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Sample records for ascariasis

  1. Biliary ascariasis

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    Mensing, M.; Cruz y Rivero, M.A.; Alarcon Hernandez, C.; Garcia Himmelstine, L.; Vogel, H.

    1986-06-01

    Biliary ascariasis is a complication of intestinal ascariasis. This results in characteristic findings in the intravenous cholangiocholecystogram and in the sonogram. Characteristic signs of biliary ascariasis are, in the longitudinal section, the 'strip sign', 'spaghetti sign', 'inner tube sign', and in transverse section 'a bull's eye in the triple O'. The helminth can travel from out of the biliary duct system back into the intestinum, so that control examinations can even be negative.

  2. Biliary ascariasis

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    Sivakumar K

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Ascaris lumbricoides, or the common roundworms, has a worldwide distribution but is mainly seen in Asian and Latin American countries. In humans the usual habitat is in the small intestine, mainly in the jejunum. But if the worm load is high, which may go up to a thousand worms, the worms tend to migrate away from the usual site of habitat. This brief paper aims at highlighting the condition of biliary ascariasis through the authors′ experience in managing three such cases over a period of 1 year. The clinical features which arouse suspicion of biliary ascariasis, as well as diagnostic modalities and management, are described. Initially the cases were managed conservatively, but we conclude that if worms are retained in biliary tree for more than 10 days, surgery should be performed; since retention of degraded and calcified dead worm can occur, and this can lead to complications which are difficult to manage.

  3. Biliary ascariasis.

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    Arcilla, C A; Varilla, A

    1978-01-01

    The presenting clinical features of a series of cases of biliary tract ascariasis are described, in particular the characteristic colicky pain which occurs. The term 'ascaritic biliary pain' is introduced for the symptom diagnostic of live Ascaris adult worms inside the biliary passages. Methods of diagnosis before, and in the course of, operation are discussed and seem adequate. The management of worms discovered in the bile ducts, and those in the proximal small bowel, is described.

  4. Biliary ascariasis: a review.

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    Shah, Omar Javed; Zargar, Showkat Ali; Robbani, Irfan

    2006-08-01

    Ascariasis, a helminthic infection of humans, is the most common parasitic infestation of the gastrointestinal tract. It infects about 25% of the world's population; around 20 thousand deaths occur per year from an adverse clinical course of the disease. This review is focused on biliary ascariasis, examining in some detail the pathogenesis of the disease with special reference to postcholecystectomy ascariasis and related issues. Although an endemic disease of tropical and subtropical countries, increasing population migration facilitated by fast improving communication facilities demands that clinicians everywhere be familiar with the clinical profile and management of biliary ascariasis.

  5. Gall bladder ascariasis

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    Ranendra Hajong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatobiliary ascariasis is commonly reported from highly endemic regions like India, Bangladesh, Latin America, parts of Middle East and Africa. In humans, the usual habitat of Ascaris lumbricoides is the small intestine. When the worm load is high, going as high as more than 1000 worms, then the worms tend to migrate away from the usual site. Patients with hepatobiliary ascariasis may present with biliary colic due to obstruction caused by the worms in the gall bladder, common bile duct or as a result of obstructive symptoms caused by calcified worms or lithiasis, which is commonly found in patients with hepatobiliary ascariasis. Acute pancreatitis may also be caused by ascariasis. Management usually is conservative if it is still alive or can be extracted by endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography or surgery.

  6. Biliopancreatic ascariasis: endoscopic approach.

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    Kamiya, Toshiaki; Justiniano, Mario; Durán, Abel; Uechi, Chikara

    2002-01-01

    From June 1985 to June 1999, 120 patients were diagnosed by means of panendoscopy, choledocoscopy, and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography as having biliary and pancreatic ascariasis. All duodenoscopic procedures were performed under fluoroscopic control. Endoscopic extraction was successful in 99 of 108 (92%) patients, some of whom had had previous endoscopic sphincterotomy. The endoscopic accessories used were a basket catheter, polypectomy snare, and balloon catheter. Because no significant complications were observed after this endoscopic treatment, we recommend endoscopic extractions for biliary ascariasis.

  7. Hepato-pancreatic ascariasis.

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    De, Uptal; Mukherjee, M; Das, S; Kumar, Rupesh

    2010-10-01

    Intestinal infestation of humans by Ascaris lumbricoides is endemic in India. The usual habitat of the adult worm is the jejunum. Hepatopancreatic ascariasis (HPA) is designated to a rare group of diseases caused by lodgement of adult worms in the bile or pancreatic ducts. This short report illustrates four rare cases of patients with HPA.

  8. Biliary ascariasis. A case report.

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    Sarihan, H; Gürkök, S; Sari, A

    1995-01-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides is a worldwide intestinal infestation that may cause various complications. Biliary ascariasis, however, is a rare condition. We describe a child with biliary ascariasis. The patient's clinical symptoms were pain, vomiting and abdominal tenderness, and she was thought to have acute appendicitis. However, laboratory examination revealed high serum alkaline phosphatase and amylase levels, and ultrasonography and percutaneous cholangiography demonstrated biliary ascariasis. The patient was successfully treated with mebendazole and antispasmolytic drugs.

  9. Hepatic and biliary ascariasis

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    Anup K Das

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ascariasis mainly contributes to the global helminthic burden by infesting a large number of children in the tropical countries. Hepato-biliary ascariasis (HBA is becoming a common entity now than in the past owing to the frequent usage of ultrasonograms and endoscopic diagnostic procedures in the clinical practice. There are a variety of manifestations in HBA and diagnosis depends on a high index of suspicion in endemic areas coupled with subsequent confirmation by sonographic or endoscopic demonstration of the worm. Most of them present with acute abdomen and jaundice. Oriental or recurrent pyogenic cholangiopathy is possibly the result of HBA, commonly encountered in South-East Asian countries. Conservative treatment with anthelminthic agents is used in the majority. Failure to respond to medical therapy usually indicates the need for endoscopic or surgical interventions. Overall, mortality is low and prognosis is good, but many epidemiological and immunological aspects of Ascaris infection are unclear, meaning our understanding the disease and infection still remains incomplete. Therefore, it is difficult to definitely put down a fixed modality of treatment for HBA. This underscores the need for further studies as ascariasis has the potential to adversely affect the national socio-economy by compromising the health of children and adults alike with its sheer number.

  10. Biliary ascariasis: radiological clue to diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Ascariasis is caused by Ascaris lumbricoides. It is the most common helminthic infection seen worldwide. Ascariasis is an endemic disease in our country. This is due to the prevailing poor sanitary conditions and low level of education. Biliary ascariasis is an uncommon cause of obstructive jaundice. We report a case of biliary ascariasis in a young labourer who presented with acute abdominal pain.

  11. Tilfaeldigt fund af biliaer ascariasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Anders Donatsky; Achiam, Michael

    2010-01-01

    We describe a case of biliary ascariasis in a 27-year-old Philippine au-pair with recurrent upper abdominal pain. Hepatobiliary ascariasis is rarely seen in non-endemic areas. The diagnosis is important because severe complications can occur. If migrated into the biliary tree, it is recommended...

  12. Rare presentation of biliary ascariasis.

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    Rather, Ajaz; Salati, Sajad Ahmad

    2010-09-01

    Ascariasis is the most common helminthic infection in the world. We present a very rare manifestation of ascariasis in which the worms came out through the T-tube tract of a 36 years old patient who had undergone cholecystectomy with choledocholithotomy.

  13. Magnetic resonace appearance of Gall Bladder Ascariasis

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    Arya Prafull

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Ascariasis is a common disease in many developing countries and is a common cause of biliary and pancreatic diseases in endemic areas. Numerous studies have been published on biliary tract ascariasis. All these have documented ultrasonography as the primary imaging modality for biliary tract ascariasis. Magnetic Resonance Cholangiopancreatography (MRCP has been the latest entrant for the study of bilary tract. MRCP findings of biliary tract ascariasis have been scarcely documented. MRCP is a unique non-invasive investigation for demonstrating ascariasis in Gall bladder and bilary tract clearly. We present MR appearances of Gall bladder and biliary tract in a proven case of biliary ascariasis.

  14. [Coincidental finding of biliary ascariasis].

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    Kristensen, Anders Donatsky; Achiam, Michael

    2010-04-19

    We describe a case of biliary ascariasis in a 27-year-old Philippine au-pair with recurrent upper abdominal pain. Hepatobiliary ascariasis is rarely seen in non-endemic areas. The diagnosis is important because severe complications can occur. If migrated into the biliary tree, it is recommended to perform endoscopic extraction combined with antihelmintic therapy. In severe cases, the recommendation is laparoscopic cholecystectomy and peroperative exploration of the common hepatic duct.

  15. Ascariasis cholecystitis: An unusual cause

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    Shetty Balakrishna

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Ascariasis is the most common helminthic infection to infest man. Usually the adult worm lives in the small intestine. Rarely it migrates through the ampulla of vater and enters the common bile duct. We are reporting a case of gall bladder ascariasis causing acute cholecystitis treated by laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Presence of Ascaris lumbricoides in gallbladder is rare entity as it is difficult to reach there due to the narrow and tortuous cystic duct.

  16. Ascariasis of the pancreatic duct.

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    Klimovskij, Michail; Dulskas, Audrius; Kraulyte, Zita; Mikalauskas, Saulius

    2015-09-15

    Ascariasis is a common helminthic disease worldwide, although Lithuania and other European countries are not considered endemic areas. The presence of the Ascaris worm in the biliary tree causes choledocholithiasis-like symptoms. We report a case of pancreatic duct ascariasis causing such symptoms. A 73-year-old Lithuanian woman underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) suspecting choledocholithiasis. Contrast injection into the common bile duct demonstrated a slightly dilated biliary tree without any filling defects, and the tail of an Ascaris worm protruding from the opening of the papilla Vater. The worm was captured by a snare but escaped deep into the duct. After a small wirsungotomy the worm was retrieved from the pancreatic duct. The patient received a 150 mg dose of levamisole orally repeated 7 days later and was discharged after complete resolution of symptoms. This first reported sporadic case of pancreatic duct ascariasis in Lithuania was successfully treated with ERCP and Levamisole.

  17. Hepatobiliary and pancreatic ascariasis

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    Khuroo, Mohammad S; Rather, Ajaz A; Khuroo, Naira S; Khuroo, Mehnaaz S

    2016-01-01

    Hepatobiliary and pancreatic ascariasis (HPA) was described as a clinical entity from Kashmir, India in 1985. HPA is caused by invasion and migration of nematode, Ascaris lumbricoides, in to the biliary tract and pancreatic duct. Patients present with biliary colic, cholangitis, cholecystitis, hepatic abscesses and acute pancreatitis. Ascarides traverse the ducts repeatedly, get trapped and die, leading to formation of hepatolithiasis. HPA is ubiquitous in endemic regions and in Kashmir, one such region, HPA is the etiological factor for 36.7%, 23%, 14.5% and 12.5% of all biliary diseases, acute pancreatitis, liver abscesses and biliary lithiasis respectively. Ultrasonography is an excellent diagnostic tool in visualizing worms in gut lumen and ductal system. The rational treatment for HPA is to give appropriate treatment for clinical syndromes along with effective anthelmintic therapy. Endotherapy in HPA is indicated if patients continue to have symptoms on medical therapy or when worms do not move out of ductal lumen by 3 wk or die within the ducts. The worms can be removed from the ductal system in most of the patients and such patients get regression of symptoms of hepatobiliary and pancreatic disease. PMID:27672273

  18. Hepatobiliary and pancreatic ascariasis.

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    Khuroo, Mohammad S; Rather, Ajaz A; Khuroo, Naira S; Khuroo, Mehnaaz S

    2016-09-07

    Hepatobiliary and pancreatic ascariasis (HPA) was described as a clinical entity from Kashmir, India in 1985. HPA is caused by invasion and migration of nematode, Ascaris lumbricoides, in to the biliary tract and pancreatic duct. Patients present with biliary colic, cholangitis, cholecystitis, hepatic abscesses and acute pancreatitis. Ascarides traverse the ducts repeatedly, get trapped and die, leading to formation of hepatolithiasis. HPA is ubiquitous in endemic regions and in Kashmir, one such region, HPA is the etiological factor for 36.7%, 23%, 14.5% and 12.5% of all biliary diseases, acute pancreatitis, liver abscesses and biliary lithiasis respectively. Ultrasonography is an excellent diagnostic tool in visualizing worms in gut lumen and ductal system. The rational treatment for HPA is to give appropriate treatment for clinical syndromes along with effective anthelmintic therapy. Endotherapy in HPA is indicated if patients continue to have symptoms on medical therapy or when worms do not move out of ductal lumen by 3 wk or die within the ducts. The worms can be removed from the ductal system in most of the patients and such patients get regression of symptoms of hepatobiliary and pancreatic disease.

  19. [Current ascariasis situation in the Russian Federation].

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    Darchenkova, N N; Romanenko, N A; Chernyshenko, A I

    2006-01-01

    In the Russian Federation (RF), ascariasis remains to be the most common geohelminthiasis, in children in particular. With its overall reduction, the prevalence of ascariasis is very uneven on the RF territory. In the past 15 years, from 1991 to 2004, there was a steady-state decrease in the incidence of ascariasis from 79.5 to 46.0 per 100,000. Its incidence rates remained higher than the average Russian ones in 33 RF subjects and lower than those in 48 subjects and began reducing in 8 subjects in the past 4 years. Of the 33 RF subjects wherein the incidence rates were constantly greater than the average Russian ones, 27 subjects are located in the natural background-favorable areas. In the past 15 years, there was an increase in the impact of socioeconomic factors on the higher incidence of ascariasis: the population's migration; the delivery and transport of Ascaris egg-contaminated greens, vegetables, berries; the development of hothouse gardening, and, as a result, the occurrence of ascariasis in the northern areas of the country, as well as the use of discharged waters for soil fertilization to grow crops. The territory of Russia was first epidemiologically districted in the context of ascariasis, by taking into account the natural background and socioeconomic factors. The area of ascariasis is on the rise. In all RF subjects, public health and social security bodies should constantly keep in mind the problem in ascariasis control and prevention.

  20. Laproscopic Management of Wandering Biliary Ascariasis

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    Umesh Jethwani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ascariasis is one of the most common helminthic diseases in humans, occurring mostly in countries with low standards of public health and hygiene, thereby making ascariasis highly endemic in developing countries. In endemic areas, 30% of adults and 60–70% of children harbour the adult worm. Biliary ascariasis is a rare cause of obstructive jaundice. Conventional management involves endoscopic extraction of worm. We are reporting a rare case of ascaris which induced extrahepatic biliary obstruction in a young male who presented with acute cholangitis. The ascaris was removed by laparoscopic exploration of the common bile duct. Postoperative period was uneventful.

  1. Spatial ascariasis risk estimation using socioeconomic variables.

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    Valencia, Luis Iván Ortiz; Fortes, Bruno de Paula Menezes Drumond; Medronho, Roberto de Andrade

    2005-12-01

    Frequently, disease incidence is mapped as area data, for example, census tracts, districts or states. Spatial disease incidence can be highly heterogeneous inside these areas. Ascariasis is a highly prevalent disease, which is associated with poor sanitation and hygiene. Geostatistics was applied to model spatial distribution of Ascariasis risk and socioeconomic risk events in a poor community in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Data were gathered from a coproparasitologic and a domiciliary survey in 1550 children aged 1-9. Ascariasis risk and socioeconomic risk events were spatially estimated using Indicator Kriging. Cokriging models with a Linear Model of Coregionalization incorporating one socioeconomic variable were implemented. If a housewife attended school for less than four years, the non-use of a home water filter, a household density greater than one, and a household income lower than one Brazilian minimum wage increased the risk of Ascariasis. Cokriging improved spatial estimation of Ascariasis risk areas when compared to Indicator Kriging and detected more Ascariasis very-high risk areas than the GIS Overlay method.

  2. Ascariasis presenting as acute abdomen during pregnancy and puerperium.

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    Gupta, Avantika; Rathore, Asmita Muthal; Manaktala, Usha

    2013-03-01

    Ascariasis can have various clinical presentations. We present three cases of ascariasis in pregnant or postpartum women, presenting with acute abdomen. The diagnosis of ascariasis was made clinically with the passage of ascaris worms in the vomitus or stool and was supported by ultrasonography. All three patients were treated successfully using anthelmintics. One patient underwent exploratory laparotomy.

  3. Management of biliary ascariasis in pregnancy.

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    Shah, Omar Javed; Robanni, Irfan; Khan, Fayaz; Zargar, Showkat Ali; Javid, Gul

    2005-10-01

    Ascariasis is a helminthic infection of humans caused by the nematode Ascaris lumbricoides. Biliary ascariasis is one of the most common and well described entities caused by ascaris. In endemic areas pregnant women are prone to develop biliary ascariasis. Its management poses a great challenge to both the attending surgeon and the endoscopist. Between January 1993 and March 2003, 15 cases of biliary ascariasis were seen in pregnant patients in our institution. Ultrasonography was used as the main investigative tool. Treatment involved management by conservative, endoscopic, and surgical methods, taking due care of both the mother and the fetus. Ten patients (66.6%) were in the third trimester of pregnancy, and 10 (66.6%) patients were in their third pregnancy. Ultrasonography proved to be the best tool for diagnosing and monitoring worms inside the biliary ductal system. Nine (60%) patients responded to the conservative treatment; endoscopic extraction was successful in 4 (66.6%) patients. Surgical treatment was required in 2 (13.3%) patients. One (6.6%) patient had had spontaneous abortion at 12 weeks gestation, and one (6.6%) patient had a premature labor. The remaining patients had normal pregnancies. Management of biliary ascariasis in pregnancy is a challenge for both the attending surgeon and the endoscopist. Safe and effective management requires special attention to the gestational age and accurate recognition of the specific pathology in the patient. The majority of patients respond to conservative treatment, but endoscopic extraction may be needed in nonresponsive cases. Lead shielding of the fetus and limitation of the total fluoroscopic exposure during therapeutic endoscopy can minimize the teratogenic risk of ionizing radiation. Failures of endoscopic extraction may lead to surgical intervention, which carries risks of fetal wastage and premature labor. Routine worming of women in the child-bearing years is recommended in endemic areas of ascariasis

  4. Acute pancreatitis due to ascariasis: a sonographic pictorial essay on four cases.

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    Lynser, Donboklang; Thangkhiew, R S; Laloo, Demitrost; Hek, M D; Marbaniang, Evarisalin; Tariang, Satisfy

    2016-06-01

    Ascariasis is the commonest helminthic disease to infect humans. Due to their wandering nature, the roundworms from the second part of the duodenum migrate through the biliary opening into the hepatobiliary and pancreatic ducts. Ascariasis is the most common parasitic cause of pancreatitis in endemic region. Pancreatitis can result due to pancreatic ascariasis, biliary ascariasis or both. Pancreatitis due to ascariasis can be severe and life-threatening. We present a pictorial essay of acute pancreatitis due to ascariasis on four cases.

  5. Recurrent pancreatitis secondary to pancreatic ascariasis.

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    Lee, K H; Shelat, V G; Low, H C; Ho, K Y; Diddapur, R K

    2009-06-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides infestations are endemic in tropical countries. Ascaris lumbricoides can occasionally cause biliary obstruction and result in obstructive jaundice or pancreatitis. We present a 34-year-old Bangladeshi woman with biliary ascariasis, resulting in recurrent pancreatitis. Her diagnosis was made with endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography performed during an acute attack of pain.

  6. Incidence of ascariasis in gastric carcinoma

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    Kim, Jong Woo; Rhee, Hak Song; Bahk, Yong Whee [St Mary' s Hospital Catholic Medical College, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1972-09-15

    Prompted by the finding that the radiological incidence of small bowel ascariasis in the patient with gastric carcinoma was unexpectedly lower than the incidence in the normal population, a clinical study was performed to investigate possible relationship between gastric carcinoma and intestinal ascariasis. As a preliminary survey, we reviewed the radiological incidence of ascariasis in a total of 2,446 cases of upper GI series performed at the Department of Radiology, St Mary's Hospital Catholic Medical College. These included 1,573 normal subjects, 146 gastric carcinoma patients, 100 benign gastric ulcer and 249 duodenal ulcer patients and 378 other upper GI diseases. Following the preliminary study, a more accurate parasitologic study was conducted in another 578 normal subjects and 51 gastric carcinoma patients. The radiological incidences of ascaiasis in normal subjects and gastric carcinoma patients were 15.1% and 28.1%, respectively. The incidence of overall helminthiasis including ascaris lumbricoides, trichocephalus trichiurus and trichostrongyloides orientalis in normal subjects of the present series was 73.5%. This figure is virtually the same with 69.1% of the general population incidence reported by Kim, et al. (1971), but the incidence in gastric carcinoma patients was 94.1%. The high incidence pattern of overall helminthiasis in gastric carcinoma patients is, however, reversed as for as ascariasis is concerned. Thus, the incidence of ascariasis of gastric carcinoma patients was much lower than that of normal subjects (9.8% vs 19.4%). From the present observation, it is postulated that there can be some possible antagonistic relationship between evolution of gastric carcinoma and small bowel infestation of ascaris lumbricoides.

  7. An Unusual Presentation of Biliary Ascariasis

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    Arsad Bashir Khan, Sanjay Kumar Bhasin, Rajesh Kumar Bhagat, R. K. Chrungoo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Ascariasis is one of the most common disease in human being worldwide. Ascariasis is 2nd to gall stone asa cause of biliary symptoms. The invasion of biliary tract by round worms during early post operativeperiod is an infrequent but serious complication. We present 42 years old man operated for cholelithiasiswith Choledocholthiasis on whom choledochotomy and T -Tube insertion was done. On 5th postoperativeday Ascaris extruded peri-T-Tube and immediate T - Tube cholangiogram done that showed multiplefilling defects in Common Bile Duct (CBD. Patient was managed with saline irrigation of CBD viaT-Tube and anti-heliminthic was given. In view of its rarity and unusual presentation the case is beingreported.

  8. Obstructive jaundice induced by biliary ascariasis.

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    Keating, Aine; Quigley, James Aidan; Genterola, Al Frederick

    2012-12-13

    Ascaris lumbricoides is one of the most prevalent parasitic infections, especially in developing countries. Its presence can lead to a multitude of presentations, one of the rarer ones being obstructive jaundice due to migration of the worm in to the biliary tree. We describe a case of a man who presented as an emergency to the general surgeons complaining of abdominal pain, fever, jaundice and vomiting. Ultrasound was used and the diagnosis of biliary ascariasis was made. The patient underwent surgery consisting of a cholecystectomy, common bile duct exploration and T-tube choledochostomy. Our report highlights the varied aetiology of obstructive jaundice and the importance of including biliary ascariasis in the differential diagnosis of the jaundiced patient, especially from endemic areas.

  9. Ultrasonographic features of pseudotumorous form of ascariasis

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    Hui, Joyce Y.H.; Woo, Patrick C.Y. E-mail: pcywoo@hkucc.hku.hk; Kan, Pan Shing; Lai, Yeong Man; Tang, Alice P.Y

    2001-09-01

    We report the ultrasonographic findings of a 60 year old woman with pseudotumorous form of ascariasis. Real-time ultrasonographic examination using a curved array transducer revealed grossly thickened small bowel loops, multiple small circular deposits throughout the peritoneal cavity, and a moderate amount of ascites. The English literature on the different forms of abdominal ascariasis is reviewed. Specific signs, which include the 'strip' sign, the 'four-lines', 'inner tube', or 'double tube' sign, the 'bull's eye' or 'target' sign, a 'worm mass' or 'spaghetti-like' appearance, and the 'zig-zag' sign can be present in any form of abdominal ascariasis, as they represent the image of the Ascaris worms visualized under ultrasonographic examination. However, the non-specific signs are not peculiar to A. lumbricoides infections, but are results of secondary changes due to A. lumbricoides infections in the corresponding organs.

  10. Predisposition to ascariasis: patterns, mechanisms and implications.

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    Holland, C V

    2009-10-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides, the human roundworm, is a remarkably infectious and persistent parasite. It is a member of the soil-transmitted helminths or geohelminths and infects in the order of 1472 million people worldwide. Despite, its high prevalence and wide distribution it remains along with its geohelminth counterparts, a neglected disease. Ascariasis is associated with both chronic and acute morbidity, particularly in growing children, and the level of morbidity assessed as disability-adjusted life years is about 10.5 million. Like other macroparasite infections, the frequency distribution of A. lumbricoides is aggregated or overdispersed with most hosts harbouring few or no worms and a small proportion harbouring very heavy infections. Furthermore, after chemotherapeutic treatment, individuals demonstrate consistency in the pattern of re-infection with ascariasis, described as predisposition. These epidemiological phenomena have been identified, in a consistent manner, from a range of geographical locations in both children and adults. However, what has proved to be much more refractory to investigation has been the mechanisms that contribute to the observed epidemiological patterns. Parallel observations utilizing human subjects and appropriate animal model systems are essential to our understanding of the mechanisms underlying susceptibility/resistance to ascariasis. Furthermore, these patterns of Ascaris intensity and re-infection have broader implications with respect to helminth control and interactions with other important bystander infections.

  11. Our experience of biliary ascariasis in children

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    Wani M

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Ascariasis is highly endemic in Kashmir valley as temperate climate and wet soil provide excellent conditions for its development. We studied 198 cases (11% of biliary ascariasis out of 1,800 patients of worm infestation from December 2001 to December 2004 in the age group of 4-15 years. In our study, we found biliary ascariasis to be more common in female children, and most common clinical presentation was biliary colic in 143 patients, cholangitis in 28, cholecystitis in 15, liver abscess 7, pancreatitis 4 and postoperative worm infestation in 1 patient. Ultrasonography of abdomen was the diagnostic tool of choice with hundred percent results. Most of the patients were managed conservatively. ERCP was not done in children because of need of general anesthesia and difficulty in performing the procedure. Surgical intervention was required in 23 patients (cholecystectomy with CBD exploration in 5, choledochotomy alone in 13, drainage of liver abscess in 3, choledochoduodenostomy in 1 and peritoneal lavage in 1.

  12. Radiological findings of intraparenchymal liver Ascaris (hepatobiliary ascariasis)

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    Akata, D.; Oezmen, M.N.; Kaya, A.; Akhan, O. [Dept. of Radiology, Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Ankara (Turkey)

    1999-02-01

    Ascariasis is a well-known cause of acute cholangitis and cholecystitis; however, very rarely do worms penetrate and colonize the liver parenchyma. Here we present the unique radiological demonstration (US, CT and ERCP) of hepatobiliary ascariasis in which worm was first alive in the parenchyma of the liver and subsequently died and formed liver abscess. (orig.) (orig.) With 3 figs., 8 refs.

  13. Biliary ascariasis: MR cholangiography findings in two cases

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    Hwang, Cheol Mok; Kim, Tae Kyoung; Ha, Hyun Kwon; Kim, Pyo Nyun; Lee, Moon Gyu [Ulsan University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-09-01

    We describe the imaging features of two cases of biliary ascariasis. Ultrasonography and CT showed no specific abnormal findings, but MR cholangiography clearly demonstrated an intraductal linear filling defect that led to the correct diagnosis. MR cholangiography is thus a useful technique for the diagnosis of biliary ascariasis.

  14. Intrahepatic Duct Stones Harboring Ascariasis Ova: A Case Report.

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    Lee, Chen-Fang; Lee, Wei-Chen; Wu, Ren-Chin; Chen, Tse-Ching

    2016-03-01

    Ascariasis lumbricoides is one of the most common helminthic infestations in humans. Despite the fact that the prevalence of ascariasis in developed countries has been decreasing, biliary ascariasis can cause serious complications, such as acute cholangitis, pancreatitis, and liver abscess. Here we presented a rare ascariasis-related complication-hepatolithiasis.A 60-year-old female patient had symptoms of recurrent cholangitis. Abdominal computed tomography scan revealed left intrahepatic duct stones with left liver lobe atrophy. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography was performed, but the stones could not be removed due to left main intrahepatic duct stenosis. The patient was treated with left hemi-hepatectomy. Unexpectedly, Ascaris ova were found on the histopathological examination. She received antihelminthic therapy orally and was on regular follow-up without any complications.Our study indicates that clinicians should be aware of biliary ascariasis in patients with hepatolithiasis, though not living in endemic areas.

  15. Serum cytokine levels in human ascariasis and toxocariasis.

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    Malla, Nancy; Fomda, Bashir Ahmad; Thokar, Manzoor Ahmad

    2006-03-01

    Cytokine-mediated regulation of chronic intestinal helminth infections is well documented. The present study reports the serum cytokine responses in 38 ascariasis (stool samples positive for Ascaris lumbricoides ova) and toxocariasis (seropositive) patients, 8 ascariasis-positive and toxocariasis-seronegative patients, 22 endemic, normal, healthy subjects residing in areas hyperendemic for ascariasis and 16 normal healthy subjects residing in a low-endemic area in India. The results indicated T-helper type-2-type cytokine responses in ascariasis and toxocariasis (seropositive) and ascariasis-positive and toxocariasis-seronegative patients. The important observation was that both patients and healthy individuals in ascariasis-hyperendemic areas had significantly higher interleukin-5 (IL-5) responses than non-endemic control subjects. The altered immune responses of patients in areas hyperendemic of ascariasis may have further implications. Earlier reports suggest that the geohelminth parasites in endemic areas may modulate the immune response to oral vaccines. A critical role for IL-5 in the immune response against challenge infection consistent with the association of type-2 cytokines with vaccine-mediated protection has been reported. Furthermore, co-infection by pathogens that elicit opposing immune responses, particularly helminths vs HIV and tuberculosis, could influence the infection dynamics, progression and immunoprophylaxis of the diseases they cause. Further studies are warranted to ascertain these findings.

  16. Wandering biliary ascariasis with hepatic abscess in a postmenopausal woman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, N; Khan, N; Islam, S M; Chakraborty, R K; Rima, S Z; Alam, M N; Roy, A S

    2014-10-01

    Hepatobiliary ascariasis is common in developing countries where there is a low standard of public health and hygiene. We are reporting a rare case of ascariasis which induced multiple liver abscesses in a post menopausal woman who presented with fever, anorexia, nausea, vomiting and mild hepatomegaly. Ultrasonography revealed biliary ascariasis with multiple hepatic abscesses. Laparoscopic drainage of hepatic abscesses was done and microscopic examination of drainage materials showed decorticated eggs of Ascaris Lumbricoides. The post operative recovery of the patient was uneventful. Ultrasonography is a reliable modality to diagnose and follow up of such cases.

  17. Hepatolithiasis with biliary ascariasis – a case report

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    Khithani AS

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biliary ascariasis is regarded as possible etiological factor for hepatolithiasis. Here we report one case of a patient with hepatolithiasis with biliary ascariasis who developed a liver abscess, which was treated with partial hepatectomy. Case presentation A young adult female presented with epigastric pain and vomiting with repeated attacks of cholangitis. ERCP showed evidence of multiple intrahepatic calculi with the development of abscess in the left lobe of liver. The patient underwent partial hepatectomy and was found to have biliary ascariasis on histology. She was treated with antihelmenthic therapy and has had an uneventful postoperative period of 2 years. Conclusion Biliary ascariasis with hepatolithiasis, although rare, should be considered in endemic countries.

  18. Sonographic diagnosis of ascariasis causing small bowel obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Ramazan; Bekci, Tumay; Bilgici, Meltem Ceyhan; Polat, Ahmet Veysel

    2014-05-01

    Acute right lower quadrant pain is a common, but nonspecific presenting symptom of a wide variety of diseases in children. Sonography (US) can play a significant role in the accurate and early diagnosis of right lower quadrant pain. In this article, we report a case of small bowel obstruction due to intestinal ascariasis diagnosed at bedside US and confirmed by MRI and describe a new US sign of intestinal ascariasis.

  19. [Acute cholangitis secondary to ascariasis and complicated by liver abscesses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakotonaivo, A; Ranoharison, H D; Razarimahefa, S H; Rakotozafindrabe, R; Rabenjanahary, T H; Ramanampamonjy, R M

    2015-01-01

    Acute cholangitis secondary to ascariasis is rare and occurs mainly in areas of high endemicity. The clinical presentation is non-specific, sometimes complicated by liver abscess. Abdominal ultrasound plays an important role in diagnosis and therapeutic surveillance. We report the case of a 35-year-old Malagasy woman with an acute cholangitis secondary to ascariasis and complicated by liver abscesses and its course to full recovery under medical treatment.

  20. Ascariasis Is a Zoonosis in Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejsum, Peter; Parker, E. Davis; Frydenberg, Jane; Roepstorff, Allan; Boes, Jaap; Haque, Rashidul; Astrup, Ingrid; Prag, Jørgen; Skov Sørensen, Uffe B.

    2005-01-01

    A preliminary epidemiological survey indicated an association between Ascaris infections in Danish patients and contact with pigs or pig manure. In the present study, we compared Ascaris worms collected from humans and Ascaris worms collected from pigs by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis, a technique for whole-genome fingerprinting, and by PCR-linked restricted fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region of nuclear rDNA. The AFLP data were analyzed by distance- and model-based clustering methods. These results assigned Ascaris worms from Danish patients to a cluster different from that for worms from humans in other geographic areas. In contrast, worms from humans and pigs in Denmark were assigned to the same cluster. These results were supported by the PCR-RFLP results. Thus, all of the examined Danish patients had acquired Ascaris infections from domestic pigs; ascariasis may therefore be considered a zoonotic disease in Denmark. PMID:15750075

  1. Biliary ascariasis in a bile duct stones-removed female patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Pan, Yang-Lin; Xie, Yan; Wu, Kai-Chun; Guo, Xue-Gang

    2013-09-28

    Biliary ascariasis is a common problem in rural areas in China. The common presentations include biliary colic, acute cholangitis, obstructive jaundice, choledocholithiasis and acute cholecystitis. Here, we describe a case with biliary ascariasis two days after endoscopic sphincterotomy for choledocholithiasis. A living ascaris was successfully removed by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. This case indicated that biliary ascariasis is not an uncommon complication of endoscopic sphincterotomy in some regions where ascariasis is epidemic.

  2. Biliary ascariasis in a bile duct stones-removed female patient

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Biliary ascariasis is a common problem in rural areas in China. The common presentations include biliary colic, acute cholangitis, obstructive jaundice, choledocholithiasis and acute cholecystitis. Here, we describe a case with biliary ascariasis two days after endoscopic sphincterotomy for choledocholithiasis. A living ascaris was successfully removed by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. This case indicated that biliary ascariasis is not an uncommon complication of endoscopic s...

  3. 3 T MR cholangiopancreatography appearances of biliary ascariasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Z.X., E-mail: hangzhoudzx73@126.co [Department of Radiology, Zhejiang Provincial People' s Hospital, Hangzhou (China); Yuan, J.H. [Department of Radiology, Zhejiang Provincial People' s Hospital, Hangzhou (China); Chong, V. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, National University Health System, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Zhao, D.J. [Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Zhejiang Provincial People' s Hospital, Hangzhou (China); Chen, F.H.; Li, Y.M. [Department of Radiology, Zhejiang Provincial People' s Hospital, Hangzhou (China)

    2011-03-15

    Aim: To evaluate the 3 T MR cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) appearances of biliary ascariasis. Materials and methods: Nine patients with a MRCP diagnosis of biliary ascariasis were reviewed. All patients had endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) or surgical confirmation of the disease. Results: On thin-slab MRCP imaging, Ascaris worms are clearly demarcated within the biliary tree. All the identified worms demonstrated a characteristic three-parallel-lines appearance. The middle high-signal intensity line is sandwiched between two low-signal intensity lines and they are in turn surrounded by high signal bile. On thick-slab MRCP the worms also show the three-line sign but with less clarity. However, thick-slab MRCP has the advantage of providing three-dimensional ERCP-like images of the pancreaticobiliary system. Conclusion: The 'three-line' sign appears to be a characteristic sign of biliary ascariasis on 3 T MRCP.

  4. ASCARIASIS AND COEXISTANT STONE IN COMMON BILE DUCT IN POST CHOLECYSTECTOMY POST CHOLEDOCHOLITHOTOMY WOMAN: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Ascariasis is one of the commonest infections in Asia. Biliary ascariasis is a serious presentation of ascariasis which can result in life threatening complications including cholangitis, choledocholithiasis, Liver abscess, and Pancreatitis. We present a case of female from north Bihar who presented to us with biliary ascariasis and concomitant stone. Diagnosis was established by abdominal ultrasonography. Choledocholithotomy done and a live round worm with two biliary stone extracted.

  5. [Case report: an intestinal obstruction due to ascariasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sönmez Tamer, Gülden; Tamer, Yalçin

    2009-01-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides (A. lumbricoides) with which one billion people around the world is infected is also widely seen in Turkey. This case report presents an ascariasis infection which displayed typical radiological findings in Kocaeli, a non-endemic region of Turkey. The patient was admitted to hospital with symptoms of heavy abdominal pain, nausea-vomiting and weakness. The symptoms had started weakly three weeks earlier and the patient had applied to a private health care center. After a through examination with several appropriate tests including a barium small-bowel enema, a morphological finding similar to helminth was observed filling the lumen of the jejunum. When rectal swabs were examined A. lumbricoides oocytes were discovered. The patient was treated for two days with nasogastric drainage, piperazine (3.5 gr/day) in addition to a supportive therapy. The patient was surgically diagnosed to have a jejunal obstruction due to ascariasis.

  6. Ascariasis in Japan: is pig-derived Ascaris infecting humans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arizono, Naoki; Yoshimura, Yuta; Tohzaka, Naoki; Yamada, Minoru; Tegoshi, Tatsuya; Onishi, Kotaro; Uchikawa, Ryuichi

    2010-11-01

    Human ascariasis is caused by infection with the common roundworm Ascaris lumbricoides, although the pig roundworm Ascaris suum has also been reported to infect humans and develop into the adult stage. To elucidate whether pig-derived Ascaris infects humans in Japan, 9 Ascaris isolates obtained from Japanese patients and a further 9 Ascaris isolates of pig origin were analyzed to determine their internal transcribed spacer-1 sequences. Six of the 9 clinical isolates showed the Ascaris genotype which predominantly infects humans in endemic countries, while the other 3 clinical isolates and 9 pig-derived isolates showed the genotype predominant in pigs worldwide. These results suggest that at least some cases of human ascariasis in Japan are a result of infection with pig-derived Ascaris.

  7. Ascariasis: challenges in the diagnosis of single worm disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmi, S Poongodi Alias; Palaniappan, N; Arunagiri, A

    2013-09-01

    One of the most common parasitic infections in humans is ascariasis. While most infectionsare asymptomatic, mild to moderate symptoms may occur due to migration of adult worms. The frequency of single worm infection seems to be increasing. Ascaris eggs are not found in the faeces of most cases infected with a single worm because it is an immature male or female. Diagnosis of such single worm infection is challenging.

  8. A report of two cases of ascariasis pancreatitis managed conservatively

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laleng M Darlong

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ascaris lumbricoides is a common intestinal parasite in tropical and temperate regions. Although usually asymptomatic, infection can lead to biliary or intestinal obstruction and very rarely obstruction of the main pancreatic duct due to its smaller lumen. We report two cases of ascariasis in the main pancreatic duct, which is not a common site, presenting as acute pancreatitis and recovering uneventfully with conservative management.

  9. Ascariasis as a cause of recurrent abdominal pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, Gerly Edson; Teves, Pedro Montes; Monge, Eduardo

    2010-04-01

    Ascariasis is the most common helminthic infection in developing countries. It may cause chronic abdominal pain, tenderness and bloating. Our aim is to report a case of acute episodic abdominal pain and pancreatitis associated with ascariasis. We report a 59-year-old female patient who was admitted for acute abdominal pain, having had several previous similar events before one of them was diagnosed as acute idiopathic pancreatitis. On admission, her physical exam was normal. Laboratory results showed hemoglobin 12.2 g/dL, white blood cell count 11 900 cells/mm(3), eosinophils 420 cells/mm(3), serum amylase 84 IU/mL, lipase 22 IU/mL and normal liver function tests. Abdominal ultrasound and a plain abdominal X-ray were also normal. An upper endoscopy showed round white worms in the duodenum and the stomach, some of them with bile in their intestines. The intestinal parasites were diagnosed as Ascaris lumbricoides, and the patient was started on albendazole, with full recovery within a week. We believe that ascariasis should be considered in patients with recurrent abdominal pain and idiopathic pancreatitis.

  10. Real-time ultrasonographic findings of biliary ascariasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Seong Ku; Sung, Dong Wook; Ko, Young Tae; Kim, Ho Kyun; Kim, Soon Yong [Kyung Hee University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1983-06-15

    Although the ultrasonography has been regarded as a main procedure in the diagnosis of bile duct and gallbladder diseases, a few reports concerning the ultrasonographic findings of biliary ascariasis appeared in the literature. Seven cases of real-time ultrasonographic diagnosis of biliary ascariasis were made in our hospital during last 15 months. In six, the diagnosis was confirmed by surgery or radiographic examination. The results were as follows: 1. The characteristic long, thick, highly reflective echo without distal acoustic shadowing in the extra- and/or intra-hepatic ducts were seen in all six proven cases. 2. The echogenic, nonshadowing images of the worms were seen as single stripe in five cases (containing a central, longitudinal, anechoic tube, suggesting its digestive tract in three cases) or multiple stripes in one case. But so-called coiled appearance or amorphous fragments were not seen in our cases. 3. Associated findings were as follows: mild to moderate dilatation of the extrahepatic duct in all six proven cases, mild dilatation of the intrahepatic ducts in 3 cases, mild dilatation of the pancreatic duct in 1 case, intrahepatic stone in 1 case, contracted gallbladder containing single stone in 1 case and evidence of cholecystitis in 4 cases. 4. One false positive diagnosis of ascariasis in the gallbladder is considered due to reverberation artefact. No false negative was seen.

  11. Ascariasis-associated worm encephalopathy in a young child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jat, Kana Ram; Marwaha, R K; Panigrahi, Inusha; Gupta, Kunal

    2009-04-01

    Infestation with Ascaris lumbricoides in children has a varied manifestation, but encephalopathy is a very rare presentation. This report describes a case of ascariasis-associated encephalopathy in a child. An 18-month-old boy was admitted with altered sensorium. He had a history of vomiting and was passing Ascaris worms in the vomitus. The cerebrospinal fluid analysis did not reveal any abnormality. The patient was treated with an antihelminthic drug and he recovered completely. Worm encephalopathy should be considered as a differential diagnosis for unexplained encephalopathy in tropical areas.

  12. Gastro-intestinal ascariasis--an unusual autopsy case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanchan, Tanuj; Wasti, Harihar; Acharya, Jenash

    2015-09-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides or roundworms' propensity to produce large number of eggs that are resistant to extremes of environmental conditions have made them one of the highly prevalent and geographically well distributed nematodes among poor socio-economic regions throughout the world. We present an unusual case of fatal gastro-intestinal ascariasis where general neglect, and firm and prolonged reliance on traditional healing methods led to aggregation of roundworms to such an extent that otherwise seems improbable in modern times and, hence, is worth reporting.

  13. Intestinal ascariasis at pediatric emergency room in a developed country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umetsu, Shuichiro; Sogo, Tsuyoshi; Iwasawa, Kentaro; Kondo, Takeo; Tsunoda, Tomoyuki; Oikawa-Kawamoto, Manari; Komatsu, Haruki; Inui, Ayano; Fujisawa, Tomoo

    2014-10-14

    Ascaris lumbricoides infection is rare among children in developed countries. Although large numbers of adult Ascaris in the small intestine can cause various abdominal symptoms, this infection remains asymptomatic until the number of worms in the intestine considerably increases in most cases. Ascaris causing bilious vomiting suggesting ileus is rare, especially in developed countries. A 6-year-old boy who lived in Japan, presented with abdominal colic, bilious vomiting at the pediatric emergency room. He appeared pale, and had no abdominal distention, tenderness, palpable abdominal mass, or findings of dehydration. He experienced bilious vomiting again during a physical examination. Laboratory tests showed mild elevation of white blood cells and C-reactive protein levels. Antigens of adenovirus, rotavirus, and norovirus were not detected from his stool, and stool culture showed normal flora. Ultrasonography showed multiple, round-shaped structures within the small intestine, and a tubular structure in a longitudinal scan of the small intestine. Capsule endoscopy showed a moving worm of Ascaris in the jejunum. Intestinal ascariasis should be considered as a cause of bilious vomiting in children, even at the emergency room in industrial countries. Ultrasound examination and capsule endoscopy are useful for diagnosis of pediatric intestinal ascariasis.

  14. Ascariasis as a cause of hepatic abscess: A report of 3 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, V; Thakur, S; Rana, B

    2015-01-01

    We receive around 60 cases of hepatic abscess in a year. The commonest diagnosis reached at the time of discharge is amoebic liver abscess. The diagnosis of amoebic liver abscess is mostly presumptive and thus the patients are usually given a mixed treatment with injection ceftriaxone and tablet metronidazole. Here we report three cases of hepatic abscess diagnosed recently, where ascariasis was the probable etiology. Ascariasis may be a much commoner cause of hepatic abscesses in this region than we think.

  15. Hepatobiliary and pancreatic ascariasis-sonographic pictorial essay on four pediatric cases with acute biliary colic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynser, Donboklang; Marbaniang, Evarisalin

    2016-04-01

    Hepatobiliary and pancreatic ascariasis occur due to migration of the round worm ascaris lumbricoides through the bile duct orifice finally reaching the common bile duct, main pancreatic duct, intrahepatic ducts or gallbladder. These resulted in acute epigastric and right hypochondriac region colicky pain. Ultrasound is the investigation of choice in hepatobiliary ascariasis. We present here sonographic images on four pediatric patients with acute biliary colic.

  16. Management algorithm for intestinal obstruction due to ascariasis: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefny, Ashraf F; Saadeldin, Yousif A; Abu-Zidan, Fikri M

    2009-05-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides is the largest and most prevalent of the human helminths. Ascariasis causes a unique type of intestinal obstruction with specific problems, having high morbidity and mortality. There is no management algorithm available in the literature to treat such cases. We aimed in this study to develop an algorithm for the management of intestinal obstruction due to ascariasis. A medline search of the English literature on the management of intestinal obstruction due to ascariasis was performed. Management of one of our patients with intestinal obstruction due to ascariasis is presented herein as an example of such cases. Intestinal obstruction due to ascariasis is a serious disease with a high morbidity and mortality, especially postoperatively. A management algorithm for the treatment was developed. The management of intestinal obstruction due to ascariasis was challenging and required difficult decisions. We think that this algorithm will be of great assistance in facilitating a rapid and successful treatment. This algorithm may prove to be of a great value for physicians treating such cases.

  17. Pig Ascaris: an important source of human ascariasis in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chunhua; Li, Min; Yuan, Keng; Deng, Shoulong; Peng, Weidong

    2012-08-01

    The aim of the present study is to detect the frequency and distribution of cross infection and hybridization of human and pig Ascaris in China. Twenty high polymorphic microsatellite loci were selected to screen 258 Ascaris worms from humans and pigs from six provinces in China. The software programs Structure, Baps and Newhybrids were used to determine the case of cross infection and hybridization of human and pig Ascaris. Results showed that cross infection was detected in all sampled locations and of the total 20 cross infection cases, 19 were indentified as human infections by pure-bred pig type Ascaris in contrast to only one case of pig infection by pure-bred human type Ascaris. Similar to the findings in cross infection, hybrid Ascaris was also detected in all locations and both host species and most of hybrids (95%) were detected from human host. The distribution of cross infection and hybrids showed significant difference between the two host species and among three categories of genotype in terms of G1, G2 and G3, and also between the south and north regions (for hybrids only). The results strongly suggest pig Ascaris as an important source of human ascariasis in endemic area where both human and pig Ascaris exist. In consideration of current control measures for human ascariasis targeting only infected people, it is urgently needed to revise current control measures by adding a simultaneous treatment to infected pigs in the sympatric endemics. The knowledge on cross transmission and hybridization between human and pig Ascaris is important not only for public health, but also for the understanding of genetic evolution, taxonomy and molecular epidemiology of Ascaris.

  18. An alien in the gallbladder. A rare case of biliary ascariasis in an Italian emergency department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Ferri

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Ascariasis is a common infection in many developing countries. The prevalence of ascariasis is related to poverty, poor hygienic and sanitary conditions. The adult form of Ascaris lumbricoides usually resides in the human intestinal lumen (more frequently in the jejunum and middle ileum and does not cause symptoms. However, it can occasionally cause severe complications such as intestinal obstruction or perforation peritonitis. Its migration into the biliary tract is not uncommon but gallbladder involvement is very rare. Abdominal ultrasonography is essential to detect the presence of this parasite. In this article, we describe the radiologic findings, clinical manifestations and successful medical treatment of a patient with gallbladder ascariasis diagnosed in an emergency setting.

  19. Notes from the field: ascariasis associated with pig farming - Maine, 2010-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-24

    During April 2010-March 2013, the Maine Department of Health and Human Services investigated multiple cases of ascariasis that had been reported by health-care providers, veterinarians, and patients. All of the cases were in persons who had lived or worked on Maine farms and had frequent exposure to pigs. Ascariasis, a parasitic roundworm infection caused by Ascaris species, is the most common human intestinal worm infection globally. However, because ascariasis is not a reportable disease, limited data exist regarding the incidence of this infection in the United States, and the number of annual cases in Maine is unknown. After investigation, 14 persons on seven farms in Maine were identified with Ascaris infection.

  20. Biliary ascariasis in the Indian subcontinent: A study of 42 cases

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    Mukhopadhyay Madhumita

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: History of ascariasis is known to stretch back many centuries. One quarter of the world′s population is known to be infected by ascariasis. It is endemic in various parts of the Indian subcontinent and the gangetic plain of West Bengal is one of them. We aimed to study the various types of clinical presentations, complications and different diagnostic tools and to assess various options for the management of biliary ascariasis. Materials and Methods: Forty-two cases of hepatobiliary ascariasis were studied over a period of 3 years. All the patients were adults aged between 20 and 50 years and all but two were admitted with acute upper abdominal pain. Results: In this study, biliary ascariasis was found to be more common in females, 73.8% (31 patients. The most common presentation was upper abdominal pain in 95.2% of the patients (40 patients. Complications observed were obstructive jaundice in 28.56% (12 patients, cholangitis in 16.7% (seven patients, acute pancreatitis in 2.4% (one patient and hepatic abscess in 2.4% (one patient. History of worm emesis was present in 38.1% (16 patients. History of previous cholecystectomy was present in 16.7% (seven patients and endoscopic sphincterotomy in 4.8% (two patients. Ultrasound was the diagnostic tool of choice with 100% results. Conservative management was successful in 83.3% (35 patients. During follow-up, worm reinvasion of the biliary system occurred in 7.1% (three patients. Conclusion: In endemic countries, ascariasis should be suspected in patients with biliary disease, especially if a cholecystectomy or sphincterotomy has been performed in the past. Most of the patients respond to conservative management.

  1. Ascaris suum enolase is a potential vaccine candidate against ascariasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ning; Yuan, Zi-Guo; Xu, Min-Jun; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Zhang, Xiu-Xiang; Zhang, Yan-Zhong; Wang, Xiao-Wei; Yan, Chao; Lin, Rui-Qing; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2012-05-14

    Ascariasis caused by Ascaris is the most common parasite problem in humans and pigs worldwide. No vaccines are available for the prevention of Ascaris infections. In the present study, the gene encoding Ascaris suum enolase (As-enol-1) was amplified, cloned and sequenced. Amino acid sequence alignment indicated that As-enol-1 was highly conserved between different nematodes and shared the highest identity (87%) with enolase from Anisakis simplex s.l. The recombinant pVAX-Enol was successfully expressed in Marc-145 cells. The ability of the pVAX-Enol for inducing immune protective responses against challenge infection with A. suum L3 was evaluated in Kunming mice. The immune response was evaluated by lymphoproliferative assay, cytokine and antibody measurements, and the reduction rate of recovery larvae. The results showed that the mice immunized with pVAX-Enol developed a high level of specific antibody responses against A. suum, a strong lymphoproliferative response, and significant levels of IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4 and IL-10 production, compared with the other groups immunized with empty plasmid or blank controls, respectively. There was a 61.13% reduction (P<0.05) in larvae recovery compared with that in the blank control group. Our data indicated that A. suum enolase is a potential vaccine candidate against A. suum infection.

  2. Ascariasis as a cause of hepatic abscess: A report of 3 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Chauhan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We receive around 60 cases of hepatic abscess in a year. The commonest diagnosis reached at the time of discharge is amoebic liver abscess. The diagnosis of amoebic liver abscess is mostly presumptive and thus the patients are usually given a mixed treatment with injection ceftriaxone and tablet metronidazole. Here we report three cases of hepatic abscess diagnosed recently, where ascariasis was the probable etiology. Ascariasis may be a much commoner cause of hepatic abscesses in this region than we think.

  3. Gallbladder ascariasis with uneventful worm migration back to the duodenum: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushtaque, Majid; Khan, Parwez Sajad; Mir, Mohammad Farooq; Khanday, Samina Ali

    2012-04-01

    Ascariasis, a worldwide parasitic disease, is regarded by some authorities as the most common parasitic infection in humans. The causative organism is Ascaris lumbricoides, which normally lives in the lumen of the small intestine. From the intestine, the worm can invade the bile duct or pancreatic duct, but invasion into the gallbladder is quite rare because of the anatomical features of the cystic duct, which is narrow and tortuous. Once it enters the gallbladder, it is exceedingly rare for the worm to migrate back to the intestine. We report a case of gallbladder ascariasis with worm migration back into the intestine, in view of its rare presentation.

  4. Biliary ascariasis: an uncommon cause for recurrent biliary colic after biliary sphincterotomy and common bile duct stone removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thandassery, Ragesh Babu; Jha, Ashish Kumar; Goenka, Mahesh Kumar

    2014-04-01

    Endoscopic retrograde cholangiography is the most commonly used technique for removal of common bile duct stones. Biliary sphincterotomy during the procedure facilitates stone retrieval from the common bile duct. However, sphincterotomy ablates the normal biliary sphincter mechanism. This facilitates duodeno-biliary reflex and can result in inward migration of luminal parasite into the biliary system. In areas where ascariasis is endemic there is an increased risk of biliary ascariasis in postbiliary sphincterotomy patients. We report an unusual case where a patient presented with recurrent biliary colic after cholecystectomy and common bile duct stone extraction and was diagnosed to have biliary ascariasis with the help of endoscopic ultrasound examination of the biliary system.

  5. Ascariasis in humans and pigs on small-scale farms, Maine, USA, 2010-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Leigh Ann; Colby, Kate; Manning, Susan E; Hoenig, Donald; McEvoy, Elizabeth; Montgomery, Susan; Mathison, Blaine; de Almeida, Marcos; Bishop, Henry; Dasilva, Alexandre; Sears, Stephen

    2015-02-01

    Ascaris is a genus of parasitic nematodes that can cause infections in humans and pigs. During 2010-2013, we identified 14 cases of ascariasis in persons who had contact with pigs in Maine, USA. Ascaris spp. are important zoonotic pathogens, and prevention measures are needed, including health education, farming practice improvements, and personal and food hygiene.

  6. Management of hepatobiliary and pancreatic ascariasis in children of an endemic area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Arshad Hussain; Saima, B D; Wani, M Y

    2006-02-01

    Ascariasis is the most common parasitic infestation in endemic areas and accounts for 50-60% of pediatric admissions in the surgical emergency department. Hepatobiliary and pancreatic ascariasis accounts for about 10% of such admissions. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the clinical features, investigations, and management of hepatobiliary and pancreatic ascariasis. The study was conducted in the endemic areas of Kashmir in northern India over a period of 3 years. During the study period (May 2001 to April 2004), 214 children with hepatobiliary and pancreatic ascariasis were admitted in the department. These children underwent complete clinical evaluation, investigation including ultrasound, and ERCP when required. Surgical intervention was done in patients who failed to settle with medical treatment. Ninety percent of our admissions were from rural areas and 86% of the children presented with pain in the right hypochondrium. Twenty-two percent of patients presented with cholangitis, whereas 39% of the children had mild icterus at presentation. Thirty-eight percent of the children had vomited worms during the episode of illness. Ultrasound was the diagnostic method of choice, which revealed the worms in the CBD in 80% of the patients, and in gall bladder in 16% of the children. Eight patients had worms in the main pancreatic duct while seven (4%) had multiple small liver abscesses. Serum alkaline phosphatase was raised in majority of children (80%). Twenty (9%) children were referred for ERCP. Medical treatment including endoscopic management was successful in 97% of the children. Seven (4%) children had to be operated upon due to complications of the disease. We conclude that the majority of the children with hepatobiliary and pancreatic ascariasis respond to conservative treatment, and surgical treatment is rarely needed.

  7. Ascariasis as an Unexpected Cause of Acute Pancreatitis with Cholangitis: A Rare Case Report from Urban Area

    OpenAIRE

    Pochamana Phisalprapa; Varayu Prachayakul

    2013-01-01

    Context Ascaris lumbricoides is one of the most common parasitic infestations of human gastrointestinal tract. This parasiticinfestation might be asymptomatic and only few studies on extraintestinal ascariasis have been reported. Ascending cholangitis and acute pancreatitis as a result of the Ascaris lumbricoides migrating into the biliary system and pancreatic duct were very rare complications. Here, we presented a case report of biliary ascariasis induced acute pancreatitis with cholangitis...

  8. Ascariasis in people and pigs: new inferences from DNA analysis of worm populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Weidong; Criscione, Charles D

    2012-03-01

    Ascaris is a large parasitic roundworm (nematode) of the small intestine of humans and pigs. These roundworms cause the socioeconomically important disease, ascariasis. For the past 20 years, molecular markers have been used in studies on Ascaris and ascariasis, and added valuable information to the understanding of these roundworms. Here, we provide a review of these studies on human and pig roundworms. We begin with a summary of studies using molecular phenotypic markers to compare Ascaris from humans and pigs, followed by a synopsis of comparisons using genetic markers. We then draw forth inferences in the aspects of host affiliation and infection success, transmission between and among humans and pigs, evolutionary history of Ascaris. We also highlight additional topics such as mating dynamics, diagnostics, and paleoparasitology where molecular epidemiological approaches have been utilized.

  9. A rare case of ascariasis in the gallbladder, choledochus and pancreatic duct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gönen, Korcan Aysun; Mete, Rafet

    2010-12-01

    Due to the anatomical characteristics of the biliary tract, Ascaris lumbricoides rarely settles in the gallbladder, which makes biliary ascariasis a rare clinical condition. Ultrasonography plays a significant and practical role in the diagnosis and follow-up of suspected cases of biliary ascariasis. The 15-year-old case presented herein had been complaining of abdominal pain and dyspepsia for three months, and the clinical and laboratory findings for the patient indicated acute abdomen. Abdominal ultrasonography showed worms consistent with Ascaris inside a normal-sized gallbladder, dilated choledochus and the pancreatic duct. We started antiparasitic treatment in the patient, with cholangitis and pancreatitis diagnoses. Post-treatment follow-up ultrasonography showed a normal gallbladder, choledochus and pancreatic duct.

  10. [A new approach to diagnosing and evaluating the efficiency of dehelmintization in ascariasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tur'ianov, A Kh; Valishin, D A; Valinurova, E R

    2008-01-01

    The results of dehelmintization were studied in 127 patients with the intestinal stage of ascariasis. Its diagnosis was established by the Kato test. The ovoscopic technique was combined with the trend of proinflammatory cytokines and the grade of dysbacteriosis. There was a strong direct correlation of the high levels of proinflammatory cytokines and the high-grade dysbacteriosis with the inefficiency of expulsion of the parasite.

  11. Epidemiology of ascariasis, enterobiasis and giardiasis in a Romanian western county (Timis), 1993-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neghina, Raul; Dumitrascu, Victor; Neghina, Adriana Maria; Vlad, Daliborca Cristina; Petrica, Ligia; Vermesan, Dinu; Tirnea, Livius; Mazilu, Octavian; Olariu, Tudor Rares

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to bring new and important data regarding the epidemiology of ascariasis, enterobiasis and giardiasis in the Romanian largest county during a 14-year period. We have performed a retrospective collection and analysis of the available information provided by the general practitioners to the Statistics Department database of the Timis County Public Health Authority. The mean annual incidence of the studied parasitic diseases during 1993-2006 was the following: 194 cases per 100,000 inhabitants (range: 90-304) for ascariasis, 777 cases per 100,000 inhabitants (range: 417-1241) for enterobiasis and 1076 cases per 100,000 inhabitants (range: 93-1770) for giardiasis. Noteworthy is that Romania reported 90.8% of the total cases of giardiasis at the European Union's level during 2006-2008. The general trend of the incidences throughout the studied period was constant for ascariasis (R(2)=0.192, p=0.1), showed no statistically significant variation (R(2)=0.025, p=0.6) for enterobiasis and was upward for giardiasis (R(2)=0.6, p=0.001). Intestinal parasitoses represent an important public health concern in Romania due to the extremely high incidence rates reported. Special attention should be paid to the young population (0-14 years), where the negative disease consequences on children's health and their educational process may be traced for a long-term. Therefore, efficient educational programs and campaigns should be timely implemented.

  12. Immunoproteomic approach for identification of Ascaris suum proteins recognized by pigs with porcine ascariasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Miguel, Javier; Morchón, Rodrigo; Gussoni, Stefania; Bossetti, Erika; Hormaeche, Marta; Kramer, Laura Helen; Simón, Fernando

    2014-07-14

    Ascaris suum, the causative agent of porcine ascariasis, is responsible for marked economic losses in pig farms worldwide. Despite recent advances in research, including the characterization of the genome of A. suum, knowledge about the parasite/host relationship in porcine ascariasis at the molecular level is scarce and chemotherapy is the only effective option for parasite control. The aim of this study was to identify immunogenic proteins of A. suum somatic antigens associated with the pathogenicity/survival mechanisms of the parasite, by using two-dimensional (2-D) electrophoresis, 2-D Western blot and mass spectrometry (MS). A total of 24 parasite proteins recognized by serum samples from pigs naturally infected with A. suum were identified. Most of them (23/24) were identified as being involved in parasite survival mechanisms, including functions related to energy generation (12 proteins) and redox processes (5 proteins). These results may aid the search for effective chemo-therapeutic targets in porcine ascariasis. Further studies are needed, however, to illustrate the effect of the host immune response on the survival mechanisms of A. suum.

  13. Epidemiological Study of Ascariasis in Hamadan City , West of Iran, 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Fallah

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Ascaris lumbricoides is the most common intestinal parasite in the world. Various studies has indicated the high prevalence of this parasite in Iran, specially in the west parts of Iran. The epidemiological study of intestinal parasitic infection is prerequisite for planning of control programs. The Hamadan province is one of the most tourist attraction regions of Iran and providing a safe environment for travelers is the main aim of regional authorities. A mass chemotherapy for Ascariasis performed in rural areas of Hamadan province for a five years period but, no any intervention was done for control of this parasite in the Hamadan city. Therefore, an epidemiological study of Ascariasis in this town was necessary. A cross sectional study carried out by cluster random sampling in Hamadan and 580 stool specimens collected from different parts of city. The stools were examined by formalin ether concentration technique for ova and parasites and intensity of infection was determined by quantitative modified Stoll method. Mean infection rate of Ascariasis was 19.5%. The Farhangian suburb (northern part had higher infection rate than other parts(28.5% and central parts of city showed lower infection rate(12.7%. The highest infection rate were found in the 31-40 years age group (33.8% and in the females(23.9%.In view of intensity, 59.3% of infections were moderate and 48.3% had low intensity. No any high intensity were found. Mean egg per gram(epg were 7129 and 48.7% of eggs were infertile. This study indicated that , prevalence of Ascaris in Hamadan city is considerable at present and a suitable intervention, like health education and selective chemotherapy is necessary to decrease the infection.

  14. Comparative study on presentation of biliary ascariasis with dead and living worms

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    Alam Shahinul

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: Ascariasis is a common parasitic infestation in Asia and Latin America. The most serious presentation is biliary and pancreatic ascariasis (BPA. The aim of the present study was to compare the clinical presentation of BPA with dead worms with that with living worms. Materials and Methods: We included 138 consecutive cases of BPA that occured during the period January 2005 to July 2009. All the patients had endoscopically proven BPA consisting of living or dead worms. Comparison was done by chi-square and independent t tests. Results: The age (mean ± SD of the patients was 36.8 ± 16.1 years. Prevalence ratio between male and female patients was 1:5. Ninety eight patients contained living worms and 40 had dead worms. Males were more prone to develop dead worm BPA. The commonest presentation was biliary colic (131; 94.9%; others were acute cholangitis (30; 21.7%, obstructive jaundice (19; 13.8%, choledocholithiasis (20; 14.5%, acute pancreatitis (10; 7.2%, acute cholecystitis (6; 4.3%, liver abscess (2; 1.4%, hepatolithiasis (3; 2.2%, stricture of common bile duct (2; 1.4%, pancreatic abscess (1; 0.7% and cirrhosis of liver (1; 0.7%. Choledocholithiasis, hepatolithiasis, liver abscess and cirrhosis were associated only with dead worms. We could successfully remove all the worms with endoscopic interventions, but 5 patients required surgical intervention as there were strictures and stones within the biliary tree or Ascaris were in gallbladder. Recurrences of stone and cholangitis occurred only in those with dead worms. Conclusion: Biliary ascariasis with dead worms is more dangerous than that with living worms. Endoscopic or surgical intervention may be required repeatedly in those with dead worms.

  15. Evolution of ascariasis in humans and pigs: a multi-disciplinary approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loreille Odile

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The nematode parasite Ascaris lumbricoides infects the digestive tracts of over 1.4 billion people worldwide, and its sister species, Ascaris suum, has infected a countless number of domesticated and feral pigs. It is generally thought that the putative ancestor to these worms infected either humans or pigs, but with the advent of domestication, they had ample opportunity to jump to a new host and subsequently specialize and evolve into a new species. While nuclear DNA markers decisively separate the two populations, mitochondrial sequences reveal that three major haplotypes are found in A. suum and in A. lumbricoides, indicating either occasional hybridization, causing introgression of gene trees, or retention of polymorphism dating back to the original ancestral species. This article provides an illustration of the combined contribution of parasitology, archaeoparasitology, genetics and paleogenetics to the history of ascariasis. We specifically investigate the molecular history of ascariasis in humans by sequencing DNA from the eggs of Ascaris found among ancient archeological remains. The findings of this paleogenetic survey will explain whether the three mitochondrial haplotypes result from recent hybridization and introgression, due to intensive human-pig interaction, or whether their co-occurrence predates pig husbandry, perhaps dating back to the common ancestor. We hope to show how human-pig interaction has shaped the recent evolutionary history of this disease, perhaps revealing the identity of the ancestral host.

  16. Pulmonary ascariasis: two cases in Austria and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoenigl, Martin; Valentin, Thomas; Zollner-Schwetz, Ines; Salzer, Helmut J F; Raggam, Reinhard B; Strenger, Volker; Flick, Holger; Wurm, Robert; Krause, Robert

    2010-10-01

    Ascariasis is the most common helminthic infection, with an estimated worldwide prevalence of 25%. The estimated mortality ranges from 0.8 to 1%. Second stage larvae pass through the intestinal wall and migrate via the portal vein system to the liver and then proceed to the lungs, where they may produce pneumonia and eosinophilia. Symptoms include wheezing, dyspnea, nonproductive cough, hemoptysis, and fever. Two cases of pulmonary ascariasis in Austrian males are reported. Both patients presented with dyspnea, nonproductive cough, fever, and eosinophilia (19 and 26%). One patient additionally had pulmonary infiltrates. Recent travel history was unremarkable in both individuals. Serology for Ascaris was positive twice in both patients, while microscopic examination of stool was negative for helminthic ova. Extensive diagnostic procedures were performed to rule out possible differentials for the patients symptoms. Both patients responded well to antiparasitic treatment with albendazole 400 mg and mebendazole 100 mg q12h for 3 days, respectively. This report highlights the importance of considering parasitic infection in patients presenting with eosinophilia and pulmonary symptoms also in Austria.

  17. Hyperthemia after cardiac surgery due to ascariasis in a child: report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maekawa, Yoshiyuki; Sakamoto, Takahiko; Umezu, Kentaroh; Ohashi, Noburoh; Harada, Yorikazu; Matsui, Hikoroh

    2012-07-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides is the most common parasite affecting humans, especially in countries and regions with lower socio-economic conditions. A 2-year-old female child underwent right pulmonary angioplasty using cardiopulmonary bypass. Serious hyperthermia continued after surgery, and, therefore, a re-exploration of the mediastinum was performed because mediastinitis was suspected. No evidence of wound infection was revealed. Ascaris lumbricoides was subsequently isolated from her stool. The patient had no further hyperthermia throughout her hospitalization and was discharged uneventfully on post-operative day 12. The probable origin of the fever was an A. lumbricoides infection and ascariasis may cause the occurrence of serious hyperthermia during the perioperative period. Ascaris lumbricoides infection may, therefore, cause high-grade fever after cardiac surgery.

  18. Ascariasis of gallbladder: a rare case report and a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanduri, Sachin; Parashari, Umesh C; Agrawal, Deepak; Bhadury, Samarjit

    2014-01-01

    Ascariasis of the gallbladder is a very rare presentation. We report a case of a 15-year-old boy who presented with complaints of pain in the abdomen, vomiting, pruritus, and fever on-and-off for 10 days. On radiological examination, an ultrasonography of the abdomen showed a dilated gallbladder with multiple linear echogenic, tubular, parallel lines inside the lumen of the gallbladder, common bile duct and intrahepatic biliary radicles. The zigzag and coiling movement of a worm was noted in the lumen of the gallbladder on real time B-mode ultrasonography. The patient was successfully treated with an anthelminthic drug. On follow up no evidence of the worm was noted in the gallbladder or common bile duct lumen.

  19. [Report on 16 cases of small intestine ascariasis diagnosed by capsule endoscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pu; Li, Rong-Zhi; Huang, Zhi-Yin; Tang, Cheng-Wei

    2013-06-01

    The clinical data and capsule endoscopy image of 16 adult patients with small intestine ascariasis were reviewed and analyzed retrospectively from June 2006 to June 2012 in West China Hospital. Among the 16 patients, 15 cases manifested as gastrointestinal bleeding, 15 cases showed anemia (3 severe, 10 moderate, and 2 mild), 2 had hypoalbuminemia, 1 had peripheral blood eosinophilia. All the cases were found to be fecal occult blood positive, but no Ascaris eggs found in the feces. Capsule endoscopy showed they were infected with Ascaris worms. The worms were found in the proximal small intestine in 14 patients and 2 in the distal intestine. Mucosal erythema and erosions around the worm were observed in 3 cases, and 7 cases were found with active bleeding or old haemorrhage in small intestine.

  20. [The ecological and epidemiological principles of prevention of ascariasis under the conditions of large-scale solid waste storage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kas'ianov, V I

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents the results of a study of the impact of large-scale solid waste storage on ascariasis morbidity in the population. The use of sewage sediments as an organic soil fertilizer to grow strawberries and table greens is shown to substantially increase the risk of Ascaris infection in the population. Storage of solid domestic garbage on specialized dumping grounds does not lead to mass environmental pollution with geohelminthic eggs.

  1. Sequential therapy for biliary ascariasis in 19 cases%序贯治疗胆道蛔虫病19例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘金生; 袁璐

    2010-01-01

    Objective To improve the curative effect of non-invasive therapy for biliary ascariasis to shorten the course of treatment and minimize the chance of invasive managements such as surgery and endoscopic therapy. Methods The sequential therapy was conducted as: intravenous injection of vitamin C → oral administration of acid drug → expel the worm in the biliary tract. Results For the 19 cases of biliary ascariasis, 15 responded to the conservative treatment after one course of treatment,2 responded to it after two courses, 1 after 3 courses and 1 did not. Conclusion Sequential therapy is effective, convenient and simple for biliary ascariasis and it can reduce the chance of invasive management.%目的 提高非手术治疗胆道蛔虫病的疗效,缩短疗程,避免或减少手术等有创治疗.方法 序贯治疗:静推维生素C→口服酸性物→驱蛔虫.结果 19例胆道蛔虫病人,15例1疗程治愈,2例2疗程,1例3疗程,1例无效.结论 序贯治疗胆道蛔虫起效快,疗效确定,方法简便易行,可避免或减少手术等有创治疗.

  2. Follow-up study of prevalence and control of ascariasis in swine populations in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilić, Tamara; Becskei, Zsolt; Tasić, Aleksandar; Dimitrijević, Sanda

    2013-09-01

    The cause of the most significant helminth diseases in swine - Ascaris suum, can also causes infections in humans. The use of swine manure in agriculture renders the eggs of this ascaridida an accessible source of infection, thus posing a significant risk factor for human health. With the objective of proving the prevalence of infection with A. suum nematodes in the territory of Serbia, investigations were carried out in the period between 2007-2011 in the territories of five districts: North Bačka, South Banat, Braničevo, Zlatibor and Nišava. The investigations covered coprological examinations of 1031 feces samples of swine originating from farms owned by individual breeders. The samples were examined using the standard flotation method with a saturated water solution of NaCl. The established prevalence of ascariasis infection amounted to 47.62% (1031/491). The biggest prevalence of infection was determined in the territory of the Braničevo District, 65.78% (301/198), and the smallest in the territory of the Nišava District, 32.24% (183/59). In spite of its prevalence and vast economic importance, there is still insufficient information about the key aspects of the biology and epidemiology of A. suum. Viewed from the aspect of epizootiology, it is very important to know the prevalence of swine infections with Ascaris because of the possible infection of humans by its migrating larvae.

  3. Barium X-ray diagnosis of intestinal ascariasis%肠道蛔虫病的钡造影X线诊断

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪瑞锋

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the value of X-ray diagnosis of intestinal ascariasis. Methods 2cases of intestinal ascariasis underwent barium contrast examination. Results of 2 cases of intestinal ascariasis X-ray manifestations have varying degrees of gastrointestinal adverse change, direct sign as intestinal barium insect film. Has the vital significance conclusion X-ray contrast examination in diagnosis of intestinal ascariasis, it can find the cause for direct found ascaris.%目的:探讨肠道蛔虫病的X线诊断价值。方法对2例肠道蛔虫病患者行钡造影检查。结果2例肠道蛔虫病X线表现均有不同程度胃肠功能不良改变,直接征象为肠道内钡虫影。结论 X线造影检查对肠道蛔虫病的诊断具有重要的意义,它可以为直接发现蛔虫找出病因。

  4. Utilizing environmental, socioeconomic data and GIS techniques to estimate the risk for ascariasis and trichuriasis in Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholte, Ronaldo G C; Freitas, Corina C; Dutra, Luciano V; Guimaraes, Ricardo J P S; Drummond, Sandra C; Oliveira, Guilherme; Carvalho, Omar S

    2012-02-01

    The impact of intestinal helminths on human health is well known among the population and health authorities because of their wide geographic distribution and the serious problems they cause. Geohelminths are highly prevalent and have a big impact on public health, mainly in underdeveloped and developing countries. Geohelminths are responsible for the high levels of debility found in the younger population and are often related to cases of chronic diarrhea and malnutrition, which put the physical and intellectual development of children at risk. These geohelminths have not been sufficiently studied. One obstacle in implementing a control program is the lack of knowledge of the prevalence and geographical distribution. Geographical information systems (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) have been utilized to improve understanding of infectious disease distribution and climatic patterns. In this study, GIS and RS technologies, as well as meteorological, social, and environmental variables were utilized for the modeling and prediction of ascariasis and trichuriasis. The GIS and RS technologies specifically used were those produced by orbital sensing including the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The results of this study demonstrated important factors related to the transmission of ascariasis and trichuriasis and confirmed the key association between environmental variables and the poverty index, which enabled us to identify priority areas for intervention planning in the state of Minas Gerais in Brazil.

  5. Socio-environmental factors and ascariasis infection among school-aged children in Ilobu, Osun State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugbomoiko, U S; Dalumo, V; Ofoezie, I E; Obiezue, R N N

    2009-03-01

    The risk factors predisposing children to ascariasis transmission in a rural community of Osun State, Nigeria were investigated from November 2005 to April 2006. Children below 16 years of age were examined at the household level after information on biodata, access to water supply and sanitation, socio-economic status of their parents and degree of cohabitation with their parents was collected using a questionnaire. Of 440 children examined, overall prevalence was 60% and median intensity was 1548 eggs per gram (epg) (min. 48 epg; max. 55464 epg). Infection patterns were gender comparable and age dependent, with peak prevalence (67.8%) occurring in children aged 5-9 years and peak median intensity (4368 epg) in children aged >or=15 years. Logistic regression analysis revealed that prevalence was influenced by patterns of water supply and sanitation, parents' educational background, number of biological parents living with a child and number of playmates a child has. These findings suggest that socio-environmental risk factors which play a role in disease transmission need to be taken into account when formulating sustainable control strategies for ascariasis and other intestinal parasites in Nigeria and elsewhere.

  6. Application value of endoscopy in treatment of biliary ascariasis%内镜在治疗胆管蛔虫病中的应用价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段学慧; 李刚; 李龙芸; 陈小英

    2013-01-01

    目的 评价内镜在治疗胆管蛔虫病中的应用价值.方法 采用电子胃、十二指肠镜直视下治疗胆管蛔虫病36例.结果 36例患者中蛔虫部分进入胆管35例,均1次成功取出;另1例患者多发胆管蛔虫嵌顿于十二指肠乳头,内镜下乳头切开术(EPT)后取出多条胆管蛔虫.36例患者缓解腹痛快,均缩短了病程,无并发症发生.结论 内镜下治疗胆管蛔虫病是一种快速、安全、有效的方法,消除了胆结石形成因素,值得基层医院推广应用.%Objective To evaluate the application value of endoscopy in treatment of biliary ascariasis.Methods 36 cases of biliary ascariasis were treated by electronic gastroscope and duodenoscope.Results There were 35 cases of roundworm partially entering the bile duct,all 35 cases once removed successfully.One case of biliary ascariasis inlayed in the duodenal papilla,a plurality of biliary ascariasis were removed by endoscopic sphincterotomy (EPT).Abdominal pain could be relieved quickly,the course of disease was shortened in all 36 patients,no complication occurred.Conclusion The endoscopic treatment of biliary ascariasis is a fast,safe,and effective method.

  7. Intestinal obstruction in children due to Ascariasis: A tertiary health centre experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishra P

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ascariasis is the infestation by the largest intestinal nematode of man, a common problem in the tropics attributed to poor hygienic and low socioeconomic conditions. The aim of this research is to analyse the presentation, diagnosis and management of bowel obstruction caused by Ascaris lumbricoides, with special emphasis on the role of conservative management. Materials and Methods: This is a single centre, two consultant based 5 year retrospective study of childhood intestinal obstruction due to worms. Diagnosis in the suspected patients was based on history of passage of worms per mouth or rectum and on x-ray and ultrasonography findings. Only the patients of intestinal obstruction with documented evidence of roundworm infestation were included in the study and were followed for one year. Results: One hundred and three children with intestinal obstruction due to Ascaris lumbricoides were treated in the past five years at our centre. Abdominal pain was the most common presentation seen in 96 children followed by vomiting in 77 children. 20 children had history of vomiting worms and another 43 had history of passing worms in stool. Abdominal tenderness was present in 50 children, 48 had abdominal distension of varying degree, 50 had abdominal mass due to worm bolus, and 16 had or developed abdominal guarding or rigidity. All the children were managed as for acute intestinal obstruction along with hypertonic saline enema. The aim of management was "to starve the worm and hydrate the patient". 87 patients (84.47% responded favourably and were relieved of the obstruction by the conservative management, 16 children (15.53% had abdominal guarding or rigidity and underwent emergency exploration. Conclusion: Roundworm obstruction should be considered in the differential diagnoses of all cases of intestinal obstruction in children. Clinical history and examination along with X-ray and ultrasonography are very helpful for diagnosis of this

  8. Incidental detection of ascariasis worms on USG in a protein energy malnourished (PEM) child with abdominal pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suthar, Pokhraj Prakashchandra; Doshi, Rajkumar Prakashbhai; Mehta, Chetan; Vadera, Khyati P

    2015-03-12

    A 10-year-old child presented with dull aching periumbilical abdominal pain for 15 days. The child was not gaining weight despite a good appetite. Physical examination of the child revealed grade-I protein energy malnourishment (PEM) according to IAP (Indian Academic of Paediatrics) classification. The rest of the systemic examination was normal. Routine blood investigation revealed anaemia with eosinophilia. Abdominal ultrasonography did not show any abnormality with curvilinear transducer (3.5-5 MHz), however, linear ultrasound transducer (7.5-12 MHz) with harmonic tissue imaging showed worms in the lumen of the small intestine with curling movement on real time scanning. Stool examination for the eggs of ascariasis was positive. The patient was treated with antihelminthic drugs. Dietary modification for the PEM was advised. After 3 months of treatment, the patient improved and stool examination for Ascaris was negative on follow-up.

  9. [A case of ascariasis in the gallbladder successfully treated with an anthelmintic injection into the gallbladder via a percutaneous transhepatic catheter].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikuta, Syuzo; Mizuguchi, Yasuhiro; Tsuji, Yuichiro; Tsukamoto, Sakiko; Oba, Nobuyuki; Nishinakagawa, Syuta; Kojima, Tatsuya

    2010-05-01

    A man in his 40s who had made frequent visits abroad was admitted to our hospital complaining of epigastric pain. Ultrasonography (US) revealed an "inner tube sign" in the gallbladder, which suggested a diagnosis of ascariasis in the gallbladder. Pyrantel pamoate was directly injected into the gallbladder via a percutaneous transhepatic catheter. The worm was dead 10 minutes after the injection. US revealed reduction of the worm's length and then the disappearance of the worm from the gallbladder at both 13 days and 2 months after the injection. This method is less invasive than operation and therefore is possibly more safe. It is known that the number of cases of ascariasis may increase in Japan due to increased organic vegetable consumption and foreign travel. We need to consider this disease in the differential diagnosis of epigastric pain.

  10. MRI and MRCP features of biliary ascariasis%胆道蛔虫病的MRI及MRCP表现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文宝红; 程敬亮; 张会霞; 阎晨宇

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨胆道蛔虫病(biliary ascariasis,BA)的MRI及磁共振胰胆管成像(MR cholangiopancreatography,MRCP)的表现,提高胆道蛔虫病的影像诊断准确率.方法 回顾分析经临床及影像学检查确诊的9例BA患者的MRI及MRCP表现.结果 9例BA均呈条状,其中8例位于胆囊,病变T1WI上呈稍高信号,T2WI上呈低信号,3例表现为低信号中央见线状稍高信号,如"三线"征,8例MRCP上胆囊内见条状充盈缺损;1例蛔虫位于肝总管及胆总管,T1WI及T2WI未见显示,MRCP上肝总管及胆总管内见细条状低信号充盈缺损.结论 BA的MRI 及MRCP 表现具有特征性,依据其可做出明确诊断.%Objective To investigate MR imaging and MR cholangiopancreatography(MRCP) features of biliary ascariasis(BA) , so that to improve the knowledge of this disease. Methods MRI and MRCP findings of 9 cases with BA verified by clinic and imag-ings were retrospectively analyzed. Results At MR imaging, Bas appeared as strip in all cases, among them, 8 Bas located in gallbladder, the lesions were slightly hyperintense on TiWI and hypointense on T2WI, linear slightly hyperintense were showed in the central of the hypointense on T2 WI in 3 cases, like as three parallel lines, 8 Bas were seen as strip hypointense filling defect in gallbladder on MRCP. 1 BA located in common hepatic duct and commom bile duct, which did not show by Ti WI and T2 WI, while a strip hypointense filling defect on MRCP was detected. Conclusion MRI and MRCP manifestations of BA are characteristic, the diagnosis can be identified based on MRI and MRCP appearances.

  11. Ascaridíase biliar complicada: espectro de problemas e táticas cirúrgicas Biliary ascariasis: spectrum of surgical problems and tactics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisieux Eyer de Jesus

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Discutir as variantes clínicas e táticas para tratamento cirúrgico da ascaridíase biliar complicada. MÉTODO: Trabalho retrospectivo de pacientes operados por complicações de ascaridíase biliar num período de cinco anos. RESULTADOS: São descritos quatro casos de ascaridíase biliar complicada em crianças (três pré escolares e um escolar, expressos através de pseudocisto pancreático, icterícia obstrutiva, colangite e múltiplos abscessos hepáticos, todos tratados cirurgicamente. Descrevemos detalhes técnicos da abordagem operatória para cada um dos casos. CONCLUSÕES: O espectro das afecções biliares secundárias à ascaridíase é variável e é necessário um arsenal de táticas operatórias para a abordagem de cada caso. É desaconselhável o uso de anti-helmínticos antes da resolução clínica da invasão da via biliar. A afecção preferencial de crianças jovens exige o uso de técnicas e materiais adequadamente delicados para a manipulação das vias biliares.BACKGROUND: To discuss the clinical expression and technical variations involved in the surgical treatment of complicated biliary ascariasis. METHODS: Retrospective study of patients operated on to treat complicated biliopancreatic ascariasis in a five year period. RESULTS: We describe four cases of complicated biliary ascariasis affecting children (three pre-schoolers and one school-aged child, clinically expressed as pancreatic pseudocyst, obstructive icterus, cholangitis and multiple hepatic abscesses, all surgically treated. We discuss aspects of operative treatment for each one of these patients. CONCLUSION: There are many variations concerning clinical and surgical presentations of biliary ascariasis, and a number of surgical tactics are necessary to solve those cases. We are against the use of anti-helmintics before the clearance of biliary passages. Preferential compromise of young children makes it necessary to use adequate and miniaturized

  12. 86例胆道蛔虫症的诊疗回顾%Review of the Diagnosis and the Treatment of 86 Cases of Biliary Ascariasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李洪明; 周仕勇; 刘林

    2013-01-01

    目的:回顾性分析86例胆道蛔虫症患者的诊疗过程,探讨胆道蛔虫症的诊疗方法。方法:首先予以中药乌梅汤加肠虫清口服,高压氧治疗,未能成功者施以十二指肠镜检查结合ERCP方法治疗,二者均失败后采用胆道探查术。结果:采用多种方法相结合的综合治疗患者均治愈。结论:采用多种方法相结合治疗胆道蛔虫症的综合疗法值得推广。%Objective:To retrospectively analyze the diagnosis and the treatment process of 86 cases of biliary ascariasis.Method:Firstly patients were given the decoction of fructus mume and oral zentel,hyperbaric oxygen therapy,if this method failed then patients were imposed the duodenoscopy combined with the ERCP treatment,if both methods were failed then patients were given the duct exploration.Result:The patients treated by comprehensive treatment combined multiple methods were all cured.Conclusion:The comprehensive treatment combined with multiple methods to treat biliary ascariasis is worthy of promoting.

  13. 浅谈20例小儿蛔虫病的治疗%To Explore the Effect of Treatment of Children With Ascariasis Based on 20 Cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘秋丽

    2015-01-01

    ObjectiveTo explore the treatment effect of children with ascariasis.Methods20 cases of children in our hospital from January 2013 to December 2014 were selected in this study.Results 20 children received the treatments according to their conditions. All of the children recovered.Conclusion After effective treatment, the children with ascariasis recovered very well. The children and their families are satisifed.%目的:对小儿蛔虫病的治疗及疗效进行研究探讨。方法选取我院2013年1月~2014年12月间收治的患有蛔虫病的患儿20例进行探究。结果20患儿根据其患病情况选择治疗方式,经过治疗后都已痊愈出院。结论小儿蛔虫病患者经过有效治疗,疗效明显,患儿及家属均满意。

  14. MRI diagnosis of biliary ascariasis in children%儿童胆道蛔虫病的MRI表现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦勇; 蔡金华; 丁永刚

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨儿童胆道蛔虫病( BA)的MRI表现特点。方法回顾性分析13例BA患儿的临床及MRI资料,总结其MRI表现特点。结果虫体信号:表现为条状低信号充盈缺损13例,其中呈典型“三线”征5例;虫体位置:胆总管内12例,合并肝内胆管内3例,合并胆囊内蛔虫2例,单发于肝内胆管1例;虫体数量:除1例先天性胆总管囊肿术后胆道内可见多条蛔虫外,其它多为1~2条;虫体形态:呈条状、圈状、团状等多形态表现;并发症:13例BA均并发胆管扩张,合并胆管炎4例、胆囊炎2例,胰管轻度扩张3例。结论儿童胆道蛔虫病MRCP表现在虫体信号、位置、数量及并发症方面有一定特点,结合临床常可对BA做出正确诊断。%Objective To study the clinical and MRI features of biliary ascariasis ( BA) in children. Methods The clinical data and MRI findings in thirteen children with BA confirmed by MRI and( or) surgery were analyzed retrospectively. Results All the cases were de-tected with MR scanning and MRCP. All ascaris’ worms(wall) signal showed equal or slightly higher signal on T1WI and low signal on T2WI. In which,5 cases’ worms showed characteristic MR feature of concentric circles sign or three-line sign After devouring liquid. Worms’ position of 12 cases were in common bile duct,accompanied by 3 cases in intrahepatic bile ducts,accompanied by 2 cases in the gallbladder and one case in the intrahepatic bile duct alone. Worms’ morphological manifestations were mostly changeable,such as strip,cir-cle shape or lump. Excepting the one who had a history of congenital choledochal cyst excision had a large number of worms,the others had mostly one or two. BA was accompanied by bile duct dilatation in 13 cases,cholangitis in 4,cholecystitis in 2 and dilated pancreatic duct in 3. Conclusion MR imaging of children BA showed characteristics in worms signal,position,number and morphological

  15. Molecular epidemiology of ascariasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Betson, Martha; Halstead, Fennella; Nejsum, Peter;

      We are using molecular epidemiology techniques to study the population structure of Ascaris obtained from humans and pigs. Worms were obtained from human hosts on Zanzibar and in Uganda, Bangladesh, Guatemala and Nepal and Ascaris from pigs were collected from in Uganda, Tanzania, Denmark...

  16. Molecular epidemiology of ascariasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Betson, Martha; Nejsum, Peter; Bendall, Richard P.;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The roundworm Ascaris lumbricoides infects 0.8 billion people worldwide, and Ascaris suum infects innumerable pigs across the globe. The extent of natural cross-transmission of Ascaris between pig and human hosts in different geographical settings is unknown, warranting investigation...

  17. Ascaris and ascariasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dold, Christina; Holland, Celia V

    2011-07-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides and Ascaris suum are widespread parasitic nematodes of humans and pigs respectively. Recent prevalence data suggests that approximately 1.2 billion people are infected. Adult worms exhibit an overdispersed frequency distribution in their hosts and individuals harbouring heavy burdens display associated morbidity. In this review, we describe the parasite, its distribution and measures undertaken to control infection.

  18. Biliary Ascariasis Complicated with Acute Pancreatitis in 69 Cases of Clinical Research%胆道蛔虫病并发急性胰腺炎69例临床探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵洁

    2013-01-01

    目的对胆道蛔虫病并发急性胰腺炎的治疗方法以及注意事项等进行分析与探讨。方法对本医院在2008年2月~2012年9月之间收治的胆道蛔虫合并急性胰腺炎患者的临床资料进行回顾性分析与总结。结果患者出现了不同的症状,经过驱虫治疗效果较好,有的患者由于延误治疗时机转移至外科治疗。结论纤维胃镜检查系胆道蛔虫并发胰腺炎是较为有效的治疗方法,此病的治疗应该本着镇痛、解痉、驱虫和控制感染的基本原则。%Objective treatment of biliary ascariasis complicated with acute pancreatitis and mat ers needing at ention are analyzed and discussed. Methods the biliary ascariasis in this hospital between 2008 February to 2012 September were combined with clinical data of patients with acute pancreatitis were retrospectively analyzed and summarized. Results the patients had dif erent symptoms, after anthelmintic treatment ef ect is good, some patients delayed treatment to surgical treatment because of. Conclusion Gastroscopy of biliary ascariasis complicated with pancreatitis is more ef ective treatment, the treatment should be in line with the basic principles of analgesic, antispasmodic, antihelminthic and infection control.

  19. Establishment and application of ascariasis transmission mathematical models in China%我国蛔虫病传播数学模型的建立与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王骏; 陈颖丹; 刘伦皓; 李华忠; 汤林华

    2011-01-01

    目的 建立我国蛔虫病传播数学模型并用于现场预测.方法 选择四川翠屏、江西进贤和湖南岳阳3个调查点,通过现场调查获取基线、服药后1月和1年后人群蛔虫感染率及平均虫负荷,构建蛔虫种群动力学、分布及感染率等传播数学模型.由现场数据获得模型参数,代入模型后预测1年后的感染水平,与实际调查数据比较,针对与药物驱虫措施相关的因素进行敏感性分析.结果 翠屏、进贤、岳阳3个调查点蛔虫基线感染率分别为28.79%、20.35%和20.72%,平均虫负荷分别为1.32、0.65和0.48,药物驱虫后1年感染率分别为30.10%、7.51%和0.94%,平均虫负荷分别为1.04、0.56和0.34.服药1年后感染率和平均虫负荷均在实际观察值的95%可信区间内.敏感性分析结果显示服药覆盖率和治疗频次是影响疾病收益(平均虫负荷、感染率)的重要因素.结论 本研究建立的蛔虫病传播数学模型较好地拟合了现场数据,可为制定蛔虫病控制规范和优化防治策略提供理论依据.%Objective To establish ascariasis transmission mathematical models and apply them to predict field status. Methods Cuiping District in Sichuan Province, Jinxian County in Jiangxi Province and Yueyang County in Hunan Province were selected as the investigation sites. The Ascaris lumbricoides infection rates and mean worm burdens of baseline, 1 month and 1 year later after deworming were acquired by field surveys. The transmission models on population dynamics, distribution and infection rate were developed. The model parameters obtained through the field data were substituted into models to predict the infection level one year after deworming. The predicted values were compared with the actual survey data, and the sensitivity analysis was performed to analyze factors related to the chemotherapy measures. Results The infection rates of Cuiping, Jinxian and Yueyang at baseline were 28.79%, 20

  20. 胆道蛔虫病推压按摩疗法二十八年回顾%On 28 Years'Practice of Pressure Massage for Treating Biliary Ascariasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛璇英

    1987-01-01

    本文回顾二十八年推压按摩治疗儿童胆道蛔虫病805例,除一例已并发肝脓肿行手术引流外,其它均由推压按摩完全治愈,无并发症.本文重点介绍推压按摩操作方法及推压按摩后驱蛔、利胆、矫正脱水等治疗时的注意事项.%During1957~1986. 906 cases of biliary as-cariasis were successfully treated non-surgicaliy by pressure massage upon the right upper abdomen in the author's hospital. All cases were simpe biliaryascariasis some complicated by mild biliary inflammation.Ultrasonography is helpful in monitoring the effect of pressure massage treatment and confirming the diagnosis. The typical figure of biliary ascariasis on ultasonography is a double-line Image of a moving worm. The teahnipue of pressure massage has been described in detail. The author concluded that such a non-surgical treatment,was simple, easy, effectiveand unexpensive.

  1. 高频超声在诊断小儿肠道蛔虫症中的应用价值%Value of high frequency ultrasound in the diagnosis of intestial ascariasis in children.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王东林; 符少清; 刘秉彦

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the value of applying high frequency ultrasound in the diagnosis of intestinal ascariasis in children. Methods The clinical and sonographic data of 27 children with abdominal pain were analyzed retrospectively. Results One to several ascarides were found in the intestinal of the 27 patients by sonography. After treatment by helminthicide, the ascarides were found to be either discharged or unobserved by sonography.Conclusion High frequency ultrasound has high clinical value in the diagnosis of intestinal ascariasis in children,which can be the optimum choice for the imaging examination of the disease.%目的 探讨高频超声在诊断小儿肠道蛔虫症中的价值.方法 回顾性分析27例腹痛患儿的临床及超声影像资料.结果 27例患儿肠腔内均可见一至数条蛔虫图像,经驱虫治疗后排出蛔虫或复查超声肠腔内未见蛔虫图像.结论 高频超声在诊断小儿肠道蛔虫症中有很高的临床价值,可作为该病首选的影像学检查方法.

  2. Asma e ascaridíase em crianças de 2 a 10 anos de um bairro de periferia Asthma and ascariasis in children aged two to ten living in a low income suburb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Nascimento Silva

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a associação entre asma e ascaridíase em crianças do bairro Pedregal, da cidade de Campina Grande (Paraíba, onde são baixos os indicadores de desenvolvimento humano. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: foi aplicado o questionário padrão do International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC, em 1.095 crianças, mas apenas 742 o responderam e entregaram a amostra fecal para realização do exame parasitológico. A faixa etária das 742 crianças incluídas no estudo transversal foi de 2 a 10 anos de idade. A associação entre asma e ascaridíase foi estudada pelo índice Kappa. As análises das variáveis demográficas e clínicas, comparando os dois grupos, foram realizadas pelo teste do qui-quadrado (chi² ou o teste t de Student para os dados quantitativos (contínuos. RESULTADOS: nas 742 crianças, as proporções dos sexos foram semelhantes: 51,9% (n = 385 do masculino e 48,1% (n = 357 do feminino. Nessas crianças, a prevalência de asma foi de 59,7% (n = 443 e da ascaridíase de 56,3% (n = 418, sendo semelhante (chi² = 0,27; p > 0,60 a freqüência de asma no grupo portador de ascaridíase (60,5% ou sem essa helmintíase (58,6%. CONCLUSÃO: apesar da elevada freqüência dos agravos estudados, não há aparente associação entre asma e ascaridíase na população estudada.OBJECTIVE: to assess the relation between children with asthma and ascariasis in the low income neighborhood of Pedregal, in Campina Grande (Paraíba, Brazil. MATERIAL AND METHOD: the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISSAC standard questionnaire was distributed to 1,095 children but only 742 of them answered it and provided stool samples for parasite examination. The cross-sectional study included those 742 children, whose age ranged from 2 to 10 years. The association between asthma and ascariasis was studied through Kappa rating. Demographic and clinic variants comparing the two groups were analyzed by chi-square test

  3. Epidemiological study on the influence of pig-derived Ascaris to the transmission of human ascariasis%猪蛔虫对人群蛔虫感染和传播作用的实验流行病学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭卫东; 周宪民

    2001-01-01

    Objective An experimental epidemiological study was designed to investigate possible relations of pig-derived Ascaris to the transmission of human ascariasis which might be caused by cross-infection between the pig and humans. Methods In Xinjian County, Jiangxi province, two adjacent villages, Laozhi and Panzhi, with similar baseline of ascariasis in pig and human populations were selected as the study sites with a one-year longitudinal epidemiological follow-up study. People in the two villages received mass chemotherapy. Pigs received mass chemotherapy only in Panzhi village and was twice repeated with two months interval, while pigs in Laozhi village were not treated at all. In the following year after treatment on humans, ascariasis among villagers was studied cross-sectionally five times with Kato-katz technique.Results No significant difference of the re-infection patterns of human ascariasis was found between the two villages in terms of prevalence and intensity during the following year in all the five surveys (χ2<0.658,F<1.658 and P>0.1).Conclusion The results suggested that pig-derived Ascaris were mainly transmitted among pigs but had no important role on the transmission of human ascariasis. The results were in good accordance with the findings through a recent molecular genetic research on the local human-and pig-derived Ascaris worms. Possible confounding factors were discussed.%目的 了解在人蛔虫和猪蛔虫感染并存的农村社区内因交叉感染发生的可能性,猪蛔虫对人群蛔虫感染传播的作用。方法 选择两个基线情况基本相同的自然村,即江西省新建县樵舍乡蔓湖行政村的老支村和畔支村为实验现场。在对两村所有人群进行相同药物治疗处理的同时,对其中1个村的猪群也进行治疗,并以约2个月的间隔重复对猪治疗2次,但对另一村的猪群不作治疗处理。在随后1年内,约每2个月1次,用改良加藤法观察

  4. Diagnosis and Treatment of Ascariasis Outbreak in a Pigeon Farm%某肉鸽场暴发蛔虫病的诊治

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚惠霞; 齐萌; 史亚东; 菅复春

    2011-01-01

    A pigeon group emerged to the sudden death (2.5% of mortality) in a pigeon farm.Clinical anatomy showed large of Ascarids parasiting in the gastrointestinal.Two hundred and twenty-six fecal samples were examined using the Sheather's sucrose flotation method.Four species of worms were detected, including Ascarid (39.8%), Angiostrongylus (2.7% ),tapeworm (2.7 % ), and Capillaria (2.2% ).Among which, Ascarid mainly infected adult pigeon and the infectious intensity was high.Thus, ascariasis was confirmed in this farm.Then, targeted therapies were used to the pigeon group.After treatment, no pigeon die again, and the infection rate decreased to 19.8%, it was lower than before.Moreover, Angiostrongylus and tapeworm were not detected.The result showed that treatment effect was well, the intestinal parasites was released in this pigeon farm.%某肉鸽场成年鸽群突发死亡,死亡率为2.5%,临床剖检可见胃肠道大量蛔虫寄生,应用饱和蔗糖溶液漂浮法对该鸽场共226份粪便样品进行调查,共发现4种蠕虫:蛔虫、圆线虫、绦虫和毛细线虫,感染率分别为39.8%、2.7%、2.7%和2.2%,其中,蛔虫为主要感染虫种,且感染强度较大,确诊该场暴发了蛔虫病.随后对鸽群进行针对性治疗,用药后鸽群未再出现死亡,蛔虫感染率从39.8%下降到19.8%,感染强度明显降低,圆线虫和绦虫未能检出,表明该场鸽肠道寄生蠕虫病得到较好的防治.

  5. Efficacy of duodenoscopic treatment of biliary ascariasis while preserving function of duodenal sphincter:a report of 69 cases%十二指肠镜下保留乳头括约肌功能治疗胆道蛔虫病69例疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘凯; 张威; 周强; 刘松阳; 李慧梅; 刘亚辉

    2014-01-01

    目的:观察十二指肠镜下保留乳头括约肌功能治疗胆道蛔虫病的疗效,并探讨此方法作为治疗胆道蛔虫病首选方法的可行性。方法回顾性分析2007-2013年间经十二指肠镜在保留患者乳头括约肌功能的情况下治疗69例胆道蛔虫病患者的临床资料。结果69例胆道蛔虫病患者保留了十二指肠乳头括约肌功能,胆道蛔虫均顺利取出,2~3 d患者出院,术后常规驱虫治疗,无急性胰腺炎、出血、穿孔等并发症。结论十二指肠镜下保留患者乳头括约肌功能治疗胆道蛔虫病安全、疗效显著、手术并发症少,应考虑作为治疗胆道蛔虫病的首选治疗方法。%Objective To observe the efficacy of duodenoscopic treatment of biliary ascariasis while preserving the function of the duodenal sphincter and to explore the feasibility of this technique as the preferred method for treatment of biliary ascariasis.Methods A retrospective analysis was performed on the clinical data of 69 patients with biliary ascariasis who received duodenoscopic treatment while preserving the function of the duodenal sphincter in our department from 2007 to 2013.Results All the 69 patients with biliary ascariasis not only pre-served the function of the duodenal sphincter,but also had the biliary ascarids successfully removed.The patients were discharged 2-3 days later and then received conventional helminthic treatment.No patients developed complications such as acute pancreatitis,bleeding,and perforation.Conclusion Duodenoscopic treatment of biliary ascariasis while preserving the function of the duodenal sphincter is safe and ef-fective and causes fewer surgical complications,so it should be considered as the preferred method for treatment of biliary ascariasis.

  6. Clinical experience of via gastroscope emergency treatment for part enters type biliary ascariasis of 17 cases%经胃镜急诊治疗部分进入型胆道蛔虫症17例临床体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔺汝江

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨经胃镜急诊治疗部分进入型胆道蛔虫症的效果。方法:收治部分进入型胆道蛔虫症患者17例,采用经胃镜急诊治疗,观察治疗效果。结果:治疗效果是满意的。结论:经胃镜急诊治疗部分进入型胆道蛔虫症的效果显著。%Objective:To explore the clinical effect of via gastroscope emergency treatment for part enters type biliary ascariasis. Methods:17 patients with part enters type biliary ascariasis were selected.They were treated by via gastroscope emergency treatment.We observed the effect of treatment.Results:The therapeutic effect was satisfactory.Conclusion:The clinical effect of via gastroscope emergency treatment for part enters type biliary ascariasis was significant.

  7. HEPATOBILIARY ASCARIASIS COMPLICATED BY PANCREATITIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhar, Muhammad; Sheikh, Ali Sibtain Farooq; Khan, Asim; Mustafa, Saqib; Shah, Imran Ali; Hameed, Bilal

    2015-01-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides is the commonest organism causing soil-transmitted helminth infection. It is particularly common in poor sanitary conditions. Nevertheless, involvement of the gallbladder by Ascaris is a rare entity. A lady presented to us with long-standing history of vague abdominal symptoms suggesting dyspepsia. Ultrasound showed a tube like structure invading the biliary channels. Serum amylase was elevated and the patient was managed conservatively, as for acute pancreatitis. She improved clinically, but subsequent imaging with magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography revealed worm in the gallbladder. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was done and Ascaris lumbricoides was removed. Ascaris infestation is an important differential diagnosis of patients with upper abdominal symptoms and screening with stool examination and ultrasound is warranted in high-risk population.

  8. 内镜下逆行胰胆管造影技术诊治成人胆道蛔虫病19例的临床分析%Nineteen cases of biliary ascariasis diagnosed and managed by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨卓; 高峰; 赵云峰; 麻树人; 张宁; 宫照杰

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the role of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) in the diagnosis and treatment of adult biliary ascariasis.Methods Clinical data of 19 cases of adult biliary ascariasis diagnosed and treated with ERCP during Jan 2005 to Dec 2012 were retrospectively analyzed.Results Among the 19 adult patients with biliary ascariasis,11 were male,and the mean age was (62.7± 10.8) years.Eight cases lived in the countryside,7 cases in the integration of urban and rural area,and 4 cases in urban area.All cases had histories of eating raw fruits and vegetables.Living worms were found in 9 cases.Four cases were complicated with common bile duct stones.Petrification of residual dead worms in the common bile duct was found in 10 cases.All ascariasis and residual bodies were removed successfully by ERCP.There were no postoperative complications except for 3 cases of hyperamylasemia.Conclusions Adult biliary ascariasis commonly occurs in the elderly,and is frequently complicated with common bile duct stones.ERCP is efficacious in treating biliary ascariasis.%目的 探讨内镜下逆行胰胆管造影(ERCP)在成人胆道蛔虫病诊断、治疗中的临床应用.方法 回顾性分析沈阳军区总医院内镜科2005年1月至2012年12月收治的19例经ERCP诊断、治疗的成人胆道蛔虫病患者的临床资料.结果 胆道蛔虫病患者共19例.其中男11例,女8例;平均年龄(62.7±10.8)岁.居住于农村8例,城乡结合部7例,城镇4例;全部病例均有生食蔬菜、瓜果习惯.19例患者中发现活体蛔虫9例,同时存在胆总管结石4例.胆总管内已死亡蛔虫残体石化10例,同时存在胆总管较大结石5例.全部患者均经内镜成功取出蛔虫和胆总管结石.术后出现高淀粉酶血症3例,未见其他并发症.结论 成人胆道蛔虫病的发病以中老年为主,易并发胆管结石,ERCP是治疗胆道蛔虫病的有效方法.

  9. Method and Result Analysis of the First Turn of Expert Questionnaires of Diagnosis and Treatment Guideline of TCM in Treating Infantile Ascariasis%蛔虫病中医药诊疗指南第一轮专家问卷调查方法和结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘晨; 韩新民

    2011-01-01

    目的 制订小儿蛔虫病中医药诊疗指南.方法 采用德尔菲(Delphi)法,在文献调研的基础上,编制第一轮专家问卷,向全国40位专家发送问卷调查,回收有效问卷35份,从诊断、证候分类、治法、选方等方面进行统计分析.结果 小儿蛔虫病的诊断指标中,脐周腹痛、反复发作的均数、满分比.等级和最高,分别为1.91、0.00、42;变异系数为0.154.证型指标中,肠蛔虫证的均数、满分比,等级和最高,分别为2.00、0.00、70;变异系数为0.000.治法和选方指标中,驱蛔杀虫、乌梅丸的均数、满分比、等级和均最高,两者三项指标值分别为1.97、0.00、69,变异系数均为0.086.结论 专家对小儿蛔虫病各项诊疗指标意见的集中程度和协调程度不一,尚需要进一步进行专家问卷调查,使专家的意见逐渐达成共识,以建立临床实用的、科学的蛔虫病中医诊疗指南.%Objective To formulate diagnosis and treatment guideline of TCM in treating infantile ascariasis. Methods: According to Delphi method, the first turn of expert questionnaires survey of this guideline was compiled on the basis of literate review. These questionnaires were mailed to 40 nationwide experts, in which 35 were taken back. Statistical analysis was made from the aspect of diagnosis, the classification of syndrome and symptom, therapy, prescriptions, etc. Results Among diagnosis indexes of infantile ascariasis, the mean, percentage and the highest rank sum of "repeated abdominal pain around umbilicus" were 1.91, 0.00, 42, and the variation coefficient was 0.154. Among all the indexes of syndromes, the mean, percentage and the highest rank sum of "intestinal ascariasis syndrome" were 2.00, 0.00, 70, and the variation coefficient was 0.000. The mean, percentage and the highest rank sum of both "evicting ascariasis" and "Wumei Pills" were 1.97, 0.00, 69 in the indexes of therapy and prescription, and the variation coefficient was 0

  10. Hepatobiliary alterations in massive biliary ascariasis: histopathological aspects of an autopsy case Lesões hepatobiliares em ascaridíase biliar maciça: aspectos histopatológicos em um caso de autópsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos da Costa Gayotto

    1990-04-01

    Full Text Available Hepatobiliary alterations found in an autopsy case of massive Biliary Ascariasis, are reported on histological grounds. Severe cholangitis was the main finding, but other changes were also detected, such as pyloric and intestinal metaplasia, hyperplasia of the epithelial lining, with intraductal papillomas and adenomatous proliferation. Remnants of the worm were observed tightly adhered to the epithelium, forming microscopic intrahepatic calculi. Mucopolysaccharides, especially acid, showed to be strongly positive on the luminal border, and in proliferated glands around the ducts. The authors discuss the similarity between such findings and Oriental Cholangiohepatitis, and suggest that inflammation and the presence of the parasitic remnants are responsible for the hyperplastic and metaplastic changes, similarly with what occurs in chlonorchiasis, fascioliasis and schistosomiasis.Os autores apresentam os aspectos histopatológicos encontrados no fígado de um caso de autópsia de Ascaridíase Biliar maciça. A intensa colangite foi o aspecto predominante, mas outras lesões também foram encontradas, tais como metaplasia pilórica e intestinal, hiperplasia epitelial com papilomas intraductais, e por vezes padrão adenomatoso. Restos do helminto foram encontrados fortemente aderidos ao epitélio, sendo intensa a positividade de mucopolissacárides, principalmente ácidos, na borda luminal do epitélio ductal e em glândulas proliferadas ao redor dos ductos. Os autores discutem a semelhança da Ascaridíase Biliar com a Colangio Hepatite Oriental, e sugerem que o processo inflamatório e a presença de restos do verme são responsáveis pelas alterações hiperplásicas e metaplásicas, analogamente ao que ocorre na clonorquíase, fasciolíase e esquistossomose.

  11. Report on 16 Cases of Small Intestine Ascariasis Diagnosed by Capsule Endoscopy%胶囊内镜诊断小肠蛔虫感染16例报告

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王璞; 李荣智; 黄志寅; 唐承薇

    2013-01-01

    The clinical data and capsule endoscopy image of 16 adult patients with small intestine ascariasis were reviewed and analyzed retrospectively from June 2006 to June 2012 in West China Hospital.Among the 16 patients,15 cases manifested as gastrointestinal bleeding,15 cases showed anemia (3 severe,10 moderate,and 2 mild),2 had hypoalbuminemia,1 had peripheral blood eosinophilia.All the cases were found to be fecal occult blood positive,but no Ascaris eggs found in the feces.Capsule endoscopy showed they were infected with Ascaris worms.The worms were found in the proximal small intestine in 14 patients and 2 in the distal intestine.Mucosal erythema and erosions around the worm were observed in 3 cases,and 7 cases were found with active bleeding or old haemorrhage in small intestine.%回顾性分析四川大学华西医院2006年6月至2012年6月共16例经胶囊内镜确诊的成人小肠蛔虫病患者的临床资料和胶囊内镜图像.16例粪检均未查见虫卵,其中消化道出血15例,贫血15例(重度3例、中度10例和轻度2例),低白蛋白血症2例,外周血嗜酸粒细胞增高1例,粪隐血阳性16例.经胶囊内镜检查均为蛔虫感染,其中14例虫体位于上段小肠,2例位于下段小肠.3例观察到虫体周围小肠黏膜充血红斑和糜烂灶,7例观察到小肠腔内有活动性渗血或陈旧性出血.

  12. Research of prevention effect and control policies of ascariasis in students in Beijing during the past 60 years%北京市中小学生蛔虫病防治效果及其对策分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段佳丽; 曾晓芃; 孙颖; 滕立新; 吕若然; 赵海

    2012-01-01

    Objective To analyze control policies and prevention effect of ascaris infection in Beijing during the past 60 years, and to provide referential experience for governments carrying out ascariasis and similar disease prevention and control. Methods The ascaris infection monitoring results since the founding of new China was collected and analyzed, as well as the stool test results of ascaris during national student physical health survey in Beijing area. Results The infection of ascarisis was popular at the founding of new China. The detection rate was 84. 95% ,80. 74% and 94. 94% for urban students in 1950s,urban and rural ones in 1960s,respectively. Since 1970s, ascaris infection rate of students was decreased in Beijing, 1990s dropped significantly than at any time in history, after 2000, infection rate of ascaris among Beijing student was at a very low level. The detection rate was 0 for urban students in 2005 and rural students in 2010. Conclusion Aseariasis is not a major health problem of students in Beijing any more. The key measures which effectively reduce ascaris infection rate are as follows: effectively collective expulsion of ascaris, comprehensive changes water lavatory and extensively health education in Beijing.%目的 分析建国60a北京市中小学生蛔虫感染控制相关政策.措施的效果,为开展蠕虫病防控提供可借鉴经验.方法 对建国以来北京市学生粪便蛔虫感染率监测结果和全国学生体质健康调研北京地医粪便蛔虫检验结果进行汇总分析.结果 建国初期北京市中小学生中蛔虫感染情况非常普遍,20世纪50年代城市学生蛔虫感染率为84.95%,20世纪60年代城市,农村蛔虫感染率分别为80.74%和94.94%.从20世纪70年代起,北京市学生蛔虫感染率明显下降.尤其是自1990年起蛔虫感染率下降幅度明显高于历史任何时期.2000年以后北京市学生蛔虫感染率处于低水平,其中2005年城市学生

  13. Biliary ascariasis on magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad A Hashmi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A 17-year-old girl presented with features of biliary obstruction. Magnetic resonance cholangi-pancreatography revealed typical linear signals in common bile duct, which appears like Ascaris lumbricoides. The diagnosis was confirmed by endoscopic removal of the worm.

  14. Ascariasis er en zoonose i Danmark- sekundærpublikation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nejsum, Peter; Parker, E. Davis; Frydenberg, Jane;

    2006-01-01

    Forekomsten af humane spolorminfektioner (askariose) er tidligere forklaret ved, at smitten enten er erhvervet under udlandsrejser eller ved indtagelse af uforarbejdede levnedsmidler importeret fra lande, hvor sygdommen er almindeligt forekommende. Epidemiologiske undersøgelser udført i Viborg Am...

  15. Respiratory Failure Associated with Ascariasis in a Patient with Immunodeficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksandra, Lanocha; Barbara, Zdziarska; Natalia, Lanocha-Arendarczyk; Danuta, Kosik-Bogacka; Renata, Guzicka-Kazimierczak; Ewa, Marzec-Lewenstein

    2016-01-01

    In industrialized countries, risk groups for parasitic diseases include travelers, recent immigrants, and patients with immunodeficiency following chemotherapy and radiotherapy and AIDS. A 66-year-old Polish male was admitted in December 2012 to the Department of Haematology in a fairly good general condition. On the basis of cytological, cytochemical, immunophenotypic, and cytogenetic analysis of bone marrow, the patient was diagnosed with acute myeloblastic leukemia. On the 7th day of hospitalization in the Department of Haematology, patient was moved to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) due to acute respiratory and circulatory failure. In March 2013, 3 months after the onset of respiratory failures, a mature form of Ascaris spp. appeared in the patient's mouth. This report highlights the importance of considering an Ascaris infection in patients with low immunity presenting no eosinophilia but pulmonary failure in the central countries of Europe. PMID:27313919

  16. Evidence for in utero sensitization to Ascaris lumbricoides in newborns of mothers with ascariasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guadalupe, Irene; Mitre, Edward; Benitez, Susana; Chico, Martha E; Nutman, Thomas B; Cooper, Philip J

    2009-06-15

    Ascaris lumbricoides infections in humans may have important effects on the development of allergy and on susceptibility to infectious diseases that start during early life. To investigate whether sensitization to A. lumbricoides occurs in utero, we measured interferon (IFN)-gamma and interleukin (IL)-4 responses in A. lumbricoides antigen-stimulated cord blood from newborns of infected and noninfected mothers by flow cytometry. There was evidence of higher frequencies of IFN-gamma-expressing and IL-4-expressing CD4+ T cells in newborns of infected mothers than in newborns of noninfected mothers. Our data provide evidence of in utero sensitization to A. lumbricoides and raise the possibility that the immunological effects of infection start in the fetus.

  17. Two cases of intestinal ascariasis%肠蛔虫病两例报告

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武道福; 黄伟

    2000-01-01

    @@ 肠蛔虫病是常见的肠道寄生虫病.蛔虫成虫在肠道内可引起机械性刺激及毒素反应,发生肠痉挛,甚至出现肠梗阻.肠蛔虫病诊断依据为患者有腹痛,伴近期排虫或吐虫史,粪便检查发现虫卵.

  18. Misdiagnosis of One Case with Adult Ascariasis%成人蛔虫病误诊一例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭力文

    2007-01-01

    患者,男,30岁,2005—04—05主因食欲不振,失眠半年,加重一个月就诊。半年前无明显诱因出现恶心、胃脘胀闷、上腹痛、痛无定处、胃中嘈杂,晨轻暮重,失眠,白天萎靡不振,严重影响工作,上消化道造影示:胃、十二指肠未见异常。门诊考虑“胃神经官能症”,给予治疗消化不良、调节神经等药物,效果不佳,患者情绪低落,后辗转几家医院均考虑为“抑郁症”,

  19. Erythema nodosum caused by ascariasis and Chlamydophila pneumoniae pulmonary infection--a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergler-Czop, Beata; Lis-Swiety, Anna; Kamińska-Winciorek, Grazyna; Brzezińska-Wcisło, Ligia

    2009-12-01

    Erythema nodosum belongs to a group of relatively common hypodermal inflammations. It occurs mainly among women, particularly young women. The etiology of the disease is not clear. Most frequently, changes appear on the surface of the frontal part of the shins. Initially, red nodules change in color to dark brown and then to yellow and green. There is neither dissolution nor cicatrization of the exanthema. Regression is frequent. We present a case of erythema nodosum caused by Ascaris lumbricoides infection as well as by an early Chlamydophila pneumoniae infection, whose etiology has rarely been described in the literature. We were not able to confirm which factor was responsible for the occurrence of the skin changes as treatment of both infections was effective and all skin changes later disappeared completely. Particular attention should be paid to the fact that precise diagnosis of a patient and the search for etiologic factors, even rare ones, are crucial to obtain good results with treatment of erythema nodosum.

  20. Co-existent Ascariasis and Multiloculated Tuberculous Pleurisy Treated with Intrapleural Streptokinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, Talha; Naeem, Omer Muhammad

    2015-10-01

    This case describes a young male with pleuro-pulmonary tuberculosis having one-week history of fever and hemoptysis along with a multiloculated right sided exudative lymphocytic pleural effusion. His pulmonary diagnostic confusion was due to passage of adult Ascaris lumbricoides per orally but that was found to be of intestinal origin. Pleural tissue histopathology revealed necrotizing granulomatous inflammation and right upper lobe bronchial washings were positive for acid fast bacilli. His multiloculated pleural effusion was successfully resolved with intrapleural streptokinase injections via a 10 French pleural catheter. Treatment with class-I anti-tuberculous drugs led to complete clearance of remaining pleuro-pulmonary shadowing.

  1. Ascariasis in Giant Panda%大熊猫蛔虫病

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邬捷; 胡洪光

    1985-01-01

    @@ 大熊猫(Ailuropoda melanoleuca)是我国特产的闻名世界的珍贵野生动物,为我国人民和世界各国人民所喜爱,被誉为"瑰宝"及"国宝",因此,世界各国人民都非常关心大熊猫的生死存亡.目前,大熊猫依赖生存的冷箭竹和华桔竹大面积开花枯死,大熊猫濒临灭绝之灾,一个抢救大熊猫的运动,正在世界各地展开,我国政府和人民极为重视,做了大量工作,收到显著成效.

  2. 犊新蛔虫病的诊治%Diagnosis on Calf's Ascariasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡廷兴

    2005-01-01

    犊新蛔虫病是由牛新蛔虫寄生于犊牛的小肠内导致犊牛消化紊乱的寄生虫病,引起腹泻、腹痛、消瘦、贫血以及肺脏病变等.此虫仅寄生于6月龄前的犊牛,引起犊牛下痢,大量感染时可造成死亡.本病发病率水犊比黄犊高,奶犊更次之.笔者应用盐酸噻咪唑治疗犊新蛔虫病86例,取得了良好的治疗效果,现报告如下.

  3. Biliary Ascariasis Treated by Acupuncture%针刺治疗胆道蛔虫病

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑞芙; 包丽华; 冯春霞

    2002-01-01

    @@ 胆道蛔虫病是由于肠道蛔虫上窜钻入胆道所引起的一种常见急腹症,中医学称为"蛔厥".1997年至今笔者以针刺疗法治疗胆è道蛔虫病100例,均取得较满意效果.

  4. ERCP在127例急诊胆道%ERCP in 127 cases of acute biliary ascariasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋锐; 顾明; 何乾文; 田朝艳; 刘学生

    2005-01-01

    目的探讨经内镜逆行胆胰管造影(ERCP)的临床价值,以提高急诊胆道蛔虫病治疗水平.方法回顾性分析127例急诊胆道蛔虫病行ERCP的临床资料.结果121例治疗成功,6例失败,总的成功率为95.3%.术后并发急性胆囊炎3例(2.4%),急性胰腺炎1例(0.8%),术后出血2例(1.6%).结论ERCP治疗急诊胆道蛔虫病安全、有效、并发症少,值得临床推广,但在ERCP治疗前及治疗过程中要重视影像学的诊断分析,以提高治疗的成功率.

  5. 膳食调养骨质疏松症%Medicated drinking for ascariasis in summer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵怀备

    2009-01-01

    骨质疏松是一种代谢性骨质病,以骨质普遍疏松为特征,随着年龄的增长,钙的吸收有所下降,钙的沉淀逐渐减慢。缺钙是人一生中都关注的事,儿童缺钙影响长高,中老年人缺钙,不仅易患骨质疏松症和骨质增生,还易患心血管病,结石病和老年痴呆症。妇女,以更年期后女性最为多见,约有2/3经绝期的女性和70岁以上老年患有本病,常有慢性腰痛和腰背部广泛性纯痛。全身乏力,逐渐身高降低或驼背,易发生股骨、颈、椎体和尺桡骨远端骨折,所以用食物补钙应被重视,要从食物中多摄取钙、磷、维生素A、D、C、蛋白质、性激素,

  6. Effects of chronic ascariasis and trichuriasis on cytokine production and gene expression in human blood: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Reina Ortiz

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronic soil-transmitted helminth (STH infections are associated with effects on systemic immune responses that could be caused by alterations in immune homeostasis. To investigate this, we measured the impact in children of STH infections on cytokine responses and gene expression in unstimulated blood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Sixty children were classified as having chronic, light, or no STH infections. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were cultured in medium for 5 days to measure cytokine accumulation. RNA was isolated from peripheral blood and gene expression analysed using microarrays. Different infection groups were compared for the purpose of analysis: STH infection (combined chronic and light vs. uninfected groups and chronic STH infection (chronic vs. combined light and uninfected groups. The chronic STH infection effect was associated with elevated production of GM-CSF (P=0.007, IL-2 (P=0.03, IL-5 (P=0.01, and IL-10 (P=0.01. Data reduction suggested that chronic infections were primarily associated with an immune phenotype characterized by elevated IL-5 and IL-10, typical of a modified Th2-like response. Chronic STH infections were associated with the up-regulation of genes associated with immune homeostasis (IDO, P=0.03; CCL23, P=0.008, HRK, P=0.005, down-regulation of microRNA hsa-let-7d (P=0.01 and differential regulation of several genes associated with granulocyte-mediated inflammation (IL-8, down-regulated, P=0.0002; RNASE2, up-regulated, P=0.009; RNASE3, up-regulated, p=0.03. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Chronic STH infections were associated with a cytokine response indicative of a modified Th2 response. There was evidence that STH infections were associated with a pattern of gene expression suggestive of the induction of homeostatic mechanisms, the differential expression of several inflammatory genes and the down-regulation of microRNA has-let-7d. Effects on immune homeostasis and the development of a modified Th2 immune response during chronic STH infections could explain the systemic immunologic effects that have been associated with these infections such as impaired immune responses to vaccines and the suppression of inflammatory diseases.

  7. Hybrid ascaris suum/lumbricoides (ascarididae) infestation in a pig farmer: a rare case of zoonotic ascariasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutto, Moreno; Petrosillo, Nicola

    2013-12-01

    We present a case of the 42-year-old pig farmer from the province of Cuneo in Northwest Italy who was infected by the soil-transmitted nematode Ascaris sp. In November 2010 the patient found one worm in his stool, subsequently identified as female specimen of Ascaris sp. After a first anthelmintic treatment, another worm was found in his stool, that was later identified as male Ascaris sp. Blood tests prescribed by the patient's family physician, as suggested by a parasitologist, found nothing abnormal. A chest x-ray was negative for Loeffler's syndrome and an ultrasound of the abdomen was normal with no evidence of hepatic problems. The nematode collected from the patient was genetically characterized using the ribosomal nuclear marker ITS. The PCR-RFLP analysis showed a hybrid genotype, intermediate between A. suum/lumbricoides. It was subsequently ascertained that some pigs on the patient's farm had A. suum infection; no other family member was infected. A cross-infestation from the pigs as source was the likely way of transmission. This conclusion is further warranted by the fact, that the patient is a confirmed nail-biter, a habit which facilitates oral-fecal transmission of parasites and pathogens.

  8. 胆系蛔虫症超声诊断与分析%Ultrasound detection and analysis of gallbladder ascariasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申炜星; 郭喜开; 马海波

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨胆系蛔虫的超声声像图特征.方法 回顾性分析1988年以来在笔者所在医院就诊的502例病例,动态观察蛔虫存活时的蠕动状态以及蛔虫死亡裂解后声像图变化.结果 年龄组~16岁占320例,居住山区农村患病率居首位,胆系蛔虫声像图呈"双线征"和"乱麻绳"样特征.结论 超声检查是诊断胆系蛔虫的首选方法,检查时必须做到及时、细致、准确并随访观察,以减少误诊和漏诊.

  9. 胆道蛔虫的MRI及MRCP诊断%Diagnosis of biliary ascariasis by MRI and MRCP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘中银; 张羲娥; 刘杨

    2008-01-01

    目的:探讨胆道蛔虫的MRI及MRCP表现,了解其影像学特征,为临床提供直接的诊断依据.方法:回顾性分析50例胆道蛔虫的MRI及MRCP表现,重点观察肝内外胆管和胆囊的常规MRI轴位和冠状位图像及MRCP图像.结果:50例中MRI及MRCP确诊胆系蛔虫39例,11例怀疑胆系蛔虫或结石,清楚地显示了胆系蛔虫的直接征象,并清楚显示肝脏、胆道系统及胰腺和脾脏的情况.结论:MRI检查诊断胆道蛔虫直观、准确、无创,可为临床提供真实而客观的依据.

  10. 1 case of misdiagnosis of intestinal ascariasis%肠道蛔虫病误诊1例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李颖; 彭晓

    2002-01-01

    @@ 患者,女,52岁,农民,河南浚县人.因黑便、消瘦、乏力伴上腹部疼痛1周,到当地医院就诊,拟诊为"消化道肿瘤合并上消化道出血",行腹部螺旋CT、腹部核磁共振及全消化道钡餐等检查,均未发现肠道占位性病变,当地给予止血等对症治疗2周,未见明显好转 .

  11. 胆道蛔虫的超声诊断价值%Diagnostic value of ultrasound in biliary ascariasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅英; 刘健

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨超声对胆道蛔虫的诊断价值. 方法分析54例胆道蛔虫病患者的胆道声像图特点.结果 胆道蛔虫成活或虫体完整20例,术前超声检出17例,声像图示肝外胆管呈不同程度扩张,其内有一条或多条2~5 mm宽的双线状强回声;超声漏诊2例胆总管内蛔虫,1例胆囊内蛔虫因合并多发结石.胆道蛔虫残骸者34例,超声检出27例,声像图示蛔虫体逐渐变得模糊,层次消失,仅可见节段性的等号状强回声;漏诊2例因合并胆管癌,5例因合并胆总管结石或胆囊结石,蛔虫残骸与癌肿、结石回声重叠.结论 超声检查对胆道蛔虫有较高的诊断价值.

  12. A CLINICAL STUDY OF THE USE OF PYRVINIUM PAMOATE WITH PIPERAZINE (VANPAR® IN THE TREATMENT OF OXYURIASIS AND ASCARIASIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Barzgar

    1974-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study oxyuris and ascaris infections alone or in combination were treated with Vanapar a combination of Pyrvinium Pamoate and Piperazine administered in two successive daily doses. This resulted in a 100% cure rate of oxyuriasis as well as a substantial reduction in ova count for ascaris, amounting to 97% success rate in achieving ova count reduction. Vanapar was highly effective for the management of pinworm and roundworm infections in this study. The drug was well tolerated with only seven patients (8.8% displaying drug-attributable adverse experiences.

  13. Diagnosis and treatment of one case of pigeon ascariasis%一例鸽蛔虫病的诊治

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁宁; 秦永康; 郑亚妹

    2010-01-01

    @@ 2007年5月,广东省河源市某养鸽场饲养的1000只青年鸽和2000对种鸽,发生不明因为的下痢、采食量减少、消瘦、口腔黏膜苍白、乳鸽发育不良等为主要特征的疾病.经病理解剖和实验室检验确诊为鸽蛔虫病.现将诊治情况报告如下.

  14. Current status of human hookworm infections, ascariasis, trichuriasis, schistosomiasis mekongi and other trematodiases in Lao People's Democratic Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laymanivong, Sakhone; Hangvanthong, Bouasy; Keokhamphavanh, Boualy; Phommasansak, Manisak; Phinmaland, Baunphone; Sanpool, Oranuch; Maleewong, Wanchai; Intapan, Pewpan M

    2014-04-01

    Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections, and schistosomiasis and other trematodiases often have a high prevalence in developing countries. Here, we present updated information on the prevalence of these parasites in the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) in 2012, arising from the annual national helminthiasis survey. Fecal specimens were collected from 8,610 inhabitants of 12 provinces and one municipality (Bokeo, Houaphan, Luang Namtha, Luang Prabang, Oudomxay, and Phongsaly Provinces from northern Lao PDR; Bolikhamxay and Xieng Khouang Provinces and Vientiane Municipality from the central part of the country; and Attapeu, Champasak, Saravan, and Sekong Provinces from southern Lao PDR). The overall prevalence of three major STHs, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and hookworms (Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale) were 11.6%, 8.5%, and 25.0%, respectively. Prevalence of Schistosoma mekongi infection was 0.1%, and of miscellaneous trematodiases (including opisthorchiasis) was 14.0%. Clearly, the nationwide parasite control project is still necessary to reduce morbidity caused by helminthic diseases.

  15. 浅谈小儿蛔虫病的诊断及治疗%Diagnosis and Treatment on Children Ascariasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈延平

    2009-01-01

    蛔虫病是常见肠道寄生虫病,发病以小儿为最多见,常影响小儿的肠道功能及生长发育,可伴有许多并发症,积极有效的治疗尤其重要.祖国传统医学在诊断和治疗方面都有很多优势,而现代医学也有有效的诊断治疗方法.

  16. 犬蛔虫病继发佝偻病的治疗%Treatment of Canine Rickets Due to Ascariasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高桂芬

    2001-01-01

    @@2000年3月24日,畜主魏某牵来一条黑白花色土种狗,1月龄大,体重约3kg,来我站求诊. 1 临床症状病犬消瘦,被毛粗乱,生长发育迟缓腹部膨大、粘膜苍白、食欲不振,异嗜呕吐,卧地不起呈癫痫性痉挛,两前肢向前伸展,骨骼弯曲,呈内弧(O状)姿势,腕关节肿胀,行动障碍,运动时头部倒地,左右摇摆,体温、呼吸、心跳无异常变化,粪便中排出2条约10 cm犬蛔虫. 2 诊断实验室检查,采取新鲜粪便,用饱和盐水浮集法,镜检发现粪便中有蛔虫卵.确诊为蛔虫病继发佝偻病.

  17. Experienced Effective Recipe for Treatment of Biliary Ascariasis%治疗胆道蛔虫症验方

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高迎文; 高文武

    2003-01-01

    @@ 笔者应用验方治疗胆道蛔虫症,疗效较好,现介绍如下. 治疗方法 乌梅9g,杏仁9g,白芍9g,使君子9g,大枣3~5枚,小儿用量酌减.上药水煎2次,兑入蜂蜜混匀分作2份,先服1份,4~6h后再服1份,酌情使用1~3剂.

  18. Molecular paleoparasitological diagnosis of Ascaris sp. from coprolites: new scenery of ascariasis in pre-Colombian South America times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Leles

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Paleoparasitological studies using microscopy showed that Ascarisand Trichuris trichiura are the human intestinal parasites most found in archaeological sites. However, in pre-Columbian South American archaeological sites, Ascaris is rare. In this work we standardized a molecular methodology for Ascaris diagnosis directly from ancient DNA retrieved from coprolites. Using cythochrome b gene (142 bp target, ancient DNA sequences were retrieved from South American samples, negative by microscopy. Moreover, the methodology applied was sensitive enough to detect ancient DNA extracted from 30 Ascaris eggs from an European coprolite. These results revealed a new scenery for the paleodistribution of Ascaris in South America.

  19. 不同频率超声对肠道蛔虫症的诊断价值%Different frequency ultrasound diagnosic value to intestine ascariasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆月华

    2011-01-01

    @@ 超声对肠道蛔虫症的检查不仅方便、直观,且不同频率超声显像对肠道蛔虫症有特征性表现[1].本文通过总结分析42例患者不同频率的超声图像资料,旨在探讨不同频率超声显像在肠道蛔虫症诊断中的声像图特点和临床价值.

  20. 绥阳县犊新蛔虫病调查%Investigation of the New Ascariasis in calf at "SUI YANG XIAN"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李家模

    2001-01-01

    @@ 犊新蛔虫病在我县流行范围广,危害十分严重,妨碍着我县养牛业的发展.为了给我县防治本病提供依据,笔者在1991~1997年对该病在我县特定条件下的流行病学的有关内容进行了调查研究,现报告如下:

  1. 经十二指肠镜取蛔虫治疗胆管蛔虫症%Treatment of hepathobiliary and pancreatic ascariasis by endoscopic worm extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙光辉; 刘浔阳; 陈道瑾

    2000-01-01

    目的讨论胆管蛔虫的治疗方法.方法采用十二指肠镜下取蛔虫和鼻胆管引流治疗难治性胆管蛔虫症.结果 17例取出蛔虫或残骸,4例并发胆管炎或胰腺炎的患者取出蛔虫后,再予鼻胆管引流,所有病人均治愈,未出现并发症.结论经十二指肠镜取蛔虫可以迅速有效地解除症状,控制病情发展,即使在并发胆管炎或胰腺炎,加用鼻胆管引流后,亦能取得满意疗效.

  2. 胆蛔汤加减治疗胆管蛔虫症35例%Thirty-five Cases of Biliary Ascariasis Treated with Danhui Decoction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余秀芳

    2004-01-01

    胆管蛔虫症是寄生于肠管中的蛔虫成虫移位至胆管引起的急腹症。为探讨胆蛔汤对胆管蛔虫症的临床效果,近年来笔者用加减胆蛔汤治疗胆管蛔虫症35例,取得满意疗效。现报告如下。

  3. 150例胆道蛔虫病的治疗总结%A Summary on the Treatment of 150 Cases of Biliary Ascariasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王爱蓉; 陈自愚

    2002-01-01

    将150例胆道蛔虫病患者分为3组,各50例,A组用乌梅汤和电针足三里治疗,B组用驱蛔止痛汤和电针足三里治疗,C组单纯西药治疗,3组均同时配服同等量的驱蛔灵.结果A、B组驱蛔效果优于C组,且不良反应低于C组,止痛平均时间短于C组.表明中药和电针足三里治疗对胆道蛔虫病有较好疗效.

  4. The Clinical Value of High Frequency Ultrasound in the Diagnosis of Gastrointestinal Ascariasis%高频超声诊断肠道蛔虫症的价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐明民; 朱文军; 孟彬; 许月珍

    2008-01-01

    目的:探讨高频超声在肠道蛔虫症诊断中的声像图特点及临床价值.材料和方法:对27例腹痛患者的超声检查结果进行临床随访、总结分析.结果:患者肠管内均可见一条或数条蛔虫样回声,经驱虫治疗后腹痛缓解或消失.结论:高频超声诊断肠道蛔虫有较高的临床价值,可作为目前肠道蛔虫症影像学检查的首选方法.

  5. Prof.Zheng Weida's Experiences in Treatment of Ascariasis%郑伟达教授辨证论治蛔虫病经验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑东京; 许鑫; 郑伟达

    2014-01-01

    蛔虫病是蛔虫寄生于人体所引起的疾病,蛔虫寄生于肠道,导致脾胃健运失常,气机郁滞,并产生各种临床症状.郑伟达教授认为“湿”“热”“虚”是蛔虫于人体为病的内在原因,在此基础上,恣食生、冷等不洁饮食即可招致蛔虫乘虚而入.郑教授治疗蛔虫病首辨寒热,即寒证、热证、寒热错杂证,其中寒热错杂证是最常见的证型,临证喜用乌梅丸进行加减.文章介绍了郑伟达教授对蛔虫病病因病机的认识、辨证思路及常用方药“胆道蛔虫腹痛方”.

  6. 胆道蛔虫病的综合疗法及健康指导%Comprehensive treatment of biliary ascariasis and health guidance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷立娟

    2014-01-01

    胆道蛔虫病逆行的蛔虫进入胆道,引起患者胆管和奥狄括约肌痉挛,使患者突发上腹部疼痛.治疗上多采取综合疗法,经过胃管内注入硫酸镁,可抑制患者中枢神经产生镇静作用;中药汤剂辅佐起到消炎利胆的功效;由于该病发作时消耗患者较多体能,饮食上给予高蛋白、高热量、多维生素等食物.做好患者及家属的关怀体贴护理,同时做好疾病的预防教育工作.

  7. Application of Indirect Hemagglutination Assay (IHA) in Diagnosis of Ascariasis%应用间接血凝试验(IHA)诊断猪蛔虫病

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何光志; 田维毅; 简昌友; 刘素; 安永如

    2010-01-01

    以猪蛔虫抗原致敏绵羊红细胞制备检测猪蛔虫特异性抗体的间接血凝诊断试剂,与猪蛔虫抗体发生特异性凝集反应.结果表明,用间接血凝诊断试剂对3 000份猪血清进行现场检测,阳性率为30.00%;而琼脂扩散试验(AGP)的阳性率为13.00%,表明,间接血凝试验(IHA)比GAP敏感,间接血凝诊断试剂可用于猪蛔虫病的快速诊断.

  8. 斑点免疫金渗滤法诊断猪蛔虫病%Diagnosis of Swine Ascariasis Based on Dot Immuno-gold Filtration Assay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何光志; 田维毅; 王平; 王文佳; 韩洁; 简昌友; 安永如

    2010-01-01

    [目的]探讨斑点免疫金渗滤法诊断猪蛔虫病的可行性,为制备诊断猪蛔虫病试剂盒提供参考依据.[方法]采用猪蛔虫的重组蛋白AS16抗原和胶体金标记葡萄球菌蛋白A(SPA),根据免疫渗滤原理,建立抗猪蛔虫抗体的斑点金免疫渗滤检测法.[结果]斑点免疫金渗滤法检测1 200份猪血清样本中猪蛔虫抗体,检出阳性率为25.00%,而琼脂扩散试验(AGP)阳性检出率为15.00%.[结论]斑点金免疫渗滤检测法具有操作简便,灵敏度高,特异性强的优点,可用于猪蛔虫病的快速检测.

  9. 胆道蛔虫症伴发胰腺炎一例%A case of bile duct ascariasis complicated with pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申继清; 谢永双

    2002-01-01

    @@ 患者男性,28岁,广西博白县农民.诉2000年8月中旬出现上腹部阵发性疼痛,多呈绞痛,偶感钻痛,并向背部、右肩胛部及两侧腰部放射,每次持续1~2 h,伴恶心、呕吐、吐出胃内容物.

  10. Diagnosis and Control of Chicken Ascariasis Infestation%一起鸡蛔虫病感染诊断与防治措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁彬彬

    2011-01-01

    本文通过对湖南省永州市新田县某养殖户散养的800只发病鸡进行临床症状观察、病理剖解和实验室诊断,确诊为鸡蛔虫病.通过采用饲料拌入伊维菌素进行治疗,有效控制了病情.

  11. The Follow-up Clinical Features of Biliary Ascariasis on Sonography%胆道蛔虫病临床过程的B超追踪观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟显玉

    1998-01-01

    为了探讨胆道蛔虫病症状缓解与蛔虫退出胆道的关系、蛔虫死亡后的声象图改变,我们对64例进行了1-13周B超追踪观察.56例经保守疗法治愈,其中26例蛔虫退出胆道(包括2例胆囊蛔虫),30例蛔虫仍滞留于胆道而无明显症状.蛔虫死亡后声象图变为模糊不清、断续的条索状光带.本文提示,症状消失并不意味着蛔虫退出,胆囊蛔虫病也可能保守治愈.判断疗效应用B超追踪,直至蛔虫完全排出胆道.

  12. 1999年江苏省农村人群蛔虫感染情况调查%Ascariasis in rural population of Jiangsu Province in 1999

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈锦英; 孙风华; 钱益新; 赵兰风; 曹汉钧; 徐振刚; 吴中兴

    2001-01-01

    @@ 蛔虫感染是江苏省农村人群存在的3种主要土源性线虫感染之一,特别是危害学生健康的常见病、多发病.大量的蛔虫寄生会导致青少年学生营养不良、贫血以及影响其生长发育[1],是一个重要的公共卫生问题.为了解江苏省经大规模防治后农村人群蛔虫感染变化情况,我们于1999年对全省第1次人体寄生虫分布调查过的33个县(市)进行现场调查,结果报告如下.

  13. DATA ANALYSIS ON THE 132 INPATIENTS OF ASCARIASIS%132例住院蛔虫病病例资料分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高佳方; 陈灿中; 高志祥; 吴留美; 薛永健

    2004-01-01

    @@ 常州市武进区从1996年起开展农村群体化疗防治土源性线虫病,人群感染率从1989年的1.2%下降到2001年的1.3%,住院蛔虫病病人明显减少.现对武进区1991~2001年132例住院蛔虫病病例资料进行回顾性调查分析.

  14. 种鸽蛔虫病继发大肠杆菌病的诊治%Diagnosis and Treatment of Ascariasis Followed by Colibacillosis in Breeder Pigeons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢凤英; 潘玲

    2008-01-01

    近日,安徽省长丰县一养殖场种鸽突然出现腹泻、减食、消瘦生长发育不良等症状,送安徽农业大学动物科技学院禽病诊断室,经诊断为笼养种鸽蛔虫病继发大肠杆菌病。

  15. A case of ascariasis with urticaria%以荨麻疹为主要表现的蛔虫病1例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温德伟

    2004-01-01

    患儿,男,6岁,因荨麻疹反复发作1年就诊。1年前开始无诱因出现全身荨麻疹,曾多次到数家医院急诊就诊.每次静注地塞米松,病情缓解。否认家族遗传性疾病史,无药物和食物过敏史。近1年来食欲较差,脐周常阵发性疼痛,大小便无异常。躯干部可见多个散在稍隆起皮面红色的皮疹,大小如五分硬币。浅表淋巴结不大。心肺无异常。腹平

  16. 陕西省蛔虫感染现状评价%The Status Of Ascariasis Infection Evaluating In Shaanxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍永韬; 邓勇; 张焕鹏; 张义; 钱俊英

    2008-01-01

    目的 了解陕西省人群蛔虫感染分布现状.方法 依据全国第二次人体重要寄生虫病现状调查方案及实施细则开展调查并进行统计分析.结果 共计调查7 726人,蛔虫感染病例1 226人,感染率为15.87 %,蛔虫感染者感染度AMEPG 为1 865.77、GMEPG为329.61,蛔虫人群感染度AMEPG 为25.12、GMEPG为 1.08,轻度感染占97.74 %、中度占1.60 %、重度占0.66 %.结论 蛔虫感染率大幅度下降(P<0.01), 感染度构成与1988年-1992年第一次调查结果趋势相一致.改善农村居民饮水环境及改变个人生活卫生习惯仍是预防控制人群寄生虫病感染的主要措施.

  17. Advances in the diagnosis of Ascaris suum infections in pigs and their possible applications in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlaminck, Johnny; Levecke, Bruno; Vercruysse, Jozef; Geldhof, Peter

    2014-12-01

    Ascariasis is one of the most common parasitic diseases in both humans and pigs. It has been shown to cause growth deficits in both species and to impair cognitive development in children. Notwithstanding its substantial impact on pig economy and public health, diagnosis of ascariasis has mostly relied on the detection of eggs in stool and further development of novel, more sensitive methods has been limited or non-existent. Here, we discuss the currently available techniques for the diagnosis of ascariasis in pigs, their caveats, and the implications of a new serological detection technique for the evaluation of both pig and human ascariasis.

  18. Investigation and Treatment of Siberian Tigers and African Lions Ascariasis in Zhengzhou Zoo%郑州市动物园东北虎和非洲狮蛔虫感染情况调查与防治

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    菅复春; 朱金鑫; 赵金凤; 李同义; 李德中; 张龙现; 宁长申

    2007-01-01

    应用饱和糖液漂浮法和饱和盐水漂浮法,对郑州市动物园狮虎山饲养的7只东北虎和8只非洲狮感染蛔虫的情况进行了调查,调查结果显示蛔虫总感染率为86.7%.平均感染强度(EPG)4880,其中EPG值最高的达12400,采用阿苯哒唑5~10 mg/kg体重驱虫7 d后,粪中的蛔虫虫卵数显著减少,虫卵的转阴率为61.5%;10 d后复查,蛔虫虫卵的转阴率76.9%;14 d后,蛔虫虫卵减少率为100%.采取的粪中蛔虫虫卵数显著减少,已经不能用麦克马斯特法测其EPG值,仅能通过饱和糖水漂浮法检测是否为阳性,说明驱虫效果良好.

  19. Prevention and treatment of ascariasis in demonstration plots of integrated control from 2006 to 2009%我国寄生虫病综合防治示范区蛔虫病3年防治效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    诸廷俊; 陈颖丹; 许隆祺

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解寄生虫病综合防治示范区蛔虫感染现状,探索蛔虫病防治措施.方法 在示范区实施健康教育、药物驱虫和改水改厕等综合干预措施,观察措施实施前后居民蛔虫感染率的变化.结果 3年中示范区累计驱虫620余万人次,服药覆盖率达81.65%,居民蛔虫感染率由2006年的17.81%降至2009年的2.52%.居民卫生知识知晓率由45.11%提高到95.99%,改水受益率达84.09%,无害化厕所覆盖率为50.30%.结论 通过3年综合防治,示范区居民蛔虫感染率下降明显.%Objective To understand the situation of Ascaris lumbricoides infection in the demonstration plots and evaluate the effect of integrated intervention measures. Methods The integrated intervention measures included health education, mass chemotherapy, safe water and sanitary toilets. The changes of infection rates of Ascaris lumbricoides in residents were observed before and after the intervention. Results With the 3-year' s intervention, the Ascaris lumbricoides infection rates decreased from 17.81% to 2.52%, the rate of mass chemotherapy was 81.65%, which covered more than 6.2 million person-time, the awareness rates of parasitic disease control knowledge among the residents raised from 45.11% to 95.99%, and 84.09% of local people were supplied with safe water and 50.30% of families had sanitary toilets. Conclusion The Ascaris lumbricoides infection rate decreases dramatically through the 3-year s intervention.

  20. 86 Cases of Biliary Ascariasis Treated with Jiao-mei Pai-hui Decoction%椒梅排蛔汤治疗胆道蛔虫病86例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林伟; 李唯一; 周村

    2002-01-01

    @@ 笔者从1996年9月~2001年3月,用自拟椒梅排蛔汤治疗胆道蛔虫病86例,在较短时间内取得满意疗效,现报告如下. 1 临床资料 本组86例中,男性29例,女性57例;年龄16~68岁,平均年龄41岁;住院病人67例,门诊19例.本组病人均有典型的胆道蛔虫病的症状和体征,白细胞计数小于10.0×109/L的有59例(占68.6%),介于10.0~15.0×109/L之间的有24例(占27.9%),大于15.0×109/L有3例(占3.5%),嗜酸性细胞分类计数大于3%有36例(占41.9%).B超检查示胆道蛔虫有85例占98.8%.

  1. 超声观察乌梅汤治疗胆道蛔虫的临床应用%Clinical application of ultrasound observation on biliary ascariasis treated by wumei decoction for the treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李兵

    2009-01-01

    @@ 1 资料与方法 本文收集2005年1月~2008年6月58例确诊胆道蛔虫患者,男36例,女22例,年龄12~66岁.临床症状:上腹部疼痛,为阵发性绞痛伴钻顶样疼痛,同时伴有恶心、呕吐、发热、黄疸等.

  2. 急诊十二指肠乳头嵌顿性蛔虫症的诊断和治疗%Diagnosis and treatment in acute ascariasis of duodenal papilla impaction type

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖忠; 张光全; 吴先麟

    2005-01-01

    目的探讨十二指肠乳头嵌顿性蛔虫症的诊断和内镜疗效.方法总结该院1985~2004年经B超、内镜诊治的203例十二指肠嵌顿性蛔虫症病例.结果B超诊断符合率为92.1%,内镜取虫成功率95.8%.结论内镜治疗十二指肠嵌顿性蛔虫症效果肯定.

  3. Clinical Observation of 120 Cases Biliary Tract Ascariasis Diagnosed and Treated by Tuianyunjing Instrument and TCM%中药灌肠配合抗生素治疗慢性盆腔炎64例疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆萍; 何拉曼

    2002-01-01

    慢性盆腔炎多因急性盆腔炎症治疗不彻底或迁延日久转化而成。临床上发病率较高,病程长,单纯西药治疗效果不甚满意。笔者自1996~2001年间运用中药灌肠配合抗生素治疗慢性盆腔炎64例,取得比较满意的效果。现报告如下。

  4. Observe of Curative Effect on Driving out Ascariasis Suis at Differential way by Levamisolum%盐酸左旋咪唑不同给药途径驱除猪蛔虫的效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺成龙

    2003-01-01

    @@ 笔者在近3年的临床实践中,曾先后诊疗105例已口服驱虫药后1月以内,体重20~60kg,生长发育缓慢,时而腹泻的病猪.经显微镜检查,粪便虫卵阳性93例,阴性12例.经再次驱虫,仍有98例排出数量不等的蛔虫:除阳性者外,尚有6例虽镜检为阴性,也还有大量未成熟幼蛔虫排出.

  5. Clinical analysis of 38 cases acute pancreatitis caused by biliary ascariasis%胆道蛔虫病致急性胰腺炎38例临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李天煜; 程军; 李荣

    2003-01-01

    目的:总结胆道蛔虫病致急性胰腺炎的临床特点及治疗.方法:回顾分析我院10年来胆道蛔虫病致急性胰腺炎病例38例.结果:38例中非手术治疗28例,死亡1例;手术治疗10例,死亡2例.水肿型25例,非手术治疗23例,手术治疗2例,均治愈;出血坏死型13例,非手术治疗5例,死亡1例,手术治疗8例,死亡2例.结论:胆道蛔虫病致急性胰腺炎应遵循急性胰腺炎诊治的一般规律,实行"个体化治疗方案",尽可能行非手术治疗;即使要手术治疗,亦宜延缓,但当出血坏死型胰腺炎有感染征象时应及早采用手术治疗.

  6. 儿童肠道蛔虫症的临床X线特征(附107例报告)%The X-ray and Clinic Features of Pediatric Gastrointestinal Ascariasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张琳; 廉均立; 吕爱军; 周元春; 蒋学祥

    2002-01-01

    目的总结儿童肠道蛔虫症的X线各种表现特征,以提高确诊率.方法对107例肠道蛔虫症的腹部平片,消化道钡餐造影结果进行回顾性分析.结果腹部平片显示出蛔虫直接征象5例,间接X线征象10例.105例消化道钡餐造影均显示出X线的蛔虫直接征象,显示出间接征象的82例.107例患儿有多种临床表现形式.结论消化道钡餐造影是目前诊断肠道蛔虫症的最好方法.

  7. 超声在肠道及胆道蛔虫症诊断中的价值%The Clinical Value of Ultrasound in the Diagnosis of Intestinal and Biliary Ascariasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董彦; 王立; 绞条玉; 唐绍宏

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨超声在肠道及胆道蛔虫症中的诊断价值.方法:对87例门急诊初步诊断为蛔虫症的患者进行超声检查,随访.结果:超声检查发现,肠道蛔虫症者81例,胆道蛔虫症者6例;胆道内蛔虫症者胆总管均有轻度扩张,并发胆管炎和胆囊炎者3例,肝外阻塞性黄疸1例.经药物治疗及手术治疗后,患者症状消失,蛔虫排出.结论:超声检查具有迅速方便、可靠性高、重复性强、无痛苦等优点,也是目前诊断胆道及肠道蛔虫症的最有效的影像学方法,能及时有效地指导临床治疗.

  8. Forty-eight Patients with Biliary Ascariasis Treated by Integrative Chinese and Western Medicine%中西医结合治疗胆道蛔虫病48例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李君; 杨红艳

    2011-01-01

    @@ 笔者2000年1月~2005年12月采用中西医结合方法治疗胆道蛔虫病48例,疗效满意,报道如下. 一般资料 48例患者均为门诊或住院病人,其中男26例,女22例;年龄7~14岁者18例,15~70岁者30例;病程最短5 h,最长7天,平均3.75天;伴发热19例,伴黄疸者8例,白细胞总数升高27例.

  9. One-case analysis of biliary tract ascariasis after removal of choledocholithiasis by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopanceatography%ERCP胆总管结石取石术后并发胆道蛔虫病1例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴炜景; 赵亚刚; 孙大勇; 曾海萍

    2009-01-01

    患者,男,55岁,农民,因"反复上腹痛2 mo余,加重1 wk"入院.入院后经ERCP诊疗术明确诊断为"胆总管结石",术后腹痛减轻.于拔除鼻胆管后再次出现剧烈腹痛,行急诊ERCP诊疗术,诊断为"胆道蛔虫病".本病例典型,有示教意义.

  10. Successful Elimination of Ascaris lumbricoides from the Gallbladder by Conservative Medical Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Manish Kumar; Singh, Sarabjeet; Bhagat, Tripta Sethi

    2013-06-01

    Migration of Ascaris lumbricoides into the gallbladder is rare, unlike ascariasis of the bile duct and when it does occur, treatment is generally by endoscopic or surgical extraction. We describe a case of the successful treatment of gallbladder ascariasis with conservative therapy.

  11. Analysis of clinical symptoms and selected hematological indices in hospitalized children with Ascaris lumbricoides infection from the northeastern region of Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasilewska, Jolanta; Kaczmarski, Maciej G; Sawicka-Zukowska, Małgorzata; Tomaszewska, Barbara; Majewska, Anna; Plewa, Katarzyna; Ołdak, Elzbieta; Debkowska, Katarzyna

    2011-01-01

    Ascariasis is the most common soil-transmitted helminth infection in the world. The objective of this study was to analyze the clinical symptoms and selected hematological indices of ascariasis in hospitalized children from the northeastern region of Poland. Patients in the Pediatric Ward hospitalized in the Regional Hospital in Dabrowa Białostocka in the period of 2005-2007 were included in this retrospective study. The intestinal stage of ascariasis was diagnosed on the basis of positive coprological survey performed using the decantation technique. A total of 938 patients were included in the study, 1801 stool samples were evaluated, and A. lumbricoides-positive tests were obtained from 252 children. Ascaris-positive young children (Ascaris lumbricoides. Significant predictors of intestinal stage ascariasis in a multivariate logistic regression model were: abdominal pain as a reason for hospital admission (OR-2.19; 95% CI 1.62-2.95; p < 0.001) and age from 4 to 7 years (OR-2.0; 95% CI 1.41-2.80; p < 0.001). The prevalence rate of ascariasis was not higher in the group of patients with atopic diseases (bronchial asthma, allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis) and co-existing ascariasis did not affect the eosinophil counts in the peripheral blood. Ascariasis is still a current pediatric clinical problem characterized by non-specific clinical manifestations, which should be taken into consideration in the differential diagnosis of children's diseases.

  12. An unusual case of fever and abdominal pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arundhati G Diwan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ascariasis is one of the commonest parasitic infestations in tropical countries. Main symptoms are pain in abdomen, weight loss, diarrhea and passage of worms in stool. If acute, it may present as intestinal obstruction, perforation, cholangitis, appendicitis and pancreatitis. The incidence of hepato-biliary ascariasis is probably underestimated. We report a case which presented to us with fever, abdominal pain and weight loss of a month′s duration, mimicking abdominal tuberculosis. On investigations, patient was found to have ascariasis of gall bladder, terminal ileum, caecum and appendix, causing simultaneous inflammation of all these structures.

  13. Anthelmintic properties of traditional African and Caribbean medicinal plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Andrew R.; Soelberg, Jens; Jäger, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Ascariasis affects more than 1 billion people worldwide, mainly in developing countries, causing substantial morbidity. Current treatments for Ascaris infection are based on mass drug administration (MDA) with synthetic anthelmintic drugs such as albendazole, however continual re-infection and th......Ascariasis affects more than 1 billion people worldwide, mainly in developing countries, causing substantial morbidity. Current treatments for Ascaris infection are based on mass drug administration (MDA) with synthetic anthelmintic drugs such as albendazole, however continual re...... results encourage further investigation of their use as complementary treatment options for ascariasis, alongside MDA....

  14. The Impact of Cultural Behaviours, Local Beliefs, and Practices on Emerging Parasitic Diseases in Tropical Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onwuliri, Celestine O. E.; Anosike, Jude C.; Oguoma, Chibuzor; Onwuliri, Viola A.; Nwoke, Betram E. B.; Dozie, Ikechukwu, N. S.; Iwuala, Moses O. E.

    2005-01-01

    The scourge of emerging parasitic diseases (e.g., urinary schistosomiasis, ascariasis, malaria, chagas disease, leishmaniasis, trachoma, trichiuriasis, taeniasis, dracunculiasis, sleeping sickness, filariasis) causes tremendous pain, suffering, and eventually death in tropical African communities. Patterns of transmission of these emerging…

  15. Development of a Loop Mediated Isothermal Amplification for Diagnosis of Ascaris lumbricoides in Fecal Samples

    OpenAIRE

    Shiraho, Esther A.; Agola L. Eric; Ibrahim N Mwangi; Geoffrey M Maina; Joseph M Kinuthia; Mutuku, Martin W.; Mugambi, Robert M.; Mwandi, Jackson M.; Mkoji, Gerald M

    2016-01-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides is a nematode parasite that causes the common tropical infection ascariasis in humans. It is also considered among the neglected tropical diseases. Diagnosis relies mainly on microscopy-based methods which are laborious, are limited by low sensitivity, and require high expertise. We have developed a loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) for diagnosis of ascariasis in fecal samples, based on the first internal transcribed (ITS-1) spacer region of the ribosomal DNA....

  16. The investigation of intestinal canal infected with ascariasis of tiger, lion and leopard in some zoological gardens at East northregion%34东北地区某些动物园虎、狮、豹肠道蛔虫病感染情况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王德昭; 张强; 刘畅; 邹希明; 杨乃才; 徐殿举

    2002-01-01

    为有效防治动物园虎、狮、豹等珍贵动物肠道寄生虫病,我们分别采集辽、吉林、黑龙江等省几个动物园的虎、狮、豹等粪便42份,经粪检查出17份有蛔虫卵(2份有虫体),蛔虫感染率为40.48%.

  17. 应用高张温盐水直肠滴入治疗小儿蛔虫性肠梗阻(500例临床分析)%Warm Hypertonic Saline Enema in the Treatment of Intestinal Obstruction due to Ascariasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文明; 陈德明; 刘致民

    1980-01-01

    @@ 我院外科于1975年5月~1978年5月的3年间,应用1.65%温盐水快速直肠滴入及驱虫净的驱蛔方法,治疗500例蛔虫性肠梗阻,取得驱虫多、住院短、方法简便、用费少的效果,受到群众的欢迎.

  18. Observation on the curative effect of 30 cases with ascariasis of biliary tract combined treatment of traditional Chinese medicine and western medicine%中西医结合治疗胆道蛔虫症30例疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辛淑娟; 于朝霞; 车向阳

    2006-01-01

    胆道蛔虫症是人类最常见的寄生虫病,尤其是卫生意识差的儿童易患此症。蛔虫有钻孔的习性,当受到刺激时蛔虫沿肠道向上逆行,进入胆道,形成胆道蛔虫症,引起胆道阻塞,也是形成胆石症、胆囊炎的一个重要因素。现将30例经B超确诊的胆道蛔虫症患者中西医结合治疗效果报告如下。

  19. Ascariasis in the subdistrict of Cavacos, municipality of Alterosa (MG, Brazil: effect of mass treatment with albendazole on the intensity of infection Ascaridiose no subdistrito de Cavacos, município de Alterosa (MG, Brasil: efeito do tratamento em massa com albendazol sobre a intensidade de infecção

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos T Machado

    1996-08-01

    Full Text Available The clinical and epidemiologic aspects of infection with Ascaris lumbricoides were studied in a random stratified sample of the population of the subdistrict of Cavacos, municipality of Alterosa (Minas Gerais, Brazil. The effect of mass treatment with a single dose of albendazole on the prevalence and intensity of infection was also studied six months later in the same population. During the first phase of the study, a questionnaire was applied to 248 individuals to obtain information about the socioeconomic, sanitary and clinical conditions of the population surveyed. A total of 230 fecal samples were also examined by the Kato-Katz technique in order to determine the intensity of A. lumbricoides infection. Two hundred and two individuals were simultaneously submitted to blood counts and 70 children aged 12 years or less were evaluated for nutritional status. The presence of A. lumbricoides and other helminth eggs was also determined in 22 soil samples collected in the urban zone of Cavacos. Infection with enteroparasitic helminths was detected in 29.1% of the sample, with a predominance of A. lumbricoides (23.9%. Parasitism and/or intensity of A. lumbricoides infection were significantly correlated with age range (15 years or less, social class, sanitary and living conditions (water, sewage and domiciliary area per person, and presence of abdominal pain. However, these parameters were not correlated with nutritional status or hematocrit levels. During the second phase of the study, a slight but not statistically significant decrease in the prevalence of A. lumbricoides infection was detected after treatment with albendazole. However, an important and significant reduction in the amount of A. lumbricoides eggs eliminated through the feces was detected, indicating that the intensity of A. lumbricoides infection was lower in all the age ranges of the Cavacos population, especially among younger individuals, even six months after administration of the anthelminthic agent.Em amostra aleatória E estratificada da população do subdistrito de Cavacos, no município de Alterosa (Minas Gerais, Brasil estudaram-se os aspectos clínicos e epidemiológicos da infecção por Ascaris lumbricoides. Avaliou-se, também, na mesma amostra, seis meses mais tarde, o efeito do tratamento em massa com albendazol sobre a prevalência e intensidade de infecção por esse nematóide. Na primeira fase do estudo, realizou-se inquérito em 248 indivíduos, utilizando questionário que investigava aspectos relativos a condições socioeconômicas, sanitárias e clínicas. Foram, também, examinadas 230 amostras de fezes pela técnica de Kato-Katz, visando determinação da prevalência e intensidade de infecção por A. lumbricoides. Ao mesmo tempo, 202 indivíduos foram submetidos a micro-hematócrito e em 70 crianças com idade menor ou igual a 12 anos efetuou-se avaliação do estado nutricional. Determinou-se, ainda, a presença de ovos de A. lumbricoides e outros helmintos em 22 amostras de solo colhidas na zona urbana de Cavacos. Os resultados mostraram ocorrência de infecção por helmintos enteroparasitas em 29,1% da amostra examinada, com predomínio de A. lumbricoides (23,9%. Observou-se relação significativa do parasitismo e/ou intensidade de infecção por A. lumbricoides com faixa etária (idade menor ou igual a 15 anos, classe social, condições sanitárias e de habitação (água, esgoto e área domiciliar por pessoa e presença de dor abdominal. Não se notou, entretanto, associação desses parâmetros com o estado nutricional e níveis de hematócrito. Na segunda fase do estudo, encontrou-se discreta diminuição na prevalência de infecção por A. lumbricoides, sem significância do ponto de vista estatístico, seis meses após tratamento em massa com albendazol. Notou-se, entretanto, importante e significativa redução na quantidade de ovos de A. lumbricoides eliminados pelas fezes, indicando que mesmo seis meses após administração do anti-helmíntico é menor a intensidade de infecção por A. lumbricoides em todas as faixas etárias da população de Cavacos, especialmente entre os mais jovens.

  20. Ascaris lumbricoides: To Expect the Unexpected during a Routine Colonoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanneganti, Kalyan; Makker, Jasbir S; Remy, Prospere

    2013-01-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides is a common nematode infecting humans worldwide with increased prevalence in tropical and subtropical areas of less developed countries. Recently, it has been estimated that over one billion individuals are infected with ascariasis worldwide with 7% in USA. Although most of these cases are due to increasing immigration and travel outside America it is worth recognizing that prevalence of ascariasis is high in southeastern parts of USA due to their temperate climate. Infections of A. lumbricoides are largely asymptomatic, and hence a large population of people carrying this worm remains undetected for years until they develop some symptoms. Due to a large group of asymptomatic individuals with intestinal ascariasis, these worms are occasionally and unexpectedly identified during routine endoscopic procedures. Here, we present a case of an intestinal ascariasis found during routine colonoscopy in an African-American man from the Bronx with perianal itching. He denied any history of travel outside USA but reported frequent visits to South Carolina. This case illustrates the fact that ascariasis should be suspected even if immigration or travel outside USA is not involved. It should be suspected even in cases of travel within USA to the south east where endemic cases are reported.

  1. Ascaris lumbricoides: To Expect the Unexpected during a Routine Colonoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalyan Kanneganti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ascaris lumbricoides is a common nematode infecting humans worldwide with increased prevalence in tropical and subtropical areas of less developed countries. Recently, it has been estimated that over one billion individuals are infected with ascariasis worldwide with 7% in USA. Although most of these cases are due to increasing immigration and travel outside America it is worth recognizing that prevalence of ascariasis is high in southeastern parts of USA due to their temperate climate. Infections of A. lumbricoides are largely asymptomatic, and hence a large population of people carrying this worm remains undetected for years until they develop some symptoms. Due to a large group of asymptomatic individuals with intestinal ascariasis, these worms are occasionally and unexpectedly identified during routine endoscopic procedures. Here, we present a case of an intestinal ascariasis found during routine colonoscopy in an African-American man from the Bronx with perianal itching. He denied any history of travel outside USA but reported frequent visits to South Carolina. This case illustrates the fact that ascariasis should be suspected even if immigration or travel outside USA is not involved. It should be suspected even in cases of travel within USA to the south east where endemic cases are reported.

  2. Encountering Meckel's diverticulum in emergency surgery for ascaridial intestinal obstruction

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    Amin Abid

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Meckel's diverticulum is the most common congenital anomaly of the gastrointestinal tract. In children with intestinal ascariasis, the diverticulum remains asymptomatic or rarely the Ascaris lumbricoides may lead to its complications in the presence of massive intestinal roundworm load. Given that preoperative diagnosis is seldom carried out, when Meckel's diverticulum is found at laparotomy for obstructive intestinal complications of roundworm, the diverticulum should be removed as complications may occur at any time. The aim of this study was to describe the findings of concomitant presence of Meckel's diverticulum who had surgical intervention in symptomatic intestinal ascariasis in children. Methods A retrospective case review study of 14 children who had surgical intervention for symptomatic intestinal ascariasis having the presence of concomitant Meckel's diverticulum was done. The study was done at SMHS Hospital Srinagar, Kashmir. Results A total of the 14 children who had ascaridial intestinal obstruction with concomitant presence of Meckel's diverticulum were studied. Age of children ranged from 4-12 years, male:female ratio was 1.8:1. Nine patients had asymptomatic Meckel's diverticulum, whereas 5 patients with symptomatic signs were found in the course of emergency surgery for ascaridial intestinal obstruction. Conclusion Meckel's diverticulum in intestinal ascariasis may pursue silent course or may be accompanied with complications of the diverticulitis, perforation or the gangrene. Incidental finding of the Meckel's diverticulum in the intestinal ascariasis should have removal.

  3. A Single Dose of Oral BCG Moreau Fails to Boost Systemic IFN-γ Responses to Tuberculin in Children in the Rural Tropics: Evidence for a Barrier to Mucosal Immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaca, Maritza; Moncayo, Ana-Lucia; Cosgrove, Catherine A; Chico, Martha E; Castello-Branco, Luiz R; Lewis, David J; Cooper, Philip J

    2012-01-01

    Immune responses to oral vaccines are impaired in populations living in conditions of poverty in developing countries, and there is evidence that concurrent geohelminth infections may contribute to this effect. We vaccinated 48 children living in rural communities in Ecuador with a single oral dose of 100 mg of BCG Moreau RDJ and measured the frequencies of tuberculin-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells expressing IFN-γ before and after vaccination. Vaccinated children had active ascariasis (n = 20) or had been infected but received short- (n = 13) or long-term (n = 15) repeated treatments with albendazole prior to vaccination to treat ascariasis. All children had a BCG scar from neonatal vaccination. There was no evidence of a boosting of postvaccination IFN-γ responses in any of the 3 study groups. Our data provide support for the presence of a barrier to oral vaccination among children from the rural tropics that appeared to be independent of concurrent ascariasis.

  4. [Nematodes of humans in the Primorye Territory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermolenko, A V; Rumiantseva, E E; Bartkova, A D; Voronok, V M; Poliakova, L F

    2013-01-01

    Nematodes occupy the top in the general pattern of human parasitic diseases in the Primorye Territory. In the south of the Far East, there are a total of 28 nematode species that can parasitize man. However, the authors have identified only 8 nematode-induced diseases, such as ascariasis, enterobiasis, toxocariasis, trichocephaliasis, anisakiasis, trichinosis, dirofilariasis, dioctophymosis. The latter has been found only once in the 1920s. According to official statistical data, the proportion of ascariasis and enterobiasis accounted for 43.8 and 53.5% of the total number of helminthiases, respectively.

  5. First Case of Ascaris lumbricoides Infestation Complicated with Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayhan, Gülsüm İclal; Çenesiz, Funda; Tanır, Gönül; Taylan Özkan, Ayşegül; Çınar, Gökçe

    2015-06-01

    Ascariasis is a common soil-transmitted helminth infestation worldwide. Ascaris lumbricoides infestation is generally asymptomatic or cause nonspecific signs and symptoms. We report a 5-year-old male with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis associated with A. lumbricoides infestation. The presented patient recovered completely after defecating an A. lumbricoides following intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and mebendazole treatment. We wanted to emphasize that because helminth infestation is easily overlooked, the diagnosis of ascariasis should be considered in patients who live in endemic areas and treated timely to prevent severe complications.

  6. The dynamics of spreading bacterial diseases and ilnesses caused by helminthosis in Adjara Autonomous Republic 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomtatidze, N; Chachnelidze, R; Chkaidze, M

    2013-01-01

    According to the data of past few years it has been determined that the general incidence and the prevalence of the bacterial and helminthosis diseases have increased. Epidemic Supervision has registered a slight increase of such diseases in data of 2011. Taking into consideration this fact, this research is quite important for the region of Adjara. The aim of our research is to study the dynamics of spreading some bacterial and helminthosis diseases in Adjara Autonomous Republic. In particular, the diseases caused by different bacterias of leptospira family - leptospirosis and illnesses caused by helminthosis - ascariasis, enterobiasis and trichocephalosis. according to the reseaches held it has been determined that there have been several cases of leptospirosis registered in Adjara. Specifically, 10 cases in 2008, 6 in 2009, 30 in 2010 and 31 cases in 2011 out of which 10 of the cases where laboratorily claimed. There were cases of ascariasis, enterobiasis and trichocephalosis. According to data, there are 5 times less cases of trichocephalosis than of ascariasis. As for enterobiasis, it's less than ascariasis (the difference is 205 cases). In therms of the aging, all the cases occur more frequently in the group of children below the age of 14.

  7. Significance of Charcot Leyden crystals in hepatic aspirates

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    Misra Vatsala

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Charcot Leyden crystals are hexagonal bipyramidal structures localised in the primary granules of the cytoplasm of eosinophils and basophils. Their presence, along with eosinophilic infiltrate, is an indirect evidence of parasitic infestation particularly with Toxocara, Capilliriasis, Ascariasis, or Fasciola. We report here two cases where Charcot Leyden crystals with eosinophilic infiltrate were found in the smears prepared from hepatic abscess.

  8. Impact of Ascaris suum in livestock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Nejsum, Peter; Mejer, Helena

    2013-01-01

    or viral infections, related to the migratory and immune-modulatory capacity of A. suum. Losses due to ascariasis in pigs can thus be summarized as (1) farm economic losses due to clinical effects (although limited), reduced growth and feed conversion efficiency and costs of control (e.g. use...

  9. Genetic diversity of Ascaris in southwestern Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Betson, Martha; Nejsum, Peter; Llewellyn-Hughes, Julia

    2012-01-01

    Despite the common occurrence of ascariasis in southwestern Uganda, helminth control in the region has been limited. To gain further insights into the genetic diversity of Ascaris in this area, a parasitological survey in mothers (n=41) and children (n=74) living in two villages, Habutobere and M...

  10. SURGICAL COMPLICATION OF ASCARIDOSIS IN ISFAHAN

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    H. Emami

    1977-03-01

    Full Text Available Ascaris infestation is still prevalent in the world. In Isfahan approximately 77.7 to 90.3 percent of the population is infected. In this communication surgical complications of ascariasis in a series of 29 patients observed in Soraya Hospital of Isfahan during five year period since 1971 are reported. Intestinal obstruction was the commonest complication leading to operation (22 cases. The diagnosis was based on clinical and radiologic grounds and was confirmed at operation. In these situations enterotomy or resection of the gut was associated with high mortality. Three cases of intestinal perforation, two cases of appendicitis, one case of biliary obstruction and liver abscess and a case of acute pancreatitis due to ascariasis are also reported.

  11. Endoscopic diagnosis in Ascaris lumbricoides case with pyloric obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peker, Kemal; Kılıç, Kemal

    2011-01-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides is the largest and most prevalent helminth seen in the human body. Ascariasis having high morbidity and mortality causes a unique type of intestinal obstruction with specific problems. This is probably due to reduced intestinal absorption and luminal obstruction, which can lead to anorexia and blockage of the absorbing surface. It affects humans especially in developing countries. This essay presented a 78-year-old female case had severe abdominal pain, nausea and constipation for seven days and the pylorus was obstructed by A. lumbricoides and diagnosis was obtained by endoscopy. During endoscopy in the treatment, the ascariasis that could be removed was. Afterwards, 100 mg mebendazole was given for 3 days once in two months.The purpose of the presentation of this case is that it is seen in advanced ages and it sets us thinking of stomach tumor due to its obstruction and anemia clinic.

  12. [Ascaris lumbricoides in the nasogastric tube after operation on a patient with the diagnosis of acute mesenteric ischemia: case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çiçek, Ayşegül Çopur; Gündoğdu, Deniz; Direkel, Sahin; Öztürk, Çinar

    2013-01-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides is a comman intestinal helminths in humans. It is a parasite which commonly affects society with a low socioeconomic status, especially in tropical and rural areas. Ascaris lumbricoides infestation can lead to serious complications because of the mobility of the worms. The parasite can cause a variety of complications like intestinal obstruction, perforation, biliary obstruction, pancreatitis, peritonitis, liver abscess, cholangiohepatitis, volvulus, and gangrene, etc. A 59-year-old female patient hospitalized with the diagnosis of mesenteric ischemia was operated on for jejunal resection. On the 6th postoperative day, a worm was noticed emerging through the nasogastric tube. Ascaris lumbricoides was determined as a result of the examination microbiology laboratory. The patient was treated successfully with one dose of albendazole 200 mg 1x2. Our case describes a clinical situation of ascariasis observed after jejunal resection and emphasizes the importance of remaining aware of this rare complication of ascariasis.

  13. Anthelmintic properties of traditional African and Caribbean medicinal plants: identification of extracts with potent activity against Ascaris suum in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Andrew R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ascariasis affects more than 1 billion people worldwide, mainly in developing countries, causing substantial morbidity. Current treatments for Ascaris infection are based on mass drug administration (MDA with synthetic anthelmintic drugs such as albendazole, however continual re-infection and the threat of drug resistance mean that complementary treatment options would be highly valuable. Here, we screened ethanolic extracts from 29 medicinal plants used in Africa (Ghana and the Caribbean (US Virgin Islands for in vitro anthelmintic properties against Ascaris suum, a swine parasite that is very closely related to the human A. lumbricoides. A wide variety of activities were seen in the extracts, from negligible to potent. Extracts from Clausena anisata, Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides and Punica granatum were identified as the most potent with EC50 values of 74, 97 and 164 μg/mL, respectively. Our results encourage further investigation of their use as complementary treatment options for ascariasis, alongside MDA.

  14. Anthelmintic properties of traditional African and Caribbean medicinal plants: identification of extracts with potent activity against Ascaris suum in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Andrew R.; Soelberg, Jens; Jäger, Anna K.

    2016-01-01

    Ascariasis affects more than 1 billion people worldwide, mainly in developing countries, causing substantial morbidity. Current treatments for Ascaris infection are based on mass drug administration (MDA) with synthetic anthelmintic drugs such as albendazole, however continual re-infection and the threat of drug resistance mean that complementary treatment options would be highly valuable. Here, we screened ethanolic extracts from 29 medicinal plants used in Africa (Ghana) and the Caribbean (US Virgin Islands) for in vitro anthelmintic properties against Ascaris suum, a swine parasite that is very closely related to the human A. lumbricoides. A wide variety of activities were seen in the extracts, from negligible to potent. Extracts from Clausena anisata, Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides and Punica granatum were identified as the most potent with EC50 values of 74, 97 and 164 μg/mL, respectively. Our results encourage further investigation of their use as complementary treatment options for ascariasis, alongside MDA. PMID:27301442

  15. Multiple Intestinal Erosions as a Result of Hemorrhage due to Parasites: Case Reports and Review of the Literature

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    Hannah Pitanga Lukashok

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Obscure gastrointestinal bleeding appears to be uncommon in patients with parasites. In spite of that some reports had described this relationship in patients evaluated during capsule endoscopy procedures; the characteristic of the bleeding lesions remains unclear. This paper describes two patients with a massive obscure gastrointestinal bleeding due to ascariasis, using the new capsule endoscopy technology “MiroCam”, describing the characteristic of the lesions found in our patients (observed in a better image quality, and reviewing the literature.

  16. Necrotizing hepatitis in a domestic pigeon (Columba livia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himmel, L; O'Connor, M; Premanandan, C

    2014-11-01

    An adult male domestic pigeon (Columba livia) was presented for necropsy following natural death after a period of chronic weight loss and severe intestinal ascariasis. Histopathologic examination of the liver found moderate to marked, multifocal necrotizing hepatitis with large, basophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies. Transmission electron microscopy of affected hepatocytes demonstrated numerous intra- and perinuclear icosahedral virions arranged in a lattice structure, consistent with adenoviral infection.

  17. Ultrasonographic findings of ascaris in the small bowel: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Cheol; Shin, Hyeong Cheol; Kim, Hyung Hwan; Bae, Won Kyung; Kim, Il Young [Cheonan Hospital, Soonchunhyang University college of Medicine, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Park, Seong Jin [Bucheon Hospital, Soonchunhyang University college of Medicine, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jin Soo [Keimyung University college of Medicine, Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-12-15

    Ascariasis is one of the most common helminthic disease worldwide and evoked variable clinical manifestations by the migration of worm in the alimentary and biliary tract. The ultrasonographic detection of ascaris in the small bowel is relatively difficult, and no report on the ultrasonographic findings have been published in Korea. On abdominal ultrasonography, ascaris is seen as an intraluminal tubular structure with 4 linear echogenic stripes and movement. We report a case of ascaris in the small bowel detected by abdominal ultrasonography.

  18. Ascaris Lumbricoides infestation and intestinal MZBCL: a surgical and radiological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assenza, M; Casciani, E; Romeo, V; Valesini, L; Centonze, L; Bartolucci, P; Ciccarone, F; Gualdi, G; Modini, C

    2011-01-01

    Ascaris Lumbricoides is the most common worm found in human beings and it is the largest of the intestinal nematodes parasitizing humanity. The most common complication of Ascariasis is mechanical bowel obstruction caused by a large number of worms. Bowel obstruction can also be caused by various toxins released by the worms. A large worm bolus can also cause volvulus or intussusception. We report a case of Intestinal Obstruction due to an Ileal MZBCL in an Ascaris. Lumbricoides infestation setting.

  19. Esophageal space-occupying lesion caused by Ascaris lumbricoides

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng,Ping-Ping; Wang, Bing-Yuan; Wang, Fei(Physics Department, Zhengzhou University, Henan, 450001, China); Ao, Ran; Wang, Ying

    2012-01-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides is the largest intestinal nematode parasite of man, which can lead to various complications because of its mobility. As the esophagus is not normal habitat of Ascaris, the report of esophageal ascariasis is rare. An old female presented with dysphagia after an intake of several red bean buns and haw jellies. The barium meal examination revealed a spherical defect in the lower esophagus. Esophageal bezoar or esophageal carcinoma was considered at the beginning. The patient...

  20. Ascaris lumbricoides in neonate: evidence of congenital transmission of intestinal nematodes Ascaris lumbricoides em neonato: evidências da transmissão congênita de nematóides intestinais

    OpenAIRE

    Leda Maria da Costa-Macedo; Luís Rey

    1990-01-01

    Clinical and epidemiological study of a forty-days-old infant with a diarrheic condition and insufficient development led to the coprological diagnosis of ascariasis and possible congenital infection. Specific treatment with levamizole, resulted in clinical and parasitological cure, in addition to gain of weight up to normal levels. Maternal parasitism had been diagnosed two months before labor and proved beyond doubt during the ensuing epidemiological inquiry.O estudo clínico e epidemiológic...

  1. Round worm in common bile duct, a rare pathology: Review of 15 cases

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    Biswaranjan Nayak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Round worm or Ascaris lumbricoides has a worldwide distribution but is more prevalent in the developing countries like India and other South Asian countries. In human beings, round worms are commonly found in the small intestine, particularly the jejunum. If the pathogen load is very high, it may migrate to other sites and manifest different symptoms. In this paper, we share our experience of biliary ascariasis with regards to its clinical presentation, diagnosis, conservative and surgical management.

  2. An unceasing problem: soil-transmitted helminthiases in rural Malaysian communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mekhlafi, M S Hesham; Atiya, A S; Lim, Y A L; Mahdy, A K Mohammed; Ariffin, W A Wan; Abdullah, H Che; Surin, Johari

    2007-11-01

    Despite great development in socioeconomic status throughout 50 years of independence, Malaysia is still plagued with soil-transmitted helminthiases (STH). STH continue to have a significant impact on public health particularly in rural communities. In order to determine the prevalence of STH among rural Orang Asli children and to investigate the possible risk factors affecting the pattern of this prevalence, fecal samples were collected from 292 Orang Asli primary schoolchildren (145 males and 147 females) age 7-12 years, from Pos Betau, Kuala Lipis, Pahang. The samples were examined by Kato-Katz and Harada Mori techniques. Socioeconomic data were collected using pre-tested questionnaires. The overall prevalence of ascariasis, trichuriasis, and hookworm infections were 67.8, 95.5 and 13.4%, respectively. Twenty-nine point eight percent of the children had heavy trichuriasis, while 22.3% had heavy ascariasis. Sixty-seven point seven percent of the children had mixed infections. Age > 10 years (p = 0.016), no toilet in the house (p = 0.012), working mother (p = 0.040), low household income (p = 0.033), and large family size (p = 0.028) were identified as risk factors for ascariasis. Logistic regression confirmed low income, no toilet in the house and working mother as significant risk factors for ascariasis. The prevalence of STH is still very high in rural Malaysian communities. STH may also contribute to other health problems such as micronutrient deficiencies, protein-energy malnutrition and poor educational achievement. Public health personnel need to reassess current control measures and identify innovative and integrated ways in order to reduce STH significantly in rural communities.

  3. A Single Dose of Oral BCG Moreau Fails to Boost Systemic IFN-γ Responses to Tuberculin in Children in the Rural Tropics: Evidence for a Barrier to Mucosal Immunization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maritza Vaca

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Immune responses to oral vaccines are impaired in populations living in conditions of poverty in developing countries, and there is evidence that concurrent geohelminth infections may contribute to this effect. We vaccinated 48 children living in rural communities in Ecuador with a single oral dose of 100 mg of BCG Moreau RDJ and measured the frequencies of tuberculin-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells expressing IFN-γ before and after vaccination. Vaccinated children had active ascariasis (n=20 or had been infected but received short- (n=13 or long-term (n=15 repeated treatments with albendazole prior to vaccination to treat ascariasis. All children had a BCG scar from neonatal vaccination. There was no evidence of a boosting of postvaccination IFN-γ responses in any of the 3 study groups. Our data provide support for the presence of a barrier to oral vaccination among children from the rural tropics that appeared to be independent of concurrent ascariasis.

  4. Development of a Loop Mediated Isothermal Amplification for Diagnosis of Ascaris lumbricoides in Fecal Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric, Agola L.; Mwangi, Ibrahim N.; Maina, Geoffrey M.; Kinuthia, Joseph M.; Mutuku, Martin W.; Mugambi, Robert M.; Mwandi, Jackson M.; Mkoji, Gerald M.

    2016-01-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides is a nematode parasite that causes the common tropical infection ascariasis in humans. It is also considered among the neglected tropical diseases. Diagnosis relies mainly on microscopy-based methods which are laborious, are limited by low sensitivity, and require high expertise. We have developed a loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) for diagnosis of ascariasis in fecal samples, based on the first internal transcribed (ITS-1) spacer region of the ribosomal DNA. We used Primer Explorer V4 software to design primers. Ascaris adult and ova were obtained from naturally infected school children, whose parents/guardians gave consent for their participation in the study. Genomic DNA was extracted using alkaline lysis method and amplified by LAMP at 63°C for 45 minutes. LAMP products were visualized by naked eyes after adding SYBR Green dye and also on agarose gel. LAMP successfully and reliably detected Ascaris DNA from a single egg and in fecal samples. The assay specifically detected Ascaris DNA without amplifying DNA from ova of other parasites which commonly coexist with A. lumbricoides in feces. The developed LAMP assay has great potential for use in ascariasis diagnosis at the point of care and in low infection intensity situation that characterize control and elimination campaigns. PMID:27882242

  5. Development of a Loop Mediated Isothermal Amplification for Diagnosis of Ascaris lumbricoides in Fecal Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraho, Esther A; Eric, Agola L; Mwangi, Ibrahim N; Maina, Geoffrey M; Kinuthia, Joseph M; Mutuku, Martin W; Mugambi, Robert M; Mwandi, Jackson M; Mkoji, Gerald M

    2016-01-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides is a nematode parasite that causes the common tropical infection ascariasis in humans. It is also considered among the neglected tropical diseases. Diagnosis relies mainly on microscopy-based methods which are laborious, are limited by low sensitivity, and require high expertise. We have developed a loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) for diagnosis of ascariasis in fecal samples, based on the first internal transcribed (ITS-1) spacer region of the ribosomal DNA. We used Primer Explorer V4 software to design primers. Ascaris adult and ova were obtained from naturally infected school children, whose parents/guardians gave consent for their participation in the study. Genomic DNA was extracted using alkaline lysis method and amplified by LAMP at 63°C for 45 minutes. LAMP products were visualized by naked eyes after adding SYBR Green dye and also on agarose gel. LAMP successfully and reliably detected Ascaris DNA from a single egg and in fecal samples. The assay specifically detected Ascaris DNA without amplifying DNA from ova of other parasites which commonly coexist with A. lumbricoides in feces. The developed LAMP assay has great potential for use in ascariasis diagnosis at the point of care and in low infection intensity situation that characterize control and elimination campaigns.

  6. Gangrene intestine caused by Ascaris lumbricoides; report of 5 cases in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawatra, Vibha; Arora, Prerna; Lakshmikantha, Akhila; Varma, Deepali; Khurana, Nita

    2010-05-15

    Ascaris infestation in the gastrointestinal tract is well known in Asian countries. It can be asymptomatic or can present with symptoms of acute abdomen. Perforation and torsion with gangrene are its very rare fatal complications but an important cause of mortality in children. Although ascariasis is very rare in developed countries, clinicians should consider this potentially dangerous, yet treatable, infection in the differential diagnosis of acute abdomen. We herein report a series of five cases of intestinal gangrene secondary to extensive infestation by Ascaris lumbricoides in children aged 1-4 years.

  7. PREDOMINANCE AND SOCIAL DETERMINANTS IN OCCURRENCE OF PARASITOSIS IN CENTEREASTERN REGION OF PARANÁ: A SOCIOECONOMIC ANALYZES OF THE PROBLEM.

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    Patricia Regina Cenci Queiroz, Angela Patricia Motin, Cristiane Aparecida Verbaneck, Franciely Damaris de Cristo, Marcia de Souza Oliveira, Marcia Maria Veronese e Shirley Rak Mantovani

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Considering the high incidence of parasitic diseases in centereastern region of Paraná, an inquiry about its probable determinants was carried out. Particularly, the occurrence of Ascaris Lumbricoides was analyzed. Bibliographical research referring to this theme and data-collecting from centereastern region have been carried out, attempting to contextualize the epidemiological condition of this region. We can conclude that the high occurrence of ascariasis in analyzed region is linked to life conditions of general population, the deficiency in urban and sanitary planning, socioeconomic conditions and, essentially, the absence of investments in basic infrastructure. Thus, this study demonstrates the need of an urgent prophylactic action.

  8. Should intensivist do routine abdominal ultrasound?

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    Sukhen Samanta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Roundworm infestation is common in tropical climate population with a low socioeconomic status. We describe a case of a young male with polytrauma accident who presented with small bowel dysfunction with a high gastric residual volume during enteral feeding. While searching the etiology, the intensivist performed bedside abdominal ultrasound (USG as a part of whole body USG screening along with clinical examination using different frequency probes to examine bowel movement and ultimately found ascariasis to be the cause. This case report will boost up the wide use of bedside USG by critical care physicians in their patient workup.

  9. 十二指肠镜治疗胆道蛔虫病2021例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡兵; 张丙印; 田伏洲; 黄大熔; 陶小红

    2002-01-01

    @@ 胆道蛔虫病是临床常见急腹症之一,因其临床常同时有胆道与胰腺症状,故又称胆胰性蛔虫病(hepatobiliary and pancreatic ascariasis,HPA).近年HPA发病率有所下降,但农村地区仍较高.我们从1981~2001年通过十二指肠镜镜下治疗HPA共2 021例,积累了较多的经验,现总结如下.

  10. Focal inflammatory diseases of the liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oto, Aytekin; Akhan, Okan; Oezmen, Mustafa

    1999-10-01

    Inflammatory lesions constitute an important subgroup of focal liver lesions. They may mimic primary or metastatic neoplastic lesions and their differentiation from neoplasia is clinically very important since management of the patient significantly changes. Radiologists should have an important role in both the diagnosis and therapy of these lesions by performing percutaneous aspirations and drainages. In this review we discussed the radiological findings of pyogenic abscesses, amebic abscesses, candidiasis, tuberculosis, hydatic cysts, fascioliasis, ascariasis, schistosomiasis, and sarcoidosis with a special emphasis on US, CT and MR characteristics.

  11. The emerging disease occurrence of pet animals in Bangladesh

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    Umma Habiba

    2016-12-01

    Results: Among the most general pet animals in Bangladesh (dog, cat, rabbit, the mostly occured diseases were scabies (23.07%, feline ascariasis (37.14% and rabbit mange (34.61%, while the less frequent diseases were canine parvovirus enteritis (2.19%, cat scratch disease (5.71% and overgrown teeth (7.69%. Conclusion: The study provides basic information about the current status and the percentage (% of disease occurrence considering the emerging diseases of pet animals in Bangladesh. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2016; 3(4.000: 413-419

  12. Antigen recognition by IgG4 antibodies in human trichinellosis

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    Pinelli E.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The antibody isotype response to Trichinella spiralis excretory/secretory (ES products of muscle larva was examined using sera from patients with confirmed trichinellosis. Using Western blots we identify components of the ES antigen that are recognized by IgM and IgG antibodies. A 45 kDa component was strongly recognized by different antibody classes and subclasses. We observed a 45 kDa-specific lgG4 response that was detected exclusively using sera of patients with trichinellosis and not of patients with echinococcosis, filariasis, cysticercosis, ascariasis, strongyloidiasis or toxocariasis. These results are relevant for the diagnosis of human trichinellosis.

  13. Management of Accidental Finding of Ascaris Lumbricoides During Emergent Abdominal Surgery: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esfehani, Maryam Hassan; Jahanshahi, Abdolhadi; Karimi, Amirhossein

    2016-01-01

    Ascariasis lumbricoides is the most common soil-transmitted helminth worldwide and most often is asymptomatic, although it can present with abdominal pain, malabsorption and growth failure, complete or partial obstraction in small bowel and biliary system and etc. Accidental encounters with ascaris during emergent abdominal surgeries are very rare and have been reported in less than a handful of papers. In this report, we describe this rare event from a country with low prevalence of this infection, and then review the literatures and clarify the possible challenges for surgeons during operation and postoperative follow-up.

  14. Potensi Serbuk Daun Kelor (Moringa oleifera Sebagai Anthelmintik Terhadap Infeksi Ascaris suum dan Feed Supplement pada Babi

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    Muhammad Ulqiya Syukron

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pig ascariasis is an intestinal parasitic disease caused by Ascaris suum. The economic losses in pig ascariasis are caused by a bad feed conversion ratio (FCR and rejection of some organs after animal slaughtering. An anthelmintic utilization and farm management improvement are the common prevention action, however, recently the utilization of herbs as an athelmintic has been developed, one of them is Moringa oleifera leaves. Moringa oleifera leaves are also a potential for a sources of animal food because of their high nutrients. This intervention research aimed to examine the anthelmintic effect of Moringa oleifera leaves and its potency as feed supplement. Experimental design used was ccompletely randomized design split time (CRD Split Time with six treatments namely Moringa oleifera 5% and an infection of infective larvae of A. suum (1, Moringa oleifera 5% (2, positive control (3, Moringa oleifera 10% (4, Moringa oleifera 10% and infection of infective larvae of A. suum (5, and no treatment as negative control (6. Each treatment was imposed on four female landrace piglets aged 8 weeks and weighed around 11 kg. The results showed that Moringa oleifera 5% and 10% of the feed could inhibit the egg production of A.suum and had a significant effect (P<0.05 on weight gain of piglets. It can be concluded that Moringa oleifera leave have an anthelmintic effect to prevent the infection of A. suum and a potential for a feed supplement on pigs.

  15. Esophageal space-occupying lesion caused by Ascaris lumbricoides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping-Ping Zheng; Bing-Yuan Wang; Fei Wang; Ran Ao; Ying Wang

    2012-01-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides is the largest intestinal nematode parasite of man,which can lead to various complications because of its mobility.As the esophagus is not normal habitat of Ascaris,the report of esophageal ascariasis is rare.An old female presented with dysphagia after an intake of several red bean buns and haw jellies.The barium meal examination revealed a spherical defect in the lower esophagus.Esophageal bezoar or esophageal carcinoma was considered at the beginning.The patient fasted,and received fluid replacement treatment as well as some oral drugs such as proton pump inhibitor and sodium bicarbonate.Then upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was done to further confirm the diagnosis and found a live Ascaris lumbricoides in the gastric antrum and two in the duodenal bulb.The conclusive diagnosis was ascariasis.The esophageal space-occupying lesion might be the entangled worm bolus.Anthelmitnic treatment with mebendazole improved patient's clinical manifestations along with normalization of the radiological findings during a 2-wk follow-up.Authors report herein this rare case of Ascaris lumbricoides in the esophagus,emphasizing the importance of awareness of this parasitic infection as it often presents with different and unspecific symptoms.

  16. Esophageal space-occupying lesion caused by Ascaris lumbricoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ping-Ping; Wang, Bing-Yuan; Wang, Fei; Ao, Ran; Wang, Ying

    2012-04-07

    Ascaris lumbricoides is the largest intestinal nematode parasite of man, which can lead to various complications because of its mobility. As the esophagus is not normal habitat of Ascaris, the report of esophageal ascariasis is rare. An old female presented with dysphagia after an intake of several red bean buns and haw jellies. The barium meal examination revealed a spherical defect in the lower esophagus. Esophageal bezoar or esophageal carcinoma was considered at the beginning. The patient fasted, and received fluid replacement treatment as well as some oral drugs such as proton pump inhibitor and sodium bicarbonate. Then upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was done to further confirm the diagnosis and found a live Ascaris lumbricoides in the gastric antrum and two in the duodenal bulb. The conclusive diagnosis was ascariasis. The esophageal space-occupying lesion might be the entangled worm bolus. Anthelmitnic treatment with mebendazole improved patient's clinical manifestations along with normalization of the radiological findings during a 2-wk follow-up. Authors report herein this rare case of Ascaris lumbricoides in the esophagus, emphasizing the importance of awareness of this parasitic infection as it often presents with different and unspecific symptoms.

  17. Epidemiology of intestinal parasitic infections in school children in Ghazni Province, eastern Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzeniewski, Krzysztof; Augustynowicz, Alina; Smoleń, Agata; Lass, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the prevalence of intestinal parasites and their species in Afghan school children and to establish appropriate treatment methods for detected pathogens. Methods: Parasitological examination of stool samples collected from 1369 children aged 8-18, students of the Jahan Malika High School in Ghazni Province in eastern Afghanistan, was conducted in the period November 2013-April 2014. Three stool samples were collected from each patient every second day; the samples were fixed in 10% formalin and tested by light microscopy using the methods of direct smear in Lugol’s solution, decantation in distilled water, and Fülleborn’s flotation. Results: Of 535 examined children (39.1% of the study group) were infected with nematodes (n=324), cestodes (n=118), trematodes (n=12), and protozoa (n=228), 132 were diagnosed with co-infections (mainly ascariasis+giardiasis, ascariasis+hymenolepiasis) and received single or combined therapy. Conclusions: The Afghan community is an example of population characterized by a high rate of parasitic infections. Owing to high prevalence of multiple infections among inhabitants of Afghanistan, it seems that a mass deworming campaign with a single-dose chemotherapy may prove ineffective in eradicating intestinal parasites in the local population. PMID:26870108

  18. Immune Profile of Honduran Schoolchildren with Intestinal Parasites: The Skewed Response against Geohelminths

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    José Antonio Gabrie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil-transmitted helminth infections typically induce a type-2 immune response (Th2, but no immunoepidemiological studies have been undertaken in Honduras, an endemic country where the main control strategy is children’s annual deworming. We aimed to characterize the immune profile of Honduran schoolchildren harbouring these parasitoses. Demographic and epidemiological data were obtained through a survey; nutritional status was assessed through anthropometry; intestinal parasites were diagnosed by formol-ether and Kato-Katz; and blood samples were collected to determine immunological markers including Th1/Th2 cytokines, IgE, and eosinophil levels. A total of 225 children participated in the study, all of whom had received deworming during the national campaign five months prior to the study. Trichuriasis and ascariasis prevalence were 22.2% and 20.4%, respectively. Stunting was associated with both age and trichuriasis, whereas ascariasis was associated with sex and household conditions. Helminth infections were strongly associated with eosinophilia and hyper-IgE as well as with a Th2-polarized response (increased levels of IL-13, IL-10, and IL4/IFN-γ ratios and decreased levels of IFN-γ. Pathogenic protozoa infections were associated with a Th1 response characterized by elevated levels of IFN-γ and decreased IL10/IFN-γ ratios. Even at low prevalence levels, STH infections affect children’s nutrition and play a polarizing role in their immune system.

  19. Internal Transcribed Spacer 1 (ITS1 based sequence typing reveals phylogenetically distinct Ascaris population

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    Koushik Das

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Taxonomic differentiation among morphologically identical Ascaris species is a debatable scientific issue in the context of Ascariasis epidemiology. To explain the disease epidemiology and also the taxonomic position of different Ascaris species, genome information of infecting strains from endemic areas throughout the world is certainly crucial. Ascaris population from human has been genetically characterized based on the widely used genetic marker, internal transcribed spacer1 (ITS1. Along with previously reported and prevalent genotype G1, 8 new sequence variants of ITS1 have been identified. Genotype G1 was significantly present among female patients aged between 10 to 15 years. Intragenic linkage disequilibrium (LD analysis at target locus within our study population has identified an incomplete LD value with potential recombination events. A separate cluster of Indian isolates with high bootstrap value indicate their distinct phylogenetic position in comparison to the global Ascaris population. Genetic shuffling through recombination could be a possible reason for high population diversity and frequent emergence of new sequence variants, identified in present and other previous studies. This study explores the genetic organization of Indian Ascaris population for the first time which certainly includes some fundamental information on the molecular epidemiology of Ascariasis.

  20. Risk factors for hilar cholangiocarcinoma: A case-control study in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-Ke Cai; Hui Sima; Ben-Dong Chen; Guang-Shun Yang

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To study the association between hilar cholangiocarcinoma (HC) and pre-existing medical conditions.METHODS: Three hundred and thirteen HC patients admitted to the Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgery Hospital (Shanghai, China) in 2000-2005 and 608 healthy controls were enrolled in this study. Association between HC and pre-existing medical conditions was studied with their adjusted odds ratio (OR) calculated by logistic regression analysis.RESULTS: The prevalence of choledocholithiasis (adjusted OR = 2.704, P = 0.039), hepatolithiasis (adjusted OR = 3.278, P = 0.018), cholecystolithiasis (adjusted OR = 4.499, P < 0.0001), cholecystectomy (adjusted OR = 7.012, P = 0.004), biliary ascariasis (adjusted OR =7.188, P = 0.001), liver fluke (adjusted OR = 10.088, P = 0.042) and liver schistosomiasis (adjusted OR = 9.913,P = 0.001) was higher in HC patients than in healthy controls.CONCLUSION: Biliary tract stone disease (choledocholithiasis,hepatolithiasis, cholecystolithiasis) and parasitic liver disease (biliary ascariasis, liver fluke, liver schistosomiasis)are the risk factors for HC in Chinese population.

  1. Medical image of the week: ascaris lumbridoies

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    Wong C

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. A 25 year-old man was admitted to the ICU with acute renal failure and acute respiratory failure from fluid overload after attempting to cross the border. The patient was successfully extubated after five days of mechanical ventilation and renal replacement therapy. Following extubation, the patient had a bowel movement and passed a 23cm adult Ascaris lumbricoides. He was treated with a single dose of albendazole 400 mg. Ascariasis is a very common helminthic infection, particularly in pediatric populations, and affects mostly the gastrointestinal tract. When infective eggs are swallowed by the host, larvae hatch in the GI tract. The larvae invade the GI mucosa and then are brought into the lungs via portal circulation. The larvae can then move up the tracheobronchial tree and then are swallowed into the GI tract where the mature worms form (1. While our patient had a simple gastrointestinal infection, several pulmonary complications of ascariasis ...

  2. Immune Profile of Honduran Schoolchildren with Intestinal Parasites: The Skewed Response against Geohelminths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda, María Mercedes; Rodríguez, Carol Anahelka; Canales, Maritza

    2016-01-01

    Soil-transmitted helminth infections typically induce a type-2 immune response (Th2), but no immunoepidemiological studies have been undertaken in Honduras, an endemic country where the main control strategy is children's annual deworming. We aimed to characterize the immune profile of Honduran schoolchildren harbouring these parasitoses. Demographic and epidemiological data were obtained through a survey; nutritional status was assessed through anthropometry; intestinal parasites were diagnosed by formol-ether and Kato-Katz; and blood samples were collected to determine immunological markers including Th1/Th2 cytokines, IgE, and eosinophil levels. A total of 225 children participated in the study, all of whom had received deworming during the national campaign five months prior to the study. Trichuriasis and ascariasis prevalence were 22.2% and 20.4%, respectively. Stunting was associated with both age and trichuriasis, whereas ascariasis was associated with sex and household conditions. Helminth infections were strongly associated with eosinophilia and hyper-IgE as well as with a Th2-polarized response (increased levels of IL-13, IL-10, and IL4/IFN-γ ratios and decreased levels of IFN-γ). Pathogenic protozoa infections were associated with a Th1 response characterized by elevated levels of IFN-γ and decreased IL10/IFN-γ ratios. Even at low prevalence levels, STH infections affect children's nutrition and play a polarizing role in their immune system. PMID:27882241

  3. Hubungan Sanitasi Lingkungan Rumah dengan Kejadian Askariasis dan Trikuriasis pada Siswa SD N 29 Purus Padang

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    Hildya Kusmi

    2015-09-01

    clean water source, garbage disposal facilities and the type of floor home to ascariasis and trichuriasis incidences . This  was an analyticwith cross sectional study design. The population were  71  students of State Elementery School 29 Purus Padang, but the subjecs were  55 students. Research instruments were stool examination and questionnaire. Bi variate analysis was chi-square test. The results showed that the worm infection rate in student of Elementary School 29 Purus Padangwas 38 %, consist of Ascaris lumbricoides infection (33%, Trichuris trichiura infection (9.1% and infection of both species (3.6%. The statistical test indicated no significant relationship between latrine ownership, availability of clean water source, garbage disposal facilities, and the type of floor home to the incidence of ascariasis and trichuriasis (p > 0.05. The high worm infection in elementary school students need better attention, like worm eradication program by the school and local health authorities.Keywords: worm infestations, environmental sanitation, ascariasis, trichuriasis 

  4. Mucocutaneous manifestations of helminth infections: Nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupi, Omar; Downing, Christopher; Lee, Michael; Pino, Livia; Bravo, Francisco; Giglio, Patricia; Sethi, Aisha; Klaus, Sidney; Sangueza, Omar P; Fuller, Claire; Mendoza, Natalia; Ladizinski, Barry; Woc-Colburn, Laila; Tyring, Stephen K

    2015-12-01

    In the 21st century, despite increased globalization through international travel for business, medical volunteerism, pleasure, and immigration/refugees into the United States, there is little published in the dermatology literature regarding the cutaneous manifestations of helminth infections. Approximately 17% of travelers seek medical care because of cutaneous disorders, many related to infectious etiologies. This review will focus on the cutaneous manifestations of helminth infections and is divided into 2 parts: part I focuses on nematode infections, and part II focuses on trematode and cestode infections. This review highlights the clinical manifestations, transmission, diagnosis, and treatment of helminth infections. Nematodes are roundworms that cause diseases with cutaneous manifestations, such as cutaneous larval migrans, onchocerciasis, filariasis, gnathostomiasis, loiasis, dracunculiasis, strongyloidiasis, ascariasis, streptocerciasis, dirofilariasis, and trichinosis. Tremadotes, also known as flukes, cause schistosomiasis, paragonimiasis, and fascioliasis. Cestodes (tapeworms) are flat, hermaphroditic parasites that cause diseases such as sparganosis, cysticercosis, and echinococcus.

  5. Parasitic Colitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hechenbleikner, Elizabeth M.; McQuade, Jennifer A.

    2015-01-01

    Over one billion people worldwide harbor intestinal parasites. Parasitic intestinal infections have a predilection for developing countries due to overcrowding and poor sanitation but are also found in developed nations, such as the United States, particularly in immigrants or in the setting of sporadic outbreaks. Although the majority of people are asymptomatically colonized with parasites, the clinical presentation can range from mild abdominal discomfort or diarrhea to serious complications, such as perforation or bleeding. Protozoa and helminths (worms) are the two major classes of intestinal parasites. Protozoal intestinal infections include cryptosporidiosis, cystoisosporiasis, cyclosporiasis, balantidiasis, giardiasis, amebiasis, and Chagas disease, while helminth infections include ascariasis, trichuriasis, strongyloidiasis, enterobiasis, and schistosomiasis. Intestinal parasites are predominantly small intestine pathogens but the large intestine is also frequently involved. This article highlights important aspects of parasitic infections of the colon including epidemiology, transmission, symptoms, and diagnostic methods as well as appropriate medical and surgical treatment. PMID:26034403

  6. [EXPERIENCE IN TREATING HELMINTHISM WITH MICRONIZED ALBENDAZOLE (GELMODOL)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavoikin, V D; Tumolskaya, N I; Mazmanyan, M V; Zelya, O P; Tikhonova, D V

    2015-01-01

    The paper gives the results of treatment with micronized albendazole (Gelmodol-BM, World Medicine, UK) in 87 patients of the Department of Medical Parasitology and Tropical Diseases, Clinical and Diagnostic Center, Clinical Center, I.M.Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University. Thirty-two patients with echinococcosis 8 with alveococcosis (including 4 inoperable patients), 10 with ascariasis, 10 with toxocariasis, 15 with enterobiasis, and 12 people diagnosed with larva migrans were treated in 2013-2014. The drug's routine doses and dosage regimens were used. Albendazole (Gelmodol, World Medicine, UK) showed a high efficacy with good tolerability, which is highly competitive with that of the drugs manufactured by IPCA Laboratories Ltd., India (such as nemozole). Both medicaments above-mentioned may be successfully used in the treatment of many helminthisms.

  7. Parasitic co-infections: does Ascaris lumbricoides protect against Plasmodium falciparum infection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brutus, Laurent; Watier, Laurence; Briand, Valérie; Hanitrasoamampionona, Virginie; Razanatsoarilala, Hélène; Cot, Michel

    2006-08-01

    A controlled randomized trial of antihelminthic treatment was undertaken in 1996-1997 in a rural area of Madagascar where populations were simultaneously infected with Ascaris lumbricoides and Plasmodium falciparum. Levamisole was administered bimonthly to 164 subjects, randomized on a family basis, whereas 186 were controls. While levamisole proved to be highly effective in reducing Ascaris egg loads in the treated group (P < 10(-3) at all bimonthly visits), subjects more than 5 years of age, treated with levamisole had a significant increase in their P. falciparum densities compared with controls (P = 0.02), whereas there was no effect of anti-helminthic treatment on children 6 months to 4 years of age. The demonstration of a clear negative interaction between Ascaris infection and malaria parasite density has important implications. Single community therapy programs to deliver treatments against several parasitic infections could avoid an increase of malaria attacks after mass treatment of ascariasis.

  8. Parasitic diseases as the cause of death of prisoners of war during the Korean War (1950-1953).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Sun

    2014-06-01

    To determine the cause of death of prisoners of war during the Korean War (1950-1953), death certificates or medical records were analyzed. Out of 7,614 deaths, 5,013 (65.8%) were due to infectious diseases. Although dysentery and tuberculosis were the most common infectious diseases, parasitic diseases had caused 14 deaths: paragonimiasis in 5, malaria in 3, amoebiasis in 2, intestinal parasitosis in 2, ascariasis in 1, and schistosomiasis in 1. These results showed that paragonimiasis, malaria, and amoebiasis were the most fatal parasitic diseases during the early 1950s in the Korean Peninsula. Since schistosomiasis is not endemic to Korea, it is likely that the infected private soldier moved from China or Japan to Korea.

  9. Parasitic diseases in the abdomen: imaging findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jae Hoon

    2008-01-01

    Parasitic diseases of the liver and biliary tract include echinococcosis, schistosomiasis, toxocariasis, clonorchiasis, and opisthorchiasis, affecting millions people in some endemic areas. Amebiasis and ascariasis are believed to be the most common bowel lumen indwelling parasitic diseases, affecting billions people worldwide, but sometimes these parasites migrate inadvertently to the liver and biliary tract, resulting in liver abscess or obstructive jaundice. Imaging findings of these parasitic diseases are fairly characteristic and easy to recognize if radiologists are aware of the findings, especially in endemic areas. Because of increased immigration and frequent travelling, some patients with "exotic" parasitic diseases may be encountered in non-endemic areas, and the diagnosis may be delayed or difficult, and it is often made only after operation. This feature section was designed to provide the detailed imaging features of common parasitic diseases affecting the abdominal organs and peritoneal cavity, based on pathology-image correlation.

  10. Characterization of ascaris from ecuador and zanzibar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, A M; Betson, M; Oviedo, G; Sandoval, C; Cooper, P J; Stothard, J R

    2015-07-01

    To shed light on the epidemiology of ascariasis in Ecuador and Zanzibar, 177 adult worms retrieved by chemo-expulsion from either people or pigs were collected, measured and subjected to polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. Upon double digestion with RsaI and HaeIII, PCR-RFLP analysis revealed the presence of A. lumbricoides in people and A. suum in pigs in Ecuador. In contrast, while there are no pigs on Zanzibar, of the 56 worms obtained from people, one was genotyped as A. suum. No additional genetic variation was detected upon further PCR-RFLP analysis with several other restriction enzymes. Upon measurement, worm mass and length differed by location and by species, A. suum being lighter and longer. While there is no evidence to suggest zoonotic transmission in Ecuador, an enduring historical signature of previous zoonotic transmission remains on Zanzibar.

  11. Endoscopic therapy in acute recurrent pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    John Baillie

    2008-01-01

    Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) has evolved from a largely diagnostic to a largely therapeutic rnodality.Cross-sectional imaging,such as computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI),and less invasive endoscopy,especially endoscopic ultrasound (EUS),have largely taken over from ERCP for diagnosis.However,ERCP remains the"first line" therapeutic tool in the management of mechanical causes of acute recurrent pancreatitis,including bile duct stones(choledocholithiasis),ampullary masses (benign and malignant),congenital variants of biliary and pancreatic anatomy (e.g.pancreas divisum,choledochoceles),sphincter of Oddi dysfunction (SOD),pancreatic stones and strictures,and parasitic disorders involving the biliary tree and/or pancreatic duct(e.g Ascariasis,Clonorchiasis).

  12. Histomorphology Studies on Ascaris Suum%猪蛔虫组织形态学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    Ascaris suum usually are parasitic on small intestine of the pigs .The study using the HE staining technique ,shows the tissue structure of Ascaris suum and discusses latest research progress of Ascaris suum .The research provides the theoretical basis for class of ascarid and prevention of ascariasis .%  猪蛔虫寄生于猪的小肠,是猪最主要的寄生虫之一。利用连续石蜡切片 H .E染色技术,对猪蛔虫的组织结构进行观察研究,并对蛔虫的最新研究进展进行了讨论。为蛔虫的分类提供一定的组织形态学证据,也为蛔虫病的防治提供参考。

  13. Prevalence of diseases of pigs in Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Cassius Moreki,

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a review of diseases of pigs from 1997 to 2007. Lack of health management reduces animal performance. This review showed that bacterial and non-infectious diseases were a major challenge in pig production. The 10 most common diseases of pigs in order of importance were septicaemia, traumatic injuries/torsions, coli-septicaemia, stress, pneumonia, cystitis, colibacillosis, salmonella, mange and nutritional deficiencies with 72, 68, 53, 38, 36, 21, 18, 14, 12 and 10 cases recorded, respectively. Other diseases and conditions recorded sporadically included coccidiosis, brucellosis, toxoplasmosis, actinomyces, urolithiasis, aflatoxicosis, meningitis, pasteurella, and other miscellaneous conditions caused by microbial infestation from stomach or colic raptures. Mange and ascariasis were the main parasitic diseases recorded. The high prevalence of diseases suggests inadequacy of biosecurity measures. In order to reduce disease outbreaks and spread, strict biosecurity measures should be put in place on pig operations.

  14. [Intestinal helminthiasis in the Mexican Republic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, J; Ruiz, A; Sánchez Vega, J T; Romero-Cabello, R; Robert, L; Becerril, M A

    1995-01-01

    Very few uncertain and not trustworthy reports about the frequency of intestinal helminthiases found in humans have been made in México. However, with the few trustful studies carried out from 1981 to 1992, it is possible in México to verify that ascariasis, trichuriasis, hookworm infection and hymenolepiasis are present with significant percentages of infected people 11.2%, 1.7%, 0.15% and 1.8%, respectively. With the information obtained from the researches analyzed in this article, one can conclude that human infections by intestinal helminths in México, at the present time are almost as frequent as in past decades. Without any doubt, this occurs because still remain the factors that contribute to the persistence and spreading of the intestinal helminths, such as fecalism, poor hygienic and alimentary habits within deficient environmental sanitary conditions.

  15. Helminthiases in Montes Claros. Preliminary survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rina Girard Kaminsky

    1976-04-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary survey was conducted for the presence of helminths in the city of Montes Claros, M. G., Brazil. Three groups of persons were examined by the direct smear, Kato thick film and MIFC techniques; one group by direct smear and Kato only. General findings were: a high prevalence of hookworm, followed by ascariasis, S. mansoni, S. stercoralis and very light infections with T. trichiurá. E. vermicularis and H. nana were ranking parasites at an orphanage, with some hookworm and S. mansoni infections as well. At a pig slaughter house, the dominant parasites were hookworm and S. mansoni. Pig cysticercosis was an incidental finding worth mentioning for the health hazard it represents for humans as well as an economic loss. From the comparative results between the Kato and the MIF the former proved itself again as a more sensitive and reliable concentration method for helminth eggs, of low cost and easy performance.

  16. X-ray findings of small bowel taeniasis: A clinical and experimental study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hong Soo; Kang, Hee Woong; Bahk, Yong Whee [St Mary' s Hospital Catholic Medical College, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1972-12-15

    Unlike ascariasis of the small bowel, taeniasis can be detected radiologically with much difficulty because of the basic difference between the morphological features of each helminth. However once the characteristics of tape worms are appreciated and kept in mind, radiological diagnosis is fairly accurately made. In the present study we have reported typical radiological features of the small bowel taeniasis as observed in 6 adults patients seen at the Department of Radiology of St. Mary's Hospital and Holy Family Hospital, Catholic Medical College. Tapering tape-like or ribbon -like radiolucent shadows in distal small bowel appear unique. Compression spot film study of the ileum is most important in revealing such findings. An animal experiment using the swine small intestine and parasitological specimen of evacuated worm of taenia saginata was designed to help understand radiological manifestation in vivo.

  17. Severity of atopic dermatitis and Ascaris lumbricoides infection: an evaluation of CCR4+ and CXCR3+ helper T cell frequency

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    Maria Teresa Nascimento Silva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Ascaris lumbricoides-infected patients present lower prevalence of severe atopic dermatitis. METHODS: Peripheral blood of infected children with atopic dermatitis was assessed by flow cytometry of the frequency of Th1 and Th2 cells through the expression of CXCR3 and CCR4 chemokine receptors, respectively. RESULTS: Helminth-free patients with atopic dermatitis presented a high frequency of CCR4+Th2 cells. Parasitized patients with atopic dermatitis showed a lower frequency of CXCR3+Th1 cells compared to infected individuals only. CONCLUSIONS: Ascariasis modifies the blood traffic of Th2 cells in atopic dermatitis patients, while the allergic disease down-regulates the traffic of Th1 cells in parasitized patients.

  18. 肠蛔虫病临床诊断

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田晓航

    2012-01-01

    肠蛔虫病(ascariasis)是蛔虫寄生于人体所致的疾病.为最常见的肠道寄生虫病.目的讨论肠蛔虫病临床诊断.方法 根据患者临床表现结合检查结果进行诊断并治疗.结论 患者吐泻物中发现成虫或粪便中检出虫卵可确诊.但查不到虫卵不能除外本病.如体内仅有雄虫或不成熟雌虫时粪检阴性,可试验性治疗.胆管蛔虫病时胆汁中可发现虫卵.

  19. T-TUBE APPLICATION AFTER CBD EXPLORATION IS NOT ALWAYS NECESSARY: A STUDY

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    Purujit

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Routine application of supraduodenal T-tube after choledochotomy is absolutely not necessary. T-tube application gives various complications with high morbidity and reported cases of mortality and increases hospital stay. Materials and methods-Primary closure of CBD following choledochotomy is studied on 457 cases of choledocholithiasis and biliary ascariasis with CBD diameter less than 2.5cms. Most of the cases had 1-3 stone that didn’t require much manipulation during extraction. The choledochotomy wound were closed by single layer of interrupted 3-0 vicryl suture. RESULT: Post-operative period was uneventful except transient jaundice which subsided within few days in some cases. Most of the patients were discharged after 2- 3 days. Conclusions-Primary closure of choledochotomy is routinely advocated due to many fold advantages and T-tube is considered to be applied in a very special situation.

  20. Parasitic disease of the liver and biliary tree

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    Mohamed Abdulrahman

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Several parasites infest liver or biliary tree, either during their maturation stages or as adult worms. Bile iry tree parasites may cause pancreatitis, cholecystitis, biliary tree obstruction, recurrent cholangitis, biliary tree strictures and some may lead to cholangiocarcinoma. This review discusses the hepatobiliary parasites, and shows our experience in diagnosis and management of these parasites. Ultrasonography of the liver is diagnostic in schistosomiasis, hydatid cysts, amebic liver abscess, ascariasis and other biliary tree parasites showing bile duct dilatation. Percutaneous aspiration under ultrasonography guidance of hydatid liver cysts or amebic abscess are effective measures in management. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP is safe and effective in diagnosis and management of biliary tree parasites.

  1. Small bowel Ascaris infestation: a diagnostic challenge

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    Khan MW

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Muhammad Waqas Khan, Sanniya Khan Ghauri Section of Medicine, Department of Emergency Medicine, WHO Collaborating Centre for Emergency Medicine and Trauma Care, Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan Abstract: Ascariasis is a common infestation in developing countries where there is poor hygiene. A majority of the cases are asymptomatic, with a few cases presenting with mild abdominal pain and nutritional deficiencies in the long term. Here we present a case of a young boy who presented as a diagnostic dilemma, with signs of acute intestinal obstruction without any supporting radiological evidence. A barium study revealed the presence of low-burden Ascaris infestation that was managed medically. Keywords: partial intestinal obstruction, gastro-intestinal helminthic infection, pediatric

  2. INTESTINAL PARASITES IN IRAN

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    K. Mohammad

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the status and epidemiology of Intestinal Parasites in Iran. The information was driven from an extensive Health Survey which was done by the Ministry of Health and Medical Education, deputy of Research Affairs in 1990-92. Sampling fraction was 1 per 1000 of individuals aged between 2 and 69, the sampling method was cluster sampling and each cluster consisted of 7 families. Formal-ether was the method of finding parasites which included: Oxior, Ascariasis, Giardiasis, Entamoeba-histolytica, Tinea, Strongyloidiasis, Ancylostoma, and Trichocephaliasis. The highest prevalence rate belonged to Giardiasis with 14.4% and the lowest one belonged to Tinea and Ancylostoma with 0.2%. The prevalence rate in rural area was significantly lower than urban area (p<0.0001.

  3. 胆管蛔虫症临床护理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐英

    2012-01-01

    胆管蛔虫症(biliary ascariasis)是一常见的外科急腹症,多见于青壮年和儿童,农村发病率高于城市.蛔虫寄生于人体中下段小肠,当寄生环境发生变化时,有钻孔习性的蛔虫钻入胆管.目的 讨论胆管蛔虫症临床护理.方法 配合治疗进行护理.结论 指导病人口服驱虫药,如哌嗪(驱蛔灵),同时服用利胆剂.指导病人定期复查,通过服药治疗后胆管内仍有蛔虫,则行内镜治疗.

  4. Neglected tropical diseases outside the tropics.

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    Francesca F Norman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The neglected tropical diseases (NTDs cause significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Due to the growth in international travel and immigration, NTDs may be diagnosed in countries of the western world, but there has been no specific focus in the literature on imported NTDs. METHODS: Retrospective study of a cohort of immigrants and travelers diagnosed with one of the 13 core NTDs at a Tropical Medicine Referral Unit in Spain during the period April 1989-December 2007. Area of origin or travel was recorded and analyzed. RESULTS: There were 6168 patients (2634 immigrants, 3277 travelers and 257 VFR travelers in the cohort. NTDs occurred more frequently in immigrants, followed by VFR travelers and then by other travelers (p<0.001 for trend. The main NTDs diagnosed in immigrants were onchocerciasis (n = 240, 9.1% acquired mainly in sub-Saharan Africa, Chagas disease (n = 95, 3.6% in immigrants from South America, and ascariasis (n = 86, 3.3% found mainly in immigrants from sub-Saharan Africa. Most frequent NTDs in travelers were: schistosomiasis (n = 43, 1.3%, onchocerciasis (n = 17, 0.5% and ascariasis (n = 16, 0.5%, and all were mainly acquired in sub-Saharan Africa. The main NTDs diagnosed in VFR travelers were onchocerciasis (n = 14, 5.4%, and schistosomiasis (n = 2, 0.8%. CONCLUSIONS: The concept of imported NTDs is emerging as these infections acquire a more public profile. Specific issues such as the possibility of non-vectorial transmission outside endemic areas and how some eradication programmes in endemic countries may have an impact even in non-tropical western countries are addressed. Recognising NTDs even outside tropical settings would allow specific prevention and control measures to be implemented and may create unique opportunities for research in future.

  5. The burden of moderate-to-heavy soil-transmitted helminth infections among rural malaysian aborigines: an urgent need for an integrated control programme

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    Ahmed Abdulhamid

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Soil-transmitted helminth (STH infections, among the most common neglected tropical diseases, continue to be a major threat to the health and socioeconomic wellbeing of infected people especially children in developing countries. Methods A cross-sectional study among 254 aboriginal schoolchildren was conducted in order to determine the current prevalence and intensity of infections and to investigate the potential risk factors associated with moderate-to-heavy burden of STH infections among these children. Results Overall, 93.7% of children were found to be infected with one or more STH species. The prevalence of trichuriasis, ascariasis and hookworm infections were 84.6%, 47.6% and 3.9%, respectively. Almost half of the participants had heavy trichuriasis, one-quarter had heavy ascariasis whereas all hookworm infections were light infections. Overall, moderate-to-heavy STH infections accounted for 56.7% of the total infections. Univariate analysis revealed that those using untreated water supply (P = 0.013, living in houses without toilets (P = 0.027 and having domestic animals in the houses (P = 0.044 had significantly higher prevalence of moderate-to-heavy infections than others. Logistic regression analysis confirmed using untreated water for drinking (P = 0.001 and the absence of a toilet in the house (P = 0.003 as significant risk factors of moderate-to-heavy STH infections among these children. Conclusion The high proportion of moderate-to-heavy STH infections further confirms the need for serious attention towards these devastating diseases that has put lives and the future of aboriginal children in jeopardy. Introduction of more poverty alleviation schemes, proper sanitation, provision of clean and safe drinking water, health education, as well as the introduction of periodic school-based deworming programmes are imperative among these communities in order to curtail the transmission and morbidity caused by STH.

  6. Economic Barriers To Improvement Of Human Health Associated With Wastewater Irrigation In The Mezquital Valley, Mexico

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    Yamagata, H.; Sedlak, D. L.

    2008-12-01

    To improve public health, the United Nations' Johannesburg Summit on Sustainable Development in 2002 set Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) of reducing by half the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and sanitation by 2015. The Mezquital Valley of Mexico is one of the places suffering serious human health problems such as ascariasis due to agricultural irrigation with untreated wastewater discharged by Mexico City. Despite the existence of serious health problems, wastewater treatment has not been installed due to economic barriers: the agricultural benefit of nutrients in the wastewater and cost of building and operating wastewater treatment plants. To develop solutions to this problem, the human health damage and the benefits of nutrient input were evaluated. The health impact caused by untreated wastewater reuse in the Mezquital Valley was estimated to be about 14 DALYs (disability-adjusted life year) per 100,000, which was 2.8 times higher than the DALYs lost by ascariasis in Mexico in 2002 estimated by WHO. The economic damage of the health impact was evaluated at 77,000 /year using willingness-to-pay (WTP) for reducing DALYs. The value of nutrient inputs (nitrogen and phosphorus) due to reuse of untreated wastewater was evaluated at 33 million /year using fertilizer prices. Therefore, attempts to decrease public health problems associated with reuse in the Mezquital Valley need to address losses of economic benefits associated with nutrients in sewage. In 2007, the Mexican Government announced plans to install wastewater treatment plants in this area. Although nutrient inputs in irrigated water is expected to decrease by 33% due to the wastewater treatment, farmers in the Mezquital Valley would still benefit from improved public health in the community and increases of crop values due to the ability to grow raw-eaten vegetables.

  7. Acute Volvulus of the Intestine in Children%小儿急性肠扭转

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王兴国; 陈采萍

    1984-01-01

    @@ 小儿急性肠扭转除一般急性机械性肠梗阻临床表现外,发病急,易发生大量渗出、失血、肠坏死、穿孔、腹膜炎和中毒性休克,故预后极差.如能在肠坏死发生前早期确诊及时复位,对提高治愈率具有重要意义.本文总结我院儿外科自1970年5月到1981年12月间治疗之小儿肠扭转72例,就早期诊断和治疗进行讨论.%72 children,50 boys and 22 girls, were admitted for acute volvulus of the intestine from May,1970 to Dec.,1981.The cure rate was 80.5%,with mortality of 19.5%. This paper gives a discussion on its etiology which includes congenital malformation, intestinal malformation, and defective attachment of the mesentery. Besides, occlusion in the intestinal lumen from ascariasis and other factors can also induce its onset. These anatomical factors as well as pathological lesions would soon cause distension of the caecum, which, in turn, would make the mesentery over stretched or narrowed that twist, or volvulus, would result. The authors point out:(1)almost every case had causative factors, such as violent exercise after meal, heavy meals, diarrhea, ascariasis with intestinal occlusion and inadequate administration of ascaricides,(2)symptoms suggestive of the condition are sudden onset of severe colic pain around the umbilicus and repeated vomiting and(3)X-ray examination reveals signs of intestinal obstruction. It is emphasized that correct diagnosis and active explorative laparotomy should be done without delay. The authors also point out that toxic shock is often responsible for death.

  8. Towards an effective control programme of soil-transmitted helminth infections among Orang Asli in rural Malaysia. Part 1: Prevalence and associated key factors

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    Nasr Nabil A

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the continuous efforts to improve the quality of life of Orang Asli (Aborigines communities, these communities are still plagued with a wide range of health problems including parasitic infections. The first part of this study aimed at determining the prevalence of soil-transmitted helminth (STH infections and identifying their associated factors among rural Orang Asli children. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out among 484 Orang Asli children aged ≤ 15 years (235 females and 249 males belonging to 215 households from 13 villages in Lipis district, Pahang, Malaysia. Faecal samples were collected and examined by using formalin-ether sedimentation, Kato Katz and Harada Mori techniques. Demographic, socioeconomic, environmental and behavioural information were collected by using a pre-tested questionnaire. Results Overall, 78.1% of the children were found to be infected with one or more STH species. The prevalence of trichuriasis, ascariasis and hookworm infections were 71.7%, 37.4% and 17.6%, respectively. Almost all, three quarters and one fifth of trichuriasis, ascariasis and hookworm infections, respectively, were of moderate-to-heavy intensities. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that age of ≥ 6 years (school-age, using unsafe water supply as a source for drinking water, absence of a toilet in the house, large family size (≥ 7 members, not washing hands before eating, and not washing hands after defecation were the key factors significantly associated with STH among these children. Conclusion This study reveals an alarmingly high prevalence of STH among Orang Asli children and clearly brings out an urgent need to implement school-based de-worming programmes and other control measures like providing a proper sanitation, as well as a treated drinking water supply and proper health education regarding good personal hygiene practices. Such an integrated control program will help

  9. The burden of neglected tropical diseases in Ethiopia, and opportunities for integrated control and elimination

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    Deribe Kebede

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs are a group of chronic parasitic diseases and related conditions that are the most common diseases among the 2·7 billion people globally living on less than US$2 per day. In response to the growing challenge of NTDs, Ethiopia is preparing to launch a NTD Master Plan. The purpose of this review is to underscore the burden of NTDs in Ethiopia, highlight the state of current interventions, and suggest ways forward. Results This review indicates that NTDs are significant public health problems in Ethiopia. From the analysis reported here, Ethiopia stands out for having the largest number of NTD cases following Nigeria and the Democratic Republic of Congo. Ethiopia is estimated to have the highest burden of trachoma, podoconiosis and cutaneous leishmaniasis in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA, the second highest burden in terms of ascariasis, leprosy and visceral leishmaniasis, and the third highest burden of hookworm. Infections such as schistosomiasis, trichuriasis, lymphatic filariasis and rabies are also common. A third of Ethiopians are infected with ascariasis, one quarter is infected with trichuriasis and one in eight Ethiopians lives with hookworm or is infected with trachoma. However, despite these high burdens of infection, the control of most NTDs in Ethiopia is in its infancy. In terms of NTD control achievements, Ethiopia reached the leprosy elimination target of 1 case/10,000 population in 1999. No cases of human African trypanosomiasis have been reported since 1984. Guinea worm eradication is in its final phase. The Onchocerciasis Control Program has been making steady progress since 2001. A national blindness survey was conducted in 2006 and the trachoma program has kicked off in some regions. Lymphatic Filariasis, podoconiosis and rabies mapping are underway. Conclusion Ethiopia bears a significant burden of NTDs compared to other SSA countries. To achieve success in integrated control of

  10. Phylogeographical studies of Ascaris spp. based on ribosomal and mitochondrial DNA sequences.

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    Serena Cavallero

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The taxonomic distinctiveness of Ascaris lumbricoides and A. suum, two of the world's most significant nematodes, still represents a much-debated scientific issue. Previous studies have described two different scenarios in transmission patterns, explained by two hypotheses: (1 separated host-specific transmission cycles in highly endemic regions, (2 a single pool of infection shared by humans and pigs in non-endemic regions. Recently, A. suum has been suggested as an important cause of human ascariasis in endemic areas such as China, where cross-infections and hybridization have also been reported. The main aims of the present study were to investigate the molecular epidemiology of human and pig Ascaris from non-endemic regions and, with reference to existing data, to infer the phylogenetic and phylogeographic relationships among the samples. METHODOLOGY: 151 Ascaris worms from pigs and humans were characterized using PCR-RFLP on nuclear ITS rDNA. Representative geographical sub-samples were also analysed by sequencing a portion of the mitochondrial cox1 gene, to infer the extent of variability at population level. Sequence data were compared to GenBank sequences from endemic and non-endemic regions. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: No fixed differences between human and pig Ascaris were evident, with the exception of the Slovak population, which displays significant genetic differentiation. The RFLP analysis confirmed pig as a source of human infection in non-endemic regions and as a corridor for the promulgation of hybrid genotypes. Epidemiology and host-affiliation seem not to be relevant in shaping molecular variance. Phylogenetic and phylogeographical analyses described a complex scenario, involving multiple hosts, sporadic contact between forms and an ancestral taxon referable to A. suum. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest the existence of homogenizing gene flow between the two taxa, which appear to be variants of a single

  11. SOME EPIDEMIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF SOIL-TRANSMITTED HELMINTHES IN ISFAHAN

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    E.Ghadirian

    1978-09-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological features of soil transmitted helminthes were studied in six villages in Isfahan area. The mean overall prevalence of ascariasis and trichostrongyliasis were 91.5% and 70.9% respectively with higher infection rate among females. Mean prevalence of Trichuris and Hymenolepis nana were 73.8% and 5.4% respectively. Prevalences of Ascaris and Trichuris did not fluctuate very much in various ages but for Trichostrongylus, infected was lower in 0-4 age group and H.nana was mostly found in lower age groups. In some villages 100% of both sexes were infected with one or more helminth parasites, and overall prevalence of infection was 97.3%. In all villages, it was found that a small proportion of inhabitants (12.5% excrete a large proportion (43.3% of total eggs of Ascaris. Prevalence and intensity of ascariasis established four years after therapy have shown that the group of population who had the highest prevalence before therapy, had the highest prevalence and intensity. The high proportion of infected cases with Ascaris had less than 25000 eggs/gr of faeces and less than 50 worms. Results of this study indicate once again the importance of intestinal helminthiasis in Isfahan and also the possibility of reducing the transmission force by regular mass-chemotherapy of a small proportion of the inhabitants. More than 100 persons from each village who were infected with Ascaris and some infected with other helminthes simultaneously, were treated a few days after examination, using pyrantel pamoate with a single dose of 10 mg/kg. body weight. Tablets given to adults and suspension for children were taken in the presence of authors. A saline purge has also been administered to the patients treated who had constipation. A plastic pan containing 10% formaline solution and labeled with the name of the patient was also given to each patient after the drug was taken, in which all stools passed, up to 48 hours after treatment, were collected and

  12. Study on the association between tail lesion score, cold carcass weight and viscera condemnations in slaughter pigs

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    Dayane Lemos Teixeira

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between tail lesions, cold carcass weight and viscera condemnations in an Irish abattoir. The following data were collected at the evisceration point from every 3rd pig slaughtered over 7 days: farm identification, sex, tail lesion score, viscera inspection outcome and cold carcass weight. Tail lesions were scored according to a 5 point scale. Disease lesions responsible for lung (pleurisy, pneumonia and abscess, heart (pericarditis and liver (ascariasis condemnation were recorded based on the decision of the veterinary inspector. Data on 3,143 pigs from 61 batches were available. The relationship between disease lesions, tail lesion score and cold carcass weight was studied at individual carcass level, whereas the relationship between disease lesions and tail lesion score was studied at both carcass and batch level. Tail lesions (score ≥ 1 were found in 72% of the study population, with 2.3% affected by severe tail lesions (scores ≥ 3. Pleurisy (13.7% followed by pneumonia (10.4% showed the highest prevalence, whereas the prevalence of ascariasis showed the greatest variation between batches (0 to 75%. Tail lesion score, pleurisy, pleuropneumonia and pericarditis were associated with reductions in carcass cold weight (P ≤ 0.05 ranging from 3 to 6.6 kg. Tail lesion score was associated with condemnations for pleurisy, pneumonia and pleuropneumonia (P ≤ 0.05 at a batch level. Veterinary inspector shift was associated with condemnations for pneumonia, pleuropneumonia and pericarditis (P ≤ 0.05 at a carcass level and with pneumonia at a batch level. Sex was not associated with viscera condemnations but males were more likely to be affected by tail lesions. The relationship between overall tail lesion score and the lung diseases at batch level supports the relationship between poor health and poor welfare of pigs on farms. The inclusion of tail lesion scores at post mortem meat

  13. 常德市人群寄生虫感染现状调查%Survey of parasite infection in residents of Changde City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周应彩; 华伟湘; 郭志忠; 姚孝明; 谢朝梅; 徐维泽

    2012-01-01

    目的 进一步掌握常德市寄生虫感染情况,为制定科学防治对策提供科学依据.方法 对随即抽取的常德市人群采用改良加藤法检查土源性线虫卵、肝吸虫卵、血吸虫虫卵和其他寄生虫卵.结果 常德市人群寄生虫总感染率为19.96%,以蛔虫、鞭虫感染为主.未发现肝吸虫卵.血吸虫感染率男性高于女性,副业渔民血吸虫感染率高达28.36%.鞭虫、蛔虫、钩虫、姜片虫女性高于男性,学龄前儿童、学生、文盲最高.结论 副业渔民是血吸虫病重点防治人群,青少年、学龄前儿童、文盲是蛔虫、鞭虫、姜片虫防治重点人群.%Objective To survey the status of parasite infection in inhabitants of Changde City and provide a scientific basis for the development of controrl strategies. Methods Modified Kato-Kotz was used to detect eggs of soil-transmitted helminths, liver fluke, schistosome and other parasites in stool. Results The infection rate of parasites in residents of Changde City was 19.96%, mainly ascariasis and trichuriasis. No liver fluke was found. Infection rate of schistosomiasis in males was higher than that of females. The infection of schistosomiasis in fishermen was as high as 28.36%. The infection rates of trichuriasis, ascariasis, hookworm and Fasciolopsis buski in females were higher than those of males,The infection rates of parasites in preschool children, students, illiteracy were the the highest.. Conclusions Fishermen are the target for control of schistosomiasis, and adolescent, preschool children, illiterates are the risk population for prevention of ascarisis, trichuriasis and Fasciolopsis buski infection.

  14. Study on the Association between Tail Lesion Score, Cold Carcass Weight, and Viscera Condemnations in Slaughter Pigs

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    Teixeira, Dayane Lemos; Harley, Sarah; Hanlon, Alison; O’Connell, Niamh Elizabeth; More, Simon John; Manzanilla, Edgar Garcia; Boyle, Laura Ann

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between tail lesions, cold carcass weight, and viscera condemnations in an Irish abattoir. The following data were collected at the evisceration point from every third pig slaughtered over 7 days: farm identification, sex, tail lesion score, viscera inspection outcome, and cold carcass weight. Tail lesions were scored according to a 5-point scale. Disease lesions responsible for lung (pleurisy, pneumonia, and abscess), heart (pericarditis), and liver (ascariasis) condemnation were recorded based on the decision of the veterinary inspector (VI). Data on 3,143 pigs from 61 batches were available. The relationship between disease lesions, tail lesion score, and cold carcass weight was studied at individual carcass level, while the relationship between disease lesions and tail lesion score was studied at both carcass and batch level. Tail lesions (score ≥1) were found in 72% of the study population, with 2.3% affected by severe tail lesions (scores ≥3). Pleurisy (13.7%) followed by pneumonia (10.4%) showed the highest prevalence, whereas the prevalence of ascariasis showed the greatest variation between batches (0–75%). Tail lesion score, pleurisy, pleuropneumonia, and pericarditis were associated with reductions in carcass cold weight (P ≤ 0.05) ranging from 3 to 6.6 kg. Tail lesion score was associated with condemnations for pleurisy, pneumonia, and pleuropneumonia (P ≤ 0.05) at a batch level. VI shift was associated with condemnations for pneumonia, pleuropneumonia, and pericarditis (P ≤ 0.05) at a carcass level and with pneumonia at a batch level. Sex was not associated with viscera condemnations but males were more likely to be affected by tail lesions. The relationship between overall tail lesion score and the lung diseases at batch level supports the relationship between poor health and poor welfare of pigs on farms. The inclusion of tail lesion scores at post-mortem meat inspection

  15. Recall of intestinal helminthiasis by HIV-infected South Africans and avoidance of possible misinterpretation of egg excretion in worm/HIV co-infection analyses

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    van der Merwe Lize

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ascariasis and HIV/AIDS are often co-endemic under conditions of poverty in South Africa; and discordant immune responses to the respective infections could theoretically be affecting the epidemic of HIV/AIDS in various ways. It is well-known that sensitisation to helminthic antigens can aggravate or ameliorate several non-helminthic diseases and impair immunisation against cholera, tetanus and tuberculosis. The human genotype can influence immune responses to Ascaris strongly. With these factors in mind, we have started to document the extent of long-term exposure to Ascaris and other helminths in a community where HIV/AIDS is highly prevalent. In more advanced studies, objectives are to analyse relevant immunological variables (e.g. cytokine activity and immunoglobulin levels. We postulate that when Ascaris is hyperendemic, analysis of possible consequences of co-infection by HIV cannot be based primarily on excretion vs non-excretion of eggs. Methods Recall of worms seen in faeces was documented in relation to the age of adult volunteers who were either seropositive (n = 170 or seronegative (n = 65 for HIV. Reasons for HIV testing, deworming treatments used or not used, date and place of birth, and duration of residence in Cape Town, were recorded. Confidence intervals were calculated both for group percentages and the inter-group differences, and were used to make statistical comparisons. Results In both groups, more than 70% of participants were aware of having passed worms, often both when a child and as an adult. Most of the descriptions fitted Ascaris. Evidence for significantly prolonged exposure to helminthic infection in HIV-positives was supported by more recall of deworming treatment in this group (p Conclusion There was a long-term history of ascariasis (and probably other helminthic infections in both of the groups that were studied. In women in the same community, and in children living where housing and

  16. Strongyloides stercoralis: a field-based survey of mothers and their preschool children using ELISA, Baermann and Koga plate methods reveals low endemicity in western Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stothard, J R; Pleasant, J; Oguttu, D; Adriko, M; Galimaka, R; Ruggiana, A; Kazibwe, F; Kabatereine, N B

    2008-09-01

    To ascertain the current status of strongyloidiasis in mothers and their preschool children, a field-based survey was conducted in western Uganda using a combination of diagnostic methods: ELISA, Baermann concentration and Koga agar plate. The prevalence of other soil-transmitted helminthiasis and intestinal schistosomiasis were also determined. In total, 158 mothers and 143 children were examined from five villages within Kabale, Hoima and Masindi districts. In mothers and children, the general prevalence of strongyloidiasis inferred by ELISA was approximately 4% and approximately 2%, respectively. Using the Baermann concentration method, two parasitologically proven cases were encountered in an unrelated mother and child, both of whom were sero-negative for strongyloidiasis. No infections were detected by Koga agar plate method. The general level of awareness of strongyloidiasis was very poor ( < 5%) in comparison to schistosomiasis (51%) and ascariasis (36%). Strongyloidiasis is presently at insufficient levels to justify inclusion within a community treatment programme targeting maternal and child health. Better epidemiological screening is needed, however, especially identifying infections in HIV-positive women of childbearing age. In the rural clinic setting, further use of the Baermann concentration method would appear to be the most immediate and pragmatic option for disease diagnosis.

  17. Determination of cholesterol in human biliary calculus by TLC scanning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin Kang Yang; Kai Xiong Qiu; Yu Zhu Zhan; Er Yi Zhan; Hai Ming Yang; Ping Zheng

    2000-01-01

    AIM To study the physico-chemical properties of biliary calculus and the relationship between the calculusformation and the phase change of liquid crystal, providing the best evidence for the biliary calculusprevention and treatment.METHODS The cholesterol contents in thirty one cases of biliary calculus in Kunming were determined bydouble-wave-length TLC scanning with high efficiency silica gel films.RESULTS Under magnifiers, the granular biliary calculus from 31 patients were classified according totheir section structures and colours, as cholesterol cholelith, 25 cases; bilirubin cholelith, 4 cases andcompound cholelith, 2 cases. By TLC scanning, it was found that the content of cholesterol in human biliarycalculus was 71%- 100%, about 80% cholesterol bilestones whose cholesterol content was more than 90%being pure cholesterol bilestones.CONCLUSION Cholesterol bilestone is the main human biliary calculus in Kunming, which was inaccordance with X-ray analysis. Compared with the related reports, it is proved that the proportion ofcholesterol bilestones to biliary calculus is increasing because of the improved life standard and the decreaseof bilirubin bilestones resulted from bile duct ascariasis or bacteria infection in China since 90s, and that theincrease of cholesterol in-take leads to the increase of cholesterol metabolism disorder

  18. Parasitic Infections Based on 320 Clinical Samples Submitted to Hanyang University, Korea (2004-2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sung-Chul; Lee, Soo-Young; Song, Hyun-Ouk; Ryu, Jae-Sook

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed 320 clinical samples of parasitic infections submitted to the Department of Environmental Biology and Medical Parasitology, Hanyang University from January 2004 to June 2011. They consisted of 211 nematode infections, 64 trematode or cestode infections, 32 protozoan infections, and 13 infections with arthropods. The nematode infections included 67 cases of trichuriasis, 62 of anisakiasis (Anisakis sp. and Pseudoterranova decipiens), 40 of enterobiasis, and 24 of ascariasis, as well as other infections including strongyloidiasis, thelaziasis, loiasis, and hookworm infecions. Among the cestode or trematode infections, we observed 27 cases of diphyllobothriasis, 14 of sparganosis, 9 of clonorchiasis, and 5 of paragonimiasis together with a few cases of taeniasis saginata, cysticercosis cellulosae, hymenolepiasis, and echinostomiasis. The protozoan infections included 14 cases of malaria, 4 of cryptosporidiosis, and 3 of trichomoniasis, in addition to infections with Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar, Entamoeba coli, Endolimax nana, Giardia lamblia, and Toxoplasma gondii. Among the arthropods, we detected 6 cases of Ixodes sp., 5 of Phthirus pubis, 1 of Sarcoptes scabiei, and 1 of fly larva. The results revealed that trichuriasis, anisakiasis, enterobiasis, and diphyllobothriasis were the most frequently found parasitosis among the clinical samples. PMID:24850969

  19. IgE cross-reactivity between Ascaris lumbricoides and mite allergens: possible influences on allergic sensitization and asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, N; Caraballo, L

    2011-06-01

    Nematode infections such as Ascariasis are important health problems in underdeveloped countries, most of them located in the tropics where environmental conditions also promote the perennial co-exposure to high concentrations of domestic mite allergens. Allergic diseases are common, and most of patients with asthma exhibit a predominant and strong IgE sensitization to mites. It is unknown whether co-exposure to Ascaris lumbricoides and the domestic mites Blomia tropicalis and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus potentiates Th2 responses and IgE sensitization, thereby modifying the natural history of allergy. Recently, we obtained experimental evidence of a high cross-reactivity between the allergenic extracts of these invertebrates, involving well-known allergens such as tropomyosin and glutathione transferases. There is indirect evidence suggesting that the clinical impact of these findings may be important. In this review, we discuss the potential role of this cross-reactivity on several aspects of allergy in the tropics that have been a focus of a number of investigations, some of them with controversial results.

  20. Unexpected hosts: imaging parasitic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Carnero, Pablo; Hernández Mateo, Paula; Martín-Garre, Susana; García Pérez, Ángela; Del Campo, Lourdes

    2017-02-01

    Radiologists seldom encounter parasitic diseases in their daily practice in most of Europe, although the incidence of these diseases is increasing due to migration and tourism from/to endemic areas. Moreover, some parasitic diseases are still endemic in certain European regions, and immunocompromised individuals also pose a higher risk of developing these conditions. This article reviews and summarises the imaging findings of some of the most important and frequent human parasitic diseases, including information about the parasite's life cycle, pathophysiology, clinical findings, diagnosis, and treatment. We include malaria, amoebiasis, toxoplasmosis, trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, echinococcosis, cysticercosis, clonorchiasis, schistosomiasis, fascioliasis, ascariasis, anisakiasis, dracunculiasis, and strongyloidiasis. The aim of this review is to help radiologists when dealing with these diseases or in cases where they are suspected. Teaching Points • Incidence of parasitic diseases is increasing due to migratory movements and travelling. • Some parasitic diseases are still endemic in certain regions in Europe. • Parasitic diseases can have complex life cycles often involving different hosts. • Prompt diagnosis and treatment is essential for patient management in parasitic diseases. • Radiologists should be able to recognise and suspect the most relevant parasitic diseases.

  1. Epidemiology and history of human parasitic diseases in Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neghina, Raul; Neghina, Adriana M; Marincu, Iosif; Iacobiciu, Ioan

    2011-06-01

    Intestinal parasitic diseases such as enterobiasis, giardiasis, and ascariasis are detected most frequently in Romania, but their importance is definitely surpassed by trichinellosis, cystic echinococcosis, and toxoplasmosis. Malaria was common until its eradication in 1963, and only imported cases are reported nowadays. The aim of this review was to bring together essential data on the epidemiology and history of human parasitoses in Romania. Information on 43 parasitic diseases was collected from numerous sources, most of them unavailable abroad or inaccessible to the international scientific community. Over time, Romanian people of all ages have paid a significant tribute to the pathogenic influences exerted by the parasites. Sanitary and socio-economical consequences of the parasites diseases have great negative impact on the quality of life of affected individuals and the overall well-being of the population. Implementation of efficient public health measures and informative campaigns for the masses as well as changing the inadequate habits that are deeply rooted in the population are mandatory for cutting successfully this Gordian knot.

  2. SALMONELLA FOOD POISONING IN A PATIENT WITH ASCA RIASIS & ANCYLOSTOMIASIS : BUGS AND WORMS TOGETHER

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    Anupriya

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: This is an unusual case presentation of a patient with symptoms of food poisoning along with two parasitic infections, both mode of infection being entirely different, with ascariasis due to ingestion of food contaminated with eggs of Ascaris lumbricoides and Ancylostoma duo denale due to hookworm penetration through skin ( B are - foot walking. CASE REPORT: A 48 year old female patient came with complaints of fever and loose stools for three days. Patient was an agriculturist by occupation with poor personal hygiene with a histo ry of consumption of meat two days prior to the symptoms. Laboratory test showed leukocytosis ( T otal count - 13,000 cu.mm with both neutrophilic and eosinophilic predominance and anaemia. Microscopic examination of stool revealed the presence of plenty of p us cells and the presence of eggs of Ascaris lumbricoides and eggs of Ancylostoma duodenale. Also Salmonella typhimurium was isolated in the stool culture and confirmed at National Reference Centre. CONCLUSION: Food poisoning is a serious health problem. I t can cause severe illness and even death. Soil transmitted helminths are common among agriculturist. Washing hands with warm water and soap before handling foods, eating and after using toilets is mandatory to prevent food borne illness and parasitic infe ctions.

  3. Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography using fine needle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Kyoo Byung; Kim, Yun Hwan; Lee, Nam Joon; Suh, Won Hyuck [College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1980-12-15

    In recent years, percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC) using fine needle has become widely employed as the procedure of choice for direct opacification of the biliary trees because of its high success rate, easy performance and relative low complication rate. Authors present the clinical and PTC findings of experienced cases during last four years, from May 1976 to June 1980, at the Department of Radiology, Korea University Hospital. We tried to study of PTC in 44 cases, 32 males and 12 females, and succeeded in visualization of bile ducts in 41 cases, but the other three cases were failed to visualize the bile ducts. Final confirmative diagnosis was achieved in 29 cases by operation, laparoscopy and other clinical methods. The PTC diagnosis was correct in 24 of 29 cases, and the others were incorrect. The 29 final diagnosis was including 13 cases of biliary stones, 6 cases of biliary cancer, 3 cases of pancreatic cancer, 3 cases of clonorchiasis, one case of CBD ascariasis and 3 cases of others. Incorrect PTC diagnosis was made in five cases. They were one case of nonvisualized intrahepatic stones, one case of hepatoma PTC diagnosed as cholangiocarcinoma, one case of pancreatic cancer diagnosed as cholangiocarcinoma, one case of clonorchiasis diagnosed as biliary stones and one case of normal CBD which was diagnosed as distal CBD cancer. And we experienced one case of bile peritonitis as complication, who was 35 year-old female patient with multiple CBD stones, and aspirated about 500ml of bile stained ascites during operation.

  4. ECENT ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE OF SOIL-TRANSMITTED HELMINTHS

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    Paul C. Beaver

    1975-07-01

    Full Text Available New observations in recent years have accented differences between the two common hookworms, Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus,"nwith respect to modes of transmision and pathogenicity, and have established Ancylostoma ceylanicum as a species distinct from A. braziliense. Transmammary and paratenic transmission are now considered to be natural modes of infection in Ancylostoma caninum and possibly 111 other Ancylostoma species including A. duodenale, but not in Necator. The question of relative blood losses from laceration hemorrhage and blood-sucking in hookworm anemia is unresolved. The prevalence of Loeffler's syndrome in pulmonary ascariasis appears to be greatest in areas where transmission is sharply seasonal. Recent studies have failed to confirm reports of blood-sucking by Trichuris. Milk-borne transmission from mother to the newborn has been demonstrated for numberous species of Strongyloides not including S. stercoralis. Zoonotic soil-transmitted helminths 0; dogs and cats have become recognized as frequently causing visceral larva migrans and occasionally blindness in most parts of the world. Two major advances were made in diagnostic techniques - the Harada-Mori test-tube hookworm culture for species diagnosis and the Kato cellophane-covered thick fecal film ror ranid and quantitative diagnosis of intestinal helminth infections.

  5. Parasitic infections in wild ruminants and wild boar

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    Ilić Tamara

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Wild ruminants and wild boar belong to the order Artiodactyla, the suborders Ruminantia and Nonruminantia and are classified as wild animals for big game hunting, whose breeding presents a very important branch of the hunting economy. Diseases caused by protozoa are rarely found in wild ruminants in nature. Causes of coccidiosis, cryptosporidiosis, toxoplasmosis, sarcocystiosis, giardiasis, babesiosis, and theileriosis have been diagnosed in deer. The most significant helminthoses in wild ruminants are fasciosis, dicrocoeliasis, paramphistomosis, fascioloidosis, cysticercosis, anoplocephalidosis, coenurosis, echinococcosis, pulmonary strongyloidiasis, parasitic gastroenteritis, strongyloidiasis and trichuriasis, with certain differences in the extent of prevalence of infection with certain species. The most frequent ectoparasitoses in wild deer and doe are diseases caused by ticks, mites, scabies mites, and hypoderma. The most represented endoparasitoses in wild boar throughout the world are coccidiosis, balantidiasis, metastrongyloidiasis, verminous gastritis, ascariasis, macracanthorhynchosis, trichinelosis, trichuriasis, cystecercosis, echinococcosis, and less frequently, there are also fasciolosis and dicrocoeliasis. The predominant ectoparasitoses in wild boar are ticks and scabies mites. Knowledge of the etiology and epizootiology of parasitic infections in wild ruminants and wild boar is of extreme importance for the process of promoting the health protection system for animals and humans, in particular when taking into account the biological and ecological hazard posed by zoonotic infections.

  6. [Parasitology and entomology in the 29th century in Latin American narrative].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenone, H

    2000-01-01

    In the present review of twelve pieces produced by distinguished 20th century Latin American writers--Jorge Luis Borges from Argentina, Jorge Amado and João Ubaldo Ribeiro from Brazil, José Donoso from Chile, Gabriel García Márquez from Colombia, Alejo Carpentier from Cuba, Miguel Angel Asturias from Guatemala, Octavio Paz from Mexico, Mario Vargas Llosa from Perú, Horacio Quiroga and Mario Benedetti from Uruguay and Arturo Uslar-Pietri from Venezuela--paragraphs or parts of paragraphs in which parasitological or entomological situations of the most varied hues are referred to or described, have been extracted in a selective form. Sometimes in these descriptions appear, local or regional expressions, without ignoring colorful folklore representations. For a easier interpretation these or part of these paragraph sentences have been arranged by thematic similarities. In a varied and kaleidoscopic vision, it will be possible to find protozoiasis (malaria, Chagas disease, leishmaniasis, amebiasis), helminthiases (ascariasis, hydatidosis, trichinosis, schistosomiasis, cysticercosis, onchocerciasis), parasitoses produced by arthropods (pediculosis, scabies, tungiasis, myiasis), passing progressively to hemaphagous arthropods (mosquitoes, gnats, horse flies, bedbugs, ticks), venomous arthropods (Latrodectus spiders, scorpions, wasps, bees), mechanical vectors (flies and cockroaches), culminating with a conjunction of bucolic arthropods (butterflies, crickets, grasshoppers cicadas, ants, centipedes, beetles, glow worms, dragonflies).

  7. Zoonotic helminths affecting the human eye

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    Eberhard Mark L

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nowaday, zoonoses are an important cause of human parasitic diseases worldwide and a major threat to the socio-economic development, mainly in developing countries. Importantly, zoonotic helminths that affect human eyes (HIE may cause blindness with severe socio-economic consequences to human communities. These infections include nematodes, cestodes and trematodes, which may be transmitted by vectors (dirofilariasis, onchocerciasis, thelaziasis, food consumption (sparganosis, trichinellosis and those acquired indirectly from the environment (ascariasis, echinococcosis, fascioliasis. Adult and/or larval stages of HIE may localize into human ocular tissues externally (i.e., lachrymal glands, eyelids, conjunctival sacs or into the ocular globe (i.e., intravitreous retina, anterior and or posterior chamber causing symptoms due to the parasitic localization in the eyes or to the immune reaction they elicit in the host. Unfortunately, data on HIE are scant and mostly limited to case reports from different countries. The biology and epidemiology of the most frequently reported HIE are discussed as well as clinical description of the diseases, diagnostic considerations and video clips on their presentation and surgical treatment. Homines amplius oculis, quam auribus credunt Seneca Ep 6,5 Men believe their eyes more than their ears

  8. REVIEW ON IMPORTANT HELMINTHIC DISEASES IN ANIMAL IN INDONESIA

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    I.G. P. Suweta

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Helminthic diseases are widely spread throughout the world. In Indonesia, the cases in animals are primarily associated with the condition of the field, although the intensity of the infestations are also affected by various factors inside the body of the host. In general, the tropical and humid conditions in Indonesia, optimally support the development and spreading of the parasites, so that the prevalence of the infestations are usually high except in the very dry areas. In Indonesia, important helminthic diseases found in livestock are mostly caused by nematodes and trematodes, and there is a lack of information regarding cestode infestations, except infestation by immature stages of the worm such as cysticercosis in ruminants and swine. On the other hand, dogs and cats are usually infested by cestodes and nematodes. Here, the negative influence of helminthic infestation on live stock is mostiy shown by failure of growth, decrease of body weight and body resistance, damage of organs infested by the parasites, but it is not rare that the disease cause death of the infested animals such as haemonchiasis in sheep, ascariasis in young swine and calves, etc. The integrated system of farming combined with periodic anthelminthic treatments were favourable in the effort of controlling the disease.

  9. Soil-transmitted helminths of humans in Southeast Asia--towards integrated control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jex, Aaron R; Lim, Yvonne A L; Bethony, Jeffrey M; Hotez, Peter J; Young, Neil D; Gasser, Robin B

    2011-01-01

    Soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) pose significant public health challenges in many countries of Southeast Asia (SEA). Overall, approximately one-third of the world's cases of ascariasis, trichuriasis, and hookworm disease occur in the 11 major SEA countries. Various countries are at different stages in their response to controlling these diseases. For instance, in Malaysia and Thailand, the major burden of disease is confined to rural/remote, indigenous and/or refugee populations. In countries, such as Cambodia, Lao People's Democratic Republic and Vietnam, the burden remains high, although extensive deworming programmes are underway and are yielding encouraging results. The present chapter reviews the current status of STH infections in SEA, identifies knowledge gaps and offers a perspective on the development of improved, integrated surveillance and control in this geographical region. It indicates that advances in our understanding of the epidemiology of these parasites, through the strategic use of molecular and predictive (e.g. geographical information systems (GIS) and remote sensing (RS)) technologies, could readily underpin future research and control programmes. It is hoped that the gradual move towards integrated treatment/control programmes will assist substantially in decreasing the chronic disease burden linked to STHs, thus increasing human health and welfare, and supporting socio-economic growth and development in SEA countries.

  10. Multiple Exposures to Ascaris suum Induce Tissue Injury and Mixed Th2/Th17 Immune Response in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Denise Silva; Gazzinelli-Guimarães, Pedro Henrique; Barbosa, Fernando Sérgio; Resende, Nathália Maria; Silva, Caroline Cavalcanti; de Oliveira, Luciana Maria; Amorim, Chiara Cássia Oliveira; Oliveira, Fabrício Marcus Silva; Mattos, Matheus Silvério; Kraemer, Lucas Rocha; Caliari, Marcelo Vidigal; Gaze, Soraya; Bueno, Lilian Lacerda; Russo, Remo Castro; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio

    2016-01-01

    Ascaris spp. infection affects 800 million people worldwide, and half of the world population is currently at risk of infection. Recurrent reinfection in humans is mostly due to the simplicity of the parasite life cycle, but the impact of multiple exposures to the biology of the infection and the consequences to the host's homeostasis are poorly understood. In this context, single and multiple exposures in mice were performed in order to characterize the parasitological, histopathological, tissue functional and immunological aspects of experimental larval ascariasis. The most important findings revealed that reinfected mice presented a significant reduction of parasite burden in the lung and an increase in the cellularity in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) associated with a robust granulocytic pulmonary inflammation, leading to a severe impairment of respiratory function. Moreover, the multiple exposures to Ascaris elicited an increased number of circulating inflammatory cells as well as production of higher levels of systemic cytokines, mainly IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17A and TNF-α when compared to single-infected animals. Taken together, our results suggest the intense pulmonary inflammation associated with a polarized systemic Th2/Th17 immune response are crucial to control larval migration after multiple exposures to Ascaris.

  11. Ascaris lumbricoides in neonate: evidence of congenital transmission of intestinal nematodes Ascaris lumbricoides em neonato: evidências da transmissão congênita de nematóides intestinais

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    Leda Maria da Costa-Macedo

    1990-10-01

    Full Text Available Clinical and epidemiological study of a forty-days-old infant with a diarrheic condition and insufficient development led to the coprological diagnosis of ascariasis and possible congenital infection. Specific treatment with levamizole, resulted in clinical and parasitological cure, in addition to gain of weight up to normal levels. Maternal parasitism had been diagnosed two months before labor and proved beyond doubt during the ensuing epidemiological inquiry.O estudo clínico e epidemiológico do caso de uma criança, com quarenta dias de idade, que apresentava quadro diarréico e desenvolvimento insuficiente desde o nascimento, conduziu ao diagnóstico coprológico de ascaríase e à hipótese de tratar-se de uma infecção congênita. O tratamento específico, com levamizol, produziu cura clínica e parasitológica, e um ganho de peso pelo qual a criança logo alcançou os níveis normais para a idade. O parasitismo materno havia sido diagnosticado dois meses antes do parto e foi confirmado, plenamente, por ocasião do inquérito epidemiológico que realizamos. As razões para se admitir a hipótese de transmissão congênita são apresentadas no trabalho.

  12. Health status of the prisoners in a central jail of south India

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    Sunil D Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Health care in prisons is one of the neglected health areas in our country. Looking into the health problems of prisons will show us a way for the approach in providing the heath care for prisoners. Objectives: To assess the health status of convicted inmates of prison and to study their sociodemographic profile. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among the inmates of central prison over a period of 1 year. Study population comprised of 300 convicted life-term prisoners. The inmates were interviewed using predesigned and pretested proforma. Sociodemographic data were analyzed by frequencies and percentages along with 95% confidence interval using statistical package SPSS18. Results: In health status, 29 (9.6% inmates suffered from acute upper respiratory tract infections and 15 (5% from acute lower respiratory tract infections. A total of 54 (18% inmates had ascariasis. Diseases of musculoskeletal system and connective tissue contributed to 26 (8.7% of inmates. A total of 252 (84% prisoners had anemia. In sociodemographic profile, it was found that rural people, unmarried, illiterates, lower socioeconomic status people were more likely to have committed the crime resulting in the conviction for life. Conclusions: As there is an increase in number of prisoners and morbidities among them, there is an urgent need for prison health care services in developing countries like India and provide training to the health care providers to manage the commonly existing health problems among prisoners in the prisons.

  13. Intestinal Helminth Infections in Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Clinic at Kitale District Hospital, Kenya

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    A. W. Wekesa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal helminth infections during pregnancy are associated with adverse outcomes including low birth weight and prenatal mortality. The infections are a major public health problem in developing countries. A hospital based survey was undertaken for six months to determine the infection prevalence, intensity, and risk factors. The study involved expectant women attending antenatal clinic. Stool samples were screened microscopically for helminth ova using Kato Katz technique. Information on risk factors was collected using semistructured questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS. Epidemiological data was analysed using descriptive statistics and multivariate analysis. The overall prevalence of infection was 21 (13.8%. Ascariasis was the most prevalent 10 (6.5%, hookworm infection was 6 (3.9%, and trichuriasis was 2 (1.3%. Pregnant women aged below 29 years (OR = 3.63, CI = 0.87–11.75 and those with primary level of education (OR = 3.21, CI = 0.88–11.75 were at a higher risk of infection compared to those aged ≥ 29 years with secondary level of education. Hand washing was significantly associated with reduced likelihood of infection (OR = 0.18, 95% CI = 0.06–0.57. It was concluded that intestinal helminth infections were prevalent among pregnant women. We recommended that all expectant women visiting antenatal clinics be screened for intestinal helminth infections and positive cases be advised to seek treatment.

  14. YI Xianrong’s experience in treating anorectal diseases%衣先荣教授诊治肛肠病经验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马一铭; 张盈

    2015-01-01

    Professor YI Xianrong thinks that the treatment of anorectal diseases should be combining the theory of Em-peror’s Canon of Medicine,the syndrome types are mainly of anorectal dis ease syndrome of intestine - dryness fluid deficiency of Constipation,syndrome of deficiency for spleen and stomach qi of diarrhoea,syndrome of damp heat sta-sis of periappendicular abscess,syndrome of intermingled heat and cold of syncope due to ascariasis. He advocated use nourishing yin and clearing heat,moistening dryness for relaxing bowels,strengthening spleen and nourishing qi and excreting dampness to stop Diarrhea,clearing heat and removing toxicity,eliminating perianal abscess,reducing heat of Shangjiao and dispelling cold of Xiajiao,calming ascaris to relieve pain for diagnosis and treatment of anorectal disease.%衣先荣教授认为,肛肠病诊治时应结合《内经》理论,从肠燥津亏秘结证、脾胃气虚泄泻证、湿热瘀滞肠痈证、寒热错杂蛔厥证加以分型,治疗上采用滋阴清热、润燥通便,健脾益气、渗湿止泻,清热解毒、排脓消痈,清上温下、安蛔止痛等法。

  15. Periodic Deworming With Pyrantel For Roundworm And Hookworm Infections In A Farming Village Community.

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    Guar S.D

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available A farming village community of 512 completed one year of periodic deworming with a single 10 mg/kg oral dose of pyrantel every 3 months. Stool examination by Kato’s thick smear method showed that the prevalence of roundworm infection (ascariasis in the community decreased from 76% to 0%, and that of hookworm infection (ancylostomiasis from 60% to 0%. During the same period the mean hemoglobin increased by 2.3 +/- 0.1 g/dl and the mean body mass index (BMI increased by 0.90 +/- 0.04(P 0.01 for both the drug was tolerated very well as side effects occurred following only 6% of doses (130/2048, and only 1% of these required symptomatic treatment. Quarterly deworming with a single dose of pyrantel is an effective and acceptable method of controlling roundworm and hookworm infections in farming village community having a high prevalence of these worms, and it helps improve the general health of the population to significant degree.

  16. Gastric Rupture in Pregnancy: Case Series from a Tertiary Institution in Rwanda and Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntirushwa, David; Rulisa, Stephen; Muhorakeye, Febronie; Bazzett-Matabele, Lisa; Rurangwa, Theogene; Small, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Background Gastric rupture is a rare, life-threatening condition during pregnancy. Case study We present three cases of gastric perforation during pregnancy and the puerperium. The first patient presented with gastric perforation 4 days following an uncomplicated cesarean delivery for obstetric indications. She initially complained of epigastric pain; however, those symptoms resolved. She later demonstrated worsening abdominal distension, intra-abdominal free fluid, and signs of peritonitis. At laparotomy, an ascariasis-associated gastric rupture was diagnosed. She died from sepsis 4 days following the laparotomy. The second patient presented 19 days following a normal vaginal delivery. She presented with hemodynamic instability and underwent emergent laparotomy due to suspected septic shock peritonitis. Gastric rupture was diagnosed intraoperatively. She improved clinically and was discharged home. The third patient underwent emergency cesarean delivery due to non-reassuring fetal status in the setting of preeclampsia. She was initially diagnosed with ascites and pulmonary edema as a result of preeclampsia. Later in her course, she developed features in favor of acute abdomen and signs of sepsis. At the time of emergent laparotomy, a gastric rupture was identified and repaired. She died 2 days later from sepsis. Conclusion We report the management and outcome of three cases of pregnancy-related gastric rupture. To our knowledge, these three cases represent the largest series of pregnancy-related gastric ruptures from a single institution. PMID:28078172

  17. "EVALUATION OF THE EFFECT OF OXANTEL – PYRANTEL ON VARIOUS SOIL TRANSMITTED HELMINTHS IN IRAN "

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    E. Farahmandian

    1977-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of a combination of Oxantel- Pyrantel with a single dose of 10 mg/ kg body weight on Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris, Trichostrongylus spp. and Ancylostoma duodenale has been evaluated among the population of two rural areas in Khuzestan, Southwest Iran (41 persons and Isfahan, Central (30 persons. All patients were infected with Trichuris trichiura and some simultaneously with one or more other helminthes. In addition to stool examinations, to elucidate the possible side- effects, several blood and urine tests were conducted before and after treatment. A cure rate of 83% has been found among Trichuris cases treated in both areas. Cure rates observes for ascariasis and trichostrongyliasis were 93. 3% and 23% in Khuzestan, as well as 90% and 50% in Isfahan, respectively. Cure rate for ancylostomiasis was 86% in Khuzestan.Significant reduction in the mean number of egg.gr of faeces has been observed.Side- effects encountered were mild and transient. The promisisng effect of this drug on soil – transmitted helminthes, particulary Trichuris trichiura has been proven.

  18. Our experience with peroral application of ivermektin in therapy of swine endoparasitosis

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    Pavlović Ivan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Endoparasitic infections present a frequent health problem among swine maintained on farms, with ascariasis and esophagostamosis being the most frequent diseases. There are several valid methods in curbing parasites in swine - peroral application of antiparasitics and their subcutaneous application. Ivermektin is an antiparasitic with a wide range of effects which is successfully used in curbing ecto and endoparasites in swine and other animals. Ivermektin has so far primarily been applied subcutaneously which required considerable efforts and the engagement of numerous staff in therapy of large agglomerations of frarm animals. In recent years Ivermektin has appeared in powder form that is mixed in feed which largely facilitates therapy and the prevention of ecto and endoparasitoses in farm animals. In order to examine the efficiency of the peroral application of Ivermektin in treating endoparasitic infections, our paper presents the curbing of acradosis and esophagostamosis in farm swine using peroral application of Ivermektin (Ivermektin-P, Hemovet, Vršac. Four control examinations after therapy did not reveal any parasite infections, which is evidence that Ivermektin is absolutely efficient when applied perorally. On the grounds of the obtained results, we are of the opinion that the peroral application of Ivermektin is a successful therapy of endoparasitic infections in swine, which is not in any way less efficient than its subcutaneous application. The peroral application of Ivermektin largely facilitates therapy and the prevention of parasitic infections on farms with large agglomerations of animals.

  19. Ascaridíase das vias urinárias: um caso de penetração de Ascaris lumbricoides através do rim

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    Mario Caymmi Gomes

    1977-10-01

    Full Text Available Uma criança de 2 anos com desnutrição grave e infestação intestinal maciça por Ascaris lumbricoides, apresentou como complicação, documentada em necrópsia, a migração de vermes adultos para a cavidade peritonial e penetração aberrante de dois parasitos através do rim esquerdo. Os Ascaris ficaram alojados no sistema pielo-ureteral, determinando grave infecção purulenta e obstrução ureteral. Esta complicação demonstra a capacidade agressiva de vermes erráticos na cavidade peritonial, com possibilidade de perfurar mesmo uma víscera sólida. São comentados os fatores que facilitaram a migração dos vermes por aqueles órgãos.The author reports an autopsy case of a two year old child with massive intestinal ascariasis and malnutrition, presenting the migration of two adult Ascaris lumbricoides through the left kidney into the pyelo-ureteral system. As a result she developed acute pyelonephritis and ureteral obstruction. Previously the worms left the intestine into the peritoneal cavity (lesser sac through a duodenal cleft. Factors contributing to the migration of the roundworms by those pathways are discussed.

  20. Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiographic evaluation of obstructive jaundice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Hee Tae; Kim, Hong Soo; Kim, Jong Deok; Rhee, Hak Song [Presbyterian Medical Center, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    1983-12-15

    PTC is the single most valuable diagnostic method available to evaluate the size, shape and site of the causes of obstructive jaundice among various radiological procedures. The authors reviewed and radiologically classified the PTC films of 203 cases of obstructive jaundice from July, 1977 to June, 1983 at Presbyterian Medical Center, Jeonju confirmed clinically, operatively and pathologically. The results are as follows; 1. The most common cause of obstructive jaundice was bile duct stone (64/203: 31.53%) and the other causes were bile duct cancer (43/203: 21.18%), pancreas cancer (41/203: 20.19%), biliary ascariasis and/or clonorchiasis (20/203: 9.8%), ampulla and duodenal cancer (7/203: 3.45%), fibrotic stenosis of sphincter of Oddi (6/203: 2.96%) etc. in the order. Of these primary involvement with cancer was more frequent (91/203: 44.33%) than stone. 3. The average maximal diameter of extrahepatic bile duct just proximal to the site of obstruction or stenosis by stones or by cancers was nearly equal (2.36 cm : 2.38 cm). 4. Cancers caused complete bile duct obstruction in about 75% (68/91) of cases and also were associated with intrahepatic duct dilatation about 92% (84/91) of cases. But in contrast biliary calculi showed good drainage of contrast medium in 75% (48/64) of cases and 92% (59/64) showed normal diameter.

  1. Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography in obstructive jaundice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, Kang Uoo; Choi, Young Dae; Park, Jin Hoon; Min, Byung Chae; Yoon, Jong Sup [Han Gang Sacred Heart Hospital Hallym College, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1983-03-15

    Although many invasive studies in the biliary tract disease are replaced by noninvasive techniques such as ultrasonography and computed tomography, PTC does still play an important role in diagnosis of obstructive jaundice. Authors had performed 42 patients of PTC with Chiba needle at the department of radiology, Han Gang Sacred Heart Hospital for 4 years from January 1978 to April 1982. And we reviewed literatures. The results were as follows: 1. Forty two patients of PTC were 22 males and 20 females. The success rate was 90.5% (38/42). The failed 4 cases of PTC were nonobstructive hepatobiliary diseases. 2. The PTC diagnosis of 38 cases were biliary stone (21 cases), cholangiocarcinoma (7 cases), pancreatic carcinoma (2 cases), hepatoma (2 cases), ascariasis (2 cases), and clonorchiasis (1 case), and the remainders were normal. 3. We made 2 cases of misdiagnosis on the basis of PTC findings. They were one case of distal CBD stone with severe cholangitis diagnosed as ampullary carcinoma and another case of proximal CBD stone with cholangitis diagnosed as pancreas carcinoma. 4. We experienced 2 cases of complication such as sepsis and severe hypotension, but they were recovered.

  2. Soil-transmitted helminth infections and correlated risk factors in preschool and school-aged children in rural Southwest China.

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    Xiaobing Wang

    Full Text Available We conducted a survey of 1707 children in 141 impoverished rural areas of Guizhou and Sichuan Provinces in Southwest China. Kato-Katz smear testing of stool samples elucidated the prevalence of ascariasis, trichuriasis and hookworm infections in pre-school and school aged children. Demographic, hygiene, household and anthropometric data were collected to better understand risks for infection in this population. 21.2 percent of pre-school children and 22.9 percent of school aged children were infected with at least one of the three types of STH. In Guizhou, 33.9 percent of pre-school children were infected, as were 40.1 percent of school aged children. In Sichuan, these numbers were 9.7 percent and 6.6 percent, respectively. Number of siblings, maternal education, consumption of uncooked meat, consumption of unboiled water, and livestock ownership all correlated significantly with STH infection. Through decomposition analysis, we determined that these correlates made up 26.7 percent of the difference in STH infection between the two provinces. Multivariate analysis showed that STH infection is associated with significantly lower weight-for-age and height-for-age z-scores; moreover, older children infected with STHs lag further behind on the international growth scales than younger children.

  3. African Program for Onchocerciasis Control 1995-2010: Impact of Annual Ivermectin Mass Treatment on Off-Target Infectious Diseases.

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    Stanimira P Krotneva

    Full Text Available Since its initiation in 1995, the African Program for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC has had a substantial impact on the prevalence and burden of onchocerciasis through annual ivermectin mass treatment. Ivermectin is a broad-spectrum anti-parasitic agent that also has an impact on other co-endemic parasitic infections. In this study, we roughly assessed the additional impact of APOC activities on the burden of the most important off-target infections: soil-transmitted helminthiases (STH; ascariasis, trichuriasis, hookworm, and strongyloidiasis, lymphatic filariasis (LF, and scabies. Based on a literature review, we formulated assumptions about the impact of ivermectin treatment on the disease burden of these off-target infections. Using data on the number of ivermectin treatments in APOC regions and the latest estimates of the burden of disease, we then calculated the impact of APOC activities on off-target infections in terms of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs averted. We conservatively estimated that between 1995 and 2010, annual ivermectin mass treatment has cumulatively averted about 500 thousand DALYs from co-endemic STH infections, LF, and scabies. This impact comprised approximately an additional 5.5% relative to the total burden averted from onchocerciasis (8.9 million DALYs and indicates that the overall cost-effectiveness of APOC is even higher than previously reported.

  4. ERCP in acute pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jijo V Cherian; Joye Varghese Selvaraj; Rajesh Natrayan; Jayanthi Venkataraman

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND:The role of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) in the management of acute pancreatitis has evolved over years since its introduction in 1968. Its importance in diagnosing the etiology of pancreatitis has steadily declined with the advent of less invasive diagnostic tools. The therapeutic implications of ERCP in acute pancreatitis are many fold and are directed towards management of known etiological factors or its related complications. This article highlights the current status of ERCP in acute pancreatitis. DATA SOURCES:An English literature search using PubMed database was conducted on ERCP in acute pancreatitis, the etiologies and complications of pancreatitis amenable to endotherapy and other related subjects, which were reviewed. RESULTS: ERCP serves as a primary therapeutic modality for management of biliary pancreatitis in speciifc situations, pancreatitis due to microlithiasis, speciifc types of sphincter of Oddi dysfunction, pancreas divisum, ascariasis and malignancy. In recurrent acute pancreatitis and smoldering pancreatitis it has a deifnite therapeutic utility. Complications of acute pancreatitis including pancreatic-duct disruptions or leaks, benign pancreatic-lfuid collections and pancreatic necrosis can be beneifcially dealt with. Intraductal ultrasound and pancreatoscopy during ERCP are useful in detecting pancreatic malignancy. CONCLUSIONS:The role of ERCP in acute pancreatitis is predominantly therapeutic and occasionally diagnostic. Its role in the management continues to evolve and advanced invasive procedures should be undertaken only in centers dedicated to pancreatic care.

  5. 对几个名词的改正意见(二)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王训颖

    2001-01-01

    一、"胆汁":消化道的分泌液都称"液"如唾液、胃液、胰液、肠液等,血液、淋巴液都称"液",尿亦称尿液,有人认为bile粘稠,故称"汁",那么血液更稠,为何不叫"血汁"?建议改正为"胆液". 二、"疾患、男患、女患",都是受"患者"的影响而致误,应改正为"疾病"、"男病人"、"女病人". 三、"肉芽面有脓性分泌物":肉芽组织没有腺体,不能分泌,应改正为"渗出物". 四、"胆道蛔虫":笔下及口语常出现"胆道蛔虫",实际是胆道蛔虫病(biliary ascariasis),不是"虫"而是"病".

  6. The nutritional impacts of soil-transmitted helminths infections among Orang Asli schoolchildren in rural Malaysia

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    Ahmed Abdulhamid

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Soil-transmitted helminths (STH infections, anaemia and malnutrition are major public health problems in school-age children in developing countries. This study was conducted on 289 Orang Asli (aboriginal schoolchildren in order to assess the current prevalence and predictors of anaemia and malnutrition, as well as the nutritional impacts of STH infections among these children. Methods A cross-sectional study was combined with a longitudinal follow-up three months after treatment with anthelminthic drugs. Blood samples were collected from the children to measure haemoglobin (Hb level. Anthropometric and socioeconomic data were also collected and the children were screened for STH. Results The baseline findings revealed that the prevalence of anaemia, significant stunting, underweight and wasting among the children were 41.0%, 28.0%, 29.2% and 12.5%, respectively. Overall, the prevalence of trichuriasis, ascariasis and hookworm infections were 84.6%, 47.6% and 3.9%, respectively. Haemoglobin level was significantly lower among the moderate-to-heavy infected children compared to the negative-to-light infected children. Age Conclusion STH infections, anaemia and malnutrition are still prevalent and a matter of public health concern in Orang Asli communities in Malaysia. Sustainable deworming programme at school and community levels among these populations will help to improve their health and nutritional status.

  7. Geohelminth Infections and Nutritional Status of Preschool Aged Children in a Periurban Settlement of Ogun State

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    O. O. Omitola

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the geohelminth and nutritional status of preschoolers in a periurban community of Ogun state. Fresh stool specimens were collected for laboratory analysis, processed using ether concentration method, and examined under the microscope for geohelminth ova. Demographic characteristics and daily nutrient intake of children were subjectively assessed during an interview session with parents, following anthropometric data collection. Data obtained were analysed using a statistical software for Windows. Nutritional indicators such as underweight, stunting, and wasting were computed from anthropometric data. Results showed an overall prevalence of 39.2% and 12.4% for Ascariasis and Hookworm infection, respectively, with no significant difference (P>0.05 between the sexes. Prevalence of nutritional indicators was 52.6%, 35.1%, 34.0%, and 9.3% for underweight, stunting, wasting, and thinness conditions, respectively. A good proportion of the malnourished preschoolers were free of Ascaris infection but infected with Hookworm parasite. The adverse effect of geohelminth infection cannot still be ignored in impaired growth, reduced survival, poor development, and cognitive performance of preschoolers. Therefore promotion of adequate health education program on measures of preventing geohelminth infections is needed.

  8. Physicochemical properties of the modeled structure of astacin metalloprotease moulting enzyme NAS-36 and mapping the druggable allosteric space of Heamonchus contortus, Brugia malayi and Ceanorhabditis elegans via molecular dynamics simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Om Prakash; Agrawal, Sonali; Kumar, M Suresh

    2013-12-01

    Nematodes represent the second largest phylum in the animal kingdom. It is the most abundant species (500,000) in the planet. It causes chronic, debilitating infections worldwide such as ascariasis, trichuriasis, hookworm, enterobiasis, strongyloidiasis, filariasis and trichinosis, among others. Molecular modeling tools can play an important role in the identification and structural investigation of molecular targets that can act as a vital candidate against filariasis. In this study, sequence analysis of NAS-36 from H. contortus (Heamonchus contortus), B. malayi (Brugia malayi) and C. elegans (Ceanorhabditis elegans) has been performed, in order to identify the conserved residues. Tertiary structure was developed for an insight into the molecular structure of the enzyme. Molecular Dynamics Simulation (MDS) studies have been carried out to analyze the stability and the physical properties of the proposed enzyme models in the H. contortus, B. malayi and C. elegans. Moreover, the drug binding sites have been mapped for inhibiting the function of NAS-36 enzyme. The molecular identity of this protease could eventually demonstrate how ex-sheathment is regulated, as well as provide a potential target of anthelmintics for the prevention of nematode infections.

  9. Geohelminth Infections and Nutritional Status of Preschool Aged Children in a Periurban Settlement of Ogun State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omitola, O O; Mogaji, H O; Oluwole, A S; Adeniran, A A; Alabi, O M; Ekpo, U F

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the geohelminth and nutritional status of preschoolers in a periurban community of Ogun state. Fresh stool specimens were collected for laboratory analysis, processed using ether concentration method, and examined under the microscope for geohelminth ova. Demographic characteristics and daily nutrient intake of children were subjectively assessed during an interview session with parents, following anthropometric data collection. Data obtained were analysed using a statistical software for Windows. Nutritional indicators such as underweight, stunting, and wasting were computed from anthropometric data. Results showed an overall prevalence of 39.2% and 12.4% for Ascariasis and Hookworm infection, respectively, with no significant difference (P > 0.05) between the sexes. Prevalence of nutritional indicators was 52.6%, 35.1%, 34.0%, and 9.3% for underweight, stunting, wasting, and thinness conditions, respectively. A good proportion of the malnourished preschoolers were free of Ascaris infection but infected with Hookworm parasite. The adverse effect of geohelminth infection cannot still be ignored in impaired growth, reduced survival, poor development, and cognitive performance of preschoolers. Therefore promotion of adequate health education program on measures of preventing geohelminth infections is needed.

  10. Investigation of Anti-Toxocara Antibodies in Epileptic Patients and Comparison of Two Methods: ELISA and Western Blotting

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    Mohammad Zibaei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between Toxocara infection and epilepsy was previously demonstrated by several case-control studies and case reports. These previous studies were often based on the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA using Toxocara excretory-secretory antigens, which are not specific due to cross-reactivity with other parasitic infections such as ascariasis, trichuriasis, and anisakiasis. An immunoblot analysis is highly specific and can detect low levels of Toxocara antibodies. Therefore, this assay may be useful in the identification of toxocariasis in epileptic patients. We examined patients who had epilepsy and healthy subjects for seropositivity for Toxocara infection by ELISA and Western blotting. Out of 85 epileptic patients, 10 (11.8% and 3 (3.5% persons exhibited Toxocara immunoglobulin G (IgG antibodies responses by ELISA and by both techniques, respectively. Moreover, in the healthy group (, 3 (3.5% persons were positive by ELISA, but none was detected by Western blotting. This study indicates that Toxocara infection is a risk factor for epilepsy in Iran. These findings strongly suggest the need to perform Western blotting immunodiagnosis, as well as the ELISA using Toxocara excretory-secretory antigens, to improve diagnosis of human toxocariasis in patients with epilepsy.

  11. Evaluation of a di-O-methylated glycan as a potential antigenic target for the serodiagnosis of human toxocariasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elefant, G R; Roldán, W H; Seeböck, A; Kosma, P

    2016-04-01

    Serodiagnosis of human toxocariasis is based on the detection of specific IgG antibodies by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using Toxocara larvae excretory-secretory (TES) antigens, but its production is a laborious and time-consuming process being also limited by the availability of adult females of T. canis as source for ova to obtain larvae. Chemical synthesis of the di-O-methylated (DiM) glycan structure found in the TES antigens has provided material for studying the antibody reactivity in a range of mammalian hosts, showing reactivity with human IgM and IgG. In this study, we have evaluated the performance of the DiM glycan against a panel of sera including patients with toxocariasis (n = 60), patients with other helminth infections (n = 75) and healthy individuals (n = 94), showing that DiM is able to detect IgG antibodies with a sensitivity and specificity of 91·7% and 94·7%, respectively, with a very good agreement with the TES antigens (kappa = 0·825). However, cross-reactivity was observed in some sera from patients with ascariasis, hymenolepiasis and fascioliasis. These results show that the DiM glycan could be a promising antigenic tool for the serodiagnosis of human toxocariasis.

  12. Evaluation of an enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot test for the confirmatory serodiagnosis of human toxocariasis

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    William H Roldán

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available To improve the serodiagnosis of human toxocariasis, a sensitive and specific enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB-IgG test was developed and evaluated using Toxocara canislarvae excretory-secretory antigens for detecting anti-Toxocara IgG antibodies. The EITB-IgG profile of toxocariasis was characterized by comparing 27 sera from patients with toxocariasis, 110 sera from healthy subjects and 186 sera from patients with other helminth diseases (ascariasis, ancylostomiasis, trichuriasis, enterobiasis, strongyloidiasis, hymenolepiasis, diphyllobothriasis, taeniasis, cysticercosis, hydatidosis and fascioliasis. Antigenic bands of 24, 28, 30, 35, 56, 117, 136 and 152 kDa were predominantly recognized in sera from all patients with toxocariasis. However, only bands of 24-35 kDa were highly specific for Toxocara infection (98.3%, whereas other antigenic bands observed displayed cross-reactivity. Additionally, when the results of the EITB-IgG test were compared to those of the ELISA-IgG test, a 100% concordance was observed for positive results in human toxocariasis cases. The concordance for negative results between the two tests for healthy subjects and patients with other helminth diseases were 96.3% and 53.7%, respectively, showing that the EITB-IgG test has a higher specificity than ELISA. In conclusion, the EITB-IgG test is a very useful tool to confirm the serological diagnosis of human toxocariasis.

  13. Evaluation of an enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot test for the confirmatory serodiagnosis of human toxocariasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldán, William H; Espinoza, Yrma A

    2009-05-01

    To improve the serodiagnosis of human toxocariasis, a sensitive and specific enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB-IgG) test was developed and evaluated using Toxocara canislarvae excretory-secretory antigens for detecting anti-Toxocara IgG antibodies. The EITB-IgG profile of toxocariasis was characterized by comparing 27 sera from patients with toxocariasis, 110 sera from healthy subjects and 186 sera from patients with other helminth diseases (ascariasis, ancylostomiasis, trichuriasis, enterobiasis, strongyloidiasis, hymenolepiasis, diphyllobothriasis, taeniasis, cysticercosis, hydatidosis and fascioliasis). Antigenic bands of 24, 28, 30, 35, 56, 117, 136 and 152 kDa were predominantly recognized in sera from all patients with toxocariasis. However, only bands of 24-35 kDa were highly specific for Toxocara infection (98.3%), whereas other antigenic bands observed displayed cross-reactivity. Additionally, when the results of the EITB-IgG test were compared to those of the ELISA-IgG test, a 100% concordance was observed for positive results in human toxocariasis cases. The concordance for negative results between the two tests for healthy subjects and patients with other helminth diseases were 96.3% and 53.7%, respectively, showing that the EITB-IgG test has a higher specificity than ELISA. In conclusion, the EITB-IgG test is a very useful tool to confirm the serological diagnosis of human toxocariasis.

  14. African Program for Onchocerciasis Control 1995–2010: Impact of Annual Ivermectin Mass Treatment on Off-Target Infectious Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noma, Mounkaila; Zouré, Honorat G. M.; Bakoné, Lalle; Amazigo, Uche V.; de Vlas, Sake J.; Stolk, Wilma A.

    2015-01-01

    Since its initiation in 1995, the African Program for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC) has had a substantial impact on the prevalence and burden of onchocerciasis through annual ivermectin mass treatment. Ivermectin is a broad-spectrum anti-parasitic agent that also has an impact on other co-endemic parasitic infections. In this study, we roughly assessed the additional impact of APOC activities on the burden of the most important off-target infections: soil-transmitted helminthiases (STH; ascariasis, trichuriasis, hookworm, and strongyloidiasis), lymphatic filariasis (LF), and scabies. Based on a literature review, we formulated assumptions about the impact of ivermectin treatment on the disease burden of these off-target infections. Using data on the number of ivermectin treatments in APOC regions and the latest estimates of the burden of disease, we then calculated the impact of APOC activities on off-target infections in terms of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) averted. We conservatively estimated that between 1995 and 2010, annual ivermectin mass treatment has cumulatively averted about 500 thousand DALYs from co-endemic STH infections, LF, and scabies. This impact comprised approximately an additional 5.5% relative to the total burden averted from onchocerciasis (8.9 million DALYs) and indicates that the overall cost-effectiveness of APOC is even higher than previously reported. PMID:26401658

  15. KERUGIAN FINANSIAL AKIBAT KECACINGAN: STUDI DI KABUPATEN NUNUKAN

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    Liestiana Indriyati

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTHelminthiasis is one cause of nutritional anemia that impairs cognitive function, productivity and physical growth and development of children. This paper discuss the nutritional and financial losses caused by the helminthiasis. This study was observational research using cross-sectional design. The population were all primary school children in Nunukan, the number of sample were 1126 school age children enrolled in nine primary health centers working area (Nunukan, Sedadap, Setabu, Sungai Nyamuk, Aji Kuning, Sembakung, Pembeliangan, Mansalong and Sanur during March to December 2010. Ascaris lumbricoides consume carbohydrates as much as 0.14 g/worm/day and 0.035 g protein/day. While Trichuris trichiura fed on blood as much as 0,005 cc/ worm/day and Hookworm as much as 0.2 cc/worm/day. The price of carbohydrates assumed to be the rice price Rp.7.199,49/kg, the price of protein assumed to be beef price Rp.30.000/kg and blood Rp.250.000/pack 250cc (Rp.1000/cc. The results showed that prevalence of ascariasis was 10.3 percent, trichuriasis 8.97 percent and hookworm 2.93 percent . Based on the calculation of nutrients and financial losses, during 2010 Nunukan suffered loss of carbohydrate of 2068.9 kg/year worth Rp. 14.895.075,- , protein loss of 517.23 kg/year worth Rp.32.530.588,- , and blood loss amounted to 1,220,241.17 cc/year worth Rp.1.220.241.100,- the total financial losses due to helminthiasis amounted to Rp.1.276.666.763,-.Keywords : helminthiasis,nutrition, financial disadvantageABSTRAKKecacingan disebabkan oleh infestasi cacing parasit merupakan salah satu penyebab anemia gizi, dapat mempengaruhi tingkat kecerdasan, produktivitas, pertumbuhan serta perkembangan fisik dan mental anak-anak. Kecacingan juga menyebabkan gangguan kemampuan belajar, dan dalam jangka panjang akan berakibat menurunnya kualitas Sumber Daya Manusia (SDM. Tulisan ini membahas tentang perhitungan kerugian nutrisi dan finansial yang diakibatkan oleh penyakit

  16. ANALISIS MODEL FAKTOR RISIKO YANG MEMPENGARUHI INFEKSI KECACINGAN YANG DITULARKAN MELALUI TANAH PADA SISWA SEKOLAH DASAR DI DISTRIK ARSO KABUPATEN KEEROM, PAPUA

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    Semuel Sandy

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakInfeksi kecacingan yang ditularkan melalui tanah masih merupakan masalah kesehatan di daerah pedesaan. Parasit cacing yang paling banyak menginfeksi adalah Ascaris lumbricoides, Cacing tambang (hookworm dan Trichuris trichiura. Penyakit ini umumnya terkait dengan faktor sosial-ekonomi, perilaku hidup bersih dan sehat. Penelitian bertujuan mengetahui prevalensi infeksi kecacingan yang ditularkan melalui tanah pada siswa sekolah dasar (SD di Distrik Arso Kabupaten Keerom dan mengetahui hubungan infeksi kecacingan yang ditularkan melalui tanah terhadap status gizi, status anemia, sosial ekonomi orang tua murid, sanitasi lingkungan dan higiene perorangan. Penelitian menggunakan metode potong lintang (cross sectional dengan melakukan pengukuran antropometri tinggi badan, berat badan, pengukuran kadar Hb untuk melihat status anemia pada 224 murid SD di Distrik Arso Kabupaten Keerom. Pengumpulan data sosial-ekonomi, sanitasi, higiene perorangan mengunakan kuesioner. Pemeriksaan infeksi kecacingan menggunakan metode Kato-Katz dan pengukuran variable intensitas infeksi berdasarkan metode WHO. Analisis statistik bivariat dan multivariat digunakan untuk melihat variabel faktor risiko yang berperan dalam penularan infeksi kecacingan yang ditularkan melalui tanah. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan infeksi kecacingan pada anak sekolah dasar didapatkan sebesar 29,9% dari 224 murid SD. Jumlah murid sekolah dasar yang terinfeksi ascariasis 23,2%, terinfeksi cacing tambang 7,6% dan terinfeksi trikhuriasis 4,9%. Sedangkan murid SD yang mengalami anemia 12,5% dan indeks massa tubuh (IMT kurang 79,5%. Hasil analisis multivariat menggunakan regresi logistik diperoleh variabel faktor risiko yang berkaitan dengan infeksi kecacingan STH yaitu: kebiasaan mencuci tangan sebelum makan dengan air dan sabun (OR = 0,33; 95% CI 0, 14-0, 78 dan nilai p = 0,012. Dari hasil penelitian disimpulkan bahwa faktor risiko yang berhubungan dengan kejadian infeksi kecacingan yang

  17. Value of Capsule Endoscopy in Diagnosing Obscure Gastrointestinal Bleeding%国产胶囊内镜对不明原因消化道出血的诊断价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王云; 易小敏; 王毅; 莫乐君

    2011-01-01

    目的 分析评价国产胶囊内镜对不明原因消化道出血的诊断价值.方法 对13例曾进行胃镜及结肠镜检查未能明确诊断的不明原因消化道出血患者的胶囊内镜检查结果进行统计分析.结果 13例患者进行了14次胶囊内镜检查,除1例患者外,其他12例患者成功检查13次,成功率为92.86%(13/14),无穿孔、过敏等不良反应发生.11例检出病变,检出率为91.67%(11/l2),其中小肠多发性溃疡4例,小肠多发性糜烂伴蛔虫及钩虫感染1例,小肠紫癜1例,小肠多发性憩室伴蛔虫感染1例,小肠糜烂2例,小肠黏膜呈节段性炎症性、增生性改变2例;1例未发现异常.结论 胶囊内镜检查因其安全、患者无痛苦、检查阳性率高,可作为不明原因消化道出血的首选检查手段.%Objective To assess the value of capsule endoscope (made in china) in the diagnosis of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding.Methods The capsule endoscopy was performed in 13 patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding that the pathogeny was not found by gastroscopy and intestinal endoscopy.Results In all 14 times of capsule endoscopy, 13 times of examinations in 12 patients were successful(92.86% ) and no complications such as perforation and allergy occurred.The total detection rate of pathological changes was 91.67% (11/12 ).There were 4 cases with small intestinal multiple ulcers; 1 case with small intestinal multiple erosion,ancylostomiasis and ascariasis; 1 case with small intestinal purpura;l case with small intestinal multiple diverticulums and ascariasis ;2 cases with small intestinal erosion ,2 cases with small intestinal segmental inflammation and hyperplasia.One case was normal.Conclusion Capsule endoscopy has the advantage of higher safety,freedom of injury and higher diagnosis rate, and can be recommended as the primary diagnosis method for the obscure gastrointestinal bleeding.

  18. Analysis on the ultrasonic images of children with recurrent abdominal pain%小儿再发性腹痛的超声声像图分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴慧玲; 张景良; 邱燕红

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨超声对小儿再发性腹痛的诊断价值.方法:对符合小儿再发性腹痛诊断标准的358例患儿进行了腹部高频彩超检查,发现阳性声像者以图片方式存档,并对比患儿治疗前后的情况.结果:超声发现阳性声像256例,阳性检出率为71.51%;其中肠系膜淋巴结肿大220例(61.45%)、肠套叠15例(4.19%)合并淋巴结肿大6例、粪性阻塞性肠胀气12例(3.35%)、慢性阑尾炎3例(0.84%)合并淋巴结肿大2例、肠管节段性病变2例(0.56%)、肠道蛔虫病1例(0.28%)、胆道蛔虫病1例(0.28%)、肾结石2例(0.56%).未发现阳性声像102例,占28.49%.结论:腹部高频彩超检查能及时发现小儿再发性腹痛的部分器质性病变,对该病的临床诊治及随访具有重要的诊断价值.%Objective: To explore the diagnostic value of ultrasound in children with recurrent abdominal pain. Methods: 358 children meeting the diagnostic criterion of recurrent abdominal pain received abdominal high - frequency ultrasonography, and the children with positive results were filed in the form of images, the situations of the children before and after treatment were compared. Results: 256 children were found with positive images by ultrasound, the positive detection rate was 71.51%, including 220 children (61.45%) with enlargement of lymph nodes in mesenterium, 15 children (4. 19%, 6 children combined with enlargement of lymph nodes) with intussusception, 12 children (3.35%) with obstructive intestinal tympanites, 3 children (0. 84%, 2 children combined with enlargement of lymph nodes) with chronic appendicitis, 2 children (0. 56% ) with segmental lesions of intestinal canal, 1 child (0. 28% ) with intestinal ascariasis, 1 child (0. 28% ) with biliary ascariasis, 2 children (0. 56% ) with renal calculus. 102 children were not found with positive images,accounting for 28. 49%. Conclusion: Abdominal high - frequency ultrasonography can find partial organic lesions

  19. Fascioliasis and Intestinal Parasitoses Affecting Schoolchildren in Atlixco, Puebla State, Mexico: Epidemiology and Treatment with Nitazoxanide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumaquero-Ríos, José Lino; Sarracent-Pérez, Jorge; Rojas-García, Raúl; Rojas-Rivero, Lázara; Martínez-Tovilla, Yaneth; Valero, María Adela; Mas-Coma, Santiago

    2013-01-01

    Background The Atlixco municipality, Puebla State, at a mean altitude of 1840 m, was selected for a study of Fasciola hepatica infection in schoolchildren in Mexico. This area presents permanent water collections continuously receiving thaw water from Popocatepetl volcano (5426 m altitude) through the community supply channels, conforming an epidemiological scenario similar to those known in hyperendemic areas of Andean countries. Methodology and Findings A total of 865 6–14 year-old schoolchildren were analyzed with FasciDIG coproantigen test and Lumbreras rapid sedimentation technique, and quantitatively assessed with Kato-Katz. Fascioliasis prevalences ranged 2.94–13.33% according to localities (mean 5.78%). Intensities were however low (24–384 epg). The association between fascioliasis and the habit of eating raw vegetables was identified, including watercress and radish with pronouncedly higher relative risk than lettuce, corncob, spinach, alfalfa juice, and broccoli. Many F. hepatica-infected children were coinfected by other parasites. Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Giardia intestinalis, Blastocystis hominis, Hymenolepis nana and Ascaris lumbricoides infection resulted in risk factors for F. hepatica infection. Nitazoxanide efficacy against fascioliasis was 94.0% and 100% after first and second treatment courses, respectively. The few children, for whom a second treatment course was needed, were concomitantly infected by moderate ascariasis burdens. Its efficacy was also very high in the treatment of E. histolytica/E. dispar, G. intestinalis, B. hominis, H. nana, A. lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and Enterobius vermicularis. A second treatment course was needed for all children affected by ancylostomatids. Conclusions Fascioliasis prevalences indicate this area to be mesoendemic, with isolated hyperendemic foci. This is the first time that a human fascioliasis endemic area is described in North America. Nitazoxanide appears as an appropriate

  20. Massive infestation by Ascaris lumbricoides of the biliary tract: report of a successfully treated case Infestação maciça por Ascaris lumbricoides nas vias biliares: relato de um caso tratado com sucesso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahir Ramos de Andrade Júnior

    1992-02-01

    Full Text Available This is a report of a 25 years old black woman from the city of São Paulo, Brazil, who developed acute obstructive cholangitis of Ascaris lumbricoides with septicemia and multiple hepatic abscesses. The patient had sickle cell trait and normal delivery 3 months ago. Massive infestation of the biliary tract by Ascaris lumbricoides was diagnosed by abdominal ultrasonography and endoscopic retrograde cholangiography. Sixty worms were removed from the common bile duct and hepatic abscesses were drained by surgery. The infectious process was polymicrobial. The patient's recovery was complete after a long evolution with a wide spectrum antibiotic therapy. New surgeries were needed to remove residual worms in the biliary tract. The diagnostic methods, clinical-biochemical features and also the clinical and surgical management are presented. The biliary ascariasis pathophysiology is commented.Descrito caso de mulher de 25 anos, negra, procedente da cidade de São Paulo - Brasil, que desenvolveu quadro agudo de colangite obstrutiva por Ascaris lumbricoides, com septicemia e múltiplos abscessos hepáticos. Era portadora de traço falciforme e tinha tido um parto normal há 3 meses. Foi estabelecido o diagnóstico de infestação maciça por Ascaris lumbricoides em vias biliares com ultrasonografia abdominal e colangiografia retrógrada endoscópica. Sessenta vermes foram retirados do colédoco e drenados os abscessos hepáticos por cirurgia. O quadro infeccioso era polimicrobiano. Houve recuperação total da paciente após longa evolução, com antibioticoterapia de amplo espectro e novas cirurgias com extração de vermes residuais. Os autores apresentam os métodos diagnósticos empregados, o quadro clínico-bioquímico e a abordagem terapêutica. A fisiopatologia da ascaridíase biliar é discutida.

  1. Mass Administration of Ivermectin for the Elimination of Onchocerciasis Significantly Reduced and Maintained Low the Prevalence of Strongyloides stercoralis in Esmeraldas, Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anselmi, Mariella; Buonfrate, Dora; Guevara Espinoza, Angel; Prandi, Rosanna; Marquez, Monica; Gobbo, Maria; Montresor, Antonio; Albonico, Marco; Racines Orbe, Marcia; Bisoffi, Zeno

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the effect of ivermectin mass drug administration on strongyloidiasis and other soil transmitted helminthiases. Methods We conducted a retrospective analysis of data collected in Esmeraldas (Ecuador) during surveys conducted in areas where ivermectin was annually administered to the entire population for the control of onchocerciasis. Data from 5 surveys, conducted between 1990 (before the start of the distribution of ivermectin) and 2013 (six years after the interruption of the intervention) were analyzed. The surveys also comprised areas where ivermectin was not distributed because onchocerciasis was not endemic. Different laboratory techniques were used in the different surveys (direct fecal smear, formol-ether concentration, IFAT and IVD ELISA for Strongyloides stercoralis). Results In the areas where ivermectin was distributed the strongyloidiasis prevalence fell from 6.8% in 1990 to zero in 1996 and 1999. In 2013 prevalence in children was zero with stool examination and 1.3% with serology, in adult 0.7% and 2.7%. In areas not covered by ivermectin distribution the prevalence was 23.5% and 16.1% in 1996 and 1999, respectively. In 2013 the prevalence was 0.6% with fecal exam and 9.3% with serology in children and 2.3% and 17.9% in adults. Regarding other soil transmitted helminthiases: in areas where ivermectin was distributed the prevalence of T. trichiura was significantly reduced, while A. lumbricoides and hookworms were seemingly unaffected. Conclusions Periodic mass distribution of ivermectin had a significant impact on the prevalence of strongyloidiasis, less on trichuriasis and apparently no effect on ascariasis and hookworm infections. PMID:26540412

  2. Complete mitochondrial genomes of chimpanzee- and gibbon-derived Ascaris isolated from a zoological garden in southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yue; Niu, Lili; Zhao, Bo; Wang, Qiang; Nong, Xiang; Chen, Lin; Zhou, Xuan; Gu, Xiaobin; Wang, Shuxian; Peng, Xuerong; Yang, Guangyou

    2013-01-01

    Roundworms (Ascaridida: Nematoda), one of the most common soil-transmitted helminths (STHs), can cause ascariasis in various hosts worldwide, ranging from wild to domestic animals and humans. Despite the veterinary and health importance of the Ascaridida species, little or no attention has been paid to roundworms infecting wild animals including non-human primates due to the current taxon sampling and survey bias in this order. Importantly, there has been considerable controversy over the years as to whether Ascaris species infecting non-human primates are the same as or distinct from Ascaris lumbricoides infecting humans. Herein, we first characterized the complete mitochondrial genomes of two representative Ascaris isolates derived from two non-human primates, namely, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and gibbons (Hylobates hoolock), in a zoological garden of southwest China and compared them with those of A. lumbricoides and the congeneric Ascaris suum as well as other related species in the same order, and then used comparative mitogenomics, genome-wide nucleotide sequence identity analysis, and phylogeny to determine whether the parasites from chimpanzees and gibbons represent a single species and share genetic similarity with A. lumbricoides. Taken together, our results yielded strong statistical support for the hypothesis that the chimpanzee- and gibbon-derived Ascaris represent a single species that is genetically similar to A. lumbricoides, consistent with the results of previous morphological and molecular studies. Our finding should enhance public alertness to roundworms originating from chimpanzees and gibbons and the mtDNA data presented here also serves to enrich the resource of markers that can be used in molecular diagnostic, systematic, population genetic, and evolutionary biological studies of parasitic nematodes from either wild or domestic hosts.

  3. Community awareness of intestinal parasites and the prevalence of infection among community members of rural Abaye Deneba area, Ethiopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liza Nyantekyi; Mengistu Legesse; Girmay Medhin; Abebe Animut; Konjit Tadesse; Chanda Macias; Abraham Degarege; Berhanu Erko

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess the knowledge of Abaye Deneba community members regarding intestinal parasites and prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections.Methods:Knowledge about intestinal parasites was assessed by administering a questionnaire to 345 randomly selected household heads. Parasitological stool examination of 491 randomly selected individuals was done using the formol ether concentration technique.Results:Knowledge of the Abaye Deneba community about parasitic diseases such as schistosomiasis, amoebiasis, ascariasis and taeniasis was very low. However, 204 (59.3%) members correctly responded that the cause of giardiasis is related to contaminated water and 176 (51.2%) knew how to prevent it. In some cases, respondents did correctly identify causes, symptoms of intestinal parasite infection and ways to prevent it, but they did not accurately link it to the appropriate disease caused by the different intestinal parasite species. Among the 491 stool samples examined, 50.2% of study participants showed infection with at least one intestinal parasite. Schistosoma mansoni was the most prevalent (41.3%) followed by Trichuris trichiura(9.4%), Ascaris lumbricoides (8.4%), Taenia saginata (2.4%), Enterobius vermicularis (2.0%) and hookworm (0.4%). Prevalence of schistosomiasis was highest in men aged 15-24 years.Conclusions:Intestinal parasitic infection is highly prevalent in communities of the Abaye Deneba area. Nevertheless, the knowledge of the community members about the parasite is less. Implementation of preventive chemotherapy, supplemented with health education, provision and use of sanitary facilities would be recommended to reduce morbidity and control transmission of intestinal parasites in this area.

  4. Food and water security issues in Russia III: food- and waterborne diseases in the Russian Arctic, Siberia and the Far East, 2000–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudarev, Alexey A.; Dorofeyev, Vitaliy M.; Dushkina, Eugenia V.; Alloyarov, Pavel R.; Chupakhin, Valery S.; Sladkova, Yuliya N.; Kolesnikova, Tatjana A.; Fridman, Kirill B.; Nilsson, Lena Maria; Evengard, Birgitta

    2013-01-01

    Background The food- and waterborne disease situation in Russia requires special attention. Poor quality of centralized water supplies and sewage systems, biological and chemical contamination of drinking water, as well as contamination of food products, promote widespread infectious diseases, significantly exceeding nationwide rates in the population living in the two-thirds of Russian northern territories. Objectives The general aim was to assess the levels of food- and waterborne diseases in selected regions of Russian Arctic, Siberia and the Far East (for the period 2000–2011), and to compare disease levels among regions and with national levels in Russia. Study design and methods This study is the first comparative assessment of the morbidity in these fields of the population of 18 selected regions of Russian Arctic, Siberia and the Far East, using official statistical sources. The incidences of infectious and parasitic food- and waterborne diseases among the general population (including indigenous peoples) have been analyzed in selected regions (per 100,000 of population, averaged for 2000–2011). Results Among compulsory registered infectious and parasitic diseases, there were high rates and widespread incidences in selected regions of shigellosis, yersiniosis, hepatitis A, tularaemia, giardiasis, enterobiasis, ascariasis, diphyllobothriasis, opistorchiasis, echinococcosis and trichinellosis. Conclusion Incidences of infectious and parasitic food- and waterborne diseases in the general population of selected regions of the Russian Arctic, Siberia and the Far East (2000–2011) are alarmingly high. Parallel solutions must be on the agenda, including improvement of sanitary conditions of cities and settlements in the regions, modernization of the water supply and of the sewage system. Provision and monitoring of the quality of the drinking water, a reform of the general healthcare system and the epidemiological surveillance (including gender

  5. Worm Infections in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weatherhead, Jill E; Hotez, Peter J

    2015-08-01

    • On the basis of research evidence, worm infections are important global child health conditions causing chronic disability that lasts from childhood into adulthood (Table 1). (2)(3) Evidence Quality: B • On the basis of research evidence, the major worm infections found in developing countries include ascariasis, trichuriasis, hookworm infection, and schistosomiasis; toxocariasis, enterobiasis, and cysticercosis are also found in poor regions of North America and Europe. (4)(9)(13) Evidence Quality: B • On the basis of expert consensus, children and adolescents are often vulnerable to acquiring large numbers of worms, ie, high-intensity infections (Fig 1)(21)(22)(23) Evidence Quality: D • On the basis of expert consensus and research evidence, moderate and heavy worm burdens cause increased morbidity because of growth and intellectual stunting in children and adolescents. Many of these effects may result from helminth-induced malnutrition. (21)(22)(23) Evidence Quality: C • On the basis of expert consensus and research evidence, worm infections are also commonly associated with eosinophilia. (48) (49) Evidence Quality: B • On the basis of research evidence as well as consensus, helminthes can cause inflammation in the lung (asthma), gastrointestinal tract (enteritis and colitis), liver (hepatitis and fibrosis), and urogenital tract. (7)(21)(22)(23)(27)(28)(40)(41)(43) Evidence Quality: B • On the basis of research evidence, microscopy techniques for diagnosis of worm infections in children often exhibit suboptimal sensitivities and specificities, necessitating new or improved diagnostic modalities such as polymerase chain reaction. (54)(55) Evidence Quality: A • On the basis of research evidence and expert consensus, mass drug administration (“preventive chemotherapy”) has becomea standard practice for ministries of health in low- and middle-income countries to control intestinal helminth infections and schistosomiasis. (67)(68) Evidence

  6. Comparative analyses of the complete mitochondrial genomes of Ascaris lumbricoides and Ascaris suum from humans and pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guo-Hua; Wu, Chang-Yi; Song, Hui-Qun; Wei, Shu-Jun; Xu, Min-Jun; Lin, Rui-Qing; Zhao, Guang-Hui; Huang, Si-Yang; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2012-01-15

    Ascaris lumbricoides and Ascaris suum are parasitic nematodes living in the small intestine of humans and pigs, and can cause the disease ascariasis. For long, there has been controversy as to whether the two ascaridoid taxa represent the same species due to their significant resemblances in morphology. However, the complete mitochondrial (mt) genome data have been lacking for A. lumbricoides in spite of human and animal health significance and socio-economic impact globally of these parasites. In the present study, we sequenced the complete mt genomes of A. lumbricoides and A. suum (China isolate), which was 14,303 bp and 14,311 bp in size, respectively. The identity of the mt genomes was 98.1% between A. lumbricoides and A. suum (China isolate), and 98.5% between A. suum (China isolate) and A. suum (USA isolate). Both genomes are circular, and consist of 36 genes, including 12 genes for proteins, 2 genes for rRNA and 22 genes for tRNA, which are consistent with that of all other species of ascaridoid studied to date. All genes are transcribed in the same direction and have a nucleotide composition high in A and T (71.7% for A. lumbricoides and 71.8% for A. suum). The AT bias had a significant effect on both the codon usage pattern and amino acid composition of proteins. Phylogenetic analyses of A. lumbricoides and A. suum using concatenated amino acid sequences of 12 protein-coding genes, with three different computational algorithms (Bayesian analysis, maximum likelihood and maximum parsimony) all clustered in a clade with high statistical support, indicating that A. lumbricoides and A. suum was very closely related. These mt genome data and the results provide some additional genetic evidence that A. lumbricoides and A. suum may represent the same species. The mt genome data presented in this study are also useful novel markers for studying the molecular epidemiology and population genetics of Ascaris.

  7. Effect of Ascaris lumbricoides infection on T helper cell type 2 in rural Egyptian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalaby, Naglaa M; Shalaby, Nehad M

    2016-01-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides is a neglected parasite that induces changes in host immune response. This study is conducted to define the serum levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-4 (IL-4), and interleukin-5 (IL-5) in some Egyptian children and their relations to intensity of infection, age, and ascariasis symptoms. Stool samples were examined using formol-ether concentration and Kato-Katz thick smear techniques. Sera of 60 A. lumbricoides-infected children and 20 controls were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The mean sera concentrations of TNF-α, IL-4, and IL-5 were 7.41±2.5 pg/mL, 107.60±18.3 pg/mL, and 389.52±28.0 pg/mL, respectively. The controls had mean serum TNF-α 7.10±2.4 pg/mL, IL-4 25.49±2.6 pg/mL, and IL-5 88.76±22.7 pg/mL. The difference in the concentration of sera cytokines was statistically significant for IL-4 and IL-5 (P<0.01) between A. lumbricoides-infected children and controls. The intensity of infection correlated positively with IL-4 and IL-5 at r=0.959 and r=0.919, respectively. The concentrations of IL-4 and IL-5 correlated positively with the age at r=0.845 and r=0.934, respectively. Asthma and gastrointestinal tract upsets were correlated positively with IL-4 and IL-5. These data indicate that A. lumbricoides infection in our locality is associated with significantly high levels of IL-4 and IL-5.

  8. Trickle or clumped infection process? An analysis of aggregation in the weights of the parasitic roundworm of humans, Ascaris lumbricoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Martin; Hall, Andrew; Basáñez, María-Gloria

    2010-10-01

    Studying the distribution of parasitic helminth body size across a population of definitive hosts can advance our understanding of parasite population biology. Body size is typically correlated with egg production. Consequently, inequalities in body size have been frequently measured to infer variation in reproductive success (VRS). Body size is also related to parasite age (time since entering the definitive host) and potentially provides valuable information on the mode of acquisition and establishment of immature (larval) parasites within the host: whether parasites tend to establish singly or in aggregates. The mode of acquisition of soil-transmitted helminths has been a theoretical consideration in the parasitological literature but has eluded data-driven investigation. In this paper, we analyse individual Ascaris lumbricoides weight data collected from a cohort of human hosts before and after re-infection following curative treatment, and explore its distribution within and among individuals in the population. Lorenz curves and Gini coefficients indicate that levels of weight inequality (a proxy for VRS) in A.lumbricoides are lower than other published estimates from animal-helminth systems. We explore levels of intra-host weight aggregation using statistical models to estimate the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) while adjusting for covariates using a flexible fractional polynomial transformation approach capable of handling non-linear functional relationships. The estimated ICCs indicate that weights are aggregated within hosts both at equilibrium and after re-infection, suggesting that parasites may establish within the host in clumps. The implications of a clumped infection process are discussed in terms of ascariasis transmission dynamics, control and anthelmintic resistance.

  9. Analysis of parasitic diseases diagnosed by tissue biopsy specimens at KyungHee Medical Center (1984-2005) in Seoul, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Won-Hyung; Chu, Jong-Phil; Jiang, Meihua; Lee, Yun-Sik; Kim, Bum-Shik; Kim, Deog-Gon; Park, Yong-Koo

    2010-03-01

    We analyzed parasitic diseases diagnosed by tissue biopsy specimens at KyungHee Medical Center (KMC) from 1984 to 2005. The total number of parasite infection cases was 150 (0.07%) out of the total 211,859 biopsy specimens submitted for histopathological examinations. They consisted of 62 cysticercosis, 23 sparganosis, 16 paragonimiasis, 15 amebiasis, 11 anisakiasis, 11 clonorchiasis, 3 ascariasis, 2 scabies, 2 enterobiasis, 2 trichuriasis, 1 leishmaniasis, 1 taeniasis, and 1 thelaziasis. Out of 62 cysticercosis cases, 55 were detected in subcutaneous tissues or the central nerve system. Eighteen out of 23 sparganosis cases were involved in muscular and subcutaneous tissues. In most anisakiasis cases, the involved organ was the stomach. The lung and the pleura were the most common site of paragonimiasis. The incidence of parasitic diseases during the first 5 years (1984-1988) was the highest of all observed periods. After 1989, similar incidences were shown throughout the period. Whereas cysticercosis was diagnosed in 34 cases during 1984-1988, no case has been diagnosed since 2000. In the case of sparganosis, the chronological incidence was almost uniform throughout the period 1984-2005. Paragonimiasis showed a similar tendency to cysticercosis. In gender and age distribution of parasitic diseases, men showed higher incidence rates than females, and the age groups of the 40s or older indicated higher infection frequencies than other age groups. Therefore, these results are a significant report to appear the tendency of human parasitic disease diagnosed by tissue biopsy in association with parasitosis at KMC in Seoul.

  10. Assessment of the health hazards associated with wastewater reuse: transmission of geohelminthic infections (Marrakech, Morocco).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amahmid, O; Bouhoum, K

    2005-04-01

    To address the problem of water scarcity, wastewater has long been used for agricultural purposes in Marrakech (Morocco) and its benefits have long been recognized. However, the benefits of urban wastewater reuse may be limited by its potential health hazards associated essentially to the danger of transmission of pathogenic organisms to human beings. The current study aimed to evaluate the risks associated with raw wastewater reuse for agricultural purposes, and the incidence of geohelminthic infections among the children of the wastewater spreading area of Marrakech as compared to a control group. Faecal samples from 610 individuals were examined for Ascaris spp. ova and Trichuris spp. ova (323 children for the exposed group and 287 for the control group). The study duration was two months and a half, and was carried out in the summer period. A questionnaire-interview with children and parents was used to collect data on possible demographic, hygiene and behavioural-contact factors such as gender, age, family size, source of water supply, parental occupation. The investigations resulted in the detection of Ascaris spp. ova in 43 samples indicating a point-prevalence of 13.3% in the exposed group versus 1.7% for the control group. Trichuris spp. ova was detected in 43 faecal samples indicating a point-prevalence of 13.3% in the exposed group, and 3.8% in the control group. The Chi-square test showed that the differences observed between the exposed and control group are statistically significant (p < 0.01). Males are more infected with ascariasis and trichuriasis than females and children of 2-8 years of age are heavily infected as compared to 9 - 14-year-old children. Based upon the findings of this study, it is concluded that wastewater reuse for agricultural purposes presents an increased risk of infection in the exposed group.

  11. Preparation and Identification of a Human Single Chain Fv Antibody Against Ascaris lumbricoides%抗蛔虫人源单链抗体库的构建及鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何光志; 田维毅; 高英; 王平; 王文佳; 奚锦; 俞琦; 王乾宇; 黄高

    2011-01-01

    Objective To construct humanize phage antibody library against Ascaris lumbricoides and to screen specificity scFv to Ascaris lumbricoides. Methods Total RNA was abstracted from peripheral blood lympho-cytes of 20 persons, and was used to amplify VH and VL gene by RT-PCR. The amplified VH and VL genes were spliced to form scFv gene which was cloned into pCANTAB-SE phagemid, and the constructed recombinant phage-mid was transformed to E. Coli TC1 to construct human natural single-chain antibody library from which positive clones were screened. Results A primary library of 1.5 × 106 and a second library of 1.2 × 106 were constructed. Conclusion This study was to provide us the basis for radionuclide imaging and therapy for ascariasis.%目的:构建抗蛔虫人源单链抗体库,从中筛选建抗蛔虫人源特异性单链抗体.方法:分离10个患蛔虫病人的淋巴细胞,提取总RNA反转录为cDNA,PCR扩增人抗体重链(VH)和轻链(VL)可变区基因,采用SOE-PCR法将VH和VL片段随机拼接成scFv片段,并克隆入噬菌粒载体pCANTAB5E中,构建噬菌体单链抗体库.结果:初级库库容量为1.8×106,在大肠杆菌TG1中重组后得到1.6×106的次级抗体库.结论:本研究成功构建抗蛔虫人源单链抗体库,拟在为蛔虫病的预防、诊断、治疗奠定基础.

  12. Neglected infections of poverty in the United States of America.

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    Peter J Hotez

    Full Text Available In the United States, there is a largely hidden burden of diseases caused by a group of chronic and debilitating parasitic, bacterial, and congenital infections known as the neglected infections of poverty. Like their neglected tropical disease counterparts in developing countries, the neglected infections of poverty in the US disproportionately affect impoverished and under-represented minority populations. The major neglected infections include the helminth infections, toxocariasis, strongyloidiasis, ascariasis, and cysticercosis; the intestinal protozoan infection trichomoniasis; some zoonotic bacterial infections, including leptospirosis; the vector-borne infections Chagas disease, leishmaniasis, trench fever, and dengue fever; and the congenital infections cytomegalovirus (CMV, toxoplasmosis, and syphilis. These diseases occur predominantly in people of color living in the Mississippi Delta and elsewhere in the American South, in disadvantaged urban areas, and in the US-Mexico borderlands, as well as in certain immigrant populations and disadvantaged white populations living in Appalachia. Preliminary disease burden estimates of the neglected infections of poverty indicate that tens of thousands, or in some cases, hundreds of thousands of poor Americans harbor these chronic infections, which represent some of the greatest health disparities in the United States. Specific policy recommendations include active surveillance (including newborn screening to ascertain accurate population-based estimates of disease burden; epidemiological studies to determine the extent of autochthonous transmission of Chagas disease and other infections; mass or targeted treatments; vector control; and research and development for new control tools including improved diagnostics and accelerated development of a vaccine to prevent congenital CMV infection and congenital toxoplasmosis.

  13. Mass Administration of Ivermectin for the Elimination of Onchocerciasis Significantly Reduced and Maintained Low the Prevalence of Strongyloides stercoralis in Esmeraldas, Ecuador.

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    Mariella Anselmi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effect of ivermectin mass drug administration on strongyloidiasis and other soil transmitted helminthiases.We conducted a retrospective analysis of data collected in Esmeraldas (Ecuador during surveys conducted in areas where ivermectin was annually administered to the entire population for the control of onchocerciasis. Data from 5 surveys, conducted between 1990 (before the start of the distribution of ivermectin and 2013 (six years after the interruption of the intervention were analyzed. The surveys also comprised areas where ivermectin was not distributed because onchocerciasis was not endemic. Different laboratory techniques were used in the different surveys (direct fecal smear, formol-ether concentration, IFAT and IVD ELISA for Strongyloides stercoralis.In the areas where ivermectin was distributed the strongyloidiasis prevalence fell from 6.8% in 1990 to zero in 1996 and 1999. In 2013 prevalence in children was zero with stool examination and 1.3% with serology, in adult 0.7% and 2.7%. In areas not covered by ivermectin distribution the prevalence was 23.5% and 16.1% in 1996 and 1999, respectively. In 2013 the prevalence was 0.6% with fecal exam and 9.3% with serology in children and 2.3% and 17.9% in adults. Regarding other soil transmitted helminthiases: in areas where ivermectin was distributed the prevalence of T. trichiura was significantly reduced, while A. lumbricoides and hookworms were seemingly unaffected.Periodic mass distribution of ivermectin had a significant impact on the prevalence of strongyloidiasis, less on trichuriasis and apparently no effect on ascariasis and hookworm infections.

  14. Individual predisposition, household clustering and risk factors for human infection with Ascaris lumbricoides: new epidemiological insights.

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    Martin Walker

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Much of our current understanding of the epidemiology of Ascaris lumbricoides infections in humans has been acquired by analyzing worm count data. These data are collected by treating infected individuals with anthelmintics so that worms are expelled intact from the gastrointestinal tract. Analysis of such data established that individuals are predisposed to infection with few or many worms and members of the same household tend to harbor similar numbers of worms. These effects, known respectively as individual predisposition and household clustering, are considered characteristic of the epidemiology of ascariasis. The mechanisms behind these phenomena, however, remain unclear. In particular, the impact of heterogeneous individual exposures to infectious stages has not been thoroughly explored. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Bayesian methods were used to fit a three-level hierarchical statistical model to A. lumbricoides worm counts derived from a three-round chemo-expulsion study carried out in Dhaka, Bangladesh. The effects of individual predisposition, household clustering and household covariates of the numbers of worms per host (worm burden were considered simultaneously. Individual predisposition was found to be of limited epidemiological significance once household clustering had been accounted for. The degree of intra-household variability among worm burdens was found to be reduced by approximately 58% when household covariates were included in the model. Covariates relating to decreased affluence and quality of housing construction were associated with a statistically significant increase in worm burden. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Heterogeneities in the exposure of individuals to infectious eggs have an important role in the epidemiology of A. lumbricoides infection. The household covariates identified as being associated with worm burden provide valuable insights into the source of these heterogeneities although above all

  15. Food and water security issues in Russia III: food- and waterborne diseases in the Russian Arctic, Siberia and the Far East, 2000–2011

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    Alexey A. Dudarev

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background . The food- and waterborne disease situation in Russia requires special attention. Poor quality of centralized water supplies and sewage systems, biological and chemical contamination of drinking water, as well as contamination of food products, promote widespread infectious diseases, significantly exceeding nationwide rates in the population living in the two-thirds of Russian northern territories. Objectives. The general aim was to assess the levels of food- and waterborne diseases in selected regions of Russian Arctic, Siberia and the Far East (for the period 2000–2011, and to compare disease levels among regions and with national levels in Russia. Study design and methods . This study is the first comparative assessment of the morbidity in these fields of the population of 18 selected regions of Russian Arctic, Siberia and the Far East, using official statistical sources. The incidences of infectious and parasitic food- and waterborne diseases among the general population (including indigenous peoples have been analyzed in selected regions (per 100,000 of population, averaged for 2000–2011. Results . Among compulsory registered infectious and parasitic diseases, there were high rates and widespread incidences in selected regions of shigellosis, yersiniosis, hepatitis A, tularaemia, giardiasis, enterobiasis, ascariasis, diphyllobothriasis, opistorchiasis, echinococcosis and trichinellosis. Conclusion . Incidences of infectious and parasitic food- and waterborne diseases in the general population of selected regions of the Russian Arctic, Siberia and the Far East (2000–2011 are alarmingly high. Parallel solutions must be on the agenda, including improvement of sanitary conditions of cities and settlements in the regions, modernization of the water supply and of the sewage system. Provision and monitoring of the quality of the drinking water, a reform of the general healthcare system and the epidemiological surveillance

  16. "PYOGENIC LIVER ABSCESS IN CHILDREN: A LONG TIME HOSPITAL EXPERIENCE"

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    G. Khotaii

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Consensus regarding management of pyogenic liver abscess (PLA among children is yet to emerge, and documentation on these subjects is scanty. Eighteen cases of PLA admitted at Children’s Medical Center in Tehran, Iran, over a 15 year period were analyzed to document the clinical profile and to evaluate the management of PLA among children. Records of all patients were reviewed for presenting signs and symptoms, any associated condition, investigative results, management, and follow–up findings. The overall rate of PLA was 48.9 per 100,000 pediatric admissions in our hospital. Moderate to severe malnutrition was present in five (27.8% and ascariasis in seven (38.9% children. Common presentations were fever (100%, abdominal pain (76.9%, and tender hepatomegaly (83.3%. Fourteen patients (77.8% had solitary liver abscess. Organism was isolated in 11 cases (63.3%, and staphylococcus aureus was the commonest isolate (66.7%.Twelve cases were managed conservatively with antibiotics alone, of these only two (16.7% required drainage later. Percutaneous aspiration was also undertaken in four additional (22.2% cases and open drainage in two (11.1%, at presentation. The overall mortality rate was 11.1%. Time taken for complete resolution ranged from 10 to 40 days. Altogether, we conclude that any child presenting with fever, abdominal pain, and tender hepatomegaly should be subjected to ultrasound scan for early detection of PLA. It seems that a combination of cloxacillin and gentamicin or a third generation cephalosporine and gentamicin, especially in infants, is a satistactory initial coverage. Therapeutic drainage is not an obligation in all cases of PLA. When required, percutaneous needle aspiration is safe and effective. Resolution and significant reduction in mortality has been made possible by early detection and appropriate antibiotic therapy.

  17. 超声在诊断小儿肠系膜淋巴结肿大中的临床意义%Clinical significance of ultrasound in the diagnosis of children mesenteric lymph nodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄小艳

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To discuss the clinical significance of ultrasound in the diagnosis of children mesenteric lymph nodes. Methods:300 patients with persistent or paroxysmal abdominal pain were selected.They were given ultrasound examination.We observed the abdominal cavity and the mesenteric lymph nodes,to understand the causes of lymphadenopathy.Results:Mesenteric lymph nodes mainly in simple mesenteric lymph nodes,and mainly in the right side of the abdomen.Appendicitis,intussusception less,gallstones,intestinal ascariasis can also lead to mesenteric lymph nodes.Conclusion:Ultrasound used to diagnose children with mesenteric lymph nodes has important value,which can effectively guide the clinical diagnosis and treatment.%目的:探讨超声诊断小儿肠系膜淋巴结肿大的临床意义。方法:收治持续性或阵发性腹痛患儿300例,行超声检查,观察其腹腔内情况及肠系膜淋巴结肿大的情况,了解淋巴结肿大的病因。结果:肠系膜淋巴结肿大以单纯性肠系膜淋巴结肿大为主,且多发于右侧腹部;阑尾炎、肠套叠少,胆囊结石、肠道蛔虫病也可导致肠系膜淋巴结肿大。结论:超声用于小儿肠系膜淋巴结肿大的诊断具有重要价值,可有效指导其临床诊断和治疗。

  18. Patterns and risk factors of helminthiasis and anemia in a rural and a peri-urban community in Zanzibar, in the context of helminth control programs.

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    Stefanie Knopp

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The control of helminth infections and prevention of anemia in developing countries are of considerable public health importance. The purpose of this study was to determine patterns and risk factors of helminth infections and anemia in a rural and a peri-urban community of Zanzibar, Tanzania, in the context of national helminth control programs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We carried out a community-based cross-sectional study in 454 individuals by examining at least two stool samples with different methods for soil-transmitted helminths (Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm, Strongyloides stercoralis, and Trichuris trichiura and one urine sample for Schistosoma haematobium. Finger-prick blood was taken to estimate anemia levels and to detect antibody reactions against ascariasis, strongyloidiasis and schistosomiasis, using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA approach. Parasitological methods determined a helminth prevalence of 73.7% in the rural, and 48.9% in the peri-urban setting. Most helminth infections were of light intensity with school-aged children showing the highest intensities. Multiple helminth species infections were pervasive in rural dwellers regardless of age. More than half of the participants were anemic, with a particularly high prevalence in the peri-urban setting (64.7%. Risk factors for helminth infections were age, sex, consumption of raw vegetables or salad, recent travel history, and socio-economic status. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: After several years of chemotherapy-based morbidity control efforts in Zanzibar, helminth prevalences are still high and anemia is common, but helminth infection intensities are low. Hence, chemotherapy should be continued, and complemented with improved access to clean water, adequate sanitation, and health education, along with poverty alleviation measures for a more enduring impact.

  19. Non Obstetric Causes and Presentation of Acute Abdomen among the Pregnant Women.

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    Monoarul Haque

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available To identify the non-obstetric causes and presentation of acute abdomen among pregnant women.This was a cross sectional hospital-based study among 128 pregnant women by face to face interview using a semi-structured questionnaire. This study was conducted at the Gynecology & Obstetric Ward of 250 Bed General Hospital, Noakhali, Bangladesh, from January to August 2013. Data were analyzed by a software package used for statistical analysis (SPSS version 11.5 (SPSS, Inc., Chicago, IL, USA.Mean age of participants was 25±4 years. Our findings showed that 81% were Muslim, 67% were lower middle income group, as well as 47% completed primary level of education. The results revealed that 28% had biliary ascariasis, 24% had peptic ulcer disease and 10% had lower urinary tract infection. We also found that 6% had acute pyelonephritis, 6% had acute gastroenteritis, 6% had acute cholecystitis, 6% had acute appendicitis, 2% had acute pancreatitis, 3% had choledocolithiasis, 2% had ovarian solid mass, 2% had twisted ovarian cyst, 4% had renal colic, and 1% had renal calculus. In non-obstetrical presentation of acute abdomen, the study found that 84% of respondents complained their pain lasting more than 24 hours. Besides, half of respondents felt pain in epigastrium and right hypochondrium. Cramping, prickling and aching type of pain were more, while 66% suffered from continuous pain. Our results also showed that 73% did not explain any aggravating factor and relieving factor, and the rest said food, fasting state and position change aggravated pain as well as relieved pain.The study concludes that precise diagnosis of the acute abdomen in pregnant women by continual updating of abdominal assessment knowledge, and clinical skills is necessary in the management of abdominal pain in obstetric settings.

  20. 超声诊断胆总管扩张128例分析%Ultrasonic Diagnosis of Common Bile Duct Expansion in 128 Cases Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱渊

    2015-01-01

    Objective To discuss the common diseases and the cor esponding ultrasonic diagnosis of common bile duct dilatation.Methods The clinical data of 128 patients with common bile duct dilatation were retrospectively analyzed from 2013 to 2005.Methods:From 2005 to 2013 were retrospectively studied 128 cases of ultrasound diagnosis of common bile duct expansion in patients with clinical data.Results 128 cases of common bile duct stones were in 68 cases,26 cases of common bile duct ascariasis,12 cases of carcinoma of head of pancreas,5 cases of choledochal cyst,4 cases of carcinoma of ampul a of Vater,other diseases (including pancreatitis,cholangitis,the gal bladder and biliary surgery after disease)in 9 cases,unexplained cases in 3 cases.Conclusion The ultrasound examination has important value in the diagnosis and treatment of common bile duct disease.%目的探讨引起胆总管扩张的常见疾病及相应超声诊断分析。方法回顾性分析2005~2013年收治的128例超声诊断为胆总管扩张患者临床资料。结果128例中胆总管结石68例,胆总管蛔虫症26例,胰头癌12例,胆总管囊肿5例,壶腹癌4例,其它疾病(包括胰腺炎,胆管炎,胆囊胆道术后等疾病)9例,不明原因病例3例。结论超声检查对胆总管疾病的诊断及治疗有重要价值。

  1. Fascioliasis and intestinal parasitoses affecting schoolchildren in Atlixco, Puebla State, Mexico: epidemiology and treatment with nitazoxanide.

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    José Lino Zumaquero-Ríos

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Atlixco municipality, Puebla State, at a mean altitude of 1840 m, was selected for a study of Fasciola hepatica infection in schoolchildren in Mexico. This area presents permanent water collections continuously receiving thaw water from Popocatepetl volcano (5426 m altitude through the community supply channels, conforming an epidemiological scenario similar to those known in hyperendemic areas of Andean countries. METHODOLOGY AND FINDINGS: A total of 865 6-14 year-old schoolchildren were analyzed with FasciDIG coproantigen test and Lumbreras rapid sedimentation technique, and quantitatively assessed with Kato-Katz. Fascioliasis prevalences ranged 2.94-13.33% according to localities (mean 5.78%. Intensities were however low (24-384 epg. The association between fascioliasis and the habit of eating raw vegetables was identified, including watercress and radish with pronouncedly higher relative risk than lettuce, corncob, spinach, alfalfa juice, and broccoli. Many F. hepatica-infected children were coinfected by other parasites. Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Giardia intestinalis, Blastocystis hominis, Hymenolepis nana and Ascaris lumbricoides infection resulted in risk factors for F. hepatica infection. Nitazoxanide efficacy against fascioliasis was 94.0% and 100% after first and second treatment courses, respectively. The few children, for whom a second treatment course was needed, were concomitantly infected by moderate ascariasis burdens. Its efficacy was also very high in the treatment of E. histolytica/E. dispar, G. intestinalis, B. hominis, H. nana, A. lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and Enterobius vermicularis. A second treatment course was needed for all children affected by ancylostomatids. CONCLUSIONS: Fascioliasis prevalences indicate this area to be mesoendemic, with isolated hyperendemic foci. This is the first time that a human fascioliasis endemic area is described in North America. Nitazoxanide appears as an

  2. Efficacy of mebendazole and levamisole, alone or in combination, for soil-transmitted helminthiasis

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    Ifo Faujiah Sihite

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background The World Health Organization (WHO recommends four, single-dose drugs (albendazole, levamisole, mebendazole, and pyrantel pamoate for management of soil­transmitted helminthiasis (STH. Previous studies have shown varied and inconsistent outcomes of these STH treatments. Objective To compare the efficacy of mebendazole and levami­sole, alone or in combination, for the treatment of STH. Methods An open randomized controlled trial was conducted in Secanggang, North Sumatera from August to October 2009. School-aged children with STH infection were randomized into three groups. Group I received a single dose of mebendazole (500 mg; group II received a single dose of levamisole (2.5 mg/kg; and group III received a single dose of mebendazole-levamisole combined. Stool samples were collected at baseline, and the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th weeks after treatment and examined by the Kato-Katz technique. Statistical analyses were Kruskal-Wallis test for cure rate and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA test for egg reduction rate. Results STH was diagnosed in 197 children with the following parasite species: Ascariasis (96 children, 48.7%, Trichuriasis (58 children, 29.4%, and mixed infection (43 children, 21.8%. We found no hookworm infection in any of our subjects. Groups I and III had significantly higher efficacy (P=0.0001 against STH (egg reduction rate 99.3% and 99.9%; cure rate 92.2% and 98.4%, respectively at 4th week of treatment. Conclusion A single dose of mebendazole alone and combined with levamisole have better efficacy compared to a single dose of levamisole for the treatment of STH. The highest efficacy of these treatments is noted at the 4th week after drug administration

  3. Efficacy of mebendazole and levamisole, alone or in combination, for soil-transmitted helminthiasis

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    Ifo Faujiah Sihite

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background The World Health Organization (WHO recommends four, single-dose drugs (albendazole, levamisole, mebendazole, and pyrantel pamoate for management of soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH. Previous studies have shown varied and inconsistent outcomes of these STH treatments. Objective To compare the efficacy of mebendazole and levamisole,alone or in combination, for the treatment of STH. Methods An open randomized controlled trial was conducted in Secanggang, North Sumatera from August to October 2009. School-aged children with STH infection were randomized into three groups. Group I received a single dose of mebendazole (500 mg; group II received a single dose of levamisole (2.5 mg/kg; and group III received a single dose of mebendazole-levamisole combined. Stool samples were collected at baseline, and the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th weeks after treatment and examined by the Kato-Katz technique. Statistical analyses were Kruskal-Wallis test for cure rate and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA test for egg reduction rate. Results STH was diagnosed in 197 children with the following parasite species: Ascariasis (96 children, 48.7%, Trichuriasis (58 children, 29.4%, and mixed infection (43 children, 21.8%. We found no hookworm infection in any of our subjects. Groups I and III had significantly higher efficacy (P=0.0001 against STH (egg reduction rate 99.3% and 99.9%; cure rate 92.2% and 98.4%, respectively at 4th week of treatment. Conclusion A single dose of mebendazole alone and combined with levamisole have better efficacy compared to a single dose of levamisole for the treatment of STH. The highest efficacy of these treatments is noted at the 4th week after drug administration. [Paediatr Indones. 2014;54:9-14.].

  4. Stunting and soil-transmitted-helminth infections among school-age pupils in rural areas of southern China

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    Chen Ying-Dan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stunting and soil-transmitted helminth (STH infections including ascariasis, trichuriasis and hookworm remain major public health problems in school-age pupils in developing countries. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of stunting for children and its association with three major soil-transmitted helminths (STH in rural areas of southern China. The study also aims to determine risk factors for stunting and to provide guidance on the prevention and control of stunting and STH infections for future studies in this field. Results A cross-sectional survey was carried out in the poor rural areas in Guangxi Autonomous Regional and Hainan Province where STH prevalence was higher between September and November 2009. Pupils were from 15 primary schools. All the school-age pupils aged between 9 and 12 years old (mean age 11.2 ± 3.2 years, from grades three to six took part in this study. Study contents include questionnaire surveys, physical examination and laboratory methods (stool checking for eggs of three major STH infections and haemoglobin determination was performed for the anaemia test. Finally 1031 school-age pupils took part in survey. The results showed that the overall prevalence of stunting (HAZ Conclusion The present study showed that stunting was highly prevalent among the study population and STH infection is one of the important risk factors for stunting, with moderate-to-heavy intensity infections being the main predictor of stunting. Hence, additional interventions measures such as to promote de-worming treatment, to enhance health education and to improve hygiene and sanitation in order to reduce stunting in this population, are needed throughout the primary school age group.

  5. Complete mitochondrial genomes of chimpanzee- and gibbon-derived Ascaris isolated from a zoological garden in southwest China.

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    Yue Xie

    Full Text Available Roundworms (Ascaridida: Nematoda, one of the most common soil-transmitted helminths (STHs, can cause ascariasis in various hosts worldwide, ranging from wild to domestic animals and humans. Despite the veterinary and health importance of the Ascaridida species, little or no attention has been paid to roundworms infecting wild animals including non-human primates due to the current taxon sampling and survey bias in this order. Importantly, there has been considerable controversy over the years as to whether Ascaris species infecting non-human primates are the same as or distinct from Ascaris lumbricoides infecting humans. Herein, we first characterized the complete mitochondrial genomes of two representative Ascaris isolates derived from two non-human primates, namely, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes and gibbons (Hylobates hoolock, in a zoological garden of southwest China and compared them with those of A. lumbricoides and the congeneric Ascaris suum as well as other related species in the same order, and then used comparative mitogenomics, genome-wide nucleotide sequence identity analysis, and phylogeny to determine whether the parasites from chimpanzees and gibbons represent a single species and share genetic similarity with A. lumbricoides. Taken together, our results yielded strong statistical support for the hypothesis that the chimpanzee- and gibbon-derived Ascaris represent a single species that is genetically similar to A. lumbricoides, consistent with the results of previous morphological and molecular studies. Our finding should enhance public alertness to roundworms originating from chimpanzees and gibbons and the mtDNA data presented here also serves to enrich the resource of markers that can be used in molecular diagnostic, systematic, population genetic, and evolutionary biological studies of parasitic nematodes from either wild or domestic hosts.

  6. Studies on the traditional herbal anthelmintic Chenopodium ambrosioides L.: ethnopharmacological evaluation and clinical field trials.

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    Kliks, M M

    1985-01-01

    Infusions and decoctions of the leaves, roots and inflorescences of the herbaceous shrub Chenopodium ambrosioides (American wormseed, goosefoot, epazote, paico) and related species indigenous to the New World have been used for centuries as dietary condiments and as traditional anthelmintics by native peoples for the treatment of intestinal worms. Commercial preparations of oil of chenopodium and its active constituent, ascaridol, obtained by steam distillation, have been and continue to be, used with considerable success in mass treatment campaigns. Ethnopharmacological studies in a community of Mayan subsistence farmers in Chiapas, Mexico, confirmed that decoctions containing up to 300 mg of dry plant material per kg body weight (MGKGW) were widely used and traditionally highly regarded in the treatment of ascariasis. However, therapeutic doses of up to 6000 MGKGW of powdered, dried plant had no significant anthelmintic effect on the adults of Necator, Trichuris of Ascaris. Gas-liquid chromatographic analyses of plant samples used consistently demonstrated the presence of ascaridol in the expected amounts. Possible origins of subjective belief in the efficacy of C. ambrosioides as used, may be related to the positive association of spontaneous, or peristalsis-induced passage of senescent worms immediately following a therapeutic episode. It is also possible that in the past varieties of the plant containing much more ascaridol were used. The results of these controlled field studies did not sustain widely held traditional beliefs, nor the value of therapeutic practices regarding this plant. It is, therefore, essential that all indigenous ethnomedical practices be objectively evaluated for efficacy and safety using appropriate protocols before being considered for adoptation or promotion in health care programs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Comparative profiling of microRNAs in male and female adults of Ascaris suum.

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    Xu, Min-Jun; Fu, Jing-Hua; Nisbet, Alasdair J; Huang, Si-Yang; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Lin, Rui-Qing; Song, Hui-Qun; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2013-03-01

    Ascaris nematodes, which cause ascariasis in humans and pigs, are among the most important nematodes from both health and economic perspectives. microRNA (miRNA) is now recognized as key regulator of gene expression at posttranscription level. The public availability of the genome and transcripts of Ascaris suum provides powerful resources for the research of miRNA profiles of the parasite. Therefore, we investigated and compared the miRNA profiles of male and female adult A. suum using Solexa deep sequencing combined with bioinformatic analysis and stem-loop reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Deep sequencing of small RNAs yielded 11.71 and 11.72 million raw reads from male and female adults of A. suum, respectively. Analysis showed that the noncoding RNA of the two genders, including tRNA, rRNA, snRNA, and snoRNA, were similar. By mapping to the A. suum genome, we obtained 494 and 505 miRNA candidates from the female and male parasite, respectively, and 87 and 82 of miRNA candidates were consistent with A. suum miRNAs deposited in the miRBase database. Among the miRNA candidates, 154 were shared by the two genders, and 340 and 351 were female and male specific with their target numbers ranged from one to thousands, respectively. Functional prediction revealed a set of elongation factors, heat shock proteins, and growth factors from the targets of gender-specific miRNAs, which were essential for the development of the parasite. Moreover, major sperm protein and nematode sperm cell motility protein were found in targets of the male-specific miRNAs. Ovarian message protein was found in targets of the female-specific miRNAs. Enrichment analysis revealed significant differences among Gene Ontology terms of miRNA targets of the two genders, such as electron carrier and biological adhesion process. The regulating functions of gender-specific miRNAs was therefore not only related to the fundamental functions of cells but also were essential to the germ

  8. Helminthiases in Montes Claros. Preliminary survey

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    Rina Girard Kaminsky

    1976-04-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary survey was conducted for the presence of helminths in the city of Montes Claros, M. G., Brazil. Three groups of persons were examined by the direct smear, Kato thick film and MIFC techniques; one group by direct smear and Kato only. General findings were: a high prevalence of hookworm, followed by ascariasis, S. mansoni, S. stercoralis and very light infections with T. trichiurá. E. vermicularis and H. nana were ranking parasites at an orphanage, with some hookworm and S. mansoni infections as well. At a pig slaughter house, the dominant parasites were hookworm and S. mansoni. Pig cysticercosis was an incidental finding worth mentioning for the health hazard it represents for humans as well as an economic loss. From the comparative results between the Kato and the MIF the former proved itself again as a more sensitive and reliable concentration method for helminth eggs, of low cost and easy performance.Um estudo preliminar sobre helmintos foi feito na cidade de Montes Claros, MG, Brasil. Três grupos de pessoas foram examinados pelos métodos direto, de Kato e do MIF e um grupo pelos métodos direto e Kato exclusivamente. Encontrou-se uma alta prevalência de necatorose, seguindo-se ascaríase, S. mansoni, S. stercoralis, e infecções leves pelo T. trichiura. E. vermicularis e H. nana foram osparasitos mais prevalentes num orfanato, com alguns casos de infecção pelo Necator e S. mansoni. Cisticercose dos suinos foi achado incidental e é importante ser mencionada devido ao perigo que representa no plano da Saúde Pública, bem como pela perda econômica que produz. Discutiu-se brevemente a importância do solo na transmissão dos helmintos num clima quente e seco. Da comparação dos métodos de Kato e MIF, o primeiro demonstrou ser o método mais sensível para ovos de helmintos, de baixo custo e fácil preparo.

  9. Serum cytokines profiles in Nigerian children withAscaris lumbricoides infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Irior Dominic Osagie; Abu Maliki

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the cytokines profile in the serum of some Nigerian children with Ascaris lumbricoides (A. lumbricoides) infection and relations between the intensity of infection, age and the concentration of these cytokines.Methods: Feacal samples from consenting children were examined using formol ether concentration techniques and Kato-Katz thick smear technique. Sera of 96 children comprising 76A. lumbricoides infection and 20 controls were subjected to enzymes-linked immunosorbent assay.Results: The mean sera concentration of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-4 (IL-4), interleukin-5 (IL-5), interleukin-10 (IL-10) were (16.7±7.6) pg/mL, (4.6±0.8)pg/mL, (391.6±52.0) pg/mL and (181.2±30.4) pg/mL, respectively. The control subjects had the following mean serum cytokines: TNF-α(2.9±1.8) pg/m, IL-4 (4.0±0.1) pg/mL, IL-5 (125.1±50.1) pg/mL, IL-10 (74.5±54.2) pg/mL, respectively. The difference between the sera cytokines concentration of theA. lumbricoides infected children and their controls were statistically significant for TNF-α, IL- 5 and IL-10(χ2= 9.99,P< 0.05;χ2 = 137.24,P < 0.05;χ2 = 44.30,P < 0.05, respectively). The intensity of infection correlated positively with TNF-α, and IL-5 (r = 0.93 and 0.98, respectively) while IL-4 and IL- 10 correlated negatively with the intensity of infection (r = -0.62 and 0.99, respectively). TNF-α, IL-4 and IL-5 correlated positively with age (r = 0.19, 0.33 and 0. 66, respectively). The mean cytokines between those with mild and moderate infections were statistically significant for TNF-α, IL-5 and IL-10 (χ2 = 3.60, 4.52 and 5.30, respectively). The ratio of TNF-α: IL-10 was 0.092.Conclusions: Elevated IL-5, IL-10 and TNF-α found in the sera of the volunteers with Ascariasis implicates these cytokines as key mediators in the host responses toA. lumbriocoides infection in our studied area.

  10. The clinical and radiological observation of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography

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    Park, Choong Shik; Park, Byoung Lan; Chun, Hyun Woo; Kim, Byung Geun; Park, Hong Bae [Kwangju Christian Hospital, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    1981-12-15

    of ascariasis, 1 case of clonorchiasis with cholangitis, 1 case of clonorchiasis with stone, 2 cases of C.B.D. ca. 2 cases of G. B. ca, 3 cases of intrahepatic disease, 1 case of stones in the biliary tree with ampullary ca. 6. Complications of ERCP and ERPP were extremely rare. Transient abdominal distention, abdominal discomfort and elevated serum amylase were noted, but were not clinically significant.

  11. Effect of Ascaris lumbricoides infection on T helper cell type 2 in rural Egyptian children

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    Shalaby NM

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Naglaa M Shalaby,1 Nehad M Shalaby2 1Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, 2Mansoura University Children Hospital, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt Abstract: Ascaris lumbricoides is a neglected parasite that induces changes in host immune response. This study is conducted to define the serum levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, interleukin-4 (IL-4, and interleukin-5 (IL-5 in some Egyptian children and their relations to intensity of infection, age, and ascariasis symptoms. Stool samples were examined using formol-ether concentration and Kato-Katz thick smear techniques. Sera of 60 A. lumbricoides-infected children and 20 controls were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The mean sera concentrations of TNF-α, IL-4, and IL-5 were 7.41±2.5 pg/mL, 107.60±18.3 pg/mL, and 389.52±28.0 pg/mL, respectively. The controls had mean serum TNF-α 7.10±2.4 pg/mL, IL-4 25.49±2.6 pg/mL, and IL-5 88.76±22.7 pg/mL. The difference in the concentration of sera cytokines was statistically significant for IL-4 and IL-5 (P<0.01 between A. lumbricoides-infected children and controls. The intensity of infection correlated positively with IL-4 and IL-5 at r=0.959 and r=0.919, respectively. The concentrations of IL-4 and IL-5 correlated positively with the age at r=0.845 and r=0.934, respectively. Asthma and gastrointestinal tract upsets were correlated positively with IL-4 and IL-5. These data indicate that A. lumbricoides infection in our locality is associated with significantly high levels of IL-4 and IL-5.Keywords: Ascaris lumbricoides, children, rural, Egypt, IL-4, IL-5, TNF-α

  12. 评价彩超对肝外胆管病变的临床诊断价值%Evaluation on clinical diagnosis value of colour ultrasound used in extrahepatic bile duct

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何栋梁

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨肝外胆管疾病的超声诊断价值及漏诊和误诊原因。方法:选取确诊的399例肝外胆管疾病患者病例资料,对经超声诊断的结论进行回顾性分析。结果:399例肝外胆管疾病患者超声诊断符合率为93.2%(372/399),其中肝外胆管结石诊断符合率为94.5%,肝外胆管癌诊断符合率为89.3%,胆道蛔虫诊断符合率为86.0%,胆总管囊状扩张诊断符合率为100%,漏诊、误诊27例(占6.76%)。结论:超声检查对肝外胆管疾病诊断符合率较高,具有较高的临床诊断价值,但仍需与临床表现相结合进行诊断。%Objective:To evaluate the ultrasound diagnostic value of extrahepatic bile duct diseases and misdiagnosis reasons for leakage.Methods: For the diagnosis of 399 cases of extrahepatic bile duct diseases were retrospectively analyzed, analysis of the ultrasonic diagnosis. Results: Three hundred and ninty-nine cases of extrahepatic bile duct disease, ultrasonic diagnosis diagnosis coincidence rate 93.2% (372/399). With extrahepatic bile duct stones coincidence rate 94.5%, extrahepatic bile duct carcinoma (89.3%, 86.0%, biliary ascariasis bile duct cystic expansion 100%, 27 cases of misdiagnosis.Conclusion: Ultrasound in the diagnosis of extrahepatic bile duct diseases with high value.

  13. 胆总管结石成因的研究进展%Research Progress of Common Bile Duct Calculi Formation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    国海超; 党彤

    2016-01-01

    Bravery manager is a common digestive system disease, its incidence present a growth trend in recent years, more than the abdominal pain, jaundice and chills hot so-called charcot views as the main symptoms, if the patient is in critical condition can occur hypotension consciousness and mental symptoms such as sadness, coma, the so-called raynald immovable. At present, for the cause of the formation of the common bile duct calculi remains to be further research. A lot of literature thought is the outcome of combined action of multiple factors. The related factors including age, next to the duodenal papilla diverticulum, Oddi sphincter, biliary ascariasis, biliary infection, hypothyroidism, gastrointestinal dysfunction. Now this paper reviews the research progress of its origin.%胆总管结石是一种较为普遍的消化系统疾病,其发病率在近年呈现出增长的趋势,以上腹部疼痛、黄疸和寒战高热即所谓charcot三联征为主要症状,若患者病情危急则可出现低血压及神志忧伤、昏迷等精神症状,即所谓的raynald五联征。目前,针对胆总管结石的形成原因还有待进一步研究。诸多文献资料认为是多因素共同作用的结果,其有关因素包括年龄、十二指肠乳头旁憩室、Oddi括约肌、胆道蛔虫、胆道感染、甲状腺功能减退、胃肠功能紊乱等。本文就其成因的研究进展做如下综述。

  14. Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites and Cryptosporidium species in extensively managed pigs in Mekelle and urban areas of southern zone of Tigray region, Northern Ethiopia

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    Zewdneh Tomass

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of this study was to investigate prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites and Cryptosporidium species in extensively managed pigs in Mekelle and urban areas of southern zone of Tigray Region, Ethiopia during June - September, 2012. Material and methods: Seven hundred fourteen pigs of different ages and sexes were selected for fecal sample collection. Fecal samples were collected from the rectum of pigs with strict sanitation. A total of 25 soil samples were also collected from backyards of pig pens using clean zipped plastic bags. Both fecal and soil samples were examined for eggs and cysts of GIT parasites by flotation and sedimentation techniques. Modified Ziehl – Neelsen technique was used to examine oocysts of Cryptosporidium species from 276 randomly selected fecal samples. Results: Out of 714 pigs examined through flotation and sedimentation, 27.3% were infected by at least one gastrointestinal parasite. Ascaris suum (25.9% was the most prevalent parasite followed by Fasciola hepatica (1.8%, Eimeria spp. (1.7% and Trichuris suis (0.3%. There was no significant association between sex and prevalence of parasites ÷2[df 1] = 1.921; P=0.166. Contrary to this, age of pigs had effect on prevalence of parasites ÷2[df 2] = 8.376; P=0.015. About 7% of pigs examined were positive for oocysts of Cryptosporidium spp. Moreover, 72% of the soil samples found to be contaminated with eggs of Ascaris spp. in the study area. Apart from causing morbidity in the infected pigs, the potential of Ascaris of pigs to infect man and vice versa together with poor environmental hygiene, may complicate the epidemiology and control of Ascariasis in the study areas. Extensively managed pigs may also act as potential reservoirs for zoonoses of Cryptosporidium species. Conclusion: It is concluded that further investigations are crucial on molecular characterization of Ascaris and Cryptosporidium isolates of extensively managed pigs to determine the

  15. 误诊为急性结石性胆囊炎31例病例分析%The analysis of misdiagnosed as acute calculos cholecystitis in 31 cases.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈永友

    2012-01-01

    Objective To analyze and explore the causes of misdiagnosed as acute calculos cholecystitis. Methods Thirty - one cases misdiagnosed as acute calculous cholecystitis in our hospital from July 2000 to May 2012 were retrospectively analyzed and summarized. Results Thirty - one patients with cholecystolithiasis were misdiagnosed as acute calculous cholecystitis, The final diagnosis of misdiagnosis cases: 6 cases of acute myocardial infarction , 5 cases of herpes zoster, 4 cases of carcinoma of gallbladder, 3 cases of high - position appendicitis, 2 cases of pancreatitis, 2 cases of pneumonia, 2 cases of colon tumor, 2 cases of upper digestive tract perforation, 2 cases of renal calculus, 1 case of dissection of aorta, 1 case of pleuritis, 1 case of ascariasis of biliary tract. Conclusion Dont detailed inquest the case history, examine the body carelessly, lack of relevant knowledge and experience, ignoring the other disease diagnosis while gallstones found were the main causes of misdiagnosis.%目的 分析、总结其他疾病误诊为急性结石性胆囊炎的原因,积累经验.方法 对2000年7月至2012 年5月收治的31例临床误诊为急性结石性胆囊炎病例进行回顾性分析、总结.结果 31例患者均因原有胆囊结石而误诊为急性结石性胆囊炎.误诊疾病的最终诊断为:急性心肌梗死6例(19.35%),带状疱疹5例(16.13%),胆囊癌4例(12.9%),高位阑尾炎3例(9.68%),胰腺炎2例(6.45%),肺炎2例(6.45%),结肠肿瘤2例(6.45%),上消化道穿孔2例(6.45%),右肾结石2例(6.45%),主动脉夹层1例(3.22%),胸膜炎1例(3.22%),胆道蛔虫1例(3.22%).结论询问病史不详细、查体不仔细、缺少对相关疾病鉴别诊断的知识和经验、发现胆囊结石而忽略其它疾病诊断是造成误诊的主要原因.

  16. [Evaluation of Trichinella cross-reactions in the serological diagnosis of toxocariasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkoç, Soykan; Bayram Delibaş, Songül; Akısü, Ciler

    2012-07-01

    Toxocariasis caused by the nematode larvae of the Toxocara genus is a worldwide parasitic zoonosis. Diagnosis of human toxocariasis commonly relies on serological tests since the symptoms and signs of Toxocara infection are not pathognomonic. However Toxocara larval excretory-secretory (TES) antigen used in serological tests may exhibit low specificity due to the cross-reactions between related helminth infections such as ascariasis, anisakiasis, strongyloidosis and filariasis. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the possible effect of Trichinella cross-reactions in the serological diagnosis of toxocariasis by using ELISA and Western blot (WB) assay. For this purpose, sera samples of 209 trichinellosis patients who were definitely diagnosed during the Trichinella britovi outbreak occurred in İzmir in January 2004, were used. All the samples were screened initially by commercial Toxocara IgG-ELISA kit (Cypress Diagnostics, Belgium), then commercial Toxocara IgG-WB (Test-Line Diagnostics, Czech Republic) was applied to positive/ borderline-positive sera for confirmation. In our study, 94.3% (197/209) of the sera were found seronegative, while nine were positive and three were borderline. Thus a total of 12 (5.7%) sera were considered as seropositive by Toxocara IgG-ELISA. According to the results of WB, only one sera with the antigenic bands of 120 kDa, 32 kDa and 26 kDa in molecular weights was evaluated as positive. Four sera samples were found to be borderline. In three of border sera, the antigenic bands of 120 and 70 kDa in molecular weights were observed together and one sera had three (120, 70 and 32 kDa) different antigenic bands. Seven sera that had been found to be positive by ELISA was considered as negative by WB. While no bands was observed in four of these, three samples had an antigenic band of 120 kDa which had no diagnostic value when it was found alone. The results of our study showed that the crossreactivities between anti-Trichinella antibodies

  17. Socio-economic, health and nutritional status of the villagers in the Nong Wai irrigation area, Khon Kaen, Northeast Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harinasuta, C; Sornamani, S; Migasena, P; Vivatanasesth, P; Pongpaew, P; Intarakao, C; Vudhivai, N

    1976-12-01

    Studies were carried out from June 1974 to May 1975 on the socio-economic status, health and nutritional status of the people in 4 villages, in the irrigation area of the Nong Wai Pioneer Agricultural Project of Khon Kaen Province, Northeast Thailand. The result obtained were compared with those in 2 non-irrigated villages in the same province, in order to identify the health and nutritional problems which might arise during the water resource development in the irrigation area. It was found that in the irrigated villages 90% of the peoples were farmers, while in the non-irrigated villages all were farmers. The socio-economic status of the people in the irrigated villages was much better than those in the non-irrigated ones. The income per family in the former was about three times greater than that in the latter. In the study of the health conditions of the villagers, the vulnerable age group including pre-school children under 7 years of age and school children in the elementary school class 1 and class 2, aged 7-9 years old, served as subjects for investigation. Haematological and physical examinations revealed many children with mild to moderate anaemia, vitamin B2 deficiency and a few cases of hepatomegaly. Anaemic children were found to be more prevalent in the non-irrigated villages than in the irrigated area. The overall parasitic infection rates in children in the irrigated and non-irrigated villages were similar with respect to severity of the infection. Hookworm infection, opisthorchiasis, strongyloidiasis and giardiasis were the leading parasitic infections, while amoebiasis was rare. Ascariasis and trichuriasis were not found. However, the first two helminthic infections had a low grade of intensity. The nutritional status of pre-school children, showed that there were more children with good growth in the irrigated villages than in the non-irrigated one. Serum proteins, albumin and globulin, and urinary urea nitrogen-creatinine ratio revealed normal

  18. Investigation and analysis of soil-transmitted nematodes infection in Xinning, Hunan, 2006-2011%湖南省新宁县2006-2011年土源性线虫感染调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李正祥; 陈培厚; 龙晓蕾; 段绩辉; 王郭清

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解湖南省新宁县土源性线虫病流行规律,为湖南地区的土源性线虫病防治提供科学依据.方法 2006-2011年,每年9-11月在新宁县高桥栗叶村进行调查,应用改良加藤厚涂片法查土源性线虫卵,透明胶纸肛拭法查儿童蛲虫卵;土壤监测采用改良饱和硝酸钠漂浮法,分别对虫卵进行检测与计算,调查污染情况.结果 2006-2010年共监测5021人,蛔虫的感染率由2006年的6.78%降至2010年的0.70%;钩虫的感染率由2006年的2.29%降至2010年的0.30%;鞭虫的感染率在2006、2008、2009年均为0;蛲虫的感染率2006、2007年为0.70%、0.60%,2008、2009、2010年均为0.结论 新宁县2006-2011年人群土源性线虫感染率呈下降趋势.%Objective To find the trend of soil-transmitted nematodes infection in Xinning,in order to provide scientific basis for controling the disease.Methods The investigation was carried out annually in Liye Village,Gaoqiao Town,Xinning County from September to November,2006 to 2011.The number of soil-transmitted nematodes eggs were checked with Kato-Katz,Enterobius vermicularis eggs in child were examined with cellophane tape anal swab method.Results A total of 5021 residents were examined from 2006 to 2010.The infection rate of ascariasis decreased to 0.70% in 2010 from 6.78% in 2006,the infection rate of ancylostomiasis decreased to 0.30% in 2010 from 2.29% in 2006,trichuriasis was not detected in 2006,2008and 2009,the infection rate of enterobiasis was 0.70%,0.60% in 2006 and 2007,but not detected in 2008,2009 and 2010.Conclusion The infection rate of soil-transmitted nematodes in Xinning County declined from 2006 to 2011.

  19. Control of nematode parasites with agents acting on neuro-musculature systems: lessons for neuropeptide ligand discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Richard J; Robertson, Alan P

    2010-01-01

    There are a number of reasons why the development of novel anthelmintics is very necessary. In domestic animals, parasites cause serious loss of production and are a welfare concern. The control of these parasites requires changes in management practices to reduce the spread of infection and the use of therapeutic agents to treat affected animals. The development of vaccines against parasites is desirable but their development so far has been very limited. One notable exception is the vaccination of calves against infection by Dictyocaulus viviparous (lungworm) which has proved to be very effective. In domestic animals, the total market for anti-parasitic agents (both ecto- and endo-parasites) is in excess of a billion U.S. dollars. In humans there are serious problems ofmorbidity and mortality associated with parasite infections. 1.6 billion People throughout the world are infected with ascariasis (Fig. 1A) and/or hookworm. Approximately one-third of the world's population is suffering from the effects of intestinal nematode parasites, causing low growth-rates in infants, ill-thrift, diarrhea and in 2% of cases, loss of life. Despite the huge number of affected individuals, the market for anti-parasitic drugs for humans is not big enough to foster the development of anthelmintics because most infestations that occur are in undeveloped countries that lack the ability to pay for the development of these drugs. The major economic motivator then, is for the development of animal anthelmintics. In both domestic animals and now in humans, there is now a level of resistance to the available anthelmintic compounds. The resistance is either: constitutive, where a given species of parasite has never been sensitive to the compound; or acquired, where the resistance has developed through Darwinian selection fostered by the continued exposure to the anti-parasitic drugs. The continued use of all anthelmintics has and will, continue to increase the level of resistance. Cure

  20. Ação terapêutica do mebendazole (R 17635 em pacientes poliparasitados: resultados finais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirceu Wagner Carvalho de Souza

    1973-08-01

    lumbricoides, Enterobius vermicularis, Taenia sp, and Trichuris trichiura. Mebendazole (R 17635 was given in lOOmg tablets, one 30 minutes before breakfast and another three hours after dinner, for three consecutive days, independently of body weight. No evidence was observed of either immediate or late side effects of the ãrug. To determine parasitological cure, the Willis anã the Hoffman-Pons & Janer techniques were performed on the 7th, 14th, and 21st days after completion of treatment. In addition, in patients with taeniasis and/or enterobiasis, the "anal-swab" method was used for 7 consecutive days, beginning the 7th day after completion of treatment. Cure rates were as follows: enterobiasis, 100%; ascariasis and trichuriasis, 98%; hookworm, 94.5%. Out of 9 patients with taeniasis, 8 were cured; nevertheless, the Authors stress the necessity of larger studies, both technically and statistically, to determine the true efficacy of this drug against Taenia sp.

  1. Mass treatment for intestinal helminthisis control in an Amazonian endemic area in Brazil Tratamento em massa para controle das helmintíases intestinais em área endêmica na Amazônia Brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Neves Bóia

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of soil-transmitted helminthiasis and evaluate the sanitary conditions and the role of a mass treatment campaign for control of these infections in Santa Isabel do Rio Negro. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in 2002, to obtain data related to the sanitary conditions of the population and fecal samples for parasitological examination in 308 individuals, followed by a mass treatment with albendazole or mebendazole with coverage of 83% of the city population in 2003. A new survey was carried out in 2004, involving 214 individuals, for comparison of the prevalences of intestinal parasitosis before and after the mass treatment. The prevalences of ascariasis, trichuriasis and hookworm infection were 48%; 27% and 21% respectively in 2002. There was a significant decrease for the frequency of infections by Ascaris lumbricoides (p O presente trabalho objetivou avaliar a prevalência e o papel de um tratamento em massa das helmintíases intestinais em Santa Isabel do Rio Negro, Estado do Amazonas, Brasil. Foi realizado em 2002 um estudo seccional, incluindo inquérito copro-parasitológico, objetivando a obtenção das prevalências das parasitoses intestinais e dados sobre as condições sanitárias do local, estudando-se uma amostra de 308 indivíduos. Em 2003 foi realizada intervenção para tratamento em massa das helmintíases intestinais com administração de albendazol (ou mebendazol para crianças entre 12 e 24 meses na sede do município, alcançando-se 83% de cobertura. Novo inquérito copro-parasitológico foi realizado em 2004, para comparação das prevalências antes a após o tratamento. As prevalências das infecções por Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura e ancilostomídeos foram 48%, 27% e 21%, respectivamente em 2002. Em 2004 observou-se redução significativa das infecções por Ascaris lumbricoides (p < 0,05; OR / 95% IC = 0,44 / 0,30 - 0,65, Trichuris

  2. A Proteomic Investigation of Hepatic Resistance to Ascaris in a Murine Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deslyper, Gwendoline; Colgan, Thomas J.; Cooper, Andrew J. R.; Holland, Celia V.; Carolan, James C.

    2016-01-01

    The helminth Ascaris causes ascariasis in both humans and pigs. Humans, especially children, experience significant morbidity including respiratory complications, growth deficits and intestinal obstruction. Given that 800 million people worldwide are infected by Ascaris, this represents a significant global public health concern. The severity of the symptoms and associated morbidity are related to the parasite burden and not all hosts are infected equally. While the pathology of the disease has been extensively examined, our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying resistance and susceptibility to this nematode infection is poor. In order to investigate host differences associated with heavy and light parasite burden, an experimental murine model was developed utilising Ascaris-susceptible and -resistant mice strains, C57BL/6J and CBA/Ca, respectively, which experience differential burdens of migratory Ascaris larvae in the host lungs. Previous studies identified the liver as the site where this difference in susceptibility occurs. Using a label free quantitative proteomic approach, we analysed the hepatic proteomes of day four post infection C57BL/6J and CBA/Ca mice with and without Ascaris infection to identify proteins changes potentially linked to both resistance and susceptibility amongst the two strains, respectively. Over 3000 proteins were identified in total and clear intrinsic differences were elucidated between the two strains. These included a higher abundance of mitochondrial proteins, particularly those associated with the oxidative phosphorylation pathway and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in the relatively resistant CBA/Ca mice. We hypothesise that the increased ROS levels associated with higher levels of mitochondrial activity results in a highly oxidative cellular environment that has a dramatic effect on the nematode’s ability to successfully sustain a parasitic association with its resistant host. Under infection, both

  3. 肝门部胆管癌的危险因素分析%Analysis of Risk Factors in Hilar Cholangiocarcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高丽斌

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the risk factors of hilar cholangiocarcinoma ( HC ) in the domestic crowd. Method: From August 2011 to July 2012 in our hospital, a total of 128 cases of hilar cholangiocarcinoma were collected as the study group, 512 cases of normal people as control group. The relevant risk factors were collected and statistically analyzed, including hepatobiliary disease and surgical history, history of hepatitis and other factors such as ulcerative colitis. Result: There was statistical difference in the incidence of common bile duct stones ( X2 = 21. 759, P 0. 05 ). Stepwise logistic regression found that the common bile duct stones ( OR = 3. 451,95% CI = 0. 889 - 11. 327 ), hepatolithia-sis( OR = 3.189,95%CI = 0.783 - 10.482 ), gallbladder stones ( OR = 4.981,95% CI = 1.645 to 21. 482 ), cholecystectomy ( OR = 2. 783,95%CI = 0.668 - 8.455 ), history of biliary ascariasis ( OR = 3. 589,95% CI = 0.984 - 13.793 ), hepatic schistosomiasis history ( OR = 2.442,95% CI = 0.401 - 6. 742 ) were risk factors to the occurrence of HC. Conclusion: Possible risk factors to HC in our population are biliary stones and the history of hepatobiliary parasites, but not including hepatitis B and hepatitis C. An in-depth understanding of the content of risk factors to HC provided a reference to understand the etiology, diagnosis and treatment of HC.%目的:探讨国内人群肝门部胆管癌(HC)发生的危险因素.方法:收集2011年8月至2012年7月本院治疗的肝门部胆管癌患者共128例为研究组,512例正常人为对照组,收集并统计分析与HC发生可能相关的危险因素,包括肝胆疾病及手术史,肝炎病史及其它因素如溃疡性结肠炎等.结果:研究组与对照组在胆总管结石(X2=21.759,P0.05).逐步logistic回归发现胆总管结石(OR=3.451,95%CI=0.889-11.327)、肝内胆管结石(OR=3.189,95%CI=0.783-10.482)、胆囊结石(OR=4.981,95%CI=1.645-21.482)、胆囊切除术(OR=2.783,95%CI=0.668-8.455)

  4. 不明原因消化道出血45例分析%Analysis of 45 cases of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鞠香丽; 徐秀英

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the etiology of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding ( OGIB) and the value of cap-sule endoscopy in the diagnosis of OGIB .Methods The data of 45 cases of OGIB who were defined no clear hemor-rhage by recepting endoscopy and colonoscopy inspection and furtherly finished capsule endoscopy examination in the First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University from Jan .2004 to Aug .2013 were analyzed retrospectively .Re-sults Forty-two cases of OGIB patients were proved to have small intestinal lesions , there were 29 cases of small bowel vascular malformations , 2 cases of small bowel inflammation , 1 case of small bowel ascariasis , 1 case of small bowel ul-cer, 1 case of small bowel polyps , 1 case of duodenal vascular malformation , 2 cases of small bowel vascular malforma-tion with small bowel mucosa lesions , 2 cases of small bowel vascular malformation associated with small bowel ascaria -sis, 1 case of small bowel vascular malformation with small bowel ulcer , small bowel lymphangiectasia , 1 case of small bowel vascular malformation with small bowel erosion and 1 case of ileal diverticula with ileal lymphangiectasia .The most common cause of OGIB was small bowel vascular malformations (83.33%, 35/42).Conclusion Capsule endos-copy can provide more direct clues to discover the cause of OGIB and guide clinical treatment .%目的:探讨不明原因消化道出血( obscure gastrointestinal bleeding , OGIB)的病因及胶囊内镜在其诊断方面的应用价值。方法回顾性分析中国医科大学附属第一医院2004年1月-2013年8月45例经胃镜、结肠镜检查未发现出血灶并进一步行胶囊内镜的OGIB患者的临床资料。结果入选的45例OGIB患者中共有42例检出小肠病变,其中单纯小肠血管畸形29例,小肠炎症2例,小肠蛔虫病1例,小肠溃疡1例,小肠息肉1例,十二指肠血管畸形1例,小肠血管畸形伴小肠黏膜下病变2例,

  5. 双源CT在肝外胆道梗阻疾病诊断中的价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李逢春; 张祖艳; 张春宁; 刘枫

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the diagnosis value of DSCT on extrahepatic biliary obstruction. Methods Summary analysis 120 cases patients' DSCT image date proved extrahepatic biliary obstruction by pathology or clinical treatment. Result There were 71 cases of bile duct stones,12 cases of cholecystitis,1 case of choledochal cyst,1 case of duodenal diverticulum nipple,1 case of biliary ascariasis,14 cases of cholangiocarcinomas,3 cases of carcinoma of ampullas,4 cases of gallbladder carcinomas,12 cases of pancreatic carcinomas. The extrahepatic bile duct expansion was seen in all cases,78 cases with expansion of bile duct of liver inside,22 cases with double duct sign. The positioning accuracy of DSCT of extrahepatic biliary obstruction was 100%,qualitative accuracy was 92.5%. Conclusion DSCT can display the location,form,size density and adjacent tissues structure accurately and clearly. It has important value of DSCT on the localization and qualitative diagnosis of biliary obstruction and the choice of clinical treatment.%目的:探讨双源CT(dual-source computed tomography,DSCT)在肝外胆道梗阻疾病诊断中的价值。方法总结分析120例病理或临床治疗证实的肝外胆道梗阻疾病患者的DSCT影像资料。结果胆管结石71例,胆管炎12例,胆总管囊肿1例,十二指肠乳头区憩室1例,胆道蛔虫1例,胆管癌14例,壶腹癌3例,胆囊癌4例,胰腺癌12例。全部病例均显示肝外胆道扩张,其中78例伴肝内胆管扩张,22例呈现“双管征”。梗阻末段胆总管内可见“靶征”或“半月征”,不规则软组织影及片状、管状影,邻近胆管壁可见增厚、毛糙等;Ⅲ期强化程度不一或无强化。在肝外胆道梗阻性疾病诊断中,DSCT定位的准确率为100%,定性符合率为92.5%。结论 DSCT显示肝外胆道梗阻性病变的位置、形态、大小、密度以及相邻组织结构准确清晰,对疾病定位、定性和临床治疗的选择具有重要价值。

  6. Granulomatous peritonitis due to Ascaris lumbricoides. Case report Granulomatosis peritoneal por Ascaris lumbricoides.Presentación de un caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Aguirre Muñoz

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Ascariasis is one of the most prevalent and widespread human helminthic infections, especially in children of

  7. [Studies on the intradermal reactions with the fractions of Ascaris lumbricoides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chan Wook

    1967-06-01

    and kept in 30 degrees C incubator for 24 hours. Among of them, the active one was seleted and put to sudden freeze at -70 degrees C for 20 hours. the whole body was powdered in a dried condition and kept it in ampoule at -4 degrees C. a) Crude antigen: The ether extract of powdered Ascaris lumbrucoides were motared by adding veronal buffer solution (1:100) and kept in icebox for 48 hours. The suspension was diluted with veronal buffer solution in the ratio of 1:10,000. b) Protein antigen : This antigen was prepared by Chaffee's modified methods and ammonium sulfate extraction mehtod. c) Polysaccharide antigen: Chaffee's modified method and ethanol extration method were applied. d) Mixed antigen : The same amount of preparation of protein and polysaccharide antigen were mixed. C. Intrdermal test 1. The intradermal test : 0.02ml of natigen was injected on the anterior surface of the frearm in human and on the back in aninmal, with tuberculin syringe. The criteria of the skin reaction were determined as follows; wheal: -; 0-4mm, +/-; 5-7mm, +;8-9mm, +; 21-32mm, ++; 33-44mm, +++; 45-56mm, ++++; over 57mm, in diameter. D. Stool examination : All the stool examination was done by formalin-ether concectration(M.G.L) method. E.P.G (egg per gram) was also determined by Stoll's egg counting method. RESULT : The intradermal reaction after the injection of each antigen was observed at 15, 30, 60 minutes and 3, 24 hours. In 58 ascariasis cases, the peak of wheal was appeared at 30 minute; 93.0% with the crude antigen, 15.5% with the mixed antigen, 10.3% with the Protein antigen, but all were negative in the polysaccharide antigen. The erythema reaction paralledled, in general, to the wheal; 75.8% at 15 minutes, 72.5% at 30 minutes and 48.3% at 60 mintues, with the crude antigen. Only 3.4% showed erythema at 15,30, and 60 minutes int the case of mixed antigen, and 1.7% fo positive was appeared at 30 minutes in the case of protein antigen, but none was observed in the

  8. Relations between stunting and soil-transmitted helminths infections in school-age pupils%学龄儿童生长发育迟缓及其与土源性线虫感染的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尚煜; 闫承生; 翟书梅; 李中秋; 石小勇; 江燕; 汤林华

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] To understand stunting status and explore the influence factor of stunting. [ Methods] A cross-sectional method to examine 1 031 pupils aged 9 to 12 years. These pupils came from 15 schools in Guangxi Autonomous Regional and Hainan Province rural areas in China. Study contects included questionnaires survey; physical examination, based on the new WHO Child Growth Standards(WHO Anthroplus, 2007); haemoglobin detection; stool samples were examined by Kato-Katz technique to choose soil-transmitted helminthes (Hookworm, Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris triehiura) infections. EpiData3. 0 was used to establish a database. Statistical analyses of the data were performed using statistical package for Social Sciences for Windows SPSS(version 16. 0). [Results] The overall prevalence of stunting (HAZ<2SD) was 25. 6% (264/1 031). Risk factors for stunting that based on logistic regression analyses were: 1)Soil-transmitted helminthes moderate-to-heavy intensity infections(OR= 1. 927,95%CI:1. 194~3. 110); 2)anaemia(OR=3. 26,95%CI: 2. 018~5. 268); 3)education level of mother(OR=2. 125,95%CI: 1. 388~3. 254). The overall prevalence of STH infections was 36.7 % (378/1 031 ), moderate-to-heavy intensity STH infections was 16.8 % (173/1 031). Ascariasis,hookworm trichuriasis and co-infection were 11.2%(115/1 031),11. 5%(119/1 031),4.9%(51/1 031), and 9. 1%(93/ 1 031) respectively. The anaemia (Hb<120 g/L) was 13. 1%. [Conclusions] The present study shows that stunting is highly prevalence among study population and STH infections is one of the important risk factors for stunting, especially moderate-to-heavy intensity infections is the main predictors of stunting.%[目的]了解学龄儿童生长发育迟缓现状及其相关影响因素.[方法]在广西、海南两地农村地区,对3个乡15个学校的1 031名9~12岁儿童生长发育进行现况调查,调查内容包括:填写问卷、病原学检测、体格测量以及实验室