WorldWideScience

Sample records for ascidian organisation gene

  1. Ascidian gene-expression profiles

    OpenAIRE

    William R Jeffery

    2002-01-01

    With the advent of gene-expression profiling, a large number of genes can now be investigated simultaneously during critical stages of development. This approach will be particularly informative in studies of ascidians, basal chordates whose genomes and embryology are uniquely suited for mapping developmental gene networks.

  2. Huntingtin gene evolution in Chordata and its peculiar features in the ascidian Ciona genus

    OpenAIRE

    Cattaneo Elena; Pesole Graziano; Gissi Carmela; Tartari Marzia

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background To gain insight into the evolutionary features of the huntingtin (htt) gene in Chordata, we have sequenced and characterized the full-length htt mRNA in the ascidian Ciona intestinalis, a basal chordate emerging as new invertebrate model organism. Moreover, taking advantage of the availability of genomic and EST sequences, the htt gene structure of a number of chordate species, including the cogeneric ascidian Ciona savignyi, and the vertebrates Xenopus and Gallus was reco...

  3. Huntingtin gene evolution in Chordata and its peculiar features in the ascidian Ciona genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cattaneo Elena

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To gain insight into the evolutionary features of the huntingtin (htt gene in Chordata, we have sequenced and characterized the full-length htt mRNA in the ascidian Ciona intestinalis, a basal chordate emerging as new invertebrate model organism. Moreover, taking advantage of the availability of genomic and EST sequences, the htt gene structure of a number of chordate species, including the cogeneric ascidian Ciona savignyi, and the vertebrates Xenopus and Gallus was reconstructed. Results The C. intestinalis htt transcript exhibits some peculiar features, such as spliced leader trans-splicing in the 98 nt-long 5' untranslated region (UTR, an alternative splicing in the coding region, eight alternative polyadenylation sites, and no similarities of both 5' and 3'UTRs compared to homologs of the cogeneric C. savignyi. The predicted protein is 2946 amino acids long, shorter than its vertebrate homologs, and lacks the polyQ and the polyP stretches found in the the N-terminal regions of mammalian homologs. The exon-intron organization of the htt gene is almost identical among vertebrates, and significantly conserved between Ciona and vertebrates, allowing us to hypothesize an ancestral chordate gene consisting of at least 40 coding exons. Conclusion During chordate diversification, events of gain/loss, sliding, phase changes, and expansion of introns occurred in both vertebrate and ascidian lineages predominantly in the 5'-half of the htt gene, where there is also evidence of lineage-specific evolutionary dynamics in vertebrates. On the contrary, the 3'-half of the gene is highly conserved in all chordates at the level of both gene structure and protein sequence. Between the two Ciona species, a fast evolutionary rate and/or an early divergence time is suggested by the absence of significant similarity between UTRs, protein divergence comparable to that observed between mammals and fishes, and different distribution of repetitive

  4. Ordered expression pattern of Hox and ParaHox genes along the alimentary canal in the ascidian juvenile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Satoshi; Satou, Kunihiro; Orito, Wataru; Ogasawara, Michio

    2016-07-01

    The Hox and ParaHox genes of bilateria share a similar expression pattern along the body axis and are known to be associated with anterior-posterior patterning. In vertebrates, the Hox genes are also expressed in presomitic mesoderm and gut endoderm and the ParaHox genes show a restricted expression pattern in the gut-related derivatives. Regional expression patterns in the embryonic central nervous system of the basal chordates amphioxus and ascidian have been reported; however, little is known about their endodermal expression in the alimentary canal. We focus on the Hox and ParaHox genes in the ascidian Ciona intestinalis and investigate the gene expression patterns in the juvenile, which shows morphological regionality in the alimentary canal. Gene expression analyses by using whole-mount in situ hybridization reveal that all Hox genes have a regional expression pattern along the alimentary canal. Expression of Hox1 to Hox4 is restricted to the posterior region of pharyngeal derivatives. Hox5 to Hox13 show an ordered expression pattern correlated with each Hox gene number along the postpharyngeal digestive tract. This expression pattern along the anterior-posterior axis has also been observed in Ciona ParaHox genes. Our observations suggest that ascidian Hox and ParaHox clusters are dispersed; however, the ordered expression patterns along the alimentary canal appear to be conserved among chordates. PMID:26837224

  5. A genomewide analysis of genes for the heat shock protein 70 chaperone system in the ascidian Ciona intestinalis

    OpenAIRE

    Wada, Shuichi; Hamada, Mayuko; Satoh, Nori

    2006-01-01

    Molecular chaperones play crucial roles in various aspects of the biogenesis and maintenance of proteins in the cell. The heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) chaperone system, in which HSP70 proteins act as chaperones, is one of the major molecular chaperone systems conserved among a variety of organisms. To shed light on the evolutionary history of the constituents of the chordate HSP70 chaperone system and to identify all of the components of the HSP70 chaperone system in ascidians, we carried ou...

  6. Organisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Henrik B.; Hansen, Kaj; Heide, Asbjørn;

    Bogen giver en indføring i de centrale emner indenfor organisation og ledelse. Bogen henvender sig især til akademi- og diplomuddannelserne samt uddannelser til professionsbachelorer, der alle har et anvendelsesorienteret formål. Endvidere henvender bogen sig til uddannelser og kurser, der...... beskæftiger sig med ledelse og organisation på et videregående niveau. Til bogen er der udarbejdet en lang række supplerende materialer til undervisere og studerende i form af opgaver og cases, test med tilhørende svar, vejledninger i opgaveløsning og projektarbejde. dette univers kan findes på bogens...... hjemmeside på www.organisation.academica.dk...

  7. An otx/nodal regulatory signature for posterior neural development in ascidians.

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    Agnès Roure

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In chordates, neural induction is the first step of a complex developmental process through which ectodermal cells acquire a neural identity. In ascidians, FGF-mediated neural induction occurs at the 32-cell stage in two blastomere pairs, precursors respectively of anterior and posterior neural tissue. We combined molecular embryology and cis-regulatory analysis to unveil in the ascidian Ciona intestinalis the remarkably simple proximal genetic network that controls posterior neural fate acquisition downstream of FGF. We report that the combined action of two direct FGF targets, the TGFβ factor Nodal, acting via Smad- and Fox-binding sites, and the transcription factor Otx suffices to trigger ascidian posterior neural tissue formation. Moreover, we found that this strategy is conserved in the distantly related ascidian Phallusia mammillata, in spite of extreme sequence divergence in the cis-regulatory sequences involved. Our results thus highlight that the modes of gene regulatory network evolution differ with the evolutionary scale considered. Within ascidians, developmental regulatory networks are remarkably robust to genome sequence divergence. Between ascidians and vertebrates, major fate determinants, such as Otx and Nodal, can be co-opted into different networks. Comparative developmental studies in ascidians with divergent genomes will thus uncover shared ascidian strategies, and contribute to a better understanding of the diversity of developmental strategies within chordates.

  8. Genomics and developmental approaches to an ascidian adenohypophysis primordium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kano, Shungo

    2010-07-01

    Ascidians, which are the closest phylogenetic relatives to vertebrates, lack a distinct pituitary gland, which is the major endocrine gland in vertebrates. Nevertheless, for the past 130 years, it has been debated that the ascidian neural complex (NC) is homologous to the pituitary. Of the three major components of the NC, the neural gland (NG) has mainly been thought to be the ascidian counterpart of the pituitary. Recently, however, the ciliated funnel, and not the NG, was postulated to be the adenohypophysis (AH) primordium because it is likely derived from oral ectoderm, and because the expression of several placodal genes is comparable to their expression in vertebrates. An extensive in silico survey of the Ciona intestinalis genome sequence revealed that genes encoding pituitary hormones are absent in ascidians. Under the circumstances, this thesis attempts to find a path that shows that the AH primordium is recognizable in the ascidian by revisiting molecular and developmental data from recent public resources on C. intestinalis, and through the use of advanced bio-imaging techniques. A putative Ciona genetic pathway, which was constructed by referring to data from mammals, shows that only a patchwork of the genetic network exists to achieve terminal differentiation of the AH endocrine cells in the Ciona genome. Re-annotation on glycoprotein hormone related proteins, a GPA2/ARP and two GPB5/BRP ones previously reported, reveals that the GPA2 locus contains two splicing variants, and one variant likely formed a three-dimensional conformation similar to that of human GPA2. No clone of the GPB5/BRP1 locus has been isolated, and another candidate, BRP2, is unlikely to be a GPB5. Next, I argued a possibility that endocrine activities of Ciona species could be specialized in association with its short generation time, and I suggest that not only Ciona species but also other ascidians should be studied in order to understand ascidian endocrinology. Confocal images

  9. Characterization and metal-induced gene transcription of two new copper zinc superoxide dismutases in the solitary ascidian Ciona intestinalis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferro, Diana [Department of Biology, University of Padova, Padova (Italy); Institute for Evolution and Biodiversity, Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität, Münster (Germany); Franchi, Nicola [Department of Biology, University of Padova, Padova (Italy); Department of Biological, Chemical, Pharmaceutical Science and Technology, University of Palermo, Palermo (Italy); Mangano, Valentina [Department of Biological, Chemical, Pharmaceutical Science and Technology, University of Palermo, Palermo (Italy); Bakiu, Rigers [Department of Crop Production, Agricultural University of Tirana, Tirana (Albania); Cammarata, Matteo; Parrinello, Nicolò [Department of Biological, Chemical, Pharmaceutical Science and Technology, University of Palermo, Palermo (Italy); Santovito, Gianfranco, E-mail: gianfranco.santovito@unipd.it [Department of Biology, University of Padova, Padova (Italy); Ballarin, Loriano [Department of Biology, University of Padova, Padova (Italy)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: •Ciona intestinalis express two copper-zinc superoxide dismutases (Cu,Zn SODs), one extracellular (Ci-SODa) and one intracellular isoform (Ci-SODb). •Promoters contain consensus sequences similar to mammalian MRE. •Metal exposure results in a significant increase of gene transcription: ci-soda is induced especially by copper and zinc, the increase of ci-sodb transcription is more evident after cadmium exposure. •Genes are mostly transcribed in circulating hemocytes and in ovarian follicular cells. -- Abstract: Antioxidant enzymes are known to protect living organisms against the oxidative stress risk, also induced by metals. In the present study, we describe the purification and molecular characterization of two Cu,Zn superoxide dismutases (SODs), referred to as Ci-SODa and Ci-SODb, from Ciona intestinalis, a basal chordate widely distributed in temperate shallow seawater. The putative amino acid sequences were compared with Cu,Zn SODs from other metazoans and phylogenetic analyses indicate that the two putative Ci-SODs are more related to invertebrate SODs than vertebrate ones. Both phylogenetic and preliminary homology modeling analyses suggest that Ci-SODa and Ci-SODb are extracellular and intracellular isoform, respectively. The mRNA of the two Cu,Zn SODs was localized in hemocytes and in ovarian follicular cells, as revealed by in situ hybridization. The time course of SOD mRNA levels in the presence of three different metals showed upregulation of ci-soda and inhibition of ci-sodb. Spectrophotometric analysis confirms the presence of SOD activity in Ciona tissues. Our in silico analyses of the ci-soda promoter region revealed putative consensus sequences similar to mammalian metal-responsive elements (MRE), suggesting that the transcription of these genes directly depends on metals. These data emphasize the importance of complex metal regulation of ci-soda and ci-sodb transcription, as components of an efficient detoxification pathway

  10. Characterization and metal-induced gene transcription of two new copper zinc superoxide dismutases in the solitary ascidian Ciona intestinalis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •Ciona intestinalis express two copper-zinc superoxide dismutases (Cu,Zn SODs), one extracellular (Ci-SODa) and one intracellular isoform (Ci-SODb). •Promoters contain consensus sequences similar to mammalian MRE. •Metal exposure results in a significant increase of gene transcription: ci-soda is induced especially by copper and zinc, the increase of ci-sodb transcription is more evident after cadmium exposure. •Genes are mostly transcribed in circulating hemocytes and in ovarian follicular cells. -- Abstract: Antioxidant enzymes are known to protect living organisms against the oxidative stress risk, also induced by metals. In the present study, we describe the purification and molecular characterization of two Cu,Zn superoxide dismutases (SODs), referred to as Ci-SODa and Ci-SODb, from Ciona intestinalis, a basal chordate widely distributed in temperate shallow seawater. The putative amino acid sequences were compared with Cu,Zn SODs from other metazoans and phylogenetic analyses indicate that the two putative Ci-SODs are more related to invertebrate SODs than vertebrate ones. Both phylogenetic and preliminary homology modeling analyses suggest that Ci-SODa and Ci-SODb are extracellular and intracellular isoform, respectively. The mRNA of the two Cu,Zn SODs was localized in hemocytes and in ovarian follicular cells, as revealed by in situ hybridization. The time course of SOD mRNA levels in the presence of three different metals showed upregulation of ci-soda and inhibition of ci-sodb. Spectrophotometric analysis confirms the presence of SOD activity in Ciona tissues. Our in silico analyses of the ci-soda promoter region revealed putative consensus sequences similar to mammalian metal-responsive elements (MRE), suggesting that the transcription of these genes directly depends on metals. These data emphasize the importance of complex metal regulation of ci-soda and ci-sodb transcription, as components of an efficient detoxification pathway

  11. Changes in gelsolin expression during ascidian metamorphosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtsuka, Y; Okamura, Y; Obinata, T

    2001-05-01

    Gelsolin is an actin regulatory protein that is expressed in a wide variety of tissues and is especially abundant in muscle and blood cells. The role of gelsolin during structural reorganization of the body, such as during metamorphosis or regeneration, is poorly understood. We analyzed changes in gelsolin expression during ascidian embryogenesis and metamorphosis using nucleic acid probes and a monoclonal antibody (AS23) specific for ascidian gelsolin; our results indicated that gelsolin is maternally provided and that its de novo gene transcription is initiated during the neurula stage. In the larva, gelsolin was detectable in specific types of nerve cells, i.e. the adhesive papillae, motor neurons and epidermal sensory neurons. During metamorphosis, the expression of gelsolin changes markedly: the expression is suppressed in nerve tissues after tail resorption but is induced in mesodermal tissues. Gelsolin accumulated in mesenchyme cells until the onset of tail resorption, and following tail resorption, these cells migrated to the tunic and differentiated into tunic cells with many fine processes. Migration of the mesenchyme cells into the tunic was completely inhibited by treatment with cytochalasin B. Gelsolin was colocalized with actin in tunic cells, suggesting that it is involved in the rearrangement of actin filaments during cell locomotion or morphogenesis. PMID:11455440

  12. The central nervous system of ascidian larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Clare

    2016-09-01

    Ascidians are marine invertebrate chordates. Their tadpole larvae contain a dorsal tubular nervous system, resulting from the rolling up of a neural plate. Along the anterior-posterior (A-P) axis, the central nervous system (CNS) is organized into a sensory vesicle, neck, trunk ganglion, and tail nerve cord and consists of approximately only 330 cells, of which around 100 are thought to be neurons. The organization of distinct neuronal cell types and neurotransmitter gene expression within the CNS has been described. The unique developmental mode of ascidians, with a small number of cells and a fixed cell division pattern, allows individual cells to be traced throughout development. This feature has led to the complete documentation of the cell lineages of certain cell types in the CNS. Thus, a step-by-step understanding of nervous system development from the initial stages of neural induction to the neurogenesis of individual neurons is a feasible goal. The genetic control of neural fate induction and early neural plate patterning are now well understood. The molecular mechanisms specifying the cholinergic neurons of the trunk ganglion as well as the pigment cells of the sensory organs are also well elucidated. In addition, studies have begun on the morphogenetic processes of neurulation. Remaining challenges include building an embryonic atlas integrating gene expression patterns, cell lineage, and neuronal cell types as well as developing the gene regulatory networks of cell fate specification and integrating them with the genetic control of morphogenesis. WIREs Dev Biol 2016, 5:538-561. doi: 10.1002/wdev.239 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:27328318

  13. The ascidian prophenoloxidase activating system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Cammarata

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Phenoloxidases/tyrosinases initiate melanin synthesis in almost all organisms, and are involved in different biological activities such as the colour change of human hair and the browning or blackening of fruit skin etc. In many invertebrates, defence reactions are linked to phenoloxidase activity and/or melanization. Contacts with foreign molecules are able to trigger the prophenoloxidase (proPO system that requires serine protease cleavage for activating the zymogen to phenoloxidase (PO. It is generally accepted that the proPO system is fully expressed in arthropods, and, recently, progress in the regulation of crustacean and insect proPO activation steps have been achieved. After cells were stimulated by components of pathogen associated molecular pattern (PAMP, proPO activation takes place via zimogenic serine proteinase in turn activated by PAMPs followed by cascade, spatial and temporal control.The proPO activating system plays a defensive role in arthropods, molluscs, annelids, ascidians and the cephalochordate Branchiostoma belcheri.In the present paper, we report on ascidian proPO system and related molecules, with particular focus on the biochemical, cellular and molecular aspects of the Ciona intestinalis, proPO system of circulating hemocytes from naïve ascidians as well as of body wall following LPS inflammatory challenge.

  14. Genetic perspectives on the ascidian central nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Locascio

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In 2002, date of publication of the Ciona intestinalis genome, ascidians entered the post-genomic era. This tool had a fundamental role and has become the starting point for a series of new functional and genomic studies. Recently, great efforts have been done to characterize the genetic cascades of genes having a key role in early embryonic development and to draw the regulatory networks in which they are involved. In this review, we focused our attention on the last advances obtained in the attempt to clarify the complex molecular events governing ascidian central nervous system development with a special interest for anterior neural and sensory structures. We discussed the more recent theories on its early induction and late regionalization. In particular, we used some conserved genes fully or partially characterized as examples to compare ascidian and vertebrate central nervous system (CNS.By integrating the various results obtained with microarray, morpholino loss of function and promoter analyses, we showed that many progresses have been done to unravel the gene networks controlling early CNS induction and formation. Unfortunately, fewer advances have been done in the identification of the regulatory cascades controlling late CNS regionalization and sensory organs differentiation. Some results are discussed to point out the importance of fully characterizing also these specific regulatory cascades.

  15. Beta-Globin Gene Regulation and Nuclear Organisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Kooren (Jurgen)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractAll genetic information required for the development and functioning of an organism is stored in billions of base pairs of deoxyribonucleic acid (or DNA). In eukaryotes, DNA is organised in large units called chromosomes that are located inside the cells nucleus. On these chromosomes res

  16. ANISEED 2015: a digital framework for the comparative developmental biology of ascidians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brozovic, Matija; Martin, Cyril; Dantec, Christelle; Dauga, Delphine; Mendez, Mickaël; Simion, Paul; Percher, Madeline; Laporte, Baptiste; Scornavacca, Céline; Di Gregorio, Anna; Fujiwara, Shigeki; Gineste, Mathieu; Lowe, Elijah K; Piette, Jacques; Racioppi, Claudia; Ristoratore, Filomena; Sasakura, Yasunori; Takatori, Naohito; Brown, Titus C; Delsuc, Frédéric; Douzery, Emmanuel; Gissi, Carmela; McDougall, Alex; Nishida, Hiroki; Sawada, Hitoshi; Swalla, Billie J; Yasuo, Hitoyoshi; Lemaire, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Ascidians belong to the tunicates, the sister group of vertebrates and are recognized model organisms in the field of embryonic development, regeneration and stem cells. ANISEED is the main information system in the field of ascidian developmental biology. This article reports the development of the system since its initial publication in 2010. Over the past five years, we refactored the system from an initial custom schema to an extended version of the Chado schema and redesigned all user and back end interfaces. This new architecture was used to improve and enrich the description of Ciona intestinalis embryonic development, based on an improved genome assembly and gene model set, refined functional gene annotation, and anatomical ontologies, and a new collection of full ORF cDNAs. The genomes of nine ascidian species have been sequenced since the release of the C. intestinalis genome. In ANISEED 2015, all nine new ascidian species can be explored via dedicated genome browsers, and searched by Blast. In addition, ANISEED provides full functional gene annotation, anatomical ontologies and some gene expression data for the six species with highest quality genomes. ANISEED is publicly available at: http://www.aniseed.cnrs.fr. PMID:26420834

  17. Evolutionary changes in the notochord genetic toolkit: a comparative analysis of notochord genes in the ascidian Ciona and the larvacean Oikopleura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Di

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The notochord is a defining feature of the chordate clade, and invertebrate chordates, such as tunicates, are uniquely suited for studies of this structure. Here we used a well-characterized set of 50 notochord genes known to be targets of the notochord-specific Brachyury transcription factor in one tunicate, Ciona intestinalis (Class Ascidiacea, to begin determining whether the same genetic toolkit is employed to build the notochord in another tunicate, Oikopleura dioica (Class Larvacea. We identified Oikopleura orthologs of the Ciona notochord genes, as well as lineage-specific duplicates for which we determined the phylogenetic relationships with related genes from other chordates, and we analyzed their expression patterns in Oikopleura embryos. Results Of the 50 Ciona notochord genes that were used as a reference, only 26 had clearly identifiable orthologs in Oikopleura. Two of these conserved genes appeared to have undergone Oikopleura- and/or tunicate-specific duplications, and one was present in three copies in Oikopleura, thus bringing the number of genes to test to 30. We were able to clone and test 28 of these genes. Thirteen of the 28 Oikopleura orthologs of Ciona notochord genes showed clear expression in all or in part of the Oikopleura notochord, seven were diffusely expressed throughout the tail, six were expressed in tissues other than the notochord, while two probes did not provide a detectable signal at any of the stages analyzed. One of the notochord genes identified, Oikopleura netrin, was found to be unevenly expressed in notochord cells, in a pattern reminiscent of that previously observed for one of the Oikopleura Hox genes. Conclusions A surprisingly high number of Ciona notochord genes do not have apparent counterparts in Oikopleura, and only a fraction of the evolutionarily conserved genes show clear notochord expression. This suggests that Ciona and Oikopleura, despite the morphological similarities

  18. Ecology of ascidians in the macrofouling community of New Mangalore Port

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Venkat, K.; Anil, A.C.; Khandeparker, D.C.; Mokashe, S.S.

    Ascidians constitute a major component of macrofouling community at the New Mangalore Port during the premonsoon season (February-May). The presence of ascidians in these waters is being reported for the first time. Ascidian recruitment...

  19. GeneNet: a database on structure and functional organisation of gene networks

    OpenAIRE

    Ananko, E A; Podkolodny, N. L.; Stepanenko, I. L.; Ignatieva, E. V.; Podkolodnaya, O. A.; Kolchanov, N. A.

    2002-01-01

    The GeneNet database is designed for accumulation of information on gene networks. Original technology applied in GeneNet enables description of not only a gene network structure and functional relationships between components, but also metabolic and signal transduction pathways. Specialised software, GeneNet Viewer, automatically displays the graphical diagram of gene networks described in the database. Current release 3.0 of GeneNet database contains descriptions of 25 gene networks, 945 pr...

  20. Genetic organisation of the capsule transport gene region from Haemophilus paragallinarum

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    O. De Smidt

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The region involved in export of the capsule polysaccharides to the cell surface of Haemophilus paragallinarum was cloned and the genetic organisation determined. Degenerate primers designed from sequence alignment of the capsule transport genes of Haemophilus influenzae, Pasteurella multocida and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae were used to amplify a 2.6 kb fragment containing a segment of the H. paragallinarum capsule transport gene locus. This fragment was used as a digoxigenin labelled probe to isolate the complete H. paragallinarum capsule transport gene locus from genomic DNA. The sequence of the cloned DNA was determined and analysis revealed the presence of four genes, each showing high homology with known capsule transport genes. The four genes were designated hctA, B, C and D (for H. paragallinarum capsule transport genes and the predicted products of these genes likely encode an ATP-dependent export system responsible for transport of the capsule polysaccharides to the cell surface, possibly a member of a super family designated ABC (ATP-binding cassette transporters.

  1. Ascidians from Rocas Atoll, northeast Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Vieira Paiva; Ronaldo Ruy Oliveira-Filho; Tito Monteiro Da Cruz Lotufo

    2015-01-01

    Rocas Atoll is the only one of its kind in the South Atlantic—and the first Brazilian marine biological reserve. This is the first report about the ascidians from Rocas. A total of 12 species were found, 5 of them not hitherto described: Ascidia viridina sp. nov., Didemnum rochai sp. nov., Leptoclinides crocotulus sp. nov., Polysyncraton maurizeliae sp. nov., and Trididemnum rocasensis sp. nov.). One Caribbean species, Didemnum halimedae, was also discovered in the region for the first time. ...

  2. Ascidians from Rocas Atoll, northeast Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Paiva, Sandra V.; Oliveira Filho, Ronaldo R. de; Lotufo, Tito M. da Cruz

    2015-01-01

    Rocas Atoll is the only one of its kind in the South Atlantic—and the first Brazilian marine biological reserve. This is the first report about the ascidians from Rocas. A total of 12 species were found, 5 of them not hitherto described: Ascidia viridina sp. nov., Didemnum rochai sp. nov., Leptoclinides crocotulus sp. nov., Polysyncraton maurizeliae sp. nov., and Trididemnum rocasensis sp. nov. One Caribbean species, Didemnum halimedae, was also discovered in the region for the first time. Fu...

  3. Transcript Mapping and Genome Annotation of Ascidian mtDNA Using EST Data

    OpenAIRE

    Gissi, Carmela; Pesole, Graziano

    2003-01-01

    Mitochondrial transcripts of two ascidian species were reconstructed through sequence assembly of publicly available ESTs resembling mitochondrial DNA sequences (mt-ESTs). This strategy allowed us to analyze processing and mapping of the mitochondrial transcripts and to investigate the gene organization of a previously uncharacterized mitochondrial genome (mtDNA). This new strategy would greatly facilitate the sequencing and annotation of mtDNAs. In Ciona intestinalis, the assembled mt-...

  4. DNA barcoding of two solitary ascidians, Herdmania momus Savigny, 1816 and Microcosmus squamiger Michaelsen, 1927 from Thoothukudi coast, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffar Ali, H Abdul; Ahmed, N Shabeer

    2016-07-01

    Morphology-based taxonomical studies of ascidians in India are meagre due to lack of ascidian taxonomist and limitations inherent in conventional system-based identification. The use of short fragment of mitochondrial DNA sequence is proving highly useful in identifying species in a situation where, the traditional morphology-based identification is difficult. In the present study, two adult solitary ascidians collected from the Thoothukudi coast were morphologically identified as Herdmania momus Savigny, 1816 and Microcosmus squamiger Michaelsen, 1927. The genomic DNA of these ascidians was isolated, COI gene was amplified, sequenced and submitted to the GenBank under the accession numbers KM058116, KM411616 and KJ944390. Homology search result using BLAST showed that H. momus showed 100% matched with other H. momus, while M. squamiger showed similarity with Pyura herdmani, a member of the same family Pyuridae. The phylogenetic and genetic distance was maximum in interspecies than in intraspecies. These COI sequences will allow the identification of the species through DNA barcoding technique. Here, we report for the first time the COI gene of H. momus, Savigny 1816 from the Indian coast. PMID:26122341

  5. Amino Alcohols from the Ascidian Pseudodistoma sp.

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    Tae Hyung Won

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Seven new amino alcohol compounds, pseudoaminols A–G (1–7, were isolated from the ascidian Pseudodistoma sp. collected off the coast of Chuja-do, Korea. Structures of these new compounds were determined by analysis of the spectroscopic data and from chemical conversion. The presence of an N-carboxymethyl group in two of the new compounds (6 and 7 is unprecedented among amino alcohols. Several of these compounds exhibited moderate antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity, as well as weak inhibitory activity toward Na+/K+-ATPase.

  6. Complete DNA sequence of the mitochondrial genome of the ascidian Halocynthia roretzi (Chordata, Urochordata).

    OpenAIRE

    Yokobori, S i; Ueda, T.; Feldmaier-Fuchs, G; Pääbo, S; Ueshima, R.; Kondow, A; Nishikawa, K.; Watanabe, K.

    1999-01-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of the 14,771-bp-long mitochondrial (mt) DNA of a urochordate (Chordata)-the ascidian Halocynthia roretzi-was determined. All the Halocynthia mt-genes were found to be located on a single strand, which is rich in T and G rather than in A and C. Like nematode and Mytilus edulis mtDNAs, that of Halocynthia encodes no ATP synthetase subunit 8 gene. However, it does encode an additional tRNA gene for glycine (anticodon TCT) that enables Halocynthia mitochondria to...

  7. THALIACEANS, THE NEGLECTED PELAGIC RELATIVES OF ASCIDIANS: A DEVELOPMENTAL AND EVOLUTIONARY ENIGMA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piette, Jacques; Lemaire, Patrick

    2015-06-01

    Most developmental biologists equate tunicates to the sessile ascidians, including Ciona intestinalis, and the pelagic appendicularians, in particular Oikopleura dioica. However, there exists a third group of tunicates with a pelagic lifestyle, the thaliaceans, which include salps, pyrosomes, and doliolids. Although thaliaceans have raised the curiosity offamous zoologists since the 18th century, the difficulty of observing and experimentally manipulating them has led to many controversies and speculations about their life cycles and developmental strategies, the phylogenetic relationship within the group and with other tunicates, and the drivers of speciation in these widely distributed animals living in a seemingly uniform environment. Here, we take a historical perspective to summarize 250 years of work on this intriguing group of animals, and explore how modern genomics and imaging approaches are starting to solve fascinating evolutionary and developmental riddles. Recent molecular analyses support previous morphological evidence that ascidians are not monophyletic and that thaliaceans evolved from a sessile ascidian-like ancestor. In parallel, preliminary live-imaging and gene-expression data offer exciting entry points to understand how the adoption of a pelagic lifestyle led to drastic modifications in the morphology, embryology, and life cycle of these tunicates, compared to their sessile ancestor. PMID:26285352

  8. Solitary ascidians embryos (Chordata, Tunicata as model organisms for testing coastal pollutant toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Zega

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Marine coastal communities are daily exposed to several chemical compounds commonly used in agriculture and industrial activities. Therefore, toxicological studies evaluating the effects of these compounds on marine organisms are of primary importance for marine environment preservation. Different model organisms are used to perform toxicity tests with potential pollutants, under laboratory conditions. In last decades, solitary ascidians have been selected as valuable model organisms to run bioassays with embryos and larvae. In fact, by in vitro fertilization, it is easy to obtain thousands of embryos, rapidly developing and therefore allowing a fast screen of pollutant toxicity.The aim of this review was to summarize results from toxicity tests, run with heavy metals, organo-metal and organic compounds, on solitary ascidian development and settlement to evidence that these animals offer several advantages as models to perform these kind of studies. First of all, they have a sensitiveness directly comparable to that of other marine model organisms. Moreover, the effects of toxicants on exposed embryos and larvae could be studied using different approaches, from ultrastructure to genetic analysis. Finally, since ascidians are chordates morphological and gene expression analyses could provide data for comparative studies with vertebrates.

  9. Nitric oxide acts as a positive regulator to induce metamorphosis of the ascidian Herdmania momus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuo Ueda

    Full Text Available Marine invertebrates commonly have a biphasic life cycle in which the metamorphic transition from a pelagic larva to a benthic post-larva is mediated by the nitric oxide signalling pathway. Nitric oxide (NO is synthesised by nitric oxide synthase (NOS, which is a client protein of the molecular chaperon heat shock protein 90 (HSP90. It is notable, then, that both NO and HSP90 have been implicated in regulating metamorphosis in marine invertebrates as diverse as urochordates, echinoderms, molluscs, annelids, and crustaceans. Specifically, the suppression of NOS activity by the application of either NOS- or HSP90-inhibiting pharmacological agents has been shown consistently to induce the initiation of metamorphosis, leading to the hypothesis that a negative regulatory role of NO is widely conserved in biphasic life cycles. Further, the induction of metamorphosis by heat-shock has been demonstrated for multiple species. Here, we investigate the regulatory role of NO in induction of metamorphosis of the solitary tropical ascidian, Herdmania momus. By coupling pharmacological treatments with analysis of HmNOS and HmHSP90 gene expression, we present compelling evidence of a positive regulatory role for NO in metamorphosis of this species, in contrast to all existing ascidian data that supports the hypothesis of NO as a conserved negative regulator of metamorphosis. The exposure of competent H. momus larvae to a NOS inhibitor or an NO donor results in an up-regulation of NOS and HSP90 genes. Heat shock of competent larvae induces metamorphosis in a temperature dependent manner, up to a thermal tolerance that approaches 35°C. Both larval/post-larval survival and the appearance of abnormal morphologies in H. momus post-larvae reflect the magnitude of up-regulation of the HSP90 gene in response to heat-shock. The demonstrated role of NO as a positive metamorphic regulator in H. momus suggests the existence of inter-specific adaptations of NO regulation

  10. Specific patterns of gene space organisation revealed in wheat by using the combination of barley and wheat genomic resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waugh Robbie

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because of its size, allohexaploid nature and high repeat content, the wheat genome has always been perceived as too complex for efficient molecular studies. We recently constructed the first physical map of a wheat chromosome (3B. However gene mapping is still laborious in wheat because of high redundancy between the three homoeologous genomes. In contrast, in the closely related diploid species, barley, numerous gene-based markers have been developed. This study aims at combining the unique genomic resources developed in wheat and barley to decipher the organisation of gene space on wheat chromosome 3B. Results Three dimensional pools of the minimal tiling path of wheat chromosome 3B physical map were hybridised to a barley Agilent 15K expression microarray. This led to the fine mapping of 738 barley orthologous genes on wheat chromosome 3B. In addition, comparative analyses revealed that 68% of the genes identified were syntenic between the wheat chromosome 3B and barley chromosome 3 H and 59% between wheat chromosome 3B and rice chromosome 1, together with some wheat-specific rearrangements. Finally, it indicated an increasing gradient of gene density from the centromere to the telomeres positively correlated with the number of genes clustered in islands on wheat chromosome 3B. Conclusion Our study shows that novel structural genomics resources now available in wheat and barley can be combined efficiently to overcome specific problems of genetic anchoring of physical contigs in wheat and to perform high-resolution comparative analyses with rice for deciphering the organisation of the wheat gene space.

  11. Organisational Memetics?: Organisational Learning as a Selection Process

    OpenAIRE

    Price, Ilfryn

    1995-01-01

    Companies are not only systems created and controlled by those who manage them but also self-organising entities that evolve through learning. Whereas an organism is a creation of natural replicators, genes, an organisation can be seen as a product of an alternative replicator, the meme or mental model, acting, like a gene, to preserve itself in an Evolutionary Stable System. The result is an organisation which self organises around a set of unspoken and unwritten rules and assumptions. ...

  12. Microenvironmental Ecology of the Chlorophyll b-containing Symbiotic Cyanobacterium Prochloron in the Didemnid Ascidian Lissoclinum patella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eKühl

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of the cyanobacterium Prochloron was the first finding of a bacterial oxyphototroph with chlorophyll (Chl b, in addition to Chl a. It was first described as Prochloron didemni but a number of clades have since been described. Prochloron is a conspicuously large (7-25 µm unicellular cyanobacterium living in a symbiotic relationship, primarily with (sub- tropical didemnid ascidians; it has resisted numerous cultivation attempts and appears truly obligatory symbiotic. Recently, a Prochloron draft genome was published, revealing no lack of metabolic genes that could explain the apparent inability to reproduce and sustain photosynthesis in a free-living stage. Possibly, the unsuccessful cultivation is partly due to a lack of knowledge about the microenvironmental conditions and ecophysiology of Prochloron in its natural habitat. We used microsensors, variable chlorophyll fluorescence imaging and imaging of O2 and pH to obtain a detailed insight to the microenvironmental ecology and photobiology of Prochloron in hospite in the didemnid ascidian Lissoclinum patella. The microenvironment within ascidians is characterized by steep gradients of light and chemical parameters that change rapidly with varying irradiances. The interior zone of the ascidians harboring Prochloron thus became anoxic and acidic within a few min of darkness, while the same zone exhibited O2 super-saturation and strongly alkaline pH after a few min of illumination. Photosynthesis showed lack of photoinhibition even at high irradiances equivalent to full sunlight, and photosynthesis recovered rapidly after periods of anoxia. We discuss these new insights on the ecological niche of Prochloron and possible interactions with its host and other microbes in light of its recently published genome and a recent study of the overall microbial diversity and metagenome of L. patella.

  13. Chicken TAP genes differ from their human orthologues in locus organisation, size, sequence features and polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Brian A; van Hateren, Andrew; Milne, Sarah; Beck, Stephan; Kaufman, Jim

    2005-05-01

    We have previously shown that in the chicken major histocompatibility complex, the two transporters associated with antigen processing genes (TAP1 and TAP2) are located head to head between two classical class I genes. Here we show that the region between these two TAP genes has transcription factor-binding sites in common with class I gene promoters. The TAP genes are also up-regulated by interferon-gamma in a similar way to mammalian TAP genes and in a way that suggests they are both transcribed from a bi-directional promoter. The gene structures of TAP1 and TAP2 differ from that of human TAPs in that TAP1 has a truncated exon 1 and TAP2 has fused exons, resulting in a much smaller gene size. The truncation of TAP1 results in the loss of approximately 150 amino acids, which are thought to be involved in endoplasmic reticulum retention, heterodimer formation and tapasin binding, compared to human TAP1. Most of the protein sequence features involved in binding ATP are conserved, with two exceptions: chicken TAP1 has a glycine in the switch region where other TAPs have glutamine or histidine, and both chicken TAP genes have serines in the C motif where mammalian TAP2 has an alanine. Lastly, the chicken TAP genes are highly polymorphic, with at least as many TAP alleles as there are class I alleles, as seen by investigating nine inbred lines of chicken. The close proximity of the TAP genes to the class I genes and the high level of polymorphism may allow co-evolution of the genes, allowing TAP molecules to transport peptides specifically for the class I molecules of that haplotype. PMID:15900495

  14. Organisational Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢苑苑

    2014-01-01

    In the process of global economy, there is a growing demand for organisational learning. This article critically reviews four models of organisational learning and applies them to the work experience of the author.

  15. Organisation and expression of a cluster of female-specific genes in the Australian sheep blowfly, Lucilia cuprina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Australian sheep blowfly, Lucilia cuprina, is a major agricultural pest in Australia and New Zealand. In Australia, a number of field trails were conducted with a 'field female killing' strain of L. cuprina developed by Foster and colleagues. In the last field trial on Flinders Island, a significant repression of the field population was achieved. Thus there is a long history of attempts to use genetic strategies to control L. cuprina. We have been working towards developing a transgenic strain of L. cuprina that would be ideal for a maleonly SIT (Sterile Insect Technique) programme. We previously developed a tetracycline-repressible system for controlling female viability. This system had two components, yp1-tTA and tetO-hid. The tTA gene was only transcribed in female fat cells due to action of the female-specific transcription enhancer from the yolk protein1 gene. Once synthesis was induced, the tTA transcription factor bound to the tetO sequence and induced expression of the hidcell death gene. Since binding of tTA to DNA is inhibited by tetracycline, females are fully viable on media containing the antibiotic. As tTA and HID are functional in both Drosophila and mammalian cells, we expect they will be active in most if not all insects. However, for the system to function effectively it is essential that the yolk protein transcription enhancer is both very active in females and has very low activity in males. Since the Drosophila yp1 enhancer may not be fully functional in L. cuprina we have isolated and sequenced a genomic clone containing L. cuprina yolk protein genes. An analysis of the complete DNA sequence of the clone indicates that in L. cuprina the yolk protein genes are organised into a gene cluster. We have begun experiments to identify the female-specific transcription enhancer of one of the yolk protein genes. We have used a reporter gene approach in both transgenic Drosophila and L. cuprina. We have previously shown that transgenic L

  16. Ascidians and the plasticity of the chordate developmental program

    OpenAIRE

    Lemaire, Patrick; Smith, William C.; Nishida, Hiroki

    2008-01-01

    Little is known about the ancient chordates that gave rise to the first vertebrates, but the descendants of other invertebrate chordates extant at the time still flourish in the ocean. These invertebrates include the cephalochordates and tunicates, whose larvae share with vertebrate embryos a common body plan with a central notochord and a dorsal nerve cord. Tunicates are now thought to be the sister group of vertebrates. However, research based on several species of ascidians, a diverse and ...

  17. Geographic ranges of ascidians from Antarctica and the southeastern Pacific

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dirk Schories; Karen Sanamyan; Nadja Sanamyan; Mara Jos Daz; Ignacio Garrido; Thomas Heran; Jorge Holtheuer; Gesche Kohlberg

    2015-01-01

    Historical and novel data on the geographic and bathymetric distribution of ascidians from Antarctic, Magellan and Chilean waters are compiled, and an inventory of taxa comprising 162 species reported over a 150 year period from the Antarctic region South Polar Province (SPP) compiled. The ascidian fauna from the South Shetland Islands (SSI) is compared with that of the Magellan region, Patagonia and the Chilean coast. We collected 46 ascidian species along the Chilean coast, and during four expeditions to King George Island (SSI) by SCUBA between 2003–2012. About 15% of King George Island (SSI) species are observed to occur also in shallow waters of southern Chile (SCL). Few species known from warm temperate southeastern Pacific (Northern Chile, NCL) waters are absent from the Chilean part of the Magellan Province (SCL). With most data contributed from the Chilean coast coming from the SCL, and with limited sampling having been undertaken at depths exceeding 100 m in the NCL, apparent differences in species richness along the Chilean coast could be attributabed to differential sampling effort. We detail 12 species from our Antarctic and Chilean collections in detail, including one, Diplosoma listerianum, not previously reported from Chilean waters, and the genus Botryllus, previously known from them on the basis of a single record.

  18. Organisational Art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferro-Thomsen, Martin

    the boundaries of the art institution ? and thereby expanding it without suspending it. The thesis takes its historical outset with ?Artist Placement Group? (formed in 1966), a British art group that developed an unprecedented framework for placing artists in organisational environments to circumvent......University of Copenhagen / Learning Lab Denmark. 2005 Kort beskrivelse: Organisational Art is a tentative title for an art form that works together with organisations to produce art. This is most often done together with non-artist members of the organisation and on-site in their social context. OA...... is characterised as socially engaged, conceptual, discursive, site-specific and contextual. Abstract: This investigation is about Organisational Art (OA), which is a tentative title for an art form that works together with organisations (companies, institutions, communities, governments and NGOs) to produce art...

  19. Uncovering the functional constraints underlying the genomic organisation of the Odorant-Binding Protein genes

    OpenAIRE

    Librado, Pablo; Rozas, Julio

    2013-01-01

    Animal olfactory systems have a critical role for the survival and reproduction of individuals. In insects, the odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) are encoded by a moderately sized gene family, and mediate the first steps of the olfactory processing. Most OBPs are organized in clusters of a few paralogs, which are conserved over time. Currently, the biological mechanism explaining the close physical proximity among OBPs is not yet established. Here, we conducted a comprehensive study aiming to g...

  20. Complex organisation and structure of the ghrelin antisense strand gene GHRLOS, a candidate non-coding RNA gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herington Adrian C

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The peptide hormone ghrelin has many important physiological and pathophysiological roles, including the stimulation of growth hormone (GH release, appetite regulation, gut motility and proliferation of cancer cells. We previously identified a gene on the opposite strand of the ghrelin gene, ghrelinOS (GHRLOS, which spans the promoter and untranslated regions of the ghrelin gene (GHRL. Here we further characterise GHRLOS. Results We have described GHRLOS mRNA isoforms that extend over 1.4 kb of the promoter region and 106 nucleotides of exon 4 of the ghrelin gene, GHRL. These GHRLOS transcripts initiate 4.8 kb downstream of the terminal exon 4 of GHRL and are present in the 3' untranslated exon of the adjacent gene TATDN2 (TatD DNase domain containing 2. Interestingly, we have also identified a putative non-coding TATDN2-GHRLOS chimaeric transcript, indicating that GHRLOS RNA biogenesis is extremely complex. Moreover, we have discovered that the 3' region of GHRLOS is also antisense, in a tail-to-tail fashion to a novel terminal exon of the neighbouring SEC13 gene, which is important in protein transport. Sequence analyses revealed that GHRLOS is riddled with stop codons, and that there is little nucleotide and amino-acid sequence conservation of the GHRLOS gene between vertebrates. The gene spans 44 kb on 3p25.3, is extensively spliced and harbours multiple variable exons. We have also investigated the expression of GHRLOS and found evidence of differential tissue expression. It is highly expressed in tissues which are emerging as major sites of non-coding RNA expression (the thymus, brain, and testis, as well as in the ovary and uterus. In contrast, very low levels were found in the stomach where sense, GHRL derived RNAs are highly expressed. Conclusion GHRLOS RNA transcripts display several distinctive features of non-coding (ncRNA genes, including 5' capping, polyadenylation, extensive splicing and short open reading

  1. Organising integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axelsson, Runo

    2013-01-01

    system. Model of integration: In the 1990’s there were a number of experiments in Sweden with different models to integrate health and welfare services. As a result, a model of financial coordination has been developed, which makes it possible for organisations to pool their budgets and form associations......Background: In Sweden, as in many other countries, there has been a succession of trends in the organisation of health care and other welfare services. These trends have had different implications for the integration of services in the health and welfare system. Aims: One aim is to discuss the...... implications of different organisational trends for the integration of health and welfare services. Another aim is to introduce a Swedish model of financial coordination as a flexible way to organise integration. Organisational trends: In the 1960’s there was an expansion of health and welfare services leading...

  2. Inquiring Organisations

    OpenAIRE

    James Courtney; David Croasdell; David Paradice

    1998-01-01

    Churchman (1971) developed five archetypal models of inquiring systems in an effort to expand the field of management information systems along a philosophical path. Contemporary businesses can use the ideas developed by Churchman to become productive and efficient inquiring organisations. This paper explores the relationship between inquiry and learning in organisations and how information technology can be used to support the process of knowledge creation in the context of inquiring systems.

  3. An Otx/Nodal Regulatory Signature for Posterior Neural Development in Ascidians

    OpenAIRE

    Agnès Roure; Patrick Lemaire; Sébastien Darras

    2014-01-01

    In chordates, neural induction is the first step of a complex developmental process through which ectodermal cells acquire a neural identity. In ascidians, FGF-mediated neural induction occurs at the 32-cell stage in two blastomere pairs, precursors respectively of anterior and posterior neural tissue. We combined molecular embryology and cis-regulatory analysis to unveil in the ascidian Ciona intestinalis the remarkably simple proximal genetic network that controls posterior neural fate acqu...

  4. TEAM ORGANISERING

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levisen, Vinie; Haugaard, Lena

    2004-01-01

    organisation som denne? Når teams i samtiden anses for at være en organisationsform, der fremmer organisatorisk læring, beror det på, at teamet antages at udgøre et ikke-hierarkisk arbejdsfællesskab, hvor erfaringer udveksles og problemer løses. Teamorganisering kan imidlertid udformes på mange forskellige...

  5. Training organisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slovenske elektrarne considers a specific training and education of experienced experts to be a key issue. The company gradually undergoes quite demanding change in the field of education and training of the nuclear power plants staff. We have an ambitious vision - to create one of the best training organisations in Europe by the means of systematic approach to the training. (author)

  6. Barndommens organisering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndommens Organisering undersøger og diskuterer dansk barndom som et samfundsmæssigt fænomen. Det er bogens mål at pege på en mangfoldighed af organiseringsprocesser, der på forskellig vis bidrager til at skabe barndommens rum, både de symbolske og de materielle. Bogens artikler er skrevet af...

  7. Organisation Matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Unphon, Hataichanok; Dittrich, Yvonne

    2008-01-01

    Our work aims at understanding the design rationale for product line architecture by focusing on the design of common data access modules for complex simulation software products. This paper presents empirical evidence of organisational and business domain aspects that influence the development o...

  8. Recurrent phagocytosis-induced apoptosis in the cyclical generation change of the compound ascidian Botryllus schlosseri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchi, Nicola; Ballin, Francesca; Manni, Lucia; Schiavon, Filippo; Basso, Giuseppe; Ballarin, Loriano

    2016-09-01

    Colonies of the marine, filter-feeding ascidian Botryllus schlosseri undergo cyclical generation changes or takeovers. These events are characterised by the progressive resorption of adult zooids and their replacement by their buds that grow to adult size, open their siphons and start filtering. During the take-over, tissues of adult zooids undergo extensive apoptosis; circulating, spreading phagocytes enter the effete tissues, ingest dying cells acquiring a giant size and a round morphology. Then, phagocytes re-enter the circulation where they represent a considerable fraction (more than 20%) of circulating haemocytes. In this study, we evidence that most of these circulating phagocytes show morphological and biochemical signs of apoptosis. Accordingly, these phagocytes express transcripts of orthologues of the apoptosis-related genes Bax, AIF1 and PARP1. Electron microscopy shows that giant phagocytes contain apoptotic phagocytes inside their own phagocytic vacuole. The transcript of the orthologues of the anti-apoptotic gene IAP7 was detected only in spreading phagocytes, mostly abundant in phases far from the take-over. Therefore, the presented data suggest that, at take-over, phagocytes undergo phagocytosis-induced apoptosis (PIA). In mammals, PIA is assumed to be a process assuring the killing and the complete elimination of microbes, by promoting the disposal of terminally differentiated phagocytes and the resolution of infection. In B. schlosseri, PIA assumes a so far undescribed role, being required for the control of asexual development and colony homeostasis. PMID:27106705

  9. Antibacterial modified diketopiperazines from two ascidians of the genus Didemnum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kossuga, Miriam H.; Lira, Simone P.; McHugh, Shayna; Torres, Yohandra R.; Berlinck, Roberto G.S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Lima, Bruna A.; Goncalves, Reginaldo [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Odontologia. Dept. de Diagnostico Oral; Veloso, Katyuscya; Ferreira, Antonio G. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Rocha, Rosana M. [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Centro Politecnico. Setor de Ciencias Biologicas. Dept. de Zoologia

    2009-07-01

    The chemical investigation of the crude extract of an ascidian of the genus Didemnum led to the isolation of the modified diketopiperazine rodriguesines A (1) and (2) as a mixture of homologues, which could be identified by analysis of spectroscopic data including MS/MS experiments. The investigation of a second Didemnum sp. led to the isolation of N-acetyl-rodriguesine A (3) and N-acetyl-rodriguesine B (4). The absolute configuration of compounds 1 and 2 could be established by hydrolysis and Marfey's analysis and comparison with literature data reported for compound 3, previously obtained as a synthetic product. The mixture of 1 and 2 displayed moderate antibiotic activity against a clinical isolate of Streptococcus mutans and against S. mutans UA159 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC6538. (author)

  10. Local database and the search program for proteomic analysis of sperm proteins in the ascidian Ciona intestinalis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Separation of proteins by two-dimensional electrophoresis and following mass spectrometry (MS) is now a conventional technique for proteomic analysis. For proteomic analysis of a certain tissue with a limited information of primary structures of proteins, we have developed an analytical system for peptide mass fingerprinting in gene products in the testis of the ascidian Ciona intestinalis. Ciona sperm proteins were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and the tryptic fragments were subjected to MALDI-TOF/MS. The mass pattern was searched against on-line databases but resulted in less identification of these proteins. We have constructed a MS database from Ciona testis ESTs and the genome draft sequence, along with a newly devised, perl-based search program PerMS for peptide mass fingerprinting. This system could identify more than 80% of Ciona sperm proteins, suggesting that it could be widely applied for proteomic analysis for a limited tissue with less genomic information

  11. Organisational Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Peter

    This Ph.D. research is carried out for the business unit at LEGO concerned with Internet shopping (e-business) called LEGO Direct. The research is concerned with the issues of organisational change and management. The research is partly sponsored by LEGO Company and Aalborg University The research...... is driven by the goal to develop integrative and holistic solutions for the present and future challenges in industrial manufacturing and to contribute to international research. The integrative and holistic solutions are developed using basic and applied research methods and by requiring a deep...

  12. Aberrant Behaviours of Reaction Diffusion Self-organisation Models on Growing Domains in the Presence of Gene Expression Time Delays

    KAUST Repository

    Seirin Lee, S.

    2010-03-23

    Turing\\'s pattern formation mechanism exhibits sensitivity to the details of the initial conditions suggesting that, in isolation, it cannot robustly generate pattern within noisy biological environments. Nonetheless, secondary aspects of developmental self-organisation, such as a growing domain, have been shown to ameliorate this aberrant model behaviour. Furthermore, while in-situ hybridisation reveals the presence of gene expression in developmental processes, the influence of such dynamics on Turing\\'s model has received limited attention. Here, we novelly focus on the Gierer-Meinhardt reaction diffusion system considering delays due the time taken for gene expression, while incorporating a number of different domain growth profiles to further explore the influence and interplay of domain growth and gene expression on Turing\\'s mechanism. We find extensive pathological model behaviour, exhibiting one or more of the following: temporal oscillations with no spatial structure, a failure of the Turing instability and an extreme sensitivity to the initial conditions, the growth profile and the duration of gene expression. This deviant behaviour is even more severe than observed in previous studies of Schnakenberg kinetics on exponentially growing domains in the presence of gene expression (Gaffney and Monk in Bull. Math. Biol. 68:99-130, 2006). Our results emphasise that gene expression dynamics induce unrealistic behaviour in Turing\\'s model for multiple choices of kinetics and thus such aberrant modelling predictions are likely to be generic. They also highlight that domain growth can no longer ameliorate the excessive sensitivity of Turing\\'s mechanism in the presence of gene expression time delays. The above, extensive, pathologies suggest that, in the presence of gene expression, Turing\\'s mechanism would generally require a novel and extensive secondary mechanism to control reaction diffusion patterning. © 2010 Society for Mathematical Biology.

  13. Colony specificity and chemotaxis in the compound ascidian Botryllus schlosseri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cima, Francesca; Sabbadin, Armando; Zaniolo, Giovanna; Ballarin, Loriano

    2006-11-01

    We re-investigated the behavior of hemocytes during the non-fusion (rejection) reaction between genetically incompatible colonies of the ascidian Botryllus schlosseri. In the course of the reaction, hemocytes - mainly morula cells - crowd inside the blind ends of marginal vascular vessels (known as ampullae) of the colonial leading edge (LE) facing the foreign colony which suggests the occurrence of chemotactic attraction of circulating hemocytes towards the ampullar lumen. Then, cells migrate, through the ampullar tips, into the partially fused tunics and contribute to the formation of the necrotic spots along the contact borders which characterize the reaction. Studies on histological sections clearly indicate that, although morula cell concentration is always higher in ampullae of the LE than in those of the lateral (L) part of the colony, their frequency significantly increases in LE ampullae of rejecting colonies with respect to LE ampullae of both fusing and isolated colonies. In addition, in vitro chemotaxis experiments demonstrated that blood plasma from incompatible colonies can stimulate morula cell migration through polycarbonate filters and this passage is inhibited by antibodies raised against mammalian pro-inflammatory cytokines. The possible nature and role of molecules recognized by anti-cytokine antibodies in hemocyte migration are discussed. PMID:16962802

  14. Organisational learning by way of organisational development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elkjær, Bente

    In the paper, the idea is explored of organisational learning as the opening andclosure of organisational space for inquiry or reflective thinking, as a way toconstruct organisational learning as an object for research. This is done by asking thequestion of whether an organisational development...... project contributes toorganisational learning. The point of departure is a municipality in Denmark workingtoward digitalising its administration. The conclusion is that the success of such aprocess very much depends on an organisation's ability to encompass severalunderstandings of organisational...... development and digital administration and tosustain them in a productive form of tension instead of pursuing only one of them....

  15. Proteomics of ionomycin-induced ascidian sperm reaction: Released and exposed sperm proteins in the ascidian Ciona intestinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazawa, Shiori; Shirae-Kurabayashi, Maki; Otsuka, Kei; Sawada, Hitoshi

    2015-12-01

    Sperm proteins mediating sperm-egg interaction should be exhibited on the sperm surface, or exposed or released when sperm approach an egg. In ascidians (protochordates), sperm undergo a sperm reaction, characterized by enhanced sperm motility and mitochondrial swelling and shedding on contact with the vitelline coat (VC) or by treatment with Ca(2+) ionophore. Here, proteomic analysis was conducted on sperm exudates and sperm surface proteins using ionomycin-induced sperm reaction and cell-impermeable labeling in Ciona intestinalis type A (C. robusta). In the exudate from sperm treated with ionomycin, membrane proteins including a possible VC receptor CiUrabin were abundant, indicating the release of membranous compartments during sperm reaction. Among the surface proteins XP_009859314.1 (uncharacterized protein exhibiting homology to HrTTSP-1) was most abundant before the sperm reaction, but XP_004227079.1 (unknown Ig superfamily protein) appears to be most abundantly exposed by the sperm reaction. Moreover, proteins containing a notable set of domains, astacin-like metalloprotease domain and thrombospondin type 1 repeat(s), were found in this fraction. Possible roles in fertilization as well as localizations and behaviors of these proteins are discussed. PMID:26223815

  16. Organisational learning by way of organisational development

    OpenAIRE

    Elkjær, Bente

    2004-01-01

    In the paper, the idea is explored of organisational learning as the opening andclosure of organisational space for inquiry or reflective thinking, as a way toconstruct organisational learning as an object for research. This is done by asking thequestion of whether an organisational development project contributes toorganisational learning. The point of departure is a municipality in Denmark workingtoward digitalising its administration. The conclusion is that the success of such aprocess ver...

  17. Msxb is a core component of the genetic circuitry specifying the dorsal and ventral neurogenic midlines in the ascidian embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roure, Agnès; Darras, Sébastien

    2016-01-01

    The tail ascidian larval peripheral nervous system is made up of epidermal sensory neurons distributed more or less regularly in ventral and dorsal midlines. Their formation occurs in two-steps: the ventral and dorsal midlines are induced as neurogenic territories by Fgf9/16/20 and Admp respectively. The Delta2/Notch interaction then controls the number of neurons that form. The genetic machinery acting between the inductive processes taking place before gastrulation and neuron specification at tailbud stages are largely unknown. The analysis of seven transcription factors expressed in the forming midlines revealed an unexpected complexity and dynamic of gene expression. Their systematic overexpression confirmed that these genes do not interact following a linear cascade of activation. However, the integration of our data revealed the distinct key roles of the two upstream factors Msxb and Nkx-C that are the earliest expressed genes and the only ones able to induce neurogenic midline and ESN formation. Our data suggest that Msxb would be the primary midline gene integrating inputs from the ventral and dorsal inducers and launching a pan-midline transcriptional program. Nkx-C would be involved in tail tip specification, in maintenance of the pan-midline network and in a posterior to anterior wave controlling differentiation. PMID:26592100

  18. Immunobiology of compound ascidians, with particular reference to Botryllus schlosseri: state of art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Ballarin

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The phylogenetic position of invertebrate chordates closely related to vertebrates explains the increasing interest towards tunicate immunobiology. Most of the tunicates are ascidians which, like all other invertebrates, rely only on innate immunity for their defense. Compound ascidians differ from solitary species for the presence of colony specificity, i.e. the ability for intraspecific non-self recognition. The immunobiology of compound ascidians has been particularly studied in Botryllus schlosseri, which is an emerging model organism for this kind of studies. In B. schlosseri and related species, immunocytes are represented by phagocytes and cytotoxic morula cells, the former able to ingest foreign cell and particles, the latter representing the effectors of the inflammatory reaction which follows the contact between genetically incompatible colonies. Activated phagocytes release lectins with opsonic activity and are involved in the clearance of apoptotic cells during the colonial generational change. Morula cells recognize the presence of foreign molecules as well as allogeneic soluble factors diffusing from an alien colony and as a consequence they: i release cytokines in the medium which have chemotactic activity and activate phagocytes; ii degranulate and release phenoloxidase which induces necrotic cell death by oxidative stress. A better knowledge of Botryllus genome will allow a deeper insight into open problems in immunobiology of compound ascidians.

  19. Quinone and Hydroquinone Metabolites from the Ascidians of the Genus Aplidium

    OpenAIRE

    Camila Spereta Bertanha; Ana Helena Januário; Tavane Aparecida Alvarenga; Letícia Pereira Pimenta; Silva, Márcio Luis Andrade e; Wilson Roberto Cunha; Patrícia Mendonça Pauletti

    2014-01-01

    Ascidians of the genus Aplidium are recognized as an important source of chemical diversity and bioactive natural products. Among the compounds produced by this genus are non-nitrogenous metabolites, mainly prenylated quinones and hydroquinones. This review discusses the isolation, structural elucidation, and biological activities of quinones, hydroquinones, rossinones, longithorones, longithorols, floresolides, scabellones, conicaquinones, aplidinones, thiaplidiaquinones, and conithiaquinone...

  20. Modiolarca lateralis (Pteryomorphia: Mytilidae: bivalve associated to six species of ascidians from Bocas del Toro, Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan I Cañete

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We describe the presence of the bivalve Modiolarca lateralis (Say, 1822 in six tropical ascidians Ascidia curvata, A. sydneiensis, A. panamensis, A. interrupta, Herdmania pallida and Polycarpa spongiabilis collected at depths of 1-3 m on coral reefs, mangrove roots and dock supports in Almirante Bay, Bocas del Toro, Panama (9°18'N, 82°13'W during June-July 2011. Bivalve prevalence varied between 9-30% across species, but was mainly associated with A. panamensis, P. spongiabilis and A. interrupta. Prevalence seems to be influenced by tunic thickness rather than by the ascidian size. Bivalves varied in size (0.6-11 mm shell length, with the smallest individual found in A. sydneiensis. There were only one or two bivalves per ascidians, although a maximum of 18 was found in one A. panamensis. M. lateralis seems to behave similarly to its temperate counterparts: it has a variety of hosts, occurs mainly in the anterior region of the ascidians, and has a variable abundance per host.

  1. Genomic organisation of the chicken ghrelin gene and its single nucleotide polymorphisms detected by denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Q; Zeng, H; Lei, M; Ishag, N A; Fang, M; Sun, B; Yang, G; Zhang, X

    2004-10-01

    (1) Ghrelin is a novel endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R) and is expressed primarily in the stomach and hypothalamus with the probable function of stimulating GH secretion and food intake both in mammals and poultry. The complete sequences of ghrelin gene have been reported in humans and mice; however, that of chickens remains unclear. (2) Here, we report the complete sequence of chicken ghrelin gene (submitted to Genbank; accession number AY303688), which consists of 5 exons and 4 introns. As in mice, the first exon of chicken ghrelin gene does not encode any amino acid. (3) Scanning point mutations with denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC) using WAVE DNA Fragment Analysis Systems and confirmed with direct sequencing for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products, we analysed the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the entire gene of chicken ghrelin. (4) Results showed that there were 19 SNPs in chicken ghrelin gene, and most of these SNPs were scattered in the 4 introns. In these SNPs, one mutation in exon 5 (A2355G) led to the change of amino acid from glutamine to arginine (Gln 113 Arg): as a result a different ghrelin precursor instead of a mature peptide was produced. In addition, one SNP in 5'UTR (C223G) determined the presence or absence of a potential binding site of transcription factor serum response factor (SRF), which might affect the expression of chicken ghrelin gene. Some of the SNPs detected in the present study could be used in quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping for growth characters in chickens. (5) Because one SNP is located in a polymorphic site of restriction enzyme PagI of intron 4, it was possible to design a PCR-RFLP procedure and analyse the diversity of 10 chicken populations. Results showed the allelic frequencies of C2100T differ among these breeds, however, no significant difference was observed between imported breeds and Chinese native ones, nor between egg layers and

  2. rRNA genes from the lower chordate Herdmania momus: structural similarity with higher eukaryotes.

    OpenAIRE

    Degnan, B M; Yan, J.; Hawkins, C J; Lavin, M F

    1990-01-01

    Ascidians, primitive chordates that have retained features of the likely progenitors to all vertebrates, are a useful model to study the evolutionary relationship of chordates to other animals. We have selected the well characterized ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes to investigate this relationship, and we describe here the cloning and characterization of an entire ribosomal DNA (rDNA) tandem repeat unit from a lower chordate, the ascidian Herdmania momus. rDNA copy number and considerable sequence...

  3. Trichomonas vaginalis vast BspA-like gene family: evidence for functional diversity from structural organisation and transcriptomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sicheritz-Pontén, Thomas; Noel, CJ; Diaz, N;

    2010-01-01

    were characterized by a considerable structural diversity between their TpLRR and other types of repetitive sequences and two subfamilies possessed distinct classic sorting signal motifs for endocytosis. One TvBspA subfamily also shared a glycine-rich protein domain with proteins from Clostridium...... difficile pathogenic strains and C. difficile phages. Consistent with the hypothesis that TvBspA protein structural diversity implies diverse roles, we demonstrated for several TvBspA genes differential expression at the transcript level in different growth conditions. Identified variants of repetitive...

  4. Organising to Enable Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brink, Tove

    2016-01-01

    . The findings reveal a continous organising process between individual/ team creativity and organisational structures/control to enable innovation at firm level. Organising provides a dynamic approach and contains the integrated reconstruction of creativity, structures and boundaries for enhanced balance......The purpose of this conceptual paper is to reveal how organising can enable innovation across organisational layers and organisational units. This approach calls for a cross-disciplinary literature review. The aim is to provide an integrated understanding of innovation in an organisational approach...... of explorative and exploitative learning in uncertain environments. Shedding light on the cross-disciplinary theories to organise innovation provides a contribution at the firm level to enable innovation....

  5. Organisation og demokrati

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fink, Jørgen Troelssøn

    1995-01-01

    the role of the business organisations of tyhe urban trades in the democratisation of Denmark 1830- 1915......the role of the business organisations of tyhe urban trades in the democratisation of Denmark 1830- 1915...

  6. When shape matters: strategies of different Antarctic ascidians morphotypes to deal with sedimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torre, Luciana; Abele, Doris; Lagger, Cristian; Momo, Fernando; Sahade, Ricardo

    2014-08-01

    Climate change leads to increased melting of tidewater glaciers in the Western Antarctic Peninsula region and sediment bearing glacial melt waters negatively affects filter feeding species as solitary ascidians. In previous work the erect-forms Molgula pedunculata and Cnemidocarpa verrucosa (Order Stolidobranchiata) appeared more sensitive than the flat form Ascidia challengeri (Order Phlebobranchiata). Sedimentation exposure is expected to induce up-regulation of anaerobic metabolism by obstructing the organs of gas exchange (environmental hypoxia) or causes enhanced squirting activity (functional hypoxia). In this study we evaluated the possible relationship between ascidian morphotype and their physiological response to sedimentation. Together with some behavioural observations, we analysed the response of anaerobic metabolic parameters (lactate formation and glycogen consumption) in different tissues of three Antarctic ascidians, exposed to high sediment concentrations (200 mgL(-1)). The results were compared to experimental hypoxia (10% pO2) and exercise (induced muscular contraction) effects, in order to discriminate the effect of sediment on each species and morpho-type (erect vs. flat forms). Our results suggest that the styled (erect) C. verrucosa increases muscular squirting activity in order to expulse excessive material, while the flat-form A. challengeri reacts more passively by down-regulating its aerobic metabolism under sediment exposure. Contrary, the erect ascidian M. pedunculata did not show any measurable response to the treatments, indicating that filtration and ingestion activities were not reduced or altered even under high sedimentation (low energetic material) which could be disadvantageous on the long-term and could explain why M. pedunculata densities decline in the study area. PMID:24986145

  7. Development of translationally active mRNA for larval muscle acetylcholinesterase during ascidian embryogenesis.

    OpenAIRE

    Meedel, T H; Whittaker, J R

    1983-01-01

    Relative quantities of translationally active acetylcholinesterase (acetylcholine acetylhydrolase, EC 3.1.1.7) mRNA present at various developmental stages were compared in embryos of the ascidian Ciona intestinalis. Purified RNA was tested for its translational capacity by microinjection into Xenopus laevis oocytes; the acetylcholinesterase produced was immunoprecipitated with antibody to Ciona acetylcholinesterase and enzyme activity was assayed radiometrically. With this protocol, enzyme s...

  8. Quinone and Hydroquinone Metabolites from the Ascidians of the Genus Aplidium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Spereta Bertanha

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Ascidians of the genus Aplidium are recognized as an important source of chemical diversity and bioactive natural products. Among the compounds produced by this genus are non-nitrogenous metabolites, mainly prenylated quinones and hydroquinones. This review discusses the isolation, structural elucidation, and biological activities of quinones, hydroquinones, rossinones, longithorones, longithorols, floresolides, scabellones, conicaquinones, aplidinones, thiaplidiaquinones, and conithiaquinones. A compilation of the 13C-NMR spectral data of these compounds is also presented.

  9. Quinone and hydroquinone metabolites from the ascidians of the genus Aplidium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertanha, Camila Spereta; Januário, Ana Helena; Alvarenga, Tavane Aparecida; Pimenta, Letícia Pereira; Silva, Márcio Luis Andrade E; Cunha, Wilson Roberto; Pauletti, Patrícia Mendonça

    2014-06-01

    Ascidians of the genus Aplidium are recognized as an important source of chemical diversity and bioactive natural products. Among the compounds produced by this genus are non-nitrogenous metabolites, mainly prenylated quinones and hydroquinones. This review discusses the isolation, structural elucidation, and biological activities of quinones, hydroquinones, rossinones, longithorones, longithorols, floresolides, scabellones, conicaquinones, aplidinones, thiaplidiaquinones, and conithiaquinones. A compilation of the 13C-NMR spectral data of these compounds is also presented. PMID:24927227

  10. Distribution and Localised Effects of the Invasive Ascidian Didemnum perlucidum (Monniot 1983) in an Urban Estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Tiffany Schenk; Wernberg, Thomas; McDonald, Justin I

    2016-01-01

    Didemnid ascidians are notorious marine invaders, fouling infrastructure in many ecosystems globally. However, there have been few reports of direct interactions with native species in their natural environment. The invasive colonial ascidian Didemnum perlucidum was discovered in the Swan River estuary (Western Australia) growing on the native seagrass Halophila ovalis. Given the known effects of other related Didemnum species it was expected that D. perlucidum could adversely affect the seagrass, with possible flow on effects to the rest of the ecosystem. This study aimed to document the distribution and abundance of D. perlucidum in the estuary, and to determine whether this species had a negative impact on H. ovalis or associated flora and fauna. D. perlucidum was largely present near areas of infrastructure, particularly mooring buoys, suggesting these were the source of D. perlucidum recruits on the seagrasses. It showed a clear seasonal pattern in abundance, with highly variable cover and colony size. D. perlucidum had a measurable effect on H. ovalis, with colonies enveloping all plant tissue, likely restricting the photosynthetic ability of individual leaves and total plant biomass. There were also significantly less seagrass-associated mud snails (Batillaria australis) where D. perlucidum cover was high. These results demonstrate the ability of invasive ascidians to colonise and affect native seagrasses and associated biota. Seagrasses are pivotal to the ecological function of many urban estuaries world-wide. Biodiversity in these systems is already vulnerable to multiple stressors from human activities but the potential stress of fouling ascidians may pose an additional and increasing threat in the future. PMID:27144600

  11. Ultrastructures and Classification of Circulating Hemocytes in 9 Botryllid Ascidians (Chordata: Ascidiacea)

    OpenAIRE

    Hirose, Euichi; Shirae, Maki; Saito, Yasunori

    2003-01-01

    Ultrastructures of circulating hemocytes were studied in 9 botryllid ascidians. The hemocytes are classified into five types: hemoblasts, phagocytes, granulocytes, morula cells, and pigment cells. These five types are always found in the 9 species. They should represent the major hemocyte types of the circulating cells in the blood. Hemoblasts are small hemocytes having a high nucleus/cytoplasm ratio. There are few granular or vacuolar inclusions in the cytoplasm. Phagocytes have phagocytic a...

  12. Solitary ascidians embryos (Chordata, Tunicata) as model organisms for testing coastal pollutant toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    G Zega; R. Pennati; S Candiani; M Pestarino; Bernardi, F

    2009-01-01

    Marine coastal communities are daily exposed to several chemical compounds commonly used in agriculture and industrial activities. Therefore, toxicological studies evaluating the effects of these compounds on marine organisms are of primary importance for marine environment preservation. Different model organisms are used to perform toxicity tests with potential pollutants, under laboratory conditions. In last decades, solitary ascidians have been selected as valuable model organisms to run b...

  13. Organisational Structure & Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2006

    2006-01-01

    Structural change is seen as a way to meet the challenges of the future that face many organisations. While some writers agree that broad-ranging structural change may not always transform an organisation or enhance its performance, others claim that innovation will be a major source of competitive advantage to organisations, particularly when…

  14. Spermiotoxicity of nickel nanoparticles in the marine invertebrate Ciona intestinalis (ascidians).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Alessandra; Boni, Raffaele; Buttino, Isabella; Tosti, Elisabetta

    2016-10-01

    Nickel nanoparticles (Ni NPs) are increasingly used in modern industries as catalysts, sensors, and in electronic applications. Due to this large use, their inputs into marine environment have significantly increased; however, the potential ecotoxicological effects in marine environment have so far received little attention. In particular, little is known on the impact of NPs on gamete quality of marine organisms and on the consequences on fertility potential. The present study examines, for the first time, the impact of Ni NPs exposure on sperm quality of the marine invertebrate Ciona intestinalis (ascidian). Several parameters related with sperm status such as plasma membrane lipid peroxidation, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), intracellular pH, DNA integrity, and fertilizing ability were assessed as toxicity end points after exposure to different Ni NPs concentrations. Ni NPs generate oxidative stress that in turn induces lipid peroxidation and DNA fragmentation, and alters MMP and sperm morphology. Furthermore, sperm exposure to Ni NPs affects their fertilizing ability and causes developmental anomalies in the offspring. All together, these results reveal a spermiotoxicity of Ni NPs in ascidians suggesting that the application of these NPs should be carefully assessed as to their potential toxic effects on the health of marine organisms that, in turn, may influence the ecological system. This study shows that ascidian sperm represent a suitable and sensitive tool for the investigation of the toxicity of NPs entered into marine environment, for defining the mechanisms of toxic action and for the environmental monitoring purpose. PMID:27080039

  15. Stochasticity in space, persistence in time: genetic heterogeneity in harbour populations of the introduced ascidian Styela plicata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, Mari-Carmen; Lorente, Beatriz; López-Legentil, Susanna; Palacín, Creu; Turon, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Spatio-temporal changes in genetic structure among populations provide crucial information on the dynamics of secondary spread for introduced marine species. However, temporal components have rarely been taken into consideration when studying the population genetics of non-indigenous species. This study analysed the genetic structure of Styela plicata, a solitary ascidian introduced in harbours and marinas of tropical and temperate waters, across spatial and temporal scales. A fragment of the mitochondrial gene Cytochrome Oxidase subunit I (COI) was sequenced from 395 individuals collected at 9 harbours along the NW Mediterranean coast and adjacent Atlantic waters (> 1,200 km range) at two time points 5 years apart (2009 and 2014). The levels of gene diversity were relatively low for all 9 locations in both years. Analyses of genetic differentiation and distribution of molecular variance revealed strong genetic structure, with significant differences among many populations, but no significant differences among years. A weak and marginally significant correlation between geographic distance and gene differentiation was found. Our results revealed spatial structure and temporal genetic homogeneity in S. plicata, suggesting a limited role of recurrent, vessel-mediated transport of organisms among small to medium-size harbours. Our study area is representative of many highly urbanized coasts with dense harbours. In these environments, the episodic chance arrival of colonisers appears to determine the genetic structure of harbour populations and the genetic composition of these early colonising individuals persists in the respective harbours, at least over moderate time frames (five years) that encompass ca. 20 generations of S. plicata. PMID:27366653

  16. The process of organisational adaptation through innovations, and organisational adaptability

    OpenAIRE

    Tikka, Tommi

    2010-01-01

    This study is about the process of organisational adaptation and organisational adaptability. The study generates a theoretical framework about organisational adaptation behaviour and conditions that have influence on success of organisational adaptation. The research questions of the study are: How does an organisation adapt through innovations, and which conditions enhance or impede organisational adaptation through innovations? The data were gathered from five case organisations withi...

  17. INFLUENCERS OF ORGANISATIONAL CLIMATE ON ORGANISATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOUR

    OpenAIRE

    U. Kalvikkarasi; G. Latha

    2015-01-01

    Organisational citizenship behaviour derived from organisational behaviour. The study focused to influencers of organisational climate on ocb. Organisational climate (OC) is about perception of the climate in an organisation, how the employee feels about the working conditions in an organisation. Good environment create into increasing the level of ocb and effectiveness organisation. Information on a number of different variables was taken out by conducting a review of 20 papers on motivation...

  18. ORGANISATIONAL CULTURE ANALYSIS MODEL

    OpenAIRE

    Mihaela Simona Maracine

    2012-01-01

    The studies and researches undertaken have demonstrated the importance of studying organisational culture because of the practical valences it presents and because it contributes to increasing the organisation’s performance. The analysis of the organisational culture’s dimensions allows observing human behaviour within the organisation and highlighting reality, identifying the strengths and also the weaknesses which have an impact on its functionality and development. In this paper, we try to...

  19. Organisational Intelligence and Distributed AI

    OpenAIRE

    Kirn, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    The analysis of this chapter starts from organisational theory, and from this it draws conclusions for the design, and possible organisational applications, of Distributed AI systems. We first review how the concept of organisations has emerged from non-organised black-box entities to so-called computerised organisations. Within this context, organisational researchers have started to redesign their models of intelligent organisations with respect to the availability of advanced computing tec...

  20. Understanding Organisational Engineering.

    OpenAIRE

    Angel Ortiz Bas

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyses the concept of organisational engineering by stressing the main functions or phases to be developed and linking them with enperprise management but also emphasizing the differences. The paper also states that organisational engineering is well-founded and robust discipline.

  1. Forget organisational unlearning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John; Scholderer, Joachim; Mitev, Natalie

      Tsang and Zhara have recently published a review of organisational unlearning as it has been introduced and used in the management literature. They conclude that organisational unlearning is an important topic that deserves more empirical research. We argue that further empirical research is...

  2. Kommunikation skaber din organisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Heidi

    KOMMUNIKATION skaber din ORGANISATION tager udgangspunkt i en narrativ tilgang til kommunikation, hvor organisationen skabes i mødet mellem ledere, medarbejdere, organisation og omverden. Historier hjælper os med at skabe mening, og er derfor vigtige både som et udviklingsværktøj i organisationen...

  3. Introducing organisational heritage: Linking corporate heritage, organisational identity, and organisational memory

    OpenAIRE

    Balmer, JMT; Burghausen, M

    2015-01-01

    In this article we formally introduce and explicate the organisational heritage notion. The authors conclude organisational heritage can be designated in three broad ways as: (1) organisational heritage identity as the perceived and reminisced omni-temporal traits – both formal/normative and utilitarian/societal – of organisational members’ work organisation; (2) organisational heritage identification as organisational members’ identification/self-categorisation vis-à-vis these perceived and ...

  4. Nitric oxide affects ERK signaling through down-regulation of MAP kinase phosphatase levels during larval development of the ascidian Ciona intestinalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Immacolata Castellano

    Full Text Available In the ascidian Ciona intestinalis larval development and metamorphosis require a complex interplay of events, including nitric oxide (NO production, MAP kinases (ERK, JNK and caspase-3 activation. We have previously shown that NO levels affect the rate of metamorphosis, regulate caspase activity and promote an oxidative stress pathway, resulting in protein nitration. Here, we report that NO down-regulates MAP kinase phosphatases (mkps expression affecting positively ERK signaling. By pharmacological approach, we observed that the reduction of endogenous NO levels caused a decrease of ERK phosphorylation, whereas increasing levels of NO induced ERK activation. We have also identified the ERK gene network affected by NO, including mpk1, mpk3 and some key developmental genes by quantitative gene expression analysis. We demonstrate that NO induces an ERK-independent down-regulation of mkp1 and mkp3, responsible for maintaining the ERK phosphorylation levels necessary for transcription of key metamorphic genes, such as the hormone receptor rev-erb and the van willebrand protein vwa1c. These results add new insights into the role played by NO during larval development and metamorphosis in Ciona, highlighting the cross-talk between different signaling pathways.

  5. Significant reduction in allergenicity of ovalbumin from chicken egg white following treatment with ascidian viscera N-acetylglucosaminidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Hye Seong; Park, Heajin; Kim, Jihye; Choi, Jai Yeon; Lee, Young Kwang; Park, Ho-Young; Choi, Hee-Don; Kim, Ha Hyung

    2016-06-17

    Ovalbumin (OA) is the most abundant ingredient of chicken egg-white allergenic proteins. In the present study we investigated the possibility of reducing OA allergenicity by treatment with a natural protein exhibiting N-acetylglucosaminidase (NA) activity. Ascidian is cultivated as a food resource in northeast Asia. The ascidian viscera NA (AVNA) with almost no other exoglycosidases or proteolytic enzymes was isolated by applying size-exclusion chromatography to a protein precipitate of ascidian viscera. Intact OA was mixed with AVNA containing 0.2, 1.0, and 5.0 Units of NA. Anion-exchange chromatography was then used to isolate OA from AVNA-treated OA. The electrophoretic patterns and N-glycans of each isolated OA from AVNA-treated OA (iOA) were analyzed, and the terminal N-acetylglucosamines of iOA were selectively cleaved with no other degradation occurring. A competitive indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using rabbit anti-OA sera was performed to investigate the allergenicity of iOA, which was found to be significantly reduced depending on the increased NA activity compared to that of intact OA. These results indicate that OA allergenicity was reduced using a simple and mild treatment process with AVNA, and suggest that ascidian NA is an efficient natural protein for reducing the allergenicity of OA without requiring the use of harsh physical treatments or chemical conjugation. PMID:27178210

  6. Organisations in Innovation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borrás, Susana

    Organisations are crucial elements in an innovation system. Yet, their role is so ubiquitous that it is difficult to grasp and to examine from the perspective of public policy. Besides, links between the literature at firm and system levels on the one hand, and public policy and governance studies...... distinguishes between different types of organisations in the innovation system, a crucial topic in understanding innovation dynamics and blurring borders. Secondly, it identifies the organisation-related bottlenecks in the innovation system, and examines the policy instruments to solve them. Thirdly, it...

  7. Strategising through organising

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mette Vinther

    and sensemaking point of view. It argues that actors’ strategising is closely connected to their organising. Maybe strategising and organising co-constitute each other? It is a perspective that looks at strategy as emergent wayfinding more than planned navigating. In the attempts to make sense of and...... operationalise a strategy, maybe actors do not follow a pre-defined map, but instead figure out the way as they go? Maybe actors go in ways that they relationally believe are the ‘right ones’ and in ways that make sense to them? There are, however, many actors in an organisation and, therefore, also many ways to...

  8. Self-organising software

    CERN Document Server

    Serugendo, Giovanna Di Marzo; Karageorgos, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    Self-organisation, self-regulation, self-repair and self-maintenance are promising conceptual approaches for dealing with complex distributed interactive software and information-handling systems. Self-organising applications dynamically change their functionality and structure without direct user intervention, responding to changes in requirements and the environment. This is the first book to offer an integrated view of self-organisation technologies applied to distributed systems, particularly focusing on multiagent systems. The editors developed this integrated book with three aims: to exp

  9. Ultrastructural comparative analysis on the adhesive papillae of the swimming larvae of three ascidian species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Dolcemascolo

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a preliminary report on the papillae of the swimming larvae of three ascidian species: Ascidia malaca, Phallusia mammillata and Ciona intestinalis. The investigations, carried out at ultrastructural level and at confocal laser microscope, have evidenced, in the adhesive papillae of the three studied species, three different cell-types: axial columnar cells, collocytes, sensory cells respectively. The adhesive papillae of A. malaca and P. mammillata show central axial columnar cells with long microvilli emerging from the apical edge and extending throughout the hyaline cap. Collocytes are elongated secreting cells, lying in middle-lateral side. Sensory cells have a cilium at the apical side and an axon proceeding from the basal side. The adhesive papillae of C. intestinalis present some differences in the ultrastructure of the axial columnar cells, which bear a big digitiform protrusion, extending throughout the hyaline cap and a lot of microtubules along the cell axis. The investigations, carried out at confocal microscopy, have evidentiated a clear fluorescence in the papillae of the three studied species and a network of nervous fibers projecting from the papillar base up to cerebral vesicle of the cephalenteron. The characteristic of simple and coniforme type and the adhesive and sensorial functions of adhesive papillae of three ascidian species examined are confirmed.

  10. Inverse correlation of population similarity and introduction date for invasive ascidians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan Silva

    Full Text Available The genomes of many marine invertebrates, including the purple sea urchin and the solitary ascidians Ciona intestinalis and Ciona savignyi, show exceptionally high levels of heterozygosity, implying that these populations are highly polymorphic. Analysis of the C. savignyi genome found little evidence to support an elevated mutation rate, but rather points to a large population size contributing to the polymorphism level. In the present study, the relative genetic polymorphism levels in sampled populations of ten different ascidian species were determined using a similarity index generated by AFLP analysis. The goal was to determine the range of polymorphism within the populations of different species, and to uncover factors that may contribute to the high level of polymorphism. We observe that, surprisingly, the levels of polymorphism within these species show a negative correlation with the reported age of invasive populations, and that closely related species show substantially different levels of genetic polymorphism. These findings show exceptions to the assumptions that invasive species start with a low level of genetic polymorphism that increases over time and that closely related species have similar levels of genetic polymorphism.

  11. Researching enterprises between organisation and organising

    OpenAIRE

    Elkjær, Bente; Brandi, Ulrik

    2010-01-01

    RESEARCHING ENTERPRISES BETWEEN ORGANISATION AND ORGANISINGUlrik Brandi & Bente Elkjaer, Department of Learning, University of Aarhus, Danish School of Education, Tuborgvej 164, 2400 Copenhagen NV, DenmarkShort paper submission to the 26th European Group of Organization Studies Colloquium, Waves of Globalization: Repetition and difference in organizing over time and space. June 30 - July 3 2010, Lisbon, Portugal.Sub-theme 16:  Investigating Organization as Becoming in a World on the Move ...

  12. Organisational Theatre and Polyphony

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matula, Linda; Badham, Richard; Meisiek, Stefan

    paper provides the first in-depth longitudinal study of shaping and negotiation of an organisational theatre event and the ways in which it is influenced by a polyphonic multivocality and takes the form of selective and partial forms of harmonious expression in establishing meaningful cooperation. The......This paper details the conditions leading up to and influencing an organisational theatre intervention as part of an organisational change program at a newly established cancer clinic. The paper explores the social and political interactions and negotiations shaping the structure and conditions of...... the organisational theatre event. It focuses in particular on the alignments and clashes between the different human resource voices in defining the ‘surface’ formal purpose for the intervention and the embeddedness of such interactions and negotiations in ‘deeper’ cultural and social conditions. The...

  13. The Compassionate Organisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Poul Erik Flyvholm; Isaksson, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Structured Abstract: Purpose – This paper tests whether organisations in the public domain have embraced a corporate type of discourse, mirroring the private sector’s preferred orientation towards expertise, or whether they maintain their traditional discourse of goodwill towards the publics they...... detailed analysis of organisational value statements posted on the websites of public and private organisations. The research considers the value priorities of fifty organisations in the UK and Scandinavia in order to gauge the extent of convergence between the two sectors’ preferred discourses. Findings...... – The research shows that the public sector sticks to its guns in maintaining a web-transmitted values discourse which forefronts goodwill towards its clients. It also shows that the public and private sectors take different approaches to goodwill. Originality/value – Strategists and communication...

  14. The Organisation of Disappointment

    OpenAIRE

    Clancy, Annette

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the emotion of disappointment in organisations and to develop a new line of theorising inspired by psychodynamic theory. The current literature casts disappointment as a negative emotion undermining morale, depressing expectations and justifying inaction and inertia. This only captures part of the complexity of disappointment and leaves unexplored both its impact on the organisation and its potential creativity. The study presents a theoretical framework de...

  15. Strategy Development in Organisations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lene

    1999-01-01

    There exist certain ambiguities with the converging fields of information technology and organisational strategy development. The term "IT strategy" has evolved and reflects in some respects this confusion. This paper discusses some of the ambiguities and difficulties of the term "IT strategy......" as used in practice and literature. Emphasis is put on how the term is related to the problem, the organisation, the strategy process and the practical way of methodologically developing the strategy. Finally, alternative strategy developing perspectives are presented....

  16. Organisational learning in professional discourses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Sedláček

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Authors of the paper discuss the concept of organisational learning. Theyrefer to a wide range of definitions and concepts, point out some differences from related or analogous concepts used, such as knowledge management and learning organisation. They note the discussions that relate to key topics. These discussions concern levels at which organisational learning can take place, the effect on behaviour organisational performance. The following section of this article presents organisational learning as a process and describes the stages of organisational learning. The purpose of the article is to provide an overview of efforts to define organisational learning, including criticism of the results of this effort. The last partis devoted to selected theories and empirical findings on organisational learning atschool. The authors stress the importance of organisational learning for schools asspecific organisations and express request to examine the processes of organisational learning in this context.

  17. The organisational diagnoses of a distribution organisation / Lourence Badenhorst Alblas

    OpenAIRE

    Alblas, Lourence Badenhorst

    2002-01-01

    During the past three decades the economic performances of South Africa organisations were poor. This poor performance forced a lot of South African organisations to look at the way they do business. A method to analyse the way business is conducted through an Organisation Diagnose. Organisation Diagnose is the process of using concepts and methods from the social and behavioural sciences to assess the current state of an entire organisation and to find ways to improve th...

  18. The first myriapod genome sequence reveals conservative arthropod gene content and genome organisation in the centipede Strigamia maritima

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chipman, Ariel D.; Ferrier, David E.K.; Brena, Carlo;

    2014-01-01

    likely effected by expansion of other receptor gene families. For some genes S. maritima has evolved paralogues to generate coding sequence diversity, where insects use alternate splicing. This is most striking for the Dscam gene, which in Drosophila generates more than 100,000 alternate splice forms...

  19. Organisational learning in professional discourses.

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Sedláček; Petr Novotný; Lenka Hloušková; Milan Pol; Bohumíra Lazarová

    2012-01-01

    Authors of the paper discuss the concept of organisational learning. Theyrefer to a wide range of definitions and concepts, point out some differences from related or analogous concepts used, such as knowledge management and learning organisation. They note the discussions that relate to key topics. These discussions concern levels at which organisational learning can take place, the effect on behaviour organisational performance. The following section of this article presents organisational ...

  20. Two New Tryptamine Derivatives, Leptoclinidamide and (--Leptoclinidamine B, from an Indonesian Ascidian Leptoclinides dubius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michio Namikoshi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Two new tryptamine-derived alkaloids, named as leptoclinidamide (1 and (--leptoclinidamine B (2, were isolated from an Indonesian ascidian Leptoclinides dubius together with C2-α-D-mannosylpyranosyl-L-tryptophan (3. The structure of 1 was assigned on the basis of spectroscopic data for 1 and its N-acetyl derivative (4. Compound 1 was an amide of tryptamine with two β-alanine units. Although the planar structure of 2 is identical to that of the known compound (+-leptoclinidamine B (5, compound 2 was determined to be the enantiomer of 5 based on amino acid analysis using HPLC methods. Compounds 1 to 4 were evaluated for cytotoxicity against two human cancer cell lines, HCT-15 (colon and Jurkat (T-cell lymphoma cells, but none of the compounds showed activity.

  1. Den kommunikerende organisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tække, Jesper

    2006-01-01

    samtidig tilbydes optimale muligheder for at få opfyldt individuelle behov og karrieremuligheder. For at en organisation skal kunne korrigere sig i forhold til de krav den konfronteres med, må der kunne fremstilles et adækvat billede af den. Det vil sige at dens faktiske kommunikationsprocesser må kunne...... drages frem i lyset på en måde så hensigtsmæssigheder og uhensigtsmæssigheder kan iagttages og selv blive objekt for reflekteret organisationskommunikation. Dette paper giver et udkast til en analysestrategi, hvormed der kan tegnes et billede af den enkelte organisation ud fra hvordan dens enkelte og...

  2. Distribution and invasiveness of a colonial ascidian, Didemnum psammathodes, along the southern Indian coastal water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Abdul Jaffar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Ascidians are well known worldwide for their rapid invasions and also for the presence of potential biomedical molecules. Members of the family Didemnidae are widely distributed in tropical waters and they are reported to be among the families possessing rich bioactive compounds. Didemnum psammathodes has a cosmopolitan distribution in tropical waters. The growing evidence of multifarious potential and ever increasing invasion of this species accentuated the need for additional research into its diversity and distribution for sustainable utilization and conservation. The present study was intended to focus on distribution and invasiveness of colonial ascidian, D. psammathodes, along the southern Indian peninsular waters. The present data are based on our own observations made during 2012–2014 period and also on the published and unpublished records of the last 20 years. Out of 45 stations surveyed, D. psammathodes was encountered at a maximum of 41 stations and was found to be more abundant in Hare Island (n = 42, North Break Water (n = 38 and Vizhinjam bay (n = 32. This species was absent at four different stations. Catch per unit effort was higher (19.6 in Hare Island followed by NBW (16.0 and Vizhinjam bay (6.8. The highest number of colonies (136 was observed in calcareous stones, followed by embedded rocks (54 and molluscan shells (33. Hydrographical parameters showed no significant differences between the stations (p < 0.005. It is concluded that D. psammathodes has the potential to invade most of the stations and its distribution was not influenced by hydrographical parameters rather than substrates.

  3. NCW2, a Gene Involved in the Tolerance to Polyhexamethylene Biguanide (PHMB), May Help in the Organisation of β-1,3-Glucan Structure of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cell Wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsztein, Carolina; de Lima, Rita de Cássia Pereira; de Barros Pita, Will; de Morais, Marcos Antonio

    2016-09-01

    In the present work, we provide biological evidences supporting the participation of NCW2 gene in the mechanism responsible for cell tolerance to polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB), an antifungal agent. The growth rate of yeast cells exposed to this agent was significantly reduced in ∆ncw2 strain and the mRNA levels of NCW2 gene in the presence of PHMB showed a 7-fold up-regulation. Moreover, lack of NCW2 gene turns yeast cell more resistant to zymolyase treatment, indicating that alterations in the β-glucan network do occur when Ncw2p is absent. Computational analysis of the translated protein indicated neither catalytic nor transmembrane sites and reinforced the hypothesis of secretion and anchoring to cell surface. Altogether, these results indicated that NCW2 gene codes for a protein which participates in the cell wall biogenesis in yeasts and that Ncw2p might play a role in the organisation of the β-glucan assembly. PMID:27246500

  4. Between Organisation and Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stang Våland, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    this process, the open-office layout was introduced as a premediated design condition, a format that the users initially resisted. The paper discusses how end-user participation as a method and spatial design as a perspective may inform change in organisations. Although the users' resistance toward the...... open layout remained, their perception of this solution concurrently modified...

  5. The national emergency organisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In any emergency situation, the organisation of the response in France is based on predetermined emergency response plans. These plans define worst-case accident scenarios in terms of safety and the measures necessary to control the accident and to protect the personnel on the sites as well as the general public. (authors)

  6. Luhmann og Organisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Michael

    LUHMANN OG ORGANISATION Organisationsstudier spiller en særlig rolle for den tyske sociolog Niklas Luhmann (1927-1998) idet han begriber organisationer som det mest afgørende socialsystem i det moderne samfund. Kun organisati-oner kan træffe samfundsmæssige afgørelser. Faktisk begyndte Luhmann som...... organisationsteoretiker, og flere af hans tidlige værker regnes nu som milepæle indenfor organisations-studier. I 2000 udkom post humt hans sidste store organisationsteoretiske værk Organisation und Entscheidung. I Luhmanns almene systemteori trækker han kraftigt på sit kendskab til organisationer. Begribelsen af...... samtidig med, at de kan skabe en kobling mellem det moderne samfunds interaktioner og funktionssystemer. Luhmanns konstante ledetråd har været, at organisationer er det, som får samfun-det til at fungere. Uden organisationer intet moderne samfund. Luhmann og organisation henvender sig til studerende...

  7. Den Legende Organisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsted, Ann Charlotte

    Bogen beskriver, hvordan to vidt forskellige organisationer - den store internationale virksomhed LEGO og den mindre nonprofit organisation SUS - har bragt legen i spil. Ann Charlotte Thorsted viser i bogen, hvordan leg kan understøtte innovation, læring, kommunikation, samarbejde og det gode...

  8. Evaluation of antibacterial activity of crude extracts of ascidian Didemnum psammathodes Sluiter, 1895 against isolated human and fish pathogens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    N Sri Kumaran; S Bragadeeswaran; VK Meenakshi

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antimicrobial activities of ascidian Didemnum psammathodes (D. psammathodes) against human and fish pathogenic organisms. Methods: In this study antimicrobial activities were carried out by standard disc diffusion method. In this experiment 40 human, fish bacterial and fungal pathogens were isolated and assayed against 7 different solvents such as methanol, acetone, ethanol, n-butanol, chloroform, ethyl acetate and dichloromethane. Each solvent were assayed at different concentrations of 25, 50, 75, 100 mg/mL. Results: From this experiment solvent having higher concentrations showed high inhibition activity and the fungi are showed more resistant than the bacterial strains used. Conclusions: These results indicate that the ascidian D. psammathodes is found to have remarkable antimicrobial activities against isolated microbes. Further studies will fulfill for purification and structural elucidation of antimicrobial drugs.

  9. MEMO Organisation Modelling Language (1): Focus on organisational structure

    OpenAIRE

    Frank, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    Organisation models are at the core of enterprise model, since they represent key aspects of a company's action system. Within MEMO, the Organisation Modelling Language (OrgML) supports the construction of organisation models. They can be divided into two main abstractions: a static abstraction is focusing on the structure of an organisation that reflects the division of labour with respect to static responsibilities and a dynamic abstraction that is focusing on models of business processes. ...

  10. The Impact of Organisational Learning on Organisational Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Zgrzywa-Ziemak

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this article is to analyse the theoretical views and results of empirical research concerning the relation between organisational learning (OL) and organisational performance (OP). Methodology: The study was carried out through extensive literature research, including relevant literature review from databases such as ProQuest, Elsevier, Emerald and EBSCO (the phrases: “organisational learning”, “learning organisation” and “organisational performance” were searched in th...

  11. Studies on the seasonal variations in the proximate composition of ascidians from the Palk Bay,Southeast coast of India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ananthan; G; Karthikeyan; MM; Selva; Prabhu; A; Raghunathan; C

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the seasonal fluctuations of the proximate composition of the ascidians muscle.Methods:The moisture content was estimated by drying 1 g of fresh tissue at a constant temperature at 105(?)for 24 h.The loss of weight was taken as moisture content.The total protein was estimated using the Biuret method.The total carbohydrate in dried sample was estimated spectrophotometrically following the phenol-sulphuric acid method.The lipid in the dried sample tissue was gravimetrically estimated following the chloroform-methanol mixture method.Ash content was determined gravimetrically by incinerating 1 g dried sample in muffle furnace at about 550℃for 6 h and results are expressed in percentage.Results:It was found very difficult to compare the monthly variations,as all the ten species,exhibited wide fluctuations in their proximate compositions.For the sake of convenience,average seasonal values were calculated by summing the monthly values.Conclusions:The proximate composition of the 10 commonly available ascidians showed high nutritive value and hence these groups especially solitary ascidians can be recommended for human consumption in terms of pickles,soup,curry and others after ensuring the safety of consumers.

  12. Studies on the seasonal variations in the proximate composition of ascidians from the Palk Bay, Southeast coast of India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ananthan G; Karthikeyan MM; Selva Prabhu A; Raghunathan C

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the seasonal fluctuations of the proximate composition of the ascidians muscle. Methods: The moisture content was estimated by drying 1 g of fresh tissue at a constant temperature at 105 ℃ for 24 h.The loss of weight was taken as moisture content. The total protein was estimated using the Biuret method. The total carbohydrate in dried sample was estimated spectrophotometrically following the phenol- sulphuric acid method. The lipid in the dried sample tissue was gravimetrically estimated following the chloroform-methanol mixture method. Ash content was determined gravimetrically by incinerating 1 g dried sample in muffle furnace at about 550 ℃ for 6 h and results are expressed in percentage. Results: It was found very difficult to compare the monthly variations, as all the ten species, exhibited wide fluctuations in their proximate compositions. For the sake of convenience, average seasonal values were calculated by summing the monthly values. Conclusions: The proximate composition of the 10 commonly available ascidians showed high nutritive value and hence these groups especially solitary ascidians can be recommended for human consumption in terms of pickles, soup, curry and others after ensuring the safety of consumers.

  13. Learning and change in organisations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chemi, Tatiana

    2013-01-01

    Review of: Ian W. King & Jonathan Vickery (Eds.), Experiencing Organisations. New Aesthetic perspectives, Faringdon, Libri Publishing, 2013.......Review of: Ian W. King & Jonathan Vickery (Eds.), Experiencing Organisations. New Aesthetic perspectives, Faringdon, Libri Publishing, 2013....

  14. Knowledge Work and Organisational Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Elkjær, Bente

    2000-01-01

    In this paper it is argued that the terms, knowledge work, knowledge workers, and knowledge intensive firms point to emerging social structures and processes in organisations. This focus allows us to analyse organisations in ways that differ from the notions involving less dynamic forms of organisational configurations. It is further argued that the emphasis on knowledge in organisations raises a fundamental question of learning, i. e. how knowledge workers acquire relevant competencies. Howe...

  15. Virtual corporations, enterprise and organisation

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen RÃDUT

    2009-01-01

    Virtual organisation is a strategic paradigm that is centred on the use of information and ICT to create value. Virtual organisation is presented as a metamanagement strategy that has application in all value oriented organisations. Within the concept of Virtual organisation, the business model is an ICT based construct that bridges and integrates enterprise strategic and operational concerns. Firms try to ameliorate the impacts of risk and product complexity by forming alliances and partners...

  16. Innovation in Slovenian tourism organisations

    OpenAIRE

    Uran Maravic, Maja; Križaj, Dejan; Lesjak, Miha

    2015-01-01

    The purpose – Slovenian tourism organisations must constantly focus on developing variety innovations for organisations. In this paper, we present a study conducted on innovation practices in Slovenian tourism organisations. Design/methodology – In a survey conducted on Slovenia tourism organisations, we obtained data and identified their innovation performance and the innovation climate in their area of business. There are three main hypothesis tested. Findings – The research sample of...

  17. Can Public Sector Organisations Learn?

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Barrados; John Mayne

    2003-01-01

    In recent years, considerable attention has been focused on the importance of managing information in organisations, as well as the challenges for organisations to make use of and adapt from it. Organisationsare expected to value information, to be able to learn from the past and to adapt to changing circumstances. While much of the literature has focused on private sector organisations, public sector organisations and indeed thegovernments within which they operate are undergoing significant...

  18. Conservation of Notochord Gene Expression Across Chordates: Insights From the Leprecan Gene Family

    OpenAIRE

    Capellini, Terence D.; Dunn, Matthew P.; Yale J Passamaneck; Selleri, Licia; Di Gregorio, Anna

    2008-01-01

    The notochord is a defining character of the chordates, and the T-box transcription factor Brachyury has been shown to be required for notochord development in all chordates examined. In the ascidian Ciona intestinalis, at least 44 notochord genes have been identified as bona fide transcriptional targets of Brachyury. We examined the embryonic expression of a subset of murine orthologs of Ciona Brachyury target genes in the notochord to assess its conservation throughout chordate evolution. W...

  19. Intergovernmental organisation activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This section of the Bulletin presents a summary of the recent Intergovernmental organisation activities, sorted by organisation: - European Atomic Energy Community: Adopted legally binding instruments; Non-legally binding instruments; International relations. - International Atomic Energy Agency: Convention on Nuclear Safety (CNS); 58. regular session of the IAEA General Conference; IAEA Treaty Event; Side event on 'The Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage (CSC) - in the Context of the Global Nuclear Liability Regime'; Legislative assistance activities; Nuclear Law Institute. - OECD Nuclear Energy Agency: Steering Committee approves decommissioning exclusion; European Nuclear Energy Tribunal (ENET) Judges approved; High-level Group on the Security of Supply of Medical Radioisotopes (HLG-MR); Joint Declaration; The Characteristics of an Effective Nuclear Regulator

  20. Virtualness : a new organisational dimension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch-Sijtsema, P.M.

    2003-01-01

    In current literature a new organisational form is presented, the virtual organisation (VO). ms organisational form is a co-operation between a number of companies who combine their strengths to develop a new service or product. The current VO literature is ambiguous about the definition and charact

  1. Managing a Voluntary Organisation

    OpenAIRE

    Dk. Hjh. Siti Fatimah - Pg. Hj. Petra

    2014-01-01

    This paper reveals the experience of a young member of a non-profitable organisation in managing a team of professionals in Brunei Darussalam. In a team, the experience of managing has not been as scary as expected; positions taken, however, must be firm and effective. Being a leader of the contingency approach type, actions and responses are based on circumstances. Marketing and managing changes need to be pursued as a new leader of a voluntary organization. Careful considerations and risks ...

  2. Customer Oriented Organisations

    OpenAIRE

    Pau Adriana

    2011-01-01

    Customer orientation is a complex, multidimensional concept, that includes dimensions like: motivation of an employee for meeting the customers’ requirements, abilities necessary for an employee to satisfy the customer’s needs, freedom of the employee to make decisions aimed at meeting the customer’s needs and desires. Customer oriented organisations offer services with a high level of quality that ensures the customer’s satisfaction.

  3. Organisation and economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This part concerns the cost and the organisation of radiotherapy. A first articles is relative to the cost of radiotherapy with intensity modulation in the case of otorhinolaryngology cancers, the result is based on the experience of nine French centers of treatment. The second article treats the question of bone metastases through a broad study near physicians interested in the treatment of cancer in order to better understand the the diagnosis and therapy approaches of patients reached by bone metastases. (N.C.)

  4. Droit des organisations internationales

    CERN Document Server

    Sorel, Jean-Marc; Ndior, Valère

    2013-01-01

    Cet ouvrage collectif offre aux enseignants et chercheurs en droit international, aux praticiens et aux étudiants, une analyse actualisée du droit des organisations internationales. Il dresse en cinq parties un tableau, illustré par des exemples variés, des problématiques que soulève le phénomène polymorphe d institutionnalisation de la société internationale. La première partie est consacrée au phénomène des « organisations internationales », sous l angle à la fois de l institutionnalisation progressive des relations internationales et de la difficulté à cerner une catégorie unifiée. La deuxième partie rend compte de la création, de la disparition et des mutations des organisations internationales, ici envisagées comme systèmes institutionnels et ordres juridiques dérivés. La troisième partie analyse l autonomie que l acquisition de la personnalité juridique et de privilèges et immunités, un organe administratif intégré, un personnel ou un budget propres confèrent aux organi...

  5. Identification of precursor transcripts for 6 novel miRNAs expands the diversity on the genomic organisation and expression of miRNA genes in rice

    OpenAIRE

    Panaud Olivier; Brice Claire; Cao Xiaofeng; Hirsch Judith; Brugidou Christophe; Guiderdoni Emmanuel; Breitler Jean-Christophe; Bangratz Martine; Piégu Benoît; Duval David; Santi Carole; Nagasaki Hiroshi; Lacombe Séverine; Karlowski Wojciech M; Sato Yutaka

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background The plant miRNAs represent an important class of endogenous small RNAs that guide cleavage of an mRNA target or repress its translation to control development and adaptation to stresses. MiRNAs are nuclear-encoded genes transcribed by RNA polymerase II, producing a primary precursor that is subsequently processed by DCL1 an RNase III Dicer-like protein. In rice hundreds of miRNAs have been described or predicted, but little is known on their genes and precursors which are ...

  6. Virtual corporations, enterprise and organisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen RÃDUT

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Virtual organisation is a strategic paradigm that is centred on the use of information and ICT to create value. Virtual organisation is presented as a metamanagement strategy that has application in all value oriented organisations. Within the concept of Virtual organisation, the business model is an ICT based construct that bridges and integrates enterprise strategic and operational concerns. Firms try to ameliorate the impacts of risk and product complexity by forming alliances and partnerships with others to spread the risk of new products and new ventures and to increase organisational competence. The result is a networked virtual organization.

  7. Ecological observations on the colonial ascidian Didemnum sp. in a New England tide pool habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, P.C.; Carman, M.R.; Blackwood, D.S.; Heffron, E.J.

    2007-01-01

    The colonial ascidian Didemnum sp. has colonized northwestern Atlantic coastal habitats from southern Long Island, New York, to Eastport, Maine. It is also present in offshore habitats of the Georges Bank fishing grounds. It threatens to alter fisheries habitats and shellfish aquacultures. Observations in a tide pool at Sandwich, MA from December 2003 to February 2006 show that Didemnum sp. tolerates water temperatures ranging from ≤ 1 to > 24 °C, with daily changes of up to 11 °C. It attaches to pebbles, cobbles, and boulders, and it overgrows other tunicates, seaweeds, sponges, and bivalves. From May to mid July, colonies appear as small patches on the bottoms of rocks. Colonies grow rapidly from July to September, with some growth into December, and they range in color from pink to pale yellow to pale orange. Colony health declines from October through April, presumably in response to changes in water temperatures, and this degenerative process is manifested by color changes, by the appearance of small dark brown spots that represent clumps of fecal pellets in the colony, by scavenging by periwinkles, and by a peeling-away of colonies from the sides of cobbles and boulders. At Sandwich, colonies died that were exposed to air at low tide. The species does not exhibit this seasonal cycle of growth and decline in subtidal habitats (40–65 m) on the Georges Bank fishing grounds where the daily climate is relatively stable and annual water temperatures range from 4 to 15 °C. Experiments in the tide pool with small colony fragments (5 to 9 cm2) show they re-attach and grow rapidly by asexual budding, increasing in size 6- to 11-fold in the first 15 days. Didemnum sp. at Sandwich has no known predators except for common periwinkles (Littorina littorea) that graze on degenerating colonies in the October to April time period and whenever colonies are stressed by desiccation. The tendencies of the ascidian (1) to attach to firm substrates, (2) to rapidly overgrow

  8. TEDx Organisers meet at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Abha Eli Phoboo

    2013-01-01

    CERN hosted the second TEDx European Organisers meeting last week with around 80 organisers attending from all over Europe. They were given an introduction to CERN and a tour of the LHC experiments.   The participants of the TEDx European Organisers meeting held at CERN last week. Among the attendees was Bruno Giussani, European director of TED, who delivered the welcome address. The TEDx European organisers shared their experiences in workshops and brainstormed about how to work on different aspects of organising a TEDx event, and about improving the relationship between TEDx and TED. “The goal of this meeting was for veteran TEDx organisers to help younger ones, help each other, bring the community together and have better quality events,” said Claudia Marcelloni, head of TEDxCERN. TEDx is an independently organised TED (Technology, Entertainment, Design) talk event, which has grown exponentially all over the world. There are hundreds of TEDx events every day and it n...

  9. Luhmann og Organisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tække, Jesper; Paulsen, Michael

    2008-01-01

      Synopsis - Vi vil i denne artikel udlægge Luhmanns organisationsteori i et fugleperspektiv. Ud fra en videnskabsteoretisk og metametodologisk vinkel henvender vi os især til interesserede i organisationsteori og organisationskommunikation, som gerne vil tilegne sig Luhmanns organisationsteori i...... bevæger sig videre til systembegrebet, forskellige systemtyper, kommunikationsbegrebet og til sidst organisations- og beslutningsbegrebet. Alt i alt er det artiklens ærinde at blotlægge de begrebslige præmisser for Luhmanns organisationsteori....

  10. Kommunikation skaber din organisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Heidi

    Kommunikation er med til at skabe vores sociale verdener - og er dermed essentiel i forhold til at skabe virksomhedens image udadtil og den organisatoriske virkeligehd indadtil. Bogen tager udgangspunkt i en semiotisk og narrativ tilgang til kommunikation, hvor organisationen konstant (gen-)skabe......-)skabes genenm interaktioner mellem ledere og medarbejdere og mellem organisation og omverden. Identitet er et nøgleberegb i denne forståelse. Historier hjælper os med at skabe mening og er derfor vigtige som organisationsudviklings- og positioneringsværktøj....

  11. Organisational Learning with Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hundebøl, Jesper

    2008-01-01

    Based on multi-site ethno-methodological field studies in the Danish construction industry this paper examines the relational effects of 3D object-based modelling. In describing how that technology is being introduced, shaped and enacted, how it associates with, mediates and translates existing...... practices, I discuss how it has effects for work methods and routines in an (inter-)organisational setting, namely that of architects and consulting engineers. The technology is introduced in the practices in question, in part because of a program referred to as Det Digitale Byggeri (Digital Construction...

  12. Intergovernmental organisation activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This section treats of the following Intergovernmental organisation activities: 1 - European Atomic Energy Community: Non-legally binding instruments; International relations; 2 - International Atomic Energy Agency: Convention on Nuclear Safety (CNS); Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management (JC); The Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage (CSC); International Expert Group on Nuclear Liability (INLEX); Legislative assistance activities; 3 - OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA): GIF Framework Agreement extended for ten years; Technology Road-map: Nuclear Energy; Steering Committee Policy Debate: Health Effects of Low-dose Radiation

  13. Intergovernmental Organisation Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This section treats of the following activities, sorted by Organisation: 1 - European Atomic Energy Community: Proposed binding instruments, Adopted legally binding instruments, Non-legally binding instruments; 2 - International Atomic Energy Agency: Convention on Nuclear Safety, Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management, International Expert Group on Nuclear Liability, Legislative assistance activities; 3 - OECD Nuclear Energy Agency: Appointment of new Director-General, International experts in Japan to review safety after Fukushima Daiichi, China Atomic Energy Authority co-operation workshop

  14. Reprotoxicity of the Antifoulant Chlorothalonil in Ascidians: An Ecological Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Alessandra; Tosti, Elisabetta

    2015-01-01

    Chlorothalonil is a widely used biocide in antifouling paint formulation that replaces tin-based compounds after their definitive ban. Although chlorothalonil inputs into the marine environment have significantly increased in recent years, little is known about its effect on marine animals and in particular on their reproductive processes. In this line, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of chlorothalonil exposure on the gamete physiology, fertilization rate and transmissible damage to offspring in the marine invertebrate Ciona intestinalis (ascidians). To identify a possible mechanism of action of chlorothalonil, electrophysiological techniques were used to study the impact on oocyte membrane excitability and on the electrical events occurring at fertilization. The pre-exposure of spermatozoa and oocytes to chlorothalonil did not affect the fertilization rate but caused damage to the offspring by inducing larval malformation. The highest toxicity was observed when fertilization was performed in chlorothalonil solutions with the lowest EC50 value. In particular, it was observed that low chlorothalonil concentrations interfered with embryo development and led to abnormal larvae, whereas high concentrations arrested embryo formation. In mature oocytes, a decrease in the amplitudes of the sodium and fertilization currents was observed, suggesting an involvement of plasma membrane ion currents in the teratogenic mechanism of chlorothalonil action. The risk estimation confirmed that the predicted no-effect concentration (PNEC) exceeded the predicted effect concentration (PEC), thus indicating that chlorothalonil may pose a risk to aquatic species. PMID:25875759

  15. Contemporary Network Organisations in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jure Kovač

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Modern organisations are confronted with enormous challenges. The need to continuously adapt to changing environments represents a main challenge for modern organisations. In order to adapt to the requirements of modern environments more easily and more rapidly, organisations become connected into networks. A network organisation is fast becoming a favourite form of the modern organisation. On the basis of an analysis of members in the field of network organisations, this contribution presents the dimensions and definitions of network organisations. In the follow-up, the starting point for a theoretical explanation of network organisations and their different existing forms is presented. The emphasis of the empirical part of the contribution focuses on presenting an analysis of forms of network organisations that are present in Slovenia from the perspective of their shape, development and actual state. Based on an analysis of relevant documentation, it may be concluded that it was the institutional environment which initiated and directed the start-up processes that led to the establishment of contemporary network organisations within Slovenia.

  16. The effect of organisational context on organisational development (OD) interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjana Brijball Parumasur

    2012-01-01

    Orientation: Systematic and congruent organisational structures, systems, strategies and designs are necessary for the successful implementation of organisational development (OD) interventions.Research purpose: This article examines national and international OD practices. It assesses the effect of diverse cultures and cultural values for determining the effectiveness of OD interventions.Motivation for the study: Most organisational change and development programmes fail and only a few resul...

  17. A novel third complement component C3 gene of Ciona intestinalis expressed in the endoderm at the early developmental stages

    OpenAIRE

    Hibino, T.; Nonaka, M

    2013-01-01

    The third complement component (C3) in ascidian was reported to function as an opsonin to enhance phagocytosis and as a chemotactic factor for phagocytes, indicating that ascidian C3 works in mesodermal cavity as a humoral factor like vertebrate C3s. In the basal Eumetazoa, Cnidaria lacking mesodermal tissues, C3 was reported to work in an endodermal cavity. Evolution of structure and function of C3 is still to be clarified. Here we report the identification of the third C3 gene, CiC3-3, in t...

  18. Identification of precursor transcripts for 6 novel miRNAs expands the diversity on the genomic organisation and expression of miRNA genes in rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panaud Olivier

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The plant miRNAs represent an important class of endogenous small RNAs that guide cleavage of an mRNA target or repress its translation to control development and adaptation to stresses. MiRNAs are nuclear-encoded genes transcribed by RNA polymerase II, producing a primary precursor that is subsequently processed by DCL1 an RNase III Dicer-like protein. In rice hundreds of miRNAs have been described or predicted, but little is known on their genes and precursors which are important criteria to distinguish them from siRNAs. Here we develop a combination of experimental approaches to detect novel miRNAs in rice, identify their precursor transcripts and genes and predict or validate their mRNA targets. Results We produced four cDNA libraries from small RNA fractions extracted from distinct rice tissues. By in silico analysis we selected 6 potential novel miRNAs, and confirmed that their expression requires OsDCL1. We predicted their targets and used 5'RACE to validate cleavage for three of them, targeting a PPR, an SPX domain protein and a GT-like transcription factor respectively. In addition, we identified precursor transcripts for the 6 miRNAs expressed in rice, showing that these precursors can be efficiently processed using a transient expression assay in transfected Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. Most interestingly, we describe two precursors producing tandem miRNAs, but in distinct arrays. We focus on one of them encoding osa-miR159a.2, a novel miRNA produced from the same stem-loop structure encoding the conserved osa-miR159a.1. We show that this dual osa-miR159a.2-osa-miR159a.1 structure is conserved in distant rice species and maize. Finally we show that the predicted mRNA target of osa-miR159a.2 encoding a GT-like transcription factor is cleaved in vivo at the expected site. Conclusion The combination of approaches developed here identified six novel miRNAs expressed in rice which can be clearly distinguished from si

  19. Research into Chinese media organisations

    OpenAIRE

    Xin, Xin

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the impact of media marketisation in China upon organisational structure and journalistic practices of Chinese news organisations. It aims to assess to what extent market factors have weakened the centralised control over local journalistic practices in the last two and a half decades. This paper focuses on Xinhua Shanghai Bureau, a local division within a central news organisation, Xinhua News Agency, which is headquartered in Beijing and operates nationwide. This artic...

  20. Organisational Learning - A Global View

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper will discuss the concept of organisational learning and its application to NPP. The concept outlined in this paper substantially extends the operating experience feedback process currently practiced in NPP. Organisational learning has emerged from economics and business administration where measures related to this concept have been applied to increase economic efficiency and return. Such organisations are designed to achieve specific objectives by using specific means and resources. For these organisations, organisational learning is of utmost importance especially in changing environments, because it drives the systematic and continuous adaptation and self-improvement of an organisation in order to better carry out its missions and to better fulfil the economic, legal, political, scientific, social, and technological requirements of the environment. In the nuclear industry, besides design nuclear safety is guaranteed by an efficient safety management. Safety management includes the continuous monitoring, evaluation, and improvement of nuclear safety. Organisational learning is an essential element of safety management, and safety management is to be considered as a particular framework for organisational learning. To be efficient, organisational learning, like safety management, has to rely on core values of a good safety culture like e.g. questioning attitude, and openness to criticism. Chapter 2 of the paper elaborates on the definition of organisational learning and its main elements. Chapter 3 discusses the current status regarding the organisational learning system in German NPP. Chapter 4 presents concept and implementation status of an organisational learning system developed by the Unterweser NPP and GRS. The paper concludes with lessons learned up to now

  1. Making sense of organisational conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Naima Mikkelsen, Elisabeth

    2012-01-01

    This study is about everyday conflicts that occur at work; how meaning and action interact in processes of conflict handling in organisational conflicts that arise naturally in every arena of daily life when people meet in social interactions. I approach the phenomenon of conflict by exploring those social processes of organisational sensemaking that arise when conflict occurs in a nonprofit organisation, my own processes of sensemaking of the research process about conflict...

  2. Feminine leadership and organisational culture

    OpenAIRE

    Andreea-Simona Saseanu; Sorin-George Toma; Paul Marinescu

    2014-01-01

    People in general, leaders especially, are influenced by the organisational culture and the other way around. Organisational culture represents a determining factor regarding the display of leadership, since these two processes create each other, adding value and consistency to one another. Moreover, organisational culture can be created and developed in a fluctuant business environment, in which the external factors influence its progress. The development of society has incessantly been emph...

  3. Organisational Learning with Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hundebøl, Jesper

    2008-01-01

    Based on multi-site ethno-methodological field studies in the Danish construction industry this paper examines the relational effects of 3D object-based modelling. In describing how that technology is being introduced, shaped and enacted, how it associates with, mediates and translates existing...... practices, I discuss how it has effects for work methods and routines in an (inter-)organisational setting, namely that of architects and consulting engineers. The technology is introduced in the practices in question, in part because of a program referred to as Det Digitale Byggeri (Digital Construction......). Among others, the program demands that architects and consulting engineers embrace a new breed of computer-based software programs allowing for 3D object-based modelling. In this paper I will describe the program and the network of (non-)human actors engaged in the promotion hereof with a view to...

  4. Organisational commitment and turnover intentions in humanitarian organisations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnmaalen, Julia; Heyse, Liesbet; Voordijk, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Unwanted staff turnover is a prominent HRM problem in humanitarian organisations. In the profit sector, HRM tools such as pay, benefits, socialisation and training have proven to be effective in increasing organisational commitment and decreasing staff turnover. This study explores whether such tool

  5. Metamorphosis of the invasive ascidian Ciona savignyi: environmental variables and chemical exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Patrick L; Atalah, Javier; Selwood, Andrew I; Kuhajek, Jeanne M

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the effects of environmental variables on larval metamorphosis of the solitary ascidian Ciona savignyi were investigated in a laboratory setting. The progression of metamorphic changes were tracked under various temperature, photoperiod, substrate, larval density, and vessel size regimes. Metamorphosis was maximised at 18 °C, 12:12 h subdued light:dark, smooth polystyrene substrate, and 10 larvae mL(-1) in a twelve-well tissue culture plate. Eliminating the air-water interface by filling culture vessels to capacity further increased the proportion of metamorphosed larvae; 87 ± 5% of larvae completed metamorphosis within 5 days compared to 45 ± 5% in control wells. The effects of the reference antifouling compounds polygodial, portimine, oroidin, chlorothalonil, and tolylfluanid on C. savignyi were subsequently determined, highlighting (1) the sensitivity of C. savignyi metamorphosis to chemical exposure and (2) the potential to use C. savignyi larvae to screen for bioactivity in an optimised laboratory setting. The compounds were bioactive in the low ng mL(-1) to high µg mL(-1) range. Polygodial was chosen for additional investigations, where it was shown that mean reductions in the proportions of larvae reaching stage E were highly repeatable both within (repeatability = 14 ± 9%) and between (intermediate precision = 17 ± 3%) independent experiments. An environmental extract had no effect on the larvae but exposing larvae to both the extract and polygodial reduced potency relative to polygodial alone. This change in potency stresses the need for caution when working with complex samples, as is routinely implemented when isolating natural compounds from their biological source. Overall, the outcomes of this study highlight the sensitivity of C. savignyi metamorphosis to environmental variations and chemical exposure. PMID:26966668

  6. Organisational innovations in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, F. den; Verbruggen, V.

    2000-01-01

    The Netherlands have shown some major technological and economical changes in the field of new production forms and organisation and labour-related innovations. As in other European countries, some autonomous developments like economic developments partly determine the work organisation and the type

  7. Organisational communication and supportive employees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. de Ridder

    2004-01-01

    The importance of the social dimension of organisations is currently a strong focus of emphasis in the literature. From a managerial perspective, however, it is important that the community spirit within an organisation falls in line with its strategic direction. The study discussed in this article

  8. Innovating the Product Development Organisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Mogens Myrup; Hein, Lars

    1997-01-01

    The organisational innovation of the product development function is a doubtful affair since we can hardly describe why a specific organisation works. In this article two comprehensive innovation campaigns in Danish industry are described with reference to the nature, content and results of...

  9. Organising, Educating... Changing the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grayson, John

    2005-01-01

    Over the past few years a constellation of social movements and organisations concerned with issues of globalisation and world poverty have exploded onto the world stage. They have mobilised demonstrations, organised mass gatherings and conferences, created e-networks and websites and become major players in international political lobbying and…

  10. Cross-phylum functional equivalence of Otx genes and the origin of brain patterning

    OpenAIRE

    Adachi, Yoshitsugu

    2004-01-01

    Molecular mechanisms of cephalic development is an intriguing question in evolutionary and developmental biology. Otx gene plays important roles in animal brain and head development and Otx genes are found in all major animal groups: cnidarians, lophotrochozoans, ecdysozoans, anddeuterostomes. Ascidians, positioned near the origin of the phylum Chordata, share a conserved set of anteroposterior patterning genes withthat of vertebrates. Here I report the cross-phylum regulatory potential of th...

  11. The Impact of Organisational Learning on Organisational Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Zgrzywa-Ziemak

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this article is to analyse the theoretical views and results of empirical research concerning the relation between organisational learning (OL and organisational performance (OP. Methodology: The study was carried out through extensive literature research, including relevant literature review from databases such as ProQuest, Elsevier, Emerald and EBSCO (the phrases: “organisational learning”, “learning organisation” and “organisational performance” were searched in the keywords, titles or abstracts. Findings: From a theoretical point of view, the relation between OL and OP is neither obvious nor clear, but the analysis of the empirical studies allows one to assume that OL has an essential impact on OP. However, differences in the strength of the relation were shown and some contradictions related to the presence of the relation between OL and selected (mostly financial performance aspects identified. Furthermore, the article discusses the significant differences and inconsistencies in the methods of measuring OL, measuring OP, selecting contextual factors and adopted methods of data analysis. Implications: Inconsistencies and gaps found in the studies of the relationship between OL and OP made it possible to designate the direction for promising further research. Value: The article presents valuable insight through its in-depth, critical analysis of the organisational learning and organisational outcomes. First and foremost, this indicates that the formula of the previous empirical studies does not allow for the development of precise solutions pertaining to organisational learning management for the benefit of OP improvement.

  12. Intergovernmental organisation activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This section treats of the following Intergovernmental organisation activities: 1 - European Atomic Energy Community: Non-legally binding instruments - Communication from the European Commission 'Towards an Integrated Strategic Energy Technology (SET) Plan: Accelerating the European Energy System Transformation'; 2014 Annual Report of the Euratom Supply Agency; Report of June 2015 from the Euratom Supply Agency to the European Commission on the Security of Supply of Medical Radioisotopes; 2 - International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA): Convention on Nuclear Safety (CNS); 59. regular session of the IAEA General Conference (Resolutions of the Conference, Measures to Strengthen International Cooperation in Nuclear, Radiation, Transport and Waste Safety (GC(59)/RES/9): conventions, regulatory frameworks and supporting non-legally-binding instruments for safety, Nuclear liability, National infrastructures, Nuclear installation safety, Safe management of radioactive sources, Nuclear and radiological incident and emergency preparedness and response); Nuclear Security (GC(59)/RES/10); IAEA Treaty Event; Legislative assistance activities; Nuclear Law Institute; 3 - OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA): European Nuclear Energy Tribunal (ENET) Inaugural Session for the 9. mandate; New signatories to the extension of the Generation IV International Forum (GIF) Framework Agreement; Joint Declaration on the Security of Supply of Medical Radioisotopes; International Framework for Nuclear Energy Cooperation (IFNEC); 15. session of the International School of Nuclear Law (ISNL); 2016 session of the International Nuclear Law Essentials (INLE)

  13. Using organisational memory in evaluations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madri S. Jansen van Rensburg

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article uses the case of a regional intermediary organisation to investigate organisational memory (OM and its contribution to knowledge management and activities in evaluations. Understanding of, and accessing OM is critical for participatory evaluations. The aim of the article is to reflect on the OM of a non-governmental organisation (NGO and what implicationsthe structural changes in OM over the organisation’s life cycle have for evaluators. It further aims to advocate an awareness of OM and explains how evaluators can access and utilise it more effectively. Evaluators need to have an understanding of OM, and to take more responsibility for disseminating results to enhance it. This case study reflects on a retrospective case example of a regional NGO. The report reflects the development and structure of the life cycle of the organisation. The data collection included in-depth interviews with staff members and other key stakeholders, engagement with beneficiary organisations and donors, and analyses of documents, electronic files and audio-visual material. Since OM survives after the demise of an organisation, and is accessible through directories, it is important for the evaluator to include historical information. Specific implications for evaluators include the ability to access OM through directories and networks of the organisation. As evaluators hold OM of all the organisations they have engaged with, they also have a responsibility to share knowledge. The key findings of this study illustrate the importance of accessing the memory and historical information of the organisation. Understanding OM enhances the in-depth comprehension of the activity, project or programme under investigation, and the collective knowledge generated as a result of it.

  14. Entrepreneuring as Organisation-Creation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This chapter aims at making a contribution to the study of entrepreneurship and creativity by developing a processual conceptualisation of a form of entrepreneurial creativity called entrepreneuring or organisation-creation. Such a processual conceptualisation of entrepreneuring will answer the...... long-standing call in entrepreneurship research for an enhanced capacity to study organisation-in-creation. I believe recent advances in process thinking, in organisation studies have provided us, finally, with such 'changes in our perceptions and methodologies', meaning we have now a capacity to step...

  15. Identity In and Around Organisations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Majken; Maguire, Steve

    2013-01-01

    At the heart of any successful organisation lies a powerful conception of identity: the coherent way in which it presents itself to its stakeholders and employees, containing its purpose, goals and key characteristics. However, the traditional idea of identity as a stable, solid and reliable...... concept may not be the best way of approaching and managing your organisation. Rather, Majken Schultz and Steve Maguire argue that organisations would benefit from adopting a process-based view of identity, which integrates history, ongoing change and market instability into its definition....

  16. Intergovernmental organisation activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This section reviews the recent highlights of Intergovernmental organisation activities: - European Atomic Energy Community: Proposal for a Council Directive amending Directive 2009/71/Euratom establishing a Community framework for the nuclear safety of nuclear installations (COM/2013/715 final); Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) No.495/2013 of 29 May 2013 amending Implementing Regulation (EU) No.996/2012 imposing special conditions governing the import of feed and food originating in or consigned from Japan following the accident at the Fukushima nuclear power station; Council Decision of 15 July 2013 authorising certain Member States to ratify, or to accede to, the Protocol amending the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage of 21 May 1963 in the interest of the European Union and to make a declaration on the application of the relevant internal rules of Union law (2013/434/EU); Report from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council and the Economic and Social Committee on the implementation by the Member States of Council Directive 2006/117/Euratom on the supervision and control of shipments of radioactive waste and spent fuel [COM(2013)240 final]; Commission Decision of 24 June 2013 on granting a Euratom loan in support of the Ukraine safety upgrade program of nuclear power units [C(2013)3496]; Signature of the Agreement between the government of South Africa and the European Atomic Energy Community for co-operation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, 18 July 2013; Renewal of the Agreement between the European Atomic Energy Community and the Korean Peninsula Energy Development Organisation (KEDO); Signature of the Memorandum of Understanding for a partnership between the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency on nuclear safety co-operation, 17 September 2013; Commission Decision on the adoption of the Report of the European Atomic Energy Community for the Sixth Review Meeting of

  17. Building a strategic security organisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Mike

    2016-01-01

    In everyone's day-to-day jobs there is constant need to deal with current and newly detected matters. This is now a world of immediacy, driven by the cadence of the business and its needs. These concerns should not be ignored, as failing to deal with these issues would not bode well for the future. It is essential that the gears are kept spinning. The challenge for any security organisation is to identify its short-term tactical requirements, while developing longer-term strategic needs. Once done, the differences can be accounted for and strides can be made toward a desired future state. This paper highlights several steps that the author and his team have taken in their own journey. There is no magic answer, each organisation will have its own unique challenges. Nevertheless, some of the approaches to building a strategic security organisation described in this paper are applicable to all organisations, irrespective of their size. PMID:27318284

  18. Organisational effectiveness and customer satisfaction:

    OpenAIRE

    Ambrož Milan; Praprotnik Martina

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a test of the relationship between organizational culture as a crucial indicator of organizational effectiveness and customer satisfaction using service-unit data from two health resorts. Ensuring survival of the service organisation in the long run requires adaptations which are oriented towards achieving maximum customer satisfaction. This study intended to unveil the effect organisational factors have on customer service orientation from the customer and employee point ...

  19. Cultural Diversity in Multinational Organisations

    OpenAIRE

    Crowley-Henry, Marian

    2005-01-01

    With the rhetoric in international management espousing the value of being able to access and capitalise on the knowledge of a workforce with international experience in order to compete globally and the need to embrace diversity (including cultural or ethnic diversity) in and across organisations, this paper discusses the findings from a qualitative research undertaking where senior and middle managers working for multinational organisations in a cross-section of industry sectors were ...

  20. Acute fibrinous and organising pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    Guimarães, Catarina; Sanches, Inês; Ferreira, Catarina

    2012-01-01

    Acute fibrinous and organising pneumonia (AFOP) was recently described as an unusual pattern of diffuse lung disease. Particular characteristics make the differential diagnosis with the well recognised clinical patterns of diffuse alveolar damage, cryptogenic organising pneumonia or eosinophilic pneumonia. The lack of hyaline membranes, the presence of intra-alveolar fibrin, absence of noticeable eosinophils and patchy distribution suggests that AFOP define a distinct histological pattern. Th...

  1. Instrument Development for Organisational Health

    OpenAIRE

    Hari A P Nair; Dileep Kumar; Subramaniam Sri Ramalu

    2015-01-01

    This study establishes the factors influencing Organisational Health (OH), leading to the development of anempirical measurement instrument. Despite the fact that a few firms have understood the significance ofmeasuring health, they mostly do not know precisely what to measure, because of an absence of understandingof what constitutes a set of organisational health dimensions. This study used a mixed method through literaturereview, expert opinion and a quantitative pilot survey with 123 supe...

  2. Chinese Pragmatism and the Learning Organisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkin, Graham; Cone, Malcolm H.; Liao, Jianqiao

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: For 40 years, it has been widely believed in the West that learning organisations would be healthier, flexible and more competitive than other organisations. By now, one might expect them to be widespread. However, fully developed learning organisations are rare in the West. In contrast, Chinese organisations seem naturally to be learning…

  3. Organisational culture and consultant nurse outcomes: Part 1--Organisational culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manley, K

    2000-01-01

    Organisational culture is presented as a complex concept underpinned by specific values, beliefs and assumptions that account for the way things are done. Strong organisational cultures and a number of other attributes are highlighted as having influence on performance. The role of leadership is recognised as key to facilitating cultural change, as is the use of approaches which clarify values and highlight contradictions between espoused culture and culture in practice. A three-year study in which a consultant nurse post in critical care was operationalised demonstrated the achievement of an organisational culture with positive impact on the unit in which it was based, on practitioners and their practice, and also on the trust. Transformational leadership combined with other facilitative processes, expertise in the practice of nursing, and other subroles of the consultant nurse are further highlighted as influential. PMID:11235414

  4. Constructing professional and organisational fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurney, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to fill an apparent gap in the literature addressing issues of leadership and change - the development and activities of constructing and leading sports sciences and medicine professions, and similarly, the construction and leadership of multidisciplinary/inter-disciplinary organisations that practice sports sciences and medicine. Design/methodology/approach - This study incorporated explorations through conducting both interviews and survey questionnaires with members of Sports Medicine Australia (SMA). The interviews (qualitative) were semi-structured and asked questions addressing what changed, why change and how change was implemented. Findings - The health sciences and medicine professions moving to specialised sports sciences and medicine disciplines and SMA, evolved through forces driving the need for change (legitimacy, resource dependency, positioning and core competencies). Practical implications - The knowledge developed from understanding activities of change that traditional professions conducted to become specialised Disciplines and parallel changes in a single Discipline organisation evolving to an umbrella organisation (SMA), comprised a membership of specialised Disciplines, can act as a catalyst for inquiry by other professional and organisational groups. Originality/value - The findings of this study contributes to the literature investigating change in professional and organisations fields. More specifically, this study promotes inquiry into leadership practices of sports sciences and medicine, as contributors to the field of health services. PMID:26764964

  5. Virtues for innovativeness : a mixed methods study of ethical organisational culture and organisational innovativeness

    OpenAIRE

    Riivari, Elina

    2016-01-01

    This study examined ethical organisational culture, consisting of ethical organisational virtues, and organisational innovativeness. More specifically, the study explored the relationship between the phenomena. Ethical organisational culture was studied using Corporate Ethical Virtues (CEV) model, which is based on the virtue theory of business ethics. This research makes a contribution to prior research on ethical organisational culture by linking the concept of organ...

  6. Organisational Diversity and Knowledge Sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauring, Jakob; Jonasson, Charlotte

    The last years' focus on diversity management has gone from social responsibility to arguments for the competitive advantages, called the business case. It has been argued that diversity management can increase organisational efficiency, improve on moral, and give better access to new market...... segments. But a substantial critique has recently been launched at the arguments for the business case for diversity, especially in the employment of knowledge synergies. Most studies that support or reject the business case argument have limited their research to establish a link between organisational...... productivity and diversity management - that is not engaging in a discussion of how and why there could be potential benefits or difficulties. In this paper we will describe and analyse some of the complications multicultural organisations can experience in regard to knowledge sharing...

  7. In Pursuit of Organisational Renewal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Brian Vejrum

    Every time we open a newspaper we are confirmed in the belief that organisations are faced by increas-ingly knowledge intensive realities. More often than not, these reports tell us how companies are strug-gling with issues related to operating on an competitive stage, which is characterised by i......-level strategic concerns. What we seem to miss is an understanding of how organisations start to work as collectives, the thesis aims to remedy this by supplying a gateway into these processes....

  8. Environmental health organisations against tobacco.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mulcahy, Maurice

    2009-04-01

    Implementing the World Health Organisation (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) relies heavily on enforcement. Little is known of the way different enforcement agencies operate, prioritise or network. A questionnaire was sent to representatives of the International Federation of Environmental Health (IFEH) in 36 countries. Tobacco control was given low priority. Almost two thirds did not have any tobacco control policy. A third reported their organisation had worked with other agencies on tobacco control. Obstacles to addressing tobacco control included a lack of resources (61%) and absence of a coherent strategy (39%).

  9. Antimicrobial Activity of the Crude Extracts of Compound Ascidians, Didemnum candidum and Didemnum psammathodes (Tunicata: Didemnidae from Mandapam (South East Coast of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mohamed Hussain

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Many cytotoxic compounds of therapeutic interest have been isolated from marine organisms. In thepresent study two species of compound ascidians Didemnum psammathodes and Didemnum candidum wereassayed for their antimicrobial activity against eight bacterial and four fungal pathogens. The antimicrobialactivity of the crude extract of ascidian shows inhibitory activity against almost all the eight strains. However,D. psammathodes shows prominent antibacterial activity than that of Didemnum candidum. Whereas noremarkable antifungal activity was noticed against the ascidian crude extract. The maximum inhibition zone(15 mm was observed against Salmonella typhi in the crude methanol extract of D. psammathodes and theminimum inhibition zone (1 mm was noticed against Vibrio cholera and Staphylococcus aureas in the crudeacetone extract of Didemnum candidum. In D. psammathodes the crude methanol extract the range of inhibitionof the bacteria varied from 2–15 mm with an average of 4.3 mm. According to fungi only Aspergillus niger andPenicillium sp. were showed the trace activity against few crude extract and remaining two fungal pathogensshows negative result. In the present result two way analysis of variance was showing that there was asignificant difference between the extracts as well as the strains (p<0.05.

  10. Identification of Eusynstyelamide B as a Potent Cell Cycle Inhibitor Following the Generation and Screening of an Ascidian-Derived Extract Library Using a Real Time Cell Analyzer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle S. Liberio

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Ascidians are marine invertebrates that have been a source of numerous cytotoxic compounds. Of the first six marine-derived drugs that made anticancer clinical trials, three originated from ascidian specimens. In order to identify new anti-neoplastic compounds, an ascidian extract library (143 samples was generated and screened in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells using a real-time cell analyzer (RTCA. This resulted in 143 time-dependent cell response profiles (TCRP, which are read-outs of changes to the growth rate, morphology, and adhesive characteristics of the cell culture. Twenty-one extracts affected the TCRP of MDA-MB-231 cells and were further investigated regarding toxicity and specificity, as well as their effects on cell morphology and cell cycle. The results of these studies were used to prioritize extracts for bioassay-guided fractionation, which led to the isolation of the previously identified marine natural product, eusynstyelamide B (1. This bis-indole alkaloid was shown to display an IC50 of 5 µM in MDA-MB-231 cells. Moreover, 1 caused a strong cell cycle arrest in G2/M and induced apoptosis after 72 h treatment, making this molecule an attractive candidate for further mechanism of action studies.

  11. 'Ethos' Enabling Organisational Knowledge Creation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsudaira, Yoshito

    This paper examines knowledge creation in relation to improvements on the production line in the manufacturing department of Nissan Motor Company and aims to clarify embodied knowledge observed in the actions of organisational members who enable knowledge creation will be clarified. For that purpose, this study adopts an approach that adds a first, second, and third-person's viewpoint to the theory of knowledge creation. Embodied knowledge, observed in the actions of organisational members who enable knowledge creation, is the continued practice of 'ethos' (in Greek) founded in Nissan Production Way as an ethical basis. Ethos is knowledge (intangible) assets for knowledge creating companies. Substantiated analysis classifies ethos into three categories: the individual, team and organisation. This indicates the precise actions of the organisational members in each category during the knowledge creation process. This research will be successful in its role of showing the indispensability of ethos - the new concept of knowledge assets, which enables knowledge creation -for future knowledge-based management in the knowledge society.

  12. Organisational change. Grace under fire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Helen; Parker, Helen

    2006-12-14

    The success of organisational change is often thwarted by leaders' failure to consider staff feelings. Managers must communicate a clear vision for the future, even though they may be facing great professional uncertainty themselves. It is important to deal with post-merger issues such as helping staff to new roles and 'unlearning' old ways. PMID:17252855

  13. Cemeteries - organisation, management and innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjøller, Christian Philip

    and due to frequent ad hoc approaches. The new tool represents a divergent change of current practices, and implementation is subsequently ambiguous, with adaptations of both tool and organisations. The tool is however addressing aspects of emerging challenges in the field of cemetery administrations...

  14. "Organisational learning and the organisational link : The problem of conflict, political equilibrium and truce"

    OpenAIRE

    Mangolte, Pierre-André

    2000-01-01

    This article addresses the issue of organisational learning. The starting point for the analysis is the definition of organisational learning proposed by Levitt and March (1988) in terms of the transformation of an organisation's routines. This definition lead to a focus on the "organisational link" or the way in which individual routines and various learning processes are coordinated, thus assuring a degree of organisational coherence. In comparing the different organisational theories of Si...

  15. Stupid Organisation - How will you ever learn?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elkjær, Bente

    2005-01-01

     The question derives from a research project in which I explored whether a deliberate change process in an organisation would lead to organisational learning. The idea was to see whether it was possible to depict the unfolding of organisational learning processes in the turmoil of change in an...... organisation. If this is the case we may be able to provide clues as to how to deliberately support organisational processes of learning. The study was a case study of a local municipality in Denmark that was pursuing a change from a conventional to a digitalised organisation. The theoretical approach was to...

  16. Taxonomic and thematic organisation of proper name conceptual knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crutch, Sebastian J; Warrington, Elizabeth K

    2011-01-01

    We report the investigation of the organisation of proper names in two aphasic patients (NBC and FBI). The performance of both patients on spoken word to written word matching tasks was inconsistent, affected by presentation rate and semantic relatedness of the competing responses, all hallmarks of a refractory semantic access dysphasia. In a series of experiments we explored the semantic relatedness effects within their proper name vocabulary, including brand names and person names. First we demonstrated the interaction between very fine grain organisation and personal experience, with one patient with a special interest in the cinema demonstrating higher error rates when identifying the names of actors working in a similar film genre (e.g., action movies: Arnold Schwarzenegger, Bruce Willis, Sylvester Stallone, Mel Gibson) than those working in different genres (e.g., Arnold Schwarzenegger, Gregory Peck, Robin Williams, Gene Kelly). Second we compared directly two potential principles of semantic organisation - taxonomic and thematic. Furthermore we considered these principles of organisation in the context of the individuals' personal knowledge base. We selected topics matching the interests and experience of each patient, namely cinema and literature (NBC) and naval history (FBI). The stimulus items were arranged in taxonomic arrays (e.g., Jane Austen, Emily Bronte, Agatha Christie), thematic arrays (e.g., Jane Austen, Pride and Prejudice, Mr Darcy), and unrelated arrays (e.g., Jane Austen, Wuthering Heights, Hercule Poirot). We documented that different patterns of taxonomic and thematic organisation were constrained by whether the individual has limited knowledge, moderate knowledge or detailed knowledge of a particular vocabulary. It is suggested that moderate proper name knowledge is primarily organised by taxonomy whereas extensive experience results in a more detailed knowledge base in which theme is a powerful organising principle. PMID:22063815

  17. The Immigrant Organising Process : Turkish Organisations in Amsterdam and Berlin and Surinamese Organisations in Amsterdam, 1960-2000

    OpenAIRE

    Vermeulen, Floris

    2006-01-01

    This study focuses on the emergence and persistence of immigrant organisations in host societies. The relevance of immigrant organisations for both the host society and the immigrants themselves has been effectively demonstrated in many different studies. However, the question why immigrant organisations emerge and why they often persist over a long period is not adequately answered. In this study a comparative approach is used to reveal the structural determinants of the immigrant organising...

  18. Bullying and Organisational Commitment: Common antecedents?

    OpenAIRE

    Dick, Gavin P.M.

    2011-01-01

    The paper’s aim is to provide new theoretical insights by examining whether organisational commitment and workplace bullying co-vary, and if this is due to direct effects and/or indirect effects of their organisation and supervision environment. From a survey of all uniform officers in a UK police agency the author analyses the bullying behaviours experienced by police officers and if the organisational and managerial factors that are known to influence organisational commitment also change t...

  19. Toward a systemic theory of organisational change

    OpenAIRE

    Ellis, R.K.

    2002-01-01

    Change is the subject matter for this thesis which reports on a research programme that has investigated the issue of effective and sustainable organisational change. Organisational change possesses an almost obsessive interest for many organisational and behavioural scholars. Nevertheless, it has been observed that a majority of organisational change initiatives fail, or fail to realise the promise intended by the managers who institute such programmes. This research programme, and the assoc...

  20. EMPLOYEE LEARNING AND DEVELOPMENT IN ORGANISATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    VNOUČKOVÁ, Lucie

    2013-01-01

    The primary goal of all organisations is efficiency of human resources. Therefore activities as HR controlling, performance management but also cutting costs are the main theme. Current organisations need to monitor human resources to keep their competitiveness. Thus paper describes the key factor of organisational efficiency - employee education, talent management and the necessity to retain skilled employees. The aim of the paper is to reveal the current approach in organisations to educati...

  1. Organisational Learning: Theoretical Shortcomings and Practical Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Jon Aarum Andersen

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses two problems related to learning and the use of knowledge at work. The first problem is the theoretical shortcomings stemming from the controversy between three different concepts of ‘organisational learning.’ In order to enhance scholarship in this field the notion that organisations - as organisations - can learn need to be rejected for theoretical and empirical reasons. The metaphorical use of ‘organisational learning’ creates only confusion. Learning is a process and ...

  2. Refugee community organisations: a social capital analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kellow, Alexa

    2011-01-01

    This thesis considers how refugee-led community organisations generate social capital for their service users. The concept of social capital has become popular in policy debates in recent years, and previous research has attributed social capital creation for their service users to refugee community organisations (RCOs). This research aimed to analyse the process by which social capital is created by refugee community organisations, and what this means for the members of these organisations i...

  3. Organisational learning as movements in practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elkjær, Bente

    In the paper, I take the readers through a tour de force of the past, present and future of the field of organisational learning. This is structured around three concepts that stand out as important, namely organisational learning as changed behaviour, as changed theories of actions and as part of...... practice. I also point to the future of organisational learning as inspired by the work of pragmatist philosophy and as affected by the call for more concreteness in organisation studies as a whole....

  4. Understanding bullying in healthcare organisations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Belinda

    2015-12-01

    Bullying is a pervasive problem in healthcare organisations. Inquiries and reports on patient care and poor practice in the NHS have emphasised the substantial negative effects this behaviour may have on patient care. If bullying is to be addressed, it is crucial we develop clarity about what behaviours constitute bullying and how these behaviours differ from other negative behaviours in the workplace. It is important that we recognise the extent of the problem; statistics on the prevalence of bullying are likely to be an underestimate because of under-reporting of bullying. Effective interventions may only be designed and implemented if there is knowledge about what precipitates bullying and the magnitude of the changes required in organisations to tackle bullying. Individuals should also be aware of the options that are available to them should they be the target of bullying behaviour and what they should do if they witness bullying in their workplace. PMID:26639294

  5. Seeing Like an International Organisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broome, André; Seabrooke, Leonard

    2012-01-01

    International organisations (IOs) often serve as the ‘engine room’ of ideas for structural reforms at the national level, but how do IOs construct cognitive authority over the forms, processes and prescriptions for institutional change in their member states? Exploring the analytic institutions...... and organisational environment that guides an IO's actions and informs its policy advice to states, which enables a more comprehensive picture of how the everyday business of global governance works in practice. Instead of ‘black boxing’ IOs, the contributors to this special issue demonstrate how studying IOs from...... the inside out expands our understanding both of the policy dialogue between IOs and their member states and how IOs and states learn from each other over time....

  6. Spreadsheet Risk Management in Organisations

    CERN Document Server

    Rittweger, Ben G

    2010-01-01

    The paper examines in the context of financial reporting, the controls that organisations have in place to manage spreadsheet risk and errors. There has been widespread research conducted in this area, both in Ireland and internationally. This paper describes a study involving 19 participants (2 case studies and 17 by survey) from Ireland. Three areas are examined; firstly, the extent of spreadsheet usage, secondly, the level of complexity employed in spreadsheets, and finally, the controls in place regarding spreadsheets. The findings support previous findings of Panko (1998), that errors occur frequently in spreadsheets and that there is little or unenforced controls employed, however this research finds that attitudes are changing with regard to spreadsheet risk and that one organisation is implementing a comprehensive project regarding policies on the development and control of spreadsheets. Further research could be undertaken in the future to examine the development of a "best practice model" both for t...

  7. Improving Teaching Quality and the Learning Organisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collie, Sarah L.; Taylor, Alton L.

    2004-01-01

    This study applied a learning organisation framework to understand academic departments' efforts to improve teaching quality. The theoretical framework was generated from literature on learning organisations, organisations devoted to continuous improvement through continuous learning. Research questions addressed relationships among departments'…

  8. Clinical spectrum of cryptogenic organising pneumonitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Bellomo, R; Finlay, M.; McLaughlin, P.; Tai, E.

    1991-01-01

    Cryptogenic organising pneumonitis (bronchiolitis obliterans organising pneumonia) is an uncommon condition that often responds to steroids. It is characterised clinically by constitutional symptoms, pathologically by intra-alveolar organising fibrosis, and radiologically by patchy pulmonary infiltrates. Its full clinical spectrum and course are only partially described and understood. Six patients are described, seen over three years, with considerably diverse clinical and radiological prese...

  9. Seven Pitfalls in Organisation Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Aarum Andersen

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Current organisation literature is rife with several incorrect and confusing assertions which continually create problems for students and researchers alike. Seven of these unfortunate beliefs are presented here and provocatively called ‘pitfalls’. The aim of this article is to draw attention to some of these theoretically incorrect assertions and how they can be avoided in scholarly work. The implications for managers are also presented.

  10. Feminine leadership and organisational culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea-Simona Saseanu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available People in general, leaders especially, are influenced by the organisational culture and the other way around. Organisational culture represents a determining factor regarding the display of leadership, since these two processes create each other, adding value and consistency to one another. Moreover, organisational culture can be created and developed in a fluctuant business environment, in which the external factors influence its progress. The development of society has incessantly been emphasized by the relationship between the sexes, by their individual evolution, but also by the interdependency between them. Although there is increasingly more talk about gender equality, in many countries, the social as well as economical chances and opportunities are not equal for women and men. Gradually, women have been through a series of changes related to education, rights and obligations. However, the number of women leaders has always been much lower than the number of men leaders. The personality traits of leaders significantly influence the leadership style and the way in which they are perceived by their subordinates, all this having a major impact on the overall performances of the organisation. In this manner, depending on the gender (masculine/feminine, we can state that one could observe certain personality traits that are characteristic to women and others specific to men, leaving their mark on the leadership method and on the leadership style adopted of each of them. Considering the fact that, in the current turbulent economic environment, certain qualities such as flexibility, intuition, development of communication networks and motivating the employees represent values that are considered to be “feminine”, one can assert that, in this case, gender is an opportunity. However, if we should take into consideration the impact of culture, of certain mentalities and misconceptions that are still present, regarding the woman’s standing in

  11. Conference Organisers' Perceptions of Helsinki

    OpenAIRE

    Bühler, Stefanie

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this Bachelor’s thesis is to identify whether conference organisers present Helsinki as a tourist destination or as a knowledge hub in their own field of expertise. The thesis was commissioned by the Helsinki Convention & Events Bureau. The research focuses on conferences that took place between 2013 and 2015. The theoretical framework explains destination images and their relation to business tourism. Furthermore, it introduces the essential definitions of conference and c...

  12. A novel third complement component C3 gene of Ciona intestinalis expressed in the endoderm at the early developmental stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Hibino

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The third complement component (C3 in ascidian was reported to function as an opsonin to enhance phagocytosis and as a chemotactic factor for phagocytes, indicating that ascidian C3 works in mesodermal cavity as a humoral factor like vertebrate C3s. In the basal Eumetazoa, Cnidaria lacking mesodermal tissues, C3 was reported to work in an endodermal cavity. Evolution of structure and function of C3 is still to be clarified. Here we report the identification of the third C3 gene, CiC3-3, in the genome of an ascidian, Ciona intestinalis. Phylogenetic analysis using the entire amino acid sequences of Eumetazoan C3s indicated that CiC3-3 possess a closer relationship to vertebrate C3, C4 and C5 than other ascidian C3s. Although CiC3-3 retained the α-β processing site and 6 cysteine residues in the C3a region, it lacked the intra-molecular thioester bond and the catalytic histidine residue. Instead, CiC3-3 had a unique insertion of about 70 residues long Lys/Arg-rich sequence. CiC3-3 was expressed highly in the embryonic stages, but little in the adult in contradistinction to CiC3-1 and CiC3-2. The expression of CiC3-3 in early embryonic stages was restricted to endoderm similar to cnidarian C3s. Thus, the ascidian complement system could represent a unique evolutionary stage sharing a primitive endodermal function with Cnidaria, and newly developed humoral function with vertebrates.

  13. Communication in third sector organisations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Durán-Bravo, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Third sector organisations favour the social development due to their capacity to produce human and social capital in society (Putman, 2001. In order to achieve social welfare third sector organisations need to produce a positive change in the relations among individuals, groups and institutions in a society. The expectations about the third sector organisations’ transparency and capacity to tackle social problems are increasing worldwide. In Mexico, this problematic is more complex because there is a low level of professionalism, transparency, accountability and participation culture in the organized civil society (ITAM, 2010. The development of the organized civil society in Mexico will depend to a great extent on its capacity to communicate its values to society and achieve a cultural and social change. Therefore, the third sector organisations must adopt strategic initiatives to reinforce their credibility and reputation, because the public and private donors are increasingly more demanding in their criteria to grant resources to social projects; and because the Mexican society has a low participation level and faces increasingly more complex social problems.

  14. Diversity of Nonribosomal Peptide Synthetase Genes in the Microbial Metagenomes of Marine Sponges

    OpenAIRE

    Ute Hentschel; Sheila Marie Pimentel-Elardo; Sebastian Proksch; Lubomir Grozdanov

    2012-01-01

    Genomic mining revealed one major nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) phylogenetic cluster in 12 marine sponge species, one ascidian, an actinobacterial isolate and seawater. Phylogenetic analysis predicts its taxonomic affiliation to the actinomycetes and hydroxy-phenyl-glycine as a likely substrate. Additionally, a phylogenetically distinct NRPS gene cluster was discovered in the microbial metagenome of the sponge Aplysina aerophoba, which shows ...

  15. New genes in the evolution of the neural crest differentiation program

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez-Morales, Juan Ramón; Henrich, Thorsten; Ramialison, Mirana; Wittbrodt, Joachim

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Development of the vertebrate head depends on the multipotency and migratory behavior of neural crest derivatives. This cell population is considered a vertebrate innovation and, accordingly, chordate ancestors lacked neural crest counterparts. The identification of neural crest specification genes expressed in the neural plate of basal chordates, in addition to the discovery of pigmented migratory cells in ascidians, has challenged this hypothesis. These new findings revive th...

  16. Organisering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Poul Bitsch

    2013-01-01

    Organiseringsanalyse er den væsentligste af samtidens analysemetode for ledere og alle der er engagerede i organisationer og erhvervsaktivitet. Her fremlægges organiseringsanalysens baggrund i den amerikanske pragmatisme, og hvorledes den netop udfylder en plads i den mikrosociologiske tradition ...

  17. Cytotoxicity of actinomycetes associated with the ascidian Eudistoma vannamei (Millar, 1977, endemic of northeastern coast of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula C Jimenez

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies demonstrated that the crude extract of the ascidian Eudistoma vannamei, endemic from northeasttern Brazil, strongly hinders growth of tumor cells in vitro by inducing apoptosis due to tryptophan derivatives, which are commonly found in bacteria. This study presents a bioactivity-guided screening among actinomycetes, associated with E. vannamei, aiming at recognizing active principles with biological relevance. Twenty strains of actinomycetes, designated as EVA 0101 through 0120, were isolated from colonies of E. vannamei among which 11 were selected for cytotoxicity evaluation. The extracts from EVA 0102, 0103, 0106, 0109 and 0113 were the most active, and were further studied for IC50 determination and chemical analysis by ¹H NMR. IC50 values obtained ranged from 3.62 µg mL-1 (for EVA 0109 in leukemia cells to 84.65 µg/mL (for EVA 0106 in melanoma cells. All active extracts exhibited the same TLC and spectroscopic profiles, suggesting the presence of quinones and other related secondary metabolites. Furthermore, these strains were identified and compared based on their respective 16S rRNA sequences. The results herein identified the five strains as Micromonospora spp. while phylogenetic analysis suggests that they are possibly two different Micromonospora species producing the cytotoxic compounds.

  18. Organisational Learning: Conceptual Links to Individual Learning, Learning Organisation and Knowledge Management

    OpenAIRE

    Siu Loon Hoe

    2007-01-01

    Organisational learning has over the years been subject of much study by scholars and managers. In the process, the organisational learning concept has been linked to many other knowledge concepts such as individual learning, learning organisation, and knowledge management. This paper draws from existing literature in organisational behaviour, human resource management, marketing, and information management, to further develop the conceptual links between organisational learning and these kno...

  19. Organisational Change, Health and the Labour Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhatti, Yosef; Gørtz, Mette; Holm Pedersen, Lene

    of causal effects of organisational change by exploiting a large scale public sector reform which can be considered as a quasi-experiment. Third, given that the reform was exogenous and implemented simultaneously in a number of Danish municipalities, we also have an objective measure of organisational...... of the change seems to matter. The smaller share an old organisation constitutes of the new organisation, the larger the effect is on health outcomes for its employees.......This research examines the effects of organisational change on employee health and labour market outcomes. Previous studies looking into organisational change in the private sector indicate that the larger the size and depth of organisational change, the larger the detrimental consequences...

  20. Evolutionary mitogenomics of Chordata: the strange case of ascidians and vertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    C Gissi; Griggio, F.; F. Iannelli

    2009-01-01

    The availability of almost one thousand complete mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) sequences of chordates provides an almost unique opportunity to analyse the evolution of this genome in the phylum Chordata, and to identify possible divergent evolutionary trends followed by the three chordate subphyla: Vertebrata, Cephalochordata and Tunicata.Here, we review some genome-level features of mtDNA, such as genetic code, gene content, genome architecture and gene strand asymmetry, mostly focusing on di...

  1. Organising purchasing and (strategic) sourcing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidegaard, Nina; Boer, Harry; Munkgaard Møller, Morten

    2015-01-01

    The role of purchasing has changed over the past two to three decades. The focus is no longer limited to purchasing manufacturing inputs, but also includes sourcing of innovations from, and even co-developing technologies together with, suppliers. Furthermore, purchasing has obtained a much more...... mature role in corporate strategy. These changes have serious implications for the purchasing process, its characteristics and organisation. Previous research indicates that none of the prevailing solutions, functional departments and cross-functional teams, embedded in a centralised, decentralised or...

  2. Coordination Processes in International Organisations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedergaard, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The EU is not a member of the International Labour Organisation (ILO), but relatively elaborate EU coordination takes place anyway. This paper addresses two research questions: 1) How is it possible to evaluate the coordination of the EU in its specific observable configuration in the ILO?, and 2......) To what outcome does this coordination lead and why? Based on an analysis of EU coordination before and during the International Labour Conference in 2005, and on a comparison with coordination processes of the IMEC group, it is found that the Commission and the Presidency act as twin-agents vis...

  3. Cultural Diversity and Organisational Effiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauring, Jakob

    2004-01-01

    The expected positive link between diversity management and organisational efficiency is often used as a reason for pursuing diversity management and equal employment opportunity programmes. However, this positive link is only supported to a limited degree by in-depth empirical research and...... combination of more theoretical cross fertilisation and in-depth research may be the way forward. Based on our own empirical research, barriers preventing a positive link between diversity and efficiency can come in different forms and our case studies illustrate situations where both containing and...

  4. Realising the organisational learning opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An aspect of proactive safety management is learning lessons from unforeseen events. As BNFL has expanded and extended its nuclear services to many more sites, the potential for organisational learning has grown, but sharing through informal networking has become progressively harder. This potential problem has been solved by implementing formalised company-wide arrangements to turn incidents and accidents into organisational learning opportunities through a system called 'Learning from Experience' (LFE). LFE enables event causes and corrective actions to be identified and shared across all BNFL's sites, initially in the UK but ultimately throughout the world. The result is prevention of events having similar causes, and development of a learning culture which breaks down the barriers to adopting best practice'. Key aspects of the system are: Applying root cause analysis to all significant events; Logging all events, their causes and corrective actions onto a Company-wide database; Screening the database regularly by locally appointed Feedback Co-ordinators trained in identifying learning opportunities and knowledgeable of their own business area, and; Placing and tracking actions to prevent similar events at local Event Review Meetings. The paper describes the implementation and initial experience in operation of the LFE system, which is seen as a significant step towards becoming an expanding and learning company with no accidents or incidents. (author)

  5. Photoresponse and Learning Behavior of Ascidian Larvae, a Primitive Chordate, to Repeated Stimuli of Step-Up and Step-Down of Light

    OpenAIRE

    Kawakami, I.; Shiraishi, S; Tsuda, M

    2002-01-01

    Ascidians are lower chordates and their simple tadpole-like larvae share a basic body plan with vertebrates. Newly hatched larvae show no response to a stimulus of light. 4 h after hatching, the larvae were induced to swim upon a step-down of light and stop swimming upon a step-up of light. At weaker intensity of light, the larvae show the same response to a stimulus after presentation of repeated stimuli. When intensity of actinic light was increased, the larvae show sensitization and habitu...

  6. Internal corporate venturing during organisational change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Annemette L.

    2004-01-01

    (Burgelman, 1983b, 2002) and is still a central issue in the strategic management discourse. It is generally acknowledged that continuous change is important for organisations' survival in a changing world. On the other hand the need for stability and continuity in form of a clear and strong corporate...... the question of how organisational actors' perception of organisational identity influences the strategy-making process during organisational change. The study adopts an evolutionary approach to the unfolding of the strategy-making process, using the variation-selection-retention framework of cultural......Organisations have to deal with increasingly complex and turbulent environments, which demand that they continuously change and adapt to new circumstances or challenges. One way for organisations to cope with these challenges is to manage the strategy-making process in order to ensure...

  7. A Maternal System Initiating the Zygotic Developmental Program through Combinatorial Repression in the Ascidian Embryo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda-Ishii, Izumi; Kubo, Atsushi; Kari, Willi; Suzuki, Nobuhiro; Rothbächer, Ute

    2016-01-01

    Maternal factors initiate the zygotic developmental program in animal embryos. In embryos of the chordate, Ciona intestinalis, three maternal factors—Gata.a, β-catenin, and Zic-r.a—are required to establish three domains of gene expression at the 16-cell stage; the animal hemisphere, vegetal hemisphere, and posterior vegetal domains. Here, we show how the maternal factors establish these domains. First, only β-catenin and its effector transcription factor, Tcf7, are required to establish the vegetal hemisphere domain. Second, genes specifically expressed in the posterior vegetal domain have additional repressive cis-elements that antagonize the activity of β-catenin/Tcf7. This antagonizing activity is suppressed by Zic-r.a, which is specifically localized in the posterior vegetal domain and binds to DNA indirectly through the interaction with Tcf7. Third, Gata.a directs specific gene expression in the animal hemisphere domain, because β-catenin/Tcf7 weakens the Gata.a-binding activity for target sites through a physical interaction in the vegetal cells. Thus, repressive regulation through protein-protein interactions among the maternal transcription factors is essential to establish the first distinct domains of gene expression in the chordate embryo. PMID:27152625

  8. Main Features of SMEs Organisation System

    OpenAIRE

    Ovidiu NICOLESCU

    2009-01-01

    SMEs present many particularities which influence to a large extend their functionality and performance. A very deep investigation of more than 60 SMEs has revealed what are the major variables having influence on SMEs organisation and the main features of organisation system. In the first part the paper indicate the variables influencing the SMEs. In the second part there are presented the nine main features of SMEs organisation system.

  9. Learning Organisation and the Process of Regionalisation

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavsen, Bjørn

    2006-01-01

    "Concepts like Taylorism, lean production and learning organisation draw attention to the point that work organisation can appear in different forms and it is generally recognised that different conditions tend to produce different forms. Still, there is a tendency to underplay how different these generative conditions are. In this article the issue of learning organisation is placed in focus, drawing upon experiences from Scandinavian workplace development programmes. These...

  10. Meaningful work, work engagement and organisational commitment

    OpenAIRE

    Madelyn Geldenhuys; Karolina Łaba; Cornelia M. Venter

    2014-01-01

    Orientation: Meaningful work can yield benefits for organisations and lead to positive work outcomes such as satisfied, engaged and committed employees, individual and organisational fulfilment, productivity, retention and loyalty.Research purpose: The aim of the study was to investigate the relationships amongst psychological meaningfulness, work engagement and organisational commitment and to test for a possible mediation effect of work engagement on the relationship between psychological ...

  11. Organisational Social Capital through Corporate Social Performance

    OpenAIRE

    A.H. Niţu; I. M. Niţu

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the correlation between the corporate social responsibility performance and the Organisational Social Capital. Inductively, through grounded theory, this paper uses secondary data to develop a theoretical model which presents the relationship between the following concepts: business codes, stakeholders, Corporate Social Performance (CSP) and Organisational Social Capital (OSC). This study brings together two main areas of research, namely: Organisation...

  12. Managing evaluation : a community arts organisation's perspective.

    OpenAIRE

    Swan, P.J.; Atkinson, S.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Arts and health organisations must increasingly provide measurable evidence of impact to stakeholders, which can pose both logistical and ideological challenges. This article examines the relationship between the ethos of an arts and health organisation and external demands for evaluation. Methods: Research involved an ethnographic engagement where the first author worked closely with the organisation for a year. In addition to informal discussions, 20 semi-structured int...

  13. Organisational Learning and Konwledge Management within NGO

    OpenAIRE

    Neagu Olimpia

    2013-01-01

    NGOs are learning as well as knowledge- intensiv organisations. They are creating social value in the community where they act as social change agents, by creating, sharing and using knowledge. As components of the new, knowledge-based society, their organisational processes are marked by learning and knowledge. The paper aims to propose a conceptual model of the link between organisational learning and knowledge management within NGOs

  14. Organising Quality Function in Research and Development

    OpenAIRE

    Rajendra Prasad

    2006-01-01

    Quality function may be summarised as quality generation, quality control, and qualityassurance. The quality generation and quality control, because of their fuactional nature, arecomparatively easy to organise, however, the challenge is to organise quality assurance in theorganisation. It is the challenge because quality assurance should seamlessly merge with theR&D process. In future, the organisations, whether real or virtual, are going to bepredominantly, research and development (R&a...

  15. The gendered organisation : A positive critique

    OpenAIRE

    Hearn, Jeff; Parkin, Wendy

    2003-01-01

    In this article we go back to basics – to the very idea of the gendered organisation. Probably all researchers on gender and diversity in the workplace have some notion, however implicit, of the gendered organisation. This applies in both empirical research and more general theoretical analysis of organisations and management. Our task here is to assist in making explicit what those assumptions may be and help us to take a critical look at how we understand and conceptualise ‘the ...

  16. Sensor-Based Organisational Design and Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Olguin Olguin, Daniel; Pentland, Alex Paul

    2010-01-01

    We propose a sensor-based organisational design and engineering (ODE) approach that combines behavioural sensor data with other sources of information such as e-mail, surveys and performance data in order to design interventions aimed at improving organisational outcomes. We discuss relevant theory and technology backgrounds and describe the general requirements of a sensor-based organisational design and engineering system. We present an experimental platform that combines ...

  17. Impact of New Technologies on Public Organisations

    OpenAIRE

    Matei, Lucica

    2009-01-01

    ICTs impact is important on organisational structure and organisational culture.IT offers options for the design of organisational culture,the interaction by means of new modalities ,joint fonctions and objectives,faciliting the set up of working groups with a determined term,as well as communication on large areas. The use of effective IT could provide an attractive work environment ,and could motivate the employees by means of job enrichment. ICTs represent a catalyst for the public...

  18. Social media and small non profit organisations

    OpenAIRE

    Gulyás, A.

    2016-01-01

    This project sought to explore patterns of and views about social media adoption among small non-profit organisations and to identify mechanisms that could effectively support these organisations with their social media use. The following findings emerged from the study: • Social media are now part of the organisational infrastructure of small non-profits and the main ways in which they communicate with the public • Key variables that influence social media adoption among small no...

  19. Protein domain organisation: adding order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kummerfeld Sarah K

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Domains are the building blocks of proteins. During evolution, they have been duplicated, fused and recombined, to produce proteins with novel structures and functions. Structural and genome-scale studies have shown that pairs or groups of domains observed together in a protein are almost always found in only one N to C terminal order and are the result of a single recombination event that has been propagated by duplication of the multi-domain unit. Previous studies of domain organisation have used graph theory to represent the co-occurrence of domains within proteins. We build on this approach by adding directionality to the graphs and connecting nodes based on their relative order in the protein. Most of the time, the linear order of domains is conserved. However, using the directed graph representation we have identified non-linear features of domain organization that are over-represented in genomes. Recognising these patterns and unravelling how they have arisen may allow us to understand the functional relationships between domains and understand how the protein repertoire has evolved. Results We identify groups of domains that are not linearly conserved, but instead have been shuffled during evolution so that they occur in multiple different orders. We consider 192 genomes across all three kingdoms of life and use domain and protein annotation to understand their functional significance. To identify these features and assess their statistical significance, we represent the linear order of domains in proteins as a directed graph and apply graph theoretical methods. We describe two higher-order patterns of domain organisation: clusters and bi-directionally associated domain pairs and explore their functional importance and phylogenetic conservation. Conclusion Taking into account the order of domains, we have derived a novel picture of global protein organization. We found that all genomes have a higher than expected

  20. NK4 antagonizes Tbx1/10 to promote cardiac versus pharyngeal muscle fate in the ascidian second heart field.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The heart and head muscles share common developmental origins and genetic underpinnings in vertebrates, including humans. Parts of the heart and cranio-facial musculature derive from common mesodermal progenitors that express NKX2-5, ISL1, and TBX1. This ontogenetic kinship is dramatically reflected in the DiGeorge/Cardio-Velo-Facial syndrome (DGS/CVFS, where mutations of TBX1 cause malformations in the pharyngeal apparatus and cardiac outflow tract. Cardiac progenitors of the first heart field (FHF do not require TBX1 and segregate precociously from common progenitors of the second heart field (SHF and pharyngeal muscles. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms that govern heart versus pharyngeal muscle specification within this lineage remain elusive. Here, we harness the simplicity of the ascidian larva to show that, following asymmetric cell division of common progenitors, NK4/NKX2-5 promotes GATAa/GATA4/5/6 expression and cardiac specification in the second heart precursors by antagonizing Tbx1/10-mediated inhibition of GATAa and activation of Collier/Olf/EBF (COE, the determinant of atrial siphon muscle (ASM specification. Our results uncover essential regulatory connections between the conserved cardio-pharyngeal factor Tbx1/10 and muscle determinant COE, as well as a mutual antagonism between NK4 and Tbx1/10 activities upstream of GATAa and COE. The latter cross-antagonism underlies a fundamental heart versus pharyngeal muscle fate choice that occurs in a conserved lineage of cardio-pharyngeal progenitors. We propose that this basic ontogenetic motif underlies cardiac and pharyngeal muscle development and evolution in chordates.

  1. Bigger is not always better: offspring size does not predict growth or survival for seven ascidian species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Molly W; Sherrard, Kristin M

    2010-12-01

    The presumed trade-off between offspring size and quality predicted by life history theory is often invoked to explain the wide range of propagule sizes observed in animals and plants. This trade-off is broadly supported by intraspecific studies but has been difficult to test in an interspecific context, particularly in animals. We tested the fitness consequences of offspring size both intra- and interspecifically for seven species of ascidians (sessile, suspension-feeding, marine invertebrates) whose offspring volumes varied over three orders of magnitude. We measured two major components of fitness, juvenile growth rates and survival, in laboratory and field experiments encompassing several food conditions. Contrary to the predictions of life history theory, larger offspring size did not result in higher rates of growth or survival, and large offspring did not perform better under nutritional stress, either intraspecifically or interspecifically. In fact, two of the four species with small offspring grew rapidly enough to catch up in size to the species with large offspring in as little as eight weeks, under wild-type food conditions. Trade-offs between growth potential and defense may overwhelm and obscure any trade-offs between offspring size and survival or growth rate. While large initial size may still confer a competitive advantage, we failed to detect any consequences of interspecific variation in initial size. This implies that larger offspring in these species, far from being inherently superior in growth or survival, require compensation in other aspects of life history if reproductive effort is to be efficient. Our results suggest that the importance of initial offspring size is context dependent and often overestimated relative to other life history traits. PMID:21302831

  2. Organisational Learning: Theoretical Shortcomings and Practical Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Aarum Andersen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses two problems related to learning and the use of knowledge at work. The first problem is the theoretical shortcomings stemming from the controversy between three different concepts of ‘organisational learning.’ In order to enhance scholarship in this field the notion that organisations - as organisations - can learn need to be rejected for theoretical and empirical reasons. The metaphorical use of ‘organisational learning’ creates only confusion. Learning is a process and knowledge is the outcome of that process. It is argued that learning and knowledge is only related to individuals. Knowledge is thus the individual capability to draw distinctions, within a domain of action, based on an appreciation of context or theory. Consequently, knowledge becomes organisational when it is created, developed and transmitted to other individuals in the organisation. In a strict sense knowledge becomes organisational when employees use it and act based on generalisations due to the rules and procedures found in their organisation. The gravest problem is practical challenges due to the fact that the emphasis on learning, knowledge and competence of the working force do not materialize in the application of the knowledge acquired. It is evident that employees do not use their increased knowledge. However, we do not know why they do not use it. An enormous waste of money is spent on learning and knowledge in organisations which does not yield what is expected. How can managers act in order to enhance the application of increased knowledge possessed by the workforce?

  3. EMPLOYEE LEARNING AND DEVELOPMENT IN ORGANISATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VNOUČKOVÁ, Lucie

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The primary goal of all organisations is efficiency of human resources. Therefore activities as HR controlling, performance management but also cutting costs are the main theme. Current organisations need to monitor human resources to keep their competitiveness. Thus paper describes the key factor of organisational efficiency - employee education, talent management and the necessity to retain skilled employees. The aim of the paper is to reveal the current approach in organisations to education and learning based on primary survey of employees. The data were collected using quantitative primary survey in Czech organisations across sectors. The questionnaire was compiled based on the theoretical background. The paper has been processed based on the analysis of secondary sources, outcome synthesis and the evaluation of results of a questionnaire survey. The data were analysed using descriptive statistic, correlation analysis and factor analysis. The SPSS programme was used for the analyses. The outcomes were categorized and the analyses revealed the main factors affecting organisational approach to employee learning and development. The results identify three possible approaches in organisations to employee learning and development. The first type of organisations educates employees by their own rules, second type does not support education of employees in any way, it is only an interest of employees themselves and thirdly knowledgeable employees were identified as those employees do as much as possible to learn and grow and they choose job position in order to develop constantly. The results can be taken into account in further analysis and in organisation of adult education.

  4. IAU Public Astronomical Organisations Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canas, Lina; Cheung, Sze Leung

    2015-08-01

    The Office for Astronomy Outreach has devoted intensive means to create and support a global network of public astronomical organisations around the world. Focused on bringing established and newly formed amateur astronomy organizations together, providing communications channels and platforms for disseminating news to the global community and the sharing of best practices and resources among these associations around the world. In establishing the importance that these organizations have for the dissemination of activities globally and acting as key participants in IAU various campaigns social media has played a key role in keeping this network engaged and connected. Here we discuss the implementation process of maintaining this extensive network, the processing and gathering of information and the interactions between local active members at a national and international level.

  5. Simultaneous Attacks by Terrorist Organisations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Deloughery

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available While terror attacks that are a part of a coordinated effort receive attention in the popular media, they have not received much attention in the academic literature. The decision to carry out simultaneous attacks should be examined as one of the choices a terrorist organisation makes about the method of attack. Determining the impact of simultaneous attacks vis-à-vis a single attack can explain why groups would use this method. Up to one quarter of all attacks coded in two major databases, GTD and ITERATE, may be part of a simultaneous campaign. Empirical analysis shows simultaneous attacks are more likely to be successful and cause more fatalities, though not in a one-to-one fashion. These results underline the importance of considering simultaneous attacks in empirical analysis.

  6. LEADERSHIP AND ORGANISATIONAL CULTURE: RELEVANCE IN PUBLIC SECTOR ORGANISATIONS IN GHANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwasi Dartey-Baah, PhD

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Public sector reforms have been on the agenda of a number of governments, including Ghana and development agencies such as the World Bank. From the review of existing literature, it is notable that the impact of leadership and organisational culture on the performance of organisations is significant either positively or negatively and therefore essential factors in ensuring a reformed and more efficient public sector, especially in developing countries. This paper looks at the general discussions on leadership and organisational culture narrowed down to the Ghanaian context. Furthermore, the relationship between transformational leadership and organisational culture and their relevance in public sector organisations in Ghana are touched on. This conceptual paper identifies that leadership and organisational culture play a very important role in the performance of public sector organisations and in particularly the transformational style of leadership seems to result in more innovative and dynamic practices in public sector organisations.

  7. A STUDY ON HOW TO ELEVATE ORGANISATIONAL CREATIVITY IN TAIWANESE DESIGN ORGANISATION

    OpenAIRE

    WEN-CHIH CHANG; ZUN-HWA CHIANG

    2008-01-01

    This research focuses on exploring which factors influence organisational creativity the most, and what actions are the most effective to enhance organisational creativity of design companies and departments in Taiwan. The survey showed that the most influential five factors to organisational creativity were in the order of design environment, team climate, group/organisation culture, design process and motive of work. The survey also showed that the most effective ways of improving organisat...

  8. Organisational values as "attractors of chaos": An emerging cultural change to manage organisational complexity

    OpenAIRE

    Shimon L. Dolan; Garc??a, Salvador; Diegoli, Samantha; Auerbach, Alan

    2000-01-01

    Business organisations are excellent representations of what in physics and mathematics are designated "chaotic" systems. Because a culture of innovation will be vital for organisational survival in the 21st century, the present paper proposes that viewing organisations in terms of "complexity theory" may assist leaders in fine-tuning managerial philosophies that provide orderly management emphasizing stability within a culture of organised chaos, for it is on ...

  9. Organisational culture, organisational learning and total quality management: a literature review and synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloor, G

    1999-01-01

    As health services face increasing pressure to meet the expectations of different stakeholders, they must continuously improve and learn from their experience. Many fail in attempts at continuous improvement programs because managers have not understood the complexity of making changes in organisations with multiple subcultures and interests. This article examines the related concepts of organisational culture, organisational learning and total quality management and shows how a synthesis of this knowledge can assist in developing continuous organisational learning and improvement. PMID:10662226

  10. Case studies on age-management in organisations: report on organisational case studies

    OpenAIRE

    Punte, E.; Conen, W.S.; Schippers, J.; Henkens, C.J.I.M.

    2011-01-01

    The acquisition of case studies was thwarted by the economic crisis and the feeling of being ‘over-researched’ by potential organisations. Although organisations in some sectors (e.g. chemical manufacturing) reported the worst part of the economic crisis was behind, many organisations indicated getting through the crisis was their top priority. Especially in the first few months we had difficulties with getting through to organisations. The most difficulties we had at that time with longitudi...

  11. Ascidian bioresources: common and variant chemical compositions and exploitation strategy - examples of Halocynthia roretzi, Styela plicata, Ascidia sp. and Ciona intestinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yadong; Li, Jiebing

    2016-01-01

    To explore abundant marine ascidian bioresources, four species from two orders have been compared in their chemical compositions. After a universal separation of the animal body into two fractions, all tunics have been found rich in carbohydrate contents, while all inner body tissues are richer in proteins. Cellulose is present almost exclusively in the tunics and more in the order Stolidobranchia, while more sulfated polysaccharides are present in Phlebobranchia species. Almost all proteins are collagens with a high essential amino acid index and high delicious amino acid (DAA) content. All fractions also have high contents of good-quality fatty acids and trace minerals but low toxic element contents, with different sterols and glycosaminoglycans. There are species-specific characteristics observed for vanadium accumulation and sterol structures which are also meaningful for ascidian chemotaxonomy and resource exploitation. It is suggested that in addition to the present utilizations of tunics for cellulose production and of some species' inner body tissues as human food, one should explore all species' inner body tissues as human foods and all tunics as food or animal feed with the contained cellulose as dietary fiber. Collagens, sulfated polysaccharides, glycosaminoglycans, sterols and trace elements could be explored as byproducts for, e.g. pharmaceutical and chemical industries. PMID:27049617

  12. Exploring the Interconnectedness among Strategy Development, Shared Mental Models, Organisational Learning and Organisational Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malan, Renee

    2011-01-01

    The cognitive psychological processes related to learning and change behaviour are factors that impact on organisational strategy development. Strategy development is dependent on strategic thinking that is reciprocally influenced by shared mental models, organisational learning and organisational change. Although strategy development, shared…

  13. Case studies on age-management in organisations: report on organisational case studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Punte, E.; Conen, W.S.; Schippers, J.; Henkens, C.J.I.M.

    2011-01-01

    The acquisition of case studies was thwarted by the economic crisis and the feeling of being ‘over-researched’ by potential organisations. Although organisations in some sectors (e.g. chemical manufacturing) reported the worst part of the economic crisis was behind, many organisations indicated gett

  14. 'Organised' cervical screening 45 years on: How consistent are organised screening practices?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jane H; Carter, Stacy M; Rychetnik, Lucie

    2014-11-01

    Organised screening programmes have been remarkably successful in reducing incidence and mortality from cervical cancer, while opportunistic screening varies in its effectiveness. Experts recommend that cervical screening or HPV testing be carried out only in the context of an organised programme. We sought to answer the following study questions: What does it mean for a cervical screening programme to be organised? Is there a place for opportunistic screening (in an organised programme)? We reviewed 154 peer-reviewed papers on organised and opportunistic approaches to cervical screening published between 1970 and 2014 to understand how the term 'organised' is used, formally and in practice. We found that despite broad recognition of a prescriptive definition of organisation, in practice the meaning of organisation is much less clear. Our review revealed descriptions of organised programmes that differ significantly from prescribed norms and from each other, and a variety of ways that opportunistic and organised programmes intersect. We describe the breadth of the variation in cervical cancer screening programmes and examine the relationships and overlaps between organised and opportunistic screening. Implications emerging from the review include the need to better understand the breadth of organisation in practice, the drivers and impacts of opportunistic screening and the impact of opportunistic screening on population programme outcomes. Appreciation of the complexity of cervical screening programmes will benefit both screeners and women as programmes are changed to reflect a partially vaccinated population, new evidence and new technologies. PMID:25282406

  15. Organisational Blogs: Benefits and Challenges of Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Gavin J.; Connolly, Thomas M.; Stansfield, Mark H.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify the theoretical link between blogs and organisational learning. It aims to provide a set of practical guidelines on how to overcome the challenges of implementing an organisational blog. Design/methodology/approach: A literature review will be used to examine blogs and their association towards…

  16. Organising European technical documentation to avoid duplication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donawa, Maria

    2006-04-01

    The development of comprehensive accurate and well-organised technical documentation that demonstrates compliance with regulatory requirements is a resource-intensive, but critically important activity for medical device manufacturers. This article discusses guidance documents and method of organising technical documentation that may help avoid costly and time-consuming duplication. PMID:16736662

  17. Identity Building in Organisations: Proactive Capability Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard

    2002-01-01

    Identity building in organisations is often viewed as legitimacy of value systems of the organisation. Based on empirical studies the task of this article is to argue that such a legitimacy approach risks failing in the longer perspective, if the proactive capability development is neglected. The...

  18. Organising Quality Function in Research and Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra Prasad

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Quality function may be summarised as quality generation, quality control, and qualityassurance. The quality generation and quality control, because of their fuactional nature, arecomparatively easy to organise, however, the challenge is to organise quality assurance in theorganisation. It is the challenge because quality assurance should seamlessly merge with theR&D process. In future, the organisations, whether real or virtual, are going to bepredominantly, research and development (R&D oriented rather than pure manufacturing orservice providers. However, the nature and intensity of the R&D may differ. It could be fromsimple improvement to innovation, to exploitation of inventions.Organising quality function in R&D means organising its various dimensions against thestipulated criteria such as the realisation of the quality system; realisation of quality duringproduct development, including system engineering; staffing of quality generation, quality control,and quality assurance; balancing of the quality function; harnessing of project quality, functionalquality, staff quality and line quality; application of the RHR principle; exploitation of the toolsof organising, democratic organisation; and so on. The basic purpose of organising the qualityfunction is to inculcate the sense of pride in quality among the scientists so that they feelpassionate about it. It is the passion and love for quality that generates, sustains, and maintainsquality.

  19. Constraint-based Modelling of Organisations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viara, Popova; Alexei, Sharpanskykh

    2008-01-01

    Modern organisations are characterised by a great variety of forms and often involve many actors with diverse goals, performing a wide range of tasks in changing environmental conditions. Due to high complexity, mistakes and inconsistencies are not rare in organisations. To provide better insights i

  20. International Organisations and Transnational Education Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutsios, Stavros

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on the World Bank/IMF (International Monetary Fund), the OECD (Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development) and the WTO (World Trade Organisation) as institutions of transnational policy making. They are all at present making education policies which are decisively shaping current directions and developments in…

  1. The Self-Organising Fuzzy Controller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jantzen, Jan

    1998-01-01

    A marginally stable test system, with a large dead time and an integrator, is stabilised by a self-organising fuzzy controller in a simulation study. It acts as a case study, to explain the self-organising controller to engineering students. The paper is one of a series of tutorial papers for a...... course in fuzzy control....

  2. Agreeing on role adoption in open organisations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aldewereld, H.; Dignum, V.; Jonker, C.M.; Van Riemsdijk, M.B.

    2012-01-01

    The organisational specification of a multi-agent system supports agents’ effectiveness in attaining their purpose, or prevent certain undesired behaviour from occurring. This requires that agents are able to find out about the organisational purpose and description and decide on its appropriateness

  3. An organisational perspective on professionals' learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elkjær, Bente; Brandi, Ulrik

    2014-01-01

    The purpose and contribution of our chapter is to provide a vision for professionals’ learning in the light of the field of organisational learning, and through this lens to incorporate various understandings of the organisational dynamics that professionals work and learn in and through. Inspire...

  4. Achieving Organisational Change through Values Alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branson, Christopher M.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to, first, establish the interdependency between the successful achievement of organisational change and the attainment of values alignment within an organisation's culture and then, second, to describe an effective means for attaining such values alignment. Design/methodology/approach: Literature from the…

  5. Meaningful work, work engagement and organisational commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madelyn Geldenhuys

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Meaningful work can yield benefits for organisations and lead to positive work outcomes such as satisfied, engaged and committed employees, individual and organisational fulfilment, productivity, retention and loyalty.Research purpose: The aim of the study was to investigate the relationships amongst psychological meaningfulness, work engagement and organisational commitment and to test for a possible mediation effect of work engagement on the relationship between psychological meaningfulness and organisational commitment.Motivation for the study: Managers have to rethink ways of improving productivity and performance at work, due to the diverse, and in some instances escalating, needs of employees (e.g. financial support to uphold their interest in and enjoyment of working.Research approach, design and method: A quantitative approach was employed to gather the data for the study, utilising a cross-sectional survey design. The sample (n = 415 consisted of working employees from various companies and positions in Gauteng, South Africa.Main findings: The results confirmed a positive relationship between psychological meaningfulness, work engagement and organisational commitment. Further, psychological meaningfulness predicts work engagement, whilst psychological meaningfulness and work engagement predict organisational commitment.Practical/managerial implications: Employers identifying their employees’ commitment patterns and mapping out strategies for enhancing those that are relevant to organisational goals will yield positive work outcomes (e.g. employees who are creative, seek growth or challenges for themselves.Contribution/value-add: This study contributes to the literature through highlighting the impact that meaningful work has on sustaining employee commitment to the organisation.

  6. European Perspectives on the Learning Organisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyhan, Barry; Cressey, Peter; Tomassini, Massimo; Kelleher, Michael; Poell, Rob

    2004-01-01

    This paper, based on a publication entitled "Facing up to the Learning Organisation Challenge," published in April 2003, provides an overview of the main questions emerging from recent European research projects related to the topic of the learning organisation. The rationale for focusing on this topic is the belief that the European Union goals…

  7. The "State of Art" of Organisational Blogging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Gavin J.; Connolly, Thomas M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the "state of art" of organisational blogging. It also aims to provide a critical review of the literature on organisational blogging and propose recommendations on how to advance the subject area in terms of academic research. Design/methodology/approach: A systematic literature review…

  8. Organisational Learning and Employees' Intrinsic Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remedios, Richard; Boreham, Nick

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the effects of organisational learning initiatives on employee motivation. Four initiatives consistent with theories of organisational learning were a priori ranked in terms of concepts that underpin intrinsic-motivation theory. Eighteen employees in a UK petrochemical company were interviewed to ascertain their experiences of…

  9. New challenges for the internal safety organisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasle, Peter; Jensen, Per Langå

    2003-01-01

    Research from several countries indicates that the internal health and safety organisation in most companies is placed in an appendix position. Introduc-tion of learning is a possibility for the development of a stronger and more ef-fective health and safety organisation. This approach has been...

  10. Facilitating "Organisational Learning" in a "Learning Institution"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, Alan; Sillitoe, James

    2013-01-01

    The term "organisational learning" was popularised by Peter Senge in "The Fifth Discipline", his seminal book from 1990. Since then, the term has become widely accepted among those interested in organisational learning and change management. However, partly due to the somewhat ambiguous situation which arises in a university…

  11. Evolutionary mitogenomics of Chordata: the strange case of ascidians and vertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Gissi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The availability of almost one thousand complete mitochondrial genome (mtDNA sequences of chordates provides an almost unique opportunity to analyse the evolution of this genome in the phylum Chordata, and to identify possible divergent evolutionary trends followed by the three chordate subphyla: Vertebrata, Cephalochordata and Tunicata.Here, we review some genome-level features of mtDNA, such as genetic code, gene content, genome architecture and gene strand asymmetry, mostly focusing on differences existing between tunicates and remaining chordates. Indeed, tunicate mtDNAs show a surprisingly high variability in several genome-level features, even though the current tunicate taxon sampling is absolutely insufficient and is focused mainly on the class Ascidiacea. On the contrary, a stabilization of the mtDNA structural and evolutionary features is observed in both cephalochordates and vertebrates, where genome-level features are almost invariant. Thus, different evolutionary dynamics, probably related to divergent functional constraints, have modelled the overall mtDNA structure and organization of the three chordate subphyla.

  12. Impact of organisational change on mental health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bamberger, Simon Grandjean; Vinding, Anker Lund; Larsen, Anelia; Nielsen, Peter; Fonager, Kirsten; Nielsen, René Nesgaard; Ryom, Pia; Omland, Øyvind

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge combining MeSH search terms for exposure and outcome. The criterion for inclusion was original data on exposure to organisational change with mental health problems as outcome. Both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies were included. We found in 11 out of 17 studies, an association between......Although limited evidence is available, organisational change is often cited as the cause of mental health problems. This paper provides an overview of the current literature regarding the impact of organisational change on mental health. A systematic search in PUBMED, PsychInfo and Web of...... organisational change and elevated risk of mental health problems was observed, with a less provident association in the longitudinal studies. Based on the current research, this review cannot provide sufficient evidence of an association between organisational change and elevated risk of mental health problems...

  13. The architecture of information in organisations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiko Iyamu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the last two decades competition amongst organisations including financial institutions has increased tremendously. The value of information is critical to competition in different organisations. In addition, the management of cost of delivery and cohesiveness of information flow and use in the organisations continue a challenge to information technology (IT. In an attempt to address these challenges, many organisations sought various solutions, including enterprise information architecture (EIA. The EIA is intended to address the needs of the organisation for competitive advantage.This research article focused on the role of principles in the development and implementation of EIA. The article aimed to investigate how EIA could be best leveraged, exploited, or otherwise used to provide business value. The research brings about a fresh perspective and new methodological principles required in architecting the enterprise information.

  14. Action research in inter-organisational networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goduscheit, René Chester; Rasmussen, Erik Stavnsager; Jørgensen, Jacob Høj;

    2007-01-01

    Traditionally, the literature on action research has been aimed at intra-organisational issues. These studies have distinguished between two researcher roles: The problem-solver and the observer. This article addresses the distinct challenges of action research in inter-organisational projects....... In addition to the problem-solver and observer roles, the researcher in an inter-organisational setting can serve as a legitimiser of the project and manage to involve partners that in an ordinary business-to-business setting would not have participated. Based on an action research project in a Danish inter......-organisational network, this article discusses potential pitfalls in the legitimiser role. Lack of clarity in defining the researcher role and project ownership in relation to the funding organisation and the rest of the network can jeopardise the project and potentially the credibility of the researchers. The article...

  15. The identification of transcription factors expressed in the notochord of Ciona intestinalis adds new potential players to the Brachyury gene regulatory network

    OpenAIRE

    Diana S José-Edwards; Kerner, Pierre; Kugler, Jamie E.; Deng, Wei; Jiang, Di; Di Gregorio, Anna

    2011-01-01

    The notochord is the distinctive characteristic of chordates; however, the knowledge of the complement of transcription factors governing the development of this structure is still incomplete. Here we present the expression patterns of seven transcription factor genes detected in the notochord of the ascidian Ciona intestinalis at various stages of embryonic development. Four of these transcription factors, Fos-a, NFAT5, AFF and Klf15, have not been directly associated with the notochord in p...

  16. Organisational Socialisation Facilitates Overseas Assignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Chen (Chiu-Yi/Joy Lee

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cross-cultural adjustment is the biggest challenge that derails expatriate success. In responding to the importance of Taiwanese expatriates’ adjustment in Mainland China, this study tests, as a critical factor, Socialisation affecting the adjustment of Taiwanese expatriates in Mainland China. As a result, this study critically reviews previous studies on expatriate success, shedding light on key factors in the area of expatriate adjustment and providing multiple guidelines for human resource supervisors and senior executives hoping to ensure expatriate success. The definitions of success and methodological approaches are discussed, and suggestions for improving empirical research in this area are presented. Academic researchers and international enterprises can perhaps clarify whether all international expatriates are affected by the factor as organisational socialisation, and also whether the proposed model can be utilised in studying expatriates in different professional areas from those of this study. Finally, the results and their implications for research and the business world are discussed. This may assist not only Taiwanese MNCs but also global enterprises to perform their international business more efficiently in Mainland China.

  17. The relationship between organisational climate and employee satisfaction in a South African information and technology organisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monia L. Castro

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Organisational climate and job satisfaction are distinct but related constructs, and both appear to influence employees’ understanding of the work environment and their level of job satisfaction.Research purpose: The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between organisational climate and job satisfaction to determine whether employees’ perceptions of the work environment influence their level of job satisfaction.Motivation for the study: Organisations are facing more challenges than ever before. These challenges are not unique to any specific organisation or industry, but affect all organisations.Organisational climate in particular is constantly challenged by changes impacting organisations today.Research design, approach and method: An organisational climate questionnaire was administered to a convenience sample of 696 employees from a population of 1453 employees working in three regions in which the organisation was operational. Confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses were used to investigate the structure of the climate model.Main findings: The revised 12-factor model (after the confirmatory factor analysis fitted the data best and the researchers therefore decided to proceed with the revised 12-factor model (11 dimensions for further analysis. A stepwise regression was conducted and nine dimensions of organisational climate were found to predict job satisfaction. The results indicated a strong positive correlation (r = 0.813, p< 0.01 between organisational climate and the dependent variable of job satisfaction.Practical implications: This study provided support for the view that line managers and human resource practitioners should be aware that different biographical groups have different needs that can influence their job satisfaction levels and different perceptions of the climate within the organisation and that this impacts on their behaviour.Contribution: The findings of this study indicated a

  18. Organisational IT managed from the shop floor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolmsten, Johan; Dittrich, Yvonne

    2015-01-01

    likely to take the form of complex, integrated infrastructures, supporting collaboration within and across organisations. This places requirements on the IT infrastructure. As the work practices within an organisation change, the supporting infrastructure also needs to evolve.......Modern organisations need to be able to adjust to changes in the environment, changes which are ever more rapid, and in doing so capitalise on the creativity and innovations of their employees. As suggested by Boulus-Rødje and Bjørn (Chap. 14), information technology (IT) applications today are...

  19. Approaches to Maintaining and Building Organisational Knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conclusions: • Involvement of people is one of the most important enablers of successful KM; • KM focuses on organisational knowledge that is needed for achieving business goals; • Working culture and KM activities embedded in the ways of working are essential for management of organisational knowledge; • Formal KM approach is needed as well, and one of its objectives is to support informal KM activities; • For a successful management of organisational knowledge, KM related functions need to be identified and understood as one entity

  20. The Shanghai Co-operation Organisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Flemming Splidsboel

    New regional organisations are always interesting to follow as they will tell us more about the things that make or break this type of co-operation. Originally established as “The Shanghai Five” in 1996, The Shanghai Co-operation Organisation (SCO) has been successful at reducing tension between...... the member states but it has since found it very hard to come up with a more ambitious agenda. Mutual suspicion and zero-sum thinking clearly run deep and the continued development of the organisation has suffered as a result of this. All told, the SCO is much more façade than real policy substance....

  1. Corporate information systems in health organisations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the nature of corporate information systems and their applications in health organisations. It emphasises the importance of financial and human resource information in the creation of a corporate data model. The paper summarises the main features of finance and human resource systems as they are used in health organisations. It looks at a series of case studies carried out in health organisations, which were selected on the basis of their representation of different aspects of service delivery. It also discusses the theoretical and practical perspectives of the systems themselves, their roles in information management, executive and decision support, and in planning and forecasting. PMID:10173702

  2. Organisational learning won't be turned off

    OpenAIRE

    Elkjær, Bente

    2012-01-01

    Enterprises have always been learning organisations in much the same way as it is hard for people to avoid learning. A sign of learning organisations are the many successful enterprises, and the abundance of new products and services that keeps emerging. The question about organisational learning is how it is possible to ‘see’ and to analyse learning when learning is not connected to individuals but to organisations and organising? In a normative sense, however, “organisational learning” is o...

  3. Privacy Management and Accountability in Global Organisations

    OpenAIRE

    Pearson, Siani

    2014-01-01

    Organisations that operate in a global environment can be subject to potentially diverse and complex regulatory requirements. This paper explains some of the key issues that corporate governance faces related to privacy and some mechanisms for addressing these.

  4. CERN’s new organisational structure

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    CERN’s new organisational structure was made public on 1st December 2008. All the changes are explained in detail on a new web portal. As you learned on 1st December last year, CERN’s new organisational structure took effect on 1st January, under the leadership of new Director-General, Rolf Heuer. To explain the new structure, the Human Resources (HR) Department set up a Web portal in December. This portal (NICE user name and password required) displays the new organisation chart and explains the differences between the old and new structures. A "Frequently Asked Questions" page provides additional information. If you don’t find the answer to your specific question, a discussion forum is also available. You can obtain the contact details of your Human Resources Advisor by clicking on a link that takes you to a dedicated web page. Finally, all documents pertaining to the new organisational structure, including powerpoint pres...

  5. The Dynamics of Organisation and Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter

    The Dynamics of Organisation and Work - Measurement framework of the Meadow survey by Peter Nielsen for the MEADOW Consortium Organisational changes and the upcoming of new adaptable work organisations are common in most developed countries regardless of culture and industrial traditions. The main...... driver for this general trend is globalisation of the economic relations and growth in technological enhancements. The conditions of globalisation and the technological developments directly or indirectly put high pressure on most organisations in both private and public sector. The high pressure...... of globalisation in combination with technology developments mean that instability and changing conditions are more the rule than the exception and management are forced to find new ways to cope with this instability. Generally it has meant that knowledge and innovation has become more important for firms...

  6. Economic Agents, Ethics and International Economic Organisations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno S. Sergi

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The last sixty years have seen international economic organisations maintain a position at the forefront of promoting economic growth and socioeconomic development. These organisations have not achieved as much against certain benchmarks, and several observers have accused them of being unqualified to meet the needs of the poor, and even found them guilty of something worse, such as famine and disease. Although these organisations have organisational behaviour and skills, many of their funded projects lack forcefulness to such an extent that they should only be answerable through achieving certain economic facts by way of ethics and morals. We design ethics and morals as two interconnected concepts, and the rationale that binds all economic agents to their respective obligations must be interpreted by effective courses of action dictated by economic realities.

  7. FGF signalling regulates chromatin organisation during neural differentiation via mechanisms that can be uncoupled from transcription.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishal S Patel

    Full Text Available Changes in higher order chromatin organisation have been linked to transcriptional regulation; however, little is known about how such organisation alters during embryonic development or how it is regulated by extrinsic signals. Here we analyse changes in chromatin organisation as neural differentiation progresses, exploiting the clear spatial separation of the temporal events of differentiation along the elongating body axis of the mouse embryo. Combining fluorescence in situ hybridisation with super-resolution structured illumination microscopy, we show that chromatin around key differentiation gene loci Pax6 and Irx3 undergoes both decompaction and displacement towards the nuclear centre coincident with transcriptional onset. Conversely, down-regulation of Fgf8 as neural differentiation commences correlates with a more peripheral nuclear position of this locus. During normal neural differentiation, fibroblast growth factor (FGF signalling is repressed by retinoic acid, and this vitamin A derivative is further required for transcription of neural genes. We show here that exposure to retinoic acid or inhibition of FGF signalling promotes precocious decompaction and central nuclear positioning of differentiation gene loci. Using the Raldh2 mutant as a model for retinoid deficiency, we further find that such changes in higher order chromatin organisation are dependent on retinoid signalling. In this retinoid deficient condition, FGF signalling persists ectopically in the elongating body, and importantly, we find that inhibiting FGF receptor (FGFR signalling in Raldh2-/- embryos does not rescue differentiation gene transcription, but does elicit both chromatin decompaction and nuclear position change. These findings demonstrate that regulation of higher order chromatin organisation during differentiation in the embryo can be uncoupled from the machinery that promotes transcription and, for the first time, identify FGF as an extrinsic signal that

  8. A Multiple Source Approach to Organisational Justice: The Role of the Organisation, Supervisors, Coworkers, and Customers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustin Molina

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The vast research on organisational justice has focused on the organisation and the supervisor. This study aims to further this line of research by integrating two trends within organisational justice research: the overall approach to justice perceptions and the multifoci perspective of justice judgments. Specifically, this study aims to explore the effects of two additional sources of justice, coworker-focused justice and customer-focused justice, on relevant employees’ outcomes—burnout, turnover intentions, job satisfaction, and workplace deviance— while controlling the effect of organisation-focused justice and supervisor-focused justice. Given the increased importance attributed to coworkers and customers, we expect coworker-focused justice and customer-focused justice to explain incremental variance in the measured outcomes, above and beyond the effects of organisation-focused justice and supervisor-focused justice. Participants will be university students from Austria and Germany employed by service organisations. Data analysis will be conducted using structural equation modeling.

  9. Organisational and strategic communication research: european perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, Gisela Marques Pereira; Somerville, Ian; Melo, Ana

    2013-01-01

    Série: Pesquisas em comunicação (Excerto) Created in 2006, the Organisational and Strategic Communication Section of the European Communication Research and Education Association (ECREA) aims to promote an active and critical dialogue among scholars involved in the study of Organisational and Strategic Communication (OSC) and to propose new research topics and debate concepts relevant to the interdisciplinary growth of this field of studies. At the 4th international ECREA Co...

  10. Organisational Dimensions in Cross Sector Partnerships

    OpenAIRE

    Harding, R. C

    2010-01-01

    Cross sector partnerships (CSPs) are becoming an increasingly prominent and distinct aspect of corporate social responsibility (CSR) strategies. However, despite their importance, the majority of these collaborations are short lived and deteriorate before their expected potential can be reached. An extant and burgeoning literature surrounding CSPs has developed to address this hurdle. A critical review of this partnership literature demonstrates the organisational dimension, organisational cu...

  11. VIRTUAL ORGANISATIONS: EMPLOYEE COMPETENCY AND MANAGERIAL ISSUES

    OpenAIRE

    MIRJANA RADOVIC-MARKOVIC

    2014-01-01

    New technologies have led to a new information and knowledge based economy. In this context, technology has changed the work environment, where organisations have become increasingly complex and competitive. Namely, the technologically induced a “virtual” environment has resulted in the adoption of new organisational structures and work skills and practices. On the one hand, the workplace increasingly requires employee to work in teams,collaborating across companies, communities, and conti...

  12. Using Intelligent Agents to understand organisational behaviour

    CERN Document Server

    Celia, Helen; Robinson, Mark; Siebers, Peer-Olaf; Aickelin, Uwe; Sprigg, Christine

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces two ongoing research projects which seek to apply computer modelling techniques in order to simulate human behaviour within organisations. Previous research in other disciplines has suggested that complex social behaviours are governed by relatively simple rules which, when identified, can be used to accurately model such processes using computer technology. The broad objective of our research is to develop a similar capability within organisational psychology.

  13. The Compilation of Math Pattern for Productivity in Educational Organisations, Service Organisations (Municipalities), and Industrial Organisations Based on Organisational Climate in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Fattah Nazem

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to investigate the relationship between organisational climate with the productivity of managers' services in educational, service, and industrial organisations, in order to present a suitable management pattern. The population of the research consist of all managers who work in Tehran high schools, municipalities managers, and managers of the National Company Petro-Chemical Industries. Two hundred and forty five High School managers, 52 municipalities mana...

  14. Highly optimised global organisation of metabolic networks

    OpenAIRE

    Tanaka, R.; Csete, M.; Doyle, J.

    2005-01-01

    High-level, mathematically precise descriptions of the global organisation of complex metabolic networks are necessary for understanding the global structure of metabolic networks, the interpretation and integration of large amounts of biologic data (sequences, various -omics) and ultimately for rational design of therapies for disease processes. Metabolic networks are highly organised to execute their function efficiently while tolerating wide variation in their environment. These network...

  15. Antecedents and Outcomes of Organisational Virtues

    OpenAIRE

    Martin-Moreno, Jose Felix

    2010-01-01

    Recent years have seen an increasing interest in the application of virtue ethics in business as opposed to consequentialist or deontogical ethics. However the focus has often been on virtues at the individual as opposed to the organizational level of analysis.It is proposed that the organisational virtues intermediate individual (leadership) and group level constructs (organisational citizenship behaviours, corporate citizenship) to foster intrinsic motivation through a focus on eudemonia (m...

  16. The Organisational Gap Model for Hotel Management

    OpenAIRE

    Maja Uran

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the development of the organisational gap model for hotel management. It descries a management measurement instrument that helps to assess the 3 organizational service gaps that are preconditions for delivering service quality (the positioning gap, specification gap and evaluation gap). The described theoretical model was constructed based upon the four organisational gaps of the Parasuraman et al. service quality model, then redefined and reassessed. Data were gathered o...

  17. Using intelligent agents to understand organisational behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Celia, Helen; Clegg, Christopher; Robinson, Mark; Siebers, Peer-Olaf; Aickelin, Uwe; Sprigg, Christine

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces two ongoing research projects which seek to apply computer modelling techniques in order to simulate human behaviour within organisations. Previous research in other disciplines has suggested that complex social behaviours are governed by relatively simple rules which, when identified, can be used to accurately model such processes using computer technology. The broad objective of our research is to develop a similar capability within organisational psychology.

  18. Studying Organisational Topology with Simple Computational Models

    OpenAIRE

    Anthony Dekker

    2007-01-01

    The behaviour of many complex systems is influenced by the underlying network topology. In particular, this applies to social systems in which people or organisational units collaboratively solve problems. Network rewiring processes are one useful tool in understanding the relationship between network topology and behaviour. Here we use the Kawachi network rewiring process, together with three simple simulation models of organisational collaboration, to investigate the network characteristics...

  19. Labour organisation on robotic milking dairy farms.

    OpenAIRE

    Sonck, B.R.

    1996-01-01

    1. Research issuesThe research described in this dissertation is focused on the effects of the integration of the milking robot in a dairy farm on the labour organisation at operational and tactical level. Attention was paid to the future requirements concerning human labour and labour (re)organisation with respect to the complex interaction between the cows and an automatic milking system (AMS) on a robotic milking dairy farm. The study was divided in a number of research issues (Chapter 1) ...

  20. Suppression of cell-spreading and phagocytic activity on nano-pillared surface: in vitro experiment using hemocytes of the colonial ascidian Botryllus schlosseri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Ballarin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Nano-scale nipple array on the body surface has been described from various invertebrates including endoparasitic and mesoparasitic copepods, but the functions of the nipple array is not well understood. Using the hydrophilized nanopillar sheets made of polystyrene as a mimetic material of the nipple arrays on the parasites’ body surface, we assayed the cell spreading and phagocytosis of the hemocytes of the colonial ascidian Botryllus schlosseri. On the pillared surface, the number of spreading amebocytes and the number of phagocytizing hemocytes per unit area were always smaller than those on the flat surface (Mann-Whitney test, p < 0.05 - 0.001, probably because the effective area for the cell attachment on the pillared surface is much smaller than the area on the flat sheet. The present results supports the idea that the nipple array on the parasites' body surface reduces the innate immune reaction from the host hemocytes.

  1. Organisational Social Capital through Corporate Social Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.H. Niţu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to identify the correlation between the corporate social responsibility performance and the Organisational Social Capital. Inductively, through grounded theory, this paper uses secondary data to develop a theoretical model which presents the relationship between the following concepts: business codes, stakeholders, Corporate Social Performance (CSP and Organisational Social Capital (OSC. This study brings together two main areas of research, namely: Organisational Social Capital and business ethics. This represents a gap in the literature, to which this research will address. Three propositions are put forward and discussed using secondary data collection methods. The findings suggest that there is a strong correlation between the characteristics which improve the quality of organisation-stakeholders relationship and the effectiveness of implementing business codes and, therefore, the increasing Corporate Social Performance. The proposed ethical framework has, at the same time, a similar effect by incrementing Organisational Social Capital, because it shares similar features with the relation between organisation-stakeholders, business codes and CSP.

  2. Economic and Organisational Wisdom for Asian Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arup BARMAN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Asian Century is rich and already 14 years old. Today, Asia is in the middle of a historic transformation which has brought both challenges and opportunities. To meet these challenges, Asian leaders need to devise bold and innovative national policies for pursuing avenues for regional and global cooperation. In the similar way organisation and business in Asia will transform. This transformative whirlpool calls the Asian private sector and public sector organisations for absorption of new wisdom, values and principles in place of 20th century’s management. Overall, the capacity to respond to the changing global economic landscape through flexibility and adaptivness will carry a high premium. This paper delve the issues how Asian Organisations have already been used the wisdom during the global chaos. Deriving from the examples of Asia in the midst of global chaos in many points of time, this present paper attempts to re-focus on organisational wisdom of commitment and ability for Asian organisation, modernization, governance and helping to retool institutions, for enhancing transparency, and finally to develop accountability for organisational resilience and survival.

  3. The relationship between organisational climate and employee satisfaction in a South African information and technology organisation

    OpenAIRE

    Monia L. Castro; Nico Martins

    2010-01-01

    Orientation: Organisational climate and job satisfaction are distinct but related constructs, and both appear to influence employees’ understanding of the work environment and their level of job satisfaction.Research purpose: The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between organisational climate and job satisfaction to determine whether employees’ perceptions of the work environment influence their level of job satisfaction.Motivation for the study: Organisations are facin...

  4. An Analysis of Organisational Culture of Integrated Public Organisations: The case of Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Phookpan, Pantharak

    2013-01-01

    The theme of the re-aggregation of public organisations has been embraced in the recent public sector reforms of some developed countries such as the UK. The re-aggregation of public organisations may benefit the government in terms of focusing its interests on policy coordination. This is an alternative way of reforming the public sector in order to increase greater outcomes and the performance of public organisations with regard to the achievement of particular policy goals. The reform inev...

  5. Organisational conflict: Reflections on managing conflict, identities and values in a selected South African organisation

    OpenAIRE

    Claude-Hélène Mayer; Lynette Louw

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a case study on organisational conflict in a selected international organisation in the South African automotive industry to increase the contextual understanding of the topic. Data was gathered through in-depth interviews with 45 senior and middle managers in the selected international organisation at the head off ce and two branches in Gauteng and at one branch in KwaZulu-Natal. The data analysis was conducted through content analysis as well as triangulation of dat...

  6. Employee Engagement and Organisational Performance in A Public Sector Organisation in Zimbabwe

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Sibanda; Taruona Muchena; Farai Ncube

    2014-01-01

    The research analyses employee engagement as a precursor to unlocking organisational performance in a public sector organisation in Zimbabwe. The organisation (herein referred to as Zim-PSO), which has been plagued by operational and people challenges, is essentially locked in underperformance, which, it is argued, could improve as employee engagement levels also improved. A sample of 50 subjects participated in the research. Data were gathered using a combination of unstructured interviews, ...

  7. A CRITICAL REVIEW OF MARKET-ORIENTATION IN THE ORGANISATIONAL CULTURE OF POST-MERGER ORGANISATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholas CHANDLER

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to review the literature concerning the key factors affecting a post-merger organisation from the aspect of market orientation and organisational culture as a means of developing a conceptual framework. In the context of a large complex organisation (a Higher Education Institution), the literature indicates that there is a greater propensity for the emergence of subcultures. A number of external pressures are also found to impact upon the emergence of a market orienta...

  8. An ultraviolet-sensitive maternal mRNA encoding a cytoskeletal protein may be involved in axis formation in the ascidian embryo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultraviolet (uv) irradiation of the vegetal hemisphere of fertilized eggs during ooplasmic segregation inhibits subsequent gastrulation and axis formation in ascidian embryos. The molecular basis of this phenomenon was investigated in by comparing in vivo protein synthesis and in vitro mRNA translation in normal and uv-irradiated embryos of the ascidian Styela clava. Analysis of protein synthesis by [35S]methionine incorporation, two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis, and autoradiography showed that only 21 of 433 labeled polypeptides were missing or decreased in labeling intensity in uv-irradiated embryos. The most prominent of these was a 30,000 molecular weight (pI 6.0) polypeptide (p30). Extraction of gastrulae with the nonionic detergent Triton X-100 showed that p30 is retained in the detergent insoluble residue, suggesting that it is associated with the cytoskeleton. Several lines of evidence suggest that p30 may be involved in axis formation. First, p30 labeling peaks during gastrulation, when the embryonic axis is being established. Second, axis formation and p30 labeling are abolished by the same threshold uv dose, which is distinct from that required to inactivate muscle cell development. Third, the uv sensitivity period for abolishing p30 labeling and axis formation are both restricted to ooplasmic segregation. In vitro translation of egg RNA followed by 2D gel electrophoresis and autoradiography of the protein products showed that p30 is encoded by a maternal mRNA. The translation of p30 mRNA was abolished by uv irradiation of fertilized eggs during ooplasmic segregation suggesting that this message is a uv-sensitive target. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that uv irradiation blocks gastrulation and axis formation by inhibiting the translation of maternal mRNA localized in the vegetal hemisphere of the fertilized egg

  9. Organisational conflict: Reflections on managing conflict, identities and values in a selected South African organisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude-Hélène Mayer

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a case study on organisational conflict in a selected international organisation in the South African automotive industry to increase the contextual understanding of the topic. Data was gathered through in-depth interviews with 45 senior and middle managers in the selected international organisation at the head off ce and two branches in Gauteng and at one branch in KwaZulu-Natal. The data analysis was conducted through content analysis as well as triangulation of data. The research results show that managers in this industry in post-apartheid South Africa experience organisational conflicts that are associated with their managerial values and identities.

  10. Understanding human and organisational factors - Nuclear safety and at-risk organisations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book addresses human and organisational factors which are present at different moments of the lifetime of an at-risk installation (from design to dismantling). At-risk organisations are considered as firstly human systems, and the objective is then to highlight individual and collective mechanisms in these organisations. Several questions are addressed, notably the origins of at-risk behaviour, and the reasons of the repetition of errors by these organisations. A first chapter, while referring to examples, addresses the human dimension of safety: human and organisational factors as obstacles, normal accidents (Three Mile Island), accidents in high-reliability organisations (Chernobyl), identification of root causes (Tokai-mura), and social-technical approach to safety (Fukushima). By also referring to examples, the second chapter addresses how to analyse at-risk organisations: individual behaviours (case of naval and air transport accidents), team coordination (a fire, the Challenger accident), and organisational regulation (organisations forms and routines, explosion of BP Texas City, explosion of Columbia)

  11. MANAGERIAL ORGANISATIONAL PATHOLOGIES IN PERIODS OF EXETENDED CRISIS

    OpenAIRE

    PASTOR IOAN

    2014-01-01

    In periods of extended crisis an increasing number of organisations are faced and confronted with pathological phenomena such as corruption, organizational stress, burnout, workaholism, mobbing, collective personality, organizational myths and neurotic organizations, which can generate organisational dysfunctions, managerial and organisational crises, critical moments when the results are unclear, disorders, confusions, mental and professional illnesses, organisational illness...

  12. Organisational innovation and how it challenges management theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerding, Allan Næs; Rasmussen, Jørgen Gulddahl

    2007-01-01

    up and slowing down new forms of organisational activities. Subsequently, the paper provides an overview of management theory, proposing that the present state of management theory is one where the traditional dichotomy between a rational and a natural approach to organisations has been bridged......The present paper is a contribution to the part of the MEADOW project that deals with dynamics at the level of organisations. The paper suggests that dynamics at the level of organisations can be analysed in terms of organisational innovation as something more than mere organisational change....... Developing a concept of organisational innovation, the paper suggests that organisational innovation can be analysed in terms of how individual and organisational learning combine with the reorientation of management perceptions, and it suggests that organisational innovation is about redirecting, speeding...

  13. The Strength of Organisational Culture: Organisational Performance in South African Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bipath, Keshni; Adeyemo, Kolawole Samuel

    2014-01-01

    One of the more frequently cited cultural dimensions within the field of cultural research is that of cultural strength (Cameron & Ettington, 1998). Early published works on organisational culture argue that there is an absolute need for a "strong" culture for organisations to be effective. This study has examined the contradiction…

  14. Human Resource Development in Construction Organisations: An Example of a "Chaordic" Learning Organisation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiden, Ani B.; Dainty, Andrew R. J.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The concept of the learning organisation (LO) is associated with an advanced approach to human resource development (HRD) characterised by an ethos of self-responsibility and self-development. The learning climate that this engenders is supported by temporary organisational structures responsive to environmental change. The purpose of his…

  15. Action Research and Organisational Learning: A Norwegian Approach to Doing Action Research in Complex Organisations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eikeland, Olav

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present a specific approach to the practice of action research "in complex organisations". Clearly, there are many approaches to the challenge of doing action research in organisations; approaches that are, and also must be, quite context dependent and specific. But my purpose is neither to give an overview nor a…

  16. Organisational Learning and the Organisational Life Cycle: The Differential Aspects of an Integrated Relationship in SMEs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Steven; Gray, David E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to relate the practice of organisational learning in small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) to the organisational life cycle (OLC), contextualising the differential aspects of an integrated relationship between them. Design/methodology/approach: It is a mixed-method study with two consecutive phases. In…

  17. Inter-organisational response to disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paturas, James L; Smith, Stewart R; Albanese, Joseph; Waite, Geraldine

    2016-01-01

    Inter-organisational communication failures during times of real-world disasters impede the collaborative response of agencies responsible for ensuring the public's health and safety. In the best of circumstances, communications across jurisdictional boundaries are ineffective. In times of crisis, when communities are grappling with the impact of a disaster, communications become critically important and more complex. Important factors for improving inter-organisational communications are critical thinking and problem-solving skills; inter-organisational relationships; as well as strategic, tactical and operational communications. Improving communication, critical thinking, problem-solving and decision-making requires a review of leadership skills. This discussion begins with an analysis of the existing disaster management research and moves to an examination of the importance of inter-organisational working relationships. Before a successful resolution of a disaster by multiple levels of first responders, the group of organisations must have a foundation of trust, collegiality, flexibility, expertise, openness, relational networking and effective communications. Leaders must also be prepared to improve leadership skills through continual development in each of these foundational areas. PMID:27318289

  18. Promoting institutional and organisational development in surveying and land administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig; Greenway, Iain

    2006-01-01

    associations), the private surveying companies, as well as the government agencies such as the mapping organisations and the organisations with land registration and land administration responsibilities. This paper provides a conceptual understanding covering the area of institutional and organisational......A key component of capacity building is ensuring that a country’s organisations are sufficiently robust to develop, enable and ensure the effective operation of surveying and land administration activities. The relevant organisations include the professional surveying associations (the FIG member...

  19. ORGANISATIONAL COMMUNICATION, THE PANACEA FOR IMPROVED LABOUR RELATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Dupe Adesubomi Abolade

    2015-01-01

    This paper examined the importance of organisational communication to overall effective labour relations. It looked at organisational communication and its role in labour relations between the parties involved in Labour relations for better business procedures and relationships. It explained the importance of organisational communication in enhancing better labour relations within the organisation and with people outside the organisation. It enumerated the various groups that are involved in ...

  20. Organisational mergers: a behavioural perspective on identity management

    OpenAIRE

    Giessner, Steffen

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractOrganisational mergers are one of the most extreme forms of organisational change processes. Consequently, they often result in difficulties for employees to adjust to the altered organisational conditions. This is often reflected in low levels of employee identification with the post-merger organisation. As a result, merging organisations experience more conflict, less employee motivation, higher turnover and lower performance levels. These low levels of post-merger identific...

  1. Organisational Communication, The Panacea For Improved Labour Relations

    OpenAIRE

    Dupe Adesubomi Abolade

    2015-01-01

    This paper examined the importance of organisational communication to overall effective labour relations. It looked at organisational communication and its role in labour relations between the parties involved in Labour relations for better business procedures and relationships. It explained the importance of organisational communication in enhancing better labour relations within the organisation and with people outside the organisation. It enumerated the various groups that are involved in ...

  2. Preparedness organisations at Nordic nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Droeivoldsmo, A.; Porsmyr, J.; Nystad, E. (Institute for Energy Technology (IFE), Halden (Norway))

    2011-08-15

    The report presents an overview of Emergency Preparedness Organisations (EPO) in Sweden, Finland and Norway and presentations of insights from a study of the staff positions' work instructions in the command centre in an emergency situation. The results indicate potential for improvement in several areas. A number of the improvements are related to introduction of new technology and they should be seen in connection with ensuring safe and reliable communication lines and power supply. Analysis of the data identified four main categories where further studies could contribute to improvement: 1) Communication and exchange of information. 2) Tools and technology. 3) Staffing and organisation. 4) Procedures. The usefulness of the Man Technology and Organisation method in analysing the emergency management decision-making process within the authorities was considered as an interesting issue for continuation of the project. The interface between utility and authorities was pointed out as an important area for continuation. (Author)

  3. The Organisation of Innovative Activities Across Industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drejer, Ina; Leiponen, Aija

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the organisation of innovation across sectors in Denmark and Finland. First, patterns of innovative activity within manufacturing and services are identified though applying factor analysis on firm-level innovation survey data from the two countries. The analysis...... relation between innovation modes and innovation outcome are investigated through regression analysis. The analysis confirms that the way innovation is organised matters for outcome, in terms of type of innovation, as well as in terms of share of sales stemming from innovation. Finally, we explore whether...... innovation modes are aligned with industry classifications, as it is assumed in the original work on technological regimes. Contrary to these assumptions we find that industries by no means are uniform in terms of organisation of innovation; in most cases two or three regimes are represented in a single...

  4. Temporal Feature Integration for Music Organisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meng, Anders

    2006-01-01

    organisation. A special emphasis is put on the product probability kernel for which the MAR model is derived in closed form. A thorough investigation, using robust machine learning methods, of the MAR model on two different music genre classification datasets, shows a statistical significant improvement using......This Ph.D. thesis focuses on temporal feature integration for music organisation. Temporal feature integration is the process of combining all the feature vectors of a given time-frame into a single new feature vector in order to capture relevant information in the frame. Several existing methods...... for handling sequences of features are formulated in the temporal feature integration framework. Two datasets for music genre classification have been considered as valid test-beds for music organisation. Human evaluations of these, have been obtained to access the subjectivity on the datasets...

  5. Self-organising structures of lecithin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shchipunov, Yurii A.

    1997-04-01

    Modern concepts of the self-assembly of amphiphiles are considered on the example of self-organising structures of the natural lecithin. Binary, ternary and multicomponent systems are discussed. A considerable part of the review is devoted to the peculiarities of self-organisation of this phospholipid in non-aqueous media and to the role of polar inorganic solvents. Virtually all of the structures formed by lecithin are examined: micelles, swollen micelles, microemulsions, emulsions, organogels, vesicles (liposomes), and lyotropic liquid crystals. In each specific case, attention is drawn to the dependence of self-assembly at the macroscopic level on interactions at the molecular level, shape of molecules, and their solvation and packing at the interface. The self-organising lecithin structures formed in the interfacial area of immiscible liquids in the course of unrestricted adsorption from the bulk of non-aqueous solution are considered. The bibliography includes 282 references.

  6. Organisational sensemaking, strategy, structuring and routines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Renate

    2001-01-01

    organisations' competitiveness. Instead of concentrating on decision making I wish to contribute through a better understanding of the processes leading up to decision making. Knowing what guides decision making could mean an even better possibility of making the right decision and implement it in new......Research objective: The purpose of my research is to generate new understanding of what organisational interpretation, sensemaking and structuring processes in organisations mean in a way that can be used not only retrospectively but actively in strategic planning. In the study of these processes...... my focus will, more specifically, be on how sensemaking processes are transformed into strategy and policies to be applied in daily routines, especially sales/marketing strategy routines. By acquiring a broader comprehension of the structuring and strategising processes the intent is to improve...

  7. Information in organisations: directions for information management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Kirk

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The work of managers in small and medium-sized enterprises is very information-intensive and the environment in which it is done is very information rich. But are managers able to exploit the wealth of information which surrounds them? And how can information be managed in organisations so that its potential for improving business performance and enhancing the competitiveness of these enterprises can be realised? Answers to these questions lie in clarifying the context of the practice of information management by exploring aspects of organisations and managerial work and in exploring the nature of information at the level of the organisation and the individual manager. From these answers it is possible to suggest some guidelines for managing the integration of business strategy and information, the adoption of a broadly-based definition of information and the development of information capabilities.

  8. Carbon footprinting. An introduction for organisations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To some degree or other, every person and every organisation, either directly or indirectly, is responsible for producing carbon dioxide gas which finds its way into the atmosphere and therefore contributes to the greenhouse effect. The amount of carbon dioxide produced by a person, an organisation, a company, an industry, an event, or even a population can be quantified in what is now described as a carbon footprint. Gases other than carbon dioxide are also released to the atmosphere through man's activities and these can also be evaluated in terms of the carbon footprint. This document explains the meaning of the expression 'carbon footprint' and aims to assist businesses and organisations to determine collective and individual carbon footprints

  9. Preparedness organisations at Nordic nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report presents an overview of Emergency Preparedness Organisations (EPO) in Sweden, Finland and Norway and presentations of insights from a study of the staff positions' work instructions in the command centre in an emergency situation. The results indicate potential for improvement in several areas. A number of the improvements are related to introduction of new technology and they should be seen in connection with ensuring safe and reliable communication lines and power supply. Analysis of the data identified four main categories where further studies could contribute to improvement: 1) Communication and exchange of information. 2) Tools and technology. 3) Staffing and organisation. 4) Procedures. The usefulness of the Man Technology and Organisation method in analysing the emergency management decision-making process within the authorities was considered as an interesting issue for continuation of the project. The interface between utility and authorities was pointed out as an important area for continuation. (Author)

  10. ICT-related change in complex organisations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanestad, Margunn; Boulus-Rødje, Nina

    The topic for this paper is the conditions for change in large and complex organisations, where information and communication technologies (ICT) are introduced to enable more efficient forms of communication and collaboration. Our research aim was to study the factors that shaped and constrained...... ICT-related organisational change, and in this paper we report from a process of introducing a digital patient record system into a hospital. The findings from the case study indicate that space for change and learning is significantly shaped by the existing institutionalised practises and information...... infrastructure, as well as by regulations, both formal laws and locally defined rules and procedures. The significance of these aspects has been neglected in most studies of organisational change and learning, and should be given more attention....

  11. European Science Research Organisations forge closer ties

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Effective collaboration has always been one of the foundations of CERN's success. An essential ingredient for collaboration is communication and a new body EIROFORUM has just held its first meeting in Brussels with the aim of developing greater cross fertilization of ideas and projects. Seven organisations, CERN, EMBL (molecular biology), ESA (space activities), ESO (astronomy and astrophysics), ESRF (synchrotron radiation), ILL (neutron source) and EFDA (fusion) are currently members of EIROFORUM. Common interest between the organisations in computational grid development, materials science, instrumentation, public outreach and technology transfer has made EIROFRUM an essential group for maximising these European research organisations' resources. Increasing involvement in the Sixth Framework Programme, Europe's research guidelines for the next four years, is also one of the goals of the group. CERN takes over the chair of EIROFORUM in July 2001 and the next meeting will be held on site on 24 October .

  12. Gene

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes,...

  13. Abandonment: Technological, organisational and environmental challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper deals with the abandonment of offshore wells. Decommissioning of offshore installations is a complex multi-disciplined issue, which raises a number of technical, organisational and environmental challenges. The success of a planned decommissioning operation depends on the development of a clear understanding of the complex blend of drivers which control the decommissioning process and their inter-relationship. Due to the complexity of the inter-relationship between the primary drivers one cannot separate the technological, organisational and environmental issues raised by the decommissioning of offshore installations. The optimal solution will be a compromise between all the decommissioning drivers mentioned in this paper. 5 figs., 3 tabs

  14. Learning Styles and Organisational Development in Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Jacob; Lauridsen, Karen M.

    2012-01-01

    Issues of innovation and knowledge management are often treated from an organisational learning perspective. As a complement to this, there is a vast potential in the strategic enhancement of individual learning by implementing learning styles profiles and creating personal learning strategies...... for management and employees in a knowledge based organisation. Based on an action-research case study, we offer an example of how learning styles affects individual learning and thus personal knowledge creation in practice. The paper argues that innovation and knowledge management is enhanced and facilitated...... in practice by working with the learning styles of individuals and groups/teams....

  15. International Organisations and Transnational Education Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moutsios, Stavros

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on the World Bank/IMF (International Monetary Fund), the OECD (Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development) and the WTO (World Trade Organisation) as institutions of transnational policy making. They are all at present making education policies which are decisively...... largely through asymmetric, non-democratic and opaque procedures. It is also argued that the proposed policies purport to serve the principles of relentless economic competition. Taking into account similar policies and initiatives, the paper concludes that we are experiencing not only the...

  16. Influencing organisational culture: a leadership challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muls, Ann; Dougherty, Lisa; Doyle, Natalie; Shaw, Clare; Soanes, Louise; Stevens, Anna-Marie

    In the wake of the Francis report, the need for NHS trusts and hospitals to adopt a culture of learning, safety and transparency has been highlighted. This article considers different aspects of culture in health care, and hones in on the link between culture and safety for patients in putting the patient first, embedding the 6Cs and considering the options to measure and influence organisational culture. The article reflects more deeply on how leadership across all levels can influence and inspire change in organisational culture, ensuring that the patient remains the focus of any changes in care delivery. PMID:26110855

  17. The man-machine-organisation interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reliable and safety-centred action of man is one crucial factor for safe operation of nuclear power plants, apart from the technical systems and the organisational aspects. Essential factors influencing human performance are: Qualification and competence of the operating personnel, technical conditions and status of systems, including the level of automation, information technology in the control room, and plant organisation. Analyses of documentation of notifiable events in power plant operation or other incidents yield information on available potentials for safety enhancements or reduction of human errors. (orig./CB)

  18. The Organisational Gap Model for Hotel Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Uran

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the development of the organisational gap model for hotel management. It descries a management measurement instrument that helps to assess the 3 organizational service gaps that are preconditions for delivering service quality (the positioning gap, specification gap and evaluation gap. The described theoretical model was constructed based upon the four organisational gaps of the Parasuraman et al. service quality model, then redefined and reassessed. Data were gathered on the sample of 500 questionnaires from the Slovenian hotel industry and analysed with exploratory factor analysis and structural equation modelling. The results can be useful guidelines for hotel management on how to improve the service delivery process.

  19. International regulation of work in times of globalisation : the International Labour Organisation (ILO) in the perspective of organisational learning

    OpenAIRE

    Dirks, Jan; Liese, Andrea; Senghaas-Knobloch, Eva

    2002-01-01

    Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Tasks and challenges for the international labour organization (ILO) in a historical perspective; 3. The ILO and organisational learning; five basic problems of organisational design; the heuristics of organisational learning; 4. The policy field of child labour; analysis of changes with a view to organisational learning; interpretation; 5. The policy field of international merchant shipping; analysis of changes with a view to organisational learning; interpretat...

  20. Information Systems in Organisations --organisational culture affects information systems in organizations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张娟

    2013-01-01

    In today’s information age, the application and construction of information systems became the central element of organizational development. Except the influence of information technology, the organisational culture plays a most important role in the implementation of information systems. This paper aimed at information producers, information users, information content and the information channels four parts of information elements to analysis the affects of organisational culture on information system in organisations. In particular, power distance, individualism and collectivism and uncertainty avoidance as three main theory models of Hofstede’s culture theory were be applied in this paper.

  1. Quality assurance in consulting and research organisations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In consulting and research organizations which participate in nuclear power station construction, the same level of quality and reliability as for other participants should be achieved. Therefore, in this paper a summary of procedures and methodology in consulting and research organisations for quality assurance is given, in accordance with general recommendations proposed by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)- Vienna. (author)

  2. Innovative RTD organisations in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Filáček, Adolf; Loudín, Jiří

    Budapest: European Commission/ Budapest University of Technology and Economics, 2005 - (Borsi, B.; Dévai, K.; Papanek, G.), s. 21-24 ISBN 92-894-8649-X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90090514 Keywords : Czech research * innovation * innovative organisation Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  3. Management of Adult Education Organisations in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafukho, Fredrick Muyia; Wawire, Nelson H. W.; Lam, Penina Mungania

    2011-01-01

    Adult education is now considered a mainstream academic discipline in several African countries, and its importance in today's knowledge and "ideas" economies is growing steadily. It is provided by organisations such as public universities, training colleges, corporate universities and employers. The successful operation of educational…

  4. Labour organisation on robotic milking dairy farms.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonck, B.R.

    1996-01-01

    1. Research issuesThe research described in this dissertation is focused on the effects of the integration of the milking robot in a dairy farm on the labour organisation at operational and tactical level. Attention was paid to the future requirements concerning hum

  5. Postponement: an inter-organisational perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Biao; Yang, Ying; Wijngaard, J.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract In view of the slow rate of postponement applications, this paper attempts to examine postponement strategies from an inter-organisational perspective. The paper first reviews the literature on different postponement strategies (including logistics postponement, production postponement, purchasing postponement and product development postponement) mainly within the context of supply chain or supply network. Then, two research questions are formulated. This is followed by ...

  6. On the organisation of program verification competitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, Marieke; Klebanov, Vladimir; Monahan, Rosemary; Klebanov, Vladimir; Beckert, Bernhard; Biere, Armin; Sutcliffe, Geoff

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the challenges that have to be addressed when organising program verification competitions. Our focus is on competitions for verification systems where the participants both formalise an informally stated requirement and (typically) provide some guidance for the tool to sho

  7. VIRTUAL ORGANISATIONS: EMPLOYEE COMPETENCY AND MANAGERIAL ISSUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIRJANA RADOVIC-MARKOVIC

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available New technologies have led to a new information and knowledge based economy. In this context, technology has changed the work environment, where organisations have become increasingly complex and competitive. Namely, the technologically induced a “virtual” environment has resulted in the adoption of new organisational structures and work skills and practices. On the one hand, the workplace increasingly requires employee to work in teams,collaborating across companies, communities, and continents. These changes and the new organisational structures have also made an impact on role of managers and their management styles, on the other hand. In line with this, there a very rich collection of thinking and empirical research findings on the subject. The goal of our research was to recognize the importance of certain factors in motivating employees in organisations by managers . The other purpose was to investigate the job related motivation factors among senior and junior employees as well as explore issues in the workplace that may affect work demoralization. Furthemore, we explored the relationship between employees motivation and their competences.We also contributed to the topic in our research project-book with the new model of competency. Furthemore, we expect that our methodology will be implemented in practice. However, it should be also a good basis for further improvements in this area.

  8. Designing comprehensible self-organising systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Höning, N.F.; La Poutré, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    Self-organising systems are a popular engineering concept for designing decentralised autonomic computing systems. They are able to find solutions in complex and versatile problem domains, but as they capture more complexity in their own design, they are becoming less and less comprehensible to thei

  9. The corporate republic. Complex organisations and citizenship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bovens, M.A.P.

    1998-01-01

    The twentieth century has been the century of complex organisations. However, most contemporary political currents act as if we were still living in the nineteenth century. For many modern liberals, social democrats, and communitarians, the contrast between public and private, between government and

  10. The institutional dynamics of voluntary organisations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Peter

    What features of institutional change do voluntary organisations contain? This question is debated in the civil society literature, but often under different headlines, like social entrepreneurship or social movement theory. The question of voluntarism is often not taken into account. This paper...

  11. Defining, Measuring, and Comparing Organisational Cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den Peter T.; Wilderom, Celeste P.M.

    2004-01-01

    La littérature portant sur la culture des organisations souffre d’un manque manifeste d’enquêtes extensives débouchant sur des études comparatives. Afin de rendre plus comparables les cultures organisationnelles, nous proposons une définition et une série de dimensions. La culture organisationnelle

  12. Self-organisation and motion in plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenau, Torben Anker; Hesselberg, T.

    2014-01-01

    situations where it is required that objects perform an action dependent on external stimuli. An example is automatic window blinds that open or closes in response to sunlight level. However, simpler and more robust designs could be made using the self-organising principles for movement found in many plants...

  13. Ising, Schelling and Self-Organising Segregation

    CERN Document Server

    Stauffer, D

    2007-01-01

    The similarities between phase separation in physics and residential segregation by preference in the Schelling model of 1971 are reviewed. Also, new computer simulations of asymmetric interactions different from the usual Ising model are presented, showing spontaneous magnetisation (= self-organising segregation) and in one case a sharp phase transition.

  14. Organisational Applications of Social Cognitive Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Albert Bandura

    1988-01-01

    Social cognitive theory explains psychosocial functioning in terms of triadic reciprocal causation. In this causal model, behaviour, cognitive and other personal factors and environmental events all operate as interacting determinants that influence each other bidirectionally. This article focuses on how personal factors that contribute importantly to this dynamic interaction can be altered to improve the level of organisational functioning.

  15. Pride and fear during major organisational change

    OpenAIRE

    Riel, Cees; Berens, Guido

    2015-01-01

    textabstractOrganisational behaviour experts have known for a long time that when employees identify closely with their company, the company functions better. People quit less often, they work harder, and they tend to be more supportive of their employer. And in a volatile time, such as during a merger, corporate success may depend on nurturing employees’ pride and alleviating their fears.

  16. Institutional Level Student Engagement and Organisational Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Velden, Gwen

    2012-01-01

    Driven by the growing presence of market forces within higher education worldwide, universities are changing the way they engage with students. This article explores how a university's internal culture relates to engagement with students and their views. It builds on wider research into student engagement and organisational cultures. The…

  17. Using RUP for Process-Oriented Organisations

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, João M.; Duarte, Francisco J.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, based on a proposal of a reference framework for process-oriented software development organisations, we discuss some issues related to the usage of the RUP’s disciplines as instantiations of those processes. The proposals made in this paper were consolidated based on experiences from real projects. The respective lessons learnt from two of those projects are reported.

  18. Antecedents of Organisational Creativity: A Multi-Level Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritu Gupta

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this literature review is to provide a better understanding of the antecedents of organisational creativity with a multi-level approach. Organisational creativity is a sum total of the creativity accounted for by the individual employees of the organisation, the cumulative creativity of a team or group and creativity arising out of different structural components of an organisation. Some of the antecedents identified from the literature include personality, intrinsic motivation, group cohesion, social inhibition, cognitive interference, leader member exchange, organisational culture and climate, amongst others at individual, group and organisational level. Based on the literature review, suggestions for future research and research propositions have been proposed.

  19. Influencing organisational culture by means of employee remuneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarína Stachová

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to particularly define the possibilities of influencing organisational culture by means of employee remuneration. The paper will present the results of research conducted over 2010–2012. The respondent group included 340 organisations operating in the Slovak Republic. The research showed that even though 98% of the interviewed organisations realise the importance and meaning of dealing with the creation and maintenance of organisational culture, only 21–43% have defined an organisational culture strategy in writing within the organisation´s strategy.

  20. European ways to combat psychosocial risks related to work organisation : towards organisational interventions?

    OpenAIRE

    Oeij, P.R.A.; Morvan, E.; Houtman, I.L.D.; Vaas, F.; Wiezer, N.

    2004-01-01

    From 24-26 November 2004, the 6h Annual Conference of the European Academy of Occupational Health Psychology ‘Healthy, Efficient & Productive Organisations’ was held in Oporto, Portugal. During this conference, the Workshop ‘Organisational interventions to combat psychosocial factors of stress’ was organised by PEROSH, Partnership for European Research in Occupational Safety and Health. This syllabus contains the separate papers of various European countries that were delivered to the worksho...

  1. Towards an organisation-wide process-oriented organisation of care: A literature review.

    OpenAIRE

    De Vos, L.; Chalmers, S.E.; Duckers, M.L.A.; Groenewegen, P.P.; Wagner, C.; Merode, G.G. van

    2011-01-01

    Background: Many hospitals have taken actions to make care delivery for specific patient groups more processoriented, but struggle with the question how to deal with process orientation at hospital level. The aim of this study is to report and discuss the experiences of hospitals with implementing process-oriented organisation designs in order to derive lessons for future transitions and research. Methods: A literature review of English language articles on organisation-wide process-oriented ...

  2. Towards an organisation-wide process-oriented organisation of care: a literature review.

    OpenAIRE

    De Vos, L.; Chalmers, S.E.; Dückers, M.L.A.; Groenewegen, P.P.; Wagner, C.; Merode, G.G. van

    2011-01-01

    Background: Many hospitals have taken actions to make care delivery for specific patient groups more process-oriented, but struggle with the question how to deal with process orientation at hospital level. The aim of this study is to report and discuss the experiences of hospitals with implementing process-oriented organisation designs in order to derive lessons for future transitions and research. Methods: A literature review of English language articles on organisation-wide process-oriented...

  3. Towards an organisation-wide process-oriented organisation of care: A literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Groenewegen Peter P; Dückers Michel LA; Chalmers Sarah E; Vos Leti; Wagner Cordula; Van Merode Godefridus G

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Many hospitals have taken actions to make care delivery for specific patient groups more process-oriented, but struggle with the question how to deal with process orientation at hospital level. The aim of this study is to report and discuss the experiences of hospitals with implementing process-oriented organisation designs in order to derive lessons for future transitions and research. Methods A literature review of English language articles on organisation-wide process-o...

  4. Proceedings Second Workshop on Formal Aspects of Virtual Organisations

    OpenAIRE

    Bryans, Jeremy; Fitzgerald, John

    2010-01-01

    FAVO2009 was the second workshop on Formal Aspects of Virtual Organisations. The purpose of the FAVO workshops is to encourage an active community of researchers and practitioners using formal methods in the research and development of Virtual Organisations.

  5. Role of non-governmental organisations in physician assisted suicide

    OpenAIRE

    Ziegler, Stephen J.; Bosshard, Georg

    2007-01-01

    Could right to die organisations be part of the solution to the many ethical difficulties doctors face over assisted suicide? Stephen Ziegler and Georg Bosshard examine how two organisations in Switzerland and Oregon help people die

  6. The Concept of Embodied Knowledge for Understanding Organisational Knowledge Creation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsudaira, Yoshito; Fujinami, Tsutomu

    Our goal in this paper is to understand, in the light of intuition and emotion, the problem-finding and value judgments by organisational members that are part of organisational knowledge creation. In doing so, we emphasise the importance of embodied knowledge of organisations as an explanatory concept. We propose ways of approaching intuition and sense of value as these are posited as objects of research. Approaches from the first, second, and third-person viewpoints result in a deeper grasp of embodied knowledge of organisations. Important in organisational knowledge creation is embodied knowledge of organisations, which has a bearing on problem-finding before any problem-solving or decision making takes place, and on value judgments about the importance of problems that have been found. This article proposes the concept of embodied knowledge, and, by introducing it, gives a profound understanding of that facet of organisational knowledge creation characterised by tacit knowledge held by organisational individuals.

  7. Rewards in a Not-For-Profit Organisation

    OpenAIRE

    Ron Kluvers; John Tippet

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on a study undertaken in a Not-For-Profit (NFP) organisation providing services for people with disabilities. The organisation concerned is made up of two units and in response to a changing funding model, has introduced a performance bonus in one of the units. This situation raises the question as to how extrinsic rewards, as compared with intrinsic rewards, are perceived by staff of NFP organisations as a source of motivation. The effectiveness of an organisation is influ...

  8. Digital Ecosystems: Self-Organisation of Evolving Agent Populations

    OpenAIRE

    Briscoe, Gerard; De Wilde, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    A primary motivation for our research in Digital Ecosystems is the desire to exploit the self-organising properties of biological ecosystems. Ecosystems are thought to be robust, scalable architectures that can automatically solve complex, dynamic problems. Self-organisation is perhaps one of the most desirable features in the systems that we engineer, and it is important for us to be able to measure self-organising behaviour. We investigate the self-organising aspects of Digital Ecosystems, ...

  9. An ethics model to develop an ethical organisation

    OpenAIRE

    Hendrik R. Lloyd; Michelle R. Mey

    2010-01-01

    Orientation: As background to the study it can be stated that the ethical conduct of employees in an organisation is of paramount importance to the successful operations of an organisation, both real and perceived. In recent times the ethical conduct of employees has received extensive publicity and, as such, has emphasised the impact of organisational ethics on the global competitiveness of organisations.Research purpose: The main aim of the paper is to analyse the impact of business ethics ...

  10. Influencing organisational culture by means of employee remuneration

    OpenAIRE

    Katarína Stachová; Zdenko Stacho; Gabriela Bartáková

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to particularly define the possibilities of influencing organisational culture by means of employee remuneration. The paper will present the results of research conducted over 2010–2012. The respondent group included 340 organisations operating in the Slovak Republic. The research showed that even though 98% of the interviewed organisations realise the importance and meaning of dealing with the creation and maintenance of organisational culture, only 21–43% have defin...

  11. Organisational citizens or reciprocal relationships? An empirical comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Koster, Ferry; Sanders, Karin

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims at contributing to the debate on organisational citizenship behaviour (OCB) by developing a theory‐driven measure of cooperative behaviour within organisations, called organisational solidarity (OS). Design/methodology/approach: Data are gathered through a survey among 674 employees from nine organisations. Scales are constructed using the multiple group method. OLS regression is used to test the hypotheses. Findings: The data analyses show that reciprocity is an impo...

  12. 11th International Symposium on Organisational Science Development

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksander Janes

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we present the organisation and execution of the 11th International Symposium on Organisational Science Development, entitled Management and Social Responsibility, which is organised by the Faculty of Organisational Sciences in Belgrade. The Symposium is already a traditional event and it has taken place in Zlatibor for many years, but this year it was held in Belgrade itself in order to celebrate the 200th anniversary of the University of Belgrade. The fact that more than 450 a...

  13. Efficiency of Xist-mediated silencing on autosomes is linked to chromosomal domain organisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Y Amy

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background X chromosome inactivation, the mechanism used by mammals to equalise dosage of X-linked genes in XX females relative to XY males, is triggered by chromosome-wide localisation of a cis-acting non-coding RNA, Xist. The mechanism of Xist RNA spreading and Xist-dependent silencing is poorly understood. A large body of evidence indicates that silencing is more efficient on the X chromosome than on autosomes, leading to the idea that the X chromosome has acquired sequences that facilitate propagation of silencing. LINE-1 (L1 repeats are relatively enriched on the X chromosome and have been proposed as candidates for these sequences. To determine the requirements for efficient silencing we have analysed the relationship of chromosome features, including L1 repeats, and the extent of silencing in cell lines carrying inducible Xist transgenes located on one of three different autosomes. Results Our results show that the organisation of the chromosome into large gene-rich and L1-rich domains is a key determinant of silencing efficiency. Specifically genes located in large gene-rich domains with low L1 density are relatively resistant to Xist-mediated silencing whereas genes located in gene-poor domains with high L1 density are silenced more efficiently. These effects are observed shortly after induction of Xist RNA expression, suggesting that chromosomal domain organisation influences establishment rather than long-term maintenance of silencing. The X chromosome and some autosomes have only small gene-rich L1-depleted domains and we suggest that this could confer the capacity for relatively efficient chromosome-wide silencing. Conclusions This study provides insight into the requirements for efficient Xist mediated silencing and specifically identifies organisation of the chromosome into gene-rich L1-depleted and gene-poor L1-dense domains as a major influence on the ability of Xist-mediated silencing to be propagated in a continuous

  14. Natural products from the ascidian Botrylloides giganteum, from the sponges Verongula gigantea, Ircinia felix, Cliona delitrix and from the nudibranch Tambja eliora, from the Brazilian coastline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two new marine metabolites, 3Z, 6Z, 9Z-dodecatrien-1-ol (1) from the ascidian Botrylloides giganteum and 4H-pyran-2ol acetate from the sponge Ircinia felix (4) are herein reported. The known bromotyrosine compounds, 2-(3,5-dibromo-4-methoxyphenyl)-N,N,Ndimethylethanammonium (2) and 2,6-dibromo-4-(2-(trimethylammonium)ethyl)phenol (3), have been isolated from the sponge Verongula gigantea. Serotonin (5) is reported for the first time from the sponge Cliona delitrix, and tambjamines A (15) and D (16) isolated as their respective salts from the nudibranch Tambja eliora. Only tambjamine D presented cytotoxicity against CEM (IC5)0 12.2 μg/mL) and HL60 (IC50 13.2 μg/mL) human leukemia cells, MCF-7 breast cancer cells (IC50 13.2 μg/mL), colon HCT-8 cancer cells (IC50 10.1 μg/mL) and murine melanoma B16 cancer cells (IC50 6.7 μg/mL). (author)

  15. First in situ observations of the deep-sea carnivorous ascidian Dicopia antirrhinum Monniot C., 1972 in the Western Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mecho, A.; Aguzzi, J.; Company, J. B.; Canals, M.; Lastras, G.; Turon, X.

    2014-01-01

    Dicopia antirrhinum C. Monniot, 1972 is a rare species of deep-sea ascidian belonging to the Family Octacnemidae, reported at depths of 1000-2500 m in European Atlantic waters. Adult individuals have never been reported before in the Mediterranean Sea, where only seven juvenile specimens were found in 1975 at 500 m water depth in the Central basin (Malta). The affinities of these specimens with D. antirrhinum were noted, but lack of some typical characters of the species in juveniles prevented a definite taxonomical identification. No other member of the Octacnemidae has ever been found in the Mediterranean. In this study we describe the sampling of an adult specimen of D. antirrhinum at around 1100 m water depth on the flank of the La Fonera (Palamós) canyon, Northwestern Mediterranean, confirming their presence in the Mediterranean Sea. We also observed 5 individuals of this species on their natural habitat with a Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV). Our results highlight the potential occurrence of Octacnemidae, the presence of which has been largely overlooked, in several deep-sea canyon areas within the Western Mediterranean basin. These observations are important because they indicate the need for increased sampling effort with new technologies, such as ROVs, in ecologically relevant habitats such as canyons, in order to obtain a more accurate picture of deep-sea biodiversity in the Mediterranean Sea.

  16. Organisational identity and food retailers' buying behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars

    How do retailers decide what products to buy? Previous answers to this question have tended to focus on the decisions being made, typically investigating what criteria retail buyers use to choose between products and suppliers (Hansen & Skytte 1998). However, as the decisions made by retail buyers...... have been treated as if they were more or less discrete events in previous studies, little is known about the process leading up to a decision being made. Furthermore, scant attention has been paid to the contexts within which retailer buying behaviour occurs. In contrast, this project views retailer...... buying behaviour as an ongoing organisational sensemaking process embedded in, at least, social, organisational, competitive and societal contexts. The aim is to gain an understanding of how and why retail buyers make certain decisions rather than simply focusing on what they decide....

  17. Organisation development possibilities of Croatian electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Organisational development of the European Union members' power sector is defined by the obligatory legislative document Directives 92/96 EC, 19.12.1996. The development goal is a natural monopoly decrease and introduction of competition, having in mind environmental protection which will enable sustainable development of each member. This would provide the European economy to become globally more competitive and to protect macro economic stability more efficiently. The EU members are allowed to make their own decisions regarding the mode of implementation they will use to establish the organisation of electricity market. Non-members of EU are also involved in defining future changes. Developed non-members are more efficient in that process and promptly follow all changes. Transition countries, among them also Croatia, are trying to adjust to such demands, with different success. The aim of this paper is analyse the current Croatian power system and the possibilities if its modernisation. (author)

  18. Intergovernmental organisation activities and Multilateral agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This section summarises the activities of Intergovernmental organisations and the status of Multilateral agreements on December 1, 2011: 1 - Intergovernmental organisation activities: European Atomic Energy Community: Adopted legislative instruments, Reports, Meetings; International Atomic Energy Agency: IAEA Action Plan on Nuclear Safety, Non-binding instrument on the transboundary movement of scrap metal, 55. IAEA General Conference, Basic Safety Standards, Nuclear Law Institute; OECD Nuclear Energy Agency: Basic Safety Standards, International Nuclear Law Essentials, International School of Nuclear Law, New members, Russian Federation request for membership; 2 - Multilateral agreements: Status of conventions in the nuclear energy domain on December 1, 2011; Status of conventions in the environmental protection/evaluation impacting the nuclear energy use on December 1, 2011; participation of OECD Member States to nuclear energy and environment protection/evaluation related treaties/conventions

  19. Designing the organisational chart from the bottom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giangreco, Antonio; Carugati, Andrea

    This is the first of a two-case series (408-026-1 and 408-027-1). Marco Ginola was hired as the Human Resources (HR) Director of a large municipality in central Italy. The organisation had gone through a phase of major expansion which left problems in co-ordination, integration, delegation and...... control. Marco had been called in because of his reputation for being an effective innovator with unconventional ideas for the public sector. Previously, during his long career in the civil service, Marco proved to be an effective leader and negotiator who was open to other people's view points. He would...... share any significant and final decisions with his employees, rather than merely imposing his own personal choice. After spending some time in the organisation, he put into action a bottom up method to redesign the structure of the HR department. He decided to temporarily suspend the existing internal...

  20. The organisation of work and innovative performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arundel, Anthony; Lorenz, Edward; Lundvall, Bengt-Åke;

    It is widely recognised that while expenditures on research and development are important inputs to successful innovation, these are not the only inputs. Further, rather than viewing innovation as a linear process, recent work on innovation in business and economics literatures characterises it a...... Community Innovation Survey (CIS-3). Although our data can only show correlations rather than causality they support the view that how firms innovate is linked to the way work is organised to promote learning and problem-solving....... measures that are used to explore at the level of national innovation systems the relation between innovation and the organisation of work. In order to construct these aggregate measures we make use of micro data from two European surveys: the third European survey of Working Conditions and the third...

  1. The network organisation of consumer complaints

    CERN Document Server

    Rocha, Luis Enrique Correa; 10.1209/0295-5075/91/28005

    2010-01-01

    Interaction between consumers and companies can create conflict. When a consensus is unreachable there are legal authorities to resolve the case. This letter is a study of data from the Brazilian Department of Justice from which we build a bipartite network of categories of complaints linked to the companies receiving those complaints. We find the complaint categories organised in an hierarchical way where companies only get complaints of lower degree if they already got complaints of higher degree. The fraction of resolved complaints for a company appears to be nearly independent on the equity of the company but is positively correlated with the total number of complaints received. We construct feature vectors based on the edge-weight - the weight of an edge represents the times complaints of a category have been filed against that company - and use these vectors to study the similarity between the categories of complaints. From this analysis, we obtain trees mapping the hierarchical organisation of the comp...

  2. Organisational culture: A contemporary management perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Weeks

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyse the concept "organisational culture from a traditional and a more contemporary management perspective. Problem investigated: The concept organizational culture has assumed a very prominent place within the management literature and has been analysed from diverse multidisciplinary perspectives. Central to the importance attributed to the concept is the fact that it acts as a perceptual and behavioural determinant, which implies that it will have a significant impact on all human related institutional activities and thus the interest in the concept and its management. Researchers and management practitioners have come to assume that while the concept is difficult to manage in practice, it is possible to determine the prevailing culture of an institution, identify what is termed to be a desired culture for an institution and then analyse the cultural gap that exists. Based on the analysis conducted, it is further frequently assumed that the transition from the prevailing to a desired culture can be managed. A more contemporary management perspective, based on complexity theory, would appear to challenge the assumption of being able to actively manage the organisation's culture transformation process to ensure that a desired culture is manifest within the institution. The traditional and more contemporary approaches for dealing with the concept "organisational culture" are the focus of discussion and analysis in this paper. Methodology: A multidisciplinary literature review and analysis is undertaken to gain an insight of traditional and contemporary management theory and practice, as it relates to the concept "organisational culture" and its management. Findings: An important conclusion drawn from the study is that traditional paradigms of organisational culture management, that evolved within a more mechanistic manufacturing economy, is no longer effective for dealing with the unpredictable and

  3. How Can Organisations Learn: An Information Systems Development Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Gavin J.; Connolly, Thomas M.; Stansfield, Mark

    2009-01-01

    This article sets out to argue that organisations can learn but that they cannot do so in their own right without infrastructural support. This article further examines the notion that individuals in organisations also require the cognitive participation of the organisation itself as a learning entity to learn. The close reliance and affiliation…

  4. The emergence of user organisation of homeless persons in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anker, Jørgen

    This paper provides an overview of the history of the user organisation of homeless persons in Denmark. The first part of the paper seeks to identify some of the processes and actors who facilitated the formation of the organisation, and it seeks to discuss why a user organisation of homeless...

  5. Cryptogenic organising pneumonia presenting with bilateral hilar and mediastinal lymphadenopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Kahraman, Hasan; Tokur, Mahmut; Hamide SAYAR; Inci, Mehmet Fatih

    2013-01-01

    Cryptogenic organising pneumonia is not considered in the differential diagnosis of bilateral hilar and mediastinal lymphadenopathy. We submitted a patient presenting with bilateral hilar and mediastinal lymphadenopathy. We suspected diagnosis of sarcoidosis, but the patient was diagnosed as cryptogenic organising pneumonia with the histological result. This is the second case report of cryptogenic organising pneumonia presenting with bilateral hilar and mediastinal lymphadenopathy.

  6. Cryptogenic Organising Pneumonia As The Initial Presenting Manifestation of SLE

    OpenAIRE

    Neena Mampilly; Manoj, G.; Paul, Binoy J.

    2015-01-01

    Cryptogenic Organising Pneumonia (COP), also called idiopathic Bronchiolitis Obliterans Organising Pneumonia( BOOP), is a distinct entity among the idiopathic interstitial pneumonias defined histopathologically by intraalveolar buds of granulation tissue. The etiology includes idiopathic, infectious, drug induced radiation induced and connective tissue diseases. Organising pneumonia occurs particularly in patients with dermatomyositis-polymyositis where it may be the presenting manifestat...

  7. Organisational mergers: a behavioural perspective on identity management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.R. Giessner (Steffen)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractOrganisational mergers are one of the most extreme forms of organisational change processes. Consequently, they often result in difficulties for employees to adjust to the altered organisational conditions. This is often reflected in low levels of employee identification with the p

  8. Interlingual Lexical Organisation for Multilingual Lexical Databases in NADIA

    OpenAIRE

    sérasset, Gilles

    1995-01-01

    We propose a lexical organisation for multilingual lexical databases (MLDB). This organisation is based on acceptions (word-senses). We detail this lexical organisation and show a mock-up built to experiment with it. We also present our current work in defining and prototyping a specialised system for the management of acception-based MLDB. Keywords: multilingual lexical database, acception, linguistic structure.

  9. Mathematical Model Analysis of Intra-organisational Collaboration

    OpenAIRE

    Anliang Ning; Xiaojing Li; Chunxian Wang

    2013-01-01

    Collaboration means working together to achieve a common goal or to solve a problem. Grounded on complex network theory and collaborative design research, a mathematical model for analysing collaboration level in organisations is proposed. The concepts for characterising organisational structures for collaboration and indicators for assessing organisational behaviour were defined. The article concludes by discussing the limitations of the proposed model.

  10. Studies in Organisational Semiotics: an introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Rodney Clarke

    2001-01-01

    The broad application of semiotic approaches to organisations has been considered by a number of information systems academics to be a necessary advance in information systems theory (see for examples Land 1985, Rzevski 1985, and Tully 1985). Along with psychology and sociology, semiotics is considered to be a foundation discipline for information systems within the IFIP WG 8.1 FRISCO Framework (Falkenberg, et al eds/ 2000). Semiotics examines the processes of production and consumption of me...

  11. Attributional theory, organisational culture and motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Xenikou, A.

    1995-01-01

    This thesis concerns the effect of attributions for failing in a creativity task and organisational culture (OC) on motivation to engage in similar tasks. In chapter one the relationship between situational attributions, attributional style (AS), and motivation is reviewed. A reformulation of Amabile's model of the social psychology of creativity is suggested on the grounds of recent developments in attributional theory. An extension of Amabile's theory is also proposed by inve...

  12. The institutional dynamics of voluntary organisations

    OpenAIRE

    Aagaard, Peter

    2008-01-01

    What features of institutional change do voluntary organisations contain? This question is debated in the civil society literature, but often under different headlines, like social entrepreneurship or social movement theory. The question of voluntarism is often not taken into account. This paper builds upon the premise that institutional dynamic is connected to peoples ability to act according to their free will.  But only in the ideal version are they able to make a complete connection betwe...

  13. Linking transformational leadership and organisation commitment

    OpenAIRE

    Rua, Orlando Manuel Lima; Araújo, João

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of this paper is to analyse the impacts of transformational leadership on organisational commitment. To this effect we developed a case study following a quantitative methodological approach. The research was conducted at the Serralves Foundation (Porto, Portugal) to empirically test the proposed research model and its hypothesis. The empirical results confirm that transformational leadership are not significantly influenced by commitment. As the main limitation of this...

  14. Organisational Culture and the Family Business

    OpenAIRE

    Adiguna, Rocky

    2015-01-01

    The paper reviews the literature on organisational culture in family business by tracing its origin in organization studies and its importation to family business field. Despite the vast literature in the last three decades, cultural inquiries in family business have not come a long way. To date, research on family business culture are heavily dominated by functionalist/integrationist perspective that assumes culture as coherent and shared values. The paper suggests future research to examine...

  15. EU Civilian Crisis Management and Organisational Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Bossong, Raphael

    2012-01-01

    Commentators and policy-makers stress the need to learn the lessons of EU civilian crisis management. Yet despite numerous case studies mission performance, we know little about the EU's overall capacity for such learning. The first part of this article outlines a theoretical framework for analysing organisational learning in the context of peace operations. It recommends focusing on administrative reform and conceptual development in Brussels, and lists various factors that are expected to f...

  16. Organisational models for agricultural co-operatives

    OpenAIRE

    Gunnarsson Myrelid, Patrik

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the thesis is to study the effects that different financial solutions may have on the organisational mode of Irish dairy co-operatives. Membership, marketing and management are examined in four different enterprises. These areas are examined using the agency theory and property rights theory. Glanbia Group PLC, Golden Vale PLC and Kerry Group PLC were all former traditional co-operatives transformed into Public Limited Companies (PLCs) in the 1980s. Dairygold remained a traditional...

  17. Developing organisational vision in general practice.

    OpenAIRE

    al-Shehri, A; Stanley, I; Thomas, P

    1993-01-01

    Vision is a fashionable but ill defined term in management circles. Nevertheless, it embodies a significant concept related to guiding an organisation from present realities, through opportunities and hazards, to a viable future. Until recently a typical general practice could assume a stable external environment, but now it is caught up in the uncertainties stemming from the NHS reforms. For such a practice to undertake effective strategic planning it will have to develop a vision connecting...

  18. Industrial Organisation of the Chinese Food Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmadi-Esfahani, Fredoun Z.; Locke, Christopher G.

    1996-01-01

    The controversy on the convergence of socialism and capitalism has recently been focused on China. In this paper, an industrial organisation framework is used to portray the key features of "Socialism with Chinese Characteristics." The structure of supply and demand and the process of price formation is analysed to explicate the ramifications of the Chinese reform process, and the changing patterns of both government intervention and market forces in the Chinese food economy. An examination o...

  19. Organisational structure, communication and group ethics

    OpenAIRE

    Ellman, Matthew; Pezanis-Christou, Paul

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates experimentally how organisational decision processes affect the moral motivations of actors inside a firm that must forego profits to reduce harming a third party. In a "vertical" treatment, one insider unilaterally sets the harm-reduction strategy; the other can only accept or quit. In a "horizontal" treatment, the insiders decide by consensus. Our 2-by-2 design also controls for communication effects. In our data, communication makes vertical firms more ethical; voic...

  20. Self-organisation and motion in plants

    OpenAIRE

    Lenau, Torben Anker; Hesselberg, T.

    2014-01-01

    Self-organisation appeals to humans because difficult and repeated actions can be avoided through automation via bottom-up nonhierarchical processes. This is in contrast to the top-level controlled action strategy normally applied in automated products and in manufacturing. There are many situations where it is required that objects perform an action dependent on external stimuli. An example is automatic window blinds that open or closes in response to sunlight level. However, simpler and mor...

  1. Organisational culture: A contemporary management perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Richard Weeks

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyse the concept "organisational culture from a traditional and a more contemporary management perspective. Problem investigated: The concept organizational culture has assumed a very prominent place within the management literature and has been analysed from diverse multidisciplinary perspectives. Central to the importance attributed to the concept is the fact that it acts as a perceptual and behavioural determinant, which implies that it wi...

  2. Organisational Path-Dependence and Institutional Environment

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    Through a case study of Chinese Family Business Groups (FBGs) in East Asia, this paper examines the relationship between the strategic behaviour exhibited by an organisational form and it's administrative heritage. To do so, we trace the origins of the strategic behaviour which scholars commonly attribute to FBGs to the environmental conditions prevailing during their emergence in the turbulent post-Colonial era of East Asia. We explain how fundamental changes brought about by shifts in the p...

  3. International organisational learning: towards a research agenda

    OpenAIRE

    Monks, Kathy; Walsh, James S.

    1998-01-01

    This paper considers the nature of international organisational learning by focusing on the multinational enterprise (MNE), in particular on the ways in which MNEs co-ordinate their diverse activities, and the various units or subsidiaries which support these activities, in order to enable effective learning to take place. The organizational learning and strategic management literatures are taken as the starting point for understanding some of the theoretical issues on learning while the ...

  4. Gendered and sexualised violence in educational organisations

    OpenAIRE

    Sunnari, V. (Vappu); Kangasvuo, J. (Jenny); Heikkinen, M

    2002-01-01

    Foreword This book has been made as a part of the Aware-project - "Increasing Awareness in educational Organisations of Sexualised and Gendered Violence -publication and web project 2001-2002". Articles are based on current and ongoing research made worldwide. The Aware-project is funded by the European Commission's Daphne-programme. The aim of the whole Daphne-programme is to develop measures to prevent violence targeted at children, youth and women. The aims o...

  5. Conceptual and Theoretical Frameworks for Organised Violence

    OpenAIRE

    Shaw, Martin

    2009-01-01

    The possibility of violence is ubiquitous in human social relations; its forms are manifold and its causes complex. Different types of violence are inter- related, but in complex ways, and they are studied within a wide range of disciplines, so that a general theory, while possible, is difficult to achieve. This paper, acknowledging that violence can negate power and that all forms of social power can entail violence, proceeds on the assumption that the organisation of violence is a particula...

  6. Temporal Feature Integration for Music Organisation

    OpenAIRE

    Meng, Anders; Larsen, Jan; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2006-01-01

    This Ph.D. thesis focuses on temporal feature integration for music organisation. Temporal feature integration is the process of combining all the feature vectors of a given time-frame into a single new feature vector in order to capture relevant information in the frame. Several existing methods for handling sequences of features are formulated in the temporal feature integration framework. Two datasets for music genre classification have been considered as valid test-beds for music organisa...

  7. Conceptual and Theoretical Frameworks for Organised Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Shaw

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of violence is ubiquitous in human social relations; its forms are manifold and its causes complex. Different types of violence are inter- related, but in complex ways, and they are studied within a wide range of disciplines, so that a general theory, while possible, is difficult to achieve. This paper, acknowledging that violence can negate power and that all forms of social power can entail violence, proceeds on the assumption that the organisation of violence is a particular source of social power. It therefore explores the general relationships of violence to power, the significance of war as the archetype of organised violence, the relationships of other types (revolution, terrorism, genocide to war, and the significance of civilian-combatant stratification for the understanding of all types of organised violence. It then discusses the problems of applying conceptual types in analysis and the necessity of a historical framework for theorising violence. The paper concludes by offering such a framework in the transition from industrialised total war to global surveillance war.

  8. Organisational challenges of maintenance work at NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proper working of the machinery is critical to NPP safety and productivity. Because maintenance routines and plant modifications are the activities that intervene most with the machinery, they are also the dominant sources of faults. Most of the human factor studies have relied on this fact. Due to the diversity, the temporal and spatial separation of the maintenance tasks, and the numerous competence requirements, focusing on a single task, special situation or a single psychological problem can only partially explain the requirements of maintenance work and the organisational challenges of effective maintenance. We have applied a cultural approach to maintenance work. Our aim has been to model the maintenance task and its psychological requirements and to characterise the features of organisational cultures in three NPP maintenance units. Results imply similarities and differences in the cultures and in the emphasis on the maintenance task. Maintenance activities have been under various restructuring initiatives. These changes have been experienced as stressful among the personnel. The effect of changes on the reliability of maintenance should be considered. A challenge for maintenance is to be able to build organisational structures and practices that would facilitate the fulfilment of the psychological work characteristics. (orig.)

  9. Self-organisation and motion in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenau, T. A.; Hesselberg, T.

    2014-03-01

    Self-organisation appeals to humans because difficult and repeated actions can be avoided through automation via bottom-up nonhierarchical processes. This is in contrast to the top-level controlled action strategy normally applied in automated products and in manufacturing. There are many situations where it is required that objects perform an action dependent on external stimuli. An example is automatic window blinds that open or closes in response to sunlight level. However, simpler and more robust designs could be made using the self-organising principles for movement found in many plants. Plants move to adapt to external conditions, e.g. sun-flower buds tracking the sun, touch-me-not Mimosa and Venus fly trap responding to mechanical stimuli by closing leaves to protect them and capture insects respectively. This paper describes 3 of the basic biomimetic principles used by plants to track the sun; i) light causing an inhibiting effect on the illuminated side causing it to bend, ii) light inducing a signal from the illuminated side that causes an action on the darker side and iii) light illuminating a number of sensing plates pointing upwards at an angle activate an expansion on the same side. A concept for mimicking the second principle is presented. It is a very simple and possible reliable self-organising structure that aligns a plate perpendicular to the source of illumination.

  10. Role of international organisations and funding agencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    studied in their own local environments as a basis for sustainable production and management. In the same vein, almost all gene-based technologies are taking place in the developed world. Once the dust of the controversies which surround the issues of gene technology has settled, there are few scientists who would doubt that the technology will lead to important new developments and significant increases in production of food both in animal and crop production. In the poor countries where food needs are most urgent, the generation of new knowledge in biotechnology and the patenting of genes and germplasm require a new paradigm for using biotechnology to improve germplasm It is often said that biotechnology research is too expensive for African institutions. If so, it may be unavoidable to focus attention on upgrading those facilities and increasing capacity in those institutes and universities which are attempting to embark upon this path, even at the risk - where this is possible only on a regional basis - of siphoning off talented scientists from research institutes which are not in a position to undertake research in this area. Global climate change also impacts on Africa. It is no longer possible to rely on traditional farming systems and husbandry methods. More frequent and erratic episodes of heat and water stress, jeopardising agricultural production, have been recorded. Climate change in Africa is even less understood than elsewhere. How the global changes will impact in various regions in Africa is little understood and must be studied in the regions themselves. The global research community gives only scant attention to agricultural research focussing on African issues. However, the efforts by the Consultative Group for International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) are commendable and represent a concerted effort to provide science-based solutions to African agriculture. CGIAR nowadays works increasingly closely with national and regional research institutions

  11. An organisational approach to European integration - What organisations tells us about system transformation, committee governance and Commission decision making

    OpenAIRE

    Morten Egeberg

    2002-01-01

    An organisational approach to European integration focuses on individual actors’ organisational context in order to account for their behaviour, interests and identities. Intergovernmentalists usually preclude any profound impact of EU institutions and organisations. Institutionalists (other than rational choice institutionalists), on the other hand, claim that EU institutions are able to shape and reshape individual actors’ preferences and sense of belonging. Seen from an organisational pers...

  12. At the confluence of organisation development (OD and organisation identity theory (OIT: Enter identity interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C L Van Tonder

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The identity concept has been around in the form of “corporate identity" for some time, but its appearance as “organisation identity" is more recent. Emerging theory and initial empirical research suggest that an identity approach and “identity interventions" in particular, offer promising avenues to the organisation development practitioner for enhancing organisational focus, building resilience in the face of major change, and improving performance. Identity interventions in and of themselves, but also employed as pre-change interventions, build organisational capacity that would stave off premature organisational “death" and extend the organisation’s life expectancy. Opsomming Die identiteitskonsep is in die vorm van korporatiewe identiteit reeds ’n geruime tyd in omgang, maar die verskyning daarvan as “organisasie-identiteit? is meer onlangs. Ontluikende teorie en aanvanklike empiriese navorsing suggereer dat ’n identiteitsbenadering en "identiteitsintervensies" in die besonder, belowende geleenthede aan die organisasie- ontwikkelingspraktisyn bied om organisasiefokus te verbeter, die organisasie se veerkragtigheid ten aanskoue van omvangryke verandering te bou, en prestasie te verbeter. Identiteitsintervensies op sigself bou organisasiekapasiteit, maar kan ook as voorveranderingsintervensies aangewend word wat premature organisasie "sterftes" sal vermy en die organisasie se lewensverwagting sal verleng.

  13. Learning to Adapt. Organisational Adaptation to Climate Change Impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analysis of human adaptation to climate change should be based on realistic models of adaptive behaviour at the level of organisations and individuals. The paper sets out a framework for analysing adaptation to the direct and indirect impacts of climate change in business organisations with new evidence presented from empirical research into adaptation in nine case-study companies. It argues that adaptation to climate change has many similarities with processes of organisational learning. The paper suggests that business organisations face a number of obstacles in learning how to adapt to climate change impacts, especially in relation to the weakness and ambiguity of signals about climate change and the uncertainty about benefits flowing from adaptation measures. Organisations rarely adapt 'autonomously', since their adaptive behaviour is influenced by policy and market conditions, and draws on resources external to the organisation. The paper identifies four adaptation strategies that pattern organisational adaptive behaviour

  14. Organisational Culture and Corporate Performance: Empirical Evidence from Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olu Ojo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research article is to examine various concepts on organisational culture and strives to ascertain the importance of the relationship between organisational culture and corporate performance in a business context. The study adopted survey research design. The population of this study is the entire employees of Nigerian commercial banks. Primary data were used for this study. Data were collected through a questionnaire that was administered to the selected respondents, The two hypotheses proffered were tested and relevant recommendations were made. The conclusion drawn from the study is that organisational culture plays a vital role in an organisation’s general performance. This study contributes to organisational culture’s literature by showing that employees would commit themselves to organisational goals and work actively in achieving those goals when they buy into cultural norms of the organisation and thus increase organisational performance.

  15. Typehusbranchens organisation, produktion og marked og innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugbølle, Kim; Forman, Marianne

    Denne dokumentationsrapport beskriver resultaterne af et survey af typehusbranchens organisering, produktion, marked og innovation. På trods af eller måske netop på grund af den aktuelle finanskrise vil en fortsat udvikling af typehusbyggeriet og det industrialiserede byggeri generelt kræve en øget...... forståelse af, hvordan bygherrens og brugernes ønsker, krav og forventninger er med til at forme producenternes produkter og udviklingsstrategier og vice versa. Baseret på et omfattende webbaseret survey via SurveyXact besvarer rapporten fire spørgsmål vedrørende typehusindustrien: - Hvilke karakteristika...

  16. Measuring vulnerabilities to organised crime: developments

    OpenAIRE

    Klima, Noel

    2009-01-01

    “Proactive”, “intelligence led”, “evidence based”, “future oriented”, “risk based” and many more adjectives are used to express the intention to provide a knowledge base to the prevention and repression of organised crime. The risk (threat) methodologies and assessments that have been developed to provide that base have a strong focus on perpetrator/groups/network characteristics. In this paper it is argued that the study of vulnerabilities of the broader environment in which criminal activit...

  17. Organisational IT Strategy Development using GDSS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lene

    1999-01-01

    IT strategy development in organisations is a complex task for which there is an immediate need for methodological support to be able to make satisfying decisions. Group Decision Support Systems (GDSS) is one line of supporting the process of group decision making and supporting IT strategy...... development. This paper discusses the features of GDSSs in terms of a broad definition, and a focus on how it supports and makes impact on group decision making. For illustrating reasons, an existing GDSS is presented: the Strategic ADvisor, STRAD. STRAD is presented and it is showed how this GDSs can be used...

  18. Organisational Learning: Positioning Selves and Creating Meaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elkjær, Bente

    -known stories about changes - a ‘for' and an ‘against' changes. A closer look at the data, however, also made it possible to detect a third story, a ‘yes, but' story. In this latter story, it was possible to be both ‘for' changes and to question (be ‘against') how these were being carried out. All three stories...... that change of practices may unfold as creation and re-creation of meaning and as such as organisational learning....

  19. Achieving excellence in private intensive care units: The effect of transformational leadership and organisational culture on organisational change outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Portia J. Jordan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Organisational change outcomes in private intensive care units are linked to higher patient satisfaction, improved quality of patient care, family support, cost-effective care practices and an increased level of excellence. Transformational leadership and fostering a positive organisational culture can contribute to these change outcomes.Research purpose: The study determined whether transformational leadership and a supportive organisational culture were evident in six private intensive care units in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. A conceptual framework to investigate the relationship between transformational leadership, organisational culture, and organisational change outcomes, was proposed and tested.Motivation for the study: The prevalence of transformational leadership, a positive organisational culture and their effect on organisational change outcomes in private healthcare industries require further research in order to generate appropriate recommendations.Research design, approach and method: A positivistic, quantitative design was used. A survey was conducted using a questionnaire which, in previous studies, produced scores with Cronbach’s alpha coefficients greater than 0.80, to collect data from a sample of 130 professional nurses in private intensive care units.Main findings: Transformational leadership and a positive organisational culture were evident in the private intensive care units sampled. A strong, positive correlation exists between transformational leadership, organisational culture, and organisational change outcomes. This correlation provides sufficient evidence to accept the postulated research hypotheses. Innovation and intellectual stimulation were identified as the factors in need of improvement.Practical or managerial implications: The findings of the study may be used by managers in intensive care units to promote organisational change outcomes, linked to transformational leadership and a positive

  20. Organisational reviews - requirements, methods and experience. Progress report 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Organisational reviews are important instruments in the continuous quest for improved performance. In the nuclear field there has been an increasing regulatory interest in organisational performance, because incidents and accidents often point to organisational deficiencies as one of the major precursors. Many methods for organisational reviews have been proposed, but they are mostly based on ad hoc approaches to specific problems. The absence of well-established techniques for organisational reviews has already shown to cause discussions and controversies on different levels. The aim of the OrRe project is to collect the experiences from organisational reviews carried out so far and to reflect them in a theoretical model of organisational performance. Furthermore, the project aims to reflect on the criteria for the definition of the scope and content of organisational reviews. Finally, recommendations will be made for guidance for people participating in organisational reviews. This progress report describes regulatory practices in Finland and Sweden together with some case examples of organizational reviews and assessment in both countries. Some issues of concern are raised and an outline for the next year's work is proposed. Issues of concern include the sufficient depth of the assessment, the required competence in assessments, data and criteria problems, definition of the boundaries of the system to be assessed, and the necessary internal support and organisational maturity required for successful assessments. Finally, plans for next year's work are outlined. (au)

  1. Organisational reviews - requirements, methods and experience. Progress report 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiman, T.; Oedewald, P.; Wahlstroem, B. [VTT, Technical Research Centre of Finland (Finland); Rollenhagen, C.; Kahlbom, U. [Maelardalen University (FI)

    2007-04-15

    Organisational reviews are important instruments in the continuous quest for improved performance. In the nuclear field there has been an increasing regulatory interest in organisational performance, because incidents and accidents often point to organisational deficiencies as one of the major precursors. Many methods for organisational reviews have been proposed, but they are mostly based on ad hoc approaches to specific problems. The absence of well-established techniques for organisational reviews has already shown to cause discussions and controversies on different levels. The aim of the OrRe project is to collect the experiences from organisational reviews carried out so far and to reflect them in a theoretical model of organisational performance. Furthermore, the project aims to reflect on the criteria for the definition of the scope and content of organisational reviews. Finally, recommendations will be made for guidance for people participating in organisational reviews. This progress report describes regulatory practices in Finland and Sweden together with some case examples of organizational reviews and assessment in both countries. Some issues of concern are raised and an outline for the next year's work is proposed. Issues of concern include the sufficient depth of the assessment, the required competence in assessments, data and criteria problems, definition of the boundaries of the system to be assessed, and the necessary internal support and organisational maturity required for successful assessments. Finally, plans for next year's work are outlined. (au)

  2. Barriers of inter-organisational integration in vocational rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulla Wihlman

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A project of vocational rehabilitation was studied in Sweden between 1999 and 2002. The project included four public organisations: the social insurance office, the local health services, the municipal social service and the office of the state employment service. The aim of this paper was to analyse perceived barriers in the development of inter-organisational integration. Theory: Theories of inter-professional and inter-organisational integration, and theories on organisational change. Methods: In total, 51 semi-structured interviews and 14 focus group discussions were performed with actors within the project between 1999 and 2002. A thematic approach was used for the analysis of the data. Results: Three different main themes of barriers emerged from the data: A Uncertainty, B Prioritising own organisation and C Lack of communication. The themes are interconnected in an intricate web and hence not mutually exclusive. Conclusions and discussion: The barriers found are all related partly to organisational change in general and partly to the specific development of organisational integration. Prioritising of own organisation led to flaws in communication, which in turn led to a high degree of uncertainty within the project. This can be seen as a circular relationship, since uncertainty might increase focus on own organisation and lack of communication. A way to overcome these barriers would be to take the needs of the clients as a point of departure in the development of joint services and to also involve them in the development of inter-organisational integration.

  3. What matters for organisational change? Evidence from DEPZ, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Zohurul Islam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The role of leadership and human resources (HRM at the managerial level in the economic zones to implement organisational change have been well described in developing countries although they are often not well documented.Research purpose: The purpose of this article is to investigate the relationship between leadership, organisational behaviour and HRM in Dhaka export processing zone (DEPZ enterprises.Motivation for the study: This study has given a direction for implementing organisational change in DEPZ organisations, where leadership, organisational behaviour and HRM have significant effects on organisational change.Research design, approach and method: The author completed a survey using a structured questionnaire on 53 enterprises in the DEPZ. The sample size was 216. The author tested the research hypotheses by using statistical tools like step-wise multiple regression analysis. The author also used Pearson correlations, a t-test, an ANOVA and a radar diagram in this study.Main findings: The results provide evidence that leadership behaviour, organisational behaviour factors and HRM practices have direct relationships with organisational change. In short, it requires high level of leadership ability, employee motivation and commitment, recruitment, performance appraisal and reward to bring about effective organisational change.Practical/managerial implications: The results show that organisational learning, transformational and transactional leadership, compensation and unionisation practices reinforce organisational change at DEPZ enterprises.Contribution/value-add: The results of this study show that organisational change requires integration with leadership ability, organisational behaviour and HRM practices, which are useful for developing companies, industries and the national economy.

  4. The colonial ascidian Didemnum sp. A: current distribution, basic biology and potential threat to marine communities of the northeast and west coasts of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullard, S.G.; Lambert, G.; Carman, M.R.; Byrnes, J.; Whitlatch, R.B.; Ruiz, G.; Miller, R.J.; Harris, L.; Valentine, P.C.; Collie, J.S.; Pederson, J.; McNaught, D.C.; Cohen, A.N.; Asch, R.G.; Dijkstra, J.; Heinonen, K.

    2007-01-01

    Didemnum sp. A is a colonial ascidian with rapidly expanding populations on the east and west coasts of North America. The origin of Didemum sp. A is unknown. Populations were first observed on the northeast coast of the U.S. in the late 1980s and on the west coast during the 1990s. It is currently undergoing a massive population explosion and is now a dominant member of many subtidal communities on both coasts. To determine Didemnum sp. A's current distribution, we conducted surveys from Maine to Virginia on the east coast and from British Columbia to southern California on the west coast of the U.S. between 1998 and 2005. In nearshore locations Didemnum sp. A currently ranges from Eastport, Maine to Shinnecock Bay, New York on the east coast. On the west coast it has been recorded from Humboldt Bay to Port San Luis in California, several sites in Puget Sound, Washington, including a heavily fouled mussel culture facility, and several sites in southwestern British Columbia on and adjacent to oyster and mussel farms. The species also occurs at deeper subtidal sites (up to 81 m) off New England, including Georges, Stellwagen and Tillies Banks. On Georges Bank numerous sites within a 230 km2 area are 50–90% covered by Didemnum sp. A; large colonies cement the pebble gravel into nearly solid mats that may smother infaunal organisms. These observations suggest that Didemnum sp. A has the potential to alter marine communities and affect economically important activities such as fishing and aquaculture.

  5. Signaling pathways in ascidian oocyte maturation: the roles of cAMP/Epac, intracellular calcium levels, and calmodulin kinase in regulating GVBD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Charles C

    2011-01-01

    Most mature ascidian oocytes undergo germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) when released by the ovary into sea water (SW). Acidic SW blocks this but they can be stimulated by raising the pH, increasing intracellular cAMP levels by cell permeant forms, inhibiting its breakdown or causing synthesis. Boltenia villosa oocytes undergo GVBD in response to these drugs. However, the cAMP receptor protein kinase A (PKA) does not appear to be involved, as oocytes are not affected by the kinase inhibitor H-89. Also, the PKA independent Epac agonist 8CPT-2Me-cAMP stimulates GVBD in acidic SW. GVBD is inhibited in calcium free sea water (CaFSW). The intracellular calcium chelator BAPTA-AM blocks GVBD at 10 µM. GVBD is also inhibited when the ryanodine receptors (RYR) are blocked by tetracaine or ruthenium red but not by the IP(3) inhibitor D-609. However, dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA), a protein kinase activator, stimulates GVBD in BAPTA, tetracaine or ruthenium red blocked oocytes. The calmodulin kinase inhibitor KN-93 blocks GVBD at 10 µM. This and preceding papers support the hypothesis that the maturation inducing substance (MIS) produced by the follicle cells in response to increased pH causes activation of a G protein which triggers cAMP synthesis. The cAMP then activates an Epac molecule, which causes an increase in intracellular calcium from the endoplasmic reticulum ryanodine receptor. The increased intracellular calcium subsequently activates calmodulin kinase, which causes an increase in cdc25 phosphatase activity, activating MPF and the progression of the oocyte into meiosis. PMID:21774024

  6. Information Organisation Practices on the Web: Tagging and the Social Organisation of Information

    OpenAIRE

    Kipp, Margaret E.I.

    2009-01-01

    This talk (the public talk for my thesis) examines the phenomenon of social tagging from its early beginnings to its current level of prominence on a wide variety of websites in a series of linked studies examining the structures and patterns of tag term use to determine whether regular patterns appear that would support information organisation and retrieval.

  7. European ways to combat psychosocial risks related to work organisation : towards organisational interventions?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oeij, P.R.A.; Morvan, E.; Houtman, I.L.D.; Vaas, F.; Wiezer, N.

    2004-01-01

    From 24-26 November 2004, the 6h Annual Conference of the European Academy of Occupational Health Psychology ‘Healthy, Efficient & Productive Organisations’ was held in Oporto, Portugal. During this conference, the Workshop ‘Organisational interventions to combat psychosocial factors of stress’ was

  8. Towards an organisation-wide process-oriented organisation of care: A literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Groenewegen Peter P

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many hospitals have taken actions to make care delivery for specific patient groups more process-oriented, but struggle with the question how to deal with process orientation at hospital level. The aim of this study is to report and discuss the experiences of hospitals with implementing process-oriented organisation designs in order to derive lessons for future transitions and research. Methods A literature review of English language articles on organisation-wide process-oriented redesigns, published between January 1998 and May 2009, was performed. Results Of 329 abstracts identified, 10 articles were included in the study. These articles described process-oriented redesigns of five hospitals. Four hospitals tried to become process-oriented by the implementation of coordination measures, and one by organisational restructuring. The adoption of the coordination mechanism approach was particularly constrained by the functional structure of hospitals. Other factors that hampered the redesigns in general were the limited applicability of and unfamiliarity with process improvement techniques. Conclusions Due to the limitations of the evidence, it is not known which approach, implementation of coordination measures or organisational restructuring (with additional coordination measures, produces the best results in which situation. Therefore, more research is needed. For this research, the use of qualitative methods in addition to quantitative measures is recommended to contribute to a better understanding of preconditions and contingencies for an effective application of approaches to become process-oriented. Hospitals are advised to take the factors for failure described into account and to take suitable actions to counteract these obstacles on their way to become process-oriented organisations.

  9. Organising Ethics: The Case of the Norwegian Army

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen-Marie Forsberg

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This article shows how institutionalism, a theory in organisational social science, provides a model for diagnosing organisational challenges that influence the ethical practices and integration in the Norwegian Army. Institutionalism provides tools for analysing the differences between expressed values and actual practices and for understanding the organisational dynamics that unfold at the crossroads of the organisation's formal structure, informal culture and stakeholder relations. In this article we present and discuss such differences and dynamics in the Norwegian Army based on findings from a survey and a number of workshops. We also provide some suggestions for effective implementation of strategies for strengthening ethics in such an organisation. We argue that the perspective taken in this project is also relevant for other highly professionalised complex organisations and that such interdisciplinary research will strengthen practical ethics' potential for real impact.http://dx.doi.org/10.5324/eip.v6i1.1779

  10. Digital Ecosystems: Self-Organisation of Evolving Agent Populations

    CERN Document Server

    Briscoe, Gerard

    2008-01-01

    A primary motivation for research in digital ecosystems is the desire to exploit the self-organising properties of natural ecosystems, because they are thought to be robust, scalable architectures that can automatically solve complex, dynamic problems. Self-organisation is perhaps one of the most desirable features in the systems that we design, and it is important for us to be able to measure such self-organising behaviour. We investigate the self-organising aspects of Digital Ecosystems, created by the application of evolutionary computing to Multi-Agent Systems aiming to determine a macroscopic variable to characterise the self-organisation of the evolving agent populations within our Digital Ecosystem. We study a measure for self-organisation called Physical Complexity, which is based on statistical physics, automata theory, and information theory. It provides a measure of the quantity of information in an organism's genome, relative to the environment in which it evolves, by calculating the entropy in th...

  11. Organisational learning won't be turned off

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elkjær, Bente

    2012-01-01

    create new. The field of organisational learning has always reflected the current and contemporary understandings of the management of enterprises. This is the background for providing first a brief historic account of the organisational learning literature. I will introduce the most important trends in......Enterprises have always been learning organisations in much the same way as it is hard for people to avoid learning. A sign of learning organisations are the many successful enterprises, and the abundance of new products and services that keeps emerging. The question about organisational learning......, often made with reference to ideas of education, i.e. intentional processes of the production of knowledge. In this paper, I argue that learning and organisational learning does not primarily appear as a result of intended processes but often as the opposite, i.e. as a struggle to maintain the old and...

  12. A case study of organisational cultural competence in mental healthcare

    OpenAIRE

    Bhui Kamaldeep; Warfa Nasir; Adamson Jean

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Ensuring Cultural Competence (CC) in health care is a mechanism to deliver culturally appropriate care and optimise recovery. In policies that promote cultural competence, the training of mental health practitioners is a key component of a culturally competent organisation. This study examines staff perceptions of CC and the integration of CC principles in a mental healthcare organisation. The purpose is to show interactions between organisational and individual processes ...

  13. Employee-driven innovation in large project organisations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Henrik; Wandahl, Søren; Christensen, Randi Muff

    2014-01-01

    participants’ discussions and perceptions of the applicability in the organisation. The findings were discussed in relation to the theoretical approach and findings from a comparable case study. It identified overall methods that had the higher robustness and applicability to incorporate in a practical EDI...... framework. The findings further emphasise that when approaching EDI in large project organisations in the built environment, the theoretical approach is often more sophisticated than the organisational needs to be successful....

  14. Variability in forms of organisation in biotechnology firms

    OpenAIRE

    Luukkonen, Terttu

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines variability in forms of organisation, in terms of forward and backward networking versus vertical integration, in biotechnology SMEs. The study examines forms of organisation in a set of firms across different application segments. The forms of organisation vary by application segment in biotechnology, but differences are not clear-cut, and a firm can apply different forms to different application segments in its activities. Reasons for the variability are related to the s...

  15. Innovation and the Organisation of Technical Expertise and Work

    OpenAIRE

    Howelss, John

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews a selection of the comparative research on the organisation of skills and work in different countries. It argues that despite differences in institutional means, such as keiretsu and structured apprenticeship, the ends, in terms of a capacity to organise skills, is similar. It is suggested that the British institution of craft control of skills should be understood as the default state of organisation of skills and work. This state may be likely to develop anywhere where th...

  16. A coalition collision : A case study on organisational alterations

    OpenAIRE

    Forsgren, Peder; Helgesson, Margita

    2007-01-01

    When companies go trough a merger or an acquisition all involved parties within the organisations becomes affected. These changes can affect the company in many areas which could create tensions and anxiety among employees which could create strong negative forces at the end and prevent the new organisation to function at its best. In service companies this could be of great importance to overcome since they often are dependent on functional organisations to help them create a wanted quality....

  17. Balancing Agility and Discipline in a Medical Device Software Organisation

    OpenAIRE

    Mc Hugh, Martin; McCaffery, Fergal; Fitzgerald, Brian; Stol, Klass-Jan; COADY, Garret; Casey, Valentine

    2013-01-01

    peer-reviewed Agile development techniques are becoming increasingly popular in the generic software development industry as they appear to offer solutions to the problems associated with following a plan-driven Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC). However, agile methods may not be suited to all industries or organisations. For agile methods to succeed, an organisation must be structured in a way to accommodate agile methods. Medical device software development organisations are bound b...

  18. Knowledge organisation and information retrieval using Galois lattices

    OpenAIRE

    Szathmary, Laszlo; Napoli, Amedeo

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the application of Galois (or concept) lattices on different data sources (e.g. web documents or bibliographical items) in order to organise knowledge that can be extracted from the data. This knowledge organisation can serve a number of purposes (e.g. knowledge management in an organisation, document retrieval on the Web, etc.). Galois lattices can be considered as classification tools for knowledge units in concept hierarchies that can be used within a knowledge...

  19. Preparing organisations for employee-driven open innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Amundsen, O.; Aasen, T.M.; Gressgard, L.J.

    2014-01-01

    The present study addresses the need to prepare organisations, small or large, for open innovation approaches, including the development of capacity to exploit the potential benefits of such principles through Employee-Driven Innovation (EDI). Based on interviews in 20 Norwegian enterprises, we propose that EDI is an under-explored opportunity in many organisations, and that the systematic introduction of EDI practices increases organisations' ability to exploit open innovation principles and...

  20. Synopsis – point 4. Organisational factors and Information systems

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Organisational factors and information systems play an important role in dengue control monitoring. Three questions address this theme in the survey specifications: Question 8. LOCAL ORGANISATIONAL FACTORS IN OPTIMIZING DENGUE CONTROL Local organisational factors for optimizing dengue control: what is to be expected from an early warning system, standardized information dissemination procedures and public education in dengue prevention? Alain Blateau addresses this question in the article Fac...

  1. Outsourcing and Organisational Innovation: the Example of a Service Provider

    OpenAIRE

    Csaba Holyevácz

    2013-01-01

    The history of the gas and oil industry in Hungary goes back to the mid-19th century. This industry and its participants have gone through an organisational structural transition that presents an exclusive example for establishing the modern corporate structure as well as ofvalue-creating opportunities in organisational development. In the present paper the notion of modern corporate organisation, the reasons for its establishment and its stages are presented through the example of a Hungaria...

  2. Quality Management in Hospital Departments : Empirical Studies of Organisational Models

    OpenAIRE

    Kunkel, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    The general aim of this thesis was to empirically explore the organisational characteristics of quality systems of hospital departments, to develop and empirically test models for the organisation and implementation of quality systems, and to discuss the clinical implications of the findings. Data were collected from hospital departments through interviews (n=19) and a nation-wide survey (n=386). The interviews were analysed thematically and organisational models were developed. Relationships...

  3. Supportive Organisational Cultures and their effects on Male Civil Engineers

    OpenAIRE

    Valarie Francis

    2012-01-01

    Substantial changes, not only in the demographic composition of the Australian workforce, but also,in the roles and expectations of men and women, have led to organisational and employee attempts to reconcile work and non-work demands. Research suggests that when work-family balance practices are introduced they can greatly enhance organisational efficency. However factors embedded in the organisational culture can undermine these policies rendering them ineffective. This quantitative study e...

  4. Followership's experiences of organisational leadership: A systems psychodynamic perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Henk Greyvenstein; Frans Cilliers

    2012-01-01

    Orientation: Followers’ experiences of leadership in their organisations were qualitatively explored and described from a systems psychodynamic perspective. The findings revealed a very negative view on how leadership treats followership, and that leadership is seen as inconsistent.Research purpose: The purpose of the research was to describe followership’s experiences of organisational leadership from a systems psychodynamic perspective.Motivation for the study: Organisational leadership is ...

  5. Organisation theory in education: how does it inform school leadership?

    OpenAIRE

    Bush, Tony

    2015-01-01

    Much of the literature treats organisation and leadership theories as distinct and unconnected but, in this paper, I argue that there are considerable overlaps between these two genres of theory. In particular, I seek to demonstrate that organisation and leadership theory can be analysed and compared using four central constructs: goals, structure, culture and context. In this paper, I begin by discussing the origins of organisation theory and then examine its characteristics through a discus...

  6. A systems psychodynamic description of organisational bullying experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Frans Cilliers

    2012-01-01

    Orientation: Organisational bullying experiences manifest themselves as an intense unconscious systemic dynamic involving the bully, the victim and the organisational culture. The relatedness between the objects is characterised by valences and mutual defence mechanisms such as splitting, projection and projective identification.Research purpose: The purpose of this research was to describe organisational bullying experiences from the system psychodynamic perspective.Motivation for the study:...

  7. Authentic happiness of managers, and individual and organisational outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Swart, Johannes (hannes); Sebastiaan Rothmann

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate managers' orientations to happiness and the relationship thereof to individual and organisational outcomes. A cross-sectional survey design was used with managers in the agricultural sector in South Africa (N = 507). The Orientations to Happiness Questionnaire (Revised), Satisfaction with Life Scale, Affect Balance Scale, Job Satisfaction Scale, Organisational Commitment Scale, and Organisational Citizenship Behaviour Scale were administered. The resul...

  8. Intention based modelling of organisational change: an experience report

    OpenAIRE

    Rolland, Colette; Loucopoulos, Pericles; Kavakli, Vagelio; Nurcan, Selmin

    1999-01-01

    The traditional approach to information systems development has proved to be too monolithic for dealing with highly complex, multidimensional, organisational change issues. In the traditional paradigm, little attempt is made in understanding how the proposed system relates to other organisational components or the effect that the system will have on the enterprise itself. This lack of knowledge ramifies throughout the system development process, making it difficult to identify organisational ...

  9. A qualitative exploration of employees' views on organisational commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rankgoang Andrew-Face Lesabe

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available It is generally accepted that employee commitment has an impact on the overall functioning of organisations. Therefore, the primary aim of this qualitative explorative study is to detect and describe views of a group of employees at a local Johannesburg retail organisation regarding employee turnover and retention in the organisation. Relevant theoretical key concepts and views of scholars are carefully integrated and described briefly. Qualitative methods were used to collect and analyse the data. The research findings are explicitly outlined and linked to the existing literature on organisational commitment. The article is concluded with some recommendations.

  10. Supply Chain Management: new organisational practices for changing procurement realities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul Houman

    2003-01-01

    How does the implementation of SCM strategies influence the organisation of prcurement? Based on case study of 15 Danish companies, this article develops a set of statements concerning the organisational role and job assignments of procurement in the light of SCM practice.......How does the implementation of SCM strategies influence the organisation of prcurement? Based on case study of 15 Danish companies, this article develops a set of statements concerning the organisational role and job assignments of procurement in the light of SCM practice....

  11. A case study of an organisation development of duality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Mads R.; Gertsen, Frank

    2008-01-01

    This paper seeks to comprehend what the organisational circumstances (conditions) look like that induces an organisation to develop its exploitation and exploration capabilities to duality. This is done by studying changes in the organisational characteristics in a Danish manufacturer of...... theory by uncovering how organisational conditions affect the development and integration of exploitation and exploration capabilities....... accessories for house windows during the expansion leading to global operation. The study comprises 2½ years of detailed study and a retrospective study of approximately 30 years. The data collection was mainly based on semi-structured interviews. The findings add a new approach to continuous innovation...

  12. Integrating technology in a changing organisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper relates to integrating technology in a changing organisation of Elf Aquitaine. There is a strong pressure to cut costs and be more effective in the company's operations. A process was initiated in 1994 to re-analyse its E and P (Exploration and Production) research and development (R and D) in order to enhance its alignment with the company assets needs, with a subsequent prioritization of R and D projects. The integration included a strategy for cooperation with other oil and service companies. The author presents the process set up to align the company's R and D program to the business needs of its operations, the various levels of cooperation used, and finally an illustration, in the domain of the geosciences, of the various facets of the ongoing cultural revolution which is required to reach a true integration. 11 figs

  13. Organisational Culture in Construction: An Employee Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raufdeen Rameezdeen

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A large number of stakeholders in construction projects makes the construction industry prone to disputes. The historical separation between design and construction add to this phenomenon by having a consultant for design and a contractor for construction. Communication breakdown, frequently, is the first sign of problems, notably in the relationship between the Contractor and the Consultant. Therefore, it appears that the split between design and construction has given rise to two separate cultures in the construction industry. This paper attempts to identify whether there is a difference in organisational culture between Consultants and Contractors taken as two groups and determine whether a specific attribute was related to the cultural differences between the two entities. Based on case studies it was found that consultants are biased towards Clan culture while contractors are biased towards Market culture. However, both groups show similar affinity to Adhocracy and Hierarchy cultures.

  14. The strategic facilities management organisation in housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Susanne Balslev; Jensen, Per Anker; Jensen, Jesper Ole

    2012-01-01

    implementation of sustainable facilities management in housing administration. The concept provides a frame for understanding the roles and relations of tenants, owners, administrators and operators. The paper is based on a Danish research project on environmentally sound building operation including literature...... literature on sustainable facilities management, where it fills a gap as it deals with housing and strategic FM. Intended readers are those interested in housing administration and especially the transition of existing housing into more sustainable housing. Intended readers include building owners, policy......Two houses in the same street can be built in the same year, they can look the same, and still they might provide very different support for sustainable living. This article points to the Strategic Facilities Management Organisation (SFMO) as the most important concept, to understand and manage...

  15. Teamarbejde og samspillet mellem medarbejdere og organisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Hans Jeppe; Jønsson, Thomas

    Gennem det seneste årti har brug af teams som en måde at organisere arbejdet på været i hastig fremmarch. Det er baggrunden for forskningsprojektet ”Team-organiseringens betydning for participation og organisatoriske relationer”, der er et multiple case-studie af seks organisationers brug af...... teamwork. Bag projektet står professor Hans Jeppe Jeppesen, cand.psych. og ph.d. Thomas Rasmussen samt adjunkt Thomas Jønsson. I denne klumme gives en forskningsbaseret introduktion til teamarbejdet og dets betydning for samspillet mellem medarbejdere og organisation. Med udgangspunkt i egen forskning...... ikke finder effekter – og enkelte, der peger på risikoen for, at teams udvikler en selvkontrollerende negativ spiral. Udgivelsesdato: 22/9 2008...

  16. Collaboration with East African security organisations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordby, Johannes Riber; Jacobsen, Katja L.

    2012-01-01

    African Community) and IGAD (Intergovernmental Authority on Development) have broader perceptions of the concept. According to EAC, security also concerns matters such as policy reform, legislation, education and infrastructure. IGAD considers food security and environmental and economic issues as part of...... the concept. At the same time the three organisations represent different constellations of member nations and thus different national interests, and locally they have different legitimacy and political strength. Thus, when choosing collaboration partners for a security project it is not simply a...... question of looking at these organisations’ military capabilities. There are other concerns, such as their aims, their internal relations, regional legitimacy and so on, to take into consideration. In this DIIS Policy Brief the authors sketch some of the differences that should be taken into consideration...

  17. Quality of higher education: organisational or educational?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zou, Yihuan; Du, Xiangyun; Rasmussen, Palle

    2012-01-01

    Based on a study of Chinese university self-evaluation reports, this paper argues that higher education institutions are trying to manage the tensions between educational and organisational quality and the increasing and worldwide concerns about quality assurance. After 30 years of dramatic...... educational reform, China has established a nationwide evaluation system for assessing its higher education institutions. This comprehensive system includes a series of procedures for both internal self-evaluation and external peer reviewing, among which self-evaluation reports prepared by each institution...... remain an important basis for external review. In an attempt to examine the institutional understanding of quality in higher education, the authors conducted a content analysis study of 53 self-evaluation reports written by a wide range of higher education institutions in China. This study concludes that...

  18. The Industrial Organisation of the Dance Industry in the Netherlands: a Transaction Cost Perspective on Hybrid Forms of Organisation

    OpenAIRE

    den Butter, Frank A.G.; Joustra, Jelle

    2014-01-01

    The organization of Electronic Dance Music (EDM) events has become a major export product in the Netherlands. In order to respond quickly to the new trends and needs, innovative forms of cooperation between producers are to be set up for the organization of exciting new events. A case study on how these EDM events are actually organised in the Netherlands shows that the best way to do it is through hybrid forms of organisation, which combine horizontal forms of organisation through the market...

  19. Achieving excellence in private intensive care units: The effect of transformational leadership and organisational culture on organisational change outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Portia J. Jordan; Amanda Werner; Danie Venter

    2015-01-01

    Orientation: Organisational change outcomes in private intensive care units are linked to higher patient satisfaction, improved quality of patient care, family support, cost-effective care practices and an increased level of excellence. Transformational leadership and fostering a positive organisational culture can contribute to these change outcomes.Research purpose: The study determined whether transformational leadership and a supportive organisational culture were evident in six private i...

  20. How to improve your knowledge intensive organisation : implementing a knowledge management scan within public and private sector organisations

    OpenAIRE

    Koolmees, Hans; Smeijsters, Henk; Schoenmakers, Sylvia

    2009-01-01

    The Centre of Research in Knowledge Organisations and Knowledge Management of Zuyd University has developed a knowledge management scan. The scan initiates from two models. The first model is based on the Value Based Knowledge Management approach (Tissen, Andriessen & Lekanne Deprez, 1998) and includes 6 basic abilities of a knowledge-intensive organisation that will enable the organisation to operate successfully in a knowledge based economy (.The second model, developed by Wierdsma and Swie...

  1. Exploring the relationship between leadership and organisational culture / Kolisang L.O.

    OpenAIRE

    Kolisang, Lebamang Octavia

    2011-01-01

    This research explores the relationship between leadership and organisational culture in an organisation. Organisational culture is often an important factor influencing the competitive strength of an organisation. Leadership is also a critical component in the success of an organisation. It is important to understand how these two powerful determinants of organisational performance affect each other. Research determining that specific types of organisational culture favour particular styles ...

  2. Positive organisation :|bthe role of leader behaviour in employee engagement and retention / Fallen Mendes.

    OpenAIRE

    Mendes, Fallen

    2010-01-01

    Organisations are constantly undergoing major changes. These changes can have negative consequences on organisational functioning and employee well-being. It is therefore vital for organisations to focus on the elements of a healthy organisation so that a positive organisation can be built and the negative consequences avoided. A healthy organisation pays attention to six intenelated dimensions namely; organisational attributes, organizational climate, job design, job future, psychological w...

  3. An ethics model to develop an ethical organisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrik R. Lloyd

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: As background to the study it can be stated that the ethical conduct of employees in an organisation is of paramount importance to the successful operations of an organisation, both real and perceived. In recent times the ethical conduct of employees has received extensive publicity and, as such, has emphasised the impact of organisational ethics on the global competitiveness of organisations.Research purpose: The main aim of the paper is to analyse the impact of business ethics in the Eastern Cape Motor Industry Cluster (ECMIC and the different perceptions regarding such ethics. This is based on the main research question, namely, whether a business ethics model should be developed to assist in creating an ethical organisation.Motivation of the study: The motivation for this study is based on the question of whether there is a dedicated drive within the motor industry to establish an ethical organisation and, if such is the case, what benefits would accrue to the organisations in ECMIC.Research design, approach and method: An empirical study was conducted within ECMIC to test the proposed ethics intervention model. A questionnaire, as the main measuring instrument, was developed and 150 questionnaires were distributed. Statistical hypothesis testing was used, with a significance level set at 5%. The aim of the hypothesis testing was to test whether the percentage responses in certain categories were significantly higher than a pre-determined test-value.Main findings: The research results substantiate the fact that the majority of the surveyed organisations do not implement specific ethics interventions. Nevertheless, the majority of respondents acknowledge the importance of ethical behaviour in the organisation, especially with regard to their financial positions.Practical/managerial implications: From this study it became clear that the implementation of a code of ethics would create a platform for ethical behaviour in

  4. [Planning by service organisation priorities. The process of preparing strategic service-organisation plans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampietro-Colom, Laura; Costa, Dolors; Busqué, Anna; Lacasa, Carme

    2008-12-01

    Strategic planning designs the general setting and the strategic principles of a healthcare system, as well as the general guidelines that govern the development of a health system. Strategic service-organisation plans deal with translating healthcare policies into service policies and respond, principally, to the need for services; these give rise to problems that require a solution. They are developed in line with advances in scientific knowledge, the implementation and current characteristics of the healthcare services and the evolution in the competences of professional teams. There are five stages for their development: identification of health/service requirements; prioritisation of needs in health/services; definition of and agreement on service organisation models (care model and service portfolio); the preparation of and agreement on territorial action plans; introduction and evaluation. A conceptual framework is presented along with practical applications carried out in Catalonia. PMID:19195478

  5. An organisational coherence model to maintain employee contributions during organisational crises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrik J. Pelser

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Crises that threaten an organisation’s continued existence cannot be seen in isolation when considering the perception of threats to individual job security. These threats often go hand in hand with employee panic.Research purpose: The aim of this study was to establish a model to assist organisations in managing employee emotionality and panic during times of crisis.Motivation for the study: Environmental crises threaten organisations’ existence, threatening employees’ livelihood and resulting in employee panic. Panic reduces employees’ contributions. Organisations that are successful harness employee contributions at all times.Research design, approach, and method: A modernist qualitative research methodology was adopted, which included a case study as research strategy, purposive sampling to select 12 research participants, semi-structured interviews for data gathering, focus groups for data verification, and the use of grounded theory for data analysis.Main findings: An organisation’s ability to manage employee panic depends on the relationship between the foundational elements of authentic leadership, crisis readiness, resilience practices, versatile and committed talent, strategic management, quality management, and coherence actions taken during the crisis, which include crisis leadership, ongoing visible communication, mindfulness, work flexibility, and decisions based on the greatest financial need and social support.Practical/managerial implications: The study provides a best-practice option for managing emotionality during crises for the case organisation and other organisations within the vehicle components and other manufacturing industries.Contribution/value-add: The Coherence Hexagons Model is presented as a tool to manage employee panic during crisis.Keywords: crisis management; employee emotionality; employee panic; authentic leadership; talent management

  6. Empowerment, organisational commitment and job satisfaction within a chemical organisation / Penny Buckle

    OpenAIRE

    Buckle, Cecelia Hestel

    2003-01-01

    Work is considered to be a necessary and unavoidable part of human existence. As South Africa continues to be exposed to global economics, social and political changes, the international arena demands increased speed, efficiency and customer focus at reduced costs. In order to achieve these demands, organisations are demanding more from their employees than ever before. Employees must learn to take initiative, be creative and accept responsibility. Each employee's full potentia...

  7. Human Resource Management and Organisational Performance: Does HRM lead to better organisational performance?

    OpenAIRE

    Byremo, Cathrine Søbye

    2015-01-01

    Human Resource Management (HRM) has grown very popular over the past decades, and it is now a common characteristic for nearly all larger companies and many smaller ones. One of the reasons for this popularity is the assumption that HRM is a source for competitive advantage and will influence the organisational results and performance in a positive direction. The thesis takes a closer look at the presumed relationship between HRM and performance. The main idea behind the HRM-performance presu...

  8. The man-machine-organisation interface; Schnittstelle Mensch-Technik-Organisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kociok, B. [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Salzgitter (Germany)

    1999-04-01

    The reliable and safety-centred action of man is one crucial factor for safe operation of nuclear power plants, apart from the technical systems and the organisational aspects. Essential factors influencing human performance are: Qualification and competence of the operating personnel, technical conditions and status of systems, including the level of automation, information technology in the control room, and plant organisation. Analyses of documentation of notifiable events in power plant operation or other incidents yield information on available potentials for safety enhancements or reduction of human errors. (orig./CB) [German] Das zuverlaessige und sicherheitsorientierte Handeln des Menschen ist neben den technischen Einrichtungen und der Organisation fuer den sicheren Betrieb der Kernkraftwerke von entscheidender Bedeutung. Wesentliche Einflussfaktoren auf menschliche Handlungen sind: - Die Personalqualifikation, - der technische Zustand der Anlage, einschliesslich ihres Automatisierungsgrades, - die Gestaltung der Warte und - die Betriebsorganisation. Aus der Erfassung von meldepflichtigen und sonstigen Ereignissen und deren Analyse lassen sich Moeglichkeiten fuer Sicherheitsverbesserungen ermitteln und das Auftreten von menschlichen Fehlhandlungen weiter reduzieren. (orig.)

  9. Cage Painting within the Fifth Discipline of Learning Organisations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimmington, Glyn M.; Alagic, Mara

    2009-01-01

    Learning organisations face new challenges in the 21st century. Increased flow of trade in commodities, manufactured goods and information as well as mobility of people have led to increased global interdependence, interconnectedness and cultural diversity. People and teams within learning organisations have become globally distributed with the…

  10. Organised crime in Europe and the mafia method

    OpenAIRE

    Ruggiero, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    This paper compares some findings relating to organised crime in Europe as presented by international agencies with findings obtained by national independent researchers in a number of countries. The comparison helps highlight the dilemma, the controversies and the vexed questions that still adumbrate our understanding of organised crime.

  11. Sustainable transport and the organisation of bus services in Manchester

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Henrik; Sørensen, Claus Hedegaard

    2008-01-01

    depends on how the bus sector is organised. By organisation we adopt an institutional point of view and consider basic modes of governance. Basic modes of governance include the forms “market”, “hierarchy” and “network” (Powell 1990). So-called New Public Management (NPM) reforms have changed the modes of...

  12. The organisation of transactions : studying supply networkd using gaming simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, S.A.

    2009-01-01

    This book studies the organisation of transactions in supply networks. More specifically it investigates the influence of social structure on the mode of organisation in supply networks. To gain new insights, the results in this book have been gathered using gaming simulation as a research method. A

  13. Organisational Commitments and Teaching Styles among Academics in Mainland China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-Fang; Jing, Li-Zhen

    2016-01-01

    This research pioneered the investigation of the predictive power of organisational commitments for academics' teaching styles. Participants were 370 faculty members from 15 higher educational institutions in Beijing, the People's Republic of China. Results showed that academics' organisational commitments as measured by the Organisational…

  14. Ledelse, organisering og nådegaver i menigheter

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Inge Jenssen og Kjell Birkeland

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In this article, we discuss whether leadership and organisational structure can influence and facilitate the use of spiritual gifts in congregations. The purpose is to substantiate a link and give some examples of what this relationship may be like. We argue that leaders contribute to the design of organisational structures and that they apply […

  15. Ledelse, organisering og nådegaver i menigheter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Inge Jenssen og Kjell Birkeland

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this article, we discuss whether leadership and organisational structure can influence and facilitate the use of spiritual gifts in congregations. The purpose is to substantiate a link and give some examples of what this relationship may be like. We argue that leaders contribute to the design of organisational structures and that they apply […

  16. Organisational Learning and Performance--An Empirical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyothibabu, C.; Pradhan, Bibhuti Bhusan; Farooq, Ayesha

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the important question "how the learning entities--individual, group or organisation--are affecting organisational performance". The answer is important for promoting learning and improving performance. This empirical study in the leading power utility in India found that there is a positive relation between individual- and…

  17. A Review of IT Service Management and Organisational Changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kræmmergaard, Pernille; Lynge, Bjarne Christoffer; Schou, Christoffer Dalby

    The interest in Information technology service management (ITSM) is increasing in practice and also in research we will argue. The aim of implementation of ITSM in IT organisations is to increase the service towards the IT organisations´ customers, businesses and users, and that requires changes in...

  18. Action Learning and Organisation Development: Overlapping Fields of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonstone, John

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between action learning and Organisation Development (OD). It proposes that they are overlapping fields of practice, with interesting similarities and differences. Both fields of practice are experienced as challenging to conventional ways of viewing organisations and people but are also subject to increasing…

  19. Influence of Organisational Defensive Patterns on Learning ICT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, Hon Keung; Cheng, Alison Lai Fong

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether the IT professionals in a Hong Kong public transport company have a general perception of influence of the organisational defensive patterns on learning of ICT; and whether skilled incompetence, organisational defensive routines and fancy footwork are positively associated with each…

  20. Organisational Capability in Internalising Quality Culture in Higher Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, Muhammad Ibrahim; Ibrahim, Burhan Muhammad Bn; Bularafa, Mohammed Waziri

    2015-01-01

    The study examines the influence of leadership roles related to organisational capability consisting of directing setting, strategic and organisational process, alignment, intervention and strategic capability on depending variable internalising quality culture in IIUM. The study used 100 samples consisting of lecturers, non-academic staff and…

  1. Investigating Organisational Innovativeness : Developing a Multidimensional Formative Measure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pallas, Florian; Böckermann, Florian; Goetz, Oliver; Tecklenburg, Kirstin

    2013-01-01

    To survive competition, it is vital for firms to be innovative. As a firm's cultural predisposition, organisational innovativeness provides an environment that fosters innovations and thus actively supports new product or service development. The purpose of this study is to measure organisational in

  2. The improvement of organisational learning process with total quality management

    OpenAIRE

    Escrig-Tena, Ana Belén

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this paper deals with the influence exerted by TQM on the capability to promote the process of organisational learning, as one of the competencies that the introduction of TQM helps to develop, We discuss the extent to which the critical factors of TQM favour both the exploration of new knowledge that can modify organisational behaviour, and the exploitation of current learning,

  3. The Strength of Accountability and Teachers' Organisational Citizenship Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elstad, Eyvind; Christophersen, Knut-Andreas; Turmo, Are

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Organisational citizenship behaviour (OCB) involves discretionary behaviour advantageous to the organisation that goes beyond existing role expectations. The purpose of this paper is to explore the link between the strength of accountability and teachers' OCB within three different management systems in which teachers are working: a…

  4. Organisational factors important to the safe operation of NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to present the achievements of a group of human factor specialists known as Expanded Task Force on Human Factors (ETF). ETF is part of the Principal Working Group No.1 (PWG1) on 'Operating Experience and Human Factors' of the Committee on Nuclear Safety Installations (CSNI) of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA). Today, as shown by incident analysis, technology is so far developed that human behaviour and organisational deficiencies can contribute to a major part of the root causes of incidents in nuclear power plants. The influence of the organisation on the safe behaviour and performance of individuals is recognised as a relevant issue for the safety of nuclear power plants (NPPs). The need for an up-to-date basis of knowledge in this area was recognised by CSNI and therefore the ETF organised a workshop, in Switzerland, in 1998, on Organisational Factors. During the workshop, different aspects of organisational influences on the safe operation of NPPs were discussed and twelve important organisational factors concerning safety related activities in a NPP were identified. The result of the workshop is summarised in a state-of-the-art Report (SOAR) 'Identification and Assessment of Organisational Factors Related to the Safety of NPPs' issued by the OECD/NEA. The present paper gives an overview on the main findings of the workshop and conclusions concerning the evaluation of organisational factors. (author)

  5. A Longitudinal Study on Newcomers' Perception of Organisational Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turker, Duygu; Altuntas, Ceren

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyse how newcomers' perceptions of organisational culture can change over time. The study tries to address whether initial working experience changes newcomers' perceptions about the ideal organisational culture, and whether these perceptions converge with those of their supervisors.…

  6. Knowledge sharing activities in project-oriented organisations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Eva; Eskerod, Pernille

    2010-01-01

    Findings from examining eleven knowledge sharing activities in five mature project-oriented organisations are presented. Based on in-depth case studies, we claim that mature project-oriented companies will prefer knowledge sharing activities that contribute to an intra-organisational common frame...

  7. Cultural and structural changes in radioactive waste management organisations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years the socio-political environment of radioactive waste management (RWM) has been changing in a significant way. Stakeholder dialogue has become a leading principle. How have RWM organisations adapted to this societal transition? How do they balance the requirement of openness and the increasing concerns over the security of facilities? Are there organisations that have successfully changed from a technical- to a customer-focused culture? What resistance was met? Which tools and instruments helped organisations evolve? This report documents the changes observed by RWM managers and sets those changes in an organisational sciences framework. All those who are intent on learning about the changes that have taken place in the field of radioactive waste management, or whose own organisations in any sector must adapt to societal demand, will be interested by the experience and insight reported here. (authors)

  8. Modelling Socio-Technical Aspects of Organisational Security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivanova, Marieta Georgieva

    Identification of threats to organisations and risk assessment often take into consideration the pure technical aspects, overlooking the vulnerabilities originating from attacks on a social level, for example social engineering, and abstracting away the physical infrastructure. However, attacks on......Net attack is only one of the many examples showing that vulnerabilities of organisations are increasingly exploited on different levels including the human factor. There is an urgent need for integration between the technical and social aspects of systems in assessing their security. Such an integration...... organisations are far from being purely technical. After all, organisations consist of employees. Often the human factor appears to be the weakest point in the security of organisations. It may be easier to break through a system using a social engineering attack rather than a pure technological one. The Stux...

  9. Management accounting as the inter-organisational boundary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Morten

    2010-01-01

    Purpose - The literature on managing inter-organisational relationships typically suggests managing these relationships based on the formalised exchange of information across the organisational boundary with due respect to trust build-up through successive interactions. This article argues...... of the project in focus. In the construction of the price for the product, open book and benchmark data are used. Information does not cross organisational boundaries at face value. Information is applied to the representations and brought into play during negotiations. Thereby managing and management accounting...... that a focus on trust reduces the flexibility and accessibility of resources and hence ruins the advantages of inter-organisational relationships. The article focuses on power as a means for absorbing uncertainty when managing inter-organisational relationships. Methodology - The article is based on findings...

  10. Diversity of nonribosomal peptide synthetase genes in the microbial metagenomes of marine sponges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimentel-Elardo, Sheila Marie; Grozdanov, Lubomir; Proksch, Sebastian; Hentschel, Ute

    2012-06-01

    Genomic mining revealed one major nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) phylogenetic cluster in 12 marine sponge species, one ascidian, an actinobacterial isolate and seawater. Phylogenetic analysis predicts its taxonomic affiliation to the actinomycetes and hydroxy-phenyl-glycine as a likely substrate. Additionally, a phylogenetically distinct NRPS gene cluster was discovered in the microbial metagenome of the sponge Aplysina aerophoba, which shows highest similarities to NRPS genes that were previously assigned, by ways of single cell genomics, to a Chloroflexi sponge symbiont. Genomic mining studies such as the one presented here for NRPS genes, contribute to on-going efforts to characterize the genomic potential of sponge-associated microbiota for secondary metabolite biosynthesis. PMID:22822366

  11. Diversity of Nonribosomal Peptide Synthetase Genes in the Microbial Metagenomes of Marine Sponges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ute Hentschel

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Genomic mining revealed one major nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS phylogenetic cluster in 12 marine sponge species, one ascidian, an actinobacterial isolate and seawater. Phylogenetic analysis predicts its taxonomic affiliation to the actinomycetes and hydroxy-phenyl-glycine as a likely substrate. Additionally, a phylogenetically distinct NRPS gene cluster was discovered in the microbial metagenome of the sponge Aplysina aerophoba, which shows highest similarities to NRPS genes that were previously assigned, by ways of single cell genomics, to a Chloroflexi sponge symbiont. Genomic mining studies such as the one presented here for NRPS genes, contribute to on-going efforts to characterize the genomic potential of sponge-associated microbiota for secondary metabolite biosynthesis.

  12. Flourishing of information technology professionals: Effects on individual and organisational outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    E. Diedericks; S. Rothmann

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between flourishing and individual and organisational outcomes, including job satisfaction, organisational commitment, organisational citizenship behaviour, turnover intention and counterproductive behaviour. A convenience sample (N = 205) was taken of employees in information technology organisations in South Africa. A biographical questionnaire, the Mental Health Continuum Short Form, Job Satisfaction Scale, Organisational Commitment...

  13. Behavioural Finance and Organisations: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Houdek

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a short overview of heuristics and biases in managerial decision-making under risk and the consequences of such non-standard preferences for financial health of organisations. It is argued that, particularly in the case of inefficient ownership control or poor corporate governance, such bounded rationality manifestations can have a significant impact on a firm’s performance. We also argue that in such cases risk preferences of individual managers can be more idiosyncratic. We illustrate that using the concepts of limited attention, reference-dependence decision-making and especially overconfidence (over-optimism. The relevance of such concepts is shown on a number of real data studies analysing investment policies of firms, their leverages, financing strategies and decisions on mergers and acquisitions. We also include recommendations targeted at minimising negative outcomes of bounded rationality at the managerial level in respect of financial health of firms. The final parts concern limits of the current empirical literature.

  14. User and virtual organisation support in EGEE

    CERN Document Server

    Donno, Flavia

    2006-01-01

    User and virtual organisation support in EGEE Providing adequate user support in a grid environment is a very challenging task due to the distributed nature of the grid. The variety of users and the variety of Virtual Organizations (VO) with a wide range of applications in use add further to the challenge. The people asking for support are of various kinds. They can be generic grid beginners, users belonging to a given Virtual Organization and dealing with a specific set of applications, site administrators operating grid services and local computing infrastructures, grid monitoring operators who check the status of the grid and need to contact the specific site to report problems; to this list can be added network specialists and others. Wherever a user is located and whatever the problem experienced is, a user expects from a support infrastructure a given set of services. A non-exhaustive list is the following: a) a single access point for support; b) a portal with a well structured sources of information a...

  15. Studies in Organisational Semiotics: an introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodney Clarke

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available The broad application of semiotic approaches to organisations has been considered by a number of information systems academics to be a necessary advance in information systems theory (see for examples Land 1985, Rzevski 1985, and Tully 1985. Along with psychology and sociology, semiotics is considered to be a foundation discipline for information systems within the IFIP WG 8.1 FRISCO Framework (Falkenberg, et al eds/ 2000. Semiotics examines the processes of production and consumption of meanings in organisations, institutions and society, and their underlying mechanisms by means of what Pap (1991, 47 refers to as a "...systematic analysis of patterns of interpretive behaviour". Although often unacknowledged, meaning is central to any definition of an information system. While the concept of meaning and meaning making is difficult to define, semiotic theory can assist by emphasising the distinctions between 'information', 'meaning', 'sense' and 'reference' for example (see Noth 1990, 92-102. Eco (1976, 8, provides a broad definition of semiotics as the study of "...all cultural processes as processes of communication". Cultural processes are interpreted to include organisational contexts and processes thereby providing a link between systems and organisations. Most applied semiotic studies start by identifying or defining one or more models of the sign as the basic unit of analysis. Signs are usually glossed as 'something that stands for something else in some capacity or another'. Depending on the model of the sign, mention may be made to an entity for whom the 'stands for' relationship applies. For a discipline often defined as the 'study of signs', there are a plethora of distinct sign models from which to choose. The reader is directed to Winfried Noth's Handbook of Semiotics for a detailed description of different sign typologies, sign models and disciplinary history (Noth 1990, 79-91. The period of modern semiotics starts at the beginning

  16. Teacher education - a whole organisation approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grayling, Ian

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This discussion paper aims to stimulate debate, and maybe research, into the pivotal role of managers in securing high quality teacher development within the Further Education System. The quality of teacher education, initial and continuing, has an obvious impact on the confidence and competence of teachers and therefore on the quality of teaching & learning. Teacher education, however, needs to be more embedded or ‘situated’, focusing on real issues in real-time and often with the support of colleagues. This cannot be the sole responsibility of teacher educators and will require the commitment and active engagement of the whole organisation that employs the teacher/trainee. Teachers and their managers will need to embrace models of professional development that are practice-led rather than syllabus or programme-led, actively seeking out and promoting such opportunities. This would constitute a fairly radical change in both the thinking and practice of managers within the Further Education System. Without such a change, however, real improvements in teaching and learning will be slow and hard-won.

  17. Advances in self-organising maps

    CERN Document Server

    Allinson, Nigel; Allinson, Lesley; Slack, Jon

    2001-01-01

    This is the third Workshop on Self-Organising Maps (WSOM) and its related techniques. The previous two were held in Helsinki (1997 and 1999) and confIrmed the vitality of the SOM as one of the most popular and powerful concepts for unsupervised pattern recognition and data visualisation. These meetings not only acted as a showcase for the latest advances in SOM theory and for illustrating its vast range of applicability, but also as venues where much informal and fruitful interaction could take place. It is interesting to observe the development of the original SOM, and this remarkable progress confrrms the originality and insight of Teuvo Kohonen's pioneering work. With the range and quality of the papers in this volume, the stage is set for another very successful meeting. This volume is a permanent record of all the contributions presented during WSOM'OI held at the University of Lincolnshire and Humberside, 13 - 15 June, 2001. The University is the newest of England's universities but it is situated in th...

  18. Rewards in a Not-For-Profit Organisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ron Kluvers

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on a study undertaken in a Not-For-Profit (NFP organisation providing services for people with disabilities. The organisation concerned is made up of two units and in response to a changing funding model, has introduced a performance bonus in one of the units. This situation raises the question as to how extrinsic rewards, as compared with intrinsic rewards, are perceived by staff of NFP organisations as a source of motivation. The effectiveness of an organisation is influenced by the motivation of its employees. Governance is concerned with enhancing the effectiveness of organisations. Because employee motivation impinges so critically upon effectiveness of the operations of the organisation, it is a governance issue. Data was gathered through a survey that had a number of statements about intrinsic and extrinsic rewards. The responses of the staff were indicated using a five-point Likert scale. The frequencies and percentages of those responses are reported in this study. The important findings of the study are that intrinsic rewards play a significant role in the motivation of staff in this NFP organisation. Extrinsic rewards were regarded in a more ambiguous way.

  19. The relationship between organisational trust and quality of work life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolandi van der Berg

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Managers within organisations should be more attentive regarding their managerial practices, the quality of work life (QWL and trust relationships, as experienced by employees.Research purpose: The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between organisational trust and QWL.Motivation for the study: Recent organisational changes have refocused attention on the productivity and performance of sales representatives. These changes have brought about a re-evaluation of their QWL and the organisational trust they experience.Research design, approach and method: An Internet-based survey methodology was used to collect primary data from a probability sample of 282 sales representatives; a 72% response rate was obtained. Responses were analysed using quantitative techniques and structural equation modelling.Main findings: Results confirmed a positive relationship between managerial practices with organisational trust and QWL and a lower relationship between the personality dimensions, organisational trust and the QWL.Practical/managerial implications: The study accentuated how important it is for management to be constantly aware of employees’ trust and their experience of a QWL, as these factors can lead to severe consequences if not properly managed.Contribution/value add: The study focused attention on the importance of building good trust relationships within an organisation, as it seems as though the personality traits and managerial practices of managers influence not only the trust relationship experienced by employees, but also their experience of a QWL.

  20. Supportive Organisational Cultures and their effects on Male Civil Engineers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valarie Francis

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Substantial changes, not only in the demographic composition of the Australian workforce, but also,in the roles and expectations of men and women, have led to organisational and employee attempts to reconcile work and non-work demands. Research suggests that when work-family balance practices are introduced they can greatly enhance organisational efficency. However factors embedded in the organisational culture can undermine these policies rendering them ineffective. This quantitative study examined the relationship between the perceptions of a supportive work culture and some work and non-work experiences of Australian male civil engineers. The research investigated the prevalence of organisational values supportive of work-life balances as well as the level of work-family conflict perceived by those engineers. This paper reports some initial results of the study. These indicated that male civil engineers experienced moderate levels of work-family conflict but do not perceive their organisations to be very supportive of employee nneeds to balance work and personal life. However those that reported a supportive work environment also reported higher levels of organisational commitment, greater job and life satisfaction as well as lower level of work-family conflict and lower intentions to quit. The implications of the findings for organisations employing civil engineers are discussed.   

  1. Supportive Organisational Cultures and their effects on Male Civil Engineers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valarie Francis

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Substantial changes, not only in the demographic composition of the Australian workforce, but also,in the roles and expectations of men and women, have led to organisational and employee attempts to reconcile work and non-work demands. Research suggests that when work-family balance practices are introduced they can greatly enhance organisational efficency. However factors embedded in the organisational culture can undermine these policies rendering them ineffective. This quantitative study examined the relationship between the perceptions of a supportive work culture and some work and non-work experiences of Australian male civil engineers. The research investigated the prevalence of organisational values supportive of work-life balances as well as the level of work-family conflict perceived by those engineers. This paper reports some initial results of the study. These indicated that male civil engineers experienced moderate levels of work-family conflict but do not perceive their organisations to be very supportive of employee nneeds to balance work and personal life. However those that reported a supportive work environment also reported higher levels of organisational commitment, greater job and life satisfaction as well as lower level of work-family conflict and lower intentions to quit. The implications of the findings for organisations employing civil engineers are discussed.

  2. MANAGERIAL ORGANISATIONAL PATHOLOGIES IN PERIODS OF EXETENDED CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PASTOR IOAN

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In periods of extended crisis an increasing number of organisations are faced and confronted with pathological phenomena such as corruption, organizational stress, burnout, workaholism, mobbing, collective personality, organizational myths and neurotic organizations, which can generate organisational dysfunctions, managerial and organisational crises, critical moments when the results are unclear, disorders, confusions, mental and professional illnesses, organisational illnesses. All these have severe and generalized disadaptive effects that influence not only the personal life of the organisation’s members, but also their socio-professional life. They affect the work ability of the members of the organisation, the formal and informal relationships between them, their well-being and work productivity. In time, the organisation turns from a healthy and efficient one into a morbid and very unproductive one. The paper presents the results of some research for diagnosing some of these disadaptive phenomena present in the different sectors of activity of the Mureş County, which are affected by an extended crisis: organisational stress, burnout, workaholism and mobbing.

  3. The greening of organisational IT: what makes a difference?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Kuo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The trend towards green information technology (IT over the last few years is a result of an acknowledgement of both the environmental impact of IT and the role IT plays as a potential source of solutions to environmental concerns. As organisations are under increasing pressures to act sustainably, environmental considerations are taking greater importance for organisations and the organisations’ information systems (IS and IT. This paper introduces a model proposing competitive pressures, legitimation pressures, social responsibility pressures, organisational factors and technological constraints as factors which influence the extent of green IT in organisations. An online survey was developed and tested with IT practitioners. Regression analysis revealed that the extent of green IT in organisations is influenced by a combination of these factors. Foremost of the factors is the capability of the organisation to adapt. Other factors which account for differences in the extent of green IT in organisations include legitimation and social responsibility pressures. The regression indicated a good fit for the developed model, providing a basis for further research.

  4. Book review: Organisational behaviour: A contemporary South African perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Thatcher

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Authors: Helen Schultz (Ed., Jeffrey Bagraim, Tracy Potgieter, Conrad Viedge, Amanda Werner Publisher: Van Schaik Publishers According to the authors the aim of this book is to present an interdisciplinary approach to the understanding of organisational behaviour within the contemporary South African environment. Within this framework, the book targets (senior undergraduate and postgraduate students in Industrial/Organisational Psychology and Human Resources Management. The text is written in a simple, conversational style (as was the intention of the authors that should be suitable for most undergraduate students at English-speaking tertiary institutions. The book is organised into three sections based on a model of four components of organizational behaviour: the individual, the group and the organisation. The fourth component of the model, the environment, refers specifically in the context of this book, to a contemporary South African approach to understanding behaviour in organisations. In the ‘individual’ section, the authors cover topics such as individual differences (e.g. personality, attitudes, perceptions, emotional intelligence, etc., ethics, work motivation, and performance management. In the ‘group’ section, the authors look at issues of group and team dynamics, power and empowerment, communication, decision-making and leadership. Finally, in the ‘organisation’ section, the authors address issues of contemporary organisational design, organisational change and employee well-being (e.g. stress management, job satisfaction, etc..

  5. Intra-organisational accounting during negotiation processes for inter-organisational control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Morten

    To date the literature on management and management accounting within inter-organisational relationships has mainly focussed on managing the interface between the supplier and the buyer. In contrast to most previous research, this study examines the internal practices of a company engaged in inter...... with the ambition of being in power in the relationship. However, due to inadequate management accounting practices, the company is unable to include cost information in its response to proposals made by its suppliers during negotiations. Consequently the cost aspect of the product fades away from the negotiations...

  6. Isolation and biological activities of secondary metabolites from the sponges monanchora aff. arbuscula, aplysina sp. petromica ciocalyptoides and topsentia ophiraphidies, from the ascidian didemnum ligulum and from the octocoral carijoa riisei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The investigation of extracts from six species of marine invertebrates yielded one new and several known natural products. Isoptilocaulin from the sponge Monanchora aff. arbuscula displayed antimicrobial activity at 1.3 mg/mL against an oxacillin-resistant strain of Staphylococcus aureus. Five inactive known dibromotyrosine derivatives, 2 6, were isolated from a new species of marine sponge, Aplysina sp. The sponges Petromica ciocalyptoides and Topsentia ophiraphidites yielded the known halistanol sulfate A (7) as an inhibitor of the antileishmanial target adenosine phosphoribosyl transferase. The ascidian Didemnum ligulum yielded asterubin (10) and the new N,N-dimethyl-O-methylethanolamine (11). The octocoral Carijoa riisei yielded the known 18-acetoxypregna-1,4,20-trien-3-one (12), which displayed cytotoxic activity against the cancer cell lines SF295, MDA-MB435, HCT8 and HL60. (author)

  7. A Self-organising Model of Market with Single Commodity

    OpenAIRE

    Anirban Chakraborti; Srutarshi Pradhan; Chakrabarti, Bikas K.

    2000-01-01

    We have studied here the self-organising features of the dynamics of a model market, where the agents `trade' for a single commodity with their money. The model market consists of fixed numbers of economic agents, money supply and commodity. We demonstrate that the model, apart from showing a self-organising behaviour, indicates a crucial role for the money supply in the market and also its self-organising behaviour is seen to be significantly affected when the money supply becomes less than ...

  8. Preparing organisations for employee-driven open innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amundsen, O.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study addresses the need to prepare organisations, small or large, for open innovation approaches, including the development of capacity to exploit the potential benefits of such principles through Employee-Driven Innovation (EDI. Based on interviews in 20 Norwegian enterprises, we propose that EDI is an under-explored opportunity in many organisations, and that the systematic introduction of EDI practices increases organisations' ability to exploit open innovation principles and favourably impacts the capacity for innovation. Specifically, EDI results in a more general interest in improvement among employees, increased engagement in innovation processes, and reduced opposition to change.

  9. Microtubule self-organisation by reaction-diffusion processes causes collective transport and organisation of cellular particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demongeot Jacques

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The transport of intra-cellular particles by microtubules is a major biological function. Under appropriate in vitro conditions, microtubule preparations behave as a 'complex' system and show 'emergent' phenomena. In particular, they form dissipative structures that self-organise over macroscopic distances by a combination of reaction and diffusion. Results Here, we show that self-organisation also gives rise to a collective transport of colloidal particles along a specific direction. Particles, such as polystyrene beads, chromosomes, nuclei, and vesicles are carried at speeds of several microns per minute. The process also results in the macroscopic self-organisation of these particles. After self-organisation is completed, they show the same pattern of organisation as the microtubules. Numerical simulations of a population of growing and shrinking microtubules, incorporating experimentally realistic reaction dynamics, predict self-organisation. They forecast that during self-organisation, macroscopic parallel arrays of oriented microtubules form which cross the reaction space in successive waves. Such travelling waves are capable of transporting colloidal particles. The fact that in the simulations, the aligned arrays move along the same direction and at the same speed as the particles move, suggest that this process forms the underlying mechanism for the observed transport properties. Conclusions This process constitutes a novel physical chemical mechanism by which chemical energy is converted into collective transport of colloidal particles along a given direction. Self-organisation of this type provides a new mechanism by which intra cellular particles such as chromosomes and vesicles can be displaced and simultaneously organised by microtubules. It is plausible that processes of this type occur in vivo.

  10. Work and organisation in wood fuel systems; Arbete och organisation i traedbraenslesystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gellerstedt, S.; Soederqvist, A.; Ager, B.

    1999-11-01

    We have completed an exploratory analysis of the work environment and work organisation in wood fuel systems. The prime focus has been placed on wood fuel factories and district heating plants. Our findings show that the working conditions in these operations are relatively good. However, to keep the sector competitive, the working environment must be improved, particularly early in the production chain. Wood fuel involves the presence of dust, mould fungus and the risk of dust explosion and fire. The raw material is also of varying sizes and shapes, and is often contaminated, causing problems throughout the production chain. Other concerns shared with similar industrial operations include: accidents involving falls, noise and electromagnetic fields. General problems include traffic accidents, working at night or alone, on-call duty, and stress caused by time constraints. The content of the work in wood fuel factories and heating plants is relatively highly skilled, and has variety and stimulation. In large heating plants, there are hierarchical organisations with situations including friction between Operation and Maintenance subdivisions. The report gives suggestions on how the operations could be developed. For some issues there is local knowledge that should be disseminated throughout the industry. For other issues, like fires and serious accidents, the industry should collectively gather information. Areas that should be developed include safer and simpler maintenance, multi-skilled work teams, remote control of operations, as well as ways to guarantee the quality of the raw material 45 refs, 10 figs, 4 tabs

  11. The role of professional organisations in nursing advancement

    OpenAIRE

    Bergman, R

    1983-01-01

    Some thoughts are pre sented on the role of professional organisations in nursing advancement and the development of a model for nurses’ associations in setting objectives, priorities and activities relative to their roles is shared with the reader.

  12. The European Stroke Organisation Guidelines: a standard operating procedure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ntaios, George; Bornstein, Natan M; Caso, Valeria;

    2015-01-01

    pace with this progress and driven by the strong determination of the European Stroke Organisation to further promote stroke management, education, and research, the European Stroke Organisation decided to delineate a detailed standard operating procedure for its guidelines. There are two important......In 2008, the recently founded European Stroke Organisation published its guidelines for the management of ischemic stroke and transient ischemic attack. This highly cited document was translated in several languages and was updated in 2009. Since then, the European Stroke Organisation has published...... guidelines for the management of intracranial aneurysms and subarachnoidal hemorrhage, for the establishment of stroke units and stroke centers, and recently for the management of intracerebral hemorrhage. In recent years, the methodology for the development of guidelines has evolved significantly. To keep...

  13. Exploring the identity and "sense of identity" of organisations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C L Van Tonder

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available During the past two decades a steady increase in scholarly contributions in the area of organisation identity have been observed – to the point that the phenomenon is now the subject of a sustainable discourse in several disciplines. Many theoretical and conceptual dilemmas however remain, largely as a result of the low incidence of empirical research in the area. This study reports the results of an exploratory investigation that adapted Schley and Wagenfield’s (1979 concept of identity for use in an organisational setting. Interviews were conducted with 152 top managers representing 10 companies. The results indicate that organisational responses to the question “who am I?�? elicit distinctive organisational self-descriptions and some awareness of identity issues.

  14. Cryptogenic Organising Pneumonia As The Initial Presenting Manifestation of SLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neena Mampilly

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Cryptogenic Organising Pneumonia (COP, also called idiopathic Bronchiolitis Obliterans Organising Pneumonia( BOOP, is a distinct entity among the idiopathic interstitial pneumonias defined histopathologically by intraalveolar buds of granulation tissue. The etiology includes idiopathic, infectious, drug induced radiation induced and connective tissue diseases. Organising pneumonia occurs particularly in patients with dermatomyositis-polymyositis where it may be the presenting manifestation, and rarely in SLE, rheumatoid arthritis, scleroderma and other connective tissue diseases. We describe a 30 yr old lady who initially presented with respiratory symptoms, not responding to antibiotics. She was subsequently diagnosed as SLE and HRCT thorax showed consolidation involving both lung fields. A percutaneous lung biopsy revealed features of Cryptogenic Organising Pneumonia.

  15. The Scanfin Merger: Managing Organisational Change (Case C)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Pernille; Carugati, Andrea; Giangreco, Antonio

    integration process of the merger. The main issue is how a middle manager constitutes an obstacle to this organisational change by re-inforcing the 'old' ways of working in his group. To solve this case satisfactorily students should be able to see the organisation from several different layers (employee......This is the third of a four-case series (408-115-1, 908-025-1, 308-343-1 and 608-037-1). This case is about resistance to organisational change in relation to a merger. The case describes a major organisational change in a newly established department, which has been instituted to speed up the......, middle management, top management) and explain how these different perspectives are interconnected and can be managed....

  16. Applying OR to problem situations within community organisations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tavella, Elena; Papadopoulos, Thanos

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on how the use of Community OR (COR), specifically Systems Thinking (ST) and the Viable System Model (VSM) can help in addressing complex and uncertain problem situations within community organisations, in particular Alternative Food Networks (AFNs). Literature has highlighted...... intervention within a member-driven food cooperative in Copenhagen, Denmark, and the changes in decision making and the organisational structure of the cooperative. We illustrate the application of the VSM and in particular the methodology for organisational self-transformation within ‘localist green...... communitarianism’ and ‘nonprofit management’ to tackle issues, enhance democratic and participative decision making, and changes in the organisational structure that foster coordination and cohesion. The implications for COR and Soft OR, limitations and future research directions are also provided....

  17. Making Sense of Organisational Change Through Vicarious Narratives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lønsmann, Dorte

    ? In this familyowned company, stories about the four generations of the founding family play an important role in making sense of changes and changing values in the organisation. When employees tell stories about the founders and about other employees, and especially when these are told again and again, the telling......The paper focuses on the role of vicarious narratives in employees’ sense‐making in relation to organisational change. The paper addresses the following research question: How do employees use vicarious narratives to makes sense of organisational change, and of their own role in the organisation...... of the stories becomes a symbol of belonging to a corporate culture while at the same time contributing to creating that culture. The paper therefore also examines the ways in which vicarious narratives are part of the process of creating corporate culture and identity. The data for the paper has been collected...

  18. Women in formal corporate networks: an organisational citizenship perspective.

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Val; Vinnicombe, Susan; Kumra, Savita

    2006-01-01

    To investigate women's corporate networks, and the reported benefits for the women and their employers. To gain insight into the motivation for these voluntary activities, by drawing on organisational citizenship theory.

  19. The MTO concept and organisational learning at Forsmark NPP, Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The term 'MTO' (Man-Technology-Organisation) has been widely used by Swedish utilities and regulators to describe knowledge and analytical techniques that focus on human and organisational factors and their relationship with nuclear safety. MTO was introduced in Sweden after the TMI accident as a concept similar to the 'Human Factors' (HF) concept developed in the USA. It was the intent that the explicit mention of the three interrelated elements in the concept - Man, Technology and Organisation - would stimulate a comprehensive 'system view' on nuclear safety. This view should go beyond a strict technological perspective to recognise and highlight human and organisational factors as important moderators of risk. In retrospect, the MTO concept has been successful in stimulating a socio-technological view of nuclear safety in Sweden - a general trend supported by international developments. A further step along this path has been taken with the LearnSafe project. (author)

  20. Conformity assessment as a manner of risk optimisation in organisations

    OpenAIRE

    T. Karkoszka

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: of the paper has been the revealing the dependence between conformity assessment of the implemented quality system of any kind and optimization of the system risk in typical production organisation, special organisation realising production for products supplied for the needs of arm forces as well as research and standardizing laboratory.Design/methodology/approach: Methodology used for the analysis has covered the analyses of results of internal and external audits conducted in Poli...