.Finally,it puts forward following recommendations:(1)speeding up construction of standardization and information platform for edible fungus industry;(2)improving quality of personnel engaged in edible fungus industry;(3)bringing into play driving effect of leading enterprises;(4)developing and introducing deep processing enterprises.

  4. 产于吉林长白山的中国子囊菌一新记录属——类肉座菌属(Hypocreopsis)%Hypocreopsis lichenoides (Ascomycetes) New to China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴玉成; 图力古尔

    2007-01-01

    报道了采自吉林长白山的中国子囊菌一新记录属--类肉座菌属(Hypocreopsis).该属隶属于子囊菌门(Ascomycota)、子囊菌纲(Ascomycetes)、粪壳菌亚纲(Sordariomycetidae)、肉座菌目(Hypocreales)、肉座菌科(Hypocreaceae).同时地衣状类肉座菌(Hypocreopsis lichenoides)也是中国的新记录种,对该种进行了详细描述和显微结构绘图.%Hypocreopsis lichenoides (Tode) Seaver is newly recorded from boreal forest in Changbaishan Nature Reserve, Jilin province, and the genus Hypocreopsis P. Karst. is reported for the first time in China, too. The illustrated description of the species is given based on the material collected from China.

  5. Degradation of Phenanthrene by a chilean white rot fungus Anthracophyllum discolor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acevedo, F.; Cuevas, R.; Rubilar, O.; Tortella, G.; Diez, M. C.

    2009-07-01

    Anthracophyllum discolor, a white rot fungus of southern Chile, has been an efficient degrader of clorophenols and azo dyes. This fungus produces ligninolytic enzymes being manganese peroxidase (Mn) the major one produced. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of phenanthrene concentration of ligninolytic activity of A. Discolor measured by poly R-478 decolorazation, and to evaluate the potential of this fungus for degrading phenanthrene in liquid media. (Author)

  6. Isolated Fungal Promoters and Gene Transcription Terminators and Methods of Protein and Chemical Production in a Fungus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Ziyu; Lasure, Linda L.; Magnuson, Jon K.

    2008-11-11

    The present invention encompasses isolated gene regulatory elements and gene transcription terminators that are differentially expressed in a native fungus exhibiting a first morphology relative to the native fungus exhibiting a second morphology. The invention also encompasses a method of utilizing a fungus for protein or chemical production. A transformed fungus is produced by transforming a fungus with a recombinant polynucleotide molecule. The recombinant polynucleotide molecule contains an isolated polynucleotide sequence linked operably to another molecule comprising a coding region of a gene of interest. The gene regulatory element and gene transcription terminator may temporally and spatially regulate expression of particular genes for optimum production of compounds of interest in a transgenic fungus.

  7. Isolated fungal promoters and gene transcription terminators and methods of protein and chemical production in a fungus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Ziyu; Lasure, Linda L; Magnuson, Jon K

    2014-05-27

    The present invention encompasses isolated gene regulatory elements and gene transcription terminators that are differentially expressed in a native fungus exhibiting a first morphology relative to the native fungus exhibiting a second morphology. The invention also encompasses a method of utilizing a fungus for protein or chemical production. A transformed fungus is produced by transforming a fungus with a recombinant polynucleotide molecule. The recombinant polynucleotide molecule contains an isolated polynucleotide sequence linked operably to another molecule comprising a coding region of a gene of interest. The gene regulatory element and gene transcription terminator may temporally and spatially regulate expression of particular genes for optimum production of compounds of interest in a transgenic fungus.

  8. The Fungus Candida albicans Tolerates Ambiguity at Multiple Codons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões, João; Bezerra, Ana R; Moura, Gabriela R; Araújo, Hugo; Gut, Ivo; Bayes, Mónica; Santos, Manuel A S

    2016-01-01

    The ascomycete Candida albicans is a normal resident of the gastrointestinal tract of humans and other warm-blooded animals. It occurs in a broad range of body sites and has high capacity to survive and proliferate in adverse environments with drastic changes in oxygen, carbon dioxide, pH, osmolarity, nutrients, and temperature. Its biology is unique due to flexible reassignment of the leucine CUG codon to serine and synthesis of statistical proteins. Under standard growth conditions, CUG sites incorporate leucine (3% of the times) and serine (97% of the times) on a proteome wide scale, but leucine incorporation fluctuates in response to environmental stressors and can be artificially increased up to 98%. In order to determine whether such flexibility also exists at other codons, we have constructed several serine tRNAs that decode various non-cognate codons. Expression of these tRNAs had minor effects on fitness, but growth of the mistranslating strains at different temperatures, in medium with different pH and nutrients composition was often enhanced relatively to the wild type (WT) strain, supporting our previous data on adaptive roles of CUG ambiguity in variable growth conditions. Parallel evolution of the recombinant strains (100 generations) followed by full genome resequencing identified various strain specific single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) and one SNP in the deneddylase (JAB1) gene in all strains. Since JAB1 is a subunit of the COP9 signalosome complex, which interacts with cullin (Cdc53p) to mediate degradation of a variety of cellular proteins, our data suggest that neddylation plays a key role in tolerance and adaptation to codon ambiguity in C. albicans.

  9. The fungus Candida albicans tolerates ambiguity at multiple codons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Salvador Simões

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The ascomycete Candida albicans is a normal resident of the gastrointestinal tract of humans and other warm-blooded animals. It occurs in a broad range of body sites and has high capacity to survive and proliferate in adverse environments with drastic changes in oxygen, carbon dioxide, pH, osmolarity, nutrients and temperature. Its biology is unique due to flexible reassignment of the leucine CUG codon to serine and synthesis of statistical proteins. Under standard growth conditions 3% of leucine and 97% of serine are incorporated at CUG sites on a proteome wide scale, but leucine incorporation fluctuates in response to environmental stressors and can be artificially increased up to 98%. In order to determine whether such flexibility also exists at other codons, we have constructed several serine tRNAs that decode various non-cognate codons. Expression of these tRNAs had minor effects on fitness, but growth of the mistranslating strains at different temperatures, in medium with different pH and nutrients composition was often enhanced relatively to the wild type (WT strain, supporting our previous data on adaptive roles of CUG ambiguity in variable growth conditions. Parallel evolution of the recombinant strains (100 generations followed by full genome resequencing identified various strain specific single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP and one SNP in the deneddylase (JAB1 gene in all strains. Since JAB1 is a subunit of the COP9 signalosome complex, which interacts with cullin (Cdc53p to mediate degradation of a variety of cellular proteins, our data suggest that neddylation plays a key role in tolerance and adaptation to codon ambiguity in C. albicans.

  10. Two new terpenoids from endophytic fungus Periconia sp. F-31.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Han-Lin; Zhang, De-Wu; Li, Li; Xie, Dan; Zou, Jian-Hua; Si, Yi-Kang; Dai, Jungui

    2011-01-01

    Two new terpenoids, (+)-(3S,6S,7R,8S)-periconone A (1) and (-)-(1R,4R,6S,7S)-2-caren-4,8-olide (2), have been isolated from an endophytic fungus Periconia sp., which was collected from the plant Annona muricata. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses. In the in vitro assays, the two compounds showed low cytotoxic activities against six human tumor cell lines (HCT-8, Bel-7402, BGC-823, A549, A2780 and MCF-7) with IC(50)>10(-5) M.

  11. Arsenate resistant Penicillium coffeae: a potential fungus for soil bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargavi, S D; Savitha, J

    2014-03-01

    Bioremediation is an effective method for the treatment of major metal contaminated sites. Fungi were isolated from soil samples collected from different arsenate contaminated areas across India. An isolate, Penicillium coffeae, exhibited resistance to arsenate up to 500 mM. Results indicated that pretreatment of biomass with alkali (NaOH) enhanced the percentage of adsorption to 66.8% as compared to that of live and untreated dead biomass whose adsorption was 22.9% and 60.2% respectively. The physiological parameters evaluated in this study may help pilot studies aimed at bioremediation of arsenate contaminated effluents using arsenate resistant fungus P. coffeae.

  12. Cultivation of tea fungus on malt extract medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetković Dragoljub D.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of application of malt extract as a source of carbohydrate in a medium for tea fungus was investigated. The beverage obtained on such medium was compared with that prepared in a traditional way with sucrose medium. The presence of easily adoptable sugars, glucose and fructose, as dominant in malt medium results in a very effective fermentation, which gives much more sour beverage for the same time and makes it possible to reduce the fermentation period. The obtained beverage has satisfactory sensorial characteristics.

  13. Anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis activity of fungus Phomopsis stipata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Andrade de Prince

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Our purpose was to determine the anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis activity of the metabolites produced by the endophitic fungus Phomopsis stipata (Lib. B. Sutton, (Diaporthaceae, cultivated in different media. The antimycobacterial activity was assessed through the Resazurin Microtiter Assay (REMA and the cytotoxicity test performed on macrophage cell line. The extracts derived from fungi grown on Corn Medium and Potato Dextrose Broth presented the smallest values of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC and low cytotoxicity, which implies a high selectivity index. This is the first report on the chemical composition and antitubercular activity of metabolites of P. stipata, as well as the influence of culture medium on these properties.

  14. A New Cerebroside, Asperiamide A, from Marine Fungus Asperillus sp.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OUYANG,Ming-An; CHEN,Bi-E; KUO,Yueh-Hsiung

    2004-01-01

    @@ Cerebrosides and ceramides[1] have been isolated from a number of marine organisms such as sea stars, sea anemones, gorgonians, sponges, tunicates, dinoflagellates, and green algae. Some cerebroside and ceramides exhibited cytotoxic, antitumor,[2,3] immunostimulatory,[4] antifungal,[5] and antiviral[6] activites. In the search for bioactive components,two water soluble constituents, asperiamide A and adenosine, were isolated from the marine fungus Asperillus sp. The current report describes the structural elucidation of a new compound, aspefiamide A (1) and a known one, adenosine (2).

  15. BIODEGRADATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS BY THE WHITE ROT FUNGUS PHANEROCHAETE CHRYSOPORIUM: INVOLVEMENT OF THE LIGNIN DEGRADING SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The white-rot fungus Phanrochaete chrysosporium has the ability to degrade a wide variety of structurally diverse organic compounds, including a number of environmentally persistent organopollutants. The unique biodegradative abilities of this fungus appears to be depend...

  16. Using copper sulfate to control egg fungus at Keo Fish Farm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keo Fish Farm is the biggest producer of hybrid striped bass fry in the world. The hatchery manager asked about treatments to control fungus on eggs which occurred fairly often. Our lab has been working on gaining FDA-approval to use copper sulfate to control fungus on catfish eggs, so we were con...

  17. Screening of Fungus Antagonists against Six Main Disease Pathogens in Crops

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    28 soil samples were collected from the rhizosphere of 16 plant species in six different districts in Hunan. As a result of isolation and purification, 122 fungus strains were obtained of which the antagonistic activity was tested against six fungus pathogens in tomato, cotton, cucumber, chilli, rice and rape, and 17 strains were found antagonistic to one or more pathogenic fungi.

  18. First localities in Poland of the recently described fungus Cordyceps bifusispora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Bujakiewicz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Two localities of the entomopathogenic fungus Cordyceps bifusispora, hitherto not reported from Poland, are characterised by their site conditions and co-occurring macrofungi during the period of the appearance of its stromata. Description of this fungus culture is given and some remarks on the resemblance of its teleomorphs and anamorphs from different collections are discussed.

  19. Differential response by Melaleuca quinquenervia trees to attack by the rust fungus Puccinia psidii in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melaleuca quinquenervia (melaleuca, paperbark tree) is an exotic invasive tree in Florida, Hawaii, and some Caribbean islands. Puccinia psidii (guava rust-fungus) is a Neotropical rust fungus, reported to attack many species in the Myrtaceae and one genus in the Heteropyxidaceae, both members of the...

  20. Insect symbioses: a case study of past, present, and future fungus-growing ant research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caldera, Eric J; Poulsen, Michael; Suen, Garret;

    2009-01-01

    Fungus-growing ants (Attini: Formicidae) engage in an obligate mutualism with fungi they cultivate for food. Although biologists have been fascinated with fungus-growing ants since the resurgence of natural history in the modern era, the early stages of research focused mainly on the foraging beh...

  1. Vertical transmission as the key to the colonization of Madagascar by fungus-growing termites?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nobre, T.; Eggleton, P.; Aanen, D.K.

    2010-01-01

    The mutualism between fungus-growing termites (Macrotermitinae) and their mutualistic fungi (Termitomyces) began in Africa. The fungus-growing termites have secondarily colonized Madagascar and only a subset of the genera found in Africa is found on this isolated island. Successful long-distance col

  2. Two novel eremophilane sesquiterpenes from an endophytic Xylariaceous fungus isolated from leaves of Cupressus lusitanica

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Two new eremophilane sesquiterpenes, cupressolide A and cupressolide B, along with two known sesquiterpenes, has been characterized from the EtOAc extract of a liquid medium where a Xylariaceous fungus, isolated as an endophytic fungus from health tissues of Cupressus lusitanica leaves, was cultivated. The structures of the isolated compounds were determined by analyses of their MS and NMR spectroscopic data.

  3. BIO-DEINKING OF ONP AND ITS EFFLUENT TREATMENT BY WHITE ROT FUNGUS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Lin; Chunsheng Pang; Deqing Zhao; Liping Jiang

    2004-01-01

    Deinking of secondary fiber of ONP and effluent treatment with white rot fungus were studied in this paper. Results showed that white rot fungus exerted significant effect on deinking of ONP and CODcr decrease and degradation of pollutants of deinking effluent.

  4. Mating and Progeny Isolation in The Corn Smut Fungus Ustilago maydis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The corn smut pathogen, Ustilago maydis (U. maydis) (DC.) Corda, is a semi-obligate plant pathogenic fungus in the phylum Basidiomycota (Alexopoulos, Mims and Blackwell, 1996). The fungus can be easily cultured in its haploid yeast phase on common laboratory media. However, to complete its sexual cy...

  5. First unusual case of keratitis in Europe due to the rare fungus Metarhizium anisopliae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorin, Josephine; Debourgogne, Anne; Zaïdi, Mohamed; Bazard, Marie-Christine; Machouart, Marie

    2015-05-01

    Metarhizium anisopliae is a fungus utilized worldwide for insect-pest biocontrol. Few M. anisopliae infections have been reported previously. Here, M. anisopliae was isolated from a corneal ulcer in a healthy man. It is the first ocular case in France and Europe of this extremely rare fungus in humans.

  6. Two novel eremophilane sesquiterpenes from an endophytic Xylariaceous fungus isolated from leaves of Cupressus lusitanica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaral, Luciana S.; Rodrigues-Filho, Edson, E-mail: edson@dq.ufscar.b [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (DQ/UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2010-07-01

    Two new eremophilane sesquiterpenes, cupressolide A and cupressolide B, along with two known sesquiterpenes, has been characterized from the EtOAc extract of a liquid medium where a Xylariaceous fungus, isolated as an endophytic fungus from health tissues of Cupressus lusitanica leaves, was cultivated. The structures of the isolated compounds were determined by analyses of their MS and NMR spectroscopic data. (author)

  7. A novel thermophilic endoglucanase from a mesophilic fungus Fusarium oxysporum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Shuyan; DUAN Xinyuan; LU Xuemei; GAO Peiji

    2006-01-01

    A novel thermophilic endoglucanase (EGt) was extracted from a mesophilic fungus (Fusarium oxysporum L19). We invoked conventional kinetic enzyme reactions using the sodium salt of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC-Na) as substrate. EGt displayed optimal activity at 75℃ when kept running 30 min in the temperature range of 30―85℃. Thermal stability curve measured at 70℃ suggested that its half-life time is 15.1 min. The activity was enhanced in the presence of Co2+ or Mg2+ but inhibited by Pb2+ and Fe3+. Moreover, N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) modification resulted in a complete loss of EGt activity, suggesting that tryptophan residues 5 be involved in the enzyme active site. Amino acid composition analysis demonstrated that EGt contains more proline residues. EGt lacks activity towards p-nitrophenyl cellobiose (pNPC). The N-terminal amino acid sequence of EGt is SYRVPAANGFPNP- DASQEKQ, and the gene of EGt was sequenced and analyzed. Extensive sequence alignments failed to show any homology between EGt and any known endoglucanases. This is the first report addressing the thermal adaptation of a cellulolytic enzyme from the mesophilic fungus F. oxysporum. 5be the expression of multiple isoenzyme in an organism helps it adapt to complex living environments.

  8. One fungus, one name promotes progressive plant pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingfield, Michael J; De Beer, Z Wilhelm; Slippers, Bernard; Wingfield, Brenda D; Groenewald, Johannes Z; Lombard, Lorenzo; Crous, Pedro W

    2012-08-01

    The robust and reliable identification of fungi underpins virtually every element of plant pathology, from disease diagnosis to studies of biology, management/control, quarantine and, even more recently, comparative genomics. Most plant diseases are caused by fungi, typically pleomorphic organisms, for which the taxonomy and, in particular, a dual nomenclature system have frustrated and confused practitioners of plant pathology. The emergence of DNA sequencing has revealed cryptic taxa and revolutionized our understanding of relationships in the fungi. The impacts on plant pathology at every level are already immense and will continue to grow rapidly as new DNA sequencing technologies continue to emerge. DNA sequence comparisons, used to resolve a dual nomenclature problem for the first time only 19 years ago, have made it possible to approach a natural classification for the fungi and to abandon the confusing dual nomenclature system. The journey to a one fungus, one name taxonomic reality has been long and arduous, but its time has come. This will inevitably have a positive impact on plant pathology, plant pathologists and future students of this hugely important discipline on which the world depends for food security and plant health in general. This contemporary review highlights the problems of a dual nomenclature, especially its impact on plant pathogenic fungi, and charts the road to a one fungus, one name system that is rapidly drawing near.

  9. Modulation of antimicrobial metabolites production by the fungus Aspergillus parasiticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana A.P. Bracarense

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Biosynthesis of active secondary metabolites by fungi occurs as a specific response to the different growing environments. Changes in this environment alter the chemical and biological profiles leading to metabolites diversification and consequently to novel pharmacological applications. In this work, it was studied the influence of three parameters (fermentation length, medium composition and aeration in the biosyntheses of antimicrobial metabolites by the fungus Aspergillus parasiticus in 10 distinct fermentation periods. Metabolism modulation in two culturing media, CYA and YES was evaluated by a 2² full factorial planning (ANOVA and on a 2³ factorial planning, role of aeration, medium composition and carbohydrate concentration were also evaluated. In overall, 120 different extracts were prepared, their HPLC profiles were obtained and the antimicrobial activity against A. flavus, C. albicans, E. coli and S. aureus of all extracts was evaluated by microdilution bioassay. Yield of kojic acid, a fine chemical produced by the fungus A. parasiticus was determined in all extracts. Statistical analyses pointed thirteen conditions able to modulate the production of bioactive metabolites by A. parasiticus. Effect of carbon source in metabolites diversification was significant as shown by the changes in the HPLC profiles of the extracts. Most of the extracts presented inhibition rates higher than that of kojic acid as for the extract obtained after 6 days of fermentation in YES medium under stirring. Kojic acid was not the only metabolite responsible for the activity since some highly active extracts showed to possess low amounts of this compound, as determined by HPLC.

  10. Biotransformation of an africanane sesquiterpene by the fungus Mucor plumbeus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga, Braulio M; Díaz, Carmen E; Amador, Leonardo J; Reina, Matías; López-Rodriguez, Matías; González-Coloma, Azucena

    2017-03-01

    Biotransformation of 8β-hydroxy-african-4(5)-en-3-one angelate by the fungus Mucor plumbeus afforded as main products 6α,8β-dihydroxy-african-4(5)-en-3-one 8β-angelate and 1α,8β-dihydroxy-african-4(5)-en-3-one 8β-angelate, which had been obtained, together with the substrate, from transformed root cultures of Bethencourtia hermosae. This fact shows that the enzyme system involved in these hydroxylations in both organisms, the fungus and the plant, acts with the same regio- and stereospecificity. In addition another twelve derivatives were isolated in the incubation of the substrate, which were identified as the (2'R,3'R)- and (2'S,3'S)-epoxy derivatives of the substrate and of the 6α- and 1α-hydroxy alcohols, the 8β-(2'R,3'R)- and 8β-(2'S,3'S)-epoxyangelate of 8β,15-dihydroxy-african-4(5)-en-3-one, the hydrolysis product of the substrate, and three isomers of 8β-hydroxy-african-4(5)-en-3-one 2ξ,3ξ-dihydroxy-2-methylbutanoate. The insect antifeedant effects of the pure compounds were tested against chewing and sucking insect species along with their selective cytotoxicity against insect (Sf9) and mammalian (CHO) cell lines.

  11. MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION AND MASS PRODUCTION OF NEMATOPHAGOUS FUNGUS NEMATOCTONUS ROBUSTUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh babu S,

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The plant parasitic nematodes infect the root tissues of the plant causing root galls that lead to reduced water and mineral uptake in the plant root system. Nematophagous fungus are used as biocontrol for the nematodes. Among those Nematoctonus are one of the species used as bioagent. Nematoctonus species produces an extensive mycelium and capture many nematodes with hour glass shaped adhesive knobs on the hyphae. Nematodes become attached to these adhesive knobs and the cuticle of nematode is penetrated by the infective hyphae. This isolate of Nematoctonus robustus is characterized by hyaline mycelium, dikaryotic in nature containing genetically two different nuclei in each cell, having distinct clamp connection. The fungus has better colonizing ability on natural solid substrates like wheat straw and rice straw. It also show good ability to colonize on different cereal grains and various other waste products like coconut coir and FYM etc. This species is one of the best used for mass production and effective for control of plant parasitic nematodes.

  12. Isolation and Identification of Glucoamylase Producer Fungus from Sago Hampas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfi Asben

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Waste of sago processing, notably hampas (ela still contains sago starch is waste that has not been utilized optimally yet  and causing pollution. Isolation and identification of glucoamylase producer fungus of sago hampas waste  were aims to obtain isolates that have gluco-amylolytic properties, and to know glucoamylase activity of selected fungus isolates after grown on artificial medium.  Indegeneous isolates that can produced glucoamylase will be use to get sugar hidrolysate from starch of sago hampas waste for bioetanol production. The study was conducted with the following stages: 1Take the sample from the tennis, 2 Isolation and Identification, 3 Characterization (clear zone, and 4 The production of glucoamylase from selected isolates, The results obtained are: 1 Isolation of fungi gluco-amylolytic from 2 sources sago hampas were produced 10 isolates. Ten isolates were divided into 4 genuses: Gliocladium (as dominant isolate, Aspergilus, Rizhopus and Geotrichum. Isolates of Gliocladium KE gaves the largest degradation of starch on PDA-Starch medium (clear zone, and followed by isolates of Aspergillus GA; 2 Production of glucoamylase on sago hampas with modificated Danial medium (1992 gave the highest activity of Gliocladium KE   on the fifth day of incubation, namely: 10.72 U / mL of crude enzyme   from the supernatant of fermentation substrate (S, and 17.16 U / mL for crude enzyme from the extract of isopropanol isolation (E.

  13. The carbon starvation response of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Paxillus involutus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellström, Magnus; Shah, Firoz; Johansson, Tomas; Ahrén, Dag; Persson, Per; Tunlid, Anders

    2015-04-01

    The amounts of carbon allocated to the fungal partner in ectomycorrhizal associations can vary substantially depending on the plant growth and the soil nutrient conditions, and the fungus may frequently be confronted with limitations in carbon. We used chemical analysis and transcriptome profiling to examine the physiological response of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Paxillus involutus to carbon starvation during axenic cultivation. Carbon starvation induced a decrease in the biomass. Concomitantly, ammonium, cell wall material (chitin) and proteolytic enzymes were released into the medium, which suggest autolysis. Compared with the transcriptome of actively growing hyphae, about 45% of the transcripts analyzed were differentially regulated during C-starvation. Induced during starvation were transcripts encoding extracellular enzymes such as peptidases, chitinases and laccases. In parallel, transcripts of N-transporters were upregulated, which suggest that some of the released nitrogen compounds were re-assimilated by the mycelium. The observed changes suggest that the carbon starvation response in P. involutus is associated with complex cellular changes that involves autolysis, recycling of intracellular compounds by autophagy and reabsorption of the extracellular released material. The study provides molecular markers that can be used to examine the role of autolysis for the turnover and survival of the ectomycorrhizal mycelium in soils.

  14. No sex in fungus-farming ants or their crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himler, Anna G; Caldera, Eric J; Baer, Boris C; Fernández-Marín, Hermógenes; Mueller, Ulrich G

    2009-07-22

    Asexual reproduction imposes evolutionary handicaps on asexual species, rendering them prone to extinction, because asexual reproduction generates novel genotypes and purges deleterious mutations at lower rates than sexual reproduction. Here, we report the first case of complete asexuality in ants, the fungus-growing ant Mycocepurus smithii, where queens reproduce asexually but workers are sterile, which is doubly enigmatic because the clonal colonies of M. smithii also depend on clonal fungi for food. Degenerate female mating anatomy, extensive field and laboratory surveys, and DNA fingerprinting implicate complete asexuality in this widespread ant species. Maternally inherited bacteria (e.g. Wolbachia, Cardinium) and the fungal cultivars can be ruled out as agents inducing asexuality. M. smithii societies of clonal females provide a unique system to test theories of parent-offspring conflict and reproductive policing in social insects. Asexuality of both ant farmer and fungal crop challenges traditional views proposing that sexual farmer ants outpace coevolving sexual crop pathogens, and thus compensate for vulnerabilities of their asexual crops. Either the double asexuality of both farmer and crop may permit the host to fully exploit advantages of asexuality for unknown reasons or frequent switching between crops (symbiont reassociation) generates novel ant-fungus combinations, which may compensate for any evolutionary handicaps of asexuality in M. smithii.

  15. The response of filamentous fungus Rhizopus nigricans to flavonoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slana, Marko; Zigon, Dušan; Makovec, Tomaž; Lenasi, Helena

    2011-08-01

    The saprophytic fungus Rhizopus nigricans constitutes a serious problem when thriving on gathered crops. The identification of any compounds, especially natural ones, that inhibit fungal growth, may therefore be important. During its life cycle, Rhizopus nigricans encounters many compounds, among them the flavonoids, plant secondary metabolites that are involved in plant defense against pathogenic microorganisms. Although not being a plant pathogen, Rhizopus nigricans may interact with these compounds in the same way as plant pathogens--in response to the fungitoxic effect of flavonoids the fungi transform them into less toxic metabolites. We have studied the interaction of R. nigricans with some flavonoids. Inhibition of hyphal spreading (from 3% to 100%) was observed by 300 μM flavones, flavanones and isoflavones, irrespective of their basic structure, oxidized or reduced C-ring, and orientation of the B-ring. However, a hydrophobic A-ring was important for the toxicity. R. nigricans transformed some of the flavonoids into glucosylated products. Recognition of substrates for glucosylating enzyme(s) did not correlate with their fungitoxic effect but depended exclusively on the presence of a free -OH group in the flavonoid A-ring and of a hydrophobic B-ring. Although the fungus produced glucosyltransferase constitutively, an additional amount of the enzyme was induced by the substrate flavonoid. Moreover, effective detoxification was shown to require the presence of glucose.

  16. Effect and influence factors of sulfur removal in coal with fungus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE De-wen; JIN Yan; CHAI Li-yuan; HUANG Rui; PENG Bing; WANG Yun-yan

    2005-01-01

    The influence of coal desulfurization by fungus was experimentally studied. The results suggest that fungus can effectively remove inorganic and organic sulfur in coal, and main influences of desulfurization by fungus of pH value, temperature, coal slurry concentration and coal granularity were studied by orthodox experiment and the optimal experimental conditions are′as follows: pH value 6, temperature 45 ℃, coal slurry concentration 10% and coal granularity 100 μm. Under above conditions, fungus car remove up to 44.96% total sulfur and 54. 87% inorganic sulfur within two days, and their desulfurization rates will increase along with time. Compared with sulfolobas, desulphurization by fungus is steady and more effective, and has advantage of high speed.

  17. Accumulation and chemical states of radiocesium by fungus Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Sakamoto, Fuminori; Kozai, Naofumi; Yamasaki, Shinya; Yu, Qianqian

    2014-05-01

    After accident of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, the fall-out radiocesium was deposited on the ground. Filamentous fungus is known to accumulate radiocesium in environment, even though many minerals are involved in soil. These facts suggest that fungus affect the migration behavior of radiocesium in the environment. However, accumulation mechanism of radiocesium by fungus is not understood. In the present study, accumulation and chemical states change of Cs by unicellular fungus of Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been studied to elucidate the role of microorganisms in the migration of radiocesium in the environment. Two different experimental conditions were employed; one is the accumulation experiments of radiocesium by S. cerevisiae from the agar medium containing 137Cs and a mineral of zeolite, vermiculite, smectite, mica, or illite. The other is the experiments using stable cesium to examine the chemical states change of Cs. In the former experiment, the cells were grown on membrane filter of 0.45 μm installed on the agar medium. After the grown cells were weighed, radioactivity in the cells was measured by an autoradiography technique. The mineral weight contents were changed from 0.1% to 1% of the medium. In the latter experiment, the cells were grown in the medium containing stable Cs between 1 mM and 10mM. The Cs accumulated cells were analyzed by SEM-EDS and EXAFS. The adsorption experiments of cesium by the cells under resting condition were also conducted to test the effect of cells metabolic activity. Without mineral in the medium, cells of S. cerevisiae accumulated 1.5x103 Bq/g from the medium containing 137Cs of 2.6x102 Bq/g. When mineral was added in the medium, concentration of 137Cs in the cells decreased. The concentration of 137Cs in the cells from the medium containing different minerals were in the following order; smectite, illite, mica > vermiculite > zeolite. This order was nearly the same as the inverse of distribution coefficient of

  18. Towards an integrated understanding of the consequences of fungus domestication on the fungus-growing termite gut microbiota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomas-Poulsen, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 30 million years ago (MYA), the subfamily of higher termites Macrotermitinae domesticated a fungus, Termitomyces, as the main plant decomposer and food source for the termite host. The origin of fungiculture shifted the composition of the termite gut microbiota, and some of the func......Approximately 30 million years ago (MYA), the subfamily of higher termites Macrotermitinae domesticated a fungus, Termitomyces, as the main plant decomposer and food source for the termite host. The origin of fungiculture shifted the composition of the termite gut microbiota, and some...... of the functional implications of this shift have recently been established. I review reports on the composition of the Macrotermitinae gut microbiota, evidence for a subfamily core gut microbiota, and the first insight into functional complementarity between fungal and gut symbionts. In addition, I argue that we...... need to explore the capacities of all members of the symbiotic communities, including better solidifying Termitomyces role(s) in order to understand putative complementary gut bacterial contributions. Approaches that integrate natural history and sequencing data to elucidate symbiont functions...

  19. Protein profiling of the dimorphic, pathogenic fungus, Penicillium marneffei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rundle William T

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Penicillium marneffei is a pathogenic fungus that afflicts immunocompromised individuals having lived or traveled in Southeast Asia. This species is unique in that it is the only dimorphic member of the genus. Dimorphism results from a process, termed phase transition, which is regulated by temperature of incubation. At room temperature, the fungus grows filamentously (mould phase, but at body temperature (37°C, a uninucleate yeast form develops that reproduces by fission. Formation of the yeast phase appears to be a requisite for pathogenicity. To date, no genes have been identified in P. marneffei that strictly induce mould-to-yeast phase conversion. In an effort to help identify potential gene products associated with morphogenesis, protein profiles were generated from the yeast and mould phases of P. marneffei. Results Whole cell proteins from the early stages of mould and yeast development in P. marneffei were resolved by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Selected proteins were recovered and sequenced by capillary-liquid chromatography-nanospray tandem mass spectrometry. Putative identifications were derived by searching available databases for homologous fungal sequences. Proteins found common to both mould and yeast phases included the signal transduction proteins cyclophilin and a RACK1-like ortholog, as well as those related to general metabolism, energy production, and protection from oxygen radicals. Many of the mould-specific proteins identified possessed similar functions. By comparison, proteins exhibiting increased expression during development of the parasitic yeast phase comprised those involved in heat-shock responses, general metabolism, and cell-wall biosynthesis, as well as a small GTPase that regulates nuclear membrane transport and mitotic processes in fungi. The cognate gene encoding the latter protein, designated RanA, was subsequently cloned and characterized. The P. marneffei RanA protein

  20. Directed evolution of a filamentous fungus for thermotolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyons Thomas J

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Filamentous fungi are the most widely used eukaryotic biocatalysts in industrial and chemical applications. Consequently, there is tremendous interest in methodology that can use the power of genetics to develop strains with improved performance. For example, Metarhizium anisopliae is a broad host range entomopathogenic fungus currently under intensive investigation as a biologically based alternative to chemical pesticides. However, it use is limited by the relatively low tolerance of this species to abiotic stresses such as heat, with most strains displaying little to no growth between 35–37°C. In this study, we used a newly developed automated continuous culture method called the Evolugator™, which takes advantage of a natural selection-adaptation strategy, to select for thermotolerant variants of M. anisopliae strain 2575 displaying robust growth at 37°C. Results Over a 4 month time course, 22 cycles of growth and dilution were used to select 2 thermotolerant variants of M. anisopliae. Both variants displayed robust growth at 36.5°C, whereas only one was able to grow at 37°C. Insect bioassays using Melanoplus sanguinipes (grasshoppers were also performed to determine if thermotolerant variants of M. anisopliae retained entomopathogenicity. Assays confirmed that thermotolerant variants were, indeed, entomopathogenic, albeit with complex alterations in virulence parameters such as lethal dose responses (LD50 and median survival times (ST50. Conclusion We report the experimental evolution of a filamentous fungus via the novel application of a powerful new continuous culture device. This is the first example of using continuous culture to select for complex phenotypes such as thermotolerance. Temperature adapted variants of the insect-pathogenic, filamentous fungus M. anisopliae were isolated and demonstrated to show vigorous growth at a temperature that is inhibitory for the parent strain. Insect virulence assays

  1. Determinação da CL90 e TL90 do isolado IBCB66 de Beauveria bassiana (Ascomycetes: Clavicipitaceae para o controle de Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae Determination of LC 90 and LT 90 of IBCB66 Beauveria bassiana (Ascomycetes: Clavicipitaceae isolate for Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barci Leila A. G.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a patogenicidade e a virulência do isolado IBCB66 de Beauveria bassiana para larvas de Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus. O isolado IBCB66 foi utilizado como padrão, com a finalidade de determinar a CL50 (Concentração Letal, CL90, TL50 (Tempo Letal e TL90. O isolado IBCB66 foi testado em seis concentrações diferentes (5 × 10(6, 10(7, 5 × 10(7, 10(8, 5 × 10(8 e 10(9 para determinar a porcentagem de mortalidade. A mortalidade total de larvas foi observada 18 dias após o início do teste no grupo tratado com 5 × 10(9 conídios.mL-1. A análise de Probit dos dados consignados apontou a CL50 e CL90 concentrações de 3 × 10(7 e 5 × 10(8 conídios.mL-1 e para TL50 e TL90, foram 10 e 16 dias, respectivamente.The objective of this research was to evaluate the pathogenicity and the virulence of the IBCB66 isolate of Beauveria bassiana on infected larvae of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus. The IBCB66 fungus strain was used as standard isolates of B. bassiana against R. (B. microplus larvae. The larval bioassay tests using the IBCB66 isolate were carried out to determine the (Lethal Concentration LC50, LC90, (Lethal Time LT50 and LT90. The IBCB66 fungus strain was tested at six different concentrations (5 × 10(6, 10(7, 5 × 10(7, 10(8, 5 × 10(8 and 10(9 conidia.mL-1 to determine the percentage of larval mortality. In addition, a Probit analysis was also performed. Total larval mortality was observed eighteen days after the beginning of the test in the group treated with 5 × 10(9 conidia.mL-1. The LC50 and LC90 were 3 × 10(7 and 5 × 10(8 respectively and the LT50 and LT90 were 10 and 16 days.

  2. A role for antioxidants in acclimation of marine derived pathogenic fungus (NIOCC 1) to salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindran, Chinnarajan; Varatharajan, Govindaswamy R; Rajasabapathy, Raju; Vijayakanth, S; Kumar, Alagu Harish; Meena, Ram M

    2012-09-01

    Salinity tolerance a key factor helps in understanding the ionic homeostasis in general, which is a fundamental cellular phenomenon in all living cells. Here, a marine derived pathogenic fungus was examined for its adaptation under salt stress using antioxidant properties. The aqueous extracts of halophilic fungus exhibited different levels of antioxidant activity in all the in vitro tests such as α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH(·)), Hydroxyl Radical Scavenging Assay (HRSA), Metal chelating assay and β-carotene-linoleic acid model system. The antioxidant capacity of marine fungus exposed to high salt condition showed an increase in activity. In addition, the production of intra and extracellular antioxidant enzymes of the fungus at various salt stresses were analyzed and discussed for their possible role in the stress mechanism. The marine derived fungus was identified as Phialosimplex genus, which is associated with infections in dogs. Thus the present study elucidates that the scavenging activity is one of the protective mechanisms developed in the fungus to avoid the deleterious effect of salt stress. In addition, the study also helps in understanding how the pathogenic fungus tackles the oxidative burst i.e. hypersensitivity reaction performed by host to kill the pathogens.

  3. Biosorption of cadmium using the fungus Aspergillus niger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.M. Barros Júnior

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Sorption experiments using the Aspergillus niger fungus for cadmium removal were carried out to study the factors influencing and optimizing the biosorption of this metal. The effects of pH, time, biomass concentration, and initial concentration of the heavy metal on the rate of metallic biosorption were examined. An experimental design was also used to determine the values of the under study variables that provided the greatest biosorption efficiency. A technique for biomass recovery was also developed with the objective of determining the capacity of the regenerated biomass to biosorb the metals in solution. This research proved that with a pH of 4.75, a biomass concentration of 0.7 g/L, and a heavy metal concentration varying between 5 and 10 mg/L a biosorption process of biosorption with Aspergillus niger could be successfully used for heavy metal removal from oil field water in the oil industry.

  4. Antimicrobial Aromatic Polyketides from Gorgonian- Associated Fungus, Penicillium commune 518

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王俊锋; 刘培培; 王义; 王慧; 李静; 庄以彬; 朱伟明

    2012-01-01

    Seven new aromatic polyketides, communols A-G (1-7), were isolated and identified from the fermentation broth of Penicillium commune 518, a marine-derived fungus associated with the Gorgonian, Muricella abnormalis. The new structures of 1-7 were determined by spectroscopic analysis and X-ray single crystal diffraction. Among them, communol D (4) was the first example of a naturally occurring aromatic polyketide with a sulfoxide group from marine thngi. Compounds 1, 6, and 7 all showed moderate antimicrobial activities against Escherichia coli and Enterobacter aerogenes with MIC values of 4.1/16.4, 6.4/25.8, and 23.8/23.8μmoloL^-1, respectively.

  5. Amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in Cusuco National Park, Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolby, Jonathan E; Padgett-Flohr, Gretchen E; Field, Richard

    2010-11-01

    Amphibian population declines in Honduras have long been attributed to habitat degradation and pollution, but an increasing number of declines are now being observed from within the boundaries of national parks in pristine montane environments. The amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis has been implicated in these declines and was recently documented in Honduras from samples collected in Pico Bonito National Park in 2003. This report now confirms Cusuco National Park, a protected cloud forest reserve with reported amphibian declines, to be the second known site of infection for Honduras. B. dendrobatidis infection was detected in 5 amphibian species: Craugastor rostralis, Duellmanohyla soralia, Lithobates maculata, Plectrohyla dasypus, and Ptychohyla hypomykter. D. soralia, P. dasypus, and P. hypomykter are listed as critically endangered in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species and have severely fragmented or restricted distributions. Further investigations are necessary to determine whether observed infection levels indicate an active B. dendrobatidis epizootic with the potential to cause further population declines and extinction.

  6. Garden sharing and garden stealing in fungus-growing ants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Rachelle M. M.; Mueller, U. G.; Holloway, Alisha K.; Green, Abigail M.; Narozniak, Joanie

    Fungi cultivated by fungus-growing ants (Attini: Formicidae) are passed on between generations by transfer from maternal to offspring nest (vertical transmission within ant species). However, recent phylogenetic analyses revealed that cultivars are occasionally also transferred between attine species. The reasons for such lateral cultivar transfers are unknown. To investigate whether garden loss may induce ants to obtain a replacement cultivar from a neighboring colony (lateral cultivar transfer), pairs of queenright colonies of two Cyphomyrmex species were set up in two conjoined chambers; the garden of one colony was then removed to simulate the total crop loss that occurs naturally when pathogens devastate gardens. Garden-deprived colonies regained cultivars through one of three mechanisms: joining of a neighboring colony and cooperation in a common garden; stealing of a neighbor's garden; or aggressive usurpation of a neighbor's garden. Because pathogens frequently devastate attine gardens under natural conditions, garden joining, stealing and usurpation emerge as critical behavioral adaptations to survive garden catastrophes.

  7. The invasive chytrid fungus of amphibians paralyzes lymphocyte responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fites, J Scott; Ramsey, Jeremy P; Holden, Whitney M; Collier, Sarah P; Sutherland, Danica M; Reinert, Laura K; Gayek, A Sophia; Dermody, Terence S; Aune, Thomas M; Oswald-Richter, Kyra; Rollins-Smith, Louise A

    2013-10-18

    The chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, causes chytridiomycosis and is a major contributor to global amphibian declines. Although amphibians have robust immune defenses, clearance of this pathogen is impaired. Because inhibition of host immunity is a common survival strategy of pathogenic fungi, we hypothesized that B. dendrobatidis evades clearance by inhibiting immune functions. We found that B. dendrobatidis cells and supernatants impaired lymphocyte proliferation and induced apoptosis; however, fungal recognition and phagocytosis by macrophages and neutrophils was not impaired. Fungal inhibitory factors were resistant to heat, acid, and protease. Their production was absent in zoospores and reduced by nikkomycin Z, suggesting that they may be components of the cell wall. Evasion of host immunity may explain why this pathogen has devastated amphibian populations worldwide.

  8. Two new triterpenoids from fruiting bodies of fungus Ganoderma lucidum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhen-Zhu; Yin, Rong-Hua; Chen, He-Ping; Feng, Tao; Li, Zheng-Hui; Dong, Ze-Jun; Cui, Bao-Kai; Liu, Ji-Kai

    2015-01-01

    Two new triterpenoids, (24E)-9α,11α-epoxy-3β-hydroxylanosta-7,24-dien-26-al (1) and (22Z,24Z)-13-hydroxy-3-oxo-14(13 → 12)abeo-lanosta-8,22,24-trien-26,23-olide (2) were isolated from dried fruiting bodies of fungus Ganoderma lucidum. The structures of these two new compounds were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses. Compound 1 possessed a lanostane skeleton, while compound 2 was based on a rare 14 (13 → 12)abeo-lanostane skeleton with a 26,23-olide moiety. Both of them were evaluated for their antifungal and cytotoxic activities. Neither of them displayed obvious inhibition on Candida albicans and five human cancer cell lines.

  9. A new diketopiperazine heterodimer from an endophytic fungus Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Bin; Li, Yue-Lan; Zhou, Jin-Chuan; Yuan, Hui-Qing; Wang, Xiao-Ning; Lou, Hong-Xiang

    2015-01-01

    One new diketopiperazine heterodimer, asperazine A (1), and eight known compounds, asperazine (2), cyclo(d-Phe-l-Trp) (3), cyclo(l-Trp-l-Trp) (4), 4-(hydroxymethyl)-5,6-dihydro-pyran-2-one (5), walterolactone A (6), and campyrones A-C (7-9), were isolated from an endophytic fungus Aspergillus niger. Their structures were determined unequivocally on the basis of extensive spectroscopic data analysis. This is the first report of the presence of compound 3 as a natural product. Cytotoxicity test against human cancer cell lines PC3, A2780, K562, MBA-MD-231, and NCI-H1688 revealed that compounds 1 and 2 had weak activities.

  10. Chemically armed mercenary ants protect fungus-farming societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Rachelle M M; Liberti, Joanito; Illum, Anders A; Jones, Tappey H; Nash, David R; Boomsma, Jacobus J

    2013-09-24

    The ants are extraordinary in having evolved many lineages that exploit closely related ant societies as social parasites, but social parasitism by distantly related ants is rare. Here we document the interaction dynamics among a Sericomyrmex fungus-growing ant host, a permanently associated parasitic guest ant of the genus Megalomyrmex, and a raiding agro-predator of the genus Gnamptogenys. We show experimentally that the guest ants protect their host colonies against agro-predator raids using alkaloid venom that is much more potent than the biting defenses of the host ants. Relatively few guest ants are sufficient to kill raiders that invariably exterminate host nests without a cohabiting guest ant colony. We also show that the odor of guest ants discourages raider scouts from recruiting nestmates to host colonies. Our results imply that Sericomyrmex fungus-growers obtain a net benefit from their costly guest ants behaving as a functional soldier caste to meet lethal threats from agro-predator raiders. The fundamentally different life histories of the agro-predators and guest ants appear to facilitate their coexistence in a negative frequency-dependent manner. Because a guest ant colony is committed for life to a single host colony, the guests would harm their own interests by not defending the host that they continue to exploit. This conditional mutualism is analogous to chronic sickle cell anemia enhancing the resistance to malaria and to episodes in human history when mercenary city defenders offered either net benefits or imposed net costs, depending on the level of threat from invading armies.

  11. Disposable diapers biodegradation by the fungus Pleurotus ostreatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa-Valdemar, Rosa María; Turpin-Marion, Sylvie; Delfín-Alcalá, Irma; Vázquez-Morillas, Alethia

    2011-08-01

    This research assesses the feasibility of degrading used disposable diapers, an important component (5-15% in weight) of urban solid waste in Mexico, by the activity of the fungus Pleurotus ostreatus, also known as oyster mushroom. Disposable diapers contain polyethylene, polypropylene and a super absorbent polymer. Nevertheless, its main component is cellulose, which degrades slowly. P. ostreatus has been utilized extensively to degrade cellulosic materials of agroindustrial sources, using in situ techniques. The practice has been extended to the commercial farming of the mushroom. This degradation capacity was assayed to reduce mass and volume of used disposable diapers. Pilot laboratory assays were performed to estimate the usefulness of the following variables on conditioning of used diapers before they act as substrate for P. ostreatus: (1) permanence vs removal of plastic cover; (2) shredding vs grinding; (3) addition of grape wastes to improve structure, nitrogen and trace elements content. Wheat straw was used as a positive control. After 68 days, decrease of the mass of diapers and productivity of fungus was measured. Weight and volume of degradable materials was reduced up to 90%. Cellulose content was diminished in 50% and lignine content in 47%. The highest efficiency for degradation of cellulosic materials corresponded to the substrates that showed highest biological efficiency, which varied from 0% to 34%. Harvested mushrooms had good appearance and protein content and were free of human disease pathogens. This research indicates that growing P. ostreatus on disposable diapers could be a good alternative for two current problems: reduction of urban solid waste and availability of high protein food sources.

  12. Patient satisfaction and treatment outcome of fungus ball rhinosinusitis treated by functional endoscopic sinus surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Jui-Chung; Lee, Hong-Shen; Chen, Mu-Kuan; Tsai, Yao-Lung

    2011-02-01

    Fungal rhinosinusitis is an important clinical problem with diverse manifestations. Although many literatures had found low recurrence rate after surgical treatment of fungus ball rhinosinusitis, patient satisfaction and treatment outcomes (symptom-free and symptom improvement rate, etc.) for fungus ball sinusitis are not yet well established. The purpose of this study is to estimate the patient satisfaction and treatment outcome in patients with fungus ball rhinosinusitis undergoing functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS). Medical records of consecutive patients with diagnosed fungus ball rhinosinusitis treated by FESS between 1995 and 2005 were reviewed retrospectively. The post-operative improvement in individual symptom was assessed by chart review and telephone visiting. Ninety consecutive patients (21 men and 69 women) were eligible for the study. Six patients (7%) presented bilateral fungus ball rhinosinusitis. Multiple paranasal sinus fungus ball involvements were found in 48 patients (53%). Complete resolution of complaints with respect to nasal discharge, postnasal drip, cough with sputum, nasal bleeding, fetid odor of nose, olfactory dysfunction, nasal obstruction, headache, and facial pain or pressure were described in 74 patients (82%). The overall patient satisfaction rate was 96%. The estimated recurrence rate of fungus ball rhinosinusitis treated with FESS was 3%, with a mean follow-up of 81 months. Treatment protocol of fungus ball rhinosinusitis with FESS and without postoperative antifungal drugs is efficient because of very low recurrence rate, high patient satisfaction, and very high symptom-free rate. Furthermore, the obvious difference of symptom-free rate between fungus ball rhinosinusitis and chronic rhinosinusitis highlights the need of further studies to discover the pathophysiology of fungal sinusitis.

  13. Releasing nitrogen from ammoniated lignin by white rot fungus cometabolizes environmental pollutants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Lu; ZHAO De-qing; ZHOU Xian-tao; QIU Yu-gui; ZHANG Gan

    2003-01-01

    The nitrogen-modified lignocelluloses(NML) produced under oxic ammoniation was metabolized by white rot fungus, NH4+-N was released, NO3--N concentration was decreased and total nitrogen loss was blocked within incubation period. During releasing nitrogen from the metabolism of NML, white rot fungus cometabolized recalcitrant environmental pollutants and showed higher degradation capability. Results indicated that this NML complex colonized by white rot fungus might be effective with economic feasibility when they are applied into the vast field ecosystem, it might stabilize NH4+ nitrogen flux and bioremediate the polluted environmental sites.

  14. Maxillary reconstruction and placement of dental implants after treatment of a maxillary sinus fungus ball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colletti, Giacomo; Felisati, Giovanni; Biglioli, Federico; Tintinelli, Roberto; Valassina, Davide

    2010-01-01

    A fungus ball is one of the fungal diseases that can affect the paranasal sinuses. It requires surgical treatment. Because there is only one previously reported case of dental implant placement after treatment of a maxillary sinus fungus ball, the authors here report on a case of a maxillary sinus fungus ball with bone erosion that was treated surgically with a combined endoscopic endonasal and endoral (Caldwell-Luc) approach. One year later, a graft from the ilium was obtained and a sinus elevation was performed to allow the placement of dental implants. Three months later, the dental implants were placed, and they were all osseointegrated at the 9-month follow-up.

  15. The response of the grape berry moth (Lobesia botrana) to a dietary phytopathogenic fungus (Botrytis cinerea): the significance of fungus sterols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondy; Corio-Costet

    2000-12-01

    A Tortricidae (Lobesia botrana) has a mutualistic relationship with the fungus (Botrytis cinerea). In this study, we investigated the growth, survival, fecundity and amount of sterols and steroids in larvae of this vineyard pest reared on artificial diets containing mycelium (3%) or purified sterols (0.01%) of the phytopathogenic fungus. Two principal questions related to the physiological and biochemical basis of this mutualistic relationship were addressed: (1) how the fungus influences growth, survival, fecundity, sterol and steroid contents of the insect and (2) are fungal sterols involved in the biochemical basis of mutualism? The presence of fungus in the diet led to a decrease of total duration of larval development (mean gain 5.1-9.4 days compared to the total duration in control of 42.9 days), an increase in survival (mean gain 50-76.3%) and fecundity (gain of 94-102%). These positive effects of the fungus on the biology and physiology of the insect were directly correlated to the presence of fungal sterols in the diet. Fungal sterols are one of the biochemical basis of the mutualistic relationship between L. botrana and B. cinerea.

  16. Co-evolution of enzyme function in the attine ant-fungus symbiosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Fine Licht, Henrik Hjarvard; Schiøtt, Morten; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan

    Introduction: Fungus-growing ants cultivate specialized fungi in the tribe Leucocoprineae (Lepiotaceae: Basidiomycota) inside their nests. The conspicuous leaf-cutting ants in the genus Atta build huge nests displacing several cubic meters of soil, whereas lower attine genera such as Cyphomyrmex...... have small nests with a fungus garden the size of a table-tennis ball. Only the leaf-cutting ants are specialized on using fresh leaves as substrate for their fungus gardens, whereas the more basal attine genera use substrates such as dry plant material (leaf litter and small twigs) and also insect...... feces and insect carcasses. This diverse array of fungal substrates across the attine lineage implies that the symbiotic fungus needs different enzymes to break down the plant material that the ants provide or different efficiencies of enzyme function. Methods: (1.) We made a literature survey...

  17. Biosorption of copper(II and chromium(VI by modified tea fungus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šćiban Marina B.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The tea fungus was found to have good adsorption capacities for heavy metal ions. In this work it was treated with HCl or NaOH at 20°C or 100°C, with the aim to improve its adsorption ability. The sorption of Cu(II and Cr(VI ions from aqueous solutions by raw and treated tea fungus was investigated in the batch mode. The largest quantity of adsorbed Cu(II, of about 55 mg/g, was achieved by tea fungus modified with NaOH at 100°C. For Cr(VI, the largest quantity of adsorbed anions, of about 58 mg/g, was achieved by the adsorbent modified with NaOH at 20°C. It was shown that acid modification of tea fungus biomass was not effective. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 43005 i br. TR 31002

  18. Factors affecting fungus-induced larval mortality in Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles stephensi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bukhari, S.T.; Middelman, A.; Koenraadt, C.J.M.; Takken, W.; Knols, B.G.J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Entomopathogenic fungi have shown great potential for the control of adult malaria vectors. However, their ability to control aquatic stages of anopheline vectors remains largely unexplored. Therefore, how larval characteristics (Anopheles species, age and larval density), fungus (species

  19. Aspernolides A and B, butenolides from a marine-derived fungus Aspergillus terreus

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parvatkar, R.R.; De; Tripathi, A; Naik, C.G.

    Two aromatic butenolides, aspernolides A and B along with the known metabolites, butyrolactone I, terrein and physcion were isolated from the fermentation broth of a soft coral derived fungus Aspergillus terreus. The structures of these metabolites...

  20. Exploring the potential for actinobacteria as defensive symbionts in fungus-growing termites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visser, Anna A.; Nobre, Tânia; Currie, Cameron R.

    2012-01-01

    In fungus-growing termites, fungi of the subgenus Pseudoxylaria threaten colony health through substrate competition with the termite fungus (Termitomyces). The potential mechanisms with which termites suppress Pseudoxylaria have remained unknown. Here we explore if Actinobacteria potentially play...... a role as defensive symbionts against Pseudoxylaria in fungus-growing termites. We sampled for Actinobacteria from 30 fungus-growing termite colonies, spanning the three main termite genera and two geographically distant sites. Our isolations yielded 360 Actinobacteria, from which we selected subsets......-growing termites, indicating lack of specificity. Antibiotic-activity screening of 288 isolates against the fungal cultivar and competitor revealed that most of the Actinobacteria-produced molecules with antifungal activity. A more detailed bioassay on 53 isolates, to test the specificity of antibiotics, showed...

  1. Reduced biological control and enhanced chemical pest management in the evolution of fungus farming in ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernández-Marín, Hermógenes; Zimmerman, Jess K; Nash, David R

    2009-01-01

    To combat disease, most fungus-growing ants (Attini) use antibiotics from mutualistic bacteria (Pseudonocardia) that are cultured on the ants' exoskeletons and chemical cocktails from exocrine glands, especially the metapleural glands (MG). Previous work has hypothesized that (i) Pseudonocardia...

  2. Serpula lacrymans, The Dry Rot Fungus and Tolerance Towards Copper-Based Wood Preservatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hastrup, Anne Christine Steenkjær; Jensen, Bo; Clausen, Carol;

    2005-01-01

    wood preservatives were the most commonly used preservatives for pressure treatment of wood for building constructions. Because of a suspicion about tolerance toward copper components, a soil block test was undertaken to clarify the effect of two copper based preservatives, copper citrate and ACQ......Serpula lacrymans (Wulfen : Fries) Schröter, the dry rot fungus, is considered the most (Wulfen : Fries) Schröterthe dry rot fungus, is considered the most economically important wood decay fungus in temperate regions of the world i.e. northern Europe, Japan and Australia. Previously copper based......-D, on the dry rot fungus, Serpula lacrymans compared to an alternative non-copper containing wood preservative. The extensive use of copper-based wood preservatives has hastened the need for understanding why some fungi are able to attack copper-treated wood. The copper tolerance of S. lacrymans and other brown...

  3. Convergent coevolution in the domestication of coral mushrooms by fungus-growing ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkacsi, A B; Pan, J J; Villesen, Palle;

    2004-01-01

    Comparisons of phylogenetic patterns between coevolving symbionts can reveal rich details about the evolutionary history of symbioses. The ancient symbiosis between fungus-growing ants, their fungal cultivars, antibiotic-producing bacteria and cultivar-infecting parasites is dominated by a pattern...... of parallel coevolution, where the symbionts of each functional group are members of monophyletic groups. However, there is one outstanding exception in the fungus-growing ant system, the unidentified cultivar grown only by ants in the Apterostigma pilosum group. We classify this cultivar in the coral...... by all other fungus-growing ants. Yet it has the same overall assemblage of coevolved ant-cultivar-parasite-bacterium interactions as the other ant-grown fungal cultivars. This indicates a pattern of convergent coevolution in the fungus-growing ant system, where symbionts with both similar and very...

  4. The dynamics of plant cell-wall polysaccharide decomposition in leaf-cutting ant fungus gardens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moller, Isabel Eva; de Fine Licht, Henrik Hjarvard; Harholt, Jesper;

    2011-01-01

    The degradation of live plant biomass in fungus gardens of leaf-cutting ants is poorly characterised but fundamental for understanding the mutual advantages and efficiency of this obligate nutritional symbiosis. Controversies about the extent to which the garden-symbiont Leucocoprinus gongylophorus......, to map the occurrence of cell wall polymers in consecutive sections of the fungus garden of the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex echinatior. We show that pectin, xyloglucan and some xylan epitopes are degraded, whereas more highly substituted xylan and cellulose epitopes remain as residuals in the waste...... material that the ants remove from their fungus garden. These results demonstrate that biomass entering leaf-cutting ant fungus gardens is only partially utilized and explain why disproportionally large amounts of plant material are needed to sustain colony growth. They also explain why substantial...

  5. Fungal metabolites: Tetrahydroauroglaucin and isodihydroauroglaucin from the marine fungus,iEurotium sp.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gawas, D.; PrabhaDevi; Tilvi, S.; Naik, C.G.; Parameswaran, P.S.

    Two poly substituted aromatic compounds: tetrahydroauroglaucin 1 and isodihydroauroglaucin 2 were identified from a marine fungus, Eurotium sp. isolated from leaves of the mangrove, Porteresia coarctata (Roxb). These compounds were reported earlier...

  6. Peniamidienone and penidilamine, plant growth regulators produced by the fungus Penicillium sp. No. 13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Y; Mizuno, T; Kawano, T; Okada, K; Shimada, A

    2000-04-01

    Peniamidienone and penidilamine were isolated from cultures of the fungus Penicillium sp. No. 13 as new plant growth regulators and their structures were established by NMR spectroscopic studies. Peniamidienone showed weak inhibition of lettuce seedling growth.

  7. Factors affecting fungus-induced larval mortality in Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles stephensi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bukhari, T.; Middelman, A.; Koenraadt, C.J.M.; Takken, W.; Knols, B.G.J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Entomopathogenic fungi have shown great potential for the control of adult malaria vectors. However, their ability to control aquatic stages of anopheline vectors remains largely unexplored. Therefore, how larval characteristics (Anopheles species, age and larval density), fungus (specie

  8. Investigating the biology of plant infection by the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Urdiroz, Magdalena; Oses-Ruiz, Miriam; Ryder, Lauren S; Talbot, Nicholas J

    2016-05-01

    The rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae, is responsible for the most serious disease of rice and is a continuing threat to ensuring global food security. The fungus has also, however, emerged as a model experimental organism for understanding plant infection processes by pathogenic fungi. This is largely due to its amenability to both classical and molecular genetics, coupled with the efforts of a very large international research community. This review, which is based on a plenary presentation at the 28th Fungal Genetics Conference in Asilomar, California in March 2015, describes recent progress in understanding how M. oryzae uses specialised cell called appressoria to bring about plant infection and the underlying biology of this developmental process. We also review how the fungus is then able to proliferate within rice tissue, deploying effector proteins to facilitate its spread by suppressing plant immunity and promoting growth and development of the fungus.

  9. Characterization of salt-adapted secreted lignocellulolytic enzymes from the mangrove fungus Pestalotiopsis sp

    OpenAIRE

    Chevret, Didier; Henrissat, Bernard; Berrin, Jean-Guy; Levasseur, Anthony; Record, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Fungi are important for biomass degradation processes in mangrove forests. Given the presence of sea water in these ecosystems, mangrove fungi are adapted to high salinity. Here we isolate Pestalotiopsis sp. NCi6, a halotolerant and lignocellulolytic mangrove fungus of the order Xylariales. We study its lignocellulolytic enzymes and analyse the effects of salinity on its secretomes. De novo transcriptome sequencing and assembly indicate that this fungus possesses of over 400 putative lignocel...

  10. Exploring the potential for actinobacteria as defensive symbionts in fungus-growing termites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Anna A; Nobre, Tânia; Currie, Cameron R; Aanen, Duur K; Poulsen, Michael

    2012-05-01

    In fungus-growing termites, fungi of the subgenus Pseudoxylaria threaten colony health through substrate competition with the termite fungus (Termitomyces). The potential mechanisms with which termites suppress Pseudoxylaria have remained unknown. Here we explore if Actinobacteria potentially play a role as defensive symbionts against Pseudoxylaria in fungus-growing termites. We sampled for Actinobacteria from 30 fungus-growing termite colonies, spanning the three main termite genera and two geographically distant sites. Our isolations yielded 360 Actinobacteria, from which we selected subsets for morphological (288 isolates, grouped in 44 morphotypes) and for 16S rRNA (35 isolates, spanning the majority of morphotypes) characterisation. Actinobacteria were found throughout all sampled nests and colony parts and, phylogenetically, they are interspersed with Actinobacteria from origins other than fungus-growing termites, indicating lack of specificity. Antibiotic-activity screening of 288 isolates against the fungal cultivar and competitor revealed that most of the Actinobacteria-produced molecules with antifungal activity. A more detailed bioassay on 53 isolates, to test the specificity of antibiotics, showed that many Actinobacteria inhibit both Pseudoxylaria and Termitomyces, and that the cultivar fungus generally is more susceptible to inhibition than the competitor. This suggests that either defensive symbionts are not present in the system or that they, if present, represent a subset of the community isolated. If so, the antibiotics must be used in a targeted fashion, being applied to specific areas by the termites. We describe the first discovery of an assembly of antibiotic-producing Actinobacteria occurring in fungus-growing termite nests. However, due to the diversity found, and the lack of both phylogenetic and bioactivity specificity, further work is necessary for a better understanding of the putative role of antibiotic-producing bacteria in the fungus

  11. Microalgae harvesting via co-culture with filamentous fungus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gultom, Sarman Oktovianus

    Microalgae harvesting is a labor- and energy-intensive process. For instance, classical harvesting technologies such as chemical addition and mechanical separation are economically prohibiting for biofuel production. Newer approaches to harvest microalgae have been developed in order to decrease costs. Among these new methods, fungal co-pelletization seems to be a promising technology. By co-culturing filamentous fungi with microalgae, it is possible to form pellets, which can easily be separated. In this study, different parameters for the cultivation of filamentous fungus (Aspergillus niger) and microalgae (Chlorella vulgaris) to efficiently form cell pellets were evaluated under heterotrophic and phototrophic conditions, including organic carbon source (glucose, glycerol and sodium acetate) concentration, pH, initial concentration of fungal spores, initial concentration of microalgal cells, concentration of ionic strength (Calcium and Magnesium) and concentration of salinity (NaCl). In addition, zeta-potential measurements were carried out in order to get a better understanding of the mechanism of attraction. It was found that 2 g/L of glucose, a fungus to microalgae ratio of 1:300, and uncontrolled pH (around 7) are the best culturing conditions for co-pelletization. Under these conditions, it was possible to achieve a high harvesting performance (>90%). In addition, it was observed that most pellets formed in the co-culture were spherical with an average diameter of 3.5 mm and in concentrations of about 5 pellets per mL of culture media. Under phototrophic conditions, co-pelletization required the addition of glucose as organic carbon source to sustain the growth of fungi and to allow the harvesting of microalgae. Zeta-potential measurements indicated that (i) both microalgae and fungi have low zeta-potential values regardless of the pH on the bulk (i.e. <-10 mV) (ii) fungi can have a positive electric charge at low pH (ie. pH=3). These values suggest that it

  12. Fungal garden making inside bamboos by a non-social fungus-growing beetle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wataru Toki

    Full Text Available In fungus-growing mutualism, it is indispensable for host animals to establish gardens of the symbiotic fungus as rapidly as possible. How to establish fungal gardens has been well-documented in social fungus-farming insects, whereas poorly documented in non-social fungus-farming insects. Here we report that the non-social, fungus-growing lizard beetle Doubledaya bucculenta (Coleoptera: Erotylidae: Languriinae transmits the symbiotic yeast Wickerhamomyces anomalus from the ovipositor-associated mycangium into bamboo internode cavities and disperses the yeast in the cavities to make gardens. Microbial isolation and cryo-scanning electron microscopy observation revealed that W. anomalus was constantly located on the posterior ends of eggs, where larvae came out, and on the inner openings of oviposition holes. Direct observation of oviposition behavior inside internodes revealed that the distal parts of ovipositors showed a peristaltic movement when they were in contact with the posterior ends of eggs. Rearing experiments showed that W. anomalus was spread much more rapidly and widely on culture media and internodes in the presence of the larvae than in the absence. These results suggest that the ovipositors play a critical role in vertical transmission of W. anomalus and that the larvae contribute actively to the garden establishment, providing a novel case of fungal garden founding in non-social insect-fungus mutualism.

  13. The fungus gardens of leaf-cutter ants undergo a distinct physiological transition during biomass degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Eric L.; Aylward, Frank O.; Kim, Young-Mo; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Hu, Zeping; Metz, Thomas O.; Lipton, Mary S.; Smith, Richard D.; Currie, Cameron R.; Burnum-Johnson, Kristin E.

    2014-08-01

    Leaf-cutter ants are dominant herbivores in ecosystems throughout the Neotropics. Rather than directly consuming the fresh foliar biomass they harvest, these ants use it to cultivate specialized fungus gardens. Although recent investigations have shed light on how plant biomass is degraded in fungus gardens, the cycling of nutrients that takes place in these specialized microbial ecosystems is still not well understood. Here, using metametabolomics and metaproteomics techniques, we examine the dynamics of nutrient turnover and biosynthesis in these gardens. Our results reveal that numerous free amino acids and sugars are depleted throughout the process of biomass degradation, indicating that easily accessible nutrients from plant material are readily consumed by microbes in these ecosystems. Accumulation of cellobiose and lignin derivatives near the end of the degradation process is consistent with previous findings of cellulases and laccases produced by Leucoagaricus gongylophorus, the fungus cultivated by leaf-cutter ants. Our results also suggest that ureides may be an important source of nitrogen in fungus gardens, especially during nitrogen-limiting conditions. No free arginine was detected in our metametabolomics experiments despite evidence that the host ants cannot produce this amino acid, suggesting that biosynthesis of this metabolite may be tightly regulated in the fungus garden. These results provide new insights into the dynamics of nutrient cycling that underlie this important ant-fungus symbiosis.

  14. Fungal garden making inside bamboos by a non-social fungus-growing beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toki, Wataru; Takahashi, Yukiko; Togashi, Katsumi

    2013-01-01

    In fungus-growing mutualism, it is indispensable for host animals to establish gardens of the symbiotic fungus as rapidly as possible. How to establish fungal gardens has been well-documented in social fungus-farming insects, whereas poorly documented in non-social fungus-farming insects. Here we report that the non-social, fungus-growing lizard beetle Doubledaya bucculenta (Coleoptera: Erotylidae: Languriinae) transmits the symbiotic yeast Wickerhamomyces anomalus from the ovipositor-associated mycangium into bamboo internode cavities and disperses the yeast in the cavities to make gardens. Microbial isolation and cryo-scanning electron microscopy observation revealed that W. anomalus was constantly located on the posterior ends of eggs, where larvae came out, and on the inner openings of oviposition holes. Direct observation of oviposition behavior inside internodes revealed that the distal parts of ovipositors showed a peristaltic movement when they were in contact with the posterior ends of eggs. Rearing experiments showed that W. anomalus was spread much more rapidly and widely on culture media and internodes in the presence of the larvae than in the absence. These results suggest that the ovipositors play a critical role in vertical transmission of W. anomalus and that the larvae contribute actively to the garden establishment, providing a novel case of fungal garden founding in non-social insect-fungus mutualism.

  15. Deciphering the salinity adaptation mechanism in Penicilliopsis clavariiformis AP, a rare salt tolerant fungus from mangrove.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashyap, Prem Lal; Rai, Anuradha; Singh, Ruchi; Chakdar, Hillol; Kumar, Sudheer; Srivastava, Alok Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Penicilliopsis clavariiformis AP, a rare salt tolerant fungus reported for the first time from India was identified through polyphasic taxonomy. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the fungus has unique features such as biverticillate penicilli bearing masses of oval to ellipsoidal conidia. The fungus has been characterized for salt tolerance and to understand the relevance of central carbon metabolism in salt stress adaptation. It showed optimal growth at 24 °C and able to tolerate up to 10% (w/v) NaCl. To understand the mechanism of adaptation to high salinity, activities of the key enzymes regulating glycolysis, pentose phosphate pathway, and tricarboxylic acid cycle were investigated under normal (0% NaCl) and saline stress environment (10% NaCl). The results revealed a re-routing of carbon metabolism away from glycolysis to the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP), served as a cellular stress-resistance mechanism in fungi under saline environment. The detection and significant expression of fungus genes (Hsp98, Hsp60, HTB, and RHO) under saline stress suggest that these halotolerance conferring genes from the fungus could have a role in fungus protection and adaptation under saline environment. Overall, the present findings indicate that the rearrangement of the metabolic fluxes distribution and stress related genes play an important role in cell survival and adaptation under saline environment.

  16. The dynamics of plant cell-wall polysaccharide decomposition in leaf-cutting ant fungus gardens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel E Moller

    Full Text Available The degradation of live plant biomass in fungus gardens of leaf-cutting ants is poorly characterised but fundamental for understanding the mutual advantages and efficiency of this obligate nutritional symbiosis. Controversies about the extent to which the garden-symbiont Leucocoprinus gongylophorus degrades cellulose have hampered our understanding of the selection forces that induced large scale herbivory and of the ensuing ecological footprint of these ants. Here we use a recently established technique, based on polysaccharide microarrays probed with antibodies and carbohydrate binding modules, to map the occurrence of cell wall polymers in consecutive sections of the fungus garden of the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex echinatior. We show that pectin, xyloglucan and some xylan epitopes are degraded, whereas more highly substituted xylan and cellulose epitopes remain as residuals in the waste material that the ants remove from their fungus garden. These results demonstrate that biomass entering leaf-cutting ant fungus gardens is only partially utilized and explain why disproportionally large amounts of plant material are needed to sustain colony growth. They also explain why substantial communities of microbial and invertebrate symbionts have evolved associations with the dump material from leaf-cutting ant nests, to exploit decomposition niches that the ant garden-fungus does not utilize. Our approach thus provides detailed insight into the nutritional benefits and shortcomings associated with fungus-farming in ants.

  17. Starch metabolism in Leucoagaricus gongylophorus, the symbiotic fungus of leaf-cutting ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, A; Bacci, M; Pagnocca, F C; Bueno, O C; Hebling, M J A

    2006-01-01

    Leucoagaricus gongylophorus, the symbiotic fungus of the leaf-cutting ants, degrades starch, this degradation being supposed to occur in the plant material which leafcutters forage to the nests, generating most of the glucose which the ants utilize for food. In the present investigation, we show that laboratory cultures of L. gongylophorus produce extracellular alpha-amylase and maltase which degrade starch to glucose, reinforcing that the ants can obtain glucose from starch through the symbiotic fungus. Glucose was found to repress alpha-amylase and, more severely, maltase activity, thus repressing starch degradation by L. gongylophorus, so that we hypothesize that: (1) glucose down-regulation of starch degradation also occurs in the Atta sexdens fungus garden; (2) glucose consumption from the fungus garden by A. sexdens stimulates degradation of starch from plant material by L. gongylophorus, which may represent a mechanism by which leafcutters can control enzyme production by the symbiotic fungus. Since glucose is found in the fungus garden inside the nests, down-regulation of starch degradation by glucose is supposed to occur in the nest and play a part in the control of fungal enzyme production by leafcutters.

  18. Cytotoxic effects of Oosporein isolated from endophytic fungus Cochliobolus kusanoi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rmaesha eA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, oosporein, a fungal toxic secondary metabolite known to be a toxic agent causing chronic disorders in animals, was isolated from fungus Cochliobolus kusanoi of Nerium oleander L. Toxic effects of oosporein and the possible mechanisms of cytotoxicity as well as the role of oxidative stress in cytotoxicity to MDCK kidney cells and RAW 264.7 splene cells were evaluated in-vitro. Also to know the possible in-vivo toxic effects of oosporein on kidney and spleen, Balb/C mouse were treated with different concentrations of oosporein ranging from 20 uM to 200 µM. After 24 hrs of post exposure histopathological observations were made to know the effects of oosporein on target organs. Oosporein induced elevated levels of ROS generation and high levels of MDA, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP, induced glutathione hydroxylase production was observed in a dose depended manner. Effects oosporein on chromosomal DNA damage was assessed by Comet assay, and increase in DNA damage were observed in both the studied cell lines by increasing the oosprin concentration. Further, oosporein treatment to studied cell lines indicated significant suppression of oxidative stress related gene (SOD1 and CAT expression, and increased levels of mRNA expression in apoptosis or oxidative stress

  19. Biosynthesis of vanillin by the fungus Pycnoporus sanguineus MIP 95001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Moro Villela Pacheco

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Vanillin (a substance popularly known as vanilla flavor is one of the most widely used compounds, mainly by food and pharmaceutical industries. This substance can be obtained from the orchid Vanilla planifolia, but this is costly and time consuming. Thus, other methods for obtaining vanillin have been studied. Within this context, the aim of this work was to study the biosynthesis of vanillin by three strains of Pycnoporus sanguineus through the use of vanillic acid as a precursor. The strains were cultured in Petri dishes with a potato dextrose agar medium. Fragments of the media with the fungus were then inoculated in Erlenmeyer flasks with a liquid medium of potato broth and 0.3 g.L-1 of vanillic acid. The flasks remained in a shaker for eight days at 28°C and 120 rpm. Samples were withdrawn once a day (0.8 mL.day-1 for analysis of vanillin, glucose, total phenols, total proteins, and laccase. The results showed that only the MIP 95001 strain promoted the biosynthesis of vanillin. The highest concentration of vanillin was detected on the fourth day of cultivation (8.75 mg.dL-1. The results illustrate the ability to biosynthesize vanillin using Pycnoporus sanguineus (MIP 95001, which suggests a possible route for the biotechnological production of this flavor.

  20. Characterization of Transposable Elements in the Ectomycorrhizal Fungus Laccaria bicolor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labbe, Jessy L [ORNL; Murat, Claude [INRA, Nancy, France; Morin, Emmanuelle [INRA, Nancy, France; Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL; Le Tacon, F [UMR, France; Martin, Francis [INRA, Nancy, France

    2012-01-01

    Background: The publicly available Laccaria bicolor genome sequence has provided a considerable genomic resource allowing systematic identification of transposable elements (TEs) in this symbiotic ectomycorrhizal fungus. Using a TEspecific annotation pipeline we have characterized and analyzed TEs in the L. bicolor S238N-H82 genome. Methodology/Principal Findings: TEs occupy 24% of the 60 Mb L. bicolor genome and represent 25,787 full-length and partial copy elements distributed within 171 families. The most abundant elements were the Copia-like. TEs are not randomly distributed across the genome, but are tightly nested or clustered. The majority of TEs exhibits signs of ancient transposition except some intact copies of terminal inverted repeats (TIRS), long terminal repeats (LTRs) and a large retrotransposon derivative (LARD) element. There were three main periods of TE expansion in L. bicolor: the first from 57 to 10 Mya, the second from 5 to 1 Mya and the most recent from 0.5 Mya ago until now. LTR retrotransposons are closely related to retrotransposons found in another basidiomycete, Coprinopsis cinerea. Conclusions: This analysis 1) represents an initial characterization of TEs in the L. bicolor genome, 2) contributes to improve genome annotation and a greater understanding of the role TEs played in genome organization and evolution and 3) provides a valuable resource for future research on the genome evolution within the Laccaria genus.

  1. Eosinophils in fungus-associated allergic pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit eGhosh

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is frequently caused and/or exacerbated by sensitization to fungal allergens, which are ubiquitous in many indoor and outdoor environments. Severe asthma with fungal sensitization is characterized by airway hyperresponsiveness and bronchial constriction in response to an inhaled allergen that is worsened by environmental exposure to airborne fungi and which leads to a disease course that is often very difficult to treat with standard asthma therapies. As a result of complex interactions among inflammatory cells, structural cells, and the intercellular matrix of the allergic lung, patients with sensitization to fungal allergens may experience a greater degree of airway wall remodeling and progressive, accumulated pulmonary dysfunction as part of the disease sequela. From their development in the bone marrow to their recruitment to the lung via chemokine and cytokine networks, eosinophils form an important component of the inflammatory milieu that is associated with this syndrome. Eosinophils are recognized as complex multi-factorial leukocytes with diverse functions in the context of allergic fungal asthma. In this review, we will consider recent advances in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that are associated with eosinophil development and migration to the allergic lung in response to fungal inhalation, along with the eosinophil’s function in the immune response to and the immunopathology attributed to fungus-associated allergic pulmonary disease.

  2. Pulmonary echinococcal cyst with a filamentous fungus co-infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, P; Dixit, A K; Tanwar, A; Mahajan, N C

    2013-09-01

    Fungal infections are known to colonize the pre-existing lung cavities formed as a result of diseases like tuberculosis, sarcoidosis, bronchiectasis and cavitatary neoplasia, mostly encountered in immunocompromised patients. Pulmonary echinococcal cysts have been reported coexistent with cryptococcosis and other saprophytic mycosis, but the coexistence of aspergillosis and echinococcal cyst is extremely rare and occasionally been reported in English literature. Active invasion and proliferation of the fungi in the laminated ectocyst of the echinococcal cyst is very unusual. We report a case of 60 years old immunocompetent female, presented with cough, chest pain and shortness of breath. The chest X-ray showed a large thick walled cavity in the lower and mid zone of right lung with positive water lily sign. Surgical enucleation of the echinococcal cyst revealed aspergilloma involving the cavity with massive invasion of laminated ectocyst by filamentous fungus, morphologically resembling an Aspergillus species and was further treated with Itraconazole for 3 months. This unique coexistence of active pulmonary echinococcosis and aspergillosis is being reported because of its rarity and clinical importance for its management.

  3. Identification of naphthalene metabolism by white rot fungus Pleurotus eryngii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadibarata, Tony; Teh, Zee Chuang; Rubiyatno; Zubir, Meor Mohd Fikri Ahmad; Khudhair, Ameer Badr; Yusoff, Abdull Rahim Mohd; Salim, Mohd Razman; Hidayat, Topik

    2013-10-01

    The use of biomaterials or microorganisms in PAHs degradation had presented an eye-catching performance. Pleurotus eryngii is a white rot fungus, which is easily isolated from the decayed woods in the tropical rain forest, used to determine the capability to utilize naphthalene, a two-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon as source of carbon and energy. In the meantime, biotransformation of naphthalene to intermediates and other by-products during degradation was investigated in this study. Pleurotus eryngii had been incubated in liquid medium formulated with naphthalene for 14 days. The presence of metabolites of naphthalene suggests that Pleurotus eryngii begin the ring cleavage by dioxygenation on C1 and C4 position to give 1,4-naphthaquinone. 1,4-Naphthaquinone was further degraded to benzoic acid, where the proposed terepthalic acid is absent in the cultured extract. Further degradation of benzoic acid by Pleurotus eryngii shows the existence of catechol as a result of the combination of decarboxylation and hydroxylation process. Unfortunately, phthalic acid was not detected in this study. Several enzymes, including manganese peroxidase, lignin peroxidase, laccase, 1,2-dioxygenase and 2,3-dioxygenase are enzymes responsible for naphthalene degradation. Reduction of naphthalene and the presence of metabolites in liquid medium showed the ability of Pleurotus eryngii to utilize naphthalene as carbon source instead of a limited glucose amount.

  4. Biotransformation of metoprolol by the fungus Cunninghamella blakes-leeana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin MA; Hai-hua HUANG; Xiao-yan CHEN; Yu-ming SUN; Li-hong LIN; Da-fang ZHONG

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the biotransformation of metoprolol, a β1-cardioselective adrenoceptor antagonist, by filamentous fungus, and to compare the parallels between microbial transformation and mammalian metabolism. Methods: Five strains of Cunninghamella (C elegans AS 3.156, C elegans AS 3.2028, C echinulata AS 3.2004, C blakesleeana AS 3.153 and AS 3.910) were screened for the ability to transform metoprolol. The metabolites of metoprolol produced by C blakesleeana AS 3.153 were separated and assayed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MSn). The major metabolites were isolated by semipreparative HPLC and the structures were identified by a combination of LC/MSn and nuclear magnetic resonance analysis. Results: Metoprolol was transformed to 7 metabolites; 2 were identified as new metabolites and 5 were known metabolites in mammals. Conclusion: The microbial transformation of metoprolol was similar to the metabolism in mammals. The fungi belonging to Cunninghamella species could be used as complementary models for predicting in vivo metabolism and producing quantities of metabolite references for drugs like metoprolol.

  5. ENTOMOPATHOGENIC FUNGUS ENTOMOPHAGA MAIMAIGA AND INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT IN SERBIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabaković-Tosić, Mara

    2015-01-01

    During the latest outbreak of the gypsy moth in Serbia (2009-2014), some areas of Central Serbia were particularly endangered, and one of them was Krusevac region, where the forests give way to orchards in the pattern resembling the tiger's skin. Since the number of the laid egg masses in the autumn 2013 guaranteed the defoliation of both forest tree species and agricultural crops, and the presence of E. maimaigo, in Central Serbia had already been determined, at 30 selected plots the assisted spread of it was performed, through the introduction of the infectious inoculum in the beech and oak forests which border the orchards. Since there was dealt with the living organism--fungus, which is particularly susceptible to the weather conditions (temperature and air humidity, as well as the precipitation), and under the conditions of the global warming and great drought, the special recipe for the preparation of inoculum was made. In the following year the mass epizootic of the gypsy moth caterpillars, of the younger instars (L2 and L3), occurred, which implies that E. maimaiga caused the crash of the outbreak of this most harmful species of the defoliating insects of the forests and orchards.

  6. Biotransformation of indomethacin by the fungus Cunninghamella blakesleeana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng ZHANG; Li-hong LIN; Hai-hua HUANG; Hai-yan XU; Da-fang ZHONG

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the biotransformation of indomethacin, the first of the newer nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, by filamentous fungus and to compare the similarities between microbial transformation and mammalian metabolism of indomethacin. Methods: Five strains of Cunninghamella (C elegans AS 3.156, C elegans AS 3.2028, C blakesleeana AS 3.153, C blakesleeana AS 3.910 and C echinulata AS 3.2004) were screened for their ability to catalyze the biotransformation of indomethacin. Indomethacin was partially metabolized by five strains of Cunninghamella, and C blakesleeana AS 3.910 was selected for further investigation. Three metabolites produced by C blakesleeana AS 3.910 were isolated using semi-preparative HPLC, and their structures were identified by a combination analysis of LC/MSn and NMR spectra. These three metabolites were separated and quantitatively assayed by liquid chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry. Results: After 120 h of incubation with C blakesleeana AS 3.910, approximately 87.4% of indomethacin was metabolized to three metabolites: O-desmethylindomethacin (DMI, M1, 67.2%), Af-deschlorobenzoylindomethacin (DBI, M2,13.3%) and O-desmethyl-AT-deschlorobenzoylindomethacin (DMBI, M3, 6.9%). Three phase I metabolites of indomethacin produced by C blakesleeana AS 3.910 were identical to those obtained in humans. Conclusion: C blakesleeana could be a useful tool for generating the mammalian phase I metabolites of indomethacin.

  7. Genes involved in virulence of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero-Jiménez, Claudio A; Wiegers, Harm; Zwaan, Bas J; Koenraadt, Constantianus J M; van Kan, Jan A L

    2016-01-01

    Pest insects cause severe damage to global crop production and pose a threat to human health by transmitting diseases. Traditionally, chemical pesticides (insecticides) have been used to control such pests and have proven to be effective only for a limited amount of time because of the rapid spread of genetic insecticide resistance. The basis of this resistance is mostly caused by (co)dominant mutations in single genes, which explains why insecticide use alone is an unsustainable solution. Therefore, robust solutions for insect pest control need to be sought in alternative methods such as biological control agents for which single-gene resistance is less likely to evolve. The entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana has shown potential as a biological control agent of insects, and insight into the mechanisms of virulence is essential to show the robustness of its use. With the recent availability of the whole genome sequence of B. bassiana, progress in understanding the genetics that constitute virulence toward insects can be made more quickly. In this review we divide the infection process into distinct steps and provide an overview of what is currently known about genes and mechanisms influencing virulence in B. bassiana. We also discuss the need for novel strategies and experimental methods to better understand the infection mechanisms deployed by entomopathogenic fungi. Such knowledge can help improve biocontrol agents, not only by selecting the most virulent genotypes, but also by selecting the genotypes that use combinations of virulence mechanisms for which resistance in the insect host is least likely to develop.

  8. Five New Cytotoxic Metabolites from the Marine Fungus Neosartorya pseudofischeri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Jian Lan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The marine fungus Neosartorya pseudofischeri was isolated from Acanthaster planci from the South China Sea. In a preliminary bioactivity screening, the crude methanol extract of the fungal mycelia showed significant inhibitory activity against the Sf9 cell line from the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda. Five novel compounds, including 5-olefin phenylpyropene A (1, 13-dehydroxylpyripyropene A (4, deacetylsesquiterpene (7, 5-formyl-6-hydroxy-8-isopropyl-2- naphthoic acid (9 and 6,8-dihydroxy-3-((1E,3E-penta-1,3-dien-1-ylisochroman-1-one (10, together with eleven known compounds, phenylpyropene A (2 and C (3, pyripyropene A (5, 7-deacetylpyripyropene A (6, (1S,2R,4aR,5R,8R,8aR-1,8a-dihydroxy-2-acetoxy-3,8-dimethyl-5- (prop-1-en-2-yl-1,2,4a, 5,6,7,8,8a-octahydronaphthalene (8, isochaetominine C (11, trichodermamide A (12, indolyl-3-acetic acid methyl ester (13, 1-acetyl-β-carboline (14, 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-6-hydroxyl-2-methyl-l,3,4-trioxopyrazino[l,2-a]-indole (15 and fumiquinazoline F (16, were obtained. The structures of these compounds were determined mainly by MS and NMR data. The absolute configuration of 9 was assigned by the single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies. Compounds 1–11 and 15 showed significant cytotoxicity against the Sf9 cells from S. frugiperda.

  9. Structural analysis of fungus-derived FAD glucose dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Hiromi; Sakai, Genki; Mori, Kazushige; Kojima, Katsuhiro; Kamitori, Shigehiro; Sode, Koji

    2015-08-27

    We report the first three-dimensional structure of fungus-derived glucose dehydrogenase using flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) as the cofactor. This is currently the most advanced and popular enzyme used in glucose sensor strips manufactured for glycemic control by diabetic patients. We prepared recombinant nonglycosylated FAD-dependent glucose dehydrogenase (FADGDH) derived from Aspergillus flavus (AfGDH) and obtained the X-ray structures of the binary complex of enzyme and reduced FAD at a resolution of 1.78 Å and the ternary complex with reduced FAD and D-glucono-1,5-lactone (LGC) at a resolution of 1.57 Å. The overall structure is similar to that of fungal glucose oxidases (GOxs) reported till date. The ternary complex with reduced FAD and LGC revealed the residues recognizing the substrate. His505 and His548 were subjected for site-directed mutagenesis studies, and these two residues were revealed to form the catalytic pair, as those conserved in GOxs. The absence of residues that recognize the sixth hydroxyl group of the glucose of AfGDH, and the presence of significant cavity around the active site may account for this enzyme activity toward xylose. The structural information will contribute to the further engineering of FADGDH for use in more reliable and economical biosensing technology for diabetes management.

  10. Bioactive Chaetoglobosins from the Mangrove Endophytic Fungus Penicillium chrysogenum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Huang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A novel chaetoglobosin named penochalasin I (1 with a unprecedented six-cyclic 6/5/6/5/6/13 fused ring system, and another new chaetoglobosin named penochalasin J (2, along with chaetoglobosins G, F, C, A, E, armochaetoglobosin I, and cytoglobosin C (3–9 were isolated from the culture of Penicillium chrysogenum V11. Their structures were elucidated by 1D, 2D NMR spectroscopic analysis and high resolution mass spectroscopic data. The absolute configuration of compounds 1 and 2 were determined by comparing the theoretical electronic circular dichroism (ECD calculation with the experimental CD. Compound 1 was the first example, with a six-cyclic fused ring system formed by the connection of C-5 and C-2′ of the chaetoglobosin class. Compounds 5–8 remarkably inhibited the plant pathogenic fungus R. solani (minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs = 11.79–23.66 μM, and compounds 2, 6, and 7 greatly inhibited C. gloeosporioides (MICs = 23.58–47.35 μM, showing an antifungal activity higher than that of carbendazim. Compound 1 exhibited marked cytotoxicity against MDA-MB-435 and SGC-7901 cells (IC50 < 10 μM, and compounds 6 and 9 showed potent cytotoxicity against SGC-7901 and A549 cells (IC50 < 10 μM.

  11. Bioactive Chaetoglobosins from the Mangrove Endophytic Fungus Penicillium chrysogenum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Song; Chen, Haiyan; Li, Wensheng; Zhu, Xinwei; Ding, Weijia; Li, Chunyuan

    2016-01-01

    A novel chaetoglobosin named penochalasin I (1) with a unprecedented six-cyclic 6/5/6/5/6/13 fused ring system, and another new chaetoglobosin named penochalasin J (2), along with chaetoglobosins G, F, C, A, E, armochaetoglobosin I, and cytoglobosin C (3–9) were isolated from the culture of Penicillium chrysogenum V11. Their structures were elucidated by 1D, 2D NMR spectroscopic analysis and high resolution mass spectroscopic data. The absolute configuration of compounds 1 and 2 were determined by comparing the theoretical electronic circular dichroism (ECD) calculation with the experimental CD. Compound 1 was the first example, with a six-cyclic fused ring system formed by the connection of C-5 and C-2′ of the chaetoglobosin class. Compounds 5–8 remarkably inhibited the plant pathogenic fungus R. solani (minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) = 11.79–23.66 μM), and compounds 2, 6, and 7 greatly inhibited C. gloeosporioides (MICs = 23.58–47.35 μM), showing an antifungal activity higher than that of carbendazim. Compound 1 exhibited marked cytotoxicity against MDA-MB-435 and SGC-7901 cells (IC50 < 10 μM), and compounds 6 and 9 showed potent cytotoxicity against SGC-7901 and A549 cells (IC50 < 10 μM). PMID:27690061

  12. Analysis on blast fungus-responsive characters of a flavonoid phytoalexin sakuranetin; accumulation in infected rice leaves, antifungal activity and detoxification by fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Morifumi; Mitsuhara, Ichiro; Seo, Shigemi; Okada, Kazunori; Yamane, Hisakazu; Iwai, Takayoshi; Ohashi, Yuko

    2014-08-04

    To understand the role of the rice flavonoid phytoalexin (PA) sakuranetin for blast resistance, the fungus-responsive characteristics were studied. Young rice leaves in a resistant line exhibited hypersensitive reaction (HR) within 3 days post inoculation (dpi) of a spore suspension, and an increase in sakuranetin was detected at 3 dpi, increasing to 4-fold at 4 dpi. In the susceptible line, increased sakuranetin was detected at 4 dpi, but not at 3 dpi, by which a large fungus mass has accumulated without HR. Induced expression of a PA biosynthesis gene OsNOMT for naringenin 7-O-methyltransferase was found before accumulation of sakuranetin in both cultivars. The antifungal activity of sakuranetin was considerably higher than that of the major rice diterpenoid PA momilactone A in vitro and in vivo under similar experimental conditions. The decrease and detoxification of sakuranetin were detected in both solid and liquid mycelium cultures, and they took place slower than those of momilactone A. Estimated local concentration of sakuranetin at HR lesions was thought to be effective for fungus restriction, while that at enlarged lesions in susceptible rice was insufficient. These results indicate possible involvement of sakuranetin in blast resistance and its specific relation to blast fungus.

  13. Factors affecting fungus-induced larval mortality in Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles stephensi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takken Willem

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Entomopathogenic fungi have shown great potential for the control of adult malaria vectors. However, their ability to control aquatic stages of anopheline vectors remains largely unexplored. Therefore, how larval characteristics (Anopheles species, age and larval density, fungus (species and concentration and environmental effects (exposure duration and food availability influence larval mortality caused by fungus, was studied. Methods Laboratory bioassays were performed on the larval stages of Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles stephensi with spores of two fungus species, Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana. For various larval and fungal characteristics and environmental effects the time to death was determined and survival curves established. These curves were compared by Kaplan Meier and Cox regression analyses. Results Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae caused high mortality of An. gambiae and An. stephensi larvae. However, Beauveria bassiana was less effective (Hazard ratio (HR Metarhizium anisopliae. Anopheles stephensi and An. gambiae were equally susceptible to each fungus. Older larvae were less likely to die than young larvae (HR Conclusions This study shows that both fungus species have potential to kill mosquitoes in the larval stage, and that mortality rate depends on fungus species itself, larval stage targeted, larval density and amount of nutrients available to the larvae. Increasing the concentration of fungal spores or reducing the exposure time to spores did not show a proportional increase and decrease in mortality rate, respectively, because the spores clumped together. As a result spores did not provide uniform coverage over space and time. It is, therefore, necessary to develop a formulation that allows the spores to spread over the water surface. Apart from formulation appropriate delivery methods are also necessary to avoid exposing non-target organisms to fungus.

  14. Genomic insight into pathogenicity of dematiaceous fungus Corynespora cassiicola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Keat Looi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Corynespora cassiicola is a common plant pathogen that causes leaf spot disease in a broad range of crop, and it heavily affect rubber trees in Malaysia (Hsueh, 2011; Nghia et al., 2008. The isolation of UM 591 from a patient’s contact lens indicates the pathogenic potential of this dematiaceous fungus in human. However, the underlying factors that contribute to the opportunistic cross-infection have not been fully studied. We employed genome sequencing and gene homology annotations in attempt to identify these factors in UM 591 using data obtained from publicly available bioinformatics databases. The assembly size of UM 591 genome is 41.8 Mbp, and a total of 13,531 (≥99 bp genes have been predicted. UM 591 is enriched with genes that encode for glycoside hydrolases, carbohydrate esterases, auxiliary activity enzymes and cell wall degrading enzymes. Virulent genes comprising of CAZymes, peptidases, and hypervirulence-associated cutinases were found to be present in the fungal genome. Comparative analysis result shows that UM 591 possesses higher number of carbohydrate esterases family 10 (CE10 CAZymes compared to other species of fungi in this study, and these enzymes hydrolyses wide range of carbohydrate and non-carbohydrate substrates. Putative melanin, siderophore, ent-kaurene, and lycopene biosynthesis gene clusters are predicted, and these gene clusters denote that UM 591 are capable of protecting itself from the UV and chemical stresses, allowing it to adapt to different environment. Putative sterigmatocystin, HC-toxin, cercosporin, and gliotoxin biosynthesis gene cluster are predicted. This finding have highlighted the necrotrophic and invasive nature of UM 591.

  15. Infection of Psoroptes mites with the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, A J; Wall, R

    2001-01-01

    The astigmatid mite, Psoroptes ovis (Hering) (Acari: Psoroptidae), is an obligatory ectoparasite that causes psoroptic mange in a range of domesticated animals, particularly sheep, where the clinical disease is known as sheep scab. A series of laboratory assays were used to assess the use of the fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae (Metchnikoff) (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes) as a biocontrol agent for P. ovis derived from rabbits (syn. P. cuniculi). The immersion of mites in a suspension of conidia of M. anisopliae resulted in the acquisition of fatal infections. The number of mites which developed infections increased significantly with the increasing concentration of the conidial suspension to which they were exposed; 77% of mites developed infections when exposed to the highest concentration used (1 x 10(8) conidia ml(-1)). Controls developed no fungal infections. Mites allowed simply to walk across a surface which had been treated with a suspension of conidia also acquired fungal infections; the number infected was again related to the concentration of conidia present. After contact for 24 h with a surface treated with 1 x 10(8) conidia ml(-1), 73% of the mites became infected. To determine whether dead infected mites could act as sources of infection, infected cadavers were placed in chambers with live uninfected mites. The uninfected mites acquired fatal infections from the cadavers; a higher ratio of infected cadavers to uninfected mites resulted in greater transmission of infection. The time after death of the infected cadaver was also an important factor influencing the number infected, 5-day-old cadavers were the most infective and 18-day-old cadavers the least infective. The results indicate that M. anisopliae is a good candidate control agent for Psoroptes mites.

  16. Genomic insight into pathogenicity of dematiaceous fungus Corynespora cassiicola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looi, Hong Keat; Toh, Yue Fen; Yew, Su Mei; Na, Shiang Ling; Tan, Yung-Chie; Chong, Pei-Sin; Khoo, Jia-Shiun; Yee, Wai-Yan; Ng, Kee Peng

    2017-01-01

    Corynespora cassiicola is a common plant pathogen that causes leaf spot disease in a broad range of crop, and it heavily affect rubber trees in Malaysia (Hsueh, 2011; Nghia et al., 2008). The isolation of UM 591 from a patient’s contact lens indicates the pathogenic potential of this dematiaceous fungus in human. However, the underlying factors that contribute to the opportunistic cross-infection have not been fully studied. We employed genome sequencing and gene homology annotations in attempt to identify these factors in UM 591 using data obtained from publicly available bioinformatics databases. The assembly size of UM 591 genome is 41.8 Mbp, and a total of 13,531 (≥99 bp) genes have been predicted. UM 591 is enriched with genes that encode for glycoside hydrolases, carbohydrate esterases, auxiliary activity enzymes and cell wall degrading enzymes. Virulent genes comprising of CAZymes, peptidases, and hypervirulence-associated cutinases were found to be present in the fungal genome. Comparative analysis result shows that UM 591 possesses higher number of carbohydrate esterases family 10 (CE10) CAZymes compared to other species of fungi in this study, and these enzymes hydrolyses wide range of carbohydrate and non-carbohydrate substrates. Putative melanin, siderophore, ent-kaurene, and lycopene biosynthesis gene clusters are predicted, and these gene clusters denote that UM 591 are capable of protecting itself from the UV and chemical stresses, allowing it to adapt to different environment. Putative sterigmatocystin, HC-toxin, cercosporin, and gliotoxin biosynthesis gene cluster are predicted. This finding have highlighted the necrotrophic and invasive nature of UM 591. PMID:28149676

  17. The hidden habit of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana: first demonstration of vertical plant transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Quesada-Moraga

    Full Text Available Beauveria bassiana strain 04/01-Tip, obtained from a larva of the opium poppy stem gall wasp Iraella luteipes (Hymenoptera; Cynipidae, endophytically colonizes opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L. plants and protects them against this pest. The goal of this study was to monitor the dynamics of endophytic colonization of opium poppy by B. bassiana after the fungus was applied to the seed and to ascertain whether the fungus is transmitted vertically via seeds. Using a species-specific nested PCR protocol and DNA extracted from surface-sterilised leaf pieces or seeds of B. bassiana-inoculated opium poppy plants, the fungus was detected within the plant beginning at the growth stage of rosette building and them throughout the entire plant growth cycle (about 120-140 days after sowing. The fungus was also detected in seeds from 50% of the capsules sampled. Seeds that showed positive amplification for B. bassiana were planted in sterile soil and the endophyte was again detected in more than 42% of the plants sampled during all plant growth stages. Beauveria bassiana was transmitted to seeds in 25% of the plants from the second generation that formed a mature capsule. These results demonstrate for the first time the vertical transmission of an entomopathogenic fungus from endophytically colonised maternal plants. This information is crucial to better understand the ecological role of entomopathogenic fungi as plant endophytes and may allow development of a sustainable and cost effective strategy for I. luteipes management in P. somniferum.

  18. Metagenomic and metaproteomic insights into bacterial communities in leaf-cutter ant fungus gardens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aylward, Frank O.; Burnum, Kristin E.; Scott, Jarrod J.; Suen, Garret; Tringe, Susannah G.; Adams, Sandra M.; Barry, Kerrie W.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Piehowski, Paul D.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Starrett, Gabriel J.; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Smith, Richard D.; Lipton, Mary S.; Currie, Cameron R.

    2012-09-01

    Herbivores gain access to nutrients stored in plant biomass largely by harnessing the metabolic activities of microbes. Leaf-cutter ants of the genus Atta are a hallmark example; these dominant Neotropical herbivores cultivate symbiotic fungus gardens on massive quantities of fresh plant forage. As the external digestive system of the ants, fungus gardens facilitate the production and sustenance of millions of workers in mature Atta colonies. Here we use metagenomic, and metaproteomic techniques to characterize the bacterial diversity and overall physiological potential of fungus gardens from two species of Atta. Our analysis of over 1.2 Gbp of community metagenomic sequence and three 16S pyrotag libraries reveals that, in addition to harboring the dominant fungal crop, these ecosystems contain abundant populations of Enterobacteriaceae, including the genera Enterobacter, Pantoea, Klebsiella, Citrobacter, and Escherichia. We show that these bacterial communities possess genes commonly associated with lignocellulose degradation, and likely participate in the processing of plant biomass. Additionally, we demonstrate that bacteria in these environments encode a diverse suite of biosynthetic pathways, and that they may enrich the nitrogen-poor forage of the ants with B-vitamins, amino acids, and proteins. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that fungus gardens are highly-specialized fungus-bacteria communities that efficiently convert plant material into usable energy for their ant hosts. Together with recent investigations into the microbial symbionts of vertebrates, our work underscores the importance of microbial communities to the ecology and evolution of herbivorous metazoans.

  19. Effect of growing media and their constituents on fungus gnat, Bradysia sp. nr. coprophila (Lintner) adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RAYMOND A. CLOYD; AMY DICKINSON; RICHARD A. LARSON; KAREN A.MARLEY

    2007-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the attractiveness of two growing media,commonly utilized in greenhouses, to fungus gnat, Bradysia sp. nr. coprophila adults. The constituents of the most attractive growing medium tested were determined by gas chromatography analysis using a steam-distillation procedure. We found that fungus gnat adults were more attracted to the growing medium, SB300 Universal Professional Growing Mix,which contains composted bark, than to another growing medium (Sunshine LC1 Mix) and their components when tested in a series of laboratory experiments using multiple-choice experimental arenas. A higher percentage of fungus gnat adults were attracted to moist SB300(92%)than SB300 growing medium that had been oven dried (8%). In addition,fungus gnat adults preferred SB300 although they had been reared on Sunshine LC1 Mix.When comparing the SB300 fresh from the bag to growing medium that had been pasteurized and moistened with water, gas chromatographic-mass spectroscopic data showed there were declines in several terpenoid constituents as well as an increase in fatty acids and cyclosulfur.The results of this study indicate that B. sp. nr. coprophila adults prefer certain growing media, which may assist greenhouse producers in managing fungus gnats in crop production systems.

  20. The fungus gardens of leaf-cutter ants undergo a distinct physiological transition during biomass degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Eric L; Aylward, Frank O; Kim, Young-Mo; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M; Nicora, Carrie D; Hu, Zeping; Metz, Thomas O; Lipton, Mary S; Smith, Richard D; Currie, Cameron R; Burnum-Johnson, Kristin E

    2014-08-01

    Leaf-cutter ants are dominant herbivores in ecosystems throughout the Neotropics that feed on fungus gardens cultivated on fresh foliar biomass. Although recent investigations have shed light on how plant biomass is degraded in fungus gardens, the cycling of nutrients that takes place in these specialized microbial ecosystems is still not well understood. Here, using metabolomic and metaproteomic techniques, we examine the dynamics of nutrient turnover in these gardens. Our results reveal that numerous free amino acids and sugars are depleted throughout the process of biomass degradation, indicating that easily accessible nutrients from plant material are readily consumed by microbes in these ecosystems. Accumulation of cellobiose and lignin derivatives near the end of the degradation process is consistent with previous characterization of lignocellulases produced by the fungal cultivar of the ants. Our results also suggest that ureides may be an important source of nitrogen in fungus gardens, especially during nitrogen-limiting conditions. No free arginine was detected in our metabolomic experiments despite evidence that the host ants cannot produce this amino acid, suggesting that biosynthesis of this metabolite may be tightly regulated in fungus gardens. These results provide new insights into microbial community-level processes that underlie this important ant-fungus symbiosis.

  1. Appressorium formation in the corn smut fungus Ustilago maydis requires a G2 cell cycle arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castanheira, Sónia; Pérez-Martín, José

    2015-01-01

    Many of the most important plant diseases are caused by fungal pathogens that form specialized cell structures to breach the leaf surface as well as to proliferate inside the plant. To initiate pathogenic development, the fungus responds to a set of inductive cues. Some of them are of extracellular nature (environmental signals) while others respond to intracellular conditions (developmental signals). These signals have to be integrated into a single response that has as a major outcome changes in the morphogenesis of the fungus. The cell cycle regulation is pivotal during these cellular differentiations, and we hypothesized that cell cycle regulation would be likely to provide control points for infection development by fungal pathogens. Although efforts have been done in various fungal systems, there is still limited information available regarding the relationship of these processes with the induction of the virulence programs. Hence, the role of fungal cell cycle regulators -which are wide conserved elements- as true virulence factors, has yet to be defined. Here we discuss the recent finding that the formation of the appressorium, a structure required for plant penetration, in the corn smut fungus Ustilago maydis seems to be incompatible with an active cell cycle and, therefore genetic circuits evolved in this fungus to arrest the cell cycle during the growth of this fungus on plant surface, before the appressorium-mediated penetration into the plant tissue.

  2. Combining microtomy and confocal laser scanning microscopy for structural analyses of plant-fungus associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, Magnus; Grolig, Franz; Haueisen, Janine; Imhof, Stephan

    2014-05-01

    The serious problem of extended tissue thickness in the analysis of plant-fungus associations was overcome using a new method that combines physical and optical sectioning of the resin-embedded sample by microtomy and confocal microscopy. Improved tissue infiltration of the fungal-specific, high molecular weight fluorescent probe wheat germ agglutinin conjugated to Alexa Fluor® 633 resulted in high fungus-specific fluorescence even in deeper tissue sections. If autofluorescence was insufficient, additional counterstaining with Calcofluor White M2R or propidium iodide was applied in order to visualise the host plant tissues. Alternatively, the non-specific fluorochrome acid fuchsine was used for rapid staining of both, the plant and the fungal cells. The intricate spatial arrangements of the plant and fungal cells were preserved by immobilization in the hydrophilic resin Unicryl™. Microtomy was used to section the resin-embedded roots or leaves until the desired plane was reached. The data sets generated by confocal laser scanning microscopy of the remaining resin stubs allowed the precise spatial reconstruction of complex structures in the plant-fungus associations of interest. This approach was successfully tested on tissues from ectomycorrhiza (Betula pendula), arbuscular mycorrhiza (Galium aparine; Polygala paniculata, Polygala rupestris), ericoid mycorrhiza (Calluna vulgaris), orchid mycorrhiza (Limodorum abortivum, Serapias parviflora) and on one leaf-fungus association (Zymoseptoria tritici on Triticum aestivum). The method provides an efficient visualisation protocol applicable with a wide range of plant-fungus symbioses.

  3. Metagenomic and metaproteomic insights into bacterial communities in leaf-cutter ant fungus gardens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aylward, Frank O; Burnum, Kristin E; Scott, Jarrod J; Suen, Garret; Tringe, Susannah G; Adams, Sandra M; Barry, Kerrie W; Nicora, Carrie D; Piehowski, Paul D; Purvine, Samuel O; Starrett, Gabriel J; Goodwin, Lynne A; Smith, Richard D; Lipton, Mary S; Currie, Cameron R

    2012-09-01

    Herbivores gain access to nutrients stored in plant biomass largely by harnessing the metabolic activities of microbes. Leaf-cutter ants of the genus Atta are a hallmark example; these dominant neotropical herbivores cultivate symbiotic fungus gardens on large quantities of fresh plant forage. As the external digestive system of the ants, fungus gardens facilitate the production and sustenance of millions of workers. Using metagenomic and metaproteomic techniques, we characterize the bacterial diversity and physiological potential of fungus gardens from two species of Atta. Our analysis of over 1.2 Gbp of community metagenomic sequence and three 16S pyrotag libraries reveals that in addition to harboring the dominant fungal crop, these ecosystems contain abundant populations of Enterobacteriaceae, including the genera Enterobacter, Pantoea, Klebsiella, Citrobacter and Escherichia. We show that these bacterial communities possess genes associated with lignocellulose degradation and diverse biosynthetic pathways, suggesting that they play a role in nutrient cycling by converting the nitrogen-poor forage of the ants into B-vitamins, amino acids and other cellular components. Our metaproteomic analysis confirms that bacterial glycosyl hydrolases and proteins with putative biosynthetic functions are produced in both field-collected and laboratory-reared colonies. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that fungus gardens are specialized fungus-bacteria communities that convert plant material into energy for their ant hosts. Together with recent investigations into the microbial symbionts of vertebrates, our work underscores the importance of microbial communities in the ecology and evolution of herbivorous metazoans.

  4. The hidden habit of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana: first demonstration of vertical plant transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesada-Moraga, Enrique; López-Díaz, Cristina; Landa, Blanca Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    Beauveria bassiana strain 04/01-Tip, obtained from a larva of the opium poppy stem gall wasp Iraella luteipes (Hymenoptera; Cynipidae), endophytically colonizes opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) plants and protects them against this pest. The goal of this study was to monitor the dynamics of endophytic colonization of opium poppy by B. bassiana after the fungus was applied to the seed and to ascertain whether the fungus is transmitted vertically via seeds. Using a species-specific nested PCR protocol and DNA extracted from surface-sterilised leaf pieces or seeds of B. bassiana-inoculated opium poppy plants, the fungus was detected within the plant beginning at the growth stage of rosette building and them throughout the entire plant growth cycle (about 120-140 days after sowing). The fungus was also detected in seeds from 50% of the capsules sampled. Seeds that showed positive amplification for B. bassiana were planted in sterile soil and the endophyte was again detected in more than 42% of the plants sampled during all plant growth stages. Beauveria bassiana was transmitted to seeds in 25% of the plants from the second generation that formed a mature capsule. These results demonstrate for the first time the vertical transmission of an entomopathogenic fungus from endophytically colonised maternal plants. This information is crucial to better understand the ecological role of entomopathogenic fungi as plant endophytes and may allow development of a sustainable and cost effective strategy for I. luteipes management in P. somniferum.

  5. Production of secondary metabolite E2.2 from Phaleria macrocarpa endophytic fungus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Beatrix Trikurnia Gasong; Raymond Rubianto Tjandrawinata

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To isolate new endophytic fungus from Phaleria macrocarpa (P. macrocarpa) that is able to produce E2.2 compound. Methods: Endophytic fungi were isolated from P. macrocarpa. Morphological and molecular identification was done to determine the species of the endophytic fungus. High performance liquid chromatography was used to determine the ability of this fungus to produce E2.2 compound and to quantify the total yield of E2.2 from fungal fermen-tation. Fermentation process was optimized by observing suitable medium, pH and length of fermentation process. Phloroglucinol and gallic acid addition were examined to determine the effect of each compound on E2.2 production. Results: One endophytic fungus was successfully isolated from P. macrocarpa plant. Morphological and molecular identification showed that it was a Colletotrichum gloeo-sporioides which belonged to Glomerellaceae family. This fungus showed highest pro-duction of E2.2 when incubated in potato dextrose broth with initial pH value of the medium at 5, and was incubated for 15 days. Phloroglucinol was found to better enhance E2.2 production. Conclusions: Colletotrichum gloeosporioides found in P. macrocarpa plant is prom-ising as a potential alternative source of E2.2.

  6. Potential for Nitrogen Fixation in the Fungus-Growing Termite Symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapountzis, Panagiotis; de Verges, Jane; Rousk, Kathrin; Cilliers, Magdeleen; Vorster, Barend J; Poulsen, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Termites host a gut microbiota of diverse and essential symbionts that enable specialization on dead plant material; an abundant, but nutritionally imbalanced food source. To supplement the severe shortage of dietary nitrogen (N), some termite species make use of diazotrophic bacteria to fix atmospheric nitrogen (N2). Fungus-growing termites (subfamily Macrotermitinae) host a fungal exosymbiont (genus Termitomyces) that provides digestive services and the main food source for the termites. This has been thought to obviate the need for N2-fixation by bacterial symbionts. Here, we challenge this notion by performing acetylene reduction assays of live colony material to show that N2 fixation is present in two major genera (Macrotermes and Odontotermes) of fungus-growing termites. We compare and discuss fixation rates in relation to those obtained from other termites, and suggest avenues of research that may lead to a better understanding of N2 fixation in fungus-growing and other termites.

  7. Antifungal Depsidone Metabolites from Cordyceps dipterigena, an Endophytic Fungus Antagonistic to the Phytopathogen Gibberella fujikuroi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varughese, Titto; Riosa, Nivia; Higginbotham, Sarah; Arnold, A. Elizabeth; Coley, Phyllis D.; Kursar, Thomas A.; Gerwick, William H.; Cubilla Rios, L.

    2012-01-01

    Among thirty four endophytic fungal strains screened for in vitro antagonism, the endophytic fungus Cordyceps dipterigena was found to strongly inhibit mycelial growth of the plant pathogenic fungus Gibberella fujikuroi. Two new depsidone metabolites, cordycepsidone A (1) and cordycepsidone B (2), were isolated from the PDA culture extract of C. dipterigena and identified as being responsible for the antifungal activity. Elucidation of their chemical structures was carried out using 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy in combination with IR and MS spectroscopic data. Cordycepsidone A displayed strong and dose-dependent antifungal activity against the plant pathogenic fungus Gibberella fujikuroi. The isolates were inactive in bioassays for malaria (Plasmodium falciparum), leishmaniasis (Leishmania donovani), Chagas’s disease (Trypanosoma cruzi), and cytotoxicity at 10 μg/mL. The compounds were also found to be inactive against several bacterial strains at 50 μg/mL. PMID:22707798

  8. Comparative mitochondrial genomics toward exploring molecular markers in the medicinal fungus Cordyceps militaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shu; Hao, Ai-Jing; Zhao, Yu-Xiang; Zhang, Xiao-Yu; Zhang, Yong-Jie

    2017-01-10

    Cordyceps militaris is a fungus used for developing health food, but knowledge about its intraspecific differentiation is limited due to lack of efficient markers. Herein, we assembled the mitochondrial genomes of eight C. militaris strains and performed a comparative mitochondrial genomic analysis together with three previously reported mitochondrial genomes of the fungus. Sizes of the 11 mitochondrial genomes varied from 26.5 to 33.9 kb mainly due to variable intron contents (from two to eight introns per strain). Nucleotide variability varied according to different regions with non-coding regions showing higher variation frequency than coding regions. Recombination events were identified between some locus pairs but seemed not to contribute greatly to genetic variations of the fungus. Based on nucleotide diversity fluctuations across the alignment of all mitochondrial genomes, molecular markers with the potential to be used for future typing studies were determined.

  9. Forage collection, substrate preparation, and diet composition in fungus-growing ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Licht, H.H.D.; Boomsma, J.J.

    2010-01-01

    2. The attine fungus-growing ants are a tribe of more than 230 described species (12 genera) that use a variety of different substrates to manure the symbiotic fungus they cultivate inside the nest. Common 'wisdom' is that the conspicuous leaf-cutting ants primarily use freshly cut plant material......, whereas most of the other attine species use dry and partly degraded plant material such as leaf litter and caterpillar frass, but systematic comparative studies of actual resource acquisition across the attine ants have not been done. 3. Here we review 179 literature records of diet composition across...... the extant genera of fungus-growing ants. The records confirm the dependence of leaf-cutting ants on fresh vegetation but find that flowers, dry plant debris, seeds (husks), and insect frass are used by all genera, whereas other substrates such as nectar and insect carcasses are only used by some. 4. Diet...

  10. Transgenic assessment of CFP-mediated cercosporin export and resistance in a cercosporin-sensitive fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upchurch, Robert G; Rose, Mark S; Eweida, Mohamed; Callahan, Terrence M

    2002-04-01

    Cercosporin is a toxic polyketide produced by many phytopathogenic members of the fungal genus Cercospora. Cercospora species, themselves, exhibit the highest level of self-resistance to this almost universally toxic photosensitizer. Although the mechanism of cercosporin self-resistance is multi-faceted, partial resistance does appear to be provided by the encoded product of CFP ( cercosporin facilitator protein), a gene recently isolated from the pathogen of soybean, C. kikuchii. CFP has significant similarity to the major facilitator superfamily of integral membrane transport proteins. We expressed CFP in the cercosporin non-producing, cercosporin-sensitive fungus, Cochliobolus heterostrophus, in order to assess the transport activity of CFP and the contribution of CFP to cercosporin resistance in a fungal species free of endogenous toxin production. Expression of the CFP transgene in this fungus results in increased resistance to cercosporin due, apparently, to its export out of the fungus.

  11. Interactions between hyphosphere-associated bacteria and the fungus Cladosporium herbarum on aquatic leaf litter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baschien, Christiane; Rode, Georg; Böckelmann, Uta; Götz, Peter; Szewzyk, Ulrich

    2009-10-01

    We investigated microbial interactions of aquatic bacteria associated with hyphae (the hyphosphere) of freshwater fungi on leaf litter. Bacteria were isolated directly from the hyphae of fungi from sedimented leaves of a small stream in the National Park "Lower Oder," Germany. To investigate interactions, bacteria and fungi were pairwise co-cultivated on leaf-extract medium and in microcosms loaded with leaves. The performance of fungi and bacteria was monitored by measuring growth, enzyme production, and respiration of mono- and co-cultures. Growth inhibition of the fungus Cladosporium herbarum by Ralstonia pickettii was detected on leaf extract agar plates. In microcosms, the presence of Chryseobacterium sp. lowered the exocellulase, endocellulase, and cellobiase activity of the fungus. Additionally, the conversion of leaf material into microbial biomass was retarded in co-cultures. The respiration of the fungus was uninfluenced by the presence of the bacterium.

  12. The dynamics of plant cell-wall polysaccharide decomposition in leaf-cutting ant fungus gardens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moller, Isabel Eva; de Fine Licht, Henrik Hjarvard; Harholt, Jesper;

    2011-01-01

    communities of microbial and invertebrate symbionts have evolved associations with the dump material from leaf-cutting ant nests, to exploit decomposition niches that the ant garden-fungus does not utilize. Our approach thus provides detailed insight into the nutritional benefits and shortcomings associated......The degradation of live plant biomass in fungus gardens of leaf-cutting ants is poorly characterised but fundamental for understanding the mutual advantages and efficiency of this obligate nutritional symbiosis. Controversies about the extent to which the garden-symbiont Leucocoprinus gongylophorus......, to map the occurrence of cell wall polymers in consecutive sections of the fungus garden of the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex echinatior. We show that pectin, xyloglucan and some xylan epitopes are degraded, whereas more highly substituted xylan and cellulose epitopes remain as residuals in the waste...

  13. 浅析菌袋出口对食用菌产业的影响%Analysis on the Influence of Edible Fungus Bag Expo~ation on Edible Fungus Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡美玲

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The increasing of edible fungus bag exportation promoted the standardized production of edible fungus industry in China, anti avoided the trade barrier in edible fungus exportation. However, the problems it brought also should not be ignored, such as the material shortage of edible fungus, the, species barrier and the obsh'uetion of edible fungus product expurtation.%菌袋出口量的增加不仅提升了中国食用菌产业的标准化生产,而且规避了各国对食用菌出口的贸易壁垒;但其所带来的问题也是不容忽视的,如食用菌原料的短缺、物种壁垒、食用菌制品出口受阻等。

  14. Fungus symbionts colonizing the galleries of the ambrosia beetle Platypus quercivorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endoh, Rikiya; Suzuki, Motofumi; Okada, Gen; Takeuchi, Yuko; Futai, Kazuyoshi

    2011-07-01

    Isolations were made to determine the fungal symbionts colonizing Platypus quercivorus beetle galleries of dead or dying Quercus laurifolia, Castanopsis cuspidata, Quercus serrata, Quercus crispula, and Quercus robur. For these studies, logs from oak wilt-killed trees were collected from Kyoto Prefecture, Japan. Fungi were isolated from the: (1) entrances of beetle galleries, (2) vertical galleries, (3) lateral galleries, and (4) the larval cradle of P. quercivorus in each host tree. Among the fungus colonies which appeared on YM agar plates, 1,219 were isolated as the representative isolates for fungus species inhabiting in the galleries based on their cultural characteristics. The validity of the visual classification of the fungus colonies was checked and if necessary properly corrected using microsatellite-primed PCR fingerprints. The nucleotide sequence of the D1/D2 region of the large subunit nuclear rRNA gene detected 38 fungus species (104 strains) of which three species, i.e., Candida sp. 3, Candida kashinagacola (both yeasts), and the filamentous fungus Raffaelea quercivora were isolated from all the tree species. The two yeasts were most prevalent in the interior of galleries, regardless of host tree species, suggesting their close association with the beetle. A culture-independent method, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis was also used to characterize the fungus flora of beetle galleries. T-RFLP patterns showed that yeast species belonging to the genus Ambrosiozyma frequently occurred on the gallery walls along with the two Candida species. Ours is the first report showing the specific fungi inhabiting the galleries of a platypodid ambrosia beetle.

  15. Biological control of cyathostomin (Nematoda: Cyathostominae) with nematophagous fungus Monacrosporium thaumasium in tropical southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavela, Alexandre de Oliveira; Araújo, Jackson Victor; Braga, Fábio Ribeiro; Silva, André Ricardo; Carvalho, Rogério Oliva; Araujo, Juliana Milani; Ferreira, Sebastião Rodrigo; Carvalho, Giovanni Ribeiro

    2011-01-10

    Horses are hosts to a wide variety of helminthes; the most important are the cyathostomin, or small strongyles. The viability of a fungal formulation (pellets) using the nematode-trapping fungus Monacrosporium thaumasium was assessed in biological control of horse cyathostomin. Two groups (fungus-treated and control) consisted of six mares in each group, crossbred (ages of 2.5 and 3.5 years), were placed in pastures of Cynodon sp. naturally infected with horse cyathostomin larvae. In the treated group, each animal received 1g/10 kg body weight (0.2g/10 kg live weight of fungus) of pellets of sodium alginate matrix containing the fungus M. thaumasium orally, twice a week for 6 months. In the control group, animals received (1g/10 kg body weight) of pellets without fungus. The egg count per gram of feces showed difference (pcontrol animals during all months of the experiment. The EPG percentage decrease were 87.5%, 89.7%, 68.3%, 58.7%, 52.5% and 35.2% during June, July, August, September, October and November, respectively. In faecal cultures, there was difference (pcontrol animals during all the experiment month, with percentage reduction of 67.5%, 61.4% and 31.8% in September, October and November, respectively. Difference (pcontrol group with a reduction of 60.9% and between 0-20 and 0-40 cm from the faecal pat reduction (pcontrol group pasture. There was no difference (p>0.05) between the average weight gains in both animal groups. The treatment of horses with pellets containing the nematophagous fungus M. thaumasium can be effective in controlling cyathostomin in the tropical region of southeastern Brazil.

  16. Extraction of DNA from plant and fungus tissues in situ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Almakarem Amal S

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When samples are collected in the field and transported to the lab, degradation of the nucleic acids contained in the samples is frequently observed. Immediate extraction and precipitation of the nucleic acids reduces degradation to a minimum, thus preserving accurate sequence information. An extraction method to obtain high quality DNA in field studies is described. Findings DNA extracted immediately after sampling was compared to DNA extracted after allowing the sampled tissues to air dry at 21°C for 48 or 72 hours. While DNA extracted from fresh tissues exhibited little degradation, DNA extracted from all tissues exposed to 21°C air for 48 or 72 hours exhibited varying degrees of degradation. Yield was higher for extractions from fresh tissues in most cases. Four microcentrifuges were compared for DNA yield: one standard electric laboratory microcentrifuge (max rcf = 16,000×g, two battery-operated microcentrifuges (max rcf = 5,000 and 3,000 ×g, and one manually-operated microcentrifuge (max rcf = 120×g. Yields for all centrifuges were similar. DNA extracted under simulated field conditions was similar in yield and quality to DNA extracted in the laboratory using the same equipment. Conclusions This CTAB (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide DNA extraction method employs battery-operated and manually-operated equipment to isolate high quality DNA in the field. The method was tested on plant and fungus tissues, and may be adapted for other types of organisms. The method produced high quality DNA in laboratory tests and under simulated field conditions. The field extraction method should prove useful for working in remote sites, where ice, dry ice, and liquid nitrogen are unavailable; where degradation is likely to occur due to the long distances between the sample site and the laboratory; and in instances where other DNA preservation and transportation methods have been unsuccessful. It may be possible to adapt

  17. Direct ethanol production from starch, wheat bran and rice straw by the white rot fungus Trametes hirsuta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okamoto, Kenji; Nitta, Yasuyuki; Maekawa, Nitaro; Yanase, Hideshi

    2011-01-01

    The white rot fungus Trametes hirsuta produced ethanol from a variety of hexoses: glucose, mannose, cellobiose and maltose, with yields of 0.49. 0.48, 0.47 and 0.47 g/g of ethanol per sugar utilized, respectively. In addition, this fungus showed relatively favorable xylose consumption and ethanol pr

  18. Molecular characterization of a saline-soluble lectin from a parasitic fungus: Extensive sequence similarities between fungal lectins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosén, S.; Kata, M.; Persson, Y.; Lipniunas, P.H.; Wikström, M.; Hondel, C.A.M.J.J. van den; Brink, J.M. van den; Rask, L.; Hedén, L.O.; Tunlid, A.

    1996-01-01

    It has been proposed that the interactions between several parasite and pathogenic fungi and their hosts are mediated by soluble lectins present in the fungus. We have cloned and analyzed a gene encoding such a lectin (AOL) from the nematophagous fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora (deuteromycete). The d

  19. Pseudoxylaria as stowaway of the fungus-growing termite nest: Interaction asymmetry between Pseudoxylaria, Termitomyces and free-living relatives.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A.A.; Kooij, P.W.; Debets, A.J.M.; Kuyper, T.W.; Aanen, D.K.

    2011-01-01

    Though inconspicuous in healthy nests, Pseudoxylaria species are almost always present and overgrow deteriorating fungus-growing termite gardens. Whether these fungi are detrimental to the fungus-garden, benign, or even beneficial is unclear. We hypothesize that Pseudoxylaria is a stowaway that prac

  20. Decolorization of reactive brilliant red K-2BP by white rot fungus under sterile and non-sterile conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Da-wen; WEN Xiang-hua; QIAN Yi

    2006-01-01

    Almost all the studies both domestic and international using white rot fungus for dye wastewater treatment are performed under sterile conditions. However, it is obviously unpractical that wastewater with dyes is treated under sterile conditions. A feasible study was made for using white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium to degrade reactive brilliant red K-2BP dye under non-sterile conditions. The results showed that there was no decolorizing effect under non-sterile condition if white rot fungus was incubated under non-sterile condition, and the decolorization was always near to 0% during decolorizing test for 3 d; in the meantime, a lot of yeast funguses were found in liquid medium when white rot fungus was incubated under non-sterile conditions; however, if white rot fungus was incubated under sterile condition firstly, its decolorization was above 90% under non-sterile condition, which was similar to that of sterile condition. So we point out that the treating process for wastewater with dyes should be divided into two stages. The first stage is that white rot fungus should be incubated under sterile conditions, and the second stage is that reactive brilliant red K-2BP is decolorized under non-sterile conditions. The method not only save the operation cost which decolorizing reactive brilliant red K-2BP under sterile condition, but also provide the feasibility for using white rot fungus to degrade wastewater with dyes under non-sterile conditions.

  1. The most relictual fungus-farming ant species cultivates the most recently evolved and highly domesticated fungal symbiont species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Ted R; Sosa-Calvo, Jeffrey; Brady, Seán G; Lopes, Cauê T; Mueller, Ulrich G; Bacci, Mauricio; Vasconcelos, Heraldo L

    2015-05-01

    Fungus-farming (attine) ant agriculture is made up of five known agricultural systems characterized by remarkable symbiont fidelity in which five phylogenetic groups of ants faithfully cultivate five phylogenetic groups of fungi. Here we describe the first case of a lower-attine ant cultivating a higher-attine fungus based on our discovery of a Brazilian population of the relictual fungus-farming ant Apterostigma megacephala, known previously from four stray specimens from Peru and Colombia. We find that A. megacephala is the sole surviving representative of an ancient lineage that diverged ∼39 million years ago, very early in the ∼55-million-year evolution of fungus-farming ants. Contrary to all previously known patterns of ant-fungus symbiont fidelity, A. megacephala cultivates Leucoagaricus gongylophorus, a highly domesticated fungal cultivar that originated only 2-8 million years ago in the gardens of the highly derived and recently evolved (∼12 million years ago) leaf-cutting ants. Because no other lower fungus-farming ant is known to cultivate any of the higher-attine fungi, let alone the leaf-cutter fungus, A. megacephala may provide important clues about the biological mechanisms constraining the otherwise seemingly obligate ant-fungus associations that characterize attine ant agriculture.

  2. Effect of fungus gnat Bradysia impatiens (Diptera: Sciaridae) feeding on subsequent Pythium aphanidermatum infection of geranium seedlings (Pelargonium x hortorum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dark-winged fungus gnats in the genus Bradysia (Diptera: Sciaridae) and root rot pathogens in the genus Pythium (Oomycetes) are important pests of greenhouse floriculture. Observations have pointed to a possible correlation between Pythium root rot disease and fungus gnat infestations; however, inte...

  3. Transcriptome of an entomophthoralean fungus (Pandora formicae) shows molecular machinery adjusted for successful host exploitation and transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Małagocka, Joanna; Grell, Morten N.; Lange, Lene;

    2015-01-01

    Pandora formicae is an obligate entomopathogenic fungus from the phylum Entomophthoromycota, known to infect only ants from the genus Formica. In the final stages of infection, the fungus induces the so-called summit disease syndrome, manipulating the host to climb up vegetation prior to death an...

  4. Complete Genome of Enterobacteriaceae Bacterium Strain FGI 57, a Strain Associated with Leaf-Cutter Ant Fungus Gardens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aylward, Frank O; Tremmel, Daniel M; Bruce, David C; Chain, Patrick; Chen, Amy; Walston Davenport, Karen; Detter, Chris; Han, Cliff S; Han, James; Huntemann, Marcel; Ivanova, Natalia N; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Markowitz, Victor; Mavrommatis, Kostas; Nolan, Matt; Pagani, Ioanna; Pati, Amrita; Pitluck, Sam; Deshpande, Shweta; Goodwin, Lynne; Woyke, Tanja; Currie, Cameron R

    2013-01-01

    The Enterobacteriaceae bacterium strain FGI 57 was isolated from a fungus garden of the leaf-cutter ant Atta colombica. Analysis of its single 4.76-Mbp chromosome will shed light on community dynamics and plant biomass degradation in ant fungus gardens.

  5. Characterization and host range of the symbiotic fungus Fusarium euwallaceae sp. nov., vectored by the invasive ambrosia beetle Euwallacea sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A novel symbiotic Fusarium euwallaceae fungus that serves as a specific nutritional source for the invasive Asian ambrosia beetle Euwallacea sp. (Coleoptera, Scolytinae, Xyleborini) is farmed in the galleries of host plants. This beetle-fungus complex, which has invaded Israel and California, is clo...

  6. Bacterial communities in termite fungus combs are comprised of consistent gut deposits and contributions from the environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otani, Saria; Hansen, Lars H.; Sørensen, Søren Johannes;

    2016-01-01

    time. These shifts did not appear to be due to changes in the taxa present, but rather due to differences in the relative abundances of primarily gut-derived bacteria within fungus combs. This indicates that fungus comb microbiotas are largely termite species-specific due to major contributions from...

  7. Speciation despite globally overlapping distributions in Penicillium chrysogenum: the population genetics of Alexander Fleming’s lucky fungus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eighty years ago, Alexander Fleming described the antibiotic effects of a fungus that had contaminated his bacterial culture, kick starting the antimicrobial revolution. The fungus was later ascribed to a globally distributed asexual species, Penicillium chrysogenum. Recently, the species has been...

  8. A comparative study of exocrine gland chemistry in Trachymyrmex and Sericomyrmex fungus-growing ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adams, Rachelle Martha Marie; Jones, Tappey H.; Jeter, Andrew W.

    2012-01-01

    Ants possess many exocrine glands that produce a variety of compounds important for chemical communication. Fungus-growing ants, a tribe of over 230 species within the subfamily Myrmicinae, are unique among ants because they cultivate fungus gardens inside their nests as food. Here the chemistry...... possess many derived characteristics such as extensive leaf-cutting behavior and massive colony sizes, effectively making them major herbivores in many Neotropical habitats. This is the first comparison of the chemistry of eight Trachymyrmex and one Sericomyrmex species in a phylogenetic context. Most...

  9. Caste-specific symbiont policing by workers of Acromyrmex fungus-growing ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivens, Aniek B.F.; Nash, David R.; Poulsen, Michael;

    2009-01-01

    The interaction between leaf-cutting ants and their fungus garden mutualists is ideal for studying the evolutionary stability of interspecific cooperation. Although the mutualism has a long history of diffuse coevolution, there is ample potential for conflicts between the partners over the mixing...... and transmission of symbionts. Symbiont transmission is vertical by default, and both the ants and resident fungus actively protect the fungal monoculture growing in their nest against secondary introductions of genetically dissimilar symbionts from other colonies. An earlier study showed that mixtures of major...

  10. Laboratory evaluation of three strains of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae for controlling Dermanyssus gallinae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavassoli, M; Ownag, A; Pourseyed, S H; Mardani, K

    2008-06-01

    The pathogenicity of three strains of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae on different life stages of Dermanyssus gallinae was evaluated in the laboratory. All the strains tested were virulent to D. gallinae but pathogenicity varied among the strains. Strain V245 induced a higher mortality rate using different concentrations than other two strains. The estimated median lethal concentration of different strains of M. anisopliae against D. gallinae varied depending on the exposure time of D. gallinae to M. anisopliae. It was concluded that the pathogenicity of the entomopathogenic fungus M. anisopliae on different life stages of D. gallinae was concentration and time dependent.

  11. Biscogniauxone, a New Isopyrrolonaphthoquinone Compound from the Fungus Biscogniauxia mediterranea Isolated from Deep-Sea Sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Wu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The properties and the production of new metabolites from the fungal strain LF657 isolated from the Herodotes Deep (2800 m depth in the Mediterranean Sea are reported in this study. The new isolate was identified as Biscogniauxia mediterranea based on ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 and 28S rRNA gene sequences. A new isopyrrolonaphthoquinone with inhibitory activity against glycogen synthase kinase (GSK-3β was isolated from this fungus. This is the first report of this class of compounds from a fungus isolated from a deep-sea sediment, as well as from a Biscogniauxia species.

  12. Conditions for selective degradation of lignin by the fungus Ganoderma australis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rios, S.; Eyzaguirre, J. (Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago (Chile). Lab. de Bioquimica)

    1992-08-01

    The white-rot fungus Ganoderma australis selectively degrades lignin in the ecosystem 'palo podrido'. Using conditions that simulate those of 'palo podrido' in the laboratory, it was found that low nitrogen content and low O{sub 2} tension stimulate the production of manganese peroxidase and lignin degradation, and depress cellulose degradation and cellulase production. The inverse is found at high nitrogen concentration and high O{sub 2} tension. This agrees with previous results indicating that low O{sub 2} tension and low nitrogen stimulate selective lignin degradation by this fungus. (orig.).

  13. The research of using Co-60 γ ray to sterilize different mediums for edible fungus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guozhu, Li; Zhenqian, Guan; Hengshou, Zhao

    1993-10-01

    The present experiment has been carried out by using different dosage of Co—60 γ ray for radiation sterilization of five kinds of cultural materials of edible fungus, The results indicated that sterilization dosage of sawdust is 22 kGy. that of cotton—seed shell and the rest are 26 kGy. We conclude that using Co-60 γ ray to sterilize the cultura 1 materials of edible fungus is a secure and saving labor and energy new method which could sterilize thoroughly.

  14. Degradation of the plant defence hormone salicylic acid by the biotrophic fungus Ustilago maydis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabe, Franziska; Ajami-Rashidi, Ziba; Doehlemann, Gunther; Kahmann, Regine; Djamei, Armin

    2013-07-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is a key plant defence hormone which plays an important role in local and systemic defence responses against biotrophic pathogens like the smut fungus Ustilago maydis. Here we identified Shy1, a cytoplasmic U. maydis salicylate hydroxylase which has orthologues in the closely related smuts Ustilago hordei and Sporisorium reilianum. shy1 is transcriptionally induced during the biotrophic stages of development but not required for virulence during seedling infection. Shy1 activity is needed for growth on plates with SA as a sole carbon source. The trigger for shy1 transcriptional induction is SA, suggesting the possibility of a SA sensing mechanism in this fungus.

  15. A new eremophilane-type sesquiterpene from the phytopatogen fungus Lasiodiplodia theobromae (Sphaeropsidaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, Fatima M.; Oliveira, Maria da Conceicao F. de; Arriaga, Angela M.C.; Lemos, Telma L.G.; Andrade-Neto, Manoel; Mattos, Marcos C. de [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica]. E-mail: mcfo@ufc.br; Mafezoli, Jair [Universidade de Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Curso de Farmacia; Viana, Francisco M.P.; Ferreira, Viviane M. [EMBRAPA Agroindustria Tropical, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Lab. de Fitopatologia; Rodrigues-Filho, Edson; Ferreira, Antonio G. [Universidade Federal de Sa Carlos (UFSCAR), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2008-07-01

    The phytopatogenic fungus Lasiodiplodia theobromae, isolated from guava, was cultivated in rice for 32 days at room temperature. Extraction with CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}:MeOH (3:7), followed by chromatography fractionation of the extract provided ergosterol. From the fungus culture in Czapeck medium for 40 days at room temperature, were isolated isocoumarin cis-4-hydroxymeleine and an eremophilane-type sesquiterpene. The latter compound is being reported for the first time in the literature. Also, this is the first time that an eremophilane sesquiterpene is described for Lasiodiplodia genus. (author)

  16. Towards a better understanding of the evolution of specialized parasites of fungus-growing ant crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yek, Sze Huei; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan; Poulsen, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Fungus-growing ants have interacted and partly coevolved with specialised microfungal parasites of the genus Escovopsis since the origin of ant fungiculture about 50 million years ago. Here, we review the recent progress in understanding the patterns of specificity of this ant-parasite association...... questions of (co)adaptation and evolutionary history. Using the same scheme, we identify future research questions that are likely to be particularly illuminating for understanding the ecology and evolution of Escovopsis parasitism of the cultivar maintained by fungus-growing ants...

  17. Modification of Prenylated Stilbenoids in Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) Seedlings by the Same Fungi That Elicited Them: The Fungus Strikes Back.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aisyah, Siti; Gruppen, Harry; Slager, Mathijs; Helmink, Bianca; Vincken, Jean-Paul

    2015-10-28

    Aspergillus oryzae and Rhizopus oryzae were compared for inducing the production of prenylated stilbenoids in peanut seedlings. The fungus was applied at two different time points: directly after soaking (day 1) or after 2 days of germination (day 3). Aspergillus- and Rhizopus-elicited peanut seedlings accumulated an array of prenylated stilbenoids, with overlap in compounds induced, but also with compounds specific to the fungal treatment. The differences were confirmed to be due to modification of prenylated stilbenoids by the fungus itself. Each fungus appeared to deploy different strategies for modification. The content of prenylated stilbenoids modified by fungi accounted for around 8% to 49% (w/w) of total stilbenoids. The contents of modified prenylated stilbenoids were higher when the fungus was applied on day 1 instead of day 3. Altogether, type of fungus and time point of inoculation appeared to be crucial parameters for optimizing accumulation of prenylated stilbenoids in peanut seedlings.

  18. Ecology of Fungus Gnats (Bradysia spp. in Greenhouse Production Systems Associated with Disease-Interactions and Alternative Management Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond A. Cloyd

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Fungus gnats (Bradysia spp. are major insect pests of greenhouse-grown horticultural crops mainly due to the direct feeding damage caused by the larvae, and the ability of larvae to transmit certain soil-borne plant pathogens. Currently, insecticides and biological control agents are being used successively to deal with fungus gnat populations in greenhouse production systems. However, these strategies may only be effective as long as greenhouse producers also implement alternative management strategies such as cultural, physical, and sanitation. This includes elimination of algae, and plant and growing medium debris; placing physical barriers onto the growing medium surface; and using materials that repel fungus gnat adults. This article describes the disease-interactions associated with fungus gnats and foliar and soil-borne diseases, and the alternative management strategies that should be considered by greenhouse producers in order to alleviate problems with fungus gnats in greenhouse production systems.

  19. Nothing special in the specialist? Draft genome sequence of Cryomyces antarcticus, the most extremophilic fungus from Antarctica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Sterflinger

    Full Text Available The draft genome of the Antarctic endemic fungus Cryomyces antarcticus is presented. This rock inhabiting, microcolonial fungus is extremely stress tolerant and it is a model organism for exobiology and studies on stress resistance in Eukaryots. Since this fungus is a specialist in the most extreme environment of the Earth, the analysis of its genome is of important value for the understanding of fungal genome evolution and stress adaptation. A comparison with Neurospora crassa as well as with other microcolonial fungi shows that the fungus has a genome size of 24 Mbp, which is the average in the fungal kingdom. Although sexual reproduction was never observed in this fungus, 34 mating genes are present with protein homologs in the classes Eurotiomycetes, Sordariomycetes and Dothideomycetes. The first analysis of the draft genome did not reveal any significant deviations of this genome from comparative species and mesophilic hyphomycetes.

  20. Nothing special in the specialist? Draft genome sequence of Cryomyces antarcticus, the most extremophilic fungus from Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterflinger, Katja; Lopandic, Ksenija; Pandey, Ram Vinay; Blasi, Barbara; Kriegner, Albert

    2014-01-01

    The draft genome of the Antarctic endemic fungus Cryomyces antarcticus is presented. This rock inhabiting, microcolonial fungus is extremely stress tolerant and it is a model organism for exobiology and studies on stress resistance in Eukaryots. Since this fungus is a specialist in the most extreme environment of the Earth, the analysis of its genome is of important value for the understanding of fungal genome evolution and stress adaptation. A comparison with Neurospora crassa as well as with other microcolonial fungi shows that the fungus has a genome size of 24 Mbp, which is the average in the fungal kingdom. Although sexual reproduction was never observed in this fungus, 34 mating genes are present with protein homologs in the classes Eurotiomycetes, Sordariomycetes and Dothideomycetes. The first analysis of the draft genome did not reveal any significant deviations of this genome from comparative species and mesophilic hyphomycetes.

  1. Fungus gardens of the leafcutter ant Atta colombica function as egg nurseries for the snake Leptodeira annulata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baer, Boris; Den Boer, Susanne Petronella A; Kronauer, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Attine ants are well known for their mutualistic symbiosis with fungus gardens, but many other symbionts and commensals have been described. Here, we report the discovery of two clusters of large snake eggs in neighboring fungus gardens of a mature Atta colombica colony. The eggs were completely...... embedded within the fungus garden and were ignored by the host ants, even when we placed them into another, freshly excavated fungus garden of the same colony. All five eggs contained embryos and two snakes eventually hatched, which we identified as being banded cat eyed snakes Leptodeira annulata L. Ant...... fungus gardens are likely to provide ideal climatic conditions for developing snake eggs and almost complete protection from egg predation. Our observations therefore indicate that mature banded cat eyed snakes are able to enter and oviposit in large and well defended Atta colonies without being attacked...

  2. Utilização de linhagens diplóides uvsH//uvsH de Aspergillus nidulans (Ascomycetes para a avaliação do potencial recombinagênico de agentes químicos e físicos uvsH//uvsH diploid strain favors an efficient method to evaluate the recombinagenic effect of chemical and physical agents in Aspergillus nidulans (Ascomycetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francielle Baptista

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available O ascomiceto Aspergillus nidulans apresenta-se como um excelente sistema para o estudo da recombinação somática, por passar grande parte de seu ciclo celular em G2 e por apresentar mutações uvs que promovem aumento das freqüências normais de recombinação mitótica (uvsF e uvsH. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo obter uma nova linhagem diplóide de A. nidulans, com características apropriadas para estudos da recombinagênese, tais como: hetererozigose para marcadores nutricionais e de coloração de conidios e homozigose para a mutação uvsH. A maior sensibilidade do diplóide uvsH//uvsH no monitoramento de eventos de recombinação mitótica foi demonstrada através dos mais altos índices de recombinação mitótica espontânea por ele apresentados, em comparação com o diplóide uvsH+//uvsH +. A nova linhagem apresenta-se como uma ferramenta versátil, podendo ser utilizada em diferentes estudos relacionados à recombinação mitótica em A. nidulansAscomycete Aspergillus nidulans is an excellent system for mitotic crossing-over studies. This is due to the fact that much of its cell cycle is passed in G2 and presents uvs mutations that increase frequencies of normal mitotic recombinations (uvsF and uvsH. The aim of this research was to obtain a new diploid strain of A. nidulans with proper characteristics for recombinagenesis investigations, or rather, heterozygous for nutritional markers and conidia coloration and homozygous for uvsH mutation. Higher sensitivity of diploid uvsH//uvsH in the monitoring of mitotic recombination events was shown by higher indexes of the diploid’s spontaneous mitotic recombination when compared with diploid uvsH+//uvsH +. New strain is a versatile tool that may be used in different studies on mitotic recombination in A. nidulans

  3. Nest enlargement in leaf-cutting ants: relocated brood and fungus trigger the excavation of new chambers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Römer

    Full Text Available During colony growth, leaf-cutting ants enlarge their nests by excavating tunnels and chambers housing their fungus gardens and brood. Workers are expected to excavate new nest chambers at locations across the soil profile that offer suitable environmental conditions for brood and fungus rearing. It is an open question whether new chambers are excavated in advance, or will emerge around brood or fungus initially relocated to a suitable site in a previously-excavated tunnel. In the laboratory, we investigated the mechanisms underlying the excavation of new nest chambers in the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex lundi. Specifically, we asked whether workers relocate brood and fungus to suitable nest locations, and to what extent the relocated items trigger the excavation of a nest chamber and influence its shape. When brood and fungus were exposed to unfavorable environmental conditions, either low temperatures or low humidity, both were relocated, but ants clearly preferred to relocate the brood first. Workers relocated fungus to places containing brood, demonstrating that subsequent fungus relocation spatially follows the brood deposition. In addition, more ants aggregated at sites containing brood. When presented with a choice between two otherwise identical digging sites, but one containing brood, ants' excavation activity was higher at this site, and the shape of the excavated cavity was more rounded and chamber-like. The presence of fungus also led to the excavation of rounder shapes, with higher excavation activity at the site that also contained brood. We argue that during colony growth, workers preferentially relocate brood to suitable locations along a tunnel, and that relocated brood spatially guides fungus relocation and leads to increased digging activity around them. We suggest that nest chambers are not excavated in advance, but emerge through a self-organized process resulting from the aggregation of workers and their density

  4. Nest enlargement in leaf-cutting ants: relocated brood and fungus trigger the excavation of new chambers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Römer, Daniela; Roces, Flavio

    2014-01-01

    During colony growth, leaf-cutting ants enlarge their nests by excavating tunnels and chambers housing their fungus gardens and brood. Workers are expected to excavate new nest chambers at locations across the soil profile that offer suitable environmental conditions for brood and fungus rearing. It is an open question whether new chambers are excavated in advance, or will emerge around brood or fungus initially relocated to a suitable site in a previously-excavated tunnel. In the laboratory, we investigated the mechanisms underlying the excavation of new nest chambers in the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex lundi. Specifically, we asked whether workers relocate brood and fungus to suitable nest locations, and to what extent the relocated items trigger the excavation of a nest chamber and influence its shape. When brood and fungus were exposed to unfavorable environmental conditions, either low temperatures or low humidity, both were relocated, but ants clearly preferred to relocate the brood first. Workers relocated fungus to places containing brood, demonstrating that subsequent fungus relocation spatially follows the brood deposition. In addition, more ants aggregated at sites containing brood. When presented with a choice between two otherwise identical digging sites, but one containing brood, ants' excavation activity was higher at this site, and the shape of the excavated cavity was more rounded and chamber-like. The presence of fungus also led to the excavation of rounder shapes, with higher excavation activity at the site that also contained brood. We argue that during colony growth, workers preferentially relocate brood to suitable locations along a tunnel, and that relocated brood spatially guides fungus relocation and leads to increased digging activity around them. We suggest that nest chambers are not excavated in advance, but emerge through a self-organized process resulting from the aggregation of workers and their density-dependent digging behavior

  5. Co-evolutionary patterns and diversification of ant-fungus associations in the asexual fungus-farming ant Mycocepurus smithii in Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellner, K; Fernández-Marín, H; Ishak, H D; Sen, R; Linksvayer, T A; Mueller, U G

    2013-06-01

    Partner fidelity through vertical symbiont transmission is thought to be the primary mechanism stabilizing cooperation in the mutualism between fungus-farming (attine) ants and their cultivated fungal symbionts. An alternate or additional mechanism could be adaptive partner or symbiont choice mediating horizontal cultivar transmission or de novo domestication of free-living fungi. Using microsatellite genotyping for the attine ant Mycocepurus smithii and ITS rDNA sequencing for fungal cultivars, we provide the first detailed population genetic analysis of local ant-fungus associations to test for the relative importance of vertical vs. horizontal transmission in a single attine species. M. smithii is the only known asexual attine ant, and it is furthermore exceptional because it cultivates a far greater cultivar diversity than any other attine ant. Cultivar switching could permit the ants to re-acquire cultivars after garden loss, to purge inferior cultivars that are locally mal-adapted or that accumulated deleterious mutations under long-term asexuality. Compared to other attine ants, symbiont choice and local adaptation of ant-fungus combinations may play a more important role than partner-fidelity feedback in the co-evolutionary process of M. smithii and its fungal symbionts.

  6. Chromones from an ascomycete,Chaetomium aureus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Mei Li; Qiang Zou; Guo You Li

    2010-01-01

    A novel chromone,named chaetoaurin (1),along with six known chromone derivatives (2-7),was isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of a solid-state fermented culture of Chaetomium aureus.Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectral analysis.All of these compounds were reported from C.aureus for the first time.

  7. A New Eudesmane Sesquiterpene from Nigrospora oryzae, an Endophytic Fungus of Aquilaria sinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongli Li

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A new eudesmane-type sesquiterpene, 11 -hydroxy capitulatin B (1 , along with a known related sesquiterpene, capitulatin B (2, was isolated from the endophytic fungus Nigrospora oryzae A8 from Aquilaria sinensis, the only plant resource for agarwood production in China. This research demonstrates that the endophytic fungi from A. sinensis might play a role in the formation of agarwood.

  8. Ethanol Production from Various Sugars and Cellulosic Biomass by White Rot Fungus Lenzites betulinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Kyung Hoan; Nguyen, Trung Kien; Choi, Jaehyuk; Lee, Tae Soo

    2016-03-01

    Lenzites betulinus, known as gilled polypore belongs to Basidiomycota was isolated from fruiting body on broadleaf dead trees. It was found that the mycelia of white rot fungus Lenzites betulinus IUM 5468 produced ethanol from various sugars, including glucose, mannose, galactose, and cellobiose with a yield of 0.38, 0.26, 0.07, and 0.26 g of ethanol per gram of sugar consumed, respectively. This fungus relatively exhibited a good ethanol production from xylose at 0.26 g of ethanol per gram of sugar consumed. However, the ethanol conversion rate of arabinose was relatively low (at 0.07 g of ethanol per gram sugar). L. betulinus was capable of producing ethanol directly from rice straw and corn stalks at 0.22 g and 0.16 g of ethanol per gram of substrates, respectively, when this fungus was cultured in a basal medium containing 20 g/L rice straw or corn stalks. These results indicate that L. betulinus can produce ethanol efficiently from glucose, mannose, and cellobiose and produce ethanol very poorly from galactose and arabinose. Therefore, it is suggested that this fungus can ferment ethanol from various sugars and hydrolyze cellulosic materials to sugars and convert them to ethanol simultaneously.

  9. The glutathione response to salt stress in the thermophilic fungus thermomyces lanuginosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friborg Jepsen, Helene; Posci, Istvan; Jensen, Bo

    2008-01-01

    In order to investigate the role of glutathione in response to salt stress in the thermophilic fungus, Thermomyces lanuginosus, the biomass and the intracellular pool of protein and the glutathione + glutathione disulphid (GSH + GSSG) was measured for four days in a medium with NaCl or KCl added...

  10. Cytotoxic hydroanthraquinones from the mangrove-derived fungus Paradictyoarthrinium diffractum BCC 8704.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaka, Masahiko; Chinthanom, Panida; Rachtawee, Pranee; Srichomthong, Kitlada; Srikitikulchai, Prasert; Kongsaeree, Palangpon; Prabpai, Samran

    2015-05-01

    Two new hydroanthraquinones, paradictyoarthrins A (1) and B (2), were isolated from the mangrove-derived fungus Paradictyoarthrinium diffractum BCC 8704. Structures of the new compounds were elucidated by analyses of the NMR spectroscopic and mass spectrometry data. The absolute configuration of 1 was determined by X-ray crystallography. These compounds exhibited cytotoxic activities.

  11. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degradation by the white rot fungus Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kotterman, M.J.J.

    1998-01-01

    Outline of this thesisIn this thesis the conditions for optimal PAH oxidation by the white rot fungus Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55 were evaluated. In Chapter 2, culture conditions like aeration and cosubstrate concentrations, which influenced the oxidation of the PAH compound anthra

  12. A New Cytotoxic Compound from Penicillium auratiogriseum, Symbiotic or Epiphytic Fungus of Sponge Mycale plumose

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    A new compound, (S)-2, 4-dihydroxy-1-butyl (4-hydroxy) benzoate (1), and a known compound, fructigenines A (2), were isolated from fungus Penicillium auratiogriseum derived from sponge Mycale plumose, by bioassay-guided fractionation. Their structures were established by spectroscopic and chemical methods. Both compounds showed cytotoxic activity against tsFT210 cells.

  13. Levels of specificity of Xylaria species associated with fungus-growing termites: a phylogenetic approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visser, Andre; Ros, V I D; De Beer, Z. W.

    2009-01-01

    , (3) termite species, and (4) colonies. In South Africa, 108 colonies of eight termite species from three termite genera were sampled for Xylaria. Xylaria was isolated from 69% of the sampled nests and from 57% of the incubated fungus comb samples, confirming high prevalence. Phylogenetic analysis...

  14. Patterns of interaction specificity of fungus-growing termites and Termitomyces symbionts in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aanen, D.K.; Ros, V.I.D.; Fine Licht, de H.H.; Mitchell, J.; Beer, de Z.W.; Slippers, B.; Rouland-Lefevre, C.; Boomsma, J.J.

    2007-01-01

    Background Termites of the subfamily Macrotermitinae live in a mutualistic symbiosis with basidiomycete fungi of the genus Termitomyces. Here, we explored interaction specificity in fungus-growing termites using samples from 101 colonies in South-Africa and Senegal, belonging to eight species divide

  15. Presumptive horizontal symbiont transmission in the fungus-growing termite Macrotermes natalensis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fine Licht, de H.H.; Boomsma, J.J.; Aanen, D.K.

    2006-01-01

    All colonies of the fungus-growing termite Macrotermes natalensis studied so far are associated with a single genetically variable lineage of Termitomyces symbionts. Such limited genetic variation of symbionts and the absence of sexual fruiting bodies (mushrooms) on M. natalensis mounds would be com

  16. Patterns of interaction specificity of fungus-growing termites and Termitomyces symbionts in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aanen, D.K.; Ros, V.I.D.; Licht, H.H.D.; Mitchel, J.; de Beer, Z.W.; Slippers, B.; Rouland-LeFevre, C.; Boomsma, J.J.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Termites of the subfamily Macrotermitinae live in a mutualistic symbiosis with basidiomycete fungi of the genus Termitomyces. Here, we explored interaction specificity in fungus-growing termites using samples from 101 colonies in South-Africa and Senegal, belonging to eight species divid

  17. Levels of specificity of Xylaria species associated with fungus-growing termites: a phylogenetic approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A.A.; Ros, V.I.D.; Beer, de Z.W.; Debets, A.J.M.; Hartog, E.; Kuyper, T.W.; Laessoe, T.; Slippers, B.; Aanen, D.K.

    2009-01-01

    Fungus-growing termites live in obligate mutualistic symbiosis with species of the basidiomycete genus Termitomyces, which are cultivated on a substrate of dead plant material. When the termite colony dies, or when nest material is incubated without termites in the laboratory, fruiting bodies of the

  18. Screening and characterization of a high taxol producing fungus by protoplast mutagenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Kai; Sun Qingshen; Zhang Yanjun; Ping Wenxiang; Jin Tao; Zhou Dongpo

    2009-01-01

    The preparation, regeneration and mutagenesis of the taxol-producing fungus UV40-19 protoplasts were discussed in the experiment. Totally 42 strains displayed hygromycin resistance. Six strains were found to be positive mutants when screened on plate containing 90μg/mL hygromycin. One hereditarily stable strain UN05-6 was obtained, which raised the taxol yield from (376.38±8.41)μg/L to (493.12±11.36)μg/L. The optimal conditions for the preparation, regeneration and mutagenesis of the taxol producing fungus UV40-19 were as follows: 1)enzymolysis in a solution containing 3% lywallzyme, 4% snailase, 1% lysozyme and 3% cellulose at 30℃ water bath, pH5.5~6.0 for 5h; 2) The prepared protoplasts were regenerated by using bilayer plate culturing method; 3)To mutagenize the fungus UV40-19, the protoplast suspension was treated with 0.8mg/mL NTG for 15min, followed by UV irradiation (30W, 30cm distance)for 40s under magnetic stirring. The purified products of the fungus UN05-6 fermented extracts have significant inhibitive effects on SMMC-7721 cell.

  19. [Screening and identification of an endophytic fungus from Atractylodes lancea which utilizes volatile oil selectively].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lei; Liu, Fu-yan; Ren, Cheng-gang; Dai, Chuan-chao

    2012-10-01

    In order to transform main active ingredient of volatile oil, endophytic fungi were screened from the root of Atractylodes lancea. Transformation method was used in vitro. The changes of volatile oil were traced by gas chromatography. One endophytic fungus (strain ALG-13) which could uitilize volatile oil selectively was screened. Single factor experiment were conducted for exploring the effects of various factors that including kinds of carbon source, speed, liquid volume, pH and concentration of plant tissue on degradation by this strain. Subsequently, the main affecting factors carbon source, speed, pH and liquid volume were optimized using orthogonal array design. Results showed that endophytic fungus ALG-13 selectively used the volatile oil, change the relative percentage of the main components of volatile oil, Atractylon and Atractydin were increased, While, beta-eudesmol and Atractylol decreased. After selectively degradation by fungus, volatile oil components percentage were closer to the geo-herbs. Strain ALG-13 was identified as Bionectria ochroleuca according to its morphological characteristics and systematic analysis of ITS sequence. The optimal conditions were as follows: sucrose used as carbon source, rotating speed was 200 r x min(-1), initial pH for medium was 4.5, 50 mL liquid was added in 250 mL flask. The endophytic fungus ALG-13 could degrade the volatile oil selectively, which was benefit for forming geoherbs A. lancea volatile oil composition.

  20. Genetic aspects of ash dieback caused by the pathogenic fungus Chalara fraxinea on Fraxinus excelsior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKinney, Lea Vig

    ). This thesis comprises five papers that aim to contribute to the knowledge on the interaction between the pathogen and its host and the inherent natural resistance found within the host species. Paper I reviews the current literature on the aetiology of the fungus, the epidemic and its consequences...

  1. Selection of reference genes for expression analysis in the entomophthoralean fungus Pandora neoaphidis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Chun; Xie, Tingna; Ye, Sudan;

    2016-01-01

    The selection of suitable reference genes is crucial for accurate quantification of gene expres-sion and can add to our understanding of host–pathogen interactions. To identify suitablereference genes in Pandora neoaphidis, an obligate aphid pathogenic fungus, the expressionof three traditional...

  2. Bacterial community composition and diversity in an ancestral ant fungus symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellner, Katrin; Ishak, Heather D; Linksvayer, Timothy A; Mueller, Ulrich G

    2015-07-01

    Fungus-farming ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae, Attini) exhibit some of the most complex microbial symbioses because both macroscopic partners (ants and fungus) are associated with a rich community of microorganisms. The ant and fungal microbiomes are thought to serve important beneficial nutritional and defensive roles in these symbioses. While most recent research has investigated the bacterial communities in the higher attines (e.g. the leaf-cutter ant genera Atta and Acromyrmex), which are often associated with antibiotic-producing Actinobacteria, very little is known about the microbial communities in basal lineages, labeled as 'lower attines', which retain the ancestral traits of smaller and more simple societies. In this study, we used 16S amplicon pyrosequencing to characterize bacterial communities of the lower attine ant Mycocepurus smithii among seven sampling sites in central Panama. We discovered that ant and fungus garden-associated microbiota were distinct from surrounding soil, but unlike the situation in the derived fungus-gardening ants, which show distinct ant and fungal microbiomes, microbial community structure of the ants and their fungi were similar. Another surprising finding was that the abundance of actinomycete bacteria was low and instead, these symbioses were characterized by an abundance of Lactobacillus and Pantoea bacteria. Furthermore, our data indicate that Lactobacillus strains are acquired from the environment rather than acquired vertically.

  3. Biodegradation of pentachlorophenol by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium (1988)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extensive biodegradation of pentachlorophenol (PCP) by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium was demonstrated by the disappearance and mineralization of [14C]PCP in nutrient nitrogen-limited culture. Mass balance analyses demonstrated the formation of water-soluble met...

  4. Infection of adult Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes with the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholte, E.J.; Takken, W.; Knols, B.G.J.

    2007-01-01

    This study describes a laboratory investigation on the use of the insect-pathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae against adult Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes. At a dosage of 1.6 × 1010 conidia/m2, applied on material that served as a mosquito resting site, an average of 87.1 ± 2.65% of

  5. Extracellular biosynthesis of functionalized silver nanoparticles by strains of Cladosporium cladosporioides fungus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balaji, D. S.; Basavaraja, S.; Deshpande, R.; Mahesh, D. Bedre; Prabhakar, B. K.; Venkataraman, A.

    2009-01-01

    In the present investigation, we report the extracellular biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNP) employing the fungus Cladosporium cladosporioides. The extracellular solution of C. cladosporioides was used for the reduction of AgNO(3) solution to AgNP. The present study includes time dependent

  6. Treatment of a textile effluent from dyeing with cochineal extracts using Trametes versicolor fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo-Figueroa, Gabriela; Ruiz-Aguilar, Graciela M L; López-Martínez, Leticia; González-Sánchez, Guillermo; Cuevas-Rodríguez, Germán; Rodríguez-Vázquez, Refugio

    2011-05-05

    Trametes versicolor (Tv) fungus can degrade synthetic dyes that contain azo groups, anthraquinone, triphenylmethane polymers, and heterocyclic groups. However, no references have been found related to the degradation of natural dyes, such as the carminic acid that is contained in the cochineal extract. Experiments to determine the decolorization of the effluent used in the cotton dyeing process with cochineal extract by means of Tv fungus were done. Treatments to determine decolorization in the presence or absence of Kirk's medium, glucose, and fungus, with an addition of 50% (v v-1) of nonsterilized effluent were performed. Physicochemical characterization was performed at the start and end of the treatment. Degradation kinetics were determined. A direct relationship was found between the dry weight of fungi, pH, and the decolorization system, with higher decolorization at lower pH levels (pH ~4.3). High decolorization (81% ± 0.09; 88% ± 0.17; and 99% ± 0.04) for three of the eight treatments (Kirk's medium without glucose, Kirk's medium with glucose, and without medium with glucose, respectively) was found. Toxicity tests determined an increase in the initial effluent toxicity (7.33 TU) compared with the final treatment (47.73 TU) in a period of 11 days. For this system, a degradation sequence of the carminic acid structure present in the effluent by the Tv fungus is suggested, in which it is seen that metabolites still containing aromatic structures are generated.

  7. Isolation and identification of nematode-antagonistic compounds from the fungus Aspergillus candidus

    Science.gov (United States)

    An isolate of the fungus Aspergillus candidus was tested for production of nematicidal compounds. Adults of the nematode Ditylenchus destructor were completely inactive after 24 hr exposure to soy medium in which A. candidus was cultured. Column, thin layer and preparative chromatographies, and spec...

  8. Draft Genome Sequence of Sclerotinia borealis, a Psychrophilic Plant Pathogenic Fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardanov, Andrey V; Beletsky, Alexey V; Kadnikov, Vitaly V; Ignatov, Alexander N; Ravin, Nikolai V

    2014-01-23

    Sclerotinia borealis is a necrotrophic phytopathogenic fungus notable for its wide host range and environmental persistence. It grows at low temperatures, causing snow mold disease of crop plants. To understand the molecular mechanisms of its pathogenesis and adaptation to the psychrophilic lifestyle, we determined the 39.3-Mb draft genome sequence of S. borealis F-4128.

  9. Draft genome sequence of a strain of cosmopolitan fungus Trichoderma atroviride

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shi-Kunne, X.; Seidl, M.F.; Faino, L.; Thomma, B.P.H.J.

    2015-01-01

    An unknown fungus has been isolated as a contaminant of in vitro-grown fungal cultures. In an attempt to identify the contamination, we isolated the causal agent and performed whole-genome sequencing. BLAST analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence against the NCBI database showed 1

  10. Draft Genome Sequence of the Ant-associated Fungus Phialophora attae (CBS 131958)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Hoog, S.

    2015-01-01

    The black yeast Phialophora attae was isolated from the cuticle of tropical ant gynes. The ant-fungus association is sustained due to symbiotic evolutionary adaptations that allow fungal assimilation and tolerance of toxic compounds produced by the ant. The genome sequence of the first ant-associate

  11. Identifying the core microbial community in the gut of fungus-growing termites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otan, Saria; Mikaelyan, Aram; Nobre, Tânia

    2014-01-01

    with specific termite genus-level ecological niches. Finally, we show that gut communities of fungus-growing termites are similar to cockroaches, both at the bacterial phylum level and in a comparison of the core Macrotermitinae taxa abundances with representative cockroach, lower termite, and higher non...

  12. Caste-specific symbiont policing by workers of Acromyrmex fungus-growing ants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ivens, Aniek B. F.; Nash, David R.; Poulsen, Michael; Boomsma, Jacobus J.

    2009-01-01

    The interaction between leaf-cutting ants and their fungus garden mutualists is ideal for studying the evolutionary stability of interspecific cooperation. Although the mutualism has a long history of diffuse coevolution, there is ample potential for conflicts between the partners over the mixing an

  13. BIOTRANSFORMATION OF 2,4,6-TRINITROTOLUENE (TNT) BY A PLANT-ASSOCIATED FUNGUS FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The capability of a plant-associated fungus, Fusarium oxyvorum, to transform TNT in liquid cultures was investigated. TNT was transformed into 2-amino-4, 6-dinitrotoluene (2-A-DNT), 4-amino-2, 6-dinitrotoluene (4-A- DNT), and 2, 4-diamino-6-nitrotoluene (2, 4-DAT) via 2- and 4-hy...

  14. Bacterium induces cryptic meroterpenoid pathway in the pathogenic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Claudia C; Scherlach, Kirstin; Schroeckh, Volker; Horn, Fabian; Nietzsche, Sandor; Brakhage, Axel A; Hertweck, Christian

    2013-05-27

    Stimulating encounter: The intimate, physical interaction between the soil-derived bacterium Streptomyces rapamycinicus and the human pathogenic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus led to the activation of an otherwise silent polyketide synthase (PKS) gene cluster coding for an unusual prenylated polyphenol (fumicycline A). The meroterpenoid pathway is regulated by a pathway-specific activator gene as well as by epigenetic factors.

  15. Biological pretreatment of corn stover with white-rot fungus for improved enzymatic hydrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biological pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass by white-rot fungus can represent a low-cost and eco-friendly alternative to harsh physical, chemical or physico-chemical pretreatment methods to facilitate enzymatic hydrolysis. However, fungal pretreatment can cause carbohydrate loss and it is, th...

  16. Identifying the Transition between Single and Multiple Mating of Queens in Fungus-Growing Ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villesen, Palle; Murakami, Takahiro; Schultz, Ted R.

    2002-01-01

    Obligate mating of females (queens) with multiple males has evolved only rarely in social Hymenoptera (ants, social bees, social wasps) and for reasons that are fundamentally different from those underlying multiple mating in other animals. The monophyletic tribe of ('attine') fungus-growing ants...

  17. Identifying the transition between single and multiple mating of queens in fungus-growing ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villesen, Palle; Murakami, Takahiro; Schultz, Ted R

    2002-01-01

    Obligate mating of females (queens) with multiple males has evolved only rarely in social Hymenoptera (ants, social bees, social wasps) and for reasons that are fundamentally different from those underlying multiple mating in other animals. The monophyletic tribe of ('attine') fungus-growing ants...

  18. Presumptive horizontal symbiont transmission in the fungus-growing termite Macrotermes natalensis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Fine Licht, Henrik Hjarvard; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan; Aanen, Duur Kornelis

    2006-01-01

    All colonies of the fungus-growing termite Macrotermes natalensis studied so far are associated with a single genetically variable lineage of Termitomyces symbionts. Such limited genetic variation of symbionts and the absence of sexual fruiting bodies (mushrooms) on M. natalensis mounds would...

  19. Aspiperidine oxide, a piperidine N-oxide from the filamentous fungus Aspergillus indologenus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lene Maj; Kildgaard, Sara; Jaspars, Marcel;

    2015-01-01

    A novel secondary metabolite, aspiperidine oxide, was isolated from the filamentous fungus, Aspergillus indologenus. The structure of aspiperidine oxide was determined from extensive 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic analysis supported by high-resolution mass spectrometry. The structure revealed a rare...

  20. Laccase detoxification mediates the nutritional alliance between leaf-cutting ants and fungus-garden symbionts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Fine Licht, Henrik; Schiøtt, Morten; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina

    2013-01-01

    on the leaf pulp that the ants add to their gardens. This accurate deposition ensures that laccase activity is highest where new leaf material enters the fungus garden, but where fungal mycelium is too sparse to produce extracellular enzymes in sufficient quantities to detoxify phenolic compounds...

  1. Greater taxol yield of fungus Pestalotiopsis hainanensis from dermatitic scurf of the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yu; Wang, Yanlin; Ma, Xiaoping; Wang, Chengdong; Yue, Guizhou; Zhang, Yuetian; Zhang, Yunyan; Li, Shanshan; Ling, Shanshan; Liu, Xiaomin; Wen, Xintian; Cao, Sanjie; Huang, Xiaobo; Deng, Junliang; Zuo, Zhicai; Yu, Shumin; Shen, Liuhong; Wu, Rui

    2015-01-01

    While taxol yields of fungi from non-animal sources are still low, whether Pestalotiopsis hainanensis isolated from the scurf of a dermatitic giant panda, Ailuropoda melanoleuca, provides a greater taxol yield remains unknown. The objective of the study was to determine the corresponding taxol yield. The structure of the taxol produced by the fungus was evaluated by thin layer chromatography (TLC), ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopy, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-NMR and (13)C-NMR), and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS), with standard taxol as a control. The results demonstrated that the P. hainanensis fungus produced taxol, which had the same structure as the standard taxol and yield of 1,466.87 μg/L. This fungal taxol yield from the dermatitic giant panda was significantly greater than those of fungus from non-animal sources. The taxol-producing fungus may be a potential candidate for the production of taxol on an industrial scale.

  2. Phellinstatin, a new inhibitor of enoyl-ACP reductase produced by the medicinal fungus Phellinus linteus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jun-Young; Kwon, Yun-Ju; Sohn, Mi-Jin; Seok, Soon-Ja; Kim, Won-Gon

    2011-03-15

    A new trimeric hispidin derivative, phellinstatin, was isolated from a culture broth of the medicinal fungus Phellinus linteus and its structure was established by various spectral analysis. Phellinstatin strongly inhibited Staphylococcus aureus enoyl-ACP reductase with an IC(50) of 6 μM and also showed antibacterial activity against S. aureus and MRSA.

  3. High Symbiont Relatedness Stabilizes Mutualistic Cooperation in Fungus-Growing Termites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanen, Duur K; de Fine Licht, Henrik H; Debets, Alfons J M

    2009-01-01

    of spore production in proportion to strain frequency. This positive reinforcement results in an exclusive lifetime association of each host colony with a single fungal symbiont and hinders the evolution of cheating. Our findings explain why vertical symbiont transmission in fungus-growing termites is rare...

  4. Solubilization of animal bonechar by a filamentous fungus employed in solid state fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nikolay, Vassilev; Medina, A.; Gilberto, Mendes; Antonia, Galvez; Vanessa, Martos; Maria, Vassileva

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Experts are concerned by the scarcity of rock phosphate and the vulnerability of the modern agricultural systems which is highly dependent on the existing fertilizer industry based exclusively of this natural, finite, non-renewable resource. In this work, the filamentous fungus Aspergillus

  5. Strains of the soil fungus Mortierella show different degradation potentials for the phenylurea herbicide diuron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard-Jensen, Lea; Aamand, Jens; Kragelund, Birthe Brandt;

    2013-01-01

    Microbial pesticide degradation studies have until now mainly focused on bacteria, although fungi have also been shown to degrade pesticides. In this study we clarify the background for the ability of the common soil fungus Mortierella to degrade the phenylurea herbicide diuron. Diuron degradation...

  6. Mechanism of antibacterial activity of the white-rot fungus Hypholoma fasciculare colonizing wood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Boer, W.; Folman, L.B.; Klein Gunnewiek, P.J.A.; Svensson, T.; Bastviken, D.; Oberg, G.; Del Rio, J.C.; Boddy, L.

    2010-01-01

    In a previous study it was shown that the number of wood-inhabiting bacteria was drastically reduced after colonization of beech (Fagus sylvatica) wood blocks by the white-rot fungus Hypholoma fasciculare, or sulfur tuft (Folman et al. 2008). Here we report on the mechanisms of this fungal-induced a

  7. Amphibians acquire resistance to live and dead fungus overcoming fungal immunosuppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Taegan A; Sears, Brittany F; Venesky, Matthew D; Bessler, Scott M; Brown, Jenise M; Deutsch, Kaitlin; Halstead, Neal T; Lentz, Garrett; Tenouri, Nadia; Young, Suzanne; Civitello, David J; Ortega, Nicole; Fites, J Scott; Reinert, Laura K; Rollins-Smith, Louise A; Raffel, Thomas R; Rohr, Jason R

    2014-07-10

    Emerging fungal pathogens pose a greater threat to biodiversity than any other parasitic group, causing declines of many taxa, including bats, corals, bees, snakes and amphibians. Currently, there is little evidence that wild animals can acquire resistance to these pathogens. Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis is a pathogenic fungus implicated in the recent global decline of amphibians. Here we demonstrate that three species of amphibians can acquire behavioural or immunological resistance to B. dendrobatidis. Frogs learned to avoid the fungus after just one B. dendrobatidis exposure and temperature-induced clearance. In subsequent experiments in which B. dendrobatidis avoidance was prevented, the number of previous exposures was a negative predictor of B. dendrobatidis burden on frogs and B. dendrobatidis-induced mortality, and was a positive predictor of lymphocyte abundance and proliferation. These results suggest that amphibians can acquire immunity to B. dendrobatidis that overcomes pathogen-induced immunosuppression and increases their survival. Importantly, exposure to dead fungus induced a similar magnitude of acquired resistance as exposure to live fungus. Exposure of frogs to B. dendrobatidis antigens might offer a practical way to protect pathogen-naive amphibians and facilitate the reintroduction of amphibians to locations in the wild where B. dendrobatidis persists. Moreover, given the conserved nature of vertebrate immune responses to fungi and the fact that many animals are capable of learning to avoid natural enemies, these results offer hope that other wild animal taxa threatened by invasive fungi might be rescued by management approaches based on herd immunity.

  8. Optimization of manganese peroxidase production by the white rot fungus Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mester, T.; Field, J.A.

    1997-01-01

    Manganese dependent peroxidase (MnP) is the most ubiquitous peroxidase produced by white rot fungi. MnP is known to be involved in lignin degradation, biobleaching and in the oxidation of hazardous organopollutants. Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55 is a nitrogen-unregulated white rot fungus which produc

  9. Draft Genome Sequence of Sorghum Grain Mold Fungus Epicoccum sorghinum, a Producer of Tenuazonic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Rodrigo C.; Davenport, Karen W.; Hovde, Blake; Silva, Danielle; Chain, Patrick S. G.; Correa, Benedito

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The facultative plant pathogen Epicoccum sorghinum is associated with grain mold of sorghum and produces the mycotoxin tenuazonic acid. This fungus can have serious economic impact on sorghum production. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of E. sorghinum (USPMTOX48). PMID:28126937

  10. Growth characteristics of the thermophilic fungus Scytalidium thermophilum in relation to production of mushroom compost.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegant, W.M.

    1992-01-01

    Scytalidium thermophilum is an important thermophilic fungus in the production of mushroom compost. I investigated the characteristics of this organism and present a simple model with which fungal growth in compost can be described. The model is used to predict better circumstances for rapid indoor

  11. Using copper sulfate on hybrid striped bass eggs to control fungus and increase survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    A major obstacle in fish hatcheries is the inevitable fungal growth on eggs. Copper sulfate (CuSO4) is commonly used for fungus control in channel catfish hatcheries that use troughs, but effectiveness on fish eggs hatched using different systems has only recently been investigated. Fish were spawn...

  12. The potential application of fungus Trichoderma harzianum Rifai in biodegradation of detergent and industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakovljević Violeta D.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential application of fungus Trichoderma harzianum Rifai in biodegradation of commercial detergent (MERIX, Henkel, Serbia was in the focus of this study. The fungus was isolated from wastewater samples of the Rasina River, downstream where the industrial wastewaters of factory Henkel (Krusevac, Serbia discharge into river. The fungus was cultivated in liquid growth medium by Czapek with addition of detergent at a concentration of 0.3% during 16 days. Analysis of fermentation broth evaluated the chemical and biochemical changes of pH, redox potential, activity of alkaline and acid invertase as well as activity of alkaline protease. In addition, the influence of detergent on fungal growth and total dry weight biomass was determined. At the same time, detergent disappearance in terms of methylene blue active substances in the medium was measured. The detergent at a concentration of 0.3% influenced significant decrease of pH value and increase of redox potential. The detergent showed inhibitory effect on acid invertase activity and stimulatory effect on alkaline invertase and protease activity. The fungus decomposed about 74.24% of tested detergent during 16 days, but total dry weight biomass reduced about 20% in relation to control. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 43004

  13. Two New Alkaloids from a Marine-derived Fungus Neosartorya fischeri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Wu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of EtOAc extract from the fermentation broth of the fungus Neosartorya fischeri led to the isolation of two novel alkaloids and one known compound with antitumor activity against HL-60 cell lines. Their structures were elucidated mainly by NMR and HR-TOF-MS, as well as on comparison with the reported data.

  14. Entomopathogenicity and Biological Attributes of Himalayan Treasured Fungus Ophiocordyceps sinensis (Yarsagumba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bikash Baral

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Members of the entomophagous fungi are considered very crucial in the fungal domain relative to their natural phenomenon and economic perspectives; however, inadequate knowledge of their mechanisms of interaction keeps them lagging behind in parallel studies of fungi associated with agro-ecology, forest pathology and medical biology. Ophiocordyceps sinensis (syn. Cordyceps sinensis, an intricate fungus-caterpillar complex after it parasitizes the larva of the moth, is a highly prized medicinal fungus known widely for ages due to its peculiar biochemical assets. Recent technological innovations have significantly contributed a great deal to profiling the variable clinical importance of this fungus and other related fungi with similar medicinal potential. However, a detailed mechanism behind fungal pathogenicity and fungal-insect interactions seems rather ambiguous and is poorly justified, demanding special attention. The goal of the present review is to divulge an update on the published data and provides promising insights on different biological events that have remained underemphasized in previous reviews on fungal biology with relation to life-history trade-offs, host specialization and selection pressures. The infection of larvae by a fungus is not a unique event in Cordyceps; hence, other fungal species are also reviewed for effective comparison. Conceivably, the rationale and approaches behind the inheritance of pharmacological abilities acquired and stored within the insect framework at a time when they are completely hijacked and consumed by fungal parasites, and the molecular mechanisms involved therein, are clearly documented.

  15. Two New Cerebrosides and Anthraquinone Derivatives from the Marine Fungus Aspergillus niger

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Zu-Jian; OUYANG Ming-An; SU Ren-Kuan; KUO Yueh-Hsiung

    2008-01-01

    Two new cerebrosides, asperiamide B (1) and C (2), and two known aflatoxins, averufin and nidurufin, have been isolated from a Quanzhou marine fungus Aspergillus niger (MF-16), and the structures were elucidated by spectroscopic data and chemical means. Among the compounds 5 and 6 showed moderate activities in inhibiting multiplication of the Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV).

  16. Plasticizers increase adhesion of the deteriogenic fungus Aureobasidium pullulans to polyvinyl chloride

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Webb, JS; Van der Mei, HC; Nixon, M; Eastwood, IM; Greenhalgh, M; Read, SJ; Robson, GD; Handley, PS

    1999-01-01

    Initial adhesion of fungi to plasticized polyvinyl chloride (pPVC) may determine subsequent colonization and biodeterioration processes. The deteriogenic fungus Aureobasidium pullulans was used to investigate the physicochemical nature of adhesion to both unplasticized PVC (uPVC) and pPVC containing

  17. Light-mediated control of gene expression in filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Shi, Xiang-Yu; Wei, Dong-Zhi

    2014-08-01

    We developed a light-mediated system based on synthetic light-switchable transactivators. The transactivators bind promoter upon blue-light exposure and rapidly initiate transcription of target transgenes in filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei. Light is inexpensive to apply, easily delivered, and instantly removed, and thus has significant advantages over chemical inducers.

  18. Report membrane transport of lactic acid in the filamentous fungus Rhizopus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fungus Rhizopus is frequently used for fermentative production of lactic acid, but little is known about the mechanisms or proteins for transporting this carboxylic acid. Since transport of the lactate anion across the plasma membrane is critical to prevent acidification of the cytoplasm, we ev...

  19. Strategies for durable resistance to the grapevine powdery mildew fungus, Erysiphe necator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nearly all cultivars of Vitis vinifera are highly susceptible to the grapevine powdery mildew fungus, Erysiphe necator. Grape breeders around the world are working to introgress resistance from wild Vitis. Of the widely-used introgressions, most involve dominant, race-specific resistance phenotype...

  20. Treatment of a Textile Effluent from Dyeing with Cochineal Extracts Using Trametes versicolor Fungus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Arroyo-Figueroa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Trametes versicolor (Tv fungus can degrade synthetic dyes that contain azo groups, anthraquinone, triphenylmethane polymers, and heterocyclic groups. However, no references have been found related to the degradation of natural dyes, such as the carminic acid that is contained in the cochineal extract. Experiments to determine the decolorization of the effluent used in the cotton dyeing process with cochineal extract by means of Tv fungus were done. Treatments to determine decolorization in the presence or absence of Kirk's medium, glucose, and fungus, with an addition of 50% (v v-1 of nonsterilized effluent were performed. Physicochemical characterization was performed at the start and end of the treatment. Degradation kinetics were determined. A direct relationship was found between the dry weight of fungi, pH, and the decolorization system, with higher decolorization at lower pH levels (pH ~4.3. High decolorization (81% ± 0.09; 88% ± 0.17; and 99% ± 0.04 for three of the eight treatments (Kirk's medium without glucose, Kirk's medium with glucose, and without medium with glucose, respectively was found. Toxicity tests determined an increase in the initial effluent toxicity (7.33 TU compared with the final treatment (47.73 TU in a period of 11 days. For this system, a degradation sequence of the carminic acid structure present in the effluent by the Tv fungus is suggested, in which it is seen that metabolites still containing aromatic structures are generated.

  1. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of the white-rot fungus Physisporinus vitreus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, M; Stührk, C; Fuhr, M J; Schwarze, F W M R

    2013-11-01

    The biotechnologically important white-rot fungus Physisporinus vitreus was co-cultivated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens AGL-1 carrying plasmids with nourseothricin resistance as the selectable marker gene and red fluorescence protein as a visual marker. Mitotically stable transformed isolates were obtained showing red fluorescence protein activity.

  2. A novel norsesquiterpene alkaloid from the mushroom-forming fungus Flammulina velutipes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen-Yu Xu; Zhi-Ang Wu; Kai-Shun Bi

    2013-01-01

    A new norsesquiterpe alkaloid (1) was isolated from the solid culture of mushroom-forming fungus Flammulina velutipes fermented on rice.The structure of 1 was elucidated by spectroscopic methods.The absolute configuration of C-1 in 1 was determined using the circular dichroism data of their [Rh2(OCOCF3)4] complex.

  3. A Lipoxygenase Pathway Is Activated in Rice after Infection with the Rice Blast Fungus Magnaporthe grisea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, H; Shida, K; Peng, Y L; Furusawa, I; Shishiyama, J; Aibara, S; Morita, Y

    1991-09-01

    Lipoxygenase (LOX) and lipid hydroperoxide-decomposing activity (LHDA) markedly increased in the fifth leaves of rice (Oryza sativa cv Aichiasahi) after infection with the rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe grisea. The increases in the enzyme activities were significantly higher in response to infection with an incompatible strain (race 131) compared with infection with a compatible strain (race 007) of the fungus. Using ion-exchange chromatography, we isolated three LOX activities (leaf LOX-1, -2, -3) from both uninoculated and infected leaves. The activity of leaf LOX-3, in particular, increased in the incompatible race-infected leaves. The leaf LOX-3 had a pH optimum of 5.0 and produced preferentially 13-l-hydroperoxy-9,11 (Z,E)-octadecadienoic acid (13-HPODD) from linoleic acid. 13-HPODD and 13-l-hydroxy-9,11 (Z,E)-octadecadienoic acid, one of the reaction products from 13-HPODD by LHDA, were highly inhibitory to the germination of conidia of the fungus. The present study provides correlative evidence for important roles of LOX and LHDA in the resistance response of rice against the blast fungus.

  4. SnoRNAs from the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa: structural, functional and evolutionary insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Chun-Long

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background SnoRNAs represent an excellent model for studying the structural and functional evolution of small non-coding RNAs involved in the post-transcriptional modification machinery for rRNAs and snRNAs in eukaryotic cells. Identification of snoRNAs from Neurospora crassa, an important model organism playing key roles in the development of modern genetics, biochemistry and molecular biology will provide insights into the evolution of snoRNA genes in the fungus kingdom. Results Fifty five box C/D snoRNAs were identified and predicted to guide 71 2'-O-methylated sites including four sites on snRNAs and three sites on tRNAs. Additionally, twenty box H/ACA snoRNAs, which potentially guide 17 pseudouridylations on rRNAs, were also identified. Although not exhaustive, the study provides the first comprehensive list of two major families of snoRNAs from the filamentous fungus N. crassa. The independently transcribed strategy dominates in the expression of box H/ACA snoRNA genes, whereas most of the box C/D snoRNA genes are intron-encoded. This shows that different genomic organizations and expression modes have been adopted by the two major classes of snoRNA genes in N. crassa . Remarkably, five gene clusters represent an outstanding organization of box C/D snoRNA genes, which are well conserved among yeasts and multicellular fungi, implying their functional importance for the fungus cells. Interestingly, alternative splicing events were found in the expression of two polycistronic snoRNA gene hosts that resemble the UHG-like genes in mammals. Phylogenetic analysis further revealed that the extensive separation and recombination of two functional elements of snoRNA genes has occurred during fungus evolution. Conclusion This is the first genome-wide analysis of the filamentous fungus N. crassa snoRNAs that aids in understanding the differences between unicellular fungi and multicellular fungi. As compared with two yeasts, a more complex

  5. Impact of climate change on potential distribution of Chinese caterpillar fungus (Ophiocordyceps sinensis in Nepal Himalaya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uttam Babu Shrestha

    Full Text Available Climate change has already impacted ecosystems and species and substantial impacts of climate change in the future are expected. Species distribution modeling is widely used to map the current potential distribution of species as well as to model the impact of future climate change on distribution of species. Mapping current distribution is useful for conservation planning and understanding the change in distribution impacted by climate change is important for mitigation of future biodiversity losses. However, the current distribution of Chinese caterpillar fungus, a flagship species of the Himalaya with very high economic value, is unknown. Nor do we know the potential changes in suitable habitat of Chinese caterpillar fungus caused by future climate change. We used MaxEnt modeling to predict current distribution and changes in the future distributions of Chinese caterpillar fungus in three future climate change trajectories based on representative concentration pathways (RCPs: RCP 2.6, RCP 4.5, and RCP 6.0 in three different time periods (2030, 2050, and 2070 using species occurrence points, bioclimatic variables, and altitude. About 6.02% (8,989 km2 area of the Nepal Himalaya is suitable for Chinese caterpillar fungus habitat. Our model showed that across all future climate change trajectories over three different time periods, the area of predicted suitable habitat of Chinese caterpillar fungus would expand, with 0.11-4.87% expansion over current suitable habitat. Depending upon the representative concentration pathways, we observed both increase and decrease in average elevation of the suitable habitat range of the species.

  6. Impact of climate change on potential distribution of Chinese caterpillar fungus (Ophiocordyceps sinensis) in Nepal Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Uttam Babu; Bawa, Kamaljit S

    2014-01-01

    Climate change has already impacted ecosystems and species and substantial impacts of climate change in the future are expected. Species distribution modeling is widely used to map the current potential distribution of species as well as to model the impact of future climate change on distribution of species. Mapping current distribution is useful for conservation planning and understanding the change in distribution impacted by climate change is important for mitigation of future biodiversity losses. However, the current distribution of Chinese caterpillar fungus, a flagship species of the Himalaya with very high economic value, is unknown. Nor do we know the potential changes in suitable habitat of Chinese caterpillar fungus caused by future climate change. We used MaxEnt modeling to predict current distribution and changes in the future distributions of Chinese caterpillar fungus in three future climate change trajectories based on representative concentration pathways (RCPs: RCP 2.6, RCP 4.5, and RCP 6.0) in three different time periods (2030, 2050, and 2070) using species occurrence points, bioclimatic variables, and altitude. About 6.02% (8,989 km2) area of the Nepal Himalaya is suitable for Chinese caterpillar fungus habitat. Our model showed that across all future climate change trajectories over three different time periods, the area of predicted suitable habitat of Chinese caterpillar fungus would expand, with 0.11-4.87% expansion over current suitable habitat. Depending upon the representative concentration pathways, we observed both increase and decrease in average elevation of the suitable habitat range of the species.

  7. Increasing incidence of Geomyces destructans fungus in bats from the Czech Republic and Slovakia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Martínková

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: White-nose syndrome is a disease of hibernating insectivorous bats associated with the fungus Geomyces destructans. It first appeared in North America in 2006, where over a million bats died since then. In Europe, G. destructans was first identified in France in 2009. Its distribution, infection dynamics, and effects on hibernating bats in Europe are largely unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We screened hibernacula in the Czech Republic and Slovakia for the presence of the fungus during the winter seasons of 2008/2009 and 2009/2010. In winter 2009/2010, we found infected bats in 76 out of 98 surveyed sites, in which the majority had been previously negative. A photographic record of over 6000 hibernating bats, taken since 1994, revealed bats with fungal growths since 1995; however, the incidence of such bats increased in Myotis myotis from 2% in 2007 to 14% by 2010. Microscopic, cultivation and molecular genetic evaluations confirmed the identity of the recently sampled fungus as G. destructans, and demonstrated its continuous distribution in the studied area. At the end of the hibernation season we recorded pathologic changes in the skin of the affected bats, from which the fungus was isolated. We registered no mass mortality caused by the fungus, and the recorded population decline in the last two years of the most affected species, M. myotis, is within the population trend prediction interval. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: G. destructans was found to be widespread in the Czech Republic and Slovakia, with an epizootic incidence in bats during the most recent years. Further development of the situation urgently requires a detailed pan-European monitoring scheme.

  8. Microbial community analysis in the termite gut and fungus comb of Odontotermes formosanus: the implication of Bacillus as mutualists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Gincy Marina; Ju, Yu-Ming; Lai, Chi-Yung; Mathew, Dony Chacko; Huang, Chieh Chen

    2012-02-01

    The microbial communities harbored in the gut and fungus comb of the fungus-growing termite Odontotermes formosanus were analyzed by both culture-dependent and culture-independent methods to better understand the community structure of their microflora. The microorganisms detected by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), clonal selection, and culture-dependent methods were hypothesized to contribute to cellulose-hemicellulose hydrolysis, gut fermentation, nutrient production, the breakdown of the fungus comb and the initiation of the growth of the symbiotic fungus Termitomyces. The predominant bacterial cultivars isolated by the cultural approach belonged to the genus Bacillus (Phylum Firmicutes). Apart from their function in lignocellulosic degradation, the Bacillus isolates suppressed the growth of the microfungus Trichoderma harzianum (genus Hypocrea), which grew voraciously on the fungus comb in the absence of termites but grew in harmony with the symbiotic fungus Termitomyces. The in vitro studies suggested that the Bacillus sp. may function as mutualists in the termite-gut-fungus-comb microbial ecosystem.

  9. Leaf-cutter ant fungus gardens are biphasic mixed microbial bioreactors that convert plant biomass to polyols with biotechnological applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somera, Alexandre F; Lima, Adriel M; Dos Santos-Neto, Álvaro J; Lanças, Fernando M; Bacci, Maurício

    2015-07-01

    Leaf-cutter ants use plant matter to culture the obligate mutualistic basidiomycete Leucoagaricus gongylophorus. This fungus mediates ant nutrition on plant resources. Furthermore, other microbes living in the fungus garden might also contribute to plant digestion. The fungus garden comprises a young sector with recently incorporated leaf fragments and an old sector with partially digested plant matter. Here, we show that the young and old sectors of the grass-cutter Atta bisphaerica fungus garden operate as a biphasic solid-state mixed fermenting system. An initial plant digestion phase occurred in the young sector in the fungus garden periphery, with prevailing hemicellulose and starch degradation into arabinose, mannose, xylose, and glucose. These products support fast microbial growth but were mostly converted into four polyols. Three polyols, mannitol, arabitol, and inositol, were secreted by L. gongylophorus, and a fourth polyol, sorbitol, was likely secreted by another, unidentified, microbe. A second plant digestion phase occurred in the old sector, located in the fungus garden core, comprising stocks of microbial biomass growing slowly on monosaccharides and polyols. This biphasic operation was efficient in mediating symbiotic nutrition on plant matter: the microbes, accounting for 4% of the fungus garden biomass, converted plant matter biomass into monosaccharides and polyols, which were completely consumed by the resident ants and microbes. However, when consumption was inhibited through laboratory manipulation, most of the plant polysaccharides were degraded, products rapidly accumulated, and yields could be preferentially switched between polyols and monosaccharides. This feature might be useful in biotechnology.

  10. Synthesis of fungus-like MoS2 nanosheets with ultrafast adsorption capacities toward organic dyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, HaoJie; You, Shengsheng; Jia, XiaoHua

    2015-11-01

    Fungus-like molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) nanosheets with a thickness of a few nanometers have been successfully synthesized via one-pot hydrothermal method. The as-prepared MoS2 nanosheets with a high surface area of 106.989 m2 g-1 exhibited excellent wastewater treatment performance with high removal capacities toward organic dyes. In addition, the fungus-like MoS2 nanosheets can absorb Congo red completely within 2 min. Successful access to high quality fungus-like MoS2 nanosheets will make it possible for their potential application in catalysis and other fields.

  11. A new chytridiomycete fungus intermixed with crustacean resting eggs in a 407-million-year-old continental freshwater environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strullu-Derrien, Christine; Gora, Tomasz; Longcore, Joyce E.;

    2016-01-01

    critical insights into fungal-algal interactions and the earliest continental branchiopod crustaceans. Here we report interactions between an enigmatic organism and an exquisitely preserved fungus. The fungal reproductive structures are intermixed with exceptionally well-preserved globular spiny structures...... interpreted as branchiopod resting eggs. Confocal laser scanning microscopy enabled us to reconstruct the fungus and its possible mode of nutrition, the affinity of the resting eggs, and their spatial associations. The new fungus (Cultoraquaticus trewini gen. et sp. nov) is attributed to Chytridiomycota based...

  12. The fungus-growing termite Macrotermes natalensis harbors bacillaene-producing Bacillus sp. that inhibit potentially antagonistic fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Um, Soohyun; Fraimout, Antoine; Sapountzis, Panagiotis

    2013-01-01

    The ancient fungus-growing termite (Mactrotermitinae) symbiosis involves the obligate association between a lineage of higher termites and basidiomycete Termitomyces cultivar fungi. Our investigation of the fungus-growing termite Macrotermes natalensis shows that Bacillus strains from M. natalensis...... have high homology with more than 90% of ORFs being 100% identical, and the sequence identities across the biosynthetic gene cluster for bacillaene are higher between termite-associated strains than to the cluster previously reported in B. subtilis. Our findings suggest that this lineage of antibiotic......-producing Bacillus may be a defensive symbiont involved in the protection of the fungus-growing termite cultivar....

  13. Compatibility of the insect pathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana with neem against sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, on eggplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study on the compatibility of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) with neem was conducted against sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), on eggplant. Initially, three concentrations of B. bassiana (106, 1...

  14. Case report of a ureteral obstruction by Candida albicans fungus balls detected by magnetic resonance imaging in kidney transplant recipient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arichi, Naoko; Yasumoto, Hiroaki; Ogawa, Kohei; Nagami, Taichi; Anjiki, Haruki; Nakamura, Shigenobu; Mitsui, Yozo; Hiraoka, Takeo; Sumura, Masahiro; Shiina, Hiroaki

    2014-12-01

    In kidney transplant recipients, acute renal failure resulting from a ureteral obstruction by fungus balls is uncommon. We report a 60-year-old man diagnosed with ureteral obstruction caused by Candida albicans fungus balls early after transplant. Diagnosis was made by a T2-weighted magnetic resonance image, which demonstrated fungus balls as a low-intensity mass in the pelvis and microscopic examination findings in the urine. The patient was treated successfully with an antifungal agent and direct irrigation. It should be noted that fungus balls may cause ureteral obstruction of transplanted kidneys, possibly resulting in graft failure. Imaging of the kidneys and collecting system and aggressive debridement that adds to systemic therapy are necessary for early diagnosis and are central to a successful outcome.

  15. Benzyl Derivatives with in Vitro Binding Affinity for Human Opioid Receptors and Cannabinoid Receptors from the Fungus Eurotium repens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the fungus Eurotium repens resulted in the isolation of two benzyl derivatives, repenol A (1) and repenol B (2). Seven known secondary metabolites were also isolated including five benzaldehyde compounds, flavoglaucin (3), tetrahydroauroglaucin (4), dihydroauroglauci...

  16. The development of a spatially-explicit, individual-based, disease model for frogs and the chytrid fungus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background / Question / Methods The fungal pathogen, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (BD), has been associated with amphibian population declines and even extinctions worldwide. Transmission of the fungus between amphibian hosts occurs via motile zoospores, which are produced on...

  17. Grafting as a method for studying development in the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silar, Philippe

    2011-08-01

    While grafting and transplant experiments have extensively been used to study development in animals and plants, they have seldom been employed to study fungal development. Here, grafting is used to study the interplay between mycelium and multicellular fruiting bodies during maturation in the model ascomycete Podospora anserina. Data indicate that grafts need a competent mycelium to continue their ripening. Vegetative incompatibility does not prevent transplanted fructifications to undergo development. Grafting onto mutant mycelia confirmed a previous model stating that the NADPH oxidase PaNox1 is required in the developing fruiting bodies, while the MAP kinase cascade PaMpk1 is required in the mycelium. Data also show that the IDC1 protein is required not only in the developing fruiting bodies but also in the mycelium, likely because of its role in anastomosis. Finally, entry inside the grafted fruiting bodies of a ribosomal protein tagged with GFP could be detected, suggesting that cellular components are imported from the underlying mycelium during maturation.

  18. Molecular Mechanisms Regulating Sporulation in the Filamentous Fungus Ashbya gossypii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wasserstrom, Lisa

    Sporulation is a complex developmental program that fungi enter to ensure survival in unfavorable environmental conditions. Many fungal species are able to produce spores sexually through meiosis, which is beneficial since it introduces genetic variability into a population. The sexually reproduc......Sporulation is a complex developmental program that fungi enter to ensure survival in unfavorable environmental conditions. Many fungal species are able to produce spores sexually through meiosis, which is beneficial since it introduces genetic variability into a population. The sexually...... reproducing ascomycete Saccharomyces cerevisiae has a well-defined sexual cycle, in which diploid cells can undergo meiosis and produce haploid spores in response to nutrient starvation. The diploid state is a requirement for meiosis and results from fusion of two haploid cells of the opposite mating type...... negatively instead of controlling mating. In line with this, a mating partner might not be required since the multinucleate compartments could still enable nuclear fusion (karyogamy) and meiosis. The presence of karyogamy is supported by our results that deletion of the A. gossypii homologs Kar3 and Kar4...

  19. Rosalia longicorn Rosalia alpina (LINNAEUS, 1758 (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae as a host of the entomopathogenic fungus Cordyceps bassiana LI, LI, HUANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartnik Czesław

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes, for the first time, the occurrence of the entomopathogenic fungus Cordyceps bassiana (anamorph: Beauveria bassiana on the imago of the endangered beetle Rosalia longicorn Rosalia alpina from the Low Beskid Mountains (the Carpathians, SE Poland. Furthermore, an isolate of the saprotrophic fungus Hypoxylon fragiforme was obtained as a result of laboratory tests on R. alpina specimens. Relationships between the identified fungi and R. alpina are discussed.

  20. Isolation and fusion of protoplasts from the phytopathogenic fungus Sclerotium rolfsii (Sacc.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sikandar Hayat

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Sclerotium rolfsii (Sacc. is a serious plant pathogenic fungus and lacks perfect (basidial stage in production. Protoplast fusion technology was employed to reconstruct fusants from this fungus. Two strains designated as A and R were used. Maximum protoplast yields of 3.8x10(5 /g mycelia and 2.8x10(5 /g mycelia were formed in strains A and R respectively. Osmotic stabilizer sucrose 1M gave maximum yield. Lysing enzyme at the rate of 15mg/ml was found best for yield. Fusion of protoplasts from strains A and R was carried out in fusion media containing PEG 4000 30% (w/v with 0.2mM CaCl2. Four fusants F1, F2, F3 and F4 were recovered. Morphological, physiological and pathogenic characters of fusants were compared with parent strains on carrots, beans and tomato.

  1. Characterisation of ectomycorrhizal formation by the exotic fungus Amanita muscaria with Nothofagus cunninghamii in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunk, Christopher William; Lebel, Teresa; Keane, Philip J

    2012-02-01

    The occurrence of the exotic ectomycorrhizal fungus Amanita muscaria in a mixed Nothofagus-Eucalyptus native forest was investigated to determine if A. muscaria has switched hosts to form a successful association with a native tree species in a natural environment. A mycorrhizal morphotype consistently found beneath A. muscaria sporocarps was examined, and a range of morphological and anatomical characteristics in common with those described for ectomycorrhizae formed by A. muscaria on a broad range of hosts were observed. A full description is provided. The likely plant associate was determined to be Nothofagus cunninghamii based upon anatomy of the roots. Analysis of ITS-1 and ITS-2 regions of nuclear ribosomal DNA sequences confirmed the identities of both fungal and plant associates. These findings represent conclusive evidence of the invasion of a non-indigenous ectomycorrhizal fungus into native forest and highlight the ecological implications of this discovery.

  2. The use of the fungus Dichomitus squalens for degradation in rotating biological contactor conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotný, Ceněk; Trošt, Nina; Šlušla, Martin; Svobodová, Kateřina; Mikesková, Hana; Válková, Hana; Malachová, Kateřina; Pavko, Aleksander

    2012-06-01

    Biodegradation potential of Dichomitus squalens in biofilm cultures and rotating biological contactor (RBC) was investigated. The fungus formed thick biofilms on inert and lignocellulosic supports and exhibited stable activities of laccase and manganese peroxidase to reach 40-62 and 25-32% decolorization of anthraquinone Remazol Brilliant Blue R and heterocyclic phthalocyanine dyes, respectively. The decolorization ceased when glucose concentration dropped to 1 mmol l(-1). In RBC reactor, respective decolorizations of Remazol Brilliant Blue R and heterocyclic Methylene Blue and Azure B dyes (50 mg l(-1)) attained 99%, 93%, and 59% within 7, 40 and 200 h. The fungus exhibited tolerance to coliform and non-coliform bacteria on rich organic media, the inhibition occurred only on media containing tryptone and NaCl. The degradation efficiency in RBC reactor, capability to decolorize a wide range of dye structures and tolerance to bacterial stress make D. squalens an organism applicable to remediation of textile wastewaters.

  3. The complete mitochondrial genome of the acid-tolerant fungus Penicillium ShG4C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey V. Mardanov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Complete mitochondrial genome of the acid-tolerant fungus Penicillium ShG4C, isolated from oxidized sediments of an abandoned polymetallic mine site, has been sequenced using high-throughput sequencing approach. The mitochondrial genome represents a circular DNA molecule with size of 26,725 bp. It encodes a usual set of mitochondrial genes, including 15 protein coding genes, large and small ribosomal RNAs and 27 tRNA genes. All genes are located on H-strand DNA and transcribed in one direction. Taxonomic analysis based on concatenated sequences of mitochondrial proteins confirmed taxonomic position of this fungus within the genus Penicillium. The sequence of the complete mitochondrial genome of Penicillium ShG4C was deposited in DBBJ/EMBL/GenBank under accession number KX931017.

  4. Biological decolourisation of pulp mill effluent using white rot fungus Trametes versicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, S V; Murthy, D V S; Swaminathan, T

    2012-07-01

    The conventional biological treatment methods employed in the pulp and paper industries are not effective in reducing the colour and chemical oxygen demand (COD). The white-rot fungi are reported to have the ability to biodegrade the lignin and its derivatives. This paper is focused on the biological treatment of pulp mill effluent from a bagasse-based pulp and paper industry using fungal treatment. Experiments were conducted using the white rot fungus, Trametes versicolor in shake flasks operated in batch mode with different carbon sources. The decolourisation efficiencies of 82.5% and 80.3% were obtained in the presence of 15 g/L and 5 g/L of glucose and sucrose concentrations respectively with a considerable COD reduction. The possibility of reusing the grown fungus was examined for repeated treatment studies.

  5. Termite-regulated fungal monoculture in fungus combs of a macrotermitine termite Odontotermes formosanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinzato, Naoya; Muramatsu, Mizuho; Watanabe, Yoshio; Matsui, Toru

    2005-08-01

    The mechanism of the exclusive growth of Termitomyces in fungus combs with fungi-growing termites, O. formosanus was examined using laboratory scale fungus combs. In the combs without the termites, vigorous growth of unidentified fungi was observed although no significant change was found in the case of the combs with termites. In addition, these results were reproducible even when incubated in a separated dish, suggesting that the physicochemical conditions were not the reason for the growth. With the molecular based analysis for the microbial communities in the combs, monoculture of the Termitomyces in the combs with termites was confirmed while the bacterial communities were independent either with or without termites. Possible mechanism of the exclusive growth of Termitomyces, such as the selective grazing of pathogenic fungi or contribution of antifungal activity giving actinomycetes were also discussed.

  6. Epigenetic genome mining of an endophytic fungus leads to the pleiotropic biosynthesis of natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xu-Ming; Xu, Wei; Li, Dehai; Yin, Wen-Bing; Chooi, Yit-Heng; Li, Yong-Quan; Tang, Yi; Hu, Youcai

    2015-06-22

    The small-molecule biosynthetic potential of most filamentous fungi has remained largely unexplored and represents an attractive source for the discovery of new compounds. Genome sequencing of Calcarisporium arbuscula, a mushroom-endophytic fungus, revealed 68 core genes that are involved in natural product biosynthesis. This is in sharp contrast to the predominant production of the ATPase inhibitors aurovertin B and D in the wild-type fungus. Inactivation of a histone H3 deacetylase led to pleiotropic activation and overexpression of more than 75 % of the biosynthetic genes. Sampling of the overproduced compounds led to the isolation of ten compounds of which four contained new structures, including the cyclic peptides arbumycin and arbumelin, the diterpenoid arbuscullic acid A, and the meroterpenoid arbuscullic acid B. Such epigenetic modifications therefore provide a rapid and global approach to mine the chemical diversity of endophytic fungi.

  7. Mathematical Modeling on Obligate Mutualism: Interactions between leaf-cutter ants and their fungus garden

    CERN Document Server

    Kang, Yun; Clark, Rebecca; Fewell, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    We propose a simple mathematical model by applying Michaelis-Menton equations of enzyme kinetics to study the mutualistic interaction between the leaf cutter ant and its fungus garden at the early stage of colony expansion. We derive the sufficient conditions on the extinction and coexistence of these two species. In addition, we give a region of initial condition that leads to the extinction of two species when the model has an interior attractor. Our global analysis indicates that the division of labor by workers ants and initial conditions are two important {factors} that determine whether leaf cutter ants colonies and their fungus garden survive and grow can exist or not. We validate the model by doing the comparing between model simulations and data on fungal and ant colony growth rates under laboratory conditions. We perform sensitive analysis and parameter estimation of the model based on the experimental data to gain more biological insights on the ecological interactions between leaf cutter ants and ...

  8. Model Wheat Genotypes as Tools to Uncover Effective Defense Mechanisms Against the Hemibiotrophic Fungus Bipolaris sorokiniana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibeagha, Aloysius Ebelechukwu; Hückelhoven, Ralph; Schäfer, Patrick; Singh, Devendra Pal; Kogel, Karl-Heinz

    2005-05-01

    ABSTRACT We investigated the interaction of several differentially resistant wheatwith the hemibiotrophic phytopathogenic fungus Bipolaris sorokiniana (teleomorph Cochliobolus sativus). Wheat genotypes Yangmai, M 3 (W7976), Shanghai 4, and Chirya 7 showed higher levels of resistancewith cv. Sonalika, used as a susceptible control. In amicroscopic inspection, we found that fungal penetration intoepidermal layer failed mostly through a cell wall-associated defense. In cases where the fungus successfully overcame epidermal, its spread within the mesophyll tissue (necrotrophic phase) wasin the more resistant genotypes. Epidermal cell wall-associated, spreading as well as the extent of electrolyte leakage of infected, correlated well with field resistance. We propose that cellular hostsuch as formation of cell wall appositions as well as the degreeearly mesophyll spreading of fungal hyphae are indicative of thepotential of the respective host genotype and, therefore, could befor the characterization of new spot blotch resistance traits in cereals.

  9. Bioactive secondary metabolites from the endophytic fungus Chaetomium sp. isolated from Salvia officinalis growing in Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebel R.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the chemical investigation and cytotoxic activity of the secondary metabolites produced by the endophytic fungus Chaetomium sp. isolated from Salvia officinalis growing in Morocco. This plant was collected from the Beni-Mellal Mountain in Morocco and belongs to the Lamiaceae family and is named in Morocco “Salmia”. The endophytic fungus Chaetomium sp. was isolated from the tissues of the stem of this plant. The fungal strain was identified by PCR. The crude organic extract of the fungal strain was proven to be active when tested for cytotoxicity against L5178Y mouse lymphoma cells. Chemical investigation of the secondary metabolites showed that cochliodinol is the main component beside isocochliodinol. The structures of the isolated compounds were determined on the basis of NMR analysis (1H, 13C, COSY and HMBC as well as by mass spectrometry using ESI (Electron Spray Ionisation as source.

  10. Unraveling the Secondary Metabolism of the Biotechnological Important Filamentous Fungus Trichoderma reesei ( Teleomorph Hypocrea jecorina)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Mikael Skaanning

    and they therefore constitute one of the most important sources for pharmaceuticals; including drugs for treatment of infections, for lowering of the cholesterol level in the bloodstream and for minimizing undesirable immune responses. The primary objective of this study was to gain more knowledge about the genetic......The filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei (teleomorph Hypocrea jecorina) is one of the most important industrial production organisms, owing to its highly efficient (hemi-)cellulase synthesis and secretion machineries. These enzymes, which in nature allow the fungus to utilize energy bound...... mechanisms leading to biosynthesis of two of the most prominent types of secondary metabolites produced by T. reesei, polyketides and non-ribosomal peptides. Since the molecular tools for T. reesei are not as well-developed as for many other species, the study was initiated with creation of new genetic tools...

  11. Nickel oxide nanoparticles film produced by dead biomass of filamentous fungus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvadori, Marcia Regina; Nascimento, Cláudio Augusto Oller; Corrêa, Benedito

    2014-09-01

    The synthesis of nickel oxide nanoparticles in film form using dead biomass of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus aculeatus as reducing agent represents an environmentally friendly nanotechnological innovation. The optimal conditions and the capacity of dead biomass to uptake and produce nanoparticles were evaluated by analyzing the biosorption of nickel by the fungus. The structural characteristics of the film-forming nickel oxide nanoparticles were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). These techniques showed that the nickel oxide nanoparticles had a size of about 5.89 nm and were involved in a protein matrix which probably permitted their organization in film form. The production and uptake of nickel oxide nanoparticles organized in film form by dead fungal biomass bring us closer to sustainable strategies for the biosynthesis of metal oxide nanoparticles.

  12. Penicillosides A and B: new cerebrosides from the marine-derived fungus Penicillium species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samar S.A. Murshid

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the course of our ongoing effort to identify bioactive compounds from marine-derived fungi, the marine fungus, Penicillium species was isolated from the Red Sea tunicate, Didemnum species. Two new cerebrosides, penicillosides A and B were isolated from the marine-derived fungus, Penicillium species using different chromatographic methods. Their structures were established by different spectroscopic data including 1D (1H NMR and 13C NMR and 2D NMR (COSY, HSQC, and HMBC studies as well as high-resolution mass spectral data. Penicilloside A displayed antifungal activity against Candida albicans while penicilloside B illustrated antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli in the agar diffusion assay. Additionally, both compounds showed weak activity against HeLa cells.

  13. Chondrosterins A–E, Triquinane-Type Sesquiterpenoids from Soft Coral-Associated Fungus Chondrostereum sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong-Liang Xie

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The marine fungus Chondrostereum sp. was collected from a soft coral Sarcophyton tortuosum from the South China Sea. This fungus was cultured in potato dextrose broth medium and the culture broth was extracted with EtOAc. Five new triquinane-type sesquiterpenoids, chondrosterins A–E (1–5, and the known sesquiterpenoid hirsutanol C (6, were isolated. The structures were elucidated mainly on the basis of NMR, MS, and X-ray single-crystal diffraction data. Chondrosterin A (1 showed significant cytotoxic activities against cancer lines A549, CNE2, and LoVo with IC50 values of 2.45, 4.95, and 5.47 μM, respectively.

  14. Tea fungus fermentation on a substrate with iron(ii-ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malbaša Radomir V.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Iron is essential element for human metabolism and it is a constituent of both heme- containing and nonheme proteins. Its deficiency can cause serious diseases, i.e. iron-deficiency anemia, with some fatal consequences. Tea fungus beverage has high nutritional value and some pharmaceutical effects. It is widely consumed allover the world and its benefits were proved a number of times. The aim of this paper was to investigate tea fungus fermentation on a substrate containing iron(II-ions and the possibility of obtaining a beverage enriched with iron. We monitored pH, iron content and also the production of L-ascorbic acid, which is very important for iron absorption in humans.

  15. The telomerase reverse transcriptase subunit from the dimorphic fungus Ustilago maydis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolores Bautista-España

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the reverse transcriptase subunit of telomerase in the dimorphic fungus Ustilago maydis. This protein (Trt1 contains 1371 amino acids and all of the characteristic TERT motifs. Mutants created by disrupting trt1 had senescent traits, such as delayed growth, low replicative potential, and reduced survival, that were reminiscent of the traits observed in est2 budding yeast mutants. Telomerase activity was observed in wild-type fungus sporidia but not those of the disruption mutant. The introduction of a self-replicating plasmid expressing Trt1 into the mutant strain restored growth proficiency and replicative potential. Analyses of trt1 crosses in planta suggested that Trt1 is necessary for teliospore formation in homozygous disrupted diploids and that telomerase is haploinsufficient in heterozygous diploids. Additionally, terminal restriction fragment analysis in the progeny hinted at alternative survival mechanisms similar to those of budding yeast.

  16. The telomerase reverse transcriptase subunit from the dimorphic fungus Ustilago maydis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista-España, Dolores; Anastacio-Marcelino, Estela; Horta-Valerdi, Guillermo; Celestino-Montes, Antonio; Kojic, Milorad; Negrete-Abascal, Erasmo; Reyes-Cervantes, Hortensia; Vázquez-Cruz, Candelario; Guzmán, Plinio; Sánchez-Alonso, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the reverse transcriptase subunit of telomerase in the dimorphic fungus Ustilago maydis. This protein (Trt1) contains 1371 amino acids and all of the characteristic TERT motifs. Mutants created by disrupting trt1 had senescent traits, such as delayed growth, low replicative potential, and reduced survival, that were reminiscent of the traits observed in est2 budding yeast mutants. Telomerase activity was observed in wild-type fungus sporidia but not those of the disruption mutant. The introduction of a self-replicating plasmid expressing Trt1 into the mutant strain restored growth proficiency and replicative potential. Analyses of trt1 crosses in planta suggested that Trt1 is necessary for teliospore formation in homozygous disrupted diploids and that telomerase is haploinsufficient in heterozygous diploids. Additionally, terminal restriction fragment analysis in the progeny hinted at alternative survival mechanisms similar to those of budding yeast.

  17. Hydroxylation of a hederagenin derived saponin by a Xylareaceous fungus found in fruits of Sapindus saponaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murgu, Michael; Santos, Luiz F. Arruda; Souza, Gezimar D. de; Daolio, Cristina; Ferreira, Antonio Gilberto; Rodrigues-Filho, Edson [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCAR), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Schneider, Bernd [Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology, Beutenberg Campus, Jena (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    During our screening of tropical plants for endophyte microorganisms, a Xylareaceous fungus was found living on the internal part of Sapindus saponaria fruits. The fruits of S. saponaria accumulate great amounts of triterpenoidal and sesquiterpenoidal saponins. The saponin 3-O-({beta}-D-xylopyranosyl)-(1{yields}3)-{alpha}-L -rhamnopyranosyl-(1{yields}2)-{alpha}-L-arabinopyranosyl-hederagenin was isolated using chromatographic methods, after alkaline hydrolysis of the crude extract obtained from S. saponaria fruits and added to the culture medium used to grows the fungus. A new saponin was isolated from this experiment by preparative scale HPLC and characterized as a 22{alpha}-hydroxy derivative. The structure of this hydroxylated saponin was elucidated based on interpretation of MS/MS data and NMR spectra. (author)

  18. Coqui frogs persist with the deadly chytrid fungus despite a lack of defensive antimicrobial peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollins-Smith, Louise A; Reinert, Laura K; Burrowes, Patricia A

    2015-02-10

    The amphibian skin fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) occurs widely in Puerto Rico and is thought to be responsible for the apparent extinction of 3 species of endemic frogs in the genus Eleutherodactylus, known as coquis. To examine immune defenses which may protect surviving species, we induced secretion of skin peptides from adult common coqui frogs E. coqui collected from upland forests at El Yunque. By matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry, we were unable to detect peptide signals suggestive of antimicrobial peptides, and enriched peptides showed no capacity to inhibit growth of Bd. Thus, it appears that E. coqui depend on other skin defenses to survive in the presence of this deadly fungus.

  19. Benzopyranones from the Endophytic Fungus Hyalodendriella sp. Ponipodef12 and Their Bioactivities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligang Zhou

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The endophytic fungus Hyalodendriella sp. Ponipodef12 was isolated from the hybrid ‘Neva’ of Populus deltoides Marsh × P. nigra L. In this study, four benzopyranones were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of Hyalodendriella sp. Ponipodef12, and identified as palmariol B (1, 4-hydroxymellein (2, alternariol 9-methyl ether (3, and botrallin (4 by means of physicochemical and spectroscopic analysis. All the compounds were evaluated for their antibacterial, antifungal, antinematodal and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities. 4-Hydroxymellein (2 exhibited stronger antibacterial activity than the other compounds. Palmariol B (1 showed stronger antimicrobial, antinematodal and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities than alternariol 9-methyl ether (3 which indicated that the chlorine substitution at position 2 may contribute to its bioactivity. The results indicate the potential of this endophytic fungus as a source of bioactive benzopyranones.

  20. Efficient Transmission of an Introduced Pathogen Via an Ancient Insect-Fungus Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battisti, A.; Roques, A.; Colombari, F.; Frigimelica, G.; Guido, M.

    In Cupressus sempervirens the association between seed insects and tree pathogens has resulted in optimal exploitation of the cones. A fungus-infected cone can be inhabited by the nymphs of a true seed bug (Orsillus maculatus), the adults of which may carry a heavy spore load at emergence. Cones are infected when eggs are laid within the cone, most frequently via the emergence holes of a seed wasp (Megastigmus wachtli). This symbiotic association evolved with the nonaggressive fungus Pestalotiopsis funerea within the natural range of the cypress. When the aggressive cypress canker disease (Seiridium cardinale) was introduced into Europe, it was transmitted by O. maculatus to cones usually colonized by Pestalotiopsis funerea, with disastrous consequences for the regeneration and survival of C. sempervirens in the entire Mediterranean area.

  1. Host deception: predaceous fungus, Esteya vermicola, entices pine wood nematode by mimicking the scent of pine tree for nutrient.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Lin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A nematophagous fungus, Esteya vermicola, is recorded as the first endoparasitic fungus of pine wood nematode (PWN, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, in last century. E. vermicola exhibited high infectivity toward PWN in the laboratory conditions and conidia spraying of this fungus on Japanese red pine, Pinus densiflora, seedlings in the field protected the pine trees from pine wilt disease to some extent, indicating that it is a potential bio-control agent against PWN. Previous research had demonstrated that the living fungal mycelia of E. vermicola continuously produced certain volatile organic compounds (VOCs, which were responsible for the PWN attraction. However, identity of these VOCs remains unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we report the identification of α-pinene, β-pinene, and camphor produced by living mycelia of E. vermicola, the same volatile compounds emitted from PWN host pine tree, as the major VOCs for PWN attraction using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. In addition, we also confirmed the host deception behavior of E. vermicola to PWN by using synthetic VOCs in a straightforward laboratory bioassay. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This research result has demonstrated that the endoparasitic nematophagous fungus, E. vermicola, mimics the scent of PWN host pine tree to entice PWN for the nutrient. The identification of the attractive VOCs emitted from the fungus E. vermicola is of significance in better understanding parasitic mechanism of the fungus and the co-evolution in the two organisms and will aid management of the pine wilt disease.

  2. An isolate of the nematophagous fungus Monacrosporium thaumasium for the control of cattle trichostrongyles in south-eastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assis, R C L; Luns, F D; de Araújo, J V; Braga, F R; Assis, R L; Marcelino, J; Freitas, P C; Andrade, M A

    2015-03-01

    A mycelial formulation in sodium alginate pellets of the nematophagous fungus Monacrosporium thaumasium (isolate NF34A) was assessed in the biological control of beef cattle trichostrongyles in tropical Brazil. Two groups of ten male Nellore calves aged 6 months, a fungus-treated group and a control group, were fed on a pasture of Brachiaria decumbens naturally infected with larvae of cattle trichostrongyles. The fungus-treated group received doses of sodium alginate mycelial pellets orally (1 g pellets (0.2 g fungus)/10 kg live weight) twice a week for 12 months. At the end of the study there was a significant reduction (Pcontrol group. There was a 47.3% reduction in herbage samples, collected up to 0-20 cm from faecal pats, between the fungus-treated and control groups, and a 58% reduction when the sampling distance was 20-40 cm from faecal pats (Pnematode-trapping fungus M. thaumasium reduced trichostrongyles in tropical south-eastern Brazil and could be an effective tool for the biological control of this parasitic nematode in beef cattle. However, in such a tropical climate with low rainfall the fungal viability can be reduced.

  3. A mixed community of actinomycetes produce multiple antibiotics for the fungus farming ant Acromyrmex octospinosus

    OpenAIRE

    Barke Jörg; Seipke Ryan F; Grüschow Sabine; Heavens Darren; Drou Nizar; Bibb Mervyn J; Goss Rebecca JM; Yu Douglas W; Hutchings Matthew I

    2010-01-01

    This work was supported by a UEA-funded PhD studentship (JB) and an MRC Milstein award, G0801721 (MIH, RJMG and DY). MIH is a Research Councils UK Fellow. DY also received support from the Yunnan provincial government (20080A001) and the Chinese Academy of Sciences (0902281081). Background: Attine ants live in an intensely studied tripartite mutualism with the fungus Leucoagaricus gongylophorus, which provides food to the ants, and with antibiotic-producing actinomycete bacteria. One hypot...

  4. Efficient and simple electro-transformation of intact cells for the basidiomycetous fungus Pseudozyma hubeiensis

    OpenAIRE

    Konishi, Masaaki; Yoshida, Yuta; Ikarashi, Mizuki; Horiuchi, Junichi; 小西, 正朗

    2015-01-01

    Objective: An electroporation procedure for the species was investigated to develop an efficient transformation method for the basidiomycetous fungus Pseudozyma hubeiensis SY62, a strong biosurfactant-producing host. Results: A plasmid, pUXV1emgfp including green fluorescence protein as a reporter gene, was constructed to determine the transformation and expression of foreign genes. Optimal electroporation conditions achieved 44.8 transformants μg−1 plasmid competency (intact cells) without p...

  5. Functional genomics in the rice blast fungus to unravel the fungal pathogenicity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junhyun JEON; Jaehyuk CHOI; Jongsun PARK; Yong-Hwan LEE

    2008-01-01

    A rapidly growing number of successful genome sequencing projects in plant pathogenic fungi greatly increase the demands for tools and methodologies to study fungal pathogenicity at genomic scale. Magnaporthe oryzae is an economically important plant pathogenic fungus whose genome is fully sequenced. Recently we have reported the development and application of functional genomics platform technologies in M. oryzae. This model approach would have many practical ramifications in design and implementation of upcoming functional genomics studies of filamentous fungi aimed at understanding fungal pathogenicity.

  6. The prominent role of fungi and fungal enzymes in the ant-fungus biomass conversion symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, L; Grell, M N

    2014-06-01

    Molecular studies have added significantly to understanding of the role of fungi and fungal enzymes in the efficient biomass conversion, which takes place in the fungus garden of leaf-cutting ants. It is now clear that the fungal symbiont expresses the full spectrum of genes for degrading cellulose and other plant cell wall polysaccharides. Since the start of the genomics era, numerous interesting studies have especially focused on evolutionary, molecular, and organismal aspects of the biological and biochemical functions of the symbiosis between leaf-cutting ants (Atta spp. and Acromyrmex spp.) and their fungal symbiont Leucoagaricus gongylophorus. Macroscopic observations of the fungus-farming ant colony inherently depict the ants as the leading part of the symbiosis (the myrmicocentric approach, overshadowing the mycocentric aspects). However, at the molecular level, it is fungal enzymes that enable the ants to access the nutrition embedded in recalcitrant plant biomass. Our hypothesis is that the evolutionary events that established fungus-farming practice were predisposed by a fascinating fungal evolution toward increasing attractiveness to ants. This resulted in the ants allowing the fungus to grow in the nests and began to supply plant materials for more fungal growth. Molecular studies also confirm that specialized fungal structures, the gongylidia, with high levels of proteins and rich blend of enzymes, are essential for symbiosis. Harvested and used as ant feed, the gongylidia are the key factor for sustaining the highly complex leaf-cutting ant colony. This microbial upgrade of fresh leaves to protein-enriched animal feed can serve as inspiration for modern biorefinery technology.

  7. A Hair & a Fungus: Showing Kids the Size of a Microbe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Dana L.

    2013-01-01

    A simple method is presented to show kids the size of a microbe--a fungus hypha--compared to a human hair. Common household items are used to make sterile medium on a stove or hotplate, which is dispensed in the cells of a weekly plastic pill box. Mold fungi can be easily and safely grown on the medium from the classroom environment. A microscope…

  8. First survey for the amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in Connecticut (USA) finds widespread prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards-Hrdlicka, Kathryn L; Richardson, Jonathan L; Mohabir, Leon

    2013-02-28

    The amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) is an emerging infectious fungal pathogen of amphibians and is linked to global population declines. Until now, there has only been 1 survey for the fungus in the northeastern USA, which focused primarily on northern New England. We tested for Bd in a large number of samples (916 individuals from 116 sites) collected throughout the state of Connecticut, representing 18 native amphibian species. In addition, 239 preserved wood frog Lithobates sylvaticus tadpoles from throughout the state were screened for the fungus. Bd presence was assessed in both the fresh field swabs and the preserved samples using a sensitive quantitative PCR assay. Our contemporary survey found widespread Bd prevalence throughout Connecticut, occurring in 14 species and in 28% of all sampled animals. No preserved L. sylvaticus specimens tested positive for the fungus. Two common species, bullfrogs R. catesbeiana and green frogs R. clamitans had particularly high infection rates (0.21-0.39 and 0.33-0.42, respectively), and given their wide distribution throughout the state, we suggest they may serve as sentinels for Bd occurrence in this region. Further analyses found that several other factors increase the likelihood of infection, including life stage, host sex, and host family. Within sites, ponds with ranids, especially green frogs, increased the likelihood of Bd prevalence. By studying Bd in populations not facing mass declines, the results from this study are an important contribution to our understanding of how some amphibian species and populations remain infected yet exhibit no signs of chytridiomycosis even when Bd is widely distributed.

  9. Simultaneous RNA-seq analysis of a mixed transcriptome of rice and blast fungus interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihiro Kawahara

    Full Text Available A filamentous fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae, is a causal agent of rice blast disease, which is one of the most serious diseases affecting cultivated rice, Oryza sativa. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying both rice defense and fungal attack are not yet fully understood. Extensive past studies have characterized many infection-responsive genes in the pathogen and host plant, separately. To understand the plant-pathogen interaction comprehensively, it is valuable to monitor the gene expression profiles of both interacting organisms simultaneously in the same infected plant tissue. Although the host-pathogen interaction during the initial infection stage is important for the establishment of infection, the detection of fungal gene expression in infected leaves at the stage has been difficult because very few numbers of fungal cells are present. Using the emerging RNA-Seq technique, which has a wide dynamic range for expression analyses, we analyzed the mixed transcriptome of rice and blast fungus in infected leaves at 24 hours post-inoculation, which is the point when the primary infection hyphae penetrate leaf epidermal cells. We demonstrated that our method detected the gene expression of both the host plant and pathogen simultaneously in the same infected leaf blades in natural infection conditions without any artificial treatments. The upregulation of 240 fungal transcripts encoding putative secreted proteins was observed, suggesting that these candidates of fungal effector genes may play important roles in initial infection processes. The upregulation of transcripts encoding glycosyl hydrolases, cutinases and LysM domain-containing proteins were observed in the blast fungus, whereas pathogenesis-related and phytoalexin biosynthetic genes were upregulated in rice. Furthermore, more drastic changes in expression were observed in the incompatible interactions compared with the compatible ones in both rice and blast fungus at this stage. Our

  10. [Incorporation of caffeine into the macromicete fungus Pleurotus sajor-caju growing on coffee pulp].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto Ramírez, Ivonne Jeannette; Chegwin Angarita, Carolina; Osorio Zuloaga, Hector Jairo

    2007-03-01

    TWhen the chemical composition of secondary metabolites from the Pleurotus sajor-caju growing on coffee pulp were study, it was found that the fungus has the faculty of incorporating caffeine inside its fructiferous body. Component of the substrate (around 1.3% on dry basis) did not show a structural change over the alkaloid; this constitutes an unexpected outcome for a species belonging to realm of the fungi.

  11. Isolation and Structural Elucidation of Chondrosterins F–H from the Marine Fungus Chondrostereum sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Jian Lan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The marine fungus Chondrostereum sp. was collected from a soft coral of the species Sarcophyton tortuosum from the South China Sea. Three new compounds, chondrosterins F–H (1, 4 and 5, together with three known compounds, incarnal (2, arthrosporone (3, and (2E-decene-4,6,8-triyn-1-ol (6, were isolated. Their structures were elucidated primarily based on NMR and MS data. Incarnal (2 exhibited potent cytotoxic activity against various cancer cell lines.

  12. The Dynamics of Plant Cell-Wall Polysaccharide Decomposition in Leaf-Cutting Ant Fungus Gardens

    OpenAIRE

    Moller, Isabel E.; De Fine Licht, Henrik H; Jesper Harholt; Willats, William G. T; Boomsma, Jacobus J.

    2011-01-01

    The degradation of live plant biomass in fungus gardens of leaf-cutting ants is poorly characterised but fundamental for understanding the mutual advantages and efficiency of this obligate nutritional symbiosis. Controversies about the extent to which the garden-symbiont Leucocoprinus gongylophorus degrades cellulose have hampered our understanding of the selection forces that induced large scale herbivory and of the ensuing ecological footprint of these ants. Here we use a recently establish...

  13. CJ-15,183, a new inhibitor of squalene synthase produced by a fungus, Aspergillus aculeatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, S; Hirai, H; Ishiguro, M; Kambara, T; Kojima, Y; Matsunaga, T; Nishida, H; Suzuki, Y; Sugiura, A; Harwood, H J; Huang, L H; Kojima, N

    2001-11-01

    A new squalene synthase (SSase) inhibitor, CJ-15,183 (I) was isolated from the fermentation broth of a fungus, Aspergillus aculeatus CL38916. The compound potently inhibited rat liver and Candida albicans microsomal SSases and also inhibited the human enzyme. It also showed antifungal activities against filamentous fungi and a yeast. The structure was determined to be an aliphatic tetracarboxylic acid compound consisting of an alkyl gamma-lactone, malic acid and isocitric acid moieties by spectroscopic studies.

  14. Synthesis of gold nanoparticles by the fungus Aspergillus niger and its efficacy against mosquito larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Prakash, Soam; Namita Soni,Namiata

    2012-01-01

    Namita Soni, Soam PrakashEnvironmental and Advanced Parasitology and Vector Control Biotechnology Laboratories, Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Dayalbagh Educational Institute, Dayalbagh, Agra, IndiaBackground: The fungus Aspergillus niger has been selected for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). The authors report the role of fungi in the synthesis of AuNPs. Additionally, the larvicidal efficacy of these AuNPs was tested using the larvae of three mosquito species: Anophel...

  15. New bioactive metabolites produced by Phomopsis cassiae, an endophytic fungus in Cassia spectabilis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Geraldo H.; Teles, Helder L.; Trevisan, Henrique C.; Bolzani, Vanderlan da S.; Araujo, Angela R. [UNESP, Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: araujoar@iq.unesp.br; Young, Maria C.M. [Instituto de Botanica, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Secao de Fisiologia e Bioquimica de Plantas; Pfenning, Ludwig H. [Universidade Federal de Lavras, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Fitopatologia; Eberlin, Marcos N.; Haddad, Renato [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Costa-Neto, Claudio M. [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Bioquimica e Imunologia

    2005-11-15

    Two new metabolites, ethyl 2,4-dihydroxy-5,6-dimethylbenzoate (1) and phomopsilactone (2) were isolated from Phomopsis cassiae, an endophytic fungus in Cassia spectabilis. Their structures were elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR, MS and IR spectral data. Compounds 1 and 2 displayed strong antifungal activity against the phytopatogenic fungi Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. sphaerospermum, as well as cytotoxicity against human cervical tumor cell line (HeLa), in in vitro assays. (author)

  16. Amino acids of the fungus Helminthosporium gramineum Rabenh. and of the infested barley grain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena PERSECA

    1967-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out in order to determine by chromatographic analysis the amino acids contents of the fungus Helminthosporium gramineum Rabenh., which was found to be relatively high. Even the level of the free and proteic amino acids in the seeds infested by Helminthosporium was higher in comparison with the healthy seeds. In this case some qualitative changes was observed.

  17. Polyketides from the plant endophytic fungus Cladosporium sp. IFB3lp-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuringege; Guo, Zhi-Kai; Wei, Wei; Jiao, Rui-Hua; Yan, Tong; Zang, Le-Yun; Jiang, Rong; Tan, Ren-Xiang; Ge, Hui-Ming

    2013-09-01

    Chemical study of the ethyl acetate extract of the plant endophytic fungus Cladosporium sp. (strain no. IFB3lp-2) yielded three new polyketides (1-3), together with nine known compounds. All of the structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods. The isolated compounds were screened for their cytotoxic, antiviral, and acetyl cholinesterase inhibitory activities. Regretfully, no compounds showed any significant activity in these assays.

  18. A New Compound Along With Seven Known Compounds from an Endophytic Fungus Aspergillus sp. HS-05

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Chen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of EtOAc extract from the fermentation broth of the endophytic fungus Asperilligus sp. HS-05 led to the isolation of a new compound (1 of spiro moiety named aspergispiroketal and seven known compounds (2-8. Their structures were elucidated mainly by NMR and HR-TOF-MS, as well as on comparison with the reported data. The absolute configuration of 1 was defined by comparison of quantum chemical TDDFT calculated and experimental ECD spectra.

  19. New polyhydroxylated metabolite derived from biotransformation of diosgenin by the white-rot fungus Coriolus versicolor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Microbial transformation of diosgenin(1) was carried out with the white-rot fungus,Coriolus versicolor.A new polyhydroxyl metabolite,(25R)-spirost-5-ene-3β,7β,21-triol(2),was obtained as a result of hydroxylation.Its structure was elucidated on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR as well as HR-ESI-MS spectroscopic analysis.

  20. Novel Chromone Derivatives from Marine Fungus Aspergillus versicolor Isolated from the Sponge Xestospongia exigua

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    From the marine sponge Xestospongia exigua, fungal isolates of Aspergillus versicolor (Vuill)Triab were obtained. Isolation and purification of ethyl acetate extracts from culture filtrates of the fungus led to yield six new chromone derivatives namely aspergione A, aspergione B, aspergione C, aspergione D, aspergione E, aspergione F. The structures of all the new compounds were established on the basis of extensive spectroscopy (UV, MS, 1H and 13C NMR, COSY, HMQC and HMBC) analysis.

  1. ZnS semiconductor quantum dots production by an endophytic fungus Aspergillus flavus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uddandarao, Priyanka, E-mail: uddandaraopriyanka@gmail.com; B, Raj Mohan, E-mail: rajmohanbala@gmail.com

    2016-05-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Endophytic fungus Aspergillus flavus isolated from a medicinal plant Nothapodytes foetida was used for the synthesis of quantum dots. • Morris-Weber kinetic model and Lagergren's pseudo-first-order rate equation were used to study the biosorption kinetics. • Polycrystalline ZnS quantum dots of 18 nm and 58.9 nm from TEM and DLS, respectively. - Abstract: The development of reliable and eco-friendly processes for the synthesis of metal sulphide quantum dots has been considered as a major challenge in the field of nanotechnology. In the present study, polycrystalline ZnS quantum dots were synthesized from an endophytic fungus Aspergillus flavus. It is noteworthy that apart from being rich sources of bioactive compounds, endophytic fungus also has the ability to mediate the synthesis of nanoparticles. TEM and DLS revealed the formation of spherical particles with an average diameter of about 18 nm and 58.9 nm, respectively. The ZnS quantum dots were further characterized using SEM, EDAX, XRD, UV–visible spectroscopy and FTIR. The obtained results confirmed the synthesis of polycrystalline ZnS quantum dots and these quantum dots are used for studying ROS activity. In addition this paper explains kinetics of metal sorption to study the role of biosorption in synthesis of quantum dots by applying Morris-Weber kinetic model. Since Aspergillus flavus is isolated from a medicinal plant Nothapodytes foetida, quantum dots synthesized from this fungus may have great potential in broad environmental and medical applications.

  2. Biodegradation of colorants in refinery effluents : potential use of the fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    OpenAIRE

    Guimarães, Carla; Bento, Luis San Miguel; Mota, M.

    1999-01-01

    The degradative ability of Phanerochaete chrysosporium towards each of the four;main types of colorants present in regeneration effluents from ion exchange resins was investigated. The fungus was able to decolorise melanoidin, caramel and HADP (hexose alkaline degradation product) solutions by 74%, 87% and 80%,. respectively, and to reduce levels of phenolic compounds by 72%. Gel permeation chromatography studies showed that decolorisation was accompanied by effective degradation of the color...

  3. Microbial community structure of leaf-cutter ant fungus gardens and refuse dumps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarrod J Scott

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Leaf-cutter ants use fresh plant material to grow a mutualistic fungus that serves as the ants' primary food source. Within fungus gardens, various plant compounds are metabolized and transformed into nutrients suitable for ant consumption. This symbiotic association produces a large amount of refuse consisting primarily of partly degraded plant material. A leaf-cutter ant colony is thus divided into two spatially and chemically distinct environments that together represent a plant biomass degradation gradient. Little is known about the microbial community structure in gardens and dumps or variation between lab and field colonies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using microbial membrane lipid analysis and a variety of community metrics, we assessed and compared the microbiota of fungus gardens and refuse dumps from both laboratory-maintained and field-collected colonies. We found that gardens contained a diverse and consistent community of microbes, dominated by Gram-negative bacteria, particularly gamma-Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes. These findings were consistent across lab and field gardens, as well as host ant taxa. In contrast, dumps were enriched for Gram-positive and anaerobic bacteria. Broad-scale clustering analyses revealed that community relatedness between samples reflected system component (gardens/dumps rather than colony source (lab/field. At finer scales samples clustered according to colony source. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Here we report the first comparative analysis of the microbiota from leaf-cutter ant colonies. Our work reveals the presence of two distinct communities: one in the fungus garden and the other in the refuse dump. Though we find some effect of colony source on community structure, our data indicate the presence of consistently associated microbes within gardens and dumps. Substrate composition and system component appear to be the most important factor in structuring the microbial communities

  4. Susceptibility of the tick Haemaphysalis qinghaiensis to isolates of the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Qiaoyun; Sun, Ming; Guan, Guiquan; Liu, Zhijie; Chen, Ze; Liu, Aihong; Li, Youquan; Ma, Miling; Yang, Jifei; Niu, Qingli; Liu, Junlong; Han, Xueqing; Yin, Hong; Luo, Jianxun

    2014-10-01

    Haemaphysalis qinghaiensis, a prevalent tick species in China, causes severe economic losses. In this study, we investigated the pathogenicity of six isolates of the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae to engorged female H. qinghaiensis using concentrations of 10(6), 10(7) and 10(8) conidia ml(-1). The results indicated that M.aAT08 and M.aAT13 isolates were highly virulent against the ticks. Metarhizium anisopliae has potential for biocontrol of H. qinghaiensis.

  5. Pathogenicity of entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae (Deuteromycetes) to Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhioua, E.; Browning, M.; Johnson, P.W.; Ginsberg, H.S.; LeBrun, R.A.

    1997-01-01

    The entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae is highly pathogenic to the black-legged tick, Ixodes scapularis. Spore concentrations of 108/ml for engorged larvae and 107/ml for engorged females resulted in 100% tick mortality, 2 wk post-infection. The LC50 value for engorged larvae (concentration to kill 50% of ticks) was 107 spores/ml. Metarhizium anisopliae shows considerable potential as a microbial control agent for the management of Ixodes scapularis.

  6. Two Additional New Compounds from the Marine-Derived Fungus Pseudallescheria ellipsoidea F42-3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun-Teng Wang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Two additional new compounds, pseudellone D (1 and (5S,6S-dihydroxylasiodiplodin (3, along with the two known compounds lasiodipline F (2, (5S-hydroxylasiodiplodin (4 were isolated from the marine-derived fungus Pseudallescheria ellipsoidea F42-3 associated with the soft coral Lobophytum crassum. Their structures, including absolute configurations, were elucidated on the basis of the corresponding spectroscopic data and electronic circular dichroism (ECD spectra.

  7. Variation in Efficacy of Isolates of the Fungus ARF Against the Soybean Cyst Nematode Heterodera glycines

    OpenAIRE

    Timper, P.; Riggs, R. D.

    1998-01-01

    An unnamed fungus, designated ARF, that parasitizes eggs and sedentary stages of cyst nematodes is a potential biological control agent of Heterodera glycines. The objectives of this study were to determine whether ARF isolates differ in their ability to suppress nematode numbers in soil and to compare the efficacy of ARF in heat-treated and native soil. The effectiveness of 11 ARF isolates was compared by introducing homogenized mycelium into heat-treated soil. Soybean seedlings were transpl...

  8. Analysis of the Biological Characteristics of a Parasitical Fungus in Chrysosplenium absconditicapsulum J. T. Pan Leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuangquan DUAN; Penghui XU; Shunlin XING

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] This study aimed to uncover the biological characteristics of a parasitical fungus in Chrysosp/enium absconditicapsu/um J. T. Pan leaves. [Method] PDA medium was used to isolate the fungus from C. absconditicapsulum leaves; PDA medium, modified KB medium and Czapek medium were adopted to cultivate the isolated strain. [Result] Colonies of the strain were stretched, white, fedora- shaped with smooth and wavy edges, and showed diameter growth on PDA medi- um, modified KB medium and Czapek medium. At the late stage of culture, the colonies turned into cyanish brown on the above media. Spores were black and born on the surface of colonies on PDA medium with blackened medium. While on modified KB medium and Czapek medium, they were born at the edge of colonies with blackened medium. The spores varied in a wide range of shapes, mostly ob- clavate, sometimes spherical or ellipsoidal. The conidia were muriformly septate with transverse or longitudinal or oblique septations. The pseudo-beaks were short and cylindrical. [Conclusion] According to relevant literatures, the isolated strain is a fungus in Alternaria, Dematiaceae, Hylohomycetales, Hyphomycetes, Deuteromycotina.

  9. Phenanthrene uptake by Medicago sativa L. under the influence of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Naiying [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, PO Box 2871, Beijing 100085 (China); Department of Chemistry, Shangqiu Normal College, Shangqiu 476000 (China); Huang Honglin [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, PO Box 2871, Beijing 100085 (China); Zhang Shuzhen, E-mail: szzhang@rcees.ac.c [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, PO Box 2871, Beijing 100085 (China); Zhu Yongguan [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, PO Box 2871, Beijing 100085 (China); Christie, Peter [Agri-Environment Branch, Agriculture Food and Environmental Science Division, Agri-Food and Biosciences Institute, Newforge Lane, Belfast BT9 5PX (United Kingdom); Zhang Yong [State Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science, Environmental Science Research Centre, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China)

    2009-05-15

    Phenanthrene uptake by Medicago sativa L. was investigated under the influence of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus. Inoculation of lucerne with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus etunicatum L. resulted in higher phenanthrene accumulation in the roots and lower accumulation in the shoots compared to non-mycorrhizal controls. Studies on sorption and desorption of phenanthrene by roots and characterization of heterogeneity of mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal roots using solid-state {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 13}C NMR) demonstrated that increased aromatic components due to mycorrhizal inoculation resulted in enhanced phenanthrene uptake by the roots but lower translocation to the shoots. Direct visualization using two-photon excitation microscopy (TPEM) revealed higher phenanthrene accumulation in epidermal cells of roots and lower transport into the root interior and stem in mycorrhizal plants than in non-mycorrhizal controls. These results provide some insight into the mechanisms by which arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculation may influence the uptake of organic contaminants by plants. - Colonization by an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus promoted root uptake and decreased shoot uptake of phenanthrene by Medicago sativa L.

  10. Effect of phosphate on glucosamine production by ethanolic fungus Mucor indicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Marzieh; Zamani, Akram; Karimi, Keikhosro

    2013-11-01

    In this study, the effect of phosphorous compound concentration on the production of glucosamine by Mucor indicus was investigated. Changes in the yield of ethanol, the major metabolite of the fungus, were also followed besides. The alkali insoluble material of the biomass of the fungus mainly contained phosphates and polymers of glucosamine and N-acetyl glucosamine, i.e., chitin and chitosan. Yields of glucosamine (78-113 g/kg dry fungal biomass) and ethanol (200-370 g/kg glucose) were significantly affected by the phosphorous concentration. The results showed that lower concentrations of phosphorous favored the production of glucosamine while higher ethanol as well as biomass yields was obtained at higher concentrations. The best concentration was 0.5 g/l where glucosamine yield was 0.37 g/l (11 % of the biomass). At this phosphate concentration, ethanol and biomass yields were 360 and 76 g/kg glucose, respectively. On average, proteins comprised 51.5 % of the biomass. Glycerol was the second important metabolite during the fermentation by the fungus which appeared at lower yields (20-34 g/kg glucose).

  11. Mycelial fermentation and medicinal properties of a valuable medicinal fungus Cordyceps sinensis Cs-HK1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Jianyong

    2014-01-01

    Cordyceps sinensis (Cs) or Dongchongxiacao in Chinese is a rare and precious medicinal mushroom. In this work,a Tolypocladium sp. fungus named Cs-HK1 was isolated from a natural Cs fruiting body,and its ultraviolet (UV),infrared (IR) and high-performance liquid chromatography(HPLC) spectra all exhibited high degrees of matching to those of natural Cs,indicating the similarity of chemical composition. A crude polysac-charide (PS) fraction isolated from Cs-HK1 fungal mycelium showed significant antitumor activity,inhibiting melanoma tumor growth in mice. The PS-treated mice showed significantly higher serum interferon-γ(IFN-γ) level and higher proliferation rate of lymphocytes ex vivo than the control animals,suggestive of the immuno-modulatory activity of the PS fraction. In cell cultures,the PS fraction caused a significant and dose-dependent inhibitory effect on the proliferation of two cancer cell lines ,B16/neu mouse melanoma and MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells,but not on normal spleen lymphocytes in vitro. Most of these bioactivities of the Cs-HK1 fungus were comparable to or even greater than those of natural Cs. The results showed that Cs-HK1 fun-gus may be a functional substitute for the natural Cs in health food and herbal medicine.

  12. Isolation of phosphate-solubilizing fungus and its application in solubilization of rock phosphates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yingben; He, Yuelin; Yin, Hongmei; Chen, Wei; Wang, Zhen; Xu, Lijuan; Zhang, Aiqun

    2012-12-01

    Microorganisms have been obtained to improve the agronomic value of rock phosphates (RPs), but the phosphorus solubilizing rate by these approaches is very slow. It is important to explore a high-efficient phosphate-solubilizing approach with a kind of microorganisms. This study aimed to isolate a high-efficient level of phosphate-solubilizing fungus from rhizosphere soil samples phosphate mines (Liuyang County, Hunan province, China) and apply it in solubilization of RPs. The experiments were carried out by the conventional methodology for morphological and biochemical fungus characterization and the analysis of 18s rRNA sequence. Then the effects of time, temperature, initial pH, phosphorus (P) sources, RPs concentration, shaking speed and silver ion on the content of soluble P released by this isolate were investigated. The results showed this isolate was identified as Galactomyces geotrichum P14 (P14) in GeneBank and the maximum amount of soluble P was 1252.13 mg L(-1) within 40 h in a modified phosphate growth agar's medium (without agar) where contained tricalcium phosphate (TCP) as sole phosphate source. At the same time, it could release phosphate and solubilize various rock phosphates. The isolated fungus can convert RPs from insoluble form into plant available form and therefore it hold great potential for biofertilizers to enhance soil fertility and promote plant growth.

  13. Repeated evolution of crop theft in fungus-farming ambrosia beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulcr, Jiri; Cognato, Anthony I

    2010-11-01

    Ambrosia beetles, dominant wood degraders in the tropics, create tunnels in dead trees and employ gardens of symbiotic fungi to extract nutrients from wood. Specificity of the beetle-fungus relationship has rarely been examined, and simple vertical transmission of a specific fungal cultivar by each beetle species is often assumed in literature. We report repeated evolution of fungal crop stealing, termed mycocleptism, among ambrosia beetles. The mycocleptic species seek brood galleries of other species, and exploit their established fungal gardens by tunneling through the ambient mycelium-laden wood. Instead of carrying their own fungal sybmbionts, mycocleptae depend on adopting the fungal assemblages of their host species, as shown by an analysis of fungal DNA from beetle galleries. The evidence for widespread horizontal exchange of fungi between beetles challenges the traditional concept of ambrosia fungi as species-specific symbionts. Fungus stealing appears to be an evolutionarily successful strategy. It evolved independently in several beetle clades, two of which have radiated, and at least one case was accompanied by a loss of the beetles' fungus-transporting organs. We demonstrate this using the first robust phylogeny of one of the world's largest group of ambrosia beetles, Xyleborini.

  14. Chemical constituents of marine algal-derived endophytic fungus Exophiala oligosperma EN-21

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fang; Li, Ke; Li, Xiaoming; Wang, Bingui

    2011-01-01

    Seven compounds (1-7) were identified from the cultivation of the endophytic fungus Exophiala oligosperma (EN-21) that was isolated from the inner tissue of the marine red alga Laurencia similis. Their structures were identified with spectroscopic and chemical methods as 2-phenoxynaphthalene ( 1), (2 S, 3 R, 4 E, 8 E)-1- O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-3-hydroxy-2-[( R)-2'-hydroxyoctadecanoyl] amino-9-methyl-4, 8-octadeca-diene ( 2), (22 E,24 R)-ergosta-7,22-dien-3β,5α,6β-triol ( 3), (22 E, 24 R)-3β, 5α, 9α-trihydroxy-ergosta-7, 22-dien-6-one ( 4), (22 E, 24 R)-5α, 6α-epoxy-ergosta-8, 22-dien-3β, 7α-diol ( 5), (22 E, 24 R)-ergosta-4, 6, 8(14), 22-tetraen-3-one ( 6), and euphorbol ( 7). This paper reports for the first time the chemical constituents of fungus Exophiala oligosperma and the discovery of compound 1 as a natural product from the fungus.

  15. Chemical constituents of marine algal-derived endophytic fungus Exophiala oligosperma EN-21

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Fang; LI Ke; LI Xiaoming; WANG Bingui

    2011-01-01

    Seven compounds (1-7) were identified from the cultivation of the endophytic fungus Exophiala oligosperma (EN-21) that was isolated from the inner tissue of the marine red alga Laurencia similis. Their structures were identified with spectroscopic and chemical methods as 2-phenoxynaphthalene (1), (2S, 3R, 4E, 8E)-l-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-3-hydroxy-2-[(R)-2'-hydroxyoctadecanoyl] amino-9-methyl-4, 8-octadeca-diene (2), (22E,24R)-ergosta-7,22-dien-3β,5α,6β-triol (3), (22E, 24R)-3β, 5α, 9α-trihydroxy-ergosta-7, 22-dien-6-one (4), (22E, 24R)-5α, 6α-epoxy-ergosta-8, 22-dien-3β 7伪-diol (5), (22E, 24R)-ergosta-4, 6, 8(14), 22-tetraen-3-one (6), and euphorbol (7). This paper reports for the first time the chemical constituents of fungus Exophiala oligosperma and the discovery of compound 1 as a natural product from the fungus.

  16. Carbon translocation from a plant to an insect-pathogenic endophytic fungus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behie, Scott W.; Moreira, Camila C.; Sementchoukova, Irina; Barelli, Larissa; Zelisko, Paul M.; Bidochka, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    Metarhizium robertsii is a common soil fungus that occupies a specialized ecological niche as an endophyte and an insect pathogen. Previously, we showed that the endophytic capability and insect pathogenicity of Metarhizium are coupled to provide an active method of insect-derived nitrogen transfer to a host plant via fungal mycelia. We speculated that in exchange for this insect-derived nitrogen, the plant would provide photosynthate to the fungus. By using 13CO2, we show the incorporation of 13C into photosynthate and the subsequent translocation of 13C into fungal-specific carbohydrates (trehalose and chitin) in the root/endophyte complex. We determined the amount of 13C present in root-associated fungal biomass over a 21-day period by extracting fungal carbohydrates and analysing their composition using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. These findings are evidence that the host plant is providing photosynthate to the fungus, likely in exchange for insect-derived nitrogen in a tripartite, and symbiotic, interaction. PMID:28098142

  17. Larvicidal effects of endophytic and basidiomycete fungus extracts on Aedes and Anopheles larvae (Diptera, Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Bucker

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction In vitro bioassays were performed to access the larvicidal activity of crude extracts from the endophytic fungus Pestalotiopsis virgulata (Melanconiales, Amphisphaeriaceae and the saprophytic fungus Pycnoporus sanguineus (Basidiomycetes, Polyporaceae against the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Anopheles nuneztovari. Methods The extracts were tested at concentrations of 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500ppm. Ethyl acetate mycelia (EAM extracts and liquid culture media (LCM from Pe. virgulata and Py. sanguineus were tested against third instar larvae of Ae. aegypti and An. nuneztovari. Results The larvicidal activity of the EAM extracts from Pe. virgulata against Ae. aegypti had an LC50=101.8ppm, and the extract from the basidiomycete fungus Py. sanguineus had an LC50=156.8ppm against the Ae. aegypti larvae. The Pe. virgulata extract had an LC50=16.3ppm against the An. nuneztovari larvae, and the Py. sanguineus extract had an LC50=87.2ppm against these larvae. Conclusions These results highlight the larvicidal effect of EAM extracts from the endophyte Pe. virgulata against the two larval mosquitoes tested. Thus, Pe. virgulata and Py. sanguineus have the potential for the production of bioactive substances against larvae of these two tropical disease vectors, with An. nuneztovari being more susceptible to these extracts.

  18. Sequential saccharification of corn fiber and ethanol production by the brown rot fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, M L; Shrestha, P; Khanal, S K; Pometto, A L; Hans van Leeuwen, J

    2010-05-01

    Degradation of lignocellulosic biomass to sugars through a purely biological process is a key to sustainable biofuel production. Hydrolysis of the corn wet-milling co-product-corn fiber-to simple sugars by the brown rot fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum was studied in suspended-culture and solid-state fermentations. Suspended-culture experiments were not effective in producing harvestable sugars from the corn fiber. The fungus consumed sugars released by fungal extracellular enzymes. Solid-state fermentation demonstrated up to 40% fiber degradation within 9days. Enzyme activity assays on solid-state fermentation filtrates confirmed the involvement of starch- and cellulose-degrading enzymes. To reduce fungal consumption of sugars and to accelerate enzyme activity, 2- and 3-d solid-state fermentation biomasses (fiber and fungus) were submerged in buffer and incubated at 37 degrees C without shaking. This anaerobic incubation converted up to almost 11% of the corn fiber into harvestable reducing sugars. Sugars released by G. trabeum were fermented to a maximum yield of 3.3g ethanol/100g fiber. This is the first report, to our knowledge, of G. trabeum fermenting sugar to ethanol. The addition of Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a co-culture led to more rapid fermentation to a maximum yield of 4.0g ethanol/100g fiber. The findings demonstrate the potential for this simple fungal process, requiring no pretreatment of the corn fiber, to produce more ethanol by hydrolyzing and fermenting carbohydrates in this lignocellulosic co-product.

  19. Speciation despite globally overlapping distributions in Penicillium chrysogenum: the population genetics of Alexander Fleming's lucky fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henk, D A; Eagle, C E; Brown, K; Van Den Berg, M A; Dyer, P S; Peterson, S W; Fisher, M C

    2011-10-01

    Eighty years ago, Alexander Fleming described the antibiotic effects of a fungus that had contaminated his bacterial culture, kick starting the antimicrobial revolution. The fungus was later ascribed to a putatively globally distributed asexual species, Penicillium chrysogenum. Recently, the species has been shown to be genetically diverse, and possess mating-type genes. Here, phylogenetic and population genetic analyses show that this apparently ubiquitous fungus is actually composed of at least two genetically distinct species with only slight differences detected in physiology. We found each species in air and dust samples collected in and around St Mary's Hospital where Fleming worked. Genotyping of 30 markers across the genome showed that preserved fungal material from Fleming's laboratory was nearly identical to derived strains currently in culture collections and in the same distinct species as a wild progenitor strain of current penicillin producing industrial strains rather than the type species P. chrysogenum. Global samples of the two most common species were found to possess mating-type genes in a near 1:1 ratio, and show evidence of recombination with little geographic population subdivision evident. However, no hybridization was detected between the species despite an estimated time of divergence of less than 1MYA. Growth studies showed significant interspecific inhibition by P. chrysogenum of the other common species, suggesting that competition may facilitate species maintenance despite globally overlapping distributions. Results highlight under-recognized diversity even among the best-known fungal groups and the potential for speciation despite overlapping distribution.

  20. Isolation, characterization and application of a chitosan-degrading fungus from soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xinlin; Chen, Wei; Xiao, Ming; Xiao, Jianbo; Wang, Yuanfeng

    2010-07-01

    A chitosan-degrading fungus, BSF114, was isolated from soil. The culture preparation showed strong chitosanolytic enzyme activity at optimum pH 4.0 and optimum temperature of 60 degrees C after 36-40 h fermentation. The rapid decreased viscosity of chitosan solutions at early stage of reaction suggested an endo-type cleavage of the polymeric chitosan chains. To identify the isolated fungus, molecular biological and morphological methods were used. The fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region 1 was amplified, sequenced, and then compared with related sequences in the GenBank database using BLAST. The phylogenetic relationships were then analyzed, and the results showed that the fungus belongs to Aspergillus fumigatus. Morphological observations were also used to confirm the above conclusion. The chitooligosaccharides (COS) obtained through hydrolyzing the colloidal chitosan showed A. fumigatus BSF114 is suitable for degrading chitosan and producing chitooligosaccharides on a large scale. High concentrations of the COS (1000 and 500 microg/mL) significantly proliferated mice marrow cells.

  1. Experimental study of the cultivation and application of fungus for transformation and biodegradation of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Long-qui; Zhang Ming-xu; Ou Ze-shen; Shen Guo-juan [Anhui University of Science and Technology, Huainan (China). Departmental of Material Science & Engineering

    2006-07-15

    By microoganic fungus cultivation, three kinds of epiphyte were selected for the experiments of coal biodegradation and transformation. The influences of key factors, such as fungus type, size and rank of coal, and pretreatment, on coal degradation were studied. Results show that the best degradation result of 38.13% within 10 days is achieved under co-cultivation of the three kinds of epiphyte for Yima lignite. The finer the coal particle is, the higher the percentage of degradation is, the lower the degree of metamorphism of the coal is, the easier the coal is degraded by the fungus, and the pretreated coal generally tended to be more easily degraded. The degradation products were analysed using XRD and FTIR, and the results show that the degree of the polymerigation of the aromatic nucleus and the molecular weights of products as well are decreased obviously, and remarkable changes also take place in the content of functional groups compared with the coal. 11 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.

  2. The fungus Cunninghamella elegans can produce human and equine metabolites of selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydevik, Axel; Thevis, Mario; Krug, Oliver; Bondesson, Ulf; Hedeland, Mikael

    2013-05-01

    1. Selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) are a group of substances that have potential to be used as doping agents in sports. Being a relatively new group not available on the open market means that no reference materials are commercially available for the main metabolites. In the presented study, the in vitro metabolism of SARMs by the fungus Cunninghamella elegans has been investigated with the purpose of finding out if it can produce relevant human and equine metabolites. 2. Three different SARMs, S1, S4 and S24, were incubated for 5 days with C. elegans. The samples were analysed both with and without sample pretreatment using ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry. 3. All the important phase I and some phase II metabolites from human and horse were formed by the fungus. They were formed through reactions such as hydroxylation, deacetylation, O-dephenylation, nitro-reduction, acetylation and sulfonation. 4. The study showed that the fungus produced relevant metabolites of the SARMs and thus can be used to mimic mammalian metabolism. Furthermore, it has the potential to be used for future production of reference material.

  3. Pan-European distribution of white-nose syndrome fungus (Geomyces destructans not associated with mass mortality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien J Puechmaille

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The dramatic mass mortalities amongst hibernating bats in Northeastern America caused by "white nose-syndrome" (WNS continue to threaten populations of different bat species. The cold-loving fungus, Geomyces destructans, is the most likely causative agent leading to extensive destruction of the skin, particularly the wing membranes. Recent investigations in Europe confirmed the presence of the fungus G. destructans without associated mass mortality in hibernating bats in six countries but its distribution remains poorly known. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We collected data on the presence of bats with white fungal growth in 12 countries in Europe between 2003 and 2010 and conducted morphological and genetic analysis to confirm the identity of the fungus as Geomyces destructans. Our results demonstrate the presence of the fungus in eight countries spanning over 2000 km from West to East and provide compelling photographic evidence for its presence in another four countries including Romania, and Turkey. Furthermore, matching prevalence data of a hibernaculum monitored over two consecutive years with data from across Europe show that the temporal occurrence of the fungus, which first becomes visible around February, peaks in March but can still be seen in some torpid bats in May or June, is strikingly similar throughout Europe. Finally, we isolated and cultured G. destructans from a cave wall adjacent to a bat with fungal growth. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: G. destructans is widely found over large areas of the European continent without associated mass mortalities in bats, suggesting that the fungus is native to Europe. The characterisation of the temporal variation in G. destructans growth on bats provides reference data for studying the spatio-temporal dynamic of the fungus. Finally, the presence of G. destructans spores on cave walls suggests that hibernacula could act as passive vectors and/or reservoirs for G. destructans and

  4. Pan-European Distribution of White-Nose Syndrome Fungus (Geomyces destructans) Not Associated with Mass Mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korn, Vanessa; Fuller, Hubert; Forget, Frédéric; Mühldorfer, Kristin; Kurth, Andreas; Bogdanowicz, Wieslaw; Borel, Christophe; Bosch, Thijs; Cherezy, Thomas; Drebet, Mikhail; Görföl, Tamás; Haarsma, Anne-Jifke; Herhaus, Frank; Hallart, Guénael; Hammer, Matthias; Jungmann, Christian; Le Bris, Yann; Lutsar, Lauri; Masing, Matti; Mulkens, Bart; Passior, Karsten; Starrach, Martin; Wojtaszewski, Andrzej; Zöphel, Ulrich; Teeling, Emma C.

    2011-01-01

    Background The dramatic mass mortalities amongst hibernating bats in Northeastern America caused by “white nose-syndrome” (WNS) continue to threaten populations of different bat species. The cold-loving fungus, Geomyces destructans, is the most likely causative agent leading to extensive destruction of the skin, particularly the wing membranes. Recent investigations in Europe confirmed the presence of the fungus G. destructans without associated mass mortality in hibernating bats in six countries but its distribution remains poorly known. Methodology/Principal Findings We collected data on the presence of bats with white fungal growth in 12 countries in Europe between 2003 and 2010 and conducted morphological and genetic analysis to confirm the identity of the fungus as Geomyces destructans. Our results demonstrate the presence of the fungus in eight countries spanning over 2000 km from West to East and provide compelling photographic evidence for its presence in another four countries including Romania, and Turkey. Furthermore, matching prevalence data of a hibernaculum monitored over two consecutive years with data from across Europe show that the temporal occurrence of the fungus, which first becomes visible around February, peaks in March but can still be seen in some torpid bats in May or June, is strikingly similar throughout Europe. Finally, we isolated and cultured G. destructans from a cave wall adjacent to a bat with fungal growth. Conclusions/Significance G. destructans is widely found over large areas of the European continent without associated mass mortalities in bats, suggesting that the fungus is native to Europe. The characterisation of the temporal variation in G. destructans growth on bats provides reference data for studying the spatio-temporal dynamic of the fungus. Finally, the presence of G. destructans spores on cave walls suggests that hibernacula could act as passive vectors and/or reservoirs for G. destructans and therefore, might

  5. Synergistic interaction between the fungus Beauveria bassiana and desiccant dusts applied against poultry red mites (Dermanyssus gallinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenberg, Tove; Kilpinen, Ole

    2014-04-01

    The poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae, is a major pest in egg production, feeding on laying hens. Widely used non-chemical control methods include desiccant dusts, although their persistence under field conditions is often short. Entomopathogenic fungi may also hold potential for mite control, but these fungi often take several days to kill mites. Laboratory experiments were carried out to study the efficacy of 3 types of desiccant dusts, the fungus Beauveria bassiana and combinations of the two control agents against D. gallinae. There was significant synergistic interaction between each of the desiccant dusts and the fungus, with observed levels of mite mortality significantly higher than those expected for an additive effect (up to 38 % higher). Synergistic interaction between desiccant dust and fungus was found also when different application methods were used for the fungus and at different levels of relative humidity. Although increased levels of mortality were reached due to the synergistic interaction, the speed of lethal action was not influenced by combining the two components. The persistence of the control agents applied separately or in combination did not change over a period of 4 weeks. Overall, combinations of desiccant dusts and fungus conidia seem to hold considerable promise for future non-chemical control of poultry red mites.

  6. Biological control of horse cyathostomin (Nematoda: Cyathostominae) using the nematophagous fungus Duddingtonia flagrans in tropical southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Fabio Ribeiro; Araújo, Jackson Victor; Silva, André Ricardo; Araujo, Juliana Milani; Carvalho, Rogério Oliva; Tavela, Alexandre Oliveira; Campos, Artur Kanadani; Carvalho, Giovanni Ribeiro

    2009-08-26

    The viability of a fungal formulation using the nematode-trapping fungus Duddingtonia flagrans was assessed for the biological control of horse cyathostomin. Two groups (fungus-treated and control without fungus treatment), consisting of eight crossbred mares (3-18 years of age) were fed on Cynodon sp. pasture naturally infected with equine cyathostome larvae. Each animal of the treated group received oral doses of sodium alginate mycelial pellets (1g/(10 kg live weight week)), during 6 months. Significant reduction (pcontrol group. There was difference (pcontrol group, during the experimental period (May-October). Difference of 82.5% (pcontrol group in the sampling distance (20-40 cm) from fecal pats. During the last 3 months of the experimental period (August, September and October), fungus-treated mares had significant weight gain (pcontrol group, an increment of 38 kg. The treatment with sodium alginate pellets containing the nematode-trapping fungus D. flagrans reduced cyathostomin in tropical southeastern Brazil and could be an effective tool for biological control of this parasitic nematode in horses.

  7. Biological control of trichostrongyles in beef cattle by the nematophagous fungus Duddingtonia flagrans in tropical southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assis, R C L; Luns, F D; Araújo, J V; Braga, F R

    2012-11-01

    The efficacy of a fungal formulation based on the nematophagous fungus Duddingtonia flagrans was assessed in the control of cattle trichostrongyles. Twenty male Nellore calves, six-month-old, divided in two groups (fungus-treated and control without fungus) were fed on a pasture of Brachiaria decumbens naturally infected with larvae of bovine trichostrongyles. Animals of the treated group received doses of sodium alginate mycelial pellets orally (1 g/10 kg live weight, twice a week), for 12 months. Feces samples were collected for egg count (eggs per gram of feces-EPG) and coprocultures during 12 months. There was a significant reduction in EPG (56.7%) and infective larvae (L3) in coprocultures (60.5%) for animals of the treated group in relation to the control group at the end of the study. There was a significant reduction of L3 (64.5%) in herbage samples collected up to 0-20 cm from fecal pats and 73.2% in distant samples (20-40 cm) between the fungus-treated group and the control group. The treatment with sodium alginate pellets containing the nematode trapping fungus D. flagrans reduced trichostrongylid in tropical southeastern Brazil and could be an effective tool for biological control of this parasitic nematode in beef cattle.

  8. Comparative analysis of mixing distribution in aerobic stirred bioreactor for simulated yeasts and fungus broths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cascaval, Dan; Galaction, Anca-Irina; Turnea, Marius

    2007-01-01

    The study on mixing distribution for an aerobic stirred bioreactor and simulated (solutions of carboxymethylcellulose sodium salt), yeasts (S. cerevisiae) and fungus (P. chrysogenum pellets and free mycelia) broths indicated the significant variation of mixing time on the bioreactor height. The experiments suggested the possibility to reach a uniform mixing in whole bulk of the real broths for a certain value of rotation speed or biomass concentration domain. For S. cerevisiae broths the optimum rotation speed increased to 500 rpm with the biomass accumulation from 40 to 150 g/l d.w. Irrespective of their morphology, for fungus cultures the existence of optimum rotation speed (500 rpm) has been recorded only for biomass concentration below 24 g/l d.w. The influence of aeration rate depends on the apparent viscosity/biomass concentration and on the impellers and sparger positions. By increasing the apparent viscosity for simulated broths, or biomass amount for real broths, the shape of the curves describing the mixing time variation is significantly changed for all the considered positions. The intensification of the aeration induced the increase of mixing time, which reached a maximum value, decreasing then, due to the flooding phenomena. This variation became more pronounced at higher viscosities for simulated broths, at higher yeasts concentration, and at lower pellets or filamentous fungus concentration, respectively. By means of the experimental data and using MATLAB software, some mathematical correlations for mixing time have been proposed for each broth and considered position inside the bioreactor. These equations offer a good agreement with the experiment, the maximum deviation being +/-7.3% for S. cerevisiae broths.

  9. The Potential of Streptomyces as Biocontrol Agents against the Rice Blast Fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae (Pyricularia oryzae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Jodi Woan-Fei; Ser, Hooi-Leng; Khan, Tahir M.; Chuah, Lay-Hong; Pusparajah, Priyia; Chan, Kok-Gan; Goh, Bey-Hing; Lee, Learn-Han

    2017-01-01

    Rice is a staple food source for more than three billion people worldwide. However, rice is vulnerable to diseases, the most destructive among them being rice blast, which is caused by the fungus Magnaporthe oryzae (anamorph Pyricularia oryzae). This fungus attacks rice plants at all stages of development, causing annual losses of approximately 10–30% in various rice producing regions. Synthetic fungicides are often able to effectively control plant diseases, but some fungicides result in serious environmental and health problems. Therefore, there is growing interest in discovering and developing new, improved fungicides based on natural products as well as introducing alternative measures such as biocontrol agents to manage plant diseases. Streptomyces bacteria appear to be promising biocontrol agents against a wide range of phytopathogenic fungi, which is not surprising given their ability to produce various bioactive compounds. This review provides insight into the biocontrol potential of Streptomyces against the rice blast fungus, M. oryzae. The ability of various Streptomyces spp. to act as biocontrol agents of rice blast disease has been studied by researchers under both laboratory and greenhouse/growth chamber conditions. Laboratory studies have shown that Streptomyces exhibit inhibitory activity against M. oryzae. In greenhouse studies, infected rice seedlings treated with Streptomyces resulted in up to 88.3% disease reduction of rice blast. Studies clearly show that Streptomyces spp. have the potential to be used as highly effective biocontrol agents against rice blast disease; however, the efficacy of any biocontrol agent may be affected by several factors including environmental conditions and methods of application. In order to fully exploit their potential, further studies on the isolation, formulation and application methods of Streptomyces along with field experiments are required to establish them as effective biocontrol agents. PMID:28144236

  10. Effect of the fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia on Echinostoma paraensei (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelis, Rosane Teixeira; Braga, Fabio Ribeiro; de Carvalho, Lorendane Millena; de Paula, Alessandra Teixeira; Araujo, Juliana Milani; Fausto, Mariana Costa; Junior, Arnaldo Maldonado; Rodrigues, João Victor Facchini; de Freitas Soares, Filippe Elias; Garcia, Juberlan Silva; de Araújo, Jackson Victor

    2014-11-01

    Echinostoma paraensei is a trematode of the genus Echinostoma that causes echinostomiasis in humans. The objectives of this study were to: evaluate the ovicidal activity of the nematophagous fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia (VC1 and VC4) on a solid medium 2% water-agar (2% WA) against E. paraensei eggs (assay A); evaluate ovicidal effect (destruction of eggs) of the isolate VC4 in supplemented culture media (assay B); and evaluate the ovicidal ability of the crude extract (VC4) on E. paraensei eggs (assay C). Eggs of E. paraensei (assay A) were placed in Petri dishes containing 2% WA with an isolate of the fungus P. chlamydosporia (VC1 and VC4) grown for 10 days, and without fungus as a control and evaluated regarding their destruction. In assay B, eggs of E. paraensei were placed in Petri dishes with different supplemented culture media and with VC4 isolate and the destruction of eggs was examined at the end of 25 days of interaction. In assay C, effects of the crude extract of P. chlamydosporia (VC4) on eggs were evaluated at the end of 7 days. In assay A, there was no difference (p>0.05) in ovicidal activity among the tested isolates (VC1 and VC4); however, the highest percentage for ovicidal activity (type 3 effect) was demonstrated by the isolate VC4. In assay B, the culture medium starch-agar showed the best results for the destruction of the eggs, with a percentage of 46.6% at the end of the assay. In assay C, the crude extract of VC4 was effective in the destruction of E. paraensei eggs, with a percentage reduction of 53%. The results of this study demonstrate that a rich culture medium with a greater availability of carbon and nitrogen may interfere directly in the predatory characteristics of ovicidal fungi.

  11. Volatile emissions from an epiphytic fungus are semiochemicals for eusocial wasps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Thomas Seth; Boundy-Mills, Kyria; Landolt, Peter J

    2012-11-01

    Microbes are ubiquitous on plant surfaces. However, interactions between epiphytic microbes and arthropods are rarely considered as a factor that affects arthropod behaviors. Here, volatile emissions from an epiphytic fungus were investigated as semiochemical attractants for two eusocial wasps. The fungus Aureobasidium pullulans was isolated from apples, and the volatile compounds emitted by fungal colonies were quantified. The attractiveness of fungal colonies and fungal volatiles to social wasps (Vespula spp.) were experimentally tested in the field. Three important findings emerged: (1) traps baited with A. pullulans caught 2750 % more wasps on average than unbaited control traps; (2) the major headspace volatiles emitted by A. pullulans were 2-methyl-1-butanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, and 2-phenylethyl alcohol; and (3) a synthetic blend of fungal volatiles attracted 4,933 % more wasps on average than unbaited controls. Wasps were most attracted to 2-methyl-1-butanol. The primary wasp species attracted to fungal volatiles were the western yellowjacket (Vespula pensylvanica) and the German yellowjacket (V. germanica), and both species externally vectored A. pullulans. This is the first study to link microbial volatile emissions with eusocial wasp behaviors, and these experiments indicate that volatile compounds emitted by an epiphytic fungus can be responsible for wasp attraction. This work implicates epiphytic microbes as important components in the community ecology of some eusocial hymenopterans, and fungal emissions may signal suitable nutrient sources to foraging wasps. Our experiments are suggestive of a potential symbiosis, but additional studies are needed to determine if eusocial wasp-fungal associations are widespread, and whether these associations are incidental, facultative, or obligate.

  12. Detection and characterization of a novel Gammapartitivirus in the phytopathogenic fungus Colletotrichum acutatum strain HNZJ001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Jie; Chen, Dan; Lei, Xiang Hua; Zhu, Hong Jian; Zhu, Jun Zi; Da Gao, Bi

    2014-09-22

    Spherical virus-like particles about 40nm in diameter were observed under transmission electron microscope (TEM) and two dsRNA bands (dsRNA-1 and dsRNA-2) were detected on agarose gel after extraction from the mycelial preparation of a Colletotrichum acutatum strain HNZJ001 that isolated from an anthracnose lesion on immature pepper fruit. The complete nucleotide sequences of the dsRNAs were determined. DsRNA-1 (1762 nt) and dsRNA-2 (1381 nt) each contained a single open reading frame and potentially encoded 62 kDa and 40 kDa proteins, respectively. The 62 kDa protein showed similarity to the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) of partitiviruses, while the 40 kDa product had no significant similarity to any published capsid protein throughout all databases, besides of low homology with the hypothetical "capsid" protein of a few partitiviruses in fungus Ustilaginoidea virens. Genome comparison and phylogenetic analysis indicated that the virus is closely related to the mycovirus in the family Partitiviridae. The results suggested a novel two-segment dsRNA virus be detected. We name it Colletotrichum acutatum partitivirus 1 (CaPV1). RT-PCR detection, using a primer pair based on the RdRp of the dsRNA-1 showed very high efficiency of CaPV1 transmission into the progenies of the fungus. Virus curing and fungal phenotype observation for evaluation of the impact of CaPV1 in host fungus were also carried out.

  13. Exploring the Chemodiversity and Biological Activities of the Secondary Metabolites from the Marine Fungus Neosartorya pseudofischeri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-Ling Liang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The production of fungal metabolites can be remarkably influenced by various cultivation parameters. To explore the biosynthetic potentials of the marine fungus, Neosartorya pseudofischeri, which was isolated from the inner tissue of starfish Acanthaster planci, glycerol-peptone-yeast extract (GlyPY and glucose-peptone-yeast extract (GluPY media were used to culture this fungus. When cultured in GlyPY medium, this fungus produced two novel diketopiperazines, neosartins A and B (1 and 2, together with six biogenetically-related known diketopiperazines,1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-2, 3-dimethyl-1,4-dioxopyrazino[1,2-a]indole (3, 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-2-methyl-3-methylen e-1,4-dioxopyrazino[1,2-a]indole (4, 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-2-methyl-1,3,4-trioxopyrazino[1,2-a] indole (5, 6-acetylbis(methylthiogliotoxin (10, bisdethiobis(methylthiogliotoxin (11, didehydrobisdethiobis(methylthiogliotoxin (12 and N-methyl-1H-indole-2-carboxamide (6. However, a novel tetracyclic-fused alkaloid, neosartin C (14, a meroterpenoid, pyripyropene A (15, gliotoxin (7 and five known gliotoxin analogues, acetylgliotoxin (8, reduced gliotoxin (9, 6-acetylbis(methylthiogliotoxin (10, bisdethiobis(methylthio gliotoxin (11 and bis-N-norgliovictin (13, were obtained when grown in glucose-containing medium (GluPY medium. This is the first report of compounds 3, 4, 6, 9, 10 and 12 as naturally occurring. Their structures were determined mainly by MS, 1D and 2D NMR data. The possible biosynthetic pathways of gliotoxin-related analogues and neosartin C were proposed. The antibacterial activity of compounds 2–14 and the cytotoxic activity of compounds 4, 5 and 7–13 were evaluated. Their structure-activity relationships are also preliminarily discussed.

  14. Two new antibiotic pyridones produced by a marine fungus, Trichoderma sp. strain MF106.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bin; Oesker, Vanessa; Wiese, Jutta; Schmaljohann, Rolf; Imhoff, Johannes F

    2014-03-06

    Two unusual pyridones, trichodin A (1) and trichodin B (2), together with the known compound, pyridoxatin (3), were extracted from mycelia and culture broth of the marine fungus, Trichoderma sp. strain MF106 isolated from the Greenland Seas. The structures of the new compounds were characterized as an intramolecular cyclization of a pyridine basic backbone with a phenyl group. The structure and relative configuration of the new compounds were established by spectroscopic means. The new compound 1 and the known compound 3 showed antibiotic activities against the clinically relevant microorganism, Staphylococcus epidermidis, with IC₅₀ values of 24 μM and 4 μM, respectively.

  15. Two New Antibiotic Pyridones Produced by a Marine Fungus, Trichoderma sp. Strain MF106

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Wu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Two unusual pyridones, trichodin A (1 and trichodin B (2, together with the known compound, pyridoxatin (3, were extracted from mycelia and culture broth of the marine fungus, Trichoderma sp. strain MF106 isolated from the Greenland Seas. The structures of the new compounds were characterized as an intramolecular cyclization of a pyridine basic backbone with a phenyl group. The structure and relative configuration of the new compounds were established by spectroscopic means. The new compound 1 and the known compound 3 showed antibiotic activities against the clinically relevant microorganism, Staphylococcus epidermidis, with IC50 values of 24 μM and 4 μM, respectively.

  16. In Vitro Anti-HIV Activity of a Chinese Fungus Extract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZI-CHUN XIANG; YAN JIANG; SHUN-XING GUO

    2006-01-01

    Objective To investigate the inhibitory effect of the mycelium extract from a Chinese fungus (M1) on HIV-1 and its mode of action. Methods Several in vitro methods including time of action, time of addition and PCR were used to test the mode of action of M1. Results M1 inhibited acute HIV infection in vitro and was effective when it was added 12 h after infection. PCR analysis of infected cells demonstrated that M1 delayed the appearance of late product of reverse transcription and HIV was blocked before its RNA expression. Conclusion The target of M 1 is post-integration of proviral DNA.

  17. Anthracoidea caricis-meadii is a new North American smut fungus on Carex sect. Paniceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savchenko, Kyrylo G; Lutz, Matthias; Piatek, Marcin; Heluta, Vasyl P; Nevo, Eviatar

    2013-01-01

    The morphology and phylogeny of Anthracoidea on Carex meadii (sect. Paniceae) collected in Illinois, Iowa, Wisconsin, USA, were studied by light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and LSU rDNA sequence analyses. As a result A. caricis-meadii sp. nov. is described. The fungus differs morphologically from Anthracoidea laxae and A. paniceae, which also occur on sedges from the section Paniceae. Molecular analyses support the placement of the latter species and Anthracoidea caricis-meadii in different phylogenetic lineages. Because of morphological discrepancies in the literature, A. laxae and A. paniceae also are described and illustrated based on re-examination of respective holotype and isotype specimens.

  18. Mineralization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by the white rot fungus Pleurotus ostreatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bezalel, L.; Hadar, Y. [Hebrew Univ. of Jerusalem, Rehovot (Israel); Cerniglia, C.E. [National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR (United States)

    1996-01-01

    White rot fungi, including Pleurotus ostreatus, have the ability to efficiently degrade lignin, a naturally occurring aromatic polymer. Previous work has found these organisms were able to degrade PAHs and in some cases to mineralize them; most of the work was done with Phanerochaete chrysosporium. P. ostreatus differs from P. chrysosporium in its lignin degradation mechanism. In this study, enzymatic activities were monitored during P. ostreatus growth in the presence of PAHs and the fungus`s ability to mineralize catechol and various PAHs was demonstrated. 29 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Gymnemagenin-producing endophytic fungus isolated from a medicinal plant Gymnema sylvestre R.Br.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthasarathy, Ramalingam; Sathiyabama, Muthukrishnan

    2014-03-01

    Gymnema sylvestre is a plant containing the triterpenoid gymnemagenin, which is used in the pharmaceutical industry as an antidiabetic agent. The objective of this study was to determine whether endophytic fungi, isolated from G. sylvestre, produce gymnemagenin. We isolated an endophytic fungal strain from the leaves of G. sylvestre which produces gymnemagenin in the medium. The fungus was identified as Penicillium oxalicum based on morphological and molecular methods. The strain had a component with the same TLC Rf value and HPLC retention time as authentic gymnemagenin. The presence of gymnemagenin was further confirmed by FTIR, UV, and (1)H NMR analyses.

  20. Pestalofones A-E, bioactive cyclohexanone derivatives from the plant endophytic fungus Pestalotiopsis fici.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ling; Liu, Shuchun; Chen, Xulin; Guo, Liangdong; Che, Yongsheng

    2009-01-15

    Pestalofones A-E (1-5), five new cyclohexanone derivatives, have been isolated from cultures of the plant endophytic fungus Pestalotiopsis fici, along with the known compounds, isosulochrin (6), isosulochrin dehydrate (7), and iso-A82775C (8). The structures of 1-5 were determined by NMR spectroscopy, and the absolute configuration of 1 was assigned using the modified Mosher method. Compounds 1, 2, and 5 displayed inhibitory effects on HIV-1 replication in C8166 cells, whereas 3 and 5 showed significant antifungal activity against Aspergillus fumigatus.

  1. Production of Useful Terpenoids by Higher-Fungus Cell Factory and Synthetic Biology Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Han; Zhong, Jian-Jiang

    2016-03-01

    Higher fungi with greater than 70000 species are regarded as a rich source of various natural compounds including terpenoids, the production of which represents a wide range of interest in pharmaceutical and healthcare industries. This review summarizes the current knowledge of terpenoids synthesized by higher fungi, and highlights the current state-of-the-art regarding genetic manipulation of higher fungi. As the focus, this article will discuss the most recent approaches enabling native hosts and heterologous microbes to efficiently produce various terpenoids, especially with regard to the construction of 'smart' higher-fungus cell factories. The merits and demerits of heterologous versus native hosts as cell factories will also be debated.

  2. Terpenoids from the Marine-Derived Fungus Aspergillus fumigatus YK-7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Li, Da-Hong; Li, Zhan-Lin; Sun, Yan-Jun; Hua, Hui-Ming; Liu, Tao; Bai, Jiao

    2015-12-28

    Two new β-bergamotane sesquiterpenoids, E-β-trans-5,8,11-trihydroxybergamot-9-ene (1) and β-trans-2β,5,15-trihydroxybergamot-10-ene (2), were isolated from the marine-derived fungus Aspergillus fumigatus YK-7, along with three known terpenoids 3-5. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods (1D and 2D NMR, HR-ESI-MS). Antiproliferative effects on human leukemic monocyte lymphoma U937 and human prostate cancer PC-3 cell lines were measured in vitro. Compound 4 exhibited potent activity against the U937 cell line with an IC50 value of 4.2 μM.

  3. A Fatty Acid Glycoside from a Marine-Derived Fungus Isolated from Mangrove Plant Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Li Mei

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available To study the antimicrobial components from the endophytic fungus A1 of mangrove plant Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea Gaertn. F., a new fatty acid glucoside was isolated by column chromatography from the broth of A1, and its structure was identified as R-3-hydroxyundecanoic acid methylester-3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranoside (1 by spectroscopic methods including 1D and 2D NMR (HMQC, 1H-1H COSY and HMBC and chemical methods. Antimicrobial assay showed compound 1 possessed modest inhibitory effect on Saphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA using the filter paper disc agar diffusion method.

  4. Role of white rot fungus Funalia trogii in detoxification of textile dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apohan, Elif; Yesilada, Ozfer

    2005-01-01

    Toxic and genotoxic effects of the textile dyes on organisms suggest the need for remediation of dyes before discharging them into the environment. For this reason, the ability of Funalia trogii pellets to detoxify textile dyes was investigated and evaluated. Although, textile dyes are toxic substances for many microorganisms, the pellets were able to decolorize and detoxify the azo dyes used. Astrazon Blue and Red dyes inhibit growth of F. trogii and S. aureus on solid medium in a concentration dependent manner. The toxicity of these dyes on a fungus, F. trogii and a bacterium, S. aureus was significantly decreased after pretreatment with fungal pellets.

  5. Biotransformation of a tetrahydrofuran lignan by the endophytic fungus Phomopsis Sp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verza, Michelle; Arakawa, Nilton S.; Lopes, Norberto P.; Pupo, Monica T.; Said, Suraia; Carvalho, Ivone [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas; Kato, Massuo J. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: carronal@usp.br

    2009-07-01

    The biotrasformation of the tetrahydrofuran lignan, (-)-grandisin, by the endophitic fungus Phomopsis sp, obtained from Viguiera arenaria, led to the formation of a new compound determined as 3,4-dimethyl-2- (4'-hydroxy-3',5'-dimethoxyphenyl)-5-methoxy-tetrahydrofuran. The metabolite was evaluated against the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas's disease, and showed a trypanocidal activity (IC{sub 50} 9.8 {mu}mol L{sup -1}) similar to the natural precursor (IC{sub 50} 3.7 {mu}mol L{sup -1}). (author)

  6. Convergent coevolution in the domestication of coral mushrooms by fungus-growing ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkacsi, A.B.; Pan, J.J.; Villesen, P.;

    2004-01-01

    of parallel coevolution, where the symbionts of each functional group are members of monophyletic groups. However, there is one outstanding exception in the fungus-growing ant system, the unidentified cultivar grown only by ants in the Apterostigma pilosum group. We classify this cultivar in the coral-mushroom...... family Pterulaceae using phylogenetic reconstructions based on broad taxon sampling, including the first mushroom collected from the garden of an ant species in the A. pilosum group. The domestication of the pterulaceous cultivar is independent from the domestication of the gilled mushrooms cultivated...

  7. Pseudosigmoidea ibarakiensis sp. nov., a Dark Septate Endophytic Fungus from a Cedar Forest in Ibaraki, Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Diene, Ousmane; Wang, Wei; Narisawa, Kazuhiko

    2013-01-01

    A dark septate fungus of Pseudosigmoidea, Hyphomycetes, was recovered from forest soil in Ibaraki prefecture, Japan. The isolate is characterized by pale to brown conidia with up to 8 septa measuring 68–132 × 4–7.9 μm. It is also unique in producing conidia borne by long conidogenious cells in agar medium with or without water, compared to P. cranei, which must be immersed in water to sporulate. Morphological analysis indicated that the isolate is distinct from P. cranei and is described as a...

  8. Naphthalenones and Depsidones from a Sponge-Derived Strain of the Fungus Corynespora cassiicola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Lin Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Two new naphthalenones, corynenones A and B (1 and 2, and one new depsidone, corynesidone E (3, together with one known depsidone, corynesidone A (4 and two known diphenyl ethers, corynethers A (5 and B (6, were isolated from the sponge-derived fungus Corynespora cassiicola XS-20090I7. Their structures including absolute configurations were determined by spectroscopic data and electronic circular dichroism (ECD spectra. Compounds 4 and 5 showed cytotoxicity against human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 and human cervical carcinoma HeLa cell lines.

  9. Characterization and spray drying of lipase produced by the endophytic fungus Cercospora kikuchii

    OpenAIRE

    Costa-Silva,T. A.; Souza, C. R. F.; OLIVEIRA, W. P.; Said, S

    2014-01-01

    A lipase from the endophytic fungus Cercospora kikuchii was purified, biochemically characterized and the effects of spray drying on stabilization of the purified enzyme were studied. The lipase was purified 9.31-fold with recovery of 26.6% and specific activity of 223.6 U/mg. The optimum pH and temperature were 4.6 and 35 ºC, respectively, while the Vmax was 10.28 µmol/min.mg-1 protein and Km 0.0324 mM. All the metal ions tested enhanced the enzyme activity. The lipase retained almo...

  10. Aniquinazolines A–D, Four New Quinazolinone Alkaloids from Marine-Derived Endophytic Fungus Aspergillus nidulans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin-Gui Wang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Four new quinazolinone alkaloids, namely, aniquinazolines A–D (1–4, were isolated and identified from the culture of Aspergillus nidulans MA-143, an endophytic fungus obtained from the leaves of marine mangrove plant Rhizophora stylosa. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis, and their absolute configurations were determined on the basis of chiral HPLC analysis of the acidic hydrolysates. The structure for 1 was confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. All these compounds were examined for antibacterial and cytotoxic activity as well as brine shrimp (Artemia salina lethality.

  11. Antiviral alkaloids produced by the mangrove-derived fungus Cladosporium sp. PJX-41.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jixing; Lin, Tao; Wang, Wei; Xin, Zhihong; Zhu, Tianjiao; Gu, Qianqun; Li, Dehai

    2013-06-28

    Six new indole alkaloids including five new glyantrypine derivatives (1, 2a, 2b, 3, 4) and a new pyrazinoquinazoline derivative (5), together with eight known alkaloids (6-13), were isolated from the culture of the mangrove-derived fungus Cladosporium sp. PJX-41. Their structures were elucidated primarily by spectroscopic and physical data. The absolute configurations of compounds 1-9 were established on the basis of CD, NOESY data, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Compounds 2b, 5, 7-9, and 11 exhibited significant activities against influenza virus A (H1N1), with IC50 values of 82-89 μM.

  12. Lipid-lowering polyketides from a soft coral-derived fungus Cladosporium sp. TZP29.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Meilin; Gao, Huquan; Wu, Chongming; Zhu, Tianjiao; Che, Qian; Gu, Qianqun; Guo, Peng; Li, Dehai

    2015-09-01

    Two new C12 polyketides, cladospolides E and F (1 and 2), together with four known derivatives seco-patulolides A and C (3 and 4), 11-hydroxy-γ-dodecalactone (5) and iso-cladospolide B (6), were isolated from a soft coral-derived fungus Cladosporium sp. TZP-29. Their structures, including the absolute configurations, were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis, modified Mosher's method, and the analysis of their biogenesis. All compounds were non-cytotoxic while compounds 1 and 3-5 showed potent lipid-lowering activity in HepG2 hepatocytes.

  13. Biotransformation of chalcones by the endophytic fungus Aspergillus flavus isolated from Paspalum maritimum trin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa, Marivaldo J.C.; Nunes, Fatima M.; Bitencourt, Heriberto R.; Borges, Fabio C.; Guilhon, Giselle M.S.P.; Arruda, Mara S.P.; Marinho, Andrey M. R.; Santos, Alberdan S.; Alves, Claudio N.; Santos, Lourivaldo S., E-mail: lss@ufpa.b [Universidade Federal do Para (IQ/FEQ/UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Inst. de Tecnologia. Faculdade de Engenharia Quimica; Brasil, Davi S.B. [Universidade Federal do Para (PPGQ/IQ/UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Quimica

    2011-07-01

    The fungus Aspergillus flavus isolated as endophytic of the plant Paspalum maritimum Trin. was evaluated for its potential application in biotransformation reactions. The compounds chalcone (1), 3,4,5-trimethoxychalcone (2) and 2,3,4,4'-tetramethoxy chalcone (3) were biotransformed, respectively, in dihydrochalcone (4), 3,4,5-trimethoxydihydrochalcone (5) and 2,3,4,4'-tetramethoxydihydrochalcone (6). The structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including 1D and 2D NMR techniques, and MS analysis. The dihydrochalcones 5 and 6 are new compounds. (author)

  14. A new naphthoquinoneimine derivative from the marine algal-derived endophytic fungus Aspergillus niger EN-13

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Cultivation of an endophytic fungus Aspergillus niger EN-13 that was isolated from the inner tissue of the marine brown alga Colpomenia sinuosa resulted in the characterization of a new naphthoquinoneimine derivative, namely, 5,7-dihydroxy-2-[1-(4-methoxy-6-oxo-6H-pyran-2-yl)-2-phenylethylamino]-[ 1,4]naphthoquinone. The structure of the new compound was established on the basis of various NMR spectroscopic analyses including 2D NMR techniques, EI-MS, and HR-ESI-MS. This compound displayed moderate antifungal activity.

  15. Sensitivity of the Entomogenous Fungus Beauveria bassiana to Selected Plant Growth Regulators and Spray Additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storey, Greggory K.; Gardner, Wayne A.

    1986-01-01

    Mefluidide was the only one of four plant growth regulators that caused little to no significant inhibition of in vitro germination and growth of the entomogenous fungus Beauveria bassiana. Silaid, paclobutrazol, and flurprimidol significantly inhibited germination and growth. Mortality of fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, resulting from B. bassiana was significantly reduced when larvae were exposed to conidia plus soil treated with paclobutrazol. Larval mortality resulting from conidia plus soil treated with mefluidide did not differ significantly from mortality resulting from untreated conidia. Triton CS-7 was the only one of eight spray adjuvants that significantly inhibited germination of B. bassiana conidia. PMID:16347095

  16. Sulfation and Enhanced Antioxidant Capacity of an Exopolysaccharide Produced by the Medicinal Fungus Cordyceps sinensis

    OpenAIRE

    Jing-Kun Yan; Wen-Qiang Wang; Hai-Le Ma; Jian-Yong Wu

    2012-01-01

    EPS-1 was an exopolysaccharide produced by the medicinal fungus Cordyceps sinensis (Cs-HK1). In the present study, EPS-1 was sulfated with chlorosulfonic acid (CSA)-pyridine (Pyr) at different volume ratios, yielding four sulfated derivatives, SEPS-1A, B, C and D, with different degrees of substitution (DS: 0.25–1.38) and molecular weights (17.1–4.1 kDa). The sulfation of EPS-1 occurred most frequently at the C-6 hydroxyl groups due to their higher reactivity. In aqueous s...

  17. In vivo expression of genes in the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana during infection of lepidopteran larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galidevara, Sandhya; Reineke, Annette; Koduru, Uma Devi

    2016-05-01

    The entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuillemin is commercially available as a bio insecticide. The expression of three genes previously identified to have a role in pathogenicity in in vitro studies was validated in vivo in three lepidopteran insects infected with B. bassiana. Expression of all three genes was observed in all the tested insects starting from 48 or 72h to 10d post infection corroborating their role in pathogenicity. We suggest that it is essential to test the expression of putative pathogenicity genes both in vitro and in vivo to understand their role in different insect species.

  18. A new minor diketopiperazine from the sponge-derived fungus Simplicillium sp. YZ-11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Bing-Fei; Fang, Sheng-Tao; Li, Wen-Zuo; Liu, Su-Jing; Wang, Jian-Hua; Xia, Chuan-Hai

    2015-01-01

    Chemical investigation of the cultures of a sponge-derived fungus Simplicillium sp. YZ-11 led to the isolation of a new minor diketopiperazine alkaloid cyclo-(2-hydroxy-Pro-Gly) (1) and a natural lactone (S)-dihydro-5-[(S)- hydroxyphenylmethyl]-2(3H)-furanone (2), together with five known ergostane-type sterols (3-7). Their structures were established based on extensive spectroscopic methods ((1)H and (13)C NMR, (1)H-(1)H COSY, HSQC and HMBC) and optical rotation analysis.

  19. Pretrichodermamides D–F from a Marine Algicolous Fungus Penicillium sp. KMM 4672

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurchenko, Anton N.; Smetanina, Olga F.; Ivanets, Elena V.; Kalinovsky, Anatoly I.; Khudyakova, Yuliya V.; Kirichuk, Natalya N.; Popov, Roman S.; Bokemeyer, Carsten; von Amsberg, Gunhild; Chingizova, Ekaterina A.; Afiyatullov, Shamil Sh.; Dyshlovoy, Sergey A.

    2016-01-01

    Three new epidithiodiketopiperazines pretrichodermamides D–F (1–3), together with the known N-methylpretrichodermamide B (4) and pretrichodermamide С (5), were isolated from the lipophilic extract of the marine algae-derived fungus Penicillium sp. KMM 4672. The structures of compounds 1–5 were determined based on spectroscopic methods. The absolute configuration of pretrichodermamide D (1) was established by a combination of modified Mosher′s method, NOESY data, and biogenetic considerations. N-Methylpretrichodermamide B (5) showed strong cytotoxicity against 22Rv1 human prostate cancer cells resistant to androgen receptor targeted therapies. PMID:27355960

  20. Pretrichodermamides D–F from a Marine Algicolous Fungus Penicillium sp. KMM 4672

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton N. Yurchenko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Three new epidithiodiketopiperazines pretrichodermamides D–F (1–3, together with the known N-methylpretrichodermamide B (4 and pretrichodermamide С (5, were isolated from the lipophilic extract of the marine algae-derived fungus Penicillium sp. KMM 4672. The structures of compounds 1–5 were determined based on spectroscopic methods. The absolute configuration of pretrichodermamide D (1 was established by a combination of modified Mosher′s method, NOESY data, and biogenetic considerations. N-Methylpretrichodermamide B (5 showed strong cytotoxicity against 22Rv1 human prostate cancer cells resistant to androgen receptor targeted therapies.

  1. Punctaporonins H–M: Caryophyllene-Type Sesquiterpenoids from the Sponge-Associated Fungus Hansfordia sinuosae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zehong Wu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Six new caryophyllene-based sesquiterpenoids named punctaporonins H–M (1–6, together with punctaporonin B (7 and humulane (8 were isolated from the fermentation broth of the sponge-derived fungus Hansfordia sinuosae. Their structures were determined by the extensive HRESIMS and NMR spectroscopic analysis, including the X-ray crystallographic data for the assignment of the absolute configurations of punctaporonins H–I (1–2. The isolated compounds were evaluated for antihyperlipidemic, cytotoxic and antimicrobial activities, and punctaporonin K (4 exhibited potent effects to reduce the triglycerides and total cholesterol in the intracellular levels.

  2. Evaluación espacial y temporal de la diversidad de los ascomicetes dulceacuícolas del canal turístico Santa Cruz, Xochimilco, México Spatial and temporal evaluation of the diversity of freshwater Ascomycetes from the touristic channel Santa Cruz, Xochimilco, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Chavarria

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Se investigó la diversidad de los ascomicetes del canal Santa Cruz, considerado el de mayor importancia turística en Xochimilco, Distrito Federal. En 2007 se realizaron 2 muestreos en las épocas de menor y mayor precipitación. En el márgen del canal se establecieron 4 estaciones de muestreo con diferente grado de urbanización y en cada una se sumergieron bloques de madera de Virola sp., Tabebuia donnell-smithii, Bucida buceras, Pinus sp., Cupressus lindlei y Abies religiosa durante 8 semanas. Se midió la temperatura, el pH, el oxígeno disuelto, la materia orgánica y el fósforo, y se determinó el número más probable de bacterias coliformes del agua. Para evaluar los datos, se aplicaron el índice de diversidad de Shannon y el índice de similitud de Sørensen. La mayor diversidad de ascomicetes (H' = 1.152 se registró en la tercera estación, ubicada en la zona de viveros con flores y la menor diversidad (H' = 0.976 se obtuvo en la primera estación, localizada frente al embarcadero Santa Cruz, ambos valores de diversidad coincidieron con el grado de urbanización y con los datos fisicoquímicos y bacteriológicos. La temporada de lluvias presentó la diversidad más baja debido probablemente al efecto de la precipitación en este ambiente acuático.The diversity of freshwater Ascomycetes was determined in the touristic channel Santa Cruz, Xochimilco, Mexico. Two surveys were conducted in 2007 during the dry and wet season. Four sampling sites were selected in the channel margin, based on the level of urbanization. At each sampling site, wood panels of Tabebuia donnell-smithii, Bucida buceras, Pinus sp., Cupressus lindlei and Abies religiosa were submerged during 8 weeks. Water temperature, dissolved oxygen, organic matter, phosphorus and most probable number of coliform bacteria were determined. Results were evaluated using the diversity index of Shannon and the index of similarity of Sørensen. The highest Ascomycete diversity

  3. A new chytridiomycete fungus intermixed with crustacean resting eggs in a 407-million-year-old continental freshwater environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strullu-Derrien, Christine; Gora, Tomasz; Longcore, Joyce E.

    2016-01-01

    The 407-million-year-old Rhynie Chert (Scotland) contains the most intact fossilised remains of an early land-based ecosystem including plants, arthropods, fungi and other microorganisms. Although most studies have focused on the terrestrial component, fossilised freshwater environments provide...... critical insights into fungal-algal interactions and the earliest continental branchiopod crustaceans. Here we report interactions between an enigmatic organism and an exquisitely preserved fungus. The fungal reproductive structures are intermixed with exceptionally well-preserved globular spiny structures...... interpreted as branchiopod resting eggs. Confocal laser scanning microscopy enabled us to reconstruct the fungus and its possible mode of nutrition, the affinity of the resting eggs, and their spatial associations. The new fungus (Cultoraquaticus trewini gen. et sp. nov) is attributed to Chytridiomycota based...

  4. Synthesis of fungus-like MoS{sub 2} nanosheets with ultrafast adsorption capacities toward organic dyes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, HaoJie; You, Shengsheng [Jiangsu University, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu (China); Jia, XiaoHua [Jiangsu University, School of Environment and Safety Engineering, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu (China)

    2015-11-15

    Fungus-like molybdenum disulfide (MoS{sub 2}) nanosheets with a thickness of a few nanometers have been successfully synthesized via one-pot hydrothermal method. The as-prepared MoS{sub 2} nanosheets with a high surface area of 106.989 m{sup 2} g{sup -1} exhibited excellent wastewater treatment performance with high removal capacities toward organic dyes. In addition, the fungus-like MoS{sub 2} nanosheets can absorb Congo red completely within 2 min. Successful access to high quality fungus-like MoS{sub 2} nanosheets will make it possible for their potential application in catalysis and other fields. (orig.)

  5. The fungus-growing termite Macrotermes natalensis harbors bacillaene-producing Bacillus sp. that inhibit potentially antagonistic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Um, Soohyun; Fraimout, Antoine; Sapountzis, Panagiotis; Oh, Dong-Chan; Poulsen, Michael

    2013-11-19

    The ancient fungus-growing termite (Mactrotermitinae) symbiosis involves the obligate association between a lineage of higher termites and basidiomycete Termitomyces cultivar fungi. Our investigation of the fungus-growing termite Macrotermes natalensis shows that Bacillus strains from M. natalensis colonies produce a single major antibiotic, bacillaene A (1), which selectively inhibits known and putatively antagonistic fungi of Termitomyces. Comparative analyses of the genomes of symbiotic Bacillus strains revealed that they are phylogenetically closely related to Bacillus subtilis, their genomes have high homology with more than 90% of ORFs being 100% identical, and the sequence identities across the biosynthetic gene cluster for bacillaene are higher between termite-associated strains than to the cluster previously reported in B. subtilis. Our findings suggest that this lineage of antibiotic-producing Bacillus may be a defensive symbiont involved in the protection of the fungus-growing termite cultivar.

  6. Bacterial communities in termite fungus combs are comprised of consistent gut deposits and contributions from the environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otani, Saria; Hansen, Lars Hestbjerg; Sørensen, Søren J

    2016-01-01

    Fungus-growing termites (subfamily Macrotermitinae) mix plant forage with asexual spores of their plant-degrading fungal symbiont Termitomyces in their guts and deposit this blend in fungus comb structures, within which the plant matter is degraded. As Termitomyces grows, it produces nodules...... with asexual spores, which the termites feed on. Since all comb material passes through termite guts, it is inevitable that gut bacteria are also deposited in the comb, but it has remained unknown which bacteria are deposited and whether distinct comb bacterial communities are sustained. Using high......-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, we explored the bacterial community compositions of 33 fungus comb samples from four termite species (three genera) collected at four South African geographic locations in 2011 and 2013. We identified 33 bacterial phyla, with Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria...

  7. Investigating the effects of laser beams (532 and 660 nm) in annihilation of pistachio mould fungus using spectrophotometry analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saghafi, S.; Penjweini, R.; Becker, K.; Kratky, K. W.; Dodt, H.-U.

    2010-09-01

    When moulds are illuminated by visible electromagnetic-EM radiations, several effects on nucleus materials and nucleotides can be detected. These effects have a significant influence on mould generation or destruction. This paper presents the effects and implications of a red diode laser beam (660 nm), a second-harmonics of a Nd:YAG laser emitting green beam (532 nm), or the combination of both, on the eradication of Pistachio mould fungus. Incident doses (ID) of both beams are kept identical throughout the experiment. The absorption spectrums of irradiated mouldy samples and the bright-greenish-yellow-fluorescence (BGYF) of fungus occurring in mould texture due to electronic excitation are investigated. We found that a combination of a green and a red laser beam with an ID of 0.5 J/cm2 provides the optimal effects on Pistachio mould fungus eradication.

  8. Bioactive secondary metabolites from Nigrospora sp. LLGLM003, an endophytic fungus of the medicinal plant Moringa oleifera Lam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, J H; Zhang, Y L; Wang, L W; Wang, J Y; Zhang, C L

    2012-05-01

    An endophytic fungus was isolated from the root of the medicinal plant Moringa oleifera Lam. Based on analyzing the rDNA sequence, the fungus was identified as Nigrospora sp. This is the first report of the isolation of endophytic Nigrospora from M. oleifera. By bioassay-guided fractionation, four antifungal secondary metabolites were isolated from liquid cultures of the fungus Nigrospora sp. LLGLM003, and their chemical structures were determined to be griseofulvin (1), dechlorogriseofulvin (2), 8-dihydroramulosin (3) and mellein (4) on the basis of spectroscopic analyses. Compound 2, 3 and 4 were isolated from Nigrospora sp. for the first time. In vitro antifungal assay showed that griseofulvin displayed clear inhibition of the growth of 8 plant pathogenic fungi. Dechlorogriseofulvin and mellein exhibited only weak antifungal activities, whereas 8-dihydroramulosin displayed no antifungal activities.

  9. Bacterial communities in termite fungus combs are comprised of consistent gut deposits and contributions from the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, Saria; Hansen, Lars H; Sørensen, Søren J; Poulsen, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Fungus-growing termites (subfamily Macrotermitinae) mix plant forage with asexual spores of their plant-degrading fungal symbiont Termitomyces in their guts and deposit this blend in fungus comb structures, within which the plant matter is degraded. As Termitomyces grows, it produces nodules with asexual spores, which the termites feed on. Since all comb material passes through termite guts, it is inevitable that gut bacteria are also deposited in the comb, but it has remained unknown which bacteria are deposited and whether distinct comb bacterial communities are sustained. Using high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, we explored the bacterial community compositions of 33 fungus comb samples from four termite species (three genera) collected at four South African geographic locations in 2011 and 2013. We identified 33 bacterial phyla, with Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Candidate division TM7 jointly accounting for 92 % of the reads. Analyses of gut microbiotas from 25 of the 33 colonies showed that dominant fungus comb taxa originate from the termite gut. While gut communities were consistent between 2011 and 2013, comb community compositions shifted over time. These shifts did not appear to be due to changes in the taxa present, but rather due to differences in the relative abundances of primarily gut-derived bacteria within fungus combs. This indicates that fungus comb microbiotas are largely termite species-specific due to major contributions from gut deposits and also that environment affects which gut bacteria dominate comb communities at a given point in time.

  10. RNAi silencing of a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase disrupts the ability of a filamentous fungus, Graphium sp. to grow on short-chain gaseous alkanes and ethers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graphium sp. (ATCC 58400), a filamentous fungus, is one of the few eukaryotes that grows on short-chain alkanes and ethers. In this study, we investigated the genetic underpinnings that enable this fungus to catalyze the first step in the alkane and ether oxidation pathway. A gene, CYP52L1, was iden...

  11. [Use of Endoglucanase IV from Trichoderma reesei to Enhance the Hydrolytic Activity of a Cellulase Complex from the Fungus Penicillium verruculosum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proskurina, O V; Korotkova, O G; Rozhkova, A M; Kondrat'eva, E G; Matys, V Yu; Zorov, I N; Koshelev, A V; Okunev, O N; Nemashkalov, V A; Bubnova, T V; Sinitsyn, A P

    2015-01-01

    The effect of polysaccharide monooxygenase (endoglucanase IV) from the fungus Trichoderma reesei on the hydrolysis of polysaccharide substrates by cellulases secreted by the fungus Penicillium verruculosum has been investigated. Supplementation of the enzyme complex from P. verruculosum by endoglucanase IV from T. reesei has been shown to elevate the efficiency of cellulose hydrolysis by 45%.

  12. The anaerobic fungus Neocallimastix sp. strain L2 : Growth and production of (Hemi)cellulolytic enzymes on a range of carbohydrate substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkerman, R; Ledeboer, J; op den Camp, H.J M; Prins, R.A; van der Drift, C

    1997-01-01

    The anaerobic fungus Neocallimastix sp. strain L2, isolated from the feces of a Ilama, was tested for growth on a range of soluble and insoluble carbohydrate substrates. The fungus was able to ferment glucose, cellobiose, fructose, lactose, maltose, sucrose, soluble starch, inulin, filter paper cell

  13. Effects of substrate, ant and fungal species on plant fiber degradation in a fungus-gardening ant symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMilto, Alexandria M; Rouquette, Monte; Mueller, Ulrich G; Kellner, Katrin; Seal, Jon N

    2017-02-11

    Fungus-gardening or attine ants have outsourced most of their digestive function to a symbiotic fungus. The ants feed their fungus - essentially an external digestive organ - a variety of substrates of botanical origin, including fresh and dried flowers, leaves and insect frass (processed leaves). Although plant tissues are rich in fibers (lignocelluloses, hemicelluloses, pectins and starches) and the symbiotic fungus possesses the genetic and enzymatic machinery to metabolize these compounds, the highly derived attines, the leaf-cutters (Atta and Acromyrmex), are known to produce fiber-rich waste. While leaf-cutting ants are important consumers of primary plant tissue, there have been fewer studies on physiological activity of fungi grown by closely related ant species in the genus Trachymyrmex, which generally grow related species of fungi, have smaller colonies and consume a wider variety of fungal substrates in addition to fresh leaves and flowers. In this study, we measured the cellulase activity of the fungus-gardening ants Atta texana, Trachymyrmex arizonensis and T. septentrionalis. We then quantified fiber consumption of the fungus-gardening ants Trachymyrmex septentrionalis and Trachymyrmex arizonensis by comparing the amounts and percentages present in their food and in fungus garden refuse during a controlled feeding experiment over the span of several months. Finally, we compared waste composition of T. arizonensis colonies growing different fungal strains, because this species is known to cultivate multiple strains of Leucoagaricus in its native range. The leaf-cutting ant A. texana was found to have lower cellulytic activity than T. arizonensis or T. septentrionalis. Total lignocellulose and hemicellulose amounts were significantly lower in refuse piles than in the substrates fed to the Trachymyrmex colonies, thus these fibers were consumed by the fungal symbionts of these ant species. Although lignocellulose utilization was similar in two distinct

  14. Phosphorus uptake of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus is not effected by the biocontrol bacterium ¤Burkholderia cepacia¤

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravnskov, S.; Larsen, J.; Jakobsen, I.

    2002-01-01

    the amount of branched PLFAs suggesting a reduction in the population of Gram-positive bacteria in these cases. In conclusion, the B. cepacia seems to have no impact on neither mycorrhiza formation nor on the functioning of the AM fungus G. intraradices in terms of P transport, whereas our results suggest......The biocontrol bacterium Burkholderia cepacia is known to suppress a broad range of root pathogenic fungi, while its impact on other beneficial non-target organisms such as arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi is unknown. Direct interactions between five B. cepacia strains and the AM fungus, Glomus...

  15. The sexed shape of Helminthosporium gramineum Rabh. fungus involved in increasing disease damage of torn leaves in barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorel FLORIAN

    1988-08-01

    Full Text Available The onset of some sclerotic formations are reported on barley straws on which the following microscopic investigations and biometrical measurements peritecia, ascia and ascospores of Pyrenophora graminea (Rabh. Ito et Kurib. were detected, representing the sexed multiplication of fungus Helminthosporium gramineum, the pathogenic factor causing leaf tearing in barley, a condition rarely encountered in nature. Owing to the great number of peritecia on barley straw residues, we are of the opinion that the sexed multiplication of fungus represents a real danger in barley cultivation assigning the efficient control steps against this pest.

  16. Application of the Kombucha 'tea fungus' for the enhancement of antioxidant and starch hydrolase inhibitory properties of ten herbal teas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watawana, Mindani I; Jayawardena, Nilakshi; Choo, Candy; Waisundara, Viduranga Y

    2016-03-01

    Ten herbal teas (Acacia arabica, Aegle marmelos flower, A. marmelos root bark, Aerva lanata, Asteracantha longifolia, Cassia auriculata, Hemidesmus indicus, Hordeum vulgare, Phyllanthus emblica, Tinospora cordifolia) were fermented with the Kombucha 'tea fungus'. The pH values of the fermented beverages ranged from 4.0 to 6.0 by day 7, while the titratable acidity ranged from 2.5 to 5.0g/mL (Pantioxidant and starch hydrolase inhibitory potential of the herbal teas was observed by adding the tea fungus.

  17. Purificação de lacases PPO-I de Botryosphaeria rhodina - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v27i3.1317 Purification of laccases PPO-I of fungus Botryosphaeria rhodina - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v27i3.1317

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalva Tomoe Miyagui

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Lacases são glicoproteínas polifenol oxidases envolvidas na patogenicidade de alguns fungos e úteis em processos biotecnológicos. O ascomiceto ligninolítico Botryosphaeria rhodina tem sido estudado como produtor de exopolissacarídeos e de lacases PPO-I e PPO-II induzidas pelo álcool veratrílico. Como as lacases produzidas ainda não foram isoladas, o objetivo deste trabalho foi purificar lacases PPO-I e identificar os carboidratos constituintes da porção glicosídica. O fungo foi cultivado em meio mínimo de Vogel contendo 1% de glicose e 30,4 mM de álcool veratrílico, a 28C e agitação de 180 rpm durante 4,5 dias. O extrato livre de células apresentou elevada concentração de carboidratos e de PPO-I estáveis a 4ºC e -18ºC durante 40 dias. Técnicas de ultrafiltração, cromatografia em gel Sephadex G-100 e em resina DEAE-Celulose purificaram lacases PPO-I com peso molecular de 113 kDa por eletroforese PAGE-SDS, contendo 40% de proteínas e 60% carboidratos identificados por HPAEC-PAD como fucose, galactose, manose, glucose e glucosaminaLaccases are glycoprotein polyphenol oxidases which are involved in fungal pathogenicity and they are also useful for biotechnological applications. The ligninolytic ascomycete, Botryosphaeria rhodina, has been studied as producer of exopolysaccharide and PPO-I and PPO-II laccases induced by veratryl alcohol. However, as the induced laccases have not been isolated, the aim of this study was to purify the enzyme and to identify the carbohydrates constituents of the glycosidic moiety. The fungus was cultivated on broth Vogel, 1% glucose and 30.4mM veratryl alcohol during 4.5 days at 28°C/180 rpm. The extracellular fluid showed high carbohydrate concentration and the stability of PPO-I laccase under conditions of refrigeration and freezing at 4ºC-18ºC over 40 days. The purification was developed by ultrafiltration using a NMWL 100 and 30 kDa membrane, gelfiltration on Sephadex G-100, and ion

  18. A single Streptomyces symbiont makes multiple antifungals to support the fungus farming ant Acromyrmex octospinosus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan F Seipke

    Full Text Available Attine ants are dependent on a cultivated fungus for food and use antibiotics produced by symbiotic Actinobacteria as weedkillers in their fungus gardens. Actinobacterial species belonging to the genera Pseudonocardia, Streptomyces and Amycolatopsis have been isolated from attine ant nests and shown to confer protection against a range of microfungal weeds. In previous work on the higher attine Acromyrmex octospinosus we isolated a Streptomyces strain that produces candicidin, consistent with another report that attine ants use Streptomyces-produced candicidin in their fungiculture. Here we report the genome analysis of this Streptomyces strain and identify multiple antibiotic biosynthetic pathways. We demonstrate, using gene disruptions and mass spectrometry, that this single strain has the capacity to make candicidin and multiple antimycin compounds. Although antimycins have been known for >60 years we report the sequence of the biosynthetic gene cluster for the first time. Crucially, disrupting the candicidin and antimycin gene clusters in the same strain had no effect on bioactivity against a co-evolved nest pathogen called Escovopsis that has been identified in ∼30% of attine ant nests. Since the Streptomyces strain has strong bioactivity against Escovopsis we conclude that it must make additional antifungal(s to inhibit Escovopsis. However, candicidin and antimycins likely offer protection against other microfungal weeds that infect the attine fungal gardens. Thus, we propose that the selection of this biosynthetically prolific strain from the natural environment provides A. octospinosus with broad spectrum activity against Escovopsis and other microfungal weeds.

  19. A single Streptomyces symbiont makes multiple antifungals to support the fungus farming ant Acromyrmex octospinosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seipke, Ryan F; Barke, Jörg; Brearley, Charles; Hill, Lionel; Yu, Douglas W; Goss, Rebecca J M; Hutchings, Matthew I

    2011-01-01

    Attine ants are dependent on a cultivated fungus for food and use antibiotics produced by symbiotic Actinobacteria as weedkillers in their fungus gardens. Actinobacterial species belonging to the genera Pseudonocardia, Streptomyces and Amycolatopsis have been isolated from attine ant nests and shown to confer protection against a range of microfungal weeds. In previous work on the higher attine Acromyrmex octospinosus we isolated a Streptomyces strain that produces candicidin, consistent with another report that attine ants use Streptomyces-produced candicidin in their fungiculture. Here we report the genome analysis of this Streptomyces strain and identify multiple antibiotic biosynthetic pathways. We demonstrate, using gene disruptions and mass spectrometry, that this single strain has the capacity to make candicidin and multiple antimycin compounds. Although antimycins have been known for >60 years we report the sequence of the biosynthetic gene cluster for the first time. Crucially, disrupting the candicidin and antimycin gene clusters in the same strain had no effect on bioactivity against a co-evolved nest pathogen called Escovopsis that has been identified in ∼30% of attine ant nests. Since the Streptomyces strain has strong bioactivity against Escovopsis we conclude that it must make additional antifungal(s) to inhibit Escovopsis. However, candicidin and antimycins likely offer protection against other microfungal weeds that infect the attine fungal gardens. Thus, we propose that the selection of this biosynthetically prolific strain from the natural environment provides A. octospinosus with broad spectrum activity against Escovopsis and other microfungal weeds.

  20. Increased Soil Heavy Metal Concentrations Aff ect the Structure of Soil Fungus Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaidilutė Dirginčiutė-volodkienė

    2011-03-01

    Elevated Cu, Zn and Pb concentrations in the soil influenced fungus community structure. Some species (Absidia glauca, Acremonium kiliense, Aspergillus fumigatus, and Alternaria alternata detected in the control soil community were eliminated, while the abundance of the other species increased. Paecillomyces genus dominated in the soil amended with either of Cu or Zn. P. farinosus, P. fumosoroseum and fungal species from the Clonostachys, Penicillium and Lecanicillium genera were Znresistant. P. lilacinus and plant pathogenic fungi, A. alternata, Fusarium oxysporum, F. solani and Phoma lingam were very abundant in soil amended with Cu salts, followed by some saprotrophic fungi such as Cunninghamella echinulata and Mucor hiemalis f. hiemalis. An overall change in the plant (cress, Lepidum sativum; wheat, Ticicum aestivum; lupine, Lupinus polyphyllus, and sunflower, Heliannthus annus seed viability was observed in comparison with control. Most deleterious effects on the seed germination were observed in case of zinc, medium – in case of copper, and the least – in case of lead. Zinc salts at used concentrations were unfavorable to both fungus populations and consequently to the seed viability.