WorldWideScience

Sample records for ascidian organisation gene

  1. Ascidian gene-expression profiles

    OpenAIRE

    William R Jeffery

    2002-01-01

    With the advent of gene-expression profiling, a large number of genes can now be investigated simultaneously during critical stages of development. This approach will be particularly informative in studies of ascidians, basal chordates whose genomes and embryology are uniquely suited for mapping developmental gene networks.

  2. Huntingtin gene evolution in Chordata and its peculiar features in the ascidian Ciona genus

    OpenAIRE

    Cattaneo Elena; Pesole Graziano; Gissi Carmela; Tartari Marzia

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background To gain insight into the evolutionary features of the huntingtin (htt) gene in Chordata, we have sequenced and characterized the full-length htt mRNA in the ascidian Ciona intestinalis, a basal chordate emerging as new invertebrate model organism. Moreover, taking advantage of the availability of genomic and EST sequences, the htt gene structure of a number of chordate species, including the cogeneric ascidian Ciona savignyi, and the vertebrates Xenopus and Gallus was reco...

  3. Huntingtin gene evolution in Chordata and its peculiar features in the ascidian Ciona genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cattaneo Elena

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To gain insight into the evolutionary features of the huntingtin (htt gene in Chordata, we have sequenced and characterized the full-length htt mRNA in the ascidian Ciona intestinalis, a basal chordate emerging as new invertebrate model organism. Moreover, taking advantage of the availability of genomic and EST sequences, the htt gene structure of a number of chordate species, including the cogeneric ascidian Ciona savignyi, and the vertebrates Xenopus and Gallus was reconstructed. Results The C. intestinalis htt transcript exhibits some peculiar features, such as spliced leader trans-splicing in the 98 nt-long 5' untranslated region (UTR, an alternative splicing in the coding region, eight alternative polyadenylation sites, and no similarities of both 5' and 3'UTRs compared to homologs of the cogeneric C. savignyi. The predicted protein is 2946 amino acids long, shorter than its vertebrate homologs, and lacks the polyQ and the polyP stretches found in the the N-terminal regions of mammalian homologs. The exon-intron organization of the htt gene is almost identical among vertebrates, and significantly conserved between Ciona and vertebrates, allowing us to hypothesize an ancestral chordate gene consisting of at least 40 coding exons. Conclusion During chordate diversification, events of gain/loss, sliding, phase changes, and expansion of introns occurred in both vertebrate and ascidian lineages predominantly in the 5'-half of the htt gene, where there is also evidence of lineage-specific evolutionary dynamics in vertebrates. On the contrary, the 3'-half of the gene is highly conserved in all chordates at the level of both gene structure and protein sequence. Between the two Ciona species, a fast evolutionary rate and/or an early divergence time is suggested by the absence of significant similarity between UTRs, protein divergence comparable to that observed between mammals and fishes, and different distribution of repetitive

  4. Ordered expression pattern of Hox and ParaHox genes along the alimentary canal in the ascidian juvenile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Satoshi; Satou, Kunihiro; Orito, Wataru; Ogasawara, Michio

    2016-07-01

    The Hox and ParaHox genes of bilateria share a similar expression pattern along the body axis and are known to be associated with anterior-posterior patterning. In vertebrates, the Hox genes are also expressed in presomitic mesoderm and gut endoderm and the ParaHox genes show a restricted expression pattern in the gut-related derivatives. Regional expression patterns in the embryonic central nervous system of the basal chordates amphioxus and ascidian have been reported; however, little is known about their endodermal expression in the alimentary canal. We focus on the Hox and ParaHox genes in the ascidian Ciona intestinalis and investigate the gene expression patterns in the juvenile, which shows morphological regionality in the alimentary canal. Gene expression analyses by using whole-mount in situ hybridization reveal that all Hox genes have a regional expression pattern along the alimentary canal. Expression of Hox1 to Hox4 is restricted to the posterior region of pharyngeal derivatives. Hox5 to Hox13 show an ordered expression pattern correlated with each Hox gene number along the postpharyngeal digestive tract. This expression pattern along the anterior-posterior axis has also been observed in Ciona ParaHox genes. Our observations suggest that ascidian Hox and ParaHox clusters are dispersed; however, the ordered expression patterns along the alimentary canal appear to be conserved among chordates. PMID:26837224

  5. A forkhead gene related to HNF-3beta is required for gastrulation and axis formation in the ascidian embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, C L; Jeffery, W R

    1997-09-01

    We have isolated a member of the HNF-3/forkhead gene family in ascidians as a means to determine the role of winged-helix genes in chordate development. The MocuFH1 gene, isolated from a Molgula oculata cDNA library, exhibits a forkhead DNA-binding domain most similar to zebrafish axial and rodent HNF-3beta. MocuFH1 is a single copy gene but there is at least one other related forkhead gene in the M. oculata genome. The MocuFH1 gene is expressed in the presumptive endoderm, mesenchyme and notochord cells beginning during the late cleavage stages. During gastrulation, MocuFH1 expression occurs in the prospective endoderm cells, which invaginate at the vegetal pole, and in the presumptive notochord and mesenchyme cells, which involute over the anterior and lateral lips of the blastopore, respectively. However, this gene is not expressed in the presumptive muscle cells, which involute over the posterior lip of the blastopore. MocuFH1 expression continues in the same cell lineages during neurulation and axis formation, however, during the tailbud stage, MocuFH1 is also expressed in ventral cells of the brain and spinal cord. The functional role of the MocuFH1 gene was studied using antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs), which transiently reduce MocuFH1 transcript levels during gastrulation. Embryos treated with antisense ODNs cleave normally and initiate gastrulation. However, gastrulation is incomplete, some of the endoderm and notochord cells do not enter the embryo and undergo subsequent movements, and axis formation is abnormal. In contrast, the prospective muscle cells, which do not express MocuFH1, undergo involution and later express muscle actin and acetylcholinesterase, markers of muscle cell differentiation. The results suggest that MocuFH1 is required for morphogenetic movements of the endoderm and notochord precursor cells during gastrulation and axis formation. The effects of inhibiting MocuFH1 expression on embryonic axis formation in ascidians are

  6. Reference gene selection for quantitative gene expression studies during biological invasions: A test on multiple genes and tissues in a model ascidian Ciona savignyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xuena; Gao, Yangchun; Jiang, Bei; Zhou, Zunchun; Zhan, Aibin

    2016-01-15

    As invasive species have successfully colonized a wide range of dramatically different local environments, they offer a good opportunity to study interactions between species and rapidly changing environments. Gene expression represents one of the primary and crucial mechanisms for rapid adaptation to local environments. Here, we aim to select reference genes for quantitative gene expression analysis based on quantitative Real-Time PCR (qRT-PCR) for a model invasive ascidian, Ciona savignyi. We analyzed the stability of ten candidate reference genes in three tissues (siphon, pharynx and intestine) under two key environmental stresses (temperature and salinity) in the marine realm based on three programs (geNorm, NormFinder and delta Ct method). Our results demonstrated only minor difference for stability rankings among the three methods. The use of different single reference gene might influence the data interpretation, while multiple reference genes could minimize possible errors. Therefore, reference gene combinations were recommended for different tissues - the optimal reference gene combination for siphon was RPS15 and RPL17 under temperature stress, and RPL17, UBQ and TubA under salinity treatment; for pharynx, TubB, TubA and RPL17 were the most stable genes under temperature stress, while TubB, TubA and UBQ were the best under salinity stress; for intestine, UBQ, RPS15 and RPL17 were the most reliable reference genes under both treatments. Our results suggest that the necessity of selection and test of reference genes for different tissues under varying environmental stresses. The results obtained here are expected to reveal mechanisms of gene expression-mediated invasion success using C. savignyi as a model species.

  7. Organisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindkvist, Pia

    Du vil som læser få et indblik i, hvordan omgivelsernes ændrede krav til virksomhederne ændrer på organisations- og ledelsesteorien. Baggrunden for ”Organisation – videregående uddannelser” er, at give dig egenskaberne til at analysere og vurdere ledelsesmæssige og organisatoriske problemer...

  8. Social insects: from selfish genes to self organisation and beyond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boomsma, Jacobus Jan; Franks, Nigel R.

    2006-01-01

    Selfish gene and self-organisation approaches have revolutionised the study of social insects and have provided unparalleled insights into the highly sophisticated nature of insect social evolution. Here, we briefly review the core programs and interfaces with communication and recognition studies...... that characterise these fields today, and offer an interdisciplinary future perspective for the study of social insect evolutionary biology....

  9. Organisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Henrik B.; Hansen, Kaj; Heide, Asbjørn;

    Bogen giver en indføring i de centrale emner indenfor organisation og ledelse. Bogen henvender sig især til akademi- og diplomuddannelserne samt uddannelser til professionsbachelorer, der alle har et anvendelsesorienteret formål. Endvidere henvender bogen sig til uddannelser og kurser, der...... beskæftiger sig med ledelse og organisation på et videregående niveau. Til bogen er der udarbejdet en lang række supplerende materialer til undervisere og studerende i form af opgaver og cases, test med tilhørende svar, vejledninger i opgaveløsning og projektarbejde. dette univers kan findes på bogens...... hjemmeside på www.organisation.academica.dk...

  10. An otx/nodal regulatory signature for posterior neural development in ascidians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnès Roure

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In chordates, neural induction is the first step of a complex developmental process through which ectodermal cells acquire a neural identity. In ascidians, FGF-mediated neural induction occurs at the 32-cell stage in two blastomere pairs, precursors respectively of anterior and posterior neural tissue. We combined molecular embryology and cis-regulatory analysis to unveil in the ascidian Ciona intestinalis the remarkably simple proximal genetic network that controls posterior neural fate acquisition downstream of FGF. We report that the combined action of two direct FGF targets, the TGFβ factor Nodal, acting via Smad- and Fox-binding sites, and the transcription factor Otx suffices to trigger ascidian posterior neural tissue formation. Moreover, we found that this strategy is conserved in the distantly related ascidian Phallusia mammillata, in spite of extreme sequence divergence in the cis-regulatory sequences involved. Our results thus highlight that the modes of gene regulatory network evolution differ with the evolutionary scale considered. Within ascidians, developmental regulatory networks are remarkably robust to genome sequence divergence. Between ascidians and vertebrates, major fate determinants, such as Otx and Nodal, can be co-opted into different networks. Comparative developmental studies in ascidians with divergent genomes will thus uncover shared ascidian strategies, and contribute to a better understanding of the diversity of developmental strategies within chordates.

  11. Characterization and metal-induced gene transcription of two new copper zinc superoxide dismutases in the solitary ascidian Ciona intestinalis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •Ciona intestinalis express two copper-zinc superoxide dismutases (Cu,Zn SODs), one extracellular (Ci-SODa) and one intracellular isoform (Ci-SODb). •Promoters contain consensus sequences similar to mammalian MRE. •Metal exposure results in a significant increase of gene transcription: ci-soda is induced especially by copper and zinc, the increase of ci-sodb transcription is more evident after cadmium exposure. •Genes are mostly transcribed in circulating hemocytes and in ovarian follicular cells. -- Abstract: Antioxidant enzymes are known to protect living organisms against the oxidative stress risk, also induced by metals. In the present study, we describe the purification and molecular characterization of two Cu,Zn superoxide dismutases (SODs), referred to as Ci-SODa and Ci-SODb, from Ciona intestinalis, a basal chordate widely distributed in temperate shallow seawater. The putative amino acid sequences were compared with Cu,Zn SODs from other metazoans and phylogenetic analyses indicate that the two putative Ci-SODs are more related to invertebrate SODs than vertebrate ones. Both phylogenetic and preliminary homology modeling analyses suggest that Ci-SODa and Ci-SODb are extracellular and intracellular isoform, respectively. The mRNA of the two Cu,Zn SODs was localized in hemocytes and in ovarian follicular cells, as revealed by in situ hybridization. The time course of SOD mRNA levels in the presence of three different metals showed upregulation of ci-soda and inhibition of ci-sodb. Spectrophotometric analysis confirms the presence of SOD activity in Ciona tissues. Our in silico analyses of the ci-soda promoter region revealed putative consensus sequences similar to mammalian metal-responsive elements (MRE), suggesting that the transcription of these genes directly depends on metals. These data emphasize the importance of complex metal regulation of ci-soda and ci-sodb transcription, as components of an efficient detoxification pathway

  12. Changes in gelsolin expression during ascidian metamorphosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtsuka, Y; Okamura, Y; Obinata, T

    2001-05-01

    Gelsolin is an actin regulatory protein that is expressed in a wide variety of tissues and is especially abundant in muscle and blood cells. The role of gelsolin during structural reorganization of the body, such as during metamorphosis or regeneration, is poorly understood. We analyzed changes in gelsolin expression during ascidian embryogenesis and metamorphosis using nucleic acid probes and a monoclonal antibody (AS23) specific for ascidian gelsolin; our results indicated that gelsolin is maternally provided and that its de novo gene transcription is initiated during the neurula stage. In the larva, gelsolin was detectable in specific types of nerve cells, i.e. the adhesive papillae, motor neurons and epidermal sensory neurons. During metamorphosis, the expression of gelsolin changes markedly: the expression is suppressed in nerve tissues after tail resorption but is induced in mesodermal tissues. Gelsolin accumulated in mesenchyme cells until the onset of tail resorption, and following tail resorption, these cells migrated to the tunic and differentiated into tunic cells with many fine processes. Migration of the mesenchyme cells into the tunic was completely inhibited by treatment with cytochalasin B. Gelsolin was colocalized with actin in tunic cells, suggesting that it is involved in the rearrangement of actin filaments during cell locomotion or morphogenesis. PMID:11455440

  13. The central nervous system of ascidian larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Clare

    2016-09-01

    Ascidians are marine invertebrate chordates. Their tadpole larvae contain a dorsal tubular nervous system, resulting from the rolling up of a neural plate. Along the anterior-posterior (A-P) axis, the central nervous system (CNS) is organized into a sensory vesicle, neck, trunk ganglion, and tail nerve cord and consists of approximately only 330 cells, of which around 100 are thought to be neurons. The organization of distinct neuronal cell types and neurotransmitter gene expression within the CNS has been described. The unique developmental mode of ascidians, with a small number of cells and a fixed cell division pattern, allows individual cells to be traced throughout development. This feature has led to the complete documentation of the cell lineages of certain cell types in the CNS. Thus, a step-by-step understanding of nervous system development from the initial stages of neural induction to the neurogenesis of individual neurons is a feasible goal. The genetic control of neural fate induction and early neural plate patterning are now well understood. The molecular mechanisms specifying the cholinergic neurons of the trunk ganglion as well as the pigment cells of the sensory organs are also well elucidated. In addition, studies have begun on the morphogenetic processes of neurulation. Remaining challenges include building an embryonic atlas integrating gene expression patterns, cell lineage, and neuronal cell types as well as developing the gene regulatory networks of cell fate specification and integrating them with the genetic control of morphogenesis. WIREs Dev Biol 2016, 5:538-561. doi: 10.1002/wdev.239 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:27328318

  14. The ascidian prophenoloxidase activating system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Cammarata

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Phenoloxidases/tyrosinases initiate melanin synthesis in almost all organisms, and are involved in different biological activities such as the colour change of human hair and the browning or blackening of fruit skin etc. In many invertebrates, defence reactions are linked to phenoloxidase activity and/or melanization. Contacts with foreign molecules are able to trigger the prophenoloxidase (proPO system that requires serine protease cleavage for activating the zymogen to phenoloxidase (PO. It is generally accepted that the proPO system is fully expressed in arthropods, and, recently, progress in the regulation of crustacean and insect proPO activation steps have been achieved. After cells were stimulated by components of pathogen associated molecular pattern (PAMP, proPO activation takes place via zimogenic serine proteinase in turn activated by PAMPs followed by cascade, spatial and temporal control.The proPO activating system plays a defensive role in arthropods, molluscs, annelids, ascidians and the cephalochordate Branchiostoma belcheri.In the present paper, we report on ascidian proPO system and related molecules, with particular focus on the biochemical, cellular and molecular aspects of the Ciona intestinalis, proPO system of circulating hemocytes from naïve ascidians as well as of body wall following LPS inflammatory challenge.

  15. Genetic perspectives on the ascidian central nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Locascio

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In 2002, date of publication of the Ciona intestinalis genome, ascidians entered the post-genomic era. This tool had a fundamental role and has become the starting point for a series of new functional and genomic studies. Recently, great efforts have been done to characterize the genetic cascades of genes having a key role in early embryonic development and to draw the regulatory networks in which they are involved. In this review, we focused our attention on the last advances obtained in the attempt to clarify the complex molecular events governing ascidian central nervous system development with a special interest for anterior neural and sensory structures. We discussed the more recent theories on its early induction and late regionalization. In particular, we used some conserved genes fully or partially characterized as examples to compare ascidian and vertebrate central nervous system (CNS.By integrating the various results obtained with microarray, morpholino loss of function and promoter analyses, we showed that many progresses have been done to unravel the gene networks controlling early CNS induction and formation. Unfortunately, fewer advances have been done in the identification of the regulatory cascades controlling late CNS regionalization and sensory organs differentiation. Some results are discussed to point out the importance of fully characterizing also these specific regulatory cascades.

  16. Beta-Globin Gene Regulation and Nuclear Organisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Kooren (Jurgen)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractAll genetic information required for the development and functioning of an organism is stored in billions of base pairs of deoxyribonucleic acid (or DNA). In eukaryotes, DNA is organised in large units called chromosomes that are located inside the cells nucleus. On these chromosomes res

  17. Evolutionary origin and genomic organisation of runt-domain containing genes in arthropods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith James M

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene clusters, such as the Hox gene cluster, are known to have critical roles in development. In eukaryotes gene clusters arise primarily by tandem gene duplication and divergence. Genes within a cluster are often co-regulated, providing selective pressure to maintain the genome organisation, and this co-regulation can result in temporal or spatial co-linearity of gene expression. It has been previously noted that in Drosophila melanogaster, three of the four runt-domain (RD containing genes are found in a relatively tight cluster on chromosome 1, raising the possibility of a putative functional RD gene cluster in D. melanogaster. Results To investigate the possibility of such a gene cluster, orthologues of the Drosophila melanogaster RD genes were identified in several endopterygotan insects, two exopterygotan insects and two non-insect arthropods. In all insect species four RD genes were identified and orthology was assigned to the Drosophila sequences by phylogenetic analyses. Although four RD genes were found in the crustacean D. pulex, orthology could not be assigned to the insect sequences, indicating independent gene duplications from a single ancestor following the split of the hexapod lineage from the crustacean lineage. In insects, two chromosomal arrangements of these genes was observed; the first a semi-dispersed cluster, such as in Drosophila, where lozenge is separated from the core cluster of three RD genes often by megabases of DNA. The second arrangement was a tight cluster of the four RD genes, such as in Apis mellifera. This genomic organisation, particularly of the three core RD genes, raises the possibility of shared regulatory elements. In situ hybridisation of embryonic expression of the four RD genes in Drosophila melanogaster and the honeybee A. mellifera shows no evidence for either spatial or temporal co-linearity of expression during embryogenesis. Conclusion All fully sequenced insect genomes

  18. Developmental expression and organisation of fibrinogen genes in the zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, Richard J; Vorjohann, Silja; Béna, Frédérique; Fort, Alexandre; Neerman-Arbez, Marguerite

    2012-01-01

    The zebrafish is a model organism for studying vertebrate development and many human diseases. Orthologues of the majority of human coagulation factors are present in zebrafish, including fibrinogen. As a first step towards using zebrafish to model human fibrinogen disorders, we cloned the zebrafish fibrinogen cDNAs and made in situ hybridisations and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reactions (qRT-PCR) to detect zebrafish fibrinogen mRNAs. Prior to liver development or blood flow we detected zebrafish fibrinogen expression in the embryonic yolk syncytial layer and then in the early cells of the developing liver. While human fibrinogen is encoded by a three-gene, 50 kilobase (kb) cluster on chromosome 4 ( FGB-FGA-FGG ), recent genome assemblies showed that the zebrafish fgg gene appears distanced from fga and fgb , which we confirmed by in situ hybridisation. The zebrafish fibrinogen Bβ and γ protein chains are conserved at over 50% of amino acid positions, compared to the human polypeptides. The zebrafish Aα chain is less conserved and its C-terminal region is nearly 200 amino acids shorter than human Aα. We generated transgenic zebrafish which express a green fluorescent protein reporter gene under the control of a 1.6 kb regulatory region from zebrafish fgg . Transgenic embryos showed strong fluorescence in the developing liver, mimicking endogenous fibrinogen expression. This regulatory sequence can now be used for overexpression of transgenes in zebrafish hepatocytes. Our study is a proof-of-concept step towards using zebrafish to model human disease linked to fibrinogen gene mutations.

  19. Evolutionary changes in the notochord genetic toolkit: a comparative analysis of notochord genes in the ascidian Ciona and the larvacean Oikopleura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Di

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The notochord is a defining feature of the chordate clade, and invertebrate chordates, such as tunicates, are uniquely suited for studies of this structure. Here we used a well-characterized set of 50 notochord genes known to be targets of the notochord-specific Brachyury transcription factor in one tunicate, Ciona intestinalis (Class Ascidiacea, to begin determining whether the same genetic toolkit is employed to build the notochord in another tunicate, Oikopleura dioica (Class Larvacea. We identified Oikopleura orthologs of the Ciona notochord genes, as well as lineage-specific duplicates for which we determined the phylogenetic relationships with related genes from other chordates, and we analyzed their expression patterns in Oikopleura embryos. Results Of the 50 Ciona notochord genes that were used as a reference, only 26 had clearly identifiable orthologs in Oikopleura. Two of these conserved genes appeared to have undergone Oikopleura- and/or tunicate-specific duplications, and one was present in three copies in Oikopleura, thus bringing the number of genes to test to 30. We were able to clone and test 28 of these genes. Thirteen of the 28 Oikopleura orthologs of Ciona notochord genes showed clear expression in all or in part of the Oikopleura notochord, seven were diffusely expressed throughout the tail, six were expressed in tissues other than the notochord, while two probes did not provide a detectable signal at any of the stages analyzed. One of the notochord genes identified, Oikopleura netrin, was found to be unevenly expressed in notochord cells, in a pattern reminiscent of that previously observed for one of the Oikopleura Hox genes. Conclusions A surprisingly high number of Ciona notochord genes do not have apparent counterparts in Oikopleura, and only a fraction of the evolutionarily conserved genes show clear notochord expression. This suggests that Ciona and Oikopleura, despite the morphological similarities

  20. Ecology of ascidians in the macrofouling community of New Mangalore Port

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Venkat, K.; Anil, A.C.; Khandeparker, D.C.; Mokashe, S.S.

    Ascidians constitute a major component of macrofouling community at the New Mangalore Port during the premonsoon season (February-May). The presence of ascidians in these waters is being reported for the first time. Ascidian recruitment...

  1. Genetic organisation of the capsule transport gene region from Haemophilus paragallinarum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. De Smidt

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The region involved in export of the capsule polysaccharides to the cell surface of Haemophilus paragallinarum was cloned and the genetic organisation determined. Degenerate primers designed from sequence alignment of the capsule transport genes of Haemophilus influenzae, Pasteurella multocida and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae were used to amplify a 2.6 kb fragment containing a segment of the H. paragallinarum capsule transport gene locus. This fragment was used as a digoxigenin labelled probe to isolate the complete H. paragallinarum capsule transport gene locus from genomic DNA. The sequence of the cloned DNA was determined and analysis revealed the presence of four genes, each showing high homology with known capsule transport genes. The four genes were designated hctA, B, C and D (for H. paragallinarum capsule transport genes and the predicted products of these genes likely encode an ATP-dependent export system responsible for transport of the capsule polysaccharides to the cell surface, possibly a member of a super family designated ABC (ATP-binding cassette transporters.

  2. GeneNet: a database on structure and functional organisation of gene networks

    OpenAIRE

    Ananko, E A; Podkolodny, N. L.; Stepanenko, I. L.; Ignatieva, E. V.; Podkolodnaya, O. A.; Kolchanov, N. A.

    2002-01-01

    The GeneNet database is designed for accumulation of information on gene networks. Original technology applied in GeneNet enables description of not only a gene network structure and functional relationships between components, but also metabolic and signal transduction pathways. Specialised software, GeneNet Viewer, automatically displays the graphical diagram of gene networks described in the database. Current release 3.0 of GeneNet database contains descriptions of 25 gene networks, 945 pr...

  3. Ascidians from Rocas Atoll, northeast Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Vieira Paiva; Ronaldo Ruy Oliveira-Filho; Tito Monteiro Da Cruz Lotufo

    2015-01-01

    Rocas Atoll is the only one of its kind in the South Atlantic—and the first Brazilian marine biological reserve. This is the first report about the ascidians from Rocas. A total of 12 species were found, 5 of them not hitherto described: Ascidia viridina sp. nov., Didemnum rochai sp. nov., Leptoclinides crocotulus sp. nov., Polysyncraton maurizeliae sp. nov., and Trididemnum rocasensis sp. nov.). One Caribbean species, Didemnum halimedae, was also discovered in the region for the first time. ...

  4. Ascidians from Rocas Atoll, northeast Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Paiva, Sandra V.; Oliveira Filho, Ronaldo R. de; Lotufo, Tito M. da Cruz

    2015-01-01

    Rocas Atoll is the only one of its kind in the South Atlantic—and the first Brazilian marine biological reserve. This is the first report about the ascidians from Rocas. A total of 12 species were found, 5 of them not hitherto described: Ascidia viridina sp. nov., Didemnum rochai sp. nov., Leptoclinides crocotulus sp. nov., Polysyncraton maurizeliae sp. nov., and Trididemnum rocasensis sp. nov. One Caribbean species, Didemnum halimedae, was also discovered in the region for the first time. Fu...

  5. Description of Endozoicomonas ascidiicola sp. nov., isolated from Scandinavian ascidians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schreiber, Lars; Kjeldsen, Kasper Urup; Obst, Matthias;

    2016-01-01

    of an ascidian-specific lineage within the genus Endozoicomonas (Gammaproteobacteria, Oceanospirillales, Hahellaceae). Both strains feature three distinct 16S rRNA gene paralogs, with identities of 98.9–99.1% (AVMART05T) and 97.7–98.8% (KASP37) between paralogs. The strains are closely related to Endozoicomonas......Two gram-negative, facultative anaerobic, chemoorganoheterotrophic, motile and rod-shaped bacteria, strains AVMART05T and KASP37, were isolated from ascidians (Tunicata, Ascidiaceae) of the genus Ascidiella collected at Gullmarsfjord, Sweden. The strains are the first cultured representatives...... atrinae and Endozoicomonas elysicola, with which they share 97.3–98.0% 16S rRNA gene sequence identity. Digital DNA–DNA hybridization, average nucleotide identity, and tetra-nucleotide correlation analysis indicate that both strains belong to a single species distinct from their closest relatives. Both...

  6. Transcript Mapping and Genome Annotation of Ascidian mtDNA Using EST Data

    OpenAIRE

    Gissi, Carmela; Pesole, Graziano

    2003-01-01

    Mitochondrial transcripts of two ascidian species were reconstructed through sequence assembly of publicly available ESTs resembling mitochondrial DNA sequences (mt-ESTs). This strategy allowed us to analyze processing and mapping of the mitochondrial transcripts and to investigate the gene organization of a previously uncharacterized mitochondrial genome (mtDNA). This new strategy would greatly facilitate the sequencing and annotation of mtDNAs. In Ciona intestinalis, the assembled mt-...

  7. Functional organisation of central cardiovascular pathways: studies using c-fos gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dampney, R A L; Horiuchi, J

    2003-12-01

    Until about 10 years ago, knowledge of the functional organisation of the central pathways that subserve cardiovascular responses to homeostatic challenges and other stressors was based almost entirely on studies in anaesthetised animals. More recently, however, many studies have used the method of the expression of immediate early genes, particularly the c-fos gene, to identify populations of central neurons that are activated by such challenges in conscious animals. In this review we first consider the advantages and limitations of this method. Then, we discuss how the application of the method of immediate early gene expression, when used alone or in combination with other methods, has contributed to our understanding of the central mechanisms that regulate the autonomic and neuroendocrine response to various cardiovascular challenges (e.g., hypotension, hypoxia, hypovolemia, and other stressors) as they operate in the conscious state. In general, the results of studies of central cardiovascular pathways using immediate early gene expression are consistent with previous studies in anaesthetised animals, but in addition have revealed other previously unrecognised pathways that also contribute to cardiovascular regulation. Finally, we briefly consider recent evidence indicating that immediate early gene expression can modify the functional properties of central cardiovascular neurons, and the possible significance of this in producing long-term changes in the regulation of the cardiovascular system both in normal and pathological conditions.

  8. Amino Alcohols from the Ascidian Pseudodistoma sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Hyung Won

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Seven new amino alcohol compounds, pseudoaminols A–G (1–7, were isolated from the ascidian Pseudodistoma sp. collected off the coast of Chuja-do, Korea. Structures of these new compounds were determined by analysis of the spectroscopic data and from chemical conversion. The presence of an N-carboxymethyl group in two of the new compounds (6 and 7 is unprecedented among amino alcohols. Several of these compounds exhibited moderate antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity, as well as weak inhibitory activity toward Na+/K+-ATPase.

  9. DNA barcoding of two solitary ascidians, Herdmania momus Savigny, 1816 and Microcosmus squamiger Michaelsen, 1927 from Thoothukudi coast, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffar Ali, H Abdul; Ahmed, N Shabeer

    2016-07-01

    Morphology-based taxonomical studies of ascidians in India are meagre due to lack of ascidian taxonomist and limitations inherent in conventional system-based identification. The use of short fragment of mitochondrial DNA sequence is proving highly useful in identifying species in a situation where, the traditional morphology-based identification is difficult. In the present study, two adult solitary ascidians collected from the Thoothukudi coast were morphologically identified as Herdmania momus Savigny, 1816 and Microcosmus squamiger Michaelsen, 1927. The genomic DNA of these ascidians was isolated, COI gene was amplified, sequenced and submitted to the GenBank under the accession numbers KM058116, KM411616 and KJ944390. Homology search result using BLAST showed that H. momus showed 100% matched with other H. momus, while M. squamiger showed similarity with Pyura herdmani, a member of the same family Pyuridae. The phylogenetic and genetic distance was maximum in interspecies than in intraspecies. These COI sequences will allow the identification of the species through DNA barcoding technique. Here, we report for the first time the COI gene of H. momus, Savigny 1816 from the Indian coast. PMID:26122341

  10. Complete DNA sequence of the mitochondrial genome of the ascidian Halocynthia roretzi (Chordata, Urochordata).

    OpenAIRE

    Yokobori, S i; Ueda, T.; Feldmaier-Fuchs, G; Pääbo, S; Ueshima, R.; Kondow, A; Nishikawa, K.; Watanabe, K.

    1999-01-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of the 14,771-bp-long mitochondrial (mt) DNA of a urochordate (Chordata)-the ascidian Halocynthia roretzi-was determined. All the Halocynthia mt-genes were found to be located on a single strand, which is rich in T and G rather than in A and C. Like nematode and Mytilus edulis mtDNAs, that of Halocynthia encodes no ATP synthetase subunit 8 gene. However, it does encode an additional tRNA gene for glycine (anticodon TCT) that enables Halocynthia mitochondria to...

  11. THALIACEANS, THE NEGLECTED PELAGIC RELATIVES OF ASCIDIANS: A DEVELOPMENTAL AND EVOLUTIONARY ENIGMA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piette, Jacques; Lemaire, Patrick

    2015-06-01

    Most developmental biologists equate tunicates to the sessile ascidians, including Ciona intestinalis, and the pelagic appendicularians, in particular Oikopleura dioica. However, there exists a third group of tunicates with a pelagic lifestyle, the thaliaceans, which include salps, pyrosomes, and doliolids. Although thaliaceans have raised the curiosity offamous zoologists since the 18th century, the difficulty of observing and experimentally manipulating them has led to many controversies and speculations about their life cycles and developmental strategies, the phylogenetic relationship within the group and with other tunicates, and the drivers of speciation in these widely distributed animals living in a seemingly uniform environment. Here, we take a historical perspective to summarize 250 years of work on this intriguing group of animals, and explore how modern genomics and imaging approaches are starting to solve fascinating evolutionary and developmental riddles. Recent molecular analyses support previous morphological evidence that ascidians are not monophyletic and that thaliaceans evolved from a sessile ascidian-like ancestor. In parallel, preliminary live-imaging and gene-expression data offer exciting entry points to understand how the adoption of a pelagic lifestyle led to drastic modifications in the morphology, embryology, and life cycle of these tunicates, compared to their sessile ancestor. PMID:26285352

  12. Solitary ascidians embryos (Chordata, Tunicata as model organisms for testing coastal pollutant toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Zega

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Marine coastal communities are daily exposed to several chemical compounds commonly used in agriculture and industrial activities. Therefore, toxicological studies evaluating the effects of these compounds on marine organisms are of primary importance for marine environment preservation. Different model organisms are used to perform toxicity tests with potential pollutants, under laboratory conditions. In last decades, solitary ascidians have been selected as valuable model organisms to run bioassays with embryos and larvae. In fact, by in vitro fertilization, it is easy to obtain thousands of embryos, rapidly developing and therefore allowing a fast screen of pollutant toxicity.The aim of this review was to summarize results from toxicity tests, run with heavy metals, organo-metal and organic compounds, on solitary ascidian development and settlement to evidence that these animals offer several advantages as models to perform these kind of studies. First of all, they have a sensitiveness directly comparable to that of other marine model organisms. Moreover, the effects of toxicants on exposed embryos and larvae could be studied using different approaches, from ultrastructure to genetic analysis. Finally, since ascidians are chordates morphological and gene expression analyses could provide data for comparative studies with vertebrates.

  13. Specific patterns of gene space organisation revealed in wheat by using the combination of barley and wheat genomic resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waugh Robbie

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because of its size, allohexaploid nature and high repeat content, the wheat genome has always been perceived as too complex for efficient molecular studies. We recently constructed the first physical map of a wheat chromosome (3B. However gene mapping is still laborious in wheat because of high redundancy between the three homoeologous genomes. In contrast, in the closely related diploid species, barley, numerous gene-based markers have been developed. This study aims at combining the unique genomic resources developed in wheat and barley to decipher the organisation of gene space on wheat chromosome 3B. Results Three dimensional pools of the minimal tiling path of wheat chromosome 3B physical map were hybridised to a barley Agilent 15K expression microarray. This led to the fine mapping of 738 barley orthologous genes on wheat chromosome 3B. In addition, comparative analyses revealed that 68% of the genes identified were syntenic between the wheat chromosome 3B and barley chromosome 3 H and 59% between wheat chromosome 3B and rice chromosome 1, together with some wheat-specific rearrangements. Finally, it indicated an increasing gradient of gene density from the centromere to the telomeres positively correlated with the number of genes clustered in islands on wheat chromosome 3B. Conclusion Our study shows that novel structural genomics resources now available in wheat and barley can be combined efficiently to overcome specific problems of genetic anchoring of physical contigs in wheat and to perform high-resolution comparative analyses with rice for deciphering the organisation of the wheat gene space.

  14. Organisational Memetics?: Organisational Learning as a Selection Process

    OpenAIRE

    Price, Ilfryn

    1995-01-01

    Companies are not only systems created and controlled by those who manage them but also self-organising entities that evolve through learning. Whereas an organism is a creation of natural replicators, genes, an organisation can be seen as a product of an alternative replicator, the meme or mental model, acting, like a gene, to preserve itself in an Evolutionary Stable System. The result is an organisation which self organises around a set of unspoken and unwritten rules and assumptions. ...

  15. Microenvironmental Ecology of the Chlorophyll b-containing Symbiotic Cyanobacterium Prochloron in the Didemnid Ascidian Lissoclinum patella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eKühl

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of the cyanobacterium Prochloron was the first finding of a bacterial oxyphototroph with chlorophyll (Chl b, in addition to Chl a. It was first described as Prochloron didemni but a number of clades have since been described. Prochloron is a conspicuously large (7-25 µm unicellular cyanobacterium living in a symbiotic relationship, primarily with (sub- tropical didemnid ascidians; it has resisted numerous cultivation attempts and appears truly obligatory symbiotic. Recently, a Prochloron draft genome was published, revealing no lack of metabolic genes that could explain the apparent inability to reproduce and sustain photosynthesis in a free-living stage. Possibly, the unsuccessful cultivation is partly due to a lack of knowledge about the microenvironmental conditions and ecophysiology of Prochloron in its natural habitat. We used microsensors, variable chlorophyll fluorescence imaging and imaging of O2 and pH to obtain a detailed insight to the microenvironmental ecology and photobiology of Prochloron in hospite in the didemnid ascidian Lissoclinum patella. The microenvironment within ascidians is characterized by steep gradients of light and chemical parameters that change rapidly with varying irradiances. The interior zone of the ascidians harboring Prochloron thus became anoxic and acidic within a few min of darkness, while the same zone exhibited O2 super-saturation and strongly alkaline pH after a few min of illumination. Photosynthesis showed lack of photoinhibition even at high irradiances equivalent to full sunlight, and photosynthesis recovered rapidly after periods of anoxia. We discuss these new insights on the ecological niche of Prochloron and possible interactions with its host and other microbes in light of its recently published genome and a recent study of the overall microbial diversity and metagenome of L. patella.

  16. Organisational Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢苑苑

    2014-01-01

    In the process of global economy, there is a growing demand for organisational learning. This article critically reviews four models of organisational learning and applies them to the work experience of the author.

  17. Organisational Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2006

    2006-01-01

    An understanding of organisational structure can provide guidance for organisations that want to change and innovate. Many writers agree that this understanding allows organisations to shape how their work is done to ultimately achieve their business goals--and that too often structure is given little consideration in business strategy and…

  18. Cell organisation, sulphur metabolism and ion transport-related genes are differentially expressed in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis mycelium and yeast cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Passos Geraldo AS

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mycelium-to-yeast transition in the human host is essential for pathogenicity by the fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and both cell types are therefore critical to the establishment of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM, a systemic mycosis endemic to Latin America. The infected population is of about 10 million individuals, 2% of whom will eventually develop the disease. Previously, transcriptome analysis of mycelium and yeast cells resulted in the assembly of 6,022 sequence groups. Gene expression analysis, using both in silico EST subtraction and cDNA microarray, revealed genes that were differential to yeast or mycelium, and we discussed those involved in sugar metabolism. To advance our understanding of molecular mechanisms of dimorphic transition, we performed an extended analysis of gene expression profiles using the methods mentioned above. Results In this work, continuous data mining revealed 66 new differentially expressed sequences that were MIPS(Munich Information Center for Protein Sequences-categorised according to the cellular process in which they are presumably involved. Two well represented classes were chosen for further analysis: (i control of cell organisation – cell wall, membrane and cytoskeleton, whose representatives were hex (encoding for a hexagonal peroxisome protein, bgl (encoding for a 1,3-β-glucosidase in mycelium cells; and ags (an α-1,3-glucan synthase, cda (a chitin deacetylase and vrp (a verprolin in yeast cells; (ii ion metabolism and transport – two genes putatively implicated in ion transport were confirmed to be highly expressed in mycelium cells – isc and ktp, respectively an iron-sulphur cluster-like protein and a cation transporter; and a putative P-type cation pump (pct in yeast. Also, several enzymes from the cysteine de novo biosynthesis pathway were shown to be up regulated in the yeast form, including ATP sulphurylase, APS kinase and also PAPS reductase. Conclusion Taken

  19. Organisational Art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferro-Thomsen, Martin

    University of Copenhagen / Learning Lab Denmark. 2005 Kort beskrivelse: Organisational Art is a tentative title for an art form that works together with organisations to produce art. This is most often done together with non-artist members of the organisation and on-site in their social context. OA...... is characterised as socially engaged, conceptual, discursive, site-specific and contextual. Abstract: This investigation is about Organisational Art (OA), which is a tentative title for an art form that works together with organisations (companies, institutions, communities, governments and NGOs) to produce art....... This is most often done together with non-artist members of the organisation and on-site in their social context. OA is characterised as socially engaged, conceptual, discursive, site-specific and contextual. It is argued that OA seeks to advance both art and the organisation of human work/life by crossing...

  20. Ascidians and the plasticity of the chordate developmental program

    OpenAIRE

    Lemaire, Patrick; Smith, William C.; Nishida, Hiroki

    2008-01-01

    Little is known about the ancient chordates that gave rise to the first vertebrates, but the descendants of other invertebrate chordates extant at the time still flourish in the ocean. These invertebrates include the cephalochordates and tunicates, whose larvae share with vertebrate embryos a common body plan with a central notochord and a dorsal nerve cord. Tunicates are now thought to be the sister group of vertebrates. However, research based on several species of ascidians, a diverse and ...

  1. Geographic ranges of ascidians from Antarctica and the southeastern Pacific

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dirk Schories; Karen Sanamyan; Nadja Sanamyan; Mara Jos Daz; Ignacio Garrido; Thomas Heran; Jorge Holtheuer; Gesche Kohlberg

    2015-01-01

    Historical and novel data on the geographic and bathymetric distribution of ascidians from Antarctic, Magellan and Chilean waters are compiled, and an inventory of taxa comprising 162 species reported over a 150 year period from the Antarctic region South Polar Province (SPP) compiled. The ascidian fauna from the South Shetland Islands (SSI) is compared with that of the Magellan region, Patagonia and the Chilean coast. We collected 46 ascidian species along the Chilean coast, and during four expeditions to King George Island (SSI) by SCUBA between 2003–2012. About 15% of King George Island (SSI) species are observed to occur also in shallow waters of southern Chile (SCL). Few species known from warm temperate southeastern Pacific (Northern Chile, NCL) waters are absent from the Chilean part of the Magellan Province (SCL). With most data contributed from the Chilean coast coming from the SCL, and with limited sampling having been undertaken at depths exceeding 100 m in the NCL, apparent differences in species richness along the Chilean coast could be attributabed to differential sampling effort. We detail 12 species from our Antarctic and Chilean collections in detail, including one, Diplosoma listerianum, not previously reported from Chilean waters, and the genus Botryllus, previously known from them on the basis of a single record.

  2. Organising integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axelsson, Runo

    2013-01-01

    to large-scale bureaucratic structures of centralised control. In the 1980’s there was a period of decentralisation to smaller organisational units, which was followed in the 1990’s by an introduction of market mechanisms in accordance with the New Public Management. During this period, there has been......Background: In Sweden, as in many other countries, there has been a succession of trends in the organisation of health care and other welfare services. These trends have had different implications for the integration of services in the health and welfare system. Aims: One aim is to discuss...... the implications of different organisational trends for the integration of health and welfare services. Another aim is to introduce a Swedish model of financial coordination as a flexible way to organise integration. Organisational trends: In the 1960’s there was an expansion of health and welfare services leading...

  3. Complex organisation and structure of the ghrelin antisense strand gene GHRLOS, a candidate non-coding RNA gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herington Adrian C

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The peptide hormone ghrelin has many important physiological and pathophysiological roles, including the stimulation of growth hormone (GH release, appetite regulation, gut motility and proliferation of cancer cells. We previously identified a gene on the opposite strand of the ghrelin gene, ghrelinOS (GHRLOS, which spans the promoter and untranslated regions of the ghrelin gene (GHRL. Here we further characterise GHRLOS. Results We have described GHRLOS mRNA isoforms that extend over 1.4 kb of the promoter region and 106 nucleotides of exon 4 of the ghrelin gene, GHRL. These GHRLOS transcripts initiate 4.8 kb downstream of the terminal exon 4 of GHRL and are present in the 3' untranslated exon of the adjacent gene TATDN2 (TatD DNase domain containing 2. Interestingly, we have also identified a putative non-coding TATDN2-GHRLOS chimaeric transcript, indicating that GHRLOS RNA biogenesis is extremely complex. Moreover, we have discovered that the 3' region of GHRLOS is also antisense, in a tail-to-tail fashion to a novel terminal exon of the neighbouring SEC13 gene, which is important in protein transport. Sequence analyses revealed that GHRLOS is riddled with stop codons, and that there is little nucleotide and amino-acid sequence conservation of the GHRLOS gene between vertebrates. The gene spans 44 kb on 3p25.3, is extensively spliced and harbours multiple variable exons. We have also investigated the expression of GHRLOS and found evidence of differential tissue expression. It is highly expressed in tissues which are emerging as major sites of non-coding RNA expression (the thymus, brain, and testis, as well as in the ovary and uterus. In contrast, very low levels were found in the stomach where sense, GHRL derived RNAs are highly expressed. Conclusion GHRLOS RNA transcripts display several distinctive features of non-coding (ncRNA genes, including 5' capping, polyadenylation, extensive splicing and short open reading

  4. Inquiring Organisations

    OpenAIRE

    James Courtney; David Croasdell; David Paradice

    1998-01-01

    Churchman (1971) developed five archetypal models of inquiring systems in an effort to expand the field of management information systems along a philosophical path. Contemporary businesses can use the ideas developed by Churchman to become productive and efficient inquiring organisations. This paper explores the relationship between inquiry and learning in organisations and how information technology can be used to support the process of knowledge creation in the context of inquiring systems.

  5. Insights on cytotoxic cells of the colonial ascidian Botryllus schlosseri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Franchi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Morula cells (MCs represent the most abundant circulating hemocyte of the compound ascidian Botryllus schlosseri. They are cytotoxic cells involved in the rejection reaction between contacting, genetically incompatible colonies. Upon the recognition of foreign substances, they degranulate and release their content, which contribute to the cell death along the contact borders. A major role in MC-related cytotoxicity is exerted by the enzyme phenoloxidase (PO that converts polyphenol substrata to quinones which, then, polymerize to form melanins. During this reaction, reactive oxygen species are formed which are the cause of MC-related cytotoxicity. Here, we carried out new analyses to investigate further the nature of MC content and its role in cytotoxicity. Results confirm that PO is located inside MC vacuoles together with arylsulfatase, iron and polyphenols/quinones, the latter probably representing ready-to-use cytotoxic molecules, deriving from the oxidation of DOPA-containing proteins. In addition, small DOPA-containing peptides, called tunichromes, are also present inside MCs. MC degranulation and PO-mediated cytotoxicity are prevented by secretion inhibitors and by H89 and calphostin C. The observation that PO activity is always detectable in MCs in the absence of protease treatment, and its inhibition by sulfites and sulfates, suggest a non-classical pathway of PO modulation in botryllid ascidians.

  6. Organisation Matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Unphon, Hataichanok; Dittrich, Yvonne

    2008-01-01

    Our work aims at understanding the design rationale for product line architecture by focusing on the design of common data access modules for complex simulation software products. This paper presents empirical evidence of organisational and business domain aspects that influence the development o...... of product line architecture. We suggest that the assessment of use-situation and his tory of organisational structure should be considered when creating product line architectures, especially for products that are tailored and used interactively.......Our work aims at understanding the design rationale for product line architecture by focusing on the design of common data access modules for complex simulation software products. This paper presents empirical evidence of organisational and business domain aspects that influence the development...

  7. Organisational Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Peter

    This Ph.D. research is carried out for the business unit at LEGO concerned with Internet shopping (e-business) called LEGO Direct. The research is concerned with the issues of organisational change and management. The research is partly sponsored by LEGO Company and Aalborg University The research...... understanding of organizational change and its processes both theoretical as well as empirical. In the search for interesting and relevant theories that would fulfill the goal of thesis, we learnt that the field of organisational change was complex and widely spread across lots of disciplines and paradigms......, ranging from areas such as engineering, psychology, management, and sociology. We also learnt that all of the theories were adding bits and pieces to our understanding of organisational change. During the search and selection, we found that it would be interesting to analyse what can be gained from...

  8. An Otx/Nodal Regulatory Signature for Posterior Neural Development in Ascidians

    OpenAIRE

    Agnès Roure; Patrick Lemaire; Sébastien Darras

    2014-01-01

    In chordates, neural induction is the first step of a complex developmental process through which ectodermal cells acquire a neural identity. In ascidians, FGF-mediated neural induction occurs at the 32-cell stage in two blastomere pairs, precursors respectively of anterior and posterior neural tissue. We combined molecular embryology and cis-regulatory analysis to unveil in the ascidian Ciona intestinalis the remarkably simple proximal genetic network that controls posterior neural fate acqu...

  9. Barndommens organisering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndommens Organisering undersøger og diskuterer dansk barndom som et samfundsmæssigt fænomen. Det er bogens mål at pege på en mangfoldighed af organiseringsprocesser, der på forskellig vis bidrager til at skabe barndommens rum, både de symbolske og de materielle. Bogens artikler er skrevet af...

  10. TEAM ORGANISERING

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levisen, Vinie; Haugaard, Lena

    2004-01-01

    organisation som denne? Når teams i samtiden anses for at være en organisationsform, der fremmer organisatorisk læring, beror det på, at teamet antages at udgøre et ikke-hierarkisk arbejdsfællesskab, hvor erfaringer udveksles og problemer løses. Teamorganisering kan imidlertid udformes på mange forskellige...

  11. Antibacterial modified diketopiperazines from two ascidians of the genus Didemnum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kossuga, Miriam H.; Lira, Simone P.; McHugh, Shayna; Torres, Yohandra R.; Berlinck, Roberto G.S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Lima, Bruna A.; Goncalves, Reginaldo [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Odontologia. Dept. de Diagnostico Oral; Veloso, Katyuscya; Ferreira, Antonio G. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Rocha, Rosana M. [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Centro Politecnico. Setor de Ciencias Biologicas. Dept. de Zoologia

    2009-07-01

    The chemical investigation of the crude extract of an ascidian of the genus Didemnum led to the isolation of the modified diketopiperazine rodriguesines A (1) and (2) as a mixture of homologues, which could be identified by analysis of spectroscopic data including MS/MS experiments. The investigation of a second Didemnum sp. led to the isolation of N-acetyl-rodriguesine A (3) and N-acetyl-rodriguesine B (4). The absolute configuration of compounds 1 and 2 could be established by hydrolysis and Marfey's analysis and comparison with literature data reported for compound 3, previously obtained as a synthetic product. The mixture of 1 and 2 displayed moderate antibiotic activity against a clinical isolate of Streptococcus mutans and against S. mutans UA159 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC6538. (author)

  12. Organisational learning by way of organisational development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elkjær, Bente

    project contributes toorganisational learning. The point of departure is a municipality in Denmark workingtoward digitalising its administration. The conclusion is that the success of such aprocess very much depends on an organisation's ability to encompass severalunderstandings of organisational......In the paper, the idea is explored of organisational learning as the opening andclosure of organisational space for inquiry or reflective thinking, as a way toconstruct organisational learning as an object for research. This is done by asking thequestion of whether an organisational development...

  13. Local database and the search program for proteomic analysis of sperm proteins in the ascidian Ciona intestinalis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Separation of proteins by two-dimensional electrophoresis and following mass spectrometry (MS) is now a conventional technique for proteomic analysis. For proteomic analysis of a certain tissue with a limited information of primary structures of proteins, we have developed an analytical system for peptide mass fingerprinting in gene products in the testis of the ascidian Ciona intestinalis. Ciona sperm proteins were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and the tryptic fragments were subjected to MALDI-TOF/MS. The mass pattern was searched against on-line databases but resulted in less identification of these proteins. We have constructed a MS database from Ciona testis ESTs and the genome draft sequence, along with a newly devised, perl-based search program PerMS for peptide mass fingerprinting. This system could identify more than 80% of Ciona sperm proteins, suggesting that it could be widely applied for proteomic analysis for a limited tissue with less genomic information

  14. Aberrant Behaviours of Reaction Diffusion Self-organisation Models on Growing Domains in the Presence of Gene Expression Time Delays

    KAUST Repository

    Seirin Lee, S.

    2010-03-23

    Turing\\'s pattern formation mechanism exhibits sensitivity to the details of the initial conditions suggesting that, in isolation, it cannot robustly generate pattern within noisy biological environments. Nonetheless, secondary aspects of developmental self-organisation, such as a growing domain, have been shown to ameliorate this aberrant model behaviour. Furthermore, while in-situ hybridisation reveals the presence of gene expression in developmental processes, the influence of such dynamics on Turing\\'s model has received limited attention. Here, we novelly focus on the Gierer-Meinhardt reaction diffusion system considering delays due the time taken for gene expression, while incorporating a number of different domain growth profiles to further explore the influence and interplay of domain growth and gene expression on Turing\\'s mechanism. We find extensive pathological model behaviour, exhibiting one or more of the following: temporal oscillations with no spatial structure, a failure of the Turing instability and an extreme sensitivity to the initial conditions, the growth profile and the duration of gene expression. This deviant behaviour is even more severe than observed in previous studies of Schnakenberg kinetics on exponentially growing domains in the presence of gene expression (Gaffney and Monk in Bull. Math. Biol. 68:99-130, 2006). Our results emphasise that gene expression dynamics induce unrealistic behaviour in Turing\\'s model for multiple choices of kinetics and thus such aberrant modelling predictions are likely to be generic. They also highlight that domain growth can no longer ameliorate the excessive sensitivity of Turing\\'s mechanism in the presence of gene expression time delays. The above, extensive, pathologies suggest that, in the presence of gene expression, Turing\\'s mechanism would generally require a novel and extensive secondary mechanism to control reaction diffusion patterning. © 2010 Society for Mathematical Biology.

  15. Proteomics of ionomycin-induced ascidian sperm reaction: Released and exposed sperm proteins in the ascidian Ciona intestinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazawa, Shiori; Shirae-Kurabayashi, Maki; Otsuka, Kei; Sawada, Hitoshi

    2015-12-01

    Sperm proteins mediating sperm-egg interaction should be exhibited on the sperm surface, or exposed or released when sperm approach an egg. In ascidians (protochordates), sperm undergo a sperm reaction, characterized by enhanced sperm motility and mitochondrial swelling and shedding on contact with the vitelline coat (VC) or by treatment with Ca(2+) ionophore. Here, proteomic analysis was conducted on sperm exudates and sperm surface proteins using ionomycin-induced sperm reaction and cell-impermeable labeling in Ciona intestinalis type A (C. robusta). In the exudate from sperm treated with ionomycin, membrane proteins including a possible VC receptor CiUrabin were abundant, indicating the release of membranous compartments during sperm reaction. Among the surface proteins XP_009859314.1 (uncharacterized protein exhibiting homology to HrTTSP-1) was most abundant before the sperm reaction, but XP_004227079.1 (unknown Ig superfamily protein) appears to be most abundantly exposed by the sperm reaction. Moreover, proteins containing a notable set of domains, astacin-like metalloprotease domain and thrombospondin type 1 repeat(s), were found in this fraction. Possible roles in fertilization as well as localizations and behaviors of these proteins are discussed. PMID:26223815

  16. Organisational learning by way of organisational development

    OpenAIRE

    Elkjær, Bente

    2004-01-01

    In the paper, the idea is explored of organisational learning as the opening andclosure of organisational space for inquiry or reflective thinking, as a way toconstruct organisational learning as an object for research. This is done by asking thequestion of whether an organisational development project contributes toorganisational learning. The point of departure is a municipality in Denmark workingtoward digitalising its administration. The conclusion is that the success of such aprocess ver...

  17. Building a Learning Organisation

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Gaik See

    2007-01-01

    According to Fortune magazine, the most successful corporation of the 1990s is those learning organisations who learn faster than their competitors. The concept of a learning organisation is becoming increasingly important in this knowledge-based economy. Continuos learning is essential in order for organisation tu sustain its competitive advantage.The concept of organisational learning and learning organisation emerged during the 1960s and 1970s. Learning organisation is a collective entity ...

  18. The First Myriapod Genome Sequence Reveals Conservative Arthropod Gene Content and Genome Organisation in the Centipede Strigamia maritima

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chipman, Ariel D.; Ferrier, David E. K.; Brena, Carlo; Qu, Jiaxin; Hughes, Daniel S. T.; Schröder, Reinhard; Torres-Oliva, Montserrat; Znassi, Nadia; Jiang, Huaiyang; Almeida, Francisca C.; Alonso, Claudio R.; Apostolou, Zivkos; Aqrawi, Peshtewani; Arthur, Wallace; Barna, Jennifer C. J.; Blankenburg, Kerstin P.; Brites, Daniela; Capella-Gutiérrez, Salvador; Coyle, Marcus; Dearden, Peter K.; Du Pasquier, Louis; Duncan, Elizabeth J.; Ebert, Dieter; Eibner, Cornelius; Erikson, Galina; Evans, Peter D.; Extavour, Cassandra G.; Francisco, Liezl; Gabaldón, Toni; Gillis, William J.; Goodwin-Horn, Elizabeth A.; Green, Jack E.; Griffiths-Jones, Sam; Grimmelikhuijzen, Cornelis J. P.; Gubbala, Sai; Guigó, Roderic; Han, Yi; Hauser, Frank; Havlak, Paul; Hayden, Luke; Helbing, Sophie; Holder, Michael; Hui, Jerome H. L.; Hunn, Julia P.; Hunnekuhl, Vera S.; Jackson, LaRonda; Javaid, Mehwish; Jhangiani, Shalini N.; Jiggins, Francis M.; Jones, Tamsin E.; Kaiser, Tobias S.; Kalra, Divya; Kenny, Nathan J.; Korchina, Viktoriya; Kovar, Christie L.; Kraus, F. Bernhard; Lapraz, François; Lee, Sandra L.; Lv, Jie; Mandapat, Christigale; Manning, Gerard; Mariotti, Marco; Mata, Robert; Mathew, Tittu; Neumann, Tobias; Newsham, Irene; Ngo, Dinh N.; Ninova, Maria; Okwuonu, Geoffrey; Ongeri, Fiona; Palmer, William J.; Patil, Shobha; Patraquim, Pedro; Pham, Christopher; Pu, Ling-Ling; Putman, Nicholas H.; Rabouille, Catherine; Ramos, Olivia Mendivil; Rhodes, Adelaide C.; Robertson, Helen E.; Robertson, Hugh M.; Ronshaugen, Matthew; Rozas, Julio; Saada, Nehad; Sánchez-Gracia, Alejandro; Scherer, Steven E.; Schurko, Andrew M.; Siggens, Kenneth W.; Simmons, DeNard; Stief, Anna; Stolle, Eckart; Telford, Maximilian J.; Tessmar-Raible, Kristin; Thornton, Rebecca; van der Zee, Maurijn; von Haeseler, Arndt; Williams, James M.; Willis, Judith H.; Wu, Yuanqing; Zou, Xiaoyan; Lawson, Daniel; Muzny, Donna M.; Worley, Kim C.; Gibbs, Richard A.; Akam, Michael; Richards, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Myriapods (e.g., centipedes and millipedes) display a simple homonomous body plan relative to other arthropods. All members of the class are terrestrial, but they attained terrestriality independently of insects. Myriapoda is the only arthropod class not represented by a sequenced genome. We present an analysis of the genome of the centipede Strigamia maritima. It retains a compact genome that has undergone less gene loss and shuffling than previously sequenced arthropods, and many orthologues of genes conserved from the bilaterian ancestor that have been lost in insects. Our analysis locates many genes in conserved macro-synteny contexts, and many small-scale examples of gene clustering. We describe several examples where S. maritima shows different solutions from insects to similar problems. The insect olfactory receptor gene family is absent from S. maritima, and olfaction in air is likely effected by expansion of other receptor gene families. For some genes S. maritima has evolved paralogues to generate coding sequence diversity, where insects use alternate splicing. This is most striking for the Dscam gene, which in Drosophila generates more than 100,000 alternate splice forms, but in S. maritima is encoded by over 100 paralogues. We see an intriguing linkage between the absence of any known photosensory proteins in a blind organism and the additional absence of canonical circadian clock genes. The phylogenetic position of myriapods allows us to identify where in arthropod phylogeny several particular molecular mechanisms and traits emerged. For example, we conclude that juvenile hormone signalling evolved with the emergence of the exoskeleton in the arthropods and that RR-1 containing cuticle proteins evolved in the lineage leading to Mandibulata. We also identify when various gene expansions and losses occurred. The genome of S. maritima offers us a unique glimpse into the ancestral arthropod genome, while also displaying many adaptations to its specific

  19. The first myriapod genome sequence reveals conservative arthropod gene content and genome organisation in the centipede Strigamia maritima.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel D Chipman

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Myriapods (e.g., centipedes and millipedes display a simple homonomous body plan relative to other arthropods. All members of the class are terrestrial, but they attained terrestriality independently of insects. Myriapoda is the only arthropod class not represented by a sequenced genome. We present an analysis of the genome of the centipede Strigamia maritima. It retains a compact genome that has undergone less gene loss and shuffling than previously sequenced arthropods, and many orthologues of genes conserved from the bilaterian ancestor that have been lost in insects. Our analysis locates many genes in conserved macro-synteny contexts, and many small-scale examples of gene clustering. We describe several examples where S. maritima shows different solutions from insects to similar problems. The insect olfactory receptor gene family is absent from S. maritima, and olfaction in air is likely effected by expansion of other receptor gene families. For some genes S. maritima has evolved paralogues to generate coding sequence diversity, where insects use alternate splicing. This is most striking for the Dscam gene, which in Drosophila generates more than 100,000 alternate splice forms, but in S. maritima is encoded by over 100 paralogues. We see an intriguing linkage between the absence of any known photosensory proteins in a blind organism and the additional absence of canonical circadian clock genes. The phylogenetic position of myriapods allows us to identify where in arthropod phylogeny several particular molecular mechanisms and traits emerged. For example, we conclude that juvenile hormone signalling evolved with the emergence of the exoskeleton in the arthropods and that RR-1 containing cuticle proteins evolved in the lineage leading to Mandibulata. We also identify when various gene expansions and losses occurred. The genome of S. maritima offers us a unique glimpse into the ancestral arthropod genome, while also displaying many adaptations

  20. The first myriapod genome sequence reveals conservative arthropod gene content and genome organisation in the centipede Strigamia maritima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chipman, Ariel D; Ferrier, David E K; Brena, Carlo; Qu, Jiaxin; Hughes, Daniel S T; Schröder, Reinhard; Torres-Oliva, Montserrat; Znassi, Nadia; Jiang, Huaiyang; Almeida, Francisca C; Alonso, Claudio R; Apostolou, Zivkos; Aqrawi, Peshtewani; Arthur, Wallace; Barna, Jennifer C J; Blankenburg, Kerstin P; Brites, Daniela; Capella-Gutiérrez, Salvador; Coyle, Marcus; Dearden, Peter K; Du Pasquier, Louis; Duncan, Elizabeth J; Ebert, Dieter; Eibner, Cornelius; Erikson, Galina; Evans, Peter D; Extavour, Cassandra G; Francisco, Liezl; Gabaldón, Toni; Gillis, William J; Goodwin-Horn, Elizabeth A; Green, Jack E; Griffiths-Jones, Sam; Grimmelikhuijzen, Cornelis J P; Gubbala, Sai; Guigó, Roderic; Han, Yi; Hauser, Frank; Havlak, Paul; Hayden, Luke; Helbing, Sophie; Holder, Michael; Hui, Jerome H L; Hunn, Julia P; Hunnekuhl, Vera S; Jackson, LaRonda; Javaid, Mehwish; Jhangiani, Shalini N; Jiggins, Francis M; Jones, Tamsin E; Kaiser, Tobias S; Kalra, Divya; Kenny, Nathan J; Korchina, Viktoriya; Kovar, Christie L; Kraus, F Bernhard; Lapraz, François; Lee, Sandra L; Lv, Jie; Mandapat, Christigale; Manning, Gerard; Mariotti, Marco; Mata, Robert; Mathew, Tittu; Neumann, Tobias; Newsham, Irene; Ngo, Dinh N; Ninova, Maria; Okwuonu, Geoffrey; Ongeri, Fiona; Palmer, William J; Patil, Shobha; Patraquim, Pedro; Pham, Christopher; Pu, Ling-Ling; Putman, Nicholas H; Rabouille, Catherine; Ramos, Olivia Mendivil; Rhodes, Adelaide C; Robertson, Helen E; Robertson, Hugh M; Ronshaugen, Matthew; Rozas, Julio; Saada, Nehad; Sánchez-Gracia, Alejandro; Scherer, Steven E; Schurko, Andrew M; Siggens, Kenneth W; Simmons, DeNard; Stief, Anna; Stolle, Eckart; Telford, Maximilian J; Tessmar-Raible, Kristin; Thornton, Rebecca; van der Zee, Maurijn; von Haeseler, Arndt; Williams, James M; Willis, Judith H; Wu, Yuanqing; Zou, Xiaoyan; Lawson, Daniel; Muzny, Donna M; Worley, Kim C; Gibbs, Richard A; Akam, Michael; Richards, Stephen

    2014-11-01

    Myriapods (e.g., centipedes and millipedes) display a simple homonomous body plan relative to other arthropods. All members of the class are terrestrial, but they attained terrestriality independently of insects. Myriapoda is the only arthropod class not represented by a sequenced genome. We present an analysis of the genome of the centipede Strigamia maritima. It retains a compact genome that has undergone less gene loss and shuffling than previously sequenced arthropods, and many orthologues of genes conserved from the bilaterian ancestor that have been lost in insects. Our analysis locates many genes in conserved macro-synteny contexts, and many small-scale examples of gene clustering. We describe several examples where S. maritima shows different solutions from insects to similar problems. The insect olfactory receptor gene family is absent from S. maritima, and olfaction in air is likely effected by expansion of other receptor gene families. For some genes S. maritima has evolved paralogues to generate coding sequence diversity, where insects use alternate splicing. This is most striking for the Dscam gene, which in Drosophila generates more than 100,000 alternate splice forms, but in S. maritima is encoded by over 100 paralogues. We see an intriguing linkage between the absence of any known photosensory proteins in a blind organism and the additional absence of canonical circadian clock genes. The phylogenetic position of myriapods allows us to identify where in arthropod phylogeny several particular molecular mechanisms and traits emerged. For example, we conclude that juvenile hormone signalling evolved with the emergence of the exoskeleton in the arthropods and that RR-1 containing cuticle proteins evolved in the lineage leading to Mandibulata. We also identify when various gene expansions and losses occurred. The genome of S. maritima offers us a unique glimpse into the ancestral arthropod genome, while also displaying many adaptations to its specific

  1. Msxb is a core component of the genetic circuitry specifying the dorsal and ventral neurogenic midlines in the ascidian embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roure, Agnès; Darras, Sébastien

    2016-01-01

    The tail ascidian larval peripheral nervous system is made up of epidermal sensory neurons distributed more or less regularly in ventral and dorsal midlines. Their formation occurs in two-steps: the ventral and dorsal midlines are induced as neurogenic territories by Fgf9/16/20 and Admp respectively. The Delta2/Notch interaction then controls the number of neurons that form. The genetic machinery acting between the inductive processes taking place before gastrulation and neuron specification at tailbud stages are largely unknown. The analysis of seven transcription factors expressed in the forming midlines revealed an unexpected complexity and dynamic of gene expression. Their systematic overexpression confirmed that these genes do not interact following a linear cascade of activation. However, the integration of our data revealed the distinct key roles of the two upstream factors Msxb and Nkx-C that are the earliest expressed genes and the only ones able to induce neurogenic midline and ESN formation. Our data suggest that Msxb would be the primary midline gene integrating inputs from the ventral and dorsal inducers and launching a pan-midline transcriptional program. Nkx-C would be involved in tail tip specification, in maintenance of the pan-midline network and in a posterior to anterior wave controlling differentiation. PMID:26592100

  2. Immunobiology of compound ascidians, with particular reference to Botryllus schlosseri: state of art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Ballarin

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The phylogenetic position of invertebrate chordates closely related to vertebrates explains the increasing interest towards tunicate immunobiology. Most of the tunicates are ascidians which, like all other invertebrates, rely only on innate immunity for their defense. Compound ascidians differ from solitary species for the presence of colony specificity, i.e. the ability for intraspecific non-self recognition. The immunobiology of compound ascidians has been particularly studied in Botryllus schlosseri, which is an emerging model organism for this kind of studies. In B. schlosseri and related species, immunocytes are represented by phagocytes and cytotoxic morula cells, the former able to ingest foreign cell and particles, the latter representing the effectors of the inflammatory reaction which follows the contact between genetically incompatible colonies. Activated phagocytes release lectins with opsonic activity and are involved in the clearance of apoptotic cells during the colonial generational change. Morula cells recognize the presence of foreign molecules as well as allogeneic soluble factors diffusing from an alien colony and as a consequence they: i release cytokines in the medium which have chemotactic activity and activate phagocytes; ii degranulate and release phenoloxidase which induces necrotic cell death by oxidative stress. A better knowledge of Botryllus genome will allow a deeper insight into open problems in immunobiology of compound ascidians.

  3. Modiolarca lateralis (Pteryomorphia: Mytilidae: bivalve associated to six species of ascidians from Bocas del Toro, Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan I Cañete

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We describe the presence of the bivalve Modiolarca lateralis (Say, 1822 in six tropical ascidians Ascidia curvata, A. sydneiensis, A. panamensis, A. interrupta, Herdmania pallida and Polycarpa spongiabilis collected at depths of 1-3 m on coral reefs, mangrove roots and dock supports in Almirante Bay, Bocas del Toro, Panama (9°18'N, 82°13'W during June-July 2011. Bivalve prevalence varied between 9-30% across species, but was mainly associated with A. panamensis, P. spongiabilis and A. interrupta. Prevalence seems to be influenced by tunic thickness rather than by the ascidian size. Bivalves varied in size (0.6-11 mm shell length, with the smallest individual found in A. sydneiensis. There were only one or two bivalves per ascidians, although a maximum of 18 was found in one A. panamensis. M. lateralis seems to behave similarly to its temperate counterparts: it has a variety of hosts, occurs mainly in the anterior region of the ascidians, and has a variable abundance per host.

  4. Analysis of the chromatin domain organisation around the plastocyanin gene reveals an MAR-specific sequence element in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Drunen, C M; Oosterling, R W; Keultjes, G M; Weisbeek, P J; van Driel, R; Smeekens, S C

    1997-10-01

    The Arabidopsis thaliana genome is currently being sequenced, eventually leading towards the unravelling of all potential genes. We wanted to gain more insight into the way this genome might be organized at the ultrastructural level. To this extent we identified matrix attachment regions demarking potential chromatin domains, in a 16 kb region around the plastocyanin gene. The region was cloned and sequenced revealing six genes in addition to the plastocyanin gene. Using an heterologous in vitro nuclear matrix binding assay, to search for evolutionary conserved matrix attachment regions (MARs), we identified three such MARs. These three MARs divide the region into two small chromatin domains of 5 kb, each containing two genes. Comparison of the sequence of the three MARs revealed a degenerated 21 bp sequence that is shared between these MARs and that is not found elsewhere in the region. A similar sequence element is also present in four other MARs of Arabidopsis.Therefore, this sequence may constitute a landmark for the position of MARs in the genome of this plant. In a genomic sequence database of Arabidopsis the 21 bp element is found approximately once every 10 kb. The compactness of the Arabidopsis genome could account for the high incidence of MARs and MRSs we observed.

  5. Genetic organisation, mobility and predicted functions of genes on integrated, mobile genetic elements in sequenced strains of Clostridium difficile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S M Brouwer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile is the leading cause of hospital-associated diarrhoea in the US and Europe. Recently the incidence of C. difficile-associated disease has risen dramatically and concomitantly with the emergence of 'hypervirulent' strains associated with more severe disease and increased mortality. C. difficile contains numerous mobile genetic elements, resulting in the potential for a highly plastic genome. In the first sequenced strain, 630, there is one proven conjugative transposon (CTn, Tn5397, and six putative CTns (CTn1, CTn2 and CTn4-7, of which, CTn4 and CTn5 were capable of excision. In the second sequenced strain, R20291, two further CTns were described. RESULTS: CTn1, CTn2 CTn4, CTn5 and CTn7 were shown to excise from the genome of strain 630 and transfer to strain CD37. A putative CTn from R20291, misleadingly termed a phage island previously, was shown to excise and to contain three putative mobilisable transposons, one of which was capable of excision. In silico probing of C. difficile genome sequences with recombinase gene fragments identified new putative conjugative and mobilisable transposons related to the elements in strains 630 and R20291. CTn5-like elements were described occupying different insertion sites in different strains, CTn1-like elements that have lost the ability to excise in some ribotype 027 strains were described and one strain was shown to contain CTn5-like and CTn7-like elements arranged in tandem. Additionally, using bioinformatics, we updated previous gene annotations and predicted novel functions for the accessory gene products on these new elements. CONCLUSIONS: The genomes of the C. difficile strains examined contain highly related CTns suggesting recent horizontal gene transfer. Several elements were capable of excision and conjugative transfer. The presence of antibiotic resistance genes and genes predicted to promote adaptation to the intestinal environment suggests that CTns play a

  6. rRNA genes from the lower chordate Herdmania momus: structural similarity with higher eukaryotes.

    OpenAIRE

    Degnan, B M; Yan, J.; Hawkins, C J; Lavin, M F

    1990-01-01

    Ascidians, primitive chordates that have retained features of the likely progenitors to all vertebrates, are a useful model to study the evolutionary relationship of chordates to other animals. We have selected the well characterized ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes to investigate this relationship, and we describe here the cloning and characterization of an entire ribosomal DNA (rDNA) tandem repeat unit from a lower chordate, the ascidian Herdmania momus. rDNA copy number and considerable sequence...

  7. Researching enterprises between organisation and organising

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elkjær, Bente; Brandi, Ulrik

    RESEARCHING ENTERPRISES BETWEEN ORGANISATION AND ORGANISING Ulrik Brandi & Bente Elkjaer, Department of Learning, University of Aarhus, Danish School of Education, Tuborgvej 164, 2400 Copenhagen NV, Denmark Short paper submission to the 26th European Group of Organization Studies Colloquium, Waves...... Dewey and Anselm Strauss. Based on a pragmatist theoretical framework we aim in this paper to propose concepts for organisation/organising that can handle process and structure, change and stability, order and disorder, history, present and future. We introduce the concept of a transactional relation...... philosophy and pragmatism followed by an elaboration of the transactional relationship between subject and world and the notion of social worlds. The final element in the paper is an empirical illustration - researching organisational learning in the midst of change that illustrates the rhythm...

  8. Administrativ organisation og ansvar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, Jannik C; Krogsgaard, Kim

    2003-01-01

    The paper describes the current organisation of clinical trials in Danish hospitals, with particular emphasis on the relationship between hospitals and the pharmaceutical industry. Legal responsibilities as well as mutual agreements on collaboration and organisation are described and discussed....

  9. Organisation og demokrati

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fink, Jørgen Troelssøn

    1995-01-01

    the role of the business organisations of tyhe urban trades in the democratisation of Denmark 1830- 1915......the role of the business organisations of tyhe urban trades in the democratisation of Denmark 1830- 1915...

  10. Organising to Enable Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brink, Tove

    2016-01-01

    . The findings reveal a continous organising process between individual/ team creativity and organisational structures/control to enable innovation at firm level. Organising provides a dynamic approach and contains the integrated reconstruction of creativity, structures and boundaries for enhanced balance......The purpose of this conceptual paper is to reveal how organising can enable innovation across organisational layers and organisational units. This approach calls for a cross-disciplinary literature review. The aim is to provide an integrated understanding of innovation in an organisational approach...... of explorative and exploitative learning in uncertain environments. Shedding light on the cross-disciplinary theories to organise innovation provides a contribution at the firm level to enable innovation....

  11. Distribution and Localised Effects of the Invasive Ascidian Didemnum perlucidum (Monniot 1983 in an Urban Estuary.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany Schenk Simpson

    Full Text Available Didemnid ascidians are notorious marine invaders, fouling infrastructure in many ecosystems globally. However, there have been few reports of direct interactions with native species in their natural environment. The invasive colonial ascidian Didemnum perlucidum was discovered in the Swan River estuary (Western Australia growing on the native seagrass Halophila ovalis. Given the known effects of other related Didemnum species it was expected that D. perlucidum could adversely affect the seagrass, with possible flow on effects to the rest of the ecosystem. This study aimed to document the distribution and abundance of D. perlucidum in the estuary, and to determine whether this species had a negative impact on H. ovalis or associated flora and fauna. D. perlucidum was largely present near areas of infrastructure, particularly mooring buoys, suggesting these were the source of D. perlucidum recruits on the seagrasses. It showed a clear seasonal pattern in abundance, with highly variable cover and colony size. D. perlucidum had a measurable effect on H. ovalis, with colonies enveloping all plant tissue, likely restricting the photosynthetic ability of individual leaves and total plant biomass. There were also significantly less seagrass-associated mud snails (Batillaria australis where D. perlucidum cover was high. These results demonstrate the ability of invasive ascidians to colonise and affect native seagrasses and associated biota. Seagrasses are pivotal to the ecological function of many urban estuaries world-wide. Biodiversity in these systems is already vulnerable to multiple stressors from human activities but the potential stress of fouling ascidians may pose an additional and increasing threat in the future.

  12. When shape matters: strategies of different Antarctic ascidians morphotypes to deal with sedimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torre, Luciana; Abele, Doris; Lagger, Cristian; Momo, Fernando; Sahade, Ricardo

    2014-08-01

    Climate change leads to increased melting of tidewater glaciers in the Western Antarctic Peninsula region and sediment bearing glacial melt waters negatively affects filter feeding species as solitary ascidians. In previous work the erect-forms Molgula pedunculata and Cnemidocarpa verrucosa (Order Stolidobranchiata) appeared more sensitive than the flat form Ascidia challengeri (Order Phlebobranchiata). Sedimentation exposure is expected to induce up-regulation of anaerobic metabolism by obstructing the organs of gas exchange (environmental hypoxia) or causes enhanced squirting activity (functional hypoxia). In this study we evaluated the possible relationship between ascidian morphotype and their physiological response to sedimentation. Together with some behavioural observations, we analysed the response of anaerobic metabolic parameters (lactate formation and glycogen consumption) in different tissues of three Antarctic ascidians, exposed to high sediment concentrations (200 mgL(-1)). The results were compared to experimental hypoxia (10% pO2) and exercise (induced muscular contraction) effects, in order to discriminate the effect of sediment on each species and morpho-type (erect vs. flat forms). Our results suggest that the styled (erect) C. verrucosa increases muscular squirting activity in order to expulse excessive material, while the flat-form A. challengeri reacts more passively by down-regulating its aerobic metabolism under sediment exposure. Contrary, the erect ascidian M. pedunculata did not show any measurable response to the treatments, indicating that filtration and ingestion activities were not reduced or altered even under high sedimentation (low energetic material) which could be disadvantageous on the long-term and could explain why M. pedunculata densities decline in the study area.

  13. Distribution and Localised Effects of the Invasive Ascidian Didemnum perlucidum (Monniot 1983) in an Urban Estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Tiffany Schenk; Wernberg, Thomas; McDonald, Justin I

    2016-01-01

    Didemnid ascidians are notorious marine invaders, fouling infrastructure in many ecosystems globally. However, there have been few reports of direct interactions with native species in their natural environment. The invasive colonial ascidian Didemnum perlucidum was discovered in the Swan River estuary (Western Australia) growing on the native seagrass Halophila ovalis. Given the known effects of other related Didemnum species it was expected that D. perlucidum could adversely affect the seagrass, with possible flow on effects to the rest of the ecosystem. This study aimed to document the distribution and abundance of D. perlucidum in the estuary, and to determine whether this species had a negative impact on H. ovalis or associated flora and fauna. D. perlucidum was largely present near areas of infrastructure, particularly mooring buoys, suggesting these were the source of D. perlucidum recruits on the seagrasses. It showed a clear seasonal pattern in abundance, with highly variable cover and colony size. D. perlucidum had a measurable effect on H. ovalis, with colonies enveloping all plant tissue, likely restricting the photosynthetic ability of individual leaves and total plant biomass. There were also significantly less seagrass-associated mud snails (Batillaria australis) where D. perlucidum cover was high. These results demonstrate the ability of invasive ascidians to colonise and affect native seagrasses and associated biota. Seagrasses are pivotal to the ecological function of many urban estuaries world-wide. Biodiversity in these systems is already vulnerable to multiple stressors from human activities but the potential stress of fouling ascidians may pose an additional and increasing threat in the future.

  14. When shape matters: strategies of different Antarctic ascidians morphotypes to deal with sedimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torre, Luciana; Abele, Doris; Lagger, Cristian; Momo, Fernando; Sahade, Ricardo

    2014-08-01

    Climate change leads to increased melting of tidewater glaciers in the Western Antarctic Peninsula region and sediment bearing glacial melt waters negatively affects filter feeding species as solitary ascidians. In previous work the erect-forms Molgula pedunculata and Cnemidocarpa verrucosa (Order Stolidobranchiata) appeared more sensitive than the flat form Ascidia challengeri (Order Phlebobranchiata). Sedimentation exposure is expected to induce up-regulation of anaerobic metabolism by obstructing the organs of gas exchange (environmental hypoxia) or causes enhanced squirting activity (functional hypoxia). In this study we evaluated the possible relationship between ascidian morphotype and their physiological response to sedimentation. Together with some behavioural observations, we analysed the response of anaerobic metabolic parameters (lactate formation and glycogen consumption) in different tissues of three Antarctic ascidians, exposed to high sediment concentrations (200 mgL(-1)). The results were compared to experimental hypoxia (10% pO2) and exercise (induced muscular contraction) effects, in order to discriminate the effect of sediment on each species and morpho-type (erect vs. flat forms). Our results suggest that the styled (erect) C. verrucosa increases muscular squirting activity in order to expulse excessive material, while the flat-form A. challengeri reacts more passively by down-regulating its aerobic metabolism under sediment exposure. Contrary, the erect ascidian M. pedunculata did not show any measurable response to the treatments, indicating that filtration and ingestion activities were not reduced or altered even under high sedimentation (low energetic material) which could be disadvantageous on the long-term and could explain why M. pedunculata densities decline in the study area. PMID:24986145

  15. Ultrastructures and Classification of Circulating Hemocytes in 9 Botryllid Ascidians (Chordata: Ascidiacea)

    OpenAIRE

    Hirose, Euichi; Shirae, Maki; Saito, Yasunori

    2003-01-01

    Ultrastructures of circulating hemocytes were studied in 9 botryllid ascidians. The hemocytes are classified into five types: hemoblasts, phagocytes, granulocytes, morula cells, and pigment cells. These five types are always found in the 9 species. They should represent the major hemocyte types of the circulating cells in the blood. Hemoblasts are small hemocytes having a high nucleus/cytoplasm ratio. There are few granular or vacuolar inclusions in the cytoplasm. Phagocytes have phagocytic a...

  16. Solitary ascidians embryos (Chordata, Tunicata) as model organisms for testing coastal pollutant toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    G Zega; R. Pennati; S Candiani; M Pestarino; Bernardi, F

    2009-01-01

    Marine coastal communities are daily exposed to several chemical compounds commonly used in agriculture and industrial activities. Therefore, toxicological studies evaluating the effects of these compounds on marine organisms are of primary importance for marine environment preservation. Different model organisms are used to perform toxicity tests with potential pollutants, under laboratory conditions. In last decades, solitary ascidians have been selected as valuable model organisms to run b...

  17. Organisational Structure & Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2006

    2006-01-01

    Structural change is seen as a way to meet the challenges of the future that face many organisations. While some writers agree that broad-ranging structural change may not always transform an organisation or enhance its performance, others claim that innovation will be a major source of competitive advantage to organisations, particularly when…

  18. Spermiotoxicity of nickel nanoparticles in the marine invertebrate Ciona intestinalis (ascidians).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Alessandra; Boni, Raffaele; Buttino, Isabella; Tosti, Elisabetta

    2016-10-01

    Nickel nanoparticles (Ni NPs) are increasingly used in modern industries as catalysts, sensors, and in electronic applications. Due to this large use, their inputs into marine environment have significantly increased; however, the potential ecotoxicological effects in marine environment have so far received little attention. In particular, little is known on the impact of NPs on gamete quality of marine organisms and on the consequences on fertility potential. The present study examines, for the first time, the impact of Ni NPs exposure on sperm quality of the marine invertebrate Ciona intestinalis (ascidian). Several parameters related with sperm status such as plasma membrane lipid peroxidation, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), intracellular pH, DNA integrity, and fertilizing ability were assessed as toxicity end points after exposure to different Ni NPs concentrations. Ni NPs generate oxidative stress that in turn induces lipid peroxidation and DNA fragmentation, and alters MMP and sperm morphology. Furthermore, sperm exposure to Ni NPs affects their fertilizing ability and causes developmental anomalies in the offspring. All together, these results reveal a spermiotoxicity of Ni NPs in ascidians suggesting that the application of these NPs should be carefully assessed as to their potential toxic effects on the health of marine organisms that, in turn, may influence the ecological system. This study shows that ascidian sperm represent a suitable and sensitive tool for the investigation of the toxicity of NPs entered into marine environment, for defining the mechanisms of toxic action and for the environmental monitoring purpose. PMID:27080039

  19. Stochasticity in space, persistence in time: genetic heterogeneity in harbour populations of the introduced ascidian Styela plicata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, Mari-Carmen; Lorente, Beatriz; López-Legentil, Susanna; Palacín, Creu; Turon, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Spatio-temporal changes in genetic structure among populations provide crucial information on the dynamics of secondary spread for introduced marine species. However, temporal components have rarely been taken into consideration when studying the population genetics of non-indigenous species. This study analysed the genetic structure of Styela plicata, a solitary ascidian introduced in harbours and marinas of tropical and temperate waters, across spatial and temporal scales. A fragment of the mitochondrial gene Cytochrome Oxidase subunit I (COI) was sequenced from 395 individuals collected at 9 harbours along the NW Mediterranean coast and adjacent Atlantic waters (> 1,200 km range) at two time points 5 years apart (2009 and 2014). The levels of gene diversity were relatively low for all 9 locations in both years. Analyses of genetic differentiation and distribution of molecular variance revealed strong genetic structure, with significant differences among many populations, but no significant differences among years. A weak and marginally significant correlation between geographic distance and gene differentiation was found. Our results revealed spatial structure and temporal genetic homogeneity in S. plicata, suggesting a limited role of recurrent, vessel-mediated transport of organisms among small to medium-size harbours. Our study area is representative of many highly urbanized coasts with dense harbours. In these environments, the episodic chance arrival of colonisers appears to determine the genetic structure of harbour populations and the genetic composition of these early colonising individuals persists in the respective harbours, at least over moderate time frames (five years) that encompass ca. 20 generations of S. plicata. PMID:27366653

  20. The process of organisational adaptation through innovations, and organisational adaptability

    OpenAIRE

    Tikka, Tommi

    2010-01-01

    This study is about the process of organisational adaptation and organisational adaptability. The study generates a theoretical framework about organisational adaptation behaviour and conditions that have influence on success of organisational adaptation. The research questions of the study are: How does an organisation adapt through innovations, and which conditions enhance or impede organisational adaptation through innovations? The data were gathered from five case organisations withi...

  1. ORGANISATIONAL CULTURE ANALYSIS MODEL

    OpenAIRE

    Mihaela Simona Maracine

    2012-01-01

    The studies and researches undertaken have demonstrated the importance of studying organisational culture because of the practical valences it presents and because it contributes to increasing the organisation’s performance. The analysis of the organisational culture’s dimensions allows observing human behaviour within the organisation and highlighting reality, identifying the strengths and also the weaknesses which have an impact on its functionality and development. In this paper, we try to...

  2. Organisational intelligence and distributed AI

    OpenAIRE

    Kirn, Stefan

    1995-01-01

    The analysis of this chapter starts from organisational theory, and from this it draws conclusions for the design, and possible organisational applications, of Distributed AI systems. We first review how the concept of organisations has emerged from non-organised black-box entities to so-called computerised organisations. Within this context, organisational researchers have started to redesign their models of intelligent organisations with respect to the availability of advanced computing tec...

  3. NCW2, a Gene Involved in the Tolerance to Polyhexamethylene Biguanide (PHMB), May Help in the Organisation of β-1,3-Glucan Structure of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cell Wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsztein, Carolina; de Lima, Rita de Cássia Pereira; de Barros Pita, Will; de Morais, Marcos Antonio

    2016-09-01

    In the present work, we provide biological evidences supporting the participation of NCW2 gene in the mechanism responsible for cell tolerance to polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB), an antifungal agent. The growth rate of yeast cells exposed to this agent was significantly reduced in ∆ncw2 strain and the mRNA levels of NCW2 gene in the presence of PHMB showed a 7-fold up-regulation. Moreover, lack of NCW2 gene turns yeast cell more resistant to zymolyase treatment, indicating that alterations in the β-glucan network do occur when Ncw2p is absent. Computational analysis of the translated protein indicated neither catalytic nor transmembrane sites and reinforced the hypothesis of secretion and anchoring to cell surface. Altogether, these results indicated that NCW2 gene codes for a protein which participates in the cell wall biogenesis in yeasts and that Ncw2p might play a role in the organisation of the β-glucan assembly.

  4. Didemnaketals F and G, New Bioactive Spiroketals from a Red Sea Ascidian Didemnum Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamiaa A. Shaala

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In continuation of our ongoing efforts to identify bioactive compounds from Red Sea marine organisms, a new collection of the ascidian Didemnum species was investigated. Chromatographic fractionation and HPLC purification of the CH2Cl2 fraction of an organic extract of the ascidian resulted in the identification of two new spiroketals, didemnaketals F (1 and G (2. The structure determination of the compounds was completed by extensive study of 1D (1H, 13C, and DEPT and 2D (COSY, HSQC, and HMBC NMR experiments in addition to high-resolution mass spectral data. Didemnaketal F (1 and G (2 differ from the previously reported compounds of this class by the lack the terminal methyl ester at C-1 and the methyl functionality at C-2. Instead, 1 and 2 possess a methyl ketone moiety instead of the terminal ester. Furthermore, didemnaketal F possesses a disubstituted double bond between C-2 and C-3, while the double bond was replaced by a secondary alcohol at C-3 in didemnaketal G. In addition, they possess the unique spiroketal/hemiketal functionality which was previously reported in didemnaketal E. Didemnaketals F (1 and G (2 displayed moderate activity against HeLa cells with of IC50s of 49.9 and 14.0 µM, respectively. In addition, didemnaketal F (1 displayed potent antimicrobial activity against E. coli and C. albicans. These findings provide further insight into the biosynthetic capabilities of this ascidian and the chemical diversity as well as the biological activity of this class of compounds.

  5. Purification of mitochondrial proteins HSP60 and ATP synthase from ascidian eggs: implications for antibody specificity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet Chenevert

    Full Text Available Use of antibodies is a cornerstone of biological studies and it is important to identify the recognized protein with certainty. Generally an antibody is considered specific if it labels a single band of the expected size in the tissue of interest, or has a strong affinity for the antigen produced in a heterologous system. The identity of the antibody target protein is rarely confirmed by purification and sequencing, however in many cases this may be necessary. In this study we sought to characterize the myoplasm, a mitochondria-rich domain present in eggs and segregated into tadpole muscle cells of ascidians (urochordates. The targeted proteins of two antibodies that label the myoplasm were purified using both classic immunoaffinity methods and a novel protein purification scheme based on sequential ion exchange chromatography followed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Surprisingly, mass spectrometry sequencing revealed that in both cases the proteins recognized are unrelated to the original antigens. NN18, a monoclonal antibody which was raised against porcine spinal cord and recognizes the NF-M neurofilament subunit in vertebrates, in fact labels mitochondrial ATP synthase in the ascidian embryo. PMF-C13, an antibody we raised to and purified against PmMRF, which is the MyoD homolog of the ascidian Phallusia mammillata, in fact recognizes mitochondrial HSP60. High resolution immunolabeling on whole embryos and isolated cortices demonstrates localization to the inner mitochondrial membrane for both ATP synthase and HSP60. We discuss the general implications of our results for antibody specificity and the verification methods which can be used to determine unequivocally an antibody's target.

  6. Kommunikation skaber din organisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Heidi

    KOMMUNIKATION skaber din ORGANISATION tager udgangspunkt i en narrativ tilgang til kommunikation, hvor organisationen skabes i mødet mellem ledere, medarbejdere, organisation og omverden. Historier hjælper os med at skabe mening, og er derfor vigtige både som et udviklingsværktøj i organisationen...

  7. Organisational Structures & Considerations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiijf, H.A.M.; Healey, J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this section is to review specific types of national cyber security (NCS) areas (also called ‘mandates’) and examine the organisational and collaborative models associated with them. Before discussing the wide variety of organisational structures at the national and international leve

  8. Introducing organisational heritage: Linking corporate heritage, organisational identity, and organisational memory

    OpenAIRE

    Balmer, JMT; Burghausen, M

    2015-01-01

    In this article we formally introduce and explicate the organisational heritage notion. The authors conclude organisational heritage can be designated in three broad ways as: (1) organisational heritage identity as the perceived and reminisced omni-temporal traits – both formal/normative and utilitarian/societal – of organisational members’ work organisation; (2) organisational heritage identification as organisational members’ identification/self-categorisation vis-à-vis these perceived and ...

  9. Self-organising software

    CERN Document Server

    Serugendo, Giovanna Di Marzo; Karageorgos, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    Self-organisation, self-regulation, self-repair and self-maintenance are promising conceptual approaches for dealing with complex distributed interactive software and information-handling systems. Self-organising applications dynamically change their functionality and structure without direct user intervention, responding to changes in requirements and the environment. This is the first book to offer an integrated view of self-organisation technologies applied to distributed systems, particularly focusing on multiagent systems. The editors developed this integrated book with three aims: to exp

  10. Ultrastructural comparative analysis on the adhesive papillae of the swimming larvae of three ascidian species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Dolcemascolo

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a preliminary report on the papillae of the swimming larvae of three ascidian species: Ascidia malaca, Phallusia mammillata and Ciona intestinalis. The investigations, carried out at ultrastructural level and at confocal laser microscope, have evidenced, in the adhesive papillae of the three studied species, three different cell-types: axial columnar cells, collocytes, sensory cells respectively. The adhesive papillae of A. malaca and P. mammillata show central axial columnar cells with long microvilli emerging from the apical edge and extending throughout the hyaline cap. Collocytes are elongated secreting cells, lying in middle-lateral side. Sensory cells have a cilium at the apical side and an axon proceeding from the basal side. The adhesive papillae of C. intestinalis present some differences in the ultrastructure of the axial columnar cells, which bear a big digitiform protrusion, extending throughout the hyaline cap and a lot of microtubules along the cell axis. The investigations, carried out at confocal microscopy, have evidentiated a clear fluorescence in the papillae of the three studied species and a network of nervous fibers projecting from the papillar base up to cerebral vesicle of the cephalenteron. The characteristic of simple and coniforme type and the adhesive and sensorial functions of adhesive papillae of three ascidian species examined are confirmed.

  11. Inverse correlation of population similarity and introduction date for invasive ascidians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan Silva

    Full Text Available The genomes of many marine invertebrates, including the purple sea urchin and the solitary ascidians Ciona intestinalis and Ciona savignyi, show exceptionally high levels of heterozygosity, implying that these populations are highly polymorphic. Analysis of the C. savignyi genome found little evidence to support an elevated mutation rate, but rather points to a large population size contributing to the polymorphism level. In the present study, the relative genetic polymorphism levels in sampled populations of ten different ascidian species were determined using a similarity index generated by AFLP analysis. The goal was to determine the range of polymorphism within the populations of different species, and to uncover factors that may contribute to the high level of polymorphism. We observe that, surprisingly, the levels of polymorphism within these species show a negative correlation with the reported age of invasive populations, and that closely related species show substantially different levels of genetic polymorphism. These findings show exceptions to the assumptions that invasive species start with a low level of genetic polymorphism that increases over time and that closely related species have similar levels of genetic polymorphism.

  12. The pharmaceutical exploration of cold water ascidians from the Netherlands : a possible source of new cytotoxic natural products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koulman, A; Pruijn, LMC; Sandstra, TSA; Woerdenbag, HJ; Pras, N

    1999-01-01

    Six ascidian species from the Dutch North Sea coast were screened for cytotoxic activity, Freeze-dried biological material was extracted with solvents of different polarity followed by determination of the cytotoxicity. The most active extracts were further separated using different chromatographic

  13. Researching enterprises between organisation and organising

    OpenAIRE

    Elkjær, Bente; Brandi, Ulrik

    2010-01-01

    RESEARCHING ENTERPRISES BETWEEN ORGANISATION AND ORGANISINGUlrik Brandi & Bente Elkjaer, Department of Learning, University of Aarhus, Danish School of Education, Tuborgvej 164, 2400 Copenhagen NV, DenmarkShort paper submission to the 26th European Group of Organization Studies Colloquium, Waves of Globalization: Repetition and difference in organizing over time and space. June 30 - July 3 2010, Lisbon, Portugal.Sub-theme 16:  Investigating Organization as Becoming in a World on the Move ...

  14. Organisational Theatre and Polyphony

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matula, Linda; Badham, Richard; Meisiek, Stefan

    of the organisational theatre event. It focuses in particular on the alignments and clashes between the different human resource voices in defining the ‘surface’ formal purpose for the intervention and the embeddedness of such interactions and negotiations in ‘deeper’ cultural and social conditions. The paper provides......This paper details the conditions leading up to and influencing an organisational theatre intervention as part of an organisational change program at a newly established cancer clinic. The paper explores the social and political interactions and negotiations shaping the structure and conditions...... the first in-depth longitudinal study of shaping and negotiation of an organisational theatre event and the ways in which it is influenced by a polyphonic multivocality and takes the form of selective and partial forms of harmonious expression in establishing meaningful cooperation. The paper reveals...

  15. Leveraging organisational cultural capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Scheel

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Organisational culture discourse mandates a linear approach of diagnosis, measurement and gap analysis as standard practice in relation to most culture change initiatives. Therefore, a problem solving framework geared toward “fixing�? and/or realigning an organisation’s culture is usually prescribed. The traditional problem solving model seeks to identify gaps between current and desired organisational cultural states, inhibiting the discovery of an organisation’s unique values and strengths, namely its cultural capital. In pursuit of discovering and leveraging organisational cultural capital, a descriptive case study is used to show how an Appreciative Inquiry process can rejuvenate the spirit of an organisation as a system-wide inquiry mobilises a workforce toward a shared vision.

  16. Organisations in Innovation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borrás, Susana

    Organisations are crucial elements in an innovation system. Yet, their role is so ubiquitous that it is difficult to grasp and to examine from the perspective of public policy. Besides, links between the literature at firm and system levels on the one hand, and public policy and governance studies...... on the other, are still scarce. The purpose of this paper is to define the conceptual background of innovation policy in relation to the role of organisations in general, and entrepreneurship and intrapreneurship in particular. In so doing, this paper aims at making three contributions. Firstly......, it distinguishes between different types of organisations in the innovation system, a crucial topic in understanding innovation dynamics and blurring borders. Secondly, it identifies the organisation-related bottlenecks in the innovation system, and examines the policy instruments to solve them. Thirdly...

  17. Strategy Development in Organisations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lene

    1999-01-01

    There exist certain ambiguities with the converging fields of information technology and organisational strategy development. The term "IT strategy" has evolved and reflects in some respects this confusion. This paper discusses some of the ambiguities and difficulties of the term "IT strategy......" as used in practice and literature. Emphasis is put on how the term is related to the problem, the organisation, the strategy process and the practical way of methodologically developing the strategy. Finally, alternative strategy developing perspectives are presented....

  18. The Organisation of Disappointment

    OpenAIRE

    Clancy, Annette

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the emotion of disappointment in organisations and to develop a new line of theorising inspired by psychodynamic theory. The current literature casts disappointment as a negative emotion undermining morale, depressing expectations and justifying inaction and inertia. This only captures part of the complexity of disappointment and leaves unexplored both its impact on the organisation and its potential creativity. The study presents a theoretical framework de...

  19. Organisational learning in professional discourses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Sedláček

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Authors of the paper discuss the concept of organisational learning. Theyrefer to a wide range of definitions and concepts, point out some differences from related or analogous concepts used, such as knowledge management and learning organisation. They note the discussions that relate to key topics. These discussions concern levels at which organisational learning can take place, the effect on behaviour organisational performance. The following section of this article presents organisational learning as a process and describes the stages of organisational learning. The purpose of the article is to provide an overview of efforts to define organisational learning, including criticism of the results of this effort. The last partis devoted to selected theories and empirical findings on organisational learning atschool. The authors stress the importance of organisational learning for schools asspecific organisations and express request to examine the processes of organisational learning in this context.

  20. Dynamics of hemocyte subsets from ascidian Halocynthia aurantium in response to tissue damage: a comparative analysis of flow cytometry vs confocal microscopy data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AN Sukhachev

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The current study was aimed at investigating the dynamics of circulatory ascidian hemocyte subsets from Halocynthia aurantium in response to tunic damage. By using flow cytometry and confocal microscopy, it was demonstrated that the relative amount of hemoblasts and hyaline amebocytes was increased 24 h after cutting ascidian tunic and subjacent muscle layer. By applying a broad panel of fluorescently labeled monoclonal antibodies against human adhesion molecules expressed by lymphoid and stem cells both assays allowed to detect two cross-reactive epitopes (CD54 and CD90 on the surface of ascidian hemocytes. Upon that, the expression of CD54-like epitope was found to be downregulated on ascidian cells after tissue damage, whereas binding to CD90-like epitope was upregulated in all examined cell subsets.

  1. The organisational diagnoses of a distribution organisation / Lourence Badenhorst Alblas

    OpenAIRE

    Alblas, Lourence Badenhorst

    2002-01-01

    During the past three decades the economic performances of South Africa organisations were poor. This poor performance forced a lot of South African organisations to look at the way they do business. A method to analyse the way business is conducted through an Organisation Diagnose. Organisation Diagnose is the process of using concepts and methods from the social and behavioural sciences to assess the current state of an entire organisation and to find ways to improve th...

  2. Urochordate ascidians possess a single isoform of Aurora kinase that localizes to the midbody via TPX2 in eggs and cleavage stage embryos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celine Hebras

    Full Text Available Aurora kinases are key proteins found throughout the eukaryotes that control mitotic progression. Vertebrate Aurora-A and B kinases are thought to have evolved from a single Aurora-kinase isoform closest to that found in present day urochordates. In urochordate ascidians Aurora binds both TPX2 (a vertebrate AURKA partner and INCENP (a vertebrate AURKB partner and localizes to centrosomes and spindle microtubules as well as chromosomes and midbody during both meiosis and mitosis. Ascidian Aurora also displays this localization pattern during mitosis in echinoderms, strengthening the idea that non-vertebrate deuterostomes such as the urochordates and echinoderms possess a single form of Aurora kinase that has properties of vertebrate Aurora-kinase A and B. In the ascidian, TPX2 localizes to the centrosome and the spindle poles also as in vertebrates. However, we were surprised to find that TPX2 also localized strongly to the midbody in ascidian eggs and embryos. We thus examined more closely Aurora localization to the midbody by creating two separate point mutations of ascidian Aurora predicted to perturb binding to TPX2. Both forms of mutated Aurora behaved as predicted: neither localized to spindle poles where TPX2 is enriched. Interestingly, neither form of mutated Aurora localized to the midbody where TPX2 is also enriched, suggesting that ascidian Aurora midbody localization required TPX2 binding in ascidians. Functional analysis revealed that inhibition of Aurora kinase with a pharmacological inhibitor or with a dominant negative kinase dead form of Aurora caused cytokinesis failure and perturbed midbody formation during polar body extrusion. Our data support the view that vertebrate Aurora-A and B kinases evolved from a single non-vertebrate deuterostome ancestor. Moreover, since TPX2 localizes to the midbody in ascidian eggs and cleavage stage embryos it may be worthwhile re-assessing whether Aurora A kinase or TPX2 localize to the midbody

  3. Organisational learning in professional discourses.

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Sedláček; Petr Novotný; Lenka Hloušková; Milan Pol; Bohumíra Lazarová

    2012-01-01

    Authors of the paper discuss the concept of organisational learning. Theyrefer to a wide range of definitions and concepts, point out some differences from related or analogous concepts used, such as knowledge management and learning organisation. They note the discussions that relate to key topics. These discussions concern levels at which organisational learning can take place, the effect on behaviour organisational performance. The following section of this article presents organisational ...

  4. Strategising through organising

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mette Vinther

    and sensemaking point of view. It argues that actors’ strategising is closely connected to their organising. Maybe strategising and organising co-constitute each other? It is a perspective that looks at strategy as emergent wayfinding more than planned navigating. In the attempts to make sense...... of and operationalise a strategy, maybe actors do not follow a pre-defined map, but instead figure out the way as they go? Maybe actors go in ways that they relationally believe are the ‘right ones’ and in ways that make sense to them? There are, however, many actors in an organisation and, therefore, also many ways......This thesis is about strategy. It is about what happens after the strategy leaves the drawing board and actors try to make sense of it and figure out how to act. There are many perspectives on strategy. This is another one. A perspective that tries to work with strategy from an everyday, relational...

  5. Luhmann og Organisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Michael

    LUHMANN OG ORGANISATION Organisationsstudier spiller en særlig rolle for den tyske sociolog Niklas Luhmann (1927-1998) idet han begriber organisationer som det mest afgørende socialsystem i det moderne samfund. Kun organisati-oner kan træffe samfundsmæssige afgørelser. Faktisk begyndte Luhmann som...... organisationsteoretiker, og flere af hans tidlige værker regnes nu som milepæle indenfor organisations-studier. I 2000 udkom post humt hans sidste store organisationsteoretiske værk Organisation und Entscheidung. I Luhmanns almene systemteori trækker han kraftigt på sit kendskab til organisationer. Begribelsen af...... organisationer i sammenhæng med det omgivende samfund, formidlet med Luhmanns kommunikations-teoretiske begrebsapparat giver hans bidrag til organisationsteori en enestående analytisk styrke. Omdrejningspunktet for Luhmann har været at forstå, hvordan organisationer kan lukke sig omkring deres egne beslutninger...

  6. Two New Tryptamine Derivatives, Leptoclinidamide and (--Leptoclinidamine B, from an Indonesian Ascidian Leptoclinides dubius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michio Namikoshi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Two new tryptamine-derived alkaloids, named as leptoclinidamide (1 and (--leptoclinidamine B (2, were isolated from an Indonesian ascidian Leptoclinides dubius together with C2-α-D-mannosylpyranosyl-L-tryptophan (3. The structure of 1 was assigned on the basis of spectroscopic data for 1 and its N-acetyl derivative (4. Compound 1 was an amide of tryptamine with two β-alanine units. Although the planar structure of 2 is identical to that of the known compound (+-leptoclinidamine B (5, compound 2 was determined to be the enantiomer of 5 based on amino acid analysis using HPLC methods. Compounds 1 to 4 were evaluated for cytotoxicity against two human cancer cell lines, HCT-15 (colon and Jurkat (T-cell lymphoma cells, but none of the compounds showed activity.

  7. [Distribution and abundance of the ascidian Ecteinascidia turbinata (Ascidiacea: Perophoridae) in Cuba].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Zanuy, Aida; Carballo, José Luis; García-Cagide, Alida; Naranjo, Santiago; Esquivel, Macario

    2007-03-01

    Permanently submerged mangrove roots (Rhizophora mangle) are the main habitat of the ascidian Ecteinascidia turbinata in Cuba. It was occasionally found on black coral (Antiphates caribeana) between 22 and 38 meters deep. This species exhibits a wide distribution in all the mangrove keys surrounding the Island of Cuba but does not occur in riparian or fringing mangroves. Populations of this species are abundant in Cuba: in 75% of the 58 localities sampled the species was present and in 57% more than 50% of the roots held at least one colony. The highest colony densities were found in the northern coast of Pinar del Rio province with values near one colony per lineal meter of mangrove root. We found the highest density (1.46 col/m) and greatest biomass at Jutías Key, with values between 25 and 660 g/m. The average of wet biomass in the studied mangroves was 73.63 g/m. PMID:18457133

  8. Distribution and invasiveness of a colonial ascidian, Didemnum psammathodes, along the southern Indian coastal water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Abdul Jaffar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Ascidians are well known worldwide for their rapid invasions and also for the presence of potential biomedical molecules. Members of the family Didemnidae are widely distributed in tropical waters and they are reported to be among the families possessing rich bioactive compounds. Didemnum psammathodes has a cosmopolitan distribution in tropical waters. The growing evidence of multifarious potential and ever increasing invasion of this species accentuated the need for additional research into its diversity and distribution for sustainable utilization and conservation. The present study was intended to focus on distribution and invasiveness of colonial ascidian, D. psammathodes, along the southern Indian peninsular waters. The present data are based on our own observations made during 2012–2014 period and also on the published and unpublished records of the last 20 years. Out of 45 stations surveyed, D. psammathodes was encountered at a maximum of 41 stations and was found to be more abundant in Hare Island (n = 42, North Break Water (n = 38 and Vizhinjam bay (n = 32. This species was absent at four different stations. Catch per unit effort was higher (19.6 in Hare Island followed by NBW (16.0 and Vizhinjam bay (6.8. The highest number of colonies (136 was observed in calcareous stones, followed by embedded rocks (54 and molluscan shells (33. Hydrographical parameters showed no significant differences between the stations (p < 0.005. It is concluded that D. psammathodes has the potential to invade most of the stations and its distribution was not influenced by hydrographical parameters rather than substrates.

  9. Between Organisation and Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stang Våland, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    . In this process, the open-office layout was introduced as a premediated design condition, a format that the users initially resisted. The paper discusses how end-user participation as a method and spatial design as a perspective may inform change in organisations. Although the users' resistance toward the open......This paper contributes to our sparse knowledge on the relationship between organisational and architectural design. It is based on an ethnographic study of the process of designing a municipality town hall, in which end-user participation constituted an integrated part of the design process...

  10. Den kommunikerende organisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tække, Jesper

    2006-01-01

    samtidig tilbydes optimale muligheder for at få opfyldt individuelle behov og karrieremuligheder. For at en organisation skal kunne korrigere sig i forhold til de krav den konfronteres med, må der kunne fremstilles et adækvat billede af den. Det vil sige at dens faktiske kommunikationsprocesser må kunne...... drages frem i lyset på en måde så hensigtsmæssigheder og uhensigtsmæssigheder kan iagttages og selv blive objekt for reflekteret organisationskommunikation. Dette paper giver et udkast til en analysestrategi, hvormed der kan tegnes et billede af den enkelte organisation ud fra hvordan dens enkelte og...

  11. Organisational Learning with Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hundebøl, Jesper

    2008-01-01

    in practice. I will discuss these cases with a view to understand the implications for organising, learning and knowing in the design phases of a construction projects. Before this, however, I will present in detail the research question and how I intend to deal with it methodologically. I will outline...

  12. Four archetypal networked organisations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Treurniet, W.; Buul, K. van

    2015-01-01

    Complex and multifaceted problems such as emergencies typically require coordinated effort by a network of different organisations. These networks typically rely less on formal hierarchical structures and instead have a stronger focus on allowing the dynamics to emerge in the process of collaboratio

  13. The national emergency organisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In any emergency situation, the organisation of the response in France is based on predetermined emergency response plans. These plans define worst-case accident scenarios in terms of safety and the measures necessary to control the accident and to protect the personnel on the sites as well as the general public. (authors)

  14. The Compassionate Organisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Poul Erik Flyvholm; Isaksson, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Structured Abstract: Purpose – This paper tests whether organisations in the public domain have embraced a corporate type of discourse, mirroring the private sector’s preferred orientation towards expertise, or whether they maintain their traditional discourse of goodwill towards the publics they...

  15. Cultures et organisations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, G.; Hofstede, G.J.; Minkov, M.

    2010-01-01

    La coopération interculturelle, une question de survie Véritable atlas des valeurs culturelles, paru en 18 langues, Cultures et organisations est le fruit de plus de 40 ans de recherches menées dans plus de 100 pays. Il est aujourd'hui le livre de référence des chercheurs, universitaires et professi

  16. Den Legende Organisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsted, Ann Charlotte

    Bogen beskriver, hvordan to vidt forskellige organisationer - den store internationale virksomhed LEGO og den mindre nonprofit organisation SUS - har bragt legen i spil. Ann Charlotte Thorsted viser i bogen, hvordan leg kan understøtte innovation, læring, kommunikation, samarbejde og det gode...

  17. Evaluation of antibacterial activity of crude extracts of ascidian Didemnum psammathodes Sluiter, 1895 against isolated human and fish pathogens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    N Sri Kumaran; S Bragadeeswaran; VK Meenakshi

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antimicrobial activities of ascidian Didemnum psammathodes (D. psammathodes) against human and fish pathogenic organisms. Methods: In this study antimicrobial activities were carried out by standard disc diffusion method. In this experiment 40 human, fish bacterial and fungal pathogens were isolated and assayed against 7 different solvents such as methanol, acetone, ethanol, n-butanol, chloroform, ethyl acetate and dichloromethane. Each solvent were assayed at different concentrations of 25, 50, 75, 100 mg/mL. Results: From this experiment solvent having higher concentrations showed high inhibition activity and the fungi are showed more resistant than the bacterial strains used. Conclusions: These results indicate that the ascidian D. psammathodes is found to have remarkable antimicrobial activities against isolated microbes. Further studies will fulfill for purification and structural elucidation of antimicrobial drugs.

  18. NCW2, a Gene Involved in the Tolerance to Polyhexamethylene Biguanide (PHMB), May Help in the Organisation of β-1,3-Glucan Structure of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cell Wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsztein, Carolina; de Lima, Rita de Cássia Pereira; de Barros Pita, Will; de Morais, Marcos Antonio

    2016-09-01

    In the present work, we provide biological evidences supporting the participation of NCW2 gene in the mechanism responsible for cell tolerance to polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB), an antifungal agent. The growth rate of yeast cells exposed to this agent was significantly reduced in ∆ncw2 strain and the mRNA levels of NCW2 gene in the presence of PHMB showed a 7-fold up-regulation. Moreover, lack of NCW2 gene turns yeast cell more resistant to zymolyase treatment, indicating that alterations in the β-glucan network do occur when Ncw2p is absent. Computational analysis of the translated protein indicated neither catalytic nor transmembrane sites and reinforced the hypothesis of secretion and anchoring to cell surface. Altogether, these results indicated that NCW2 gene codes for a protein which participates in the cell wall biogenesis in yeasts and that Ncw2p might play a role in the organisation of the β-glucan assembly. PMID:27246500

  19. A Boolean Function for Neural Induction Reveals a Critical Role of Direct Intercellular Interactions in Patterning the Ectoderm of the Ascidian Embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Naoyuki; Waki, Kana; Mochizuki, Atsushi; Satou, Yutaka

    2015-12-01

    A complex system of multiple signaling molecules often produce differential gene expression patterns in animal embryos. In the ascidian embryo, four signaling ligands, Ephrin-A.d (Efna.d), Fgf9/16/20, Admp, and Gdf1/3-r, coordinately induce Otx expression in the neural lineage at the 32-cell stage. However, it has not been determined whether differential inputs of all of these signaling pathways are really necessary. It is possible that differential activation of one of these signaling pathways is sufficient and the remaining signaling pathways are activated in all cells at similar levels. To address this question, we developed a parameter-free method for determining a Boolean function for Otx expression in the present study. We treated activities of signaling pathways as Boolean values, and we also took all possible patterns of signaling gradients into consideration. We successfully determined a Boolean function that explains Otx expression in the animal hemisphere of wild-type and morphant embryos at the 32-cell stage. This Boolean function was not inconsistent with three sensing patterns, which represented whether or not individual cells received sufficient amounts of the signaling molecules. These sensing patterns all indicated that differential expression of Otx in the neural lineage is primarily determined by Efna.d, but not by differential inputs of Fgf9/16/20, Admp, and Gdf1/3-r signaling. To confirm this hypothesis experimentally, we simultaneously knocked-down Admp, Gdf1/3-r, and Fgf9/16/20, and treated this triple morphant with recombinant bFGF and BMP4 proteins, which mimic Fgf9/16/20 and Admp/Gdf1/3-r activity, respectively. Although no differential inputs of Admp, Gdf1/3-r and Fgf9/16/20 signaling were expected under this experimental condition, Otx was expressed specifically in the neural lineage. Thus, direct cell-cell interactions through Efna.d play a critical role in patterning the ectoderm of the early ascidian embryo.

  20. The Impact of Organisational Learning on Organisational Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Zgrzywa-Ziemak

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this article is to analyse the theoretical views and results of empirical research concerning the relation between organisational learning (OL) and organisational performance (OP). Methodology: The study was carried out through extensive literature research, including relevant literature review from databases such as ProQuest, Elsevier, Emerald and EBSCO (the phrases: “organisational learning”, “learning organisation” and “organisational performance” were searched in th...

  1. MEMO Organisation Modelling Language (1): Focus on organisational structure

    OpenAIRE

    Frank, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    Organisation models are at the core of enterprise model, since they represent key aspects of a company's action system. Within MEMO, the Organisation Modelling Language (OrgML) supports the construction of organisation models. They can be divided into two main abstractions: a static abstraction is focusing on the structure of an organisation that reflects the division of labour with respect to static responsibilities and a dynamic abstraction that is focusing on models of business processes. ...

  2. Pressure tolerance of tadpole larvae of the Atlantic ascidian Polyandrocarpa zorritensis: potential for deep-sea invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Yukio Gomes Sumida

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract How deep-sea fauna evolved is a question still being investigated. One of the most accepted theories is that shallow water organisms migrated to deeper waters and gave origin to the deep-sea communities. However, many organisms are prevented from performing long vertical migrations by the increasing hydrostatic pressure. Tadpole larvae of the ascidian Polyandrocarpa zorritensis were submitted to pressure treatments of 1, 50, 100 and 200 atm. Survival, settlement and metamorphosis rates were verified after 24 hour incubation in a pressure chamber. The majority of larvae settled (84%, 62%, 83% and 77% respectively and successfully underwent metamorphosis (93%, 59%, 85% and 60% in all pressure treatments. Larval mortality was of less than 15% in all treatments, except for the 50 atm treatment, which presented 38% mortality. Nearly 100% of the surviving larvae underwent metamorphosis in the treatments of 1, 50 and 100 atm. However, 1/3 of the individuals were still in their larval stages in the 200 atm treatment and presented delayed development. These data suggest that ascidian larvae can withstand the hydrostatic pressure levels found in the deep-sea. It is therefore feasible that the current abyssal ascidian species may have colonized the deep-sea through vertical migration and in only a few generations.

  3. Studies on the seasonal variations in the proximate composition of ascidians from the Palk Bay,Southeast coast of India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ananthan; G; Karthikeyan; MM; Selva; Prabhu; A; Raghunathan; C

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the seasonal fluctuations of the proximate composition of the ascidians muscle.Methods:The moisture content was estimated by drying 1 g of fresh tissue at a constant temperature at 105(?)for 24 h.The loss of weight was taken as moisture content.The total protein was estimated using the Biuret method.The total carbohydrate in dried sample was estimated spectrophotometrically following the phenol-sulphuric acid method.The lipid in the dried sample tissue was gravimetrically estimated following the chloroform-methanol mixture method.Ash content was determined gravimetrically by incinerating 1 g dried sample in muffle furnace at about 550℃for 6 h and results are expressed in percentage.Results:It was found very difficult to compare the monthly variations,as all the ten species,exhibited wide fluctuations in their proximate compositions.For the sake of convenience,average seasonal values were calculated by summing the monthly values.Conclusions:The proximate composition of the 10 commonly available ascidians showed high nutritive value and hence these groups especially solitary ascidians can be recommended for human consumption in terms of pickles,soup,curry and others after ensuring the safety of consumers.

  4. Studies on the seasonal variations in the proximate composition of ascidians from the Palk Bay, Southeast coast of India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ananthan G; Karthikeyan MM; Selva Prabhu A; Raghunathan C

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the seasonal fluctuations of the proximate composition of the ascidians muscle. Methods: The moisture content was estimated by drying 1 g of fresh tissue at a constant temperature at 105 ℃ for 24 h.The loss of weight was taken as moisture content. The total protein was estimated using the Biuret method. The total carbohydrate in dried sample was estimated spectrophotometrically following the phenol- sulphuric acid method. The lipid in the dried sample tissue was gravimetrically estimated following the chloroform-methanol mixture method. Ash content was determined gravimetrically by incinerating 1 g dried sample in muffle furnace at about 550 ℃ for 6 h and results are expressed in percentage. Results: It was found very difficult to compare the monthly variations, as all the ten species, exhibited wide fluctuations in their proximate compositions. For the sake of convenience, average seasonal values were calculated by summing the monthly values. Conclusions: The proximate composition of the 10 commonly available ascidians showed high nutritive value and hence these groups especially solitary ascidians can be recommended for human consumption in terms of pickles, soup, curry and others after ensuring the safety of consumers.

  5. World Organisation for Animal Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    World Organisation for Animal Health Home About us Presentation Director general office Biography Photos Strategic plan Our ... Food safety and animal welfare History General organisation World Assembly Council Headquarters OIE Regional Representations OIE Regional ...

  6. Learning and change in organisations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chemi, Tatiana

    2013-01-01

    Review of: Ian W. King & Jonathan Vickery (Eds.), Experiencing Organisations. New Aesthetic perspectives, Faringdon, Libri Publishing, 2013.......Review of: Ian W. King & Jonathan Vickery (Eds.), Experiencing Organisations. New Aesthetic perspectives, Faringdon, Libri Publishing, 2013....

  7. Virtual corporations, enterprise and organisation

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen RÃDUT

    2009-01-01

    Virtual organisation is a strategic paradigm that is centred on the use of information and ICT to create value. Virtual organisation is presented as a metamanagement strategy that has application in all value oriented organisations. Within the concept of Virtual organisation, the business model is an ICT based construct that bridges and integrates enterprise strategic and operational concerns. Firms try to ameliorate the impacts of risk and product complexity by forming alliances and partners...

  8. EVALUATION OF THE PROJECT MANAGEMENT ORGANISATIONAL ABILITY OF PUBLIC ORGANISATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florescu Margareta

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The quality of the results of a project or a public programme, as well as the quality of project management consist in management process performance.This analysis tool promotes the idea of initiating a new organisational/functional policy – organisational tools regarding project management, a new standard concerning the complexity of the project and the associated risk, as well as a new standard concerning the project management organisational/functional ability. Political decision makers, public organisation managers, but project managers as well are the main people in charge of elaborating and taking responsibility for these standards and policies within the organisations they manage and represent.

  9. Virtualness : a new organisational dimension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch-Sijtsema, P.M.

    2003-01-01

    In current literature a new organisational form is presented, the virtual organisation (VO). ms organisational form is a co-operation between a number of companies who combine their strengths to develop a new service or product. The current VO literature is ambiguous about the definition and charact

  10. Customer Oriented Organisations

    OpenAIRE

    Pau Adriana

    2011-01-01

    Customer orientation is a complex, multidimensional concept, that includes dimensions like: motivation of an employee for meeting the customers’ requirements, abilities necessary for an employee to satisfy the customer’s needs, freedom of the employee to make decisions aimed at meeting the customer’s needs and desires. Customer oriented organisations offer services with a high level of quality that ensures the customer’s satisfaction.

  11. Managing a Voluntary Organisation

    OpenAIRE

    Dk. Hjh. Siti Fatimah - Pg. Hj. Petra

    2014-01-01

    This paper reveals the experience of a young member of a non-profitable organisation in managing a team of professionals in Brunei Darussalam. In a team, the experience of managing has not been as scary as expected; positions taken, however, must be firm and effective. Being a leader of the contingency approach type, actions and responses are based on circumstances. Marketing and managing changes need to be pursued as a new leader of a voluntary organization. Careful considerations and risks ...

  12. Droit des organisations internationales

    CERN Document Server

    Sorel, Jean-Marc; Ndior, Valère

    2013-01-01

    Cet ouvrage collectif offre aux enseignants et chercheurs en droit international, aux praticiens et aux étudiants, une analyse actualisée du droit des organisations internationales. Il dresse en cinq parties un tableau, illustré par des exemples variés, des problématiques que soulève le phénomène polymorphe d institutionnalisation de la société internationale. La première partie est consacrée au phénomène des « organisations internationales », sous l angle à la fois de l institutionnalisation progressive des relations internationales et de la difficulté à cerner une catégorie unifiée. La deuxième partie rend compte de la création, de la disparition et des mutations des organisations internationales, ici envisagées comme systèmes institutionnels et ordres juridiques dérivés. La troisième partie analyse l autonomie que l acquisition de la personnalité juridique et de privilèges et immunités, un organe administratif intégré, un personnel ou un budget propres confèrent aux organi...

  13. Conserved Organisation of 45S rDNA Sites and rDNA Gene Copy Number among Major Clades of Early Land Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosato, Marcela; Kovařík, Aleš; Garilleti, Ricardo; Rosselló, Josep A

    2016-01-01

    Genes encoding ribosomal RNA (rDNA) are universal key constituents of eukaryotic genomes, and the nuclear genome harbours hundreds to several thousand copies of each species. Knowledge about the number of rDNA loci and gene copy number provides information for comparative studies of organismal and molecular evolution at various phylogenetic levels. With the exception of seed plants, the range of 45S rDNA locus (encoding 18S, 5.8S and 26S rRNA) and gene copy number variation within key evolutionary plant groups is largely unknown. This is especially true for the three earliest land plant lineages Marchantiophyta (liverworts), Bryophyta (mosses), and Anthocerotophyta (hornworts). In this work, we report the extent of rDNA variation in early land plants, assessing the number of 45S rDNA loci and gene copy number in 106 species and 25 species, respectively, of mosses, liverworts and hornworts. Unexpectedly, the results show a narrow range of ribosomal locus variation (one or two 45S rDNA loci) and gene copies not present in vascular plant lineages, where a wide spectrum is recorded. Mutation analysis of whole genomic reads showed higher (3-fold) intragenomic heterogeneity of Marchantia polymorpha (Marchantiophyta) rDNA compared to Physcomitrella patens (Bryophyta) and two angiosperms (Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana tomentosifomis) suggesting the presence of rDNA pseudogenes in its genome. No association between phylogenetic position, taxonomic adscription and the number of rDNA loci and gene copy number was found. Our results suggest a likely evolutionary rDNA stasis during land colonisation and diversification across 480 myr of bryophyte evolution. We hypothesise that strong selection forces may be acting against ribosomal gene locus amplification. Despite showing a predominant haploid phase and infrequent meiosis, overall rDNA homogeneity is not severely compromised in bryophytes.

  14. Conserved Organisation of 45S rDNA Sites and rDNA Gene Copy Number among Major Clades of Early Land Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosato, Marcela; Kovařík, Aleš; Garilleti, Ricardo; Rosselló, Josep A.

    2016-01-01

    Genes encoding ribosomal RNA (rDNA) are universal key constituents of eukaryotic genomes, and the nuclear genome harbours hundreds to several thousand copies of each species. Knowledge about the number of rDNA loci and gene copy number provides information for comparative studies of organismal and molecular evolution at various phylogenetic levels. With the exception of seed plants, the range of 45S rDNA locus (encoding 18S, 5.8S and 26S rRNA) and gene copy number variation within key evolutionary plant groups is largely unknown. This is especially true for the three earliest land plant lineages Marchantiophyta (liverworts), Bryophyta (mosses), and Anthocerotophyta (hornworts). In this work, we report the extent of rDNA variation in early land plants, assessing the number of 45S rDNA loci and gene copy number in 106 species and 25 species, respectively, of mosses, liverworts and hornworts. Unexpectedly, the results show a narrow range of ribosomal locus variation (one or two 45S rDNA loci) and gene copies not present in vascular plant lineages, where a wide spectrum is recorded. Mutation analysis of whole genomic reads showed higher (3-fold) intragenomic heterogeneity of Marchantia polymorpha (Marchantiophyta) rDNA compared to Physcomitrella patens (Bryophyta) and two angiosperms (Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana tomentosifomis) suggesting the presence of rDNA pseudogenes in its genome. No association between phylogenetic position, taxonomic adscription and the number of rDNA loci and gene copy number was found. Our results suggest a likely evolutionary rDNA stasis during land colonisation and diversification across 480 myr of bryophyte evolution. We hypothesise that strong selection forces may be acting against ribosomal gene locus amplification. Despite showing a predominant haploid phase and infrequent meiosis, overall rDNA homogeneity is not severely compromised in bryophytes. PMID:27622766

  15. Virtual corporations, enterprise and organisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen RÃDUT

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Virtual organisation is a strategic paradigm that is centred on the use of information and ICT to create value. Virtual organisation is presented as a metamanagement strategy that has application in all value oriented organisations. Within the concept of Virtual organisation, the business model is an ICT based construct that bridges and integrates enterprise strategic and operational concerns. Firms try to ameliorate the impacts of risk and product complexity by forming alliances and partnerships with others to spread the risk of new products and new ventures and to increase organisational competence. The result is a networked virtual organization.

  16. TEDx Organisers meet at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Abha Eli Phoboo

    2013-01-01

    CERN hosted the second TEDx European Organisers meeting last week with around 80 organisers attending from all over Europe. They were given an introduction to CERN and a tour of the LHC experiments.   The participants of the TEDx European Organisers meeting held at CERN last week. Among the attendees was Bruno Giussani, European director of TED, who delivered the welcome address. The TEDx European organisers shared their experiences in workshops and brainstormed about how to work on different aspects of organising a TEDx event, and about improving the relationship between TEDx and TED. “The goal of this meeting was for veteran TEDx organisers to help younger ones, help each other, bring the community together and have better quality events,” said Claudia Marcelloni, head of TEDxCERN. TEDx is an independently organised TED (Technology, Entertainment, Design) talk event, which has grown exponentially all over the world. There are hundreds of TEDx events every day and it n...

  17. Conservation of Notochord Gene Expression Across Chordates: Insights From the Leprecan Gene Family

    OpenAIRE

    Capellini, Terence D.; Dunn, Matthew P.; Yale J Passamaneck; Selleri, Licia; Di Gregorio, Anna

    2008-01-01

    The notochord is a defining character of the chordates, and the T-box transcription factor Brachyury has been shown to be required for notochord development in all chordates examined. In the ascidian Ciona intestinalis, at least 44 notochord genes have been identified as bona fide transcriptional targets of Brachyury. We examined the embryonic expression of a subset of murine orthologs of Ciona Brachyury target genes in the notochord to assess its conservation throughout chordate evolution. W...

  18. Further EST analysis of endocrine genes that are preferentially expressed in the neural complex of Ciona intestinalis: receptor and enzyme genes associated with endocrine system in the neural complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiguchi, Toshio; Kawashima, Takeshi; Satou, Yutaka; Satoh, Nori

    2007-01-15

    Identification of orthologs of vertebrate neuropeptides and hypothalamic hormones in the neural complex of ascidians suggests integral roles of the ascidian neural complex in the endocrine system. In the present study, we investigated endocrine-related genes expressed in the neural complex of Ciona intestinalis. Comprehensive analyses of 3'-end sequences of the neural complex cDNAs placed 10,029 clones into 4051 independent clusters or genes, 1524 of them being expressed preferentially in this organ. Comparison of the 1524 genes with the human proteome databank demonstrated that 476 matched previously identified human proteins with distinct functions. Further analyses of sequence similarity of the 476 genes demonstrated that 21 genes are candidates for those involved in the endocrine system. Although we cannot detect hormone or peptide candidates, we found 21 genes such as receptors for peptide ligands, receptor-modulating proteins, and processing enzymes. We then characterized the Ciona prohormone convertase 2 (Ci-PC2) and carboxypeptidase E (Ci-CPE), which are associated with endoproteolytic processing of peptide hormone precursors. Furthermore, genes encoding these transcripts are expressed specifically in the neural complex of young adult ascidians. These data provide the molecular basis for further functional studies of the endocrine role of the neural complex of ascidians.

  19. Kommunikation skaber din organisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Heidi

    Kommunikation er med til at skabe vores sociale verdener - og er dermed essentiel i forhold til at skabe virksomhedens image udadtil og den organisatoriske virkeligehd indadtil. Bogen tager udgangspunkt i en semiotisk og narrativ tilgang til kommunikation, hvor organisationen konstant (gen-)skabe......-)skabes genenm interaktioner mellem ledere og medarbejdere og mellem organisation og omverden. Identitet er et nøgleberegb i denne forståelse. Historier hjælper os med at skabe mening og er derfor vigtige som organisationsudviklings- og positioneringsværktøj....

  20. Organisational Learning with Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hundebøl, Jesper

    2008-01-01

    Based on multi-site ethno-methodological field studies in the Danish construction industry this paper examines the relational effects of 3D object-based modelling. In describing how that technology is being introduced, shaped and enacted, how it associates with, mediates and translates existing...... practices, I discuss how it has effects for work methods and routines in an (inter-)organisational setting, namely that of architects and consulting engineers. The technology is introduced in the practices in question, in part because of a program referred to as Det Digitale Byggeri (Digital Construction...

  1. Contemporary Network Organisations in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jure Kovač

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Modern organisations are confronted with enormous challenges. The need to continuously adapt to changing environments represents a main challenge for modern organisations. In order to adapt to the requirements of modern environments more easily and more rapidly, organisations become connected into networks. A network organisation is fast becoming a favourite form of the modern organisation. On the basis of an analysis of members in the field of network organisations, this contribution presents the dimensions and definitions of network organisations. In the follow-up, the starting point for a theoretical explanation of network organisations and their different existing forms is presented. The emphasis of the empirical part of the contribution focuses on presenting an analysis of forms of network organisations that are present in Slovenia from the perspective of their shape, development and actual state. Based on an analysis of relevant documentation, it may be concluded that it was the institutional environment which initiated and directed the start-up processes that led to the establishment of contemporary network organisations within Slovenia.

  2. EVALUATION OF THE PROJECT MANAGEMENT ORGANISATIONAL ABILITY OF PUBLIC ORGANISATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Florescu Margareta

    2012-01-01

    The quality of the results of a project or a public programme, as well as the quality of project management consist in management process performance.This analysis tool promotes the idea of initiating a new organisational/functional policy – organisational tools regarding project management, a new standard concerning the complexity of the project and the associated risk, as well as a new standard concerning the project management organisational/functional ability. Political decision makers,...

  3. Organisational Self - Evaluation as a Possible Tool of Organisational Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Mariann Veresné Somosi

    2004-01-01

    The clue of enduring success of companies / institutes is the ability to recognise new challenges betimes and to react them quickly and flexible. The management however does not dispose of the appropriate tools and methodological knowledge in cases of complex and complicated organisational forming to map fields in critical situations. During this presentation, I examine one of the possible systems of goals and fields of organisational analysis with the help of the organisational analysis proc...

  4. Organisational Learning - A Global View

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper will discuss the concept of organisational learning and its application to NPP. The concept outlined in this paper substantially extends the operating experience feedback process currently practiced in NPP. Organisational learning has emerged from economics and business administration where measures related to this concept have been applied to increase economic efficiency and return. Such organisations are designed to achieve specific objectives by using specific means and resources. For these organisations, organisational learning is of utmost importance especially in changing environments, because it drives the systematic and continuous adaptation and self-improvement of an organisation in order to better carry out its missions and to better fulfil the economic, legal, political, scientific, social, and technological requirements of the environment. In the nuclear industry, besides design nuclear safety is guaranteed by an efficient safety management. Safety management includes the continuous monitoring, evaluation, and improvement of nuclear safety. Organisational learning is an essential element of safety management, and safety management is to be considered as a particular framework for organisational learning. To be efficient, organisational learning, like safety management, has to rely on core values of a good safety culture like e.g. questioning attitude, and openness to criticism. Chapter 2 of the paper elaborates on the definition of organisational learning and its main elements. Chapter 3 discusses the current status regarding the organisational learning system in German NPP. Chapter 4 presents concept and implementation status of an organisational learning system developed by the Unterweser NPP and GRS. The paper concludes with lessons learned up to now

  5. Research into Chinese media organisations

    OpenAIRE

    Xin, Xin

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the impact of media marketisation in China upon organisational structure and journalistic practices of Chinese news organisations. It aims to assess to what extent market factors have weakened the centralised control over local journalistic practices in the last two and a half decades. This paper focuses on Xinhua Shanghai Bureau, a local division within a central news organisation, Xinhua News Agency, which is headquartered in Beijing and operates nationwide. This artic...

  6. Feminine leadership and organisational culture

    OpenAIRE

    Andreea-Simona Saseanu; Sorin-George Toma; Paul Marinescu

    2014-01-01

    People in general, leaders especially, are influenced by the organisational culture and the other way around. Organisational culture represents a determining factor regarding the display of leadership, since these two processes create each other, adding value and consistency to one another. Moreover, organisational culture can be created and developed in a fluctuant business environment, in which the external factors influence its progress. The development of society has incessantly been emph...

  7. Youth organisations as learning organisations: Exploring special contributions and challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Felice, M.C. del; Solheim, L.

    2011-01-01

    Youth and youth organisations are becoming valuable development partners, but little knowledge about their characteristics as learning organisations exists. This article presents perceptions of youth workers on this topic. These were gathered via an online survey and through research done by a youth

  8. Organisational Learning and Organisational Memory for SMS and FRMS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koornneef, F.; Stewart, S.; Akselsson, R.; Ward, M.

    2009-01-01

    Chapter 1: Organisational Learning and Organisational Memory for SMS and FRMS The European Commission HILAS project (Human Integration into theLifecycle of Aviation Systems - a project supported by the European Commission’s 6th Framework between 2005-2009) was focused on using human factors knowled

  9. Organisational commitment and turnover intentions in humanitarian organisations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnmaalen, Julia; Heyse, Liesbet; Voordijk, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Unwanted staff turnover is a prominent HRM problem in humanitarian organisations. In the profit sector, HRM tools such as pay, benefits, socialisation and training have proven to be effective in increasing organisational commitment and decreasing staff turnover. This study explores whether such tool

  10. Luhmann og Organisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tække, Jesper; Paulsen, Michael

    2008-01-01

      Synopsis - Vi vil i denne artikel udlægge Luhmanns organisationsteori i et fugleperspektiv. Ud fra en videnskabsteoretisk og metametodologisk vinkel henvender vi os især til interesserede i organisationsteori og organisationskommunikation, som gerne vil tilegne sig Luhmanns organisationsteori i...... forhold til hans overordnede teoriramme. Formålet med artiklen er at fremstille, hvorledes man i det hele taget med Luhmanns teoriapparat kan iagttage organisatoriske fænomener. Vi vil indfri dette formål ved at formidle en række grundbegreber i en sammenhæng, der begynder med iagttagelsesbegrebet og...... bevæger sig videre til systembegrebet, forskellige systemtyper, kommunikationsbegrebet og til sidst organisations- og beslutningsbegrebet. Alt i alt er det artiklens ærinde at blotlægge de begrebslige præmisser for Luhmanns organisationsteori....

  11. A novel third complement component C3 gene of Ciona intestinalis expressed in the endoderm at the early developmental stages

    OpenAIRE

    Hibino, T.; Nonaka, M

    2013-01-01

    The third complement component (C3) in ascidian was reported to function as an opsonin to enhance phagocytosis and as a chemotactic factor for phagocytes, indicating that ascidian C3 works in mesodermal cavity as a humoral factor like vertebrate C3s. In the basal Eumetazoa, Cnidaria lacking mesodermal tissues, C3 was reported to work in an endodermal cavity. Evolution of structure and function of C3 is still to be clarified. Here we report the identification of the third C3 gene, CiC3-3, in t...

  12. Non indigenous ascidians in port and natural environments in a tropical Brazilian bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia O. Marins

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite limited natural dispersal, some species of ascidians can be transported vast distances via oceanic petroleum platforms, ship hulls and ballast water and therefore may be good indicators of bioinvasion. Usually non indigenous species (NIS are abundant in harbors. This is caused in part because of the higher propagule delivery rate in these areas. An alternative explanation of why invasion is enhanced in harbor and marinas is that environmental degradation commonly found in these habitats favors the establishment of NIS. Most surveys for introduced species were not comprehensive and targeted mainly ports and marinas. Angra dos Reis is an excellent system that provides an opportunity to compare the potential distribution of introduced and native species of Ascidiacea between port and natural environments. Here, we compared the colonization of experimental subtidal plates placed in harbors and marinas with the colonization of plates placed in nearby natural areas. With 27 taxa (15 identified to species, species richness was greater in port environments (25 versus 8. Six taxa were common to both environments while 19 taxa were exclusively found in ports. Among the identified species in ports, three were introduced, five were cryptogenic and only one was native. Only three species were found exclusively in the natural sites and all were cryptogenic. The presence of introduced species only in the port areas of Angra dos Reis reinforces the need for continued, periodic monitoring in the region for early detection of new, potentially invasive, species as well as for better understanding of abnormal population growth of the already known species. Management to reduce the transfer of exotics to natural habitats must be implemented.

  13. Biology of the invasive ascidian Ascidiella aspersa in its native habitat: Reproductive patterns and parasite load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Sharon A.; Darmody, Grainne; O'Dwyer, Katie; Gallagher, Mary Catherine; Nolan, Sinead; McAllen, Rob; Culloty, Sarah C.

    2016-11-01

    The European sea squirt Ascidiella aspersa is a solitary tunicate native to the northeastern Atlantic, commonly found in shallow and sheltered marine ecosystems where it is capable of forming large clumps and outcompeting other invertebrate fauna at settlement. To date, there have been relatively few studies looking at the reproductive biology and health status of this invasive species. Between 2006 and 2010 sampling of a native population took place to investigate gametogenesis and reproductive cycle and to determine the impact of settlement depth on reproduction. In addition, parasite diversity and impact was assessed. A staging system to assess reproductive development was determined. The study highlighted that from year to year the tunicate could change its reproductive strategy from single sex to hermaphrodite, with spawning possible throughout the year. Depth did not impact on sex determination, however, gonad maturation and spawning occurred earlier in individuals in deeper waters compared to shallow depth and it also occurred later in A. aspersa at sites further away from the open sea. Four significant parasite groups including eugregarines, ciliates, trematodes and turbellarians were detected and prevalence of parasite infections increased in A. aspersa at sites with a reduced water flow rate. This study demonstrates the high biotic potential of this ascidian bioinvader to have a negative impact on native fauna in an introduced ecosystem, due to its highly efficient reproductive and resource allocation strategies. Artificial structures such as mooring lines can harbour large aggregations of A. aspersa, however, these manmade habitats may facilitate the colonisation and establishment of this invasive species in the benthos. Additionally, the parasite communities that A. aspersa harbour may also exacerbate its negative impact, both ecologically and economically, in an introduced area by possibly leading to the emergence of new disease in native species i

  14. Performance-oriented Organisation Modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popova, V.; Sharpanskykh, A.

    2006-01-01

    Each organisation exists or is created for the achievement of one or more goals. To ensure continued success, the organisation should monitor its performance with respect to the formulated goals. In practice the performance of an organization is often evaluated by estimating its performance indicato

  15. Boundary organisations and their strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Enst, van Wynanda I.; Runhaar, Hens A.C.; Driessen, P.P.J.

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses three empirical cases of boundary organisations, within the context of the Wadden Sea: the Wadden Academy, IMSA Amsterdam and the NCEA. The research aims to provide further insights into how boundary organisations work in practice. The research shows that the role of a boun

  16. Organisational innovations in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, F. den; Verbruggen, V.

    2000-01-01

    The Netherlands have shown some major technological and economical changes in the field of new production forms and organisation and labour-related innovations. As in other European countries, some autonomous developments like economic developments partly determine the work organisation and the type

  17. Organisational communication and supportive employees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. de Ridder

    2004-01-01

    The importance of the social dimension of organisations is currently a strong focus of emphasis in the literature. From a managerial perspective, however, it is important that the community spirit within an organisation falls in line with its strategic direction. The study discussed in this article

  18. Organising purchasing and (strategic) sourcing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidegaard, Nina; Boer, Harry; Munkgaard Møller, Morten

    2015-01-01

    or hybrid overall structure, deliver the expected results. Contingency theory predicts that the success of a firm depends on the fit among characteristics of, amongst others, the firm’s processes and organisational structure. The objective of this paper is to propose and illustrate a processbased...... typological theory of purchasing and (strategic) sourcing organisation....

  19. Innovating the Product Development Organisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Mogens Myrup; Hein, Lars

    1997-01-01

    The organisational innovation of the product development function is a doubtful affair since we can hardly describe why a specific organisation works. In this article two comprehensive innovation campaigns in Danish industry are described with reference to the nature, content and results...... of innovative processes and as the crux an attempt to explain principal elements in the changes of attitudes and behaviour in companies....

  20. Organising, Educating... Changing the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grayson, John

    2005-01-01

    Over the past few years a constellation of social movements and organisations concerned with issues of globalisation and world poverty have exploded onto the world stage. They have mobilised demonstrations, organised mass gatherings and conferences, created e-networks and websites and become major players in international political lobbying and…

  1. The Impact of Organisational Learning on Organisational Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Zgrzywa-Ziemak

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this article is to analyse the theoretical views and results of empirical research concerning the relation between organisational learning (OL and organisational performance (OP. Methodology: The study was carried out through extensive literature research, including relevant literature review from databases such as ProQuest, Elsevier, Emerald and EBSCO (the phrases: “organisational learning”, “learning organisation” and “organisational performance” were searched in the keywords, titles or abstracts. Findings: From a theoretical point of view, the relation between OL and OP is neither obvious nor clear, but the analysis of the empirical studies allows one to assume that OL has an essential impact on OP. However, differences in the strength of the relation were shown and some contradictions related to the presence of the relation between OL and selected (mostly financial performance aspects identified. Furthermore, the article discusses the significant differences and inconsistencies in the methods of measuring OL, measuring OP, selecting contextual factors and adopted methods of data analysis. Implications: Inconsistencies and gaps found in the studies of the relationship between OL and OP made it possible to designate the direction for promising further research. Value: The article presents valuable insight through its in-depth, critical analysis of the organisational learning and organisational outcomes. First and foremost, this indicates that the formula of the previous empirical studies does not allow for the development of precise solutions pertaining to organisational learning management for the benefit of OP improvement.

  2. Intergovernmental organisation activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This section treats of the following Intergovernmental organisation activities: 1 - European Atomic Energy Community: Non-legally binding instruments - Communication from the European Commission 'Towards an Integrated Strategic Energy Technology (SET) Plan: Accelerating the European Energy System Transformation'; 2014 Annual Report of the Euratom Supply Agency; Report of June 2015 from the Euratom Supply Agency to the European Commission on the Security of Supply of Medical Radioisotopes; 2 - International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA): Convention on Nuclear Safety (CNS); 59. regular session of the IAEA General Conference (Resolutions of the Conference, Measures to Strengthen International Cooperation in Nuclear, Radiation, Transport and Waste Safety (GC(59)/RES/9): conventions, regulatory frameworks and supporting non-legally-binding instruments for safety, Nuclear liability, National infrastructures, Nuclear installation safety, Safe management of radioactive sources, Nuclear and radiological incident and emergency preparedness and response); Nuclear Security (GC(59)/RES/10); IAEA Treaty Event; Legislative assistance activities; Nuclear Law Institute; 3 - OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA): European Nuclear Energy Tribunal (ENET) Inaugural Session for the 9. mandate; New signatories to the extension of the Generation IV International Forum (GIF) Framework Agreement; Joint Declaration on the Security of Supply of Medical Radioisotopes; International Framework for Nuclear Energy Cooperation (IFNEC); 15. session of the International School of Nuclear Law (ISNL); 2016 session of the International Nuclear Law Essentials (INLE)

  3. Using organisational memory in evaluations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madri S. Jansen van Rensburg

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article uses the case of a regional intermediary organisation to investigate organisational memory (OM and its contribution to knowledge management and activities in evaluations. Understanding of, and accessing OM is critical for participatory evaluations. The aim of the article is to reflect on the OM of a non-governmental organisation (NGO and what implicationsthe structural changes in OM over the organisation’s life cycle have for evaluators. It further aims to advocate an awareness of OM and explains how evaluators can access and utilise it more effectively. Evaluators need to have an understanding of OM, and to take more responsibility for disseminating results to enhance it. This case study reflects on a retrospective case example of a regional NGO. The report reflects the development and structure of the life cycle of the organisation. The data collection included in-depth interviews with staff members and other key stakeholders, engagement with beneficiary organisations and donors, and analyses of documents, electronic files and audio-visual material. Since OM survives after the demise of an organisation, and is accessible through directories, it is important for the evaluator to include historical information. Specific implications for evaluators include the ability to access OM through directories and networks of the organisation. As evaluators hold OM of all the organisations they have engaged with, they also have a responsibility to share knowledge. The key findings of this study illustrate the importance of accessing the memory and historical information of the organisation. Understanding OM enhances the in-depth comprehension of the activity, project or programme under investigation, and the collective knowledge generated as a result of it.

  4. Identity In and Around Organisations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Majken; Maguire, Steve

    2013-01-01

    concept may not be the best way of approaching and managing your organisation. Rather, Majken Schultz and Steve Maguire argue that organisations would benefit from adopting a process-based view of identity, which integrates history, ongoing change and market instability into its definition.......At the heart of any successful organisation lies a powerful conception of identity: the coherent way in which it presents itself to its stakeholders and employees, containing its purpose, goals and key characteristics. However, the traditional idea of identity as a stable, solid and reliable...

  5. Cross-phylum functional equivalence of Otx genes and the origin of brain patterning

    OpenAIRE

    Adachi, Yoshitsugu

    2004-01-01

    Molecular mechanisms of cephalic development is an intriguing question in evolutionary and developmental biology. Otx gene plays important roles in animal brain and head development and Otx genes are found in all major animal groups: cnidarians, lophotrochozoans, ecdysozoans, anddeuterostomes. Ascidians, positioned near the origin of the phylum Chordata, share a conserved set of anteroposterior patterning genes withthat of vertebrates. Here I report the cross-phylum regulatory potential of th...

  6. Building a strategic security organisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Mike

    2016-01-01

    In everyone's day-to-day jobs there is constant need to deal with current and newly detected matters. This is now a world of immediacy, driven by the cadence of the business and its needs. These concerns should not be ignored, as failing to deal with these issues would not bode well for the future. It is essential that the gears are kept spinning. The challenge for any security organisation is to identify its short-term tactical requirements, while developing longer-term strategic needs. Once done, the differences can be accounted for and strides can be made toward a desired future state. This paper highlights several steps that the author and his team have taken in their own journey. There is no magic answer, each organisation will have its own unique challenges. Nevertheless, some of the approaches to building a strategic security organisation described in this paper are applicable to all organisations, irrespective of their size. PMID:27318284

  7. The Strategic Process in Organisations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lene; Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui

    1999-01-01

    Organisational strategy development is often conceptualised through methodological frameworks. In this paper strategy development is seen as a strategic process characterised by inherent contradictions between actors, OR methods and the problem situation. The paper presents the dimensions...

  8. Cultural Diversity in Multinational Organisations

    OpenAIRE

    Crowley-Henry, Marian

    2005-01-01

    With the rhetoric in international management espousing the value of being able to access and capitalise on the knowledge of a workforce with international experience in order to compete globally and the need to embrace diversity (including cultural or ethnic diversity) in and across organisations, this paper discusses the findings from a qualitative research undertaking where senior and middle managers working for multinational organisations in a cross-section of industry sectors were ...

  9. Chinese Pragmatism and the Learning Organisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkin, Graham; Cone, Malcolm H.; Liao, Jianqiao

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: For 40 years, it has been widely believed in the West that learning organisations would be healthier, flexible and more competitive than other organisations. By now, one might expect them to be widespread. However, fully developed learning organisations are rare in the West. In contrast, Chinese organisations seem naturally to be learning…

  10. From Digital Administration to Organisational Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkjaer, Bente

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To explore whether deliberate organisational change of a public sector organisation (a local municipality) would create an avenue for organisational learning. Design/methodology/approach: A case study was set up to study the means by which the organisational change towards a digital administration was to come about. The organisational…

  11. Verruculides A and B, two new protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B inhibitors from an Indonesian ascidian-derived Penicillium verruculosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Hiroyuki; Nakayama, Wataru; Takahashi, Ohgi; Kirikoshi, Ryota; Izumikawa, Yuta; Iwasaki, Kohei; Toraiwa, Kengo; Ukai, Kazuyo; Rotinsulu, Henki; Wewengkang, Defny S; Sumilat, Deiske A; Mangindaan, Remy E P; Namikoshi, Michio

    2015-08-15

    Two new merosesquiterpenes, verruculides A (1) and B (2), were isolated from a culture broth of the Indonesian ascidian-derived Penicillium verruculosum TPU1311, together with three known congeners, chrodrimanins A (3), B (4), and H (5). The structures of 1 and 2 were assigned on the basis of their spectroscopic data (1D and 2D NMR, HRMS, UV, CD, and IR). Compound 2 had a linear sesquiterpene moiety and was considered to be the derivative of the biosynthetic precursor for 1 and 3-5. Compounds 1, 3, and 5 inhibited the activity of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) with IC50 values of 8.4, 8.5, and 14.9 μM, respectively. Compound 2 showed 40% inhibition at 23.1 μM, while 4 was not active at 20.7 μM.

  12. The effect of organisational context on organisational development (OD interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjana Brijball Parumasur

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Systematic and congruent organisational structures, systems, strategies and designs are necessary for the successful implementation of organisational development (OD interventions.Research purpose: This article examines national and international OD practices. It assesses the effect of diverse cultures and cultural values for determining the effectiveness of OD interventions.Motivation for the study: Most organisational change and development programmes fail and only a few result in increased competitiveness, improvements and profitability. This emphasises the need for change interventions to give sufficient attention to leadership, cultures, managing change and adopting context-based OD interventions.Research design, approach and method: This article is a literature review of the current trends and research in the area of OD interventions. It synthesises the influence that cultures and cultural orientations have on determining which OD intervention strategies organisations should adopt in different cultures.Main findings: The analysis emphasises how important it is to achieve congruence between the OD interventions organisations select and their local cultures.Practical/managerial implications: It is important to note the evolving nature of the political and economic climates that influence national cultures and that they emphasise that interventions that reflect OD values, which are tailor-made and shaped to the needs of local cultures, are necessary.Contribution/value-add: This study links various OD interventions to Hofstede’s dimensions for differentiating national cultures. It provides guidelines for aligning the practices and techniques of OD to the values and cultures of the organisations and societies in which they are to be implemented.

  13. Constructing professional and organisational fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurney, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to fill an apparent gap in the literature addressing issues of leadership and change - the development and activities of constructing and leading sports sciences and medicine professions, and similarly, the construction and leadership of multidisciplinary/inter-disciplinary organisations that practice sports sciences and medicine. Design/methodology/approach - This study incorporated explorations through conducting both interviews and survey questionnaires with members of Sports Medicine Australia (SMA). The interviews (qualitative) were semi-structured and asked questions addressing what changed, why change and how change was implemented. Findings - The health sciences and medicine professions moving to specialised sports sciences and medicine disciplines and SMA, evolved through forces driving the need for change (legitimacy, resource dependency, positioning and core competencies). Practical implications - The knowledge developed from understanding activities of change that traditional professions conducted to become specialised Disciplines and parallel changes in a single Discipline organisation evolving to an umbrella organisation (SMA), comprised a membership of specialised Disciplines, can act as a catalyst for inquiry by other professional and organisational groups. Originality/value - The findings of this study contributes to the literature investigating change in professional and organisations fields. More specifically, this study promotes inquiry into leadership practices of sports sciences and medicine, as contributors to the field of health services. PMID:26764964

  14. Virtues for innovativeness : a mixed methods study of ethical organisational culture and organisational innovativeness

    OpenAIRE

    Riivari, Elina

    2016-01-01

    This study examined ethical organisational culture, consisting of ethical organisational virtues, and organisational innovativeness. More specifically, the study explored the relationship between the phenomena. Ethical organisational culture was studied using Corporate Ethical Virtues (CEV) model, which is based on the virtue theory of business ethics. This research makes a contribution to prior research on ethical organisational culture by linking the concept of organ...

  15. Organisational Diversity and Knowledge Sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauring, Jakob; Jonasson, Charlotte

    The last years' focus on diversity management has gone from social responsibility to arguments for the competitive advantages, called the business case. It has been argued that diversity management can increase organisational efficiency, improve on moral, and give better access to new market...... segments. But a substantial critique has recently been launched at the arguments for the business case for diversity, especially in the employment of knowledge synergies. Most studies that support or reject the business case argument have limited their research to establish a link between organisational...... productivity and diversity management - that is not engaging in a discussion of how and why there could be potential benefits or difficulties. In this paper we will describe and analyse some of the complications multicultural organisations can experience in regard to knowledge sharing...

  16. Environmental health organisations against tobacco.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mulcahy, Maurice

    2009-04-01

    Implementing the World Health Organisation (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) relies heavily on enforcement. Little is known of the way different enforcement agencies operate, prioritise or network. A questionnaire was sent to representatives of the International Federation of Environmental Health (IFEH) in 36 countries. Tobacco control was given low priority. Almost two thirds did not have any tobacco control policy. A third reported their organisation had worked with other agencies on tobacco control. Obstacles to addressing tobacco control included a lack of resources (61%) and absence of a coherent strategy (39%).

  17. Seeing Like an International Organisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broome, André; Seabrooke, Leonard

    2012-01-01

    International organisations (IOs) often serve as the ‘engine room’ of ideas for structural reforms at the national level, but how do IOs construct cognitive authority over the forms, processes and prescriptions for institutional change in their member states? Exploring the analytic institutions...... and organisational environment that guides an IO's actions and informs its policy advice to states, which enables a more comprehensive picture of how the everyday business of global governance works in practice. Instead of ‘black boxing’ IOs, the contributors to this special issue demonstrate how studying IOs from...

  18. Cultural Diversity and Organisational Effiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauring, Jakob

    2004-01-01

    The expected positive link between diversity management and organisational efficiency is often used as a reason for pursuing diversity management and equal employment opportunity programmes. However, this positive link is only supported to a limited degree by in-depth empirical research and there......The expected positive link between diversity management and organisational efficiency is often used as a reason for pursuing diversity management and equal employment opportunity programmes. However, this positive link is only supported to a limited degree by in-depth empirical research...

  19. PREFACE: Scientific Organising Committee Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Edited by: Oliver Roberts Lorraine Hanlon Sheila McBreen Local Organising Committee: Oliver Roberts (Chair) Antonio Martin-Carrillo Lorraine Hanlon Sheila McBreen Alexey Uliyanov David Murphy Sinéad Hales Scientific Organising Committee:: Sheila McBreen, (UCD, Ireland) (Chair) Franco Camera (INFN-Milano, Italy) Nerine Cherepy (LLNL, USA) Jarek Glodo (RMD, USA) Lorraine Hanlon (UCD, Ireland) Paul Lecoq (CERN, Switzerland) Julie McEnery (NASA, USA) Oliver Roberts (UCD, Ireland) Anant Setlur, (GE, USA) Brian Shortt, (ESA, the Netherlands) Kenneth Stanton (UCD, Ireland)

  20. Organisational Conditions for Corporate Entrepreneurship in Dutch Organisations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenker, Simon; Sijde, van der Peter; During, Wim; Nijhof, André

    2008-01-01

    Corporate entrepreneurship is a topic of attraction for many managers in corporate enterprises. In the early 1980s, several researchers discovered the importance of entrepreneurship and its role in organisational renewal, innovation, risk taking and creation of new businesses. Corporate entrepreneur

  1. Stupid Organisation - How will you ever learn?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elkjær, Bente

    2005-01-01

     The question derives from a research project in which I explored whether a deliberate change process in an organisation would lead to organisational learning. The idea was to see whether it was possible to depict the unfolding of organisational learning processes in the turmoil of change...... in an organisation. If this is the case we may be able to provide clues as to how to deliberately support organisational processes of learning. The study was a case study of a local municipality in Denmark that was pursuing a change from a conventional to a digitalised organisation. The theoretical approach...... was to see whether a pragmatic understanding of learning and organising could open up the organisational learning process. The work took me to a conclusion in which I point to the value of tensions in organisations. It also made me stress the necessity of an awareness of tensions being bridgeable...

  2. Identification of Eusynstyelamide B as a Potent Cell Cycle Inhibitor Following the Generation and Screening of an Ascidian-Derived Extract Library Using a Real Time Cell Analyzer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle S. Liberio

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Ascidians are marine invertebrates that have been a source of numerous cytotoxic compounds. Of the first six marine-derived drugs that made anticancer clinical trials, three originated from ascidian specimens. In order to identify new anti-neoplastic compounds, an ascidian extract library (143 samples was generated and screened in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells using a real-time cell analyzer (RTCA. This resulted in 143 time-dependent cell response profiles (TCRP, which are read-outs of changes to the growth rate, morphology, and adhesive characteristics of the cell culture. Twenty-one extracts affected the TCRP of MDA-MB-231 cells and were further investigated regarding toxicity and specificity, as well as their effects on cell morphology and cell cycle. The results of these studies were used to prioritize extracts for bioassay-guided fractionation, which led to the isolation of the previously identified marine natural product, eusynstyelamide B (1. This bis-indole alkaloid was shown to display an IC50 of 5 µM in MDA-MB-231 cells. Moreover, 1 caused a strong cell cycle arrest in G2/M and induced apoptosis after 72 h treatment, making this molecule an attractive candidate for further mechanism of action studies.

  3. Organisational change. Grace under fire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Helen; Parker, Helen

    2006-12-14

    The success of organisational change is often thwarted by leaders' failure to consider staff feelings. Managers must communicate a clear vision for the future, even though they may be facing great professional uncertainty themselves. It is important to deal with post-merger issues such as helping staff to new roles and 'unlearning' old ways. PMID:17252855

  4. 'Ethos' Enabling Organisational Knowledge Creation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsudaira, Yoshito

    This paper examines knowledge creation in relation to improvements on the production line in the manufacturing department of Nissan Motor Company and aims to clarify embodied knowledge observed in the actions of organisational members who enable knowledge creation will be clarified. For that purpose, this study adopts an approach that adds a first, second, and third-person's viewpoint to the theory of knowledge creation. Embodied knowledge, observed in the actions of organisational members who enable knowledge creation, is the continued practice of 'ethos' (in Greek) founded in Nissan Production Way as an ethical basis. Ethos is knowledge (intangible) assets for knowledge creating companies. Substantiated analysis classifies ethos into three categories: the individual, team and organisation. This indicates the precise actions of the organisational members in each category during the knowledge creation process. This research will be successful in its role of showing the indispensability of ethos - the new concept of knowledge assets, which enables knowledge creation -for future knowledge-based management in the knowledge society.

  5. Entrepreneuring as Organisation-Creation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This chapter aims at making a contribution to the study of entrepreneurship and creativity by developing a processual conceptualisation of a form of entrepreneurial creativity called entrepreneuring or organisation-creation. Such a processual conceptualisation of entrepreneuring will answer the l...

  6. The Organisation as Artist's Palette

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnugg, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    The article considers the many possibilities of bringing the arts into organisations to keep up with the demands of an uncertain and fast-changing environment. It discusses cases of arts-based interventions in companies that reflect the different kinds of arts-based interventions that can be found...

  7. Taxonomic and Thematic Organisation of Proper Name Conceptual Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian J. Crutch

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the investigation of the organisation of proper names in two aphasic patients (NBC and FBI. The performance of both patients on spoken word to written word matching tasks was inconsistent, affected by presentation rate and semantic relatedness of the competing responses, all hallmarks of a refractory semantic access dysphasia. In a series of experiments we explored the semantic relatedness effects within their proper name vocabulary, including brand names and person names. First we demonstrated the interaction between very fine grain organisation and personal experience, with one patient with a special interest in the cinema demonstrating higher error rates when identifying the names of actors working in a similar film genre (e.g. action movies: Arnold Schwarzenegger, Bruce Willis, Sylvester Stallone, Mel Gibson than those working in different genres (e.g. Arnold Schwarzenegger, Gregory Peck, Robin Williams, Gene Kelly. Second we compared directly two potential principles of semantic organisation – taxonomic and thematic. Furthermore we considered these principles of organisation in the context of the individuals' personal knowledge base. We selected topics matching the interests and experience of each patient, namely cinema and literature (NBC and naval history (FBI. The stimulus items were arranged in taxonomic arrays (e.g. Jane Austen, Emily Bronte, Agatha Christie, thematic arrays (e.g. Jane Austen, Pride and Prejudice, Mr Darcy, and unrelated arrays (e.g. Jane Austen, Wuthering Heights, Hercule Poirot. We documented that different patterns of taxonomic and thematic organisation were constrained by whether the individual has limited knowledge, moderate knowledge or detailed knowledge of a particular vocabulary. It is suggested that moderate proper name knowledge is primarily organised by taxonomy whereas extensive experience results in a more detailed knowledge base in which theme is a powerful organising principle.

  8. Taxonomic and thematic organisation of proper name conceptual knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crutch, Sebastian J; Warrington, Elizabeth K

    2011-01-01

    We report the investigation of the organisation of proper names in two aphasic patients (NBC and FBI). The performance of both patients on spoken word to written word matching tasks was inconsistent, affected by presentation rate and semantic relatedness of the competing responses, all hallmarks of a refractory semantic access dysphasia. In a series of experiments we explored the semantic relatedness effects within their proper name vocabulary, including brand names and person names. First we demonstrated the interaction between very fine grain organisation and personal experience, with one patient with a special interest in the cinema demonstrating higher error rates when identifying the names of actors working in a similar film genre (e.g., action movies: Arnold Schwarzenegger, Bruce Willis, Sylvester Stallone, Mel Gibson) than those working in different genres (e.g., Arnold Schwarzenegger, Gregory Peck, Robin Williams, Gene Kelly). Second we compared directly two potential principles of semantic organisation - taxonomic and thematic. Furthermore we considered these principles of organisation in the context of the individuals' personal knowledge base. We selected topics matching the interests and experience of each patient, namely cinema and literature (NBC) and naval history (FBI). The stimulus items were arranged in taxonomic arrays (e.g., Jane Austen, Emily Bronte, Agatha Christie), thematic arrays (e.g., Jane Austen, Pride and Prejudice, Mr Darcy), and unrelated arrays (e.g., Jane Austen, Wuthering Heights, Hercule Poirot). We documented that different patterns of taxonomic and thematic organisation were constrained by whether the individual has limited knowledge, moderate knowledge or detailed knowledge of a particular vocabulary. It is suggested that moderate proper name knowledge is primarily organised by taxonomy whereas extensive experience results in a more detailed knowledge base in which theme is a powerful organising principle.

  9. The Immigrant Organising Process : Turkish Organisations in Amsterdam and Berlin and Surinamese Organisations in Amsterdam, 1960-2000

    OpenAIRE

    Vermeulen, Floris

    2006-01-01

    This study focuses on the emergence and persistence of immigrant organisations in host societies. The relevance of immigrant organisations for both the host society and the immigrants themselves has been effectively demonstrated in many different studies. However, the question why immigrant organisations emerge and why they often persist over a long period is not adequately answered. In this study a comparative approach is used to reveal the structural determinants of the immigrant organising...

  10. Bullying and Organisational Commitment: Common antecedents?

    OpenAIRE

    Dick, Gavin P.M.

    2011-01-01

    The paper’s aim is to provide new theoretical insights by examining whether organisational commitment and workplace bullying co-vary, and if this is due to direct effects and/or indirect effects of their organisation and supervision environment. From a survey of all uniform officers in a UK police agency the author analyses the bullying behaviours experienced by police officers and if the organisational and managerial factors that are known to influence organisational commitment also change t...

  11. EMPLOYEE LEARNING AND DEVELOPMENT IN ORGANISATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    VNOUČKOVÁ, Lucie

    2013-01-01

    The primary goal of all organisations is efficiency of human resources. Therefore activities as HR controlling, performance management but also cutting costs are the main theme. Current organisations need to monitor human resources to keep their competitiveness. Thus paper describes the key factor of organisational efficiency - employee education, talent management and the necessity to retain skilled employees. The aim of the paper is to reveal the current approach in organisations to educati...

  12. Effective Diagnosis in Organisation Change Management

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed Hassin

    2014-01-01

    Organisations are part of interactive and dynamic environments and modern organisations face considerable pressure to meet or exceed customer/ beneficiary’s and stakeholders’ expectations. The key to establishing effective change and transformation in organisations lies in the early stages of assessment and diagnosis: if diagnosis is wrong, treatment will be ineffective. An organisation development programme should be based on a sound analysis of relevant data about the problem situation, and...

  13. Organisational learning as movements in practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elkjær, Bente

    2013-01-01

    In the paper, I take the readers through a tour de force of the past, present and future of the field of organisational learning. This is structured around three concepts that stand out as important, namely organisational learning as changed behaviour, as changed theories of actions and as part...... of practice. I also point to the future of organisational learning as inspired by the work of pragmatist philosophy and as affected by the call for more concreteness in organisation studies as a whole....

  14. Refugee community organisations: a social capital analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kellow, Alexa

    2011-01-01

    This thesis considers how refugee-led community organisations generate social capital for their service users. The concept of social capital has become popular in policy debates in recent years, and previous research has attributed social capital creation for their service users to refugee community organisations (RCOs). This research aimed to analyse the process by which social capital is created by refugee community organisations, and what this means for the members of these organisations i...

  15. Improving Teaching Quality and the Learning Organisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collie, Sarah L.; Taylor, Alton L.

    2004-01-01

    This study applied a learning organisation framework to understand academic departments' efforts to improve teaching quality. The theoretical framework was generated from literature on learning organisations, organisations devoted to continuous improvement through continuous learning. Research questions addressed relationships among departments'…

  16. Key variables of organisation design in servitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreye, Melanie; Jensen, Per Langaa

    2014-01-01

    Manufacturing companies offering additional service with their products need to change their organisation design to accommodate for the service business. Using the star model, this paper investigates organisation design in terms of strategy, structure, processes, rewards and people as a response......, and (iii) the parts of organisation design need to be aligned to prevent inconsistencies in service provision....

  17. Reflection as a Catalyst for Organisational Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knipfer, Kristin; Kump, Barbara; Wessel, Daniel; Cress, Ulrike

    2013-01-01

    This article takes a psychological perspective on organisational learning, putting "reflection" into the centre of attention. We argue that (1) organisational learning is based on individual and team learning at work, (2) reflection is the driving force that leads to organisational learning and (3) cumulation of the staff's reflection outcomes…

  18. Cryogenic safety organisation at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    With Safety being a top priority of CERN’s general policy, the Organisation defines and implements a Policy that sets out the general principles governing Safety at CERN. To the end of the attainment of said Safety objectives, the organic units (owners/users of the equipment) are assigned the responsibility for the implementation of the CERN Safety Policy at all levels of the organization, whereas the Health and Safety and Environmental Protection Unit (HSE) has the role of providing assistance for the implementation of the Safety Policy, and a monitoring role related to the implementation of continuous improvement of Safety, compliance with the Safety Rules and the handling of emergency situations. This talk will elaborate on the roles, responsibilities and organisational structure of the different stakeholders within the Organization with regards to Safety, and in particular to cryogenic safety. The roles of actors of particular importance such as the Cryogenic Safety Officers (CSOs) and the Cryogenic Sa...

  19. Organising pneumonia due to dronedarone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, D; Avery, S; Edey, A J; Medford, A R L

    2015-01-01

    Organising pneumonia is one of the responses of the lung to injury and can mimic bacterial pneumonia but importantly it does not respond to antibiotic therapy. We present the case of a 67-year-old male who was diagnosed with organising pneumonia secondary to dronedarone. Drug reactions are a common cause and early identification of the culprit is mandatory to prevent further morbidity and ensure a favourable outcome. On chest radiography there may be fleeting peripheral consolidation, while computed tomography can show a range of stereotyped patterns including perilobular consolidation. Bronchoscopic biopsy may not always be possible but response to steroids is often rapid following removal of the culprit drug. Dronedarone should be included in the list of possible drugs and the Pneumotox database remains a useful resource for the clinician when acute drug-related pneumotoxicity is suspected. PMID:26517101

  20. Spreadsheet Risk Management in Organisations

    CERN Document Server

    Rittweger, Ben G

    2010-01-01

    The paper examines in the context of financial reporting, the controls that organisations have in place to manage spreadsheet risk and errors. There has been widespread research conducted in this area, both in Ireland and internationally. This paper describes a study involving 19 participants (2 case studies and 17 by survey) from Ireland. Three areas are examined; firstly, the extent of spreadsheet usage, secondly, the level of complexity employed in spreadsheets, and finally, the controls in place regarding spreadsheets. The findings support previous findings of Panko (1998), that errors occur frequently in spreadsheets and that there is little or unenforced controls employed, however this research finds that attitudes are changing with regard to spreadsheet risk and that one organisation is implementing a comprehensive project regarding policies on the development and control of spreadsheets. Further research could be undertaken in the future to examine the development of a "best practice model" both for t...

  1. In Pursuit of Organisational Renewal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Brian Vejrum

    Every time we open a newspaper we are confirmed in the belief that organisations are faced by increas-ingly knowledge intensive realities. More often than not, these reports tell us how companies are strug-gling with issues related to operating on an competitive stage, which is characterised...... is another mat-ter, which is less explored, especially when we look at implementation and sustaining of the initiatives taken. The concern of the thesis, therefore, rests with the constructive process generating new systems, practices and understandings that improve organisational competitiveness. The thesis...... employs three longitudinal case studies, which follow three companies going through deep change, which challenged their capacities to act and learn. This prompted the companies to work with knowledge and learning in several dimensions, related to reflective inquiry, sensing opportunities, and development...

  2. Understanding bullying in healthcare organisations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Belinda

    2015-12-01

    Bullying is a pervasive problem in healthcare organisations. Inquiries and reports on patient care and poor practice in the NHS have emphasised the substantial negative effects this behaviour may have on patient care. If bullying is to be addressed, it is crucial we develop clarity about what behaviours constitute bullying and how these behaviours differ from other negative behaviours in the workplace. It is important that we recognise the extent of the problem; statistics on the prevalence of bullying are likely to be an underestimate because of under-reporting of bullying. Effective interventions may only be designed and implemented if there is knowledge about what precipitates bullying and the magnitude of the changes required in organisations to tackle bullying. Individuals should also be aware of the options that are available to them should they be the target of bullying behaviour and what they should do if they witness bullying in their workplace. PMID:26639294

  3. Cemeteries - organisation, management and innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjøller, Christian Philip

    Through the use of qualitative methods and various theoretical perspectives the implementation of maintenance specifications for Danish cemeteries is analysed and in parallel the cemeteries are described and characterised. Cemeteries and their management is complex due to the duality of the servi...... and thus likely to be part of future innovation and learning processes. Study findings contribute to the field of Danish cemeteries, as well as the knowledge base on cemeteries, public green spaces and of organisational change....... and due to frequent ad hoc approaches. The new tool represents a divergent change of current practices, and implementation is subsequently ambiguous, with adaptations of both tool and organisations. The tool is however addressing aspects of emerging challenges in the field of cemetery administrations...

  4. Feminine leadership and organisational culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea-Simona Saseanu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available People in general, leaders especially, are influenced by the organisational culture and the other way around. Organisational culture represents a determining factor regarding the display of leadership, since these two processes create each other, adding value and consistency to one another. Moreover, organisational culture can be created and developed in a fluctuant business environment, in which the external factors influence its progress. The development of society has incessantly been emphasized by the relationship between the sexes, by their individual evolution, but also by the interdependency between them. Although there is increasingly more talk about gender equality, in many countries, the social as well as economical chances and opportunities are not equal for women and men. Gradually, women have been through a series of changes related to education, rights and obligations. However, the number of women leaders has always been much lower than the number of men leaders. The personality traits of leaders significantly influence the leadership style and the way in which they are perceived by their subordinates, all this having a major impact on the overall performances of the organisation. In this manner, depending on the gender (masculine/feminine, we can state that one could observe certain personality traits that are characteristic to women and others specific to men, leaving their mark on the leadership method and on the leadership style adopted of each of them. Considering the fact that, in the current turbulent economic environment, certain qualities such as flexibility, intuition, development of communication networks and motivating the employees represent values that are considered to be “feminine”, one can assert that, in this case, gender is an opportunity. However, if we should take into consideration the impact of culture, of certain mentalities and misconceptions that are still present, regarding the woman’s standing in

  5. Communication in third sector organisations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Durán-Bravo, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Third sector organisations favour the social development due to their capacity to produce human and social capital in society (Putman, 2001. In order to achieve social welfare third sector organisations need to produce a positive change in the relations among individuals, groups and institutions in a society. The expectations about the third sector organisations’ transparency and capacity to tackle social problems are increasing worldwide. In Mexico, this problematic is more complex because there is a low level of professionalism, transparency, accountability and participation culture in the organized civil society (ITAM, 2010. The development of the organized civil society in Mexico will depend to a great extent on its capacity to communicate its values to society and achieve a cultural and social change. Therefore, the third sector organisations must adopt strategic initiatives to reinforce their credibility and reputation, because the public and private donors are increasingly more demanding in their criteria to grant resources to social projects; and because the Mexican society has a low participation level and faces increasingly more complex social problems.

  6. Organisering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Poul Bitsch

    2013-01-01

    Organiseringsanalyse er den væsentligste af samtidens analysemetode for ledere og alle der er engagerede i organisationer og erhvervsaktivitet. Her fremlægges organiseringsanalysens baggrund i den amerikanske pragmatisme, og hvorledes den netop udfylder en plads i den mikrosociologiske tradition...

  7. Organisational Learning: Conceptual Links to Individual Learning, Learning Organisation and Knowledge Management

    OpenAIRE

    Siu Loon Hoe

    2007-01-01

    Organisational learning has over the years been subject of much study by scholars and managers. In the process, the organisational learning concept has been linked to many other knowledge concepts such as individual learning, learning organisation, and knowledge management. This paper draws from existing literature in organisational behaviour, human resource management, marketing, and information management, to further develop the conceptual links between organisational learning and these kno...

  8. Cytotoxicity of actinomycetes associated with the ascidian Eudistoma vannamei (Millar, 1977, endemic of northeastern coast of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula C Jimenez

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies demonstrated that the crude extract of the ascidian Eudistoma vannamei, endemic from northeasttern Brazil, strongly hinders growth of tumor cells in vitro by inducing apoptosis due to tryptophan derivatives, which are commonly found in bacteria. This study presents a bioactivity-guided screening among actinomycetes, associated with E. vannamei, aiming at recognizing active principles with biological relevance. Twenty strains of actinomycetes, designated as EVA 0101 through 0120, were isolated from colonies of E. vannamei among which 11 were selected for cytotoxicity evaluation. The extracts from EVA 0102, 0103, 0106, 0109 and 0113 were the most active, and were further studied for IC50 determination and chemical analysis by ¹H NMR. IC50 values obtained ranged from 3.62 µg mL-1 (for EVA 0109 in leukemia cells to 84.65 µg/mL (for EVA 0106 in melanoma cells. All active extracts exhibited the same TLC and spectroscopic profiles, suggesting the presence of quinones and other related secondary metabolites. Furthermore, these strains were identified and compared based on their respective 16S rRNA sequences. The results herein identified the five strains as Micromonospora spp. while phylogenetic analysis suggests that they are possibly two different Micromonospora species producing the cytotoxic compounds.

  9. Effect of workplace innovation on organisational performance and sickness absence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oeij, P.R.A.; Vaas, F.

    2016-01-01

    Workplace innovation is an organisational capability, defined as a strategic renewal in organising and organisational behaviour. This capability may consist of four resources: strategic orientation, product-market improvement, flexible work and organising smarter. Workplace innovation is theoretical

  10. An organisational perspective on professionals' learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elkjær, Bente; Brandi, Ulrik

    2014-01-01

    that they are connected with. These are a behavioural, a cognitive and a practice-based perspective on organisational learning respectively. We propose that these lenses on organisations and learning may help us see professionals’ learning as contextualised in both their work practices and their places of work, i......The purpose and contribution of our chapter is to provide a vision for professionals’ learning in the light of the field of organisational learning, and through this lens to incorporate various understandings of the organisational dynamics that professionals work and learn in and through. Inspired...... by some of the founding fathers of the field of organisational learning, Chris Argyris and Donald Schön (Argyris & Schön, 1978; 1996: 3), we ask: “what is an organisation that professionals may learn?” We answer this question by introducing three understandings of organisations and the learning theories...

  11. A novel third complement component C3 gene of Ciona intestinalis expressed in the endoderm at the early developmental stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Hibino

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The third complement component (C3 in ascidian was reported to function as an opsonin to enhance phagocytosis and as a chemotactic factor for phagocytes, indicating that ascidian C3 works in mesodermal cavity as a humoral factor like vertebrate C3s. In the basal Eumetazoa, Cnidaria lacking mesodermal tissues, C3 was reported to work in an endodermal cavity. Evolution of structure and function of C3 is still to be clarified. Here we report the identification of the third C3 gene, CiC3-3, in the genome of an ascidian, Ciona intestinalis. Phylogenetic analysis using the entire amino acid sequences of Eumetazoan C3s indicated that CiC3-3 possess a closer relationship to vertebrate C3, C4 and C5 than other ascidian C3s. Although CiC3-3 retained the α-β processing site and 6 cysteine residues in the C3a region, it lacked the intra-molecular thioester bond and the catalytic histidine residue. Instead, CiC3-3 had a unique insertion of about 70 residues long Lys/Arg-rich sequence. CiC3-3 was expressed highly in the embryonic stages, but little in the adult in contradistinction to CiC3-1 and CiC3-2. The expression of CiC3-3 in early embryonic stages was restricted to endoderm similar to cnidarian C3s. Thus, the ascidian complement system could represent a unique evolutionary stage sharing a primitive endodermal function with Cnidaria, and newly developed humoral function with vertebrates.

  12. Evolutionary mitogenomics of Chordata: the strange case of ascidians and vertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    C Gissi; F. Griggio; F Iannelli

    2009-01-01

    The availability of almost one thousand complete mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) sequences of chordates provides an almost unique opportunity to analyse the evolution of this genome in the phylum Chordata, and to identify possible divergent evolutionary trends followed by the three chordate subphyla: Vertebrata, Cephalochordata and Tunicata.Here, we review some genome-level features of mtDNA, such as genetic code, gene content, genome architecture and gene strand asymmetry, mostly focusing on di...

  13. New genes in the evolution of the neural crest differentiation program

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez-Morales, Juan Ramón; Henrich, Thorsten; Ramialison, Mirana; Wittbrodt, Joachim

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Development of the vertebrate head depends on the multipotency and migratory behavior of neural crest derivatives. This cell population is considered a vertebrate innovation and, accordingly, chordate ancestors lacked neural crest counterparts. The identification of neural crest specification genes expressed in the neural plate of basal chordates, in addition to the discovery of pigmented migratory cells in ascidians, has challenged this hypothesis. These new findings revive th...

  14. Coordination Processes in International Organisations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedergaard, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The EU is not a member of the International Labour Organisation (ILO), but relatively elaborate EU coordination takes place anyway. This paper addresses two research questions: 1) How is it possible to evaluate the coordination of the EU in its specific observable configuration in the ILO?, and 2...... to coordinate relatively elaborate agreements due to the strength of its coordination as far as professional or technical and political activities (excepting the ILO budget) are concerned. In other more clear-cut or 'simple' policy areas such as the ILO budget, the EU coordination is weak: this contrast...

  15. Realising the organisational learning opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An aspect of proactive safety management is learning lessons from unforeseen events. As BNFL has expanded and extended its nuclear services to many more sites, the potential for organisational learning has grown, but sharing through informal networking has become progressively harder. This potential problem has been solved by implementing formalised company-wide arrangements to turn incidents and accidents into organisational learning opportunities through a system called 'Learning from Experience' (LFE). LFE enables event causes and corrective actions to be identified and shared across all BNFL's sites, initially in the UK but ultimately throughout the world. The result is prevention of events having similar causes, and development of a learning culture which breaks down the barriers to adopting best practice'. Key aspects of the system are: Applying root cause analysis to all significant events; Logging all events, their causes and corrective actions onto a Company-wide database; Screening the database regularly by locally appointed Feedback Co-ordinators trained in identifying learning opportunities and knowledgeable of their own business area, and; Placing and tracking actions to prevent similar events at local Event Review Meetings. The paper describes the implementation and initial experience in operation of the LFE system, which is seen as a significant step towards becoming an expanding and learning company with no accidents or incidents. (author)

  16. Photoresponse and Learning Behavior of Ascidian Larvae, a Primitive Chordate, to Repeated Stimuli of Step-Up and Step-Down of Light

    OpenAIRE

    Kawakami, I.; Shiraishi, S; Tsuda, M

    2002-01-01

    Ascidians are lower chordates and their simple tadpole-like larvae share a basic body plan with vertebrates. Newly hatched larvae show no response to a stimulus of light. 4 h after hatching, the larvae were induced to swim upon a step-down of light and stop swimming upon a step-up of light. At weaker intensity of light, the larvae show the same response to a stimulus after presentation of repeated stimuli. When intensity of actinic light was increased, the larvae show sensitization and habitu...

  17. Business continuity management in international organisations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamou, Christel

    2014-01-01

    In the area of business continuity management, a preliminary review of the literature reveals extensive knowledge, expertise and experience concerning organisations in the private and public sectors. It is interesting to note, however, that there is little literature about business continuity management in international organisations, although these entities are complex and particularly prone to threats. This apparent absence of literature suggests that business continuity management has not yet hit the agenda of international organisations. In recent years, member states have encouraged senior management to design and implement business continuity strategies to minimise the mishandling of an internal crisis and build organisational resilience, but very few of them have actually been able to design and implement comprehensive business continuity programmes. Based on actual experience working in international organisations, this paper outlines some of the challenges faced by international organisations in developing and implementing business continuity activities and attempts to make suggestions for further improvement. PMID:24578023

  18. The institutional dynamics of voluntary organisations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Peter

    to the organisation may give volunteers special opportunities to choose, not only where and when, but also how they will perform. But in praxis the volunteer's ability to perform is structured by the institutional settings of the specific voluntary organisation as well as the organisational field of voluntary......What features of institutional change do voluntary organisations contain? This question is debated in the civil society literature, but often under different headlines, like social entrepreneurship or social movement theory. The question of voluntarism is often not taken into account. This paper...... organisations. I establish a theoretical frame of institutional dynamic, build primarily on J.G. March's theory on exploration and exploitation. I focus on two organisational arrangements drawn from the theory: The degree of strategic decision-making and the degree of diversity among the volunteers. I use...

  19. Business continuity management in international organisations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamou, Christel

    2014-01-01

    In the area of business continuity management, a preliminary review of the literature reveals extensive knowledge, expertise and experience concerning organisations in the private and public sectors. It is interesting to note, however, that there is little literature about business continuity management in international organisations, although these entities are complex and particularly prone to threats. This apparent absence of literature suggests that business continuity management has not yet hit the agenda of international organisations. In recent years, member states have encouraged senior management to design and implement business continuity strategies to minimise the mishandling of an internal crisis and build organisational resilience, but very few of them have actually been able to design and implement comprehensive business continuity programmes. Based on actual experience working in international organisations, this paper outlines some of the challenges faced by international organisations in developing and implementing business continuity activities and attempts to make suggestions for further improvement.

  20. Organisational Change, Health and the Labour Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhatti, Yosef; Gørtz, Mette; Holm Pedersen, Lene

    This research examines the effects of organisational change on employee health and labour market outcomes. Previous studies looking into organisational change in the private sector indicate that the larger the size and depth of organisational change, the larger the detrimental consequences...... change. And fourth, we have access to objective measures of health outcomes from register data. The results show that the effects of organisational change on health outcomes are limited and heterogeneous. Change per se does not necessarily lead to worsened employee outcomes. However, the degree...... of the change seems to matter. The smaller share an old organisation constitutes of the new organisation, the larger the effect is on health outcomes for its employees....

  1. Effective Diagnosis in Organisation Change Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Hassin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Organisations are part of interactive and dynamic environments and modern organisations face considerable pressure to meet or exceed customer/ beneficiary’s and stakeholders’ expectations. The key to establishing effective change and transformation in organisations lies in the early stages of assessment and diagnosis: if diagnosis is wrong, treatment will be ineffective. An organisation development programme should be based on a sound analysis of relevant data about the problem situation, and during the diagnosis process, it is important to look at both the environment and organisation. The OD practitioner’s choice of a certain diagnosis method or model or a combination of methods depends on the context, type of problem and organisation.

  2. The gendered organisation : A positive critique

    OpenAIRE

    Hearn, Jeff; Parkin, Wendy

    2003-01-01

    In this article we go back to basics – to the very idea of the gendered organisation. Probably all researchers on gender and diversity in the workplace have some notion, however implicit, of the gendered organisation. This applies in both empirical research and more general theoretical analysis of organisations and management. Our task here is to assist in making explicit what those assumptions may be and help us to take a critical look at how we understand and conceptualise ‘the ...

  3. Managing evaluation : a community arts organisation's perspective.

    OpenAIRE

    Swan, P.J.; Atkinson, S.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Arts and health organisations must increasingly provide measurable evidence of impact to stakeholders, which can pose both logistical and ideological challenges. This article examines the relationship between the ethos of an arts and health organisation and external demands for evaluation. Methods: Research involved an ethnographic engagement where the first author worked closely with the organisation for a year. In addition to informal discussions, 20 semi-structured int...

  4. Main Features of SMEs Organisation System

    OpenAIRE

    Ovidiu NICOLESCU

    2009-01-01

    SMEs present many particularities which influence to a large extend their functionality and performance. A very deep investigation of more than 60 SMEs has revealed what are the major variables having influence on SMEs organisation and the main features of organisation system. In the first part the paper indicate the variables influencing the SMEs. In the second part there are presented the nine main features of SMEs organisation system.

  5. Organisational Learning and Konwledge Management within NGO

    OpenAIRE

    Neagu Olimpia

    2013-01-01

    NGOs are learning as well as knowledge- intensiv organisations. They are creating social value in the community where they act as social change agents, by creating, sharing and using knowledge. As components of the new, knowledge-based society, their organisational processes are marked by learning and knowledge. The paper aims to propose a conceptual model of the link between organisational learning and knowledge management within NGOs

  6. Meaningful work, work engagement and organisational commitment

    OpenAIRE

    Madelyn Geldenhuys; Karolina Łaba; Cornelia M. Venter

    2014-01-01

    Orientation: Meaningful work can yield benefits for organisations and lead to positive work outcomes such as satisfied, engaged and committed employees, individual and organisational fulfilment, productivity, retention and loyalty.Research purpose: The aim of the study was to investigate the relationships amongst psychological meaningfulness, work engagement and organisational commitment and to test for a possible mediation effect of work engagement on the relationship between psychological ...

  7. Learning Organisation and the Process of Regionalisation

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavsen, Bjørn

    2006-01-01

    "Concepts like Taylorism, lean production and learning organisation draw attention to the point that work organisation can appear in different forms and it is generally recognised that different conditions tend to produce different forms. Still, there is a tendency to underplay how different these generative conditions are. In this article the issue of learning organisation is placed in focus, drawing upon experiences from Scandinavian workplace development programmes. These...

  8. Impact of New Technologies on Public Organisations

    OpenAIRE

    Matei, Lucica

    2009-01-01

    ICTs impact is important on organisational structure and organisational culture.IT offers options for the design of organisational culture,the interaction by means of new modalities ,joint fonctions and objectives,faciliting the set up of working groups with a determined term,as well as communication on large areas. The use of effective IT could provide an attractive work environment ,and could motivate the employees by means of job enrichment. ICTs represent a catalyst for the public...

  9. Social media and small non profit organisations

    OpenAIRE

    Gulyás, A.

    2016-01-01

    This project sought to explore patterns of and views about social media adoption among small non-profit organisations and to identify mechanisms that could effectively support these organisations with their social media use. The following findings emerged from the study: • Social media are now part of the organisational infrastructure of small non-profits and the main ways in which they communicate with the public • Key variables that influence social media adoption among small no...

  10. NK4 antagonizes Tbx1/10 to promote cardiac versus pharyngeal muscle fate in the ascidian second heart field.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The heart and head muscles share common developmental origins and genetic underpinnings in vertebrates, including humans. Parts of the heart and cranio-facial musculature derive from common mesodermal progenitors that express NKX2-5, ISL1, and TBX1. This ontogenetic kinship is dramatically reflected in the DiGeorge/Cardio-Velo-Facial syndrome (DGS/CVFS, where mutations of TBX1 cause malformations in the pharyngeal apparatus and cardiac outflow tract. Cardiac progenitors of the first heart field (FHF do not require TBX1 and segregate precociously from common progenitors of the second heart field (SHF and pharyngeal muscles. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms that govern heart versus pharyngeal muscle specification within this lineage remain elusive. Here, we harness the simplicity of the ascidian larva to show that, following asymmetric cell division of common progenitors, NK4/NKX2-5 promotes GATAa/GATA4/5/6 expression and cardiac specification in the second heart precursors by antagonizing Tbx1/10-mediated inhibition of GATAa and activation of Collier/Olf/EBF (COE, the determinant of atrial siphon muscle (ASM specification. Our results uncover essential regulatory connections between the conserved cardio-pharyngeal factor Tbx1/10 and muscle determinant COE, as well as a mutual antagonism between NK4 and Tbx1/10 activities upstream of GATAa and COE. The latter cross-antagonism underlies a fundamental heart versus pharyngeal muscle fate choice that occurs in a conserved lineage of cardio-pharyngeal progenitors. We propose that this basic ontogenetic motif underlies cardiac and pharyngeal muscle development and evolution in chordates.

  11. Rheumatoid arthritis and cryptogenic organising pneumonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, J H; Woodhead, M A; Sheppard, M N; du Bois, R M

    1991-05-01

    We describe three patients with rheumatoid arthritis who presented with non-specific pulmonary symptoms, a restrictive defect in lung function and bilateral changes on chest radiograph. Lung histology showed characteristic features of cryptogenic organising pneumonitis and treatment with steroids produced significant improvement. The clinical and laboratory features of cryptogenic organising pneumonitis (otherwise known as bronchiolitis obliterans organising pneumonia, 'BOOP') are discussed and compared with those of bronchiolitis obliterans with which the condition should not be confused. Cryptogenic organising pneumonitis should be considered as one of the pulmonary manifestations of rheumatoid arthritis, but lung biopsy is essential to make the diagnosis.

  12. Evaluation of organisational culture and nurse burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Jenny; Robertson, Noelle; Winter, Rachel; Leeson, David

    2013-10-01

    A survey of nurses working with older adults across three NHS trusts was conducted to explore how perceptions of the workplace affect nurse wellbeing. Standardised validated measures were used to assess burnout, perceived organisational support and organisational culture. Significant associations were found between innovative organisational culture and nurses' sense of personal accomplishment, which reduce the likelihood of burnout. Multiple regression showed experience of burnout to be predicted by the nature of organisational culture. It seems therefore that nurses' wellbeing may be affected by their perceptions of the working environment. Applications of this knowledge and suggestions for future research are discussed. PMID:24063341

  13. EMPLOYEE LEARNING AND DEVELOPMENT IN ORGANISATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VNOUČKOVÁ, Lucie

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The primary goal of all organisations is efficiency of human resources. Therefore activities as HR controlling, performance management but also cutting costs are the main theme. Current organisations need to monitor human resources to keep their competitiveness. Thus paper describes the key factor of organisational efficiency - employee education, talent management and the necessity to retain skilled employees. The aim of the paper is to reveal the current approach in organisations to education and learning based on primary survey of employees. The data were collected using quantitative primary survey in Czech organisations across sectors. The questionnaire was compiled based on the theoretical background. The paper has been processed based on the analysis of secondary sources, outcome synthesis and the evaluation of results of a questionnaire survey. The data were analysed using descriptive statistic, correlation analysis and factor analysis. The SPSS programme was used for the analyses. The outcomes were categorized and the analyses revealed the main factors affecting organisational approach to employee learning and development. The results identify three possible approaches in organisations to employee learning and development. The first type of organisations educates employees by their own rules, second type does not support education of employees in any way, it is only an interest of employees themselves and thirdly knowledgeable employees were identified as those employees do as much as possible to learn and grow and they choose job position in order to develop constantly. The results can be taken into account in further analysis and in organisation of adult education.

  14. Organisational Learning: Theoretical Shortcomings and Practical Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Aarum Andersen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses two problems related to learning and the use of knowledge at work. The first problem is the theoretical shortcomings stemming from the controversy between three different concepts of ‘organisational learning.’ In order to enhance scholarship in this field the notion that organisations - as organisations - can learn need to be rejected for theoretical and empirical reasons. The metaphorical use of ‘organisational learning’ creates only confusion. Learning is a process and knowledge is the outcome of that process. It is argued that learning and knowledge is only related to individuals. Knowledge is thus the individual capability to draw distinctions, within a domain of action, based on an appreciation of context or theory. Consequently, knowledge becomes organisational when it is created, developed and transmitted to other individuals in the organisation. In a strict sense knowledge becomes organisational when employees use it and act based on generalisations due to the rules and procedures found in their organisation. The gravest problem is practical challenges due to the fact that the emphasis on learning, knowledge and competence of the working force do not materialize in the application of the knowledge acquired. It is evident that employees do not use their increased knowledge. However, we do not know why they do not use it. An enormous waste of money is spent on learning and knowledge in organisations which does not yield what is expected. How can managers act in order to enhance the application of increased knowledge possessed by the workforce?

  15. Evaluation of organisational culture and nurse burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Jenny; Robertson, Noelle; Winter, Rachel; Leeson, David

    2013-10-01

    A survey of nurses working with older adults across three NHS trusts was conducted to explore how perceptions of the workplace affect nurse wellbeing. Standardised validated measures were used to assess burnout, perceived organisational support and organisational culture. Significant associations were found between innovative organisational culture and nurses' sense of personal accomplishment, which reduce the likelihood of burnout. Multiple regression showed experience of burnout to be predicted by the nature of organisational culture. It seems therefore that nurses' wellbeing may be affected by their perceptions of the working environment. Applications of this knowledge and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  16. Protein domain organisation: adding order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kummerfeld Sarah K

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Domains are the building blocks of proteins. During evolution, they have been duplicated, fused and recombined, to produce proteins with novel structures and functions. Structural and genome-scale studies have shown that pairs or groups of domains observed together in a protein are almost always found in only one N to C terminal order and are the result of a single recombination event that has been propagated by duplication of the multi-domain unit. Previous studies of domain organisation have used graph theory to represent the co-occurrence of domains within proteins. We build on this approach by adding directionality to the graphs and connecting nodes based on their relative order in the protein. Most of the time, the linear order of domains is conserved. However, using the directed graph representation we have identified non-linear features of domain organization that are over-represented in genomes. Recognising these patterns and unravelling how they have arisen may allow us to understand the functional relationships between domains and understand how the protein repertoire has evolved. Results We identify groups of domains that are not linearly conserved, but instead have been shuffled during evolution so that they occur in multiple different orders. We consider 192 genomes across all three kingdoms of life and use domain and protein annotation to understand their functional significance. To identify these features and assess their statistical significance, we represent the linear order of domains in proteins as a directed graph and apply graph theoretical methods. We describe two higher-order patterns of domain organisation: clusters and bi-directionally associated domain pairs and explore their functional importance and phylogenetic conservation. Conclusion Taking into account the order of domains, we have derived a novel picture of global protein organization. We found that all genomes have a higher than expected

  17. IAU Public Astronomical Organisations Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canas, Lina; Cheung, Sze Leung

    2015-08-01

    The Office for Astronomy Outreach has devoted intensive means to create and support a global network of public astronomical organisations around the world. Focused on bringing established and newly formed amateur astronomy organizations together, providing communications channels and platforms for disseminating news to the global community and the sharing of best practices and resources among these associations around the world. In establishing the importance that these organizations have for the dissemination of activities globally and acting as key participants in IAU various campaigns social media has played a key role in keeping this network engaged and connected. Here we discuss the implementation process of maintaining this extensive network, the processing and gathering of information and the interactions between local active members at a national and international level.

  18. Simultaneous Attacks by Terrorist Organisations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Deloughery

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available While terror attacks that are a part of a coordinated effort receive attention in the popular media, they have not received much attention in the academic literature. The decision to carry out simultaneous attacks should be examined as one of the choices a terrorist organisation makes about the method of attack. Determining the impact of simultaneous attacks vis-à-vis a single attack can explain why groups would use this method. Up to one quarter of all attacks coded in two major databases, GTD and ITERATE, may be part of a simultaneous campaign. Empirical analysis shows simultaneous attacks are more likely to be successful and cause more fatalities, though not in a one-to-one fashion. These results underline the importance of considering simultaneous attacks in empirical analysis.

  19. The Immigrant Organising Process : Turkish Organisations in Amsterdam and Berlin and Surinamese Organisations in Amsterdam, 1960-2000

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, Floris

    2006-01-01

    This study focuses on the emergence and persistence of immigrant organisations in host societies. The relevance of immigrant organisations for both the host society and the immigrants themselves has been effectively demonstrated in many different studies. However, the question why immigrant organisa

  20. Organisational values as "attractors of chaos": An emerging cultural change to manage organisational complexity

    OpenAIRE

    Shimon L. Dolan; Garc??a, Salvador; Diegoli, Samantha; Auerbach, Alan

    2000-01-01

    Business organisations are excellent representations of what in physics and mathematics are designated "chaotic" systems. Because a culture of innovation will be vital for organisational survival in the 21st century, the present paper proposes that viewing organisations in terms of "complexity theory" may assist leaders in fine-tuning managerial philosophies that provide orderly management emphasizing stability within a culture of organised chaos, for it is on ...

  1. 'Organised' cervical screening 45 years on: How consistent are organised screening practices?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jane H; Carter, Stacy M; Rychetnik, Lucie

    2014-11-01

    Organised screening programmes have been remarkably successful in reducing incidence and mortality from cervical cancer, while opportunistic screening varies in its effectiveness. Experts recommend that cervical screening or HPV testing be carried out only in the context of an organised programme. We sought to answer the following study questions: What does it mean for a cervical screening programme to be organised? Is there a place for opportunistic screening (in an organised programme)? We reviewed 154 peer-reviewed papers on organised and opportunistic approaches to cervical screening published between 1970 and 2014 to understand how the term 'organised' is used, formally and in practice. We found that despite broad recognition of a prescriptive definition of organisation, in practice the meaning of organisation is much less clear. Our review revealed descriptions of organised programmes that differ significantly from prescribed norms and from each other, and a variety of ways that opportunistic and organised programmes intersect. We describe the breadth of the variation in cervical cancer screening programmes and examine the relationships and overlaps between organised and opportunistic screening. Implications emerging from the review include the need to better understand the breadth of organisation in practice, the drivers and impacts of opportunistic screening and the impact of opportunistic screening on population programme outcomes. Appreciation of the complexity of cervical screening programmes will benefit both screeners and women as programmes are changed to reflect a partially vaccinated population, new evidence and new technologies.

  2. Managing intangible assets: An essay on organising contemporary organisations based upon identity, competencies and networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoemaker, M.J.R.; Jonker, J.

    2005-01-01

    - Purpose – To develop a concept of managing intangible assets in contemporary organisations. Insight is given into the rise of the network organisation and the importance of talent, social capital and identity in this kind of organisation. - Design/methodology/approach – This paper develops a conce

  3. Case studies on age-management in organisations: report on organisational case studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Punte, E.; Conen, W.S.; Schippers, J.; Henkens, C.J.I.M.

    2011-01-01

    The acquisition of case studies was thwarted by the economic crisis and the feeling of being ‘over-researched’ by potential organisations. Although organisations in some sectors (e.g. chemical manufacturing) reported the worst part of the economic crisis was behind, many organisations indicated gett

  4. Exploring the Interconnectedness among Strategy Development, Shared Mental Models, Organisational Learning and Organisational Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malan, Renee

    2011-01-01

    The cognitive psychological processes related to learning and change behaviour are factors that impact on organisational strategy development. Strategy development is dependent on strategic thinking that is reciprocally influenced by shared mental models, organisational learning and organisational change. Although strategy development, shared…

  5. Ascidian bioresources: common and variant chemical compositions and exploitation strategy - examples of Halocynthia roretzi, Styela plicata, Ascidia sp. and Ciona intestinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yadong; Li, Jiebing

    2016-01-01

    To explore abundant marine ascidian bioresources, four species from two orders have been compared in their chemical compositions. After a universal separation of the animal body into two fractions, all tunics have been found rich in carbohydrate contents, while all inner body tissues are richer in proteins. Cellulose is present almost exclusively in the tunics and more in the order Stolidobranchia, while more sulfated polysaccharides are present in Phlebobranchia species. Almost all proteins are collagens with a high essential amino acid index and high delicious amino acid (DAA) content. All fractions also have high contents of good-quality fatty acids and trace minerals but low toxic element contents, with different sterols and glycosaminoglycans. There are species-specific characteristics observed for vanadium accumulation and sterol structures which are also meaningful for ascidian chemotaxonomy and resource exploitation. It is suggested that in addition to the present utilizations of tunics for cellulose production and of some species' inner body tissues as human food, one should explore all species' inner body tissues as human foods and all tunics as food or animal feed with the contained cellulose as dietary fiber. Collagens, sulfated polysaccharides, glycosaminoglycans, sterols and trace elements could be explored as byproducts for, e.g. pharmaceutical and chemical industries. PMID:27049617

  6. Organisational Learning and Employees' Intrinsic Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remedios, Richard; Boreham, Nick

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the effects of organisational learning initiatives on employee motivation. Four initiatives consistent with theories of organisational learning were a priori ranked in terms of concepts that underpin intrinsic-motivation theory. Eighteen employees in a UK petrochemical company were interviewed to ascertain their experiences of…

  7. The "State of Art" of Organisational Blogging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Gavin J.; Connolly, Thomas M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the "state of art" of organisational blogging. It also aims to provide a critical review of the literature on organisational blogging and propose recommendations on how to advance the subject area in terms of academic research. Design/methodology/approach: A systematic literature review…

  8. Impacts of IST on firms and organisations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ulrik

    2003-01-01

    A review of socio-economic research on the impact and role of IST in firms and organisations. The study is carried out in ESTO for IPTS.......A review of socio-economic research on the impact and role of IST in firms and organisations. The study is carried out in ESTO for IPTS....

  9. Relating structure and dynamics in organisation models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonkers, C.M.; Treur, J.

    2008-01-01

    To understand how an organisational structure relates to dynamics is an interesting fundamental challenge in the area of social modelling. Specifications of organisational structure usually have a diagrammatic form that abstracts from more detailed dynamics. Dynamic properties of agent systems, on t

  10. International Organisations and Transnational Education Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutsios, Stavros

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on the World Bank/IMF (International Monetary Fund), the OECD (Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development) and the WTO (World Trade Organisation) as institutions of transnational policy making. They are all at present making education policies which are decisively shaping current directions and developments in…

  11. The Shanghai Co-operation Organisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Flemming Splidsboel

    New regional organisations are always interesting to follow as they will tell us more about the things that make or break this type of co-operation. Originally established as “The Shanghai Five” in 1996, The Shanghai Co-operation Organisation (SCO) has been successful at reducing tension between ...

  12. Meaningful work, work engagement and organisational commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madelyn Geldenhuys

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Meaningful work can yield benefits for organisations and lead to positive work outcomes such as satisfied, engaged and committed employees, individual and organisational fulfilment, productivity, retention and loyalty.Research purpose: The aim of the study was to investigate the relationships amongst psychological meaningfulness, work engagement and organisational commitment and to test for a possible mediation effect of work engagement on the relationship between psychological meaningfulness and organisational commitment.Motivation for the study: Managers have to rethink ways of improving productivity and performance at work, due to the diverse, and in some instances escalating, needs of employees (e.g. financial support to uphold their interest in and enjoyment of working.Research approach, design and method: A quantitative approach was employed to gather the data for the study, utilising a cross-sectional survey design. The sample (n = 415 consisted of working employees from various companies and positions in Gauteng, South Africa.Main findings: The results confirmed a positive relationship between psychological meaningfulness, work engagement and organisational commitment. Further, psychological meaningfulness predicts work engagement, whilst psychological meaningfulness and work engagement predict organisational commitment.Practical/managerial implications: Employers identifying their employees’ commitment patterns and mapping out strategies for enhancing those that are relevant to organisational goals will yield positive work outcomes (e.g. employees who are creative, seek growth or challenges for themselves.Contribution/value-add: This study contributes to the literature through highlighting the impact that meaningful work has on sustaining employee commitment to the organisation.

  13. Agreeing on role adoption in open organisations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aldewereld, H.; Dignum, V.; Jonker, C.M.; Van Riemsdijk, M.B.

    2012-01-01

    The organisational specification of a multi-agent system supports agents’ effectiveness in attaining their purpose, or prevent certain undesired behaviour from occurring. This requires that agents are able to find out about the organisational purpose and description and decide on its appropriateness

  14. European Perspectives on the Learning Organisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyhan, Barry; Cressey, Peter; Tomassini, Massimo; Kelleher, Michael; Poell, Rob

    2004-01-01

    This paper, based on a publication entitled "Facing up to the Learning Organisation Challenge," published in April 2003, provides an overview of the main questions emerging from recent European research projects related to the topic of the learning organisation. The rationale for focusing on this topic is the belief that the European Union goals…

  15. Constraint-based Modelling of Organisations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viara, Popova; Alexei, Sharpanskykh

    2008-01-01

    Modern organisations are characterised by a great variety of forms and often involve many actors with diverse goals, performing a wide range of tasks in changing environmental conditions. Due to high complexity, mistakes and inconsistencies are not rare in organisations. To provide better insights i

  16. Identity Building in Organisations: Proactive Capability Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard

    2002-01-01

    Identity building in organisations is often viewed as legitimacy of value systems of the organisation. Based on empirical studies the task of this article is to argue that such a legitimacy approach risks failing in the longer perspective, if the proactive capability development is neglected. The...

  17. Organising Quality Function in Research and Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra Prasad

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Quality function may be summarised as quality generation, quality control, and qualityassurance. The quality generation and quality control, because of their fuactional nature, arecomparatively easy to organise, however, the challenge is to organise quality assurance in theorganisation. It is the challenge because quality assurance should seamlessly merge with theR&D process. In future, the organisations, whether real or virtual, are going to bepredominantly, research and development (R&D oriented rather than pure manufacturing orservice providers. However, the nature and intensity of the R&D may differ. It could be fromsimple improvement to innovation, to exploitation of inventions.Organising quality function in R&D means organising its various dimensions against thestipulated criteria such as the realisation of the quality system; realisation of quality duringproduct development, including system engineering; staffing of quality generation, quality control,and quality assurance; balancing of the quality function; harnessing of project quality, functionalquality, staff quality and line quality; application of the RHR principle; exploitation of the toolsof organising, democratic organisation; and so on. The basic purpose of organising the qualityfunction is to inculcate the sense of pride in quality among the scientists so that they feelpassionate about it. It is the passion and love for quality that generates, sustains, and maintainsquality.

  18. The Self-Organising Fuzzy Controller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jantzen, Jan

    1998-01-01

    A marginally stable test system, with a large dead time and an integrator, is stabilised by a self-organising fuzzy controller in a simulation study. It acts as a case study, to explain the self-organising controller to engineering students. The paper is one of a series of tutorial papers...... for a course in fuzzy control....

  19. E-Learning in Small Organisations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambrook, Sally

    2003-01-01

    This paper focuses on the existing and potential role of electronic learning in small and medium-sized organisations (SMEs). Innovations in information and communication technologies (ICTs) could create new forms of learning, particularly appealing to small organisations, to overcome traditional barriers such as lack of financial resources, time,…

  20. Organising European technical documentation to avoid duplication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donawa, Maria

    2006-04-01

    The development of comprehensive accurate and well-organised technical documentation that demonstrates compliance with regulatory requirements is a resource-intensive, but critically important activity for medical device manufacturers. This article discusses guidance documents and method of organising technical documentation that may help avoid costly and time-consuming duplication. PMID:16736662

  1. Achieving Organisational Change through Values Alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branson, Christopher M.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to, first, establish the interdependency between the successful achievement of organisational change and the attainment of values alignment within an organisation's culture and then, second, to describe an effective means for attaining such values alignment. Design/methodology/approach: Literature from the…

  2. A Model of Project and Organisational Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Leonard

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The strategic, transformational nature of many information systems projects is now widely understood. Large-scale implementations of systems are known to require significant management of organisational change in order to be successful. Moreover, projects are rarely executed in isolation – most organisations have a large programme of projects being implemented at any one time. However, project and value management methodologies provide ad hoc definitions of the relationship between a project and its environment. This limits the ability of an organisation to manage the larger dynamics between projects and organisations, over time, and between projects. The contribution of this paper, therefore, is to use literature on organisational theory to provide a more systematic understanding of this area. The organisational facilitators required to obtain value from a project are categorised, and the processes required to develop those facilitators are defined. This formalisation facilitates generalisation between projects and highlights any time and path dependencies required in developing organisational facilitators. The model therefore has the potential to contribute to the development of IS project management theory within dynamic organisational contexts. Six cases illustrate how this model could be used.

  3. Facilitating "Organisational Learning" in a "Learning Institution"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, Alan; Sillitoe, James

    2013-01-01

    The term "organisational learning" was popularised by Peter Senge in "The Fifth Discipline", his seminal book from 1990. Since then, the term has become widely accepted among those interested in organisational learning and change management. However, partly due to the somewhat ambiguous situation which arises in a university…

  4. Building Innovative Vocational Education and Training Organisations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callan, Victor

    2004-01-01

    Highly innovative organisations demonstrate six key characteristics. They create learning cultures which promote innovation as a core organisational capability; employ leaders who are "failure-tolerant"; identify innovators; reward people who propose innovative ideas; use partnerships; and, promote innovation through teams. This report analyses…

  5. The organisational aspect of faculty development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolmos, Anette; Gynnild, Vidar; Roxå, Torgny

    2004-01-01

    The article points out the faculty centres ought to be more conscious in their organisational strategies and get to managements support when working on pedagogical changes.......The article points out the faculty centres ought to be more conscious in their organisational strategies and get to managements support when working on pedagogical changes....

  6. Organisational IT Strategy Development using GDSS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lene

    1999-01-01

    IT strategy development in organisations is a complex task for which there is an immediate need for methodological support to be able to make satisfying decisions. Group Decision Support Systems (GDSS) is one line of supporting the process of group decision making and supporting IT strategy...... to support development of organisational IT strategies....

  7. New challenges for the internal safety organisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasle, Peter; Jensen, Per Langå

    2003-01-01

    Research from several countries indicates that the internal health and safety organisation in most companies is placed in an appendix position. Introduc-tion of learning is a possibility for the development of a stronger and more ef-fective health and safety organisation. This approach has been...... studied in a Danish network project with 11 companies....

  8. Organisational Blogs: Benefits and Challenges of Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Gavin J.; Connolly, Thomas M.; Stansfield, Mark H.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify the theoretical link between blogs and organisational learning. It aims to provide a set of practical guidelines on how to overcome the challenges of implementing an organisational blog. Design/methodology/approach: A literature review will be used to examine blogs and their association towards…

  9. Evolutionary mitogenomics of Chordata: the strange case of ascidians and vertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Gissi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The availability of almost one thousand complete mitochondrial genome (mtDNA sequences of chordates provides an almost unique opportunity to analyse the evolution of this genome in the phylum Chordata, and to identify possible divergent evolutionary trends followed by the three chordate subphyla: Vertebrata, Cephalochordata and Tunicata.Here, we review some genome-level features of mtDNA, such as genetic code, gene content, genome architecture and gene strand asymmetry, mostly focusing on differences existing between tunicates and remaining chordates. Indeed, tunicate mtDNAs show a surprisingly high variability in several genome-level features, even though the current tunicate taxon sampling is absolutely insufficient and is focused mainly on the class Ascidiacea. On the contrary, a stabilization of the mtDNA structural and evolutionary features is observed in both cephalochordates and vertebrates, where genome-level features are almost invariant. Thus, different evolutionary dynamics, probably related to divergent functional constraints, have modelled the overall mtDNA structure and organization of the three chordate subphyla.

  10. Entropy Methods in Guided Self-Organisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Prokopenko

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Self-organisation occurs in natural phenomena when a spontaneous increase in order is produced by the interactions of elements of a complex system. Thermodynamically, this increase must be offset by production of entropy which, broadly speaking, can be understood as a decrease in order. Ideally, self-organisation can be used to guide the system towards a desired regime or state, while "exporting" the entropy to the system's exterior. Thus, Guided Self-Organisation (GSO attempts to harness the order-inducing potential of self-organisation for specific purposes. Not surprisingly, general methods developed to study entropy can also be applied to guided self-organisation. This special issue covers abroad diversity of GSO approaches which can be classified in three categories: information theory, intelligent agents, and collective behavior. The proposals make another step towards a unifying theory of GSO which promises to impact numerous research fields.

  11. Action research in inter-organisational networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goduscheit, René Chester; Rasmussen, Erik Stavnsager; Jørgensen, Jacob Høj;

    2007-01-01

    Traditionally, the literature on action research has been aimed at intra-organisational issues. These studies have distinguished between two researcher roles: The problem-solver and the observer. This article addresses the distinct challenges of action research in inter-organisational projects....... In addition to the problem-solver and observer roles, the researcher in an inter-organisational setting can serve as a legitimiser of the project and manage to involve partners that in an ordinary business-to-business setting would not have participated. Based on an action research project in a Danish inter......-organisational network, this article discusses potential pitfalls in the legitimiser role. Lack of clarity in defining the researcher role and project ownership in relation to the funding organisation and the rest of the network can jeopardise the project and potentially the credibility of the researchers. The article...

  12. Impact of organisational change on mental health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandjean Bamberger, Simon; Vinding, Anker Lund; Larsen, Anelia;

    2012-01-01

    Although limited evidence is available, organisational change is often cited as the cause of mental health problems. This paper provides an overview of the current literature regarding the impact of organisational change on mental health. A systematic search in PUBMED, PsychInfo and Web...... of Knowledge combining MeSH search terms for exposure and outcome. The criterion for inclusion was original data on exposure to organisational change with mental health problems as outcome. Both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies were included. We found in 11 out of 17 studies, an association between...... organisational change and elevated risk of mental health problems was observed, with a less provident association in the longitudinal studies. Based on the current research, this review cannot provide sufficient evidence of an association between organisational change and elevated risk of mental health problems...

  13. The relationship between organisational climate and employee satisfaction in a South African information and technology organisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monia L. Castro

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Organisational climate and job satisfaction are distinct but related constructs, and both appear to influence employees’ understanding of the work environment and their level of job satisfaction.Research purpose: The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between organisational climate and job satisfaction to determine whether employees’ perceptions of the work environment influence their level of job satisfaction.Motivation for the study: Organisations are facing more challenges than ever before. These challenges are not unique to any specific organisation or industry, but affect all organisations.Organisational climate in particular is constantly challenged by changes impacting organisations today.Research design, approach and method: An organisational climate questionnaire was administered to a convenience sample of 696 employees from a population of 1453 employees working in three regions in which the organisation was operational. Confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses were used to investigate the structure of the climate model.Main findings: The revised 12-factor model (after the confirmatory factor analysis fitted the data best and the researchers therefore decided to proceed with the revised 12-factor model (11 dimensions for further analysis. A stepwise regression was conducted and nine dimensions of organisational climate were found to predict job satisfaction. The results indicated a strong positive correlation (r = 0.813, p< 0.01 between organisational climate and the dependent variable of job satisfaction.Practical implications: This study provided support for the view that line managers and human resource practitioners should be aware that different biographical groups have different needs that can influence their job satisfaction levels and different perceptions of the climate within the organisation and that this impacts on their behaviour.Contribution: The findings of this study indicated a

  14. Organisational Socialisation Facilitates Overseas Assignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Chen (Chiu-Yi/Joy Lee

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cross-cultural adjustment is the biggest challenge that derails expatriate success. In responding to the importance of Taiwanese expatriates’ adjustment in Mainland China, this study tests, as a critical factor, Socialisation affecting the adjustment of Taiwanese expatriates in Mainland China. As a result, this study critically reviews previous studies on expatriate success, shedding light on key factors in the area of expatriate adjustment and providing multiple guidelines for human resource supervisors and senior executives hoping to ensure expatriate success. The definitions of success and methodological approaches are discussed, and suggestions for improving empirical research in this area are presented. Academic researchers and international enterprises can perhaps clarify whether all international expatriates are affected by the factor as organisational socialisation, and also whether the proposed model can be utilised in studying expatriates in different professional areas from those of this study. Finally, the results and their implications for research and the business world are discussed. This may assist not only Taiwanese MNCs but also global enterprises to perform their international business more efficiently in Mainland China.

  15. Approaches to Maintaining and Building Organisational Knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conclusions: • Involvement of people is one of the most important enablers of successful KM; • KM focuses on organisational knowledge that is needed for achieving business goals; • Working culture and KM activities embedded in the ways of working are essential for management of organisational knowledge; • Formal KM approach is needed as well, and one of its objectives is to support informal KM activities; • For a successful management of organisational knowledge, KM related functions need to be identified and understood as one entity

  16. Organisational IT managed from the shop floor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolmsten, Johan; Dittrich, Yvonne

    2015-01-01

    Modern organisations need to be able to adjust to changes in the environment, changes which are ever more rapid, and in doing so capitalise on the creativity and innovations of their employees. As suggested by Boulus-Rødje and Bjørn (Chap. 14), information technology (IT) applications today...... are likely to take the form of complex, integrated infrastructures, supporting collaboration within and across organisations. This places requirements on the IT infrastructure. As the work practices within an organisation change, the supporting infrastructure also needs to evolve....

  17. The Dynamics of Organisation and Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter

    driver for this general trend is globalisation of the economic relations and growth in technological enhancements. The conditions of globalisation and the technological developments directly or indirectly put high pressure on most organisations in both private and public sector. The high pressure...... international comparative data on organisational changes and economic as well as social performance of the emerging new work organisations. The Meadow project has created instruments to produce such international comparative data and the aim of this paper is to present the measurement framework of Meadow...

  18. Corporate information systems in health organisations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the nature of corporate information systems and their applications in health organisations. It emphasises the importance of financial and human resource information in the creation of a corporate data model. The paper summarises the main features of finance and human resource systems as they are used in health organisations. It looks at a series of case studies carried out in health organisations, which were selected on the basis of their representation of different aspects of service delivery. It also discusses the theoretical and practical perspectives of the systems themselves, their roles in information management, executive and decision support, and in planning and forecasting. PMID:10173702

  19. Communicating for organisational change: exploring links between Internet organisational communications and organisational change in a quality context

    OpenAIRE

    McGuckian, Rosheen

    2000-01-01

    Internal communications is identified as being a key lever of organisational change. The literature consistently puts forward a comprehensive list of guidelines for communicating for change, but these guidelines tend to be prescribed universally and with no explanation given as to why a relationship between the two might exist Research was earned out to explore this relationship, using total quality as the context of organisational change. Through the findings of a questionnaire completed...

  20. The identification of transcription factors expressed in the notochord of Ciona intestinalis adds new potential players to the Brachyury gene regulatory network

    OpenAIRE

    Diana S José-Edwards; Kerner, Pierre; Kugler, Jamie E.; Deng, Wei; Jiang, Di; Di Gregorio, Anna

    2011-01-01

    The notochord is the distinctive characteristic of chordates; however, the knowledge of the complement of transcription factors governing the development of this structure is still incomplete. Here we present the expression patterns of seven transcription factor genes detected in the notochord of the ascidian Ciona intestinalis at various stages of embryonic development. Four of these transcription factors, Fos-a, NFAT5, AFF and Klf15, have not been directly associated with the notochord in p...

  1. CERN’s new organisational structure

    CERN Document Server

    2009-01-01

    CERN’s new organisational structure was made public on 1st December 2008. All the changes are explained in detail on a new web portal. As you learned on 1st December last year, CERN’s new organisational structure took effect on 1st January, under the leadership of new Director-General, Rolf Heuer. To explain the new structure, the Human Resources (HR) Department set up a Web portal in December. This portal (NICE user name and password required) displays the new organisation chart and explains the differences between the old and new structures. A "Frequently Asked Questions" page provides additional information. If you don’t find the answer to your specific question, a discussion forum is also available. You can obtain the contact details of your Human Resources Advisor by clicking on a link that takes you to a dedicated web page. Finally, all documents pertaining to the new organisational structure, including powerpoint pres...

  2. Privacy Management and Accountability in Global Organisations

    OpenAIRE

    Pearson, Siani

    2014-01-01

    Organisations that operate in a global environment can be subject to potentially diverse and complex regulatory requirements. This paper explains some of the key issues that corporate governance faces related to privacy and some mechanisms for addressing these.

  3. Economic Agents, Ethics and International Economic Organisations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno S. Sergi

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The last sixty years have seen international economic organisations maintain a position at the forefront of promoting economic growth and socioeconomic development. These organisations have not achieved as much against certain benchmarks, and several observers have accused them of being unqualified to meet the needs of the poor, and even found them guilty of something worse, such as famine and disease. Although these organisations have organisational behaviour and skills, many of their funded projects lack forcefulness to such an extent that they should only be answerable through achieving certain economic facts by way of ethics and morals. We design ethics and morals as two interconnected concepts, and the rationale that binds all economic agents to their respective obligations must be interpreted by effective courses of action dictated by economic realities.

  4. Internal corporate venturing during organisational change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Annemette L.

    2004-01-01

    that a continuous stream of new ideas and initiatives create new opportunities and ensure that the company stays viable by adapting to new internal and external challenges. This has been pursued in studies of strategy formation (Mintzberg, 1978), strategic change (Pettigrew, 1988) and internal corporate venturing...... (Burgelman, 1983b, 2002) and is still a central issue in the strategic management discourse. It is generally acknowledged that continuous change is important for organisations' survival in a changing world. On the other hand the need for stability and continuity in form of a clear and strong corporate...... the question of how organisational actors' perception of organisational identity influences the strategy-making process during organisational change. The study adopts an evolutionary approach to the unfolding of the strategy-making process, using the variation-selection-retention framework of cultural...

  5. A Multiple Source Approach to Organisational Justice: The Role of the Organisation, Supervisors, Coworkers, and Customers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustin Molina

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The vast research on organisational justice has focused on the organisation and the supervisor. This study aims to further this line of research by integrating two trends within organisational justice research: the overall approach to justice perceptions and the multifoci perspective of justice judgments. Specifically, this study aims to explore the effects of two additional sources of justice, coworker-focused justice and customer-focused justice, on relevant employees’ outcomes—burnout, turnover intentions, job satisfaction, and workplace deviance— while controlling the effect of organisation-focused justice and supervisor-focused justice. Given the increased importance attributed to coworkers and customers, we expect coworker-focused justice and customer-focused justice to explain incremental variance in the measured outcomes, above and beyond the effects of organisation-focused justice and supervisor-focused justice. Participants will be university students from Austria and Germany employed by service organisations. Data analysis will be conducted using structural equation modeling.

  6. Intra-organisational accounting during negotiation processes for inter-organisational control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Morten

    relationships. It addresses the question of how intra-organisational management accounting practices affect the ability to conduct inter-organisational relationships. A qualitative case study is used to gather information from an electronics company. The company enters its inter-organisational relationships....... The study concludes that an important role of management accounting is to reveal the intra-organisational cost consequences of proposals made by suppliers during negotiation processes. Thereby cost information becomes an integrated part of the counter-proposals generated and actively used during......To date the literature on management and management accounting within inter-organisational relationships has mainly focussed on managing the interface between the supplier and the buyer. In contrast to most previous research, this study examines the internal practices of a company engaged in inter-organisational...

  7. Organisational and strategic communication research: european perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, Gisela Marques Pereira; Somerville, Ian; Melo, Ana

    2013-01-01

    Série: Pesquisas em comunicação (Excerto) Created in 2006, the Organisational and Strategic Communication Section of the European Communication Research and Education Association (ECREA) aims to promote an active and critical dialogue among scholars involved in the study of Organisational and Strategic Communication (OSC) and to propose new research topics and debate concepts relevant to the interdisciplinary growth of this field of studies. At the 4th international ECREA Co...

  8. The Organisational Gap Model for Hotel Management

    OpenAIRE

    Maja Uran

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the development of the organisational gap model for hotel management. It descries a management measurement instrument that helps to assess the 3 organizational service gaps that are preconditions for delivering service quality (the positioning gap, specification gap and evaluation gap). The described theoretical model was constructed based upon the four organisational gaps of the Parasuraman et al. service quality model, then redefined and reassessed. Data were gathered o...

  9. Is the Lean Organisation a Complex System?

    OpenAIRE

    Masai, Pierre; Parrend, Pierre; Toussaint, Nicolas; Collet, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    International audience; 3 Toyota Motor Europe, Bruxelles, Belgium 4 Complex System Digital Campus (UNESCO Unitwin) http://unitwin-cs.org/ Abstract The Lean Organisation enjoys a tremendous success. It was first developed within Toyota Motor Corporation in the Automotive Industry, but was then adopted by many organisations in all fields of human activities. A deeper observation of this success displays behaviours of complex systems: a high number of agents interact ...

  10. Labour organisation on robotic milking dairy farms.

    OpenAIRE

    Sonck, B.R.

    1996-01-01

    1. Research issuesThe research described in this dissertation is focused on the effects of the integration of the milking robot in a dairy farm on the labour organisation at operational and tactical level. Attention was paid to the future requirements concerning human labour and labour (re)organisation with respect to the complex interaction between the cows and an automatic milking system (AMS) on a robotic milking dairy farm. The study was divided in a number of research issues (Chapter 1) ...

  11. Key variables of organisation design in servitization

    OpenAIRE

    Kreye, Melanie; Jensen, Per Langaa

    2014-01-01

    Manufacturing companies offering additional service with their products need to change their organisation design to accommodate for the service business. Using the star model, this paper investigates organisation design in terms of strategy, structure, processes, rewards and people as a response to external environment to ensure performance. We present a case in the European renewable energy sector. The findings show three key variables: (i) processes need to enable information flow between b...

  12. The relationship between organisational communication and perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marynissen, H M F

    2011-01-01

    Both researchers and managers search for the most appropriate form of organisational communication. The aim of such an organisational communication is to influence the receivers' perception to confirm, adapt or change behaviour according to the sender's intention. This paper argues that to influence the receivers' perception, a specific form of communication that is embedded in a specific organisational culture is required. It also demands prior knowledge of the existing organisational schemata and the current perception concerning the topic that has to be communicated. The rationale is that three obstacles hinder the objectives of traditional communication strategies to influence perception according to the sender's objectives. The first challenge is that a receiver of a certain message never garners one single, clearly pronounced message conveyed by one single person. Yet, few studies are based on multiple messages from various sources. This makes most of the communication strategies in use obsolete. The second strain is the dual mode of thinking that forms organisational members' perceptions: the heuristic and the cogitative (Taleb, 2010). Most organisational communication theories are based on the paradigm in which receivers of information process this information in a rational way, while research in the field of neurobiology (Lehrer, 2009) indicates that rationality is dominated by emotions. The third difficulty is that organisational members constrain to well-established, ingrained schemas (Labianca et al., 2000; Balogun and Johnson, 2004). Based on these existing schemas, the scattered information from multiple sources, and the inability to process that information through cognitive reasoning, organisational members construct perceptions that are not in line with the objectives of the sender's communication. This article reviews different communication theories, points out key concepts in the literature on individual and collective perceptions, and suggests

  13. Organisational learning is crystallised into artefacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Olav Wedege

    1996-01-01

    In this note I understand organisational learning in terms of manifest crystallisation of collective experience into artefacts, and I attempt to integrate an engineering and an emancipatory perspective. A Danish music festival serves as an example.......In this note I understand organisational learning in terms of manifest crystallisation of collective experience into artefacts, and I attempt to integrate an engineering and an emancipatory perspective. A Danish music festival serves as an example....

  14. Organisational Structure – Structures for Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Ramskill, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Summary Rexam Plc has articulated that part of the company’s strategy is to make a carefully managed expansion into the emerging markets. In this report I suggest an alternative structure for Rexam to enable implementation of such a strategy and propose a business process for designing effective organisational structures. The work of Chandler (1962) charts the evolution of company organisational structures from the early centralised structures of the 1920s to the multidivisional str...

  15. Using Intelligent Agents to understand organisational behaviour

    CERN Document Server

    Celia, Helen; Robinson, Mark; Siebers, Peer-Olaf; Aickelin, Uwe; Sprigg, Christine

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces two ongoing research projects which seek to apply computer modelling techniques in order to simulate human behaviour within organisations. Previous research in other disciplines has suggested that complex social behaviours are governed by relatively simple rules which, when identified, can be used to accurately model such processes using computer technology. The broad objective of our research is to develop a similar capability within organisational psychology.

  16. A Model of Project and Organisational Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Jenny Leonard

    2012-01-01

    The strategic, transformational nature of many information systems projects is now widely understood. Large-scale implementations of systems are known to require significant management of organisational change in order to be successful. Moreover, projects are rarely executed in isolation – most organisations have a large programme of projects being implemented at any one time. However, project and value management methodologies provide ad hoc definitions of the relationship between a project ...

  17. The Compilation of Math Pattern for Productivity in Educational Organisations, Service Organisations (Municipalities), and Industrial Organisations Based on Organisational Climate in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Fattah Nazem

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to investigate the relationship between organisational climate with the productivity of managers' services in educational, service, and industrial organisations, in order to present a suitable management pattern. The population of the research consist of all managers who work in Tehran high schools, municipalities managers, and managers of the National Company Petro-Chemical Industries. Two hundred and forty five High School managers, 52 municipalities mana...

  18. Antecedents and Outcomes of Organisational Virtues

    OpenAIRE

    Martin-Moreno, Jose Felix

    2010-01-01

    Recent years have seen an increasing interest in the application of virtue ethics in business as opposed to consequentialist or deontogical ethics. However the focus has often been on virtues at the individual as opposed to the organizational level of analysis.It is proposed that the organisational virtues intermediate individual (leadership) and group level constructs (organisational citizenship behaviours, corporate citizenship) to foster intrinsic motivation through a focus on eudemonia (m...

  19. Highly optimised global organisation of metabolic networks

    OpenAIRE

    Tanaka, R.; Csete, M.; Doyle, J.

    2005-01-01

    High-level, mathematically precise descriptions of the global organisation of complex metabolic networks are necessary for understanding the global structure of metabolic networks, the interpretation and integration of large amounts of biologic data (sequences, various -omics) and ultimately for rational design of therapies for disease processes. Metabolic networks are highly organised to execute their function efficiently while tolerating wide variation in their environment. These network...

  20. FGF signalling regulates chromatin organisation during neural differentiation via mechanisms that can be uncoupled from transcription.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishal S Patel

    Full Text Available Changes in higher order chromatin organisation have been linked to transcriptional regulation; however, little is known about how such organisation alters during embryonic development or how it is regulated by extrinsic signals. Here we analyse changes in chromatin organisation as neural differentiation progresses, exploiting the clear spatial separation of the temporal events of differentiation along the elongating body axis of the mouse embryo. Combining fluorescence in situ hybridisation with super-resolution structured illumination microscopy, we show that chromatin around key differentiation gene loci Pax6 and Irx3 undergoes both decompaction and displacement towards the nuclear centre coincident with transcriptional onset. Conversely, down-regulation of Fgf8 as neural differentiation commences correlates with a more peripheral nuclear position of this locus. During normal neural differentiation, fibroblast growth factor (FGF signalling is repressed by retinoic acid, and this vitamin A derivative is further required for transcription of neural genes. We show here that exposure to retinoic acid or inhibition of FGF signalling promotes precocious decompaction and central nuclear positioning of differentiation gene loci. Using the Raldh2 mutant as a model for retinoid deficiency, we further find that such changes in higher order chromatin organisation are dependent on retinoid signalling. In this retinoid deficient condition, FGF signalling persists ectopically in the elongating body, and importantly, we find that inhibiting FGF receptor (FGFR signalling in Raldh2-/- embryos does not rescue differentiation gene transcription, but does elicit both chromatin decompaction and nuclear position change. These findings demonstrate that regulation of higher order chromatin organisation during differentiation in the embryo can be uncoupled from the machinery that promotes transcription and, for the first time, identify FGF as an extrinsic signal that

  1. The relationship between organisational climate and employee satisfaction in a South African information and technology organisation

    OpenAIRE

    Monia L. Castro; Nico Martins

    2010-01-01

    Orientation: Organisational climate and job satisfaction are distinct but related constructs, and both appear to influence employees’ understanding of the work environment and their level of job satisfaction.Research purpose: The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between organisational climate and job satisfaction to determine whether employees’ perceptions of the work environment influence their level of job satisfaction.Motivation for the study: Organisations are facin...

  2. Employee Engagement and Organisational Performance in A Public Sector Organisation in Zimbabwe

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Sibanda; Taruona Muchena; Farai Ncube

    2014-01-01

    The research analyses employee engagement as a precursor to unlocking organisational performance in a public sector organisation in Zimbabwe. The organisation (herein referred to as Zim-PSO), which has been plagued by operational and people challenges, is essentially locked in underperformance, which, it is argued, could improve as employee engagement levels also improved. A sample of 50 subjects participated in the research. Data were gathered using a combination of unstructured interviews, ...

  3. An Analysis of Organisational Culture of Integrated Public Organisations: The case of Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Phookpan, Pantharak

    2013-01-01

    The theme of the re-aggregation of public organisations has been embraced in the recent public sector reforms of some developed countries such as the UK. The re-aggregation of public organisations may benefit the government in terms of focusing its interests on policy coordination. This is an alternative way of reforming the public sector in order to increase greater outcomes and the performance of public organisations with regard to the achievement of particular policy goals. The reform inev...

  4. Organisational conflict: Reflections on managing conflict, identities and values in a selected South African organisation

    OpenAIRE

    Claude-Hélène Mayer; Lynette Louw

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a case study on organisational conflict in a selected international organisation in the South African automotive industry to increase the contextual understanding of the topic. Data was gathered through in-depth interviews with 45 senior and middle managers in the selected international organisation at the head off ce and two branches in Gauteng and at one branch in KwaZulu-Natal. The data analysis was conducted through content analysis as well as triangulation of dat...

  5. Organisational Social Capital through Corporate Social Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.H. Niţu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to identify the correlation between the corporate social responsibility performance and the Organisational Social Capital. Inductively, through grounded theory, this paper uses secondary data to develop a theoretical model which presents the relationship between the following concepts: business codes, stakeholders, Corporate Social Performance (CSP and Organisational Social Capital (OSC. This study brings together two main areas of research, namely: Organisational Social Capital and business ethics. This represents a gap in the literature, to which this research will address. Three propositions are put forward and discussed using secondary data collection methods. The findings suggest that there is a strong correlation between the characteristics which improve the quality of organisation-stakeholders relationship and the effectiveness of implementing business codes and, therefore, the increasing Corporate Social Performance. The proposed ethical framework has, at the same time, a similar effect by incrementing Organisational Social Capital, because it shares similar features with the relation between organisation-stakeholders, business codes and CSP.

  6. Economic and Organisational Wisdom for Asian Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arup BARMAN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Asian Century is rich and already 14 years old. Today, Asia is in the middle of a historic transformation which has brought both challenges and opportunities. To meet these challenges, Asian leaders need to devise bold and innovative national policies for pursuing avenues for regional and global cooperation. In the similar way organisation and business in Asia will transform. This transformative whirlpool calls the Asian private sector and public sector organisations for absorption of new wisdom, values and principles in place of 20th century’s management. Overall, the capacity to respond to the changing global economic landscape through flexibility and adaptivness will carry a high premium. This paper delve the issues how Asian Organisations have already been used the wisdom during the global chaos. Deriving from the examples of Asia in the midst of global chaos in many points of time, this present paper attempts to re-focus on organisational wisdom of commitment and ability for Asian organisation, modernization, governance and helping to retool institutions, for enhancing transparency, and finally to develop accountability for organisational resilience and survival.

  7. Exploring inertia in a typical state organisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. J. Louw

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Those organisations which do not change according to environmental pressures, suffer from organisational inertia. The purpose of this study is to explore the manifestation of organisational inertia in the target organisation. The target population for this study was a group of trainees, representing the geographic and demographic levels of a particular state department. In South Africa, surveys of this nature were only executed in the corporate sector. The results indicate that organisational inertia is a phenomenon that affects both corporate and governmental organisations. Opsomming Organisasies wat nie ooreenkomstig omgewingsdruk verander nie, ly aan organisasietraagheid. Die doel van die studie is om organisasietraagheid te konseptualiseer en die manifestasie daarvan in die teikenorganisasie te ondersoek. Die teikenpopulasie bestaan uit ’n groep kursusgangers wat die demografiese en geografiese samestelling van ‘n tipiese staatsdepartement verteenwoordig. In Suid -Afrika is navorsing van hierdie aard nog net in die korporatiewe sektor uitgevoer. Die resultate toon aan dat organisasietraagheid ‘n faktor is wat beide die korporatiewe omgewing en staatsorganisasies beïnvloed.

  8. Suppression of cell-spreading and phagocytic activity on nano-pillared surface: in vitro experiment using hemocytes of the colonial ascidian Botryllus schlosseri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Ballarin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Nano-scale nipple array on the body surface has been described from various invertebrates including endoparasitic and mesoparasitic copepods, but the functions of the nipple array is not well understood. Using the hydrophilized nanopillar sheets made of polystyrene as a mimetic material of the nipple arrays on the parasites’ body surface, we assayed the cell spreading and phagocytosis of the hemocytes of the colonial ascidian Botryllus schlosseri. On the pillared surface, the number of spreading amebocytes and the number of phagocytizing hemocytes per unit area were always smaller than those on the flat surface (Mann-Whitney test, p < 0.05 - 0.001, probably because the effective area for the cell attachment on the pillared surface is much smaller than the area on the flat sheet. The present results supports the idea that the nipple array on the parasites' body surface reduces the innate immune reaction from the host hemocytes.

  9. [The current and future organisational structure of the OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo León, F; Ruiz Mercader, J; Sabater Sánchez, R; Rodríguez Ferri, E F; Crespo Azofra, L

    2003-12-01

    The authors analyse the organisational structure of the OIE (World organisation for animal health), highlighting the roles of the Central Bureau, the Specialist Commissions, Regional Commissions, working groups and ad hoc groups, Regional Representations, Reference Laboratories and Collaborating Centres. The paper also includes some suggestions as to how the OIE could work more closely with its 'customers', that is, the Member Countries. These suggestions are based on current theories of organisational flexibility, and take into account not only the current organisational structure of the OIE, but also the Strategic Plan and the Working Plan, which were adopted at the 69th General Session of the OIE International Committee in 2001.

  10. Organisational conflict: Reflections on managing conflict, identities and values in a selected South African organisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude-Hélène Mayer

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a case study on organisational conflict in a selected international organisation in the South African automotive industry to increase the contextual understanding of the topic. Data was gathered through in-depth interviews with 45 senior and middle managers in the selected international organisation at the head off ce and two branches in Gauteng and at one branch in KwaZulu-Natal. The data analysis was conducted through content analysis as well as triangulation of data. The research results show that managers in this industry in post-apartheid South Africa experience organisational conflicts that are associated with their managerial values and identities.

  11. Distinctive expression patterns of Hedgehog pathway genes in the Ciona intestinalis larva: implications for a role of Hedgehog signaling in postembryonic development and chordate evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, A F M Tariqul; Moly, Pricila Khan; Miyamoto, Yuki; Kusakabe, Takehiro G

    2010-02-01

    Members of the Hedgehog (Hh) family are soluble ligands that orchestrate a wide spectrum of developmental processes ranging from left-right axis determination of the embryo to tissue patterning and organogenesis. Tunicates, including ascidians, are the closest relatives of vertebrates, and elucidation of Hh signaling in ascidians should provide an important clue towards better understanding the role of this pathway in development. In previous studies, expression patterns of genes encoding Hh and its downstream factor Gli have been examined up to the tailbud stage in the ascidian embryo, but their expression in the larva has not been reported. Here we show the spatial expression patterns of hedgehog (Ci-hh1, Ci-hh2), patched (Ci-ptc), smoothened (Ci-smo), and Gli (Ci-Gli) orthologs in larvae of the ascidian Ciona intestinalis. The expression patterns of Ci-hh2 and Ci-Gli dramatically change during the period between the late tailbud embryo and the swimming larva. At the larval stage, expression of Ci-Gli was found in a central part of the endoderm and in the visceral ganglion, while Ci-hh2 was expressed in two discrete endodermal regions, anteriorly and posteriorly adjacent to the cells expressing Gli. The expression patterns of these genes suggest that the Hh ligand controls postembryonic development of the endoderm and the central nervous system. Expression of a gene encoding Hh in the anterior and/or pharyngeal endoderm is probably an ancient chordate character; diversification of regulation and targets of the Hh signaling in this region may have played a major role in the evolution of chordate body structures.

  12. Palliative care. Some organisational considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welshman, A

    2005-01-01

    consideration. Another important issue faced daily by palliative care physicians is the broad number of chronic conditions which could make use of opioids. Severe cancer pain is the most obvious example of an appropriate use of opioids, but hardly the only one. The North American Chronic Pain Association of Canada (NACPAC) advocates the use of opioids for a wide range of conditions causing severe chronic pain, including lower back pain, inflammatory bowel disease, migraines, AIDS, multiple sclerosis and arthritis. Concerns regarding under treatment of chronic pain have captured the attention of patient advocacy groups, policy makers and scientific organisations. Misconceptions of opioid laws, negative social stigma and lack of valid prescribing alternatives to overcome this, together with paucity of formal provider education confound the issue. Much education needs to be done before opioids will be seen as a safe and reasonable treatment for chronic pain here in Italy.

  13. Action Research and Organisational Learning: A Norwegian Approach to Doing Action Research in Complex Organisations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eikeland, Olav

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present a specific approach to the practice of action research "in complex organisations". Clearly, there are many approaches to the challenge of doing action research in organisations; approaches that are, and also must be, quite context dependent and specific. But my purpose is neither to give an overview nor a…

  14. Responses to Climate Change: Exploring Organisational Learning across Internationally Networked Organisations for Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Emily; Osbahr, Henny

    2010-01-01

    Drawing from the organisational learning and governance literature, this paper assesses four internationally networked governmental and non-governmental organisations in the UK addressing climate change. We analyse how those concerned understand the climate change crisis, what mechanisms are put in place to address information flows, and what…

  15. Strategic Orientation and Organisational Culture in Polish Public Organisations: Insights from the Miles and Snow Typology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wronka-Pośpiech Martyna

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Polish public organisations are often perceived as having strong bureaucratic orientation, avoiding both change and risk. However, in the last decade a distinct change in the management model of public organisations can be noticed. Public sector becomes an open ground for mergers and partnerships, entrepreneurial leadership, diversified services and commercialization (Golensky and DeRuiter 1999; Zimmerman and Dart, 1998; Pollitt and Bouckaert, 2004; Walker, 2013]. Public organisations embrace these strategies from the for-profit sector in order to manage change and to be effective. Most importantly, public organisations are adopting these frameworks in order to survive the changing operating environment, including changes in the level of government funding. Our paper draws on the Miles and Snow (1978 typology of generic strategies - prospectors, defenders, analysers, and reactors - to identify different organisational strategies within public organisations providing social services in Poland. In order to assess organisational culture we used the most widespread and used in many empirical studies Cameron and Quinn’s model (2003, the Competing Values Framework (CVF, from which four cultures - adhocracy, clan, market and hierarchy - emerge. The choice of these two providers of social services was dictated by our conviction, that these organisations are critical both for the national economy and for mitigating, counteracting and preventing social exclusion.

  16. Organisational Learning and the Organisational Life Cycle: The Differential Aspects of an Integrated Relationship in SMEs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Steven; Gray, David E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to relate the practice of organisational learning in small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) to the organisational life cycle (OLC), contextualising the differential aspects of an integrated relationship between them. Design/methodology/approach: It is a mixed-method study with two consecutive phases. In…

  17. The Strength of Organisational Culture: Organisational Performance in South African Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bipath, Keshni; Adeyemo, Kolawole Samuel

    2014-01-01

    One of the more frequently cited cultural dimensions within the field of cultural research is that of cultural strength (Cameron & Ettington, 1998). Early published works on organisational culture argue that there is an absolute need for a "strong" culture for organisations to be effective. This study has examined the contradiction…

  18. Inter-organisational response to disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paturas, James L; Smith, Stewart R; Albanese, Joseph; Waite, Geraldine

    2016-01-01

    Inter-organisational communication failures during times of real-world disasters impede the collaborative response of agencies responsible for ensuring the public's health and safety. In the best of circumstances, communications across jurisdictional boundaries are ineffective. In times of crisis, when communities are grappling with the impact of a disaster, communications become critically important and more complex. Important factors for improving inter-organisational communications are critical thinking and problem-solving skills; inter-organisational relationships; as well as strategic, tactical and operational communications. Improving communication, critical thinking, problem-solving and decision-making requires a review of leadership skills. This discussion begins with an analysis of the existing disaster management research and moves to an examination of the importance of inter-organisational working relationships. Before a successful resolution of a disaster by multiple levels of first responders, the group of organisations must have a foundation of trust, collegiality, flexibility, expertise, openness, relational networking and effective communications. Leaders must also be prepared to improve leadership skills through continual development in each of these foundational areas.

  19. Inter-organisational response to disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paturas, James L; Smith, Stewart R; Albanese, Joseph; Waite, Geraldine

    2016-01-01

    Inter-organisational communication failures during times of real-world disasters impede the collaborative response of agencies responsible for ensuring the public's health and safety. In the best of circumstances, communications across jurisdictional boundaries are ineffective. In times of crisis, when communities are grappling with the impact of a disaster, communications become critically important and more complex. Important factors for improving inter-organisational communications are critical thinking and problem-solving skills; inter-organisational relationships; as well as strategic, tactical and operational communications. Improving communication, critical thinking, problem-solving and decision-making requires a review of leadership skills. This discussion begins with an analysis of the existing disaster management research and moves to an examination of the importance of inter-organisational working relationships. Before a successful resolution of a disaster by multiple levels of first responders, the group of organisations must have a foundation of trust, collegiality, flexibility, expertise, openness, relational networking and effective communications. Leaders must also be prepared to improve leadership skills through continual development in each of these foundational areas. PMID:27318289

  20. Organisational Communication, The Panacea For Improved Labour Relations

    OpenAIRE

    Dupe Adesubomi Abolade

    2015-01-01

    This paper examined the importance of organisational communication to overall effective labour relations. It looked at organisational communication and its role in labour relations between the parties involved in Labour relations for better business procedures and relationships. It explained the importance of organisational communication in enhancing better labour relations within the organisation and with people outside the organisation. It enumerated the various groups that are involved in ...

  1. European Science Research Organisations forge closer ties

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Effective collaboration has always been one of the foundations of CERN's success. An essential ingredient for collaboration is communication and a new body EIROFORUM has just held its first meeting in Brussels with the aim of developing greater cross fertilization of ideas and projects. Seven organisations, CERN, EMBL (molecular biology), ESA (space activities), ESO (astronomy and astrophysics), ESRF (synchrotron radiation), ILL (neutron source) and EFDA (fusion) are currently members of EIROFORUM. Common interest between the organisations in computational grid development, materials science, instrumentation, public outreach and technology transfer has made EIROFRUM an essential group for maximising these European research organisations' resources. Increasing involvement in the Sixth Framework Programme, Europe's research guidelines for the next four years, is also one of the goals of the group. CERN takes over the chair of EIROFORUM in July 2001 and the next meeting will be held on site on 24 October .

  2. Preparedness organisations at Nordic nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report presents an overview of Emergency Preparedness Organisations (EPO) in Sweden, Finland and Norway and presentations of insights from a study of the staff positions' work instructions in the command centre in an emergency situation. The results indicate potential for improvement in several areas. A number of the improvements are related to introduction of new technology and they should be seen in connection with ensuring safe and reliable communication lines and power supply. Analysis of the data identified four main categories where further studies could contribute to improvement: 1) Communication and exchange of information. 2) Tools and technology. 3) Staffing and organisation. 4) Procedures. The usefulness of the Man Technology and Organisation method in analysing the emergency management decision-making process within the authorities was considered as an interesting issue for continuation of the project. The interface between utility and authorities was pointed out as an important area for continuation. (Author)

  3. Self-organising structures of lecithin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shchipunov, Yurii A.

    1997-04-01

    Modern concepts of the self-assembly of amphiphiles are considered on the example of self-organising structures of the natural lecithin. Binary, ternary and multicomponent systems are discussed. A considerable part of the review is devoted to the peculiarities of self-organisation of this phospholipid in non-aqueous media and to the role of polar inorganic solvents. Virtually all of the structures formed by lecithin are examined: micelles, swollen micelles, microemulsions, emulsions, organogels, vesicles (liposomes), and lyotropic liquid crystals. In each specific case, attention is drawn to the dependence of self-assembly at the macroscopic level on interactions at the molecular level, shape of molecules, and their solvation and packing at the interface. The self-organising lecithin structures formed in the interfacial area of immiscible liquids in the course of unrestricted adsorption from the bulk of non-aqueous solution are considered. The bibliography includes 282 references.

  4. Information in organisations: directions for information management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Kirk

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The work of managers in small and medium-sized enterprises is very information-intensive and the environment in which it is done is very information rich. But are managers able to exploit the wealth of information which surrounds them? And how can information be managed in organisations so that its potential for improving business performance and enhancing the competitiveness of these enterprises can be realised? Answers to these questions lie in clarifying the context of the practice of information management by exploring aspects of organisations and managerial work and in exploring the nature of information at the level of the organisation and the individual manager. From these answers it is possible to suggest some guidelines for managing the integration of business strategy and information, the adoption of a broadly-based definition of information and the development of information capabilities.

  5. The Organisation of Innovative Activities Across Industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drejer, Ina; Leiponen, Aija

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the organisation of innovation across sectors in Denmark and Finland. First, patterns of innovative activity within manufacturing and services are identified though applying factor analysis on firm-level innovation survey data from the two countries. The analysis......, the relation between innovation modes and innovation outcome are investigated through regression analysis. The analysis confirms that the way innovation is organised matters for outcome, in terms of type of innovation, as well as in terms of share of sales stemming from innovation. Finally, we explore whether...... innovation modes are aligned with industry classifications, as it is assumed in the original work on technological regimes. Contrary to these assumptions we find that industries by no means are uniform in terms of organisation of innovation; in most cases two or three regimes are represented in a single...

  6. Organisational sensemaking, strategy, structuring and routines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Renate

    2001-01-01

    Research objective: The purpose of my research is to generate new understanding of what organisational interpretation, sensemaking and structuring processes in organisations mean in a way that can be used not only retrospectively but actively in strategic planning. In the study of these processes...... my focus will, more specifically, be on how sensemaking processes are transformed into strategy and policies to be applied in daily routines, especially sales/marketing strategy routines. By acquiring a broader comprehension of the structuring and strategising processes the intent is to improve...... organisations' competitiveness. Instead of concentrating on decision making I wish to contribute through a better understanding of the processes leading up to decision making. Knowing what guides decision making could mean an even better possibility of making the right decision and implement it in new...

  7. Measuring business continuity programmes in large organisations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    In the field of business continuity management, organisations commit sums of money (often very large sums) to develop and maintain their continuity capability. Despite this, there is almost no measurement of whether this expense offers value for money, or whether it is targeted in the right areas. This paper will explain some methods of measuring components of a business continuity programme. The important outputs from this measurement activity are to demonstrate that an organisation's continuity capability is improving over time, and to identify areas of weakness that should be targeted during future work. PMID:25193458

  8. Learning Styles and Organisational Development in Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Jacob; Lauridsen, Karen M.

    2012-01-01

    Issues of innovation and knowledge management are often treated from an organisational learning perspective. As a complement to this, there is a vast potential in the strategic enhancement of individual learning by implementing learning styles profiles and creating personal learning strategies...... for management and employees in a knowledge based organisation. Based on an action-research case study, we offer an example of how learning styles affects individual learning and thus personal knowledge creation in practice. The paper argues that innovation and knowledge management is enhanced and facilitated...... in practice by working with the learning styles of individuals and groups/teams....

  9. International Organisations and Transnational Education Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moutsios, Stavros

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on the World Bank/IMF (International Monetary Fund), the OECD (Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development) and the WTO (World Trade Organisation) as institutions of transnational policy making. They are all at present making education policies which are decisively...... shaping current directions and developments in national education systems. The paper reviews the enhanced role of these institutions in producing education policies and investigates the ideological basis as well as the processes through which these policies are made. It is argued that decisions are taken...... the transnationalisation of education policy making but also the full submission of education to the pursuits of global economy....

  10. The man-machine-organisation interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reliable and safety-centred action of man is one crucial factor for safe operation of nuclear power plants, apart from the technical systems and the organisational aspects. Essential factors influencing human performance are: Qualification and competence of the operating personnel, technical conditions and status of systems, including the level of automation, information technology in the control room, and plant organisation. Analyses of documentation of notifiable events in power plant operation or other incidents yield information on available potentials for safety enhancements or reduction of human errors. (orig./CB)

  11. The Organisational Gap Model for Hotel Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Uran

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the development of the organisational gap model for hotel management. It descries a management measurement instrument that helps to assess the 3 organizational service gaps that are preconditions for delivering service quality (the positioning gap, specification gap and evaluation gap. The described theoretical model was constructed based upon the four organisational gaps of the Parasuraman et al. service quality model, then redefined and reassessed. Data were gathered on the sample of 500 questionnaires from the Slovenian hotel industry and analysed with exploratory factor analysis and structural equation modelling. The results can be useful guidelines for hotel management on how to improve the service delivery process.

  12. Measuring business continuity programmes in large organisations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    In the field of business continuity management, organisations commit sums of money (often very large sums) to develop and maintain their continuity capability. Despite this, there is almost no measurement of whether this expense offers value for money, or whether it is targeted in the right areas. This paper will explain some methods of measuring components of a business continuity programme. The important outputs from this measurement activity are to demonstrate that an organisation's continuity capability is improving over time, and to identify areas of weakness that should be targeted during future work.

  13. Influencing organisational culture: a leadership challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muls, Ann; Dougherty, Lisa; Doyle, Natalie; Shaw, Clare; Soanes, Louise; Stevens, Anna-Marie

    In the wake of the Francis report, the need for NHS trusts and hospitals to adopt a culture of learning, safety and transparency has been highlighted. This article considers different aspects of culture in health care, and hones in on the link between culture and safety for patients in putting the patient first, embedding the 6Cs and considering the options to measure and influence organisational culture. The article reflects more deeply on how leadership across all levels can influence and inspire change in organisational culture, ensuring that the patient remains the focus of any changes in care delivery.

  14. A Wicked Problem? Whistleblowing in Healthcare Organisations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Paula

    2016-01-01

    Mannion and Davies’ article recognises whistleblowing as an important means of identifying quality and safety issues in healthcare organisations. While ‘voice’ is a useful lens through which to examine whistleblowing, it also obscures a shifting pattern of uncertain ‘truths.’ By contextualising cultures which support or impede whislteblowing at an organisational level, two issues are overlooked; the power of wider institutional interests to silence those who might raise the alarm and changing ideas about what constitutes adequate care. A broader contextualisation of whistleblowing might illuminate further facets of this multi-dimensional problem. PMID:27239870

  15. Influencing organisational culture: a leadership challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muls, Ann; Dougherty, Lisa; Doyle, Natalie; Shaw, Clare; Soanes, Louise; Stevens, Anna-Marie

    In the wake of the Francis report, the need for NHS trusts and hospitals to adopt a culture of learning, safety and transparency has been highlighted. This article considers different aspects of culture in health care, and hones in on the link between culture and safety for patients in putting the patient first, embedding the 6Cs and considering the options to measure and influence organisational culture. The article reflects more deeply on how leadership across all levels can influence and inspire change in organisational culture, ensuring that the patient remains the focus of any changes in care delivery. PMID:26110855

  16. Complexity, Information and Biological Organisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Grandpierre

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Regarding the widespread confusion about the concept and nature of complexity, information and biological organization, we look for some coordinated conceptual considerations corresponding to quantitative measures suitable to grasp the main characteristics of biological complexity. Quantitative measures of algorithmic complexity of supercomputers like Blue Gene/L are compared with the complexity of the brain. We show that both the computer and the brain have a more fundamental, dynamic complexity measure corresponding to the number of operations per second. Recent insights suggest that the origin of complexity may go back to simplicity at a deeper level, corresponding to algorithmic complexity. We point out that for physical systems Ashby’s Law, Kahre’s Law and causal closure of the physical exclude the generation of information, and since genetic information corresponds to instructions, we are faced with a controversy telling that the algorithmic complexity of physics is much lower than the instructions’ complexity of the human DNA: I_algorithmic(physics ~ 10^3 bit << I_instructions(DNA ~ 10^9 bit. Analyzing the genetic complexity we obtain that actually the genetic information corresponds to a deeper than algorithmic level of complexity, putting an even greater emphasis to the information paradox. We show that the resolution of the fundamental information paradox may lie either in the chemical evolution of inheritance in abiogenesis, or in the existence of an autonomous biological principle allowing the production of information beyond physics.

  17. Information Systems in Organisations --organisational culture affects information systems in organizations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张娟

    2013-01-01

    In today’s information age, the application and construction of information systems became the central element of organizational development. Except the influence of information technology, the organisational culture plays a most important role in the implementation of information systems. This paper aimed at information producers, information users, information content and the information channels four parts of information elements to analysis the affects of organisational culture on information system in organisations. In particular, power distance, individualism and collectivism and uncertainty avoidance as three main theory models of Hofstede’s culture theory were be applied in this paper.

  18. Resilience Safety Culture in Aviation Organisations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akselsson, R.; Koornneef, F.; Stewart, S.; Ward, M.

    2009-01-01

    Chapter 2: Resilience Safety Culture in Aviation Organisations The European Commission HILAS project (Human Integration into the Lifecycle of Aviation Systems - a project supported by the European Commission’s 6th Framework between 2005-2009) was focused on using human factors knowledge and methodo

  19. Ising, Schelling and Self-Organising Segregation

    CERN Document Server

    Stauffer, D

    2007-01-01

    The similarities between phase separation in physics and residential segregation by preference in the Schelling model of 1971 are reviewed. Also, new computer simulations of asymmetric interactions different from the usual Ising model are presented, showing spontaneous magnetisation (= self-organising segregation) and in one case a sharp phase transition.

  20. Ising, Schelling and self-organising segregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauffer, D.; Solomon, S.

    2007-06-01

    The similarities between phase separation in physics and residential segregation by preference in the Schelling model of 1971 are reviewed. Also, new computer simulations of asymmetric interactions different from the usual Ising model are presented, showing spontaneous magnetisation (=self-organising segregation) and in one case a sharp phase transition.

  1. Management of Adult Education Organisations in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafukho, Fredrick Muyia; Wawire, Nelson H. W.; Lam, Penina Mungania

    2011-01-01

    Adult education is now considered a mainstream academic discipline in several African countries, and its importance in today's knowledge and "ideas" economies is growing steadily. It is provided by organisations such as public universities, training colleges, corporate universities and employers. The successful operation of educational…

  2. VIRTUAL ORGANISATIONS: EMPLOYEE COMPETENCY AND MANAGERIAL ISSUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIRJANA RADOVIC-MARKOVIC

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available New technologies have led to a new information and knowledge based economy. In this context, technology has changed the work environment, where organisations have become increasingly complex and competitive. Namely, the technologically induced a “virtual” environment has resulted in the adoption of new organisational structures and work skills and practices. On the one hand, the workplace increasingly requires employee to work in teams,collaborating across companies, communities, and continents. These changes and the new organisational structures have also made an impact on role of managers and their management styles, on the other hand. In line with this, there a very rich collection of thinking and empirical research findings on the subject. The goal of our research was to recognize the importance of certain factors in motivating employees in organisations by managers . The other purpose was to investigate the job related motivation factors among senior and junior employees as well as explore issues in the workplace that may affect work demoralization. Furthemore, we explored the relationship between employees motivation and their competences.We also contributed to the topic in our research project-book with the new model of competency. Furthemore, we expect that our methodology will be implemented in practice. However, it should be also a good basis for further improvements in this area.

  3. On the organisation of program verification competitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, Marieke; Klebanov, Vladimir; Monahan, Rosemary; Klebanov, Vladimir; Beckert, Bernhard; Biere, Armin; Sutcliffe, Geoff

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the challenges that have to be addressed when organising program verification competitions. Our focus is on competitions for verification systems where the participants both formalise an informally stated requirement and (typically) provide some guidance for the tool to sho

  4. The corporate republic. Complex organisations and citizenship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bovens, M.A.P.

    1998-01-01

    The twentieth century has been the century of complex organisations. However, most contemporary political currents act as if we were still living in the nineteenth century. For many modern liberals, social democrats, and communitarians, the contrast between public and private, between government and

  5. Designing comprehensible self-organising systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Höning, N.F.; La Poutré, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    Self-organising systems are a popular engineering concept for designing decentralised autonomic computing systems. They are able to find solutions in complex and versatile problem domains, but as they capture more complexity in their own design, they are becoming less and less comprehensible to thei

  6. The institutional dynamics of voluntary organisations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Peter

    What features of institutional change do voluntary organisations contain? This question is debated in the civil society literature, but often under different headlines, like social entrepreneurship or social movement theory. The question of voluntarism is often not taken into account. This paper...

  7. Labour organisation on robotic milking dairy farms.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonck, B.R.

    1996-01-01

    1. Research issuesThe research described in this dissertation is focused on the effects of the integration of the milking robot in a dairy farm on the labour organisation at operational and tactical level. Attention was paid to the future requirements concerning hum

  8. Defining, Measuring, and Comparing Organisational Cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den Peter T.; Wilderom, Celeste P.M.

    2004-01-01

    La littérature portant sur la culture des organisations souffre d’un manque manifeste d’enquêtes extensives débouchant sur des études comparatives. Afin de rendre plus comparables les cultures organisationnelles, nous proposons une définition et une série de dimensions. La culture organisationnelle

  9. Institutional Level Student Engagement and Organisational Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Velden, Gwen

    2012-01-01

    Driven by the growing presence of market forces within higher education worldwide, universities are changing the way they engage with students. This article explores how a university's internal culture relates to engagement with students and their views. It builds on wider research into student engagement and organisational cultures. The…

  10. Teamarbejde og samspillet mellem medarbejdere og organisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Hans Jeppe; Jønsson, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    teamwork. Bag projektet står professor Hans Jeppe Jeppesen, cand.psych. og ph.d. Thomas Rasmussen samt adjunkt Thomas Jønsson. I denne klumme gives en forskningsbaseret introduktion til teamarbejdet og dets betydning for samspillet mellem medarbejdere og organisation. Med udgangspunkt i egen forskning...

  11. Learning, Learning Organisations and the Global Enterprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikutty, Sankaran

    2009-01-01

    The steadily increasing degree of globalisation of enterprises implies development of many skills, among which the skills to learn are among the most important. Learning takes place at the individual level, but collective learning and organisational learning are also important. Learning styles of individuals are different and learning styles are…

  12. Antecedents of Organisational Creativity: A Multi-Level Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritu Gupta

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this literature review is to provide a better understanding of the antecedents of organisational creativity with a multi-level approach. Organisational creativity is a sum total of the creativity accounted for by the individual employees of the organisation, the cumulative creativity of a team or group and creativity arising out of different structural components of an organisation. Some of the antecedents identified from the literature include personality, intrinsic motivation, group cohesion, social inhibition, cognitive interference, leader member exchange, organisational culture and climate, amongst others at individual, group and organisational level. Based on the literature review, suggestions for future research and research propositions have been proposed.

  13. The emergence of user organisation of homeless persons in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anker, Jørgen

    persons emerges in these years. The second part of the paper provides a more detailed description of the organisation, its aims, strategies and organisational structure. Some of the dilemmas and difficulties of the user organisation are finally mentioned at the end of the paper.......This paper provides an overview of the history of the user organisation of homeless persons in Denmark. The first part of the paper seeks to identify some of the processes and actors who facilitated the formation of the organisation, and it seeks to discuss why a user organisation of homeless...

  14. Influencing organisational culture by means of employee remuneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarína Stachová

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to particularly define the possibilities of influencing organisational culture by means of employee remuneration. The paper will present the results of research conducted over 2010–2012. The respondent group included 340 organisations operating in the Slovak Republic. The research showed that even though 98% of the interviewed organisations realise the importance and meaning of dealing with the creation and maintenance of organisational culture, only 21–43% have defined an organisational culture strategy in writing within the organisation´s strategy.

  15. ORGANISATIONAL JUSTICE AND AFFECTIVE COMMITMENT: THE MEDIATING ROLE OF PERCEIVED ORGANISATIONAL SUPPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja Purang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Perception of fairness among employees is a guiding force that influences employee attitude and behaviour. However, the mechanisms associated with justice need to be studied further. This study hypothesises that perceived organisational support (POS mediates the relationship between organisational justice perceptions and affective commitment of employees. The study was conducted in a multi-national organisation operating in India in the service sector; the sample size was 71 employees. Baron and Kenny's model of studying the mediating relationship was used. The findings showed that POS fully mediates the relationship between distributive justice and affective commitment as well as partially mediates the relationship between procedural justice and affective commitment. This study highlights the importance of fairness and justice in organisations and identifies the mechanism by which employee perceptions of justice influence their loyalty and involvement.

  16. ISO 9000 IMPLEMENTATION AND PERCEIVED ORGANISATIONAL OUTCOME: THE CASE OF A SERVICE ORGANISATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasni Abdul Latif

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The study examines the relationship between the perceptions of the employees about ISO 9000 implementation and perceived organisational outcomes. A conceptual framework linking the level of employee influence and involvement, their perception of ISO 9000 and the perceived impact on their work and the organisational outcomes is posited. Data was collected from a random sample of 64 employees of a service organisation. Contrary to expectations, the work impact of ISO 9000 was not correlated with the efficiency and market outcomes of ISO 9000 certification but the employee involvement, influence and perception of ISO 9000 were. The conceptualization of the influence path of ISO 9000 implementation on the organisational outcomes may require rethinking as perception may have a direct effect on the outcomes without the mediation of the impact on work. In short, employees may report benefits or positive outcomes even though no change is reported in their work.

  17. European ways to combat psychosocial risks related to work organisation : towards organisational interventions?

    OpenAIRE

    Oeij, P.R.A.; Morvan, E.; Houtman, I.L.D.; Vaas, F.; Wiezer, N.

    2004-01-01

    From 24-26 November 2004, the 6h Annual Conference of the European Academy of Occupational Health Psychology ‘Healthy, Efficient & Productive Organisations’ was held in Oporto, Portugal. During this conference, the Workshop ‘Organisational interventions to combat psychosocial factors of stress’ was organised by PEROSH, Partnership for European Research in Occupational Safety and Health. This syllabus contains the separate papers of various European countries that were delivered to the worksho...

  18. Caseload midwifery as organisational change: the interplay between professional and organisational projects in Denmark

    OpenAIRE

    Burau, Viola; Overgaard, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Background The large obstetric units typical of industrialised countries have come under criticism for fragmented and depersonalised care and heavy bureaucracy. Interest in midwife-led continuity models of care is growing, but knowledge about the accompanying processes of organisational change is scarce. This study focuses on midwives’ role in introducing and developing caseload midwifery. Sociological studies of midwifery and organisational studies of professional groups were used to capture...

  19. Gene

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes,...

  20. Organisational learning won't be turned off

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elkjær, Bente

    2012-01-01

    individuals and environments, which is my reason for including a section on just that. I draw the two, learning and organisation, together in a concluding section in which there is also a discussion about how a focus on organisational learning can inspire the research on individual learning.......Enterprises have always been learning organisations in much the same way as it is hard for people to avoid learning. A sign of learning organisations are the many successful enterprises, and the abundance of new products and services that keeps emerging. The question about organisational learning...... is how it is possible to ‘see’ and to analyse learning when learning is not connected to individuals but to organisations and organising? In a normative sense, however, “organisational learning” is often used as our answer to the difficulties in enterprises of how most efficiently to channel knowledge...

  1. Proceedings Second Workshop on Formal Aspects of Virtual Organisations

    OpenAIRE

    Bryans, Jeremy; Fitzgerald, John

    2010-01-01

    FAVO2009 was the second workshop on Formal Aspects of Virtual Organisations. The purpose of the FAVO workshops is to encourage an active community of researchers and practitioners using formal methods in the research and development of Virtual Organisations.

  2. The Concept of Embodied Knowledge for Understanding Organisational Knowledge Creation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsudaira, Yoshito; Fujinami, Tsutomu

    Our goal in this paper is to understand, in the light of intuition and emotion, the problem-finding and value judgments by organisational members that are part of organisational knowledge creation. In doing so, we emphasise the importance of embodied knowledge of organisations as an explanatory concept. We propose ways of approaching intuition and sense of value as these are posited as objects of research. Approaches from the first, second, and third-person viewpoints result in a deeper grasp of embodied knowledge of organisations. Important in organisational knowledge creation is embodied knowledge of organisations, which has a bearing on problem-finding before any problem-solving or decision making takes place, and on value judgments about the importance of problems that have been found. This article proposes the concept of embodied knowledge, and, by introducing it, gives a profound understanding of that facet of organisational knowledge creation characterised by tacit knowledge held by organisational individuals.

  3. Digital Ecosystems: Self-Organisation of Evolving Agent Populations

    OpenAIRE

    Briscoe, Gerard; De Wilde, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    A primary motivation for our research in Digital Ecosystems is the desire to exploit the self-organising properties of biological ecosystems. Ecosystems are thought to be robust, scalable architectures that can automatically solve complex, dynamic problems. Self-organisation is perhaps one of the most desirable features in the systems that we engineer, and it is important for us to be able to measure self-organising behaviour. We investigate the self-organising aspects of Digital Ecosystems, ...

  4. 11th International Symposium on Organisational Science Development

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksander Janes

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we present the organisation and execution of the 11th International Symposium on Organisational Science Development, entitled Management and Social Responsibility, which is organised by the Faculty of Organisational Sciences in Belgrade. The Symposium is already a traditional event and it has taken place in Zlatibor for many years, but this year it was held in Belgrade itself in order to celebrate the 200th anniversary of the University of Belgrade. The fact that more than 450 a...

  5. An ethics model to develop an ethical organisation

    OpenAIRE

    Hendrik R. Lloyd; Michelle R. Mey

    2010-01-01

    Orientation: As background to the study it can be stated that the ethical conduct of employees in an organisation is of paramount importance to the successful operations of an organisation, both real and perceived. In recent times the ethical conduct of employees has received extensive publicity and, as such, has emphasised the impact of organisational ethics on the global competitiveness of organisations.Research purpose: The main aim of the paper is to analyse the impact of business ethics ...

  6. The Importance of Business Rules in the Organisational Transformation Process

    OpenAIRE

    Stergiou, Maria; Johnson, Leslie

    1998-01-01

    Organisational transformation has been widely discussed and practised. Organisations tried and tested many ways of collecting requirements and planning their change programmes. In this paper we discuss the fuller role that the requirements specification stage is called to play in organisational transformation. A role that encircles an understanding of the business rules of the organisation, both written and unwritten. We state the implications of our analysis to the infamous Business-IT gap a...

  7. Shaping communities of work, an organisational development approach

    OpenAIRE

    Schoemaker, M.J.R.

    2006-01-01

    "In order to survive in a turbulent environment many organisations have to operate as an open system. This open system often has the configuration of a network. This networked organisation acts as a community of work. This community of work is based upon a specific organisational identity. The central question addressed by this article is: How can organisation development function in the process of developing communities of work and what is the role of the change agent? T...

  8. Organisational learning and transformative capacity: leveraging collective knowledge

    OpenAIRE

    Shehata, Gamal Mohamed Mohamed

    2000-01-01

    A growing part of the literature on organisational learning sets out to describe how and why organisations learn. Nevertheless, a large number of the recent reviews on organisational learning address several gaps that challenge the future progress of the subject. A critical examination of the organisational learning literature was conducted to identify a number of gaps that exist in the field. These gaps include the fragmented nature of the subject itself, the fact that insufficient attention...

  9. Influencing organisational culture by means of employee remuneration

    OpenAIRE

    Katarína Stachová; Zdenko Stacho; Gabriela Bartáková

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to particularly define the possibilities of influencing organisational culture by means of employee remuneration. The paper will present the results of research conducted over 2010–2012. The respondent group included 340 organisations operating in the Slovak Republic. The research showed that even though 98% of the interviewed organisations realise the importance and meaning of dealing with the creation and maintenance of organisational culture, only 21–43% have defin...

  10. Natural products from the ascidian Botrylloides giganteum, from the sponges Verongula gigantea, Ircinia felix, Cliona delitrix and from the nudibranch Tambja eliora, from the Brazilian coastline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two new marine metabolites, 3Z, 6Z, 9Z-dodecatrien-1-ol (1) from the ascidian Botrylloides giganteum and 4H-pyran-2ol acetate from the sponge Ircinia felix (4) are herein reported. The known bromotyrosine compounds, 2-(3,5-dibromo-4-methoxyphenyl)-N,N,Ndimethylethanammonium (2) and 2,6-dibromo-4-(2-(trimethylammonium)ethyl)phenol (3), have been isolated from the sponge Verongula gigantea. Serotonin (5) is reported for the first time from the sponge Cliona delitrix, and tambjamines A (15) and D (16) isolated as their respective salts from the nudibranch Tambja eliora. Only tambjamine D presented cytotoxicity against CEM (IC5)0 12.2 μg/mL) and HL60 (IC50 13.2 μg/mL) human leukemia cells, MCF-7 breast cancer cells (IC50 13.2 μg/mL), colon HCT-8 cancer cells (IC50 10.1 μg/mL) and murine melanoma B16 cancer cells (IC50 6.7 μg/mL). (author)

  11. First in situ observations of the deep-sea carnivorous ascidian Dicopia antirrhinum Monniot C., 1972 in the Western Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mecho, A.; Aguzzi, J.; Company, J. B.; Canals, M.; Lastras, G.; Turon, X.

    2014-01-01

    Dicopia antirrhinum C. Monniot, 1972 is a rare species of deep-sea ascidian belonging to the Family Octacnemidae, reported at depths of 1000-2500 m in European Atlantic waters. Adult individuals have never been reported before in the Mediterranean Sea, where only seven juvenile specimens were found in 1975 at 500 m water depth in the Central basin (Malta). The affinities of these specimens with D. antirrhinum were noted, but lack of some typical characters of the species in juveniles prevented a definite taxonomical identification. No other member of the Octacnemidae has ever been found in the Mediterranean. In this study we describe the sampling of an adult specimen of D. antirrhinum at around 1100 m water depth on the flank of the La Fonera (Palamós) canyon, Northwestern Mediterranean, confirming their presence in the Mediterranean Sea. We also observed 5 individuals of this species on their natural habitat with a Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV). Our results highlight the potential occurrence of Octacnemidae, the presence of which has been largely overlooked, in several deep-sea canyon areas within the Western Mediterranean basin. These observations are important because they indicate the need for increased sampling effort with new technologies, such as ROVs, in ecologically relevant habitats such as canyons, in order to obtain a more accurate picture of deep-sea biodiversity in the Mediterranean Sea.

  12. How Can Organisations Learn: An Information Systems Development Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Gavin J.; Connolly, Thomas M.; Stansfield, Mark

    2009-01-01

    This article sets out to argue that organisations can learn but that they cannot do so in their own right without infrastructural support. This article further examines the notion that individuals in organisations also require the cognitive participation of the organisation itself as a learning entity to learn. The close reliance and affiliation…

  13. Knowledge Creation in Construction Organisations: A Case Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliufoo, Harriet

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate and characterise the knowledge creation process in construction organisations and explore to what extent organisations facilitate the process. Design/methodology/approach: A case study approach is adopted using four construction organisations; a knowledge creation model is also used as the…

  14. Bridging Theory and Practice: A Conceptual Framework for Consulting Organisations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Meca B.; Welch, Jennie; Hazle Bussey, Leslie

    2015-01-01

    A growing number of organisations are emerging as partners to districts pursuing systemic improvement. Given the critical role a consulting organisation could play in supporting system reform efforts, how does a district leader looking to establish a consulting partnership determine what characteristics in a consulting organisation may be more…

  15. Organisational citizens or reciprocal relationships? An empirical comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, Ferry; Sanders, Karin

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims at contributing to the debate on organisational citizenship behaviour (OCB) by developing a theory‐driven measure of cooperative behaviour within organisations, called organisational solidarity (OS). Design/methodology/approach: Data are gathered through a survey among 674

  16. Interlingual Lexical Organisation for Multilingual Lexical Databases in NADIA

    OpenAIRE

    Sérasset, Gilles

    1995-01-01

    We propose a lexical organisation for multilingual lexical databases (MLDB). This organisation is based on acceptions (word-senses). We detail this lexical organisation and show a mock-up built to experiment with it. We also present our current work in defining and prototyping a specialised system for the management of acception-based MLDB. Keywords: multilingual lexical database, acception, linguistic structure.

  17. Organisational mergers: a behavioural perspective on identity management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.R. Giessner (Steffen)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractOrganisational mergers are one of the most extreme forms of organisational change processes. Consequently, they often result in difficulties for employees to adjust to the altered organisational conditions. This is often reflected in low levels of employee identification with the p

  18. Organisational Values in Higher Education: Perceptions and Preferences of Staff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleijnen, Jan; Dolmans, Diana; Muijtjens, Arno; Willems, Jos; Van Hout, Hans

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, staff members' perceptions about the organisational culture are measured. The questions addressed are: what are their opinions about the current and preferred organisational culture? Are there differences between the current and preferred situation? Do the perceptions differ per department? The Organisational Culture Assessment…

  19. The change capacity of organisations: general assessment and five configurations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bennebroek Gravenhorst, K.M.; Werkman, R.A.; Boonstra, J.J.

    2003-01-01

    Realizing major organisational change and innovation is a complex process and many organisations do not obtain the outcomes they desire. The purpose of this study is to investigate which factors hinder or contribute to far-reaching change. These factors are sought in characteristics of organisations

  20. Learning about Learning: Action Learning in Times of Organisational Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Robyn

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the conduct and outcomes of an action learning activity during a period of intense organisational change in a medium-sized vocational education and training organisation in Victoria, Australia. This organisation was the subject of significant change due to government-driven and statewide amalgamation, downsizing and sector…

  1. Organising for power: solidarities and transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Goodman

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Political and social movements are both empowering and power-seeking: they seek both to mobilize civil society and overwhelm state institutions. As organisations they mobilize collective power, generating solidarities and transforming social structures. As such, political organisations both challenge power and exercise power. This article addresses organizational vehicles for political change in Australia, drawing out limits and possibilities. Three organizational forms are discussed - the political party, the non-government organization (NGO, and the social movement - in terms of their capacity and limits. The social solidarities and social structures that frame political organization are debated, highlighting the impact of political conflicts over ecological change. The article ends with a discussion of the proceeding four articles, drawing out shared themes and implications in terms of the relationships post-Howard, between the Australian state, political parties, NGOs and movements.

  2. Exercises of first responder organisations in Austria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenhacker, S. [WIRK.ZONE CBRN Preparedness and Response, Vienna (Austria)

    2011-12-15

    Although there is no nuclear industry in Austria, there are still many possible scenarios which require proper preparation through exercises. The legislative basis for the interventions of the police are the radiation protection law and the upon based interventions regulation, furthermore the penal law and the law on the transport of dangerous goods. The fire brigade has federal fire fighting laws and internal regulations as a regulatory basis. Exercises of first responder organisations take place once a year at least; the scenarios reflect the actions intended by the regulations. Aeroradiometry is a special technique conducted by the police, while the fire brigade may bring heavy equipment to use. Further improvement of the cooperation of different first responder organisations is a major goal of combined exercises. (orig.)

  3. Temporal Feature Integration for Music Organisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meng, Anders

    2006-01-01

    This Ph.D. thesis focuses on temporal feature integration for music organisation. Temporal feature integration is the process of combining all the feature vectors of a given time-frame into a single new feature vector in order to capture relevant information in the frame. Several existing methods...... for handling sequences of features are formulated in the temporal feature integration framework. Two datasets for music genre classification have been considered as valid test-beds for music organisation. Human evaluations of these, have been obtained to access the subjectivity on the datasets. Temporal...... ranking' approach is proposed for ranking the short-time features at larger time-scales according to their discriminative power in a music genre classification task. The multivariate AR (MAR) model has been proposed for temporal feature integration. It effectively models local dynamical structure...

  4. The organisation of work and innovative performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arundel, Anthony; Lorenz, Edward; Lundvall, Bengt-Åke;

    that are used to explore at the level of national innovation systems the relation between innovation and the organisation of work. In order to construct these aggregate measures we make use of micro data from two European surveys: the third European survey of Working Conditions and the third Community......It is widely recognised that while expenditures on research and development are important inputs to successful innovation, these are not the only inputs. Further, rather than viewing innovation as a linear process, recent work on innovation in business and economics literatures characterises...... Innovation Survey (CIS-3). Although our data can only show correlations rather than causality they support the view that how firms innovate is linked to the way work is organised to promote learning and problem-solving....

  5. Organisational Learning: Positioning Selves and Creating Meaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elkjær, Bente

    In this paper, I report from a study of an organisation in the midst of a major restructuring from being a family oriented business to becoming a global player.      This seemed an excellent site to explore how practices may change in organisations. At first I was only able to hear two well...... were told from specific perspectives on the current restructurings as well as on the history and the anticipated future of the enterprise. While I regard the ‘for' and ‘against' positioning as closing towards further inquiry, I propose that it may be through the work with the third ‘both-and' position...

  6. Financing and organisation of veterinary services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallacher, M; Barcos, L

    2012-08-01

    This paper analyses the different ways of financing official Veterinary Services (VS) and the effects of these choices on the performance of such Services. The links between governance, organisational effectiveness and financing arrangements are seen as particularly important. The paper comments on some of the advantages and disadvantages of financing VS with service fees, as compared to budget transfers from general government revenues. Evidence is presented on the considerable heterogeneity in the size of VS and on the impact of this heterogeneity on organisation and financing. The paper concludes with a stylised case study, which emphasises the importance of collaboration and the division of labour between the official and the private sector of the veterinary profession.

  7. The IRAS project organisation and mission operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Holtz, R. C.

    1983-01-01

    The project organisation of IRAS is described, showing the tasks assigned to each project group during post-launch operations. The satellite is described, emphasizing the detectors. In the task division, the role of the U.S. is to construct the telescope and survey instrument, launch the satellite, process final science data for the survey instrument, and provide certain standard satellite items. The Netherlands construct the spacecraft and three additional instruments, integrates and tests the overall satellite, and designs and participates in the development of the operational system. The U.K. provides the operational control center and primary tracking station, generates a system for preliminary science analysis of the survey data, provides housekeeping analysis software and science data distribution software, and staffs the control center operations. The teams involved in mission planning and operations, and their roles, are identified, and a block diagram of the operations organisation is presented.

  8. APPROACHES TO EMPLOYEE DEVELOPMENT IN CZECH ORGANISATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VNOUČKOVÁ, Lucie

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Education, development, knowledge management, career development and talent management are currently often discussed themes regarding strategic management of organisations. Those concepts are strategically important. Therefore the aim of the article is to evaluate possibilities of employee education and development and identify main approaches to employee development in Czech organizations. The results are based on a quantitative survey by questionnaire data collection. The results shows that 70% of respondents have possibility of development; 86% uses their skills and abilities and 63% stated that their employer support their development. On the contrary, 27% do not feel any possibility to grow and that may lead to disaffection, loss of production or even to employee turnover. Based on the results of the analysis, employees, who miss adequate level of development are usually key and knowledge employees; it is necessary to support their career plans and development to retain them in organisation.

  9. Intergovernmental organisation activities and Multilateral agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This section summarises the activities of Intergovernmental organisations and the status of Multilateral agreements on December 1, 2011: 1 - Intergovernmental organisation activities: European Atomic Energy Community: Adopted legislative instruments, Reports, Meetings; International Atomic Energy Agency: IAEA Action Plan on Nuclear Safety, Non-binding instrument on the transboundary movement of scrap metal, 55. IAEA General Conference, Basic Safety Standards, Nuclear Law Institute; OECD Nuclear Energy Agency: Basic Safety Standards, International Nuclear Law Essentials, International School of Nuclear Law, New members, Russian Federation request for membership; 2 - Multilateral agreements: Status of conventions in the nuclear energy domain on December 1, 2011; Status of conventions in the environmental protection/evaluation impacting the nuclear energy use on December 1, 2011; participation of OECD Member States to nuclear energy and environment protection/evaluation related treaties/conventions

  10. Collaboration with East African security organisations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordby, Johannes Riber; Jacobsen, Katja L.

    2012-01-01

    of the concept. At the same time the three organisations represent different constellations of member nations and thus different national interests, and locally they have different legitimacy and political strength. Thus, when choosing collaboration partners for a security project it is not simply a question...... of looking at these organisations’ military capabilities. There are other concerns, such as their aims, their internal relations, regional legitimacy and so on, to take into consideration. In this DIIS Policy Brief the authors sketch some of the differences that should be taken into consideration when...... planning to work with these organisations. The brief is the first outcome of a research project that analyses the regional security actors in East Africa and how Denmark can contribute to the regional security through them....

  11. Organisational culture: A contemporary management perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Weeks

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyse the concept "organisational culture from a traditional and a more contemporary management perspective. Problem investigated: The concept organizational culture has assumed a very prominent place within the management literature and has been analysed from diverse multidisciplinary perspectives. Central to the importance attributed to the concept is the fact that it acts as a perceptual and behavioural determinant, which implies that it will have a significant impact on all human related institutional activities and thus the interest in the concept and its management. Researchers and management practitioners have come to assume that while the concept is difficult to manage in practice, it is possible to determine the prevailing culture of an institution, identify what is termed to be a desired culture for an institution and then analyse the cultural gap that exists. Based on the analysis conducted, it is further frequently assumed that the transition from the prevailing to a desired culture can be managed. A more contemporary management perspective, based on complexity theory, would appear to challenge the assumption of being able to actively manage the organisation's culture transformation process to ensure that a desired culture is manifest within the institution. The traditional and more contemporary approaches for dealing with the concept "organisational culture" are the focus of discussion and analysis in this paper. Methodology: A multidisciplinary literature review and analysis is undertaken to gain an insight of traditional and contemporary management theory and practice, as it relates to the concept "organisational culture" and its management. Findings: An important conclusion drawn from the study is that traditional paradigms of organisational culture management, that evolved within a more mechanistic manufacturing economy, is no longer effective for dealing with the unpredictable and

  12. Designing the organisational chart from the bottom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giangreco, Antonio; Carugati, Andrea

    This is the first of a two-case series (408-026-1 and 408-027-1). Marco Ginola was hired as the Human Resources (HR) Director of a large municipality in central Italy. The organisation had gone through a phase of major expansion which left problems in co-ordination, integration, delegation...... and control. Marco had been called in because of his reputation for being an effective innovator with unconventional ideas for the public sector. Previously, during his long career in the civil service, Marco proved to be an effective leader and negotiator who was open to other people's view points. He would...... share any significant and final decisions with his employees, rather than merely imposing his own personal choice. After spending some time in the organisation, he put into action a bottom up method to redesign the structure of the HR department. He decided to temporarily suspend the existing internal...

  13. The network organisation of consumer complaints

    CERN Document Server

    Rocha, Luis Enrique Correa; 10.1209/0295-5075/91/28005

    2010-01-01

    Interaction between consumers and companies can create conflict. When a consensus is unreachable there are legal authorities to resolve the case. This letter is a study of data from the Brazilian Department of Justice from which we build a bipartite network of categories of complaints linked to the companies receiving those complaints. We find the complaint categories organised in an hierarchical way where companies only get complaints of lower degree if they already got complaints of higher degree. The fraction of resolved complaints for a company appears to be nearly independent on the equity of the company but is positively correlated with the total number of complaints received. We construct feature vectors based on the edge-weight - the weight of an edge represents the times complaints of a category have been filed against that company - and use these vectors to study the similarity between the categories of complaints. From this analysis, we obtain trees mapping the hierarchical organisation of the comp...

  14. Organisational models for agricultural co-operatives

    OpenAIRE

    Gunnarsson Myrelid, Patrik

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the thesis is to study the effects that different financial solutions may have on the organisational mode of Irish dairy co-operatives. Membership, marketing and management are examined in four different enterprises. These areas are examined using the agency theory and property rights theory. Glanbia Group PLC, Golden Vale PLC and Kerry Group PLC were all former traditional co-operatives transformed into Public Limited Companies (PLCs) in the 1980s. Dairygold remained a traditional...

  15. Conceptual and Theoretical Frameworks for Organised Violence

    OpenAIRE

    Shaw, Martin

    2009-01-01

    The possibility of violence is ubiquitous in human social relations; its forms are manifold and its causes complex. Different types of violence are inter- related, but in complex ways, and they are studied within a wide range of disciplines, so that a general theory, while possible, is difficult to achieve. This paper, acknowledging that violence can negate power and that all forms of social power can entail violence, proceeds on the assumption that the organisation of violence is a particula...

  16. Developing organisational vision in general practice.

    OpenAIRE

    al-Shehri, A; Stanley, I; Thomas, P

    1993-01-01

    Vision is a fashionable but ill defined term in management circles. Nevertheless, it embodies a significant concept related to guiding an organisation from present realities, through opportunities and hazards, to a viable future. Until recently a typical general practice could assume a stable external environment, but now it is caught up in the uncertainties stemming from the NHS reforms. For such a practice to undertake effective strategic planning it will have to develop a vision connecting...

  17. Industrial Organisation of the Chinese Food Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmadi-Esfahani, Fredoun Z.; Locke, Christopher G.

    1996-01-01

    The controversy on the convergence of socialism and capitalism has recently been focused on China. In this paper, an industrial organisation framework is used to portray the key features of "Socialism with Chinese Characteristics." The structure of supply and demand and the process of price formation is analysed to explicate the ramifications of the Chinese reform process, and the changing patterns of both government intervention and market forces in the Chinese food economy. An examination o...

  18. Bronchiolitis obliterans organising pneumonia simulating bronchial carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, J.; Flower, C. [Department of Radiology, Addenbrooke`s Hospital, University of Cambridge Teaching Hospital (United Kingdom); Schnyder, P. [Department of Radiology, University Hospital, Lausanne (Switzerland); Herold, C. [Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Vienna (Austria)

    1998-09-01

    Idiopathic bronchiolitis obliterans organising pneumonia (BOOP) is an uncommon but well-recognised condition that usually presents radiologically as bilateral multifocal patchy areas of consolidation on the chest radiograph and on computed tomography (CT). Five cases are described in which the presenting feature was that of a solitary pulmonary nodule. Four of these nodules showed evidence of cavitation and three patients presented with haemoptysis. In all cases the appearances closely resembled bronchial carcinoma. (orig.) With 5 figs., 21 refs.

  19. The institutional dynamics of voluntary organisations

    OpenAIRE

    Aagaard, Peter

    2008-01-01

    What features of institutional change do voluntary organisations contain? This question is debated in the civil society literature, but often under different headlines, like social entrepreneurship or social movement theory. The question of voluntarism is often not taken into account. This paper builds upon the premise that institutional dynamic is connected to peoples ability to act according to their free will.  But only in the ideal version are they able to make a complete connection betwe...

  20. Organisational Culture and the Family Business

    OpenAIRE

    Adiguna, Rocky

    2015-01-01

    The paper reviews the literature on organisational culture in family business by tracing its origin in organization studies and its importation to family business field. Despite the vast literature in the last three decades, cultural inquiries in family business have not come a long way. To date, research on family business culture are heavily dominated by functionalist/integrationist perspective that assumes culture as coherent and shared values. The paper suggests future research to examine...

  1. Die Organisation der Zahnarztpraxis aus Patientensicht

    OpenAIRE

    Platen, Claudia

    2001-01-01

    The dental care is in a phase of radical change. Not only the proper medical treatment but also the the organisation of the dentist's office has become a major interest for the patients. On the one hand this doctor thesis describes the reality of dentist's officeorganisation and on the other hand the requests of the patients concerning possible changes. Based on a questionnaire investigation, 434 persons betweeen 20 and 30 years from 75 different towns in NRW were interviewed selected by chan...

  2. Studies in Organisational Semiotics: an introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Rodney Clarke

    2001-01-01

    The broad application of semiotic approaches to organisations has been considered by a number of information systems academics to be a necessary advance in information systems theory (see for examples Land 1985, Rzevski 1985, and Tully 1985). Along with psychology and sociology, semiotics is considered to be a foundation discipline for information systems within the IFIP WG 8.1 FRISCO Framework (Falkenberg, et al eds/ 2000). Semiotics examines the processes of production and consumption of me...

  3. Hierarchical organisation in perception of orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinelli, D; Antonucci, G; Daini, R; Martelli, M L; Zoccolotti, P

    1999-01-01

    According to Rock [1990, in The Legacy of Solomon Asch (Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates)], hierarchical organisation of perception describes cases in which the orientation of an object is affected by the immediately surrounding elements in the visual field. Various experiments were performed to study the hierarchical organisation of orientation perception. In most of them the rod-and-frame-illusion (RFI: change of the apparent vertical measured on a central rod surrounded by a tilted frame) was measured in the presence/absence of a second inner frame. The first three experiments showed that, when the inner frame is vertical, the direction and size of the illusion are consistent with expectancies based on the hierarchical organisation hypothesis. An analysis of published and unpublished data collected on a large number of subjects showed that orientational hierarchical effects are independent from the absolute size of the RFI. In experiments 4 to 7 we examined the perceptual conditions of the inner stimulus (enclosure, orientation, and presence of luminance borders) critical for obtaining a hierarchical organisation effect. Although an inner vertical square was effective in reducing the illusion (experiment 3), an inner circle enclosing the rod was ineffective (experiment 4). This indicates that definite orientation is necessary to modulate the illusion. However, orientational information provided by a vertical or horizontal rectangle presented near the rod, but not enclosing it, did not modulate the RFI (experiment 5). This suggests that the presence of a figure with oriented contours enclosing the rod is critical. In experiments 6 and 7 we studied whether the presence of luminance borders is important or whether the inner upright square might be effective also if made of subjective contours. When the subjective contour figure was salient and the observers perceived it clearly, its effectiveness in modulating the RFI was comparable to that observed with

  4. Organisational culture: A contemporary management perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Richard Weeks

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyse the concept "organisational culture from a traditional and a more contemporary management perspective. Problem investigated: The concept organizational culture has assumed a very prominent place within the management literature and has been analysed from diverse multidisciplinary perspectives. Central to the importance attributed to the concept is the fact that it acts as a perceptual and behavioural determinant, which implies that it wi...

  5. Temporal Feature Integration for Music Organisation

    OpenAIRE

    Meng, Anders; Larsen, Jan; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2006-01-01

    This Ph.D. thesis focuses on temporal feature integration for music organisation. Temporal feature integration is the process of combining all the feature vectors of a given time-frame into a single new feature vector in order to capture relevant information in the frame. Several existing methods for handling sequences of features are formulated in the temporal feature integration framework. Two datasets for music genre classification have been considered as valid test-beds for music organisa...

  6. Conceptual and Theoretical Frameworks for Organised Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Shaw

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of violence is ubiquitous in human social relations; its forms are manifold and its causes complex. Different types of violence are inter- related, but in complex ways, and they are studied within a wide range of disciplines, so that a general theory, while possible, is difficult to achieve. This paper, acknowledging that violence can negate power and that all forms of social power can entail violence, proceeds on the assumption that the organisation of violence is a particular source of social power. It therefore explores the general relationships of violence to power, the significance of war as the archetype of organised violence, the relationships of other types (revolution, terrorism, genocide to war, and the significance of civilian-combatant stratification for the understanding of all types of organised violence. It then discusses the problems of applying conceptual types in analysis and the necessity of a historical framework for theorising violence. The paper concludes by offering such a framework in the transition from industrialised total war to global surveillance war.

  7. Organisational challenges of maintenance work at NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proper working of the machinery is critical to NPP safety and productivity. Because maintenance routines and plant modifications are the activities that intervene most with the machinery, they are also the dominant sources of faults. Most of the human factor studies have relied on this fact. Due to the diversity, the temporal and spatial separation of the maintenance tasks, and the numerous competence requirements, focusing on a single task, special situation or a single psychological problem can only partially explain the requirements of maintenance work and the organisational challenges of effective maintenance. We have applied a cultural approach to maintenance work. Our aim has been to model the maintenance task and its psychological requirements and to characterise the features of organisational cultures in three NPP maintenance units. Results imply similarities and differences in the cultures and in the emphasis on the maintenance task. Maintenance activities have been under various restructuring initiatives. These changes have been experienced as stressful among the personnel. The effect of changes on the reliability of maintenance should be considered. A challenge for maintenance is to be able to build organisational structures and practices that would facilitate the fulfilment of the psychological work characteristics. (orig.)

  8. Analysing Business Interaction in a Virtual Organisation: Using Business Action Theory to Study Complex Inter-Organisational Contexts

    OpenAIRE

    Karin Axelsson

    2003-01-01

    This paper focuses upon the complexity of inter-organisational systems (IOS) — on one hand enabling organisations to become successful actors conducting electronic commerce, and on the other hand being organisationally very complex and demanding to develop, implement, and use, since several organisations with differing objectives are involved. The paper proposes a model to analyse business interaction: the business action theory (BAT) phase model. The aim of the paper is to show how BAT can...

  9. Role of international organisations and funding agencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    studied in their own local environments as a basis for sustainable production and management. In the same vein, almost all gene-based technologies are taking place in the developed world. Once the dust of the controversies which surround the issues of gene technology has settled, there are few scientists who would doubt that the technology will lead to important new developments and significant increases in production of food both in animal and crop production. In the poor countries where food needs are most urgent, the generation of new knowledge in biotechnology and the patenting of genes and germplasm require a new paradigm for using biotechnology to improve germplasm It is often said that biotechnology research is too expensive for African institutions. If so, it may be unavoidable to focus attention on upgrading those facilities and increasing capacity in those institutes and universities which are attempting to embark upon this path, even at the risk - where this is possible only on a regional basis - of siphoning off talented scientists from research institutes which are not in a position to undertake research in this area. Global climate change also impacts on Africa. It is no longer possible to rely on traditional farming systems and husbandry methods. More frequent and erratic episodes of heat and water stress, jeopardising agricultural production, have been recorded. Climate change in Africa is even less understood than elsewhere. How the global changes will impact in various regions in Africa is little understood and must be studied in the regions themselves. The global research community gives only scant attention to agricultural research focussing on African issues. However, the efforts by the Consultative Group for International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) are commendable and represent a concerted effort to provide science-based solutions to African agriculture. CGIAR nowadays works increasingly closely with national and regional research institutions

  10. Materiality and the Enduring Aspects of Organisational Identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Backer, Lise

    2007-01-01

    This article contributes to the emerging body of work in organisational theory that seeks to include materiality in conceptualising processes of organizing (e.g. Law, 1994; Doolin, 2003; Czarniawska and Gustavsson, 2004; Dale, 2005). Using the four largest multinational oil companies' green...... transition towards renewable energies as a case the article integrates material aspects into the theory on the narration of organisational identities. Following Czarniawska (1997) the concept of organisational identity is viewed as an evolving organisational narrative. Following Law (1994....... The article concludes to that end that both social and material aspects add to the endurance of organisational identities....

  11. At the confluence of organisation development (OD and organisation identity theory (OIT: Enter identity interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C L Van Tonder

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The identity concept has been around in the form of “corporate identity" for some time, but its appearance as “organisation identity" is more recent. Emerging theory and initial empirical research suggest that an identity approach and “identity interventions" in particular, offer promising avenues to the organisation development practitioner for enhancing organisational focus, building resilience in the face of major change, and improving performance. Identity interventions in and of themselves, but also employed as pre-change interventions, build organisational capacity that would stave off premature organisational “death" and extend the organisation’s life expectancy. Opsomming Die identiteitskonsep is in die vorm van korporatiewe identiteit reeds ’n geruime tyd in omgang, maar die verskyning daarvan as “organisasie-identiteit? is meer onlangs. Ontluikende teorie en aanvanklike empiriese navorsing suggereer dat ’n identiteitsbenadering en "identiteitsintervensies" in die besonder, belowende geleenthede aan die organisasie- ontwikkelingspraktisyn bied om organisasiefokus te verbeter, die organisasie se veerkragtigheid ten aanskoue van omvangryke verandering te bou, en prestasie te verbeter. Identiteitsintervensies op sigself bou organisasiekapasiteit, maar kan ook as voorveranderingsintervensies aangewend word wat premature organisasie "sterftes" sal vermy en die organisasie se lewensverwagting sal verleng.

  12. Learning to Adapt. Organisational Adaptation to Climate Change Impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analysis of human adaptation to climate change should be based on realistic models of adaptive behaviour at the level of organisations and individuals. The paper sets out a framework for analysing adaptation to the direct and indirect impacts of climate change in business organisations with new evidence presented from empirical research into adaptation in nine case-study companies. It argues that adaptation to climate change has many similarities with processes of organisational learning. The paper suggests that business organisations face a number of obstacles in learning how to adapt to climate change impacts, especially in relation to the weakness and ambiguity of signals about climate change and the uncertainty about benefits flowing from adaptation measures. Organisations rarely adapt 'autonomously', since their adaptive behaviour is influenced by policy and market conditions, and draws on resources external to the organisation. The paper identifies four adaptation strategies that pattern organisational adaptive behaviour

  13. Organisational Culture and Corporate Performance: Empirical Evidence from Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olu Ojo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research article is to examine various concepts on organisational culture and strives to ascertain the importance of the relationship between organisational culture and corporate performance in a business context. The study adopted survey research design. The population of this study is the entire employees of Nigerian commercial banks. Primary data were used for this study. Data were collected through a questionnaire that was administered to the selected respondents, The two hypotheses proffered were tested and relevant recommendations were made. The conclusion drawn from the study is that organisational culture plays a vital role in an organisation’s general performance. This study contributes to organisational culture’s literature by showing that employees would commit themselves to organisational goals and work actively in achieving those goals when they buy into cultural norms of the organisation and thus increase organisational performance.

  14. On the equivalence between kernel self-organising maps and self-organising mixture density networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Hujun

    2006-01-01

    The kernel method has become a useful trick and has been widely applied to various learning models to extend their nonlinear approximation and classification capabilities. Such extensions have also recently occurred to the Self-Organising Map (SOM). In this paper, two recently proposed kernel SOMs are reviewed, together with their link to an energy function. The Self-Organising Mixture Network is an extension of the SOM for mixture density modelling. This paper shows that with an isotropic, density-type kernel function, the kernel SOM is equivalent to a homoscedastic Self-Organising Mixture Network, an entropy-based density estimator. This revelation on the one hand explains that kernelising SOM can improve classification performance by acquiring better probability models of the data; but on the other hand it also explains that the SOM already naturally approximates the kernel method.

  15. Search for organising principles: understanding in systems biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesarovic, M D; Sreenath, S N; Keene, J D

    2004-06-01

    Due in large measure to the explosive progress in molecular biology, biology has become arguably the most exciting scientific field. The first half of the 21st century is sometimes referred to as the 'era of biology', analogous to the first half of the 20th century, which was considered to be the 'era of physics'. Yet, biology is facing a crisis--or is it an opportunity--reminiscent of the state of biology in pre-double-helix time. The principal challenge facing systems biology is complexity. According to Hood, 'Systems biology defines and analyses the interrelationships of all of the elements in a functioning system in order to understand how the system works.' With 30000+ genes in the human genome the study of all relationships simultaneously becomes a formidably complex problem. Hanahan and Weinberg raised the question as to whether progress will consist of 'adding further layers of complexity to a scientific literature that is already complex almost beyond measure' or whether the progress will lead to a 'science with a conceptual structure and logical coherence that rivals that of chemistry or physics.' At the core of the challenge is the need for a new approach, a shift from reductionism to a holistic perspective. However, more than just a pronouncement of a new approach is needed. We suggest that what is needed is to provide a conceptual framework for systems biology research. We propose that the concept of a complex system, i.e. a system of systems as defined in mathematical general systems theory (MGST), is central to provide such a framework. We further argue that for a deeper understanding in systems biology investigations should go beyond building numerical mathematical or computer models--important as they are. Biological phenomena cannot be predicted with the level of numerical precision as in classical physics. Explanations in terms of how the categories of systems are organised to function in ever changing conditions are more revealing. Non

  16. Search for organising principles: understanding in systems biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesarovic, M D; Sreenath, S N; Keene, J D

    2004-06-01

    Due in large measure to the explosive progress in molecular biology, biology has become arguably the most exciting scientific field. The first half of the 21st century is sometimes referred to as the 'era of biology', analogous to the first half of the 20th century, which was considered to be the 'era of physics'. Yet, biology is facing a crisis--or is it an opportunity--reminiscent of the state of biology in pre-double-helix time. The principal challenge facing systems biology is complexity. According to Hood, 'Systems biology defines and analyses the interrelationships of all of the elements in a functioning system in order to understand how the system works.' With 30000+ genes in the human genome the study of all relationships simultaneously becomes a formidably complex problem. Hanahan and Weinberg raised the question as to whether progress will consist of 'adding further layers of complexity to a scientific literature that is already complex almost beyond measure' or whether the progress will lead to a 'science with a conceptual structure and logical coherence that rivals that of chemistry or physics.' At the core of the challenge is the need for a new approach, a shift from reductionism to a holistic perspective. However, more than just a pronouncement of a new approach is needed. We suggest that what is needed is to provide a conceptual framework for systems biology research. We propose that the concept of a complex system, i.e. a system of systems as defined in mathematical general systems theory (MGST), is central to provide such a framework. We further argue that for a deeper understanding in systems biology investigations should go beyond building numerical mathematical or computer models--important as they are. Biological phenomena cannot be predicted with the level of numerical precision as in classical physics. Explanations in terms of how the categories of systems are organised to function in ever changing conditions are more revealing. Non

  17. Achieving excellence in private intensive care units: The effect of transformational leadership and organisational culture on organisational change outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Portia J. Jordan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Organisational change outcomes in private intensive care units are linked to higher patient satisfaction, improved quality of patient care, family support, cost-effective care practices and an increased level of excellence. Transformational leadership and fostering a positive organisational culture can contribute to these change outcomes.Research purpose: The study determined whether transformational leadership and a supportive organisational culture were evident in six private intensive care units in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. A conceptual framework to investigate the relationship between transformational leadership, organisational culture, and organisational change outcomes, was proposed and tested.Motivation for the study: The prevalence of transformational leadership, a positive organisational culture and their effect on organisational change outcomes in private healthcare industries require further research in order to generate appropriate recommendations.Research design, approach and method: A positivistic, quantitative design was used. A survey was conducted using a questionnaire which, in previous studies, produced scores with Cronbach’s alpha coefficients greater than 0.80, to collect data from a sample of 130 professional nurses in private intensive care units.Main findings: Transformational leadership and a positive organisational culture were evident in the private intensive care units sampled. A strong, positive correlation exists between transformational leadership, organisational culture, and organisational change outcomes. This correlation provides sufficient evidence to accept the postulated research hypotheses. Innovation and intellectual stimulation were identified as the factors in need of improvement.Practical or managerial implications: The findings of the study may be used by managers in intensive care units to promote organisational change outcomes, linked to transformational leadership and a positive

  18. Organisational learning: Between organizing and knowing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elkjær, Bente; Brandi, Ulrik; Nielsen, Steffen Bohni

    This paper explores how management consultants share knowledge amongst different countries and offices through an empirical study of management consultancy. We propose that an understanding of knowledge sharing across countries and offices is to be combined with theories from the field...... of organisational learning. The paper show that knowledge sharing is just as much about processes ‘around’ work (e.g. the interactions in a project group) than the actual knowledge ‘about’ work indicating that knowledge sharing amongst management consultants is situated and negotiated rather than fixed...

  19. POT: Planning, Organisation and Tele-Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui

    1996-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to introduce the framwork of a research project carried out at the Technical University of Denmark dealing with 'holistic' and interdisciplinary (systems oriented)methods for strategic planning and organisational re-design in connection with the introduction...... of tele-information technologies and hte new demands of hte so-called information society, the POT proejct. Three specirfic projects are shortly introduced: planning in networked firms, strategic approaches to climate change and strategies for the schools of the future....

  20. Typehusbranchens organisation, produktion og marked og innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugbølle, Kim; Forman, Marianne

    Denne dokumentationsrapport beskriver resultaterne af et survey af typehusbranchens organisering, produktion, marked og innovation. På trods af eller måske netop på grund af den aktuelle finanskrise vil en fortsat udvikling af typehusbyggeriet og det industrialiserede byggeri generelt kræve en øget...... har producenterne? - Hvem er bygherrerne? - Hvilke typer af innovation finder sted? - Hvordan forløber innovationsprocessen? Undersøgelsen yder således et bidrag til en forståelse af byggeriets processer og innovation indenfor et område, som er relativt upåagtet i både dansk og international...

  1. Organisational design for an integrated oncological department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ch.L. Meiss-de Haas

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The outcomes of a Strength, Weakness, Opportunities and Threat (SWOT analysis of three Integrated Oncological Departments were compared with their present situation three years later to define factors that can influence a successful implementation and development of an Integrated Oncological Department in- and outside (i.e. home care the hospital. Research design: Comparative Qualitative Case Study. Methods: Auditing based on care-as-usual norms by an external, experienced auditing committee. Research setting: Integrated Oncological Departments of three hospitals. Results: Successful multidisciplinary care in an integrated, oncological department needs broad support inside the hospital and a well-defined organisational plan.

  2. Barriers of inter-organisational integration in vocational rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulla Wihlman

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A project of vocational rehabilitation was studied in Sweden between 1999 and 2002. The project included four public organisations: the social insurance office, the local health services, the municipal social service and the office of the state employment service. The aim of this paper was to analyse perceived barriers in the development of inter-organisational integration. Theory: Theories of inter-professional and inter-organisational integration, and theories on organisational change. Methods: In total, 51 semi-structured interviews and 14 focus group discussions were performed with actors within the project between 1999 and 2002. A thematic approach was used for the analysis of the data. Results: Three different main themes of barriers emerged from the data: A Uncertainty, B Prioritising own organisation and C Lack of communication. The themes are interconnected in an intricate web and hence not mutually exclusive. Conclusions and discussion: The barriers found are all related partly to organisational change in general and partly to the specific development of organisational integration. Prioritising of own organisation led to flaws in communication, which in turn led to a high degree of uncertainty within the project. This can be seen as a circular relationship, since uncertainty might increase focus on own organisation and lack of communication. A way to overcome these barriers would be to take the needs of the clients as a point of departure in the development of joint services and to also involve them in the development of inter-organisational integration.

  3. Organisational reviews - requirements, methods and experience. Progress report 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Organisational reviews are important instruments in the continuous quest for improved performance. In the nuclear field there has been an increasing regulatory interest in organisational performance, because incidents and accidents often point to organisational deficiencies as one of the major precursors. Many methods for organisational reviews have been proposed, but they are mostly based on ad hoc approaches to specific problems. The absence of well-established techniques for organisational reviews has already shown to cause discussions and controversies on different levels. The aim of the OrRe project is to collect the experiences from organisational reviews carried out so far and to reflect them in a theoretical model of organisational performance. Furthermore, the project aims to reflect on the criteria for the definition of the scope and content of organisational reviews. Finally, recommendations will be made for guidance for people participating in organisational reviews. This progress report describes regulatory practices in Finland and Sweden together with some case examples of organizational reviews and assessment in both countries. Some issues of concern are raised and an outline for the next year's work is proposed. Issues of concern include the sufficient depth of the assessment, the required competence in assessments, data and criteria problems, definition of the boundaries of the system to be assessed, and the necessary internal support and organisational maturity required for successful assessments. Finally, plans for next year's work are outlined. (au)

  4. Organisational reviews - requirements, methods and experience. Progress report 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiman, T.; Oedewald, P.; Wahlstroem, B. [VTT, Technical Research Centre of Finland (Finland); Rollenhagen, C.; Kahlbom, U. [Maelardalen University (FI)

    2007-04-15

    Organisational reviews are important instruments in the continuous quest for improved performance. In the nuclear field there has been an increasing regulatory interest in organisational performance, because incidents and accidents often point to organisational deficiencies as one of the major precursors. Many methods for organisational reviews have been proposed, but they are mostly based on ad hoc approaches to specific problems. The absence of well-established techniques for organisational reviews has already shown to cause discussions and controversies on different levels. The aim of the OrRe project is to collect the experiences from organisational reviews carried out so far and to reflect them in a theoretical model of organisational performance. Furthermore, the project aims to reflect on the criteria for the definition of the scope and content of organisational reviews. Finally, recommendations will be made for guidance for people participating in organisational reviews. This progress report describes regulatory practices in Finland and Sweden together with some case examples of organizational reviews and assessment in both countries. Some issues of concern are raised and an outline for the next year's work is proposed. Issues of concern include the sufficient depth of the assessment, the required competence in assessments, data and criteria problems, definition of the boundaries of the system to be assessed, and the necessary internal support and organisational maturity required for successful assessments. Finally, plans for next year's work are outlined. (au)

  5. What matters for organisational change? Evidence from DEPZ, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Zohurul Islam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The role of leadership and human resources (HRM at the managerial level in the economic zones to implement organisational change have been well described in developing countries although they are often not well documented.Research purpose: The purpose of this article is to investigate the relationship between leadership, organisational behaviour and HRM in Dhaka export processing zone (DEPZ enterprises.Motivation for the study: This study has given a direction for implementing organisational change in DEPZ organisations, where leadership, organisational behaviour and HRM have significant effects on organisational change.Research design, approach and method: The author completed a survey using a structured questionnaire on 53 enterprises in the DEPZ. The sample size was 216. The author tested the research hypotheses by using statistical tools like step-wise multiple regression analysis. The author also used Pearson correlations, a t-test, an ANOVA and a radar diagram in this study.Main findings: The results provide evidence that leadership behaviour, organisational behaviour factors and HRM practices have direct relationships with organisational change. In short, it requires high level of leadership ability, employee motivation and commitment, recruitment, performance appraisal and reward to bring about effective organisational change.Practical/managerial implications: The results show that organisational learning, transformational and transactional leadership, compensation and unionisation practices reinforce organisational change at DEPZ enterprises.Contribution/value-add: The results of this study show that organisational change requires integration with leadership ability, organisational behaviour and HRM practices, which are useful for developing companies, industries and the national economy.

  6. The colonial ascidian Didemnum sp. A: current distribution, basic biology and potential threat to marine communities of the northeast and west coasts of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullard, S.G.; Lambert, G.; Carman, M.R.; Byrnes, J.; Whitlatch, R.B.; Ruiz, G.; Miller, R.J.; Harris, L.; Valentine, P.C.; Collie, J.S.; Pederson, J.; McNaught, D.C.; Cohen, A.N.; Asch, R.G.; Dijkstra, J.; Heinonen, K.

    2007-01-01

    Didemnum sp. A is a colonial ascidian with rapidly expanding populations on the east and west coasts of North America. The origin of Didemum sp. A is unknown. Populations were first observed on the northeast coast of the U.S. in the late 1980s and on the west coast during the 1990s. It is currently undergoing a massive population explosion and is now a dominant member of many subtidal communities on both coasts. To determine Didemnum sp. A's current distribution, we conducted surveys from Maine to Virginia on the east coast and from British Columbia to southern California on the west coast of the U.S. between 1998 and 2005. In nearshore locations Didemnum sp. A currently ranges from Eastport, Maine to Shinnecock Bay, New York on the east coast. On the west coast it has been recorded from Humboldt Bay to Port San Luis in California, several sites in Puget Sound, Washington, including a heavily fouled mussel culture facility, and several sites in southwestern British Columbia on and adjacent to oyster and mussel farms. The species also occurs at deeper subtidal sites (up to 81 m) off New England, including Georges, Stellwagen and Tillies Banks. On Georges Bank numerous sites within a 230 km2 area are 50–90% covered by Didemnum sp. A; large colonies cement the pebble gravel into nearly solid mats that may smother infaunal organisms. These observations suggest that Didemnum sp. A has the potential to alter marine communities and affect economically important activities such as fishing and aquaculture.

  7. The occurrence of the colonial ascidian Didemnum sp. on Georges Bank gravel habitat: ecological observations and potential effects on groundfish and scallop fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, P.C.; Collie, J.S.; Reid, R.N.; Asch, R.G.; Guida, V.G.; Blackwood, D.S.

    2007-01-01

    The colonial ascidian Didemnum sp. is present on the Georges Bank fishing grounds in a gravel habitat where the benthic invertebrate fauna has been monitored annually since 1994. The species was not noted before 2002 when large colonies were first observed; and by 2003 and 2004 it covered large areas of the seabed at some locations. The latest survey in 2005 documented the tunicate's presence in two gravel areas that total more than 67 nm2 (230 km2). The affected area is located on the Northern Edge of the bank in United States waters near the U.S./Canada boundary ( Fig. 1). This is the first documented offshore occurrence of a species that has colonized eastern U.S. coastal waters from New York to Maine during the past 15–20 years ( U.S. Geological Survey, 2006). Video imagery shows colonies coalescing to form large mats that cover more than 50% of the seabed along some video/photo transects. The affected area is an immobile pebble and cobble pavement that lies at water depths of 40 to 65 m where strong semidiurnal tidal currents reach speeds of 1 to 2 kt (50–100 cm/s). The water column is mixed year round, ensuring a constant supply of nutrients to the seabed. Annual temperatures range from 4 to 15 °C ( Mountain and Holzwarth, 1989). The gravel areas are bounded by sand ridges whose mobile surfaces are moved daily by the strong tidal currents. Studies commenced here in 1994 to characterize the gravel habitat and to document the effects of fishing disturbance on it ( Collie et al., 2005).

  8. Challenging the Post-Fordist/Flexible Organisation Thesis: The Case of Reformed Educational Organisations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brehony, Kevin J.; Deem, Rosemary

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines claims that recent reforms to UK education have led to significant organisational changes in primary school and higher education. It also examines two main theoretical explanations for these, namely post-Fordism and New Managerialism. Examples of changes in both schools and universities, including flexibility and teamwork, are…

  9. European ways to combat psychosocial risks related to work organisation : towards organisational interventions?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oeij, P.R.A.; Morvan, E.; Houtman, I.L.D.; Vaas, F.; Wiezer, N.

    2004-01-01

    From 24-26 November 2004, the 6h Annual Conference of the European Academy of Occupational Health Psychology ‘Healthy, Efficient & Productive Organisations’ was held in Oporto, Portugal. During this conference, the Workshop ‘Organisational interventions to combat psychosocial factors of stress’ was

  10. The network organisation of consumer complaints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, L. E. C.; Holme, P.

    2010-07-01

    Interaction between consumers and companies can create conflict. When a consensus is unreachable there are legal authorities to resolve the case. This letter is a study of data from the Brazilian Department of Justice from which we build a bipartite network of categories of complaints linked to the companies receiving those complaints. We find the complaint categories organised in an hierarchical way where companies only get complaints of lower degree if they already got complaints of higher degree. The fraction of resolved complaints for a company appears to be nearly independent of the equity of the company but is positively correlated with the total number of complaints received. We construct feature vectors based on the edge-weight —the weight of an edge represents the times complaints of a category have been filed against that company— and use these vectors to study the similarity between the categories of complaints. From this analysis, we obtain trees mapping the hierarchical organisation of the complaints. We also apply principal component analysis to the set of feature vectors concluding that a reduction of the dimensionality of these from 8827 to 27 gives an optimal hierarchical representation.

  11. Incorporating organisational safety culture within ergonomics practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Tim; Tappin, David

    2010-10-01

    This paper conceptualises organisational safety culture and considers its relevance to ergonomics practice. Issues discussed in the paper include the modest contribution that ergonomists and ergonomics as a discipline have made to this burgeoning field of study and the significance of safety culture to a systems approach. The relevance of safety culture to ergonomics work with regard to the analysis, design, implementation and evaluation process, and implications for participatory ergonomics approaches, are also discussed. A potential user-friendly, qualitative approach to assessing safety culture as part of ergonomics work is presented, based on a recently published conceptual framework that recognises the dynamic and multi-dimensional nature of safety culture. The paper concludes by considering the use of such an approach, where an understanding of different aspects of safety culture within an organisation is seen as important to the success of ergonomics projects. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: The relevance of safety culture to ergonomics practice is a key focus of this paper, including its relationship with the systems approach, participatory ergonomics and the ergonomics analysis, design, implementation and evaluation process. An approach to assessing safety culture as part of ergonomics work is presented.

  12. Towards an organisation-wide process-oriented organisation of care: A literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Groenewegen Peter P

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many hospitals have taken actions to make care delivery for specific patient groups more process-oriented, but struggle with the question how to deal with process orientation at hospital level. The aim of this study is to report and discuss the experiences of hospitals with implementing process-oriented organisation designs in order to derive lessons for future transitions and research. Methods A literature review of English language articles on organisation-wide process-oriented redesigns, published between January 1998 and May 2009, was performed. Results Of 329 abstracts identified, 10 articles were included in the study. These articles described process-oriented redesigns of five hospitals. Four hospitals tried to become process-oriented by the implementation of coordination measures, and one by organisational restructuring. The adoption of the coordination mechanism approach was particularly constrained by the functional structure of hospitals. Other factors that hampered the redesigns in general were the limited applicability of and unfamiliarity with process improvement techniques. Conclusions Due to the limitations of the evidence, it is not known which approach, implementation of coordination measures or organisational restructuring (with additional coordination measures, produces the best results in which situation. Therefore, more research is needed. For this research, the use of qualitative methods in addition to quantitative measures is recommended to contribute to a better understanding of preconditions and contingencies for an effective application of approaches to become process-oriented. Hospitals are advised to take the factors for failure described into account and to take suitable actions to counteract these obstacles on their way to become process-oriented organisations.

  13. Digital Ecosystems: Self-Organisation of Evolving Agent Populations

    CERN Document Server

    Briscoe, Gerard

    2008-01-01

    A primary motivation for research in digital ecosystems is the desire to exploit the self-organising properties of natural ecosystems, because they are thought to be robust, scalable architectures that can automatically solve complex, dynamic problems. Self-organisation is perhaps one of the most desirable features in the systems that we design, and it is important for us to be able to measure such self-organising behaviour. We investigate the self-organising aspects of Digital Ecosystems, created by the application of evolutionary computing to Multi-Agent Systems aiming to determine a macroscopic variable to characterise the self-organisation of the evolving agent populations within our Digital Ecosystem. We study a measure for self-organisation called Physical Complexity, which is based on statistical physics, automata theory, and information theory. It provides a measure of the quantity of information in an organism's genome, relative to the environment in which it evolves, by calculating the entropy in th...

  14. A Review of IT Service Management and Organisational Changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kræmmergaard, Pernille; Lynge, Bjarne Christoffer; Schou, Christoffer Dalby

    The interest in Information technology service management (ITSM) is increasing in practice and also in research we will argue. The aim of implementation of ITSM in IT organisations is to increase the service towards the IT organisations´ customers, businesses and users, and that requires changes...... in the way many IT organisations operate and organize themselves around IT. We set out to identify the organisational changes in relation to the implementation of ITSM in organisational setting using Leavitt's diamond model and a literature study in more than 100 IS journals. One of the findings reported...... here is that not much has been published on organisational changes associated with the implementation of ITSM. Thus more research in this area is needed, and it confirms the argument that ITSM is a growing field of interest....

  15. Organisational culture: an important concept for pharmacy practice research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scahill, Shane; Harrison, Jeff; Carswell, Peter; Babar, Zaheer-Ud-Din

    2009-10-01

    Throughout the developed world, community pharmacy is under considerable pressure to play a greater part in delivering effective primary health care. The requirement to adopt new roles continues to challenge community pharmacy and drive change. The factors that determine the ability of community pharmacy to effectively deliver services for health gain are complex and include; policy, professional, financial and structural elements. There is also evidence to suggest that organisational culture may influence the effectiveness of an organisation. In order to address this there is a need to understand the dimensions of organisational culture that lead to successful implementation of the change necessary for community pharmacy to become a more effective primary health care organisation. In this commentary, we introduce the concept of organisational culture, outline two frameworks for studying culture, and argue the benefits of pursuing an organisational culture research agenda for the evolution of pharmacy practice and research.

  16. Organising Ethics: The Case of the Norwegian Army

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen-Marie Forsberg

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This article shows how institutionalism, a theory in organisational social science, provides a model for diagnosing organisational challenges that influence the ethical practices and integration in the Norwegian Army. Institutionalism provides tools for analysing the differences between expressed values and actual practices and for understanding the organisational dynamics that unfold at the crossroads of the organisation's formal structure, informal culture and stakeholder relations. In this article we present and discuss such differences and dynamics in the Norwegian Army based on findings from a survey and a number of workshops. We also provide some suggestions for effective implementation of strategies for strengthening ethics in such an organisation. We argue that the perspective taken in this project is also relevant for other highly professionalised complex organisations and that such interdisciplinary research will strengthen practical ethics' potential for real impact.http://dx.doi.org/10.5324/eip.v6i1.1779

  17. Promoting institutional and organisational development in surveying and land administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig; Greenway, Iain

    2006-01-01

    A key component of capacity building is ensuring that a country’s organisations are sufficiently robust to develop, enable and ensure the effective operation of surveying and land administration activities. The relevant organisations include the professional surveying associations (the FIG member...... associations), the private surveying companies, as well as the government agencies such as the mapping organisations and the organisations with land registration and land administration responsibilities. This paper provides a conceptual understanding covering the area of institutional and organisational...... and actions); How do we stay there (sustainability). The paper proposes the establishment of an FIG Task Force that brings together expertise to support countries in this area of institutional and organisational development. The Task Force would create support mechanisms and material for countries...

  18. Preparing organisations for employee-driven open innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Amundsen, O.; Aasen, T.M.; Gressgard, L.J.

    2014-01-01

    The present study addresses the need to prepare organisations, small or large, for open innovation approaches, including the development of capacity to exploit the potential benefits of such principles through Employee-Driven Innovation (EDI). Based on interviews in 20 Norwegian enterprises, we propose that EDI is an under-explored opportunity in many organisations, and that the systematic introduction of EDI practices increases organisations' ability to exploit open innovation principles and...

  19. Intention based modelling of organisational change: an experience report

    OpenAIRE

    Rolland, Colette; Loucopoulos, Pericles; Kavakli, Vagelio; Nurcan, Selmin

    1999-01-01

    The traditional approach to information systems development has proved to be too monolithic for dealing with highly complex, multidimensional, organisational change issues. In the traditional paradigm, little attempt is made in understanding how the proposed system relates to other organisational components or the effect that the system will have on the enterprise itself. This lack of knowledge ramifies throughout the system development process, making it difficult to identify organisational ...

  20. Variability in forms of organisation in biotechnology firms

    OpenAIRE

    Luukkonen, Terttu

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines variability in forms of organisation, in terms of forward and backward networking versus vertical integration, in biotechnology SMEs. The study examines forms of organisation in a set of firms across different application segments. The forms of organisation vary by application segment in biotechnology, but differences are not clear-cut, and a firm can apply different forms to different application segments in its activities. Reasons for the variability are related to the s...

  1. Innovation and the Organisation of Technical Expertise and Work

    OpenAIRE

    Howelss, John

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews a selection of the comparative research on the organisation of skills and work in different countries. It argues that despite differences in institutional means, such as keiretsu and structured apprenticeship, the ends, in terms of a capacity to organise skills, is similar. It is suggested that the British institution of craft control of skills should be understood as the default state of organisation of skills and work. This state may be likely to develop anywhere where th...

  2. DO INNOVATIVE ORGANISATIONS COMPETE ON SINGLE OR MULTIPLE OPERATIONAL CAPABILITIES?

    OpenAIRE

    ALKA ASHWINI NAND; PRAKASH J. SINGH; ANANYA BHATTACHARYA

    2014-01-01

    Organisations lack clear guidance on how they can become more innovative at the operational level. The operations strategy literature shows that organisations compete on four generic capabilities: cost efficiency, quality of products or services, speed of delivery, and flexibility of operations. Should organisations choose between these capabilities, i.e., engage in trading-off these capabilities and focussing on one capability ("trade-off" model), or combine them, thereby competing on multip...

  3. Balancing Agility and Discipline in a Medical Device Software Organisation

    OpenAIRE

    Mc Hugh, Martin; McCaffery, Fergal; Fitzgerald, Brian; Stol, Klass-Jan; COADY, Garret; Casey, Valentine

    2013-01-01

    peer-reviewed Agile development techniques are becoming increasingly popular in the generic software development industry as they appear to offer solutions to the problems associated with following a plan-driven Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC). However, agile methods may not be suited to all industries or organisations. For agile methods to succeed, an organisation must be structured in a way to accommodate agile methods. Medical device software development organisations are bound b...

  4. A coalition collision : A case study on organisational alterations

    OpenAIRE

    Forsgren, Peder; Helgesson, Margita

    2007-01-01

    When companies go trough a merger or an acquisition all involved parties within the organisations becomes affected. These changes can affect the company in many areas which could create tensions and anxiety among employees which could create strong negative forces at the end and prevent the new organisation to function at its best. In service companies this could be of great importance to overcome since they often are dependent on functional organisations to help them create a wanted quality....

  5. Followership's experiences of organisational leadership: A systems psychodynamic perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Henk Greyvenstein; Frans Cilliers

    2012-01-01

    Orientation: Followers’ experiences of leadership in their organisations were qualitatively explored and described from a systems psychodynamic perspective. The findings revealed a very negative view on how leadership treats followership, and that leadership is seen as inconsistent.Research purpose: The purpose of the research was to describe followership’s experiences of organisational leadership from a systems psychodynamic perspective.Motivation for the study: Organisational leadership is ...

  6. Developing Harmonised Measures of the Dynamics of Organisations and Work

    OpenAIRE

    Greenan, Nathalie; Lorenz, Edward

    2013-01-01

    This chapter draws on the results of a 3-year EU funded project designed to development guidelines for collecting harmonized data on organisational change and its economic and social impacts. Following a general introduction focusing on the importance of organisational practices and process of organisational change for successful product and service innovation, the chapter is divided into three main sections. The first section presents an overview and assessment of existing survey instruments...

  7. A case study of an organisation development of duality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Mads R.; Gertsen, Frank

    2008-01-01

    This paper seeks to comprehend what the organisational circumstances (conditions) look like that induces an organisation to develop its exploitation and exploration capabilities to duality. This is done by studying changes in the organisational characteristics in a Danish manufacturer...... of accessories for house windows during the expansion leading to global operation. The study comprises 2½ years of detailed study and a retrospective study of approximately 30 years. The data collection was mainly based on semi-structured interviews. The findings add a new approach to continuous innovation...... theory by uncovering how organisational conditions affect the development and integration of exploitation and exploration capabilities....

  8. Models as Tools of Analysis of a Network Organisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Pająk

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents models which may be applied as tools of analysis of a network organisation. The starting point of the discussion is defining the following terms: supply chain and network organisation. Further parts of the paper present basic assumptions analysis of a network organisation. Then the study characterises the best known models utilised in analysis of a network organisation. The purpose of the article is to define the notion and the essence of network organizations and to present the models used for their analysis.

  9. Empirical findings about organisational innovation in a Danish Municipality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez, Laia

    innovation journey of the Children and Youth administration in Gentofte Municipality, Denmark . The investigation departures from the realisation of a new political school vision in Gentofte Municipality. In an innovative way the vision challenges the traditional organisation of the public school system...... and the roles of politicians, administrators, school leaders, teachers, educators, labour unions, parents and children. The aim of the paper is to examine and develop the theory of innovation within an organisational context, to explain how the organisation understands and operationalizes innovation. And last...... but not least to highlight the main challenges that innovation raises for the organisation and individuals and what can be done to overcome these challenges....

  10. Enhancing organisational absorptive capacity by reframing an outdated suggestion box

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallio, Anne; Bergenholtz, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    the individual and organisational level of absorptive capacity. Via an action research study on shopfloor employees in a low-tech industry, it is shown how innovation activators can facilitate social integration mechanisms and identify the potential of the individual level ideas and assist the transformation......The study explores the connection between the organisational and individual level absorptive capacity in the context of shopfloor employees. Most literature on absorptive capacity focuses on the organisational level, while there has been less focus on the social integration mechanisms between...... of these to an organisational level....

  11. Modelling Socio-Technical Aspects of Organisational Security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivanova, Marieta Georgieva

    on organisations are far from being purely technical. After all, organisations consist of employees. Often the human factor appears to be the weakest point in the security of organisations. It may be easier to break through a system using a social engineering attack rather than a pure technological one. The Stux......Net attack is only one of the many examples showing that vulnerabilities of organisations are increasingly exploited on different levels including the human factor. There is an urgent need for integration between the technical and social aspects of systems in assessing their security. Such an integration...

  12. Supply Chain Management: new organisational practices for changing procurement realities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul Houman

    2003-01-01

    How does the implementation of SCM strategies influence the organisation of prcurement? Based on case study of 15 Danish companies, this article develops a set of statements concerning the organisational role and job assignments of procurement in the light of SCM practice.......How does the implementation of SCM strategies influence the organisation of prcurement? Based on case study of 15 Danish companies, this article develops a set of statements concerning the organisational role and job assignments of procurement in the light of SCM practice....

  13. A qualitative exploration of employees' views on organisational commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rankgoang Andrew-Face Lesabe

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available It is generally accepted that employee commitment has an impact on the overall functioning of organisations. Therefore, the primary aim of this qualitative explorative study is to detect and describe views of a group of employees at a local Johannesburg retail organisation regarding employee turnover and retention in the organisation. Relevant theoretical key concepts and views of scholars are carefully integrated and described briefly. Qualitative methods were used to collect and analyse the data. The research findings are explicitly outlined and linked to the existing literature on organisational commitment. The article is concluded with some recommendations.

  14. The Industrial Organisation of the Dance Industry in the Netherlands: a Transaction Cost Perspective on Hybrid Forms of Organisation

    OpenAIRE

    den Butter, Frank A.G.; Joustra, Jelle

    2014-01-01

    The organization of Electronic Dance Music (EDM) events has become a major export product in the Netherlands. In order to respond quickly to the new trends and needs, innovative forms of cooperation between producers are to be set up for the organization of exciting new events. A case study on how these EDM events are actually organised in the Netherlands shows that the best way to do it is through hybrid forms of organisation, which combine horizontal forms of organisation through the market...

  15. How to improve your knowledge intensive organisation : implementing a knowledge management scan within public and private sector organisations

    OpenAIRE

    Koolmees, Hans; Smeijsters, Henk; Schoenmakers, Sylvia

    2009-01-01

    The Centre of Research in Knowledge Organisations and Knowledge Management of Zuyd University has developed a knowledge management scan. The scan initiates from two models. The first model is based on the Value Based Knowledge Management approach (Tissen, Andriessen & Lekanne Deprez, 1998) and includes 6 basic abilities of a knowledge-intensive organisation that will enable the organisation to operate successfully in a knowledge based economy (.The second model, developed by Wierdsma and Swie...

  16. Constructive Practice and Critical Theory: The Contribution of Action Research to Organisational Change and the Discourse on Organisations

    OpenAIRE

    Pålshaugen, Øyvind

    2006-01-01

    "This article presents a new perspective on the question of how action research may contribute to improving the discourse on organisations. The three first sections deal mainly with some important features of action research, following from action research methods used in projects that comprise organisational change. On the basis of a distinction between practical discourse and theoretical discourse, the point is made that while descriptive research (like organisation theory...

  17. Achieving excellence in private intensive care units: The effect of transformational leadership and organisational culture on organisational change outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Portia J. Jordan; Amanda Werner; Danie Venter

    2015-01-01

    Orientation: Organisational change outcomes in private intensive care units are linked to higher patient satisfaction, improved quality of patient care, family support, cost-effective care practices and an increased level of excellence. Transformational leadership and fostering a positive organisational culture can contribute to these change outcomes.Research purpose: The study determined whether transformational leadership and a supportive organisational culture were evident in six private i...

  18. Positive organisation :|bthe role of leader behaviour in employee engagement and retention / Fallen Mendes.

    OpenAIRE

    Mendes, Fallen

    2010-01-01

    Organisations are constantly undergoing major changes. These changes can have negative consequences on organisational functioning and employee well-being. It is therefore vital for organisations to focus on the elements of a healthy organisation so that a positive organisation can be built and the negative consequences avoided. A healthy organisation pays attention to six intenelated dimensions namely; organisational attributes, organizational climate, job design, job future, psychological w...

  19. Exploring the relationship between leadership and organisational culture / Kolisang L.O.

    OpenAIRE

    Kolisang, Lebamang Octavia

    2011-01-01

    This research explores the relationship between leadership and organisational culture in an organisation. Organisational culture is often an important factor influencing the competitive strength of an organisation. Leadership is also a critical component in the success of an organisation. It is important to understand how these two powerful determinants of organisational performance affect each other. Research determining that specific types of organisational culture favour particular styles ...

  20. Organising pneumonia in common variable immunodeficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boujaoude, Ziad; Arya, Rohan; Rafferty, William; Dammert, Pedro

    2013-06-07

    Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is the most common of the primary immunodeficiency disorders. Pulmonary manifestations are characterised by recurrent rhinosinusitis, respiratory tract infections and bronchiectasis. Less commonly the lung may be affected by lymphoid disorders and sarcoid-like granulomas. Organising pneumonia (OP) is a rare pulmonary manifestation. We report the case of a 32-year-old woman with CVID who presented with fever, dyspnoea and persistent lung infiltrates despite antibiotic therapy. CT of the chest showed bilateral patchy alveolar infiltrates. Pulmonary function tests revealed moderate restriction and reduction in diffusion capacity. Initial bronchoscopy with transbronchial biopsies did not yield a diagnosis but surgical lung biopsies identified OP. Significant clinical, radiographic and physiological improvement was achieved after institution of corticosteroid therapy.

  1. Varying flexibilities in systems of organised decentralisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilsøe, Anna; Andersen, Søren Kaj

    to this paradox a qualitative study of working time regulation in the metal industry in Denmark and Germany was performed in the spring of 2005. In addition to five case studies of company-based agreements in Denmark and Germany (Baden-Württemberg) the study consisted of analysing statistical data, legislative...... the framework agreements on variable hours are specified, is more decentralised in Denmark and allows an adjustment of working time closer to the single employee. 2) Both in the German and Danish metal sectors company-based agreements regulate the growing use of flexible working hours. Though the trade union...... be while the response of the German system should rather be interpreted as a reactive organised decentralisation. 3) The varying regulation of working time flexibility in Germany and Denmark implies varying risks in the regulation. In Germany lacking competencies in small or medium-sized companies lead...

  2. Trust and diversity: a perspective of organisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghislain Verstraete

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available According to Ghislain Verstraete, we have been deaf and mute too long in the face of the consequences and dangers engendered by our “society of risk”, which he calls the “second modernity”. For everyone (but not in the same way, this second modernity is complex, stimulating, conflictive, as well as provocative in our limited competencies. In the face of the crisis, two reactions are possible: one of a diffuse pessimism which gives rise to a defensive and reactionary attitude, limiting citizen action; another one, of an excessive optimism which takes on an offensive tone, generating more questions and more negotiations and opening a perspective of empowerment. All the organisations have to position themselves in a permanent way in relationship to this defensive/offensive axis, not only in theory but also in practice. But, how can pluralism be conceptualised in this second modernity and how can it be put into practice?

  3. The strategic facilities management organisation in housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Susanne Balslev; Jensen, Per Anker; Jensen, Jesper Ole

    2012-01-01

    Two houses in the same street can be built in the same year, they can look the same, and still they might provide very different support for sustainable living. This article points to the Strategic Facilities Management Organisation (SFMO) as the most important concept, to understand and manage...... implementation of sustainable facilities management in housing administration. The concept provides a frame for understanding the roles and relations of tenants, owners, administrators and operators. The paper is based on a Danish research project on environmentally sound building operation including literature...... literature on sustainable facilities management, where it fills a gap as it deals with housing and strategic FM. Intended readers are those interested in housing administration and especially the transition of existing housing into more sustainable housing. Intended readers include building owners, policy...

  4. Organisation of biotechnological information into knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boh, B

    1996-09-01

    The success of biotechnological research, development and marketing depends to a large extent on the international transfer of information and on the ability to organise biotechnology information into knowledge. To increase the efficiency of information-based approaches, an information strategy has been developed and consists of the following stages: definition of the problem, its structure and sub-problems; acquisition of data by targeted processing of computer-supported bibliographic, numeric, textual and graphic databases; analysis of data and building of specialized in-house information systems; information processing for structuring data into systems, recognition of trends and patterns of knowledge, particularly by information synthesis using the concept of information density; design of research hypotheses; testing hypotheses in the laboratory and/or pilot plant; repeated evaluation and optimization of hypotheses by information methods and testing them by further laboratory work. The information approaches are illustrated by examples from the university-industry joint projects in biotechnology, biochemistry and agriculture.

  5. Quality of higher education: organisational or educational?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zou, Yihuan; Du, Xiangyun; Rasmussen, Palle

    2012-01-01

    Based on a study of Chinese university self-evaluation reports, this paper argues that higher education institutions are trying to manage the tensions between educational and organisational quality and the increasing and worldwide concerns about quality assurance. After 30 years of dramatic...... remain an important basis for external review. In an attempt to examine the institutional understanding of quality in higher education, the authors conducted a content analysis study of 53 self-evaluation reports written by a wide range of higher education institutions in China. This study concludes...... educational reform, China has established a nationwide evaluation system for assessing its higher education institutions. This comprehensive system includes a series of procedures for both internal self-evaluation and external peer reviewing, among which self-evaluation reports prepared by each institution...

  6. The Walking Egg non-profit organisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhont, N

    2011-01-01

    The Walking Egg non-profit organisation (npo) was founded in 2010 by scientists and an artist to realise the Arusha Project which strives to implement accessible infertility programmes in resource-poor countries. Right from the start The Walking Egg has opted for a multidisciplinary and global approach towards the problem of infertility and in cooperation with the Special Task Force (STF) on "Developing countries and infertility" of the European Society of Human reproduction and Embryology (ESHRE) and the WHO, it gathers medical, social and economical scientists and experts along with artists to discuss and work together towards its goal. The project aims to raise awareness -surrounding childlessness in resource-poor countries and to make infertility care in all its aspects, including assisted reproductive technologies, available and accessible for a much larger part of the population.

  7. An ethics model to develop an ethical organisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrik R. Lloyd

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: As background to the study it can be stated that the ethical conduct of employees in an organisation is of paramount importance to the successful operations of an organisation, both real and perceived. In recent times the ethical conduct of employees has received extensive publicity and, as such, has emphasised the impact of organisational ethics on the global competitiveness of organisations.Research purpose: The main aim of the paper is to analyse the impact of business ethics in the Eastern Cape Motor Industry Cluster (ECMIC and the different perceptions regarding such ethics. This is based on the main research question, namely, whether a business ethics model should be developed to assist in creating an ethical organisation.Motivation of the study: The motivation for this study is based on the question of whether there is a dedicated drive within the motor industry to establish an ethical organisation and, if such is the case, what benefits would accrue to the organisations in ECMIC.Research design, approach and method: An empirical study was conducted within ECMIC to test the proposed ethics intervention model. A questionnaire, as the main measuring instrument, was developed and 150 questionnaires were distributed. Statistical hypothesis testing was used, with a significance level set at 5%. The aim of the hypothesis testing was to test whether the percentage responses in certain categories were significantly higher than a pre-determined test-value.Main findings: The research results substantiate the fact that the majority of the surveyed organisations do not implement specific ethics interventions. Nevertheless, the majority of respondents acknowledge the importance of ethical behaviour in the organisation, especially with regard to their financial positions.Practical/managerial implications: From this study it became clear that the implementation of a code of ethics would create a platform for ethical behaviour in

  8. Leading Public Service Organisations: How to obtain high employee self-efficacy and organisational performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Christian Bøtcher; Andersen, Lotte Bøgh

    2016-01-01

    Concerns are sometimes raised that transactional leadership harms public organisations’ performance, because demands thwart employees’ self-efficacy. However, the opposite may be argued – conditional rewards strengthen feelings of competence because they provide positive feedback on performance. We......, the teachers’ self-efficacy can be linked positively to organisational performance. This suggests that rewards can be an important tool for managers in the public sector....

  9. Empowerment, organisational commitment and job satisfaction within a chemical organisation / Penny Buckle

    OpenAIRE

    Buckle, Cecelia Hestel

    2003-01-01

    Work is considered to be a necessary and unavoidable part of human existence. As South Africa continues to be exposed to global economics, social and political changes, the international arena demands increased speed, efficiency and customer focus at reduced costs. In order to achieve these demands, organisations are demanding more from their employees than ever before. Employees must learn to take initiative, be creative and accept responsibility. Each employee's full potentia...

  10. Human Resource Management and Organisational Performance: Does HRM lead to better organisational performance?

    OpenAIRE

    Byremo, Cathrine Søbye

    2015-01-01

    Human Resource Management (HRM) has grown very popular over the past decades, and it is now a common characteristic for nearly all larger companies and many smaller ones. One of the reasons for this popularity is the assumption that HRM is a source for competitive advantage and will influence the organisational results and performance in a positive direction. The thesis takes a closer look at the presumed relationship between HRM and performance. The main idea behind the HRM-performance presu...

  11. An organisational coherence model to maintain employee contributions during organisational crises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrik J. Pelser

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Crises that threaten an organisation’s continued existence cannot be seen in isolation when considering the perception of threats to individual job security. These threats often go hand in hand with employee panic.Research purpose: The aim of this study was to establish a model to assist organisations in managing employee emotionality and panic during times of crisis.Motivation for the study: Environmental crises threaten organisations’ existence, threatening employees’ livelihood and resulting in employee panic. Panic reduces employees’ contributions. Organisations that are successful harness employee contributions at all times.Research design, approach, and method: A modernist qualitative research methodology was adopted, which included a case study as research strategy, purposive sampling to select 12 research participants, semi-structured interviews for data gathering, focus groups for data verification, and the use of grounded theory for data analysis.Main findings: An organisation’s ability to manage employee panic depends on the relationship between the foundational elements of authentic leadership, crisis readiness, resilience practices, versatile and committed talent, strategic management, quality management, and coherence actions taken during the crisis, which include crisis leadership, ongoing visible communication, mindfulness, work flexibility, and decisions based on the greatest financial need and social support.Practical/managerial implications: The study provides a best-practice option for managing emotionality during crises for the case organisation and other organisations within the vehicle components and other manufacturing industries.Contribution/value-add: The Coherence Hexagons Model is presented as a tool to manage employee panic during crisis.Keywords: crisis management; employee emotionality; employee panic; authentic leadership; talent management

  12. The man-machine-organisation interface; Schnittstelle Mensch-Technik-Organisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kociok, B. [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Salzgitter (Germany)

    1999-04-01

    The reliable and safety-centred action of man is one crucial factor for safe operation of nuclear power plants, apart from the technical systems and the organisational aspects. Essential factors influencing human performance are: Qualification and competence of the operating personnel, technical conditions and status of systems, including the level of automation, information technology in the control room, and plant organisation. Analyses of documentation of notifiable events in power plant operation or other incidents yield information on available potentials for safety enhancements or reduction of human errors. (orig./CB) [German] Das zuverlaessige und sicherheitsorientierte Handeln des Menschen ist neben den technischen Einrichtungen und der Organisation fuer den sicheren Betrieb der Kernkraftwerke von entscheidender Bedeutung. Wesentliche Einflussfaktoren auf menschliche Handlungen sind: - Die Personalqualifikation, - der technische Zustand der Anlage, einschliesslich ihres Automatisierungsgrades, - die Gestaltung der Warte und - die Betriebsorganisation. Aus der Erfassung von meldepflichtigen und sonstigen Ereignissen und deren Analyse lassen sich Moeglichkeiten fuer Sicherheitsverbesserungen ermitteln und das Auftreten von menschlichen Fehlhandlungen weiter reduzieren. (orig.)

  13. Investigating Organisational Innovativeness : Developing a Multidimensional Formative Measure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pallas, Florian; Böckermann, Florian; Goetz, Oliver; Tecklenburg, Kirstin

    2013-01-01

    To survive competition, it is vital for firms to be innovative. As a firm's cultural predisposition, organisational innovativeness provides an environment that fosters innovations and thus actively supports new product or service development. The purpose of this study is to measure organisational in

  14. On RA Abstracts: From Rhetorical Structure to Thematic Organisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lores, Rosa

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports an analysis of research article (RA) abstracts from linguistics journals from two related angles: rhetorical organisation and thematic structure. Based on a small scale study it reveals two major types of rhetorical organisation, here called the IMRD type and the CARS type. When thematic analysis, in terms of thematic…

  15. New matrix organisation to make fuel cells a reality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryde, Marianne Vang

    2006-01-01

    A new matrix organisation provides the framework for a clearly defi ned project: creating a research foundation for the manufacture of effi cient and inexpensive fuel cells.......A new matrix organisation provides the framework for a clearly defi ned project: creating a research foundation for the manufacture of effi cient and inexpensive fuel cells....

  16. Cage Painting within the Fifth Discipline of Learning Organisations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimmington, Glyn M.; Alagic, Mara

    2009-01-01

    Learning organisations face new challenges in the 21st century. Increased flow of trade in commodities, manufactured goods and information as well as mobility of people have led to increased global interdependence, interconnectedness and cultural diversity. People and teams within learning organisations have become globally distributed with the…

  17. Students' Perceptions on Intrapreneurship Education--Prerequisites for Learning Organisations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansikas, Juha; Murphy, Linda

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this qualitative study is to understand the prerequisites for learning organisations (LO) as perceived by university students. Intrapreneurship education offers possibilities to increase student's adaptation of learning organisation's climate and behaviour. By analysing students' perceptions, more information about learning organisation…

  18. The Strength of Accountability and Teachers' Organisational Citizenship Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elstad, Eyvind; Christophersen, Knut-Andreas; Turmo, Are

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Organisational citizenship behaviour (OCB) involves discretionary behaviour advantageous to the organisation that goes beyond existing role expectations. The purpose of this paper is to explore the link between the strength of accountability and teachers' OCB within three different management systems in which teachers are working: a…

  19. Organisational Commitments and Teaching Styles among Academics in Mainland China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-Fang; Jing, Li-Zhen

    2016-01-01

    This research pioneered the investigation of the predictive power of organisational commitments for academics' teaching styles. Participants were 370 faculty members from 15 higher educational institutions in Beijing, the People's Republic of China. Results showed that academics' organisational commitments as measured by the Organisational…

  20. Towards Zero Management Learning Organisations: A Honey-Bee Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keeffe, Ted

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: This research paper is a distinctive element of an empirical study on learning organisations carried out between 1999 and 2002. It seeks to examine a whole range of issues that seem to permeate higher-performing organisations. Design/methodology/approach: The study design utilised both quantitative and qualitative research methodologies.…

  1. The improvement of organisational learning process with total quality management

    OpenAIRE

    Escrig-Tena, Ana Belén

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this paper deals with the influence exerted by TQM on the capability to promote the process of organisational learning, as one of the competencies that the introduction of TQM helps to develop, We discuss the extent to which the critical factors of TQM favour both the exploration of new knowledge that can modify organisational behaviour, and the exploitation of current learning,

  2. Beyond organisational design: moving from structure to service enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Debbie; Boyce, Rosalie A

    2003-01-01

    The Australian health care industry prior to the 1990s was notable for its relative stability and uniformity in relation to organisational design. Since then, new organisational designs have proliferated and a diversity of approaches is evident. The new fluidity in organisational design is particularly evident amongst the allied health professions. The aim of this paper is two-fold. Firstly, to summarise recent changes in organisational design as they relate to the allied health professions and secondly, to move beyond design issues to focus on service level enhancement in an organisational change context. This later aim is achieved by presenting data from an in-depth study of one institutions experience with wide-ranging organisational reforms. The recent formation of the National Allied Health Organisational Structures Network (NAHOSN) has given energy to the impetus of placing a research-based framework around the change experiences reported by Allied Health groups. An objective of the network is to foster research, rather than rely on commentary and anecdote, in the often highly contested arena of organisational design and reform.

  3. Ten Australian ICU nurses' perceptions of organisational restructuring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynne, Rochelle

    2004-02-01

    The Australian healthcare system underwent radical reform in the 1990s as economic rationalist policies were embraced. As a result, there was significant organisational restructuring within hospitals. Traditional indicators, such as nursing absenteeism and attrition, increase during times of organisational change. Despite this, nurses' views of healthcare reform are under-represented in the literature and little is known about the impact of organisational restructuring on perceived performance. This study investigated the perceived impact of organisational restructuring on a group of intensive care unit (ICU) nurses' workplace performance. It employed a qualitative approach to collect data from a purposive sample of clinical nurses. The primary method of data collection was semi-structured interviews. Content analysis generated three categories of data. Participants identified constant pressure, inadequate communication and organisational components of restructuring within the hospital as issues that had a significant impact on their workplace performance. They perceived organisational restructuring was poorly communicated, and this resulted in an environment of constant pressure. Organisational components of restructuring included the subcategories of specialised service provision and an alternative administrative structure that had both positive and negative ramifications for performance. To date, there has been little investigation of nurses' perceptions of organisational restructure or the impact this type of change has in the clinical domain. Participants in this study believed reorganisation was detrimental to quality care delivery in intensive care, as a result of fiscal constraint, inadequate communication and pressure that influenced their workplace performance.

  4. Organisation of a clinical trial unit--a proposal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, C; Sørensen, T I

    1998-01-01

    , ways of organising and staffing clinical trial units were investigated. The present proposal is based on this experience from which an attempt to extract a composite set of minimal requirements has been made regarding pertinent objectives and aims, organisational aspects, staffing, and estimated costs...

  5. Combining technical and organisational elements in layer of protection analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boers, M.N.; Gort, J.; Versloot, N.H.A.

    2005-01-01

    Traditionally, in process industry, risks are reduced with technical solutions and organisational measures. The performance of both types of "solutions" depends on many factors and can not easily be compared. Especially the effectiveness of organisational measures such as the use of procedures, educ

  6. Organisational Capability in Internalising Quality Culture in Higher Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, Muhammad Ibrahim; Ibrahim, Burhan Muhammad Bn; Bularafa, Mohammed Waziri

    2015-01-01

    The study examines the influence of leadership roles related to organisational capability consisting of directing setting, strategic and organisational process, alignment, intervention and strategic capability on depending variable internalising quality culture in IIUM. The study used 100 samples consisting of lecturers, non-academic staff and…

  7. The organisation of transactions : studying supply networkd using gaming simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, S.A.

    2009-01-01

    This book studies the organisation of transactions in supply networks. More specifically it investigates the influence of social structure on the mode of organisation in supply networks. To gain new insights, the results in this book have been gathered using gaming simulation as a research method. A

  8. A Longitudinal Study on Newcomers' Perception of Organisational Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turker, Duygu; Altuntas, Ceren

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyse how newcomers' perceptions of organisational culture can change over time. The study tries to address whether initial working experience changes newcomers' perceptions about the ideal organisational culture, and whether these perceptions converge with those of their supervisors.…

  9. Organised crime in Europe and the mafia method

    OpenAIRE

    Ruggiero, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    This paper compares some findings relating to organised crime in Europe as presented by international agencies with findings obtained by national independent researchers in a number of countries. The comparison helps highlight the dilemma, the controversies and the vexed questions that still adumbrate our understanding of organised crime.

  10. Organisational Learning and Performance--An Empirical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyothibabu, C.; Pradhan, Bibhuti Bhusan; Farooq, Ayesha

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the important question "how the learning entities--individual, group or organisation--are affecting organisational performance". The answer is important for promoting learning and improving performance. This empirical study in the leading power utility in India found that there is a positive relation between individual- and…

  11. Struggling with solutions : a case study of using organisation concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benders, Jos; Slomp, Jannes

    2009-01-01

    Engineers contribute to the constant flow of new tools and organisation concepts. These tend to be presented as solutions to existing organisational problems. These solutions may become problems themselves, however. We present a longitudinal case of how a truck manufacturer struggled with various si

  12. The effects of membership decline on party organisations in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kölln, A.K.

    2015-01-01

    On election day, voters’ commitment is crucial for political parties, but between elections members are an important resource for party organisations. However, membership figures have been dropping across parties and countries in the last decades. How does this trend affect parties’ organisation? Fo

  13. The Ideology of Learning Organisations in Africa: A Critical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akella, Devi

    2010-01-01

    Organisations worldwide have acknowledged the connection between corporate learning, development and business sustainability. Emphasis is being laid on creating and designing a learning organisation "that is skilled at creating, acquiring, interpreting, transferring and retaining knowledge" [Garvin, (2000), p.32]. Extensive literature exists about…

  14. Organisational innovation and how it challenges management theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerding, Allan Næs; Rasmussen, Jørgen Gulddahl

    2007-01-01

    up and slowing down new forms of organisational activities. Subsequently, the paper provides an overview of management theory, proposing that the present state of management theory is one where the traditional dichotomy between a rational and a natural approach to organisations has been bridged...

  15. Ten Australian ICU nurses' perceptions of organisational restructuring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynne, Rochelle

    2004-02-01

    The Australian healthcare system underwent radical reform in the 1990s as economic rationalist policies were embraced. As a result, there was significant organisational restructuring within hospitals. Traditional indicators, such as nursing absenteeism and attrition, increase during times of organisational change. Despite this, nurses' views of healthcare reform are under-represented in the literature and little is known about the impact of organisational restructuring on perceived performance. This study investigated the perceived impact of organisational restructuring on a group of intensive care unit (ICU) nurses' workplace performance. It employed a qualitative approach to collect data from a purposive sample of clinical nurses. The primary method of data collection was semi-structured interviews. Content analysis generated three categories of data. Participants identified constant pressure, inadequate communication and organisational components of restructuring within the hospital as issues that had a significant impact on their workplace performance. They perceived organisational restructuring was poorly communicated, and this resulted in an environment of constant pressure. Organisational components of restructuring included the subcategories of specialised service provision and an alternative administrative structure that had both positive and negative ramifications for performance. To date, there has been little investigation of nurses' perceptions of organisational restructure or the impact this type of change has in the clinical domain. Participants in this study believed reorganisation was detrimental to quality care delivery in intensive care, as a result of fiscal constraint, inadequate communication and pressure that influenced their workplace performance. PMID:15011993

  16. An Action Learning Method for Increased Innovation Capability in Organisations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Annika; Wadell, Carl; Odenrick, Per; Norell Bergendahl, Margareta

    2010-01-01

    Product innovation in highly complex and technological areas, such as medical technology, puts high requirements on the innovation capability of an organisation. Previous research and publications have highlighted organisational issues and learning matters as important and necessary for the development of innovation capability. Action learning…

  17. Organisational Learning and Systems of Labour Market Regulation in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Jacob Rubæk; Lorenz, Edward; Lundvall, Bengt-Åke;

    This paper establishes a link between international differences in the organisation of work and modes of regulation of labour markets within Europe. The paper operates with four forms of work organisation (discretionary learning, lean production, Taylorism and simple or traditional). Through...

  18. International Scientific and Technical Organisations; Organismos Cientifico-Tecnicos Internacionales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunez-Lagos Rogla, R. [Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain)

    2003-07-01

    The nuclear scientific and technical world is well aware of the EURATOM and IAEA activities but usually other international scientific and technical organisations relevant for their ordinary work are unknown. In this article three international organisations are described briefly, the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP). International Union of Pure and Applied chemistry (IUPAC) and the international council of Science (ICSU). (Author)

  19. Ledelse, organisering og nådegaver i menigheter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Inge Jenssen og Kjell Birkeland

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this article, we discuss whether leadership and organisational structure can influence and facilitate the use of spiritual gifts in congregations. The purpose is to substantiate a link and give some examples of what this relationship may be like. We argue that leaders contribute to the design of organisational structures and that they apply […

  20. Understanding the organisational context and the impact of contextual individual ambidexterity on organisational ambidexterity, organisational and marketing innovations in Nigerian SMEs

    OpenAIRE

    Ajayi, Oluseyi Moses; Morton, Susan C

    2012-01-01

    Many of the previous research studies on innovation tend to focus on process and product innovations. It is, however, interesting to note that Organisational and Marketing Innovations (OMIs) could be the necessary prerequisites to optimally utilise and deploy such technological process and product innovations. This study proposes Organisational Ambidexterity as a necessary antecedent to develop the firm’s OMI capabilities. For firms to remain competitive and adaptive to a continuous change in...