Sample records for aryl bromides bearing

  1. Well-Defined Copper(I) Fluoroalkoxide Complexes for Trifluoroethoxylation of Aryl and Heteroaryl Bromides

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Ronglu


    © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Copper(I) fluoroalkoxide complexes bearing dinitrogen ligands were synthesized and the structure and reactivity of the complexes toward trifluoroethoxylation, pentafluoropropoxylation, and tetrafluoropropoxylation of aryl and heteroaryl bromides were investigated. Efficiency drive: A series of copper(I) fluoroalkoxide complexes bearing N,N ligands have been prepared and structurally characterized. These well-defined complexes serve as efficient reagents for the fluoroalkoxylation of aryl and heteroaryl bromides to produce a wide range of trifluoroethyl, pentafluoropropyl, and tetrafluoropropyl (hetero)aryl ethers in good to excellent yields.

  2. Homocoupling of Aryl Bromides Catalyzed by Nickel Chloride in Pyridine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAO, Xiao-Chun; ZHOU, Wei; ZHANG, Yue-Ping; DAI, Chun-ya; SHEN, Dong; HUANG, Mei


    Pyridine was used as a solvent for homocoupling of aryl bromides catalyzed by nickel chloride/triarylphosphine in the presence of zinc and recycled easily. Triphenylphosphine was the best ligand for nickel in this coupling reaction.

  3. DBU-Promoted Trifluoromethylation of Aryl Iodides with Difluoromethyltriphenylphosphonium Bromide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun Wei; Liuying Yu; Jinhong Lin; Xing Zheng; Jichang Xiao


    DBU-promoted trifluoromethylation of aryl iodides with difluoromethyltriphenylphosphonium bromide (DFPB) in the presence of copper source is described.In this transformation,DBU not only acts as base to deprotonate the difluoromethyl group in DFPB to generate difluoromethylene phosphonium ylide Ph3P+CF2,but also converts the difluorocarbene generated from ylide Ph3P+CF2 into trifluoromethyl anion,finally resulting in the trifluoromethylation of aryl iodides.The reactions proceeded smoothly to afford expected products in moderate to good yields.

  4. Multimetallic catalysed cross-coupling of aryl bromides with aryl triflates (United States)

    Ackerman, Laura K. G.; Lovell, Matthew M.; Weix, Daniel J.


    The advent of transition-metal catalysed strategies for forming new carbon-carbon bonds has revolutionized the field of organic chemistry, enabling the efficient synthesis of ligands, materials, and biologically active molecules. In cases where a single metal fails to promote a selective or efficient transformation, the synergistic cooperation of two distinct catalysts--multimetallic catalysis--can be used instead. Many important reactions rely on multimetallic catalysis, such as the Wacker oxidation of olefins and the Sonogashira coupling of alkynes with aryl halides, but this approach has largely been limited to the use of metals with distinct reactivities, with only one metal catalyst undergoing oxidative addition. Here, we demonstrate that cooperativity between two group 10 metal catalysts--(bipyridine)nickel and (1,3-bis(diphenylphosphino)propane)palladium--enables a general cross-Ullmann reaction (the cross-coupling of two different aryl electrophiles). Our method couples aryl bromides with aryl triflates directly, eliminating the use of arylmetal reagents and avoiding the challenge of differentiating between multiple carbon-hydrogen bonds that is required for direct arylation methods. Selectivity can be achieved without an excess of either substrate and originates from the orthogonal reactivity of the two catalysts and the relative stability of the two arylmetal intermediates. While (1,3-bis(diphenylphosphino)propane)palladium reacts preferentially with aryl triflates to afford a persistent intermediate, (bipyridine)nickel reacts preferentially with aryl bromides to form a transient, reactive intermediate. Although each catalyst forms less than 5 per cent cross-coupled product in isolation, together they are able to achieve a yield of up to 94 per cent. Our results reveal a new method for the synthesis of biaryls, heteroaryls, and dienes, as well as a general mechanism for the selective transfer of ligands between two metal catalysts. We anticipate that this

  5. Copper-catalysed N-arylation of arylsulfonamides with aryl bromides and aryl iodides using KF/Al2O3

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rahman Hosseinzadeh; Mahmood Tajbakhsh; Maryam Mohadjerani; Mohammad Alikarami


    An efficient synthesis of -arylsulfonamides with a variety of aryl bromides, aryl iodides and heteroaryl bromides using KF/Al2O3 as a suitable base, CuI as an inexpensive catalyst and ,'-dimethylethylenediamine (,'-DMEDA) as an effective ligand is described.

  6. Ammonium Chloride Promoted Palladium-Catalyzed Ullmann Coupling of Aryl Bromide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李金恒; 梁云; 刘文杰; 唐石; 谢叶香


    In water, ammonium chloride was found to promote palladium-catalyzed Ullmann coupling reactions of aryl bromides. In the presence of Pd/C, zinc, NH4Cl, and water, coupling of various aryl bromides was carried out smoothly to afford the corresponding homocoupling products in moderate yields.

  7. Copper/N,N-Dimethylglycine Catalyzed Goldberg Reactions Between Aryl Bromides and Amides, Aryl Iodides and Secondary Acyclic Amides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqin Jiang


    Full Text Available An efficient and general copper-catalyzed Goldberg reaction at 90–110 °C between aryl bromides and amides providing the desired products in good to excellent yields has been developed using N,N-dimethylglycine as the ligand. The reaction is tolerant toward a wide range of amides and a variety of functional group substituted aryl bromides. In addition, hindered, unreactive aromatic and aliphatic secondary acyclic amides, known to be poor nucleophiles, are efficiently coupled with aryl iodides through this simple and cheap copper/N,N-dimethylglycine catalytic system.

  8. Pd-catalyzed carbonylative α-arylation of aryl bromides: scope and mechanistic studies. (United States)

    Nielsen, Dennis U; Lescot, Camille; Gøgsig, Thomas M; Lindhardt, Anders T; Skrydstrup, Troels


    Reaction conditions for the three-component synthesis of aryl 1,3-diketones are reported applying the palladium-catalyzed carbonylative α-arylation of ketones with aryl bromides. The optimal conditions were found by using a catalytic system derived from [Pd(dba)2] (dba=dibenzylideneacetone) as the palladium source and 1,3-bis(diphenylphosphino)propane (DPPP) as the bidentate ligand. These transformations were run in the two-chamber reactor, COware, applying only 1.5 equivalents of carbon monoxide generated from the CO-releasing compound, 9-methylfluorene-9-carbonyl chloride (COgen). The methodology proved adaptable to a wide variety of aryl and heteroaryl bromides leading to a diverse range of aryl 1,3-diketones. A mechanistic investigation of this transformation relying on 31P and 13C NMR spectroscopy was undertaken to determine the possible catalytic pathway. Our results revealed that the combination of [Pd(dba)2] and DPPP was only reactive towards 4-bromoanisole in the presence of the sodium enolate of propiophenone suggesting that a [Pd(dppp)(enolate)] anion was initially generated before the oxidative-addition step. Subsequent CO insertion into an [Pd(Ar)(dppp)(enolate)] species provided the 1,3-diketone. These results indicate that a catalytic cycle, different from the classical carbonylation mechanism proposed by Heck, is operating. To investigate the effect of the dba ligand, the Pd0 precursor, [Pd(η3-1-PhC3H4)(η5-C5H5)], was examined. In the presence of DPPP, and in contrast to [Pd(dba)2], its oxidative addition with 4-bromoanisole occurred smoothly providing the [PdBr(Ar)(dppp)] complex. After treatment with CO, the acyl complex [Pd(CO)Br(Ar)(dppp)] was generated, however, its treatment with the sodium enolate led exclusively to the acylated enol in high yield. Nevertheless, the carbonylative α-arylation of 4-bromoanisole with either catalytic or stoichiometric [Pd(η3-1-PhC3H4)(η5-C5H5)] over a short reaction time, led to the 1,3-diketone product

  9. Mild Pd-catalyzed aminocarbonylation of (hetero)aryl bromides with a palladacycle precatalyst. (United States)

    Friis, Stig D; Skrydstrup, Troels; Buchwald, Stephen L


    A palladacyclic precatalyst is employed to cleanly generate a highly active XantPhos-ligated Pd-catalyst. Its use in low temperature aminocarbonylations of (hetero)aryl bromides provides access to a range of challenging products in good to excellent yields with low catalyst loading and only a slight excess of CO. Some products are unattainable by traditional carbonylative coupling.

  10. Palladium-Catalyzed Carbonylation of Aryl Bromides with N-Substituted Cyanamides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lian, Zhong; Friis, Stig D.; Lindhardt, Anders T.;


    The palladium(0)-catalyzed three-component coupling reaction of aryl bromides, carbon monoxide, and N-alkyl cyan­amides has been developed employing a two-chamber system with ex situ generation of carbon monoxide from a silacarboxylic acid. The reactions proceeded well and were complete with a re...

  11. Aminoarenethiolate-Copper(I)-Catalyzed Amination of Aryl Bromides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jerphagnon, Thomas; Klink, Gerard P.M. van; Vries, Johannes G. de; Koten, Gerard van


    Aminoarenethiolate-copper(I) complexes are known to be efficient catalysts for carbon-carbon bond formation. Here, we show the first examples that these thiolate-copper(I) complexes are efficient for carbon-nitrogen bond formation reactions as well. N-Arylation of benzylamine and imidazole with brom

  12. Preozonation of bromide-bearing source water in south China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The effectiveness of preozonation was evaluated on treating a bromide-bearing dam source water in south China through batch-scale experiments. Preozonation at ozone doses of 0.5-1.0 mg/L (at ozone consumption base) enhanced total organic carbon(TOC) removal through coagulation, and resulted in an almost linear reduction of ultraviolet absorbance at 254 nm (UV254). The removals of TOC (after coagulation) and UV254 at the ozone dose of 1.0 mg/L were 36% and 70%, respectively. Preozonation at an ozone dose between 0.5 and 1.0 mg/L resulted in the removal of disinfection byproducts formation potential (DBFP) including trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP) and haloacetic acid formation potential (HAAFP) for about 50%. The removals of THMFP and HAAFP decreased with the further increase of ozone dose. Ozonation of bromide-bearing water (bromide concentration,34 μg/L) produced a bromate concentration under the detection limit(2 μg/L) at ozone doses < 1.5 mg/L. However, bromate >10 μg/L could be produced when the bromide concentration was increased to 96 μg/L.

  13. An Efficient and General Method for Formylation of Aryl Bromides with CO2 and Poly(methylhydrosiloxane). (United States)

    Yu, Bo; Yang, Zhenzhen; Zhao, Yanfei; Hao, Leiduan; Zhang, Hongye; Gao, Xiang; Han, Buxing; Liu, Zhimin


    The formylation of aryl halides with CO2 to generate aryl aldehydes is challenging. Herein, we report a novel synthesis of aryl aldehydes by formylation of aryl bromides with CO2 and a waste silane, poly(methylhydrosiloxane) (PMHS). It has been discovered that a simple combination of 1,3-bis(diphenyphosphino)propane (DPPP)-chelated Pd catalyst, Pd(DPPP)Cl2 , with 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene (DBU) is able to effectively catalyze the reaction, leading to aryl aldehydes in moderate to excellent yields, and without any by-products in most cases. Moreover, this route could be extended to the formylation of aryl iodides with high efficiency. This approach is simple, less costly, and environmentally friendly, and also widens the applications of CO2 to form value-added chemicals by the construction of new C-C bonds.

  14. Suzuki Reaction of Aryl Bromides Using a Phosphine-Free Magnetic Nanoparticle-Supported Palladium Catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nghia T. BUI; Trung B. DANG; Ha V. LE; Nam T. S. PHAN


    A palladium catalyst immobilized on superparaganetic nanoparticles was prepared with a palladium loading of 0.30 mmol/g.The catalyst was characterized using X-ray diffraction,scanning electron microscopy,transmission electron microscopy,vibrating sample magnetometry,thermogravimetric analysis,Fourier transform infrared,atomic absorption spectrophotometry,and nitrogen adsorption.The immobilized palladium catalyst was an efficient catalyst without added phosphine ligands for the Suzuki cross-coupling reaction of several aryl bromides with phenylboronic acid.The recovery of catalyst was simply by magnetic decantation in the presence of a magnet.The immobilized palladium catalyst can be reused many times without significant degradation in catalytic activity.No leaching of active palladium species into the reaction solution was detected.

  15. Cu(OAc)2/Pyrimidines-Catalyzed Cross-coupling Reactions of Aryl Iodides and Activated Aryl Bromides with Alkynes under Aerobic, Solvent-free and Palladium-free Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Ye-Xiang; DENG Chen-Liang; PI Shao-Feng; LI Jin-Heng; YIN Du-Lin


    Excellent results have been achieved in the Cu(OAc)2-catalyzed Sonogashira cross-couplings of aryl iodides and activated aryl bromides utilizing TBAF (tetrabutylammonium fluoride) as the base and 4,6-dimethoxypyrimidin-2-amine as the ligand. It is noteworthy that the reaction is conducted under aerobic, solvent-free and palladium-free conditions.

  16. Sonogashira coupling reaction of homopropargyl ether with aryl bromides and synthesis of 2,5-disubstituted 3-bromofurans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    This paper presents Sonogashira coupling reaction of aryl bromides with protected homopropargyl alcohols such as tert-butyldimethyl(1-phenylbut-3-ynyloxy)silane and tert-butyldimethyl(1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)but-3-ynyloxy)silane in piperidine catalyzed by PdCl2/PPh3 without copper(Ⅰ). The coupling products, disubstituted acetylene, are obtained in good or excellent yields. These products can be further used for the synthesis of 2,5-disubstituted 3-bromofurans.

  17. Palladium-Catalyzed Heck Coupling Reaction of Aryl Bromides in Aqueous Media Using Tetrahydropyrimidinium Salts as Carbene Ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail Özdemir


    Full Text Available An efficient and stereoselective catalytic system for the Heck cross coupling reaction using novel 1,3-dialkyl-3,4,5,6-tetrahydropyrimidinium salts (1, LHX and Pd(OAc2 loading has been reported. The palladium complexes derived from the salts 1a-f prepared in situ exhibit good catalytic activity in the Heck coupling reaction of aryl bromides under mild conditions.

  18. Sonogashira couplin8 reaction of homoproparsyl ether with aryl bromides and synthesis of 2,5-disubstituted 3-bromofurans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xin; LIU LingYan; CHANG WeiXing; LI Jing


    This paper presents Sonogashira coupling reaction of aryl bromides with protected homopropargyl alcohols such as tert-butyldimethyl(1-phenylbut-3-ynyloxy)silane and tert-butyldimethyl(1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)but-3-ynyloxy)silane in piperidine catalyzed by PdCl2/PPh3 without copper(Ⅰ).The coupling products,disubstituted acetylene,are obtained in good or excellent yields.These products can be further used for the synthesis of 2,5-disubstituted 3-bromofurans.

  19. Theoretical studies on N-O or N-N bond formation from aryl azide catalyzed by iron(II) bromide complex. (United States)

    Li, Juan; Zhang, Qi; Zhou, Lixin


    DFT calculations have been carried out to study the reaction mechanism on N-O or N-N bond formation from aryl azide catalyzed by iron(II) bromide complex. A favorable reaction pathway is proposed to account for the construction of the core structure of 2H-indazoles or 2,1-benzisoxazoles.

  20. Rapid synthesis of an electron-deficient t-BuPHOX ligand: cross-coupling of aryl bromides with secondary phosphine oxides

    KAUST Repository

    McDougal, Nolan T.


    Herein an efficient and direct copper-catalyzed coupling of oxazoline-containing aryl bromides with electron-deficient secondary phosphine oxides is reported. The resulting tertiary phosphine oxides can be reduced to prepare a range of PHOX ligands. The presented strategy is a useful alternative to known methods for constructing PHOX derivatives.

  1. Palladium-catalyzed Substitution of Ketone or Aldehyde Bearing Aryl Triflates by Amines or Amides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAO Xiaochun; DAI Chunya; CAO Xiongjie; CAI Lisheng; PIKE Victor W


    Various aryl triflates, bearing ketone or aldehyde groups, were evaluated for palladium-mediated introduction of an amino group at the triflate position in the presence of various phosphine ligands. BINAP was best for secondary amines, MOP-type ligand for primary or small secondary amines and Xantphos for primary or cyclic secondary amides. No ligand was found effective for acyclic secondary amides.

  2. Reusable and Ligand-Free Palladium-Catalyzed Suzuki- Miyaura Cross-Couplings of Aryl Halides with Arylboronic Acids in Tetra-n-butylammonium Bromide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE,Ye-Xiang; WANG,Jian; LI,Jin-Heng; LIANG,Yun


    Ligand-free and reusable palladium-catalyzed Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reaction performed in TBAB (tetra-n-butylammonium bromide) was presented. It was found that the amount of water affected these reactions. Excellent results were obtained when there was w= 1% of water in TBAB. In the presence of 3 mol% of Pd(Oac)2 and 1.5 g of TBAB (containing w= 1% of water), a number of aryl halides were coupled with arylboronic acids smoothly in moderate to excellent yields. Moreover, the Pd(Oac)2/TBAB system among the couplings of aryl bro-mides and activated chlorides could be recovered and reused three times without a loss of catalytic efficiency.

  3. Tetradentate N2O2 Chelated Palladium(II Complexes: Synthesis, Characterization, and Catalytic Activity towards Mizoroki-Heck Reaction of Aryl Bromides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Kamilah Che Soh


    Full Text Available Four air and moisture-stable palladium(II-Schiff base complexes, N,N′-bis(α-methylsalicylidenepropane-1,3-diamine palladium(II (2a, N,N′-bis(4-methyl-α-methylsalicylidenepropane-1,3-diamine palladium(II (2b, N,N′-bis(3,5-di-tert-butylsalicylidenepropane-1,3-diamine palladium(II (2c, and N,N′-bis(4-methoxy-salicylidenepropane-1,3-diamine palladium(II (2d, have been successfully synthesised and characterised by CHN elemental analyses and conventional spectroscopic methods. These complexes were investigated as catalysts in the phosphine-free Mizoroki-Heck cross-coupling reactions of aryl bromides with methyl acrylate.

  4. Trifluoromethylthiolation of aryl iodides and bromides enabled by a bench-stable and easy-to-recover dinuclear palladium(I) catalyst. (United States)

    Yin, Guoyin; Kalvet, Indrek; Schoenebeck, Franziska


    While palladium catalysis is ubiquitous in modern chemical research, the recovery of the active transition-metal complex under routine laboratory applications is frequently challenging. Described herein is the concept of alternative cross-coupling cycles with a more robust (air-, moisture-, and thermally-stable) dinuclear Pd(I) complex, thus avoiding the handling of sensitive Pd(0) species or ligands. Highly efficient C-SCF3 coupling of a range of aryl iodides and bromides was achieved, and the recovery of the Pd(I) complex was accomplished via simple open-atmosphere column chromatography. Kinetic and computational data support the feasibility of dinuclear Pd(I) catalysis. A novel SCF3-bridged Pd(I) dimer was isolated, characterized by X-ray crystallography, and verified to be a competent catalytic intermediate.

  5. Organozinc Chemistry Enabled by Micellar Catalysis. Palladium-Catalyzed Cross-Couplings between Alkyl and Aryl Bromides in Water at Room Temperature. (United States)

    Duplais, Christophe; Krasovskiy, Arkady; Lipshutz, Bruce H


    Negishi-like cross-couplings between (functionalized) alkyl and aryl bromides are described. Despite the fact that organozinc reagents are intolerant of water, their formation as well as their use in an aqueous micellar environment is discussed herein. Each component of this complex series of events leading up to C-C bond formation has an important role which has been determined insofar as the type of zinc, amine ligand, surfactant, and palladium catalyst are concerned. In particular, the nature of the surfactant has been found to be crucial in order to obtain synthetically useful results involving highly reactive, moisture-sensitive organometallics. Neither organic solvent nor heat is required for these cross-couplings to occur; just add water.

  6. New air-stable planar chiral ferrocenyl monophosphine ligands: Suzuki cross-coupling of aryl chlorides and bromides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jakob Feldthusen; Johannsen, Mogens


    GraphicA novel class of planar chiral electron-rich monophosphine ligands has been developed. The modular design allows a short and efficient synthesis of an array of aryl-ferrocenyl derivatives carrying the donating bis(dicyclohexyl)phosphino moiety. These new ligands have successfully been appl...

  7. The direct arylation of benzoxazoles with aryl bromides cocatalyzed by Pd(OAc)2 and CuI%Pd(OAc)2/CuI共催化杂环C—H键与芳基溴的直接芳基化反应研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜雪明; 肖新荣; 谭倪


    研究开发了一个实用高效的Pd(OAc)2/Cul共催化体系,只需在1% Pd(OAc)2,10% CuI,0.5 mol PPh3配 体存在下,苯并唑类杂环与各种芳基溴的直接芳基化反应就能够在温和的反应条件下顺利进行,并得到良好的收率.%A practical,efficient Pd(OAc)2/CuI cocatalytic system has been developed. With only 1% Pd(OAc)2,10% CuI,and 0. 5 mol of inexpensive PPh3 as ligand,the direct arylation of benzoxazoles with aryl bromides could be performed smoothly in mild condition, affording the desired arylated benzoxazoles in good yields.

  8. Room-Temperature Palladium-Catalyzed Direct 2-Arylation of Benzoxazoles with Aryl and Heteroaryl Bromides† (United States)

    Gao, Feng; Kim, Byeong-Seon; Walsh, Patrick J.


    An efficient room-temperature palladium-catalyzed direct 2-arylation of benzoxazoles with aryl bromides is presented. The Pd(OAc)2/NiXantphos-based catalyst enables the introduction of various aryl and heteroaryl groups, via a deprotonative cross-coupling process (DCCP) in good to excellent yields (75–99%). PMID:25078988

  9. Palladium-Catalyzed Direct C-H Arylations of Dioxythiophenes Bearing Reactive Functional Groups: A Step-Economical Approach for Functional π-Conjugated Oligoarenes

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Ching-Yuan


    A Pd-catalyzed and single-step C-H arylation of dioxythiophene derivates bearing unprotected reactive functional groups (-OH, -COOH, -N3) in a phosphine-free manner has been developed. Various dioxythiopene-based oligoarenes with extended π-conjugation are obtained with good yields (up to 90%). These oligoarenes display suitable optical properties (absorption and emission maxima, quantum yields) and contain reactive functional groups suitable for further conjugations with bioactive molecules. This new methodology is step economical (fewer synthetic steps), environmental friendly (no toxic metal-containing side-poducts) and the oligoarenes synthesized are potentially applicable for bio-labeling, bioimaging, and biosensing.

  10. Aryl Radical Geometry Determines Nanographene Formation on Au(111)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobse, Peter H.; van den Hoogenband, Adrianus; Moret, Marc Etienne; Klein Gebbink, Robertus J M; Swart, Ingmar


    The Ullmann coupling has been used extensively as a synthetic tool for the formation of C−C bonds on surfaces. Thus far, most syntheses made use of aryl bromides or aryl iodides. We investigated the applicability of an aryl chloride in the bottom-up assembly of graphene nanoribbons. Specifically, th

  11. Palladium-catalyzed α-arylation of zinc enolates of esters: reaction conditions and substrate scope. (United States)

    Hama, Takuo; Ge, Shaozhong; Hartwig, John F


    The intermolecular α-arylation of esters by palladium-catalyzed coupling of aryl bromides with zinc enolates of esters is reported. Reactions of three different types of zinc enolates have been developed. α-Arylation of esters occurs in high yields with isolated Reformatsky reagents, with Reformatsky reagents generated from α-bromo esters and activated zinc, and with zinc enolates generated by quenching alkali metal enolates of esters with zinc chloride. The use of zinc enolates, instead of alkali metal enolates, greatly expands the scope of the arylation of esters. The reactions occur at room temperature or at 70 °C with bromoarenes containing cyano, nitro, ester, keto, fluoro, enolizable hydrogen, hydroxyl, or amino functionality and with bromopyridines. The scope of esters encompasses acyclic acetates, propionates, and isobutyrates, α-alkoxyesters, and lactones. The arylation of zinc enolates of esters was conducted with catalysts bearing the hindered pentaphenylferrocenyl di-tert-butylphosphine (Q-phos) or the highly reactive dimeric Pd(I) complex {[P(t-Bu)3]PdBr}2.

  12. Synthesis, Density Functional Theory (DFT, Urease Inhibition and Antimicrobial Activities of 5-Aryl Thiophenes Bearing Sulphonylacetamide Moieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mnaza Noreen


    Full Text Available A variety of novel 5-aryl thiophenes 4a–g containing sulphonylacetamide (sulfacetamide groups were synthesized in appreciable yields via Pd[0] Suzuki cross coupling reactions. The structures of these newly synthesized compounds were determined using spectral data and elemental analysis. Density functional theory (DFT studies were performed using the B3LYP/6-31G (d, p basis set to gain insight into their structural properties. Frontier molecular orbital (FMOs analysis of all compounds 4a–g was computed at the same level of theory to get an idea about their kinetic stability. The molecular electrostatic potential (MEP mapping over the entire stabilized geometries of the molecules indicated the reactive sites. First hyperpolarizability analysis (nonlinear optical response were simulated at the B3LYP/6-31G (d, p level of theory as well. The compounds were further evaluated for their promising antibacterial and anti-urease activities. In this case, the antibacterial activities were estimated by the agar well diffusion method, whereas the anti-urease activities of these compounds were determined using the indophenol method by quantifying the evolved ammonia produced. The results revealed that all the sulfacetamide derivatives displayed antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtiles, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella dysenteriae, Salmonella typhae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa at various concentrations. Furthermore, the compound 4g N-((5-(4-chlorophenylthiophen-2-ylsulfonyl acetamide showed excellent urease inhibition with percentage inhibition activity ~46.23 ± 0.11 at 15 µg/mL with IC50 17.1 µg/mL. Moreover, some other compounds 4a–f also exhibited very good inhibition against urease enzyme.

  13. Synthesis, Density Functional Theory (DFT), Urease Inhibition and Antimicrobial Activities of 5-Aryl Thiophenes Bearing Sulphonylacetamide Moieties. (United States)

    Noreen, Mnaza; Rasool, Nasir; Gull, Yasmeen; Zubair, Muhammad; Mahmood, Tariq; Ayub, Khurshid; Nasim, Faiz-Ul-Hassan; Yaqoob, Asma; Zia-Ul-Haq, Muhammad; de Feo, Vincenzo


    A variety of novel 5-aryl thiophenes 4a-g containing sulphonylacetamide (sulfacetamide) groups were synthesized in appreciable yields via Pd[0] Suzuki cross coupling reactions. The structures of these newly synthesized compounds were determined using spectral data and elemental analysis. Density functional theory (DFT) studies were performed using the B3LYP/6-31G (d, p) basis set to gain insight into their structural properties. Frontier molecular orbital (FMOs) analysis of all compounds 4a-g was computed at the same level of theory to get an idea about their kinetic stability. The molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) mapping over the entire stabilized geometries of the molecules indicated the reactive sites. First hyperpolarizability analysis (nonlinear optical response) were simulated at the B3LYP/6-31G (d, p) level of theory as well. The compounds were further evaluated for their promising antibacterial and anti-urease activities. In this case, the antibacterial activities were estimated by the agar well diffusion method, whereas the anti-urease activities of these compounds were determined using the indophenol method by quantifying the evolved ammonia produced. The results revealed that all the sulfacetamide derivatives displayed antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtiles, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella dysenteriae, Salmonella typhae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa at various concentrations. Furthermore, the compound 4g N-((5-(4-chlorophenyl)thiophen-2-yl)sulfonyl) acetamide showed excellent urease inhibition with percentage inhibition activity ~46.23 ± 0.11 at 15 µg/mL with IC50 17.1 µg/mL. Moreover, some other compounds 4a-f also exhibited very good inhibition against urease enzyme.

  14. Bear

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The famous physicist made for his scholars this riddle. A fellow encountered a bear in a wasteland. There was nobody else there. Both were frightened and ran away. Fellow to the north, bear to the west. Suddenly the fellow stopped, aimed his gun to the south and shot the bear. What colour was the bear?

  15. 吡啶氮桥联三唑卡宾反应性质及其Pd(Ⅱ)-配合物催化杂芳环与芳基溴的α-烷基化反应研究%Study on Reactivity of Pyrido-annulated Triazol-3-ylidenes and Its Application of Pd(Ⅱ)Complex in α-Arylation of Caffeines with Aryl Bromide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马亚军; 严彪; 郭政科; 赵明涛; 韩海飞; 程芬芬; 葛靖国; 王金龙; 张岗虎


    The triazolium carbene 2 and the pyrido-annulated triazolium carbene enetetramine 4 were synthesized from the pyrido-annulated triazolium salt 1 by deproton under strong base NaH and weak base K2CO3.The reaction performances of the carbene 2 and its enetetramine 4 with electrophilic reagents had also been studied, and the X-ray single-crystal analysis of the product N-ehthyl-N-(pyridine-1-yl)formohy-drazide 3 was studied.Reaction condition effect was tested.The Pd(Ⅱ) complex of the triazolium carbene 2 turned out to be a powerful catalyst in direct α-arylation of caffeines with aryl bromide, which was comparable with or even superior to other well-established triazolylidenes already in the literature.%报道了吡啶氮桥联的双环三唑鎓盐1在NaH,K2CO3为碱的条件下脱去质子,分别形成三唑卡宾2和吡啶氮桥联三唑卡宾二聚体4,研究了2和4与亲电试剂的反应性质,2与水的反应产物Ⅳ-乙基-N'-吡啶基甲醛肼3经单晶衍射结构分析.考察了配体1的卡宾-Pd(Ⅱ)配合物催化咖啡因与芳基溴的α-芳基化反应,在优化催化反应条件下,比较了不同三唑鎓盐之间的催化活性.结果表明,三唑鎓盐1表现出优良的催化活性.

  16. Palladium Catalyzed Suzuki Cross-coupling Reaction in Molten Tetra-n-butylammonium Bromide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZOU, Yue(邹岳); WANG, Quan-Rui(王全瑞); TAO, Feng-Gang(陶凤岗); DING, Zong-Biao(丁宗彪)


    A practical procedure for palladium catalyzed Suzuki cross-coupling reaction of arylboronic acids with aryl halides, including aryl chlorides in molten tetra-n-butylammonium bromide (TBAB) was developed. The reaction exhibits high efficiency and functional group tolerance. The recovery of the catalyst and molten n-Bu4NBr was also investigated.

  17. Unusual selectivity-determining factors in the phosphine-free Heck arylation of allyl ethers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambrogio, I.; Fabrizi, G.; Cacchi, S.


    The Heck reaction of aryl iodides and bromides with allyl ethers has been investigated. Using phosphinefree Pd(OAc)(2) in DNIF at 90 degrees C in the presence of Bu4NOAc, the reaction gave cinnamyl derivatives, usually in good to high yields, with a wide range of aryl halides. The reaction tolera...

  18. Highly Active and Isospecific Styrene Polymerization Catalyzed by Zirconium Complexes Bearing Aryl-substituted [OSSO]-Type Bis(phenolate Ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norio Nakata


    Full Text Available [OSSO]-type dibenzyl zirconium(IV complexes 9 and 10 possessing aryl substituents ortho to the phenoxide moieties (ortho substituents, phenyl and 2,6-dimethylphenyl (Dmp were synthesized and characterized. Upon activation with dMAO (dried methylaluminoxane, complex 9 was found to promote highly isospecific styrene polymerizations ([mm] = 97.5%–99% with high molecular weights Mw up to 181,000 g·mmol−1. When the Dmp-substituted pre-catalyst 10/dMAO system was used, the highest activity, over 7700 g·mmol(10−1·h−1, was recorded involving the formation of precisely isospecific polystyrenes of [mm] more than 99%.

  19. Room temperature N-arylation of amino acids and peptides using copper(I) and β-diketone. (United States)

    Sharma, Krishna K; Sharma, Swagat; Kudwal, Anurag; Jain, Rahul


    A mild and efficient method for the N-arylation of zwitterionic amino acids, amino acid esters and peptides is described. The procedure provides the first room temperature synthesis of N-arylated amino acids and peptides using CuI as a catalyst, diketone as a ligand, and aryl iodides as coupling partners. The method is equally applicable for using relatively inexpensive aryl bromides as coupling partners at 80 °C. Using this procedure, electronically and sterically diverse aryl halides, containing reactive functional groups were efficiently coupled in good to excellent yields.

  20. Pd-NHC-Catalyzed Direct Arylation of 1,4-Disubstituted 1,2,3-Triazoles with Aryl Halides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何涛; 王敏; 李品华; 王磊


    A highly efficient method for the synthesis of unsymmetrical multi-substituted 1,2,3-triazoles via a direct Pd-NHC system catalyzed C(5)-arylation of 1,4-disubstituted triazoles, which are readily accessible via "click" chemistry has been developed. It is important to note that C--H bond functionalizations of 1,2,3-triazoles with a variety of differently substituted aryl iodides and bromides as electrophiles can be conveniently achieved through this catalytic system at significantly milder reaction temperatures of 100 ℃ under air.

  1. Atom-efficient coupling reaction of aryl bromideswith sodium tetraphenylborate catalyzed by reusable Pd/C in water under focused microwave irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Bai


    A rapid and heterogeneous Pal/C-catalyzed atom-efficient phenylation of aryl bromides by sodium tetraphenylborate takes place under focused microwave irradiation in water.The palladium catalyst can be easily recovered and reused.

  2. Palladium-catalyzed α-arylation of benzylic phosphine oxides. (United States)

    Montel, Sonia; Jia, Tiezheng; Walsh, Patrick J


    A novel approach to prepare diarylmethyl phosphine oxides from benzyl phosphine oxides via deprotonative cross-coupling processes (DCCP) is reported. The optimization of the reaction was guided by High-Throughput Experimentation (HTE) techniques. The Pd(OAc)2/Xantphos-based catalyst enabled the reaction between benzyl diphenyl or dicyclohexyl phosphine oxide derivatives and aryl bromides in good to excellent yields (51-91%).

  3. Efficient synthesis of π-conjugated molecules incorporating fluorinated phenylene units through palladium-catalyzed iterative C(sp2–H bond arylations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatiha Abdelmalek


    Full Text Available We report herein a two or three step synthesis of fluorinated π-conjugated oligomers through iterative C–H bond arylations. Palladium-catalyzed desulfitative arylation of heteroarenes allowed in a first step the synthesis of fluoroaryl-heteroarene units in high yields. Then, the next steps involve direct arylation with aryl bromides catalyzed by PdCl(C3H5(dppb to afford triad or tetrad heteroaromatic compounds via regioselective activation of C(sp2–H bonds.

  4. Peripheral arylation of subporphyrazines. (United States)

    Higashino, Tomohiro; Rodríguez-Morgade, M Salomé; Osuka, Atsuhiro; Torres, Tomás


    Peripherally hexaarylated subporphyrazines (SubPzs) have been prepared through a Pd-catalyzed, CuTC-mediated coupling of a hexaethylsulfanylated subporphyrazine with arylboronic acids. The introduced aryl substituents strongly influence the electronic properties of the subporphyrazine through effective conjugative interaction. Aryl rings endowed with π-electron-donating groups at the para positions produce a remarkable perturbation of the electron density of the SubPz macrocycle. This is reflected through significant redshifts of the SubPz CT and Q-bands, together with increase of the molar absorptivity of the former, with respect to those exhibited by the hexaphenyl-SubPz 2 a. Moreover, the trend in the first SubPz reduction potentials correlates with the Hammett constants (σp ) corresponding to the para substituents of the aryl. The domed, extended SubPz π-system self-assembles in the solid state to form a dimeric capsule that houses a solvent molecule.

  5. Homocoupling of aryl halides in flow: Space integration of lithiation and FeCl3 promoted homocoupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiichiro Nagaki


    Full Text Available The use of FeCl3 resulted in a fast homocoupling of aryllithiums, and this enabled its integration with the halogen–lithium exchange reaction of aryl halides in a flow microreactor. This system allows the homocoupling of two aryl halides bearing electrophilic functional groups, such as CN and NO2, in under a minute.

  6. The effect of surfactants on the aggregation behavior of phthalocyanine zinc (Ⅱ) bearing poly(aryl benzyl ether)dendritic substituents with carboxylic terminal%表面活性剂对以羧基为端基的芳基苄醚树枝配体取代酞菁锌(Ⅱ)配合物聚集行为的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈婉玲; 彭亦如; 贺丹丹; 马冬冬; 张甜甜; 魏珍珍; 吴雪蓉


    通过紫外光谱法和荧光光谱法比较,研究了阳离子表面活性剂十六烷基三甲基溴化铵(CTAB)对0~2代以羧基为端基的芳基苄醚树枝配体取代酞菁锌(Ⅱ)配合物(ZnPc(COOH)4、G1-ZnPc(COOH)8和G2-ZnPc (COOH )16)聚集行为的影响。ZnPc (COOH)4、G1-ZnPc(COOH)8和 G2-ZnPc(COOH)16在水溶液中主要以二聚体形式存在。加入 CTAB 后, ZnPc (COOH )4、G1-ZnPc (COOH )8和 G2-ZnPc (COOH)16的单体吸收峰强度均增强,二聚体吸收峰强度均逐渐减弱;荧光光谱均明显增强,这表明 CTAB对树枝酞菁体系具有明显的解聚作用。这是因为 Zn-Pc (COOH )4、G1-ZnPc (COOH )8和 G2-ZnPc (COOH)16表面带负电荷的羧基与带正电荷的 CTAB通过静电作用形成纳米胶束,破坏了羧基酞菁聚集体之间的氢键。通过Zetasize粒度分析仪研究了不同浓度的CTAB与羧基酞菁形成纳米胶束的粒径分布情况,平均粒径范围约在5~30 nm,并随着 CTAB 浓度的增加,纳米胶束的平均粒径增大;随着树枝代数增加,纳米胶束的平均粒径逐渐减小。因此,阳离子表面活性剂CTAB可以有效抑制酞菁在水溶液中的聚集行为,在开展酞菁的光化学和物理研究方面具有很好的应用前景。%The interaction between the phthalocyanine zinc(Ⅱ)bearing poly(aryl benzyl ether)dendritic substit-uents with carboxylic terminal (ZnPc(COOH)4 ,G1-ZnPc(COOH)8 and G2-ZnPc(COOH)16 )and cationic sur-factants(cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide(CTAB))were studied by fluorescence and UV-Vis spectroscopic methods.ZnPc(COOH)4 ,G1-ZnPc(COOH)8 and G2-ZnPc(COOH)16 mainly existed as a dimer at 625 nm in aqueous media,but they mainly exhibited as monomers at 685 nm with addition of CTAB.As the concentra-tion of CTAB increased,the intensity of the monomeric absorption peak increased,while that of the dimer peaks decreased gradually.Meanwhile,the fluorescence intensity of ZnPc(COOH)4 ,G1-ZnPc(COOH)8 and G2-ZnPc(COOH)16 also markedly enhanced

  7. Rapacuronium bromide (Organon Teknika). (United States)

    Plowman, A N


    Organon Teknika's rapacuronium bromide (Org-9487), the 16-N-allyl, 17-beta-propionate analog of vecuronium bromide, is in phase III clinical trials in the US and Europe for potential use as an anesthetic. It is a steroidal neuromuscular blocking drug characterized by low potency, rapid rate of block development and short time course of neuromuscular blocking action as compared with other non-depolarizing compounds [170210,221422]. A multicenter, randomized, assessor-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-finding study in patients undergoing tracheal intubation showed that the drug produced a dose dependent neuromuscular block. Doses of 1.5 to 2 mg/kg allowed rapid intubation and short duration of action [273336]. Another study showed that the drug does not cause cardiovascular side-effects [273336]. A meeting was held in Europe on 8 February 1999 to brief company employees on the registration and release of rapacuronium [319211] for which the company anticipates a launch in late 1999 [320706]. Organon estimates that the market value of Org-9487 is between dollar 100 m and dollar 250 m a year, each for Europe and the US [221422].

  8. Amination Reactions of Aryl Halides with Nitrogen-Containing Reagents Catalyzed by Cul in Ionic Liquid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN,Jin-Can; ZHOU,Li; WANG,Lei


    CuI-catalyzed coupling reactions of aryl iodides and electron-deficient aryl bromides with nitrogen-containing reagents, such as imidazole, benzimidazole, aliphatic primary and secondary amines, aniline, primary and secondary amides, in ionic liquid were developed. The reaction conditions involved the use of[Bmim][BF4] as the solvent,potassium phosphate as the base, and CuI as the catalyst. The CuI and[Bmim][BF4] could be recovered and recycled for five consecutive trials without significant loss of their activity.

  9. Pd/C-Catalyzed Carbonylative Esterification of Aryl Halides with Alcohols by Using Oxiranes as CO Sources. (United States)

    Min, Byul-Hana; Kim, Dong-Su; Park, Hyo-Soon; Jun, Chul-Ho


    A carbonylative esterification reaction between aryl bromides and alcohols, promoted by Pd/C and NaF in the presence of oxiranes, has been developed. In this process, oxiranes serve as sources of carbon monoxide by their conversion to aldehydes through a palladium-promoted Meinwald rearrangement pathway. Intramolecular versions of this process serve as methods for the synthesis of lactones and phthalimides.

  10. Eco-friendly synthesis of 2-substituted benzothiazoles catalyzed by cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) in water


    Yang, Xiao-Liang; Xu, Chun-Mei; Lin,Shao-Miao; Chen,Jiu-Xi; Ding,Jin-Chang; Wu,Hua-Yue; Su,Wei-Ke


    A series of 2-substituted benzothiazoles have been synthesized by the condensation of 2-aminothiophenol with aldehydes (RCHO: R = Alkyl, Aryl, Heteroaryl, 2-Arylformyl) in the presence of a catalytic amount of cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) "on water" by a one-pot procedure without additional organic solvents and oxidants. Thereinto, 2-alkylbenzothiazoles were synthesized in high yields and 2-arylformylbenzothiazoles were obtained from the condensation of 2-aminothiophenol with arylfo...

  11. Nickel-catalyzed cross-electrophile coupling of 2-chloropyridines with alkyl bromides. (United States)

    Everson, Daniel A; Buonomo, Joseph A; Weix, Daniel J


    The synthesis of 2-alkylated pyridines by the nickel-catalyzed cross-coupling of two different electrophiles, 2-chloropyridines with alkyl bromides, is described. Compared to our previously published conditions for aryl halides, this method uses the different, more rigid bathophenanthroline ligand and is conducted at high concentration in DMF solvent. The method displays promising functional group compatibility and the conditions are orthogonal to the Stille coupling.

  12. Direct N9-arylation of purines with aryl halides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anders Foller; Ulven, Trond


    An efficient method for N-arylation of purines is reported. The N-arylation is catalysed by Cu(i) and 4,7-bis(2-hydroxyethylamino)-1,10-phenanthroline (BHPhen) in aqueous DMF or ethanol. The reaction generally proceeds with high selectivity for the N(9)-position....

  13. Rh(I)-Catalyzed Arylation of Heterocycles via C-H Bond Activation: Expanded Scope Through Mechanistic Insight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Jared; Berman, Ashley; Bergman, Robert; Ellman, Jonathan


    A practical, functional group tolerant method for the Rh-catalyzed direct arylation of a variety of pharmaceutically important azoles with aryl bromides is described. Many of the successful azole and aryl bromide coupling partners are not compatible with methods for the direct arylation of heterocycles using Pd(0) or Cu(I) catalysts. The readily prepared, low molecular weight ligand, Z-1-tert-butyl-2,3,6,7-tetrahydrophosphepine, which coordinates to Rh in a bidentate P-olefin fashion to provide a highly active yet thermally stable arylation catalyst, is essential to the success of this method. By using the tetrafluoroborate salt of the corresponding phosphonium, the reactions can be assembled outside of a glove box without purification of reagents or solvent. The reactions are also conducted in THF or dioxane, which greatly simplifies product isolation relative to most other methods for direct arylation of azoles employing high-boiling amide solvents. The reactions are performed with heating in a microwave reactor to obtain excellent product yields in two hours.

  14. Methylnaltrexone bromide methanol monosolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinbo Zhou


    Full Text Available In the title compound [systematic name: (4R,4aS,7aR,12bS-3-cyclopropylmethyl-4a,9-hydroxy-7-oxo-2,3,4,4a,5,6,7,7a-octahydro-1H-4,12-methanobenzofuro[3,2-e]isoquinolin-3-ium bromide methanol monosolvate], C21H26NO4+·Br−·CH3OH, two of the three six-membered rings adopt chair conformations while the third, which contains a C=C double bond, adopts an approximate half-boat conformation. The 2,3-dihydrofuran ring adopts an envelope conformation. In the crystal, the components are linked by O—H...O and O—H...Br hydrogen bonds. The absolute stereochemistry was inferred from one of the starting materials.

  15. Iron bromide vapor laser (United States)

    Sukhanov, V. B.; Shiyanov, D. V.; Trigub, M. V.; Dimaki, V. A.; Evtushenko, G. S.


    We have studied the characteristics of a pulsed gas-discharge laser on iron bromide vapor generating radiation with a wavelength of 452.9 nm at a pulse repetition frequency (PRF) of 5-30 kHz. The maximum output power amounted to 10 mW at a PRF within 5-15 kHz for a voltage of 20-25 kV applied to electrodes of the discharge tube. Addition of HBr to the medium produced leveling of the radial profile of emission. Initial weak lasing at a wavelength of 868.9 nm was observed for the first time, which ceased with buildup of the main 452.9-nm line.

  16. A facile synthesis of new 5-aryl-thiophenes bearing sulfonamide moiety via Pd(0-catalyzed Suzuki–Miyaura cross coupling reactions and 5-bromothiophene-2-acetamide: As potent urease inhibitor, antibacterial agent and hemolytically active compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mnaza Noreen


    Full Text Available The present study reports a convenient approach for the synthesis of thiophene sulfonamide derivatives (3a–3k via Suzuki cross coupling reaction. This method of synthesis involved the reactions of various aryl boronic acids and esters with 5-bromthiophene-2-sulfonamide (2 under mild and suitable temperature conditions. The compounds synthesized in the present study were subjected to urease inhibition and hemolytic activities. The substitution pattern and the electronic effects of different functional groups (i.e., Cl, CH3, OCH3, F etc. available on the aromatic ring are found to have significant effect on the overall results. The compound 5-Phenylthiophene-2-sulfonamide 3a showed the highest urease inhibition activity with IC50 value ∼ 30.8 μg/mL compared with the thiourea (used as standard having IC50 value ∼ 43 μg/mL. Moreover, almost all of the compounds were examined for the hemolytic activity against triton X-100 with positive results obtained in most of the cases. In addition, the antibacterial activities of the derivatives of 5-arylthiophene-2-sulfonamide and 5-bromothiophene-2-acetamide were also investigated during the course of the study.

  17. Synthesis of Novel 3-Aryl Isoindolinone Derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Chen-ming; ZHENG Lian-you; PEI Ya-zhong; BAI Xu


    A library of novel 3-aryl isoindolinone derivatives with aromatic amino acid derivative fragments was designed and synthesized.Two synthetic routes were employed to construct 3-aryl isoindolinone ring system for different amino acid derivatives.

  18. Direct preparation of copper organometallics bearing an aldehyde function via an iodine-copper exchange. (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoyin; Knochel, Paul


    The iodine-copper exchange reaction allows the direct preparation of various aryl, heteroaryl and alkenyl cuprates bearing a formyl group, thus allowing a direct synthesis of polyfunctional aldehydes without the need of protecting groups or an additional oxidation step.

  19. The effect of dendritic generations on the singlet oxygen production of silicon(IV) phthalocyanine axially bearing poly(nitro aryl benzyl ether) dendritic substituents%代数对芳基苄醚树枝状酞菁硅(Ⅳ)光敏产生单线态氧的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑜华; 刘静; 郑思宁; 郑莉琴; 杨洪钦; 彭亦如


    光敏剂产生单线态氧的能力是评价其光动力活性的因素之一。采用2,5-二甲基呋喃为吸收剂,通过高效液相色谱法研究了1-3代硝基芳基苄醚树枝配体轴向取代酞菁硅(Ⅳ)单线态氧的生成速率、生成速率常数及量子产率。结果表明,轴向取代酞菁硅(Ⅳ)单线态氧的生成速率和生成速率常数均随着树枝代数的增加而逐渐增大,低代的树枝配体轴向取代酞菁硅(Ⅳ)的单线态氧量子产率较高,这可能与不同代树枝配体对酞菁核的位点分离有关。研究将为开发轴向取代酞菁硅(Ⅳ)配合物作为新型光敏剂提供重要的理论参考。%The singlet oxygen(102) production capabilitity of photosensitizers is an important factor to assess their potential as effective photodynamic therapy(PDT) agents. In this paper, the 102 production rate, produc- tion rate constant and quantum yield of silicon(IV) phthalocyanine axially bearing 1-3rd generations poly(nitro aryl benzyl ether) dendritic substituents were evaluated by a high performance liquid chromatographic method. The results show that the 1O2 production rate and production rate constant of these compounds increase gradu- ally with dendritic generations increase. And the 102 quantum yield of silicon(IV) phthalocyanine with 1St gen- eration dendritic ligand was the highest. This may be due to the isolation effect of the dendritic ligands on the phthalocyanine core. The parameters of the observed 102 production properties will provide valuable data for these dendrimer phthalocyanines as promising photosensitizer in PDT application.

  20. Clean and fast cross-coupling of aryl halides in one-pot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerica Pandarus


    Full Text Available Unsymmetrically coupled biaryls are synthesized in high yield starting from different aryl bromides and bis(pinacolatodiboron by carrying out the Miyaura borylation reaction followed by the Suzuki–Miyaura reaction in the same reaction pot over 1–2 mol % SiliaCat DPP-Pd. The SiliaCat DPP-Pd catalyst is air-stable and the method does not require the use of inert conditions. The use of non-toxic isopropanol or 2-butanol as reaction solvent further adds to the environmental benefits of this new green synthetic methodology.

  1. Conversion of Alcohols to Bromides by Trimethylsilane and lithium Bromide in Acetone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Feng; Zhang Xiao-xia; Zhang Qing; Wang Ji-yu; Chen Dai-mo


    Conversion of alcohols to alkyl bromides is one of the most frequently used functional group transformation reactions. Phosphorus tribromide is one of the most popular classical reagents.Triphenylphosphine has been used in combination with bromine,carbon tetrabromide,N-halo imides and other bromide compounds as a mild reagents for the preparation of alkyl bromides.More reacently, halotrimethylsilanes were found to be useful for halogenation of alcohols. George A.Olah successfully converted alcohols to bromides with chlorotrimethylsilane/lithium bromide in acetonitrile. But in our research, we found that we got no bromides but methylation products when we planed to convered our substances to bromides according to Gerge's method. We did some experiments, and we found that when the substituent group in the 2-N was donor group,we got the methylation products,but when it was acceptor group,the bromide could be got.(Scheme 1).Then we did some experiments with several other solvents, we found excitedly that when the solvent was acetone ,the bromides could be got even the substituent group was donor.(Scheme 2).When we changed the substances to normal alcohols ,such as ethyl alcohol,benzyl alcohol,isopropyl alcohol and 3,4-dimethoxy benzyl alcohol,we also got the bromides.In conclusion, we found a simple method to convert alcohols to bromides with trimethylsilane/li thium bromide in acetone,which was better than Geroge's method.

  2. Iridium-catalysed dehydrocoupling of aryl phosphine-borane adducts: synthesis and characterisation of high molecular weight poly(phosphinoboranes). (United States)

    Paul, Ursula S D; Braunschweig, Holger; Radius, Udo


    The thermal dehydrogenative coupling of aryl phosphine-borane adducts with iridium complexes bearing a bis(phosphinite) pincer ligand is reported. This catalysis produces high molecular weight poly(phosphinoboranes) [ArPH-BH2]n (Ar = Ph, (p)Tol, Mes). Furthermore, we investigated the reactivity of these pincer complexes towards primary phosphines and their respective borane adducts on a stoichiometric scale.

  3. Isotachophoretic separation of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide. (United States)

    Praus, Petr


    Capillary isotachophoresis (ITP), equipped with the conductivity detection, was tested for the separation of cetyltrimethylamonium (CTMA) bromide. To prevent adsorption of CTMA to the capillary walls, several neutral polymers and ethanol were added into the leading electrolytes. Unlike polymer additives, the CTMA free monomers and micelles, created as a result of the isotachophoretic concentration effect, were recognised in the presence of ethanol from 10 to 25% (v/v). At 30% of ethanol, only a single zone of CTMA monomer was registered because the micellization process did not take place under this condition. Employing an ITP apparatus in the column-coupling configuration, the operational system with 30% of ethanol was tested for the determination of CTMA in hair conditioners. The achieved detection limits were about 0.02mM. Both model solutions and real samples of hair conditioners were analysed with the precision about R.S.D. = 3%. One analysis in the column-coupled system takes circa 15min.

  4. Growth and characterization of lead bromide crystals (United States)

    Singh, N. B.; Gottlieb, M.; Henningsen, T.; Hopkins, R. H.; Mazelsky, R.; Glicksman, M. E.; Coriell, S. R.; Santoro, G. J.; Duval, W. M. B.


    Lead(II) bromide was purified by a combination of directional freezing and zone-refining methods. Differential thermal analysis of the lead bromide showed that a destructive phase transformation occurs below the melting temperature. This transformation causes extensive cracking, making it very difficult to grow a large single crystal. Energy of phase transformation for pure lead bromide was determined to be 24.67 cal/g. To circumvent this limitation, crystals were doped by silver bromide which decreased the energy of phase transformation. The addition of silver helped in achieving the size, but enhanced the inhomogeneity in the crystal. The acoustic attenuation constant was almost identical for the pure and doped (below 3000 ppm) crystals.

  5. Journal bearing (United States)

    Menke, John R.; Boeker, Gilbert F.


    1. An improved journal bearing comprising in combination a non-rotatable cylindrical bearing member having a first bearing surface, a rotatable cylindrical bearing member having a confronting second bearing surface having a plurality of bearing elements, a source of lubricant adjacent said bearing elements for supplying lubricant thereto, each bearing element consisting of a pair of elongated relatively shallowly depressed surfaces lying in a cylindrical surface co-axial with the non-depressed surface and diverging from one another in the direction of rotation and obliquely arranged with respect to the axis of rotation of said rotatable member to cause a flow of lubricant longitudinally along said depressed surfaces from their distal ends toward their proximal ends as said bearing members are rotated relative to one another, each depressed surface subtending a radial angle of less than, and means for rotating said rotatable bearing member to cause the lubricant to flow across and along said depressed surfaces, the flow of lubricant being impeded by the non-depressed portions of said second bearing surface to cause an increase in the lubricant pressure.

  6. Lithium choreography: intramolecular arylations of carbamate-stabilised carbanions and their mechanisms probed by in situ IR spectroscopy and DFT calculations. (United States)

    Fournier, Anne M; Nichols, Christopher J; Vincent, Mark A; Hillier, Ian H; Clayden, Jonathan


    Deprotonation of O-allyl, O-propargyl or O-benzyl carbamates in the presence of a lithium counterion leads to carbamate-stabilised organolithium compounds that may be quenched with electrophiles. We now report that when the allylic, propargylic or benzylic carbamate bears an N-aryl substituent, an aryl migration takes place, leading to stereochemical inversion and C-arylation of the carbamate α to oxygen. The aryl migration is an intramolecular S(N) Ar reaction, despite the lack of anion-stabilising aryl substituents. Our in situ IR studies reveal a number of intermediates along the rearrangement pathway, including a "pre-lithiation complex," the deprotonated carbamate, the rearranged anion, and the final arylated carbamate. No evidence was obtained for a dearomatised intermediate during the aryl migration. DFT calculations predict that during the reaction the solvated Li cation moves from the carbanion centre, thus freeing its lone pair for nucleophilic attack on the remote phenyl ring. This charge separation leads to several alternative conformations. The one having Li(+) bound to the carbamate oxygen gives rise to the lowest-energy transition structure, and also leads to inversion of the configuration. In agreement with the IR studies, the DFT calculations fail to locate a dearomatised intermediate.

  7. Rapid Synthesis of Glycosyl Bromides by Ultrasound Irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Jin-zhong; ZHANG Xue-qin; WU Xin; XING Ze-bing; YUE Ai-qin; SHAO Hua-wu


    A convenient and environmentally friendly reactor for the synthesis of glycosyl bromides via ultrasound irradiation was designed.Peracetylated glycosyl bromides were synthesized from free saccharides by means of a one-pot method.Benzoylated and 6-subsituted glycosyl bromides were prepared from protected saccharides.The glycosyl bromides were obtained in isolated yields of 83% to 96%.

  8. Palladium-catalysed ortho arylation of acetanilides

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Guo-zhen zhang; Cheng-Qun Chen; Xin-Hua Feng; Guo-Sheng Huang


    The palladium-catalysed direct arylation of acetanilides by using C-H activation methodology has been demonstrated. Several acetanilides were coupled with aryl iodides in the presence of 10 mol% of Pd(OAc)2, 1.0 equiv of Cu(OTf)2, and 0.6 equiv of Ag2O to afford the corresponding products in moderate to excellent yields. The results showed that the amount of Ag2O was important for this protocol.

  9. Microwave Assisted Synthesis of N-Aryl-N'-[5-(4- Chlorophenyl)-2-Furoyl]-Thioureas And Ureas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; XiCun


    Substituted thioureas have attracted much attention due to their herbicidal1, antibacterial2, anti-HIV3 and plant-growth regulating4 activity. Meanwhile substituted ureas are not only used as medicines and agrochemicals because of their antiinflammatory5, analgesic5 and insectcidal6 activity, but also used as intermediates for the synthesis of many important heterocyclic compounds. In addition, 5-aryl-2-furoic acid derivatives have been used as antibacterial agent7, local anesthesia8, analgesic9 and plant-growth regulator10. Therefore, with the objective of obtaining new biologically active compounds, it is necessary to investigate the convenient and efficient method to prepare new compounds bearing 5-aryl-2-furoyl and thiourea or 5-aryl-2-furoyl and urea moieties.  ……

  10. Microwave Assisted Synthesis of N-Aryl-N'-[5-(4- Chlorophenyl)-2-Furoyl]-Thioureas And Ureas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ Substituted thioureas have attracted much attention due to their herbicidal1, antibacterial2, anti-HIV3 and plant-growth regulating4 activity. Meanwhile substituted ureas are not only used as medicines and agrochemicals because of their antiinflammatory5, analgesic5 and insectcidal6 activity, but also used as intermediates for the synthesis of many important heterocyclic compounds. In addition, 5-aryl-2-furoic acid derivatives have been used as antibacterial agent7, local anesthesia8, analgesic9 and plant-growth regulator10. Therefore, with the objective of obtaining new biologically active compounds, it is necessary to investigate the convenient and efficient method to prepare new compounds bearing 5-aryl-2-furoyl and thiourea or 5-aryl-2-furoyl and urea moieties.

  11. CuI-catalyzed Synthesis of Aryl Thiocyanates from Aryl Iodides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ye Feng WANG; Yuan ZHOU; Jia Rui WANG; Lei LIU; Qing Xiang GUO


    An operationally simple and inexpensive catalyst system was developed for the cross coupling of potassium thiocyanate with aryl iodides by using CuI as catalyst, 1, 10-phenanthroline as ligand, and tetraethylammonium iodide as activator. The procedure is applicable for the synthesis of diverse aryl thiocyanates without any exotic, poisonous reagents.

  12. Grizzly bear (United States)

    Schwartz, C.C.; Miller, S.D.; Haroldson, M.A.; Feldhamer, G.; Thompson, B.; Chapman, J.


    The grizzly bear inspires fear, awe, and respect in humans to a degree unmatched by any other North American wild mammal. Like other bear species, it can inflict serious injury and death on humans and sometimes does. Unlike the polar bear (Ursus maritimus) of the sparsely inhabited northern arctic, however, grizzly bears still live in areas visited by crowds of people, where presence of the grizzly remains physically real and emotionally dominant. A hike in the wilderness that includes grizzly bears is different from a stroll in a forest from which grizzly bears have been purged; nighttime conversations around the campfire and dreams in the tent reflect the presence of the great bear. Contributing to the aura of the grizzly bear is the mixture of myth and reality about its ferocity. unpredictable disposition, large size, strength, huge canines, long claws, keen senses, swiftness, and playfulness. They share characteristics with humans such as generalist life history strategies. extended periods of maternal care, and omnivorous diets. These factors capture the human imagination in ways distinct from other North American mammals. Precontact Native American legends reflected the same fascination with the grizzly bear as modern stories and legends (Rockwell 1991).

  13. One-pot, two-step, microwave-assisted palladium-catalyzed conversion of aryl alcohols to aryl fluorides via aryl nonaflates. (United States)

    Wannberg, Johan; Wallinder, Charlotta; Ünlüsoy, Meltem; Sköld, Christian; Larhed, Mats


    A convenient procedure for converting aryl alcohols to aryl fluorides via aryl nonafluorobutylsulfonates (ArONf) is presented. Moderate to good one-pot, two-step yields were achieved by this nonaflation and microwave-assisted, palladium-catalyzed fluorination sequence. The reductive elimination step was investigated by DFT calculations to compare fluorination with chlorination, proving a larger thermodynamic driving force for the aryl fluoride product. Finally, a key aryl fluoride intermediate for the synthesis of a potent HCV NS3 protease inhibitor was smoothly prepared with the novel protocol.

  14. [Pharmacology of the bronchospasmolytic oxitropium bromide]. (United States)

    Bauer, V R


    The anticholinergic substance (8r)-6 beta, 7 beta-epoxy-8-ethyl-3 alpha-[(-)-tropoyloxyl]-1 alpha H, 5 alpha H-tropanium bromide (oxitropium bromide, Ba 253 BR, Ventilat) is a competitive antagonist of acetylcholine. In vitro, it is many times as effective as atropine. In vivo, oxitropium bromide, following i.v. administration, is also more effective than atropine. Due to its quaternary structure, a central anticholinergic effect cannot be demonstrated. Furthermore, poor enteral resorption is to be expected. Locally administered, as an aqueous aerosol, the effect of the substance is distinctly greater than that of atropine, both in potency and duration of action. This is also true when administered by metered-dose inhaler compared with ipratropium bromide. As, following aerosol administration, the margin between major effect and the most sensitive side-effect is in the ratio 1 : 100, side-effects are unlikely even with marked inhalational overdosage. Oxitropium bromide can be described, therefore, as a preparation free of side-effects which represents in prophylactic use in many cases of obstructive airway disease, an alternative to beta-mimetics and xanthine derivatives.

  15. Synthesis of pyrazole containing α-amino acids via a highly regioselective condensation/aza-Michael reaction of β-aryl α,β-unsaturated ketones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilfillan, Lynne; Artschwager, Raik; Harkiss, Alexander H.; Liskamp, Rob M J; Sutherland, Andrew


    A synthetic approach for the preparation of a new class of highly conjugated unnatural α-amino acids bearing a 5-arylpyrazole side-chain has been developed. Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons reaction of an aspartic acid derived β-keto phosphonate ester with a range of aromatic aldehydes gave β-aryl α,β-unsatu

  16. Biological processes for the production of aryl sulfates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The present invention generally relates to the field of biotechnology as it applies to the production of aryl sulfates using polypeptides or recombinant cells comprising said polypeptides. More particularly, the present invention pertains to polypeptides having aryl sulfotransferase activity......, recombinant host cells expressing same and processes for the production of aryl sulfates employing these polypeptides or recombinant host cells....

  17. Palladium catalyzed C3-arylation of 4-hydroxy-2-pyridones. (United States)

    Anagnostaki, Elissavet E; Fotiadou, Anna D; Demertzidou, Vera; Zografos, Alexandros L


    The direct arylation of N-substituted-4-hydroxy-2-pyridones with aryl boronic acids has been achieved under palladium catalysis. The mild reaction conditions applied in this method and the use of a conventional catalytic system offer an attractive protocol for the efficient synthesis of a variety of 3-arylated products.

  18. Half-sandwich nickel(II complexes bearing 1,3-di(cycloalkylimidazol-2-ylidene ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnathon Yau


    Full Text Available Two new nickel catalysts have been prepared using a convenient procedure where nickelocene, the NHC·HBF4 salts, and [Et4N]Cl were heated in THF using microwave irradiation. The resulting [NiCl(Cp(NHC] complexes are air- and moisture stable in the solid state, and represent two new members of this valuable and practical class of nickel catalysts. The new species were fully characterised using methods including NMR spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography. When tested in model Suzuki–Miyaura cross-coupling reactions, these complexes were found to be active for the cross-coupling of aryl bromides and aryl chlorides.

  19. Electrical polarization of lead bromide crystals. I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoonman, A.; Macke, A.J.H.


    An attempt was made to measure electronic conductivity in lead bromide in equilibrium with lead, since experimental data on the cell −Pb/PbBr2/C+ in the literature are not consistent with existing theories. Combination of our results with published data for bromine-induced hole conduction in lead br

  20. Foil bearings (United States)

    Elrod, David A.


    The rolling element bearings (REB's) which support many turbomachinery rotors offer high load capacity, low power requirements, and durability. Two disadvantages of REB's are: (1) rolling or sliding contact within the bearing has life-limiting consequences; and (2) REB's provide essentially no damping. The REB's in the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) turbopumps must sustain high static and dynamic loads, at high speeds, with a cryogenic fluid as lubricant and coolant. The pump end ball bearings limit the life of the SSME high pressure oxygen turbopump (HPOTP). Compliant foil bearing (CFB) manufacturers have proposed replacing turbopump REB's with CFB's CFB's work well in aircraft air cycle machines, auxiliary power units, and refrigeration compressors. In a CFB, the rotor only contracts the foil support structure during start up and shut down. CFB damping is higher than REB damping. However, the load capacity of the CFB is low, compared to a REB. Furthermore, little stiffness and damping data exists for the CFB. A rotordynamic analysis for turbomachinery critical speeds and stability requires the input of bearing stiffness and damping coefficients. The two basic types of CFB are the tension-dominated bearing and the bending-dominated bearing. Many investigators have analyzed and measured characteristics of tension-dominated foil bearings, which are applied principally in magnetic tape recording. The bending-dominated CFB is used more in rotating machinery. This report describes the first phase of a structural analysis of a bending-dominated, multileaf CFB. A brief discussion of CFB literature is followed by a description and results of the present analysis.

  1. Foil bearings (United States)

    Elrod, David A.


    The rolling element bearings (REB's) which support many turbomachinery rotors offer high load capacity, low power requirements, and durability. Two disadvantages of REB's are: (1) rolling or sliding contact within the bearing has life-limiting consequences; and (2) REB's provide essentially no damping. The REB's in the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) turbopumps must sustain high static and dynamic loads, at high speeds, with a cryogenic fluid as lubricant and coolant. The pump end ball bearings limit the life of the SSME high pressure oxygen turbopump (HPOTP). Compliant foil bearing (CFB) manufacturers have proposed replacing turbopump REB's with CFB's CFB's work well in aircraft air cycle machines, auxiliary power units, and refrigeration compressors. In a CFB, the rotor only contracts the foil support structure during start up and shut down. CFB damping is higher than REB damping. However, the load capacity of the CFB is low, compared to a REB. Furthermore, little stiffness and damping data exists for the CFB. A rotordynamic analysis for turbomachinery critical speeds and stability requires the input of bearing stiffness and damping coefficients. The two basic types of CFB are the tension-dominated bearing and the bending-dominated bearing. Many investigators have analyzed and measured characteristics of tension-dominated foil bearings, which are applied principally in magnetic tape recording. The bending-dominated CFB is used more in rotating machinery. This report describes the first phase of a structural analysis of a bending-dominated, multileaf CFB. A brief discussion of CFB literature is followed by a description and results of the present analysis.

  2. Palladium nanoparticle anchored polyphosphazene nanotubes: preparation and catalytic activity on aryl coupling reactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V Devi; A Ashok Kumar; S Sankar; K Dinakaran


    Highly accessible-supported palladium (Pd) nanoparticles anchored polyphosphazene (PPZ) nanotubes (NTs) having average diameter of 120 nm were synthesized rapidly at room temperature and homogeneously decorated with Pd nanoparticles. The resultant PPZ–Pd nanocomposites were morphologically and structurally characterized by means of transmission electron microscope equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. Characterization results showed that the Pd nanoparticles with good dispersibility could be well anchored onto the surfaces of the PPZ NTs. The PPZ–Pd NTs show enhanced catalytic activity for the Suzuki coupling of aryl bromides with arylboronic acid. In addition, these PPZ–Pd NTs show excellent behaviour as reusable catalysts of the Suzuki and Heck coupling reactions.

  3. [Br-76]bromodeoxyuridine PET in tumor-bearing animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gardelle, O; Roelcke, U; Vontobel, P; Crompton, NEA; Guenther, [No Value; Blauenstein, P; Schubiger, AP; Blattmann, H; Ryser, JE; Leenders, KL; Kaser-Hotz, B


    5-bromodeoxyuridine (BUdR) provides in vitro measures of tumor cell proliferation. We used positron emission tomography to study tissue and plasma kinetics of [Br-76]BUdR in tumor-bearing animals. In order to account for the slow washout of the major plasma metabolite, [Br-76]bromide, a mathematical

  4. Synthesis, Characterization, Anti-Inflammatory and in Vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Some Novel Alkyl/Aryl Substituted Tertiary Alcohols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafiuzzaman SaeedulHaq


    Full Text Available The synthesis of some novel alkyl/aryl substituted tertiary alcohols was accomplished in two steps. The synthetic route involves preparation of Grignard reagents by treating alkyl/aryl bromides with magnesium turnings in dry ether. Then substituted chalcones were reacted with the Grignard reagents to afford alkyl/aryl substituted tertiary alcohols 1-10. The structures of the synthesized compounds were assigned on the basis of FT-IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and mass spectroscopic data. The in vivo anti-inflammatory activity of the synthesized compounds was evaluated using the carrageenan-induced hind paw edema method and was compared with that of ibuprofen. Some of the newly synthesized compounds showed promising anti-inflammatory activity. The tertiary alcohols 1-10 were also screened for antibacterial activity against ten bacterial strains using seven Gram-positive and three Gram-negative bacteria and for antifungal activity against Aspergillus Flavus, Aspergillus Niger and Aspergillus pterus. Tertiary alcohols 1-10 were found to exhibit good to excellent antimicrobial activities compared to levofloxacin and fluconazole used as standard drugs.

  5. Crystal structures of five 1-alkyl-4-aryl-1,2,4-triazol-1-ium halide salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marites A. Guino-o


    Full Text Available The asymmetric units for the salts 4-(4-fluorophenyl-1-isopropyl-1,2,4-triazol-1-ium iodide, C11H13FN3+·I−, (1, 1-isopropyl-4-(4-methylphenyl-1,2,4-triazol-1-ium iodide, C12H16N3+·I−, (2, 1-isopropyl-4-phenyl-1,2,4-triazol-1-ium iodide, C11H14N3+·I−, (3, and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,4-triazol-1-ium iodide, C9H10N3+·I−, (4, contain one cation and one iodide ion, whereas in 1-benzyl-4-phenyl-1,2,4-triazol-1-ium bromide monohydrate, C15H14N3+·Br−·H2O, (5, there is an additional single water molecule. There is a predominant C—H...X(halide interaction for all salts, resulting in a two-dimensional extended sheet network between the triazolium cation and the halide ions. For salts with para-substitution on the aryl ring, there is an additional π–anion interaction between a triazolium carbon and iodide displayed by the layers. For salts without the para-substitution on the aryl ring, the π–π interactions are between the triazolium and aryl rings. The melting points of these salts agree with the predicted substituent inductive effects.

  6. N-heterocyclic carbene-assisted, bis(phosphine)nickel-catalyzed cross-couplings of diarylborinic acids with aryl chlorides, tosylates, and sulfamates. (United States)

    Ke, Haihua; Chen, Xiaofeng; Zou, Gang


    Efficient bis(phosphine)nickel-catalyzed cross-couplings of diarylborinic acids with aryl chlorides, tosylates, and sulfamates have been effected with an assistance of N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) generated in situ from N,N'-dialkylimidazoliums, e.g., N-butyl-N'-methylimidazolium bromide ([Bmim]Br), in toluene using K3PO4·3H2O as base. In contrast to bis(NHC)nickel-catalyzed conventional Suzuki coupling of arylboronic acids, mono(NHC)bis(phosphine)nickel species generated in situ from Ni(PPh3)2Cl2/[Bmim]Br displayed high catalytic activities in the cross-couplings of diarylborinic acids. The structural influences from diarylborinic acids were found to be rather small, while electronic factors from aryl chlorides, tosylates, and sulfamates affected the couplings remarkably. The couplings of electronically activated aryl chlorides, tosylates, and sulfamates could be efficiently effected with 1.5 mol % NiCl2(PPh3)2/[Bmim]Br as catalyst precursor to give the biaryl products in excellent yields, while 3-5 mol % loadings had to be used for the couplings of non- and deactivated ones. A small ortho-substitutent on the aromatic ring of aryl chlorides, tosylates, and sulfamates was tolerable. Applicability of the nickel-catalyzed cross-couplings in practical synthesis of fine chemicals has been demonstrated in process development for a third-generation topical retinoid, Adapalene.

  7. Hydrodynamic bearings

    CERN Document Server

    Bonneau, Dominique; Souchet, Dominique


    This Series provides the necessary elements to the development and validation of numerical prediction models for hydrodynamic bearings. This book describes the rheological models and the equations of lubrication. It also presents the numerical approaches used to solve the above equations by finite differences, finite volumes and finite elements methods.

  8. Synthesis of Aryl Allyl Ether in the Recyclable Ionic Liquid [bmim]PF6

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Mei-Yun; Li Yi-Qun; Xu Xin-Ming


    Ionic liquids, especially imidazonium salts, have recently gained recognition as possible environmentally benign alternative chemical process solvents. This is mainly due to their nonvolatile nature, insolubility in some solvents as well as their ability to dissolve a wide range of organic and inorganic materials, allowing the ionic liquids easy recovery and recycling. Examples of their application in organic reactions have been summarized in a number of recent review articles.1Aryl allyl ether is very useful intermediate in organic synthesis. The Williamson reaction is a well knows method for the preparation ethers. However, the reaction of alkylating agents with the phenoxide ions was conventionally carried out in the organic solvents. The usual solvents for this type of reaction are DCM, 2 DMSO, 3 DMF, 4 CH3CN5 etc. With the current desire to avoid the use of organic molecular solvents in organic synthesis, we decide to investigate the use of the ionic liquid for the alternative solvent for the Williamson reaction to prepare the aryl allyl ethers. The ionic liquid employed here was the moisture stable 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate [bmim]PF6.6 The ionic liquid is non-volatile, thermally stable, and depending on the anion, can present low immiscible with water,alkanes and dialky ethers. We have now found that aryl allyl ethers can have been obtained from various phenols and allyl bromide in the presence of potassium hydroxide in [bmim]PF6 as a replacement for classical organic solvents in the ambient temperature. The results are shown in Scheme 1.The reaction were carried out by simple mixing the phenolwith the ally bromide and potassium hydroxide in [bmim]PF6 and stirred at room temperature for 4h. The results are summarized in Table 1.In conclusion, Williamson reaction can be successfully conducted in ionic liquid [bmim]PF6 with a number of advantages: the procedure is simple, the reaction condition is mild and the yields are excellent

  9. Direct no-carrier-added {sup 18}F-labelling of arenes via nucleophilic substitution on aryl(2-thienyl)iodonium salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, T.L.


    For in vivo imaging of molecular processes via positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracers of high specific activity are demanded. In case of the most commonly used positron emitter fluorine-18, this is only achievable with no-carrier-added [{sup 18}F]fluoride, which implies nucleophilic methods of {sup 18}F-substitution. Whereas electron deficient aromatic groups can be labelled in one step using no-carrier-added [{sup 18}F]fluoride, electron rich {sup 18}F-labelled aromatic molecules are only available by multi-step radiosyntheses or carrier-added electrophilic reactions. Here, diaryliodonium salts represent an alternative, since they have been proven as potent precursor for a direct nucleophilic {sup 18}F-introduction into aromatic molecules. Furthermore, as known from non-radioactive studies, the highly electron rich 2-thienyliodonium leaving group leads to a high regioselectivity in nucleophilic substitution reactions. Consequently, a direct nucleophilic no-carrier-added {sup 18}F-labelling of electron rich arenes via aryl(2-thienyl)iodonium precursors was developed in this work. The applicability of direct nucleophilic {sup 18}F-labelling was examined in a systematic study on eighteen aryl(2-thienyl)iodonium salts. As electron rich precursors the ortho-, meta- and para-methoxyphenyl(2-thienyl)iodonium bromides, iodides, tosylates and triflates were synthesised. In addition, para-substituted (R=BnO, CH{sub 3}, H, Cl, Br, I) aryl(2-thienyl)iodonium bromides were prepared as precursors with a systematically varying electron density. As first approach, the general reaction conditions of the nucleophilic {sup 18}F-substitution procedure were optimised. The best conditions for direct nucleophilic no-carrier-added {sup 18}F-labelling via aryl(2-thienyl)iodonium salts were found with dimethylformamide as solvent, a reaction temperature of 130{+-}3 C and 25 mmol/l as concentration of the precursor. (orig.)

  10. C(aryl-O Bond Formation from Aryl Methanesulfonates via Consecutive Deprotection and SNAr Reactions with Aryl Halides in an Ionic Liquid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Chen


    Full Text Available An efficient K3PO4-mediated synthesis of unsymmetrical diaryl ethers using the ionic liquid [Bmim]BF4 (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate as solvent has been developed. The procedure involves consecutive deprotection of aryl methane-sulfonates and a nucleophilic aromatic substitution (SNAr with activated aryl halides.

  11. Synthesis of β-arylated alkylamides via Pd-catalyzed one-pot installation of a directing group and C(sp3)–H arylation (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Cao, Xiaoji; Wan, Jie-Ping


    Summary The synthesis of β-arylated alkylamides via alkyl C–H bond arylation has been realized by means of direct one-pot reactions of acyl chlorides, aryl iodides and 8-aminoquinoline. Depending on the structure of the starting materials, both single and double β-arylated alkylamides could be accessed. PMID:27340500

  12. Antibacterial sesquiterpene aryl esters from Armillaria mellea. (United States)

    Donnelly, D M; Abe, F; Coveney, D; Fukuda, N; O'Reilly, J; Polonsky, J; Prangé, T


    Investigation of the mycelial extract of Armillaria mellea led to the isolation of the known melleolide (2a) and two new sesquiterpene aryl eters, 4-O-methylmelleolide (2b) and judeol (1c). Their structures were deduced from spectral data and that of (2b) confirmed by X-ray analysis. The new esters (1c) and (2b) showed strong antibacterial activity against gram-positive bacteria.

  13. Carbonate polymers containing ethenyl aryl moieties



    There are disclosed carbonate polymers having ethenyl aryl moieties. Such carbonate polymers are prepared from one or more multi-hydric compounds and have an average degree of polymerization of at least about 1 based on multi-hydric compound. These polymers, including blends thereof, can be easily processed and shaped into various forms and structures according to the known techniques. During or subsequent to the processing, the polymers can be crosslinked, by exposure to heat or radiation, f...

  14. Fluoroalkylation of aryl ether perfluorocyclobutyl polymers


    Ligon, Clark; Ameduri, Bruno; Boutevin, Bernard; Smith, Dennis


    International audience; Post functionalization of aryl ether perfluorocyclobutyl (PFCB) polymers with fluoroalkyl side chains was accomplished with Umemoto's FITS reagents. The fluoroalkylated PFCB polymers (20 % functionalized) showed increases in both hydrophobicity and oleophobicity. Static contact angle for hexadecane was increased after fluoroalkylation from 0° to greater than 30° for the two PFCB polymers tested. Increased oil repellency makes these materials potential candidates for va...



    Fernández-Salguero, Pedro M.; Sonia eMulero-Navarro


    Traditionally considered as a critical intermediate in the toxic and carcinogenic response to dioxin (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, TCDD), the Aryl hydrocarbon/Dioxin receptor (AhR) has proven to be also an important regulator of cell physiology and organ homeostasis. AhR has become an interesting and actual area of research mainly boosted by a significant number of recent studies analyzing its contribution to the proper functioning of the immune, hepatic, cardiovascular, vascular and ...

  16. New Trends in Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Biology


    Mulero-navarro, Sonia; Fernandez-Salguero, Pedro M.


    Traditionally considered as a critical intermediate in the toxic and carcinogenic response to dioxin (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, TCDD), the Aryl hydrocarbon/Dioxin receptor (AhR) has proven to be also an important regulator of cell physiology and organ homeostasis. AhR has become an interesting and actual area of research mainly boosted by a significant number of recent studies analyzing its contribution to the proper functioning of the immune, hepatic, cardiovascular, vascular and ...

  17. Palladium-Catalyzed alpha-Arylation of Tetramic Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storgaard, Morten; Dorwald, F. Z.; Peschke, B.;


    A mild, racemization-free, palladium-Catalyzed alpha-arylation of tetramic acids (2,4-pyrrolidinediones) has been developed. Various amino acid-derived tetramic acids were cleanly arylated by treatment with 2 mol % of Pd(OAc)(2), 4 mol % of a sterically demanding biaryl phosphine, 2.3 equiv of K2CO...

  18. Selective copper catalysed aromatic N-arylation in water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engel-Andreasen, Jens; Shimpukade, Bharat; Ulven, Trond.


    4,7-Dipyrrolidinyl-1,10-phenanthroline (DPPhen) was identified as an efficient ligand for copper catalyzed selective arom. N-arylation in water. N-Arylation of indoles, imidazoles and purines proceeds with moderate to excellent yields and complete selectivity over aliph. amines. Aq. medium and th...

  19. Palladium-phosphinous acid complexes catalyzed Suzuki cross-coupling reaction of heteroaryl bromides with phenylboronic acid in water/alcoholic solvents. (United States)

    Li, Ben; Wang, Cuiping; Chen, Guang; Zhang, Zhiqiang


    Highly active, air-stable and water-soluble palladium-phosphinous acid complexes have been applied to Suzuki cross-coupling reaction of heteroaryl bromides under mild conditions in water/alcoholic solvents. Suzuki cross-coupling reaction of heteroaryl bromides with phenylboronic acid occurred efficiently using palladium phosphinous acid complexes (POPd) and phase transfer catalyst (tetrabutylammonium bromide and polyethylene glycol) in water/ethanol mixture, water/propanol mixture and neat water respectively, the corresponding yields of cross-coupling heteroaryl-aryls were satisfied. The tert-butyl substituted ligand di-tert-butylphosphino in combination with POPd was found to be more active than the same family derived catalysts dipalladium complexes POPd1 and POPd2, and other two kinds of Pd-catalysts Pd(PPh3)4 and Pd2(dba)3. The mechanism of Suzuki cross-coupling reaction between heteroaryl bromides and phenylboronic acid in water was proposed with respect to the key role of phase transfer catalyst on the transmetallation step. Compared with other solid phase transfer catalysts, TBAB was tested as the ideal one. The alkalinity of base and the molar proportion between POPd and TBAB were investigated in water and alcoholic solvents. Notably, in the presence of TBAB adding alcoholic solvents into water enhanced the yields of target products. However in terms of the liquid phase transfer catalyst of PEGs, mixing water into PEGs could slightly decrease the yields with respect to the water free PEGs bulk phase, which was probably due to the homogenous liquid conditions in pure PEGs and weak interactions between PEGs and heteroaryl bromide molecules in water depending on their molecular chain lengths.

  20. Palladium-phosphinous acid complexes catalyzed Suzuki cross-coupling reaction of heteroaryl bromides with phenylboronic acid in water/alcoholic solvents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ben Li; Cuiping Wang; Guang Chen; Zhiqiang Zhang


    Highly active,air-stable and water-soluble palladium-phosphinous acid complexes have been applied to Suzuki cross-coupling reaction of heteroaryl bromides under mild conditions in water/alcoholic solvents.Suzuki cross-coupling reaction of heteroaryl bromides with phenylboronic acid occurred efficiently using palladium phosphinous acid complexes (POPd) and phase transfer catalyst (tetrabutylammonium bromide and polyethylene glycol) in water/ethanol mixture,water/propanol mixture and neat water respectively,the corresponding yields of cross-coupling heteroaryl-aryls were satisfied.The tert-butyl substituted ligand di-tert-butylphosphino in combination with POPd was found to be more active than the same family derived catalysts dipalladium complexes POPdl and POPd2,and other two kinds of Pd-catalysts Pd(PPh3)4 and Pd2(dba)3.The mechanism of Suzuki cross-coupling reaction between heteroaryl bromides and phenylboronic acid in water was proposed with respect to the key role of phase transfer catalyst on the transmetallation step.Compared with other solid phase transfer catalysts,TBAB was tested as the ideal one.The alkalinity of base and the molar proportion between POPd and TBAB were investigated in water and alcoholic solvents.Notably,in the presence of TBAB adding alcoholic solvents into water enhanced the yields of target products.However in terms of the liquid phase transfer catalyst of PEGs,mixing water into PEGs could slightly decrease the yields with respect to the water free PEGs bulk phase,which was probably due to the homogenous liquid conditions in pure PEGs and weak interactions between PEGs and heteroaryl bromide molecules in water depending on their molecular chain lengths.

  1. N-Arylation of azaheterocycles with aryl and heteroaryl halides catalyzed by iminodiacetic acid resin-chelated copper complex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Iminodiacetic acid resin-chelated copper(Ⅱ) complex is effective in cross-coupling reactions between azaheterocycles and aryl or heteroaryl halides,providing N-arylated products in good to excellent yields.The copper catalyst is air stable and can be readily recovered and reused with minimal loss of activity for three runs.

  2. Irritable bowel syndrome: focus on otilonium bromide. (United States)

    Boeckxstaens, Guy; Clavé, Pere; Corazziari, Enrico S; Tack, Jan


    Irritable bowel syndrome is a prevalent and chronic disorder, characterized by recurrent abdominal pain/discomfort, bloating and altered bowel habits. This condition affects an estimated 10-15% of the population worldwide and impacts heavily on a patient's daily life and ability to work, as well as healthcare resource utilization. Drug therapy aimed at correcting the primary symptoms of diarrhea/constipation/bloating may have little effect on abdominal pain, which results from visceral hypersensitivity. Smooth muscle relaxants or antispasmodics decrease the tone and contractility of intestinal smooth muscle, effectively managing abdominal pain. Otilonium bromide has been widely used worldwide and has been found to be safe and well tolerated, and superior to placebo for the reduction of symptoms and the prevention of symptom relapse in patients with irritable bowel syndrome.

  3. C- versus O-Arylation of an Enol-Lactone Using Potassium tert-butoxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Moktar Essassi


    Full Text Available Abstract: The use of potassium tert-butoxide as the base in arylation reactions of an enollactone with a series of benzyl halides was explored. Our work demonstrates that the ratio of C-arylation to O-arylation varies with the substitution pattern of the aryl halide.

  4. Kinetic spectrophotometric determination of bromide in clidinium-c drug

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ali Sheibani; M. Reza Shishehbore; Zahra Tavakolian Ardakani


    A simple, rapid and sensitive method has been described for the determination of the trace amounts of bromide. The method is based on the catalytic effect of bromide ion on the oxidation of methylene blue by bromate in sulfuric acid media. The reaction is monitored spectrophotometrically by measuring the decrease in the absorbance of methylene blue at 665 nm. Bromide was determined in the range of 0.05-1.90 μg/mL with the detection limit of 0.03 μg/mL. The relative standard deviations of five replicate determinations of 0.20 and 10.0 μg/mL of bromide were 2.4% and 1.8%, respectively. The influence of potential interfering ions and substances was studied. The method is applied to the analysis of bromide in clidinium-c tablet as a real sample.

  5. 40 CFR 180.123 - Inorganic bromide residues resulting from fumigation with methyl bromide; tolerances for residues. (United States)


    ... herb, processed and spice. (B) 325 parts per million in or on cheese, parmesan and cheese, roquefort... bromide may be present as a residue in certain processed food in accordance with the following conditions: (i) When inorganic bromide residues are present as a result of fumigation of the processed food...

  6. Antioxidant Functions of the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Dietrich


    Full Text Available The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR is a transcription factor belonging to the basic helix-loop-helix/PER-ARNT-SIM family. It is activated by a variety of ligands, such as environmental contaminants like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons or dioxins, but also by naturally occurring compounds and endogenous ligands. Binding of the ligand leads to dimerization of the AhR with aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT and transcriptional activation of several xenobiotic phase I and phase II metabolizing enzymes. It is generally accepted that the toxic responses of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, dioxins, and structurally related compounds are mediated by activation of the AhR. A multitude of studies indicate that the AhR operates beyond xenobiotic metabolism and exerts pleiotropic functions. Increasing evidence points to a protective role of the AhR against carcinogenesis and oxidative stress. Herein, I will highlight data demonstrating a causal role of the AhR in the antioxidant response and present novel findings on potential AhR-mediated antioxidative mechanisms.

  7. A combined solid-state NMR and X-ray crystallography study of the bromide ion environments in triphenylphosphonium bromides. (United States)

    Burgess, Kevin M N; Korobkov, Ilia; Bryce, David L


    Multinuclear ((31)P and (79/81)Br), multifield (9.4, 11.75, and 21.1 T) solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance experiments are performed for seven phosphonium bromides bearing the triphenylphosphonium cation, a molecular scaffold found in many applications in chemistry. This is undertaken to fully characterise their bromine electric field gradient (EFG) tensors, as well as the chemical shift (CS) tensors of both the halogen and the phosphorus nuclei, providing a rare and novel insight into the local electronic environments surrounding them. New crystal structures, obtained from single-crystal X-ray diffraction, are reported for six compounds to aid in the interpretation of the NMR data. Among them is a new structure of BrPPh(4), because the previously reported one was inconsistent with our magnetic resonance data, thereby demonstrating how NMR data of non-standard nuclei can correct or improve X-ray diffraction data. Our results indicate that, despite sizable quadrupolar interactions, (79/81)Br magnetic resonance spectroscopy is a powerful characterisation tool that allows for the differentiation between chemically similar bromine sites, as shown through the range in the characteristic NMR parameters. (35/37)Cl solid-state NMR data, obtained for an analogous phosphonium chloride sample, provide insight into the relationship between unit cell volume, nuclear quadrupolar coupling constants, and Sternheimer antishielding factors. The experimental findings are complemented by gauge-including projector-augmented wave (GIPAW) DFT calculations, which substantiate our experimentally determined strong dependence of the largest component of the bromine CS tensor, δ(11), on the shortest Br-P distance in the crystal structure, a finding that has possible application in the field of NMR crystallography. This trend is explained in terms of Ramsey's theory on paramagnetic shielding. Overall, this work demonstrates how careful NMR studies of underexploited exotic nuclides, such

  8. Selective oxidation of bromide in wastewater brines from hydraulic fracturing. (United States)

    Sun, Mei; Lowry, Gregory V; Gregory, Kelvin B


    Brines generated from oil and natural gas production, including flowback water and produced water from hydraulic fracturing of shale gas, may contain elevated concentrations of bromide (~1 g/L). Bromide is a broad concern due to the potential for forming brominated disinfection byproducts (DBPs) during drinking water treatment. Conventional treatment processes for bromide removal is costly and not specific. Selective bromide removal is technically challenging due to the presence of other ions in the brine, especially chloride as high as 30-200 g/L. This study evaluates the ability of solid graphite electrodes to selectively oxidize bromide to bromine in flowback water and produced water from a shale gas operation in Southwestern PA. The bromine can then be outgassed from the solution and recovered, as a process well understood in the bromine industry. This study revealed that bromide may be selectively and rapidly removed from oil and gas brines (~10 h(-1) m(-2) for produced water and ~60 h(-1) m(-2) for flowback water). The electrolysis occurs with a current efficiency between 60 and 90%, and the estimated energy cost is ~6 kJ/g Br. These data are similar to those for the chlor-alkali process that is commonly used for chlorine gas and sodium hydroxide production. The results demonstrate that bromide may be selectively removed from oil and gas brines to create an opportunity for environmental protection and resource recovery.

  9. Synthesis of 3-fluoro-3-aryl oxindoles: Direct enantioselective α arylation of amides

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Linglin


    Modus operandi: Catalytic access to the title compounds through a new asymmetric α-arylation protocol is reported (see scheme). These products are formed in good yields and excellent enantioselectivities by using a new and easily synthesized chiral N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligand. Advanced DFT calculations reveal the properties of the NHC ligand and the mode of operation of the catalyst. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. 负载芳基苄醚树枝形酞菁锌聚合物纳米粒子的合成及其离体光动力活性%Synthesis and Characterization of Polyion Complex Micelle Loaded with Zinc(Il) Phthalocyanine Bearing Poly(aryl benzyl ether) Dendrimer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阙寿林; 彭亦如; 张宏; 陈莉莉; 黄丽珊; 刘建生; 陈奎治; 吴松一


    3,5-Di-(4'-cyanobenzyloxy)benzyl alcohol (1) was synthesized by reaction of 3,5-di-hydroxybenzyl alcohol with 4-cyanobenzyl bromide. 4-(3',5'-hydroxybenzyloxy)phthalonitrile (3) was obtained by reacation of 1 with 4-nitrophthalonitrile in DMF. Tetra-[3,5-di-(4'-cyanobenzyloxy)benzyloxy]zinc(II) phthalocyanine (4) was obtained by condensation of 3 in the presence of n-pentanol, acetate zinc(Ⅱ)and DBU. The corresponding hydrophilic complexes tetra-[3,5-di-(4'-carboxylicbenzyloxy)benzyloxy] zinc phthalocyanine (5) was obtained by hydrolyzation of 4 in NaOH. The structures of above compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, IR, 1H NMR, ESI-MS, MALDI-TOF-MS, and UV/Vis. A polyion complex micelle system 5/m. which was folmed via an electronic interaction of anionic dendrimer phthalocyanine 5 and positively poly(L-lysine) segment of poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(L-lysine) block copolymer (PEG-b-PLL). The morphology and photophysical properties of 5/m was investigated by AFM. TEM.UV/Vis and fluorescence spectroscopy methods The 5/m formed a core-shell-type nanoperticle with diameter ca.100 nm. Electrostatic assembly of 5/m resulted in a red-shift and higher intensity of the Q hand.fluorescence intensity and singlet excited life compared with free 5. The time-dependence uptake amount of 5 and 5/m in HUVEC (human umbilical vein endothelial cell) cells showed that the uptake amount of 5/m was significantly increased and reached peak value by ahead of 1 h compared with 5. The in vitro photodynamic therapy efficiency of 5 and 5/m were evaluated by MTT method, and the results indicated that the photodynamic therapy efficacy of 5/m was enhanced when the polymeric nanoparticles was loaded with dendritic phthalocyanine 5.%首先将对氰基溴化苄与3,5-二羟基苯甲醇通过Frétchet反应合成芳基苄醚树枝分子3,5[二-(4'-氰基苯甲氧基)]苯甲醇(1),1与4-硝基邻苯二甲腈合成前驱物4-{3',5'-[二-(4"-氰基苯甲氧基)]}苯甲氧基邻苯二甲

  11. The unexpected influence of aryl substituents in N-aryl-3-oxobutanamides on the behavior of their multicomponent reactions with 5-amino-3-methylisoxazole and salicylaldehyde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr V. Tkachenko


    Full Text Available The switchable three-component reactions of 5-amino-3-methylisoxazole, salicylaldehyde and N-aryl-3-oxobutanamides under different conditions were studied and discussed. The unexpected influence of the aryl substituent in N-aryl-3-oxobutanamides on the behavior of the reaction was discovered. The key influence of ultrasonication and Lewis acid catalysts led to an established protocol to selectively obtain two or three types of heterocyclic scaffolds depending on the substituent in the N-aryl moiety.

  12. Chloride, bromide and iodide scintillators with europium (United States)

    Zhuravleva, Mariya; Yang, Kan


    A halide scintillator material is disclosed where the halide may comprise chloride, bromide or iodide. The material is single-crystalline and has a composition of the general formula ABX.sub.3 where A is an alkali, B is an alkali earth and X is a halide which general composition was investigated. In particular, crystals of the formula ACa.sub.1-yEu.sub.yI.sub.3 where A=K, Rb and Cs were formed as well as crystals of the formula CsA.sub.1-yEu.sub.yX.sub.3 (where A=Ca, Sr, Ba, or a combination thereof and X=Cl, Br or I or a combination thereof) with divalent Europium doping where 0.ltoreq.y.ltoreq.1, and more particularly Eu doping has been studied at one to ten mol %. The disclosed scintillator materials are suitable for making scintillation detectors used in applications such as medical imaging and homeland security.

  13. Direct Arylation Strategies in the Synthesis of π-Extended Monomers for Organic Polymeric Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Nitti


    Full Text Available π-conjugated macromolecules for organic polymeric solar cells can be rationally engineered at the molecular level in order to tune the optical, electrochemical and solid-state morphology characteristics, and thus to address requirements for the efficient solid state device implementation. The synthetic accessibility of monomers and polymers required for the device is getting increasing attention. Direct arylation reactions for the production of the π-extended scaffolds are gaining importance, bearing clear advantages over traditional carbon-carbon forming methodologies. Although their use in the final polymerization step is already established, there is a need for improving synthetic accessibility to implement them also in the monomer synthesis. In this review, we discuss recent examples highlighting this useful strategy.

  14. A new convenient access to highly functionalized ()-2-arylvinyl bromides

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yubo Jiang; Chunxiang Kuang


    Highly functionalized ()-2-arylvinyl bromides were prepared in high yields through a new convenient access by acylation of ()-4-(2-bromovinyl)phenol with fatty and aromatic acids at room temperature using dicyclohexyl carbodiimide (DCC) and dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP).

  15. Synthesis of aryl phosphates based on pyrimidine and triazine scaffolds. (United States)

    Courme, Caroline; Gresh, Nohad; Vidal, Michel; Lenoir, Christine; Garbay, Christiane; Florent, Jean-Claude; Bertounesque, Emmanuel


    The syntheses of the triazinyl-based bis-aryl phosphates 2 and 3, and of the aminopyrimidyl-based aryl phosphate 4 are described. Each compound contains a diaryl ether-phosphate structural motif. The synthetic route to bis-aryl phosphates 2 and 3 consisted in two nucleophilic substitution reactions with amines from cyanuric chloride, followed by a Suzuki coupling with the resulting 2,4-diamino-6-chloro-1,3,5-triazine derivative 12 to introduce the diaryl ether functionality. Aryl phosphate 4 was obtained via condensation of aryl guanidine 34 with aryloxyphenyl butenone 31. These de novo-designed aryl phosphates were evaluated as potential inhibitors of the Grb2-SH2 domain using an ELISA assay. The water-soluble sodium salt 26 of 3 gave an IC(50) value in the high micromolar range. Molecular modeling studies were subsequently performed upon modifying the 1,3,5-trisubstituted triazine scaffold of 3. Non-phosphate derivatives encompassing cyclopropane, pyrrole, keto-acid, and IZD fragments were thus step-wise designed and their Grb2-SH2 complexes were modeled by molecular dynamics. Some derivatives gave rise to an enriched pattern of H-bonds and cation-pi interactions with Grb2-SH2.

  16. A highly versatile catalyst system for the cross-coupling of aryl chlorides and amines. (United States)

    Lundgren, Rylan J; Sappong-Kumankumah, Antonia; Stradiotto, Mark


    The syntheses of 2-(di-tert-butylphosphino)-N,N-dimethylaniline (L1, 71%) and 2-(di-1-adamantylphosphino)-N,N-dimethylaniline (L2, 74 %), and their application in Buchwald-Hartwig amination, are reported. In combination with [Pd(allyl)Cl](2) or [Pd(cinnamyl)Cl](2), these structurally simple and air-stable P,N ligands enable the cross-coupling of aryl and heteroaryl chlorides, including those bearing as substituents enolizable ketones, ethers, esters, carboxylic acids, phenols, alcohols, olefins, amides, and halogens, to a diverse range of amine and related substrates that includes primary alkyl- and arylamines, cyclic and acyclic secondary amines, N-H imines, hydrazones, lithium amide, and ammonia. In many cases, the reactions can be performed at low catalyst loadings (0.5-0.02 mol % Pd) with excellent functional group tolerance and chemoselectivity. Examples of cross-coupling reactions involving 1,4-bromochlorobenzene and iodobenzene are also reported. Under similar conditions, inferior catalytic performance was achieved when using Pd(OAc)(2), PdCl(2), [PdCl(2)(cod)] (cod = 1,5-cyclooctadiene), [PdCl(2)(MeCN)(2)], or [Pd(2)(dba)(3)] (dba = dibenzylideneacetone) in combination with L1 or L2, or by use of [Pd(allyl)Cl](2) or [Pd(cinnamyl)Cl](2) with variants of L1 and L2 bearing less basic or less sterically demanding substituents on phosphorus or lacking an ortho-dimethylamino fragment. Given current limitations associated with established ligand classes with regard to maintaining high activity across the diverse possible range of C-N coupling applications, L1 and L2 represent unusually versatile ligand systems for the cross-coupling of aryl chlorides and amines.

  17. New Synthesis and Antiparasitic Activity of Model 5-Aryl-1-methyl-4-nitroimidazoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa M. El-Abadelah


    Full Text Available A number of 5-aryl-1-methyl-4-nitroimidazoles 5a-f have been synthesized in good yields by the Suzuki coupling reaction between 5-chloro-1-methyl-4-nitroimidazole (3 and arylboronic acids 4a-f, aided by dichlorobis-(triphenylphosphinepalladium(II, K2CO3, and tetrabutylammonium bromide in water at 70-80 °C. Compounds 5a-f were characterized by elemental analysis, NMR and MS spectral data. On the basis of in vitro screening data, 5-(3-chlorophenyl-1-methyl-4-nitro-1H-imidazole (5fexhibited potent lethal activity against Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia intestinalis with IC50 = 1.47 µM/mL, a value lower by a factor of two than that of the standard drug, metronidazole. The boosted activity of 5f was not accompanied by any increased cytotoxicity.The rest of the series also exhibited potent antiparasitic activity with IC50 valuesin the 1.72-4.43 µM/mL range. The cytotoxicity of the derivatives 5c and 5e was increased compared to the precursor compound, metronidazole, although they remain non-cytotoxic at concentrations much higher than the antiparasitic concentration of the two derivatives.

  18. A convenient catalyst system for microwave accelerated cross-coupling of a range of aryl boronic acids with aryl chlorides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Edward J


    Full Text Available Abstract A convenient microwave accelerated cross-coupling procedure between aryl chlorides with a range of boronic acids has been developed. An explanation for the low reactivity of highly fluorinated boronic acids in Suzuki coupling is provided.

  19. Pharmacology of the anticholinergic bronchospasmolytic agent flutropium bromide. (United States)

    Bauer, R; Fügner, A


    The anticholinergic agent (8r)-8-(2-fluoroethyl)-3 alpha-hydroxy-1 alpha H,tropanium bromide benzilic acid ester (flutropium bromide, Ba 598 BR) is a classic competitive antagonist of acetylcholine. In in vitro experiments it is more effective than atropine. In addition there are indications, that flutropium bromide may interfere with the anaphylactic reaction in a certain dose range in vitro. In in vivo experiments for the characterization of the anticholinergic properties flutropium bromide is also somewhat more effective than atropine after parenteral administration. Because of its quaternary structure no central anticholinergic effect is detectable. Furthermore, a poor enteral absorption is to be expected; this can be concluded from the low relative effectiveness after oral administration. After systemic administration, flutropium bromide is only slightly more effective than atropine. The duration of action is longer. After local administration as an aerosol it is superior to atropine with regard to both effectiveness and duration of action. Since in aerosol administration the ratio of the main effect to the most sensitive side effects, inhibition of salivary secretion, is 1:100, no side effects are to be expected even after high inhalational overdoses. Flutropium bromide can therefore be described as a preparation which is free of side effects. When used prophylactically it represents a therapeutic alternative to beta-mimetics and xanthine derivatives for most cases of obstructive airway diseases.

  20. Alternating deposition films of a polymer and dendrimers bearing diphenylanthracene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Jing; WANG Liyan; GAO Jian; YU Xi; WANG Zhiqiang


    Two generations of carboxyl-terminated poly (aryl ether) dendrimers bearing 9,10-diphenylanthracene cores are designed and synthesized. Alternating deposition of two dendrimers and poly(4-vinylpyridine) is studied with UV-Vis spectroscopy, FT-IR spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. Experimental results indicate that this method to introduce chromophore into multilayer film can effectively prevent desorption of dye molecule. Moreover, it is found that dendrimer can inhibit the aggregation of fluorophore in film using fluorescence spectroscopy. Increase of dendrimer's generation can enhance fluorescence intensity of each fluorophore. This provides a new approach to design luminescent thin film.

  1. Assessment of Ethidium bromide and Ethidium monoazide bromide removal from aqueous matrices by adsorption on cupric oxide nanoparticles. (United States)

    Fakhri, Ali


    The present study was undertaken to develop an effective adsorbent and to study the adsorption of Ethidium bromide and Ethidium monoazide bromide from aqueous solution using the CuO nanoparticles. The characteristics of CuO nanoparticles were determined and found to have a surface area 89.59m(2)/g. Operational parameters such as pH, contact time and adsorbent concentration, initial concentration and temperature were also studied. The amount of removal increases with the increase in pH from one to seven and reaches the maximum when the pH is nine. Adsorption data fitted well with the Langmuir, Freundlich and Florry-Huggins models. The results show that the best fit was achieved with the Langmuir isotherm equation with maximum adsorption capacities of 0.868 and 0.662mg/g for Ethidium bromide and Ethidium monoazide bromide, respectively. The adsorption process was found to follow pseudo-second-order kinetics. The calculated thermodynamic parameters, namely ΔG, ΔH and ΔS showed that adsorption of Ethidium bromide and Ethidium monoazide bromide was spontaneous and endothermic under examined conditions.

  2. Advanced hybrid fluoropolymers from the cycloaddition of aryl trifluorovinyl ethers (United States)

    Ligon, S. Clark, Jr.

    This dissertation discusses the synthesis of aryl trifluorovinyl ethers and their cycloaddition polymerization to give perfluorocyclobutyl (PFCB) polymers. To explore the stereochemistry of these polymers, simple monomfunctional aryl trifluorovinyl ethers were dimerized and the resultant cis and trans isomers were separated. Differences in structure help to improve understanding of the amorphous nature of the bulk PFCB polymeric material. To apply this knowledge, crown ether containing perfluorocyclobutyl (PFCB) polymers were synthesized for use in lithium ion battery applications. While poor solubility has hindered further development of these materials, slight modifications to structure may provide a solution. Also described is a fluorinated aryl vinyl ether and its attempted copolymerization with chlorotrifluoroethylene. While this copolymerization did not yield the desired materials, novel semifluorinated phenol precursors have been utilized in reactions with carboxylic acids to give polyesters and most recently with phosgene like species to give polycarbonates. Next, PFCB polymers were post functionalized with fluoroalkyl tethers to improve oleophobicity and hydrophobicity without decreasing thermal stability or optical clarity. In addition, various silica nanostructures were functionalized with aryl trifluorovinyl ethers. This includes the reaction of aryl silanes to give trifluorovinyl ether functional POSS and their polymerization to provide PFCB hybrid materials. Silane coupling agents were also used to functionalize colloidal silica and fumed silica nanoparticles. These procedures allow excellent dispersion of the silica nanoparticles throughout the fluoropolymer matrix. Finally, the reaction of aryl trifluorovinyl ether with nonfluorinated alkenes and alkynes was explored. In these reactions, the fluorinated olefin adds with the hydrocarbon olefin to give semifluorinated cyclobutanes (SFCB) and with the alkyne to give semifluorinated cyclobutene. The

  3. Radiation tolerance in water bears. (United States)

    Horikawa, D. D.; Sakashita, T.; Katagiri, C.; Watanabe, M.; Nakahara, Y.; Okuda, T.; Hamada, N.; Wada, S.; Funayama, T.; Kobayashi, Y.

    Tardigrades water bears are tiny invertebrates forming a phylum and inhabit various environments on the earth Terrestrial tardigrades enter a form called as anhydrobiosis when the surrounding water disappears Anhyydrobiosis is defined as an ametabolic dry state and followed by recovering their activity when rehydrated Anhydrobiotic tardigrades show incredible tolerance to a variety of extreme environmental conditions such as temperatures -273 r C to 151 r C vacuum high pressure 600 MPa and chemicals that include alcohols and methyl bromide In these views there have been some discussions about their potential for surviving outer space In the present study we demonstrated the survival limit not merely against gamma-rays but against heavy ions in the tardigrade Milnesium tardigradum in order to evaluate the effects of radiations on them The animals were exposure to 500 to 7000 Gy of gamma-rays or 500 to 8000 Gy of heavy ions 4 He in their hydrated or anhydrobiotic state The results showed that both of hydrated and anhydrobiotic animals have high radio-tolerance median lethal dose LD50 48 h of gamma-rays or heavy ions in M tardigradum was more than 4000 Gy indicating that this species is categorized into the most radio-tolerant animals We suggest that tardigrades will be suitable model animals for extremophilic multicellular organisms and may provide a survival strategy in extraterrestrial environments

  4. Microwave-Promoted Rapid Synthesis of 1-Aryl-1, 2, 3-Triazoles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Aryl azides and a-keto phosphorus ylides were reacted within 4~10 minutes with silica gel support, under microwave irridiation to afford corresponding l-aryl-l, 2, 3-triazoles in moderate to good yields.

  5. [Reaction of 3-aryl-2-nitroacrylates with titanium tetrachloride. Formation of 4H-1,2-oxazines and hydroxy-arylaldehydes]. (United States)

    Hirotani, S; Zen, S


    The reaction of ethyl 3-aryl-2-nitroacrylate (1a: aryl = 3-methoxyphenyl) with toluene in the presence of titanium tetrachloride gave 4-(4'-methyl-phenyl)-4H-1,2-benzoxazine (3) in a 44.2% yield. The acrylate 1a reacted with dichloromethane in the presence of titanium tetrachloride to give 5-methoxy-salicylaldehyde (2a) in a 61.8% yield. Therefore, 2a was presumed to be formed via an intermediate 4H-1,2-benzoxazine (3'), followed by ring opening to quinone methide and cyano formate. In a similar reaction using both toluene and dichloromethane, 1 bearing a 2-naphthyl group gave a dimer of quinone methide and 1-hydroxy-2-naphthaldehyde via 4H-naphth[2,1-e]-1,2-oxazine, respectively.

  6. Synthesis and fungicidal activity of aryl carbamic acid-5-aryl-2-furanmethyl ester. (United States)

    Li, Ying; Li, Bao-Ju; Ling, Yun; Miao, Hong-Jian; Shi, Yan-Xia; Yang, Xin-Ling


    Chitin, a major structural component of insect cuticle and fungus cell wall but absent in plants and vertebrates, is regarded as a safe and selective target for pest control agents. Chitin synthesis inhibitors (CSIs) have been well-known as insect growth regulators (IGRs) but rarely found as fungicides in agriculture. To find novel CSIs with good activity, benzoylphenylurea, a typical kind of CSIs, was chosen as the lead compound and 26 novel aryl carbamic acid-5-aryl-2-furanmethyl esters were designed by converting the urea linkages of benzoylphenylureas to carbamic acid esters and changing the aniline parts into furanmethyl groups. The title compounds were synthesized and their structures confirmed by IR, (1)H NMR, and elemental analysis. Preliminary insecticidal and fungicidal bioassays were carried out. The results indicated that the title compounds had no insecticidal effect on Culex pipiens pallens and Plutella xylostella Linnaeus , but most compounds exhibited good fungicidal activities against Corynespora cassiicola , Thanatephorus cucumeris , Botrytis cinerea , and Fusarium oxysporum . In particular, compounds V-4, V-6, V-7, and V-8 showed better activities against the four strains than those of the commercialized fungicides. The morphologic result suggested that compound V-21 had disturbed the cell wall formation of C. cassiicola. The results indicated that modification on the urea linkage of benzoylphenylurea was an effective way to discover new candidates for fungicides.

  7. Ruthenium(II)-Catalyzed C-C Arylations and Alkylations: Decarbamoylative C-C Functionalizations. (United States)

    Moselage, Marc; Li, Jie; Kramm, Frederik; Ackermann, Lutz


    Ruthenium(II)biscarboxylate catalysis enabled selective C-C functionalizations by means of decarbamoylative C-C arylations. The versatility of the ruthenium(II) catalysis was reflected by widely applicable C-C arylations and C-C alkylations of aryl amides, as well as acids with modifiable pyrazoles, through facile organometallic C-C activation.

  8. Decarboxylative Aminomethylation of Aryl- and Vinylsulfonates through Combined Nickel- and Photoredox-Catalyzed Cross-Coupling

    KAUST Repository

    Fan, Lulu


    A mild approach for the decarboxylative aminomethylation of aryl sulfonates by the combination of photoredox and nickel catalysis through C−O bond cleavage is described for the first time. A wide range of aryl triflates as well as aryl mesylates, tosylates and alkenyl triflates afford the corresponding products in good to excellent yields.

  9. Mechanisms and origins of switchable chemoselectivity of Ni-catalyzed C(aryl)-O and C(acyl)-O activation of aryl esters with phosphine ligands. (United States)

    Hong, Xin; Liang, Yong; Houk, K N


    Many experiments have shown that nickel with monodentate phosphine ligands favors the C(aryl)-O activation over the C(acyl)-O activation for aryl esters. However, Itami and co-workers recently discovered that nickel with bidentate phosphine ligands can selectively activate the C(acyl)-O bond of aryl esters of aromatic carboxylic acids. The chemoselectivity with bidentate phosphine ligands can be switched back to C(aryl)-O activation when aryl pivalates are employed. To understand the mechanisms and origins of this switchable chemoselectivity, density functional theory (DFT) calculations have been conducted. For aryl esters, nickel with bidentate phosphine ligands cleaves C(acyl)-O and C(aryl)-O bonds via three-centered transition states. The C(acyl)-O activation is more favorable due to the lower bond dissociation energy (BDE) of C(acyl)-O bond, which translates into a lower transition-state distortion energy. However, when monodentate phosphine ligands are used, a vacant coordination site on nickel creates an extra Ni-O bond in the five-centered C(aryl)-O cleavage transition state. The additional interaction energy between the catalyst and substrate makes C(aryl)-O activation favorable. In the case of aryl pivalates, nickel with bidentate phosphine ligands still favors the C(acyl)-O activation over the C(aryl)-O activation at the cleavage step. However, the subsequent decarbonylation generates a very unstable tBu-Ni(II) intermediate, and this unfavorable step greatly increases the overall barrier for generating the C(acyl)-O activation products. Instead, the subsequent C-H activation of azoles and C-C coupling in the C(aryl)-O activation pathway are much easier, leading to the observed C(aryl)-O activation products.

  10. Water- Lithium Bromide-γ- Butyrolactone Absorption Refrigerating Machine (United States)

    Iyoki, Shigeki; Uemura, Tadashi

    This investigation was carried out in order to find corrosion inhibitors which would be effective in controlling the corrosion for the water-lithium bromide-γ-butyrolactone (20 moles water/1 mole γ-butyrolactone) absorption refrigerating machine. The experiments were carried out on continuous boiling test, intermittent boiling test and galvanic corrosion test with the use of organic inhibitors and inorganic inhibitors in γ-butyrolactone aqueous solution of lithium bromide. The metals used in these corrosion tests were mainly SS 41 and copper. From these experimental results, the most suitable corrosion inhibitors for SS 41 and copper in γ-butyrolactone aqueous solution of lithium bromide Were recognized to be benzotriazole, tolyltriazole and lithium molybdate.

  11. Glycosylation with Disarmed Glycosyl Bromides Promoted by Iodonium Ions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lanz, Gyrithe; Madsen, Robert


    Iodonium ions have been developed for activating glycosyl bromides in the coupling to glycosyl acceptors. The iodonium ions are generated from N-iodosuccinimide and a protic acid such as camphorsulfonic acid or triflic acid, where the latter gives the most reactive promoter system. The couplings...... occur with the release of iodine monobromide, and the best results are obtained with benzoylated glycosyl donors and acceptors. In this way, disarmed glycosyl bromides can serve as glycosyl donors without the use of heavy-metal salts....

  12. Preparation and characterization of rosin glycerin ester and its bromide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Caili; Zhang Faai


    Rosin glycerin ester and its bromide were prepared from natural renewable rosin,glycerin and liquid bromine which were first subjected to an esterification reaction,followed by an addition reaction.Their structures were characterized by an infrared(IR)spectrum and their thermal resistance was conducted with thermal gravity(TG)and differential scanning calorimetry(DSC).It showed that the bromide in the rosin glycerin ester decomposed faster than the ester;hence it may be used as fire-resistant material.

  13. Cryogenic Hybrid Magnetic Bearing (United States)

    Meeks, Crawford R.; Dirusso, Eliseo; Brown, Gerald V.


    Cryogenic hybrid magnetic bearing is example of class of magnetic bearings in which permanent magnets and electromagnets used to suspend shafts. Electromagnets provide active control of position of shaft. Bearing operates at temperatures from -320 degrees F (-196 degrees C) to 650 degrees F (343 degrees C); designed for possible use in rocket-engine turbopumps, where effects of cryogenic environment and fluid severely limit lubrication of conventional ball bearings. This and similar bearings also suitable for terrestrial rotating machinery; for example, gas-turbine engines, high-vacuum pumps, canned pumps, precise gimbals that suspend sensors, and pumps that handle corrosive or gritty fluids.

  14. TOPICAL REVIEW: Superconducting bearings (United States)

    Hull, John R.


    The physics and technology of superconducting bearings is reviewed. Particular attention is given to the use of high-temperature superconductors (HTSs) in rotating bearings. The basic phenomenology of levitational forces is presented, followed by a brief discussion of the theoretical models that can be used for conceptual understanding and calculations. The merits of various HTS bearing designs are presented, and the behaviour of HTS bearings in typical situations is discussed. The article concludes with a brief survey of various proposed applications for HTS bearings.

  15. Aryl diazonium salts new coupling agents and surface science

    CERN Document Server

    Chehimi, Mohamed Mehdi


    Diazonium compounds are employed as a new class of coupling agents to link polymers, biomacromolecules, and other species (e. g. metallic nanoparticles) to the surface of materials. The resulting high performance materials show improved chemical and physical properties and find widespread applications. The advantage of aryl diazonium salts compared to other surface modifiers lies in their ease of preparation, rapid (electro)reduction, large choice of reactive functional groups, and strong aryl-surface covalent bonding.This unique book summarizes the current knowledge of the surface and

  16. Teddy Bear Stories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Leeuwen, Theo; Caldas-Coulthardt, Carmen


    This paper presents a semiotic analysis of a key cultural artefact, the teddy bear. After introducing the iconography of the teddy bear, it analyses different kinds of stories to show how teddy bears are endowed with meaning in everyday life: stories from children's books, reminiscenses by adults...... about their childhood teddy bears, and children's accounts of what they do with teddy bears, both written for school and told 'out of school', The chapter sees teddy bears as artefacts that provide a cultural channeling for the child's need of a transitional object and argues that the meanings of teddy...... bears have traditionally centred on interpersonal relations within the nuclear family, but have recently been institutionalized and commercialized....

  17. Pseudoephedrine-Directed Asymmetric α-Arylation of α-Amino Acid Derivatives. (United States)

    Atkinson, Rachel C; Fernández-Nieto, Fernando; Mas Roselló, Josep; Clayden, Jonathan


    Available α-amino acids undergo arylation at their α position in an enantioselective manner on treatment with base of N'-aryl urea derivatives ligated to pseudoephedrine as a chiral auxiliary. In situ silylation and enolization induces diastereoselective migration of the N'-aryl group to the α position of the amino acid, followed by ring closure to a hydantoin with concomitant explulsion of the recyclable auxiliary. The hydrolysis of the hydantoin products provides derivatives of quaternary amino acids. The arylation avoids the use of heavy-metal additives, and is successful with a range of amino acids and with aryl rings of varying electronic character.

  18. Pd-NHC-Catalyzed Alkynylation of General Aryl Sulfides with Alkynyl Grignard Reagents. (United States)

    Baralle, Alexandre; Yorimitsu, Hideki; Osuka, Atsuhiro


    Cross-coupling reactions of unactivated aryl sulfides with alkynylmagnesium chloride have been invented to afford 1-aryl-1-alkynes with the aid of a palladium/N-heterocyclic carbene complex. This reaction has by far the widest scope of all transformations utilizing aryl sulfides and alkynes, while known cross-coupling alkynylations of aryl-sulfur electrophiles require activated azaaryl sulfides, thiolactams, or arenesulfonyl chlorides. The alkynylation of aryl sulfides is compatible with typical protecting functional groups. The alkynylation is applied to the synthesis of benzofuran-based fluorescent molecules by taking advantage of characteristic organosulfur chemistry.

  19. Synthesis of N-(4-aryl-1-piperazinylbutyl)-substituted 7,8-benzo-1,3-diazaspiro[4,5]decane-2,4-dione derivatives with potential anxiolytic activity. (United States)

    Kossakowski, J; Zawadowski, T; Turło, J; Kleps, J


    Continuing our studies connected with the design of new anxiolytics we have now synthesized a series of new compounds, derivatives of 7,8-benzo-1,3-diazaspiro[4,5]decane-2,4-dione bearing a 4-aryl-1-piperazinylbutyl group attached to the imide nitrogen. One single compound was submitted to the 5-HT1A receptor binding assay and found to display the expected--though rather weak--receptorial affinity.

  20. Derivatives of aryl-4-guanidinomethylbenzoate and N-aryl-4-guanidinomethylbenzamide as new antibacterial agents: synthesis and bioactivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-yuan YU; Li-xia YANG; Jian-shu XIE; Ling ZHOU; Xue-yuan JIANG; De-xu ZHU; Mutsumi MURAMATSU; Ming-wei WANG


    Aim: The aim of the present study was to design, synthesize, and evaluate novel antibacterial agents, derivatives of aryl-4-guanidinomethylbenzoate and N-aryl-4-guanidinomethylbenzamide. Methods: A total of 44 derivatives of aryl-4-guanidin-omethylbenzoate (series A) and N-aryl-4-guanidinomethylbenzamide (series B) were synthesized and their antibacterial activities were assessed in vitro against a variety of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria by an agar dilution method. Results: Twelve compounds showed potent bactericidal effects against a panel of Gram-positive germs, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), vancomycin-intermediate Sta-phylococcus aureus (VISA), and methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphy-lococci (MRCNS), with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) ranging be-tween 0.5 and 8 μg/mL, which were comparable to the MIC values of several marketed antibiotics. They exhibited weak or no activity on the Gram-negative bacteria tested. In addition, these compounds displayed high inhibitory activities towards oligopeptidase B of bacterial origin. Conclusion: In comparison with the previ-ously reported MIC values of several known antibiotics, the derivatives of aryl-4-guanidinomethylbenzoate and N-aryl-4-guanidinomethylbenzamide showed com-parable in vitro bactericidal activities against VRE and VISA as linezolid. Their growth inhibitory effects on MRSA were similar to vancomycin, but were less potent than linezolid and vancomycin against MRCNS. This class of compounds may have the potential to be developed into narrow spectrum antibacterial agents against certain drug-resistant strains of bacteria.

  1. On the existence of ‘L-alanine cadmium bromide' (United States)

    Srinivasan, Bikshandarkoil R.


    It is argued that the recently reported nonlinear optical crystal L-alanine cadmium bromide, grown by slow solvent evaporation method at room temperature [P. Ilayabarathi, J. Chandrasekaran, Spectrochim. Acta 96A (2012) 684-689] is the well-known L-alanine crystal. The isolation of L-alanine crystal is explained due to fractional crystallization.

  2. On the existence of 'L-alanine cadmium bromide'. (United States)

    Srinivasan, Bikshandarkoil R


    It is argued that the recently reported nonlinear optical crystal L-alanine cadmium bromide, grown by slow solvent evaporation method at room temperature [P. Ilayabarathi, J. Chandrasekaran, Spectrochim. Acta 96A (2012) 684-689] is the well-known L-alanine crystal. The isolation of L-alanine crystal is explained due to fractional crystallization.

  3. 77 FR 20752 - Methyl Bromide; Proposed Pesticide Tolerance (United States)


    ... necessary to prevent the introduction of a plant pest into the United States or the dissemination of a plant... partition into organic vs. aqueous environments, and is therefore commonly used to predict the likelihood...). See the February 22, 2002, Residue Chemistry Chapter for the methyl bromide RED available in...

  4. Een ionchromatografische methode voor de simultane bepaling van nitriet, bromide en sulfiet in water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beld WA van den; Cleven RFMJ; LAC


    Betreft resultaten van een onderzoek naar het ontwikkelen van een geautomatiseerde ionchromatografische methode voor de bepaling van nitriet, bromide en sulfiet. Het onderzoek heeft geresulteerd in een betrouwbare, selectieve en gevoelige methode voor de simultane bepaling van nitriet, bromide e

  5. Synthesis of C-aryl Glycosides Catalyzed by CuI/TMEDA%CuI/TMEDA催化合成芳基葡萄糖碳苷化合物

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛泽伟; 饶高雄


    C-aryl glycosides(2a~2c) were stereoselectively synthesized by substitution reaction of 2, 3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-α-D-glucopyranosyl bromide and aryl Grignard reagents, using THF as the solvent and CuI/TMEDA as the catalyst.The structures were confirmed by 1 H NMR and 13 C NMR.Under the optimized reaction conditions(THF as the solvent, 10%CuI and 10%TMEDA as the catalyst, and the reac-tion temperature was 0℃), the yields of 2a~2c were 58%~71%andα/βwere 1/6.5~1/7.1.%以THF为溶剂,CuI/TMEDA为催化剂,四乙酰溴代葡萄糖与芳基溴化镁经取代反应合成了芳基葡萄糖碳苷(2a~2c),其结构经1H NMR和13C NMR确证。在最佳反应条件(THF为溶剂,10%CuI和10%TMEDA为催化剂,于0℃反应至终点)下,2a~2c的收率为58%~71%,α/β为1/6.5~1/7.1。

  6. Amberlyst-15 catalyzed synthesis of alkyl/aryl/heterocyclic phosphonates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    U.M. Rao Kunda; V.N. Reddy Mudumala; C.S. Reddy Gangireddy; B.R. Nemallapudi; K.N. Sandip; S.R. Cirandur


    A novel and efficient procedure for the synthesis of alkyl phosphonates through one pot condensation of alkyl halide and tri-alkyl/aryl phosphite in the presence of Amberlyst-15 as catalyst under solvent free conditions was applied. It demonstrated several advantages such as good yields of products, simple operation, convenient separation and inexpensive catalyst.

  7. Rh-Catalyzed arylation of fluorinated ketones with arylboronic acids. (United States)

    Dobson, Luca S; Pattison, Graham


    The Rh-catalyzed arylation of fluorinated ketones with boronic acids is reported. This efficient process allows access to fluorinated alcohols in high yields under mild conditions. Competition experiments suggest that difluoromethyl ketones are more reactive than trifluoromethyl ketones in this process, despite their decreased electronic activation, an effect we postulate to be steric in origin.

  8. Oxidative electrochemical aryl C-C coupling of spiropyrans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ivashenko, Oleksii; van Herpt, Jochem T.; Rudolf, Petra; Feringa, Ben L.; Browne, Wesley R.


    The isolation and definitive assignment of the species formed upon electrochemical oxidation of nitro-spiropyran (SP) is reported. The oxidative aryl C-C coupling at the indoline moiety of the SP radical cation to form covalent dimers of the ring-closed SP form is demonstrated. The coupling is block

  9. Kinetic Resolution of Aryl Alkenylcarbinols Catalyzed by Fc-PIP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡斌; 孟萌; 姜山山; 邓卫平


    An effective kinetic resolution of a variety of aryl alkenylcarbinols catalyzed by nonenzymatic acyl transfer catalyst Fe-PIP was developed, affording corresponding unreacted alcohols in good to excellent ee value up to 99% and with selectivity factors up to 24.

  10. Synthesis and properties of poly(sulfone-arylate) copolymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stephen, Ranimol; Gibon, Cécile M.; Weber, Martin; Gaymans, Reinoud J.


    Poly(sulfone-arylate) was synthesized in a reaction between dihydroxy polysulfone prepolymers and either diphenyl terephthalate or terephthaloyl chloride. The dihydroxy polysulfone prepolymers had molecular weights of 2000 and 4000 g/mol. The polymerization with diphenyl terephthalate was carried ou

  11. Highly enantioselective hydrogenation of N-aryl imines derived from acetophenones by using Ru-pybox complexes under hydrogenation or transfer hydrogenation conditions in isopropanol. (United States)

    Menéndez-Pedregal, Estefanía; Vaquero, Mónica; Lastra, Elena; Gamasa, Pilar; Pizzano, Antonio


    The asymmetric reduction of N-aryl imines derived from acetophenones by using Ru complexes bearing both a pybox (2,6-bis(oxazoline)pyridine) and a monodentate phosphite ligand has been described. The catalysts show good activity with a diverse range of substrates, and deliver the amine products in very high levels of enantioselectivity (up to 99 %) under both hydrogenation and transfer hydrogenation conditions in isopropanol. From deuteration studies, a very different labeling is observed under hydrogenation and transfer hydrogenation conditions, which demonstrates the different nature of the hydrogen source in both reactions.

  12. 40 CFR 180.519 - Bromide ion and residual bromine; tolerances for residues. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bromide ion and residual bromine... Tolerances § 180.519 Bromide ion and residual bromine; tolerances for residues. (a) General. The food additives, bromide ion and residual bromine, may be present in water, potable in accordance with...

  13. Association of defects in lead chloride and lead bromide: Ionic conductivity and dielectric loss measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brom, W.E. van den; Schoonman, J.; Wit, J.H.W. de


    The ionic conductivity data of pure and doped lead bromide without associated defects are used in order to explain the anomalous conductivity behaviour of copper (I) bromide and lead oxide-doped lead-bromide crystals. In these crystals precipitated dopant and associated defects are present. The asso

  14. EcoBears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nick; Pedersen, Sandra Bleuenn; Sørensen, Jens Ager


    In this paper, we introduce the EcoBears concept that aims to augment household appliances with functional and aesthetic features to promote their "use'' and "longevity of use'' to prevent their disposal. The EcoBears also aim to support the communication of environmental issues in the home setting....... We present our initial design and implementation of the EcoBears that consist of two bear modules (a mother and her cub). We also present our preliminary concept validations and lessons learned to be considered for future directions....

  15. Uptake of ozone to mixed sodium bromide/ citric acid solutions (United States)

    Lee, Ming-Tao; Steimle, Emilie; Bartels-Rausch, Thorsten; Kato, Shunsuke; Lampimäki, Markus; Brown, Matthew; van Bokhoven, Jeroen; Nolting, Frithjof; Kleibert, Armin; Türler, Andreas; Ammann, Markus


    Sea-salt solution - air interfaces play an important role in the chemistry of the marine boundary layer. The reaction of ozone (O3) with bromide is of interest in the context of formation of photolabile halogens (Br2, BrCl) in the marine boundary layer. Recent experiments have suggested that the bromide oxidation rate is related to the surface concentration of bromide [1] and inversely related to the gas phase concentration of O3, an indication for a precursor mediated reaction at the surface [2]. So far, the effect of organics (such as those occurring at the ocean surface or in marine aerosols) on the reaction of O3 with bromide aerosols has not been studied yet. In our study we investigate the uptake kinetics of O3 to a mixed solution of sodium bromide (NaBr) and citric acid (CA), which represents highly oxidized organic compounds present in the environment, with a well-established coated wall flow tube technique, which leads to exposure of the film to O3 allowing the heterogeneous reactions to take place and the loss of O3 being measured. The results indicate that the uptake of O3 to the films with the higher bromide concentrations (0.34M and 4M) is independent of the gas phase concentration and roughly consistent with uptake limited by reaction in the bulk. For the lower bromide concentration (84mM), however, we observe a trend of the uptake coefficient to decrease with increasing O3 concentration, indicating an increasing importance of a surface reaction. In an attempt to constrain the kinetic data, we employed X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to get insight into the surface composition of the aqueous solution - air interface. Previous XPS studies have shown that halide ion concentrations are enhanced at the aqueous solution air interface [3-4], which likely promotes the surface reactions of bromide or iodide with O3. A first XPS study of ternary solutions of KI with butanol indicated the importance of specific interactions of the cation with the alcohol

  16. Reactions of nitroxides 15. Cinnamates bearing a nitroxyl moiety synthesized using a Mizoroki–Heck cross-coupling reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Zakrzewski


    Full Text Available Cinnamic acid derivatives bearing a nitroxyl moiety (2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-oxyl-4-piperidyl 3-E-aryl acrylates were synthesized in 30–100% yield using a Mizoroki–Heck cross-coupling reaction between 4-acryloyloxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl and iodobenzene derivatives in the presence of palladium(II acetate coordinated with a tri(o-tolylphosphine ligand immobilized in a polyurea matrix.

  17. Damper bearing rotordynamics (United States)

    Elrod, David A.


    High side loads reduce the life of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) High Pressure Oxygen Turbopump (HPOTP) bearings. High stiffness damper seals were recommended to reduce the loads on the pump and turbine end bearings in the HPOTP. The seals designed for use on the pump end are expected to adequately reduce the bearing loads; the predicted performance of the planned turbine end seal is marginal. An alternative to the suggested turbine end seal design is a damper bearing with radial holes from the pressurized center of the turbopump rotor, feeding a smooth land region between two rough-stator/smooth-rotor annular seals. An analysis was prepared to predict the leakage and rotor dynamic coefficients (stiffness, damping, and added mass) of the damper bearing. Governing equations of the seal analysis modified to model the damper bearing; differences between the upstream conditions of the damper bearing and a typical annular seal; prediction of the damper bearing analysis; and assumptions of the analysis which require further investigation are described.

  18. A novel and robust conditioning lesion induced by ethidium bromide. (United States)

    Hollis, Edmund R; Ishiko, Nao; Tolentino, Kristine; Doherty, Ernest; Rodriguez, Maria J; Calcutt, Nigel A; Zou, Yimin


    Molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the peripheral conditioning lesion remain unsolved. We show here that injection of a chemical demyelinating agent, ethidium bromide, into the sciatic nerve induces a similar set of regeneration-associated genes and promotes a 2.7-fold greater extent of sensory axon regeneration in the spinal cord than sciatic nerve crush. We found that more severe peripheral demyelination correlates with more severe functional and electrophysiological deficits, but more robust central regeneration. Ethidium bromide injection does not activate macrophages at the demyelinated sciatic nerve site, as observed after nerve crush, but briefly activates macrophages in the dorsal root ganglion. This study provides a new method for investigating the underlying mechanisms of the conditioning response and suggests that loss of the peripheral myelin may be a major signal to change the intrinsic growth state of adult sensory neurons and promote regeneration.

  19. Study of ferroelectric characteristics of diisopropylammonium bromide films (United States)

    Thirmal, C.; Biswas, P. P.; Shin, Y. J.; Noh, T. W.; Giridharan, N. V.; Venimadhav, A.; Murugavel, P.


    Organic molecular ferroelectrics are highly desirable due to their numerous advantages. In the present work, a thick film of diisopropylammonium bromide organic molecular ferroelectric is fabricated on the ITO/glass substrate. The grown film shows preferential orientation along the c-axis with a ferroelectric transition at 419 K. The piezoresponse force microscopic measurements are done in a dual ac resonance tracking mode for its switching characteristics. The amplitude and phase images of the oppositely written domain patterns exhibit a clear contrast with 180° phase difference. The dynamical spectroscopic studies reveal a butterfly loop in amplitude and hysteretic character of the phase which are the expected characteristics features of ferroelectrics. In addition, the macroscopic polarization versus electric field hysteresis gives an additional proof for ferroelectric character of the film with the maximum polarization of 3.5 μC/cm2. Overall, we have successfully fabricated diisopropylammonium bromide organic films and demonstrated its room temperature ferroelectric characteristics.

  20. Viscosity and density of some lower alkyl chlorides and bromides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutherford, W.M.


    A high-pressure capillary viscometer, used previously to measure the viscosity of methyl chloride was rebuilt to eliminate the first-order dependence of the measured viscosity on the value assumed for the density of the fluid being investigated. At the same time, the system was arranged so that part of the apparatus could be used to measure density by a volumetric displacement technique. Viscosity and density were measured for ethyl chloride, 1-chloropropane, 1-chlorobutane, methyl bromide, ethyl bromide, and 1-bromopropane. The temperature and pressure ranges of the experiments were 20-150 /sup 0/C and 0.27-6.99 MPa, respectively. The accuracy of the viscosity measurements was estimated to be +-1% and of the density measurements, +-0.2%.

  1. Preparation of ethyl magnesium bromide for regiospecific analysis of triacylglycerols. (United States)

    Ando, Yasuhiro; Tomita, Yuki; Haba, Yusuke


    This paper presents a procedure for preparation of a Grignard reagent, ethyl magnesium bromide, used for partial deacylation of triacylglycerols (TAG) in their regiospecific analysis. Magnesium turnings were reacted with ethereal solution of bromoethane in a screw-capped test tube to synthesize 2 mL of 1 M ethyl magnesium bromide. Continuously stirred with a vortex mixer, the reaction smoothly proceeded at room temperature. Regiospecific analysis of 1,3-distearoyl-2-oleoylglycerol using this product showed that fatty acid compositions of the sn-1(3) and sn-2 positions were contaminated by less than 2 mol% of fatty acids migrated from isomeric positions. The analyses of lard and cod liver/mackerel oil TAG showed typical distribution patterns of 16:0, 22:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 in pig and fish depot TAG. These results confirmed the view that the freshly prepared reagent is usable for regiospecific analysis of TAG.

  2. Tandem diastereo- and enantioselective preparation of aryl and alkyl cyclopropyl carbinols with three adjacent stereocenters using perhydrobenzoxazines and diethylzinc. (United States)

    Infante, Rebeca; Nieto, Javier; Andrés, Celia


    The enantio- and diastereoselective one-pot ethylation/cyclopropanation is efficiently promoted by a chiral perhydrobenzoxazine. The catalytic system tolerates a wide range of di- and trisubstituted α,β-unsaturated aldehydes and has been found to be highly diastereo- and enantioselective. Enals leading to intermediates lacking allylic strain or with either A(1,2) or A(1,3) strain afford the corresponding syn hydroxycyclopropanes very selectively. While α-methyl enals are successfully ethylated/cyclopropanated, the presence of bulky substituents at the alpha position of the enal constitutes a limitation to the substrate scope. The use of 1,1-diiodoethane allows the obtention of the corresponding enantioenriched cyclopropylcarbinol, which bears carbon-substituents at all three positions of the ring, with good enantiocontrol, although moderate diastereoselectivity. A procedure for the asymmetric one-pot arylation/cyclopropanation of enals is proposed, which involves the use of triarylboroxin, diethylzinc and diiodomethane.



    Mallika Selvaraj; Sumathi


    AIM To compare the two drugs drotaverine hydrochloride and valethamate bromide and their effects on cervical dilatation and labour duration. METHODOLOGY It is a prospective study undertaken at Government Rajaji Hospital on 150 randomly selected primigravidae patients. RESULTS The duration of active phase of first stage of labour was significantly reduced (p value 0.003), rate of cervical dilatation was higher (p value 0.0001) with drotaverine hydrochloride. CONCLUS...

  4. Transformation of bromide in thermo activated persulfate oxidation processes. (United States)

    Lu, Junhe; Wu, Jinwei; Ji, Yuefei; Kong, Deyang


    Sulfate radicals ( [Formula: see text] ) are applied to degrade various organic pollutants. Due to its high oxidative potential, [Formula: see text] is presumed to be able to transform bromide to reactive bromine species that can react with natural organic matter subsequently to form brominated products including brominated disinfection by-products (Br-DBPs). This research was designed to investigate the transformation of bromide in thermo activated persulfate oxidation process in the presence of humic acid (HA). Significant formation of bromoform and bromoacetic acids was verified. Their formation was attributed to the reactions of HA and reactive bromine species including Br·, [Formula: see text] HOBr(-), and free bromine resulted from the oxidation of bromide by [Formula: see text] . Yields of Br-DBPs increased monotonically at persulfate concentration of 1.0 mM and working temperature of 70 °C. However, the time-depended formation exhibited an increasing and the decreasing profile when persulfate was 5.0 mM, suggesting further degradation of organic bromine. HPLC/ICP-MS analysis demonstrated that the organic bromine was eventually transformed to bromate at this condition. Thus, a transformation scheme was proposed in which the bromine could be recycled multiple times between inorganic bromide and organic bromine before being finally transformed to bromate. This is the first study that reveals the comprehensive transformation map of bromine in [Formula: see text] based reaction systems, which should be taken into consideration when such technologies are used to eliminate contamination in real practice.

  5. A Lithium Bromide Absorption Chiller with Cold Storage (United States)


    TO R A G E A LITHIUM BROMIDE ABSORPTION CHILLER WITH COLD STORAGE William Gerstler, et al, General Electric Global Research UNCLASSIFIED UNLIMITED...Research ABSTRACT A LiBr-based absorption chiller can use waste heat or solar energy to produce useful space cooling for small buildings...However, operating this absorption chiller at high ambient tem- peratures may result in performance degradation, crystallization in the absorber, and

  6. Comparison of Heat and Bromide as Ground Water Tracers Near Streams (United States)

    Constantz, J.; Cox, M.H.; Su, G.W.


    Heat and bromide were compared as tracers for examining stream/ground water exchanges along the middle reaches of the Santa Clara River, California, during a 10-hour surface water sodium bromide injection test. Three cross sections that comprise six shallow (sodium bromide injection test. Vertical, one-dimensional simulations of bromide concentrations in the sediments yielded a good match to the observed bromide concentrations, without adjustment of any model parameters except solute dispersivities. This indicates that, for the spatial and temporal scales examined on the Santa Clara River, the use of heat and bromide as tracers provide comparable information with respect to apparent hydraulic conductivities and fluxes for sediments near streams. In other settings, caution should be used due to differences in the nature of conservative (bromide) versus nonconservative (heat) tracers, particularly when preferential flowpaths are present.

  7. Conservative tracer bromide inhibits pesticide mineralisation in soil. (United States)

    Bech, Tina B; Rosenbom, Annette E; Sørensen, Sebastian R; Jacobsen, Carsten S


    Bromide is a conservative tracer that is often applied with non-conservative solutes such as pesticides to estimate their retardation in the soil. It has been applied in concentrations of up to 250 g Br L(-1), levels at which the growth of single-celled organisms can be inhibited. Bromide applications may therefore affect the biodegradation of non-conservative solutes in soil. The present study investigated the effect of potassium bromide (KBr) on the mineralisation of three pesticides - glyphosate, MCPA and metribuzin - in four agricultural A-horizon soils. KBr was added to soil microcosms at concentrations of 0, 0.5, 2.5 and 5 g Br(-) L(-1) in the soil solution. The study concluded that KBr had a negative effect on pesticide mineralisation. The inhibitory effect varied depending on the KBr concentration, the type of pesticide and the type of soil. Furthermore, 16 S amplicon sequencing revealed that the KBr treatment generally reduced the abundance of bacteroidetes and proteobacteria on both an RNA and DNA level. Therefore, in order to reduce the effect of KBr on the soil bacterial community and consequently also on xenobiotic degradation, it is recommended that KBr be applied in a concentration that does not exceed 0.5 g Br(-) L(-1) in the soil water.

  8. Oral teratogenicity studies of methyl bromide in rats and rabbits. (United States)

    Kaneda, M; Hojo, H; Teramoto, S; Maita, K


    Teratogenicity studies of methyl bromide, a widely used fumigant, were conducted in rats and rabbits. Methyl bromide was dissolved in corn oil and administered orally to groups of 24 copulated female Crj:CD (SD) rats at dose levels of 0 (corn oil), 3, 10 or 30 mg/kg/day on days 6-15 of gestation and to groups of 18 artificially inseminated female Kbl:JW rabbits at 0, 1, 3 or 10 mg/kg/day on days 6-18 of gestation. Maternal rats and rabbits were euthanized on respective days 20 and 27 of gestation. Foetuses were examined for survival, growth and teratological alterations. Maternal toxicity was evident in the high-dose groups for both species. In these groups, maternal body weight gains and food consumption were significantly decreased during the dosing and post-dosing periods. Necropsy of maternal rats also revealed erosive lesions in the stomach and the surrounding organs. However, no treatment-related adverse effects were found in foetuses of the treated groups for both rat and rabbit studies. These results led to the conclusion that methyl bromide was not foetotoxic or teratogenic to rat and rabbit foetuses up to dose levels of 30 and 10 mg/kg/day, respectively, at which maternal toxicity was evident for both species.

  9. Palladium-catalyzed direct arylation and cyclization of o-iodobiaryls to a library of tetraphenylenes (United States)

    Zhu, Chendan; Zhao, Yue; Wang, Di; Sun, Wei-Yin; Shi, Zhuangzhi


    Aryl–aryl bond formation constitutes one of the most important subjects in organic synthesis. The recent developments in direct arylation reactions forming aryl–aryl bond have emerged as very attractive alternatives to traditional cross-coupling reactions. Here, we describe a general palladium-catalyzed direct arylation and cyclization of o-iodobiaryls to build a library of tetraphenylenes. This transformation represents one of the very few examples of C-H activation process that involves simultaneous formation of two aryl–aryl bonds. Oxygen plays a vital role by ensuring high reactivity, with air as the promoter furnished the best results. We anticipate this ligand-free and aerobic catalytic system will simplify the synthesis of tetraphenylenes as many of the reported methods involve use of preformed organometallic reagents and will lead to the discovery of highly efficient new direct arylation process.

  10. Cul/8-Hydroxyquinalidine Promoted N-Arylation of Indole and Azoles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨新业; 邢辉; 张烨; 赖宜生; 张奕华; 蒋咏文; 马大为


    An efficient catalytic system of CuI/8-hydroxyquinalidine was developed for the coupling of aryl iodides and indole as well as some azoles. The reaction could be carried out at 90 ~C under the condition of relatively low cata- lyst loading, affording various N-arylindoles and N-aryl azoles in good yields. The functionalized and hindered aryl iodides were suitable substrates for this transformation.

  11. Nickel-catalyzed cross-coupling of aryl phosphates with arylboronic acids. (United States)

    Chen, Hu; Huang, Zhongbin; Hu, Xiaoming; Tang, Guo; Xu, Pengxiang; Zhao, Yufen; Cheng, Chien-Hong


    The Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling of aryl phosphates using Ni(PCy(3))(2)Cl(2) as an inexpensive, bench-stable catalyst is described. Broad substrate scope and high efficiency are demonstrated by the syntheses of more than 40 biaryls and by constructing complex organic molecules. The poor reactivity of aryl phosphates relative to aryl halides is successfully employed to construct polyarenes by selective cross-coupling using Pd and Ni catalysts.

  12. Menthone aryl acid hydrazones: a new class of anticonvulsants. (United States)

    Jain, Jainendra; Kumar, Y; Sinha, Reema; Kumar, Rajeev; Stables, James


    A series of ten compounds (Compounds J(1)-J(10)) of (±) 3-menthone aryl acid hydrazone was synthesized and characterized by thin layer chromatography and spectral analysis. Synthesized compounds were evaluated for anticonvulsant activity after intraperitoneal (i.p) administration to mice by maximal electroshock (MES) and subcutaneous pentylenetetrazole (scPTZ) induced seizure method and minimal clonic seizure test. Minimal motor impairment was also determined for these compounds. Results obtained showed that four compounds out of ten afforded significant protection in the minimal clonic seizure screen at 6 Hz. Compound J(6), 4-Chloro-N-(2-isopropyl-5-methylcyclohexylidene) benzohydrazide was found to be the most active compound with MES ED(50) of 16.1 mg/kg and protective index (pI) of greater than 20, indicating that (±) 3-menthone aryl acid hydrazone possesses better and safer anticonvulsant properties than other reported menthone derivatives viz. menthone Schiff bases, menthone semicarbazides and thiosemicarbazides.

  13. Palladium- (and nickel-) catalyzed vinylation of aryl halides†


    DENMARK, SCOTT E.; Butler, Christopher R.


    Functionalized styrenes are extremely useful building blocks for organic synthesis and for functional polymers. One of the most general syntheses of styrenes involves the combination of an aryl halide with a vinyl organometallic reagent under catalysis by palladium or nickel complexes. This Feature Article provides the first comprehensive summary of the vinylation methods currently available along with a critical comparison of the efficiency, cost and scope of the methods.

  14. Antileishmanial, antimicrobial and antifungal activities of some new aryl azomethines. (United States)

    Al-Kahraman, Yasser M S A; Madkour, Hassan M F; Ali, Dildar; Yasinzai, Masoom


    A series of eighteen azomethines has been synthesized by the reaction of appropriate primary aromatic amines with aryl and/or heteroaryl carboxaldehydes. The synthesized azomethines have been evaluated for their in vitro antileishmanial, antibacterial and antifungal activities. The results revealed some antifungal activity of most of the synthesized compounds, whereas the antileishmaniasis activity results highlighted that all synthesized azomethines inhibited parasite growth and most of them showed highly potent action towards Leishmania major promastigotes. No remarkable bactericidal activities were observed.

  15. Ultra-precision bearings

    CERN Document Server

    Wardle, F


    Ultra-precision bearings can achieve extreme accuracy of rotation, making them ideal for use in numerous applications across a variety of fields, including hard disk drives, roundness measuring machines and optical scanners. Ultraprecision Bearings provides a detailed review of the different types of bearing and their properties, as well as an analysis of the factors that influence motion error, stiffness and damping. Following an introduction to basic principles of motion error, each chapter of the book is then devoted to the basic principles and properties of a specific type of bearin

  16. Solid miscibility of common-anion lithium and sodium halides. Experimental determination of the region of demixing in lithium bromide + sodium bromide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oonk, H.A.J.; Wijk, H.J. van; Doornhof, D.


    The region of demixing of solid lithium bromide + sodium bromide mixtures has been measured by X-ray diffraction. The critical temperature of mixing corresponding to a thermodynamic fit of the experimental data is 513 K. Estimates are given of the regions of demixing in solid lithium chloride + sodi

  17. Synthesis and characterization of 5-heteroarylsulfanyl-4-aryl-1,2,3-selena/thiadiazoles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ramaiyan Manikannan; Masilamani Shanmugaraja; Seetharaman Manojveer; Shanmugam Muthusubramanian


    Synthesis and spectral characterization of 2-methyl-5-[(4-aryl-1,2,3-selenadiazol-5-yl)sulfanyl]-1,3,4-thiadiazoles, 5-[4-aryl-1,2,3-selenadiazol-5-yl]sulfanyl-1-phenyl-1-1,2,3,4-tetraazoles, 4-aryl-5-[(5-methyl-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl)sulfanyl]-1,2,3-thiadiazole and 5-[4-aryl-1,2,3-thiadiazol-5-yl]sulfanyl-1-phenyl-1-1,2,3,4-tetraazole have been reported.

  18. Synthesis of novel aryl(heteroaryl)sulfonyl ureas of possible biological interest. (United States)

    Saczewski, Franciszek; Kuchnio, Anna; Samsel, Monika; Łobocka, Marta; Kiedrowska, Agnieszka; Lisewska, Karolina; Saczewski, Jarosław; Gdaniec, Maria; Bednarski, Patrick J


    The course of reaction of aryl and heteroaryl sulfonamides with diphenylcarbonate (DPC) and 4-dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP) was found to depend on the pKa of the sulfonamide used. Aryl sulfonamides with pKa approximately 10 gave 4-dimethylamino-pyridinium arylsulfonyl-carbamoylides, while the more acidic heteroaryl sulfonamides (pKa approximately 8) furnished 4-dimethylaminopyridinium heteroarylsulfonyl carbamates. Both the carbamoylides and carbamate salts reacted with aliphatic and aromatic amines with the formation of appropriate aryl(heteroaryl)sulfonyl ureas, and therefore, can be regarded as safe and stable substitutes of the hazardous and difficult to handle aryl(heteroaryl)sulfonyl isocyanates.

  19. Synthesis of Novel Aryl(heteroarylsulfonyl Ureas of Possible Biological Interest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Gdaniec


    Full Text Available The course of reaction of aryl and heteroaryl sulfonamides with diphenylcarbonate (DPC and 4-dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP was found to depend on the pKa of the sulfonamide used. Aryl sulfonamides with pKa ~ 10 gave 4-dimethylamino-pyridinium arylsulfonyl-carbamoylides, while the more acidic heteroaryl sulfonamides (pKa ~ 8 furnished 4-dimethylaminopyridinium heteroarylsulfonyl carbamates. Both the carbamoylides and carbamate salts reacted with aliphatic and aromatic amines with the formation of appropriate aryl(heteroarylsulfonyl ureas, and therefore, can be regarded as safe and stable substitutes of the hazardous and difficult to handle aryl(heteroarylsulfonyl isocyanates.

  20. Gear bearing drive (United States)

    Weinberg, Brian (Inventor); Mavroidis, Constantinos (Inventor); Vranish, John M. (Inventor)


    A gear bearing drive provides a compact mechanism that operates as an actuator providing torque and as a joint providing support. The drive includes a gear arrangement integrating an external rotor DC motor within a sun gear. Locking surfaces maintain the components of the drive in alignment and provide support for axial loads and moments. The gear bearing drive has a variety of applications, including as a joint in robotic arms and prosthetic limbs.

  1. Rolling bearing analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Harris, Tedric A


    One of the most well-known experts in the field brings cutting-edge research to practitioners in the new edition of this important reference. Covers the improved mathematical calculations for rolling bearing endurance developed by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers and the Society of Lubrication and Tribology Engineers. Updated with new material on Condition-Based Maintenance, new testing methods, and new bearing materials.

  2. My Little Teddy Bear

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    @@ As Valentine's Day came closer,every shop was full of colourful gifts such as cookies in the shape of heart, chocolates,Teddy Bears and so on.When I step into a shop on February 14th,I felt most lonely as I was alone.With mv eves fixed on a lovely Teddy Bear, I wished that someone could send me this stuffed toy.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mallika Selvaraj


    Full Text Available AIM To compare the two drugs drotaverine hydrochloride and valethamate bromide and their effects on cervical dilatation and labour duration. METHODOLOGY It is a prospective study undertaken at Government Rajaji Hospital on 150 randomly selected primigravidae patients. RESULTS The duration of active phase of first stage of labour was significantly reduced (p value 0.003, rate of cervical dilatation was higher (p value 0.0001 with drotaverine hydrochloride. CONCLUSION Drotaverine hydrochloride is a safe, potent and effective drug to be used in the active phase of labour.

  4. Suicide by intravenous injection of rocuronium-bromide: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Slobodan


    Full Text Available Suicides by intravenous injection of an overdose of medicaments are uncommon. In this paper, we present the case of a suicide by rocuronium-bromide injection in combination with an oral overdose of metoprolol. Unfortunately, in Belgrade, there is no toxicological laboratory capable of detecting rocuronium. The interpretation of autopsy and toxicological data in this case was made difficult due to the extreme putrefaction of the body of the deceased. So, by forensic investigation, the case was solved indirectly, through circumstantial evidence: an empty ampoule of rocuronium found near the body, as well as a plastic syringe and cloth-bandage found in the left hand of the deceased.

  5. Interaction between gaseous ozone and crystalline potassium bromide (United States)

    Levanov, A. V.; Maksimov, I. B.; Isaikina, O. Ya.; Antipenko, E. E.; Lunin, V. V.


    The formation of nonvolatile products of the oxidation of a bromide ion during the interaction between gaseous ozone and powdered crystalline KBr is studied. It is found that potassium bromate KBrO3 is the main product of the reaction. The influence of major experimental factors (the duration of ozonation, the concentration of ozone, the humidity of the initial gas, and the temperature) on the rate of formation of bromate is studied. The effective constants of the formation of bromate during the interaction between O3 and Br- in a heterogeneous gas-solid body system and in a homogeneous aqueous solution are compared.

  6. Assembling of H5PW10V2O40/MCM-48 and studying its superior catalytic performance in the synthesis of 14-aryl-14-H-dibenzo[a, j]xanthenes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Reza Tayebee; Behrouz Maleki


    A highly efficient, green, and reusable heterogeneous catalytic system is introduced for the preparation of aryl-14-H-dibenzo[a,j]xanthenes via one-pot condensation of -naphthol with aryl-aldehydes by the mediation of a heterogeneous material composed of Keggin%-type tungsto-divanado-phosphoric acid, H5PW10V2O40, supported on MCM-48 under solvent-free condition. Excellent yields (85-100%), short reaction time (<60 min.), mild condition, simple work-up, and using a cheap and environmentally friendly catalyst bearing remarkable reusability are advantages of the present methodology. The catalytic efficacy of H5PW10V2O40/MCM-48 over some reported protocols are also overviewed.

  7. Automated determination of bromide in waters by ion chromatography with an amperometric detector (United States)

    Pyen, G.S.; Erdmann, D.E.


    An automated ion chromatograph, including a program controller, an automatic sampler, an integrator, and an amperometric detector, was used to develop a procedure for the determination of bromide in rain water and many ground waters. Approximately 10 min is required to obtain a chromatogram. The detection limit for bromide is 0.01 mg l-1 and the relative standard deivation is <5% for bromide concentrations between 0.05 and 0.5 mg l-1. Chloride interferes if the chloride-to-bromide ratio is greater than 1 000:1 for a range of 0.01-0.1 mg l-1 bromide; similarly, chloride interferes in the 0.1-1.0 mg l-1 range if the ratio is greater than 5 000:1. In the latter case, a maximum of 2 000 mg l-1 of chloride can be tolerated. Recoveries of known concentrations of bromide added to several samples, ranged from 97 to 110%. ?? 1983.

  8. Catalysis by alkali and alkaline-earth metal ions in nucleophilic attack of methoxide ion on crown ethers bearing an intra-annular acetoxy group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cacciapaglia, Roberta; Lucente, Silvia; Mandolini, Luigi; Doorn, van Arie R.; Reinhoudt, David N.; Verboom, Willem


    Rates of reaction of methoxide ion with crown ethers bearing an intra-annular acetoxy group are markedly enhanced by alkali and alkaline-earth metal bromides as a result of much stronger interactions of the metal ions with transition states than with reactants. Rates of reactions of methoxide ion w

  9. Magnetic Bearing Consumes Low Power (United States)

    Studer, P. A.


    Energy-efficient linear magnetic bearing maintains a precise small separation between its moving and stationary parts. Originally designed for cryogenic compressors on spacecraft, proposed magnetic bearing offers an alternative to roller or gas bearing in linear motion system. Linear noncontacting bearing operates in environments where lubricants cannot be used.

  10. Transient neuromyopathy after bromide intoxication in a dog with idiopathic epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steinmetz Sonja


    Full Text Available Abstract A seven-year old Australian Shepherd, suffering from idiopathic epilepsy under treatment with phenobarbitone and potassium bromide, was presented with generalised lower motor neuron signs. Electrophysiology and muscle-nerve biopsies revealed a neuromyopathy. The serum bromide concentration was increased more than two-fold above the upper reference value. Clinical signs disappeared after applying diuretics and reducing the potassium bromide dose rate. This is the first case report describing electrophysiological and histopathological findings associated with bromide induced lower motor neuron dysfunction in a dog.

  11. A practical comparison of Copper Bromide Laser for the treatment of vascular lesions. (United States)

    Lee, SunWoo; Lee, TaeBum; Kim, HoYoun; Kim, JungSoo; Eun, HyeJun; Kim, RyunKyung


    The recent rapid growth in demand for aesthetic non-invasive laser treatments such as unwanted skin rejuvenation, removal of age-related vascular blemishes has led to a boom in the medical devices to treat these conditions. Among diverse laser for skin treatment, copper bromide laser is a very effective, safe, and well tolerated treatment for facial telangiectasia at various energy levels and the most important thing of the copper bromide laser device is that the stability of the energy. However there is no evidence about effective copper bromide laser's energy level for the treatment of vascular lesions. We compared energy stability and treatment performance between two energy levels in 2 W and 8 W which commonly use in laser treatment for the vascular lesions. 8 W copper bromide laser was more stable compared than 2 W copper bromide laser. Also, 8 W copper bromide laser was effectively superior to 2 W copper bromide laser in treatment of vascular legion. Consequently, 8 W copper bromide laser treatment for vascular lesion might be more suitable than 2 W copper bromide laser.

  12. Tribology of alternative bearings. (United States)

    Fisher, John; Jin, Zhongmin; Tipper, Joanne; Stone, Martin; Ingham, Eileen


    The tribological performance and biological activity of the wear debris produced has been compared for highly cross-linked polyethylene, ceramic-on-ceramic, metal-on-metal, and modified metal bearings in a series of in vitro studies from a single laboratory. The functional lifetime demand of young and active patients is 10-fold greater than the estimated functional lifetime of traditional polyethylene. There is considerable interest in using larger diameter heads in these high demand patients. Highly cross-linked polyethylene show a four-fold reduction in functional biological activity. Ceramic-on-ceramic bearings have the lowest wear rates and least reactive wear debris. The functional biological activity is 20-fold lower than with highly cross-linked polyethylene. Hence, ceramic-on-ceramic bearings address the tribological lifetime demand of highly active patients. Metal-on-metal bearings have substantially lower wear rates than highly cross-linked polyethylene and wear decreases with head diameter. Bedding in wear is also lower with reduced radial clearance. Differential hardness ceramic-on-metal bearings and the application of ceramic-like coatings reduce metal wear and ion levels.

  13. Catalytic membrane-installed microchannel reactors for one-second allylic arylation. (United States)

    Yamada, Yoichi M A; Watanabe, Toshihiro; Torii, Kaoru; Uozumi, Yasuhiro


    A variety of catalytic membranes of palladium-complexes with linear polymer ligands were prepared inside a microchannel reactor via coordinative and ionic molecular convolution to provide catalytic membrane-installed microdevices, which were applied to the instantaneous allylic arylation reaction of allylic esters and aryl boron reagents under microflow conditions to afford the corresponding coupling products within 1 second of residence time.

  14. Oxidative addition of aryl chlorides to monoligated palladium(0): A DFT-SCRF study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlquist, Mårten Sten Gösta; Norrby, Per-Ola


    Oxidative addition of aryl chlorides to palladium has been investigated by hybrid density functional theory methods (B3LYP), including a continuum model describing the solvent implicitly. A series of para-substituted aryl chlorides were studied to see the influence of electronic effects on the re...

  15. Modular approach to novel chiral aryl-ferrocenyl phosphines by Suzuki cross-coupling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jakob Feldthusen; Søtofte, Inger; Sorensen, H.O.;


    Two novel planar chiral and atropisomeric P,N and P,O aryl-ferrocenyl ligand systems have been developed. The strategy is short and involves a new synthetic approach to aryl-ferrocenyl compounds via a Suzuki cross-coupling procedure. The modular design can easily give access to variety of chiral ...

  16. Synthesis of 3-cyano-4-aryl-5-ethoxycarbonyl-6-methyl-3,4-dihydropyridine-2-thiones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauze, A.A.; Liepin' sh, E.E.; Pelcher, Yu.E.; Kalme, Z.A.; Dipan, I.V.; Dubur, G.Ya.


    The condensation of ethyl arylidenacetoacetate with cyanothioacetamide and of arylidenecyanothioacetamides with ethyl acetoacetate or of arylidenecyanothioacetamides with ethyl ..beta..-aminocrotonate gave 3-cyano-4-aryl-5-ethoxycarbonyl-6-methyl-3,4-dihydropyridine-2-thiones. PMR spectroscopy showed that the 3-cyano-4-aryl-3,4-dihydro-pyridine-2-thiones are formed as a mixture of cis and trans isomers.

  17. Unprecedentedly mild direct Pd-catalyzed arylation of oxazolo[4,5-b]pyridine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhuravlev, Fedor


    Pd-catalyzed C-2 arylation of oxazolo[4,5-b]pyridine proceeds efficiently at 30 degrees C and tolerates a variety of aryl halides, including derivatized amino acids for which no racemization was observed during the reaction. Experimental evidence for facile deprotonation of oxazolo[4,5-b]pyridine...

  18. The in vitro and in vivo profile of aclidinium bromide in comparison with glycopyrronium bromide. (United States)

    Gavaldà, Amadeu; Ramos, Israel; Carcasona, Carla; Calama, Elena; Otal, Raquel; Montero, José Luis; Sentellas, Sonia; Aparici, Monica; Vilella, Dolors; Alberti, Joan; Beleta, Jorge; Miralpeix, Montserrat


    This study characterised the in vitro and in vivo profiles of two novel long-acting muscarinic antagonists, aclidinium bromide and glycopyrronium bromide, using tiotropium bromide and ipratropium bromide as comparators. All four antagonists had high affinity for the five muscarinic receptor sub-types (M1-M5); aclidinium had comparable affinity to tiotropium but higher affinity than glycopyrronium and ipratropium for all receptors. Glycopyrronium dissociated faster from recombinant M3 receptors than aclidinium and tiotropium but more slowly than ipratropium; all four compounds dissociated more rapidly from M2 receptors than from M3 receptors. In vitro, aclidinium, glycopyrronium and tiotropium had a long duration of action at native M3 receptors (>8 h versus 42 min for ipratropium). In vivo, all compounds were equi-potent at reversing acetylcholine-induced bronchoconstriction. Aclidinium, glycopyrronium and ipratropium had a faster onset of bronchodilator action than tiotropium. Aclidinium had a longer duration of action than glycopyronnium (time to 50% recovery of effect [t½ offset] = 29 h and 13 h, respectively); these compare with a t½ offset of 64 h and 8 h for tiotropium and ipratropium, respectively. Aclidinium was less potent than glycopyrronium and tiotropium at inhibiting salivation in conscious rats (dose required to produce half-maximal effect [ED50] = 38, 0.74 and 0.88 μg/kg, respectively) and was more rapidly hydrolysed in rat, guinea pig and human plasma compared with glycopyrronium or tiotropium. These results indicate that while aclidinium and glycopyrronium are both potent antagonists at muscarinic receptors with similar kinetic selectivity for M3 receptors versus M2, aclidinium has a longer dissociation half-life at M3 receptors and a longer duration of bronchodilator action in vivo than glycopyrronium. The rapid plasma hydrolysis of aclidinium, coupled to its kinetic selectivity, may confer a reduced propensity for systemic

  19. Development of copper bromide laser master oscillator power amplifier system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G N Tiwari; R K Mishra; R Khare; S V Nakhe


    Development of master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) system of copper bromide laser (CBL) operating at 110 W average power is reported. The spectral distribution of power at green (510.6 nm) and yellow (578.2 nm) components in the output of a copper bromide laser is studied as a function of operating parameters. The electrical input power was varied from 2.6 to 4.3 kW, the pulse repetition frequency (PRF) was changed from 16 to 19 kHz, and the pressure of the buffer gas (neon) was kept fixed at 20 mbar. When the electrical input power was increased to 4.3 kW from 2.6 kW, the tube-wall temperature also increased to 488°C from 426°C but the ratio of the green to yellow power decreased to 1.53 from 3.73. The ratio of green to yellow power decreased to 1.53 from 1.63 when the PRF of the laser was increased to 19 kHz from 16 kHz. These observations are explained in terms of electron temperature, energy levels of transitions, and voltage and current waveforms across the laser head.

  20. Radial Halbach Magnetic Bearings (United States)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.; Gallo, Christopher A.; Thompson, William K.


    Radial Halbach magnetic bearings have been investigated as part of an effort to develop increasingly reliable noncontact bearings for future high-speed rotary machines that may be used in such applications as aircraft, industrial, and land-vehicle power systems and in some medical and scientific instrumentation systems. Radial Halbach magnetic bearings are based on the same principle as that of axial Halbach magnetic bearings, differing in geometry as the names of these two types of bearings suggest. Both radial and axial Halbach magnetic bearings are passive in the sense that unlike most other magnetic bearings that have been developed in recent years, they effect stable magnetic levitation without need for complex active control. Axial Halbach magnetic bearings were described in Axial Halbach Magnetic Bearings (LEW-18066-1), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 32, No. 7 (July 2008), page 85. In the remainder of this article, the description of the principle of operation from the cited prior article is recapitulated and updated to incorporate the present radial geometry. In simplest terms, the basic principle of levitation in an axial or radial Halbach magnetic bearing is that of the repulsive electromagnetic force between (1) a moving permanent magnet and (2) an electric current induced in a stationary electrical conductor by the motion of the magnetic field. An axial or radial Halbach bearing includes multiple permanent magnets arranged in a Halbach array ("Halbach array" is defined below) in a rotor and multiple conductors in the form of wire coils in a stator, all arranged so the rotary motion produces an axial or radial repulsion that is sufficient to levitate the rotor. A basic Halbach array (see Figure 1) consists of a row of permanent magnets, each oriented so that its magnetic field is at a right angle to that of the adjacent magnet, and the right-angle turns are sequenced so as to maximize the magnitude of the magnetic flux density on one side of the row while

  1. Partial tooth gear bearings (United States)

    Vranish, John M. (Inventor)


    A partial gear bearing including an upper half, comprising peak partial teeth, and a lower, or bottom, half, comprising valley partial teeth. The upper half also has an integrated roller section between each of the peak partial teeth with a radius equal to the gear pitch radius of the radially outwardly extending peak partial teeth. Conversely, the lower half has an integrated roller section between each of the valley half teeth with a radius also equal to the gear pitch radius of the peak partial teeth. The valley partial teeth extend radially inwardly from its roller section. The peak and valley partial teeth are exactly out of phase with each other, as are the roller sections of the upper and lower halves. Essentially, the end roller bearing of the typical gear bearing has been integrated into the normal gear tooth pattern.

  2. The Little Bear

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林战峰; 乐伟国


    @@ 一、故事内容 A little bear has a magic stick.It can make his wishes come true. One day,the little bear is walking in the forest.He sees a bird.It is flying in the sky.It has two beautiful wings."I want two beautiful wings.I wish I can fly like a bird,"he says to the magic stick.Two beautiful wings come out from his back and he can fly like a bird now.He is very happy.

  3. Modular gear bearings (United States)

    Vranish, John M. (Inventor)


    A gearing system using modular gear bearing components. Each component is composed of a core, one or more modules attached to the core and two or more fastening modules rigidly attaching the modules to the core. The modules, which are attached to the core, may consist of gears, rollers or gear bearing components. The core orientation affects the orientation of the modules attached to the core. This is achieved via the keying arrangement of the core and the component modules that attach to the core. Such an arrangement will also facilitate the phase tuning of gear modules with respect to the core and other gear modules attached to the core.

  4. Catalytic arylation methods from the academic lab to industrial processes

    CERN Document Server

    Burke, Anthony J


    A current view of the challenging field of catalytic arylation reactions. Clearly structured, the chapters in this one-stop resource are arranged according to the reaction type, and focus on novel, efficient and sustainable processes, rather than the well-known and established cross-coupling methods.The entire contents are written by two authors with academic and industrial expertise to ensure consistent coverage of the latest developments in the field, as well as industrial applications, such as C-H activation, iron and gold-catalyzed coupling reactions, cycloadditions or novel methodologies

  5. Role of the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor in Colon Neoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guofeng Xie


    Full Text Available For both men and women, colorectal cancer (CRC is the second leading cause of cancer death in the United States, primarily as a consequence of limited therapies for metastatic disease. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR is a ligand-dependent transcription factor with diverse functions in detoxification of xenobiotics, inflammatory responses, and tissue homeostasis. Emerging evidence indicates that AhR also plays an important role in regulating intestinal cell proliferation and tumorigenesis. Here, we review both the pro- and anti-carcinogenic properties of AhR signaling and its potential role as a therapeutic target in CRC.

  6. Antileishmanial, Antimicrobial and Antifungal Activities of Some New Aryl Azomethines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoom Yasinzai


    Full Text Available A series of eighteen azomethines has been synthesized by the reaction of appropriate primary aromatic amines with aryl and/or heteroaryl carboxaldehydes. The synthesized azomethines have been evaluated for their in vitro antileishmanial, antibacterial and antifungal activities. The results revealed some antifungal activity of most of the synthesized compounds, whereas the antileishmaniasis activity results highlighted that all synthesized azomethines inhibited parasite growth and most of them showed highly potent action towards Leishmania major promastigotes. No remarkable bactericidal activities were observed.

  7. Role of the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor in Colon Neoplasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Guofeng, E-mail:; Raufman, Jean-Pierre [Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Veterans Administration Maryland Health Care System, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States)


    For both men and women, colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second leading cause of cancer death in the United States, primarily as a consequence of limited therapies for metastatic disease. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-dependent transcription factor with diverse functions in detoxification of xenobiotics, inflammatory responses, and tissue homeostasis. Emerging evidence indicates that AhR also plays an important role in regulating intestinal cell proliferation and tumorigenesis. Here, we review both the pro- and anti-carcinogenic properties of AhR signaling and its potential role as a therapeutic target in CRC.

  8. Vapour pressures, densities, and viscosities of the (water + lithium bromide + potassium acetate) system and (water + lithium bromide + sodium lactate) system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucas, Antonio de [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Castilla - La Mancha, Avda. de Camilo Jose Cela s/n, 13004 Ciudad Real (Spain); Donate, Marina [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Castilla - La Mancha, Avda. de Camilo Jose Cela s/n, 13004 Ciudad Real (Spain); Rodriguez, Juan F. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Castilla - La Mancha, Avda. de Camilo Jose Cela s/n, 13004 Ciudad Real (Spain)]. E-mail:


    Measurements of thermophysical properties (vapour pressure, density, and viscosity) of the (water + lithium bromide + potassium acetate) system LiBr:CH{sub 3}COOK = 2:1 by mass ratio and the (water + lithium bromide + sodium lactate) system LiBr:CH{sub 3}CH(OH)COONa = 2:1 by mass ratio were measured. The system, a possible new working fluid for absorption heat pump, consists of absorbent (LiBr + CH{sub 3}COOK) or (LiBr + CH{sub 3}CH(OH)COONa) and refrigerant H{sub 2}O. The vapour pressures were measured in the ranges of temperature and absorbent concentration from T = (293.15 to 333.15) K and from mass fraction 0.20 to 0.50, densities and viscosities were measured from T = (293.15 to 323.15) K and from mass fraction 0.20 to 0.40. The experimental data were correlated with an Antoine-type equation. Densities and viscosities were measured in the same range of temperature and absorbent concentration as that of the vapour pressure. Regression equations for densities and viscosities were obtained with a minimum mean square error criterion.

  9. Possible intermediates of Cu(phen)-catalyzed C-O cross-coupling of phenol with an aryl bromide by in situ ESI-MS and EPR studies. (United States)

    Chen, Hong-Jie; Hsu, I-Jui; Tseng, Mei-Chun; Shyu, Shin-Guang


    The C-O coupling reaction between 2,4-dimethylphenol and 4-bromotoluene catalyzed by the CuI/K2CO3/phen system can be inhibited by the radical scavenger cumene. Complexes [Cu(i)(phen)(1-(2,4-dimethylphenoxy)-4-methylbenzene)](+) (denoted as A), {H[Cu(i)(phen)(2,4-dimethylphenoxy)]}(+) and [Cu(i)(2,4-dimethylphenoxy)2](-) (denoted as B) were observed by in situ electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) analysis of the copper(i)-catalyzed C-O coupling reaction under the catalytic reaction conditions indicating that they could be intermediates in the reaction. The in situ EPR study of the reaction solution detected the Cu(ii) species with a fitted g value of 2.188. A catalytic cycle with a single electron transfer (SET) step was proposed based on these observations.

  10. Efficient Catalyst One-Pot Synthesis of 7-(Aryl-10,10-dimethyl-10,11-dihydrochromeno[4,3-b]chromene-6,8(7H,9H-dione Derivatives Complemented by Antibacterial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasameen K. Al-Majedy


    Full Text Available The problem of bacteria resistance to many known agents has inspired scientists and researchers to discover novel efficient antibacterial drugs. Three rapid, clean, and highly efficient methods were developed for one-pot synthesis of 7-(aryl-10,10-dimethyl-10,11-dihydrochromeno[4,3-b]chromene-6,8(7H,9H-dione derivatives. Three components are condensed in the synthesis, 4-hydroxycoumarin, 5,5-dimethyl-1,3-cyclohexanedione, and aromatic aldehydes, using tetrabutylammonium bromide (TBAB, diammonium hydrogen phosphate (DAHP, or ferric chloride (FeCl3, respectively. Each method has different reaction mechanisms according to the catalyst. The present methods have advantages, including one-pot synthesis, excellent yields, short reaction times, and easy isolation of product. All catalysts utilized in our study could be reused several times without losing their catalytic efficiency. All synthesized compounds were fully characterized and evaluated for their antibacterial activity.

  11. The first barium tin(II) bromide fluoride (United States)

    Dénès, Georges; Merazig, Hocine; Muntasar, Abdualhafeed; Porterfield, Robyn


    In an effort to prepare barium tin(II) bromide fluorides for the first time, possibly similar to the chloride fluorides obtained earlier in our laboratory, precipitation reactions were carried out by mixing aqueous solutions of SnF2 and of BaBr2.2H2O. In contrast with the chloride fluoride system, a single powdered phase was obtained throughout the SnF2 - BaBr2 system, with the yield being maximum at X ≈ 0.25, where X is the molar fraction of barium bromide in the reaction mixture. Phase identification with the JCPDS database failed to produce a match, confirming that a new phase had been produced. The exact chemical composition of the new compound has not been obtained yet. Based on the X value for the maximum yield, the Sn/Ba ratio is likely to be 3/1 or 2/1. The Mössbauer spectrum at ambient conditions shows that bonding to tin(II) is covalent, therefore with the tin lone pair being stereoactive. The Mössbauer parameters ( δ = 3.68 mm/s, Δ = 0.99 mm/s) are similar to those of SnBrF and of Sn2BrF5, thereby showing that tin is bonded to both fluorine and bromine. The larger isomer shift and lower quadrupole splitting than in tin(II) fluorides show that the stereoactivity of the tin lone pair is lower than in the fluorides. The Mössbauer parameters fit well the linear correlation of the quadrupole splitting versus the isomer shift" that has been shown to be present in other series of tin(II) compounds. The linear decrease on this correlation shows that the contribution of non-spherical orbitals ( p and d) to the lone pair is a much larger contributor to the quadrupole splitting than lattice distortions. The structure is likely made of Ba2+ cations and tin(II) fluoride bromide polyatomic anions, with covalent bonding withinthe anions.

  12. Silver Bear for Screenplay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    @@ Chinese director Wang Quan'an won the Silver Bear Prize at the 60th Berlin International Film Festival that lasted during February 11 to 21 tor the best screenplay for his movie Apart Together.The film also opened the festival.

  13. Hybrid superconductor magnet bearings (United States)

    Chu, Wei-Kan


    Hybrid superconductor magnet bearings (HSMB's) utilize high temperature superconductors (HTS's) together with permanent magnets to form a frictionless interface between relatively rotating parts. They are low mass, stable, and do not incur expenditure of energy during normal operation. There is no direct physical contact between rotor and stator, and hence there is no wear and tear. However, just as any other applications of HTS's, it requires a very cold temperature to function. Whereas this might be perceived as a disadvantage on earth, it is of no great concern in space or on the moon. To astronomers, the moon is an excellent site for an observatory, but the cold and dusty vacuum environment on the moon precludes the use of mechanical bearings on the telescope mounts. Furthermore, drive mechanisms with very fine steps, and hence bearings with extremely low friction are needed to track a star from the moon, because the moon rotates very slowly. All aspects considered, the HSMB is about the only candidate that fits in naturally. Here, we present a design for one such bearing, capable of supporting a telescope that weighs about 3 lbs on Earth.

  14. Magnetic bearings for cryogenic turbomachines (United States)

    Iannello, Victor; Sixsmith, Herbert


    Magnetic bearings offer a number of advantages over gas bearings for the support of rotors in cryogenic turboexpanders and compressors. Their performance is relatively independent of the temperature or pressure of the process gas for a large range of conditions. Active magnetic bearing systems that use capacitive sensors have been developed for high speed compressors for use in cryogenic refrigerators. Here, the development of a magnetic bearing system for a miniature ultra high speed compressor is discussed. The magnetic bearing has demonstrated stability at rotational speeds exceeding 250,000 rpm. This paper describes the important features of the magnetic bearing and presents test results demonstrating its performance characteristics.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    A series of hydrophobically modified homo- and copolymers of the poly(alkylmethyldiallylammonium bromide) type has been prepared by free-radical cyclo(co)polymerization of alkylmethyldiallylammonium bromide monomers in aqueous solution. Depending on the length of the alkyl side chain (varied between

  16. Destruction of methyl bromide sorbed to activated carbon by thiosulfate and electrolysis (United States)

    Methyl bromide is widely used as a fumigant for post-harvest and quarantine uses at port facilities due to the low treatment times required, but it is vented to the atmosphere after its use. Due to the potential contributions of methyl bromide to stratospheric ozone depletion, technologies for the c...

  17. Effects of Inhalation or Incubation of Oxitropium Bromide on Diaphragm Muscle Contractility in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiyohiko Shindoh


    Conclusions: We speculate that the increment of muscle contractility with the inhalation of oxitropium bromide was induced by the antagonization of musucarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChR. In addition, the changes of fatigue resistance provoked by oxitropium bromide, which also is speculated to antagonize mAChR, may be beneficial in the treatment of patients with COPD.

  18. Acrolein as Potential Alternative to Methyl Bromide in California-Grown Calla Lilies (United States)

    Cut flower and ornamental bulb industries rely heavily on a methyl bromide/chloropicrin (MB/Pic) mixture as a key pest management tool. The loss of methyl bromide (MB) will seriously affect the cut flower and bulb industry, and in the future, will require growers to use alternative fumigants. Theref...

  19. Aryl Diazonium Chemistry for the Surface Functionalization of Glassy Biosensors. (United States)

    Zheng, Wei; van den Hurk, Remko; Cao, Yong; Du, Rongbing; Sun, Xuejun; Wang, Yiyu; McDermott, Mark T; Evoy, Stephane


    Nanostring resonator and fiber-optics-based biosensors are of interest as they offer high sensitivity, real-time measurements and the ability to integrate with electronics. However, these devices are somewhat impaired by issues related to surface modification. Both nanostring resonators and photonic sensors employ glassy materials, which are incompatible with electrochemistry. A surface chemistry approach providing strong and stable adhesion to glassy surfaces is thus required. In this work, a diazonium salt induced aryl film grafting process is employed to modify a novel SiCN glassy material. Sandwich rabbit IgG binding assays are performed on the diazonium treated SiCN surfaces. Fluorescently labelled anti-rabbit IgG and anti-rabbit IgG conjugated gold nanoparticles were used as markers to demonstrate the absorption of anti-rabbit IgG and therefore verify the successful grafting of the aryl film. The results of the experiments support the effectiveness of diazonium chemistry for the surface functionalization of SiCN surfaces. This method is applicable to other types of glassy materials and potentially can be expanded to various nanomechanical and optical biosensors.

  20. Absence of aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) in three marine bivalves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandermeulen, J.H. (Bedford Inst. of Oceanography, Dartmouth, Nova Scotia); Penrose, W.R.


    Bivalves exposed to short-term (4 d) and long-term (6 yr) oil pollution were assayed for aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) and N-demethylase activity. Short-term induction studies were carried out on Mya arenaria, Mytilus edulis, and Ostrea edulis incubated in aqueous extracts of Kuwait crude oil or Bunker C (fuel) oil. For the chronic-induction studies Mya arenaria and Mytilus edulis were collected from oiled clam beds (Arrow Bunker C) in Chedabucto Bay, Nova Scotia. None of the bivalves showed any basal or petroleum-hydrocarbon-induced aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase or N-demethylase activity, as shown by their inability to metabolize benzopyrene or imipramine. In contrast, oil-free control trout and trout taken from a polluted lake readily metabolized both these compounds. The inability of these bivalves to degrade petroleum aromatic hydrocarbons and the tendency of these compounds to accumulate in their tissues present an opportunity for transfer of unaltered hydrocarbons into the food chain.

  1. Aryl Diazonium Chemistry for the Surface Functionalization of Glassy Biosensors (United States)

    Zheng, Wei; van den Hurk, Remko; Cao, Yong; Du, Rongbing; Sun, Xuejun; Wang, Yiyu; McDermott, Mark T.; Evoy, Stephane


    Nanostring resonator and fiber-optics-based biosensors are of interest as they offer high sensitivity, real-time measurements and the ability to integrate with electronics. However, these devices are somewhat impaired by issues related to surface modification. Both nanostring resonators and photonic sensors employ glassy materials, which are incompatible with electrochemistry. A surface chemistry approach providing strong and stable adhesion to glassy surfaces is thus required. In this work, a diazonium salt induced aryl film grafting process is employed to modify a novel SiCN glassy material. Sandwich rabbit IgG binding assays are performed on the diazonium treated SiCN surfaces. Fluorescently labelled anti-rabbit IgG and anti-rabbit IgG conjugated gold nanoparticles were used as markers to demonstrate the absorption of anti-rabbit IgG and therefore verify the successful grafting of the aryl film. The results of the experiments support the effectiveness of diazonium chemistry for the surface functionalization of SiCN surfaces. This method is applicable to other types of glassy materials and potentially can be expanded to various nanomechanical and optical biosensors. PMID:26985910

  2. Mechanism of the Deaquation of Aquopentaaminocobalt(Ⅲ) Bromide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA,Li-Dun(马礼敦); CHENG,Guang-Hui(程广辉); WU,Hong-Xiang(吴宏翔); LIN,Han-Yi(林涵毅); SHEN,Xiao-Liang(沈孝良); SHI,Guo-Shun(施国顺)


    There are two theories, SN1 and SN2, for the mechanism of the deaquation of aquopentaamincobalt(Ⅲ) bromide (AAC-B).Both of the theories are supported by some experimental and calculated data. But there are not any experiments to determine directly the structure of the intermediates at different reaction time. In this paper the structures of the intermediates at different reaction time in deaquation-anation of AACB were de-termined by extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS)and the reaction process wes studied by the combination of Xray powder diffraction and EXAFS. It was demonstrated that the deaquation-anation of AACB obeys the SN2 theory.

  3. Mechanism of the Deaquation of Aquopentaaminocobalt(Ⅲ)Bromide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA,Li-Dun; CHENG,Guang-Hui; 等


    There are two theories,SN1 and SN2, for the mechanism of the deaquation of aquopentaamincobalt(Ⅲ) bromide(AAC-B). Both of the theories are supported by some experimental and calculated data. But there are not any experiments to determine directly the structure of the intermediates at dififferent reaction time.In this paper the structures of the intermediates at different reaction time in deaquation-anation of AACB were determined by extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and the reaction process was studied by the combination of X-ray powder diffraction and EXAFS.It was demonstrated that the deaquation-anation of AACB obeys the SN2 theory.

  4. Solvent effects in the reaction between piperazine and benzyl bromide

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Ranga Reddy; P Manikyamba


    The reaction between piperazine and benzyl bromide was studied conductometrically and the second order rate constants were computed. These rate constants determined in 12 different protic and aprotic solvents indicate that the rate of the reaction is influenced by electrophilicity (), hydrogen bond donor ability () and dipolarity/polarizability (*) of the solvent. The LSER derived from the statistical analysis indicates that the transition state is more solvated than the reactants due to hydrogen bond donation and polarizability of the solvent while the reactant is more solvated than the transition state due to electrophilicity of the solvent. Study of the reaction in methanol, dimethyl formamide mixtures suggests that the rate is maximum when dipolar interactions between the two solvents are maximum.

  5. Design and Fabrication of Externally heated Copper Bromide Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.P. Dudeja


    Full Text Available An externally-heated, longitudinally-discharged, low-repetition-rate copper bromide laser, was designed and fabricated. The green-coloured wavelength at 5106 A from this laser can be used for underwater ranging and detection of submerged objects. Several new changes in the design of discharge tube, heating technique, buffer-gas-flow sub-system and electrical circuit have been conceived and incorporated advantageously in our system. Various parameters, for example, the type of buffer gas and its flow rate, mixture of gases, temperature of the discharge tube, delay between dissociation and excitation pulses, dissociation and excitation energies, and various resonator configurations are being optimised to get the maximum output power/energy from the laser system.

  6. Antibacterial Activity of Cetyltrimethylammonium Bromide Modified Silver-Bentonite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nik Malek Nik Ahmad Nizam


    Full Text Available Organo-Ag-bentonite was prepared by the attachment of cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide on silver(Ag-exchanged bentonite. The prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX analysis and antibacterial assay was performed against Escherichia coli in different percentage of saline solutions through minimum inhibition concentration (MIC method. Organo-Ag-bentonite showed higher antibacterial activity than organo-bentonite and Ag-bentonite especially in saline solution suggesting that the precipitation of AgCl in the presence of Ag-bentonite in saline solution could be avoided by the attachment of cationic surfactant on Ag-bentonite surfaces, hence increased their antibacterial activity.

  7. Xanthine Biosensor Based on Didodecyldimethylammonium Bromide Modified Pyrolytic Graphite Electrode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG,Ji-Lin(唐纪琳); HAN,Xiao-Jun(韩晓军); HUANG,Wei-Min(黄卫民); WANG,Er-Kang(汪尔康)


    The vesicle of didodecyldimethylammonium bromide (DDAB)which contained tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) was mixed with xanthine oxidase, and the mixture was cast on the pyrolytic graphite electrode. The lipid films were used to supply a biological environment resembling biomembrane on the surface of the electrode. TTF was used as a mediator because of its high electron-transfer efficiency. A novel xanthine biosensor based on cast DDAB film was developed. The effects of pH and operating potential were explored for optimum analytical performance by using the amperometric method. The response time of the biosensor was less than 10 s. The detection limit of the biosensor was 3.2 × 10-7 mol/L and the liner range was from 4 × 10-7 mol/L to 2.4 × 10-6 mol/L.

  8. Classifying the Basic Parameters of Ultraviolet Copper Bromide Laser (United States)

    Gocheva-Ilieva, S. G.; Iliev, I. P.; Temelkov, K. A.; Vuchkov, N. K.; Sabotinov, N. V.


    The performance of deep ultraviolet copper bromide lasers is of great importance because of their applications in medicine, microbiology, high-precision processing of new materials, high-resolution laser lithography in microelectronics, high-density optical recording of information, laser-induced fluorescence in plasma and wide-gap semiconductors and more. In this paper we present a statistical study on the classification of 12 basic lasing parameters, by using different agglomerative methods of cluster analysis. The results are based on a big amount of experimental data for UV Cu+ Ne-CuBr laser with wavelengths 248.6 nm, 252.9 nm, 260.0 nm and 270.3 nm, obtained in Georgi Nadjakov Institute of Solid State Physics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. The relevant influence of parameters on laser generation is also evaluated. The results are applicable in computer modeling and planning the experiments and further laser development with improved output characteristics.

  9. Comparative mobility of sulfonamides and bromide tracer in three soils (United States)

    Kurwadkar, S.T.; Adams, C.D.; Meyer, M.T.; Kolpin, D.W.


    In animal agriculture, sulfonamides are one of the routinely used groups of antimicrobials for therapeutic and sub-therapeutic purposes. It is observed that, the animals when administered the antimicrobials, often do not completely metabolize them; and excrete the partially metabolized forms into the environment. Due to the continued use of antimicrobials and disposal of untreated waste, widespread occurrence of partially metabolized antimicrobials in aquatic and terrestrial environments has been reported in various scientific journals. In this research, the mobility of two sulfonamides - sulfamethazine (SMN), sulfathiazole (STZ) and a conservative bromide tracer was investigated in three soils collected from regions in the United States with large number of concentrated animal-feed operations. Results of a series of column studies indicate that the mobility of these two sulfonamides was dependent on pH, soil charge density, and contact time. At low pH and high charge density, substantial retention of sulfonamides was observed in all three soils investigated, due to the increased fraction of cationic and neutral forms of the sulfonamides. Conversely, enhanced mobility was observed at high pH, where the sulfonamides are predominantly in the anionic form. The results indicate that when both SMN and STZ are predominantly in anionic forms, their mobility approximates the mobility of a conservative bromide tracer. This observation is consistent for the mobility of both SMN and STZ individually, and also in the presence of several other antimicrobials in all three soils investigated. Higher contact time indicates lower mobility due to increased interaction with soil material. ?? 2011.

  10. The developmental toxicity of 1-methyl-3-octylimidazolium bromide on Daphnia magna. (United States)

    Luo, Yan-Rui; Li, Xiao-Yu; Chen, Xiao-Xiao; Zhang, Bang-Jun; Sun, Zhen-Jun; Wang, Jian-Ji


    The developmental toxicity of 1-methyl-3-octylimidazolium bromide ([C(8)mim]Br) on Daphnia magna was investigated. The 24 and 48 h LC(50) values for [C(8)mim]Br in D. magna were 1.99 and 0.95 mg/L, respectively. A series of multigenerational toxicity tests were then used to explore [C(8)mim]Br effects in D. magna. [C(8)mim]Br significantly inhibited the body lengths of the F0 and F1 1st generations. After 21 days of exposure, [C(8)mim]Br lowered the reproductive ability of the F0 and F1 1st generations. In F1 3rd generation, 21 days of [C(8)mim]Br exposure prolonged the time to bear the first egg and the time to the first brood compared with the control, but the number of first-brood offspring and the number of broods produced by these animals were reduced. After the recovery period all the reproductive parameters returned to normal in F1 1st generation except for the number of broods. The dead neonates increased with prolonged exposure and increasing concentrations, and the dead neonates of the F1 3rd generation went far beyond that of the F1 1st and F0 generations. The intrinsic rate of natural increase (r) values of the three D. magna generations significantly decreased after exposure to higher concentrations of [C(8)mim]Br compared with control groups. Collectively, these results suggest that [C(8)mim]Br exerts a toxic effect on the development of D. magna. This study also highlights the importance of systematically evaluating the potential effects of aquatic ecosystems of ionic liquids that may be released into bodies of water.

  11. Magnetic bearings grow more attractive (United States)


    Advances in materials and electronics have enabled designers to devise simpler, smaller magnetic bearings. As a result, costs have dropped, widening the applications for these very-low-friction devices. Avcon (Advanced Controls Technology) has patented a permanent-magnet bias actively controlled bearing. Here high-energy rare earth permanent-magnet materials supply the basic bearing load levitation, while servo-driven electromagnets generate stabilization and centering forces for motion contol. Previous heavy-duty magnetic bearings used electromagnets entirely for suspension and control, which led to large bearings and control systems with higher power requirements. Avcon has developed several types of permanent-magnet bias bearings. The simplest is the radial repulsion bearing. Avcon's homopolar permanent-magnet bias active bearing is the most versatile of the company's designs.

  12. Regioselective synthesis and biological studies of novel 1-aryl-3, 5-bis (het) aryl pyrazole derivatives as potential antiproliferative agents. (United States)

    Ananda, Hanumappa; Sharath Kumar, Kothanahally S; Nishana, Mayilaadumveettil; Hegde, Mahesh; Srivastava, Mrinal; Byregowda, Raghava; Choudhary, Bibha; Raghavan, Sathees C; Rangappa, Kanchugarakoppal S


    Pyrazole moiety represents an important category of heterocyclic compound in pharmaceutical and medicinal chemistry. The novel 1-aryl-3, 5-bis (het) aryl pyrazole derivatives were synthesized with complementary regioselectivity. The chemical structures were confirmed by IR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, and mass spectral analysis. The chemical entities were screened in various cancer cell lines to assess their cell viability activity. Results showed that the compound 3-(1-(4-bromophenyl)-5-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-3-yl) pyridine (5d) possessed maximum cytotoxic effect against breast cancer and leukemic cells. The cytotoxicity was confirmed by live-dead cell assay and cell cycle analysis. Mitochondrial membrane potential, Annexin V-FITC staining, DNA fragmentation, Hoechst staining, and western blot assays revealed the ability of compound 5d to induce cell death by activating apoptosis in cancer cells. Thus, the present study demonstrates that compound 5d could be an attractive chemical entity for the development of small molecule inhibitors for treatment of leukemia and breast cancer.

  13. One-pot synthesis of aryl sulfones from organometallic reagents and iodonium salts. (United States)

    Margraf, Natalie; Manolikakes, Georg


    A transition-metal-free arylation of lithium, magnesium, and zinc sulfinates with diaryliodonium salts is described. The sulfinic acid salts were prepared from the reaction of the corresponding organometallic reagents and sulfur dioxide. Combination of the three single steps (preparation of the organometallic compound, sulfinate formation, and arylation) leads to a one-pot sequence for the synthesis of aryl sulfones from simple starting materials. The chemoselectivity of unsymmetrical diaryliodonium salts has been investigated. Potential and limitations of this method will be discussed.

  14. An advantageous route to oxcarbazepine (trileptal) based on palladium-catalyzed arylations free of transmetallating agents. (United States)

    Carril, Mónica; SanMartin, Raul; Churruca, Fátima; Tellitu, Imanol; Domínguez, Esther


    [reaction: see text] A new route to oxcarbazepine (Trileptal), the most widely prescribed antiepileptic drug, starting from commercially available 2'-aminoacetophenone and 1,2-dibromobenzene, is reported. The sequentially accomplished key steps are palladium-catalyzed intermolecular alpha-arylation of ketone enolates and intramolecular N-arylation reactions. After several experiments to establish the best conditions for both arylation processes, the target oxcarbazepine is obtained in a satisfactory overall yield, minimizing the number of steps and employing scalable catalytic procedures developed in partially aqueous media.

  15. Microwave-assisted synthesis of α-aryl malonates: Key intermediates for the

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Ibrahim


    Full Text Available We disclose a new microwave-assisted protocol for the effective α-arylation of diethyl malonate. The coupling of aryl halides with diethyl malonate proceeds smoothly in short reaction time in the presence of a catalytic amount of Cu(OTf2, 2-picolinic acid and Cs2CO3 in toluene using microwave irradiation. The resulting α-aryl malonates are then used as key intermediates for synthesis of variety of heterocyclic compounds, including benzodiazepines, isoquinolines and pyrrolopyridine scaffolds.

  16. Centrifugally decoupling touchdown bearings (United States)

    Post, Richard F


    Centrifugally decoupling mechanical bearing systems provide thin tensioned metallic ribbons contained in a support structure. This assembly rotates around a stationary shaft being centered at low speeds by the action of the metal ribbons. Tension springs are connected on one end to the ribbons and on the other end to the support structure. The ribbons pass through slots in the inner ring of the support structure. The spring preloading thus insures contact (or near-contact) between the ribbons and the shaft at rotation speeds below the transition speed. Above this speed, however, the centrifugal force on the ribbons produces a tensile force on them that exceeds the spring tensile force so that the ribbons curve outward, effectively decoupling them from mechanical contact with the shaft. They still remain, however, in position to act as a touchdown bearing in case of abnormally high transverse accelerations.

  17. Government Risk-Bearing

    CERN Document Server


    The u.s. government bulks large in the nation's financial markets. The huge volume of government-issued and -sponsored debt affects the pricing and volume ofprivate debt and, consequently, resource allocation between competing alternatives. What is often not fully appreciated is the substantial influence the federal government wields overresource allocation through its provisionofcreditandrisk-bearing services to the private economy. Because peopleand firms generally seekto avoid risk, atsomeprice they are willing to pay another party to assume the risk they would otherwise face. Insurance companies are a class of private-sector firms one commonly thinks of as providing these services. As the federal government has expanded its presence in the U.S. economy during this century, it has increasingly developed programs aimed at bearing risks that the private sector either would not take on at any price, or would take on but atapricethoughtto besogreatthatmostpotentialbeneficiarieswouldnotpurchase the coverage. To...

  18. Leakage-free journal bearings (United States)

    Pinkus, O.; Etsion, I.


    A new concept of a journal bearing is developed which prevents side leakage of the lubricant, thus eliminating the need for sealing and collecting this leakage. The cooling of the bearing is accomplished by the prevailing circumferential flow. An analysis is performed and solutions are given for the bearing geometries and inlet pressures required to achieve the above purpose.

  19. Chirality in the absence of rigid stereogenic elements: steric and electronic effects on the configurational stability of C3 symmetric residual tris-aryl phosphanes. (United States)

    Rizzo, Simona; Cirilli, Roberto; Pierini, Marco


    Residual stereoisomers result whenever closed subsets of appropriately substituted interconverting isomers (the residual stereoisomers) are generated from a full set of stereoisomers under the operation of a favored stereomerization mechanism. In the case of the three-bladed propellers, differentiation of the edges of the blades and strict correlation in the motion of the rings are the prerequisites for the existence of residual stereoisomers. In these systems, the two-ring flip mechanism is the lowest energy process. It does not interconvert all possible conformational stereoisomers generated by helicity and the three-blade-hub rotors. In the case of C3 symmetric systems, two noninterconverting subgroups (the residual stereoisomers) are generated, each one constituted of quickly interconverting diastereoisomers. A series of tris-aryl phosphanes, structurally designed for existing as residual enantiomers or diastereoisomers, bearing substituents differing in size and electronic properties on the aryl rings, were synthesized and characterized. The configurational stability of residual phosphanes, evaluated by dynamic (1) H- and (31) P-NMR analysis and by dynamic enantioselective high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), was found 10 kcal mol(-1) lower than that shown by the corresponding phosphane-oxides. In accordance with the calculations, an unexpectedly low barrier for phosphorus pyramidal inversion was invoked as responsible for the scarce configurational stability of the residual tris-arylphosphanes.

  20. π-Extension of a 4-ethoxy-1,3-thiazole via aryl alkyne cross coupling: synthesis and exploration of the electronic structure. (United States)

    Habenicht, Stefanie H; Schramm, Stefan; Zhu, Mingming; Freund, Robert R A; Langenstück, Teresa; Strathausen, Rainer; Weiss, Dieter; Biskup, Christoph; Beckert, Rainer


    A series of four donor aryl alkynyl substituted thiazole derivatives 3a-d and three similar aryl donor-acceptor systems 6a-c have been synthesized. All compounds bear different electron-donating groups in the 5-position of the thiazole core. The influence of both electron donor strength and the additional phenylethynyl unit on photophysical properties, i.e. UV/Vis absorption, fluorescence emission and fluorescence lifetime, has been evaluated. Additionally, theoretical calculations have been performed at the CAM-B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) level and good agreement with the experimental data has been achieved. The new derivatives synthesized via palladium catalyzed cross coupling are characterised by moderately strong emission between 474 and 538 nm (ΦF = 0.35-0.39) and Stokes' shifts ranging from 0.54 to 0.79 eV (4392-6351 cm(-1)). The smaller chromophores of type 6 exhibit modest to high fluorescence emission (ΦF = 0.45-0.76) between 470 and 529 nm and their Stokes' shifts range from 0.59 to 0.65 eV (4765-5251 cm(-1)).

  1. Anti-backlash gear bearings (United States)

    Vranish, John M. (Inventor)


    A gear bearing having a first gear and a second gear, each having a plurality of teeth. Each gear operates on two non-parallel surfaces of the opposing gear teeth to perform both gear and bearing functions simultaneously. The gears are moving at substantially the same speed at their contact points. The gears may be roller gear bearings or phase-shifted gear bearings, and may be arranged in a planet/sun system or used as a transmission. One preferred embodiment discloses and describes an anti-backlash feature to counter ''dead zones'' in the gear bearing movement.

  2. Damping Bearings In High-Speed Turbomachines (United States)

    Von Pragenau, George L.


    Paper presents comparison of damping bearings with traditional ball, roller, and hydrostatic bearings in high-speed cryogenic turbopumps. Concept of damping bearings described in "Damping Seals and Bearings for a Turbomachine" (MFS-28345).

  3. Aryl Polyphosphonates: Useful Halogen-Free Flame Retardants for Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Chen


    Full Text Available Aryl polyphosphonates (ArPPN have been demonstrated to function in wide applications as flame retardants for different polymer materials, including thermosets, polycarbonate, polyesters and polyamides, particularly due to their satisfactory thermal stability compared to aliphatic flame retardants, and to their desirable flow behavior observed during the processing of polymeric materials. This paper provides a brief overview of the main developments in ArPPN and their derivatives for flame-retarding polymeric materials, primarily based on the authors’ research work and the literature published over the last two decades. The synthetic chemistry of these compounds is discussed along with their thermal stabilities and flame-retardant properties. The possible mechanisms of ArPPN and their derivatives containing hetero elements, which exhibit a synergistic effect with phosphorus, are also discussed.

  4. Synthesis of N-benzoyl-N'-aryl selenoureas under PTC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hai; LIN Qi; ZHANG You-ming; WEI Tai-bao


    Recently many syntheses of selenium-containing compounds have been reported and studied, in which compounds selenoureas are used as the precursors for the syntheses of selenium-nitrogen heterocyclic compounds and their activities have received increasing attentions.Herein, we report the facile preparation of N-benzoyl-N'-aryl selenourea derivatives using potassium selenocyanate.In this typical procedure, Benzoyl chloride 1 was treated with potassium selenocyanate in CH2C12 under the condition of solid-liquid phase transfer catalysis using polyethylene glycal-400 as the catalyst to give the corresponding benzoyl isoselenocyanate 2. This compound did not need to be isolated and reacted with aromatic amine affording the N-benzoyl-N'-aryl selenourea derivatives 3.The reaction is described as:All the experiments were carried out under the condition of solid-liquid phase transfer catalysis using polyethylene glycal-400 as the catalyst and room temperature. And the structure was determined by IR, 1H NMR and 13C NMR. Selected data for N-benzoyl-N'-(4-fluoro)-selenourea:IR(KBr) 3426, 3274, 1672,1234,1155(C=Se); 1HMR(500MHz, DMSO) δ 12.85 (1H,S),11.86(1H,S), 7.27(2H,d,J=2.15), 7.98(2H,s,J=l.15), 7.30(2H,d,J=2.05), 7.56(2H.t,J=6.50),7.67(1H,t,J=6.20); 13C NMR(500MHz, DMSO)δ 181,168(C=Se),135,133, 132,115, 128.3, 128.8,161, 129.

  5. Microwave Assisted Solvent Free Synthesis of Azomethines from Aryl Aldehydes on Melamin Formaldehyde as Solid Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramin Rezaei


    Full Text Available Various aryl aldehydes underwent prompt one pot conversion into the corresponding azomethines in high yields by reacting with hydroxylamine hydrochloride supported on melamine formaldehyde under microwave irradiation.

  6. Recent Advancements and Biological Activities of Aryl Propionic Acid Derivatives: (A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harshita Dhall


    Full Text Available The aryl propionic acid derivatives belong to an important class of NSAIDs (Non Steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs. Ibuprofen, chemically called 2-(4-isobutyl phenyl propionic acid, is a well known NSAID. Aryl propionic acid derivatives possesses a wide range of biological activities including anti-bacterial, anti-convulsant, anti-cancer, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. Apart from very potent compounds in the field of analgesics and antipyrectics as Ibuprofen, Oxaprozin, Ketoprofen, Fenoprofen; aryl propionic acid derivatives plays important role to treat other ailments also. Through this review, an attempt has been made to emphasize on recent work done and recent advancements in arena of aryl propionic acid derivatives in view of medicinal chemistry.

  7. A Direct Transformation of Aryl Aldehydes to Benzyl Iodides Via Reductive Iodination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruso, Jayaraman Sembian; Rajendiran, Nagappan; Kumaran, Rajendran Senthil [Univ. of Madras, Chennai (India)


    A facile transformation of aryl aldehydes to benzyl iodides through one-pot reductive iodination is reported. This protocol displays remarkable functional group tolerance and the title compound was obtained in good to excellent yield.

  8. Synthesis and application of chiral N,N′-dialkylated cyclohexanediamine for asymmetric hydrogenation of aryl ketones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meng Lin Ma; Chuan Hong Ren; Ya Jing Lv; Hua Chen; Xian Jun Li


    Chiral N,N′-dialkylated cyclohexanediamine derived ligands have been synthesized and used in the asymmetric hydrogenation of aryl ketones. Optically active alcohols with up to 90% enantiomeric excess were obtained in high yields.

  9. Highly stereoselective synthesis of functionalized 1,3-dienes from a new allyl bromide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asma Fray


    Full Text Available New and highly functionalized 1,3-dienes 3 and 4 have been synthesized via two different pathways starting from allyl bromide 1. Firstly, the reaction of allyl bromide 1 with triethylphosphite leads to an allylphosphonate 2, which undergoes the Wittig-Horner reaction with a range of saturated and unsaturated aldehydes gives rise to the corresponding 1,3-dienes 3. Secondly, a highly stereoselective reaction between allyl bromide 1 and nitroalkane salts, offers the possibility to obtaining functionalized (E-1,3-dienes 4.

  10. Deproto-metallation of N-arylated pyrroles and indoles using a mixed lithium–zinc base and regioselectivity-computed CH acidity relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Yacine Ameur Messaoud


    Full Text Available The synthesis of N-arylated pyrroles and indoles is documented, as well as their functionalization by deprotonative metallation using the base in situ prepared from LiTMP and ZnCl2·TMEDA (1/3 equiv. With N-phenylpyrrole and -indole, the reactions were carried out in hexane containing TMEDA which regioselectively afforded the 2-iodo derivatives after subsequent iodolysis. With pyrroles and indoles bearing N-substituents such as 2-thienyl, 3-pyridyl, 4-methoxyphenyl and 4-bromophenyl, the reactions all took place on the substituent, at the position either adjacent to the heteroatom (S, N or ortho to the heteroatom-containing substituent (OMe, Br. The CH acidities of the substrates were determined in THF solution using the DFT B3LYP method in order to rationalize the experimental results.

  11. An air-stable copper reagent for nucleophilic trifluoromethylthiolation of aryl halides

    KAUST Repository

    Weng, Zhiqiang


    A series of copper(I) trifluoromethyl thiolate complexes have been synthesized from the reaction of CuF2 with Me3SiCF 3 and S8 (see scheme; Cu red, F green, N blue, S yellow). These air-stable complexes serve as reagents for the efficient conversion of a wide range of aryl halides into the corresponding aryl trifluoromethyl thioethers in excellent yields. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Photoinduced C-C Cross-Coupling of Aryl Chlorides and Inert Arenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lele Wang


    Full Text Available Here we report a facile, efficient, and catalyst-free method to realize C-C cross-coupling of aryl chlorides and inert arenes under UV light irradiation. The aryl radical upon homolytic cleavage of C-Cl bond initiated the nucleophilic substitution reaction with inert arenes to give biaryl products. This mild reaction mode can also be applied to other synthetic reactions, such as the construction of C-N bonds and trifluoromethylated compounds.

  13. Structural and electronic properties of Diisopropylammonium bromide molecular ferroelectric crystal (United States)

    Alsaad, A.; Qattan, I. A.; Ahmad, A. A.; Al-Aqtash, N.; Sabirianov, R. F.


    We report the results of ab-initio calculations based on Generalized Gradient Approximation (GGA) and hybrid functional (HSE06) of electronic band structure, density of states and partial density of states to get a deep insight into structural and electronic properties of P21 ferroelectric phase of Diisopropylammonium Bromide molecular crystal (DIPAB). We found that the optical band gap of the polar phase of DIPAB is ∼ 5 eV confirming it as a good dielectric. Examination of the density of states and partial density of states reveal that the valence band maximum is mainly composed of bromine 4p orbitals and the conduction band minimum is dominated by carbon 2p, carbon 2s, and nitrogen 2s orbitals. A unique aspect of P21 ferroelectric phase is the permanent dipole within the material. We found that P21 DIPAB has a spontaneous polarization of 22.64 consistent with recent findings which make it good candidate for the creation of ferroelectric tunneling junctions (FTJs) which have the potential to be used as memory devices.

  14. Organomontmorillonites Modified with 2-Methacryloyloxy Ethyl Alkyl Dimethyl Ammonium Bromide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jian-quan; WU Wen-hui


    Organomontmorillonites (organo-MMT) were synthesized by means of montmorillonites (MMT) modified with a series of 2-methacryloyloxy ethyl alkyl dimethyl ammonium bromide (MAAB) having different alkyl chain lengths as cationic surfactants through a cationic exchanging reaction, and were characterized by FTIR, TG, elemental analysis, and XRD. The microenvironment of the organic interlayer such as the orientation and arrangement of the alkyl chains of MAAB, as well as the properties of nanocomposite hydrogels, were also investigated. The amount of organic components absorbed on interlayer and the basal spacing of organo-MMT both increase with the increasing of alkyl length of MAAB. When carbon number of alkyl chain is in the region of 8 to 14, the alkyl chains between layers would adopt a disordered gauche conformation; while the carbon number is 16, an ordered all-trans conformation with a vertical orientation would be found together with the disordered gauche conformation according to the results of XRD and FTIR. Due to the difference of microenvironment of organic interlayer, the Young's moduli of the nanocomposite hydrogels increased as the alkyl chains of MAAB became longer.

  15. Chloride, bromide and iodide scintillators with europium doping (United States)

    Zhuravleva, Mariya; Yang, Kan


    A halide scintillator material is disclosed where the halide may comprise chloride, bromide or iodide. The material is single-crystalline and has a composition of the general formula ABX.sub.3 where A is an alkali, B is an alkali earth and X is a halide which general composition was investigated. In particular, crystals of the formula ACa.sub.1-yEu.sub.yI.sub.3 where A=K, Rb and Cs were formed as well as crystals of the formula CsA.sub.1-yEu.sub.yX.sub.3 (where A=Ca, Sr, Ba, or a combination thereof and X=Cl, Br or I or a combination thereof) with divalent Europium doping where 0.ltoreq.y.ltoreq.1, and more particularly Eu doping has been studied at one to ten mol %. The disclosed scintillator materials are suitable for making scintillation detectors used in applications such as medical imaging and homeland security.

  16. Accommodation coefficient of HOBr on deliquescent sodium bromide aerosol particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Wachsmuth


    Full Text Available Uptake of HOBr on sea salt aerosol, sea salt brine or ice is believed to be a key process providing a source of photolabile bromine (Br2 and sustaining ozone depletion cycles in the Arctic troposphere. In the present study, uptake of HOBr on sodium bromide (NaBr aerosol particles was investigated at an extremely low HOBr concentration of 300 cm-3 using the short-lived radioactive isotopes 83-86Br. Under these conditions, at maximum one HOBr molecule was taken up per particle. The rate of uptake was clearly limited by the mass accommodation coefficient, which was calculated to be 0.6 ± 0.2. This value is a factor of 10 larger than estimates used in earlier models. The atmospheric implications are discussed using the box model "MOCCA'', showing that the increase of the accommodation coefficient of HOBr by a factor of 10 only slightly affects net ozone loss, but significantly increases chlorine release.

  17. Evaluation of Alkali Bromide Salts for Potential Pyrochemical Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prabhat K. Tripathy; Steven D. Herrmann; Guy L. Fredrickson; Tedd E. Lister; Toni Y. Gutknecht


    Transient techniques were employed to study the electrochemical behavior, reduction mechanism and transport properties of REBr3 (RE - La, Nd and Gd) in pure LiBr, LiBr-KBr (eutectic) and LiBr-KBr-CsBr (eutectic) melts. Gd(III) showed a reversible single step soluble-insoluble exchange phenomenon in LiBr melt at 973K. Although La (III), Nd(III) and Gd(III) ions showed reversible behavior in eutectic LiBr-KBr melts, these ions showed a combination of temperature dependent reversible and pseudo-reversible behavior. While both La(III) and Gd(III) showed one step reduction, the reduction of Nd(III) was observed to be a two step process. La metal could be electrodeposited from the ternary electrolyte at a temperature of 673K. Various electrochemical measurements suggest that both binary and ternary bromide melts can potentially be used to electrodeposit high purity RE metals at comparatively lower operating temperatures.

  18. Bioreactors for removing methyl bromide following contained fumigations (United States)

    Miller, L.G.; Baesman, S.M.; Oremland, R.S.


    Use of methyl bromide (MeBr) as a quarantine, commodity, or structural fumigant is under scrutiny because its release to the atmosphere contributes to the depletion of stratospheric ozone. A closed-system bioreactor consisting of 0.5 L of a growing culture of a previously described bacterium, strain IMB-1, removed MeBr (> 110 ??mol L-1) from recirculating air. Strain IMB-1 grew slowly to high cell densities in the bioreactor using MeBr as its sole carbon and energy source. Bacterial oxidation of MeBr produced CO2 and hydrobromic acid (HBr), which required continuous neutralization with NaOH for the system to operate effectively. Strain IMB-1 was capable of sustained oxidation of large amounts of MeBr (170 mmol in 46 d). In an open-system bioreactor (10-L fermenter), strain IMB-1 oxidized a continuous supply of MeBr (220 ??mol L-1 in air). Growth was continuous, and 0.5 mol of MeBr was removed from the air supply in 14 d. The specific rate of MeBr oxidation was 7 ?? 10-16 mol cell-1 h-1. Bioreactors such as these can therefore be used to remove large quantities of contaminant MeBr, which opens the possibility of biodegradation as a practical means for its disposal.

  19. Adsorption of anionic polyelectrolytes to dioctadecyldimethylammonium bromide monolayers (United States)

    Engelking, J.; Menzel, H.

    Monolayers of dioctadecyldimethylammonium bromide (DODA) at the air/water interface were used as model for charged surfaces to study the adsorption of anionic polyelectrolytes. After spreading on a pure water surface the monolayers were compressed and subsequently transferred onto a polyelectrolyte solution employing the Fromherz technique. The polyelectrolyte adsorption was monitored by recording the changes in surface pressure at constant area. For poly(styrene sulfonate) and carboxymethylcellulose the plot of the surface pressure as function of time gave curves which indicate a direct correlation between the adsorbed amount and surface pressure as well as a solely diffusion controlled process. In the case of rigid rod-like poly(p-phenylene sulfonate)s the situation is more complicated. Plotting the surface pressure as function of time results in a curve with sigmoidal shape, characterized by an induction period. The induction period can be explained by a domain formation, which can be treated like a crystallization process. Employing the Avrami expression developed for polymer crystallization, the change in the surface pressure upon adsorption of rigid rod-like poly(p-phenylene sulfonate)s can be described.

  20. Delayed remyelination in rat spinal cord following ethidium bromide injection. (United States)

    Graça, D L; Blakemore, W F


    Areas of demyelination were produced by injecting ethidium bromide into the white matter of the lumbar spinal cord of rats. There was variation in the nature of the process of demyelination and a difference in the speed with which Schwann cells remyelinated the demyelinated axons. In some lesions, or areas within lesions, myelin debris was rapidly processed by macrophages and axons were rapidly remyelinated by Schwann cells, while in other lesions of similar duration, or in areas within the same lesion, the myelin was transformed into lattices of membranous profiles which persisted around axons for long periods of time. In the lesions containing such myelin derived membranes, there were few macrophages and remyelination by Schwann cells was delayed compared to that seen in the more rapidly resolving lesions. It was concluded that the slow resolution of some lesions resulted from the delay between intoxication and cell disintegration (7-10 days) which meant that the cell responses to demyelination took place in a glial free area which could not support cell movement needed for removal of myelin debris and remyelination. This study indicates that the tempo and results of demyelination can be altered by the cellular events which accompany degeneration of oligodendrocytes.

  1. Synthesis of Stable Diarylpalladium(II) Complexes: Detailed Study of the Aryl-Aryl Bond-Forming Reductive Elimination. (United States)

    Gensch, Tobias; Richter, Nils; Theumer, Gabriele; Kataeva, Olga; Knölker, Hans-Joachim


    The synthesis of diarylpalladium(II) complexes by twofold aryl C-H bond activation was developed. These intermediates of oxidative cyclization reactions are stabilized by chelation with acetyl groups while still maintaining sufficient reactivity to study their reductive elimination. Four distinct triggers were found for the reductive elimination of these complexes to dibenzofurans and carbazoles. Thermal elimination occurs at very high temperatures, whereas ligand-promoted and oxidatively induced reductive eliminations proceed readily at room temperature. Under these conditions, no isomerization occurs. In contrast, weak Brønsted acids, such as acetic acid, lead to a sequence of proto-demetalation, isomerization to a κ(3) -diarylpalladium(II) complex, and reductive elimination to non-symmetrical cyclization products.

  2. Aerospace applications of magnetic bearings (United States)

    Downer, James; Goldie, James; Gondhalekar, Vijay; Hockney, Richard


    Magnetic bearings have traditionally been considered for use in aerospace applications only where performance advantages have been the primary, if not only, consideration. Conventional wisdom has been that magnetic bearings have certain performance advantages which must be traded off against increased weight, volume, electric power consumption, and system complexity. These perceptions have hampered the use of magnetic bearings in many aerospace applications because weight, volume, and power are almost always primary considerations. This paper will review progress on several active aerospace magnetic bearings programs at SatCon Technology Corporation. The magnetic bearing programs at SatCon cover a broad spectrum of applications including: a magnetically-suspended spacecraft integrated power and attitude control system (IPACS), a magnetically-suspended momentum wheel, magnetic bearings for the gas generator rotor of a turboshaft engine, a vibration-attenuating magnetic bearing system for an airborne telescope, and magnetic bearings for the compressor of a space-rated heat pump system. The emphasis of these programs is to develop magnetic bearing technologies to the point where magnetic bearings can be truly useful, reliable, and well tested components for the aerospace community.

  3. Synthesis, in vitro β-glucuronidase inhibitory activity and in silico studies of novel (E)-4-Aryl-2-(2-(pyren-1-ylmethylene)hydrazinyl)thiazoles. (United States)

    Salar, Uzma; Khan, Khalid Mohammed; Syed, Shazia; Taha, Muhammad; Ali, Farman; Ismail, Nor Hadiani; Perveen, Shahnaz; Wadood, Abdul; Ghufran, Mehreen


    Current research is based on the synthesis of novel (E)-4-aryl-2-(2-(pyren-1-ylmethylene)hydrazinyl)thiazole derivatives (3-15) by adopting two steps route. First step was the condensation between the pyrene-1-carbaldehyde (1) with the thiosemicarbazide to afford pyrene-1-thiosemicarbazone intermediate (2). While in second step, cyclization between the intermediate (2) and phenacyl bromide derivatives or 2-bromo ethyl acetate was carried out. Synthetic derivatives were structurally characterized by spectroscopic techniques such as EI-MS, (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR. Stereochemistry of the iminic double bond was confirmed by NOESY analysis. All pure compounds 2-15 were subjected for in vitro β-glucuronidase inhibitory activity. All molecules were exhibited excellent inhibition in the range of IC50=3.10±0.10-40.10±0.90μM and found to be even more potent than the standard d-saccharic acid 1,4-lactone (IC50=48.38±1.05μM). Molecular docking studies were carried out to verify the structure-activity relationship. A good correlation was perceived between the docking study and biological evaluation of active compounds.

  4. The synthesis of α-aryl-α-aminophosphonates and α-aryl-α-aminophosphine oxides by the microwave-assisted Pudovik reaction (United States)

    Tajti, Ádám; Ádám, Anna; Csontos, István; Karaghiosoff, Konstantin; Czugler, Mátyás; Ábrányi-Balogh, Péter


    Summary A family of α-aryl-α-aminophosphonates and α-aryl-α-aminophosphine oxides was synthesized by the microwave-assisted solvent-free addition of dialkyl phosphites and diphenylphosphine oxide, respectively, to imines formed from benzaldehyde derivatives and primary amines. After optimization, the reactivity was mapped, and the fine mechanism was evaluated by DFT calculations. Two α-aminophosphonates were subjected to an X-ray study revealing a racemic dimer formation made through a N–H···O=P intermolecular hydrogen bridges pair.

  5. Nanoprecipitation in bearing steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrow, A.T.W. [SKF University Technology Centre, Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3QZ (United Kingdom); Rivera-Diaz-del-Castillo, P.E.J., E-mail: [SKF University Technology Centre, Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3QZ (United Kingdom)


    {theta}-phase is the main hardening species in bearing steels and appears in both martensitically and bainitically hardened microstructures. This work presents a survey of the microstrucural features accompanying nanoprecipitation in bearing steels. Nanoprecipitate structures formed in 1C-1.5Cr wt.% with additions of Cr, Mn, Mo, Si and Ni are studied. The work is combined with thermodynamic calculations and neural networks to predict the expected matrix composition, and whether this will transform martensitically or bainitically. Martensite tetragonality, composition and the amount of retained austenite are related to hardness and the type of nanoprecipitate structures in martensitic grades. The {theta}-phase volume fraction, the duration of the bainite to austenite transformation and the amount of retained austenite are related to hardness and a detailed quantitative description of the precipitate nanostructures. Such description includes compositional studies using energy-dispersive spectroscopy, which shows that nanoprecipitate formation takes place under paraequilibrium. Special attention is devoted to a novel two-step bainite tempering process which shows maximum hardness; we prove that this is the most effective process for incorporating solute into the precipitates, which are finer than those resulting from one-step banitic transformation processes.

  6. Merging Photoredox and Nickel Catalysis: The Direct Synthesis of Ketones by the Decarboxylative Arylation of α-Oxo Acids. (United States)

    Chu, Lingling; Lipshultz, Jeffrey M; MacMillan, David W C


    The direct decarboxylative arylation of α-oxo acids has been achieved by synergistic visible-light-mediated photoredox and nickel catalysis. This method offers rapid entry to aryl and alkyl ketone architectures from simple α-oxo acid precursors via an acyl radical intermediate. Significant substrate scope is observed with respect to both the oxo acid and arene coupling partners. This mild decarboxylative arylation can also be utilized to efficiently access medicinal agents, as demonstrated by the rapid synthesis of fenofibrate.

  7. Computational design of rolling bearings

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyen-Schäfer, Hung


    This book comprehensively presents the computational design of rolling bearings dealing with many interdisciplinary difficult working fields. They encompass elastohydrodynamics (EHD), Hertzian contact theory, oil-film thickness in elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL), bearing dynamics, tribology of surface textures, fatigue failure mechanisms, fatigue lifetimes of rolling bearings and lubricating greases, Weibull distribution, rotor balancing, and airborne noises (NVH) in the rolling bearings. Furthermore, the readers are provided with hands-on essential formulas based on the up-to-date DIN ISO norms and helpful examples for computational design of rolling bearings. The topics are intended for undergraduate and graduate students in mechanical and material engineering, research scientists, and practicing engineers who want to understand the interactions between these working fields and to know how to design the rolling bearings for automotive industry and many other industries.

  8. Efficient loading of primary alcohols onto a solid phase using a trityl bromide linker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crestey, François; Ottesen, Lars Korsgaard; Jaroszewski, Jerzy Witold


    The Letter describes an improved, rapid and mild strategy for the loading of primary alcohols onto a polystyrene trityl resin via a highly reactive trityl bromide linker. This protocol facilitates an efficient resin loading even of acid-sensitive or heat-labile alcohols, which otherwise require...... of a sensitive alcohol containing an activated aziridine functionality, the use of the trityl bromide linker proved superior to a recently described silver triflate-assisted trityl chloride resin-based procedure....

  9. Influence of bromide on the performance of the amphipod Hyalella azteca in reconstituted waters (United States)

    Ivey, Chris D.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.


    Poor performance of the amphipod Hyalella azteca has been observed in exposures using reconstituted waters. Previous studies have reported success in H. azteca water-only exposures with the addition of relatively high concentrations of bromide. The present study evaluated the influence of lower environmentally representative concentrations of bromide on the response ofH. azteca in 42-d water-only exposures. Improved performance of H. azteca was observed in reconstituted waters with >0.02 mg Br/L.

  10. Tribromoisocyanuric acid/triphenylphosphine: a new system for conversion of alcohols into alkyl bromides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Vitor S.C. de; Mattos, Marcio C.S. de, E-mail: [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica. Departamento de Quimica Organica


    An efficient and facile method has been developed for the conversion of alcohols into alkyl bromides under neutral conditions using tribromoisocyanuric acid and triphenylphosphine (molar ratio 1.0:0.7:2.0, alcohol/tribromoisocyanuric acid/triphenylphosphine) in dichloromethane at room temperature. This method can be applied for the conversion of primary, secondary, benzilic and allylic alcohols, and their corresponding bromides are obtained in 67-82 % yield. Tertiary alcohols do not react under these conditions. (author)

  11. Interaction of removal Ethidium Bromide with Carbon Nanotube: Equilibrium and Isotherm studies


    Moradi, Omid; Norouzi, Mehdi; Fakhri, Ali; Naddafi, Kazem


    Drinking water resources may be contaminated with Ethidium Bromide (EtBr) which is commonly used in molecular biology laboratories for DNA identification in electrophoresis. Carbon nanotubes are expected to play an important role in sensing, pollution treatment and separation techniques. In this study adsorption of Ethidium Bromide on single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and carboxylate group functionalized single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT-COOH) surfaces have been investigated by UV–vi...

  12. Grease lubrication in rolling bearings

    CERN Document Server

    Lugt, Piet M


    The definitive book on the science of grease lubrication for roller and needle bearings in industrial and vehicle engineering. Grease Lubrication in Rolling Bearings provides an overview of the existing knowledge on the various aspects of grease lubrication (including lubrication systems) and the state of the art models that exist today. The book reviews the physical and chemical aspects of grease lubrication, primarily directed towards lubrication of rolling bearings. The first part of the book covers grease composition, properties and rheology, including thermal

  13. Microwave-assisted cyclizations promoted by polyphosphoric acid esters: a general method for 1-aryl-2-iminoazacycloalkanes (United States)

    Díaz, Jimena E; Mollo, María C


    Summary The first general procedure for the synthesis of 5 to 7-membered 1-aryl-2-iminoazacycloalkanes is presented, by microwave-assisted ring closure of ω-arylaminonitriles promoted by polyphosphoric acid (PPA) esters. 1-Aryl-2-iminopyrrolidines were easily prepared from the acyclic precursors employing a chloroformic solution of ethyl polyphosphate (PPE). The use of trimethylsilyl polyphosphate (PPSE) in solvent-free conditions allowed for the synthesis of 1-aryl-2-iminopiperidines and hitherto unreported 1-aryl-2-iminoazepanes. The cyclization reaction involves good to high yields and short reaction times, and represents a novel application of PPA esters in heterocyclic synthesis. PMID:27829907

  14. Microwave-assisted cyclizations promoted by polyphosphoric acid esters: a general method for 1-aryl-2-iminoazacycloalkanes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimena E. Díaz


    Full Text Available The first general procedure for the synthesis of 5 to 7-membered 1-aryl-2-iminoazacycloalkanes is presented, by microwave-assisted ring closure of ω-arylaminonitriles promoted by polyphosphoric acid (PPA esters. 1-Aryl-2-iminopyrrolidines were easily prepared from the acyclic precursors employing a chloroformic solution of ethyl polyphosphate (PPE. The use of trimethylsilyl polyphosphate (PPSE in solvent-free conditions allowed for the synthesis of 1-aryl-2-iminopiperidines and hitherto unreported 1-aryl-2-iminoazepanes. The cyclization reaction involves good to high yields and short reaction times, and represents a novel application of PPA esters in heterocyclic synthesis.

  15. Cyanines Bearing Quaternary Azaaromatic Moieties


    Sbliwa, Wanda; Matusiak, Grazyna; Bachowska, Barbara


    Selected cyanines bearing quaternary azaaromatic moieties are presented, showing their monomers, dimers and polymers, as well as their possible applications. Cyanines having NLO properties are also briefly described.

  16. Hydrostatic and hybrid bearing design

    CERN Document Server

    Rowe, W B


    Hydrostatic and Hybrid Bearing Design is a 15-chapter book that focuses on the bearing design and testing. This book first describes the application of hydrostatic bearings, as well as the device pressure, flow, force, power, and temperature. Subsequent chapters discuss the load and flow rate of thrust pads; circuit design, flow control, load, and stiffness; and the basis of the design procedures and selection of tolerances. The specific types of bearings, their design, dynamics, and experimental methods and testing are also shown. This book will be very valuable to students of engineering des

  17. Electrochemical Recognition of Metalloproteins by Bromide-modified Silver Electrode - A New Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Ali Rostami


    Full Text Available A bromide–modified silver electrode is reported, in the present study, to catalyzethe redox reactions of metalloproteins. This study describes that the bromide ions showvery good redox behavior with silver electrode. The cathodic and anodic peak potentialswere related to the concentration of bromide ions involved in making bromide-modifiedsilver electrode. The electrode reaction in the bromine solution was a diffusion-controlledprocess. Positive potential shift of the bromide ions was seen when different proteins wereadded to the solution using a silver electrode. New cathodic and anodic peaks wereobserved at different potential ranges for myoglobin, cytochrome c and catalase. A linearlyincreasing cathodic peak current of bromide ions was seen when the concentration ofsuperoxide dismutase was increased in the test solution. However, no change for albuminwas observed when its concentration was increased in the test solution. Present data provesour methodology as an easy-to-use analysis for comparing the redox potentials of differentmetalloproteins and differentiating the metallo- from non-metalloproteins. In this study, weintroduced an interesting method for bio-electrochemical analyses.

  18. Effect of ferric and bromide ions on the formation and speciation of disinfection byproducts during chlorination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shaogang Liu; Zhiliang Zhu; Yanling Qiu; Jianfu Zhao


    The effects of ferric ion, pH, and bromide on the formation and distribution of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) during chlorination were studied. Two raw water samples from Huangpu River and Yangtze River, two typical drinking water sources of Shanghai, were used for the investigation. Compared with the samples from Huangpu River, the raw water samples from Yangtze River had lower content of total organic carbon (TOC) and ferric ions, but higher bromide concentrations. Under controlled chlorination conditions,four trihalomethanes (THMs), nine haloacetic acids (HAAs), total organic halogen (TOX) and its halogen species fractions, including total organic chlorine (TOC1) and total organic bromide (TOBr), were determined. The results showed that co-existent ferric and bromide ions significantly promoted the formation of total THMs and HAAs for both raw water samples. Higher concentration of bromide ions significantly changed the speciation of the formed THMs and HAAs. There was an obvious shift to brominated species,which might result in a more adverse influence on the safety of drinking water. The results also indicated that high levels of bromide ions in raw water samples produced higher percentages of unknown TOBr.

  19. Effect of ferric and bromide ions on the formation and speciation of disinfection byproducts during chlorination. (United States)

    Liu, Shaogang; Zhu, Zhiliang; Qiu, Yanling; Zhao, Jianfu


    The effects of ferric ion, pH, and bromide on the formation and distribution of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) during chlorination were studied. Two raw water samples from Huangpu River and Yangtze River, two typical drinking water sources of Shanghai, were used for the investigation. Compared with the samples from Huangpu River, the raw water samples from Yangtze River had lower content of total organic carbon (TOC) and ferric ions, but higher bromide concentrations. Under controlled chlorination conditions, four trihalomethanes (THMs), nine haloacetic acids (HAAs), total organic halogen (TOX) and its halogen species fractions, including total organic chlorine (TOC1) and total organic bromide (TOBr), were determined. The results showed that co-existent ferric and bromide ions significantly promoted the formation of total THMs and HAAs for both raw water samples. Higher concentration of bromide ions significantly changed the speciation of the formed THMs and HAAs. There was an obvious shift to brominated species, which might result in a more adverse influence on the safety of drinking water. The results also indicated that high levels of bromide ions in raw water samples produced higher percentages of unknown TOBr.

  20. Bacterial oxidation of methyl bromide in fumigated agricultural soils (United States)

    Miller, L.G.; Connell, T.L.; Guidetti, J.R.; Oremland, R.S.


    The oxidation of [14C]methyl bromide ([14C]MeBr) to 14CO2 was measured in field experiments with soils collected from two strawberry plots fumigated with mixtures of MeBr and chloropicrin (CCI3NO2). Although these fumigants are considered potent biocides, we found that the highest rates of MeBr oxidation occurred 1 to 2 days after injection when the fields were tarped, rather than before or several days after injection. No oxidation of MeBr occurred in heat-killed soils, indicating that microbes were the causative agents of the oxidation. Degradation of MeBr by chemical and/or biological processes accounted for 20 to 50% of the loss of MeBr during fumigation, with evasion to the atmosphere inferred to comprise the remainder. In laboratory incubations, complete removal of [14C]MeBr occurred within a few days, with 47 to 67% of the added MeBr oxidized to 14CO2 and the remainder of counts associated with the solid phase. Chloropicrin inhibited the oxidation of MeBr, implying that use of this substance constrains the extent of microbial degradation of MeBr during fumigation. Oxidation was by direct bacterial attack of MeBr and not of methanol, a product of the chemical hydrolysis of MeBr. Neither nitrifying nor methane-oxidizing bacteria were sufficiently active in these soils to account for the observed oxidation of MeBr, nor could the microbial degradation of MeBr be linked to cooxidation with exogenously supplied electron donors. However, repeated addition of MeBr to live soils resulted in higher rates of its removal, suggesting that soil bacteria used MeBr as an electron donor for growth. To support this interpretation, we isolated a gram-negative, aerobic bacterium from these soils which grew with MeBr as a sole source of carbon and energy.

  1. Predicting bromide incorporation in a chlorinated indoor swimming pool. (United States)

    Chowdhury, Shakhawat; Mazumder, Abu Jafar; Husain, Tahir


    The water in and air above swimming pools often contain high levels of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) due to chemical reactions between chlorine- or bromine-based disinfectants and organic/inorganic matter in the source water and released from swimmers. Exposure to these DBPs, though inevitable, can pose health threats to humans. In this study, DBPs in tap water (S1), and water from a chlorinated indoor swimming pool before (S2) and after swimming (S3) were measured. The brominated species constituted the majority of DBPs formed in S1, S2, and S3. Trihalomethanes (THMs) in S3 was 6.9 (range 2.9-11.1) and 1.4 (range 0.52-2.9) times those in S1 and S2, respectively; and the haloacetic acids (HAAs) in S3 was 4.2 (range 2.5-7.5) and 1.2 (range 0.6-2.6) times those in S1 and S2, respectively. The mean THMs in air above the swimming pool before (S2-A) and after swimming (S3-A) were 72.2 and 93.0 μg/m(3), respectively, and their ranges were 36.3-105.8 and 44.1-133.6 μg/m(3), respectively. The average percentages of bromide incorporation (BI) into THMs in S1, S2, and S3 were 3.0, 9.3, and 10.6 %, respectively; and the BI into HAAs in S1, S2, and S3 were 6.6, 12.0, and 12.2 %, respectively. Several models were trained for predicting the BI into THMs and HAAs. The results indicate that additional information is required to develop predictive models for BI in swimming pools.

  2. Eudragit RS PO nanoparticles for sustained release of pyridostigmine bromide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoobakht, Fatemeh; Ganji, Fariba, E-mail:; Vasheghani-Farahani, Ebrahim [Tarbiat Modares University, Biomedical Engineering Group, Chemical Engineering Department (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mousavi, Seyyed Mohammad [Tarbiat Modares University, Biotechnology Group, Chemical Engineering Department (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    Pyridostigmine bromide (PB) is an inhibitor of cholinesterase, which is used in the treatment of myasthenia gravis and administered for protection against exposure to toxic nerve agents. Tests were done to investigate prolonging the half-life of PB and improving its release behavior. PB was loaded in nanoparticles (NPs) of Eudragit RS PO (Eu-RS) prepared using the technique of quasi emulsion solvent diffusion. Variables of output power of the sonicator, bath temperature and mixing time, were chosen as the optimization factors to obtain the minimum sized NPs. In addition, emulsions were tested at different ratios of drug-to-polymer by dynamic light scattering to determine size and zeta potential of NPs. UV-spectroscopy was used to determine PB content of the NPs. Drug-loaded NPs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectra. Results determined that mixing time had a significant impact on the size of Eu-RS NPs, but power output of sonicator and bath temperature had no significant effect. The particle size obtained at the optimum condition (power output of 70 W, bath temperature of 33 Degree-Sign C, and mixing time of 7 min) was less than 200 nm (optimum sizes were 138.9 and 179.5 nm for Eu-RS and PB-loaded Eu-RS NPs, respectively). The optimum PB-loaded Eu-RS NPs at the PB to Eu-RS weight ratio of 1-4 and 20 % of loaded PB released from the nanocarriers within 100 h.

  3. Silica nanoparticles separation from water: aggregation by cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). (United States)

    Liu, Y; Tourbin, M; Lachaize, S; Guiraud, P


    Nanoparticles will inevitably be found in industrial and domestic wastes in the near future and as a consequence soon in water resources. Due to their ultra-small size, nanoparticles may not only have new hazards for environment and human health, but also cause low separation efficiency by classical water treatments processes. Thus, it would be an important challenge to develop a specific treatment with suitable additives for recovery of nanoparticles from waters. For this propose, this paper presents aggregation of silica nanoparticles (Klebosol 30R50 (75nm) and 30R25 (30nm)) by cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). Different mechanisms such as charge neutralization, "depletion flocculation" or "volume-restriction", and "hydrophobic effect" between hydrocarbon tails of CTAB have been proposed to explicate aggregation results. One important finding is that for different volume concentrations between 0.05% and 0.51% of 30R50 suspensions, the same critical coagulation concentration was observed at CTAB=0.1mM, suggesting the optimized quantity of CTAB during the separation process for nanoparticles of about 75nm. Furthermore, very small quantities of CTAB (0.01mM) can make 30R25 nanosilica aggregated due to the "hydrophobic effect". It is then possible to minimize the sludge and allow the separation process as "greener" as possible by studying this case. It has also shown that aggregation mechanisms can be different for very small particles so that a special attention has to be paid to the treatment of nanoparticles contained in water and wastewaters.

  4. Control of insects with fumigants at low temperatures: toxicity of mixtures of methyl bromide and acrylonitrile to three species of insects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, E.J.; Buckland, C.T.


    Acrylonitrile can be mixed with methyl bromide to increase toxicity so that the quantity of methyl bromide required for control of Sitophilus granarius (L.), Tenebrio molitor L., and Tribolium confusum Jacquelin duval is reduced by one half. Mixtures of methyl bromide and acrylonitrile are considerably more effective at low temperatures than methyl bromide alone.

  5. Synthesis and evaluation of 2-(5-(aryl)-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-ylthio)-N-(3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)acetamides and N-(4-chloro-3-fluorophenyl)-2-(5-(aryl)-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-ylthio)acetamides as antimicrobial agents

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kalpesh Parikh; Deepkumar Joshi


    A series of 2-mercapto-5-phenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives have been condensed with different phenyl acetamide derivatives possessing fluorine atom at meta position; resulting in the formation of 2-(5-aryl- 1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-ylthio)-N-(3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)acetamide (5a-j) and N-(4-chloro-3-fluorophenyl)-2-(5-aryl-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-ylthio)acetamide (5k-t) derivatives. The antimicrobial properties of the synthesized entities (5a-t) measured as their MIC (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration) values were evaluated by using the broth dilution method against Gram-positive bacteria (S. aureus and E. faecalis), Gram-negative bacteria (E. coli and P. aeruginosa) and fungi (C. albicans and A. niger). The results of antimicrobial activities (in g/ml) revealed the fact that the compounds 5a and g bearing a maximum number of fluorine atoms showed the highest potency among the synthesized compounds against the broad panel of bacterial and fungal strains. The presence of fluorine atom at the meta position in the phenyl ring of final derivatives (5a-t) brought about an enhancement of their antimicrobial properties to a notable extent.

  6. Metal-free arylation of ethyl acetoacetate with hypervalent diaryliodonium salts: an immediate access to diverse 3-aryl-4(1H)-quinolones. (United States)

    Monastyrskyi, Andrii; Namelikonda, Niranjan K; Manetsch, Roman


    A clean arylation protocol of ethyl acetoacetate was developed using hypervalent diaryliodonium salts under mild and metal-free conditions. The scope of the reaction, using symmetric and unsymmetric iodonium salts with varying sterics and electronics, was examined. Further, this method has been applied for the synthesis of antimalarial compound ELQ-300, which is currently in preclinical development.

  7. Permanent-Magnet Meissner Bearing (United States)

    Robertson, Glen A.


    Permanent-magnet meissner bearing features inherently stable, self-centering conical configuration. Bearing made stiffer or less stiff by selection of magnets, springs, and spring adjustments. Cylindrical permanent magnets with axial magnetization stacked coaxially on rotor with alternating polarity. Typically, rare-earth magnets used. Magnets machined and fitted together to form conical outer surface.

  8. High-Performance Ball Bearing (United States)

    Bursey, Roger W., Jr.; Haluck, David A.; Olinger, John B.; Owen, Samuel S.; Poole, William E.


    High-performance bearing features strong, lightweight, self-lubricating cage with self-lubricating liners in ball apertures. Designed to operate at high speed (tens of thousands of revolutions per minute) in cryogenic environment like liquid-oxygen or liquid-hydrogen turbopump. Includes inner race, outer race, and cage keeping bearing balls equally spaced.

  9. Superconducting bearings for flywheel applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, A.B.


    A literature study on the application of superconducting bearings in energy storage flywheel systems. The physics of magnetic levitation and superconductors are presented in the first part of the report, followed by a discussion of the literature found onthe applications of superconducting bearings...

  10. What about the Javan Bear?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jentink, F.A.


    The other day I read in a dutch popular periodical a paper dealing with the different species of Bears and their geographical distribution. To my great surprise the Malayan Bear was mentioned from Java: the locality Java being quite new to me I wrote to the author of that paper and asked him some in

  11. Geophagy by yellowstone grizzly bears (United States)

    Mattson, D.J.; Green, G.I.; Swalley, R.


    We documented 12 sites in the Yellowstone ecosystem where grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) had purposefully consumed soil (an activity known as geophagy). We also documented soil in numerous grizzly bear feces. Geophagy primarily occurred at sites barren of vegetation where surficial geology had been modified by geothermal activity. There was no evidence of ungulate use at most sites. Purposeful consumption of soil by bears peaked first from March to May and again from August to October, synchronous with peaks in consumption of ungulate meat and mushrooms. Geophageous soils were distinguished from ungulate mineral licks and soils in general by exceptionally high concentrations of potassium (K) and high concentrations of magnesium (Mg) and sulphur (S). Our results do not support the hypotheses that bears were consuming soil to detoxify secondary compounds in grazed foliage, as postulated for primates, or to supplement dietary sodium, as known for ungulates. Our results suggest that grizzly bears could have been consuming soil as an anti-diarrheal.

  12. Evodiamine as a novel antagonist of aryl hydrocarbon receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Hui [State Key Laboratory of Trauma, Burns, and Combined Injury, Department 1, Research Institute of Surgery, Daping Hospital, The Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400042 (China); Department of Laboratory Medicine, The Affiliated Tenth People' s Hospital, Tongji University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Tu, Yongjiu; Zhang, Chun; Fan, Xia; Wang, Xi [State Key Laboratory of Trauma, Burns, and Combined Injury, Department 1, Research Institute of Surgery, Daping Hospital, The Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400042 (China); Wang, Zhanli [College of Pharmaceutical Science, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310014 (China); Liang, Huaping, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Trauma, Burns, and Combined Injury, Department 1, Research Institute of Surgery, Daping Hospital, The Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400042 (China)


    Research highlights: {yields} Evodiamine interacted with the AhR. {yields} Evodiamine inhibited the specific binding of [{sup 3}H]-TCDD to the AhR. {yields} Evodiamine acts as an antagonist of the AhR. -- Abstract: Evodiamine, the major bioactive alkaloid isolated from Wu-Chu-Yu, has been shown to interact with a wide variety of proteins and modify their expression and activities. In this study, we investigated the interaction between evodiamine and the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Molecular modeling results revealed that evodiamine directly interacted with the AhR. Cytosolic receptor binding assay also provided the evidence that evodiamine could interact with the AhR with the K{sub i} value of 28.4 {+-} 4.9 nM. In addition, we observed that evodiamine suppressed the 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) induced nuclear translocation of the AhR and the expression of CYP1A1 dose-dependently. These results suggested that evodiamine was able to bind to the AhR as ligand and exhibit antagonistic effects.

  13. Regioselective synthesis of C3 alkylated and arylated benzothiophenes (United States)

    Shrives, Harry J.; Fernández-Salas, José A.; Hedtke, Christin; Pulis, Alexander P.; Procter, David J.


    Benzothiophenes are heterocyclic constituents of important molecules relevant to society, including those with the potential to meet modern medical challenges. The construction of molecules would be vastly more efficient if carbon-hydrogen bonds, found in all organic molecules, can be directly converted into carbon-carbon bonds. In the case of elaborating benzothiophenes, functionalization of carbon-hydrogen bonds at carbon-number 3 (C3) is markedly more demanding than at C2 due to issues of regioselectivity (C3 versus C2), and the requirement of high temperatures, precious metals and the installation of superfluous directing groups. Herein, we demonstrate that synthetically unexplored but readily accessible benzothiophene S-oxides serve as novel precursors for C3-functionalized benzothiophenes. Employing an interrupted Pummerer reaction to capture and then deliver phenol and silane coupling partners, we have discovered a directing group-free method that delivers C3-arylated and -alkylated benzothiophenes with complete regioselectivity, under metal-free and mild conditions.

  14. Rat brain aryl acylamidase: further characterization of multiple forms. (United States)

    Hsu, L L; Halaris, A E; Freedman, D X


    1. Two fractions of aryl acylamidase (EC were further separated from rat brain extracts at pH 7.5 by ammonium sulfate precipitation and Bio-Gel chromatography. 2. 1,2,3,4-Tetrahydro-beta-carboline competitively inhibited (67%) fraction-1 but slightly inhibited (13%) fraction-2. Tetrahydroharman, 6-hydroxy-tetrahydroharman and harminic acid slightly inhibited both fractions. Harmalol inhibited fraction-1 but enhanced fraction-2. 6-Methoxy-harman, 6-methoxy-harmalan and harmaline enhanced both fractions. 3. Pargyline did not affect either fraction. Methiothepin, cyproheptadine and chlorimipramine inhibited fraction-1 but stimulated fraction-2. 4. Neostigmine moderately (30%) inhibited AAA-2 but did not have any significant effect on AAA-1. 5. These results indicate that the beta-carboline compounds might play a role in regulating activity of AAA-1 and 2 in brain. 6. Both fractions might be related to serotonergic neurons but only AAA-2 might be associated with acetylcholinesterase.

  15. Aryl biphenyl-3-ylmethylpiperazines as 5-HT7 receptor antagonists. (United States)

    Kim, Jeeyeon; Kim, Youngjae; Tae, Jinsung; Yeom, Miyoung; Moon, Bongjin; Huang, Xi-Ping; Roth, Bryan L; Lee, Kangho; Rhim, Hyewhon; Choo, Il Han; Chong, Youhoon; Keum, Gyochang; Nam, Ghilsoo; Choo, Hyunah


    The 5-HT7 receptor (5-HT7 R) is a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of depression and neuropathic pain. The 5-HT7 R antagonist SB-269970 exhibited antidepressant-like activity, whereas systemic administration of the 5-HT7 R agonist AS-19 significantly inhibited mechanical hypersensitivity and thermal hyperalgesia. In our efforts to discover selective 5-HT7 R antagonists or agonists, aryl biphenyl-3-ylmethylpiperazines were designed, synthesized, and biologically evaluated against the 5-HT7 R. Among the synthesized compounds, 1-([2'-methoxy-(1,1'-biphenyl)-3-yl]methyl)-4-(2-methoxyphenyl)piperazine (28) was the best binder to the 5-HT7 R (pKi =7.83), and its antagonistic property was confirmed by functional assays. The selectivity profile of compound 28 was also recorded for the 5-HT7 R over other serotonin receptor subtypes, such as 5-HT1 R, 5-HT2 R, 5-HT3 R, and 5-HT6 R. In a molecular modeling study, the 2-methoxyphenyl moiety attached to the piperazine ring of compound 28 was proposed to be essential for the antagonistic function.

  16. Phosphine-Free Palladium-Catalyzed Direct C-3 Arylation of 2-Phenylimidazo[1,2-a]pyridine Using Silver(I Carboxylate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sridevi Kona


    Full Text Available Phosphine-free palladium-catalyzed direct arylation of 2-phenyl-imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine has been developed with the concept of using silver(I carboxylate. This protocol efficiently catalyzes the C-H arylation of 2-phenyl-imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine with aryl iodides to afford the corresponding 2-phenyl-3-aryl-imidazo[1,2-a]pyridines in moderate to-good yields.

  17. Expedient synthesis of C-aryl carbohydrates by consecutive biocatalytic benzoin and aldol reactions. (United States)

    Hernández, Karel; Parella, Teodor; Joglar, Jesús; Bujons, Jordi; Pohl, Martina; Clapés, Pere


    The introduction of aromatic residues connected by a C-C bond into the non-reducing end of carbohydrates is highly significant for the development of innovative structures with improved binding affinity and selectivity (e.g., C-aril-sLex). In this work, an expedient asymmetric "de novo" synthetic route to new aryl carbohydrate derivatives based on two sequential stereoselectively biocatalytic carboligation reactions is presented. First, the benzoin reaction of aromatic aldehydes to dimethoxyacetaldehyde is conducted, catalyzed by benzaldehyde lyase from Pseudomonas fluorescens biovar I. Then, the α-hydroxyketones formed are reduced by using NaBH4 yielding the anti diol. After acetal hydrolysis, the aldol addition of dihydroxyacetone, hydroxyacetone, or glycolaldehyde catalyzed by the stereocomplementary D-fructose-6-phosphate aldolase and L-rhamnulose-1-phosphate aldolase is performed. Both aldolases accept unphosphorylated donor substrates, avoiding the need of handling the phosphate group that the dihydroxyacetone phosphate-dependent aldolases require. In this way, 6-C-aryl-L-sorbose, 6-C-aryl-L-fructose, 6-C-aryl-L-tagatose, and 5-C-aryl-L-xylose derivatives are prepared by using this methodology.

  18. Mechanistic Aspects of Aryl-Halide Oxidative Addition, Coordination Chemistry, and Ring-Walking by Palladium. (United States)

    Zenkina, Olena V; Gidron, Ori; Shimon, Linda J W; Iron, Mark A; van der Boom, Milko E


    This contribution describes the reactivity of a zero-valent palladium phosphine complex with substrates that contain both an aryl halide moiety and an unsaturated carbon-carbon bond. Although η(2) -coordination of the metal center to a C=C or C≡C unit is kinetically favored, aryl halide bond activation is favored thermodynamically. These quantitative transformations proceed under mild reaction conditions in solution or in the solid state. Kinetic measurements indicate that formation of η(2) -coordination complexes are not nonproductive side-equilibria, but observable (and in several cases even isolated) intermediates en route to aryl halide bond cleavage. At the same time, DFT calculations show that the reaction with palladium may proceed through a dissociation-oxidative addition mechanism rather than through a haptotropic intramolecular process (i.e., ring walking). Furthermore, the transition state involves coordination of a third phosphine to the palladium center, which is lost during the oxidative addition as the C-halide bond is being broken. Interestingly, selective activation of aryl halides has been demonstrated by adding reactive aryl halides to the η(2) -coordination complexes. The product distribution can be controlled by the concentration of the reactants and/or the presence of excess phosphine.

  19. Xenoestrogenic and dioxin-like activity in blood of East Greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus). (United States)

    Erdmann, Simon E; Dietz, Rune; Sonne, Christian; Bechshøft, Thea Ø; Vorkamp, Katrin; Letcher, Robert J; Long, Manhai; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva C


    The aims of the project were to (i) extract the lipophilic persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from the blood of 99 East Greenland polar bears and assess the combined mixture effect on the estrogen receptor (ER) and the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) mediated transactivity; (ii) To evaluate whether the receptor transactivities were associated with selected POP markers, and (iii) compare the receptor transactivities in polar bears with earlier studies on Greenlandic Inuit. Lipophilic POPs were extracted using a combination of solid-phase extraction (SPE) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). ER mediated transactivity was determined using the ER luciferase reporter MVLN cell assay. The extracts were tested alone (XER) and together with 17β-estradiol (E2) as a physiological mimic (XERcomp). Dioxins and dioxin-like (DL) compounds were extracted by a combination of SPE and the Supelco Dioxin Prep System®. AhR mediated dioxin-like transactivity was determined using the AhR luciferase reporter Hepa 1.12cR cell assay. Agonistic ER transactivity was elicited by 19% of the samples, and a further increased E2 induced ER response was found for 52%, whereas 17% antagonized the E2 induced ER response. Positive correlations were found in subadult bears between XER and several POP biomarkers. XER and XERcomp correlated positively to each other. A total of 91% of the polar bear blood extracts elicited agonistic AhR transactivity. The AhR-TCDD equivalent (AhR-TEQ) median levels were higher among adult bears compared to subadult bears, but not significantly.

  20. Palladium-catalyzed aryl amination-heck cyclization cascade: A one-flask approach to 3-substituted Indoles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas; Pedersen, Henrik; Bang-Andersen, B.;


    Two for the price of one: A Pd/dppf-based catalyst provides access to the title compounds from 1,2-dihalogenated aromatic compounds and allylic amines in a single reaction flask. The initial aryl amination step occurs with excellent selectivity for the aryl iodide to ensure the formation of a sin...

  1. Efficient N-Arylation and N-Alkenylation of the Five DNA/RNANucleobases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Mikkel Fog; Knudsen, Martin M.; Gothelf, Kurt Vesterager


    -substituted pyrimidin-2(1H)-one served as both a cytosine and a uracil precursor and was N-arylated and N-alkenylated in high yields. Adenine was efficiently and selectively N-arylated and N-alkenylated at the N9 position by employing a bis-Boc-protected adenine derivative, while a bis-Boc-protected 2-amino-6...

  2. Synthesis and Biological Activities of 3-(2-Furyl)-4-aryl- 1, 2, 4-triazole-5-thiones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A series of novel compounds 3-(2-furyl)-4-aryl-l, 2, 4-triazole-5-thiones have been synthesized. All the compounds were characterized by spectral data and elemental analysis. The preliminary biological test showed that some of them exhibited excellent plant-growth regulative acl ivities.

  3. Dramatic Substituent Effect on the CCL-catalyzed Kinetic Resolution of 1-Aryl-2,3-allenols

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU, Dai-Wang(徐代旺); LI, Zu-Yi(李祖义); MA, Sheng-Ming(麻生明)


    Optically active 1-aryl-2,3-allenols were obtained via CCL-mediated kinetic resolution of the racemic allenols. The substitution pattern of the aromatic ring, regarding to both the type of the substituent and its position on the aromatic ring, was found to be critical for the kinetic resolution of 1-aryl-2,3-allenols.

  4. Copper-Catalyzed N-Arylation of Amides Using (S-N-Methylpyrrolidine-2-carboxylate as the Ligand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Sheng Ma


    Full Text Available (S-N-methylpyrrolidine-2-carboxylate, a derivative of natural L-proline, was found to be an efficient ligand for the copper-catalyzed Goldberg-type N-arylation of amides with aryl halides under mild conditions. A variety of N-arylamides were synthesized in good to high yields.

  5. Synthesis of radiolabelled aryl azides from diazonium salts: experimental and computational results permit the identification of the preferred mechanism. (United States)

    Joshi, Sameer M; de Cózar, Abel; Gómez-Vallejo, Vanessa; Koziorowski, Jacek; Llop, Jordi; Cossío, Fernando P


    Experimental and computational studies on the formation of aryl azides from the corresponding diazonium salts support a stepwise mechanism via acyclic zwitterionic intermediates. The low energy barriers associated with both transition structures are compatible with very fast and efficient processes, thus making this method suitable for the chemical synthesis of radiolabelled aryl azides.

  6. Dithiocarbamate promoted practical synthesis of N-Aryl-2-aminobenzazoles: Synthesis of novel Aurora-A kinase inhibitor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Naresh Kumar Katari; M Venkatanarayana; Kummari Srinivas


    Various N-aryl-2-aminobenzoxazoles and N-aryl-2-aminobenzothiazoles were synthesized from o-aminophenol and o-aminothiophenol, respectively, mediated by dithiocarbamate in one step. The salient features of this method include mild reaction condition, high yield and large scale synthesis. Application of this methodology has been demonstrated by synthesizing potent Aurora kinase-A inhibitors.

  7. Comparison of salbutamol and ipratropium bromide versus salbutamol alone in the treatment of acute severe asthma. (United States)

    Hossain, A S; Barua, U K; Roy, G C; Sutradhar, S R; Rahman, I; Rahman, G


    The use of nebulized Ipratropium bromide, quaternary anticholinergic bronchodilators in combination with beta-agonist for the treatment of acute asthma in adults is controversial. In a view of different recommendation the present study is undertaken in Bangladeshi patients. Combination of inhaled Ipratropium bromide and Salbutamol provides greater bronchodilatation than mono therapy with Salbutamol alone in acute severe asthma. Patients of severe asthma (PEFR Salbutamol only) and case (Salbutamol + Ipratropium bromide) group. After measurement of peak expiratory flow, patient received 3 doses of 2.5 mg Salbutamol (n=40) only or 3 doses of both 2.5mg Salbutamol and 500mcg Ipratropium bromide at an interval of 20 minutes (n=40) through a jet nebulizer. Peak flow was reassessed 30 & 60 minutes after treatment. Peak flow at baseline was similar in two groups. Then at 30 minutes after nebulization, the mean±SD percentage increase in peak flow was greater in combination group (60.01±35.01%) than Salbutamol group (44.47±25.03%) with difference of 16% (p=0.025). At 60 minutes the percentage increase in peak flow was about 32% greater in combination group than Salbutamol group (94.44±33.70% vs. 62.57±29.26%, p=0.000) and combination group reached percentage predicted peak flow more than 60% while Sabutamol group did not. Ipratropium Bromide and Salbutamol nebulized combinedly have better bronchodilating effect than Salbultamol alone in acute severe asthma.

  8. Mepenzolate bromide promotes diabetic wound healing by modulating inflammation and oxidative stress. (United States)

    Zheng, Yongjun; Wang, Xingtong; Ji, Shizhao; Tian, Song; Wu, Haibin; Luo, Pengfei; Fang, He; Wang, Li; Wu, Guosheng; Xiao, Shichu; Xia, Zhaofan


    Diabetic wounds are characterized by persistent inflammation and the excessive production of reactive oxygen species, thus resulting in impaired wound healing. Mepenzolate bromide, which was originally used to treat gastrointestinal disorders in clinical settings, has recently been shown to display beneficial effects in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and pulmonary fibrosis of a mouse model by inhibiting inflammatory responses and reducing oxidative stress. However,the role of mepenzolate bromide in diabetic wound healing is still unclear. In this study, full-thickness excisional skin wounds were created on the backs of db/db mice, and mepenzolate bromide was topically applied to the wound bed. We found that mepenzolate bromide significantly promoted diabetic wound healing by measuring wound closure rate and histomorphometric analyses. Further studies showed that inflammation was inhibited by assessing the number of macrophages and levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and pro-healing cytokines in the wounds. Furthermore, oxidative stress was reduced by monitoring the levels of MDA and H2O2 and the activities of glutathione peroxidase and catalase in the wounds. These results demonstrated the potential application of mepenzolate bromide for treating diabetic ulcers and other chronic wounds in clinics.

  9. Eastern slopes grizzly bear project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The cumulative effects of human activities on the grizzly bears in the central Canadian Rockies are not well known. As a result, a project was initiated in 1994 to address the urgent requirement for accurate scientific information on the habitat and populations of grizzly bears in the area of the Banff National Park and Kananaskis Country. This area is probably the most heavily used and developed area where the grizzly still survives. The information gathered throughout the course of this study will be used to better protect and manage the bears and other sensitive carnivores in the region. Using telemetry, researchers are monitoring 25 grizzly bears which were radio-collared in a 22,000 square-kilometer area in the upper Bow Valley drainage of the eastern Alberta slopes. The researchers involved in the project are working with representatives from Husky Oil and Talisman Energy on the sound development of the Moose Mountain oil and gas field without adversely affecting the grizzly bear population. Information collected over seven years indicated that the grizzly bears have few and infrequent offspring. Using the information gathered so far, the location of the Moose Mountain to Jumping Pound pipeline was carefully selected, since the bears recover very slowly from high mortality, and also considering that the food and cover had already been compromised by the high number of roads, trails and other human activities in the area. The status of the population and habitat of the grizzly bear will be assessed upon the conclusion of the field research phase in 2001. Models will be updated using the data obtained during eight years and will assist in the understanding of complex variables that affect grizzly bears.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emin GÜLLÜ


    Full Text Available During manufacturing, ideal dimension and mutual positioning of machine elements proposed in project desing can be achieved only within certain range of tolerances. These tolerances, being classified in two groups, related to micro and macro geometry of machine elements, don't have to effect the functioning of these elements. So, as for all machine elements, investigation of the effects of macro and micro tolerances for journal bearings is important. In this study, we have investigated the effect of macro geometric irregularities of journal bearings on performance characteristics. In this regard, we have studied the change of bearing performance in respect to deviation from ideal circle for an elliptic shaft with small ovality rolling in circular journal bearing.

  11. Bears, Big and Little. Young Discovery Library Series. (United States)

    Pfeffer, Pierre

    This book is written for children 5 through 10. Part of a series designed to develop their curiosity, fascinate them and educate them, this volume describes: (1) the eight species of bears, including black bear, brown bear, grizzly bear, spectacled bear, sun bear, sloth bear, polar bear, and giant panda; (2) geographical habitats of bears; (3)…

  12. Aryl Polyenes, a Highly Abundant Class of Bacterial Natural Products, Are Functionally Related to Antioxidative Carotenoids. (United States)

    Schöner, Tim A; Gassel, Sören; Osawa, Ayako; Tobias, Nicholas J; Okuno, Yukari; Sakakibara, Yui; Shindo, Kazutoshi; Sandmann, Gerhard; Bode, Helge B


    Bacterial pigments of the aryl polyene type are structurally similar to the well-known carotenoids with respect to their polyene systems. Their biosynthetic gene cluster is widespread in taxonomically distant bacteria, and four classes of such pigments have been found. Here we report the structure elucidation of the aryl polyene/dialkylresorcinol hybrid pigments of Variovorax paradoxus B4 by HPLC-UV-MS, MALDI-MS and NMR. Furthermore, we show for the first time that this pigment class protects the bacterium from reactive oxygen species, similarly to what is known for carotenoids. An analysis of the distribution of biosynthetic genes for aryl polyenes and carotenoids in bacterial genomes is presented; it shows a complementary distribution of these protective pigments in bacteria.

  13. A General Palladium-Catalyzed Hiyama Cross-Coupling Reaction of Aryl and Heteroaryl Chlorides. (United States)

    Yuen, On Ying; So, Chau Ming; Man, Ho Wing; Kwong, Fuk Yee


    A general palladium-catalyzed Hiyama cross-coupling reaction of aryl and heteroaryl chlorides with aryl and heteroaryl trialkoxysilanes by a Pd(OAc)2 /L2 catalytic system is presented. A newly developed water addition protocol can dramatically improve the product yields. The conjugation of the Pd/L2 system and the water addition protocol can efficiently catalyze a broad range of electron-rich, -neutral, -deficient, and sterically hindered aryl chlorides and heteroaryl chlorides with excellent yields within three hours and the catalyst loading can be down to 0.05 mol % Pd for the first time. Hiyama coupling of heteroaryl chlorides with heteroaryl silanes is also reported for the first time. The reaction can be easily scaled up 200 times (100 mmol) without any degasification and purification of reactants; this facilitates the practical application in routine synthesis.

  14. Synthesis of a TREN in which the aryl substituents are part of a 45 atom macrocycle. (United States)

    Cain, Matthew F; Forrest, William P; Peryshkov, Dmitry V; Schrock, Richard R; Müller, Peter


    A substituted TREN has been prepared in which the aryl groups in (ArylNHCH2CH2)3N are substituted at the 3- and 5-positions with a total of six OCH2(CH2)nCH═CH2 groups (n = 1, 2, 3). Molybdenum nitride complexes, [(ArylNCH2CH2)3N]Mo(N), have been isolated as adducts that contain B(C6F5)3 bound to the nitride. Two of these [(ArylNCH2CH2)3N]Mo(NB(C6F5)3) complexes (n = 1 and 3) were crystallographically characterized. After removal of the borane from [(ArylNCH2CH2)3N]Mo(NB(C6F5)3) with PMe3, ring-closing olefin metathesis (RCM) was employed to join the aryl rings with OCH2(CH2)nCH═CH(CH2)nCH2O links (n = 1-3) between them. RCM worked best with a W(O)(CHCMe3)(Me2Pyr)(OHMT)(PMe2Ph) catalyst (OHMT = hexamethylterphenoxide, Me2Pyr = 2,5-dimethylpyrrolide) and n = 3. The macrocyclic ligand was removed from the metal through hydrolysis and isolated in 70-75% yields relative to the borane adducts. Crystallographic characterization showed that the macrocyclic TREN ligand in which n = 3 contains three cis double bonds. Hydrogenation produced a TREN in which the three links are saturated, i.e., O(CH2)10O.

  15. Oculomotor deficits in aryl hydrocarbon receptor null mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Chevallier

    Full Text Available The Aryl hydrocarbon Receptor or AhR, a ligand-activated transcription factor, is known to mediate the toxic and carcinogenic effects of various environmental pollutants such as 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD. Recent studies in Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster show that the orthologs of the AhR are expressed exclusively in certain types of neurons and are implicated in the development and the homeostasis of the central nervous system. While physiological roles of the AhR were demonstrated in the mammalian heart, liver and gametogenesis, its ontogenic expression and putative neural functions remain elusive. Here, we report that the constitutive absence of the AhR in adult mice (AhR-/- leads to abnormal eye movements in the form of a spontaneous pendular horizontal nystagmus. To determine if the nystagmus is of vestibular, visual, or cerebellar origin, gaze stabilizing reflexes, namely vestibulo-ocular and optokinetic reflexes (VOR and OKR, were investigated. The OKR is less effective in the AhR-/- mice suggesting a deficit in the visuo-motor circuitry, while the VOR is mildly affected. Furthermore, the AhR is expressed in the retinal ganglion cells during the development, however electroretinograms revealed no impairment of retinal cell function. The structure of the cerebellum of the AhR-/- mice is normal which is compatible with the preserved VOR adaptation, a plastic process dependent on cerebellar integrity. Finally, intoxication with TCDD of control adults did not lead to any abnormality of the oculomotor control. These results demonstrate that the absence of the AhR leads to acquired central nervous system deficits in the adults. Given the many common features between both AhR mouse and human infantile nystagmus syndromes, the AhR-/- mice might give insights into the developmental mechanisms which lead to congenital eye disorders.

  16. Enantiospecific effects of ketoconazole on aryl hydrocarbon receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Novotna

    Full Text Available Azole antifungal ketoconazole (KET was demonstrated to activate aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR. Since clinically used KET is a racemic mixture of two cis-enantiomers (2R,4S-(+-KET and (2S,4R-(--KET, we examined the effects of KET enantiomers on AhR signaling pathway. (+-KET dose-dependently activated AhR in human gene reporter cell line AZ-AHR, and displayed 5-20× higher agonist activity (efficacy, as compared to (--KET; both enantiomers were AhR antagonists with equal potency (IC50. Consistently, (+-KET strongly induced CYP1A1 mRNA and protein in human HepG2 cells, while (--KET exerted less than 10% of (+-KET activity. In primary human hepatocytes, both enantiomers preferentially induced CYP1A2 over CYP1A1 mRNA and protein, and the potency of (+-KET was slightly higher as compared to (--KET. Ligand binding assay with guinea pig liver cytosols revealed that both (+-KET and (--KET are weak ligands of AhR that displaced [3H]-TCDD with comparable potency. Similarly, both enantiomers weakly transformed AhR to DNA-binding form with similar potency, as showed by EMSA, in guinea pig liver cytosolic extracts and nuclear extracts from mouse Hepa-1 cells. We also examined effects of KET on glucocorticoid receptor (GR, a regulator of AhR activity. Both KET enantiomers antagonized GR with similar potency, as revealed by gene reporter assay in AZ-GR cell line and down-regulation of tyrosine aminotransferase mRNA in human hepatocytes. Finally, we demonstrate enantiospecific antifungal activities of KET enantiomers in six Candida spp. strains. In conclusion, the significance of current study is providing the first evidence of enatiospecific effects of cis-enantiomers of ketoconazole on AhR-CYP1A pathway.

  17. Salty glycerol versus salty water surface organization: bromide and iodide surface propensities. (United States)

    Huang, Zishuai; Hua, Wei; Verreault, Dominique; Allen, Heather C


    Salty NaBr and NaI glycerol solution interfaces are examined in the OH stretching region using broadband vibrational sum frequency generation (VSFG) spectroscopy. Raman and infrared (IR) spectroscopy are used to further understand the VSFG spectroscopic signature. The VSFG spectra of salty glycerol solutions reveal that bromide and iodide anions perturb the interfacial glycerol organization in a manner similar as that found in aqueous halide salt solutions, thus confirming the presence of bromide and iodide anions at the glycerol surface. Surface tension measurements are consistent with the surface propensity suggested by the VSFG data and also show that the surface excess increases with increasing salt concentration, similar to that of water. In addition, iodide is shown to have more surface prevalence than bromide, as has also been determined from aqueous solutions. These results suggest that glycerol behaves similarly to water with respect to surface activity and solvation of halide anions at its air/liquid interface.

  18. Alternatives to methyl bromide treatments for stored-product and quarantine insects. (United States)

    Fields, Paul G; White, Noel D G


    Methyl bromide is used to control insects as a space fumigant in flour and feed mills and ship holds, as a product fumigant for some fruit and cereals, and for general quarantine purposes. Methyl bromide acts rapidly, controlling insects in less than 48 h in space fumigations, and it has a wide spectrum of activity, controlling not only insects but also nematodes and plant-pathogenic microbes. This chemical will be banned in 2005 in developed countries, except for exceptional quarantine purposes, because it depletes ozone in the atmosphere. Many alternatives have been tested as replacements for methyl bromide, from physical control methods such as heat, cold, and sanitation to fumigant replacements such as phosphine, sulfuryl fluoride, and carbonyl sulfide, among others. Individual situations will require their own type of pest control techniques, but the most promising include integrated pest management tactics and combinations of treatments such as phosphine, carbon dioxide, and heat.

  19. A study of the interaction between ethidium bromide and rye chromatin: comparison with calf thymus chromatin. (United States)

    LaRue, H; Pallotta, D


    We studied the interaction of ethidium bromide with rye and calf thymus chromatin. Both types of chromatin have the same dye accessibility, which is about 50% of that of DNA. From this result we conclude that the molecular structure of these two chromatins is similar. For rye, the extraction of H1 produces no change in the binding of ethidium bromide. The subsequent extraction of H2A and H2B produces a 14% increase in the binding, and the removal of H3 and H4, another 54% increase. At this stage, the number of binding sites is still less than that of DNA. This is presumably due to the presence of some tightly bound non-histones. Thus, the arginine-rich histones and the tightly bound non-histones are most responsible for limiting the binding of ethidium bromide to rye chromatin.

  20. CuI/Proline-catalyzed N-Arylation of Nitrogen Heterocycles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Ma's CuI/proline procedure for the catalytic cross coupling between nitrogen heterocycles and aryl halides was markedly improved. The key finding was that K3PO4 was a much better base than K2CO3 for the reaction. With this new reaction condition the cross coupling with aryl iodides could be accomplished in 1,4-dioxane instead of DMSO. This reactin also could be carried out in DMF. Furthermore, the coupling yields under the new conditions are usually higher than in Ma's original methods.

  1. 3-methylcholanthrene induces differential recruitment of aryl hydrocarbon receptor to human promoters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pansoy, Andrea; Ahmed, Shaimaa; Valen, Eivind;


    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a ligand-activated protein that mediates the toxic actions of polycyclic aromatic and halogenated compounds. Identifying genes directly regulated by AHR is important in understanding the pathways regulated by this receptor. Here we used chromatin immunopreci......The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a ligand-activated protein that mediates the toxic actions of polycyclic aromatic and halogenated compounds. Identifying genes directly regulated by AHR is important in understanding the pathways regulated by this receptor. Here we used chromatin...

  2. Asymmetric synthesis of quaternary aryl amino acid derivatives via a three-component aryne coupling reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth P. Jones


    Full Text Available A method was developed for the synthesis of α-alkyl, α-aryl-bislactim ethers in good to excellent yields and high diastereoselectivities, consisting of a facile one-pot procedure in which the aryl group is introduced by means of a nucleophilic addition to benzyne and the alkyl group by alkylation of a resultant benzylic anion. Hydrolysis of the sterically less hindered adducts gave the corresponding quaternary amino acids with no racemization, whereas hydrolytic ring opening gave the corresponding valine dipeptides from bulkier bislactims.

  3. Synthesis and antifungal activity of novel (1-aryl-2-heterocyclyl)ethylideneaminooxymethyl-substituted dioxolanes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baji, H.; Flammang, M.; Kimny, T.; Gasquez, F.; Compagnon, P.L.; Delcourt, A. [Dijon Univ., 21 (France)


    A novel series of (1-aryl-2-heterocyclyl)ethylideneaminooxymethyl -substituted dioxolanes IIIa-n were synthesized by condensation of substituted 1,3-dioxolan-4-ylmethyl p-toluenesulfonates 4 with 1-(hydroxyimino)-1-aryl-2-heterocyclylethanes 5. Compounds IIIa-n were found to have effective in vitro antifungal activity when evaluated against the pathogenic fungi Candida albicans, Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium solani with MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) values of 10 {mu}g-ml{sup -1} for IIIa-I and 5 {mu}g-ml{sup -1} for IIIm,n. (authors). 24 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  4. Myrmecophagy by Yellowstone grizzly bears (United States)

    Mattson, D.J.


    I used data collected during a study of radio-marked grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) in the Yellowstone region from 1977 to 1992 to investigate myrmecophagy by this population. Although generally not an important source of energy for the bears (averaging 8 mm long) nested in logs over small ants (6 mm long) nested under stones. Optimal conditions for consumption of ants occurred on the warmest sites with ample substrate suitable for ant nests. For ants in mounds, this occurred at low elevations at non-forested sites. For ants in logs, this occurred at low elevations or on southerly aspects where there was abundant, large-diameter, well-decomposed woody debris under an open forest canopy. Grizzly bears selected moderately decomposed logs 4a??5 dm in diameter at midpoint. Ants will likely become a more important food for Yellowstone's grizzly bears as currently important foods decline, owing to disease and warming of the regional climate.

  5. Segmented Hybrid Gasostatic Bearing Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prodan Nikolay Vasilevich


    Full Text Available The purpose of research-development of methods of numerical optimization rotatable support pads gasostatic hybrid bearing. In the world‘s aerospace engineering the gas-dynamic bearings are currently most common. They are characterized by the supporting layer of different designs, which ensures the workability of the rotors during starts and stops. The main problem of this bearing type, apart from the construction complexity is the wear of this supporting layer. Gas-static bearing has no such defect, since there is no physical contact between solid surfaces. This study presents the results of the hybrid bearing’s calculation, combining both technologies. The slotted nozzle of non-conventional shape that mirrors the solution of Reynolds equation’s isoline is studied. The dependences of the main parameters on the speed of the shaft’s rotation are discussed. The aerodynamic resistance of pads for different regimes of operation is investigated.

  6. Gas bearing operates in vacuum (United States)

    Perkins, G. S.


    Bearing has restrictions to reduce air leaks and is connected to external pumpout facility which removes exhausted air. Token amount of air which is lost to vacuum is easily removed by conventional vacuum pump.

  7. Mixed-mu superconducting bearings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, John R. (Hinsdale, IL); Mulcahy, Thomas M. (Western Springs, IL)


    A mixed-mu superconducting bearing including a ferrite structure disposed for rotation adjacent a stationary superconductor material structure and a stationary permanent magnet structure. The ferrite structure is levitated by said stationary permanent magnet structure.

  8. Nonlinear Control of Magnetic Bearings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Khac Duc Do; Dang Hoe Nguyen; Thanh Binh Nguyen


    In this paper, recent results controling nonlinear systems with output tracking error constraints are applied to the design of new tracking controllers for magnetic bearings. The proposed controllers can force the rotor to track a bounded and sufficiently smooth refer-ence trajectory asymptotically and guarantee non-contactedness be-tween the rotor and the stator of the magnetic bearings. Simulation results are included to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed con-trollers.

  9. Valence photoelectron spectra of alkali bromides calculated within the propagator theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karpenko, Alexander; Iablonskyi, Denys; Aksela, Helena


    The valence ionization spectra covering the binding energy range 0-45 eV of alkali bromide XBr (X = Li, Na, K, Rb) vapors are studied within the framework of the propagator theory. Relativistic Algebraic Diagrammatic Construction calculations have been carried out in order to investigate photoion......The valence ionization spectra covering the binding energy range 0-45 eV of alkali bromide XBr (X = Li, Na, K, Rb) vapors are studied within the framework of the propagator theory. Relativistic Algebraic Diagrammatic Construction calculations have been carried out in order to investigate...

  10. Comparison of injection drotaverine and injection valethamate bromide on duration and course of labor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradnya Rajendra Changede


    Results: The mean duration of active phase of first stage of labor was significantly shorter in the drotaverine and valethamate bromide groups as compared to control group in both primigravida and multigravida patients. Conclusions: The rate of cervical dilatation under the influence of valethamate bromide and drotaverine is significantly higher as compared to control group. In each group dilatation was faster in multigravida patients as compared to primigravida and it was fastest in the drotaverine group. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(6.000: 1836-1842

  11. Bromidotetrakis(2-ethyl-1H-imidazole-κN3copper(II bromide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Godlewska


    Full Text Available The CuII ion in the title molecular salt, [CuBr(C5H8N24]Br, is coordinated in a square-pyramidal geometry by four N atoms of imidazole ligands and one bromide anion in the apical position. In the crystal, the ions are linked by N—H...Br hydrogen bonds involving both the coordinating and the free bromide species as acceptors. A C—H...Br interaction is also observed. Overall, a three-dimensional network results.

  12. Bromidotetra-kis-(2-ethyl-1H-imidazole-κN (3))copper(II) bromide. (United States)

    Godlewska, Sylwia; Kelm, Harald; Krüger, Hans-Jörg; Dołęga, Anna


    The Cu(II) ion in the title mol-ecular salt, [CuBr(C5H8N2)4]Br, is coordinated in a square-pyramidal geometry by four N atoms of imidazole ligands and one bromide anion in the apical position. In the crystal, the ions are linked by N-H⋯Br hydrogen bonds involving both the coordinating and the free bromide species as acceptors. A C-H⋯Br inter-action is also observed. Overall, a three-dimensional network results.

  13. Thermodynamic evaluation of new absorbent mixtures of lithium bromide and organic salts for absorption refrigeration machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donate, Marina; Rodriguez, Luis; Lucas, Antonio De; Rodriguez, Juan F. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Castilla-La Mancha, Avda. de Camilo Jose Cela s/n, 13004 Ciudad Real (Spain)


    Mixtures of lithium bromide and organic salts of sodium and potassium (formate, acetate and lactate) have been evaluated as alternative absorbents for absorption refrigeration machines. The main objective is to overpass the limitations of lithium bromide and improve the characteristics and the efficiency of the refrigeration cycle. In order to select the mixture that presents better properties for its employment in absorption refrigeration cycles, a thermodynamic analysis have been done. Density, viscosity, enthalpies of dilution, solubility and vapour pressure data of the proposed mixtures have been measured. A simulation program has been developed to evaluate temperatures, heats exchanged in the different sections and the efficiency of the cycle. (author)

  14. Uroporphyria development in cultured chick embryo fibroblasts long-term treated with chloramphenicol and ethidium bromide. (United States)

    de Muys, J M; Morais, R


    Long-term chloramphenicol- and ethidium bromide-treated chick embryo fibroblasts synthesize large amounts of porphyrins from exogenously added delta-aminolevulinic acid. The porphyrins consist mainly of uro- and heptacarboxyporphyrins and are retained within cells. Uroporphyria development is a time-dependent process which accompanies a step-wise decrease in the capacity of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Upon removal of chloramphenicol from the medium, the pattern of porphyrin production readily returns to normal (mainly proto- and coproporphyrins found in the medium) while ethidium bromide-treated cells remain uroporphyric. The results suggest that impairment of mitochondrial functions in chicken by xenobiotics leads to uroporphyria development.

  15. 77 FR 70423 - Black Bear Hydro Partners, LLC and Black Bear Development Holdings, LLC and Black Bear SO, LLC... (United States)


    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Black Bear Hydro Partners, LLC and Black Bear Development Holdings, LLC and Black Bear SO, LLC; Notice of Application for Partial Transfer of Licenses, and Soliciting Comments and Motions To Intervene On October 25, 2012, Black Bear Hydro Partners, LLC, sole licensee (transferor)...

  16. Mechanistic investigation into cross-linking reactions in low rank coal: formation and pyrolysis of aryl esters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britt, P.F.; Buchanan, A.C. III; Kiddern, M.K.; Skeen, J.D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. Oak Ridge, TN (USA). Chemical Sciences Division


    In this study, the sealed tube pyrolysis of mixtures of m-phenylphenol and benzoic acid have been investigated at 400{sup o}C to determine if cross-linking reactions can occur, and to determine the low temperature pyrolysis pathways of aryl esters, which are not known. Initial studies show that condensation reactions occur between carboxylic acids and phenols to form aryl esters at temperatures as low as 200{sup o}C. With a 3:1 ratio of m-phenylphenol to benzoic acid, yields of m-phenylphenyl benzoate were as high as 50% at 400{sup o}C. At short reaction times, the dominant products were the aryl ester and benzene, formed by the acid catalyzed decarboxylation of benzoic acid, but at longer times, other arylated products grew in indicating that radical reactions were occurring. These products appear to arise from the induced decomposition of benzoic anhydride to form phenyl radicals. The thermal stability of aryl esters was investigated through the pyrolysis of phenyl benzoate at 400{sup o}C. As predicted, the aryl ester appeared to be thermally stable but hydrolytically unstable. In general, formation of aryl esters could act as a low temperature cross-link in low rank coals. 19 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Palladium- and copper-mediated N-aryl bond formation reactions for the synthesis of biological active compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burkhard Koenig


    Full Text Available N-Arylated aliphatic and aromatic amines are important substituents in many biologically active compounds. In the last few years, transition-metal-mediated N-aryl bond formation has become a standard procedure for the introduction of amines into aromatic systems. While N-arylation of simple aromatic halides by simple amines works with many of the described methods in high yield, the reactions may require detailed optimization if applied to the synthesis of complex molecules with additional functional groups, such as natural products or drugs. We discuss and compare in this review the three main N-arylation methods in their application to the synthesis of biologically active compounds: Palladium-catalysed Buchwald–Hartwig-type reactions, copper-mediated Ullmann-type and Chan–Lam-type N-arylation reactions. The discussed examples show that palladium-catalysed reactions are favoured for large-scale applications and tolerate sterically demanding substituents on the coupling partners better than Chan–Lam reactions. Chan–Lam N-arylations are particularly mild and do not require additional ligands, which facilitates the work-up. However, reaction times can be very long. Ullmann- and Buchwald–Hartwig-type methods have been used in intramolecular reactions, giving access to complex ring structures. All three N-arylation methods have specific advantages and disadvantages that should be considered when selecting the reaction conditions for a desired C–N bond formation in the course of a total synthesis or drug synthesis.

  18. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor mediates benzene-induced hematotoxicity. (United States)

    Yoon, Byung-Il; Hirabayashi, Yoko; Kawasaki, Yasushi; Kodama, Yukio; Kaneko, Toyozo; Kanno, Jun; Kim, Dae-Yong; Fujii-Kuriyama, Yoshiaki; Inoue, Tohru


    Benzene can induce hematotoxicity and leukemia in humans and mice. Since a review of the literature shows that the CYP2E1 knockout mouse is not known to possess any benzene toxicity, the metabolism of benzene by CYP2E1 in the liver is regarded to be prerequisite for its cytotoxicity and genotoxicity, although the mechanism is not fully understood yet. Because it was found some years ago that benzene was also a substrate for CYP1A1, we investigated the involvement of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) in benzene hematotoxicity using AhR wild-type (AhR(+/+)), heterozygous (AhR(+/-)), and homozygous (AhR(-/-)) male mice. Interestingly, following a 2-week inhalation of 300 ppm benzene (a potent dose for leukemogenicity), no hematotoxicity was induced in AhR(-/-) mice. Further, there were no changes in cellularity of peripheral blood and bone marrow (BM), nor in levels of granulocyte-macrophage colony-forming units in BM. This lack of hematotoxicity was associated with the lack of p21 overexpression, which was regularly seen in the wild-type mice following benzene inhalation. Combined treatment with two major benzene metabolites, phenol and hydroquinone, induced hemopoietic toxicity, although it was not known whether this happened due to a surprising lack of expression of CYP2E1 by AhR knockout, or due to a lack of other AhR-mediated CYP enzymes, including 1A1 (i.e., a possible alternative pathway of benzene metabolism). The former possibility, evaluated in the present study, failed to show a significant relationship between AhR and the expression of CYP2E1. Furthermore, a subsequent evaluation of AhR expression after benzene inhalation tended to show higher but less significant expression in the liver, and none in the BM, compared with sham control. Although this study failed to identify the more likely of the above-mentioned two possibilities, the study using AhR knockout mice on benzene inhalation presents the unique possibility that the benzene toxicity may be

  19. Smoke carcinogens cause bone loss through the aryl hydrocarbon receptor and induction of CYP1 enzymes (United States)

    Smoking is a major risk factor for osteoporosis and fracture. Here, we show that smoke toxins and environmental chemicals such as benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-pdioxin (TCDD), and 3-methyl cholanthrene, which are well known aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) agonists, induce osteocla...

  20. Synthesis of a Crushed Fullerene C60H24 through Sixfold Palladium-Catalyzed Arylation. (United States)

    Dorel, Ruth; de Mendoza, Paula; Calleja, Pilar; Pascual, Sergio; González-Cantalapiedra, Esther; Cabello, Noemí; Echavarren, Antonio M


    The synthesis of a new C3v -symmetric crushed fullerene C60H24 (5) has been accomplished in three steps from truxene through sixfold palladium-catalyzed intramolecular arylation of a syn-trialkylated truxene precursor. Laser irradiation of 5 induces cyclodehydrogenation processes that result in the formation of C60, as detected by LDI-MS.

  1. Synthesis of a Crushed Fullerene C60H24 through Sixfold Palladium‐Catalyzed Arylation (United States)

    Dorel, Ruth; de Mendoza, Paula; Calleja, Pilar; Pascual, Sergio; González‐Cantalapiedra, Esther; Cabello, Noemí


    The synthesis of a new C 3v‐symmetric crushed fullerene C60H24 (5) has been accomplished in three steps from truxene through sixfold palladium‐catalyzed intramolecular arylation of a syn‐trialkylated truxene precursor. Laser irradiation of 5 induces cyclodehydrogenation processes that result in the formation of C60, as detected by LDI‐MS. PMID:27774038

  2. N-Unsubstituted and N-Arylated Fulleropyrrolidines: New Useful Building Blocks for C60 Functionalization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TONG,Chen-Hua; WU,Zong-Quan; HOU,Jun-Li; LI,Zhan-Ting


    Two series of stable and soluble fulleropyrrolidines have been prepared from the reactions of C60, glycine or its N-arylated derivatives and aliphatic aldehydes or ketones in refluxing toluene or chlorobenzene. The new C60 derivatives represent new useful building blocks for further preparation of more funcionalized C60 derivatives.

  3. Restricted utility of aryl isoprenoids as indicators of photic zone anoxia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Koopmans, M.P.; Schouten, S.; Kohnen, M.E.L.


    In a North Sea oil, the carotenoid derivatives -carotene, -isorenieratane, and isorenieratane were identified, together with a series of aryl isoprenoids with a 2,3,6-trimethyl substitution pattern for the aromatic ring. The 13C values of -carotene and -isorenieratane are similar, whereas isoreniera

  4. A General and Efficient CuBr2-Catalyzed N-Arylation of Secondary Acyclic Amides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王满刚; 于华; 尤心稳; 吴军; 商志才


    A general and efficient Cu(II)-catalyzed cross-coupling method is reported for the preparation of acyclic tertiary amides. Generally moderate to excellent yields and functional group tolerance were obtained with secondary acyclic amides and aryl halides as substrates in toluene.

  5. Arylation of Acrylamide and Acrylonitrile with Arenediazonium Salts Catalyzed by Palladium Acetate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Arylation of acrylamide and acrylonitrile were carried out with various arenediazonium tetrafluoroborates in the presence of a catalytic amount of Pd(OAc)2 in ethanol and a variety of substituted (E)-cinnamamides and (E)-cinnamonitriles were obtained in high yields under mild reaction conditions.

  6. Dynamic Rheological Characterization of A Thermotropic Liquid Crystalline Poly (aryl ether ketone)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The rheometrics ARES rheometer was applied to determining the rheological behavior of a thermotropic liquid crystalline poly (aryl ether ketone). The viscosity of the material decreases with increasing temperature, reaching a minimum in the nematic state, then slightly increases with further raising the temperature in the biphase.

  7. Spectral and catalytic properties of aryl-alcohol oxidase, a fungal flavoenzyme acting on polyunsaturated alcohols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferreira, P.; Medina, M.; Guillén, F.; Martínez, M.J.; Berkel, van W.J.H.; Martínez, A.T.


    Spectral and catalytic properties of the flavoenzyme AAO (aryl-alcohol oxidase) from Pleurotus eryngii were investigated using recombinant enzyme. Unlike most flavoprotein oxidases, AAO does not thermodynamically stabilize a flavin semiquinone radical and forms no sulphite adduct. AAO catalyses the

  8. A Convenient Synthesis of 2-Aryl-3-per(poly)fluoroacylindoles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU,Jin-Tao(刘金涛); L(U),He-Jun(吕贺军)


    2-Aryl-3-per(poly) fluoroacylindoles were synthesized in good yields by the 1,3-dipolar cycloddition reaction of C-aryi-Nphenylnitrones with fluorine-containing olefins and the subsequent rearrangement of the adducts. An ionic mechanism was proposed for the formtion of the titled compounds.

  9. Studies on Aryl-Substituted Phenylalanines: Synthesis, Activity, and Different Binding Modes at AMPA Receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szymanska, Ewa; Frydenvang, Karla Andrea; Pickering, Darryl S;


    A series of racemic aryl-substituted phenylalanines was synthesized and evaluated in vitro at recombinant rat GluA1−3, at GluK1−3, and at native AMPA receptors. The individual enantiomers of two target compounds, (RS)-2-amino-3-(3,4-dichloro-5-(5-hydroxypyridin-3-yl)phenyl)- propanoic acid (37...

  10. An Efficient Synthesis of Cyclopeptides Bridged with Aliphafic-aryl Ether Bond

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhe LIU; Gui Jei TIAN; De Xin WANG


    Based on the pseudo-dilution effect (PDE) on solid support, three cyclopeptides with an aliphatic-aryl ether bond as the bridge were synthesized via SN2 reaction between bromoacetylated at N-terminal and the phenol -OH group in C-terminal Tyr residue. All the products were obtained in good overall yields and characterized by related analytic data.

  11. A nordehydroabietyl amide-containing chiral diene for rhodium-catalysed asymmetric arylation to nitroolefins. (United States)

    Li, Ruikun; Wen, Zhongqing; Wu, Na


    A highly enantioselective rhodium catalysed asymmetric arylation (RCAA) of nitroolefins with arylboronic acids is presented using a newly developed, C1-symmetric, non-covalent interacted, phellandrene derived, nordehydroabietyl amide-containing chiral diene under mild conditions. Stereoelectronic effects were studied, suggesting an activation of the bound substrate through the secondary amide as a hydrogen-bond donor.

  12. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor ligand effects in RBL2H3 cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maaetoft-Udsen, Kristina; Shimoda, Lori M. N.; Frøkiær, Hanne;


    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) mediates toxic effects of dioxin and xenobiotic metabolism. AHR has an emerging role in the immune system, but its physiological ligands and functional role in immunocytes remain poorly understood. Mast cells are immunocytes that are central to inflammatory...

  13. Brønsted acid-surfactant (BAS catalysed cyclotrimerization of aryl methyl ketone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Phatangare


    Full Text Available A brønsted acid-surfactant catalysed and simple, mild, metal catalyst free and chemo-selective method has been developed for synthesis of 1, 3, 5-triaryl benzenes from aryl methyl ketones. The advantages of this protocol subsume green and sustainable reaction medium, mild reaction conditions, easy product recovery and its good yields.

  14. An Efficient Solid-State Synthesis of N-Aryl-2-phenyldiazenecarboxamides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A new and efficient solid-state reaction using K3Fe(CN)6/KOH to oxidize diaryl semicarbazides for preparing azo compounds has been reported. Nine N-aryl-2-phenyl-diazenecarboxamides have been synthesized in excellent yields with simple instrument.

  15. Palladium-catalyzed Coupling between Aryl Halides and Trimethylsilylacetylene Assisted by Dimethylaminotrimethyltin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cai Liangzhen; Yang Dujuan; Sun Zhonghua; Tao Xiaochun; Cai Lisheng; Pike Victor W


    Palladium-catalyzed coupling between aryl halides, especially less reactive ones or N-heteroaryls, and trimethylsilylacetylene in the presence of dimethylaminotrimethyltin generated the coupled products in high yields. The reaction does not need CuI and base as auxiliary agents.

  16. Dioxin increases the interaction between aryl hydrocarbon receptor and estrogen receptor alpha at human promoters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Shaaima; Valen, Eivind; Sandelin, Albin Gustav;


    Recent studies have shown that activated aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) induced the recruitment of estrogen receptor- (ER ) to AHR-regulated genes and that AHR is recruited to ER -regulated genes. However, these findings were limited to a small number of well-characterized AHR- or ER -responsive...

  17. Trapping Reactive Intermediates by Mechanochemistry: Elusive Aryl N-Thiocarbamoylbenzotriazoles as Bench-Stable Reagents. (United States)

    Štrukil, Vjekoslav; Gracin, Davor; Magdysyuk, Oxana V; Dinnebier, Robert E; Friščić, Tomislav


    Monitoring of mechanochemical thiocarbamoylation by in situ Raman spectroscopy revealed the formation of aryl N-thiocarbamoylbenzotriazoles, reactive intermediates deemed unisolable in solution. The first-time isolation and structural characterization of these elusive molecules demonstrates the ability of mechanochemistry to access otherwise unobtainable intermediates and offers a new range of masked isothiocyanate reagents.

  18. Direct synthesis of diaryl sulfides by copper-catalyzed coupling of aryl halides with aminothiourea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang Mei Wu; Wei Ya Hu


    An efficient and simple protocol of copper-catalyzed C-S bond formation between aryl halides and inexpensive and commercially available aminothiourea is reported.A variety of symmetrical diaryl sulfides can be synthesized in good to excellent yields up to 94% with the advantage of avoiding foul-smelling thiols.

  19. Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling of potassium dioxolanylethyltrifluoroborate and aryl/heteroaryl chlorides. (United States)

    Fleury-Brégeot, Nicolas; Oehlrich, Daniel; Rombouts, Frederik; Molander, Gary A


    A robust and efficient protocol for the introduction of the dioxolanylethyl moiety onto various aryl and heteroaryl halides has been developed, providing cross-coupling yields up to 93%. Copper-catalyzed borylation of 2-(2-bromoethyl)-1,3-dioxolane with bis(pinacolato)diboron followed by treatment with potassium bifluoride provides the key organotrifluoroborate reagent.

  20. Inhibition of mucin glycosylation by aryl-N-acetyl-alpha-galactosaminides in human colon cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuan, S.F.; Byrd, J.C.; Basbaum, C.; Kim, Y.S. (Veterans Administration Medical Center, San Francisco, CA (USA))


    Specific inhibitors of the glycosylation of O-glycosidically linked glycoproteins have not previously been described. When tested for their effects on mucin glycosylation in a mucin-producing colon cancer cell line, LS174T, benzyl-, phenyl-, and p-nitrophenyl-N-acetyl-alpha-galactosaminide inhibited the formation of fully glycosylated mucin in a dose-dependent manner. Free aryl-oligosaccharides were found in the medium of treated cells labeled with ({sup 3}H)glucosamine, ({sup 3}H)galactose, ({sup 3}H)fucose, ({sup 3}H)mannosamine, or phenyl-alpha-(6-{sup 3}H) N-acetylgalactosamine. UDP-Gal:GalNAc-beta 1,3-galactosyltransferase was inhibited by aryl-N-acetyl-alpha-galactosaminides but not by a number of other aryl-glycosides. Treatment with these inhibitors also causes reversible morphologic changes including formation of intercellular cysts. Aryl-N-acetyl-alpha-galactosaminides can be useful for the structural and functional studies of mucin macromolecules and other O-linked glycoproteins.

  1. Rhodium-catalysed arylative annulation of 1,4-enynes with arylboronic acids. (United States)

    Matsuda, Takanori; Watanuki, Shoichi


    The rhodium(I)-catalysed arylative annulation of 1,4-enynes with arylboronic acids was investigated. The reaction was found to proceed via an addition-1,4-rhodium migration-addition sequence, affording the corresponding 1,1-disubstituted 3-(arylmethylene)indanes.

  2. LDA-Mediated Synthesis of Triarylmethanes by Arylation of Diarylmethanes with Fluoroarenes at Room Temperature. (United States)

    Ji, Xinfei; Huang, Tao; Wu, Wei; Liang, Fang; Cao, Song


    A practical and convenient approach for the secondary C(sp(3))-H arylation of diarylmethanes with various fluoroarenes is described. The reaction proceeds smoothly in the presence of LDA (lithium diisopropylamide) at room temperature and affords triarylmethanes in moderate to high yields.

  3. An effective synthesis of β-aryl substituted isotetronic acids via Suzuki coupling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huan Sheng Chen; Xia Ping Ma; Zhi Ming Li; Quan Rui Wang; Feng Gang Tao


    lsotetronic acids are of great agricultural and pharmacological relevance and occur in a number of natural products.A convenient synthetic pathway to β-aryl substituted isotetronic acid derivatives was developed via Suzuki cross-coupling of the corresponding β-bromo substituted isotetronic acid derivatives with arylboronic acids under palladium acetate catalysis.Good to excellent yields have been achieved.

  4. Vibrational energy relaxation of liquid aryl-halides X-C6H5 (X = F, Cl, Br, I). (United States)

    Pein, Brandt C; Seong, Nak-Hyun; Dlott, Dana D


    Anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy was used to probe vibrational energy dynamics in liquid ambient-temperature aryl-halides, X-Ph (X = F, Cl, Br, I; -Ph = C(6)H(5)), following IR excitation of a 3068 cm(-1) CH-stretching transition. Five ring vibrations and two substituent-dependent vibrations were monitored in each aryl-halide. Overall, the vibrational relaxation (VR) lifetimes in aryl-halides were shorter than those in normal benzene (H-Ph). The aryl-halide CH-stretch lifetimes increased in the order F, Cl, Br, I, ranging from 2.5 to 3.4 ps, compared with 6.2 ps in H-Ph. The aryl-halide energy transfer processes were similar overall with four exceptions. Three of the four exceptions could be explained as a result of faster VR of midrange vibrations (1000-1600 cm(-1)) in the heavier aryl-halides. The fourth appeared to result from a coincidental resonance in chlorobenzene that does not occur in the other aryl-halides. Among the aryl-halides, the decay of CH-stretching excitations (∼3070 cm(-1)) was slower in the heavier species, but the decay of midrange vibrations was faster in the heavier species. This seeming contradiction could be explained if VR depended primarily on the density of states (DOS) of the lower tiers of vibrational excitations. The DOS for the first few (1-4) tiers is similar for all aryl-halides in the CH-stretch region, but DOS increases with increasing halide mass in the midrange region.

  5. beta-TrCP inhibition reduces prostate cancer cell growth via upregulation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udi Gluschnaider

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer is a common and heterogeneous disease, where androgen receptor (AR signaling plays a pivotal role in development and progression. The initial treatment for advanced prostate cancer is suppression of androgen signaling. Later on, essentially all patients develop an androgen independent stage which does not respond to anti hormonal treatment. Thus, alternative strategies targeting novel molecular mechanisms are required. beta-TrCP is an E3 ligase that targets various substrates essential for many aspects of tumorigenesis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we show that beta-TrCP depletion suppresses prostate cancer and identify a relevant growth control mechanism. shRNA targeted against beta-TrCP reduced prostate cancer cell growth and cooperated with androgen ablation in vitro and in vivo. We found that beta-TrCP inhibition leads to upregulation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR mediating the therapeutic effect. This phenomenon could be ligand independent, as the AhR ligand 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-Dioxin (TCDD did not alter prostate cancer cell growth. We detected high AhR expression and activation in basal cells and atrophic epithelial cells of human cancer bearing prostates. AhR expression and activation is also significantly higher in tumor cells compared to benign glandular epithelium. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Together these observations suggest that AhR activation may be a cancer counteracting mechanism in the prostate. We maintain that combining beta-TrCP inhibition with androgen ablation could benefit advanced prostate cancer patients.

  6. Superconductor bearings, flywheels and transportation (United States)

    Werfel, F. N.; Floegel-Delor, U.; Rothfeld, R.; Riedel, T.; Goebel, B.; Wippich, D.; Schirrmeister, P.


    This paper describes the present status of high temperature superconductors (HTS) and of bulk superconducting magnet devices, their use in bearings, in flywheel energy storage systems (FESS) and linear transport magnetic levitation (Maglev) systems. We report and review the concepts of multi-seeded REBCO bulk superconductor fabrication. The multi-grain bulks increase the averaged trapped magnetic flux density up to 40% compared to single-grain assembly in large-scale applications. HTS magnetic bearings with permanent magnet (PM) excitation were studied and scaled up to maximum forces of 10 kN axially and 4.5 kN radially. We examine the technology of the high-gradient magnetic bearing concept and verify it experimentally. A large HTS bearing is tested for stabilizing a 600 kg rotor of a 5 kWh/250 kW flywheel system. The flywheel rotor tests show the requirement for additional damping. Our compact flywheel system is compared with similar HTS-FESS projects. A small-scale compact YBCO bearing with in situ Stirling cryocooler is constructed and investigated for mobile applications. Next we show a successfully developed modular linear Maglev system for magnetic train operation. Each module levitates 0.25t at 10 mm distance during one-day operation without refilling LN2. More than 30 vacuum cryostats containing multi-seeded YBCO blocks are fabricated and are tested now in Germany, China and Brazil.

  7. SYBR safe(TM) efficiently replaces ethidium bromide in Aspergillus fumigatus gene disruption. (United States)

    Canela, H M S; Takami, L A; Ferreira, M E S


    Invasive aspergillosis is a disease responsible for high mortality rates, caused mainly by Aspergillus fumigatus. The available drugs are limited and this disease continues to occur at an unacceptable frequency. Gene disruption is essential in the search for new drug targets. An efficient protocol for A. fumigatus gene disruption was described but it requires ethidium bromide, a genotoxic agent, for DNA staining. Therefore, the present study tested SYBR safe(TM), a non-genotoxic DNA stain, in A. fumigatus gene disruption protocol. The chosen gene was cipC, which has already been disrupted successfully in our laboratory. A deletion cassette was constructed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and used in A. fumigatus transformation. There was no statistical difference between the tested DNA stains. The success rate of S. cerevisiae transformation was 63.3% for ethidium bromide and 70% for SYBR safe(TM). For A. fumigatus gene disruption, the success rate for ethidium bromide was 100 and 97% for SYBR safe(TM). In conclusion, SYBR safe(TM) efficiently replaced ethidium bromide, making this dye a safe and efficient alternative for DNA staining in A. fumigatus gene disruption.

  8. Measurement and Computation of Movement of Bromide Ions and Carbofuran in Ridged HUmic-Sandy Soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leistra, M.; Boesten, J.J.T.I.


    Water flow and pesticide transport in the soil of fields with ridges and furrows may be more complex than in the soil of more level fields. Prior to crop emergence, the tracer bromide ion and the insecticide carbofuran were sprayed on the humic-sandy soil of a potato field with ridges and furrows. R


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Shepel


    Full Text Available This communication is devoted to the elaboration of a new optimal technique of infrared spectra registration of activated carbons in potassium bromide pellets. Authors investigated the dependence of the intensity of the least overlapping infrared bands of activated carbons on the conditions of preparation, recording of the spectrum, and the degree of homogenization with KBr.

  10. Ozone decomposition under the irradiation of 253.7 nm in the presence of methyl bromide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    In this paper the mechanism and kinetic of ozone decomposition under the irradiation of 253.7 nm UV-light were studied.The quantum yield of the ozone depletion in the presence of methyl bromide is further determined and a reaction model is provided to explain the experimental fact.

  11. Methyl bromide release from activated carbon and the soil/water/carbon interface (United States)

    Methyl Bromide (MB) is a major source of stratospheric bromine radical, a known depletor of ozone. The use of ozone-depleting chemicals, including MB, is regulated by the Montreal Protocol. Critical uses of MB are permitted, such as when postharvest fumigation is mandated by an importing country. Fo...

  12. Kinetics and mechanism of the oxidation of bromide by periodate in aqueous acidic solution. (United States)

    Szél, Viktor; Csekő, György; Horváth, Attila K


    The periodate–bromide reaction has been studied spectrophotometrically mainly in excess of bromide ion, monitoring the formation of the total amount of bromine at 450 nm at acidic buffered conditions and at a constant ionic strength in the presence of a phosphoric acid/dihydrogen phosphate buffer. The stoichiometry of the reaction was established to be strictly IO4(–) + 2Br(–) + 2H(+) → Br2 + IO3(–) + H2O. The formal kinetic order of the reactants was found to be perfectly one and two in the cases of periodate and bromide, respectively, but that of the hydrogen ion lies between one and two. We have also provided experimental evidence that dihydrogen phosphate accelerates the formation of bromine, suggesting the appearance of strong buffer assistance. On the basis of the experiments, a simple two-step kinetic model is proposed involving BrIO3 as a key intermediate that perfectly explains all of the experimental findings. Furthermore, we have also shown that in huge excess of bromide, the apparent rate coefficient obtained from the individual curve fitting method of the absorbance–time series is necessarily independent of the initial periodate concentration that may falsely be interpreted as the rate of bromine formation is also independent of the concentration of periodate.

  13. The carbonylation of phenyl bromide and its derivatives under visible light irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen Hui Zhong; Ying Na Cui; Shen Min Li; Ying Ping Jia; Jing Mei Yin


    The carbonylation of phenyl bromide catalyzed by Co(OAc)2 has been investigated with PhCOPh as a sensitizer under visible light in the presence of basic additive.With strong base CH3ONa,PhCOOCH3 is produced in 70% yield with 100% selectivity,the similar results are also obtained with a stronger base (CH3)3CONa.However,with another strong base NaOH,the yield of the ester is only 40%.On the other hand,with weak base NaOAc or (n-C4Hg)3N,phenyl bromide cannot be carbonylated.The results of carbonylation of the six substituted phenyl bromides suggest that the activities of o,m,p-BrC6H4CH3 are similar to phenyl bromide,while the activities of o,m,p-BrC6H4Cl are higher with the high yields (≥93%) of the corresponding chloro-esters.In addition,the relative position of bromine and chlorine or methyl on phenyl ring has little effect on the activity of the carbonylation.

  14. Experimental study of negative temperatures in lithium-bromide absorption refrigerating machines (United States)

    Stepanov, K. I.; Mukhin, D. G.; Alekseenko, S. V.; Volkova, O. V.


    The authors have developed a method and presented experimental data for obtaining negative temperatures of evaporation in lithium-bromide absorption chillers driven by heat recovery. It has been found that the attainable temperature of the refrigerated medium is the value of -5 °C.

  15. Strontium and bromide as tracers in X-ray microanalysis of biological tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wroblewski, J.; Sagstroem, S.M.; Mulders, H.; Roomans, G.M. (Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden))


    Since energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis cannot distinguish between isotopes of the same element, alternative methods have to be used to get information similar to that obtained in experiments with radioactive tracers. In the present study, strontium was used as a tracer for calcium, and bromide as a tracer for chloride. Rats were injected with strontium chloride in vivo, and the uptake of strontium in the acinar cells of the submandibular gland was studied. Eventually a Sr/Ca ratio of 0.3 was reached. In some animals, secretion of mucus had been elicited by stimulation with isoproterenol 4 h prior to injection of strontium chloride. Exchange of calcium for strontium was enhanced by prior injection with isoproterenol. In a second experiment, rats were injected with sodium bromide, and the uptake of bromide by the submandibular acinar cells was followed in time, both in pilocarpine-stimulated and unstimulated glands. Under the experimental conditions, bromide was rapidly taken up by the cells, and the cellular Br/Cl ratio was close to that found in serum. Submandibular glands take up Br somewhat faster than other tissues (liver, heart muscle, skeletal muscle). The uptake of Br in pancreatic acinar cells was studied in vitro. These experiments showed a 1:1 ratio (molar) exchange of Cl for Br.

  16. Study of the antibacterial and antifungal activities of synthetic benzyl bromides, ketones, and corresponding chalcone derivatives (United States)

    Shakhatreh, Muhamad Ali K; Al-Smadi, Mousa L; Khabour, Omar F; Shuaibu, Fatima A; Hussein, Emad I; Alzoubi, Karem H


    Several applications of chalcones and their derivatives encouraged researchers to increase their synthesis as an alternative for the treatment of pathogenic bacterial and fungal infections. In the present study, chalcone derivatives were synthesized through cross aldol condensation reaction between 4-(N,N-dimethylamino)benzaldehyde and multiarm aromatic ketones. The multiarm aromatic ketones were synthesized through nucleophilic substitution reaction between 4-hydroxy acetophenone and benzyl bromides. The benzyl bromides, multiarm aromatic ketones, and corresponding chalcone derivatives were evaluated for their activities against eleven clinical pathogenic Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacteria, and three pathogenic fungi by the disk diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration was determined by the microbroth dilution technique. The results of the present study demonstrated that benzyl bromide derivatives have strong antibacterial and antifungal properties as compared to synthetic chalcone derivatives and ketones. Benzyl bromides (1a and 1c) showed high ester activity against Gram-positive bacteria and fungi but moderate activity against Gram-negative bacteria. Therefore, these compounds may be considered as good antibacterial and antifungal drug discovery. However, substituted ketones (2a–b) as well as chalcone derivatives (3a–c) showed no activity against all the tested strains except for ketone (2c), which showed moderate activity against Candida albicans. PMID:27877017

  17. Methyl Bromide Alternatives Area-Wide Pest Management Project - South Atlantic Progress Report (United States)

    Protocols and Standard Operational Procedures (SOPs) were developed for collecting environmental and soil edaphic information during and after application of methyl bromide alternatives. Parameters measured included soil moisture, soil bulk density, percent moisture at field capacity (-0.3 bars wat...

  18. Effect of increasing bromide concentration on toxicity in treated drinking water. (United States)

    Sawade, Emma; Fabris, Rolando; Humpage, Andrew; Drikas, Mary


    Research is increasingly indicating the potential chronic health effects of brominated disinfection by-products (DBPs). This is likely to increase with elevated bromide concentrations resulting from the impacts of climate change, projected to include extended periods of drought and the sudden onset of water quality changes. This will demand more rigorous monitoring throughout distribution systems and improved water quality management at water treatment plants (WTPs). In this work the impact of increased bromide concentration on formation of DBPs following conventional treatment and chlorination was assessed for two water sources. Bioanalytical tests were utilised to determine cytotoxicity of the water post disinfection. Coagulation was shown to significantly reduce the cytotoxicity of the water, indicating that removal of natural organic matter DBP precursors continues to be an important factor in drinking water treatment. Most toxic species appear to form within the first half hour following disinfectant addition. Increasing bromide concentration across the two waters was shown to increase the formation of trihalomethanes and shifted the haloacetic acid species distribution from chlorinated to those with greater bromine substitution. This correlated with increasing cytotoxicity. This work demonstrates the challenges faced by WTPs and the possible effects increasing levels of bromide in source waters could have on public health.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    Cross-linked, hydrophobically associating homo- and copolymers were synthesized by free-radical cyclo(co)polymerization of alkylmethyldiallylammonium bromide monomers with a small amount of N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide in aqueous solution using ammonium persulfate as the initiator. The cross-linked h

  20. 76 FR 29238 - Methyl Bromide; Cancellation Order for Registration Amendments To Terminate Certain Soil Uses (United States)


    ... AGENCY Methyl Bromide; Cancellation Order for Registration Amendments To Terminate Certain Soil Uses... for the amendments to terminate soil uses, voluntarily requested by the registrants and accepted by... Corporation. 5785-48 Terr-O-Gas 50 Great Lakes Chemical Corporation. 8536-05 Pic-Brom 33 Soil...

  1. Sn-free Ni-catalyzed reductive coupling of glycosyl bromides with activated alkenes. (United States)

    Gong, Hegui; Andrews, R Stephen; Zuccarello, Joseph L; Lee, Stephen J; Gagné, Michel R


    A mild, stereoselective method for the Ni-catalyzed synthesis of alpha-C-alkylglycosides is reported. This approach entails the reductive coupling of glycosyl bromides with activated alkenes at room temperature, with low alkene loading as an important feature. Diastereoselective coupling with 2-substituted acrylate derivatives was made possible through the use of 2,4-dimethyl-3-pentanol as a proton source.


    Using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), we investigated the formation of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) from high bromide waters (2 mg/L) treated with chlorine or chlorine dioxide used in combination with chlorine and chloramines. This study represents the first comp...

  3. 77 FR 29341 - Protection of Stratospheric Ozone: Request for Methyl Bromide Critical Use Exemption Applications... (United States)


    .... Alternatives for which such information is needed include: Sulfuryl fluoride, propylene oxide (PPO), phosphine... costs to retrofit equipment or design and construct new fumigation chambers for these alternatives. For...) that are not needed when methyl bromide is used for fumigation. Include information on the size...

  4. Distribution of bromine in mixed iodide-bromide organolead perovskites and its impact on photovoltaic performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Yang; Wang, Feng; Fang, Hong-Hua; Loi, Maria Antonietta; Xie, Fang-Yan; Zhao, Ni; Wong, Ching-Ping


    Mixed iodide-bromide (I-Br) organolead perovskites are of great interest for both single junction and tandem solar cells since the optical bandgap of the materials can be tuned by varying the bromine to iodine ratio. Yet, it remains unclear how bromine incorporation modifies the properties of the pe

  5. Dielectric relaxation losses in lead chloride and lead bromide: Localized dipoles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brom, W.E. van den; Volger, J.


    A further analysis of previous reported measurements of dielectric relaxation losses in lead chloride and lead bromide crystals shows that the dipoles may occupy several energetically different positions, giving rise to localization of the dipoles and anomalous behaviour of the susceptibility. This

  6. Characterization of soluble bromide measurements and a case study of BrO observations during ARCTAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Liao


    Full Text Available A focus of the Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS mission was examination of bromine photochemistry in the spring time high latitude troposphere based on aircraft and satellite measurements of bromine oxide (BrO and related species. The NASA DC-8 aircraft utilized a chemical ionization mass spectrometer (CIMS to measure BrO and a mist chamber (MC to measure soluble bromide. We have determined that the MC detection efficiency to molecular bromine (Br2, hypobromous acid (HOBr, bromine oxide (BrO, and hydrogen bromide (HBr as soluble bromide (Br was 0.9±0.1, 1.06+0.30/−0.35, 0.4±0.1, and 0.95±0.1, respectively. These efficiency factors were used to estimate soluble bromide levels along the DC-8 flight track of 17 April 2008 from photochemical calculations constrained to in situ BrO measured by CIMS. During this flight, the highest levels of soluble bromide and BrO were observed and atmospheric conditions were ideal for the space-borne observation of BrO. The good agreement (R2 = 0.76; slope = 0.95; intercept = −3.4 pmol mol−1 between modeled and observed soluble bromide, when BrO was above detection limit (>2 pmol mol−1 under unpolluted conditions (NO<10 pmol mol−1, indicates that the CIMS BrO measurements were consistent with the MC soluble bromide and that a well characterized MC can be used to derive mixing ratios of some reactive bromine compounds. Tropospheric BrO vertical column densities (BrOVCD derived from CIMS BrO observations compare well with BrOTROPVCD from OMI on 17 April 2008.

  7. NHC Nickel-Catalyzed Suzuki-Miyaura Cross-Coupling Reactions of Aryl Boronate Esters with Perfluorobenzenes. (United States)

    Zhou, Jing; Berthel, Johannes H J; Kuntze-Fechner, Maximilian W; Friedrich, Alexandra; Marder, Todd B; Radius, Udo


    An efficient Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reaction of perfluorinated arenes with aryl boronate esters using NHC nickel complexes as catalysts is described. The efficiencies of different boronate esters (p-tolyl-Beg, p-tolyl-Bneop, p-tolyl-Bpin, p-tolyl-Bcat) and the corresponding boronic acid (p-tolyl-B(OH)2) in this type of cross-coupling reaction were evaluated (eg, ethyleneglycolato; neop, neopentylglycolato; pin, pinacolato; cat, catecholato). Aryl-Beg was shown to be the most reactive boronate ester among those studied. The use of CsF as an additive is essential for an efficient reaction of hexafluorobenzene with aryl neopentylglycolboronates.

  8. Pd(OAc)2/DPPF-catalysed microwave-assisted cyanide-free synthesis of aryl nitriles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dinesh N Sawant; Bhalchandra M Bhanage


    This study reports microwave-assisted cyanide-free synthesis of aryl nitriles from aryl halides using palladium acetate/1,1-bis(diphenylphosphino)ferrocene as a new catalyst system. Reported protocol is a rapid, cyanide-free, single step reaction, wherein formamide acts as a solvent as well as a source of cyanide. The use of microwave increases the rate of reaction substantially and it was observed that aryl nitriles can be synthesised in 50 min of microwave irradiation compared to conventional thermal heating protocol which requires 48 h.

  9. Magnetic bearings with zero bias (United States)

    Brown, Gerald V.; Grodsinsky, Carlos M.


    A magnetic bearing operating without a bias field has supported a shaft rotating at speeds up to 12,000 rpm with the usual four power supplies and with only two. A magnetic bearing is commonly operated with a bias current equal to half of the maximum current allowable in its coils. This linearizes the relation between net force and control current and improves the force slewing rate and hence the band width. The steady bias current dissipates power, even when no force is required from the bearing. The power wasted is equal to two-thirds of the power at maximum force output. Examined here is the zero bias idea. The advantages and disadvantages are noted.

  10. Kinetics of Chlorination of Benzophenone-3 in the Presence of Bromide and Ammonia. (United States)

    Abdallah, Pamela; Deborde, Marie; Dossier Berne, Florence; Karpel Vel Leitner, Nathalie


    The aim of this study was to assess the impact of chlorination on the degradation of one of the most commonly used UV filters (benzophenone-3 (BP-3)) and the effects of bromide and ammonia on the kinetics of BP-3 elimination. Bromide and ammonia are rapidly converted to bromine and chloramines during chlorination. At first, the rate constants of chlorine, bromine and monochloramine with BP-3 were determined at various pH levels. BP-3 was found to react rapidly with chlorine and bromine, with values of apparent second order rate constants equal to 1.25(±0.14) × 10(3) M(-1)·s(-1) and 4.04(±0.54) × 10(6) M(-1)·s(-1) at pH 8.5 for kChlorine/BP-3 and kBromine/BP-3, respectively, whereas low monochloramine reactivity was observed (kNH2Cl/BP-3 = 0.112 M(-1)·s(-1)). To assess the impact of the inorganic content of water on BP-3 degradation, chlorination experiments with different added concentrations of bromide and/or ammonia were conducted. Under these conditions, BP-3 degradation was found to be enhanced in the presence of bromide due to the formation of bromine, whereas it was inhibited in the presence of ammonia. However, the results obtained were pH dependent. Finally, a kinetic model considering 18 reactions was developed using Copasi to estimate BP-3 degradation during chlorination in the presence of bromide and ammonia.

  11. Iodine Catalyzed Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of 14-Aryl(Alkyl)-14H-dibenzo[a,j]xanthenes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING,Fei-Qing; AN,Li-Tao; ZOU,Jian-Ping


    A straightforward and effective procedure for the synthesis of 14-aryl(alkyl)-14H-dibenzo[a,j]xanthenes was described using a catalytic amount of molecular iodine under microwave irradiation to afford the corresponding xanthenes in good yields.

  12. Cooperative effect of silver in copper-catalyzed trifluoromethylation of aryl iodides using Me3SiCF3

    KAUST Repository

    Weng, Zhiqiang


    An effective model of cooperative effect of silver for the coppercatalyzed trifluoromethylation of activated and unactivated aryl iodides to trifluoromethylated arenes using Me3SiCF3 was achieved with a broad substrate scope. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  13. Influences of Alkyl and Aryl Substituents on Iminopyridine Fe(II- and Co(II-Catalyzed Isoprene Polymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihua Guo


    Full Text Available A series of alkyl- and aryl-substituted iminopyridine Fe(II complexes 1a–7a and Co(II complexes 2b, 3b, 5b, and 6b were synthesized. The activator effect, influence of temperature, and, particularly, the alkyl and aryl substituents’ effect on catalytic activity, polymer molecular weight, and regio-/stereoselectivity were investigated when these complexes were applied in isoprene polymerization. All of the Fe(II complexes afforded polyisoprene with high molecular weight and moderate cis-1,4 selectivity. In contrast, the Co(II complexes produced polymers with low molecular weight and relatively high cis-1,4 selectivity. In the iminopyridine Fe(II system, the alkyl and aryl substituents’ effect exhibits significant variation on the isoprene polymerization. In the iminopyridine Co(II system, there is little influence observed on isoprene polymerization by alkyl and aryl substituents.

  14. In vitro function of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor predicts in vivo sensitivity of oviparous vertebrates to dioxin-like compounds (United States)

    Differences in sensitivity to dioxin-like compounds (DLCs) among species and taxa presents a major challenge to ecological risk assessments. Activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) regulates adverse effects associated with exposure to DLCs in vertebrates. Prior investig...

  15. Stereoconservative Negishi arylation and alkynylation as an efficient approach to enantiopure 2,2'-diarylated 1,1'-binaphthyls. (United States)

    Krascsenicsová, Katarína; Walla, Peter; Kasák, Peter; Uray, Georg; Kappe, C Oliver; Putala, Martin


    Negishi arylation and alkynylation of easily synthesized chiral 2,2'-diodo-1,1'-binaphthyl rapidly proceeds in refluxing THF utilizing controlled microwave irradiation, affording enantiopure 2,2'-diarylated 1,1'-binaphthyls in good to excellent yields.

  16. Asymmetric synthesis of gem-diaryl substituted cyclic sulfamidates and sulfamides by rhodium-catalyzed arylation of cyclic ketimines. (United States)

    Nishimura, Takahiro; Ebe, Yusuke; Fujimoto, Hiroto; Hayashi, Tamio


    Asymmetric addition of arylboronates to aryl-substituted cyclic ketimines proceeded in the presence of a rhodium catalyst coordinated with a chiral diene ligand to give high yields of sulfamidates and sulfamides with high enantioselectivity (up to 99% ee).

  17. Cu-catalyzed arylation of the amino group in the indazole ring: regioselective synthesis of pyrazolo-carbazoles. (United States)

    Anil Kumar, K; Kannaboina, Prakash; Dhaked, Devendra K; Vishwakarma, Ram A; Bharatam, Prasad V; Das, Parthasarathi


    Cu(II)-catalyzed cross-coupling of various aryl boronic acids with 5 and 6-amino indazoles has resulted in (arylamino)-indazoles. These (arylamino)-indazoles have been utilized in synthesizing medicinally important pyrazole-fused carbazoles via Pd(II)-catalyzed cross-dehydrogenative coupling (CDC). This combined N-arylation/C-H arylation strategy has been successfully applied to the regioselective synthesis of polyheterocycles 3,6-dihydropyrazolo[3,4-c]carbazoles and 1,6-dihydro pyrazolo[4,3-c]carbazoles. Quantum chemical analysis has been carried out to understand the regioselectivity and to trace the potential energy surface of the entire reaction upon 5-N-aryl-indazole conversion to the corresponding carbazole.

  18. An Efficient Synthesis of Diaryl Ethers by Coupling Aryl Halides with Substituted Phenoxytrimethylsilane in the Presence of TBAF

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Kui ZHAO; Yan Guang WANG


    A general synthesis of diaryl ethers via coupling of aryl halides with substitutedphenoxytrimethylsilane in the presence of TBAF is described. The protocol is simple and mild,and gives good to excellent yields.

  19. The correct "ball bearings" data. (United States)

    Caroni, C


    The famous data on fatigue failure times of ball bearings have been quoted incorrectly from Lieblein and Zelen's original paper. The correct data include censored values, as well as non-fatigue failures that must be handled appropriately. They could be described by a mixture of Weibull distributions, corresponding to different modes of failure.

  20. Losses of Superconductor Journal Bearing (United States)

    Han, Y. H.; Hull, J. R.; Han, S. C.; Jeong, N. H.; Oh, J. M.; Sung, T. H.


    A high-temperature superconductor (HTS) journal bearing was studied for rotational loss. Two HTS bearings support the rotor at top and bottom. The rotor weight is 4 kg and the length is about 300 mm. Both the top and bottom bearings have two permanent magnet (PM) rings with an iron pole piece separating them. Each HTS journal bearing is composed of six pieces of superconductor blocks of size 35×25×10 mm. The HTS blocks are encased in a cryochamber through which liquid nitrogen flows. The inner spool of the cryochamber is made from G-10 to reduce eddy current loss, and the rest of the cryochamber is stainless steel. The magnetic field from the PM rings is < 10 mT on the stainless part. The rotational drag was measured over the same speed range at several chamber pressures. Results indicate that a chamber pressure of 0.4 mtorr is sufficiently low to minimize windage loss, and the 10 mT design criterion for the magnetic field on the stainless part of the cryochamber is too high.

  1. Characterization of Fault Size in Bearings (United States)


    0.3 and 1.2 mm into the outer-race of the bearing, which simulates realistic faults that often can be found in damaged bearings. A 3D dynamic model ...3 4. MODEL DESCRIPTION A 3D dynamic ball bearing model was developed to study the effect of faults on the bearing dynamic behavior. The aim of the...understanding of the effects of fault size on the bearing dynamics. The research methodology combines dynamic modeling of the faulty bearing with

  2. Catalytic Enantioselective Aryl Transfer to Aldehydes Using Chiral 2,2’-Bispyrrolidine-Based Salan Ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yixiang Cheng


    Full Text Available Chiral C2-symmetric diamines have emerged as versatile auxiliaries or ligands in numerous asymmetric transformations. Chiral 2,2’-bispyrrolidine-based salan ligands were prepared and applied to the asymmetric aryl transfer to aldehydes with arylboronic acids as the source of transferable aryl groups. The corresponding diarylmethanols were obtained in high yields with moderate to good enantioselectivitives of up to 83% ee.

  3. Cu-catalyzed arylation of phosphinic amide facilitated by (±)-trans-cyclohexane-1,2-diamine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan Li; Song Lin Zhang; Chuan Zhou Tao; Yao Fu; Qing Xiang Guo


    Cu-catalyzed cross coupling between phosphinic amides and aryl halides was accomplished for the first time by using (±)-transcyclohexane-1,2-diamine as the ligand. This reaction provided a novel approach for synthesizing arylated phosphinic amides. Both kinetic measurement and theoretical calculation indicated that phosphinic amides were much less reactive than amides by about 10times in Cu-catalyzed cross coupling.

  4. Palladium-catalyzed arylation of ketone enolates: an expeditious entry to tamoxifen-related 1,2,2-triarylethanones. (United States)

    Churruca, Fátima; SanMartin, Raul; Tellitu, Imanol; Domínguez, Esther


    [reaction: see text]. After a rigorous study on the effect of several catalytic systems, a simple, high yielding procedure for the preparation of 1,2,2-triarylethanones, skeletal analogues of tamoxifen, is presented. Apart from the economic and environmental advantages involved, this palladium-catalyzed arylation of deoxybenzoin enolates features a lack of ortho-arylation side reactions. In addition, an alternative approach from acetophenones to the target triarylethanone system is also announced.

  5. A novel synthesis of 2-aryl-2H-indazoles via a palladium-catalyzed intramolecular amination reaction. (United States)

    Song, J J; Yee, N K


    [reaction: see text] A variety of 2-aryl-2H-indazoles were synthesized by the palladium-catalyzed intramolecular amination of the corresponding N-aryl-N(o-bromobenzyl)hydrazines. Of several sets of reaction conditions surveyed, the combination of Pd(OAc)2/dppf/tBuONa gave the best results. This method applies to a wide scope of substrates containing electron-donating and electron-withdrawing substituents.

  6. A unified approach for the synthesis of symmetrical and unsymmetrical dibenzyl ethers from aryl aldehydes through reductive etherification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Sembian Ruso


    Full Text Available In this paper, we describe a simple and convenient conversion of aryl aldehydes to symmetrical dibenzyl ethers through reductive etherification. Similarly, unsymmetrical dibenzyl ether was obtained from aryl aldehyde and TES-protected benzyl alcohol. Triethyl silane with catalytic amount of InCl3 was found to be an efficient condition for the reductive etherification. Moreover, it exhibits remarkable functional group compatibility with yield ranging from good to excellent.

  7. Comparative microvascular exchange kinetics of [{sup 77}Br]bromide and {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cousins, Claire [Department of Clinical Radiology, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Skehan, Stephen J.; Rolph, Susan M.; Flaxman, Mary E.; Ballinger, James R.; Bird, Nicholas J.; Barber, Robert W.; Peters, Michael A. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Cambridge (United Kingdom)


    The plasma clearance curves of small hydrophilic solutes comprise three exponentials, consistent with a three-compartmental distribution model. A previous comparison between inulin and diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid (DTPA) suggested that these three compartments are in series, the first being plasma and the second and third representing compartments within the extravascular space. Moreover, whilst the total distribution volumes of these two indicators were similar, the volume of the second compartment was higher for DTPA. The purpose of the current study was to investigate whether a solute smaller than DTPA, namely bromide, fits the hypothesis that the second space volume is an inverse function of the size of the solute. Two groups of subjects were studied: group A comprised eight patients undergoing routine diagnostic arteriography and group B, eight patients referred for routine measurement of glomerular filtration rate plus two normal volunteers. {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA and sodium [{sup 77}Br]bromide were intravenously administered simultaneously. In group A, frequent arterial samples were obtained up to 40 min after injection, and antecubital venous samples 30 s after each arterial sample. In group B, frequent venous samples were obtained up to 280 min after injection. Volume measurements based on bromide were corrected for erythrocyte bromide accumulation. In both subject groups, the normalised venous concentration ratio of bromide to DTPA, corrected for red cell bromide uptake, was significantly less than unity in the earliest blood samples, being 0.56 (SD 0.08) at 1 min, consistent with faster diffusion of bromide from plasma to interstitial fluid. Furthermore, the extraction fraction of bromide from plasma to interstitial fluid in the forearm was about 0.6, higher than that of DTPA (about 0.5) in spite of red cell bromide accumulation which equilibrated with plasma bromide within 20 s and resulted in a red cell to plasma concentration ratio of 0.51 (0



    Firdaus, Maulidan; Jumina, Jumina; Anwar, Chairil


    A simple, energy-efficient, and relatively quick synthetic procedure for the synthesis of (1)-N-4'-methoxybenzyl-1,10-phenanthrolinium bromide, based on green chemistry principles has been carried out. The synthesis was started by solvent-free reduction of p-anisaldehyde with NaBH4 to give 4-methoxybenzyl alcohol in 98% yield to be followed by solvent-free treatment of the resulted alcohol with PBr3 to yield 4-methoxybenzyl bromide (86%). Furthermore, the obtained bromide was reacted with 1,1...

  9. Synthesis of polyhydroxylated pyrrolidines from sugar-derived bromonitriles through a cascade addition of allylmagnesium bromide/cyclization/reduction. (United States)

    Malik, Michał; Jarosz, Sławomir


    The synthesis of polyhydroxylated 2-allylpyrrolidines from sugar-derived bromonitriles in a cascade addition of allylmagnesium bromide/SN2 cyclization/reduction with Zn(BH4)2 is described. The stereochemical course of the reduction step is rationalized. Two of the obtained compounds are transformed into stereoisomers of naturally-occurring iminosugar (+)-lentiginosine. In an alternative approach, 2,2-diallylpyrrolidines are obtained from bromonitriles in a cascade addition of allylmagnesium bromide/SN2 cyclization/addition of another equivalent of allylmagnesium bromide.

  10. Journal and Wave Bearing Impedance Calculation Software (United States)

    Hanford, Amanda; Campbell, Robert


    The wave bearing software suite is a MALTA application that computes bearing properties for user-specified wave bearing conditions, as well as plain journal bearings. Wave bearings are fluid film journal bearings with multi-lobed wave patterns around the circumference of the bearing surface. In this software suite, the dynamic coefficients are outputted in a way for easy implementation in a finite element model used in rotor dynamics analysis. The software has a graphical user interface (GUI) for inputting bearing geometry parameters, and uses MATLAB s structure interface for ease of interpreting data. This innovation was developed to provide the stiffness and damping components of wave bearing impedances. The computational method for computing bearing coefficients was originally designed for plain journal bearings and tilting pad bearings. Modifications to include a wave bearing profile consisted of changing the film thickness profile given by an equation, and writing an algorithm to locate the integration limits for each fluid region. Careful consideration was needed to implement the correct integration limits while computing the dynamic coefficients, depending on the form of the input/output variables specified in the algorithm.

  11. Discovery of aryl ureas and aryl amides as potent and selective histamine H3 receptor antagonists for the treatment of obesity (part I). (United States)

    Gao, Zhongli; Hurst, William J; Guillot, Etienne; Czechtizky, Werngard; Lukasczyk, Ulrike; Nagorny, Raisa; Pruniaux, Marie-Pierre; Schwink, Lothar; Sanchez, Juan Antonio; Stengelin, Siegfried; Tang, Lei; Winkler, Irvin; Hendrix, James A; George, Pascal G


    A series of structurally novel aryl ureas was derived from optimization of the HTS lead as selective histamine H3 receptor (H3R) antagonists. The SAR was explored and the data obtained set up the starting point and foundation for further optimization. The most potent tool compounds, as exemplified by compounds 2l, 5b, 5d, and 5e, displayed antagonism potencies in the subnanomolar range in in vitro human-H3R FLIPR assays and rhesus monkey H3R binding assays.

  12. Syntheses of aporphine and homoaporphine alkaloids by intramolecular ortho-arylation of phenols with aryl halides via SRN1 reactions in liquid ammonia. (United States)

    Barolo, Silvia M; Teng, Xin; Cuny, Gregory D; Rossi, Roberto A


    The photostimulated intramolecular ortho-arylation reactions of bromoarenes linked with pendant phenoxy containing N-substituted tetrahydroisoquinolines in liquid ammonia afforded aporphine (54-82% yield) alkaloid derivatives via SRN1 reactions. This strategy was extended for the first time to the synthesis of a homoaporphine derivative (40% yield). Tetrahydroisoquinoline precursors that contained electron-withdrawing groups on nitrogen (i.e., amides, sulfonamides, and carbamates) gave cyclized products, whereas precursors with basic nitrogens (i.e., NH or NMe) either failed to yield cyclized products or gave aporphines in only low yield.

  13. Brown bear telemetry and trapping: Special report (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Brown bear studies were continued during the 1967 field season with emphasis on development of techniques for instrumenting bears with radio transmitters and...

  14. Live-trapping and handling brown bear (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This paper reports techniques developed to live trap and handle brown bears on the Kodiak National Wildlife Refuge. The brown bears (Ursus middendorffi) on the...

  15. Rolling Element Bearing Stiffness Matrix Determination (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Y.; Parker, R.


    Current theoretical bearing models differ in their stiffness estimates because of different model assumptions. In this study, a finite element/contact mechanics model is developed for rolling element bearings with the focus of obtaining accurate bearing stiffness for a wide range of bearing types and parameters. A combined surface integral and finite element method is used to solve for the contact mechanics between the rolling elements and races. This model captures the time-dependent characteristics of the bearing contact due to the orbital motion of the rolling elements. A numerical method is developed to determine the full bearing stiffness matrix corresponding to two radial, one axial, and two angular coordinates; the rotation about the shaft axis is free by design. This proposed stiffness determination method is validated against experiments in the literature and compared to existing analytical models and widely used advanced computational methods. The fully-populated stiffness matrix demonstrates the coupling between bearing radial, axial, and tilting bearing deflections.

  16. Goose Eggs Could Save Polar Bears

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Polar bears could avoid extinction despitemany starving to death in coming years, ac-cording to scientists and other observers whohave discovered that some of the bears havefound a new food source--goose and duckeggs.

  17. Influence of bromide on the performance of the amphipod Hyalella azteca in reconstituted waters. (United States)

    Ivey, Chris D; Ingersoll, Chris G


    Poor performance of the amphipod Hyalella azteca has been observed in exposures using reconstituted waters. Previous studies have reported success in H. azteca water-only exposures with the addition of relatively high concentrations of bromide. The present study evaluated the influence of lower environmentally representative concentrations of bromide on the response of H. azteca in 42-d water-only exposures. Improved performance of H. azteca was observed in reconstituted waters with >0.02 mg Br/L. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2425-2429. Published 2016 Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US Government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America.

  18. Facile Synthesis of Heterocycles via 2-Picolinium Bromide and Antimicrobial Activities of the Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham S. Darwish


    Full Text Available The 2-picolinium N-ylide 4, generated in situ from the N-acylmethyl-2-picolinium bromide 3, underwent cycloaddition to N-phenylmaleimide or carbon disulfideto give the corresponding cycloadducts 6 and 8, respectively similar reactions ofcompound 3 with some electron-deficient alkenes in the presence of MnO2 yielded theproducts 11 and 12. In addition, reaction of 4 with arylidene cyanothioacetamide andmalononitrile derivatives afforded the thiophene and aniline derivatives 15 and 17,respectively. Heating of picolinium bromide 3 with triethylamine in benzene furnished 2-(2-thienylindolizine (18. The structures of the isolated products were confirmed byelemental analysis as well as by 1H- and 13C-NMR, IR, and MS data. Both thestereochemistry and the regioselectivity of the studied reactions are discussed. Thebiological activity of the newly synthesized compounds was examined and showedpromising results.

  19. Thermodynamic Properties of Hydrogen + Tetra-n-Butyl Ammonium Bromide Semi-Clathrate Hydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunsuke Hashimoto


    Full Text Available Thermodynamic stability and hydrogen occupancy on the hydrogen + tetra-n-butyl ammonium bromide semi-clathrate hydrate were investigated by means of Raman spectroscopic and phase equilibrium measurements under the three-phase equilibrium condition. The structure of mixed gas hydrates changes from tetragonal to another structure around 95 MPa and 292 K depending on surrounding hydrogen fugacity. The occupied amount of hydrogen in the semi-clathrate hydrate increases significantly associated with the structural transition. Tetra-n-butyl ammonium bromide semi-clathrate hydrates can absorb hydrogen molecules by a pressure-swing without destroying the hydrogen bonds of hydrate cages at 15 MPa or over.

  20. Formation pathways of brominated products from benzophenone-4 chlorination in the presence of bromide ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Xiao; Dongbin Wei; Liping Li; Qi Liu; Huimin Zhao; Yuguo Du


    The brominated products,formed in chlorination treatment of benzophenone-4 in the presence of bromide ions,were identified,and the formation pathways were proposed.Under disinfection conditions,benzophenone-4 would undertake electrophilic substitution generating mono-or di-halogenated products,which would be oxidized to esters and further hydrolyzed to phenol derivatives.The generated catechol intermediate would be transformed into furan-like heterocyclic product.The product species were pH-dependent,while benzophenone-4 ehmination was chlorine dose-dependent.When the chlorination treatment was performed on ambient water spiked with benzophenone-4 and bromide ions,most of brominated byproducts could be detected,and the acute toxicity significantly increased as well.

  1. Stable isotopes to detect food-conditioned bears and to evaluate human-bear management (United States)

    Hopkins, John B.; Koch, Paul L.; Schwartz, Charles C.; Ferguson, Jake M.; Greenleaf, Schuyler S.; Kalinowski, Steven T.


    We used genetic and stable isotope analysis of hair from free-ranging black bears (Ursus americanus) in Yosemite National Park, California, USA to: 1) identify bears that consume human food, 2) estimate the diets of these bears, and 3) evaluate the Yosemite human–bear management program. Specifically, we analyzed the isotopic composition of hair from bears known a priori to be food-conditioned or non-food-conditioned and used these data to predict whether bears with an unknown management status were food-conditioned (FC) or non-food-conditioned (NFC). We used a stable isotope mixing model to estimate the proportional contribution of natural foods (plants and animals) versus human food in the diets of FC bears. We then used results from both analyses to evaluate proactive (population-level) and reactive (individual-level) human–bear management, and discussed new metrics to evaluate the overall human–bear management program in Yosemite. Our results indicated that 19 out of 145 (13%) unknown bears sampled from 2005 to 2007 were food-conditioned. The proportion of human food in the diets of known FC bears likely declined from 2001–2003 to 2005–2007, suggesting proactive management was successful in reducing the amount of human food available to bears. In contrast, reactive management was not successful in changing the management status of known FC bears to NFC bears, or in reducing the contribution of human food to the diets of FC bears. Nine known FC bears were recaptured on 14 occasions from 2001 to 2007; all bears were classified as FC during subsequent recaptures, and human–bear management did not reduce the amount of human food in the diets of FC bears. Based on our results, we suggest Yosemite continue implementing proactive human–bear management, reevaluate reactive management, and consider removing problem bears (those involved in repeated bear incidents) from the population.

  2. Comparison of injection drotaverine and injection valethamate bromide on duration and course of labor


    Pradnya Rajendra Changede


    Background: Numerous drugs have been used to shorten the active phase of labor. How rationale is it to use these drugs to shorten the active phase of labor? Do they really shorten the duration of labor? What adverse effects do they have on the baby and the mother? These questions were the basis to perform the present study of comparing two of such drugs, injection drotaverine and injection Valethamate bromide with control subjects. Methods: This was a prospective study conducted in a terti...

  3. Thermal Decomposition Mechanism of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium Bromide Ionic Liquid (Preprint) (United States)


    calculated values for the SN2 reactions . Comparisons of product photoionization efficiency (PIE) curves with literature data are in good agreement...methyl and ethyl bromides were evaluated experimentally, and found to be in agreement with calculated values for the SN2 reactions . Comparisons of...contrary to what is observed experimentally. However, for the SN2 reactions , the transition state barriers and reaction enthalpies are in good

  4. Effect of lignocaine, sodium cromoglycate, and ipratropium bromide in exercise-induced asthma (United States)

    Tullett, WM; Patel, KR; Berkin, KE; Kerr, JW


    Eight patients with exercise-induced asthma participated in a single-blind trial comparing the protective effects of inhaled lignocaine (estimated dose 48 mg), sodium cromoglycate (estimated dose 12 mg), and ipratropium bromide (estimated dose 120 μg). Saline was used as control. Effects were assessed from the mean maximal percentage fall in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and maximal mid-expiratory flow rates (MMFR) after they had run on a treadmill for eight minutes. There was no significant change in baseline FEV1 or MMFR before each agent was given. Saline, lignocaine, and sodium cromoglycate did not alter the mean baseline FEV1 or MMFR significantly. Ipratropium caused bronchodilatation with an increase of 16·3% in the mean FEV1 (p<0·001) and of 43·4% in the mean MMFR (p<0·05). After exercise the maximal percentage falls in FEV1 (means and SEM) after saline, lignocaine, sodium cromoglycate, and ipratropium bromide were 38·1% (5·0), 34·5% (6·1), 11·3% (3·7), and 19·3% (7·4) respectively. Similarly, the mean maximal falls in MMFR after saline, lignocaine, sodium cromoglycate, and ipratropium bromide were 54·4% (5·2), 52·9% (7·7), 23·6% (6·6), and 32·1% (10·5) respectively. The inhibitory effects of sodium cromoglycate and ipratropium bromide were significant whereas lignocaine failed to produce an effect. These results suggest that mediator release is an important factor in exercise-induced asthma and that in some patients the effects of the mediators may be on the postsynaptic muscarinic receptors. Local anaesthesia of sensory vagal receptors, on the other hand, does not prevent exercise asthma and these receptors do not appear to have any important role in exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. PMID:6218645

  5. Bromidotetra-kis-(2-isopropyl-1H-imidazole-κN)copper(II) bromide. (United States)

    Godlewska, Sylwia; Socha, Joanna; Baranowska, Katarzyna; Dołęga, Anna


    The Cu(II) atom in the title salt, [CuBr(C(6)H(10)N(2))(4)]Br, is coordinated in a square-pyramidal geometry by four imidazole N atoms and one bromide anion that is located at the apex of the pyramid. The cations and the anions form a two-dimensional network parallel to (001) through N-H⋯Br hydrogen bonds.

  6. Bromidotetrakis(2-isopropyl-1H-imidazole-κN3copper(II bromide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Dołęga


    Full Text Available The CuII atom in the title salt, [CuBr(C6H10N24]Br, is coordinated in a square-pyramidal geometry by four imidazole N atoms and one bromide anion that is located at the apex of the pyramid. The cations and the anions form a two-dimensional network parallel to (001 through N—H...Br hydrogen bonds.

  7. Linear free energy relationship in reactions between diphenyl amine and benzyl bromides

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Ranga Reddy; P Manikyamba


    Rate of reaction between benzyl bromide and diphenyl amine is retarded by electron-donating groups and enhanced by electron-withdrawing groups present on the benzene ring of the substrate. Hammett's reaction constant of the reaction decreases with increase in temperature according to the equation, \\rho = -11.92 + 3.54/ T. Minimal structural effects observed are attributed to the fact that the isokinetic temperature of the reaction is close to the reaction temperature.

  8. Influence of the Amino Substituents in the Interaction of Ethidium Bromide with DNA


    Garbett, Nichola C.; Hammond, Nicholas B.; Graves, David E.


    A key step in the rational design of new DNA binding agents is to obtain a complete thermodynamic characterization of small molecule-DNA interactions. Ethidium bromide has served as a classic DNA intercalator for more than four decades. This work focuses on delineating the influence(s) of the 3- and 8-amino substituents of ethidium on the energetic contributions and concomitant fluorescent properties upon DNA complex formation. Binding affinities decrease by an order of magnitude upon the rem...

  9. Grease lubrication mechanisms in bearing seals



    Rolling bearings contain seals to keep lubricant inside and contaminants outside the bearing system. These systems are often lubricated with grease; the grease acts as a lubricant for the bearing and seal and improves the sealing efficiency. In this thesis, the influence of lubricating grease on bearing seal performance is studied. Rheological properties of the grease, i.e. shear stress and normal stress difference, are evaluated and related to the lubricating and sealing performance of the s...

  10. Understanding and Exploitation of Neighboring Heteroatom Effect for the Mild N-Arylation of Heterocycles with Diaryliodonium Salts under Aqueous Conditions: A Theoretical and Experimental Mechanistic Study. (United States)

    Bihari, Tamás; Babinszki, Bence; Gonda, Zsombor; Kovács, Szabolcs; Novák, Zoltán; Stirling, András


    The mechanism of arylation of N-heterocycles with unsymmetric diaryliodonium salts is elucidated. The fast and efficient N-arylation reaction is interpreted in terms of the bifunctionality of the substrate: The consecutive actions of properly oriented Lewis base and Brønsted acid centers in sufficient proximity result in the fast and efficient N-arylation. The mechanistic picture points to a promising synthetic strategy where suitably positioned nucleophilic and acidic centers enable functionalization, and it is tested experimentally.

  11. Antioxidant and DNA damage inhibition activities of 4-Aryl-N-(4-arylthiazol-2-yl)-5,6-dihydro-4H-1,3,4-oxadiazine-2-carboxamides

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K Shubakara; K B Umesha; N Srikantamurthy; J Chethan


    A series of 4-aryl--(4-pheny-thiazol-2-yl)-5,6-dihydro-4-1,3,4-oxadiazine-2-carboxamides were synthesized by condensing 4-aryl-5,6-dihydro-4-1,3,4-oxadiazine-2-carboxylic acid with 2-amino-4-aryl-thiazole derivatives. The newly synthesized molecules were characterized by spectral analysis and subjected to antioxidant and DNA damage inhibition studies.

  12. 2-(Hetero(aryl)methylene)hydrazine-1-carbothioamides as potent urease inhibitors. (United States)

    Saeed, Aamer; Imran, Aqeel; Channar, Pervaiz A; Shahid, Mohammad; Mahmood, Wajahat; Iqbal, Jamshed


    A small series of 2-(hetero(aryl)methylene) hydrazine-1-carbothioamides including two aryl derivatives was synthesized and tested for their inhibitory activity against urease. Compound (E)-2-(Furan-2-ylmethylene) hydrazine-1-carbothioamide (3f), having a furan ring, was the most potent inhibitor of urease with an IC50 value of 0.58 μM. Molecular modeling was carried out through docking the designed compounds into the urease binding site to predict whether these derivatives have analogous binding mode to the urease inhibitors. The study revealed that all of the tested compounds bind with both metal atoms at the active site of the enzyme. The aromatic ring of the compounds forms ionic interactions with the residues, Ala(440), Asp(494), Ala(636), and Met(637).

  13. N-Aryl Arenedicarboximides as Tunable Panchromatic Dyes for Molecular Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Cao


    Full Text Available Three organic dyes designed as molecular dyads were prepared that feature a common naphthalimide acceptor and N-aryl donors. One of these incorporated an additional cyanoacrylic acid linker and conjugated thiophene bridge inserted between donor and acceptor groups. Electrochemical and photochemical characterizations have been carried out on nanocrystalline TiO2 dye-sensitized solar cells which were fabricated with these dyes as the sensitizing component. HOMO and LUMO energies were also calculated using TDDFT methods and validated by the cyclic voltammetry method. A key finding from this study indicates that computational methods can provide energy values in close agreement to experimental for the N-aryl-naphthalimide system. Relative to HOMO/LUMO energy levels of N719, the dyes based on naphthalimide chromophore are promising candidates for metal-free DSSCs.

  14. Molecular modelling of some para-substituted aryl methyl telluride and diaryl telluride antioxidants (United States)

    Frisell, H.; Engman, L.


    Quantum mechanical calculations using the 3-21G(d) basis-set were performed on some p-substituted diaryl tellurides and aryl methyl tellurides, and the corresponding cationic radicals of these compounds. Calculated relative radical stabilization energies (RSE:s) were shown to correlate with experimentally determined peak oxidation potentials ( R=0.93) and 125Te-NMR chemical shifts ( R=0.91). A good correlation was also observed between the RSE:s and the Mulliken charge at the tellurium atoms ( R=0.97). The results showed that Hartree-Fock calculations using the 3-21G(d) basis set was sufficiently accurate for estimating the impact of p-substituents in aryl tellurides on experimentally determined properties such as peak oxidation potentials and 125Te-NMR chemical shifts.

  15. Synthesis of Poly(aryl amide imide)s Derived from o-diphenyltrimellitic Anhydride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The synthesis and characterization of a series of novel poly(aryl amide imide)s based on o-diphenyltrimellitic anhydride are described.The poly(aryl amide-imide)s having inherent viscosities of 0.39-1.43dL/g in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone at 30℃,were prepared by polymerization with aromatic diamines in N,N-dimethylacetamide and subsequent chemical imidization.All the polymers were amorphous,readily soluble in aprotic polar solvents such as DMAC,NMP,DMF,DMSO,and m-cresol,and could be cast to form flexible and tough films.The glass trsanition temperatures were in the range of 284-336℃,and the temperatures for 5% weight loss in nitrogen were above 468℃.

  16. Simple preparation of new N-aryl-N-(3-indolmethyl acetamides and their spectroscopic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Henao


    Full Text Available To prepare new indolic molecules and characterize them by spectroscopic methods. Materials and methods: All reagentswere purchased from Aldrich, commercial grade. The purity of the products and the composition of the reaction mixtures were monitoredby thin layer chromatography over Silufol UV254 0.25 mm-thick chromatoplates. Product isolation and purification were performed bycolumn chromatography (SiO2, using ethyl acetate-petroleum ether mixtures as eluents. Results. The synthesis of new N-aryl-N-(3-indolmethyl acetamides based on first step iminization reaction of indol-3-carbaldehyde is accomplished. The structures of the C-3substituted indoles were confirmed by 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR studies supported by inverse-detected 2D NMR experiments and alsothrough monocrystal X-ray diffraction. Conclusions. An efficient, economic, and fast synthetic route was designed to the construction ofthe N-aryl-N-(3-indolmethyl acetamides, structural analogues of some alkaloids.

  17. The influence of ipratropium bromide and sodium cromoglycate on benzalkonium chloride-induced bronchoconstriction in asthma. (United States)

    Miszkiel, K A; Beasley, R; Holgate, S T


    1. Benzalkonium chloride, an antibacterial preservative that is added to nebuliser solutions, has been shown to cause bronchoconstriction when inhaled by asthmatic subjects. 2. To investigate the potential role of reflex and mast cell-dependent mechanisms in the pathogenesis of bronchoconstriction produced by benzalkonium chloride we examined the effects of ipratropium bromide and sodium cromoglycate on this response in both concentration-response and time-course studies in nine asthmatic subjects. 3. Pretreatment with inhaled ipratropium bromide (1 mg) and sodium cromoglycate (40 mg) displaced the benzalkonium chloride concentration-response curves to the right by a mean 2.2 fold and 3.1 fold respectively. 4. Ipratropium bromide and sodium cromoglycate markedly attenuated the airway response to benzalkonium chloride throughout the 45 min time course period, inhibiting the overall response by 56% and 78% respectively. 5. We conclude that benzalkonium chloride provokes bronchoconstriction in asthmatic subjects through a combination of mast cell activation and stimulation of peripheral and central neural pathways. PMID:2972308

  18. Interaction of ozone and carbon dioxide with polycrystalline potassium bromide and its atmospheric implication (United States)

    Levanov, Alexander V.; Isaikina, Oksana Ya.; Maksimov, Ivan B.; Lunin, Valerii V.


    It has been discovered for the first time that gaseous ozone in the presence of carbon dioxide and water vapor interacts with crystalline potassium bromide giving gaseous Br2 and solid salts KHCO3 and KBrO3. Molecular bromine and hydrocarbonate ion are the products of one and the same reaction described by the stoichiometric equation 2KBr(cr.) + O3(gas) + 2CO2(gas) + H2O(gas) → 2KHCO3(cr.) + Br2(gas) + O2(gas). The dependencies of Br2, KHCO3 and KBrO3 formation rates on the concentrations of O3 and CO2, humidity of initial gas mixture, and temperature have been investigated. A kinetic scheme has been proposed that explains the experimental regularities found in this work on the quantitative level. According to the scheme, the formation of molecular bromine and hydrocarbonate is due to the reaction between hypobromite BrO-, the primary product of bromide oxidation by ozone, with carbon dioxide and water; bromate results from consecutive oxidation of bromide ion by ozone Br- → +O3 , -O2 BrO- → +O3 , -O2 BrO2- → +O3, -O2 BrO3- .

  19. Enhancement of Pool Boiling Heat Transfer to Lithium Bromide Aqueous Solution (United States)

    Furukawa, Masahiro; Kaji, Masuo; Suyama, Takayuki; Sekoguchi, Kotohiko

    An experimental study on enhancement of nucleate pool boiling heat tranfer by placing a sponge metal close to a plain heated surface was conducted in order to improve the heat transfer performance of the high temperature generator of absorption chiller/heater. The sponge metal has three dimensional porous mesh framework like sponge. Boiling curves of water under the atmospheric pressure were compared with those of lithium bromide aqueous solution of mass concentration 55 to 58%. Heat transfer characteristics were improved by 2 to3 times both for water and lithium bromide aqueous solution when the sponge metal was placed on the heated surface with and without cleareance. Three kinds of sponge metals were used for lithium bromide aqueous solution under the reduced pressure (24 kPa). At lower heat fluxes,#6 sponge metal which has the finest mesh and the lowest porosity shows excellent results. At high heat fluxes, however,it causes deterioration of heat transfer. Over the wide range of heat fluxes,# 4 sponge metal was found to be most suitable and the optimal clearence was determined as 0.5 mm. The sponge metal is of good practical use as a device to enhance the boiling, since no special manufacturing is required for placing it on the heated surface.

  20. A bio-product as alternative to methyl bromide for replant disease control on strawberry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu ZHANG; Tongle HU; Lijing JI; Keqiang CAO


    Pre-plant soil fumigation with methyl bromide (MB) is a standard practice for controlling soil-borne diseases especially for strawberry diseases. However, the application of MB will be forbidden in China in the year 2015. For this reason, a bio-product named Kangdi 3 was tested as an alternative to MB in strawberry greenhouses in Mancheng (Hebei Province) and Donggang (Liaoning province), China in 2005 and 2006. Methyl bromide at a normal dosage of 500 kg/hm2 and Kangdi 3 at three dosages of 750, 1500 and 2250 kg/hm2 were tested. Plots without any treatment were used as the control. During the growing stage, assessments were made on fungal communities in rhizosphere, growth status of strawberry, the disease levels on roots as well as the yields. Results showed that Kangdi 3 significantly reduced the quantity of fungi and the disease index, while enhancing strawberry growth and the yields compared with the untreated control. Therefore, Kangdi 3 is a great potential substitute for methyl bromide to control replant diseases in strawberry.

  1. Replacing methyl bromide in annual strawberry production with glucosinolate-containing green manure crops. (United States)

    Lazzeri, Luca; Baruzzi, Gianluca; Malaguti, Lorena; Antoniacci, Loredana


    The use of biocidal green manure crops is an agronomic technique for amending soil with fresh organic matter containing volatile compounds active in controlling some soil-borne pests and diseases. Two new selections of the Brassicaceae family were cultivated, incorporated before planting strawberries and tested as an alternative to fumigation with methyl bromide. Two biocidal green manure crops (Brassica juncea L sel ISCI20, Eruca sativa Mill cv Nemat) containing glucosinolate-myrosinase systems, a conventional green manure (barley), untreated soil and a fumigated control were evaluated during two seasons. The effect of these soil management systems on subsequent strawberry performance was evaluated by monitoring yield and plant growth parameters. In both years, biocidal plant green manure treatments led to a fruit yield lower than with methyl bromide, but higher than with conventional green manure or untreated soil. These results confirm the good prospects for biocidal green manures, not only as an environmentally friendly alternative to methyl bromide in conventional agriculture, but also in organic agriculture as an alternative to conventional green manure crops.

  2. Transport of bromide measured by soil coring, suction plates, and lysimeters under transient flow conditions. (United States)

    Kasteel, R.; Pütz, Th.; Vereecken, H.


    Lysimeter studies are one step within the registration procedure of pesticides. Flow and transport in these free-draining lysimeters do not reflect the field situation mainly because of the occurence of a zone of local saturation at the lower boundary (seepage face). The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of flow and transport behaviour of bromide detected with different measuring devices (lysimeters, suction plates, and soil coring) by comparing experimental results with numerical simulations in heterogeneous flow domains. We applied bromide as a small pulse to the bare soil surface (Orthic Luvisol) of the three devices and the displacement of bromide was regurlarly sampled for three years under natural wheather conditions. Based on the mean breakthrough curves we observe experimentally that lysimeters have a lower effective pore-water velocity and exhibit more solute spreading resulting in a larger dispersivity than the suction plates. This can be ascribed to the artefact of the lower boundary. We performed numerical transport simulations in 2-D heterogeneous flow fields (scaling approach) choosing appropriate boundary conditions for the various devices. The simulations allow to follow the temporal evolution of flow and transport processes in the various devices and to gain additional process understanding. We conclude that the model is essentially capable to reproduce the main experimental findings only if we account for the spatial correlation structure of the hydraulic properties, i.e. soil heterogeneity.

  3. Recent trends in atmospheric methyl bromide: analysis of post-Montreal Protocol variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Yvon-Lewis


    Full Text Available The atmospheric methyl bromide (CH3Br burden has declined in recent years, in response to the phaseout of agricultural and structural fumigation consumption under the amendments to the Montreal Protocol. The timing and magnitude of this decrease represents an opportunity to examine our current understanding of the CH3Br budget, the phaseout schedule, and recent estimates of interannual variability in biomass burning and global OH. In this study, simulations obtained from a time-dependent global model of atmospheric CH3Br emissions and uptake are compared to observations from the NOAA flask network. The model includes an updated global methyl bromide source inventory that includes biofuel combustion emissions estimated at 6.1±3 Gg yr−1 globally. The phaseout of CH3Br production for agricultural uses began in 1998, concurrent with the pulse in biomass burning associated with the 1998 El Niño. The combined effects of three factors (biomass burning, global OH, and anthropogenic phaseout appear to explain most of the observed atmospheric methyl bromide trend over the 1997–2005 period. The global budget remains imbalanced, with a large missing source. These results suggest that more than 80% of the missing source does not exhibit significant interannual variability during the phaseout period and, therefore, does not result from underestimating agricultural CH3Br emissions.

  4. Toxic impact of bromide and iodide on drinking water disinfected with chlorine or chloramines. (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Komaki, Yukako; Kimura, Susana Y; Hu, Hong-Ying; Wagner, Elizabeth D; Mariñas, Benito J; Plewa, Michael J


    Disinfectants inactivate pathogens in source water; however, they also react with organic matter and bromide/iodide to form disinfection byproducts (DBPs). Although only a few DBP classes have been systematically analyzed for toxicity, iodinated and brominated DBPs tend to be the most toxic. The objectives of this research were (1) to determine if monochloramine (NH2Cl) disinfection generated drinking water with less toxicity than water disinfected with free chlorine (HOCl) and (2) to determine the impact of added bromide and iodide in conjunction with HOCl or NH2Cl disinfection on mammalian cell cytotoxicity and genomic DNA damage induction. Water disinfected with chlorine was less cytotoxic but more genotoxic than water disinfected with chloramine. For both disinfectants, the addition of Br(-) and I(-) increased cytotoxicity and genotoxicity with a greater response observed with NH2Cl disinfection. Both cytotoxicity and genotoxicity were highly correlated with TOBr and TOI. However, toxicity was weakly and inversely correlated with TOCl. Thus, the forcing agents for cytotoxicity and genotoxicity were the generation of brominated and iodinated DBPs rather than the formation of chlorinated DBPs. Disinfection practices need careful consideration especially when using source waters containing elevated bromide and iodide.

  5. The Effect of Ozonation Process on Bromide-Containing Groundwaters in Bandung Area and Its Surroundings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mindriany Syafila


    Full Text Available Disinfection process was applied as the last step of the water treatment to kill pathogenic bacteria in the water. However, according to several studies, the ozonation disinfection process could form undesired by-products. One of the by-products potentially affecting human life is bromate produced from bromide ionic-containing water. This study was carried out to examine the effect of raw water characteristics and pH on bromate formation. Also, the performance of bromate formation for a period of exposure time was analyzed. Raw waters taken from four different areas around Bandung were exposed to ozone introduced to a reactor with a flow rate of 2 L/min. The pH of the raw waters varied from 4, 7 to 10. The results show that there was no evidence of an initial bromide ion concentration, whereas a change in pH value gives a significantly different outcome. In acidic condition (pH of 4 the bromate formation tends to decrease, whereas when the pH value increases to a pH of 10, the bromate formation increases. Therefore, for drinking water with a neutral pH, when bromide ions are detected in the raw water, the drinking water may be toxic due to the presence of bromate.

  6. Thin film superconductor magnetic bearings (United States)

    Weinberger, Bernard R.


    A superconductor magnetic bearing includes a shaft (10) that is subject to a load (L) and rotatable around an axis of rotation, a magnet (12) mounted to the shaft, and a stator (14) in proximity to the shaft. The stator (14) has a superconductor thin film assembly (16) positioned to interact with the magnet (12) to produce a levitation force on the shaft (10) that supports the load (L). The thin film assembly (16) includes at least two superconductor thin films (18) and at least one substrate (20). Each thin film (18) is positioned on a substrate (20) and all the thin films are positioned such that an applied magnetic field from the magnet (12) passes through all the thin films. A similar bearing in which the thin film assembly (16) is mounted on the shaft (10) and the magnet (12) is part of the stator (14) also can be constructed.

  7. Cryptosporidiosis in a black bear in Virginia. (United States)

    Duncan, R B; Caudell, D; Lindsay, D S; Moll, H D


    Cryptosporidiosis has not been previously reported in black bears in North America, either free-roaming or captive. However, oocysts have been documented in two captive Malayan sun bears (Helarctos malayanus) located in zoological parks in Taiwan. Developmental stages of Cryptosporidium parvum were observed in tissue sections from the small intestine of a black bear cub found dead in Virginia (USA).

  8. Bearing-Mounting Concept Accommodates Thermal Expansion (United States)

    Nespodzany, Robert; Davis, Toren S.


    Pins or splines allow radial expansion without slippage. Design concept for mounting rotary bearing accommodates differential thermal expansion between bearing and any structure(s) to which bearing connected. Prevents buildup of thermal stresses by allowing thermal expansion to occur freely but accommodating expansion in such way not to introduce looseness. Pin-in-slot configuration also maintains concentricity.

  9. Restricted utility of aryl isoprenoids as indicators of photic zone anoxia


    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Koopmans, M. P.; S. Schouten; Kohnen, M.E.L.


    In a North Sea oil, the carotenoid derivatives -carotene, -isorenieratane, and isorenieratane were identified, together with a series of aryl isoprenoids with a 2,3,6-trimethyl substitution pattern for the aromatic ring. The 13C values of -carotene and -isorenieratane are similar, whereas isorenieratane is ca. 15% heavier. This suggests that -isorenieratane is not derived from -isorenieratane biosynthesised by Chlorobiaceae, but from aromatisation of -carotene. This was confirmed by laborator...

  10. Mild synthesis of N'-aryl-N,N-dimethylformamidinium chloride by Vilsmeier-Haack reagent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ge Meng; Yao Wu Sha; Rui Zhang; Nan Bai


    Formamidine derivatives could be used as the building blocks for substituted heterocyclic compounds with various biological activities. N'-Aryl-N,N-dimethylformamidinium chlorides have been synthesized in high yields by reaction of aromatic primary amines with Vilsmeier-Haack reagent at room temperature. The structures of all the new compounds were identified by ESI-MS, IR and NMR spectra. The steric structures of some of these compounds were clarified by X-ray single crystal analysis.

  11. Palladium-Catalyzed Suzuki-Miyaura Type Coupling Reaction of Aryl Halides with Triphenylborane-Pyridine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨明华; 顾勇冰; 王艳; 赵玺玉; 严国兵


    The Suzuki-Miyaura type coupling reaction of aryl halides with triphenylborane-pyridine was described. The reaction can be catalyzed by Pd(OAc)2 (5 mol%) in presence of Cs2CO3 at 50 ℃ or 80 ℃, and functionalized biaryls were obtained in good to excellent yields. This protocol is general and can tolerate a wide range of func- tional groups.

  12. Extending the utility of [Pd(NHC)(cinnamyl)Cl] precatalysts: Direct arylation of heterocycles


    Anthony R Martin; Anthony Chartoire; Slawin, Alexandra M. Z.; Nolan, Steven P


    The use of [Pd(NHC)(cinnamyl)Cl] precatalysts in the direct arylation of heterocycles has been investigated. Among four different precatalysts, [Pd(SIPr)(cinnamyl)Cl] proved to be the most efficient promoter of the reaction. The C–H functionalization of sulfuror nitrogen-containing heterocycles has been achieved at low catalyst loadings. These catalyst charges range from 0.1 to 0.01 mol % palladium. Publisher PDF Peer reviewed

  13. Synthesis and dynamic stereochemistry of 4-aryl-thiomorpholine-3,5-dione derivatives (United States)

    Szawkało, Joanna; Maurin, Jan K.; Pluciński, Franciszek; Czarnocki, Zbigniew


    A series of new N-aryl-substituted thiomorpholine-3,5-diones were synthesized. Crystal structures of seven compounds were established on the basis of X-ray crystallography. Stable at room temperature diastereomers were detected for (2-phenyl)-substituted derivatives using 1H NMR. The dynamic stereochemistry of compound 36 was studied with variable-temperature 1H NMR and the mechanism of diastereomers interconversion was proposed on the basis of quantum chemical calculations.

  14. A mild and simple synthesis of N-aryl substituted toluenesulfamides under solvent-free conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Na; WANG Yu-lu


    N- aryl substituted benzenesulfamides are often used as heating-sensitive recording material1, thermal printing material2, sensitizer3 and developer4. Moreover, some of the benzenesulfamides have antifungal activities5. Many methods have been described for preparation of sulfamides. They are used to carry out in solvent8 or in solid phase condition9. These methods required solvent or solid support and even required heating or cooling. At the same time, the process of these methods is complex. Now we have developed a new method to prepare N-aryl substituted toluenesulfamides under solvent-free conditions.In recent years, solvent-free technology has gained popularity in organic synthesis. For instance,solidstate reaction and microwave reaction have received considerable attention. Solvent-free synthesis of amides has been reported10-11. This technology has many advantages such as high efficiency and selectivity, easy separation and environmental acceptability. All these merits are in accord with green chemistry's requirements of energy-saving, high efficiency and environmental benefits.In our paper, we used a simple and efficient method for preparing N-aryl substituted toluenesulfamides under solvent-free conditions, as a replacement for classic solvent, which gives many environmental benefits.All reactions were completed at room temperature by co-grinding in an agate mortar for 3-20min and the results are shown in Table 1.In conclusion, we have developed an efficient and convenient method of preparation N-aryl substituted toluenesulfamides in high yields. It symbols an improvement for synthesis of benzenesulfamides.

  15. Lineage-dependent effects of aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonists contribute to liver tumorigenesis


    Harrill, Joshua A.; Bethany B Parks; Wauthier, Eliane; Rowlands, J. Craig; Reid, Lola M.; Thomas, Russell S.


    Rodent cancer bioassays indicate that the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) agonist, 2,3,7,8-tetracholorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), causes increases in both hepatocytic and cholangiocytic tumors. Effects of AHR activation have been evaluated on rodent hepatic stem cells (rHpSCs) versus their descendants, hepatoblasts (rHBs), two lineage stages of multipotent, hepatic precursors with overlapping but also distinct phenotypic traits. This was made possible by defining the first successful culture co...

  16. Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Activation by TCDD Reduces Inflammation Associated with Crohn's Disease


    Benson, Jenna M.; Shepherd, David M.


    Crohn's disease results from a combination of genetic and environmental factors that trigger an inappropriate immune response to commensal gut bacteria. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is well known for its involvement in the toxicity of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), an environmental contaminant that affects people primarily through the diet. Recently, TCDD was shown to suppress immune responses by generating regulatory T cells (Tregs). We hypothesized that AhR activation da...

  17. Solid-Phase Organic Synthesis of Aryl Vinyl Ethers Using Sulfone-Linking Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余腊妹; 汤妮; 盛寿日; 陈茹冰; 刘晓玲; 蔡明中


    A novel facile solid-phase organic synthesis of aryl vinyl ethers by reaction of polystyrene-supported 2-phenylsulfonylethanol with phenols under Mitsunobu conditions and subsequent elimination reaction with DBU has been developed. The advantages of this method include straightforward operation, good yield and high purity of the products. Alternatively, a typical example of Suzuki coupling reaction on-resin was further applied to prepare 4-phenylphenyl vinyl ether for extending this method.



    Quintana, Francisco J.


    The ligand-activated transcription factor aryl hydrocarbon receptor controls the activity of several components of the immune system, many of which play an important role in neuroinflammation. This review discusses the role of AhR in T cells and dendritic cells, its relevance for the control of autoimmunity in the central nervous system, and its potential as a therapeutic target for immune mediated disorders.

  19. Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of Some 3,5-Arylated 2-Pyrazolines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Ghasemnejad


    Full Text Available Condensation of 2-acetylnaphthalene with benzaldehydes under microwave irradiation affords chalcones which undergo facile and clean cyclizations with hydrazines RNHNH2 (R= H, Ph, Ac to afford 3,5-arylated 2-pyrazolines in quantitative yields, also under microwave irradiation and in the presence of dry AcOH as cyclizing agent. The results obtained indicate that, unlike classical heating, microwave irradiation results in higher yields, shorter reaction times (2-12 min. and cleaner reactions.

  20. Preparation of Peptide p-Nitroanilides using an Aryl Hydrazine Solid Support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Y; Welsh, K; Mitchell, A R; Camarero, J A


    Peptide p-nitroanilides are useful compounds for studying protease activity, however the poor nucleophilicity of p-nitroaniline makes their preparation difficult. We describe a new efficient approach for the Fmoc-based synthesis of peptide p-nitroanilides using an aryl hydrazine resin. Mild oxidation of the peptide hydrazide resin yields a highly reactive acyl diazene, which efficiently reacts with weak nucleophiles. We have prepared several peptide p-nitroanilides, including substrates for the Lethal Factor protease from B. anthracis.

  1. Direct Arylation Strategies in the Synthesis of π-Extended Monomers for Organic Polymeric Solar Cells


    Andrea Nitti; Riccardo Po; Gabriele Bianchi; Dario Pasini


    π-conjugated macromolecules for organic polymeric solar cells can be rationally engineered at the molecular level in order to tune the optical, electrochemical and solid-state morphology characteristics, and thus to address requirements for the efficient solid state device implementation. The synthetic accessibility of monomers and polymers required for the device is getting increasing attention. Direct arylation reactions for the production of the π-extended scaffolds are gaining importance,...

  2. Synthesis, structure and ring-opening polymerization of macrocyclic arylates containing phthalic unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜洪焱; 陈天禄; 邢彦; 林永华; 徐纪平


    A series of maerocyclic arylate diraers have been selectively synthesized by an interfacial polyconden-sation of o-phthaloyldichloride with bisphenols A combination of GPC,FAB-MS,1H and 13C NMR unambiguously confirmed the cyclic nature Although single-crystal X-ray analysis of two such macrocycles reveals no severe strain on the cyclic structures,these macrocycles can undergo facile melt polymerization to give high molecular weight polyary-lates.

  3. Synthesis of Poly(aryl ether ketone) Copolymers Containing Adamantyl-substituted Naphthalene Rings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Xiao-liang; ZHANG Shu-ling; REN Dian-fu; GUAN Shao-wei; WANG Gui-bin; JIANG Zhen-hua


    @@ 1 Introduction High performance polymers have received considerable attention over the past decade owing to their increased demands as replacements for metals or ceramics in automotive,aerospace,and microelectronic industries.Poly(aryl ether ketone)s(PAEKs) are a class of important high-performance aromatic polymers with excellent mechanical properties,good solvent resistance,size-accuracy,electrical characteristics,and superior thermal stability[1-3].

  4. Synthesis and antileishmanial activity of new 1-Aryl-1H-Pyrazole-4- carboximidamides derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Mauricio S. dos; Gomes, Adriana O.; Bernardino, Alice M.R.; Souza, Marcos C. de, E-mail: [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Quimica Organica; Khan, Misbahul A. [The Islamia University of Bahawalpur (Pakistan). Chemistry Dept.; Brito, Monique A. de [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Fac. de Farmacia. Lab. de Quimica Medicinal Computacional; Castro, Helena C.; Abreu, Paula A. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (LABioMol/GCM/UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia. Lab. de Antibioticos, Bioquimica e Modelagem Molecular; Rodrigues, Carlos R. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (ModMol/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Fac. de Farmacia. Lab. de Modelagem Molecular e QSAR; Leo, Rosa M.M. de; Leon, Leonor L.; Canto-Cavalheiro, Marilene M. [Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz (IOC/FIOCRUZ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Instituto Oswaldo Cruz. Lab. de Bioquimica de Tripanosomatideos


    Chemotherapy for leishmaniasis, diseases caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania, remains inefficient in several treatments. So there is a need to search for new drugs. In this work, we have synthesized 1-aryl-1H-pyrazole-4-carboximidamides derivatives and evaluated antileishmanial activities in vitro, as well as cytotoxic effects. Structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies were carried out with all the compounds of the series. Compound 2 showed an activity profile that can be improved through medicinal chemistry strategies. (author)

  5. A Copper-Assisted Palladium(II)-catalyzed Direct Arylation of Cyclic Enaminones with Arylboronic Acids


    Kim, Yong Wook; Niphakis, Micah J.; Georg, Gunda I.


    Described herein is a palladium(II)-catalyzed direct arylation of cyclic enaminones with arylboronic acids. The versatility of this method is that both electron-rich and electron-poor boronic acids can be coupled in high yields. A mixture of two Cu(II) additives was crucial for efficient cross-coupling. The role of each Cu(II) reagent appears to be distinct and complementary serving to assist catalyst reoxidation and transmetallation through a putative arylcopper intermediate.

  6. Photoinduced intramolecular substitution reaction of aryl halide with carbonyl oxygen of amide group

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Y T; Kim, M S; Kwon, J H


    Photoreaction of N-(o-halophenyl)acetamide in basic acetonitrile produces an intramolecular substituted product, 2-methylbenzoxazole in addition to reduced product, acetanilide, whereas photoreaction of N-(o-halobenzyl)acetamide affords a reduced product, N-benzylacetamide only. On the basis of preparative reaction, kinetics, and UV/vis absorption behavior, an electrophilic aromatic substitution of aryl halide with oxygen of its amide bond are proposed.

  7. Dehalogenation of Aryl Halides Catalyzed by Montmorillonite Immobilized Bimetal Catalyst in Aqueous System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A novel bisupported bimetal catalyst PVP-PdCl2-FeSO4/Al-Mont-PEG600 was prepared by immobilization of PVP (poly (N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone)) supported bimetallic catalyst using alumina pillared inartificial montmorillonite as the carrier. This catalyst has good dehalogenation activity and selectivity to aryl halides-o-chlorotoluene in aqueous system in the presence of phase transfer catalyst (PEG) and sodium formate as hydrogen source. The catalyst also shows good reusability.

  8. Efficient ring-closing metathesis of alkenyl bromides: the importance of protecting the catalyst during the olefin approach. (United States)

    Gatti, Michele; Drinkel, Emma; Wu, Linglin; Pusterla, Ivano; Gaggia, Fiona; Dorta, Reto


    We present the first productive ring-closing metathesis reaction that leads to the construction of cyclic alkenyl bromides. Efficient catalysis employing commercially available Grubbs II catalyst is possible through appropriate modification of the starting bromoalkene moiety.

  9. 78 FR 68021 - Notice of Affirmation of Addition of a Treatment Schedule for Methyl Bromide Fumigation of... (United States)


    ... species, Ceratitis capitata (Mediterranean fruit fly) and Anastrepha fraterculus (South American fruit fly... bromide treatment schedule to mitigate risk from C. capitata and A. fraterculus, as described in the...

  10. Synthesis of 3-Allyl-4-phosphachromones by Cyclized Coupling of Ethyl o-Hydroxyphenyl(ethynyl)phosphinate with Allyl Bromide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    3-Allyl-4-phosphachromones as the phosphorus analogues of chromone were firstly prepared in good yields and high regioselectivity by the palladium(Ⅱ)-catalyzed cyclized coupling reaction of ethyl o-hydroxyphenyl(ethynyl)-phosphinate with allyl bromide.

  11. Restricted utility of aryl isoprenoids as indicators for photic zone anoxia (United States)

    Koopmans, Martin P.; Schouten, Stefan; Kohnen, Math E. L.; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.


    In a North Sea oil, the carotenoid derivatives β-carotene, β-isorenieratane, and isorenieratane were identified, together with a series of aryl isoprenoids with a 2,3,6-trimethyl substitution pattern for the aromatic ring. The δ13C values of β-carotene and β-isorenieratane are similar, whereas isorenieratane is ca. 15% heavier. This suggests that β-isorenieratane is not derived from β-isorenieratane biosynthesised by Chlorobiaceae, but from aromatisation of β-carotene. This was confirmed by laboratory aromatisation of partially hydrogenated β-carotene, which yielded β-isorenieratane as the main product. The aryl isoprenoids, which can be formed by Csbnd C bond cleavage of both isorenieratane and β-isorenieratane, have a mixed isotopic signature in the oil. These results indicate that mere identification of aryl isoprenoids, without determination of their δ13C values, cannot be used to assess the presence of Chlorobiaceae, and, thus, photic zone anoxia in the depositional environment.

  12. Synthesis and thermal degradation characterization of novel poly(phosphazene-aryl amides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. P. Zhao


    Full Text Available New fully aromatic poly(phosphazene-aryl amides were prepared by polycondensation reaction of our synthesized aromatic diamine: 1,1,3,5-tetraphenoxy-4,6-bis(4-aminophenoxyoligocyclotriphosphazene (monomer 1 with terephthaloyl dichloride. Their chemical structure and composition were characterized by elemental analysis, 1H and 31P NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, and FT-IR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, whereas their thermal degradation properties were determined by DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimetry and TGA (Thermal Gravimertic Analysis techniques. The solid residues of all samples were analysed by FT-IR and SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy. Compared to conventional PPTA (poly(p-phenylene terephthamide, PPAA (poly(phosphazene-aryl amide shows excellent thermal stability and solubility in polar protic solvents. All poly(phosphazene-aryl amides show two thermal degradation in the temperature range 150–600°C. The monomer 1, due to its structure, shows the first maximum rate of thermal decomposition temperature around 150–350°C, which may be due to the decomposition of the P–O–C bone. Morphology of the solid residues by Scanning Electron Microscope exhibit that the granular of the solid residues gradual disappearance with the increase of monomer 1 content. The surface layer of PPAA solid residues has been grumous, for the syneresis of P–O–P took place.

  13. Why do p-nitro-substituted aryl azides provide unintended dark reactions with proteins? (United States)

    Popova, Tatyana V; Reinbolt, Joseph; Ehresmann, Bernard; Shakirov, Makhmut M; Serebriakova, Marina V; Gerassimova, Yulia V; Knorre, Dmitri G; Godovikova, Tatyana S


    Aryl azide-mediated photo cross-linking has been widely used to obtain structural features in biological systems, even though the reactive species generated upon photolysis in aqueous solution have not been well characterized. We have established a mechanistic framework for the formation of adducts between photoactivated 5-azido-2-nitrobenzoyl reagents and protein functional groups. Photolysis of the aryl azide tethered to biotin via an amide linkage yields a cross-link with streptavidin. The ability of the pre-irradiated reagent to form a similar cross-link indicates that it is the long-lived reactive intermediate that contributes to the cross-link formation. The reactive intermediate forms an adduct with tryptophan. The sequence of the labeled peptide is found to be GlyTrp(*)ThrValAlaTrp(*)LysAsn, corresponding to residues 74-81 of the streptavidin sequence, where Trp(*) designates the modified Trp-75 and Trp-79. A peak at m/z 1455.1 corresponding to the calculated [M(peptide)+aryl nitrene+2O](+) molecular ion value has been observed for the labeled peptide. Product structure identification experiments support the assignment that the long-lived reactive intermediate is a p-nitro-N-arylhydroxylamine, which undergoes a number of transformations in aqueous solution leading to nitroso derivatives. A plausible mechanism of the interaction between tryptophan and nitroso compound is discussed.

  14. Ruthenium-catalyzed α-(hetero)arylation of saturated cyclic amines: reaction scope and mechanism. (United States)

    Peschiulli, Aldo; Smout, Veerle; Storr, Thomas E; Mitchell, Emily A; Eliáš, Zdeněk; Herrebout, Wouter; Berthelot, Didier; Meerpoel, Lieven; Maes, Bert U W


    Transition-metal-catalyzed sp(3) C-H activation has emerged as a powerful approach to functionalize saturated cyclic amines. Our group recently disclosed a direct catalytic arylation reaction of piperidines at the α position to the nitrogen atom. 1-(Pyridin-2-yl)piperidine could be smoothly α-arylated if treated with an arylboronic ester in the presence of a catalytic amount of [Ru3(CO)12] and one equivalent of 3-ethyl-3-pentanol. A systematic study on the substrate and reagent scope of this transformation is disclosed in this paper. The effect of substitution on both the piperidine ring and the arylboronic ester has been investigated. Smaller (pyrrolidine) and larger (azepane) saturated ring systems, as well as benzoannulated derivatives, were found to be compatible substrates with the α-arylation protocol. The successful use of a variety of heteroarylboronic esters as coupling partners further proved the power of this direct functionalization method. Mechanistic studies have allowed for a better understanding of the catalytic cycle of this remarkable transformation featuring an unprecedented direct transmetalation on a Ru(II)-H species.

  15. Prostate cancer and toxicity from critical use exemptions of methyl bromide: Environmental protection helps protect against human health risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budnik Lygia T


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although ozone-depleting methyl bromide was destined for phase-out by 2005, it is still widely applied as a consequence of various critical-use-exemptions and mandatory international regulations aiming to restrict the spread of pests and alien species (e.g. in globalized transport and storage. The withdrawal of methyl bromide because of its environmental risk could fortuitously help in the containment of its human toxicity. Methods We performed a systematic review of the literature, including in vitro toxicological and epidemiological studies of occupational and community exposure to the halogenated hydrocarbon pesticide methyl bromide. We focused on toxic (especially chronic or carcinogenic effects from the use of methyl bromide, on biomonitoring data and reference values. Eligible epidemiological studies were subjected to meta-analysis. Results Out of the 542 peer reviewed publications between 1990-2011, we found only 91 referring to toxicity of methyl bromide and 29 using the term "carcinogenic", "neoplastic" or "mutagenic". Several studies provide new additional data pertaining to the mechanistic aspects of methyl bromide toxicity. Few studies have performed a detailed exposure assessment including biomonitoring. Three evaluated epidemiological studies assessed a possible association between cancer and methyl bromide. Overall, exposure to methyl bromide is associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer OR, 1.21; 95% CI (0,98-1.49, P = 0.076. Two epidemiological studies have analyzed environmental, non-occupational exposure to methyl bromide providing evidence for its health risk to the general public. None of the epidemiological studies addressed its use as a fumigant in freight containers, although recent field and case reports do refer to its toxic effects associated with its use in shipping and storage. Conclusions Both the epidemiological evidence and toxicological data suggest a possible link between methyl

  16. Cannibalism and predation on black bears by grizzly bears in the Yellowstone ecosystem, 1975-1990 (United States)

    Mattson, D.J.; Knight, R.R.; Blanchard, B.M.


    We documented one instance of an adult male grizzly bear preying upon a black bear and four instances where circumstantial evidence suggested that grizzly bears (two cubs-of-the-year, one yearling female that was injured, and one adult male) had been preyed upon by conspecifics. We also examined feces of grizzly bears for bear remains. Remains of bears tended to be more common in spring feces and did not differ in frequency between early and late years of the study. Our observations generally support existing hypotheses concerning cannibalism among bears.

  17. Improvement of journal bearing operation at heavy misalignment using bearing flexibility and compliant liners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kim; Klit, Peder


    A flexure journal bearing design is proposed that will improve operational behaviour of a journal bearing at pronounced misalignment. Using a thermoelastohydrodynamic model, it is shown that the proposed flexure journal bearing has vastly increased the hydrodynamic performance compared to the stiff...... bearing when misaligned. The hydrodynamic performance is evaluated on lubricant film thickness, pressure and temperature. Furthermore, the influence of a compliant bearing liner is investigated and it is found that it increases the hydrodynamic performance when applied to a stiff bearing, whereas...... the liner has practically no influence on the flexure journal bearing's performance....

  18. Ball Bearing Stacking Automation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafeequerrahman S . Ahmed


    Full Text Available This document is an effort to introduce the concept of automation in small scale industries and or small workshops that are involved in the manufacturing of small objects such as nuts, bolts and ball bearing in this case. This an electromechanical system which includes certain mechanical parts that involves one base stand on which one vertical metallic frame is mounted and hinged to this vertical stand is an in humanized effort seems inadequate in this era making necessary the use of Electronics, Computer in the manufacturing processes leading to the concept of Automated Manufacturing System (AMS.The ball bearing stack automation is an effort in this regard. In our project we go for stack automation for any object for example a ball bearing, be that is still a manual system there. It will be microcontroller based project control system equipped with microcontroller 89C51 from any manufacturer like Atmel or Philips. This could have been easily implemented if a PLC could be used for manufacturing the staking unit but I adopted the microcontroller based system so that some more modification in the system can be effected at will as to use the same hardware .Although a very small object i.e. ball bearig or small nut and fixture will be tried to be stacked, the system with more precision and more power handling capacity could be built for various requirements of the industry. For increasing more control capacity, we can use another module of this series. When the bearing is ready, it will be sent for packing. This is sensed by an inductive sensor. The output will be proceeds by PLC and microcontroller card which will be driving the assembly in order to put it into pads or flaps. This project will also count the total number of bearings to be packed and will display it on a LCD for real time reference and a provision is made using a higher level language using hyper terminal of the computer

  19. Shaft Center Orbit in Dynamically Loaded Bearings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klit, Peder

    The aim of this work is to demonstrate how to utilize the bearings damping coefficients to estimate the orbit for a dynamically loaded journal bearing. The classical method for this analysis was developed by Booker in 1965 and described further in 1972. Several authors have refined this method over...... Jorgen W. Lund pointed out in lecture notes that the dynamic damping coefficients of the bearing could be used to find the shaft orbit for dynamically loaded bearings. For simplicity the "Short-Width-Journal-Bearing Theory" is used as a basis for finding the damping coefficients in this work...

  20. Chromatographic (TLC) differentiation of grizzly bear and black bear scats (United States)

    Picton, Harold D.; Kendall, Katherine C.


    While past work concluded that thin-layer chromatography (TLC) was inadequate for the separation of grizzly (Ursus arctos horribilis) and black bear (U. americanus) scats, our study found differences adequate for species separation. A key was constructed using 19 of 40 data points recorded on each(N)=356 profiles of 178) know-species scat. Accuracy was best for late summer scats (94%). Methods for specimen preparation, analysis, and reading the TLC profiles are discussed. Factors involved in scat variation were tested.

  1. Pratt and Whitney cryogenic turbopump bearing experience (United States)

    Poole, W. E.; Bursey, R. W., Jr.


    Successful, reusable bearings require lubrication, traditionally, a transfer film from sacrificial cage wear. Early testing included materials screening programs to identify suitable cryogenic cage materials. A specially developed element tester that simulated the function of a ball bearing cage was used. Suitable materials must provide lubrication with an acceptably low wear rate, without abrading contacting surfaces. The most promising materials were tested in full scale bearings at speeds up to 4 MDN. Teflon, filled with 40 percent bronze powder, was the best performing material. A variety of bearings were designed and successfully tested in LH2 and LOX. Bearings with bronze filled Teflon cages were successfully tested for 150 hrs. In overload tests, the same design was tested for 5 hrs at maximum Hertz stresses above 450 ksi and an additional 5 hrs with a maximum Hertz stress exceeding 500 ksi. Four bearings were tested in LOX for 25 hrs, with a maximum time per bearing of 10 hrs.

  2. Current leads and magnetic bearings (United States)

    Hull, J. R.


    Since the discovery of high temperature superconductors (HTS's), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has been active in a broad spectrum of activities in developing these materials for applications. Work at every stage of development has involved industrial collaboration in order to accelerate commercialization. While most of the development work has been devoted to improving the properties of current-carrying wires, some effort has been devoted to applications that can utilize HTS's with properties available now or in the near future. In this paper, advances made in the area of current leads and magnetic bearings are discussed.

  3. Enhanced degradation of the volatile fumigant-nematicides 1,3-d and methyl bromide in soil. (United States)

    Ou, L T


    The use of the gaseous funaigant-nematicide methyl bromide in agriculture is scheduled to be phased out in the year 2001.1,3-Dichloropropene (1,3-D) in combination with chloropicrin and an herbicide is considered to be a viable alternative to methyl bromide for some crops. 1,3-Dichloropropene consists of two isomers, cis- and trans-l,3-D. A number of soil bacteria have been shown to initially degrade 1,3-D or one of its isomers, cis-l,3-D, via hydrolysis. Until recently, the degradation of cis- and trans-l,3-D in soils was considered to exhibit similar kinetics, witla their degradation rates increasing with increases in soil temperature. Enhanced degradation of 1,3-D in soil from a site in Florida with a history of repeated annual applications of 1,3-D was observed in 1994. Biological hydrolysis was involved in the initial degradation of cis- and trans-l,3-D. The two isomers were degraded at different rates, with the trans isomer being degraded more rapidly than the cis isomer. Cis- and trans-l,3-D in soil from the control site were degraded at a similar rate but more slowly than in the enhanced soil. Methyl bromide in soils can be degraded through chemical hydrolysis and methylation to soil organic matter. Some methanotrophic bacteria and ammonia-oxidation bacteria during the oxidation of their primary substrates (methane and ammonia) also have the capacity to cooxidize methyl bromide to formaldehyde and bromide ion. It was recently observed that degradation of methyl bromide was stimulated in methanotrophic soils and in soils treated with ammonium sulfate. Soil methanotrophic bacteria and soil nitrifiers are apparently responsible for cooxidation of methyl bromide in methanotrophic and ammonia treated soils, respectively.

  4. Facile, regioselective [4 + 2] cycloaddition involving 1-aryl-4-phenyl-1-azadienes and allenic esters: an efficient route to novel substituted 1-aryl-4-phenyl-1,4-dihydropyridines. (United States)

    Ishar, M P; Kumar, K; Kaur, S; Kumar, S; Girdhar, N K; Sachar, S; Marwaha, A; Kapoor, A


    [reaction: see text]1-Aryl-4-phenyl-1-azadienes undergo facile, regioselective [4 + 2] cycloaddition to the C2,C3 pi-bond of allenic esters in refluxing benzene, and the formed adducts undergo a 1,3-H shift to afford novel 2-alkyl-1-aryl-3-ethoxycarbonyl-4-phenyl-1,4-dihydropyridines (78-97%). However, when the reaction is carried at room temperature, besides the [4 + 2] addition, the [2 + 2] mode of addition involving C=N of azadiene and C3,C4 pi-bond of allenic esters also intervenes. The resulting N-aryl-2-ethoxy-carbonyl-methylidene-4-styrylazetidines (17-28%) undergo reorganization on silica gel to afford 2-cyclohexen-1-ones.

  5. Measurement and computation of movement of bromide ions and carbofuran in ridged humic-sandy soil. (United States)

    Leistra, Minze; Boesten, Jos J T I


    Water flow and pesticide transport in the soil of fields with ridges and furrows may be more complex than in the soil of more level fields. Prior to crop emergence, the tracer bromide ion and the insecticide carbofuran were sprayed on the humic-sandy soil of a potato field with ridges and furrows. Rainfall was supplemented by sprinkler irrigation. The distribution of the substances in the soil profile of the ridges and furrows was measured on three dates in the potato growing season. Separate ridge and furrow systems were simulated by using the pesticide emission assessment at regional and local scales (PEARL) model for pesticide behavior in soil-plant systems. The substances travelled deeper in the furrow soil than in the ridge soil, because of runoff from the ridges to the furrows. At 19 days after application, the peak of the bromide distribution was measured to be in the 0.1-0.2 m layer of the ridges, while it was in the 0.3-0.5 m layer of the furrows. After 65 days, the peak of the carbofuran distribution in the ridge soil was still in the 0.1 m top layer, while the pesticide was rather evenly distributed in the top 0.6 m of the furrow soil. The wide ranges in concentration measured with depth showed that preferential water flow and substance transport occurred in the sandy soil. Part of the bromide ion distribution was measured to move faster in soil than the computed wave. The runoff of water and pesticide from the ridges to the furrows, and the thinner root zone in the furrows, are expected to increase the risk of leaching to groundwater in ridged fields, in comparison with more level fields.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available AIM To evaluate the quality of intubating conditions with Suxamethonium chloride and Rocuronium bromide for rapid sequence induction intubation and to observe the correlation between the intubating conditions and the response to single twitch stimulation. MATERIALS AND METHODS The present study, entitled “Comparison of Rocuronium bromide and Suxamethonium chloride for use during rapid sequence induction of anaesthesia was done in 50 adult patients divided into two groups and were randomly allocated Group-I: IV Rocuronium 0.9mg/kg and Group-II: IV Suxamethonium 1mg/kg. Laryngoscopy was attempted at 60 sec. and assessment of quality of intubating conditions was performed by using a Viby Mogensen Scale. Neuromuscular monitor was used to observe the correlation between the intubating conditions and the adductor pollicis response to single twitch ulnar nerve stimulation. RESULTS Intubating conditions were excellent (Score 15 in 88% of cases in Group-I whereas vocal cord position was intermediate (10- 14 in 12% of cases, in Group-II all cases could be intubated at 60 sec. (Score 15 in 100% cases. The onset of maximal blockade at adductor pollicis was found to correlate well with satisfactory intubating conditions in Group-II (Sch whereas in 20% of patients in Group-I had single twitch response (though diminished at the time of intubation. CONCLUSION Rocuronium bromide in dose of 0.9mg/kg provided neuromuscular blockade with a fast onset time and good to excellent intubating conditions at 60 sec. resembling those of Suxamethonium.

  7. Inhibition of methoxamine-induced bronchoconstriction by ipratropium bromide and disodium cromoglycate in asthmatic subjects. (United States)

    Black, J; Vincenc, K; Salome, C


    We compared the effects of pretreatment with saline, ipratropium bromide, and disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) on bronchoconstriction induced by methoxamine--an alpha-adrenoceptor agonist, in asthmatic subjects. All 12 patients bronchoconstricted in response to methoxamine after saline. The PD20 (the dose of methoxamine causing a 20% fall in forced expiratory volume in 1 s [FEV1]) ranged from 0.3-18 mumol. Ipratropium bromide (200 micrograms administered by aerosol) significantly inhibited (P less than 0.05) the response to methoxamine in all patients without producing significant changes in the mean baseline lung function. The mean PD20 for methoxamine after saline was 6.8 mumol and 95% confidence limits (CL) were 3.6, 12.7 mumol. The mean PD20 for methoxamine after ipratropium bromide was 35.4 (95% CL 28.8, 43.6) mumol. DSCG also produced significant (P less than 0.05) shifts to the right in the methoxamine dose response curves, but did not affect resting airway calibre as measured by the FEV1. The mean PD20 for methoxamine increased from 3.3 mumol (95% CL 1.1, 10.0 mumol) after saline to 25.1 mumol (95% CL 14.1, 44.6) after DSCG pretreatment. These findings suggest that alpha-adrenoceptors in the airways of asthmatic subjects may be located at sites other than smooth muscle--possibly on mast cells but more likely on nerve endings and/or parasympathetic ganglia. PMID:2992563

  8. Ethidium bromide-induced demyelination of the sciatic nerve of adult Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riet-Correa G.


    Full Text Available Peripheral nerve ultrastructure was assessed after single or multiple local injections of the intercalating dye ethidium bromide. Thirty-four adult Wistar rats of both sexes were divided into five groups and maintained in a controlled environment with rat chow and water ad libitum throughout the experiment. The experimental animals were injected with 1 µl of 0.1% ethidium bromide in 0.9% saline into the central third of the left sciatic nerve 1 (group 1, 2 (group 2, 4 (group 3, 6 (group 4 or 8 (group 5 times. In groups 2 to 5 the injections were made at 28-day intervals. Control animals received the same amount of 0.9% saline. The animals were killed at different times after injection: group 1 at 7 days (2 rats and 15 days (2 rats; for groups 2, 3, 4 and 5, all rats were killed 10 days after the last injection and the lesions were investigated by light and transmission electron microscopy. In the acute lesions, intoxicated Schwann cells showed a vacuolated cytoplasm and separation of the sheaths from the axon. Myelin sheaths underwent progressive vesiculation and subsequent segmental demyelination. Myelin debris were withdrawn by macrophages and remyelination by Schwann cells was prominent. With the increase in the number of injections collagen fibers also increased in number and progressively enveloped smaller numbers of remyelinated axons composing new fascicles. Wallerian degeneration of fibers apparently not affected by ethidium bromide was more intense in the nerves from groups 4 and 5. The peripheral nerve repairs itself after demyelinating challenges with a profusion of collagen fibers and new fasciculations. This experimental model is valid to mimic recurrent demyelinating neuropathies.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usha Dev


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In patients with burn injury drug pharmacology will be altered and this poses special anaesthetic challenge when an subcutaneous injection of a non- depolarizing muscle relaxant occurs in such a patient. Small studies remain an important source of knowledge and hence this study aims to provide information on the anaesthetic management in a case of accidental subcutaneous injection of vecuronium bromide in a burns patient. PRESENTATION, DIAGNOSIS & MANAGEMENT: A 22 year young male with 4 days old hot water induced grade 1 burns involving 45% of body surface area was posted for burns dressing. Anaesthesia was induced with propofol and vecuronium bromide through an external jugular vein to aid tracheal intubation. As the patient was not anaesthetized even after 10 minutes routine check lead to the discovery of fullness at the tip of the intravenous catheter indicating an extravasation of the drugs. Hence the other external jugular vein was cannulated and the patient induced and intubated using propofol, sevoflurane, nitrous oxide and oxygen. The action of vecuronium outlasted the duration of surgery. So the patient continued to receive support of mechanical ventilation with nitrous oxide and oxygen. It took 130 minutes for the clinical signs of recovery from the muscle relaxant to manifest. He was then reversed & extubated with subsequent good recovery. CONCLUSION: Subcutaneous injection of these drugs poses problems of delayed onset of action and prolonged duration of action. In an inadvertent accidental subcutaneous 0.1 mg/kg vecuronium bromide injection in a patient with 4 day old 45% burns showed delayed onset action and prolonged neuromuscular blockade due to subcutaneous deposition of the drug which was managed with mechanical ventilation .The reported resistance to the action of NDMR drugs in patient with burns was not noticed here probably because of the age of the thermal injury.

  10. Structures, electronic properties and stability phase diagrams for copper(I/II) bromide surfaces. (United States)

    Altarawneh, Mohammednoor; Marashdeh, Ali; Dlugogorski, Bogdan Z


    This study presents a comprehensive periodic slab DFT investigation into structures, electronic properties and thermodynamic stability of all plausible terminations of CuBr and CuBr2 surfaces. We first estimate lattice constants, formation and cohesive energies for the two bulk copper bromides before proceeding to analyse geometrical and electronic features of CuBr and CuBr2 configurations. Surface geometries exhibit, to a large extent, corresponding bulk structures. Nevertheless, certain CuBr2 surfaces experience a downward displacement of the topmost Cu-containing layers. We plot total and projected density of states for bulk and surface geometries of these two copper bromides and calculate their associated Bader's electronic charges. Electronic structure analysis for the bulk and surfaces of these two copper bromides show that CuBr bulk and its most stable surface (CuBr(001)_Br) do not exhibit any metallic character, whereas CuBr2 bulk and its most stable surface (CuBr2(001)_Br) both exhibit metallic characters. The formalism of the ab initio atomistic thermodynamics affords the construction of energy phase diagrams. We predict that the CuBr(001) surface, truncated with Br atoms, is the most stable structure among the considered CuBr slabs at all physically meaningful ranges of the chemical potential of bromine. This surface resembles a c(2 × 2)-bromine sheet that was characterised experimentally from initial interaction of Br2 with a Cu(100) surface. We find that surfaces terminated with the electronegative bromine atoms, if accompanied by significant relaxation, tend to be more stable. Calculated surface energies predict the shapes of CuBr and CuBr2 nanoparticles as the chemical potential of bromine changes.

  11. Synthesis of 4-Halo-2 ( 5H )-furanones and Their Suzuki-Coupling Reactions with Organoboronic Acids.A General Route to 4-Aryl-2 ( 5 H ) - furanones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA,Sheng-Ming(麻生明); SHI,zhang-Jie(施章杰)


    4-Halo-2(5H)-furanones were prepared by the halolactoniza-tion of 2,3-allenoic acids.The subsequent Suzuki coupling reaction of 4-halo-2(5H)-furanones with aryl boronic acids was carried out to produce 4-aryl-2(5H).furanones in excellent yields.``

  12. Synthesis of 2,3-epoxy-1-phenyl-3-aryl-1-propanone by combination of phase transfer catalyst and ultrasound irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Tai Li


    Full Text Available Seven 2,3-epoxy-1-phenyl-3-aryl-1-propanones were synthesized via epoxidation of thecorresponding 1-phenyl-3-aryl-2-propen-1-ones with 30% aqueous hydrogen peroxide in 74-99% yields usingbenzyldimethyltetradecylammonium chloride as phase transfer catalyst under ultrasound irradiation.

  13. One-pot four-component synthesis of 2-aryl-3,3-dihaloacrylonitriles using potassium hexacyanoferrate(II) as environmentally benign cyanide source


    Zhao,Zhouxing; Li, Zheng


    An efficient route to one-pot four-component reactions of aroyl chlorides, potassium hexacyanoferrate(II), triphenylphosphine and carbon tetrahalides to synthesize 2-aryl-3,3-dichloroacrylonitriles and 2-aryl-3,3-dibromoacrylonitriles was described. This protocol has advantages of use of non-toxic cyanide source, high yield and simple work-up procedure.

  14. One-pot four-component synthesis of 2-aryl-3,3-dihaloacrylonitriles using potassium hexacyanoferrate(II) as environmentally benign cyanide source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Zhouxing; Li, Zheng, E-mail: [Northwest Normal Univ., Lanzhou, Gansu (China). Key Lab. of Polymer Materials of Gansu Province


    An efficient route to one-pot four-component reactions of aroyl chlorides, potassium hexacyanoferrate(II), triphenylphosphine and carbon tetrahalides to synthesize 2-aryl-3,3-dichloroacrylonitriles and 2-aryl-3,3-dibromoacrylonitriles was described. This protocol has advantages of use of non-toxic cyanide source, high yield and simple work-up procedure. (author)

  15. Synthesis of o-(dimethylamino)aryl ketones, acridones, acridinium salts, and 1H-indazoles by the reaction of hydrazones and arynes. (United States)

    Dubrovskiy, Anton V; Larock, Richard C


    A novel, efficient route to biologically and pharmaceutically important o-(dimethylamino)aryl ketones, acridones, acridinium salts, and 1H-indazoles has been developed starting from readily available hydrazones of aldehydes and o-(trimethylsilyl)aryl triflates. The reaction proceeds through arynes under mild conditions, tolerates a wide range of functional groups, and provides the final products in good to excellent yields.

  16. Synthesis of N1-Substituted-3-aryl-4-alkyl-4, 5-dihydro-1H-1-pyra- zolethiocarboxamide as Novel Small Molecule Inhibitors of Cysteine Protease of T. cruzi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A series of N1-substituted-3-aryl-4-alkyl-4, 5-dihydro-1H-1-pyrazolethiocarboxamide were prepared from the Mannich bases of aryl ketones in good yields. Some derivatives were found to be active against the cysteine protease of T.cruzi..

  17. Application of nano SnO2 as a green and recyclable catalyst for the synthesis of 2-aryl or alkylbenzoxazole derivatives under ambient temperature

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Seyed Mohammad Vahdat; Shima Ghafouri Raz; Saeed Baghery


    Application of nano SnO2 as an efficient and benign catalyst has been explored for the synthesis of 2-aryl or alkylbenzoxazole derivatives via condensation reaction of aldehyde with 2-aminophenol. The reactions proceed under heterogeneous and mild conditions in ethanol at room temperature to provide 2-aryl or alkylbenzoxazoles in high yields.

  18. Phase Transfer Catalyzed Synthesis of 1, 2-Bis[(3-aryl)-s-triazolo-[3, 4-b]-[1, 3, 4]thiadiazole-6-yl]ethanes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    De Jiang LI; He Qing FU


    A series of new 1, 2-bis[(3-aryl)-s-triazolo[3, 4-b]-[1, 3, 4]thiadiazole-6-yl]ethanes were synthesized in 50-82% yield by cyclization of 3-aryl-4-amino-5-mercapto-1, 2, 4-triazole with butanedioic acid in the presence of POC13 and tetrabutylammonium iodide as phase transfer catalyst.

  19. Cytotoxicity evaluation of Clinacanthus nutans through dimethylthiazol diphenyltetrazolium bromide and neutral red uptake assays


    Vajrabhaya, La-ongthong; Korsuwannawong, Suwanna


    Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the results of dimethylthiazol diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and neutral red uptake (NRU) assays of Clinacanthus nutans cytotoxicity. Materials and Methods: Mouse fibroblast (L929) cells were exposed to 0.01%, 0.1%, 0.25%, and 0.5% (W/V) C. nutans in a 96-cluster-well-culture plate for 24 h. The cell viability after exposure to C. nutans was determined by MTT and NRU assays in separate tissue culture plates. The two assays were compared thr...

  20. Nitrate ion photolysis in thin water films in the presence of bromide ions. (United States)

    Richards, Nicole K; Wingen, Lisa M; Callahan, Karen M; Nishino, Noriko; Kleinman, Michael T; Tobias, Douglas J; Finlayson-Pitts, Barbara J


    Nitrate ions commonly coexist with halide ions in aged sea salt particles, as well as in the Arctic snowpack, where NO(3)(-) photochemistry is believed to be an important source of NO(y) (NO + NO(2) + HONO + ...). The effects of bromide ions on nitrate ion photochemistry were investigated at 298 ± 2 K in air using 311 nm photolysis lamps. Reactions were carried out using NaBr/NaNO(3) and KBr/KNO(3) deposited on the walls of a Teflon chamber. Gas phase halogen products and NO(2) were measured as a function of photolysis time using long path FTIR, NO(y) chemiluminescence and atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry (API-MS). Irradiated NaBr/NaNO(3) mixtures show an enhancement in the rates of production of NO(2) and Br(2) as the bromide mole fraction (χ(NaBr)) increased. However, this was not the case for KBr/KNO(3) mixtures where the rates of production of NO(2) and Br(2) remained constant over all values of χ(KBr). Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations show that the presence of bromide in the NaBr solutions pulls sodium toward the solution surface, which in turn attracts nitrate to the interfacial region, allowing for more efficient escape of NO(2) than in the absence of halides. However, in the case of KBr/KNO(3), bromide ions do not appreciably affect the distribution of nitrate ions at the interface. Clustering of Br(-) with NO(3)(-) and H(2)O predicted by MD simulations for sodium salts may facilitate a direct intermolecular reaction, which could also contribute to higher rates of NO(2) production. Enhanced photochemistry in the presence of halide ions may be important for oxides of nitrogen production in field studies such as in polar snowpacks where the use of quantum yields from laboratory studies in the absence of halide ions would lead to a significant underestimate of the photolysis rates of nitrate ions.