WorldWideScience

Sample records for artisans

  1. From Artisan to Partisan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thompson, Grahame

    This paper confronts the question of what a revitalized financial sector might look like if this were to be reconfigured so as to reproduce first an artisanal like persona for the financial analyst and craft like organizational structure for financial businesses, and secondly if this were to be re...

  2. From Artisan to Partisan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thompson, Grahame

    2014-01-01

    This article confronts the question of what a revitalized financial sector might look like if this were to be reconfigured so as to reproduce first an artisanal-like persona for the financial analyst and craft-like organizational structure for financial businesses, and second if this were to be re...

  3. Invited review: Artisanal Mexican cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Córdova, Aarón F; Yescas, Carlos; Ortiz-Estrada, Ángel Martín; De la Rosa-Alcaraz, María de Los Ángeles; Hernández-Mendoza, Adrián; Vallejo-Cordoba, Belinda

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this review is to present an overview of some of the most commonly consumed artisanal Mexican cheeses, as well as those cheeses that show potential for a protected designation of origin. A description is given for each of these cheeses, including information on their distinguishing characteristics that makes some of them potential candidates for achieving a protected designation of origin status. This distinction could help to expand their frontiers and allow them to become better known and appreciated in other parts of the world. Due to the scarcity of scientific studies concerning artisanal Mexican cheeses, which would ultimately aid in the standardization of manufacturing processes and in the establishment of regulations related to their production, more than 40 varieties of artisanal cheese are in danger of disappearing. To preserve these cheeses, it is necessary to address this challenge by working jointly with government, artisanal cheesemaking organizations, industry, academics, and commercial partners on the implementation of strategies to protect and preserve their artisanal means of production. With sufficient information, official Mexican regulations could be established that would encompass and regulate the manufacture of Mexican artisanal cheeses. Finally, as many Mexican artisanal cheeses are produced from raw milk, more scientific studies are required to show the role of the lactic acid bacteria and their antagonistic effect on pathogenic microorganisms during aging following cheese making. PMID:26830738

  4. Training Artisans On-Site

    OpenAIRE

    Edoghogho Ogbeifun

    2011-01-01

    The decline in apprenticeship in both the public and private sectors, the increasing use of sub-contractors as well as the uncoordinated approach in the informal sector are contributing factors to the shortage of skilled artisans in the construction industry. Artisans training can be introduced and implemented through the adoption of progressive implementation of construction processes commencing work from areas requiring low skill demands to areas of high skill demand. The success of this pr...

  5. Training Artisans On-Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edoghogho Ogbeifun

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The decline in apprenticeship in both the public and private sectors, the increasing use of sub-contractors as well as the uncoordinated approach in the informal sector are contributing factors to the shortage of skilled artisans in the construction industry. Artisans training can be introduced and implemented through the adoption of progressive implementation of construction processes commencing work from areas requiring low skill demands to areas of high skill demand. The success of this principle hinges on the collaborative effort of the key project stakeholders. The client should be willing to absorb extra cost and delays in the project; the design and contract documentation should facilitate on-site training, and  the consultant actively guide the contractor and the construction processes to achieve the training objectives. The exploratory research method was adopted in this study and research revealed that this principle was used in a project in the UK and in the development of infrastructure in the tourism industry of South Africa .It is being recommended that the principle be adapted by the public sector for the development of small size infrastructures that can be repeated in many places. This will boost the quality and quantity of artisans, enhance employability, reduce rural urban migration and alleviate poverty.Keywords: Skilled artisans, on-site training, progressive construction processes, project stakeholders, contract documentation. 

  6. Do fish have rights in artisanal fisheries?

    OpenAIRE

    Mustapha MK

    2013-01-01

    Artisanal fishers in developing world are unaware that fish are capable of suffering or discomfort, though researches have shown that fish do feel pain. Five fish welfare domains have been identified which constitute their rights in their environment. The needs of wild fish are usually provided in their natural, undisturbed and unperturbed aquatic environment, of which the fish will prefer. However, various anthropogenic activities by humans (including artisanal fisheries itself) and some nat...

  7. Women, mercury and artisanal gold mining : Risk communication and mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, J. J.; Veiga, M. M.; Beinhoff, C.

    2003-05-01

    Artisanal miners employ rudimentary techniques for minéral extraction and often operate under hazardous, labour intensive, highly disorganized and illegal conditions. Gold is the main mineral extracted by artisanal miners, and the ecological and human health impacts resulting from mercury (Hg) use in gold extraction warrant special consideration. More than 30% of world's 13 million artisanal miners are women and, as they are often perceived to be less suited for labour intensive mining methods, the majority of women work in the processing aspect of artisanal mining, including amalgamation with Hg. As women are also predominantly responsible for food preparation, they are in an excellent position to respond to health risks associated with consumption of Hg-contaminated foods in impacted areas. In addition to their influence on consumption habits, women in artisanal mining communities may be in a position to effect positive change with respect to the technologies employed. Thus, gender sensitive approaches are necessary to reduce exposure risks to women and their families, promote clean technologies and support the development of stronger, healthier artisanal mining communities. This paper describes the roles of women in artisanal gold mining, highlights their importance in reducing the Hg exposure in these communities, and provides insight into how risks from Hg pollution can effectively be communicated and mitigated.

  8. Artisanal Fisheries Research: A Need for Globalization?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Gilmar C Oliveira Júnior

    Full Text Available Given limited funds for research and widespread degradation of ecosystems, environmental scientists should geographically target their studies where they will be most effective. However, in academic areas such as conservation and natural resource management there is often a mismatch between the geographic foci of research effort/funding and research needs. The former frequently being focused in the developed world while the latter is greater in the biodiverse countries of the Global South. Here, we adopt a bibliometric approach to test this hypothesis using research on artisanal fisheries. Such fisheries occur throughout the world, but are especially prominent in developing countries where they are important for supporting local livelihoods, food security and poverty alleviation. Moreover, most artisanal fisheries in the Global South are unregulated and unmonitored and are in urgent need of science-based management to ensure future sustainability. Our results indicate that, as predicted, global research networks and centres of knowledge production are predominantly located in developed countries, indicating a global mismatch between research needs and capacity.

  9. Artisanal Fisheries Research: A Need for Globalization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira Júnior, José Gilmar C; Silva, Luana P S; Malhado, Ana C M; Batista, Vandick S; Fabré, Nidia N; Ladle, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    Given limited funds for research and widespread degradation of ecosystems, environmental scientists should geographically target their studies where they will be most effective. However, in academic areas such as conservation and natural resource management there is often a mismatch between the geographic foci of research effort/funding and research needs. The former frequently being focused in the developed world while the latter is greater in the biodiverse countries of the Global South. Here, we adopt a bibliometric approach to test this hypothesis using research on artisanal fisheries. Such fisheries occur throughout the world, but are especially prominent in developing countries where they are important for supporting local livelihoods, food security and poverty alleviation. Moreover, most artisanal fisheries in the Global South are unregulated and unmonitored and are in urgent need of science-based management to ensure future sustainability. Our results indicate that, as predicted, global research networks and centres of knowledge production are predominantly located in developed countries, indicating a global mismatch between research needs and capacity. PMID:26942936

  10. Work and Masculinity in Katanga’s Artisanal Mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen Cuvelier

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article, based on 16 months of anthropological fieldwork between 2005 and 2012, examines the relationship between work and masculinity among artisanal miners, or creuseurs, in Katanga, the southeastern province of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. It argues that men’s involvement in artisanal mining should be considered not only as an economic survival strategy but also as an attempt to experiment with new ways of being a man in a context of economic crisis and changing gender relations. Furthermore, the article criticizes the tendency to downplay or underestimate the complexity and diversity of processes of masculine identity construction in Africa’s artisanal-mining areas. In order to do justice to the intricacy of these processes, the article proposes using concepts and insights from the field of masculinity studies and distinguishing between a levelling and a differentiating trend in artisanal miners’ masculinity practices.

  11. Do artisanal fishers perceive declining migratory shorebird populations?

    OpenAIRE

    de Andrade, Luciano Pires; Silva-Andrade, Horasa Maria Lima; Lyra-Neves, Rachel Maria; Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino; Telino-Júnior, Wallace Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    Background This paper discusses the results of ethno-ornithological research conducted on the local ecological knowledge (LEK) of artisanal fishers in northeast Brazil between August 2013 and October 2014. Methods The present study analyzed the LEK of 240 artisanal fishermen in relation to Nearctic shorebirds and the factors that may be affecting their populations. We examined whether differences occurred according to the gender and age of the local population. The research instruments includ...

  12. Fishers’ Knowledge And Management: Differing Fundamentals In Artisanal And Industrial Fisheries

    OpenAIRE

    Johannes, R.E.

    2003-01-01

    Differences in characteristics of industrial and artisanal fisheries should be better understood for improved communication between those who do research on local ecological knowledge in these different fisheries. Artisanal fisheries often differ from industrial fisheries in that:

  13. Microbiological quality of artisanal ice cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maifreni, M; Civilini, M; Domenis, C; Manzano, M; Di Prima, R; Comi, G

    1993-09-01

    In the course of the years 1990 and 1991, 396 samples of artisanal ice-cream had been collected from different ice-cream shops in Udine and province and analysed. All tested flavours contained aerobic germs, coliforms, Enterococci and yeasts in different quantities. In the analysed samples neither Salmonellae spp., nor Listeria monocytogenes nor Staphylococcus aureus were detected. Numerous species of coliforms and yeasts were randomly isolated and identified. The statistical analysis, used to compare the variables (flavour, month, year), showed significant differences among the samples analysed in the two years. In September, the means of the total aerobic count were significantly different from the ones of July and of August. No significant differences were noted in the means of coliforms, total aerobic counts and yeasts in the different flavours. The techniques for recovery of freeze-stressed coliforms in artificially contaminated samples of ice-cream showed that the three techniques, which use both selective and non-selective mediums, are better than those ones, which use only selective mediums. Lastly, with regard at the coliform values, the ice-creams tested have small-medium quality. In fact 26% of the ice-creams cannot be sealed, according to the Italian Ministry Ordinance (October 11, 1978). PMID:8267839

  14. Energy Modeling for the Artisan Food Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goel, Supriya [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-05-01

    The Artisan Food Center is a 6912 sq.ft food processing plant located in Dayton, Washington. PNNL was contacted by Strecker Engineering to assist with the building’s energy analysis as a part of the project’s U.S. Green Building Council’s Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) submittal requirements. The project is aiming for LEED Silver certification, one of the prerequisites to which is a whole building energy model to demonstrate compliance with American Society of Heating Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) 90.1 2007 Appendix G, Performance Rating Method. The building incorporates a number of energy efficiency measures as part of its design and the energy analysis aimed at providing Strecker Engineering with the know-how of developing an energy model for the project as well as an estimate of energy savings of the proposed design over the baseline design, which could be used to document points in the LEED documentation. This report documents the ASHRAE 90.1 2007 baseline model design, the proposed model design, the modeling assumptions and procedures as well as the energy savings results in order to inform the Strecker Engineering team on a possible whole building energy model.

  15. Start-up and operating costs for artisan cheese companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouma, Andrea; Durham, Catherine A; Meunier-Goddik, Lisbeth

    2014-01-01

    Lack of valid economic data for artisan cheese making is a serious impediment to developing a realistic business plan and obtaining financing. The objective of this study was to determine approximate start-up and operating costs for an artisan cheese company. In addition, values are provided for the required size of processing and aging facilities associated with specific production volumes. Following in-depth interviews with existing artisan cheese makers, an economic model was developed to predict costs based on input variables such as production volume, production frequency, cheese types, milk types and cost, labor expenses, and financing. Estimated values for start-up cost for processing and aging facility ranged from $267,248 to $623,874 for annual production volumes of 3,402 kg (7,500 lb) and 27,216 kg (60,000 lb), respectively. First-year production costs ranged from $65,245 to $620,094 for the above-mentioned production volumes. It is likely that high start-up and operating costs remain a significant entry barrier for artisan cheese entrepreneurs. PMID:24746129

  16. Biodiversity conservation versus artisanal gold mining: a case study of Chimanimani National Park, Zimbabwe

    OpenAIRE

    Gandiwa, E.; Gandiwa, P.

    2012-01-01

    Artisanal gold mining plays an important role in sustainable development of rural communities. The objectives of this study were to: i) assess the environmental impacts of recent artisanal gold mining activities in Chimanimani National Park (CNP), eastern Zimbabwe, and ii) discuss the associated implications of artisanal gold mining to sustainable development in the Chimanimani area. Data were collected in January 2010 and law enforcement records kept at CNP were examined to gather trends in ...

  17. Un artisan verrier crétois à Venise

    OpenAIRE

    Maltézou, Chryssa

    2016-01-01

    Dans les documents vénitiens l’artisan travaillant le cristal est mentionné comme cristallaio, cristalario (cristellarius). Une sentence judiciaire du 21 juillet 1401, conservée aux Archives d’État de Venise, se réfère à un différend entre une artisane du verre – d’après son nom probablement juive – et son associé crétois. Selon le document publié ci-après, dona Jacoba, cristalario, habitant San Zulian, avait donné à Manoli Foca (Fuga) de Candie, représentant son frère Antonio, une somme de 6...

  18. An evaluation of artisanal fisheries resources in Cross River State

    OpenAIRE

    Adaka, G.S.

    2005-01-01

    Artisanal fisheries resources and its exploitation trends in Cross River State were evaluated using questionnaire and participatory Rapid Appraisal (PRA) methods for a period of 5 years (1991-1995). They were open-access or unrestricted access fishing in Cross River State within the period under view. It was also discovered that, they were no proper records from the Department of fisheries. There was a decline in the relative abundance of the stock that constituted the important marine and fr...

  19. Not only a man's world: Women's involvement in artisanal mining in eastern DRC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bashwira Nyenyezi, M.R.; Cuvelier, J.; Hilhorst, D.J.M.; Haar, van der G.

    2014-01-01

    Artisanal mining is a key source of livelihood in the eastern part of the Democratic Republic of Congo, an area mostly known for its chronic instability and violent conflict. Although men make up the majority of the artisanal mining population, mining is also central in the livelihoods of many girls

  20. Biodiversity conservation versus artisanal gold mining: a case study of Chimanimani National Park, Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gandiwa, E.; Gandiwa, P.

    2012-01-01

    Artisanal gold mining plays an important role in sustainable development of rural communities. The objectives of this study were to: i) assess the environmental impacts of recent artisanal gold mining activities in Chimanimani National Park (CNP), eastern Zimbabwe, and ii) discuss the associated imp

  1. Rapid detection of methanol in artisanal alcoholic beverages

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Goes, R. E.; Muller, M.; Fabris, J. L.

    2015-09-01

    In the industry of artisanal beverages, uncontrolled production processes may result in contaminated products with methanol, leading to risks for consumers. Owing to the similar odor of methanol and ethanol, as well as their common transparency, the distinction between them is a difficult task. Contamination may also occur deliberately due to the lower price of methanol when compared to ethanol. This paper describes a spectroscopic method for methanol detection in beverages based on Raman scattering and Principal Component Analysis. Associated with a refractometric assessment of the alcohol content, the method may be applied in field for a rapid detection of methanol presence.

  2. POWER GENERATION IN AN ORGANIZATION OF WOMEN ARTISAN PUEBLA, MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Rosario Figueroa-Rodríguez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous women artisans from Puebla state, facing poverty of their domestic groups through craft production as a breeding strategies that ensure their survival; for this reason a group of women leaders representing local groups, has formed a regional organization, "SIUAMEJ, AC", to address the lack of income. This research focuses on the study of the organization in question, in order to meet changes in gender relations and the effects of the participation of women artisans in this organization, the formation of democratic leadership and the construction of individual and collective empowerment. In the research were used theoretical and methodological from a gender perspective tools, Participatory Research and Popular Education. The techniques used were group workshops, questionnaires, interviews and participant observation. Was applied a questionnaire for women leaders of local organizations of the organization, both as participant observation group workshops were conducted with 14 local organizations covering just over 437 members applied. Among the identified results highlight the participation in collective decision-making through consensus, administrative management and access to training content that has allowed the individual and collective development of both leaders and women members of the local groups.

  3. Artisanal and small scale mining in India: selected studies and an overview of the issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mihir Deb; Garima Tiwari; Kuntala Lahiri-Dutt [University of Delhi, Delhi (India). School of Environmental Studies

    2008-09-15

    In India, mining is one of the main economic activities since time immemorial, giving rise to a long historical tradition of artisanal mining. As modern mining rose during the colonial occupation, artisanal mining activities began to be overlooked and this great tradition became obscure. This invisibility, added with confusion with regard to legally accepted definitions has enhanced the negligence of the artisanal mining sector in India. This study draws attention to the contemporary artisanal mining practices in India - both traditional and non-traditional ones - with regard to four commodities, gold, tin, coal and lignite, and gemstones. It briefly discusses the occurrences of such mining, their salient features and concludes with four specific recommendations. Recommendations primarily deal with the need for creation of a broader information base, delineating a responsible body to deal with this kind of mining, legal reforms leading to definitional changes and finally, the recognition of the poverty alleviation potential of this sector in view of the Millennium Development Goals.

  4. Occurrence and Genetic Diversity of Arcobacter butzleri in an Artisanal Dairy Plant in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Giacometti, Federica; Lucchi, Alex; Manfreda, Gerardo; Florio, Daniela; Zanoni, Renato Giulio; Serraino, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the presence, distribution, and persistence of Arcobacter spp. in an artisanal dairy plant and to test the isolates to determine their different genotypes in the processing plant and in foods. Samples were collected in an artisanal cheese factory on four occasions between October and December 2012. Food samples (raw milk, ricotta cheese, mozzarella cheese, and conditioning liquid), water samples, and environmental samples were analyzed by the culture met...

  5. Antimicrobial properties of lactic acid bacteria isolated from uruguayan artisan cheese

    OpenAIRE

    Martín Fraga Cotelo; Karen Perelmuter Schein; Sheila Solange Giacaman Salvo; Pablo Miguel Zunino Abirad; Silvana Beatriz Carro Techera

    2013-01-01

    Uruguayan artisan cheese is elaborated with raw milk and non-commercial starters. The associated native microbiota may include lactic acid bacteria and also potentially pathogenic bacteria. Lactic acid bacteria were isolated from artisan cheese, raw milk, and non-commercial starter cultures, and their potential bacteriocin production was assessed. A culture collection of 509 isolates was obtained, and five isolates were bacteriocin-producers and were identified as Enterococcus durans,Lactobac...

  6. LIVE/DEAD YEAST VIABILITY STAINING AS A TOOL FOR IMPROVING ARTISANAL PILSNER BEER PRODUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Benedetta Bottari; Giovanni Campari; Monica Gatti

    2014-01-01

    The production of an artisanal beer, made by brewers using traditional practices on a small scale, is founded on the empirical adjustment of parameters, including yeasts handling and serial repitching. The aim of this study was to monitor yeast viability during different stages of artisanal beer productions through the Live/Dead Yeast viability staining and to correlate it with fermentation dynamics in order to increase process standardization and to maintain the quality of final products. Ye...

  7. Impact of Mercury Use in Artisanal Gold Mining on Community Health: Kahama Case Study, Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Kalwani, Jumanne Daudi; Fumbuka, Colorine

    2014-01-01

    This study is part of the main research carried out in 2010 which investigated social economic impact of uncontrolled artisanal mining on local communities and the environment using a case study of sampled gold mining sites in selected villages in Lunguya and Segese wards in Kahama District, Tanzania. The methodology involved a study sample size of 210 households, forming 70% of the targeted mining villages. They were interviewed on various social economic variables related to artisanal minin...

  8. An Integrated Assessment Approach to Address Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Niladri Basu; Renne, Elisha P.; Rachel N. Long

    2015-01-01

    Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) is growing in many regions of the world including Ghana. The problems in these communities are complex and multi-faceted. To help increase understanding of such problems, and to enable consensus-building and effective translation of scientific findings to stakeholders, help inform policies, and ultimately improve decision making, we utilized an Integrated Assessment approach to study artisanal and small-scale gold mining activities in Ghana. Thou...

  9. Fisheries Economics in the Context of the Artisanal Fisheries of the Marine Sector in Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Mapunda, X.E.

    1983-01-01

    The development of the small scale marine fisheries in Tanzania is influenced by conditions in the other sectors of the economy. The artisanal fisheries are particularly sensitive to the general conditions of the economy. The small scale fisheries sector (artisanal fisheries) plays a role that has devolved upon agriculture. Generally, the sector is characterised by underemployment, low incomes, retarded technology and low labour skills as a result of the dual nature of the economy.This paper ...

  10. Effect of artisanal rennet paste on the chemical, sensory and microbiological characteristics of traditional goat's cheese

    OpenAIRE

    C. Tripaldi; G. Palocci; Garavaldi, A.; Bogdanova, T.; S. Bilei

    2015-01-01

    In a study using three replicates, Marzolina goat cheese made with artisanal rennet paste from goat kid was compared with cheese made with commercial liquid rennet from calf. Samples of fresh cheese were subjected to chemical and microbiological analyses. Samples of ripened cheese collected after 50 days of ripening were submitted to chemical and sensory analysis. Results of this study show that cheese made with artisanal rennet pastes did not contain pathogenic microorganisms and that this k...

  11. Isolation of Cronobacter spp. (Enterobacter sakazakii from artisanal mozzarella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Casalinuovo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Cronobacter spp. (Enterobacter sakazakii is an opportunistic bacterial pathogen capable of causing disease and even fatalities in newborn infants within the first weeks of life if consumed as part of the diet. Premature and immunocompromised newborn infants are at particular risk. The microorganism has been isolated from a variety of foods including contaminated infant milk formula powder and milk powder substitute. The study aimed to evaluate the level of microbiological contamination in 47 samples of mozzarella cheese made with cow’s milk collected from artisan cheese producers in Southern Italy. Samples were collected from commercial sales points and underwent qualitative and quantitative microbiological analyses to test for the bacterial contaminants most commonly found in milk and cheese products. The 47 samples underwent qualitative and quantitative microbiological tests according to ISO UNI EN standards. Analyses focused on Staphylococcus aures, Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas spp., E. coli, Yersinia spp., total coliforms and Cronobacter sakazakii. The ISO/TS 22964:2006 method was used to investigate possible contamination by C. sakazakii. Biochemical identification was carried out using an automated system for identification and susceptibility tests. None of the samples examined resulted positive for Salmonella spp. or Listeria spp. Only one sample resulted positive for Staphylococcus aureus. Pseudomonas spp. was isolated in 10 (21% of 47 samples. High levels of total coliforms were found in 10 of 47 samples. Cronobacter spp. (Enterobacter sakazakii was isolated in one sample. This is the first study to confirm isolation of C. sakazakii in artisan mozzarella cheese made from cow’s milk. The presence of C. sakazakii could be related to external contamination during the phases of production or to the use of contaminated milk. Since mozzarella is recommended in the diet of children and adults of all ages, this

  12. Risks of toxic ash from artisanal mining of discarded cellphones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hibbert, Kathleen [School of Social Ecology, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Ogunseitan, Oladele A., E-mail: Oladele.Ogunseitan@uci.edu [School of Social Ecology, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Department of Population Health and Disease Prevention, Program in Public Health, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States)

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • We simulated artisanal incineration of four component categories of cellphones. • We identified metals and organic chemicals in the resulting electronic waste ash. • We used USETox model to demonstrate potential ecotoxicity and human health impacts. • We identify targets for risk reduction for hazardous chemicals in cellphones. - Abstract: The potential environmental and human health impacts of artisanal mining of electronic waste through open incineration were investigated. A market-representative set of cellphones was dismantled into four component categories—batteries, circuit boards, plastics and screens. The components were shredded, sieved and incinerated at 743–818 °C. The concentrations of 17 metals were determined using U.S. EPA methods 6010C (inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry; 6020A (inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, or 7471B and 7470A (cold-vapor atomic absorption). EPA Method 8270 (gas chromatography/mass spectrometry) was used to identify polyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds and polybrominated diphenyl ethers. EPA Method 8082A was used to measure polychlorinated biphenyls and EPA Method 8290 was used for dioxin/furans in the residue ash. The life cycle assessment model USEtox{sup ®} was used to estimate impacts of the ash residue chemicals on human health and the ecosystem. Among metals, copper in printed circuit boards had the highest ecotoxicity impact (1610–1930 PAF m{sup 3}/kg); Beryllium in plastics had the highest impact on producing non-cancer diseases (0.14–0.44 cases/kg of ash); and Nickel had the largest impact on producing cancers (0.093–0.35 cases/kg of ash). Among organic chemicals, dioxins from incinerated batteries produced the largest ecotoxicological impact (1.07E − 04 to 3.64E − 04 PAF m{sup 3}/kg). Furans in incinerated batteries can generate the largest number of cancers and non-cancer diseases, representing 8.12E − 09 to 2.28E − 08 and 8.96E − 10 and 2.52E

  13. Risks of toxic ash from artisanal mining of discarded cellphones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We simulated artisanal incineration of four component categories of cellphones. • We identified metals and organic chemicals in the resulting electronic waste ash. • We used USETox model to demonstrate potential ecotoxicity and human health impacts. • We identify targets for risk reduction for hazardous chemicals in cellphones. - Abstract: The potential environmental and human health impacts of artisanal mining of electronic waste through open incineration were investigated. A market-representative set of cellphones was dismantled into four component categories—batteries, circuit boards, plastics and screens. The components were shredded, sieved and incinerated at 743–818 °C. The concentrations of 17 metals were determined using U.S. EPA methods 6010C (inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry; 6020A (inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, or 7471B and 7470A (cold-vapor atomic absorption). EPA Method 8270 (gas chromatography/mass spectrometry) was used to identify polyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds and polybrominated diphenyl ethers. EPA Method 8082A was used to measure polychlorinated biphenyls and EPA Method 8290 was used for dioxin/furans in the residue ash. The life cycle assessment model USEtox® was used to estimate impacts of the ash residue chemicals on human health and the ecosystem. Among metals, copper in printed circuit boards had the highest ecotoxicity impact (1610–1930 PAF m3/kg); Beryllium in plastics had the highest impact on producing non-cancer diseases (0.14–0.44 cases/kg of ash); and Nickel had the largest impact on producing cancers (0.093–0.35 cases/kg of ash). Among organic chemicals, dioxins from incinerated batteries produced the largest ecotoxicological impact (1.07E − 04 to 3.64E − 04 PAF m3/kg). Furans in incinerated batteries can generate the largest number of cancers and non-cancer diseases, representing 8.12E − 09 to 2.28E − 08 and 8.96E − 10 and 2.52E − 09 cases/kg of

  14. The future of artisanal gold mining and miners under an increasing industrial presence in South Kivu and Ituri, eastern Democratic Republic of Congo

    OpenAIRE

    Geenen, Sara; Fahey, Daniel; Iragi Mukotanyi, Francine

    2013-01-01

    While the Congolese government is actively promoting large-scale industrial mining since it provides easy rents, artisanal mining seems to escape most attempts to control and regulate it. Yet artisanal mining provides employment and livelihoods to an estimated million people. This paper presents original research on artisanal gold miners in Province Orientale (Ituri district) and South Kivu. In both locations, the start of industrial gold mining operations threatens to displace artisanal mini...

  15. Total rewards: A study of artisan attraction and retention within a South African context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Schlechter

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The shortage of artisan skills remains a serious challenge in South Africa andis forcing employers to investigate which total reward factors contribute to the attractionand retention of this critical skills segment, as undifferentiated retention strategies are nolonger useful or even appropriate.Research purpose: The aim of this study was to further develop understanding of the total rewardfactors and the ideal combination and relative amount of total rewards that attract and retainartisans, including artisans from various race groups and age cohorts, using a novel approach.Motivation for the study: Limited research is available on the total reward factors and theideal combination and relative amount of total rewards that attract and retain artisans. Furtherknowledge in this area will allow organisations to develop reward models that better attractand retain artisans.Method: The study followed both a quantitative and qualitative research approach,whilst adopting a descriptive research design. Using this mixed method, primary datawere collected from individuals by means of two focus groups discussions: (1 a groupof human resource and remuneration managers (n = 4 and (2 a group of artisans (n = 7.These results were used to develop two questionnaires that were distributed to artisans (n = 143. Data from Questionnaire 1 were analysed using descriptive statistics and factoranalysis. Conjoint analysis was employed to identify an ideal total rewards compositionbased on responses from Questionnaire 2.Main findings: The results of the choice-based modelling (conjoint analysis revealed thatthree total rewards attributes were consistently deemed to be important in the retention ofartisans. These were (in order of priority: environment (work-life balance, compensation(level and compensation (variable. Environment (work-life balance was considered14.64% more important than compensation (level within the overall sample as well aswithin the race

  16. Enterococci from artisanal dairy products show high levels of adaptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlos, Ana Rita; Santos, Jorge; Semedo-Lemsaddek, Teresa; Barreto-Crespo, Maria Teresa; Tenreiro, Rogério

    2009-02-15

    Enterococci are ubiquitous organisms able to promote both health (fermented food/probiotics) and illness (human/animal infections). Disturbingly, several enterococcal species commonly found in artisanal cheeses, such as Enterococcus faecalis and E. faecium, are being increasingly established as causes of infection, posing a problem for food safety. In this study enterococci from ewe's milk and cheese were compared to clinical and reference strains by growth in media simulating environmental colonization and infection sites: 2YT, BHI, skim milk, urine and rabbit serum at different pHs, NaCl concentrations and temperatures. Growth curves were obtained with Microbiology Workstation Bioscreen C and used to calculate relative indexes--RIs--(based on absorbance, lag phase and specific growth rate) for each strain and environmental condition. Similar or higher RIs were obtained for food strains growing in infection-related environments when compared to clinical ones, revealing their ability to adapt and grow in these conditions. A dendrogram built using Pearson's correlation coefficient and a PCA analysis clustered the strains regardless of their origin or species allocation, suggesting a strain-specific mode of growth and a high environmental adaptability of enterococcal strains. These evidences turn essential the evaluation of strains to be used as starters or probiotics. PMID:19108923

  17. Physicochemical and microbiological evaluation of corrientes artisanal cheese during ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Myriam Vasek

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate some physical and chemical parameters (total solids, pH, acidity, fat, acid degree value of fat, salt, protein and nitrogen fractions and their effects on the beneficial (lactic acid bacteria: LAB and undesirable microbial populations (coliforms, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, moulds, and yeast during ripening of Artisanal Corrientes Cheese, an Argentinian cow's milk variety, to determine whether a longer ripening period than usual improve its hygienic-sanitary quality. The protein content was much higher than that of other cow's milk cheeses with similar values of fat. The larger peptides showed values three times higher in the 30 day-old cheese than those obtained in the beginning of the process. Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were detected (3.04 ± 1.48 log10 cfu/g of cheese, 2.21 ± 0.84 log10 MPN/g of cheese even at 15 and 30 days of ripening, respectively. The distribution of three hundred LAB strains classified to the genus level (lactococci:lactobacilli:leuconostocs was maintained during the ripening period. The high number of LAB in rennet may have contributed to the fermentation as a natural whey starter, unknown source of LAB for this specific cheese so far. The physicochemical changes that occur during ripening were not big enough to inhibit the growth of undesirable microorganisms.

  18. Attractors and soak times in artisanal fi shing with traps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Figueiredo Sebastiani

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Traps are used by artisanal fishers as fishing gear in places where other fishing modalities are impeded or limited. The advantage of this type of fishing modality is the possibility of keeping fish alive and in the case of capturing species of low commercial value or size below the permitted minimum this fishing gear allows the release of such specimens back to nature, resulting in a sustainability aspect to the use of this fishing gear. This study aims to evaluate the effects of different attractors and times of submersion on the efficiency of the traps used. Sardines, shrimps and trash fish were employed as attractors. To evaluate the soak time, two periods were tested: 24 and 96 hours. The sardines, used as the attractor, resulted in a production of 1,296.4 ± 397.4g, significantly superior (p <0.05 to other attractors. In relation to the soak time, the period of 24 hours resulted in an average production of 1,719.2 ± 866.0g, significantly (p <0.05 superior to the period of 96 hours. The results led to the conclusion that to optimize this capture by fishing gear, sardines should be used as the attractor, together with a soak time of 24 hours.

  19. Artisanal salt production in Aveiro/Portugal - an ecofriendly process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Carolina M; Bio, Ana; Amat, Francisco; Vieira, Natividade

    2011-01-01

    Solar salinas are man-made systems exploited for the extraction of salt, by solar and wind evaporation of seawater. Salt production achieved by traditional methods is associated with landscapes and environmental and patrimonial values generated throughout history. Since the mid-twentieth century, this activity has been facing a marked decline in Portugal, with most salinas either abandoned or subjected to destruction, making it necessary to find a strategy to reverse this trend.It is, however, possible to generate revenue from salinas at several levels, not merely in terms of good quality salt production, but also by obtaining other products that can be commercialized, or by exploring their potential for tourism, and as research facilities, among others. Furthermore, with an adequate management, biodiversity can be restored to abandoned salinas, which constitute important feeding and breeding grounds for resident and migratory aquatic birds, many of which are protected by European Community Directives.The aims of this manuscript are to present a brief overview on the current state of sea salt exploitation in Portugal and to stress the importance of recovering these salinas for the conservation of this particular environment, for the regional economy, the scientific community and the general public. The Aveiro salina complex is presented in detail, to exemplify salina structure and functioning, as well as current problems and potential solutions for artisanal salinas. PMID:22053788

  20. Artisanal fisheries of the Xingu River basin in Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, V J; Almeida, M C; Cruz, R E A; Nunes, L G

    2015-08-01

    The present study characterises the commercial fisheries of the basin of the Xingu River, a major tributary of the Amazon River, between the towns of Gurupá (at the mouth of the Amazon) and São Félix do Xingu. Between April, 2012, and March, 2014, a total of 23,939 fishing trips were recorded, yielding a total production of 1,484 tons of fish, harvested by almost three thousand fishers. The analysis of the catches emphasizes the small-scale and artisanal nature of the region's fisheries, with emphasis on the contribution of the motorised canoes powered by "long-tail" outboard motors. Larger motorboats operate only at the mouth of the Xingu and on the Amazon. Peacock bass (Cichla spp.), croakers (Plagioscion spp.), pacu (a group containing numerous serrasalmid species), aracu (various anostomids), and curimatã (Prochilodus nigricans) together contributed more than 60% of the total catch. Mean catch per unit effort was 18 kg/fisher-1.day-1, which varied among fishing methods (type of vessel and fishing equipment used), river sections, and time of the year. In most cases, yields varied little between years (2012 and 2013). The technical database provided by this study constitutes an important resource for the regulation of the region's fisheries, as well as for the evaluation of future changes resulting from the construction of the Belo Monte dam on the Xingu River. PMID:26691085

  1. Is the god of diamonds alone? The role of institutions in artisanal mining in forest landscapes, Congo Basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schure, J.M.; Ingram, V.J.; Tieguhong, J.C.; Ndikumagenge, C.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the institutional framework of artisanal mining in the forests of the Sangha Tri-National Landscape (TNS) in the Congo Basin. Artisanal miners in Cameroon and the Central African Republic (CAR) commonly make sacrifices to their god of diamonds, to improve fortunes. This study loo

  2. Responding to the challenge of artisanal and small-scale mining. How can knowledge networks help?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buxton, Abbi

    2013-02-15

    This paper reviews what is known about the problems and structural challenges facing the 20-30 million artisanal and small-scale miners and their communities worldwide. Better understanding of these structural challenges is needed to improve policies and policy implementation to further sustainable development opportunities for the sector. The paper explores the current gaps in knowledge to achieve policy change from researchers, practitioners and artisanal and small-scale miners themselves. It explores how a 'knowledge intermediary', which acts to link knowledge with policy, could address these gaps and includes case studies of IIED’s work on knowledge networks and programmes. The paper concludes by proposing a way forward for designing a knowledge programme to meet the particular needs of the artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM) sector, and by inviting ASM sector stakeholders to share their views on the options outlined.

  3. Talcosis in soapstone artisans: High-resolution CT findings in 12 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: To describe the high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) features of pneumoconiosis observed in soapstone artisans. Materials and methods: The present study included 12 soapstone artisans with chest radiography abnormalities consistent with the diagnosis of pneumoconiosis, in accordance with the International Labour Office classification. All patients had undergone HRCT, and the images were retrospectively analysed by two chest radiologists, who reached decisions in consensus. Results: All patients presented with interlobular septal thickening. Small centrilobular nodules (75%) and ground-glass opacities (67%) were also common findings. The distributions of abnormalities were predominantly diffuse. No pleural abnormality was found. Conclusion: The HRCT abnormalities observed in this group of soapstone artisans are similar to those of pure talc pneumoconiosis

  4. To the Question of Organizing the Career Guidence in Artisan Occupations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Yefanov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper looks at the institutional and functional features of the artisan activities, and vocational training of future artisans- entrepreneurs; the specificity of career guidance in related training profiles is discussed. In the course of successful socio-economic development, the given specialists can form a considerable part of the Russian middle class strata. However, there exist the two opposite trends: on the one hand, the specialists realize the modern day requirements for vocational training and enrollee selection, while, on the other hand, the majority of the society regards the artisan occupations as common and primitive. This controversy signals the urgent need for vocational guidance addressed to the school leavers. The authors suggest using acmeology – the studies of the highest professional achievements – along with psychological facilitation and visual grounds for career guidance development. The paper is recommended to the secondary school teachers, vocational training teachers and sociologists analyzing and predicting the labor market demands. 

  5. Implantation of iris-claw Artisan intraocular lens for aphakia in Fuchs′ heterochromic iridocyclitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Kheirkhah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Implantation of iris-claw Artisan intraocular lens (IOL is a surgical option for correction of aphakia; however, these IOLs have not been used in eyes with uveitis including Fuchs′ heterochromic iridocyclitis (FHI due to possible risk of severe postoperative intraocular inflammation. In the case reported here, we secondarily implanted an Artisan IOL in a 28-year-old man with FHI who had aphakia with no capsular support due to a previous complicated cataract surgery. Enclavation was easily performed and no intraoperative complication was noted. Postoperative course was uneventful with no significant anterior chamber inflammation during 12 months of follow-up. Although there were few deposits on the IOL surface, the patient achieved a best-corrected visual acuity of 20/20 without developing glaucoma or other complications. Therefore, Artisan IOL may be considered for correction of aphakia in patients with FHI. However, studies on large number of patients are required to evaluate safety of the procedure.

  6. Antimicrobial properties of lactic acid bacteria isolated from uruguayan artisan cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Fraga Cotelo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Uruguayan artisan cheese is elaborated with raw milk and non-commercial starters. The associated native microbiota may include lactic acid bacteria and also potentially pathogenic bacteria. Lactic acid bacteria were isolated from artisan cheese, raw milk, and non-commercial starter cultures, and their potential bacteriocin production was assessed. A culture collection of 509 isolates was obtained, and five isolates were bacteriocin-producers and were identified as Enterococcus durans,Lactobacillus casei, and Lactococcus lactis. No evidence of potential virulence factors were found in E. durans strains. These are promising results in terms of using these native strains for cheese manufacture and to obtain safe products.

  7. Survey of artisanal fishing gear and craft. A case study of Kainji Lake lower basin, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Ogundiwin, Damilare Ibukun

    2014-01-01

    Despite the considerable importance of artisanal fishing in Kainji Lake lower basin, knowledge about gear and craft being used is deficient and outdated. Little is also known as to why fishermen adopted the diverse fishing gear and craft they use in the Lake, as well as the relationship of these input factors to the socio-economic status of the fishermen and ecology of the lake. To address these issues, a survey of sixty (60) artisanal fishers and twelve (12) village leaders drawn from 12 sel...

  8. A review of mercury exposure among artisanal small-scale gold miners in developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Anders Kasper Bruun; Thomsen, Jane Frølund; Mikkelsen, Sigurd

    2014-01-01

    Extraction of gold using mercury has been a way out of poverty for millions of people in developing countries. Artisanal small-scale gold mining (ASGM) has expanded during the last decades and is often carried out under primitive conditions. Thus, workers in this industry may be exposed to high...

  9. Institutional aspects of artisanal mining in forest landscapes, western Congo Basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Schure; V. Ingram; J.C. Tieguhong; C. Ndikumagenge

    2011-01-01

    This contribution examines the multiple impacts of artisanal mining in the high-biodiversity forest of the Congo Basin’s Sangha Tri-National Landscape (TNS), and proposes measures for improving livelihoods in the area. It was concluded from a literature review, interviews and site visits that: diamo

  10. The impact of artisanal fishery on a tropical intertidal benthic fish community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, WF; van Schie, AMP; Jocene, DF; Mabote, ABP; Guissamulo, A

    2001-01-01

    We examined the benthic fishes and artisanal fishery in the intertidal flats of Inhaca Island, Mozambique. Results of a questionnaire indicated that catches had decreased, and that piscivorous fish have disappeared. Results of a catch sampling study indicated that current catch rates are low, <2 kg

  11. Occupational accidents in artisanal mining in Katanga, D.R.C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Elenge

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study focuses on accidents in artisanal mining, to support policies improving miners' employability. Materials and Methods: Based on a questionnaire administered in November 2009 to a sample of 180 miners from the artisanal mining of LUPOTO, in the Province of Katanga, we explored significant trends between the accidents and their consequences and behavioral or sociological variables. Results: During the 12 months preceding the study, 392 accidents occurred, affecting 72.2% of miners. Tools handling represents 51.5%, of the accidents' causes, followed by handling heavy loads (32.9%. Factors such as age, seniority or apprenticeship did not generate significant differences. Contusions were the most common injuries (50.2%, followed by wounds (44.4%. These injuries were located in upper limbs (50.5% and in lower limbs (29.3%. 80.5% of miners were cared for by their colleagues and 50% of them could not work for more than 3 days. Physical sequelae were reported by 19% of the injured miners. Discussion: Many surveys related to accidents in the area of artisanal mining report such high frequency. The unsuitability of tools to jobs to be done is usually raised as one of the major causes of accidents. The lack of differentiation of the tasks carried out in relation to age is another factor explaining the lack of protective effect of seniority as it minimizes the contribution of experience in the worker's safety. The apprenticeship reported is inadequate; it is rather a learning by doing than anything else. That is why it lacks protective effect. Low income combined with precariousness of artisanal mining are likely to explain the low level of work stoppages. Conclusion: Tools improvement associated with adequate training seem to be the basis of accident prevention. Availability of suitable medical care should improve artisanal miners' recovery after accidents.

  12. The Ecuadorian Artisanal Fishery for Large Pelagics: Species Composition and Spatio-Temporal Dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimmy Martínez-Ortiz

    Full Text Available The artisanal fisheries of Ecuador operate within one of the most dynamic and productive marine ecosystems of the world. This study investigates the catch composition of the Ecuadorian artisanal fishery for large pelagic fishes, including aspects of its spatio-temporal dynamics. The analyses of this study are based on the most extensive dataset available to date for this fishery: a total of 106,963 trip-landing inspection records collected at its five principal ports during 2008 ‒ 2012. Ecuadorian artisanal fisheries remove a substantial amount of biomass from the upper trophic-level predatory fish community of the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean. It is estimated that at least 135 thousand metric tons (mt (about 15.5 million fish were landed in the five principal ports during the study period. The great novelty of Ecuadorian artisanal fisheries is the "oceanic-artisanal" fleet component, which consists of mother-ship (nodriza boats with their towed fiber-glass skiffs (fibras operating with pelagic longlines. This fleet has fully expanded into oceanic waters as far offshore as 100°W, west of the Galapagos Archipelago. It is estimated that nodriza operations produce as much as 80% of the total catches of the artisanal fishery. The remainder is produced by independent fibras operating in inshore waters with pelagic longlines and/or surface gillnets. A multivariate regression tree analysis was used to investigate spatio-environmental effects on the nodriza fleet (n = 6,821 trips. The catch species composition of the nodriza fleet is strongly influenced by the northwesterly circulation of the Humboldt Current along the coast of Peru and its associated cold waters masses. The target species and longline gear-type used by nodrizas change seasonally with the incursion of cool waters (< 25°C from the south and offshore. During this season, dolphinfish (Coryphaena hippurus dominates the catches. However, in warmer waters, the fishery changes to tuna

  13. High-throughput sequencing for detection of subpopulations of bacteria not previously associated with artisanal cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, Lisa; O'Sullivan, Orla; Beresford, Tom P; Ross, R Paul; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; Cotter, Paul D

    2012-08-01

    Here, high-throughput sequencing was employed to reveal the highly diverse bacterial populations present in 62 Irish artisanal cheeses and, in some cases, associated cheese rinds. Using this approach, we revealed the presence of several genera not previously associated with cheese, including Faecalibacterium, Prevotella, and Helcococcus and, for the first time, detected the presence of Arthrobacter and Brachybacterium in goats' milk cheese. Our analysis confirmed many previously observed patterns, such as the dominance of typical cheese bacteria, the fact that the microbiota of raw and pasteurized milk cheeses differ, and that the level of cheese maturation has a significant influence on Lactobacillus populations. It was also noted that cheeses containing adjunct ingredients had lower proportions of Lactococcus species. It is thus apparent that high-throughput sequencing-based investigations can provide valuable insights into the microbial populations of artisanal foods. PMID:22685131

  14. Unsafe occupational health behaviours: Understanding mercury-related environmental health risks to artisanal gold miners in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Ato Armah

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between environmental exposure and health outcomes is complex, multidirectional and dynamic. Therefore, we need an understanding of these linkages for effective health risk communication. Despite the severe health hazards, artisanal gold mining is widespread globally, with an estimated 30 million people engaged in it. In this study, the relationships between artisanal gold miners’ knowledge of environmental and health effects of Hg and compositional, contextual and occupational factors were assessed using generalized linear models (negative log-log regression. A cross-sectional survey in three urban gold mining hubs in Ghana (Prestea, Tarkwa and Damang, was carried out among 588 (482 male and 106 female artisanal gold miners. The results showed that 89% of artisanal gold miners had very low to low levels of knowledge whereas 11% had moderate to very high levels of knowledge of deleterious health effects of Hg. Also, individuals who perceived their health-related work conditions to be excellent had very low to low levels of knowledge of environmental and health effects of Hg. Interestingly, artisanal gold miners who were still working were less likely to know the environmental and health effects of Hg compared with their counterparts who were currently unemployed. Similarly, artisanal gold miners who had attained either primary or secondary education were less likely to know the environmental and health effects of Hg compared with their counterparts who had no formal education. This finding, although counterintuitive, can be understood within the fact that artisanal gold miners in Ghana without formal education tend to have considerably higher number of years of practical experience compared with their counterparts with formal education. Female artisanal gold miners were 68% less likely to know the environmental and health effects of Hg compared with their male counterparts (OR=0.32, p<0.05. Artisanal gold miners who had

  15. An Assessment of the Kenyan Coastal Artisanal Fishery and Implications for the Introduction of FADs.

    OpenAIRE

    Mbaru, Emmanuel Kakunde

    2012-01-01

    The marine fishery in Kenya is predominantly small-scale and artisanal with about 11,000 fishers intensely fishing near shore coastal reefs using minimally selective fishing gears. A large majority (88%) of fishers use outdated equipment such as basket traps, beach seines, hand lines (hook and lines), fence traps, gillnets, spearguns and cast nets. Handmade canoes propelled by paddles (kasia) or sail power are used to access offshore waters, while only a few fishers have motorized boats. Alth...

  16. Identification and characterization of lactic acid bacteria isolated from artisanal white brined Golija cows’ milk cheeses

    OpenAIRE

    Terzić-Vidojević Amarela; Mihajlović Sanja; Uzelac Gordana; Golić Nataša; Fira Đ.; Kojić M.; Topisirović Lj.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify and characterize the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) of artisanal Golija raw and cooked cows’ milk cheeses traditionally manufactured without the addition of starter culture. A total of 188 Gram-positive and catalase-negative isolates of Golija cheeses were obtained from seven samples of different ripening time. Phenotypebased assays as well as rep-PCR and 16S rDNA sequence analysis were undertaken for all 188 Lstrains. The ...

  17. Viability of Staphylococcus xylosus isolated from artisanal sausages for application as starter cultures in meat products

    OpenAIRE

    Fiorentini, Ângela Maria; Sawitzki, Maristela Cortez; Bertol, Teresinha Marisa; Sant’Anna, Ernani S.

    2009-01-01

    Viability of Staphylococcus xylosus isolated from artisanal sausages for application as starter cultures in meat products Viability of Staphylococcus xylosus strains AD1 and U5 isolated from natural fermented sausages was investigated as starter cultures in fermented sausages produced in the South Region of Brazil. The study demonstrated that the Staphylococcus xylosus strains AD1 and U5 showed significant growth during fermentation, stability over freeze-dried process, negative reaction for ...

  18. Do ‘locally grown’ claims influence artisanal food purchase? Evidence from a natural field experiment.

    OpenAIRE

    Menapace, Luisa; Raffaelli, Roberta

    2013-01-01

    We conducted a natural field experiment in an artisanal sit-down ice-cream shop in Italy to investigate whether consumer choices are affected by information regarding locally grown products. Two aspects of locally grown products are investigated: (i) quality due to terroir (i.e., quality with a link to the territory) and (ii) reduced carbon emissions due to short transportation distance. Contrary to the evidence emerging from the majority of the stated-preference literature, our results sugge...

  19. Sanitation, fish handling and artisanal fish processing within fishing communities: socio-cultural influences

    OpenAIRE

    Odongkara, K.O.; Kyangwa, I.

    2005-01-01

    postive transformation of the fisheries sector in Uganda has of recent been scatted by failure to mountain fish quality and safety,akey prerequiste for retaining and gaining fish markets. The social cultural study established the extent to which social cutural practices had affected the levels and the use of sanitation facilities,fish handling facilities and artisanal fish processing techniques and the factors that influenced these practices in the fishing communities of lake victoria. ...

  20. Microbial ecology of artisanal italian cheese: Molecular microbial characterization by culture-independent method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present study will treat the next topics: ecology of the natural and man made environments and functional diversity of bacteria. The microbial communities in artisanal goat cheeses produced in mountain pastures (typical farms) in Piemonte mountain (North of Italy) change a lot during precessing and ripening time. Moreover cheese microbial ecosystems are different in each small dairy because adventitious microflora can come from the environment and contamination the milk before the cheese making process and the product during manufacture and ripening. (Author)

  1. Seaweed farming and artisanal fisheries in an Indonesian seagrass bed - complementary or competitive usages?

    OpenAIRE

    Blankenhorn, Sven Uli

    2008-01-01

    In Indonesia, coastal villages traditionally depend on artisanal fisheries. Increasing population density and fishing pressure make alternative sources of income become more important. One possibility is seaweed farming, which has been introduced in many communities. There, algae farming is restricted to shallow waters and their natural ecosystems, e. g. seagrass beds. Seagrass beds themselves are important habitats for many fish species are the basis for fisheries. If seaweed farming causes ...

  2. The Intuitional Perspective of Environment Pollutants Impact Severity on Artisanal Fisheries Resources in Niger Delta, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Abowei Jasper; J.A. Akankali

    2010-01-01

    The intuitional perspective of environment Pollutants Impact Severity on Artisanal Fisheries Resources in Niger Delta area of Nigeria was conducted for a period of one year (January 2008 – December 2008) to determine severity of environmental pollutants impacting on fisheries resources conservation and management in the Niger Delta region based on the opinion of relevant institutional personnel perspective, The study area covered include three core fishing states of Bayelsa, Delta and Rivers ...

  3. Microbial ecology of artisanal italian cheese: Molecular microbial characterization by culture-independent method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colombo, E.; Scarpellini, M.; Franzatti, L.; Dioguardi, L.

    2009-07-01

    Present study will treat the next topics: ecology of the natural and man made environments and functional diversity of bacteria. The microbial communities in artisanal goat cheeses produced in mountain pastures (typical farms) in Piemonte mountain (North of Italy) change a lot during precessing and ripening time. Moreover cheese microbial ecosystems are different in each small dairy because adventitious microflora can come from the environment and contamination the milk before the cheese making process and the product during manufacture and ripening. (Author)

  4. Socio-ecological analysis of the artisanal fishing system on Easter Island

    OpenAIRE

    Eleuterio Yáñez; Claudio Silva; María Ángela Barbieri; Héctor Trujillo

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces a socio-ecological analysis of the artisanal fisheries system on Easter Island (27°07'S, 109°22'W) through the identification and interaction of stakeholders. It also comprises a structural analysis of the system aiming to identify any key issues and then propose research and development programs for multiple fisheries that will contribute to their sustainable development. The methodology is divided into four stages: i) identification of issues with stakeholder (fishers,...

  5. Certifying improvement, improving certification: An analysis based on the artisanal and small-scale mining sector

    OpenAIRE

    Bodenheimer, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    There are a plethora of voluntary initiatives indirectly connected to artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM), but until recently, none of these standards were explicitly concerned with ASM. It is only with the introduction of certification schemes specific to the ASM sector that guidelines are being designed and implemented that expressly address its unique dynamics. But implementing certification schemes remains costly and it is therefore important to analyze in detail to what degree problem...

  6. Partnership on Reducing Mercury in Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining (ASGM)

    OpenAIRE

    Bernaudat L.; Keane S.

    2013-01-01

    The Artisanal and Small Scale Gold Mining Partnership area is an initiative to reduce global mercury pollution through coordinated voluntary actions. This partnership area, co-led by Natural Resources Defense Council and the United Nations Industrial Development Organization, gathers the major actors in the sector, including governments, academia and civil society. The ASGM sector remains the largest demand sector for mercury globally (best global estimates put mercury use by the sector in th...

  7. Determination of Heavy Metals and Other Elements in Artisanal Gold Mining Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Girigisu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The possible exposure of heavy elements to life as a result of artisanal gold mining activities can be of great concern because of its associated effect on health. Approach: Soil samples from the artisanal gold mining sites of Awwal and Bagega villages in Kebbi and Zamfara states of Nigeria were collected and analyzed for heavy and other elements by X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF technique. Ten of the element analyses are presented in this study, based on their toxicity levels. Results: Four of the ten elements (Pb, Si, Rb and Fe showed relatively high concentrations. Two of these four elements presented, (Si and Pb may pose latent and immediate hazards to health. Respiratory crystalline silica is the major element constituent of the ever-well-pronounced mining dusts of the two sites. Its form of occurrence portends irreversible health problem called silicosis and is well linked to cancer forming properties; both of which develop through latency periods. Pb at whatever concentration portends both immediate and long term hazards to women and children at the greatest risks of exposures. Conclusion: Based on the results presented, there exist a possibility of an immediate and long term health risks associated with the artisanal gold mining exercises in the two sites studied if the said uncoordinated and unprofessional activities of the miners are left unchecked.

  8. Assessing environmental impacts using a comparative LCA of industrial and artisanal production processes: "Minas Cheese" case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elbert Muller Nigri

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study uses the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA methodology to evaluate and compare the environmental impacts caused by both the artisanal and the industrial manufacturing processes of "Minas cheese". This is a traditional cheese produced in the state of Minas Gerais (Brazil, and it is considered a "cultural patrimony" in the country. The high participation of artisanal producers in the market justifies this research, and this analysis can help the identification of opportunities to improve the environmental performance of several stages of the production system. The environmental impacts caused were also assessed and compared. The functional unit adopted was 1 kilogram (Kg of cheese. The system boundaries considered were the production process, conservation of product (before sale, and transport to consumer market. The milk production process was considered similar in both cases, and therefore it was not included in the assessment. The data were collected through interviews with the producers, observation, and a literature review; they were ordered and processed using the SimaPro 7 LCA software. According to the impact categories analyzed, the artisanal production exerted lower environmental impacts. This can be justified mainly because the industrial process includes the pasteurization stage, which uses dry wood as an energy source and refrigeration.

  9. Occurrence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in artisanal Palmero cheese smoked with two types of vegetable matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillén, M D; Palencia, G; Sopelana, P; Ibargoitia, M L

    2007-06-01

    Palmero cheese is a fresh smoked cheese from the Isle of Palma (Canary Islands), manufactured with goat's milk. To guarantee its safety, the occurrence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in artisanal Palmero cheese smoked with 2 types of vegetable matter (almond shells and dry prickly pear) was studied. The determination of PAH includes extraction and clean-up steps, followed by separation, identification, and quantification of PAH by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in selected ion-monitoring mode. The most abundant PAH are those with 2 and 3 aromatic rings. Although the highest total PAH concentrations corresponded to the cheeses smoked with almond shells, the degree of PAH contamination of the cheeses studied was lower than that found in other cheeses smoked in the traditional way. The nature of the vegetable material used for smoking seemed to have an influence on the type of PAH formed, especially on alkylderivatives and some light PAH. However, despite the artisanal, and consequently variable, production process of these cheeses, many similarities have been found among their PAH profiles. In fact, relatively constant relationships are observed between the concentrations of certain pairs of PAH. Benzo(a)pyrene was only present in 2 samples, and in much lower concentrations than the maximum allowed legal limits. Therefore, according to the results obtained, it appears that it is possible to obtain a safe product without renouncing the artisanal character or the sensory properties of this type of cheese. PMID:17517711

  10. Environmental mercury contamination of an artisanal zinc smelting area in Weining County, Guizhou, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the extent of Hg contamination due to artisanal Zn smelting activities in Weining County, northwestern Guizhou, China, total Hg and methyl mercury (MeHg) concentrations in soil and surface water were determined. Samples of corn plants growing in the study area were also collected for total Hg analysis. A high geometric mean Hg emission factor of 75 g Hg t-1 Zn was estimated and significantly elevated total gaseous mercury (TGM) concentrations were found in the atmosphere adjacent to the Zn smelting sites, ranging from 30 to 3814 ng m-3. Total Hg and MeHg concentrations in topsoil samples ranged from 62 to 355 μg kg-1 and from 0.20 to 1.1 μg kg-1, respectively. Total Hg Concentrations in corn plant tissues increased in the order of grains < stalks < roots < leaves. This study revealed a significant Hg pollution to the local environment resulted from the artisanal Zn smelting activities. - Artisanal zinc smelting caused serious mercury contamination in Weining, Guizhou, China

  11. The Ecuadorian Artisanal Fishery for Large Pelagics: Species Composition and Spatio-Temporal Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Ortiz, Jimmy; Aires-da-Silva, Alexandre M.; Lennert-Cody, Cleridy E.; Maunder, Mark N.

    2015-01-01

    The artisanal fisheries of Ecuador operate within one of the most dynamic and productive marine ecosystems of the world. This study investigates the catch composition of the Ecuadorian artisanal fishery for large pelagic fishes, including aspects of its spatio-temporal dynamics. The analyses of this study are based on the most extensive dataset available to date for this fishery: a total of 106,963 trip-landing inspection records collected at its five principal ports during 2008 ‒ 2012. Ecuadorian artisanal fisheries remove a substantial amount of biomass from the upper trophic-level predatory fish community of the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean. It is estimated that at least 135 thousand metric tons (mt) (about 15.5 million fish) were landed in the five principal ports during the study period. The great novelty of Ecuadorian artisanal fisheries is the “oceanic-artisanal” fleet component, which consists of mother-ship (nodriza) boats with their towed fiber-glass skiffs (fibras) operating with pelagic longlines. This fleet has fully expanded into oceanic waters as far offshore as 100°W, west of the Galapagos Archipelago. It is estimated that nodriza operations produce as much as 80% of the total catches of the artisanal fishery. The remainder is produced by independent fibras operating in inshore waters with pelagic longlines and/or surface gillnets. A multivariate regression tree analysis was used to investigate spatio-environmental effects on the nodriza fleet (n = 6,821 trips). The catch species composition of the nodriza fleet is strongly influenced by the northwesterly circulation of the Humboldt Current along the coast of Peru and its associated cold waters masses. The target species and longline gear-type used by nodrizas change seasonally with the incursion of cool waters (< 25°C) from the south and offshore. During this season, dolphinfish (Coryphaena hippurus) dominates the catches. However, in warmer waters, the fishery changes to tuna

  12. Mercury contamination from artisanal gold mining in Antioquia, Colombia: The world's highest per capita mercury pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordy, Paul; Veiga, Marcello M; Salih, Ibrahim; Al-Saadi, Sari; Console, Stephanie; Garcia, Oseas; Mesa, Luis Alberto; Velásquez-López, Patricio C; Roeser, Monika

    2011-12-01

    The artisanal gold mining sector in Colombia has 200,000 miners officially producing 30tonnes Au/a. In the Northeast of the Department of Antioquia, there are 17 mining towns and between 15,000 and 30,000 artisanal gold miners. Guerrillas and paramilitary activities in the rural areas of Antioquia pushed miners to bring their gold ores to the towns to be processed in Processing Centers or entables. These Centers operate in the urban areas amalgamating the whole ore, i.e. without previous concentration, and later burn gold amalgam without any filtering/condensing system. Based on mercury mass balance in 15 entables, 50% of the mercury added to small ball mills (cocos) is lost: 46% with tailings and 4% when amalgam is burned. In just 5 cities of Antioquia, with a total of 150,000 inhabitants: Segovia, Remedios, Zaragoza, El Bagre, and Nechí, there are 323 entables producing 10-20tonnes Au/a. Considering the average levels of mercury consumption estimated by mass balance and interviews of entables owners, the mercury consumed (and lost) in these 5 municipalities must be around 93tonnes/a. Urban air mercury levels range from 300ng Hg/m(3) (background) to 1million ng Hg/m(3) (inside gold shops) with 10,000ng Hg/m(3) being common in residential areas. The WHO limit for public exposure is 1000ng/m(3). The total mercury release/emissions to the Colombian environment can be as high as 150tonnes/a giving this country the shameful first position as the world's largest mercury polluter per capita from artisanal gold mining. One necessary government intervention is to cut the supply of mercury to the entables. In 2009, eleven companies in Colombia legally imported 130tonnes of metallic mercury, much of it flowing to artisanal gold mines. Entables must be removed from urban centers and technical assistance is badly needed to improve their technology and reduce emissions. PMID:22000915

  13. Plants used in artisanal fisheries on the Western Mediterranean coasts of Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savo Valentina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Artisanal fisheries in the Mediterranean, especially in Italy, have been poorly investigated. There is a long history of fishing in this region, and it remains an important economic activity in many localities. Our research entails both a comprehensive review of the relevant literature and 58 field interviews with practitioners on plants used in fishing activities along the Western Mediterranean Italian coastal regions. The aims were to record traditional knowledge on plants used in fishery in these regions and to define selection criteria for plant species used in artisanal fisheries, considering ecology and intrinsic properties of plants, and to discuss the pattern of diffusion of shared uses in these areas. Methods Information was gathered both from a general review of ethnobotanical literature and from original data. A total of 58 semi-structured interviews were carried out in Liguria, Latium, Campania and Sicily (Italy. Information on plant uses related to fisheries were collected and analyzed through a chi-square residual analysis and the correspondence analysis in relation to habitat, life form and chorology. Results A total of 60 plants were discussed as being utilized in the fisheries of the Western Italian Mediterranean coastal regions, with 141 different uses mentioned. Of these 141 different uses, 32 are shared among different localities. A multivariate statistical analysis was performed on the entire dataset, resulting in details about specific selection criteria for the different usage categories (plants have different uses that can be classified into 11 main categories. In some uses, species are selected for their features (e.g., woody, or habitat (e.g., riverine, etc. The majority of uses were found to be obsolete (42% and interviews show that traditional fishery knowledge is in decline. There are several reasons for this, such as climatic change, costs, reduction of fish stocks, etc. Conclusions Our research

  14.  Miners’ magic: artisanal mining, the albino fetish and murder in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bryceson, Deborah; Jønsson, Jesper Bosse; Sherrington, Richard

    2010-01-01

    local profit maximisation. The murders are connected to gold and diamond miners’ efforts to secure lucky charms for finding minerals and protection against danger while mining. Through the concept of fetish creation, this article interrogates the agency of those involved in the murders : the miners who......A series of murders of albinos in Tanzania’s north-west mining frontier has been shrouded in a discourse of primitivism by the international and national press, sidestepping the significance of the contextual circumstances of an artisanal mining boom firmly embedded in a global commodity chain and...

  15. Artisanal Fisheries in the Ndumo Area of the Lower Phongolo River Floodplain, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Hendri C. Coetzee; Werner Nell; Van Eeden, Elize S; Engela P. de Crom

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the status of artisanal fisheries in the lower Phongolo River floodplain in northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. A cross-sectional quantitative survey design was used that included the development of a questionnaire and a systematic survey among the five villages bordering the Ndumo Game Reserve. Data were collected over a 5-day period by a group of 16 fieldworkers and analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, version 21. The res...

  16. ARTISANAL AND SMALL−SCALE MINING IN WASSA AMENFI EAST DISTRICT, (Ghana)

    OpenAIRE

    Ezeji Onyebuchi, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Artisanal and small-scale mining in Ghana has been in existence as far back as pre-colonial era. The industry which is mostly controlled by Ghanaians is highly unregulated pre 1987 (Hilson, 2001). However, because of dwindling state of the economy, the government under the auspices of the German NGO; Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) and the World Bank, decided to legalize small-scale mining as part of Economic Recovery Policies (ERP), allowing individuals to mine mine...

  17. Behaviour of Salmonella Typhimurium during production and storage of artisan water buffalo mozzarella cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Rosmini

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Water buffalo mozzarella cheese (WBMC is a fresh pasta filata cheese produced from whole chilled buffalo milk. Although pasteurization of milk and the use of defined starter cultures are recommended, traditional technology involving the use of unpasteurized milk and natural whey cultures is still employed for WBMC production in Italy. The aim of this study were to assess the behaviour of Salmonella Typhimurium during the production of artisan water buffalo mozzarella cheese and during its shelf life under different temperature conditions. Raw milk was inoculated with S. Typhimurium and the evolution of S. Typhimurium count during production and shelf life was monitored. In artisan WBMC production technology S. Typhimurium multiplied in the curd during ripening, but its growth rate expressed in log CFU/g/h was lower than the growth rate reported by theoretical predictions. Stretching proved to be a process with good repeatability and able to reduce S. Typhimurium contamination by 5.5 Log CFU/g. The intrinsic characteristics of traditional WBMC proved to be unable to obstacolate the growth of S. Typhimurium during storage in the case of thermal abuse. Control of raw milk contamination and a proper refrigeration temperature are key factors in reducing the risk for consumers.

  18. Occupational radiation exposures of artisans mining columbite-tantalite in the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artisans in Masisi and other parts of the North Kivu province in the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) mine columbite-tantalite mineral ores (also called 'coltan') for the tantalum content. The potential occupational radiation exposures in the course of this operation, due to the presence of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM), have been investigated in this screening survey. Activity concentrations of the naturally occurring radionuclides in samples of coltan were measured using gamma-ray spectrometry. The average values in Bq g-1 are 10.75 ± 5.11 for 238U, 7.06 ± 3.39 for 226Ra, 1.75 ± 0.85 for 232Th, and 1.63 ± 0.52 for 40K. Based on these values and the working scenarios involved in artisanal coltan mining, the occupational doses that may accrue from a variety of exposure pathways were determined by model calculations. The results, assuming conservative dust load and dilution factors, indicate that grinding and sieving coltan can give rise to high occupational doses, up to 18 mSv per annum on average

  19. Presence of enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus in artisan fruit salads in the city of San Luis, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia S.M. Lucero Estrada

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available An increase in the consumption of fruit juices and minimally processed fruits salads has been observed in recent years all over the world. In this work, the microbiological quality of artisan fruit salads was analysed. Faecal coliforms, Salmonella spp, Shigella spp, Yersinia enterocolitica and Escherichia coli O157:H7 were not detected; nevertheless, eleven strains of Staphylococcus aureus were isolated. By multiplex PCR, all isolates showed positive results for S. aureus 16S rRNA gene and 63.6% of them were positive for sea gene. Furthermore, PCR sea positive strains were able to produce the corresponding enterotoxin. Finally, the inactivation of these strains in fruit salads by nisin, lysozyme and EDTA, was studied. EDTA produced a total S. aureus growth inhibition after 60 h of incubation at a concentration of 250 mg/L. The presence of S. aureus might indicate inadequate hygiene conditions during salad elaboration; however, the enterotoxigenicity of the strains isolated in this study, highlights the risk of consumers' intoxication. EDTA could be used to inhibit the growth of S. aureus in artisan fruit salads and extend the shelf life of these products.

  20. Socio-ecological analysis of the artisanal fishing system on Easter Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleuterio Yáñez

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a socio-ecological analysis of the artisanal fisheries system on Easter Island (27°07'S, 109°22'W through the identification and interaction of stakeholders. It also comprises a structural analysis of the system aiming to identify any key issues and then propose research and development programs for multiple fisheries that will contribute to their sustainable development. The methodology is divided into four stages: i identification of issues with stakeholder (fishers, government workers and expert scientists participation, ii analysis of a structural matrix consisting of a direct causality study of the symmetric, structural and binary matrix based on socio-ecological issues allowing the calculation of the level of influence and dependence of each issue, iii identification of key issues with an influence/dependency diagram, and iv proposal of research and development programs according to the needs and opportunities identified in the previous stages. The Easter Island artisanal fishing system is used as a case study for this methodological approach. Thus, the fishers identified 108 issues, which were then grouped by similarity, reducing the number to 27 global issues, of which seven were identified as key. Surveyed local and central government workers and expert scientists identified 7, 2 and 5 issues, respectively. Finally, research and development programs are proposed that will encourage a series of changes to the fisheries situation on the island, in order to resolve issues and promote their sustainable development.

  1. An Integrated Assessment Approach to Address Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Niladri; Renne, Elisha P; Long, Rachel N

    2015-09-01

    Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) is growing in many regions of the world including Ghana. The problems in these communities are complex and multi-faceted. To help increase understanding of such problems, and to enable consensus-building and effective translation of scientific findings to stakeholders, help inform policies, and ultimately improve decision making, we utilized an Integrated Assessment approach to study artisanal and small-scale gold mining activities in Ghana. Though Integrated Assessments have been used in the fields of environmental science and sustainable development, their use in addressing specific matter in public health, and in particular, environmental and occupational health is quite limited despite their many benefits. The aim of the current paper was to describe specific activities undertaken and how they were organized, and the outputs and outcomes of our activity. In brief, three disciplinary workgroups (Natural Sciences, Human Health, Social Sciences and Economics) were formed, with 26 researchers from a range of Ghanaian institutions plus international experts. The workgroups conducted activities in order to address the following question: What are the causes, consequences and correctives of small-scale gold mining in Ghana? More specifically: What alternatives are available in resource-limited settings in Ghana that allow for gold-mining to occur in a manner that maintains ecological health and human health without hindering near- and long-term economic prosperity? Several response options were identified and evaluated, and are currently being disseminated to various stakeholders within Ghana and internationally. PMID:26393627

  2. The Legal Regulation of Artisan and Trade Corporations in the Cities of Medieval Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentine G. Medvedev

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article features an analysis of the legal regulation of the formation and activity of artisan and trade corporations in the cities of medieval Europe. Based on the findings of an analysis of existing scientific theories, as well as a study of legal and regulatory acts, the author aims to explore the issue of the emergence of cities and workshop organizations in them and reveal their legal essence and content. The relevance of this paper is due to the fact that up until now a sufficiently definitive opinion is yet to be propounded in historical and historical/legal science as to the origin and development of such specific urban institutions as workshops and workshop corporations, with their special legal regulation. The author comes to the conclusion that the formation of cities and workshop organizations reflected the evolution of the economic and social development of medieval society, which was associated with social division of labor. The paper’s major focus is not on the statutory regulation of the work of masters and not on the regulation of workshop craft methods, which can be explained quite logically by the economic need for adapting medieval artisan production to the limited needs and capacity of the local market, and which is the subject of study for the majority of present-day scholars, but issues related to the very organization of the workshop, its position in the system of urban establishments, as well as the legal status of its members.

  3. Limitations in small artisanal gold mining addressed by educational components paired with alternative mining methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolnikov, Tara R

    2012-03-01

    Current solutions continue to be inadequate in addressing the longstanding, worldwide problem of mercury emissions from small artisanal gold mining. Mercury, an inexpensive and easily accessible heavy metal, is used in the process of extracting gold from ore. Mercury emissions disperse, affecting human populations by causing adverse health effects and environmental and social ramifications. Many developing nations have sizable gold ore deposits, making small artisanal gold mining a major source of employment in the world. Poverty drives vulnerable, rural populations into gold mining because of social and economic instabilities. Educational programs responding to this environmental hazard have been implemented in the past, but have had low positive results due to lack of governmental support and little economic incentive. Educational and enforced intervention programs must be developed in conjunction with governmental agencies in order to successfully eliminate this ongoing problem. Industry leaders offered hopeful suggestions, but revealed limitations when trying to develop encompassing solutions to halt mercury emissions. This research highlights potential options that have been attempted in the past and suggests alternative solutions to improve upon these methods. Some methods include buyer impact recognition, risk assessment proposals exposing a cost-benefit analysis and toxicokinetic modeling, public health awareness campaigns, and the education of miners, healthcare workers, and locals within hazardous areas of mercury exposure. These methods, paired with the implementation of alternative mining techniques, propose a substantial reduction of mercury emissions. PMID:22297251

  4. The role of conflict minerals, artisanal mining, and informal trading networks in African intrastate and regional conflicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirico, Peter G.; Malpeli, Katherine C.

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between natural resources and armed conflict gained public and political attention in the 1990s, when it became evident that the mining and trading of diamonds were connected with brutal rebellions in several African nations. Easily extracted resources such as alluvial diamonds and gold have been and continue to be exploited by rebel groups to fund their activities. Artisanal and small-scale miners operating under a quasi-legal status often mine these mineral deposits. While many African countries have legalized artisanal mining and established flow chains through which production is intended to travel, informal trading networks frequently emerge in which miners seek to evade taxes and fees by selling to unauthorized buyers. These networks have the potential to become international in scope, with actors operating in multiple countries. The lack of government control over the artisanal mining sector and the prominence of informal trade networks can have severe social, political, and economic consequences. In the past, mineral extraction fuelled violent civil wars in Sierra Leone, Liberia, and Angola, and it continues to do so today in several other countries. The significant influence of the informal network that surrounds artisanal mining is therefore an important security concern that can extend across borders and have far-reaching impacts.

  5. The Utilisation of Skilled Artisans as Vocational Instructors in Secondary Schools in Edo and Delta States of Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whawo, D. Duwovwiji

    1993-01-01

    Investigates the feasibility of hiring skilled craftspeople to teach practical workshop skills in secondary-level prevocational courses in Nigeria. Presents results of a survey of 200 artisans to determine their willingness to teach full- or part-time and minimum salary requirements. Indicates that 85.6% were willing to teach. Discusses…

  6. The Production of Parmigiano-Reggiano Cheese: The force of an artisanal system in an industrialised world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roest, de K.

    2000-01-01

    In many respects the Parmigiano-Reggiano production system is a unique dairy system. The processing of 1.35 million tons of milk into a high quality product in 600 small cheese dairies using predominantly artisan production techniques is not found anywhere else in Europe. The high labour input requi

  7. Threats posed by artisanal fisheries to the reproduction of coastal fish species in a Mediterranean marine protected area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloret, J.; Muñoz, M.; Casadevall, M.

    2012-11-01

    Artisanal fisheries are frequently considered as a sustainable activity compatible with the conservation objectives of marine protected areas (MPAs). Few studies have examined the impacts of these fisheries on the reproductive potential of exploited fish species within the marine reserves. This study evaluated the potential impact of artisanal fishing on the reproduction of coastal fish species in a Mediterranean MPA through onboard sampling from January 2008 to December 2010. Eleven sex-changing fish species constituted an important part of the catch (20% overall and up to 60% of the total gill net catch) and, in five of them, most individuals were of one sex. Artisanal fishing can negatively affect the sustainability of those coastal fishes showing sex reversal, particularly the protogynous ones such as Diplodus cervinus and Epinephelus marginatus, as well as the species with complex mating systems (e.g. some sparids, labrids and scorpaenids). In all species the average size for the individuals captured was above the minimum landing size (where this exists), but in four species (Conger conger, Diplodus puntazzo, Sphyraena spp. and Sparus aurata) it was below the size of first maturity (L50). Results show that sex and size selection by artisanal fishing not only can have an impact on the reproduction of coastal fish species but may also be exacerbating rather than reducing the impact of fishing on coastal resources. Thus, new management actions need to be urgently implemented in the MPAs where artisanal fisheries are allowed to operate in order to protect the reproductive potential of these species, particularly those showing a complicated reproductive strategy.

  8. HIV/AIDS, artisanal fishing and food security in the Okavango Delta, Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngwenya, B. N.; Mosepele, K.

    Generally, rural households pursue all year round natural and non-natural resource-based livelihood systems to diversify these options in order to cope with risks emanating from a range of shocks and stressors. Artisanal fishing in the Delta is not only a major livelihood option but also a source of food security. This paper is based on analysis of primary data collected from a survey of 248 subsistence fishers’ households through simple random sampling in 22 villages in the Delta. The overall objectives of the survey were to assess the general prevalence of HIV/AIDS in the Ngamiland district of Botswana, to investigate potential effects of AIDS-related stressors, particularly chronic illness on artisanal fishing activities, and to assess implications towards food security. Results from this study indicate that HIV prevalence rates for pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in the Delta are approximately 30% and are related to factors such as marriage, education, and employment. Despite this relatively high prevalence percentage, most of the affected households do not have adequate access to HIV/AIDS support facilities. Support services are provided on the basis of population size and/or status of the settlement (i.e. urban, urban village, rural or remote). Therefore, since about 50% of the Delta’s population lives in settlements of less than 500 people, they receive health services indirectly through major population centres whose capacity to deliver timely HIV/AIDS services is limited. This disproportionate access to HIV/AIDS services disadvantages the majority of fishing communities in the Delta, and may affect their ability to fish. Moreover, about 53% of sampled households had cared for a continuously ill person/s (CIP’s) in the last 5 years, out of which approximately 29% felt that this seriously impacted fishing activities. These serious impacts included sale of family assets, depletion of savings, and switching or abandoning fishing activities

  9. Ecological interactions of sea sponges (Animalia, Porifera according to artisanal fishermen from Camamu Bay, Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loyana Docio

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This article represents the first ethnospongiological study in Brazil, and it aimed at recording artisanal fishermen’s knowledge about sea sponges and their ecological interactions. The study was carried out in the Ilha do Contrato community at Camamu Bay, Bahia State, Brazil. The data were obtained by means of open-ended interviews and projective tests, and followed the usual techniques of ethnographic surveys. The interviewees had knowledge regarding ecological interactions among fish, sea sponges and sponge endofaunal composition. According to the results, there is some congruence between folk wisdom and scientific knowledge. The importance of integrating local knowledge into management and conservation plans designed for the Camamu Bay region, as well as the set of data on ecology of reef communities, should be considered.

  10. Traditional knowledge and artisanal fishing technology on the Xingu River in Pará, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, E M C; Isaac-Nahum, V J

    2015-08-01

    In artisanal fishing, the techniques used by a community reflect the characteristics of the natural environment, in particular the distribution and availability of resources, as well as local traditions and customs. However, economic development may result in the loss of these traditions. The present study documents the fishing techniques used by the communities on the Xingu River in the Brazilian state of Pará (Maribel, Altamira, Belo Monte, Vitória do Xingu, Vila Nova, Senador José Porfírio, Porto de Moz, and Gurupá). Interviews were used to investigate traditional local knowledge and the distribution of the different fishing methods within the study area. The local fishers described the use of 12 different types of net, 10 hook and line techniques, and eight kinds of spearfishing. Free diving and scuba diving are also used for the capture of ornamental fish. PMID:26691086

  11. The mangrove in the ethnoecological perception of artisanal fishermen of the Santa Cruz Channel, Itapissuma, Pernambuco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Maria Euzébio da Silva

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Ethnoecology studies the way human populations interpret the connections arising from interactions between society and nature. The present research was conducted with the aim of elucidating the relationship between the artisanal fishermen of Itapissuma, Pernambuco, and the estuary-mangrove complex. Thus, a group of 54 fishermen of the Santa Cruz Channel were interviewed. They demonstrated an accurate knowledge about the biodiversity of these ecosystems, the ecological relations operating there, and the importance of these natural resources for fishing production. This knowledge reflects a cultural background in which the art of fishing is transmitted to descendants, through observations and practical learning in the traditional community in question: in such communities, the economic subsistence of families depends on those resources.

  12. Dolphin interactions with the mullet artisanal fishing on Southern Brazil: a qualitative and quantitative approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo C. Simões-Lopes

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A detailed analysis of the interactions between Tursiops truncatus (Montagu, 1821 and the artisanal fishing of mullets (Mugil spp. is presented at two localities in the south of Brazil: Laguna (Santa Catarina and Inibé/Tramandaí (Rio Grande do Sul. Its behavioral strategies and the advantages of their association are re-described and quantified based on the success of the capture and on the selectivity of the prey sizes. The mullets are the main resource involved (92% to 75% both at numerical level and as biomass. Twenty individuals of Tursiops truncatus participated in the interactions in Laguna and 9 in Imbé/Tramandaí. The participation and learning of calves is also reported.

  13. Does Local Development Exist? Sustainability of Artisanal Agri-Industry of Jatropha Seeds in Yucatan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Rucoba Garcia

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study seeks to analyze the benefits, as well as the likely risks of cultivating Jatropha curcas in small production units of rain fed lands in Yucatán. In order to analyze the possible development of local artisanal agri-industry in the context of policies related to biofuels in Mexico, interviews with key informants were made to identify the agricultural potential of Jatropha c. in monoculture and associated crops. Its cultivation and using for biodiesel in the country will be possible as long as it not implies competition with crops for family consumption and it not represents an environmental degradation factor. Production of Jatropha c. on small areas could be a productive choice if public policies are established to promote biodiesel production and its use in national industry.

  14. Mining ‘From Below’: Taking Africa’s artisanal miners seriously

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jønsson, Jesper Bosse; Fold, Niels

    2011-01-01

    Artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM) is of growing importance for the livelihoods of an increasing number of Africa’s rural population. Therefore, the sector is increasingly being recognized by African governments, donor institutions and researchers for its role in national development processes....... This paper reviews four issues that drive the dynamics within ASM and situates the sector in broader development and formalization problematics. These issues are (i) ASM as part of livelihood portfolios, (ii) the organizational dynamics of ASM, (iii) ASM conflicts with large-scale mining companies, and...... (iv) ASM in alternative trade regimes based on ethical standards. In conclusion, the paper stresses the need for a context-sensitive formalization and strengthening of ASM: Domestically led mining operations potentially constitute a necessary means for African states to better balance the co...

  15. Etude chimique de colorants naturels et matériaux résineux traditionnels au Bénin dans le domaine artisanal

    OpenAIRE

    Fagbohoun, Louis

    2014-01-01

    Molecular plant wealth is an important source of dyes and naturally occurring bioactive molecules, have always been used by artisans and crafts and traditional healers in the therapeutic field. This work contributes mainly to the chemical study of five dye plants: T. grandis, L. inermis, K. senegalensis, I. tinctoria and P. cyanescens, which represent the most used by the artisans at from a ethnobotanical study conducted in southeastern Benin. An optimization of the extraction conditions dyes...

  16. Artisanal Extraction and Traditional Knowledge Associated with Medicinal Use of Crabwood Oil (Carapa guianensis Aublet.) in a Peri-Urban Várzea Environment in the Amazon Estuary

    OpenAIRE

    Mariane Nardi; Ana Cláudia Lira-Guedes; Helenilza Ferreira Albuquerque Cunha; Marcelino Carneiro Guedes; Karen Mustin; Suellen Cristina Pantoja Gomes

    2016-01-01

    Várzea forests of the Amazon estuary contain species of importance to riverine communities. For example, the oil extracted from the seeds of crabwood trees is traditionally used to combat various illnesses and as such artisanal extraction processes have been maintained. The objectives of this study were to (1) describe the process involved in artisanal extraction of crabwood oil in the Fazendinha Protected Area, in the state of Amapá; (2) characterise the processes of knowledge transfer assoc...

  17. A retrospective analysis of the first Yemeni experience on Artisan phakic intraocular lens for the treatment of moderate and high myopia

    OpenAIRE

    Mahfouth A Bamashmus; Awadalla A Mohamed; Hisham A Alakhlee

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the outcome and safety of the iris-fixated Artisan phakic intraocular lens (PIOL) for the correction of moderate and high myopia. Materials and Methods: A retrospective non-controlled clinical study of the data of patients who underwent Artisan PIOLs between March 2006 and July 2008 was evaluated. Pre-operative examination included age, gender, refraction, uncorrected (UCVA) and best spectacle corrected (BSCVA) visual acuity, predictability and safety were analyzed...

  18. Artisanal Fisheries in the Ndumo Area of the Lower Phongolo River Floodplain, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendri C. Coetzee

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the status of artisanal fisheries in the lower Phongolo River floodplain in northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. A cross-sectional quantitative survey design was used that included the development of a questionnaire and a systematic survey among the five villages bordering the Ndumo Game Reserve. Data were collected over a 5-day period by a group of 16 fieldworkers and analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, version 21. The results revealed that fish was the third most consumed protein in the area, that people consumed fish on average twice a week, that at least six fish species (and one recently introduced crayfish species were consumed regularly, and that most fish were obtained from local vendors, who in turn bought it from local fishermen and -women. Fishing activities also appeared to occur predominantly along the river system and targeted mainly red-breasted tilapia (Tilapia rendalli and Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus and, to a slightly lesser extent, African sharptooth catfish (Clarias gariepinus and brown squeaker (Synodontis zambezensis.Conservation implications: Given that Ndumo residents predominantly catch fish by means of non-commercial methods, that they do so for reasons of personal consumption and subsistence, and that they mostly target rivers and dams rather than the ecologically sensitive pans in the region, it would seem likely that fishing in the region might be sustainable for the moment. However, it is recommended that studies on the local fish populations and their reproductive rates be conducted so that the actual impact on local fish populations can be determined more accurately. This study serves to provide the necessary baseline data on fish utilisation in the region, which would enable the impact of artisanal fishing on fish reserves in the Ndumo region to be determined once population studies have been completed.

  19. Artisanal small-scale mining: Potential ecological disaster in Mzingwane District, Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siduduziwe Ncube-Phiri

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Artisanal small-scale mining (ASM has devastating impacts on the environment, such as deforestation, over-stripping of overburden, burning of bushes and use of harmful chemicals like mercury. These environmental impacts are a result of destructive mining, wasteful mineral extraction and processing practices and techniques used by the artisanal small-scale miners. This paper explores the ecological problems caused by ASM in Mzingwane District, Zimbabwe. It seeks to determine the nature and extent to which the environment has been damaged by the ASM from a community perspective. Interviews, questionnaires and observations were used to collect qualitative data. Results indicated that the nature of the mining activities undertaken by unskilled and under-equipped gold panners in Mzingwane District is characterised by massive stripping of overburden and burning of bushes, leading to destruction of large tracts of land and river systems and general ecosystem disturbance. The research concluded that ASM in Mzingwane District is an ecological time bomb, stressing the need for appropriate modifications of the legal and institutional frameworks for promoting sustainable use of natural resources and mining development in Zimbabwe. Government, through the Ministry of Small Scale and Medium Enterprises, need to regularise and formalise all gold mining activities through licensing, giving permanent claims and operating permits to panners in order to recoup some of the added costs in the form of taxes. At the local level, the Mzingwane Rural District Council (MRDC together with the Environmental Management Agency (EMA need to design appropriate environmental education and awareness programmes targeting the local community and gold panners.

  20. Environmental Remediation to Address Childhood Lead Poisoning Epidemic due to Artisanal Gold Mining in Zamfara, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirima, Simba; Bartrem, Casey; von Lindern, Ian; von Braun, Margrit; Lind, Douglas; Anka, Shehu Mohammed; Abdullahi, Aishat

    2016-01-01

    Background: From 2010 through 2013, integrated health and environmental responses addressed an unprecedented epidemic lead poisoning in Zamfara State, northern Nigeria. Artisanal gold mining caused widespread contamination resulting in the deaths of > 400 children. Socioeconomic, logistic, and security challenges required remediation and medical protocols within the context of local resources, labor practices, and cultural traditions. Objectives: Our aim was to implement emergency environmental remediation to abate exposures to 17,000 lead poisoned villagers, to facilitate chelation treatment of children ≤ 5 years old, and to establish local technical capacity and lead health advocacy programs to prevent future disasters. Methods: U.S. hazardous waste removal protocols were modified to accommodate local agricultural practices. Remediation was conducted over 4 years in three phases, progressing from an emergency response by international personnel to comprehensive cleanup funded and accomplished by the Nigerian government. Results: More than 27,000 m3 of contaminated soils and mining waste were removed from 820 residences and ore processing areas in eight villages, largely by hand labor, and disposed in constructed landfills. Excavated areas were capped with clean soils (≤ 25 mg/kg lead), decreasing soil lead concentrations by 89%, and 2,349 children received chelation treatment. Pre-chelation geometric mean blood lead levels for children ≤ 5 years old decreased from 149 μg/dL to 15 μg/dL over the 4-year remedial program. Conclusions: The unprecedented outbreak and response demonstrate that, given sufficient political will and modest investment, the world’s most challenging environmental health crises can be addressed by adapting proven response protocols to the capabilities of host countries. Citation: Tirima S, Bartrem C, von Lindern I, von Braun M, Lind D, Anka SM, Abdullahi A. 2016. Environmental remediation to address childhood lead poisoning epidemic

  1. Artisanal alcohol production in Mayan Guatemala: Chemical safety evaluation with special regard to acetaldehyde contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanteres, Fotis [Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH), 33 Russell Street, ARF 2035, Toronto, ON, Canada, M5S 2 S1 (Canada); Rehm, Juergen [Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH), 33 Russell Street, ARF 2035, Toronto, ON, Canada, M5S 2 S1 (Canada); Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, 155 College Street, Toronto, ON, Canada, M5T 3 M7 (Canada); Institute for Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, TU Dresden, Chemnitzer Strasse 46, D-01187 Dresden (Germany); Lachenmeier, Dirk W., E-mail: Lachenmeier@web.de [Chemisches und Veterinaeruntersuchungsamt (CVUA) Karlsruhe, Weissenburger Strasse 3, D-76187 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2009-11-01

    There is a lack of knowledge regarding the composition, production, distribution, and consumption of artisanal alcohol, particularly in the developing world. In Nahuala, an indigenous Mayan municipality located in highland Guatemala, heavy alcohol consumption appears to have had a significant negative impact on health, a major role in cases of violence and domestic abuse, and a link to street habitation. Cuxa, an artisanally, as well as commercially produced sugarcane alcohol, is widely consumed by heavy drinkers in this community. Cuxa samples from all distribution points in the community were obtained and chemically analyzed for health-relevant constituents and contaminants including methanol, acetaldehyde, higher alcohols, and metals. From those, only acetaldehyde was confirmed to be present in unusually high levels (up to 126 g/hl of pure alcohol), particularly in samples that were produced clandestinely. Acetaldehyde has been evaluated as 'possibly carcinogenic' and has also been identified as having significant human exposure in a recent risk assessment. This study explores the reasons for the elevated levels of acetaldehyde, through both sampling and analyses of raw and intermediary products of cuxa production, as well as interviews from producers of the clandestine alcohol. For further insight, we experimentally produced this alcohol in our laboratory, based on the directions provided by the producers, as well as materials from the town itself. Based on these data, the origin of the acetaldehyde contamination appears to be due to chemical changes induced during processing, with the major causative factors consisting of poor hygiene, aerobic working conditions, and inadequate yeast strains, compounded by flawed distillation methodology that neglects separation of the first fractions of the distillate. These results indicate a preventable public health concern for consumers, which can be overcome through education about good manufacturing practices

  2. Artisanal alcohol production in Mayan Guatemala: Chemical safety evaluation with special regard to acetaldehyde contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a lack of knowledge regarding the composition, production, distribution, and consumption of artisanal alcohol, particularly in the developing world. In Nahuala, an indigenous Mayan municipality located in highland Guatemala, heavy alcohol consumption appears to have had a significant negative impact on health, a major role in cases of violence and domestic abuse, and a link to street habitation. Cuxa, an artisanally, as well as commercially produced sugarcane alcohol, is widely consumed by heavy drinkers in this community. Cuxa samples from all distribution points in the community were obtained and chemically analyzed for health-relevant constituents and contaminants including methanol, acetaldehyde, higher alcohols, and metals. From those, only acetaldehyde was confirmed to be present in unusually high levels (up to 126 g/hl of pure alcohol), particularly in samples that were produced clandestinely. Acetaldehyde has been evaluated as 'possibly carcinogenic' and has also been identified as having significant human exposure in a recent risk assessment. This study explores the reasons for the elevated levels of acetaldehyde, through both sampling and analyses of raw and intermediary products of cuxa production, as well as interviews from producers of the clandestine alcohol. For further insight, we experimentally produced this alcohol in our laboratory, based on the directions provided by the producers, as well as materials from the town itself. Based on these data, the origin of the acetaldehyde contamination appears to be due to chemical changes induced during processing, with the major causative factors consisting of poor hygiene, aerobic working conditions, and inadequate yeast strains, compounded by flawed distillation methodology that neglects separation of the first fractions of the distillate. These results indicate a preventable public health concern for consumers, which can be overcome through education about good manufacturing practices, as well

  3. A Survey of Mining and Tailings Disposal Practices of Selected Artisanal and Small Scale Mining Companies in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Chiri G. Amedjoe; Gawu, S. K. Y.

    2015-01-01

    Management of small scale mining operations for maximum profitability with good environmental stewardship requires careful planning of mining and tailings disposal strategies. Field studies and observations of eleven selected artisanal and small-scale gold mining companies winning gold from alluvial (placer) source mostly, but also mine out cropping and underground quartz veins where available from the Takwaian and Birimian Formations in southwestern Ghana. Excavation is either by pitting or ...

  4. Characterization of artisanal honey produced on the Northwest of Portugal by melissopalynological and physico-chemical data

    OpenAIRE

    Feás, Xesús; Pires, José; Iglesias, Antonio; Leticia M. Estevinho

    2010-01-01

    Honey has always been regarded as a food which is advantageous for one’s health and as a product which has healing qualities. For this reason, is necessary to protect consumers from the fraudulent mislabeling of inferior honeys. The purpose of this study was to investigate some properties of artisanal honey samples (n = 45) collected from the Northwest of Portugal by using different honey analysis tests such as moisture, ash, pH, free acidity, electrical conductivity, hydroxymethy...

  5. Development of pupils’ transfer skills by means of hands’ on activities with artisan materials in natural sciences classes

    OpenAIRE

    Liliana Ciascai; Luminiţa Chicinaş

    2008-01-01

    Hands’ on activities with artisan materials used in order to realize different practical devices helpful in learning process are one of the most frequently used activity in science classes. Usually, the main strengthnesses of these activities are: a deeper learning, an increased motivation of pupils for actively learning and development of practical skills. The aim of our paper is to find out if using systematically hands’ on activities in order to realize different practical devices contribu...

  6. Trophic ecology of common elasmobranchs exploited by artisanal shark fisheries off south-western Madagascar inferred from stable isotopes

    OpenAIRE

    Kiszka, Jérémy J.; Charlot, Kevin; Hussey, Nigel,; Heithaus, Michael R.; Simon-Bouhet, Benoit; Humber, Frances; Caurant, Florence; Bustamante, Paco

    2014-01-01

    International audience Knowledge of the trophic ecology and interactions of marine top predators is fundamental for understanding community structure and dynamics as well as ecosystem function. We examined the feeding relationships of four heavily exploited elasmobranchs caught in coastal artisanal shark fisheries in south-western Madagascar (2009-2010) - Sphyrna lewini, Loxodon macrorhinus, Carcharhinus falciformis and Rhynchobatus djiddensis - using stable isotope (δ15N and δ13C) analysi...

  7. Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from raw milk utilized in small-scale artisan cheese production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'amico, Dennis J; Donnelly, Catherine W

    2011-08-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an important agent of bacterial mastitis in milking animals and of foodborne intoxication in humans. The purpose of this study was to examine the genetic and phenotypic diversity, enterotoxigenicity, and antimicrobial resistance of S. aureus strains isolated from raw milk used for the production of artisan cheese in Vermont. Cross-tabulations revealed that the 16 ribotypes identified among the 90 milk isolates examined were typically associated with a specific animal species and that more than half of these ribotypes were unique to individual farms. In general, specific EcoRI ribotypes were commonly associated with specific phenotypical characteristics, including staphylococcal enterotoxin production or the lack thereof. Limited antimicrobial resistance was observed among the isolates, with resistance to ampicillin (12.51%) or penicillin (17.04%) most common. Two isolates of the same ribotype obtained from the same farm were resistant to oxacillin with 2% NaCl. More than half (52.22%) of isolates produced toxin, and 31 of the 32 isolates solely produced staphylococcal enterotoxin type C. Although these data demonstrate that S. aureus strains found in raw milk intended for artisan cheese manufacture are capable of enterotoxin production, staphylococcal enterotoxin C is not typically linked to foodborne illness. Because S. aureus is a common contaminant of cheese, an understanding of the ecology of this pathogen and of the antimicrobial susceptibility and toxigenicity of various strains will ultimately contribute to the development of control practices needed to enhance the safety of artisan and farmstead cheese production. PMID:21819666

  8. Evaluation of impact of artificial reefs on artisanal fisheries: need for complementary approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Koeck

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In a general context of fisheries decline due to overfishing and to other phenomena such as climate change, it appears to be crucial to implement a sustainable management of natural resources by finding a balance between conservation and exploitation purposes. Artificial reefs (ARs have recently become one of the existing management tools, often in combination with fishing quotas or marine protected areas. To evaluate the effectiveness of the studied ARs, different methods have been used: (i visual census by SCUBA diving (AR scale, (ii fisheries landings survey (local scale and (iii external fish tagging (regional scale. Underwater visual census (UVC showed a significantly higher species richness and density in ARs than in the control site. Abundance, biomass and LPUE data (Landings Per Unit Effort issued from artisanal fisheries landings survey were not significantly different around the AR system from other fishing grounds of the French Catalan coast. The tagging experiments on Diplodus sargus suggested that the connectivity of demersal fish populations must be taken into account to evaluate the influence area of ARs and thus their indirect impacts on artisanal fisheries. The present study highlights the interest of combining methods covering different spatial scales in order to evaluate direct and indirect impacts of ARs on artisanal fisheries. Methods for the evaluation of AR efficiency are discussed.Dentro do atual contexto de redução nos estoques de peixes ligados à sobrepesca, e também à outros fenômenos tais como as mudanças climáticas, é indispensável implementar um plano de gestão durável para os recursos pesqueiros, conciliando sua exploração e conservação. Os recifes artificiais (RAs tem surgido nos dias atuais como uma importante ferramenta de gestão, freqüentemente combinada à cotas de pesca ou áreas marinhas protegidas. Com a finalidade de avaliar a eficiência dos recifes artificiais, utilizou-se os seguintes

  9. Aphakia correction with retropupillary fixated iris-claw lens (Artisan – long-term results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schallenberg M

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Maurice Schallenberg,1,2 Dirk Dekowski,1 Angela Hahn,1 Thomas Laube,1,3 Klaus-Peter Steuhl,1 Daniel Meller11Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospital Essen, University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany; 2HELIOS Klinikum Wuppertal, Wuppertal, Germany; 3Zentrum für Augenheilkunde PD Dr Laube, Düsseldorf, GermanyPurpose: To evaluate the technique, safety, and efficacy of the retropupillary implantation of iris-claw intraocular lenses in a long-term follow-up study.Patients and methods: This retrospective study included 31 eyes of 31 patients who underwent an Artisan aphakic intraocular lens implantation between January 2006 and February 2011 at the University Hospital Essen, Essen, Germany and at the Zentrum für Augenheilkunde PD Dr Laube, Düsseldorf, Germany. Preoperative data collected included demographics, etiology of aphakia, previous surgeries, preoperative eye pathology, intraocular pressure, clinical signs of endothelial cell loss, and best corrected visual acuity. Operative data and postoperative outcomes included the best corrected visual acuity, lens position, intraocular pressure, pigment dispersion, clinical signs of endothelial cell loss, development of macular edema, and other complications.Results: Thirty-one patients were included. The mean follow-up was 25.2 months (range: 4–48 months. The mean best corrected visual acuity postoperatively was 0.64 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR and varied from 0 logMAR to 3 logMAR. Some patients had a low visual acuity preoperatively because of preoperative eye pathologies. In 22 patients the visual acuity improved, in two patients the visual acuity remained unchanged, and seven patients showed a decreased visual acuity. Complications were peaked pupils (n=10 and retinal detachment in one case. Four patients showed an iris atrophy and high intraocular pressure was observed only in one patient. Subluxation of the intraocular lens, endothelial cell loss, and

  10. Identification and characterization of lactic acid bacteria isolated from artisanal white brined Golija cows’ milk cheeses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terzić-Vidojević Amarela

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify and characterize the lactic acid bacteria (LAB of artisanal Golija raw and cooked cows’ milk cheeses traditionally manufactured without the addition of starter culture. A total of 188 Gram-positive and catalase-negative isolates of Golija cheeses were obtained from seven samples of different ripening time. Phenotypebased assays as well as rep-PCR and 16S rDNA sequence analysis were undertaken for all 188 Lstrains. The most diverse species were isolated from 20-day-old BGGO8 cheese (Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus casei/paracasei, Lactobacillus sucicola, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis bv. diacetylactis, Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus durans and Leuconostoc mesenteroides. In other Golija cheeses Lactobacillus reuteri, Lactobacillus curvatus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris, Lactococcus garvieae, Streptococcus thermophilus and Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides were found. Pronounced antimicrobial properties showed enterococci (13/42 and lactococci (12/31, while the good proteolytic activity demonstrated lactococci (13/31 and lactobacilli (10/29. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173019

  11. The Artisanal Production of Pulque, a Traditional Beverage of the Mexican Highlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valadez-Blanco, Rogelio; Bravo-Villa, Griselda; Santos-Sánchez, Norma F; Velasco-Almendarez, Sandra I; Montville, Thomas J

    2012-06-01

    Pulque is a traditional fermented alcoholic, acidic, viscous drink of the Mexican central highlands. Its production from the "aguamiel" (sap) of agave plants dates back ~1,500 years and continues to be made by artisanal methods. However, the variability of pulque's quality and its instability hamper its widespread distribution and consumption. Microbiological surveys of pulque from three ranches revealed tremendous variability in the types and quantity of the indigenous microbiota. The population of lactic acid bacteria ranged from 6 × 10(7) to 2 × 10(11) CFU/mL. This variability might be attributed to the conditions on the ranches where the pulque was made. In an attempt to identify these sources of variability, the microbial populations of aguamiel and pulque from a single agave plant were determined. Surprisingly, the population size of the "unfermented" aguamiel and the pulque converged by the end of 3 weeks. The potential use of bacteriocinogenic LAB and known starter cultures to improve pulque properties are discussed. PMID:26781856

  12. Soldiers, Artisans, Cultivators and Revolutionaries: The Movement of Sikhs in the Indian Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali Gera Roy

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The geography of Punjab, a land-locked region divided between India and Pakistan, makes it an unlikely player in oceanic sojourns. But imperial interventions in Punjab in the middle of the 19th century triggered movements from Punjab that inserted this region in the littoral narrative of the Indian Ocean. Unlike the movements of lascars and traders, who have been central to the revisionist histories of the Indian Ocean, those from Punjab have not featured in oceanic dialogues. The absence of Sikhs in Indian Ocean studies is largely due to the silence of Sikh soldiers, skilled craftsmen and cultivators with largely rural roots who were uprooted to strange lands. The confusion of Sikhs with Hindus, Muslims and, even Afghans, in the colonial era, as well as the classification of Punjabi Muslims as Pakistani in the post-colonial, further problematizes the Sikh migration narrative. Drawing on a wide range of official and unofficial historical sources, this essay argues that twin developments in Punjab, namely the construction of Sikhs as ‘a martial race’ and their integration into the imperial capitalist economy, connects the movements of soldiers and policemen to Shanghai, Hong Kong, the Straits Settlements and Kenya with those of skilled artisans to Mombasa and Uganda. Keywords: Sikhs, Indian Ocean, labour migration, cultural identity

  13. Assessment of Radiological Levels in Soils from Artisanal Gold Mining Exercises at Awwal, Kebbi State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Girigisu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the radiological levels from Awwal artisanal gold mining exercises in Kebbi State. Results show mean values of activities of 40K>226Ra232 Th numerically as 425.96±5.56, 23.85±2.01 and 18.80±1.21 Bq/kg, respectively. The average outdoor gamma dose was 34.26 nGy/h while the mean annual effective dose rate was 42.15 &muSv/year (= 0.042 mSv/year, which is less than 0.07 mSv/year benchmark given in UNSCEAR (1993. Radio logically, the values obtained are low and do not imply any significant health concerns effects on the local population. However, the observed unprofessional practices such as lack of use of gas mask while working in the dust-filled mine cafes and at the mills could expose workers to possible risks from inhalation of respiratory crystalline silica as well as exposure to radon gas.

  14. Incidental catch of marine turtles by the artisanal fisheries on Santa Catarina Island, SC, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Hanazaki

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The five species of sea turtles, which inhabit the Brazilian shore, have a wordwide distribution and are threatened with extinction. The south of Brazil is characterized as a feeding and breeding area of at least three of these species. The presence of turtles close to the shore and their incidental catch are occurrences reported by artisan fishermen of the Island of Santa Catarina in this work. The study was based on a questionnaire, applied to fishermen and fishfarmers at selected spots on the island. Scientific and popular names were matched using illustrations. The spots with the highest number of events and captures were close to the islands, rocky coasts and stony grounds, i.e. areas related with the foraging habits of the most abundant species, Chelonia mydas. The place, depth and size of the net are characteristics, which influence the capture. The time the net remains in the water is a factor which is fundamental to the survival of the captured turtles. The flesh of the turtle is used as an occasional feeding resource. Capacitation programs and training applied to the communities involved are recommended.

  15. Selection of a suitable plant for phytoremediation in mining artisanal zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamba, I; Gazquez, M J; Selvaraj, T; Calva, J; Toledo, J J; Armijos, C

    2016-09-01

    A study was undertaken with the aim of identifying a suitable plant for the phytoremediation of metal-polluted soil from an artisanal mining area in Ecuador. Three zones including a natural zone (NZ), abandoned zone (AZ) and intensively mined zone (IZ) were selected. Three common native plants grown in the three zones were identified and collected, including Miconia zamorensis, Axonopus compressus and Erato polymnioides. The percentage of arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization that benefits their own survival in polluted soil was analyzed in the root samples of these candidate species. Analysis of the soils and plants collected from the different zones showed that the concentrations of Pb, Zn, Cu and Cd were comparatively lower in the NZ, higher in the AZ and IZ, and highest in the AZ for all the metals. The concentration of all these metals in plant tissues was the highest in E. polymnioides. The data analysis including the metal accumulation index, bioconcentration factor and translocation factor strongly identified E. polymnioides as a hyperaccumulator plant suitable for phytoremediation. PMID:26940037

  16. Ripening-induced changes in microbial groups of artisanal Sicilian goats’ milk cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Di Marco

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the microbial flora of “Caprino dei Nebrodi”, a raw goat’s milk cheese produced in Sicily, were studied during ripening. From 2 batches of cheese, 4 samples were taken at day 0, 2, 15, and 30 of ripening. Also, samples of curd and milk used in the manufacturing process were analyzed. By the end of the ripening process (day 30, high log10 cfu/g were found for Lactobacilli (7.20, Lattococci (7.10, and Enterococci (7.00, whereas counts of Enterobacteriaceae (3.91, Escherichia coli (3.30, and Staphylococcus (3.89 were found to be lower. The study provides useful information on the microbiological properties of “Caprino dei Nebrodi” cheese, and the results obtained suggest that in order to increase the quality of this artisanal product, it is necessary to improve the sanitary conditions of milking and cheese-making. The study was intended as a preliminary step towards the isolation and identification of bacterial species found in this type of goat’s cheese.

  17. Characterization of artisanal fishery with camboa net at the Cassurubá Extractive Reserve, Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Oliveira Freitas

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Regarded as relevant nursery areas for fishes, the estuarine systems shelter many commercially important species. From October 2008 to November 2009, we investigated the ichthyofaunal composition and described the routine of artisanal fishing with camboa net in the estuary at the Cassurubá Extractive Reserve, Bahia, Brazil. Samplings were conducted in three rivers, during the new and full moons. A total of 1,074 fishes were caught in 17 fisheries with nets, belonging to 26 species and 17 families, with a total biomass of 378.4 kg. The Gerreidae and Centropomidae families were the most abundant ones, and there was a predominance of catches. Out of the total, 50% of individuals which were at the first gonadal maturation (L50 described in the literature had a size less than the expected one, indicating growth overfishing. We recommends the establishment of management systems shared between the actors involved in this fishing art and the Cassurubá Extractive Reserve managers, in order to reduce the capture of individuals below the first gonadal maturation size.

  18. Sand dredging and environmental efficiency of artisanal fishermen in Lagos state, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowunmi, Fatai A; Hogarh, Jonathan N; Agbola, Peter O; Atewamba, Calvin

    2016-03-01

    Environmentally detrimental input (water turbidity) and conventional production inputs were considered within the framework of stochastic frontier analysis to estimate technical and environmental efficiencies of fishermen in sand dredging and non-dredging areas. Environmental efficiency was low among fishermen in the sand dredging areas. Educational status and experience in fishing and sand dredging were the factors influencing environmental efficiency in the sand dredging areas. Average quantity of fish caught per labour- hour was higher among fishermen in the non-dredging areas. Fishermen in the fishing community around the dredging areas travelled long distance in order to reduce the negative effect of sand dredging on their fishing activity. The study affirmed large household size among fishermen. The need to regulate the activities of sand dredgers by restricting license for sand dredging to non-fishing communities as well as intensifying family planning campaign in fishing communities to reduce the negative effect of high household size on fishing is imperative for the sustainability of artisanal fishing. PMID:26896967

  19. The Production of Parmigiano-Reggiano Cheese: The force of an artisanal system in an industrialised world

    OpenAIRE

    Roest, De, Kees

    2000-01-01

    In many respects the Parmigiano-Reggiano production system is a unique dairy system. The processing of 1.35 million tons of milk into a high quality product in 600 small cheese dairies using predominantly artisan production techniques is not found anywhere else in Europe. The high labour input required both on the dairy farms and in the cheese dairies creates considerably more employment than any other dairy system. About 20,000 men and women work everyday in this very special system. In an i...

  20. The tragedy of the commons in artisanal gold mining: evaluation of mechanisms of cooperation with simulation and economic experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Saldarriaga Isaza , Carlos Adrián

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: This thesis is about how collective action –associative entrepreneurship– can be fostered in artisanal and small-scale gold mining. This kind of association is aimed at, among other things, allowing small-scale gold miners to gather the financial capital that is required to obtain the type of technologies that reduce mercury use in the gold recovery process, and therefore the harmful effects of mercury pollution of ecosystems and human health. Given the public-good dilemma that is f...

  1. Artisan iris-fixated toric phakic intraocular lens for the correction of high astigmatism after deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Dreihi, Madonna G.; Louka, Bachar I.; Anas A Anbari

    2013-01-01

    We report the refractive correction of high astigmatism in one eye of a 23-year-old woman following deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK) using an Artisan iris-fixated, toric, phakic intraocular lens (IOL). One year after implantation, uncorrected and corrected distance visual acuities were both 20/25, refraction was −1.00 D cylinder, and the endothelial cell count was 1827 cells/mm2. Iris-fixated phakic IOLs are not recommended for every postkeratoplasty patient with high refractive err...

  2. A decision-making tool to determine economic feasibility and break-even prices for artisan cheese operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, Catherine A; Bouma, Andrea; Meunier-Goddik, Lisbeth

    2015-12-01

    Artisan cheese makers lack access to valid economic data to help them evaluate business opportunities and make important business decisions such as determining cheese pricing structure. The objective of this study was to utilize an economic model to evaluate the net present value (NPV), internal rate of return, and payback period for artisan cheese production at different annual production volumes. The model was also used to determine the minimum retail price necessary to ensure positive NPV for 5 different cheese types produced at 4 different production volumes. Milk type, cheese yield, and aging time all affected variable costs. However, aged cheeses required additional investment for aging space (which needs to be larger for longer aging times), as did lower yield cheeses (by requiring larger-volume equipment for pasteurization and milk handling). As the volume of milk required increased, switching from vat pasteurization to high-temperature, short-time pasteurization was necessary for low-yield cheeses before being required for high-yield cheeses, which causes an additional increase in investment costs. Because of these differences, high-moisture, fresh cow milk cheeses can be sold for about half the price of hard, aged goat milk cheeses at the largest production volume or for about two-thirds the price at the lowest production volume examined. For example, for the given model assumptions, at an annual production of 13,608kg of cheese (30,000 lb), a fresh cow milk mozzarella should be sold at a minimum retail price of $27.29/kg ($12.38/lb), whereas a goat milk Gouda needs a minimum retail price of $49.54/kg ($22.47/lb). Artisan cheese makers should carefully evaluate annual production volumes. Although larger production volumes decrease average fixed cost and improve production efficiency, production can reach volumes where it becomes necessary to sell through distributors. Because distributors might pay as little as 35% of retail price, the retail price needs

  3. The Intuitional Perspective of Environment Pollutants Impact Severity on Artisanal Fisheries Resources in Niger Delta, Nigeria

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    Abowei Jasper

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The intuitional perspective of environment Pollutants Impact Severity on Artisanal Fisheries Resources in Niger Delta area of Nigeria was conducted for a period of one year (January 2008 – December 2008 to determine severity of environmental pollutants impacting on fisheries resources conservation and management in the Niger Delta region based on the opinion of relevant institutional personnel perspective, The study area covered include three core fishing states of Bayelsa, Delta and Rivers States. Questionnaires were used to obtain desired information which was divided into 2 categories: middle level/technical and management officers. A total sample size of 105 respondents in the study area was taken using exhaustive sampling technique fort he institutions and random sampling technique to choose respondents within institutions where the sample population was found to be high (n>30. The data collected was subjected to analysis using binomial regression analysis, Kendall Rank coefficient of concordance, Likert mean and Likert mean of mean analysis. From the results, the severities of environmental parameters on fisheries resources were considered to significantly impact on fisheries resources by the respondents. The ranking and Likert mean of mean analysis result showed that all studied pollutants were significantly implicated to impact on fisheries resources in the Niger Delta region with LMm = 3.13. The Kendall ranking also showed that crude oil related pollutants such as oil spills, gas flaring and thermal pollution were ranked as the most severe pollutants impacting on fisheries resources of the region. This result is expected considering that the three states and the region is predominantly crude oil producing.

  4. Loggerhead sea turtle bycatch data in artisanal fisheries within a marine protected area: fishermen surveys versus scientific observations

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    Lozano, M.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Loggerhead sea turtles can be incidentally captured by artisanal gears but information about the impact of this fishing is inconsistent and scarce. Recent studies have observed that the bycatch, or incidental catch rate, in fishermen surveys is irregular. The aim of this study was to compare direct data (onboard observers concerning the incidental catch of loggerhead sea turtles by the artisanal vessels versus data from fishermen surveys. The study area was the Cabo de Gata-Níjar marine protected area, situated in the western Mediterranean (southeast of the Iberian peninsula. We observed two loggerhead turtles that were incidentally caught in a total of 165 fishing operations. According to fishermen surveys, a total of nine loggerheads were incidentally caught in 861 fishing operations. The differences between the loggerhead sea turtle bycatch reported by fishermen surveys and scientific observations versus random distribution (x2 = 0.3146, P = 0.575, df = 1 were not significant. We conclude that the surveys are useful but that findings should be interpreted with caution.

  5. Diversity, Dynamics and Activity of Bacterial Communities during Production of an Artisanal Sicilian Cheese as Evaluated by 16S rRNA Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Randazzo, C.L.; Torriani, S.; Akkermans, A.D.L.; Vos, de W.M.; Vaughan, E.E.

    2002-01-01

    The diversity and dynamics of the microbial communities during the manufacturing of Ragusano cheese, an artisanal cheese produced in Sicily (Italy), were investigated by a combination of classical and culture-independent approaches. The latter included PCR, reverse transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR), and de

  6. From Artisanal to CAD-CAM Blocks: State of the Art of Indirect Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainjot, A K; Dupont, N M; Oudkerk, J C; Dewael, T Y; Sadoun, M J

    2016-05-01

    Indirect composites have been undergoing an impressive evolution over the last few years. Specifically, recent developments in computer-aided design-computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) blocks have been associated with new polymerization modes, innovative microstructures, and different compositions. All these recent breakthroughs have introduced important gaps among the properties of the different materials. This critical state-of-the-art review analyzes the strengths and weaknesses of the different varieties of CAD-CAM composite materials, especially as compared with direct and artisanal indirect composites. Indeed, new polymerization modes used for CAD-CAM blocks-especially high temperature (HT) and, most of all, high temperature-high pressure (HT-HP)-are shown to significantly increase the degree of conversion in comparison with light-cured composites. Industrial processes also allow for the augmentation of the filler content and for the realization of more homogeneous structures with fewer flaws. In addition, due to their increased degree of conversion and their different monomer composition, some CAD-CAM blocks are more advantageous in terms of toxicity and monomer release. Finally, materials with a polymer-infiltrated ceramic network (PICN) microstructure exhibit higher flexural strength and a more favorable elasticity modulus than materials with a dispersed filler microstructure. Consequently, some high-performance composite CAD-CAM blocks-particularly experimental PICNs-can now rival glass-ceramics, such as lithium-disilicate glass-ceramics, for use as bonded partial restorations and crowns on natural teeth and implants. Being able to be manufactured in very low thicknesses, they offer the possibility of developing innovative minimally invasive treatment strategies, such as "no prep" treatment of worn dentition. Current issues are related to the study of bonding and wear properties of the different varieties of CAD-CAM composites. There is also a crucial

  7. Injury Profiles Associated with Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining in Tarkwa, Ghana

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    Benedict N. L. Calys-Tagoe

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM is inherently risky, but little is known about mining-associated hazards and injuries despite the tremendous growth worldwide of ASGM and the benefits it offers. The current study aimed to characterize the physical injuries associated with ASGM in Ghana to guide policy formulation. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in the Tarkwa mining district of the Western Region of Ghana in 2014. A total of 404 small-scale miners were recruited and interviewed regarding their occupational injury experiences over the preceding 10 years using a paper-based structured questionnaire. Nearly one-quarter (23.5% of the miners interviewed reported getting injured over the previous 10 years, and the overall injury rate was calculated to be 5.39 per 100 person years. The rate was significantly higher for women (11.93 per 100 person years and those with little mining experience (e.g., 25.31 per 100 person years for those with less than one year of work experience. The most injury-prone mining activities were excavation (58.7% and crushing (23.1%, and over 70% of the injuries were reported to be due to miners being hit by an object. The majority of the injuries (57% were lacerations, and nearly 70% of the injuries were to the upper or lower limbs. Approximately one-third (34.7% of the injuries resulted in miners missing more than two weeks of work. One-quarter of the injured workers believed that abnormal work pressure played a role in their injuries, and nearly two-fifths believed that their injuries could have been prevented, with many citing personal protective equipment as a solution. About one-quarter of the employees reported that their employers never seemed to be interested in the welfare or safety of their employees. These findings greatly advance our understanding of occupational hazards and injuries amongst ASGM workers and help identify several intervention points.

  8. Efectividad de los lentes fáquicos Artisan en la corrección de la alta miopía Effectiveness of Artisan phakic lenses in the correction of high myopia

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    Yanele Ruiz Rodríguez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar la efectividad de los lentes intraoculares fáquicos Artisan en la corrección de la alta miopía en el Instituto Cubano de Oftalmología "Ramón Pando Ferrer" en el período de enero del 2006 a enero del 2009. MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio prospectivo, descriptivo. El universo estuvo constituido por el total de ojos (120 a los cuales se les implantó estos lentes. RESULTADOS: Se encontró un componente esférico de 0,5, no astigmatismo inducido y una mejoría de la agudeza visual corregida de 0,9. No se presentaron complicaciones transoperatorias y entre las posoperatorias mediatas predominó la iritis o uveítis (3,4 % así como la atrofia iridiana (5 % entre las tardías. CONCLUSIONES: Los resultados refractivos fueron favorables. Predominaron los pacientes sin complicaciones.OBJECTIVE: To determine the effectiveness of Artisan phakic intraocular lenses in correcting high myopia at "Ramón Pando Ferrer" Cuban Institute of Ophthalmology in January 2006 to January 2009 period. METHODS: A prospective descriptive study was made in which the universe of study was 120 eyes implanted with this type of lenses. RESULTS: Spheral component of 0.5; the induced astigmatism was not found and the corrected visual acuity improvement was 0.9. There were no transoperative complications; the predominant postoperative mediate complications were iritis or uveitis (3.4 % and iridic atrophy (5 % prevailed in the late ones. CONCLUSIONS: The refractive results were favourable. The uncomplicated patients predominated.

  9. Resultados preliminares do implante de lente intra-ocular fácica artisan para correção de miopia Preliminary results of artisan phakic intraocular lens implantation to correct myopia

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    Leonardo Akaishi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Avaliar os resultados preliminares quanto à eficácia, estabilidade e segurança da lente intra-ocular de câmara anterior Artisan em olhos fácicos para correção de miopia. MÉTODOS: Foi analisado retrospectivamente o resultado de 34 olhos fácicos que receberam o implante de lente intra-ocular Artisan para correção de miopia. Os parâmetros avaliados foram: contagem endotelial pré e pós-operatória, acuidade visual sem correção pré e pós-operatória, melhor acuidade visual com correção pré e pós-operatória, equivalente esférico pré e pós-operatório, ganho e perda de linhas de visão e complicações. RESULTADOS: Dezoito pacientes (34 olhos foram incluídos neste estudo. Quatorze eram do sexo feminino (77,8% e 4 do sexo masculino. A idade média dos pacientes era de 30 anos (DP ± 7,3, variando de 21 a 46 anos. O período médio de seguimento foi de 8,5 meses (DP ± 3,6. A média de perda endotelial foi de 4,75% em 6 meses. A acuidade visual sem correção pré-operatória era de 0,02 (20/800 variando de 0,01 a 0,13. O equivalente esférico médio pré-operatório na refração dinâmica era de -13,25 D, variando de -5,75 D a -19,75 D. No último seguimento a acuidade visual sem correção era de 0,64 (20/32 variando de 0,33 a 1,00. O equivalente esférico médio na refração dinâmica era de -1,18 D (DP ± 0,92 variando de + 0,25 a -3,0. Entre as complicações observadas em nosso estudo 1 (3,4% paciente apresentou deslocamento da lente por trauma necessitando de uma segunda intervenção para reposicionamento. CONCLUSÃO: O uso de lente fácica de câmara anterior Artisan para correção de miopia no presente estudo se mostrou seguro, eficaz e com boa previsibilidade. No entanto, estudo prospectivo com maior número de casos e maior seguimento é necessário para determinar a segurança do procedimento a longo prazo.PURPOSE: To observe the preliminary results based on the efficacy, stability and safety of

  10. Mercury pollution from the artisanal mining in Yani gold district, Northern Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonso, Pura; Freixas, Anna; Bascompta, Marc; María Aranibar, Ana; Villegas, Karla; María García-Noguero, Eva; Higueras, Pablo; Cielito Saraiva, Angela

    2016-04-01

    Artisanal gold mining is the main economic activity in the Yani district, Northern Bolivia. In this area abundant orogenic gold deposits constituted by quartz veins hosted in paleozoic turbiditic series that contain either free gold or associated with pyrite. Gold is recovered in processing plants by gravimetric methods using shaking tables in several communities of this district. Previously, miners ground the mineral in ball mills together with mercury. The present study aims to evaluate the effect of mercury used in the gold recovering process to the environment and human health in the Yani district. The assessment was based on the analysis of human hair, sediments and water from the river nearby the processing plant and drinking water from the fountain that supplies these communities. 47 samples of hair from miners and other people from the Yani and Señor de Mayo communities were obtained in 2014 and 52 samples in 2015. All were analysed to evaluate the mercury exposure in these places. The results from the 2014 sampling show a wide range of Hg concentration in hair, especially in Señor de Mayo, with values up to 136 μg/g THg. However, in 2015 among the 43 residents in Señor de Mayo, 29 (67%) exhibit concentrations higher than 2 μg/g THg, with an average value of 5.36 μg/g THg. On the other hand, in Yani only 40% have concentrations above 2 μg/g THg, with an average value of 2.34 μg/g THg. The content in Hg in most of the hair samples exhibit values above the tolerable limits established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (1 μg/g Hg) and the World Health Organisation (WHO, 2 μg/g Hg). These high Hg concentrations are found not only in miners but also in the other members of the community, in spite of low fish consumption in this area. Part of the hair was analysed before and after cleaning. Usually in the second case the content of Hg is reduced, but still show high Hg levels, then probably the atmosphere is polluted with Hg and population is

  11. Artisanal fisheries production in the coastal zone of Itaipu, Niterói , RJ, Brazil

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    Rafael de Almeida Tubino

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Artisanal fisheries in the coastal zone of Itaipu-RJ play an important role in the local market, but little is known about production and productivity of the fisheries. From April 2001 to March 2003, we monitored a total of 618 landings from the beach-seine (99, the gill nets ("corvineira" - 331, "linguadeira" - 40 and "rede alta" - 25, the hook and line (98, the squid jigging (17, and the spear fishing and trap fisheries (five and three, respectively. The total monitored production was 21866 kg and the catch per unit effort (CPUE 35.4 kg.trip-1. Considering the number of effective fishing days and the average daily production per fishing gear, the annual production was estimated at 136687 kg (0.2% of the state's production in 2004. Predominant resources were: Micropogonias furnieri,Trichiurus lepturus, squids (Loligo spp., clupeiform fishes (Sardinella brasiliensis, Cetengraulis edentulus, Pellona harrowerii and Harengula clupeola, Eucinostomus spp., Cynoscion spp., Menticirrhus spp., Caranx crysos and Selene setapinnis. The combined analysis using hierarchical and non-hierarchical classification methods, separated four fishing gears and five species groups, based on their similarity patterns, identifying gears that most effectively capture the different fish groups. The beach-seine was less selective and most productive fishery in the summer. The "corvineira" was the second most productive fishery with higher yields in the summer and fall. Catches of "linguadeira" included rays and Paralychthys spp., wherereas the "rede alta" caught primarily M. furnieri,Mugil spp. and sharks.As pescarias artesanais na zona costeira de Itaipu-RJ desempenham um papel importante no mercado local, mas pouco se conhece sobre a produção e a produtividade da pesca. De abril-2001 a março-2003, nós monitoramos um total de 618 desembarques das pescarias de arrastos-de-praia (99, de redes de emalhe (corvineira - 331, linguadeira - 40 e rede alta - 25, de linha

  12. Health-Related Quality of Life among Artisanal Fisherwomen/Shellfish Gatherers: Lower than the General Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Juliana Dos Santos; Falcão, Ila Rocha; Couto, Maria Carolina Barreto Moreira; Viana, Wendel da Silva; Alves, Ivone Batista; Viola, Denise Nunes; Woods, Courtney Georgette; Rêgo, Rita Franco

    2016-01-01

    Quality of life is an indicator of how well one perceives that he/she is functioning physically and mentally. The aim of this paper is to determine the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of artisanal fisherwomen/shellfish gatherers from the Saubara municipality in Bahia, Brazil in comparison to the general population. A structured questionnaire was administered to a sample of 209 artisanal fisherwomen selected at random. The HRQOL questionnaire, known as the 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey version 1 (SF-36v01), was also used, having been translated and verified cross-culturally for the Brazilian population. Sociodemographic, lifestyle and comorbidity information was also collected. Chronic diseases and indicators of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) were self-reported. The study population consisted primarily of individuals between 30 and 45 years of age (78%), of self-classified races black or brown (96.2%), with no more than an elementary school education (77%) and married (64.6%). In all the SF-36v01 dimensions, the values in the sample were lower than in the general population of Brazil, which was used as the reference population. In the "Physical Health" domain (Physical Functioning; Physical Role Limitations; Bodily Pain; General Health Perception) a tendency toward a lower health-related quality of life was observed among those who were older, had a lower education level, and had a prevalence of MSDs, hypertension or arthritis. The interference of health conditions linked to the fisherwomen's work activities may contribute to lower HRQOL in all analyzed aspects, in comparison to the general population. In light of these findings, public health policies must consider these informal workers who contribute greatly to Brazil's economy and food system. PMID:27164118

  13. Characterization of the artisanal fishing communities in Nepal and potential implications for the conservation and management of Ganges River Dolphin (Platanista gangetica gangetica)

    OpenAIRE

    Paudel, S.; Levesque, J.C. (Juan); Saavedra, C.; Pita, C.; Pal, P.

    2016-01-01

    The Ganges River dolphin (Platanista gangetica gangetica) (GRD) is classified as one of the most endangered of all cetaceans in the world and the second scarcest freshwater cetacean. The population is estimated to be less than 2,000 individuals. In Nepal’s Narayani, Sapta Koshi, and Karnali river systems, survival of GRD continues to be threatened by various anthropogenic activities, such as dam construction and interactions with artisanal fisheries. A basic description of the ...

  14. Assessing the Environmental and Socio-Economic Impacts of Artisanal Gold Mining on the Livelihoods of Communities in the Tarkwa Nsuaem Municipality in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Samuel Obiri; Precious A. D. Mattah; Mattah, Memuna M.; Frederick A. Armah; Shiloh Osae; Sam Adu-kumi; Philip O. Yeboah

    2016-01-01

    Gold mining has played an important role in Ghana’s economy, however the negative environmental and socio-economic effects on the host communities associated with gold mining have overshadowed these economic gains. It is within this context that this paper assessed in an integrated manner the environmental and socio-economic impacts of artisanal gold mining in the Tarkwa Nsuaem Municipality from a natural and social science perspective. The natural science group collected 200 random samples o...

  15. A cross-sectional survey on knowledge and perceptions of health risks associated with arsenic and mercury contamination from artisanal gold mining in Tanzania

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    Charles Elias

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An estimated 0.5 to 1.5 million informal miners, of whom 30-50% are women, rely on artisanal mining for their livelihood in Tanzania. Mercury, used in the processing gold ore, and arsenic, which is a constituent of some ores, are common occupational exposures that frequently result in widespread environmental contamination. Frequently, the mining activities are conducted haphazardly without regard for environmental, occupational, or community exposure. The primary objective of this study was to assess community risk knowledge and perception of potential mercury and arsenic toxicity and/or exposure from artisanal gold mining in Rwamagasa in northwestern Tanzania. Methods A cross-sectional survey of respondents in five sub-villages in the Rwamagasa Village located in Geita District in northwestern Tanzania near Lake Victoria was conducted. This area has a history of artisanal gold mining and many of the population continue to work as miners. Using a clustered random selection approach for recruitment, a total of 160 individuals over 18 years of age completed a structured interview. Results The interviews revealed wide variations in knowledge and risk perceptions concerning mercury and arsenic exposure, with 40.6% (n=65 and 89.4% (n=143 not aware of the health effects of mercury and arsenic exposure respectively. Males were significantly more knowledgeable (n=59, 36.9% than females (n=36, 22.5% with regard to mercury (x2=3.99, px2=22.82, p= Conclusions The knowledge of individuals living in Rwamagasa, Tanzania, an area with a history of artisanal gold mining, varied widely with regard to the health hazards of mercury and arsenic. In these communities there was limited awareness of the threats to health associated with exposure to mercury and arsenic. This lack of knowledge, combined with minimal environmental monitoring and controlled waste management practices, highlights the need for health education, surveillance, and policy

  16. Scale-Up and Operating Factors for Electrolytic Silver Recovery from Effluents of Artisanal Used-Gold-Jewelry Smelting Plants in the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Catalino Alfafara, PhD; Monet Concepcion Maguyon, MS; Michael Vincent Laurio, BS; Veronica Migo, PhD; Lorele Trinidad, PhD; Elezabeth Ompad, BS; Jennifer Marie Sunga-Amparo, MA; Marlo Mendoza, MA

    2012-01-01

    Background. The Marilao, Meycauayan and Obando river system (MMORS), in the Philippines is home to many precious metals refineries, where local artisanal gold smelting industries use silver to draw gold out of used jewelry. Copper recovers the silver. The copper-rich wastewater contributes to local pollution. Alternative methods for silver recovery include electrolytic recovery: removal of silver ions from solution, and conversion of the ions into metallic silver. Objectives. Explore opera...

  17. Spearfishing Regulation Benefits Artisanal Fisheries: The ReGS Indicator and Its Application to a Multiple-Use Mediterranean Marine Protected Area

    OpenAIRE

    Delphine Rocklin; Jean-Antoine Tomasini; Jean-Michel Culioli; Dominique Pelletier; David Mouillot

    2011-01-01

    The development of fishing efficiency coupled with an increase of fishing effort led to the overexploitation of numerous natural marine resources. In addition to this commercial pressure, the impact of recreational activities on fish assemblages remains barely known. Here we examined the impact of spearfishing limitation on resources in a marine protected area (MPA) and the benefit it provides for the local artisanal fishery through the use of a novel indicator. We analysed trends in the fish...

  18. Industrial Minerals and Artisanal Mining Study (Ethiopia World Bank Energy Access Project) : summary of activities, findings and recommendations of industrial minerals sub-project

    OpenAIRE

    Morgan, D. J.

    2007-01-01

    This report describes the findings of the industrial minerals sub-project of the Industrial Minerals and Artisanal Mining Study, one of three projects carried out by the British Geological Survey for the Ethiopia Energy Access Project – Mineral Component, under funding from the World Bank. The current status of the industrial minerals sub-sector in Ethiopia has been assessed through a survey of producers and users, data on domestic production and imports, and reference to conventional pub...

  19. The Effects of Artisanal and Small-scale Mining on the Development of Rural Communities : The case of Nangodi in the Upper East Region of Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Following major retrenchments in the large-scale mining sector, as a direct result of the mining sector reforms that the government of Ghana undertook under its structural adjustment programme, and years of economic hardships, the Artisanal and Small-Scale Mining (ASM) sector witnessed significant growth in the 1980s and 90s. The main objective of government and communities engaged in mining activities is to use the sector to generate employment and revenue to improve the living standards of ...

  20. Environmental management of small-scale and artisanal mining: the Portovelo-Zaruma goldmining area, southern Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarras-Wahlberg, N H

    2002-06-01

    This paper considers technical measures and policy initiatives needed to improve environmental management in the Portovelo-Zaruma mining district of southern Ecuador. In this area, gold is mined by a large number of small-scale and artisanal operators, and discharges of cyanide and metal-laden tailings have had a severe impact on the shared Ecuadorian-Peruvian Puyango river system. It is shown to be technically possible to confine mining waste and tailings at a reasonable cost. However, the complex topography of the mining district forces tailings management to be communal, where all operators are connected to one central tailings impoundment. This, in turn, implies two things: (i) that a large number of operators must agree to pool resources to bring such a facility into reality; and (ii) that miners must move away from rudimentary operations that survive on a day-to-day basis, towards bigger, mechanized and longer-term sustainable operations that are based on proven ore reserves. It is deemed unlikely that existing environmental regulations and the provision of technical solutions will be sufficient to resolve the environmental problems. Important impediments relate to the limited financial resources available to each individual miner and the problems of pooling these resources, and to the fact that the main impacts of pollution are suffered downstream of the mining district and, hence, do not affect the miners themselves. Three policy measures are therefore suggested. First, the enforcement of existing regulations must be improved, and this may be achieved by the strengthening of the central authority charged with supervision and control of mining activities. Second, local government involvement and local public participation in environmental management needs to be promoted. Third, a clear policy should be defined which promotes the reorganisation of small operations into larger units that are strong enough to sustain rational exploration and environmental

  1. Seasonal Variations Affect the Physicochemical Composition of Bufallo Milk and Artisanal Cheeses Produced in Marajó Island (Pa, Brazil

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    M.G., Simões

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This research was carried out to evaluate the influence of seasonal variation in physicochemical composition and microbiological profile of buffalo milk and of the artisanal cream and butter types cheeses produced on Marajó Island. Eighteen farms located of the island were involved in the study. Milk and cheese quality were evaluated in two typical seasons. The rainy, from January to June and dry, from July to December. Samples were submitted to a detailed set of laboratorial analyses. Physicochemical composition of buffalo milk was influenced by the seasons. Compared to rainy, the dry period showed an increase in fat (5.53±0.71 to 6.74±1.19 and lactose (4.77±0.20 to 5.20±0.20 concentrations and reduction in total solids (16.89±0.92 to 15.77±1.54, nonfat dry matter (9.94±0.36 to 8.99±1.23 and minerals (0.84±0.12 to 0.62±0.09 concentrations (p<0.05. The season influence was observed in physicochemical composition of both cheese-types. Compared to rainy season, in the cream cheese type, higher values (p<0.05 were found for titratable acidity (0.63±0.02 to 0.78±0.15, fat (32.38±3.22 to 36.89±4.59, fat in the dry matter (55.06±3.26 to 63.92±2.49 but lower values for water activity (0.99±0.02 to 0.49±0.03, minerals (2.37±0.55 to 1.40±0.02 and calcium (0.28±0.08 to 0.18±0.07. For the butter cheese type, in the dry season, higher values were found only for titratable acidity (0.49±0.02 to 0.38±0.0 and lower values for water activity (0.18±0.07 to 0.45±0.08. The study have shown that some components of the buffalo milk and artisanal cheeses produced on Marajó Island are influenced by the dry and rainy typical seasons and therefore, some sensory variations are expected around the year.

  2. Liver and Renal Function Tests in Artisans Occupationally Exposed to Lead in Mechanic Village in Nnewi, Nigeria

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    S. C. Meludu

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Additives in petroleum solvents have been reported to have adverse health implications. An evaluation study on some toxicological effects of occupational exposure to petroleum products (especially petrol which contains tetraethyl lead amongst twenty five occupationally exposed artisans and twenty five graduate students of College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi, Nigeria as controls, was carried out using the following biochemical markers: electrolytes, urea, uric acid, inorganic phosphorus, creatinine, zinc and blood lead, as well as the activities of alanine and aspartate aminotransferases, and alkaline phosphatase. The results showed that occupational exposure of human subjects to lead in petrol increases the concentrations of uric acid (357 ± 123μ mol/L and phosphate (1.5 ± 0.5m mol/L in exposed subjects compared with unexposed subjects (uric acid 228 ± 105μ mol/L, phosphate 1.2 ± 0.41m mol/L; p < 0.01 in both cases. Significantly lower activities were observed for alkaline phosphatase (66 ± 18.9 iu/L. The activities of alanine aminotransferase (11.4 ± 4.0 iu/L and aspartate aminotransferase (15.8 ± 4.4 iu/L in occupationally exposed artisans were higher compared with unexposed subjects (alkaline phosphatase = 78 ± 22.4 iu/L alanine aminotranferase = 6.8 ± 2.7 iu/L, aspartate aminotranferase = 9.6 ± 3.5i u/L; p < 0.01 in all cases. Occupational exposure of human subjects to lead significantly increased blood lead (59.6 ± 15.9 μg/dL and decreased plasma zinc (71.3 ± 14.4 μg/L in exposed compared with unexposed subjects (blood lead = 35 ± 7 μg/dL, zinc = 108.4 ± 16.9 μg/dL; p < 0.01. The results indicate that occupational exposure to lead in petrol may compromise liver and renal function.

  3. Integrated Assessment of Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining in Ghana—Part 2: Natural Sciences Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozhgon Rajaee

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper is one of three synthesis documents produced via an integrated assessment (IA that aims to increase understanding of artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM in Ghana. Given the complexities surrounding ASGM, an integrated assessment (IA framework was utilized to analyze socio-economic, health, and environmental data, and co-develop evidence-based responses with stakeholders. This paper focuses on the causes, status, trends, and consequences of ecological issues related to ASGM activity in Ghana. It reviews dozens of studies and thousands of samples to document evidence of heavy metals contamination in ecological media across Ghana. Soil and water mercury concentrations were generally lower than guideline values, but sediment mercury concentrations surpassed guideline values in 64% of samples. Arsenic, cadmium, and lead exceeded guideline values in 67%, 17%, and 24% of water samples, respectively. Other water quality parameters near ASGM sites show impairment, with some samples exceeding guidelines for acidity, turbidity, and nitrates. Additional ASGM-related stressors on environmental quality and ecosystem services include deforestation, land degradation, biodiversity loss, legacy contamination, and potential linkages to climate change. Though more research is needed to further elucidate the long-term impacts of ASGM on the environment, the plausible consequences of ecological damages should guide policies and actions to address the unique challenges posed by ASGM.

  4. Description of two Enterococcus strains isolated from traditional Peruvian artisanal-produced cheeses with a bacteriocin-like inhibitory activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguilar Galvez A.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to isolate and to characterize strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB with bacteriocin-like inhibitory activity from 27 traditional cheeses artisanal-produced obtained from different Peruvian regions. Twenty Gram+ and catalasenegative strains among 2,277 isolates exhibited bacteriocin-like inhibitory activity against Listeria monocytogenes CWBIB2232 as target strain. No change in inhibitory activity was observed after organic acid neutralization and treatment with catalase of the cell-free supernatant (CFS. The proteinic nature of the antimicrobial activity was confirmed for the twenty LAB strains by proteolytic digestion of the CFS. Two strains, CWBI-B1431 and CWBI-B1430, with the best antimicrobial activity were selected for further researches. These strains were taxonomically identified by phenotypic and genotypic analyses as Enterococcus mundtii (CWBI-B1431 and Enterococcus faecium (CWBI-B1430. The two strains were sensitive to vancomycin (MIC 2 μg.ml-1 and showed absence of haemolysis.

  5. Identification and characterization of tetracycline resistance in Lactococcus lactis isolated from Polish raw milk and fermented artisanal products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zycka-Krzesinska, Joanna; Boguslawska, Joanna; Aleksandrzak-Piekarczyk, Tamara; Jopek, Jakub; Bardowski, Jacek K

    2015-10-15

    To assess the occurrence of antibiotic-resistant Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) in Polish raw milk and fermented artisanal products, a collection comprising 500 isolates from these products was screened. Among these isolates, six strains (IBB28, IBB160, IBB161, IBB224, IBB477 and IBB487) resistant to tetracycline were identified. The strains showing atypical tetracycline resistance were classified as Lactococcus lactis: three of them were identified as L. lactis subsp. cremoris (IBB224, IBB477 and IBB487) and the other three (IBB28, IBB160, IBB161) were identified as L. lactis subsp. lactis. The mechanism involving Ribosomal Protection Proteins (RPP) was identified as responsible for tetracycline resistance. Three of the tested strains (IBB28, IBB160 and IBB224) had genes encoding the TetS protein, whereas the remaining three (IBB161, IBB477 and IBB487) expressed TetM. The results also demonstrated that the genes encoding these proteins were located on genetic mobile elements. The tet(S) gene was found to be located on plasmids, whereas tet(M) was found within the Tn916 transposon. PMID:26204235

  6. Technology-induced selection towards the spoilage microbiota of artisan-type cooked ham packed under modified atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilopoulos, Charalampos; De Maere, Hannelore; De Mey, Eveline; Paelinck, Hubert; De Vuyst, Luc; Leroy, Frédéric

    2010-02-01

    The microbiota associated with a highly-perishable Belgian artisan-type cooked ham was analyzed through plating and (GTG)(5)-fingerprinting of isolates throughout its processing chain. The raw tumbled meat was characterized by the presence of a versatile microbiota around 4.8 log(cfu g(-1)), consisting of lactic acid bacteria, staphylococci, Brochothrix thermosphacta, Gram-negative bacteria, and yeasts. Pasteurisation of the ham logs reduced bacterial counts below 2 log(cfu g(-1)) and subsequent manipulations selected for leuconostocs and carnobacteria. Also, B. thermosphacta and several Enterobacteriaceae were found at this stage. During storage in an intermediate high-care area for 2 days, a selection towards certain Enterobacteriaceae (Hafnia alvei, Enterobacter spp., and Pantoea agglomerans) and lactic acid bacteria (mainly vagococci and Streptococcus parauberis) was observed. B. thermosphacta, Leuconostoc carnosum and carnobacteria were also detected, but only after allowing bacterial outgrowth by incubating the meat logs at 7 degrees C for four weeks. After a mild post-pasteurisation process and subsequent handling, incubation of the meat logs at 7 degrees C for four weeks led to outgrowth of Enterobacteriaceae (mainly Enterobacter spp. and Serratia spp.). B. thermosphacta, and lactic acid bacteria (Enterococcus faecalis, Leuc. carnosum, and Carnobacterium maltaromaticum) were also found. After slicing and packaging under modified atmosphere, the microbiota of the refrigerated end-product consisted of leuconostocs, carnobacteria, and B. thermosphacta. PMID:19913696

  7. Traditional Knowledge, Agave Inaequidens (Koch Conservation, and the Charro Lariat Artisans of San Miguel Cuyutlán, Mexico

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    Ana G. Valenzuela-Zapata

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The Mexican sport of charrería, or Mexican rodeo, developed in post-conquest Mexico as a way of preserving and celebrating traditional cowboy riding and livestock handling skills. Today, charrería is considered the national sport of Mexico and the charro (cowboy is also a celebrated icon of Mexicanness. Special handcrafted ropes used in charrería, known as sogas finas, or charro lariats, are made from the fibers of the Agave inaequidens. The manufacture of charro ropes is an artisinal practice that requires both cultural and botanical knowlege. In the last ten years, there has been a significant decline in the A. inaequidens population in the Cerro Viejo mountain range of the central-western Mexican state of Jalisco, putting the financial wellbeing of local lariat artisans at risk. Drawing on fieldwork and laboratory analysis conducted from 2002 through 2010, we discuss the socio-cultural significance of charro lariats, detail the harvesting of A. inaequidens in relation to lariat craftsmanship, document the physical characteristics of the A. inaequidens from this region, and describe the relationship between traditional knowledge and the local economy. The goal of this research is two-fold: 1 to stimulate feedback between producers and consumers in an attempt to leverage the existing business cluster based on traditional knowledge and 2 to initiate dialogue concerning conservation, domestication, and sustainable management of the wild A. inadequidens population.

  8. A Survey of Mining and Tailings Disposal Practices of Selected Artisanal and Small Scale Mining Companies in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiri G. Amedjoe

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Management of small scale mining operations for maximum profitability with good environmental stewardship requires careful planning of mining and tailings disposal strategies. Field studies and observations of eleven selected artisanal and small-scale gold mining companies winning gold from alluvial (placer source mostly, but also mine out cropping and underground quartz veins where available from the Takwaian and Birimian Formations in southwestern Ghana. Excavation is either by pitting or using backhoes. Sluicing, panning followed by mercury amalgamation and then roasting to recover the gold is the beneficiation method in use. Riverine waste rocks/tailings disposal is the main management invoked, however some companies do sell their waste to construction firms. Environmentally mining operations are impacting rivers with siltation, mercury pollution, channel diversions and possibly change in heavy metals concentration and water chemistry. Vast arable lands are degraded leaving peasant farmers with no livelihood due to failure by concessionaires to reclaim lands after closure. Only two companies out of the eleven somehow demonstrated environmental consciousness by constructing small tailings dam and backfilling some pits.

  9. Characterization of artisanal honey produced on the Northwest of Portugal by melissopalynological and physico-chemical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feás, Xesús; Pires, José; Iglesias, Antonio; Estevinho, María Letícia

    2010-12-01

    Honey has always been regarded as a food which is advantageous for one's health and as a product which has healing qualities. For this reason, is necessary to protect consumers from the fraudulent mislabeling of inferior honeys. The purpose of this study was to investigate some properties of artisanal honey samples (n=45) collected from the Northwest of Portugal by using different honey analysis tests such as moisture, ash, pH, free acidity, electrical conductivity, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), apparent sucrose, reducing sugars and diastase activity. 77.8% of the total exceeded the quality parameters and should be labeled as "virgin" (humidity ≤18% and HMF ≤25 mg/kg). The present study found a linear correlation (y=0.551x-0.089; R=0.995) between the electrical conductivity of honeys and their ash content. All of the samples showed an Erica sp. pollen percentage ≥15%, and 42% of the total were monofloral Erica sp. In respect to coliforms and Salmonella's presence, all the honey's samples shown to be negative. The existence of sulphite-reducing Clostridia was low, and well below the established limit by MERCOSUR. Yeasts, moulds and aerobic mesophiles were detected in low amounts. PMID:20870005

  10. Estimates of Profitability and Technical Efficiency of Artisanal Fishermen: A Case of Natural Lakes from Plateau State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawang Naanpoes Charles

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the Net Farm Income (NFI, profitability index and technical efficiency of artisanal fishing in five natural lakes in plateau state, central Nigeria, with a view to examine the level of exploitation of captured inland fisheries as a renewable resource in the country. Data were collected using questionnaire from 110 sample fishermen selected from Polmakat, Shimankar, Deben, Janta and Pandam lakes using multi-stage sampling technique and analysed using descriptive statistics, farm budgeting techniques (net farm income and stochastic frontier production function model. The study reveals a net farm income of ₦48, 734.57 and a profitability index of ₦7.67. The mean technical efficiency of 83% was obtained, indicating that the sample fishermen were relatively efficient in allocating their limited resources. The result of the analysis indicates that 72% of variation in the fishermen output was as a result of the presence of technical inefficiency effect in the fishery, showing a potential of about 17% chance for improvement in technical efficiency level. Some observable variables relating to socioeconomics characteristics such as extension contact, experience and educational status significantly explain variation in technical efficiency. Transformation for effective and sustainable fisheries exploitation will need the education of fishermen, extension education and redefinition of property rights.

  11. Integrated Assessment of Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining in Ghana-Part 2: Natural Sciences Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaee, Mozhgon; Obiri, Samuel; Green, Allyson; Long, Rachel; Cobbina, Samuel J; Nartey, Vincent; Buck, David; Antwi, Edward; Basu, Niladri

    2015-08-01

    This paper is one of three synthesis documents produced via an integrated assessment (IA) that aims to increase understanding of artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) in Ghana. Given the complexities surrounding ASGM, an integrated assessment (IA) framework was utilized to analyze socio-economic, health, and environmental data, and co-develop evidence-based responses with stakeholders. This paper focuses on the causes, status, trends, and consequences of ecological issues related to ASGM activity in Ghana. It reviews dozens of studies and thousands of samples to document evidence of heavy metals contamination in ecological media across Ghana. Soil and water mercury concentrations were generally lower than guideline values, but sediment mercury concentrations surpassed guideline values in 64% of samples. Arsenic, cadmium, and lead exceeded guideline values in 67%, 17%, and 24% of water samples, respectively. Other water quality parameters near ASGM sites show impairment, with some samples exceeding guidelines for acidity, turbidity, and nitrates. Additional ASGM-related stressors on environmental quality and ecosystem services include deforestation, land degradation, biodiversity loss, legacy contamination, and potential linkages to climate change. Though more research is needed to further elucidate the long-term impacts of ASGM on the environment, the plausible consequences of ecological damages should guide policies and actions to address the unique challenges posed by ASGM. PMID:26264012

  12. Modeling of indicators for evaluation the sustainability of artisanal fishing in the surrounding of the National Forest Ibura, northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Silva

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is the holder of the greatest biodiversity on the planet, and can not shirk regarding the development of monitoring templates related to nature conservation and sustainable use of natural resources. In this sense, this research aimed to develop a model for evaluating indicators based on the methodology MESMIS (Marco para la Evaluación de Sistemas de Manejo de Recursos Naturales incorporando Indicadores de Sustentabilidade for use in its level of fishing communities or extractive related to protected areas, based on the existing community of fishermen in the surrounding National Forest Ibura, Brazil. The MESMIS the methodological basis was chosen for model development and evaluation indicators. Descriptive statistics analyzed censitariamente (N=100 with the minimum (MIN, medium (MED, desirable (P75, and maximum (MAX. The resulting model consists of 14 sustainability indicators that meet the attributes: (a productivity, (b stability, resilience and reliability, (c adaptability, (d equity, (e self-management. It is possible to conclude that there is technical feasibility and to develop mathematical models of sustainability assessment systems based on indicators. When reviewed in complex revealed that artisanal fisheries developed in the analyzed system has a Relative Sustainability Index (IRS of 26%. The results also demonstrated that it is possible to reach an IRS=33% based on the local situation (P75.

  13. Assessment of Trace Elements Levels in Sediment and Water in Some Artisanal and Small-Scale Mining(ASM Localities in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kofi Agyarko

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The concentrations of eight trace elements, Cadmium (Cd, lead (Pb, iron (Fe, zinc (Zn, manganese (Mn, copper (Cu, mercury (Hg and arsenic(As in sediment and water were assessed in four artisanal and small-scale mining(ASM localities in the Amansie West District (6°28′N 1°53′W of Ghana along two river courses from May 2011to July 2011. Triplicate water and sediment samples were randomly taken at five different points at each of the localities and the elements determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS . Using the Geo-accumulation Index( Igeo assessment, the sediments were found to be polluted to different degrees with Cu(Uncontaminated to moderately contaminated/Moderately contaminated, Hg (Uncontaminated to moderately contaminated/Moderately contaminated and As(Moderately contaminated/Moderately to strongly contaminated. The Enrichment Factor (EF indicated human influence - artisanal mining activities on the sediment concentration of Cd and Pb for all the localities and only some of the localities for the rest of the trace elements. The elements are major sediment pollutants ( EF > 2 in one or more of the localities. The Igeo and EF gave diverse status of the sediment qualities of the localities. Cd, Pb, Hg and As water concentrations in the four artisanal mining localities were all found to be above the WHO maximum acceptable of levels for drinking water. Inhabitants in the mining localities face the risk of getting various diseases by drinking the waters contaminated with the trace elements.

  14. Spearfishing regulation benefits artisanal fisheries: the ReGS indicator and its application to a multiple-use Mediterranean marine protected area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine Rocklin

    Full Text Available The development of fishing efficiency coupled with an increase of fishing effort led to the overexploitation of numerous natural marine resources. In addition to this commercial pressure, the impact of recreational activities on fish assemblages remains barely known. Here we examined the impact of spearfishing limitation on resources in a marine protected area (MPA and the benefit it provides for the local artisanal fishery through the use of a novel indicator. We analysed trends in the fish assemblage composition using artisanal fisheries data collected in the Bonifacio Strait Natural Reserve (BSNR, a Mediterranean MPA where the spearfishing activity has been forbidden over 15% of its area. Fish species were pooled into three response groups according to their target level by spearfishing. We developed the new flexible ReGS indicator reflecting shifts in species assemblages according to the relative abundance of each response group facing external pressure. The catch per unit effort (CPUE increased by ca. 60% in the BSNR between 2000 and 2007, while the MPA was established in 1999. The gain of CPUE strongly depended on the considered response group: for the highly targeted group, the CPUE doubled while the CPUE of the untargeted group increased by only 15.5%. The ReGS value significantly increased from 0.31 to 0.45 (on a scale between 0 and 1 in the general perimeter of this MPA while it has reached a threshold of 0.43, considered as a reference point, in the area protected from spearfishing since 1982. Our results demonstrated that limiting recreational fishing by appropriate zoning in multiple-use MPAs represents a real benefit for artisanal fisheries. More generally we showed how our new indicator may reveal a wide range of impacts on coastal ecosystems such as global change or habitat degradation.

  15. Short communication: Sensory profile of raw goat milk cheeses made with artisan kid rennet pastes from commercial-weight animals: alternative to farmhouse goat cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresno, M; Álvarez, S; Díaz, E; Virto, M; de Renobales, M

    2014-10-01

    The loss of traditional kid rennet pastes in the Canary Islands (Spain), as in many other regions, is most likely due to the custom of using abomasa from very young animals killed below desirable commercial weight. In addition, the reasonable price of commercial rennets (CR) has resulted in the loss of typical sensory characteristics for most farmhouse raw goat milk cheeses, placing them at a disadvantage when local and international markets are full of different cheeses, often with aggressive marketing strategies. This paper analyzes the sensory characteristics of raw goat milk cheeses made with rennet pastes prepared from commercial kid abomasa in 2 ways: dried while full of ingested milk [full, commercial, artisan kid rennet (FCKR)], or dried after being emptied of ingested milk and refilled with raw goat milk [empty, commercial, artisan kid rennet (ECKR)]. This latter practice allows the use of empty abomasa, or abomasa with grass, soil, and so on. Sensory profiles of cheeses made with FCKR and ECKR rennets were compared with those made with CR by an expert panel (n=7). The FCKR and ECKR cheeses had similar sensory profiles. Although scores for FCKR cheeses were somewhat higher than for ECKR cheeses, they were in the range found for traditional cheeses made with rennet prepared with abomasa from very young animals. The sensory profile of CR cheeses was very different. Almost 90% of consumer panelists (n=90) preferred cheeses made with the experimental rennet pastes. These results demonstrate the possibility to prepare artisan rennet pastes from commercial-weight kids in an easy way for farmhouse cheese makers using local resources that would otherwise be destroyed in abattoirs. PMID:25064646

  16. Diversity, Dynamics and Activity of Bacterial Communities during Production of an Artisanal Sicilian Cheese as Evaluated by 16S rRNA Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Randazzo, C.L.; Torriani, S.; Akkermans, A.D.L.; Vos, de, R.; Vaughan, E E

    2002-01-01

    The diversity and dynamics of the microbial communities during the manufacturing of Ragusano cheese, an artisanal cheese produced in Sicily (Italy), were investigated by a combination of classical and culture-independent approaches. The latter included PCR, reverse transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR), and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of 16S rRNA genes (rDNA). Bacterial and Lactobacillus group-specific primers were used to amplify the V6 to V8 and V1 to V3 regions of the 16S rRNA gene...

  17. Chapitre Χ. Les artisans et les commerçants du Caire dans la société égyptienne

    OpenAIRE

    Raymond, André

    2014-01-01

    Les artisans et les commerçants constituaient, avec leurs familles, la quasi-totalité de la population du Caire. En dehors de cette population active, la Description ne recensait, outre les douze mille membres de la caste dominante, que les six mille individus qu’elle qualifiait de « propriétaires » et dans lesquels elle comprenait évidemment les ‘ulamā’. Les « savants » formaient dans la société égyptienne comme un second « cercle », qui ne pouvait être comparé à celui que constituaient les ...

  18. Total and free fatty acids content during the ripening of artisan and industrially manufactured “Chorizo de cebolla”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco, Inmaculada

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available "Chorizo de cebolla" is a traditional sausage made in the north west of Spain. In four batches manufactured by artisanal methods and 4 manufactured by industrial ones the contents of total and free fatty acids were assessed throughout ripening, taking from every batch samples of the mass before stuffing (0 days and of the sausage after 2, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 42 days of ripening. The profile of total fatty acids of the two types of sausage basically coincide with that found by other authors in pork fat. However, both types of sausage (artisanal and industrial differ significantly (pEl chorizo de cebolla es un embutido tradicional elaborado en el noroeste de España. En cuatro partidas fabricadas por procedimientos artesanales y 4 elaboradas industrialmente se determinó a lo largo de la maduración los contenidos en ácidos grasos totales y libres, tomando en cada partida muestras de masa antes de embutir (0 días y de chorizo a los 2, 7, 14, 21, 28 y 42 días de maduración. El perfil de ácidos grasos totales de los dos tipos de embutidos coincide básicamente con el encontrado por otros autores en grasa de cerdo. Sin embargo, ambos tipos de chorizo (artesanal e industrial difirieron significativamente (p< 0.05 en el porcentaje de ácidos grasos totales saturados e insaturados. Los chorizos elaborados artesanalmente presentaron porcentajes de ácidos grasos saturados significativamente superiores a los encontrados en los chorizos industriales. El contenido en ácidos grasos libres totales experimentó a lo largo de la maduración un incremento significativo (p< 0.05 desde valores medios de 459 ± 243 mg/100 g de grasa en la masa hasta 3687 ± 1670 mg/100 g de grasa en chorizo de 42 días, en los chorizos artesanales, y desde 560 ± 317 mg/100 g de grasa hasta 5157 ± 3673 mg/100 g en los industriales. Debido a la gran variabilidad entre las diferentes partidas, no se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas en los

  19. Bycatch of franciscana dolphins Pontoporia blainvillei and the dynamic of artisanal fisheries in the species' southernmost area of distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Fernanda Negri

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In Argentina, the franciscana dolphin is one of the most vulnerable cetaceans regularly entangled in coastal artisanal fishery nets. The aim of this paper is to estimate the species' incidental mortality on the Southern coast of Buenos Aires province through interviews with the captains of artisanal fishing vessels, in the period 2006-2009. Franciscana bycatch was reported for gillnets and shrimper gear all year round but it occurred more frequently between October and February, at 5 km offshore and 10-20 m depth. The estimated mean annual incidental mortality was 107 dolphins (CI 95% = 87-129, 92 caught in gillnets (CI 95% = 73-112 and 15 in shrimpers' gear (CI 95% = 8-25 with a capture per unit effort of 0.029 dolphins per km of gillnet (CI 95% = 0.023-0.036 and 0.022 per shrimpe r's net (CI 95% = 0.012-0.035. Annual fluctuations were due to differences in the number of gillnetting fishing days. If mortality estimates for the Northern coast are also taken into account, values attain a maximum of 360-539 dolphins bycaught in the entire Buenos Aires province, representing 2.5-3.7% of the species' abundance in Argentina. This will inevitably lead to the decline of franciscana dolphin populations in the near future unless alternative fishing grounds are identified and alternative gearadopted.Na Argentina, a toninha é um dos cetáceos mais vulneráveis devido às capturas por rede de pesca artesanal. O presente estudo teve como objetivo estimar as capturas acidentais no sul da província de Buenos Aires, através de entrevistas aos capitães de barcos de pesca artesanal, entre os anos 2006-2009. As capturas foram reportadas para redes de emalhe e de camarão; com as mais altas frequências entre outubro e fevereiro, a 5 km da costa e 10-20 m de profundidade. A mortalidade acidental média anual estimada foi de 107 golfinhos (IC 95% = 87-129, 92 em redes de emalhe (IC 95% = 73-112 e 15 em redes de camarão (IC 95% = 8-25, com uma captura de 0

  20. Upgrading the quality of Africa's rice: a novel artisanal parboiling technology for rice processors in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndindeng, Sali Atanga; Manful, John; Futakuchi, Koichi; Mapiemfu-Lamare, Delphine; Akoa-Etoa, Joséphine M; Tang, Erasmus N; Bigoga, Jude; Graham-Acquaah, Seth; Moreira, Jean

    2015-11-01

    In order to increase the quality of locally produced rice, the artisanal parboiling process in West and Central Africa was reconceptualized. A novel parboiling unit was constructed using stainless steel (Inox 304) and fitted directly on an improved stove made from fired bricks. The heat profile at different locations in the unit, the physicochemical properties, cooking properties of the parboiled rice, and the fuel efficiency of the stove were evaluated and compared with that of the traditional system. The heat flow in the new unit was from the top to the bottom while the reverse occurred in the traditional unit. The percent impurities and heat-damaged grains, swelling and water uptake ratios, amylose content, stickiness, and cohesiveness were lower for rice produced using the improved technology (IT) compared to the traditional technology (TT). Whole grains (%), lightness (L*), yellowness (b*), cooking time, viscosity were higher for rice produced using the IT compared to the TT. Most of physicochemical and cooking properties of rice produced using the IT were not different from that of premium quality imported rice and this was achieved when steaming time was between 20-25 min. The improved stove recorded a lower time to boil water and specific fuel consumption and a higher burning rate and firepower at the hot-start high-power phase compared to the traditional stove. Most end users rated the IT as easy and safe to use compared to the TT. The new technology was code-named "Grain quality enhancer, Energy-efficient and durable Material (GEM) parboiling technology." PMID:26788297

  1. High altitude artisanal small-scale gold mines are hot spots for Mercury in soils and plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercury releases from artisanal and small-scale gold mines (ASGM) condense and settle on plants, soils and water bodies. We collected soil and plant samples to add knowledge to the likely transfer of Hg from soils into plants and eventually predict Hg accumulation in livestock around ASGM in Bolivia. Mean contents of Hg in soils range from 0.5 to 48.6 mg Hg kg−1 soil (5× to 60× more compared to control sites) and exceeded the soil Hg threshold levels in some European countries. The Hg contents ranged from 0.6 to 18 and 0.2 to 28.3 mg Hg kg−1 leaf and root, respectively. The high Hg in Poaceae and Rosaceae may elevate Hg accumulation into the food chain because llama and alpaca solely thrive on these plants for food. Erosion of soils around ASGM in Bolivia contributes to the Hg contamination in lower reaches of the Amazon basin. - Highlights: ► Hg in soils ranged from 0.5 to 48.6 mg Hg kg−1 soil, and at least 5× to 60× more than control sites. ► Plants near gold mines exceed the 0.1 mg Hg kg−1 plant material European limit for feed quality. ► Camelids feeding on plants with high Hg may elevate Hg levels in foods (meats) for the miners. ► Soils with high Hg can be significant Hg sources to the contamination of the Amazon basin. - Mean contents of Hg in soils were at least 5× to 60× more compared to Hg in control sites, and the high Hg in Poaceae and Rosaceae may elevate Hg into the food chain.

  2. Biodegradation of free cyanide by bacterial species isolated from cyanide-contaminated artisanal gold mining catchment area in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razanamahandry, Lovasoa Christine; Andrianisa, Harinaivo Anderson; Karoui, Hela; Kouakou, Koffi Marcelin; Yacouba, Hamma

    2016-08-01

    Soil and water samples were collected from a watershed in Burkina Faso where illegal artisanal gold extraction using cyanidation occurs. The samples were used to evaluate cyanide contamination and the presence of cyanide degrading bacteria (CDB). Free cyanide (F-CN) was detected in all samples, with concentrations varying from 0.023 to 0.9 mg kg(-1), and 0.7-23 μg L(-1) in the soil and water samples, respectively. Potential CDB also were present in the samples. To test the effective F-CN degradation capacity of the isolated CDB species, the species were cultivated in growth media containing 40, 60 or 80 mg F-CN L(-1), with or without nutrients, at pH 9.5 and at room temperature. More than 95% of F-CN was degraded within 25 h, and F-CN degradation was associated with bacterial growth and ammonium production. However, initial concentrations of F-CN higher than 100 mg L(-1) inhibited bacterial growth and cyanide degradation. Abiotic tests showed that less than 3% of F-CN was removed by volatilization. Thus, the degradation of F-CN occurred predominately by biological mechanisms, and such mechanisms are recommended for remediation of contaminated soil and water. The bacteria consortium used in the experiment described above exist in a Sahelian climate, which is characterized by a long hot and dry season. Because the bacteria are already adapted to the local climate conditions and show the potential for cyanide biodegradation, further applicability to other contaminated areas in West Africa, where illegal gold cyanidation is widespread, should be explored. PMID:27209555

  3. Integrated Assessment of Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining in Ghana — Part 3: Social Sciences and Economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark L. Wilson

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article is one of three synthesis reports resulting from an integrated assessment (IA of artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM in Ghana. Given the complexities that involve multiple drivers and diverse disciplines influencing ASGM, an IA framework was used to analyze economic, social, health, and environmental data and to co-develop evidence-based responses in collaboration with pertinent stakeholders. We look at both micro- and macro-economic processes surrounding ASGM, including causes, challenges, and consequences. At the micro-level, social and economic evidence suggests that the principal reasons whereby most people engage in ASGM involve “push” factors aimed at meeting livelihood goals. ASGM provides an important source of income for both proximate and distant communities, representing a means of survival for impoverished farmers as well as an engine for small business growth. However, miners and their families often end up in a “poverty trap” of low productivity and indebtedness, which reduce even further their economic options. At a macro level, Ghana’s ASGM activities contribute significantly to the national economy even though they are sometimes operating illegally and at a disadvantage compared to large-scale industrial mining companies. Nevertheless, complex issues of land tenure, social stability, mining regulation and taxation, and environmental degradation undermine the viability and sustainability of ASGM as a livelihood strategy. Although more research is needed to understand these complex relationships, we point to key findings and insights from social science and economics research that can guide policies and actions aimed to address the unique challenges of ASGM in Ghana and elsewhere.

  4. Integrated Assessment of Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining in Ghana - Part 3: Social Sciences and Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Mark L; Renne, Elisha; Roncoli, Carla; Agyei-Baffour, Peter; Tenkorang, Emmanuel Yamoah

    2015-07-01

    This article is one of three synthesis reports resulting from an integrated assessment (IA) of artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) in Ghana. Given the complexities that involve multiple drivers and diverse disciplines influencing ASGM, an IA framework was used to analyze economic, social, health, and environmental data and to co-develop evidence-based responses in collaboration with pertinent stakeholders. We look at both micro- and macro-economic processes surrounding ASGM, including causes, challenges, and consequences. At the micro-level, social and economic evidence suggests that the principal reasons whereby most people engage in ASGM involve "push" factors aimed at meeting livelihood goals. ASGM provides an important source of income for both proximate and distant communities, representing a means of survival for impoverished farmers as well as an engine for small business growth. However, miners and their families often end up in a "poverty trap" of low productivity and indebtedness, which reduce even further their economic options. At a macro level, Ghana's ASGM activities contribute significantly to the national economy even though they are sometimes operating illegally and at a disadvantage compared to large-scale industrial mining companies. Nevertheless, complex issues of land tenure, social stability, mining regulation and taxation, and environmental degradation undermine the viability and sustainability of ASGM as a livelihood strategy. Although more research is needed to understand these complex relationships, we point to key findings and insights from social science and economics research that can guide policies and actions aimed to address the unique challenges of ASGM in Ghana and elsewhere. PMID:26184277

  5. Artisanal Green Turtle, Chelonia mydas, fishery of Caribbean Nicaragua: I. Catch rates and trends, 1991-2011.

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    Cynthia J Lagueux

    Full Text Available This is the first assessment of catch rates for the legal, artisanal green turtle, Chelonia mydas, fishery in Caribbean Nicaragua. Data were collected by community members, monitoring up to 14 landing sites from 1991 to 2011. We examined take levels, and temporal and spatial variability in catch rates for the overall fishery, by region, and community using General Additive Mixed Models (GAMMs. More than 171,556 green turtles were killed during the period, with a mean estimated minimum 8,169±2,182 annually. There was a statistically significant decline in catch rates overall. Catch rates peaked in 1997 and 2002, followed by a downward trend, particularly from mid-2008 to the end of the study period. Similar downward trends were evident in both study regions. Community specific catch rate trends also indicated declines with decreases ranging from 21% to 90%. Decrease in catch rates in Nicaragua is cause for concern even though the principal source rookery at Tortuguero, Costa Rica, shows an increase in nesting activity. Explanations for the apparent discrepancy between the increasing trend at Tortuguero and decreasing catch rate trends in Nicaragua include: i an increase in reproductive output, ii insufficient time has passed to observe the impact of the fishery on the rookery due to a time lag, iii changes in other segments of the population have not been detected since only nesting activity is monitored, iv the expansive northern Nicaragua foraging ground may provide a refuge for a sufficient portion of the Tortuguero rookery, and/or v a larger than expected contribution of non-Tortuguero rookeries occurring in Nicaragua turtle fishing areas. Our results highlight the need for close monitoring of rookeries and in-water aggregations in the Caribbean. Where consumptive use still occurs, nations sharing this resource should implement scientifically based limits on exploitation to ensure sustainability and mitigate impacts to regional population

  6. Linking fishery management and conservation in a tropical estuarine lagoon: biological and physical effects of an artisanal fishing gear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda, M.; Defeo, O.

    2003-04-01

    Information coming from fishery monitoring, surveys and experimental fishing with participation of fishers was employed to determine the impact of an artisanal gear, 'boliche', on the biodiversity of the Ciénaga Grande de Santa Marta (CGSM), an estuarine lagoon on the Caribbean coast of Colombia. Fishery monitoring (catch data) included landings before (1968 and 1978) and after (1994-1996) the introduction of the boliche in the CGSM (1985), whereas surveys were conducted seasonally during 1993-1994. Fishing experiments involved evaluating different mesh sizes and the short-term effect of physical disturbance by the boliche. Monitoring suggested potential trophic effects of this fishing gear: the catch of large, long-lived, carnivorous species declined after the introduction of the boliche in the CGSM, whereas catch rates of smaller, shorter-lived, and lower trophic level species increased. Surveys revealed that the boliche retained 41 species. The by-catch made up 62% of the total catch and the remaining 38% involved the three target species Eugerres plumieri, Mugil incilis and Cathorops spixii. Selectivity experiments showed that 2.5 in. stretched mesh size gill nets caught more species than the 3.0-in. mesh. The smaller mesh also increased the risk of a critical reduction in the spawning stock of target species (notably E. plumieri); a situation that could affect the fish community if mesh sizes lower than 2.5 in. were intensively used. Suspended particulate matter significantly increased after fishing activity, with higher resuspension on mud-shells and mud substrata, whereas dissolved oxygen showed no appreciable changes after fishing operations. Notwithstanding, the activity of the boliche would generate sediment resuspension between 382 and 470 t day -1, which could lead to potential cascade impacts on water quality. We propose a framework of redundancy in management measures in order to simultaneously reach management and conservation goals.

  7. Artisanal Extraction and Traditional Knowledge Associated with Medicinal Use of Crabwood Oil (Carapa guianensis Aublet.) in a Peri-Urban Várzea Environment in the Amazon Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lira-Guedes, Ana Cláudia; Albuquerque Cunha, Helenilza Ferreira; Guedes, Marcelino Carneiro; Mustin, Karen; Gomes, Suellen Cristina Pantoja

    2016-01-01

    Várzea forests of the Amazon estuary contain species of importance to riverine communities. For example, the oil extracted from the seeds of crabwood trees is traditionally used to combat various illnesses and as such artisanal extraction processes have been maintained. The objectives of this study were to (1) describe the process involved in artisanal extraction of crabwood oil in the Fazendinha Protected Area, in the state of Amapá; (2) characterise the processes of knowledge transfer associated with the extraction and use of crabwood oil within a peri-urban riverine community; and (3) discern medicinal uses of the oil. The data were obtained using semistructured interviews with 13 community members involved in crabwood oil extraction and via direct observation. The process of oil extraction is divided into four stages: seed collection; cooking and resting of the seeds; shelling of the seeds and dough preparation; and oil collection. Oil extraction is carried out within the home for personal use, with surplus marketed within the community. More than 90% of the members of the community involved in extraction of crabwood oil highlighted the use of the oil to combat inflammation of the throat. Knowledge transfer occurs via oral transmission and through direct observation. PMID:27478479

  8. Artisanal Extraction and Traditional Knowledge Associated with Medicinal Use of Crabwood Oil (Carapa guianensis Aublet.) in a Peri-Urban Várzea Environment in the Amazon Estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardi, Mariane; Lira-Guedes, Ana Cláudia; Albuquerque Cunha, Helenilza Ferreira; Guedes, Marcelino Carneiro; Mustin, Karen; Gomes, Suellen Cristina Pantoja

    2016-01-01

    Várzea forests of the Amazon estuary contain species of importance to riverine communities. For example, the oil extracted from the seeds of crabwood trees is traditionally used to combat various illnesses and as such artisanal extraction processes have been maintained. The objectives of this study were to (1) describe the process involved in artisanal extraction of crabwood oil in the Fazendinha Protected Area, in the state of Amapá; (2) characterise the processes of knowledge transfer associated with the extraction and use of crabwood oil within a peri-urban riverine community; and (3) discern medicinal uses of the oil. The data were obtained using semistructured interviews with 13 community members involved in crabwood oil extraction and via direct observation. The process of oil extraction is divided into four stages: seed collection; cooking and resting of the seeds; shelling of the seeds and dough preparation; and oil collection. Oil extraction is carried out within the home for personal use, with surplus marketed within the community. More than 90% of the members of the community involved in extraction of crabwood oil highlighted the use of the oil to combat inflammation of the throat. Knowledge transfer occurs via oral transmission and through direct observation. PMID:27478479

  9. Sea turtle and artisanal cerco-fixo fishing interactions in Cananéia, south coast of São Paulo

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    Natália Cristina Fidelis Bahia

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Sea turtles are reptiles that occur on the Brazilian coast, mainly on nesting and feeding grounds. The consumption of turtle meat and eggs is an ancient habit in many coastal communities around the world. The main dangers that threaten these species are the increase in fishing and the drastic changes in the environment. This study aimed to elucidate the interaction between the artisanal fishermen and the sea turtles in Cananéia, São Paulo state, Brazil. Local fishermen had developed an artisanal trap to fish, the “cerco-fixo”, and through interviews and illustrations, as well as by accompanying the fishermen’ daily activities, three main aspects were verified: (i the perception of the fishermen about the sea turtles; (ii the identification of species and morphological characteristics of these animals; and (iii a description of the incidental bycatch of sea turtles in these traps. The data indicates that this fishing trap is not harmful to the sea turtles. Location of traps can influence the capture of these animals, particularly those traps placed on rocky shores and other similiar points.

  10. Feeding of guitarfish Rhinobatos percellens (Walbaum, 1972 (Elasmobranchii, Rhinobatidae, the target of artisanal fishery in Southern Brazil

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    Hugo Bornatowski

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Rhinobatos percellens is one of three species of Rhinobatidae found on Brazilian shores and is one of the most abundant species on the shallow continental shelf of Paraná and Santa Catarina States. Specimens caught by artisanal fishery between July/2001 and March/2003 by fishing communities located on the frontier between two southern Brazilian States (Paraná and Santa Catarina had their stomach contents analyzed. According to the Alimentary Index (IAi, Decapoda (69% and Teleostei (22% were the main items consumed. Polychaeta, a common prey consumed by several benthonic fishes, was poorly represented in the feeding of R. percellens. This fact may be related to the availability of prey in the environment, or to the size of the guitarfish analyzed (ontogeny. Seasonal variance of main preys (with higher IAi was observed: Dendrobranchiata and Pleocyemata displayed higher percentages in spring and autumn, Teleostei in the winter and Brachyura during the summer.Rhinobatos percellens é uma das três espécies de Rhinobatidae encontrada na costa brasileira e uma das espécies de elasmobrânquio mais abundante na plataforma continental dos estados do Paraná e Santa Catarina. Indivíduos capturados pela pesca artesanal entre Julho/2001 e Março/2003 nas comunidades pesqueiras localizadas entre o Paraná e Santa Catarina tiveram seus conteúdos estomacais analisados. O Índice de Importância Alimentar (IAi mostrou que as principais presas consumidas foram Decapoda (69% e Teleostei (22%. Polychaeta, principal presa ingerida por várias espécies de peixes bentônicos foi pouco expressiva na alimentação de R. percellens. Essa diferença pode estar relacionada com a disponibilidade de presas no ambiente ou com o tamanho das raias analisadas (ontogenia. De acordo com análises sazonais, observou-se que os camarões Dendrobranchiata e Pleocyemata foram as principais presas consumidas durante a primavera e outono, Teleostei durante o inverno e Brachyura

  11. Economic Efficiency of Artisanal Fishing Households under Oil Pollution Environment in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria

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    Gbigbi, TM.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fish supplies more than 87% of the animal protein in Nigeria, and more than 90% of coastal communities depend solely on fishing and fisheries related activities for their survival. Available information however, shows that Nigeria's inland water bodies are producing less than 13% of their estimated fishery potential. And domestic demand for fish has never been met by dependence on output from available aquatic sources. Nigeria therefore imports over US$ 200 million worth of frozen fish per annum. The capacity of artisanal fisheries to play its role of bridging this food gap, providing employment and generating income, particularly for the coastal communities in Nigeria, will largely depend on the adoption of appropriate management strategies that will ensure efficiency and sustainability given their debilitating oil pollution environment. This study employed a Cobb- Douglas stochastic frontier cost function to measure the level of economic efficiency and its determinants among these households. A multi-stage random sampling technique was used to select 160 respondents from whom input-output data, prices and socioeconomic characteristics were obtained. The results of the analysis showed that individual levels of economic efficiency ranged from 0.10 - 0.96 with a mean of 0.68. While age, household size and number of fishing trips made in a week decreased, access to credit, membership of co-operative society, and oil spill increased, significantly, the respondents' level of economic inefficiency. These observations particularly suggest that the farmers were yet to harness the potentials of farm credit and membership of cooperative societies in their farm business, perhaps as a result of poverty. We recommend training workshops and seminars to remedy this. There is also the need for policies that could compel oil companies to minimize oil spill within the farmers' fishing environment. The adverse effects of oil spill on the environment and the

  12. Analysis of artisanal fisheries in two reservoirs of the upper Paraná River basin (Southeastern Brazil

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    José Luís Costa Novaes

    Full Text Available We compared the artisanal fisheries, in terms of catch strategies, productivity, and gross per capita income, at two reservoirs: the Barra Bonita (an eutrophic reservoir with some introduced species, and the Jurumirim (an oligotrophic reservoir, with no introduced species. Published data and structured interviews with fishers were used to evaluate fishing activity, fish biomass, and the financial performance of the fisheries. In the Barra Bonita Reservoir we analysed data from 745 fishing trips, from which 86,691.9 kg of fish were landed, with a mean CPUE of 62.4 kg/fisher-1 day-1. The main type of fish caught was tilapia (71,513.5 kg; CPUE of 51.5 kg/fisher-1 day-1, which constituted 82.5% of the biomass caught. In the Jurumirim Reservoir, we analysed data from 2,401 fishing trips, from which 25,093.6 kg of fish were landed, with a mean CPUE of 10.4 kg/fisher-1 day-1. The main type of fish caught was "traíra" (6,158.6 kg; CPUE of 2.6 kg/fisher-1 day-1, which constituted 24.5% of the biomass caught. Ordination analysis (PCA indicated that there was a difference in composition between the fishing reservoirs and ANCOVA showed that there was a significant difference in fish production between the reservoirs. A Student's t-test showed that fishers in the Barra Bonita Reservoir had a significantly higher gross per capita income than those from the Jurumirim Reservoir. Although the Barra Bonita Reservoir has a higher fish production and the fishers earn a higher gross per capita income, we recommend the Jurumirim Reservoir as a model for artisanal fishery management because fishing activity in this reservoir is viable in the long term and such a model would promote conservation and sustainability. This contrasts with the Barra Bonita Reservoir, in which the fishery is not viable in the long term, due to environmental problems caused by artificial eutrophication and the introduction of alien species. It is also noted that in many countries, management

  13. Crowd-funded micro-grants for genomics and "big data": an actionable idea connecting small (artisan) science, infrastructure science, and citizen philanthropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdemir, Vural; Badr, Kamal F; Dove, Edward S; Endrenyi, Laszlo; Geraci, Christy Jo; Hotez, Peter J; Milius, Djims; Neves-Pereira, Maria; Pang, Tikki; Rotimi, Charles N; Sabra, Ramzi; Sarkissian, Christineh N; Srivastava, Sanjeeva; Tims, Hesther; Zgheib, Nathalie K; Kickbusch, Ilona

    2013-04-01

    Biomedical science in the 21(st) century is embedded in, and draws from, a digital commons and "Big Data" created by high-throughput Omics technologies such as genomics. Classic Edisonian metaphors of science and scientists (i.e., "the lone genius" or other narrow definitions of expertise) are ill equipped to harness the vast promises of the 21(st) century digital commons. Moreover, in medicine and life sciences, experts often under-appreciate the important contributions made by citizen scholars and lead users of innovations to design innovative products and co-create new knowledge. We believe there are a large number of users waiting to be mobilized so as to engage with Big Data as citizen scientists-only if some funding were available. Yet many of these scholars may not meet the meta-criteria used to judge expertise, such as a track record in obtaining large research grants or a traditional academic curriculum vitae. This innovation research article describes a novel idea and action framework: micro-grants, each worth $1000, for genomics and Big Data. Though a relatively small amount at first glance, this far exceeds the annual income of the "bottom one billion"-the 1.4 billion people living below the extreme poverty level defined by the World Bank ($1.25/day). We describe two types of micro-grants. Type 1 micro-grants can be awarded through established funding agencies and philanthropies that create micro-granting programs to fund a broad and highly diverse array of small artisan labs and citizen scholars to connect genomics and Big Data with new models of discovery such as open user innovation. Type 2 micro-grants can be funded by existing or new science observatories and citizen think tanks through crowd-funding mechanisms described herein. Type 2 micro-grants would also facilitate global health diplomacy by co-creating crowd-funded micro-granting programs across nation-states in regions facing political and financial instability, while sharing similar disease

  14. ETUDE DE L'ALIMENTATION DE L'UNITE DE CONSERVATION DU POISSON AU PORT ARTISANAL DE TEMINETAYE -CONAKRY PAR UNE INSTALLATION HYBRIDE PHOTOVOLTAÏQUE-AEROGENERATEUR

    OpenAIRE

    Bah, Mawiatou; Diaby, Idrissa; Lamarana Bah, Amadou

    2016-01-01

    RESUME Le présent travail consiste à étudier la possibilité de l'alimentation de l'unité de conservation de poissons du port artisanal de Téminétaye par un système hybride photovoltaïque et éolien (aérogénérateur). Ainsi un dimensionnement optimisé a été réalisé par des outils de calcul numérique et à partir du logiciel HOMER. La démarche de calcul numériquea permis d'obtenir les résultats suivants : pour une capacité de stockage de 3 tonnes de poissons, la puissance frigorifique de refroidis...

  15. Components detected by headspace-solid phase microextraction in artisanal fresh goat's cheese smoked using dry prickly pear (Opuntia ficus indica)

    OpenAIRE

    Guillén, María; Ibargoitia, María; Sopelana, Patricia; Palencia, Gemma

    2004-01-01

    Composés volatils des fromages de chèvre frais fumés à la fumée de figuier de Barbarie (Opuntia ficus indica) détectés par microextraction en phase solide. Six échantillons de fromages de chèvre frais artisanaux protégés par l'Appellation d'Origine de Palmero, fabriqués par six artisans de l'île de Palma et fumés avec de la fumée de figuier de Barbarie (Opuntia ficus indica), sont analysés pour leur teneur en composés volatils. Bien que ces fromages ne soient pas affinés, plus de 330 composés...

  16. Antibiotic resistance in lactic acid bacteria and Micrococcaceae/Staphylococcaceae isolates from artisanal raw milk cheeses, and potential implications on cheese making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Alonso, P; Fernández-Otero, C; Centeno, J A; Garabal, J I

    2009-08-01

    Antibiotic susceptibility against 19 antimicrobial agents was evaluated in isolates of the genera Lactococcus (46 isolates), Leuconostoc (22), Lactobacillus (19), Staphylococcus (8), Enterococcus (7), and Microccoccus/Kocuria (5) obtained from the predominant microflora of nonrecent and recent types of artisanal raw cow's milk cheeses. Beta-lactams showed broad activity against all genera, although leuconostocs and lactobacilli were highly resistant to oxacillin (80% to 95.5%). Resistance to aminoglycosides was frequent for lactococci and enterococci (particularly for streptomycin), whereas lower rates of resistance were detected for lactobacilli and leuconostocs. Technologically interesting traits for the food industry were distributed among isolates that showed different degrees of resistance to common antibiotics. However, isolates showing resistance to less than 2 antibiotics were mainly those with properties of greatest technological interest (acidifying activity, proteolytic/lipolytic activities, or diacetyl production). PMID:19723213

  17. Seasonal Shift of Bycatch in the Artisanal Shrimp Trawl Fishery of the Gulf of Salamanca, Caribbean Sea of Colombia

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    Luis Orlando Duarte

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Bycatch assessments in trawl fisheries have been mainly referred to an annual scale, ignoring possible seasonal variations. In the Gulf of Salamanca, an artisanal shrimp trawl fleet operates recently and this study evaluates its bycatch for first time, considering the climatic and oceanographic seasonality that dominates the region (runoff and upwelling. 90 hauls in the calm or rainy season (November 2010 and 86 in the windy season (April 2011 were sampled on board of fishing boats. The bycatch to shrimp ratio was 2,69 (2,37 -3,21, 95 % CI and 6,37 (5,10 – 8,24, 95 % CI for the calm season and windy season respectively. We recorded a total of 101 taxa, with a large number of juveniles. The community structure of bycatch differed between seasons (ANOSIM, pStellifer spp., Symphurus caribbeanus y Callinectes sapidus, whereas, in addition, the calm season was characterized by Cathorops mapale, Anchovia clupeoides, Trichiurus lepturus, and the windy season by Larimus breviceps, Cnidaria (jellyfish, Cetengraulis edentulus (Simper. The results showed a seasonal change in the bycatch, raising the need to implement monitoring programs and management measures that address that temporal variability. Negative ecological effects of this fishery prompt the use of mitigation strategies, involving fishermen, to balance social needs and the ecosystem conservation. CAMBIO ESTACIONAL EN LA FAUNA ACOMPAÑANTE DE LA PESQUERÍA ARTESANAL DE ARRASTRE DE CAMARÓN DEL GOLFO DE SALAMANCA, MAR CARIBE DE COLOMBIALa evaluación de la fauna acompañante en las pesquerías de arrastre se ha referido generalmente a una escala anual, ignorando eventuales variaciones estacionales. En el golfo de Salamanca, recientemente opera una flota artesanal de arrastre de camarón, cuya fauna acompañante es evaluada por primera vez en el presente estudio, considerando la estacionalidad climática y oceanográfica que domina la región (descargas continentales y surgencia

  18. Selection of autochthonous lactic acid bacteria from goat dairies and their addition to evaluate the inhibition of Salmonella typhi in artisanal cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Iris da Silva; de Souza, Jane Viana; Ramos, Cintia Lacerda; da Costa, Mateus Matiuzzi; Schwan, Rosane Freitas; Dias, Francesca Silva

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to select autochthonous lactic acid bacteria (LAB) with probiotic and functional properties from goat dairies and test their addition to artisanal cheese for the inhibition of Salmonella typhi. In vitro tests, including survival in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), auto- and co-aggregation, the hemolytic test, DNase activity, antimicrobial susceptibility, antibacterial activity, tolerance to NaCl and exopolysaccharide (EPS), gas and diacetyl production were conducted for sixty isolates. Based on these tests, four LAB isolates (UNIVASF CAP 16, 45, 84 and 279) were selected and identified. Additional tests, such as production of lactic and citric acids by UNIVASF CAP isolates were performed in addition to assays of bile salt hydrolase (BSH), β-galactosidase and decarboxylase activity. The four selected LAB produced high lactic acid (>17 g/L) and low citric acid (0.2 g/L) concentrations. All selected strains showed BSH and β-galactosidase activity and none showed decarboxylase activity. Three goat cheeses (1, 2 and control) were produced and evaluated for the inhibitory action of selected LAB against Salmonella typhi. The cheese inoculated with LAB (cheese 2) decreased 0.38 log10 CFU/g of S. Typhy population while in the cheese without LAB inoculation (cheese 1) the pathogen population increased by 0.29 log units. Further, the pH value increased linearly over time, by 0.004 units per day in cheese 1. In the cheese 2, the pH value decreased linearly over time, by 0.066 units per day. The cocktail containing selected Lactobacillus strains with potential probiotic and technological properties showed antibacterial activity against S. typhi in vitro and in artisanal goat cheese. Thus, goat milk is important source of potential probiotic LAB which may be used to inhibit the growth of Salmonella population in cheese goat, contributing to safety and functional value of the product. PMID:27554143

  19. Characterization of the artisanal fishing communities in Nepal and potential implications for the conservation and management of Ganges River Dolphin (Platanista gangetica gangetica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudel, Shambhu; Levesque, Juan C; Saavedra, Camilo; Pita, Cristina; Pal, Prabhat

    2016-01-01

    The Ganges River dolphin (Platanista gangetica gangetica) (GRD) is classified as one of the most endangered of all cetaceans in the world and the second scarcest freshwater cetacean. The population is estimated to be less than 2,000 individuals. In Nepal's Narayani, Sapta Koshi, and Karnali river systems, survival of GRD continues to be threatened by various anthropogenic activities, such as dam construction and interactions with artisanal fisheries. A basic description of the geographic scope, economics, and types of gear used in these fisheries would help managers understand the fishery-dolphin interaction conflict and assist with developing potential solutions. The main goal was to provide new information on the artisanal fishing communities in Nepal. The specific objectives were to identify, compile, and investigate the demographics, economics, fishing characteristics, and perception of fishermen about GRD conservation in the Narayani, Sapta Koshi, and Karnali rivers so conservation managers can develop and implement a potential solution to the GRD-fishery interaction problem in Nepal. Based on 169 interviews, 79% of Nepalese fishermen indicated fishing was their primary form of income. Fishermen reported fishing effort was greater in summer than winter; greatest in the afternoon (14:30 hrs ± 0:27) and during low water level conditions; and gear was set 4.8 ± 0.2 days/week. Fishermen reported using eight different types of monofilament nets (gillnets and cast nets). Sixty percent used gillnets less than 10 m long, and nearly 30% preferred gillnets between 10 and 100 m long; a few used gillnets longer than 100 m. Most fishermen reported they believed education, awareness, and changing occupations were important for GRD conservation, but they indicated that alternative occupational options were currently limited in Nepal. Nepalese fishermen acknowledged that fisheries posed a risk to GRD, but they believed water pollution, and dam/irrigation developments were

  20. [Spatio-temporal dynamics of fishing effort in a multi-species artisanal diving fishery and its effects on catch variability: insights for sustainable management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naranjo Madrigall, Helven; Salas Marquez, Silvia

    2014-12-01

    Artisanal diving fisheries are a source of income, employment and food security of coastal areas in many countries. Understanding the dynamics of these fisheries, including the spatial and temporal dynamics of fishing effort, gears and species can help to address the challenges involved in fisheries management. We aimed to analyze the differences in fishing strategies undertaken by fishers that use two different diving methods (hookah and free diving), the conditions and their potential impacts on catches when adjustments to those strategies are applied over time. For this, detailed information of fishing operations from artisanal boats in the North Pacific coast of Costa Rica was analyzed in two fishing seasons (2007-2008 and 2011-2012). Data were collected by onboard observers (fishing site, fishing time, species composition, depth and visibility). Additionally, interviews with divers were applied to obtain information of price per species, species volume and fishing operations. From the total number of trips during both seasons, hookah diving was represented by a sample size of 69.3%, while free diving, with a sample of 41.9%. More than 15 species were identified in each fishing season. Nevertheless, three categories had substantial contributions in both seasons with differences in the proportions for each case: green lobster (Panulirus gracilis), octopus (Octopus sp.) and parrotfish (Scarus perrico and S. ghobban). It is worth noting that an important proportion of catch was retained by fishers for personal consumption purposes, including species of high commercial value. Additional night diving activity, increased the number of dives from one season to another. Besides, cooperation processes in free diving fishing operations, and changes in fishing effort between seasons, defined important changes in fishing strategies. Potential causes of changes in fishing strategies and the implications for management to ensure the sustainability of these fisheries in the

  1. Radiological survey and assessment of associated activity concentration of the naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in the Migori artisanal gold mining belt of southern Nyanza, Kenya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odumo, O.B., E-mail: benodumoo@uonbi.ac.k [Department of Physics, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 30197-00100 Nairobi (Kenya); Mustapha, A.O. [Department of Physics, University of Agriculture, P.M.B. 2240 Abeokuta (Nigeria); Patel, J.P.; Angeyo, H.K. [Department of Physics, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 30197-00100 Nairobi (Kenya)

    2011-06-15

    A radiological survey and assessment was carried out at selected sites (Osiri, Mikei, Masara and Macalder) in the Migori gold mines of southern Nyanza, Kenya to determine the levels of exposure of the artisanal miners to the naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) and dust. The activity concentrations of {sup 40}K and the decay products of {sup 232}Th and {sup 226}Ra were obtained using an innovative method in single channel NaI(Tl) gamma-ray spectrometry. The counts for both the sample and the reference material in a specific window for a particular radionuclide were compared to arrive at the activity concentration of the radionuclide in the sample. Measurement of dust loading at various crushing sites was carried out by trapping the dust particles on a 0.45 {mu}m cellulose acetate filter paper (47 mm diameter) using a vacuum pump. The activity concentration levels range widely 80-413, 12-145 and 21-258 Bq/kg for {sup 40}K, {sup 232}Th and {sup 226}Ra, respectively. The calculated absorbed dose in air range from 16 to 178 nGy/h (with a mean of 42 nGy/h). Dust loading was found to range from 1.3 to 3.7 mg/m{sup 3}. Although the activity concentration of the radionuclides and the calculated annual absorbed dose is below the world's average, the dust level at the mines was relatively high. The results obtained show that the artisanal miners are exposed to various levels of radionuclides and dust and necessary precautions need to be taken.

  2. Morocco - Artisanal Fisheries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millenium Challenge Corporation — The final performance evaluation roadmap for the Small-Scale Fisheries Project (PPA-MCC) is developed using a grid constructed around indicators relating to Project...

  3. The Artisanal Nuke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, M. C.

    2014-02-07

    There have been many words written about the value and importance of nuclear disarmament. There have been many words written about the value and importance to the U.S. defense posture of nuclear weapons. This thesis will not be about either one of those points of view. The commentary will not purport to tell anyone that there is a need or there is not a need for one nuclear weapon or thousands of nuclear weapons. This study is more about, "well, they are here -- now what?"

  4. Viability of Staphylococcus xylosus isolated from artisanal sausages for application as starter cultures in meat products Viabilidade de Staphylococcus xylosus isoladas de embutidos artesanais para aplicação como cultivos iniciadores em produtos cárneos

    OpenAIRE

    Ângela Maria Fiorentini; Maristela Cortez Sawitzki; Teresinha Marisa Bertol; Ernani S Sant'Anna

    2009-01-01

    Viability of Staphylococcus xylosus isolated from artisanal sausages for application as starter cultures in meat products Viability of Staphylococcus xylosus strains AD1 and U5isolated from natural fermented sausages was investigated as starter cultures in fermented sausages produced in the South Region of Brazil. The study demonstrated that the Staphylococcus xylosus strains AD1 and U5showed significant growth during fermentation, stability over freeze-dried process, negative reaction for st...

  5. Crowd-Funded Micro-Grants for Genomics and “Big Data”: An Actionable Idea Connecting Small (Artisan) Science, Infrastructure Science, and Citizen Philanthropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badr, Kamal F.; Dove, Edward S.; Endrenyi, Laszlo; Geraci, Christy Jo; Hotez, Peter J.; Milius, Djims; Neves-Pereira, Maria; Pang, Tikki; Rotimi, Charles N.; Sabra, Ramzi; Sarkissian, Christineh N.; Srivastava, Sanjeeva; Tims, Hesther; Zgheib, Nathalie K.; Kickbusch, Ilona

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Biomedical science in the 21st century is embedded in, and draws from, a digital commons and “Big Data” created by high-throughput Omics technologies such as genomics. Classic Edisonian metaphors of science and scientists (i.e., “the lone genius” or other narrow definitions of expertise) are ill equipped to harness the vast promises of the 21st century digital commons. Moreover, in medicine and life sciences, experts often under-appreciate the important contributions made by citizen scholars and lead users of innovations to design innovative products and co-create new knowledge. We believe there are a large number of users waiting to be mobilized so as to engage with Big Data as citizen scientists—only if some funding were available. Yet many of these scholars may not meet the meta-criteria used to judge expertise, such as a track record in obtaining large research grants or a traditional academic curriculum vitae. This innovation research article describes a novel idea and action framework: micro-grants, each worth $1000, for genomics and Big Data. Though a relatively small amount at first glance, this far exceeds the annual income of the “bottom one billion”—the 1.4 billion people living below the extreme poverty level defined by the World Bank ($1.25/day). We describe two types of micro-grants. Type 1 micro-grants can be awarded through established funding agencies and philanthropies that create micro-granting programs to fund a broad and highly diverse array of small artisan labs and citizen scholars to connect genomics and Big Data with new models of discovery such as open user innovation. Type 2 micro-grants can be funded by existing or new science observatories and citizen think tanks through crowd-funding mechanisms described herein. Type 2 micro-grants would also facilitate global health diplomacy by co-creating crowd-funded micro-granting programs across nation-states in regions facing political and financial instability, while

  6. Radiogenic and Dosimetric Characteristics of Artisanal Mining of a High Background Radiation Area (HBRA) ‘Conflict Mineral’ Columbite-Tantalite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper reports on the radiogenic and dosimetric study of extraction and processing of a ‘conflict mineral’ columbite-tantalite (coltan) in Rwanda using gamma-ray spectrometry and multivariate chemometrics. The study was motivated by the need for evidence-based development of a radiological regulatory framework for artisanal mining of conflict minerals in high background radiation areas (HBRA), which is widespread in Eastern Africa; and for furnishing a rapid method for forensic and quality assurance of coltan mining and trade utilizing coltan ore gamma-ray spectra as unique geochemical fingerprints. The mean activity concentrations of 238U and 232Th in mined coltan were 513 Bq kg-1 and 57 Bq kg-1 respectively, while that of 40K was 267 Bq kg-1. Measured absorbed dose rates varied 518.34 - 796.92 nGy h-1, 522.4 - 820.7 nGy h-1 and 563.8 - 845.7 nGy h-1 in Muhanga, Ruli and Ngoma respectively; these values are 11 times higher than world average, showing Rwanda’s coltan mining belt is a HBRA. Measured dose rates were twice higher than computed rates based on measured radionuclide activities, indicating the significance of gamma dose from radioactive dust and radon. Calculation of effective doses according to exposure pathways and working scenarios showed that total effective doses vary 0.0173 - 0.272 mSv y-1 in Muhanga, 0.013 - 0.525 mSv y-1 in Ruli and 0.022 - 0.255 mSv y-1 in Ngoma; inhalation of coltan bearing dust accounts for 98 % of the total exposure. It was found that processing coltan enhances the concentration of 232Th and 238U by a factor of 3 and 2 respectively, while it reduces that of 40K by a factor of 15. Principal component analysis (PCA) of the radionuclides source-apportioned coltan accurately to the respective mining areas and differentiated extracted from processed coltan. Although PCA also showed that artisanal mining practices hardly contribute to radiogenic pollution of the environment, results of this study raise important

  7. Human Health Risk Assessment of Artisanal Miners Exposed to Toxic Chemicals in Water and Sediments in the Prestea Huni Valley District of Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obiri, Samuel; Yeboah, Philip O.; Osae, Shiloh; Adu-kumi, Sam; Cobbina, Samuel J.; Armah, Frederick A.; Ason, Benjamin; Antwi, Edward; Quansah, Reginald

    2016-01-01

    A human health risk assessment of artisanal miners exposed to toxic metals in water bodies and sediments in the PresteaHuni Valley District of Ghana was carried out in this study, in line with US EPA risk assessment guidelines. A total of 70 water and 30 sediment samples were collected from surface water bodies in areas impacted by the operations of artisanal small-scale gold mines in the study area and analyzed for physico-chemical parameters such as pH, TDS, conductivity, turbidity as well as metals and metalloids such as As, Cd, Hg and Pb at CSIR—Water Research Institute using standard methods for the examination of wastewater as outlined by American Water Works Association (AWWA). The mean concentrations of As, Cd, Hg and Pb in water samples ranged from 15 μg/L to 325 μg/L (As), 0.17 μg/L to 340 μg/L (Cd), 0.17 μg/L to 122 μg/L (Pb) and 132 μg/L to 866 μg/L (Hg), respectively. These measured concentrations of arsenic (As), mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) were used as input parameters to calculate the cancer and non-cancer health risks from exposure to these metals in surface water bodies and sediments based on an occupational exposure scenario using central tendency exposure (CTE) and reasonable maximum exposure (RME) parameters. The results of the non-cancer human health risk assessment for small-scale miners working around river Anikoko expressed in terms of hazard quotients based on CTE parameters are as follows: 0.04 (Cd), 1.45 (Pb), 4.60 (Hg) and 1.98 (As); while cancer health risk faced by ASGM miners in Dumase exposed to As in River Mansi via oral ingestion of water is 3.1 × 10−3. The hazard quotient results obtained from this study in most cases were above the HQ guidance value of 1.0, furthermore the cancer health risk results were found to be higher than the USEPA guidance value of 1 × 10−4 to 1 × 10−6. These findings call for case-control epidemiological studies to establish the relationship between exposure to the

  8. Human Health Risk Assessment of Artisanal Miners Exposed to Toxic Chemicals in Water and Sediments in the PresteaHuni Valley District of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Obiri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A human health risk assessment of artisanal miners exposed to toxic metals in water bodies and sediments in the PresteaHuni Valley District of Ghana was carried out in this study, in line with US EPA risk assessment guidelines. A total of 70 water and 30 sediment samples were collected from surface water bodies in areas impacted by the operations of artisanal small-scale gold mines in the study area and analyzed for physico-chemical parameters such as pH, TDS, conductivity, turbidity as well as metals and metalloids such as As, Cd, Hg and Pb at CSIR—Water Research Institute using standard methods for the examination of wastewater as outlined by American Water Works Association (AWWA. The mean concentrations of As, Cd, Hg and Pb in water samples ranged from 15 μg/L to 325 μg/L (As, 0.17 μg/L to 340 μg/L (Cd, 0.17 μg/L to 122 μg/L (Pb and 132 μg/L to 866 μg/L (Hg, respectively. These measured concentrations of arsenic (As, mercury (Hg, cadmium (Cd and lead (Pb were used as input parameters to calculate the cancer and non-cancer health risks from exposure to these metals in surface water bodies and sediments based on an occupational exposure scenario using central tendency exposure (CTE and reasonable maximum exposure (RME parameters. The results of the non-cancer human health risk assessment for small-scale miners working around river Anikoko expressed in terms of hazard quotients based on CTE parameters are as follows: 0.04 (Cd, 1.45 (Pb, 4.60 (Hg and 1.98 (As; while cancer health risk faced by ASGM miners in Dumase exposed to As in River Mansi via oral ingestion of water is 3.1 × 10−3. The hazard quotient results obtained from this study in most cases were above the HQ guidance value of 1.0, furthermore the cancer health risk results were found to be higher than the USEPA guidance value of 1 × 10−4 to 1 × 10−6. These findings call for case-control epidemiological studies to establish the relationship between exposure to the

  9. Human Health Risk Assessment of Artisanal Miners Exposed to Toxic Chemicals in Water and Sediments in the Prestea Huni Valley District of Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obiri, Samuel; Yeboah, Philip O; Osae, Shiloh; Adu-Kumi, Sam; Cobbina, Samuel J; Armah, Frederick A; Ason, Benjamin; Antwi, Edward; Quansah, Reginald

    2016-01-01

    A human health risk assessment of artisanal miners exposed to toxic metals in water bodies and sediments in the PresteaHuni Valley District of Ghana was carried out in this study, in line with US EPA risk assessment guidelines. A total of 70 water and 30 sediment samples were collected from surface water bodies in areas impacted by the operations of artisanal small-scale gold mines in the study area and analyzed for physico-chemical parameters such as pH, TDS, conductivity, turbidity as well as metals and metalloids such as As, Cd, Hg and Pb at CSIR-Water Research Institute using standard methods for the examination of wastewater as outlined by American Water Works Association (AWWA). The mean concentrations of As, Cd, Hg and Pb in water samples ranged from 15 μg/L to 325 μg/L (As), 0.17 μg/L to 340 μg/L (Cd), 0.17 μg/L to 122 μg/L (Pb) and 132 μg/L to 866 μg/L (Hg), respectively. These measured concentrations of arsenic (As), mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) were used as input parameters to calculate the cancer and non-cancer health risks from exposure to these metals in surface water bodies and sediments based on an occupational exposure scenario using central tendency exposure (CTE) and reasonable maximum exposure (RME) parameters. The results of the non-cancer human health risk assessment for small-scale miners working around river Anikoko expressed in terms of hazard quotients based on CTE parameters are as follows: 0.04 (Cd), 1.45 (Pb), 4.60 (Hg) and 1.98 (As); while cancer health risk faced by ASGM miners in Dumase exposed to As in River Mansi via oral ingestion of water is 3.1 × 10(-3). The hazard quotient results obtained from this study in most cases were above the HQ guidance value of 1.0, furthermore the cancer health risk results were found to be higher than the USEPA guidance value of 1 × 10(-4) to 1 × 10(-6). These findings call for case-control epidemiological studies to establish the relationship between exposure to the

  10. Recent mercury contamination from artisanal gold mining on Buru Island, Indonesia – Potential future risks to environmental health and food safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Recent mercury contamination from artisanal gold mining, Buru Island, Indonesia. • Measured dispersal into the marine environment. • Implications for food safety. • Challenges for introducing mercury reduction strategies. -- Abstract: In November 2011 gold was found at Mount Botak, Buru Island, Mollucas Province, Indonesia. Since 2012 mercury has been used to extract the gold requiring large volumes of water and resulting in deposition of mercury into Wamsait River and Kayeli Bay. Total mercury in waste ponds was over 680 mg/kg. In sediments at the mouth of the local river and a small feeder creek >3.00 mg/kg and >7.66 mg/kg respectively. River and bay sediments were proportionately higher in available mercury than elemental mercury and more strongly bound mercuric sulfide compared to that in trommel waste. This preliminary investigation raises concerns about the long term distribution and speciation of mercury. The floodplain is an important agricultural resource, and Mollucas Province is recognised nationally as the centre for Indonesian fish stocks. Challenges for management include communicating the potential future risks to the community and leaders and identifying mechanisms to reduce mercury waste

  11. Notes on the Quality of Life of Artisanal Small-Scale Fishermen along the Pacific Coast of Jalisco, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrna Leticia Bravo-Olivas

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable fishing includes the socioeconomic status of fishers. We combined empirical quality of life (QOL and subjective lived experiences methods to explore the social sustainability of artisanal fishers in five fishery collectives along the coast of Jalisco, Mexico, where the average daily income is slightly above the poverty level. The QOL scores were also related to annual catch and incomes within each collective. A QOL index is used in this study that combines importance and achievement ratings scores; the results are indicative of an acceptable QOL for fishermen. The concept of lived experiences, incorporating aspects of life relating to Mind, Body, Work and People was explored through interviews with 12 fishers. The QOL data revealed that family and friends are important indicators related to positive QOL reported by the sample, while economic indicators were not important. Although four of the five collectives perceived that the future looks worse than the present and past, there was limited correlation between catch or income and QOL. However, while the lived experiences exercise in part supported the QOL findings, in that People was the most important dimension for almost all of the fishers interviewed, negative economic gaps related to poor catches and incomes were prevalent in the Mind and Work dimensions. The findings suggest that to understand the socioeconomic component of sustainable fisheries, both of these approaches should be considered, as they can illuminate different aspects of fishers’ lives that need to be considered during the development of fisheries’ management policies.

  12. Assessing the Environmental and Socio-Economic Impacts of Artisanal Gold Mining on the Livelihoods of Communities in the Tarkwa Nsuaem Municipality in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Obiri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Gold mining has played an important role in Ghana’s economy, however the negative environmental and socio-economic effects on the host communities associated with gold mining have overshadowed these economic gains. It is within this context that this paper assessed in an integrated manner the environmental and socio-economic impacts of artisanal gold mining in the Tarkwa Nsuaem Municipality from a natural and social science perspective. The natural science group collected 200 random samples on bi-weekly basis between January to October 2013 from water bodies in the study area for analysis in line with methods outlined by the American Water Works Association, while the social science team interviewed 250 residents randomly selected for interviews on socio-economic issues associated with mining. Data from the socio-economic survey was analyzed using logistic regression with SPSS version 17. The results of the natural science investigation revealed that the levels of heavy metals in water samples from the study area in most cases exceeded GS 175-1/WHO permissible guideline values, which are in tandem with the results of inhabitants’ perceptions of water quality survey (as 83% of the respondents are of the view that water bodies in the study area are polluted. This calls for cost-benefits analysis of mining before new mining leases are granted by the relevant authorities.

  13. Assessing the Environmental and Socio-Economic Impacts of Artisanal Gold Mining on the Livelihoods of Communities in the Tarkwa Nsuaem Municipality in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obiri, Samuel; Mattah, Precious A D; Mattah, Memuna M; Armah, Frederick A; Osae, Shiloh; Adu-kumi, Sam; Yeboah, Philip O

    2016-02-01

    Gold mining has played an important role in Ghana's economy, however the negative environmental and socio-economic effects on the host communities associated with gold mining have overshadowed these economic gains. It is within this context that this paper assessed in an integrated manner the environmental and socio-economic impacts of artisanal gold mining in the Tarkwa Nsuaem Municipality from a natural and social science perspective. The natural science group collected 200 random samples on bi-weekly basis between January to October 2013 from water bodies in the study area for analysis in line with methods outlined by the American Water Works Association, while the social science team interviewed 250 residents randomly selected for interviews on socio-economic issues associated with mining. Data from the socio-economic survey was analyzed using logistic regression with SPSS version 17. The results of the natural science investigation revealed that the levels of heavy metals in water samples from the study area in most cases exceeded GS 175-1/WHO permissible guideline values, which are in tandem with the results of inhabitants' perceptions of water quality survey (as 83% of the respondents are of the view that water bodies in the study area are polluted). This calls for cost-benefits analysis of mining before new mining leases are granted by the relevant authorities. PMID:26821039

  14. Novel starters for old processes: use of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains isolated from artisanal sourdough for craft beer production at a brewery scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marongiu, Antonella; Zara, Giacomo; Legras, Jean-Luc; Del Caro, Alessandra; Mascia, Ilaria; Fadda, Costantino; Budroni, Marilena

    2015-01-01

    The deliberate inoculation of yeast strains isolated from food matrices such as wine or bread, could allow the transfer of novel properties to beer. In this work, the feasibility of the use of baker's yeast strains as starters for craft beer production has been evaluated at laboratory and brewery scale. Nine out of 12 Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains isolated from artisanal sourdoughs metabolized 2 % maltose, glucose and trehalose and showed growth rates and cell populations higher than those of the brewer's strain Safbrew-S33. Analysis of allelic variation at 12 microsatellite loci clustered seven baker's strains and Safbrew-S33 in the main group of bread isolates. Chemical analyses of beers produced at a brewery scale showed significant differences among the beers produced with the baker's strain S38 or Safbrew-S33, while no significant differences were observed when S38 or the brewer's strain Safbrew-F2 was used for re-fermentation. The sensory profile of beers obtained with S38 or the brewer's yeasts did not show significant differences, thus suggesting that baker's strains of S. cerevisiae could represent a reservoir of biodiversity for the selection of starter strains for craft beer production. PMID:25387611

  15. Percepção ambiental das artesãs que usam as folhas de carnaúba (Copernicia prunifera H.E.Moore, Arecaceae) na Área de Proteção Ambiental Delta do Parnaíba, Piauí, Brasil / Environmental perception of the artisans that work with leaves of carnauba palm (Copernicia prunifera H.E.Moore, Arecaceae) in Delta do Parnaíba Environmental Protection Area, Piauí, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Irlaine Rodrigues Vieira; Maria Iracema Bezerra Loiola

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the socioeconomic aspects and environmental perception of artisans that subsists making handicrafts of the leaves of carnauba palm (Copernicia prunifera H. E. Moore) in the Delta do Parnaíba Environmental Protection Area, located in Paranaíba municipality, Piauí state. We interviewed 36 artisans belonging to communities Fazendinha, Vazantinha and Pedra do Sal, using semi-structured questionnaires. In parallel, the plant management was followed. The crafts are made by w...

  16. Application of Object Based Image Analysis (OBIA) in detecting and quantifying forest loss caused by artisanal gold mining activities in Upper Mazaruni River Basin, Guyana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengisteab, B. S.; Blesius, L.; Hennessy, L.

    2014-12-01

    Artisanal gold mining in Guyana is mostly done in forest covered areas, causing forest loss and land degradation. Data from the Guyana Geology and Mining commission show there has been an increase of 2074% between 1986 and 2009. Our analysis of Landsat data between 1986 and 2013 for a part of the Upper Mazaruni area shows an increase from 34.2 to 278.4 hectares, which amounts to more than 800%. While the frequent coverage of Landsat data is useful for multitemporal studies, the lower resolution may not be adequate for accurate detection of mining sites. Therefore, RapidEye imagery from 2011 at a resolution of 5m was used to detect gold mining activity and to compare the results with the Landsat study. Processing was conducted in eCognition, an object-based image analysis (OBIA) software. OBIA is an image processing technique that has proven to be advantageous over traditional pixel based image processing techniques, with the primary advantage being the ability of the approach in combining both the spatial and spectral information. The satellite image was subjected to segmentation at multiple scales and classified using fuzzy sets of membership functions. Classification explicitly incorporated the different scales in order to accommodate different sizes of real-world objects and spatial relationships were utilized to establish connections between related objects. For example the presence or absence of water in pits, or the existence of sediments in the river may serve as additional indicators of mining sites besides the spectral components. Preliminary results show that OBIA approach was able to successfully detect and quantify small scale mining activities in the basin, and that the Landsat data were giving an acceptable estimate of mining sites over time. Keywords:Object Based Image Analysis, Gold Mining, Remote Sensing, Guyana

  17. Orientalizing Vietnam: The American Cold War, its “Problems” with Refugee Handicraft Artisans, and their Relationship to Barthes’s Mythology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Way

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines discourses of orientalism narrating the political and cultural significance of representations of Vietnamese handicraft that the U.S. State Department’s International Cooperation Administration’s handicraft production and export program in Southeast Asia published in American craft, design and art journals and used in trade and department store exhibitions from 1955 to 1961. The American program to bring economic stability to the region developed in response to anxiety about the spread of communism in Southeast Asia, which intensified following the end of the first Indochina War, the French departing Vietnam in 1954 and Vietnam dividing at the 17th Parallel a year later.At issue are the ways those who implemented the program narrated the Vietnamese handicraft artisans as problems by treating both their plight as political refugees fleeing from communist forces in the north and the vulnerability of their fledgling nation in the south to communism, as a Cold War American Orientalist tale of the U.S. salvaging Vietnam from political uncertainty including the destruction of its potential democracy and capitalism. To this point, the Orientalizing saturates Russel Wright’s article, “Gold Mine in Southeast Asia,” which overlays relationships of Western power and civilization as well as anthropological notions of salvage over references to the ways an ostensibly timeless albeit primitive culture of a non-western society (Vietnam could maintain its essential identity by serving the needs of an overly industrialized one. Of particular interest are thematic correspondences between the Orientalist thrust of the American cultural diplomacy as evidenced in Wright’s article, and Roland Barthes’ early work, especially “Myth Today”.

  18. Decree No. 12-88 of 4 December 1988, setting forth the functions of the Minister Responsible for the status of Women, Artisan Industries, and Tourism and the organization of the central administration of his department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    This Mauritania Decree provides that the Minister Responsible for the Status of Women, Artisan Industries, and Tourism has as a general objective the formulation and implementation of a policy promoting women and developing the artisan and tourism sectors. With respect to the status of women, the Minister is responsible for studying and devising programs promoting women, supporting the productive participation of women in development, and ensuring women social and primary education that will permit them to assume an active role in society. Among the directorates of the Ministry is a Directorate on the Status of Women, which has the following responsibilities: 1) to study all measures tending to strengthen the position and role of women, taking into consideration a healthy view of the country's traditional values and the requirements of contemporary society; 2) to work with the media in popularizing the rights and obligations of women; 3) to organize specific interventionist activities for the benefit of rural women; 4) to work with interested departments in developing educational and training programs for women; 5) to work with interested parties in studying employment conditions for women and in supervising the effective insertion of women into the dynamics of development; and 6) to work with educational institutions in promoting women's organizations on the national and international level. Further provisions of the Decree set forth the responsibilities of other departments of the Ministry. PMID:12344093

  19. Assessment of mercury levels in different environmental matrices in communities impacted by artisanal gold mining in the Asutifi District of Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercury (Hg) used in gold amalgamation is a major source of contamination in Ghana. Water, sediment and tailings samples from artisanal gold mining (AGM) sites in Kenyasi, Wuramumuso and Nkaseim in the Asutifi district were collected during the wet and the dry period of 2009 and 2010 respectively, and analyzed for total-Hg (T-Hg) using Cold Vapour Atomic Absorption spectroscopy. T-Hg concentration in water samples collected in the wet period were all below detection (< 1.00 μg/L) while that of the dry period ranged from below detection to 11.22 μg/L. T -Hg in water in the wet period were all below the WHO permissible limit of 1.0 μg/L whereas about 85 % of the samples collected in the dry period had values above the WHO permissible limit. In the sediment, T-Hg in the dry period was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than that of the wet period. T -Hg concentrations ranged from below detection limit (0.001 mg/kg) to 0.053 mg/kg (wet) and 0.233 to 8.564 mg/kg (dry) respectively. Likewise, in the tailings, T-Hg concentration ranged from 0.339 to 8.466 mg/kg for only dry period. The pollution status of mercury in sediment and tailings were evaluated by the geoaccumulation index and the enrichment factor. The average geoaccumulation index value indicated that sediments were practically uncontaminated (- 4.4) in the wet period but moderately contaminated (0.6) in the dry period while enrichment factor (ef) gave moderate to extremely high enrichment. In the case of tailings, average geoaccumulation index for mercury (0.5) denoted uncontaminated to moderately contaminated, while the EF indicated very high to extremely high enrichment. With regard to other trace metals, AGM seemed to have an impact on the ambient levels of As, Mn, Cu and Al as high levels were observed in sediment and tailings. The Pollution Load indices (< 1) however, suggested that the sites were not polluted. (au)

  20. Percepção ambiental das artesãs que usam as folhas de carnaúba (Copernicia prunifera H.E.Moore, Arecaceae na Área de Proteção Ambiental Delta do Parnaíba, Piauí, Brasil / Environmental perception of the artisans that work with leaves of carnauba palm (Copernicia prunifera H.E.Moore, Arecaceae in Delta do Parnaíba Environmental Protection Area, Piauí, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irlaine Rodrigues Vieira

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the socioeconomic aspects and environmental perception of artisans that subsists making handicrafts of the leaves of carnauba palm (Copernicia prunifera H. E. Moore in the Delta do Parnaíba Environmental Protection Area, located in Paranaíba municipality, Piauí state. We interviewed 36 artisans belonging to communities Fazendinha, Vazantinha and Pedra do Sal, using semi-structured questionnaires. In parallel, the plant management was followed. The crafts are made by women with age ranging from 20 to 60 years and low education. They live deprived of basic sanitation, schools and public health of quality. The perception about the plant is attributed to carnauba utilitarian features. In the three communities damage to plant involves estate speculation. The artisans of Fazendinha and Vazantinha did not express a conservationist conscience, prevailing capitalist perception. In the community of Pedra do Sal, the artisans promote an environmental conservation. They contact environmental agencies and protest against the devastation of carnauba forest. It was observed that although artisans share the same activity, they have different perceptions of the environment and resource explored. Especially in the Fazendinha community is necessary construction of environmental education to promote a sustainable extraction.

  1. Évaluation de la microflore du Karakačanski skakutanac, un fromage frais artisanal au lait de brebis, par les méthodes culture-indépendantes PCR-ARDRA et PCR-DGGE

    OpenAIRE

    Čanžek Majhenič, Andreja; Pogačić, Tomislav; Samaržija, Dubravka; D'Andrea, Maura; Corich, Viviana; Kagkli, Dafni-Maria; Giacomini, Alessio; Rogelj, Irena

    2010-01-01

    Le Karakačanski skakutanac est un fromage frais artisanal, produit à petite échelle dans une aire limitée de l'est de la Croatie. Il est fabriqué juste après la traite à partir de lait cru de brebis non réfrigéré, sans addition de levains, et coagulé par de la présure industrielle. La biodiversité de la microflore n'a jusqu'à présent jamais été caractérisée, ni par des méthodes microbiologiques classiques ni par des méthodes moléculaires. L'objectif de cette étude était d'obtenir un premier a...

  2. Ethnoecological knowledge of the artisan fishermen of octopi (Octopus spp. in the community of Coroa Vermelha (Santa Cruz Cabrália, Bahia

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    Viviane S Martins

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Coral reefs are quite diverse ecosystems that carry out several ecological functions and plays a relevant socioeconomic role. The artisan fishing of octopi (Octopus spp. is practiced for the survival of part of the inhabitants of Coroa Vermelha community, in the south of the state of Bahia. We intended to study the knowledge of the octopi fishermen of Coroa Vermelha using the comprehensive ethnoecological proposal of Marques. The data were collected between July, 2006 and April, 2008 through direct observation and from interviews with fishermen met by chance and through the "native specialists" criterion. Twenty semi-structured interviews were carried out following an itinerary of pre-established questions about the activity of octopi capture, and the biological and ecological aspects of the resource. The data showed that the fishermen have knowledge about biological and ecological aspects of the octopi. Two capture techniques are used: octopus fishing (polvejamento in the reefs and through diving. Two specific folk are recognized: the "normal octopus" (Octopus insularis and the "east octopus" (Octopus macropus (?. The intervieews demonstrated ecological knowledge sometimes compatible with the scientific literature, mainly in which concerns the trophic ecology and behavior of the octopi.Os recifes de coral são ecossistemas muito diversos que realizam várias funções ecológicas e possuem um relevante papel socioeconômico. A pesca artesanal de polvo (Octopus spp. é realizada para a sobrevivência de uma parte da população da comunidade de Coroa Vermelha, no Sul do Estado da Bahia. A intenção deste estudo foi avaliar o conhecimento dos pescadores de polvos de Coroa Vermelha, usando a proposta da etnoecologia abrangente de Marques. Os dados foram coletados entre julho de 2006 e abril de 2008 através da observação direta e entrevistas com pescadores encontrados oportunisticamente e com os especialistas "nativos". Vinte entrevistas semi

  3. A path towards networked artisans

    OpenAIRE

    Niessen, BM

    2010-01-01

    The text analyzes the rise of a digital networked makers culture, connecting the rise of Web 2.0 with new forms of crafting. In the first part, the author highlights the major changes in contemporary culture and economy that are driving to new forms of open, p2p and distributed production. In the second part, the author proposes 13 theses on the rise of digital crafting networks.

  4. Viability of Staphylococcus xylosus isolated from artisanal sausages for application as starter cultures in meat products Viabilidade de Staphylococcus xylosus isoladas de embutidos artesanais para aplicação como cultivos iniciadores em produtos cárneos

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    Ângela Maria Fiorentini

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Viability of Staphylococcus xylosus isolated from artisanal sausages for application as starter cultures in meat products Viability of Staphylococcus xylosus strains AD1 and U5isolated from natural fermented sausages was investigated as starter cultures in fermented sausages produced in the South Region of Brazil. The study demonstrated that the Staphylococcus xylosus strains AD1 and U5showed significant growth during fermentation, stability over freeze-dried process, negative reaction for staphylococcal enterotoxins and viability for using as a single-strain culture or associated with lactic acid bacteria for production of fermented sausages.Investigamos a viabilidade de cepas de Staphylococcus xylosus (AD1 e U5 isoladas de embutidos com fermentação natural, para aplicação como cultivos iniciadores em embutidos fermentados produzidos na Região Sul do Brasil. O estudo demonstrou que cepas de Staphylococcus xylosus (AD1 e U5 apresentaram crescimento significativo durante a fermentação, estabilidade no processo de liofilização e conservação, ausência de produção de enterotoxinas e viabilidade para aplicação como cultivo iniciador simples ou associado com bactérias lácticas na elaboração de embutidos fermentados.

  5. Development of an artisanal tanning method of the acoupa weakfish (Cynoscion acoupa skin and its transfer through a workshop to a community in the city of Bragança, PA, Brazil

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    Bruno José Corecha Fernandes Eiras

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Bragança is one of the largest fishing centers in the state of Pará, northern Brazil. In the city, there are several environmental and socio-economic problems such as lack of waste management and contamination of water sources that supply to the city and the Caeté river estuary. The social and economic problems are mainly caused by social inequality, which usually occurs in communities where the population depends mainly on fishing. Fish waste forms a part of the waste disposed in the region. Fish skin represents a significant portion of this waste and may be used for manufacturing leather by the tanning process, thereby generating income for the community and reducing environmental impacts. The acoupa weakfish (Cynoscion acoupa has a high potential for tanning because of its large size and high yield of skin. The aim of this study was to develop a methodology for artisanal skin tanning of acoupa weakfish and the subsequent transfer of this methodology to a fishing community through a workshop. The methodology developed in the laboratory is more streamlined than traditional methods and is based on tanning methods cited in the literature and techniques applied in regional tanneries. To assess the quality of acoupa weakfish leather, resistance tests were performed, which proved its potential for manufacturing clothing and footwear. An economic analysis of the hypothetical production of leather based on the tanning methodology developed in this work revealed that the project is feasible and the effluents generated during the process are less harmful to the environment, compared to those generated by traditional tanning methods.

  6. Avaliação da qualidade microbiológica do queijo-de-minas artesanal do Serro-MG Microbiological quality of artisanal minas cheese, manufactured in the region of Serro-MG

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    L.M.F. Brant

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se a qualidade microbiológica do queijo-de-minas artesanal do Serro e a variação da microbiota do queijo recém-fabricado e no último dia de validade, após estocagem sob as condições recomendadas no rótulo. Foram analisadas 40 amostras de queijo, sendo 20 analisadas frescas, imediatamente após a coleta, e 20 no último dia de validade, após estocagem em câmara fria a 10ºC. As amostras foram analisadas para coliformes a 35ºC e 45ºC, Staphylococcus coagulase positiva, Salmonella spp. e Listeria monocytogenes. Trinta e sete amostras (92,5% encontraram-se impróprias para o consumo humano, de acordo com os parâmetros estabelecidos pela resolução: RDC ANVISA nº12/01, sendo a principal causa de condenação a contagem de Staphylococcus coagulase positiva. Nenhuma das amostras analisadas apresentou contaminação por Salmonella sp. ou Listeria monocytogenes. As contagens de Staphylococcus coagulase positiva dos queijos frescos foram mais altas (PThe microbiological quality of artisanal minas cheese produced in the region of Serro-MG was evaluated. Cheeses were analyzed fresh and at the end of the shelf life, under specific storage conditions (30 days, 10ºC. Forty samples of minas cheese were analyzed, twenty still fresh, and 20 after storage at 10ºC. The microbiological analyses were counts of fecal and total coliforms, and Staphylococcus coagulase positive; and search of Salmonella sp. and Listeria monocytogenes. Twenty-seven samples (92.5% were in disagreement with the Brazilian Standard, Resolution nº 12 of January 12, 2001, from ANVISA (National Health Surveillance Agency, and Staphylococcus coagulase positive was the major contaminant. No sample was contaminated by Salmonella sp. or Listeria monocytogenes. During the storage, there was a decrease of countings in the population of Staphylococcus coagulase positive (P<0.01.

  7. Relative efficiency of square-mesh codends in an artisanal fishery in southern Brazil Eficiencia relativa de copos de malla cuadrada en una pesquería artesanal del sur de Brasil

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    Catarina N.S Silva¹

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The relative efficiency of two square-mesh codend designs with the same circumference (~2 m but different mesh sizes and materials (32 mm polyethylene-PE and 30 mm polyamide-PA was tested in an artisanal shrimp trawl fishery in Paraná, southern Brazil. The two square-mesh codends were hauled alternately with a 26 mm diamond-shaped mesh codend (control in a twin gear configuration. Although not significant, the mean numbers of total bycatch were reduced by 16.6 and 10.0% with the 32 and 30 mm square-mesh codends, respectively. The results indicate significant improvement in size selectivity for some species (Xiphopenaeus kroyeri and Stellifer rastrifer. The operational changes tested can be a suitable technical solution for reducing the capture of immature organisms in the shrimp trawl fishery in Paraná, Brazil.La eficiencia relativa de dos diseños de copos con malla cuadrada con la misma circunferencia (~2 m pero diferentes tamaños de malla y materiales (32 mm de polietileno-PE y 30 mm de poliamida PA ha sido evaluada en una pesquería de arrastre artesanal de camarón en Paraná, sur de Brasil. Los dos copos de malla cuadrada fueron arrastrados alternativamente con un copo de malla de 26 mm en forma de diamante (control en una configuración de doble arrastre. Aunque no es significativo, el número medio de la captura incidental total se redujo en 16,6 y 10,0% en los copos de malla cuadrada de 32 y 30 mm, respectivamente. Los resultados indican que se logra una significativa mejora en la selectividad por tamaño medio de algunas especies (Xiphopenaeus kroyeri y Stellifer rastrifer. Los cambios operacionales evaluados pueden representar una solución técnica adecuada para reducir las capturas de organismos inmaduros en la pesquería de arrastre de camarón en Paraná, Brasil.

  8. Study of geohazards in the artisanal exploitation sites and their impacts on their surrounding areas. Cases of Mufwa and Kalimbi mines in the South Kivu province (D.R. Congo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nshokano, Jean-Robert

    2014-05-01

    Kivu region is located in the eastern part of DR Congo. This region is in western branch of the East African Rift. In this region there is a presence of several mineral resources. It is also a sismic zone with many cases of geohazards. Very often international NGO's (Human rights, Green Peace, etc.) consider the illegal mining exploitations as the causes of conflicts and war in that region. Those illegal mining exploitations are also responsible for the insecure and inconvenient situations in the region. The DR Congo is a country with great mining vocation and remarkable geological diversity, its people has the need and the right to understand the different challenges related to geological resources. So it's up to raise the question: "What about the unsubstitutable links which put the life beings and their physical environment, what about the interest of soil and subsoil in the human subsistence and comfort?" In undertaking natural resource exploitation, extreme comfort and ultra capitalism should not blind people. They are called to preserve a nature for all and a nature for future generations. We have a common earth where we exploit all the mineral resources. It's up to everyone as human being to be aware of our responsibility regarding to the irreversible decrease of mineral resources and the constant danger of geohazards. The project'"Earth and life" essentially aims for the strengthening of efforts in geoeducation and mass geocommunication (information and sensitization) about the challenges of oil and mineral resources on one hand, and on the other hand the natural hazards in the perspective to encourage much more a sustainable development. Through fieldwork investigations (geological survey), we are going to map the artisanal exploitation sites targeted by the project. We will proceed by sensitization and mass information about different topics of geology and mineral resources issues in the region. The fieldworks will allow us to make an inventory of

  9. Aspectos biológicos de Stellifer stellifer (Bloch na pesca artesanal do camarão sete-barbas, Armação do Itapocoroy, Penha, Santa Catarina, Brasil Biological aspects of Stellifer stellifer caught in sea-bob-shrimp's artisanal fishery, Armação do Itapocoroy, Penha, Santa Catarina, Brazil

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    Laura Ribas de Almeida

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Stellifer stellifer (Bloch, 1790 is one among the most abundant ictiofauna species which are caught by sea-bob-shrimp's artisanal fishery in Armação do Itapocoroy. Aiming to analyze its population structure, a total of 1459 specimens were collected from July/1996 to August/1997. Stellifer stellifer presented lengths varying between 3,7 and 17,7 cm, macroscopic sex differentiation started from 6,0cm, with a higher frequency of females (sex ratio = 1:3,2. The relationship between length and weight was Wt = 0,0073Lt3,1415. First maturation size was determined for females (7,5 cm and males (8,1 cm. The fishery acts in a similar way on juveniles and adults. Stellifer stellifer presented two spawning seasons, one in spring and another in autumn.

  10. Physicochemical and microbiological evaluation of corrientes artisanal cheese during ripening Avaliação físico-química e microbiológica de queijo artesanal corrientes durante a maturação

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    Olga Myriam Vasek

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate some physical and chemical parameters (total solids, pH, acidity, fat, acid degree value of fat, salt, protein and nitrogen fractions and their effects on the beneficial (lactic acid bacteria: LAB and undesirable microbial populations (coliforms, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, moulds, and yeast during ripening of Artisanal Corrientes Cheese, an Argentinian cow's milk variety, to determine whether a longer ripening period than usual improve its hygienic-sanitary quality. The protein content was much higher than that of other cow's milk cheeses with similar values of fat. The larger peptides showed values three times higher in the 30 day-old cheese than those obtained in the beginning of the process. Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were detected (3.04 ± 1.48 log10 cfu/g of cheese, 2.21 ± 0.84 log10 MPN/g of cheese even at 15 and 30 days of ripening, respectively. The distribution of three hundred LAB strains classified to the genus level (lactococci:lactobacilli:leuconostocs was maintained during the ripening period. The high number of LAB in rennet may have contributed to the fermentation as a natural whey starter, unknown source of LAB for this specific cheese so far. The physicochemical changes that occur during ripening were not big enough to inhibit the growth of undesirable microorganisms.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar alguns parâmetros físicos e químicos (sólidos totais, pH, acidez, gordura, grau de acidez da gordura, sal, proteínas e frações de nitrogênio e seus efeitos sobre as populações microbianas benéficas (bactérias lácticas: LAB e indesejáveis (coliformes, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, fungos e leveduras durante a maturação do Queijo Artesanal de Corrientes, uma variedade argentina do leite cru da vaca, para determinar se um tempo de maturação mais longo do que o atual melhora as condições higiênico-sanitárias do queijo. O teor de

  11. Eficiencia operacional del virador de palangre de una embarcación atunera artesanal prototipo de Isla Margarita, Venezuela Operational efficiency of the longline hauler on a prototype artisanal tuna fishing vessel from Margarita Island, Venezuela

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    Ernesto Trujillo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La eficiencia operacional del mecanismo de virado del palangre de una embarcación atunera artesanal de Isla Margarita, Venezuela, se determinó mediante la velocidad media de calado, velocidad media de virado, tensión de entrada del virador (T0 y su fuerza de tracción (P. Se encontró una relación directa entre la fuerza de gravedad media (q med de la sección de palangre y la tensión de entrada del virador (T0. Considerando una fuerza (Pme d en la entrada del virador (Sj, la tensión en (S3 disminuye debido a la polea de presión que ejerce una fuerza H = 23,7 N, obteniendo una fuerza S4 = 0. La velocidad media de calado del palangre fue de 208 m min-1 (~ 333 anzuelos/hora y la velocidad media de virado de 121 m min-1 (~ 160 anzuelos/hora; mientras que la tensión de entrada del virador (T0 fue de 1.013 N. Por lo tanto, la nueva fuerza de tracción (P fluctuó entre 1.317 y 1.418 N. De acuerdo al torque en las poleas del mecanismo virador, la velocidad media de virado (v med y las relaciones de transmisión (k1= k2, se estimó que para el izado del palangre se requiere una potencia media (Nmed de 5,3 hp (~ 3,95 kW, resultando eficiencia de virado por sección (Tp de 135,4 s.The operational efficiency of the long line hauler on an artisanal tuna fishing vessel from Margarita Island, Venezuela, was determined using the average setting velocity, average hauling velocity, hauler input tension (T0 and traction strength (P. A direct relationship was found between the average gravity (q med on the long-line section and the hauler input tension (T0. Considering a strength (Pme d at the input of the long line hauler (Sj, the roller tension (S3 decreases due to the force of H = 23.7 N exerted by the pressure roller, resulting in a strength of S4 = 0. The long-line average setting velocity was 208 m min-1 (~ 333 hooks/hour and its hauling velocity was 121 m min-1 (~ 160 hooks/hour, whereas hauler input tension (T0 was 1013 N. Therefore, the new

  12. La pesca artesanal en la Cuenca del Plata (Argentina y sus implicancias en la conservación de la biodiversidad Artisanal fish at del Plata basin (Argentina and its implications for the biodiversity conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Miguel Iwaszkiw

    2011-06-01

    de la pesquería sobre conservación de la biodiversidad de peces de la cuenca.The aim of this contribution is to consider different issues derived from fish captures from artisanal-commercial fisheries in the Paraná Basin in Argentina. We identify certain impacts related to fishing practices on the involved natural populations and its compromises in ichtiofaunal biodiversity conservation. We consider 17 years of information based on data of fisheries exports for different inland species between 1994-2010. These data includes valuable commercial big sized native fishes like sábalo (Prochilodus lineatus, boga (Leporinus obtusidens, tararira (Hoplias malabaricus, surubí (Pseudoplatystoma spp., dorado (Salminus brasiliensis and patí (Luciopimelodus pati, together with several catfish species and minor species as silversides. Freshwater fish exports show a major rise resulting in 331517 ton for these years. The target species is sábalo (88.77 %, other accompanying species are tararira (4.16 %, boga (3.7 % and Patí (1.35 % whereas the remainig catches belong to other species. There is a strong rise in the catches of these other species in certain years while there is not a clear legislation for these fish species that allow implementing a proper fishery management along the basin. The importing countries are Brazil, Colombia, Bolivia and Nigeria among others. Since 2003 Colombia buy an average of 50% of inland fisheries exports from Argentina. The analysis historical data (1994-2010 reveals the need to implement measures to control and management of fisheries and its effects on fish biodiversity conservation in the basin.

  13. Bactérias do acido láctico e leveduras associadas com o queijo-de-minas artesanal produzido na região da Serra do Salitre, Minas Gerais Lactic acid bacteria and yeasts associated with the artisanal Minas cheese produced in the region of Serra do Salitre, Minas Gerais

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    C.D.L.C. Lima

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Em 10 fazendas da região da Serra do Salitre, MG, foram coletadas amostras de leite, soro fermentado (pingo, coalhada e queijo frescal para avaliar a microbiota de bactérias láticas e leveduras presentes. Uma diversidade menor de bactérias láticas foi observada durante a produção do queijo quando comparada à de leveduras. As espécies de bactérias láticas mais freqüentes foram Lactococcus lactis, Enterococcus spp., Enterococcus faecalis e Streptococcus agalactiae e de leveduras foram Debaryomyces hansenii e Kluyveromyces lactis. Apenas as populações de Enterococcus spp., Enterococcus faecalis e Leuconostoc mesenteroides apresentaram aumento significativo durante a produção do queijo. As espécies de bactérias láticas e leveduras encontradas nos diferentes substratos estudados podem ser responsáveis pelas características de aroma e sabor do queijo artesanal da Serra do Salitre.Samples of milk, curd, cheese whey, and cheese were collected in 10 farms located at the region of Serra do Salitre, Minas Gerais state. These samples were studied in relation to their lactic acid bacteria and yeast populations. The diversity of lactic acid bacteria species was lower than the diversity of yeasts in these samples. The isolated lactic acid bacteria were Lactococcus lactis, Enterococcus spp., Enterococcus faecalis, and Streptococcus agalactiae; and the yeasts were Debaryomyces hansenii and Kluyveromyces lactis. Only the species Enterococcus spp., Enterococcus faecalis, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides showed an increase in their populations during the production of the artisanal cheese. Lactic acid bacteria and yeasts found in this study could be responsible by the sensorial characteristics of the artisanal cheese produced in the region of Serra do Salitre.

  14. Héritiers et artisans du patrimoine

    OpenAIRE

    Ferdi, Sabah

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Invention moderne spécifique à la culture occidentale, la notion de patrimoine, limitée au départ à certains objets et à quelques monuments représentatifs, a subi une extension suite à des circonstances particulières à chaque pays et recouvre aujourd’hui la totalité des biens du passé. Mais transposées en Algérie au sein d’une culture différente, elle se trouve contrecarrée par des traits de mentalité collective qu’il est nécessaire d’identifier dans la mesure où on désire élabor...

  15. Seychelles artisanal fisheries statistics for 2002

    OpenAIRE

    Azemia, R.T.; Robinson, J.

    2003-01-01

    (1). During 2002 an estimated total of 4915 tonnes of fish was landed on Mahe, Praslin and La Digue by 374 fishing boats. 83.1% of the total catch was landed on Mahe alone. The total catch increased by 625 tonnes compared to 2001, and the number of boats operating decreased by 3 over the same period. (2). The most important species groups landed (greater than 5% of the total catch) were carangues (41.5%), job (12.4%), capitaine (6.8%), becune (6.1%), maquereau doux (5.7%) and bourgeois (5....

  16. Atividade antimicrobiana de bactérias ácido-lácticas isoladas de queijos de coalho artesanal e industrial frente a microrganismos indicadores Antimicrobial activity of lactic acid bacteria isolated from artisanal and industrial "coalho" cheese against indicator microorganisms

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    L.G. Guedes Neto

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Quatro cepas de Lactobacillus spp. e duas cepas de Lactococcus spp. isoladas de queijos de coalho artesanal e industrial foram testadas quanto às suas atividades antimicrobianas. Observou-se atividade antagonista dessas bactérias ácido-lácticas frente a elas, a outras bactérias ácido-lácticas isoladas de queijo de coalho, aos patógenos isolados dos mesmos queijos e a cepas de patógenos de referência. Verificou-se diferença (PFour strains of Lactobacillus spp. and two strains of Lactococcus spp. were isolated from artisanal and industrial "coalho" cheese and tested for inhibitory activity. It was observed antagonistic activity of the lactic acid bacteria against themselves and other lactic acid bacteria and pathogens isolated from the same cheese samples, as well as against pathogenic strains from other sources. Significant difference (P<0.05 was observed among the antagonistic activities, except when lactic acid bacteria were used as indicator. From the tested bacteria, Lactobacillus spp. showed the strongest antagonistic activity.

  17. A indústria cerâmica vermelha de Campos dos Goitacazes e a inclusão social das artesãs da baixada campista através do projeto Caminhos de Barro The red ceramic industry in Campos dos Goitacazes and the social inclusion of artisans from Baixada Campista through the Caminhos de Barro project

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    I. S. Ramos

    2008-09-01

    . The Project Caminhos de Barro implanted for the State University of Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro (UENF, in 2000, has as purpose to enable, in the ceramic art, these excluded communities of the ceramic industrial process. The present work has as objective to contribute for an improvement in the adopted technology, for the first generation of artisans formed in the Workshop Caminhos de Barro, adjusting the raw material used to the new activity through mapping, classification and characterization the materials of region in nature and its behavior after the burning. The same analysis technique used for characterization and adequacy of the products industrialized for the ceramic industries also revealed adequate for the workmanship. The raw material studied, in the begin, presented the necessary qualities to the artisan work as it can be observed by the gotten products leading to a lesser loss. However the creation of a standard more adjusted of raw material to be used in the ceramic art of the Baixada Campista will demand, therefore, more time, resources and study, therefore the desired properties of each device such as: color, permeability and finishing can be associates the small physical and mineralogical variations.

  18. "Grupo" de artesanato: espaço favorável à promoção da saúde mental "Grupo" de artesanía: espacio favorable a la promoción de la salud mental Artisan group: a favorable space promoting mental health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Glaciela da Cruz Scardoelli

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Estudo descritivo de abordagem qualitativa, realizado em um grupo de artesanato de uma Unidade Básica de Saúde do município de Maringá - PR, no período de março a agosto de 2009. Objetivou-se compreender os motivos de inserção de mulheres no grupo de artesanato. Para coleta de dados utilizaram-se a observação participante e entrevista aberta. Os sujeitos do estudo foram 11 mulheres. Os dados foram analisados segundo a técnica de análise de conteúdo, de onde emergiram três categorias: Propiciando a promoção da saúde mental; Encontrando um espaço que promove a fala, a escuta e a partilha e; Buscando um espaço de ensino/aprendizado. Observamos que participar do grupo vem contribuindo para melhoria da qualidade de vida destas mulheres que se encontravam em situação de sofrimento emocional, oferecendo condições favoráveis ao desenvolvimento do ponto de vista psicossocial.Estudio descriptivo de abordaje cualitativo, realizado en un grupo de artesanía de una Unidad Básica de Salud del municipio de Maringá - PR, durante el periodo de marzo a agosto de 2009. El objetivo fue comprender los motivos de inserción de mujeres en el grupo de artesanía. Para la colecta de datos, se utilizó la observación participativa y una entrevista abierta realizada a domicilio. Los sujetos del estudio fueron 11 mujeres. Los datos fueron analizados según la técnica de análisis de contenido, de donde emergieron tres categorías: Proporcionar la promoción de la salud mental; Búsqueda de un espacio para hablar, escuchar y compartir y; Búsqueda de un espacio de educación/aprendizado. Observamos que la participación del grupo viene contribuyendo para la mejoría de la calidad de vida de estas mujeres que se encontraban en situación de sufrimiento emocional, ofreciendo condiciones favorables para su desarrollo psicosocial.Current paper deals with a descriptive study based on a qualitative approach with regard to an artisan group of a Health

  19. The status of the artisanal fishery of Lake Victoria, Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Othina, A.

    1999-01-01

    Annual catches of fish in Lake Victoria, Kenya from 1976-1998 are assessed, catches from 5-15 boats selected randomly from targeted landing sites were recorded. Twenty three of the 256 Kenyan landing sites were covered by the survey. Selection of landing sites was not random but rather influenced by the presence of infrastructure and accomodation. Parameters recorded for each sampled fishing boat were: number of crew, gear type, size, time and duration of fishing. Catches were sorted into spe...

  20. Microbial ecology of artisanal Italian Cheese: environment and working conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In agro-food sector the structural features of working environments and consequently their hygienic conditions are of primary importance for a safe and quality food production and to ensure comfortable and ergonomic working conditions. In particular, as regards high-mountain dairy production, the environment is important because it can affect the development of typical microbial ecosystem. (Author)

  1. Artisanal salt production in Aveiro/Portugal - an ecofriendly process

    OpenAIRE

    Carolina M. Rodrigues; Bio, Ana; Amat, Francisco; Vieira, Natividade

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Solar salinas are man-made systems exploited for the extraction of salt, by solar and wind evaporation of seawater. Salt production achieved by traditional methods is associated with landscapes and environmental and patrimonial values generated throughout history. Since the mid-twentieth century, this activity has been facing a marked decline in Portugal, with most salinas either abandoned or subjected to destruction, making it necessary to find a strategy to reverse this trend. It i...

  2. Ensinar com amor uma geometria prática, despida de toda a teoria da ciência e castigar com caridade a aprendizagem do artesão no mundo português, no final do século XVIII Teaching a practical geometry with love and punish with charity the learning of a artisan in the portuguese world in the end of the XVIII century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Newton Coelho Meneses

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A formação de mão-de-obra para a reconstrução da cidade de Lisboa no período pós-terremoto de 1755, é gerida pelo poder local e preocupa-se com a capacidade técnica, a eficiência na comercialização de seus produtos e a inserção dos artesãos em uma economia ordenada. O maior desvelo é com um ensino que limite a capacidade de saber do povo. Instruir o trabalhador mecânico era formá-lo na concepção corporativa de ordem pública, bem como dar a ele uma formação prática que se limitasse a capacitá-lo para viver em uma Corte ilustrada. Amor e caridade são pressupostos para quem se dispõe a ensinar e marcam o processo de aprendizagem com práticas formadoras ou com castigos exemplares. Nas Minas Gerais setecentistas as matrizes de organização do trabalho e da aprendizagem dos ofícios teriam seguido padrões lusitanos e tomado a cidade de Lisboa como modelo.The formation of skilled labor for the rebuilding of Lisbon after the 1755 earthquake was managed by local authorities and was concerned with technical capability, the efficiency to commercialize their products and the inclusion of artisans in an ordained economy. The main care was with a teaching system that limited people's ability to learn. To instruct a mechanical worker was to form him in the corporative conception of public order, as well as giving him a practical education that would make him apt to live in an illustrated Court, and nothing more. Love and charity were pre-requisites for those who would teach, and they mark the learning process with formative practice or exemplary punishment. In 18th century Minas Gerais the molds of labor organization and skill trade learning would have followed Lusitanian patterns and taken the city of Lisbon as a model.

  3. The use of the swept area method for assessing the seabob shrimp Xiphopenaeus kroyeri (Heller, 1862 biomass and removal rates based on artisanal fishery-derived data in southern Brazil: using depletion models to reduce uncertainty El uso del método de area de barrido para la evaluación de la biomasa y tasas de remoción del camarón Xiphopenaeus kroyeri (Heller, 1862 a partir de datos de la pesca artesanal en el sur de Brasil: la utilización de modelos de reducción de stock para disminuir incertidumbres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo R Pezzuto

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The seabob shrimp (Xiphopenaeus kroyeri represents an important fishing resource for artisanal fishermen in coastal areas of southern Brazil. Stock assessments of this species ha ve generally relied on biomass dynamics models as applied to CPUE time-series, which (a are only available for a small offshore fraction of the exploited population and (b does not comprise patterns of the shallowest artisanal fishing grounds. This work explores the use of extensive catch and effort data derived from a small-scale trawl fishery to obtain swept-area estimates of abundance and removal rates in a limited coastal area of southern Brazil (Tijucas Bay, Santa Catarina State, 27°15'S-48°33'W. Data were obtained from 7,198 fishing trips monitored at the fishing communities between June 2004 and August 2005. Because three parameters of the swept-area equation (i.e. trawl velocity, catch efficiency and wing spread were unknown, they were defined through a stochastic procedure and calibrated by estimates produced by a Leslie depletion model applied to concurrent catches obtained in one fishing ground. A 21.7% removal rate was estimated for the period June 2004-January 2005; this increased to nearly 34% between February and July 2005. This removal scenario predicted that a five-month fishery would suffice to remo ve 90% of the biomass available in the Tijucas Bay, nearing the 87% CPUE reduction observed in the same period. Whereas abundance and harvest rate estimates were likely affected by inadequate knowledge of the swept-area equation parameters, the similarity of these estimates with relative abundance indexes supports the convenience of the proposed method and justifies future efforts to improve its accuracy.El camarón (Xiphopenaeus kroyeri representa un importante recurso para pescadores artesanales en areas costeras del sur de Brasil. Evaluaciones de stock de esta especie generalmente resultan de modelos de dinámica de biomasa aplicados a series

  4. Income diversification and fishing practices among artisanal fishers on the Malindi-Kilifi coast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorweg, J.C.; Versleijen, N.; Wangila, B.; Degen, A.

    2006-01-01

    The fishing practices of fishers at ten landing sites in Malindi and Kilifi Districts that were surveyed in 1999 as part of a larger research project are discussed in this article. The focus of the research was on income diversification among fishers, pressure on marine resources and the relationshi

  5. Moulds and ochratoxin A on surfaces of artisanal and industrial dry sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacumin, Lucilla; Chiesa, Luca; Boscolo, Daria; Manzano, Marisa; Cantoni, Carlo; Orlic, Sandi; Comi, Giuseppe

    2009-02-01

    The use of moulds as a seasoning for sausage can have both desirable and undesirable consequences. The desirable consequences are the creation of a successful product that appeals to consumers. The undesirable consequences are due to the growth of undesirable moulds that produce highly toxic secondary metabolites referred to as mycotoxins. The aim of the paper was to investigate the presence of moulds producing ochratoxin A (OTA) on the surface of sausages from northern Italy. A total of 757 mould strains were isolated from sausage casings. The most frequently identified species were Penicillium nalgiovense, Penicillium oxalicum, Eurotium amstelodami, Penicillium olsonii, Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium verrucosum, Penicillium viridicatum, and Eupenicillium crustaceum. Aspergillus ochraceus was detected in only one production lot. Approximately 45% of these samples were positive for the presence of OTA. On the casings of the investigated sausages, the lowest and highest OTA values were 3 and 18 microg/kg, respectively. The OTA concentration was reduced to below the limit of detection (LOD) by brushing and washing the sausages prior to sale. From these data it appears that the presence of OTA on the surface of sausage (on the casings) is not indicative of any health risk for human consumption of sausage, since OTA was not identified inside the dry meat. PMID:19028307

  6. Value of Artisanal Simulators to Train Veterinary Students in Performing Invasive Ultrasound-Guided Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hage, Maria Cristina F. N. S.; Massaferro, Ana Beatriz; Lopes, Érika Rondon; Beraldo, Carolina Mariano; Daniel, Jéssika

    2016-01-01

    Pericardial effusion can lead to cardiac tamponade, which endangers an animal's life. Ultrasound-guided pericardiocentesis is used to remove abnormal liquid; however, it requires technical expertise. In veterinary medical education, the opportunity to teach this procedure to save lives during emergencies is rare; therefore, simulators are…

  7. Dominant lactic acid bacteria in artisanal Pirot cheeses of different ripening period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terzić-Vidojević Amarela

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study two raw cow's milk cheeses of a different ripening period were examined. The cheeses were taken from a country household in the region of mountain Stara Planina and manufactured without adding of starter culture. A total 106 lactic acid bacteria (LAB strains were isolated from both cheeses. They are tested by classical physiological tests as well as by API 50 CH tests. Proteolytic and antimicrobial activities were done too. Identification of LAB isolates was done by repetitive extragenic palindromic-polimerase chain reaction (rep-PCR with (GTG5 primer. The LAB isolates from cheese BGPT9 (four days old belonged to the eight species of LAB (Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei, Lactobacillus delbrueckii, Lactobacillus brevis, Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus durans and Leuconostoc garlicum, while in the BGPT10 cheese (eight months old only two species were present (Lactobacillus plantarum and Enterococcus faecium. Proteolytic activity showed 30 LAB from BGPT9 cheese, mainly enterococci. From BGPT10 cheese only one isolate (which belonged to the Lactobacillus plantarum species possessed partial ability to hydrolyze β-casein. Seven enterococci from BGPT9 cheese and four enterococci from BGPT10 cheese produced antimicrobial compounds.

  8. Dominant lactic acid bacteria in artisanal Pirot cheeses of different ripening period

    OpenAIRE

    Terzić-Vidojević Amarela; Lozo Jelena; Topisirović Ljubiša

    2009-01-01

    In this study two raw cow's milk cheeses of a different ripening period were examined. The cheeses were taken from a country household in the region of mountain Stara Planina and manufactured without adding of starter culture. A total 106 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains were isolated from both cheeses. They are tested by classical physiological tests as well as by API 50 CH tests. Proteolytic and antimicrobial activities were done too. Identification of LAB isolates was done b...

  9. Characterization of lactic acid bacteria isolated from artisanal Zlatar cheeses produced at two different geographical location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terzić-Vidojević Amarela

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Eighty-one strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB were isolated from white semi-hard homemade cheese, designated Zlatar BGNV, which was taken from household settled on Northern side of mountain Zlatar. The Zlatar BGNV cheese was manufactured from raw cow's milk without addition of the starter culture. All isolates of LAB were characterized by phenotypic and genotypic tests. Identification of strains was done by the repetitive extragenic palindromic-polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR with (GTG5 primer and 16S rDNA sequence analysis. The most present species in Zlatar BGNV cheese were Lactobacillus casei/paracasei (65.43% and Enterococcus faecalis (29.63%. Two facultative heterofermentative rods were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum (2.47%, and two obligate hetrofermentative LAB isolates as Lactobacillus parabuchneri (2.47%. Among all 81 tested isolates, only eight enterococci were producers of antimicrobial compounds. Fourteen of 16 tested lactobacilli isolates showed medium to very good proteolytic activity. All 57 lactobacilli from the Zlatar BGNV cheese curdled milk very slowly or did not curdle milk at all. However, three isolates of enterococci, BGNV1-63, BGNV1-76 and BGNV1-80, showed very good activity in milk and curdled milk within 5 h. They showed very high proteolytic activity hydrolyzing completely αs1- and κ-casein after 3 h, and β-casein after 30 min of incubation. In addition, those three enterococcal isolates degraded gelatin. Comparing obtained results with those previously achieved in examination of LAB microflora in another Zlatar BGZLS cheese made also from raw cow's milk, it can be concluded that LAB microflora in the Zlatar BGNV cheese is less diverse.

  10. Stress response of some lactic acid bacteria isolated from Romanian artisan dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamfir, Medana; Grosu-Tudor, Silvia-Simona

    2014-02-01

    Understanding the mechanisms of stress response and adaptation to stress in the case of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), especially in the case of strains with functional properties, is very important when such strains are potential candidates for starter cultures or probiotics. In this context, our study shows the response of some LAB [four exopolysaccharide (EPS)-producing strains and one strain with potential probiotic effect] to the stresses induced by low and high incubation temperatures, acidity, NaCl, and bile salts, often encountered during the technological processes in food or during the passage through the human gastro-intestinal tract. The strains were able to grow at temperatures up to 40 °C (the mesophilic strains) and 47 °C (the thermophilic strain), in medium with an initial pH of at least 4.0 (Lactobacillus acidophilus IBB801), or in the presence of NaCl up to 10% (Weissella confusa/cibaria 38.2), or bile salts up to 0.2% (L. acidophilus IBB801). The protein and isoenzyme patterns of the strains subjected to various stress conditions presented several differences compared with the control patterns, among which the overexpression of some proteins of about 50-60 kDa, differences in the bands intensity in the case of the intracellular enzymes, or the complete loss of some of these bands. The best survival to low pH values and high temperatures was observed for strain L. acidophilus IBB801, the candidate probiotic strain. The EPS production of the four tested strains was, in general, directly related to the growth, the highest yields being obtained when strains were incubated at 24 °C. PMID:23933743

  11. Artisan with Words: Transnational Funds of Knowledge in a Bilingual Latina's Narratives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuero, Kimberley K.

    2010-01-01

    Jeniffer, a self-proclaimed "schoolgirl" who was a bilingual Mexican American fifth-grade student, lacked confidence in her abilities in reading and language arts. However, her dialogue journal correspondence with her teacher in her native language of Spanish describing her transnational experiences demonstrated vivid, descriptive writing with…

  12. Methodology for Supply Chain Integration: A Case Study in the Artisan Industry of Footwear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Raúl Pérez-Gallardo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The supply chain is a major issue in a global market. The efficient relationship between supplier-producer-retailer conforms the perfect combination to achieve a high level of competitiveness according to the needs of increasingly demanding and changing markets. The difficulty of synchronizing the members within the SC is related to the inherent uncertain factors. This paper proposes a methodology for integrating the supply chain that can be applied in any type of business. To demonstrate its relevance, a case study is performed at a handmade shoe company. An improved demand forecasting, an optimal balanced production line, a proper inventory management of raw materials, and an efficient calculation of the delivery time to the customer represent some of the main results.

  13. MARKETING PROBLEMS OF MICRO ARTISAN ENTERPRISES IN THENZAWL HANDLOOM CLUSTER, MIZORAM

    OpenAIRE

    Rama Ramswamy

    2013-01-01

    Handlooms an age old tradition of the rich cultural heritage of India is an important sector with respect to its size and employment potential. It is the second largest employment provider after agriculture, providing employment to 12 million families. Clusters and clustering of small firms is increasingly becoming an important tool in Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs) development in both developed and developing economies. Since centuries, India developed a system of specialised ha...

  14. Use of an artisan Solar Grain Dryer to dry soybeans and black beans grains

    OpenAIRE

    Yanoy Morejón Mesa; Gemma Domínguez Calvo; Yoel Rodríguez Gago; Javier A. León Martínez

    2014-01-01

    El proceso de secado de granos es una actividad principal en las operaciones de poscosecha, con el objetivo de economizar en fuentes de energía y reducir la contaminación del medio ambiente es posible desarrollar secadoras solares de granos. Por esta razón se fabri- có y evaluó un prototipo para el secado solar de granos. Los principales resultados obtenidos para granos de soya y frijol negro fueron los siguientes: el contenido medio de humedad antes del secado de la soya fue 15% y después de...

  15. Where artisanal mines and forest meet: Socio-economic and environmental impacts in the Congo Basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingram, V.J.; Tieguhong, J.C.; Schure, J.M.; Nkamgnia, E.; Tadjuidje, M.H.

    2011-01-01

    While mineral exploitation can provide significant income and employment, it may negatively impact the environment, being ultimately detrimental to livelihoods in the long term. The consequences of mining are of concern in high value forest ecosystems such as the Sangha Tri-National (TNS) landscape

  16. Where artisanal mines and forest meet: socio-economic and environmental impacts in the Congo Basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V. Ingram; J.C. Tieguhong; J. Schure; E. Nkamgnia; M.H. Tadjuidje

    2011-01-01

    While mineral exploitation can provide significant income and employment, it may negatively impact the environment, being ultimately detrimental to livelihoods in the long term. The consequences of mining are of concern in high value forest ecosystems such as the Sangha Tri-National (TNS) landscape

  17. Problem and Project Based Learning in Hybrid Spaces: Nomads and Artisans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Thomas; Davidsen, Jacob; Hodgson, Vivien

    2016-01-01

    programme. In both cases the ways of utilising space, places, tools and activities was an extremely complex interweaving of the digital and physical and of different places and artefacts over time. Thus, we argue 'placemaking' is an important practice or literacy in relation to students' 'doings......There is a need within networked learning to understand and conceptualise the interplay between digital and physical spaces or what we could term hybrid spaces. Therefore, we discuss a recent study of students from two different programmes who are engaged in long-term, group-based problem...

  18. Technical Efficiency and the Role of Skipper Skill in Artisanal Lake Victoria Fisheries

    OpenAIRE

    Lokina, Razack B.

    2008-01-01

    Lake Victoria fisheries are important to Tanzanian food security, employment, and foreign exchange, but they are experiencing declining performance largely due to overfishing. This paper studies technical efficiency and skipper skill using Tanzanian fishery data for the two major species, Nile perch and dagaa. The relative level of efficiency is high in both fisheries, and several observable variables linked to skipper skill significantly explain the efficiency level.

  19. Understanding Artisanal Fishers’ Behaviors: The Case of Ciénaga Grande de Santa Marta, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Elba Torres-Guevara

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the ecological impact caused by fishing grounds and the fishing gear/methods used by fishers in Ciénaga Grande de Santa Marta (CGSM, an estuarine lagoon located on the Caribbean coast of Colombia. To do so, we build individual and composite ecological sustainable indicators based on the opinions of a group of experienced fishers and a group of scientists. Additionally, we use those indicators to examine the influence of socioeconomic and perceptional factors on fishers’ fishing behaviors and how those behaviors may be affecting CGSM fishery resources. Our results suggest that fishers and scientists differ in their opinions about the impact of fishing on CGSM. Additionally, we found that having a higher level of education, sharing household expenses with other family members and spending more hours fishing lead to ecologically-sustainable fishing behavior, while the perception that the government is responsible for CGSM conservation leads to ecologically unsustainable fishing behavior.

  20. PIXE analysis of hair samples from artisanal mining communities in the Acupan region, Benguet, Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemente, Eligia; Sera, K.; Futatsugawa, S.; Murao, S.

    2004-06-01

    The mountainous regions of Benguet Province in the Philippines is home to some 10,000 small-scale miners who make out a living by extracting gold. In these communities, the method of extraction still involves the use of mercury, via amalgamation. In the separation of gold from mercury the method involves the release of mercury vapor into the atmosphere. This is therefore expected to affect the people living in the nearby areas. This study involves the accumulation of baseline data on the extent of mercury contamination in humans through the analysis of their hair. In 1989, Hursh et al. [Arch. Environ. Health 44 (2) (1989) 120] studied human volunteers and found that uptake of mercury vapor through the skin is only about 1% of the uptake through inhalation [World Health Organization, IPCS, EHC118, Inorganic Mercury, Geneva, 1991, p. 42]. In this light, any residual mercury which might have deposited in human hair is speculated to give an indication of how much mercury vapor the subject could have actually inhaled. A high concentration of mercury in the sample can therefore be indicative of the high rate of intake of the mercury vapor through inhalation. A sampling of the community consisted of both male (83%) and female (17%) subjects who ranged in age from 8 to 66 years old. Hair analysis was done using particle induced X-ray emission at the Iwate Medical University through Dr. Sera. With Zn set as a standard element, the rest of the elements were determined using the standard-free method. In order to obtain the conversion coefficient for hair samples, many hair samples were analyzed by this method and the internal standard method which involves the preparation of the hair samples by chemical ashing. The results obtained were comparable. The PIXE results for these samples showed the analysis of 26 elements but for our purposes, however, only the mercury analysis will be considered. Results of the analysis showed the hair samples to contain 0-27 ppm, with only seven of the 70 respondents showing no traces of mercury, while nine had levels beyond the 5 ppm limit set by the Human Biomonitor II [Bundesgesundheitsblatt 39 (1996) 221]. Further studies using PIXE analysis of hair is recommended on the same communities with a wider area base to show that PIXE analysis on hair samples as an alternative procedure which is faster without sacrificing reliability.

  1. PIXE analysis of hair samples from artisanal mining communities in the Acupan region, Benguet, Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mountainous regions of Benguet Province in the Philippines is home to some 10,000 small-scale miners who make out a living by extracting gold. In these communities, the method of extraction still involves the use of mercury, via amalgamation. In the separation of gold from mercury the method involves the release of mercury vapor into the atmosphere. This is therefore expected to affect the people living in the nearby areas. This study involves the accumulation of baseline data on the extent of mercury contamination in humans through the analysis of their hair. In 1989, Hursh et al. [Arch. Environ. Health 44 (2) (1989) 120] studied human volunteers and found that uptake of mercury vapor through the skin is only about 1% of the uptake through inhalation [World Health Organization, IPCS, EHC118, Inorganic Mercury, Geneva, 1991, p. 42]. In this light, any residual mercury which might have deposited in human hair is speculated to give an indication of how much mercury vapor the subject could have actually inhaled. A high concentration of mercury in the sample can therefore be indicative of the high rate of intake of the mercury vapor through inhalation. A sampling of the community consisted of both male (83%) and female (17%) subjects who ranged in age from 8 to 66 years old. Hair analysis was done using particle induced X-ray emission at the Iwate Medical University through Dr. Sera. With Zn set as a standard element, the rest of the elements were determined using the standard-free method. In order to obtain the conversion coefficient for hair samples, many hair samples were analyzed by this method and the internal standard method which involves the preparation of the hair samples by chemical ashing. The results obtained were comparable. The PIXE results for these samples showed the analysis of 26 elements but for our purposes, however, only the mercury analysis will be considered. Results of the analysis showed the hair samples to contain 0-27 ppm, with only seven of the 70 respondents showing no traces of mercury, while nine had levels beyond the 5 ppm limit set by the Human Biomonitor II [Bundesgesundheitsblatt 39 (1996) 221]. Further studies using PIXE analysis of hair is recommended on the same communities with a wider area base to show that PIXE analysis on hair samples as an alternative procedure which is faster without sacrificing reliability

  2. Plants traditionally used for industrial and artisanal purposes in the Arribes del Duero (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González, José Antonio

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present ethnobotanical study, performed between 2005 and 2009 at the Natural Park of the Arribes del Duero (Salamanca-Zamora, Spain, documents the traditional use for technological purposes of 68 vascular plants belonging to 33 families. We interviewed 80 people of different ages native to the zone (mean 72. For each plant species we provide the vernacular terms, the parts used, and the uses made of them (furniture, the elaboration of household utensils, plant fibres, etc.. The species most frequently cited were Quercus ilex L. subsp. ballota (Desf. Samp., Q. pyrenaica Willd., Ulmus minor Mill. and Olea europaea L. The results of this study confirm the persistence of a rich traditional knowledge in Spanish rural communities; a type of knowledge that affords abundant data for improving and adapting modern production activities to a sustainable model of development, above all as regards the rational consumption of raw materials.El presente estudio etnobotánico, llevado a cabo entre 2005 y 2009 en el Parque Natural de Arribes del Duero (Salamanca-Zamora, España, documenta el uso tradicional con fines tecnológicos de 68 plantas vasculares, pertenecientes a 33 familias. Se entrevistaron a 80 personas nativas de la zona y de diferentes edades (media de 72 años. Para cada especie de planta se proporcionan sus nombres vernáculos, las partes utilizadas y los usos a que son destinadas (fabricación de muebles, elaboración de utensilios domésticos, fibras vegetales, etc.. Las especies más frecuentemente citadas fueron Quercus ilex L. subsp. ballota (Desf. Samp., Q. pyrenaica Willd., Ulmus minor Mill. y Olea europaea L. El presente estudio confirma la permanencia de un rico conocimiento tradicional en las comunidades rurales españolas, conocimiento que proporciona abundantes datos para mejorar y adecuar las actividades modernas de producción al modelo de desarrollo sostenible, sobre todo en relación al consumo racional de materias primas.

  3. Incentivizing biodiversity conservation in artisanal fishing communities through territorial user rights and business model innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelcich, Stefan; Donlan, C Josh

    2015-08-01

    Territorial user rights for fisheries are being promoted to enhance the sustainability of small-scale fisheries. Using Chile as a case study, we designed a market-based program aimed at improving fishers' livelihoods while incentivizing the establishment and enforcement of no-take areas within areas managed with territorial user right regimes. Building on explicit enabling conditions (i.e., high levels of governance, participation, and empowerment), we used a place-based, human-centered approach to design a program that will have the necessary support and buy-in from local fishers to result in landscape-scale biodiversity benefits. Transactional infrastructure must be complex enough to capture the biodiversity benefits being created, but simple enough so that the program can be scaled up and is attractive to potential financiers. Biodiversity benefits created must be commoditized, and desired behavioral changes must be verified within a transactional context. Demand must be generated for fisher-created biodiversity benefits in order to attract financing and to scale the market model. Important design decisions around these 3 components-supply, transactional infrastructure, and demand-must be made based on local social-ecological conditions. Our market model, which is being piloted in Chile, is a flexible foundation on which to base scalable opportunities to operationalize a scheme that incentivizes local, verifiable biodiversity benefits via conservation behaviors by fishers that could likely result in significant marine conservation gains and novel cross-sector alliances. PMID:25737027

  4. From trap to nursery. Mitigating the impact of an artisanal fishery on cuttlefish offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Melli

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Overexploitation and the impact of several types of human activities have caused declines of marine resources. The direct and active involvement of fishermen in the management of marine resources is effective not only for resource conservation, but also for changing fishermen's attitudes. In this study, we proposed and tested the efficacy and suitability of a measure for mitigating the impact of a trap fishery on cuttlefish eggs in the North Adriatic Sea. This measure directly involves fishermen in promoting the conservation of the early, and more vulnerable, stages of the cuttlefish life cycle. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Through surveys on fishing boats and interviews with fishermen, we found that traps placed in coastal areas during the cuttlefish breeding season have a high impact on cuttlefish eggs, with over 3 million eggs likely being destroyed by 3750 traps of 15 fishermen in less than 3 miles of coast. The use of removable ropes attached inside traps as an additional substrate for egg deposition allowed the recovery of 23.7% of the eggs deposited on the traps on average, without affecting the catch rate of adults. Experiments examining hatching success in the field highlighted the need for a careful choice of hatching sites to maximise the efficacy of the mitigation measure. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The proposed mitigation measure reduced the impact of fishing on cuttlefish eggs, with no significant effect on the commercial catch. Fishermen showed a positive attitude towards the application of this measure, which is inexpensive and easy to employ. The direct involvement of fishermen in the management of this resource and the maintenance of traditional fishing methods are a novel aspect of the proposed measure and represent the basis for its success.

  5. From Trap to Nursery. Mitigating the Impact of an Artisanal Fishery on Cuttlefish Offspring

    OpenAIRE

    Valentina Melli; Emilio Riginella; Marco Nalon; Carlotta Mazzoldi

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Overexploitation and the impact of several types of human activities have caused declines of marine resources. The direct and active involvement of fishermen in the management of marine resources is effective not only for resource conservation, but also for changing fishermen's attitudes. In this study, we proposed and tested the efficacy and suitability of a measure for mitigating the impact of a trap fishery on cuttlefish eggs in the North Adriatic Sea. This measure directly inv...

  6. A multi-species multi-fleet bioeconomic simulation model for the English Channel artisanal fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrich, Clara; Le Gallic, B.; Dunn, M.R.;

    2002-01-01

    -scale bioeconomic model has been constructed. It does not take into account biological interactions, but focuses on competition among fleets. A large amount of biological and economic data have been preliminarily gathered, leading to a substantial increase of the quantitative knowledge available. The main purpose...... of the model is to study the long-term consequences of various management alternatives on the economic situation of the English and French fleets fishing in the area and on exploited resources. The model describes this feature through the links between three entities on the one hand (stocks, fleets...... and "metiers", i.e. gear x target species x fishing area), and three modules on the other hand (activity, biological production and economics). The model is described and some simulation results are presented. An example simulating a decrease of one fleet segment effort illustrates these technical...

  7. Biochemical parameters of liver function in artisans occupationally exposed to "vat dyes"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soyinka Oluwatosin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vat dyes are the class of dyes used in textile dyeing in Abeokuta, South Western Nigeria. While some dyes (including vat dyes intermediates have been associated with adverse effects on manufacturer′s health, there is paucity of data on effects of occupational exposure to vat dyes among end users, such as those involved in textile dyeing and finishing. Aims and Objectives: To investigate the possible effect of occupational exposure to vat dyes on the functions of the liver. Materials and Methods: Using convenience sampling technique, a cohort of dye workers (n=117 with a minimum of one year and a maximum of 60 years duration of exposure (mean =17.03 ± 1.19 years were recruited in this study. Sixty traders, matched for age and sex and who had no previous exposure to vat dyes were selected as controls. A structured questionnaire was used to obtain information on demographic, occupational and environmental characteristics of the subjects. Plasma activities of alanine transaminase (ALT, aspartate transaminase (AST, alkaline phosphatase (ALP and plasma concentrations of total protein, albumin and total bilirubin were measured using standard spectrophotometric methods. Statistical analyses: SPSS version 11.0 was used for statistical analyses. Tests of significance were carried out using Student′s t test, and correlation co-efficient. Results and Conclusion : The activity of ALP and the concentrations of total protein and albumin were significantly lower ( P < 0.05 in the exposed group. ALT and AST activities were significantly higher ( P < 0.05 in the exposed group. Occupational exposure to vat dyes may result in sub-clinical adverse effects on the liver, involving inhibition of its synthetic function.

  8. Local ecological knowledge of artisanal fishermen in southern Bahia, Brazil, about trophic interactions of sharks

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    Márcio Luiz Vargas Barbosa Filho

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite the serious threats that affect shark species living along the central coast of Brazil, knowledge about the life history of these animals is still scarce. The present study describes the knowledge and perceptions of fishermen from southern Bahia, Brazil, on the trophic interactions of sharks. The objective of this work was to generate information that contributes to a better understanding of the life history of sharks from this poorly known region. In 2012, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 65 fishermen, with over 15 years of experience, about fisheries and aspects of shark feeding behavior. The study found that the participants have comprehensive ethno-ecological knowledge about shark feeding habits, describing 39 types of items as components of the diets of these animals. They are also able to recognize the favored items in the diet of each ethnospecies of shark. Similar studies about shark feeding habits along the Brazilian coast should be developed. This will generate more detailed knowledge and/or new scientific hypotheses about the interspecific relationships of these predators and their prey.

  9. Characterization of yeasts isolated from artisanal short-ripened cows' cheeses produced in Galicia (NW Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanassova, M R; Fernández-Otero, C; Rodríguez-Alonso, P; Fernández-No, I C; Garabal, J I; Centeno, J A

    2016-02-01

    A total of 143 presumptive yeast isolates were obtained from the predominant microflora of 21 short-ripened starter-free raw cow's milk cheeses made in Galicia (NW Spain), and the following 68 isolates were identified by both genotyping and sequencing methods: Yarrowia lipolytica (21 isolates), Kluyveromyces lactis (18), Debaryomyces hansenii (11), Pichia guilliermondii (11), Pichia fermentans (4) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (3). Of these, Y. lipolytica and K. lactis displayed the strongest extracellular proteolytic activity on skim milk agar, and none of the D. hansenii isolates showed any activity on this medium. Y. lipolytica also displayed the highest lipolytic activity on Tween 80 and on tributyrin. This species, which was characterized by production of butanoic acid, free fatty acid esters and sulfur compounds in pasteurized whole milk, was responsible for rancid and cheesy flavors. K. lactis mainly produced acetaldehyde, ethanol, branched chain aldehydes and alcohols, and acetic acid esters, which were responsible for alcoholic, fruity and acetic notes. The volatile profiles of D. hansenii were rather limited and characterized by high levels of methyl ketones. Most of the yeast isolates were described as tryptamine producers, although low concentrations of histamine were produced by five Y. lipolytica and two P. fermentans isolates. We conclude that selected Y. lipolytica strains could be used as adjunct cultures in the manufacture of Arzúa-Ulloa and Tetilla cheeses, and selected K. lactis strains could be used as co-starters in the manufacture of acid curd Cebreiro cheese, thus contributing to the sensory quality and typicality of the cheeses. PMID:26678145

  10. Artisanal fishing net float loss and a proposal for a float design solution

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    Paulo de Tarso Chaves

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Plastic floats from fishing nets are commonly found washed up on beaches in southern Brazil. They are usually broken and show signs of having been repaired. Characteristics of floats and interviews with fishermen suggest two main causes of float loss. First, collisions between active gear, bottom trawl nets for shrimp, and passive gear, drift nets for fish, destroy nets and release fragments of them, including floats. Second, the difficulty with which floats are inserted on the float rope of the nets when they are used near the surface. Floats are inserted to replace damaged or lost floats, or they may be removed if it is desired that the nets be used in deeper waters. Floats may thus be poorly fixed to the cables and lost. Here a new float design that offers greater safety in use and for the replacement of floats is described and tested.

  11. Methodology for Supply Chain Integration: A Case Study in the Artisan Industry of Footwear

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Raúl Pérez-Gallardo; Beatriz Hernández-Vera; Constantino Gerardo Moras Sánchez; Alberto Alfonso Aguilar Lasserre; Rubén Posada-Gómez; Ulises Juárez-Martínez; Giner Alor-Hernández

    2014-01-01

    The supply chain is a major issue in a global market. The efficient relationship between supplier-producer-retailer conforms the perfect combination to achieve a high level of competitiveness according to the needs of increasingly demanding and changing markets. The difficulty of synchronizing the members within the SC is related to the inherent uncertain factors. This paper proposes a methodology for integrating the supply chain that can be applied in any type of business. To demonstrate its...

  12. [Modulation between alexithymic characteristic internal reality (Tas 20) and external coping in a group of artisans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martina, L

    2006-01-01

    The Author examined a sample of 92 workers (74 M e 18 F) afferent's in study I in the time November 2005-April 2006 with the finality of study the caracteristic emotional/communicative with Test Tas-20. The results aren't with one score middle of 47.94 points with DS:15.53 and therefore the alexithimic caracteristic it's negative, with good expression of feelings, emotions, life styles. The middle age it's juvenile, 38.92 years with DS:10.45 and the subjects aren't marriage in the 60.86%. The organization of the work it's modulated, flexible and integrated and not of the type tayloristic/divided. PMID:16805475

  13. Use of an artisan Solar Grain Dryer to dry soybeans and black beans grains

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    Yanoy Morejón Mesa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El proceso de secado de granos es una actividad principal en las operaciones de poscosecha, con el objetivo de economizar en fuentes de energía y reducir la contaminación del medio ambiente es posible desarrollar secadoras solares de granos. Por esta razón se fabri- có y evaluó un prototipo para el secado solar de granos. Los principales resultados obtenidos para granos de soya y frijol negro fueron los siguientes: el contenido medio de humedad antes del secado de la soya fue 15% y después del proceso fue 10,24%, en el caso del frijol negro el contenido medio de humedad antes del secado fue 16% y después fue 12,15%, siendo la tasa de reducción de humedad 1,58%/ h y 0,54%/ h para ambos granos respectivamente, antes del secado la masa de soya fue de 116 kg y después fue 104 kg, por lo tanto fueron separados 12 kg de agua; en el caso del frijol negro la masa inicial fue de 150 kg y después fue 142 kg, por lo tanto se separaron 8 kg de agua; el consumo de combustible fósil fue nulo, así como la emisión de gases productos de la combustión; este prototipo resiste las cargas a las que se somete y las leyes de transferencia de calor validan que el mismo cumple con las características que deben tener las máquinas secadoras, también se determinó el costo de explotación el cual fue de 2,71 peso/h.

  14. Resilience, Social-Ecological Rules, and Environmental Variability in a Two-Species Artisanal Fishery

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    Marshall Duer-Balkind

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Social-ecological resilience is an increasingly central paradigm for understanding sustainable resource management. In this study, we aimed to better understand the effect of environmental variability on the resilience of fishery systems, and the important role that social institutions and biophysical constraints play. To explore these issues, we built a dynamic model of the pen shell fishery of the indigenous Seri people in the Gulf of California, Mexico. This model included the dynamics of the two dominant species in the fishery (Atrina tuberculosa and Pinna rugosa, several institutional rules that the Seri use, and a number of ecological constraints, including key stochastic variables derived from empirical data. We found that modeling with multiple species, rather than the standard one-species model, uncovered more of the resilience that is present in the system. We also found that it is the combination of several social-ecological rules working in conjunction with the endogenous environmental variability that helps ensure the resilience of the system.

  15. Interaction of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Lactococcus lactis in the fermentation and quality of artisanal cachaça

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    Fernanda Paula Carvalho

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Lactococcus lactis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae in co-culture were evaluated during sugar cane fermentantion for cachaça production. The inocula containing L. lactis UFLA CA 312 and S. cerevisiae UFLA CA 11 were used in the population of approximately 105 CFU mL-1 and 108 CFU mL-1,  respectively. The sugar cane medium plus 1% of yeast extract (SCM was efficient for growth of L. lactis UFLA CA 312 and S. cerevisiae UFLA CA 11 (letter b -Tukey test. In flasks and vats fermentation the growth of UFLA CA 11 was not negatively influenced by L. lactis UFLA CA 312. However, after 19 h of fermentation, bacterial population showed a slight decrease. Considering parameters higher alcohols and aldehydes, cachaça produced by pure culture of S. cerevisiae was similar to cachaça produced by mixed culture. Cachaça produced by mixed culture showed high values of volatile acidity (letter b -Scott-Knott test being characterized by this parameters in the principal component analysis. High percentage of acceptance (81.10% for the attribute aroma was observed in samples from cachaça produced by mixed culture.

  16. Ownership of fishing areas and use of fishing resources by artisanal fishermen in a pond in southern Brazil

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    Jackes Mancke dos Santos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Mangueira Lagoon located in southern Brazil, has its northern portion included in the Taim Ecological Station, a federal conservation unit. The fishing practice is among the activities at this region. It has its own characteristics due to environmental conditions and specific physiography of the area. A field protocol based on geographic information was used to characterize the occupation process and the use of fishing resources. Socio-economic information was collected through interviews of the fishermen and also based on fishing data. After compiling the data a statistical descriptive analyses was completed. The average catch per fisherman in the region is 4,766.5 kg per year. The Loricariichthys anus showed the highest catch volume, ensuring the economic viability of the local activity. The constant increase of the activity may be compromising the reproductive cycle of the local ichthyological fauna, thus compromising the fishery sustainability.

  17. Emerging commons within artisanal fisheries. The Chilean territorial use rights in fisheries (TURFs within a broader coastal landscape

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    Gloria L. Gallardo Fernández

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Territorial User Rights in Fisheries (TURFs have spread in Chile, since the late 1990s, in the form of commons institutions. TURFs are presented by some scholars as a social-ecological success; by others as showing economic and compliance problems. Studies looking at the material conditions in which fishers produce and reproduce their livelihoods, and in which TURFs emerge, are scarcer. Ostrom’s theory on the commons claims that certain collective action conditions have to be met to become thriving commons institutions. Our hypothesis is that while institutions are moulded by local material conditions, such as geographical location and social embeddedness, these impose challenges and constraints upon fishers influencing TURFs’ long-term viability. How are collective action conditions influenced when the new TURFs commons do not emerge in tabula rasa contexts but in occupied spaces? Do material conditions influence TURFs’ sustainability? This paper set out to explore these conditions. Huentelauquén’s and Guayacán’s TURFs (central-northern Chile were chosen, as they represent two extremes (rural-urban; on private property-on State/municipal property; mainly diver – mainly fisher contexts in which TURFs have emerged. We mainly used Participatory Rural Approach (PRA tools triangulated with other qualitative methods. This study shows that both social embeddedness (private/State lands, and geographical location (rural/urban matter, resulting in different access to the coast for different TURFs, thus determining some important differences between our cases in at least three relevant areas: entrance, social relations between the fishers’ organization (entitled the TURFs and the landowner (private or municipal/State and the existence or absence of fishing and general infrastructure. Competition for space among key actors seems to affect the process of acquiring a TURF as well as the conditions conductive to collective action. TURFs’ assessments should therefore consider both, the local particularities of specific fishing communities and the larger structural context in which they emerge, that if not paid attention to, can weakens TURFs’ viability for sustainable fisheries.

  18. Effect of high hydrostatic pressure processing on biogenic amines formation in artisan caprine and ovine raw milk cheeses

    OpenAIRE

    Espinosa Pesqueira, Diana Maricela

    2012-01-01

    Descripció del recurs: 01 setembre 2012 El objetivo comprendido en esta tesis doctoral fue evaluar el efecto de la aplicación de la Alta Presión Hidrostática (APH) en la formación de Aminas Biogenas (AB) en quesos elaborados a partir de leche cruda. Para este propósito fue necesaria la participación de dos queserías artesanas como proveedoras de las dos variedades de queso elaboradas a partir de leche cruda utilizadas en este estudio, una de leche de oveja y otra de de leche de cabra. La v...

  19. [Trophic interactions of the six most abundant fish species in the artisanal fishery in two bays, central Mexican Pacific].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores Ortega, J R; Godínez Domínguez, E; Rojo Vázquez, J A; Corgos, A; Galván Piña, V H; Sansón González, G

    2010-03-01

    We surveyed the trophic components in six species of Bahía de Navidad and Bahía de Chamela: Microlepidotus brevipinnis, Caranx caballus, Haemulon flaviguttatum, Lutjanus guttatus, L. argentiventris and Mulloidichthys dentatus. Two main seasonal periods were considered: 1) North Equatorial Counter Current NECC period influence (T1) and 2) California Current CC period influence (T2). In Bahía de Navidad 78 prey taxa were identified in the stomachs. From July to December (T1), 64 prey taxa were found, and from January to June (T2), 45 prey items. In Bahía de Chamela 93 prey items were identified; 74 during T1 and 60 during T2. The highest prey number was found in the stomachs of M. dentatus during T1 in Bahía de Navidad and the lowest prey number (7) was recorded in H. flaviguttatum in Bahía de Navidad in the same period. Crustaceans were the most frequently recorded prey items, followed by fishes, mollusks, polychaetes, and echinoderms in both seasonal periods and sites. The six fish species studied are considered as specialist feeders due the low values of the niche breadth index. There was little similarity among the diets. PMID:20411730

  20. Contribution of coagulant and native microflora to the volatile-free fatty acid profile of an artisanal cheese

    OpenAIRE

    Tavaria, Freni K.; Tavares, Tânia G.; Ferreira, A. C. Silva; Malcata, F. Xavier

    2006-01-01

    The contributions of the coagulant Cynara cardunculus and of the microflora of raw milk to the volatile-free fatty acid profile of Serra da Estrela cheese were evaluated. The experimental design included both a model system and, dual cheeses. The study in the model system showed that isovaleric acid was the predominant volatile compound after 7 d of ripening. The systems inoculated with Enterococcus faecium produced the highest amount of this volatile (ca. 135.8mg kg 1 curd), while t...

  1. Analysis of dominant lactic acid bacteria from artisanal raw milk cheeses produced on the mountain Stara Planina, Serbia

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    Begovic Jelena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Serbian cheese production has a long history and generates products with rich flavor profiles. To enable the industrial manufacture of these home-made Serbian cheeses, the lactic acid bacteria present in them needs to be characterized. Five fresh white cheeses made from raw cow’s milk without commercial starter cultures were collected from households on the mountain Stara Planina, Serbia. According to phenotypical and molecular analysis, 262 isolated Lwere found to belong to Lactococcus, Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, Leuconostoc or Enterococcus. The unique bacterial composition of each cheese indicates that the preservation of household industry is the way to maintain production of distinct cheeses.

  2. Ethnoecology of small cetaceans: interactions between an artisanal fishery and dolphins in northern Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    Ana Paula Madeira Di Beneditto

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies in northern Rio de Janeiro indicate there are interactions between fisheries and cetaceans, but there are no studies that focus on the knowledge fishermen have about these animals. This study describes the interactions between cetaceans and a fishery through the perception of fishermen from Atafona (RJ. Between February and March 2010, 20 fishermen were selected using the “snowball” technique. An ethnographic questionnaire was given to each fisherman. Each participant described more than one species of dolphin, which explains why the sample size of the responses (N=34 is greater than the number of respondents (N=20. Based on the reports, three species and one genus were identified: Sotalia guianensis (N=15; 75%, Pontoporia blainvillei (N=9; 45%, Steno bredanensis (N=6; 30% and Stenella (N=4; 20%. The answer “collision with artifacts” was the only one given for the question about the occurrence of accidents between the fishery and dolphins (N=24; 71%; gillnets are responsible for the entanglement of the animals. The carcasses of dolphins killed by accidental capture are discarded into the sea and/or the muscle and blubber is used as bait to fish for elasmobranchs. The dolphin species identified by the fishermen corresponded to the four main species reported in the literature for the area. All interviewees said that bycatch is caused by dolphins and affects fishing.

  3. From Reef to Table: Social and Ecological Factors Affecting Coral Reef Fisheries, Artisanal Seafood Supply Chains, and Seafood Security.

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    John N Kittinger

    Full Text Available Ocean and coastal ecosystems provide critical fisheries, coastal protection, and cultural benefits to communities worldwide, but these services are diminishing due to local and global threats. In response, place-based strategies involve communities and resource users in management have proliferated. Here, we present a transferable community-based approach to assess the social and ecological factors affecting resource sustainability and food security in a small-scale, coral reef fishery. Our results show that this small-scale fishery provides large-scale benefits to communities, including 7,353 ± 1547 kg yr(-1 (mean ± SE of seafood per year, equating to >30,000 meals with an economic value of $78,432. The vast majority of the catch is used for subsistence, contributing to community food security: 58% is kept, 33.5% is given away, and 8.5% is sold. Our spatial analysis assesses the geographic distribution of community beneficiaries from the fishery (the "food shed" for the fishery, and we document that 20% of seafood procured from the fishery is used for sociocultural events that are important for social cohesion. This approach provides a method for assessing social, economic, and cultural values provided by small-scale food systems, as well as important contributions to food security, with significant implications for conservation and management. This interdisciplinary effort aims to demonstrate a transferable participatory research approach useful for resource-dependent communities as they cope with socioeconomic, cultural, and environmental change.

  4. Identification of Response Options to Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining (ASGM in Ghana via the Delphi Process

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    Avik Basu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Delphi technique is a means of facilitating discussion among experts in order to develop consensus, and can be used for policy formulation. This article describes a modified Delphi approach in which 27 multi-disciplinary academics and 22 stakeholders from Ghana and North America were polled about ways to address negative effects of small-scale gold mining (ASGM in Ghana. In early 2014, the academics, working in disciplinary groups, synthesized 17 response options based on data aggregated during an Integrated Assessment of ASGM in Ghana. The researchers participated in two rounds of Delphi polling in March and April 2014, during which 17 options were condensed into 12. Response options were rated via a 4-point Likert scale in terms of benefit (economic, environmental, and benefit to people and feasibility (economic, social/cultural, political, and implementation. The six highest-scoring options populated a third Delphi poll, which 22 stakeholders from diverse sectors completed in April 2015. The academics and stakeholders also prioritized the response options using ranking exercises. The technique successfully gauged expert opinion on ASGM, and helped identify potential responses, policies and solutions for the sector. This is timely given that improvement to the ASGM sector is an important component within the UN Minamata Convention.

  5. Isotope tracing of Hg pollution from artisanal small scale gold mining in an aquatic ecosystem of Amapá, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler Miserendino, R.; Silbergeld, E. K.; Guimarães, J. D.; Ghosh, S.; Bergquist, B. A.

    2010-12-01

    Artisinal small scale gold mining (ASGM) is a central economic activity throughout the developing world. It is both a poverty driven and poverty alleviating process; however, ASGM leads to extensive pollution of waterways through the use of Hg to extract gold from deposits. There have been many studies conducted in the Amazon showing elevated levels of Hg in fish and sediment downstream of ASGM sites; however, the debate continues about the contribution of Hg from ASGM versus other potential sources of Hg. In this study, we investigate whether Hg stable isotope analysis can be used to trace mercury pollution from an ASGM site through an aquatic ecosystem in Amapá, Brazil. We measured the Hg isotopic composition of sediment cores from two lakes, only one of which was heavily impacted by the use of elemental Hg in ASGM, as well as from grab samples at the AGSM site and upstream and downstream from the AGSM site along the river which connects the polluted lake to the ASGM site. Hg from all samples were trapped via combustion using the Leeman Labs Hydra-C mercury analyzer and analyzed for both mass-independent and mass-dependent signatures using cold vapor multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (CV-MC-ICP-MS). Detectable variations in the Hg isotopic signatures were apparent across our field sites, suggesting stable isotopic analysis has great potential to trace contamination pathways in waterways. Preliminary data demonstrate Hg from the ASGM site has unique isotopic signatures that are seen downstream. However, the impacted lake sediments do not have the mining signature despite having three times more Hg than the non-impacted lake. Based on this data, it may be possible to trace Hg from ASGM and assess whether it is impacting local ecosystems and food webs. Hair and soil samples will also be discussed. This demonstration is essential for the broader application of these tools for understanding and applying Hg isotopic analysis in other contexts. This information may also be useful to help reduce Hg exposure of highly vulnerable populations exposed to Hg from ASGM through these aquatic networks in Amapá, Brazil.

  6. Working with the artisans of Caxias do Sul (Brazil) : a case study of sustainable textile/surface design

    OpenAIRE

    Rüthschilling, Anne; Bessa, Pedro; Broega, A. C.

    2011-01-01

    This paper is part of a case study conducted within a PhD Research in Design at the University of Aveiro (Portugal), whose focus is the development of the textile collage technique as a means for sustainable design. The textile collage is a technique widely used in textile apparel production, to give greater rigidity to certain parts of garments such as collars, cuffs and lapels, but is still very little explored in the creation of new surface designs in the fashion area. A big advantage o...

  7. Use of starter cultures isolated from native microbiota of artisanal sausage in the production of Italian sausage

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    Osmar Roberto Dalla Santa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The most promising microorganisms for use as starter cultures are those isolated from the native microbiota of traditional fermented products. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of lactic acid bacteria selected from the native microbiota of sausages produced by spontaneous fermentation as starter cultures for the production of sausage. Strains of Lactobacillus plantarum 503 and 341 have the potential for use as starter cultures in the manufacture of Italian sausage type. The population of lactic acid bacteria in sausages was >8 log CFU.g-1 during fermentation, which caused the pH to decrease to <4.5. This decrease in pH and the water activity of < 0.90 of sausages ensures the safety and preservation of this product. Sausages produced with these lactic cultures fulfill the requirements for microbiological quality and composition of Italian sausage type. Our results suggest the possibility of using these starter cultures for the production of sausages with peculiar characteristics that contribute to the identity of the product.

  8. Characterization of lactic acid bacteria isolated from Bosnian artisanal dry fermented sausage (sudžuk during fermentation

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    Čolo Josip

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bosnian sudžuk is a dry fermented sausage produced in a rural household near the town of Visoko in central Bosnia and Herzegovina. This kind of sausage was manufactured only from beef and spices in a traditional way without the addition of a starter cultures. To identify lactic acid bacteria (LAB, a total number of 160 Lstrains were isolated from five samples of Bosnian sudžuk collected over 28 days of fermentation. Preliminary identification by phenotypic tests and 16S rDNA sequencing were performed for all 160 of the Lisolates. Identification of Lstrains from traditionally produced Bosnian sausage at the species level revealed the presence of six genera: Lactococcus sp., Enterococcus sp., Leuconostoc sp., Lactobacillus sp., Pediococcus sp. and Weissella sp.. Among the 15 distinct species identified, the species Lactobacillus plantarum, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactococcus lactis, Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus durans were present throughout the entire process of fermentation. Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactococcus lactis prevailed, with 21.8%, 19.3% and 13.1%, respectively, of total Lstrains during the entire fermentation process. Significant negative correlations (r = 0.892 and r = 0.829, respectively between the presence of Weissella sp. and Lactobacillus sp., and between the presence of Weissella sp. and Lactococcus sp. were recorded. Lactobacillus plantarum, Enterococcus durans and Leuconostoc mesenteroides were the best producers of aromogenic compounds while 32.3% of Lactobacillus plantarum and 28.6% of Leuconostoc mesenteroides were produced exopolysaccharides. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173019

  9. Lipolysis and proteolysis profiles of fresh artisanal goat cheese made with raw milk with 3 different fat contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Macías, D; Morales-Delanuez, A; Moreno-Indias, I; Hernández-Castellano, L E; Mendoza-Grimón, V; Castro, N; Argüello, A

    2011-12-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the proteolysis and lipolysis profiles in goat cheese made in the Canary Islands (Spain) using raw milk with 3 different fat contents (0.5, 1.5, and 5%) and ripened for 1, 7, 14, and 28 d. β-Casein was the most abundant protein in all cheeses and at all ripening times. Quantitative analysis showed a general decrease in caseins as ripening progressed, and degradation rates were higher for α(S1)-casein than for β-casein and α(S2)-casein. Furthermore, the degradation rate during the experimental time decreased with lower fat contents. The α(S2)-casein and α(S1)-casein levels that remained in full-fat and reduced-fat cheeses were less than those in low-fat cheese. In contrast, β-casein also showed degradation along with ripening, but differences in degradation among the 3 cheese types were not significant at 28 d. The degradation products increased with the ripening time in all cheeses, but they were higher in full-fat cheese than in reduced-fat and low-fat cheeses. The free fatty acid concentration per 100g of cheese was higher in full-fat cheese than in reduced- and low-fat cheese; however, when the results were expressed as milligrams of free fatty acids per gram of fat in cheese, then lipolysis occurred more rapidly in low-fat cheese than in reduced- and full-fat cheeses. These results may explain the atypical texture and off-flavors found in low-fat goat cheeses, likely the main causes of non-acceptance. PMID:22118069

  10. Ethnoecology of small cetaceans: interactions between an artisanal fishery and dolphins in northern Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Paula Madeira Di Beneditto; Camilah Antunes Zappes; Gabrielle Amorim Rosa

    2012-01-01

    Studies in northern Rio de Janeiro indicate there are interactions between fisheries and cetaceans, but there are no studies that focus on the knowledge fishermen have about these animals. This study describes the interactions between cetaceans and a fishery through the perception of fishermen from Atafona (RJ). Between February and March 2010, 20 fishermen were selected using the “snowball” technique. An ethnographic questionnaire was given to each fisherman. Each participant described more ...

  11. To fish or not to fish: factors at multiple scales affecting artisanal fishers' readiness to exit a declining fishery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daw, Tim M; Cinner, Joshua E; McClanahan, Timothy R; Brown, Katrina; Stead, Selina M; Graham, Nicholas A J; Maina, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Globally, fisheries are challenged by the combined impacts of overfishing, degradation of ecosystems and impacts of climate change, while fisheries livelihoods are further pressured by conservation policy imperatives. Fishers' adaptive responses to these pressures, such as exiting from a fishery to pursue alternative livelihoods, determine their own vulnerability, as well as the potential for reducing fishing effort and sustaining fisheries. The willingness and ability to make particular adaptations in response to change, such as exiting from a declining fishery, is influenced by economic, cultural and institutional factors operating at scales from individual fishers to national economies. Previous studies of exit from fisheries at single or few sites, offer limited insight into the relative importance of individual and larger-scale social and economic factors. We asked 599 fishers how they would respond to hypothetical scenarios of catch declines in 28 sites in five western Indian Ocean countries. We investigated how socioeconomic variables at the individual-, household- and site-scale affected whether they would exit fisheries. Site-level factors had the greatest influence on readiness to exit, but these relationships were contrary to common predictions. Specifically, higher levels of infrastructure development and economic vitality - expected to promote exit from fisheries - were associated with less readiness to exit. This may be due to site level histories of exit from fisheries, greater specialisation of fishing households, or higher rewards from fishing in more economically developed sites due to technology, market access, catch value and government subsidies. At the individual and household scale, fishers from households with more livelihood activities, and fishers with lower catch value were more willing to exit. These results demonstrate empirically how adaptive responses to change are influenced by factors at multiple scales, and highlight the importance of understanding natural resource-based livelihoods in the context of the wider economy and society. PMID:22348090

  12. Identification of Response Options to Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining (ASGM) in Ghana via the Delphi Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Avik; Phipps, Sean; Long, Rachel; Essegbey, George; Basu, Niladri

    2015-09-01

    The Delphi technique is a means of facilitating discussion among experts in order to develop consensus, and can be used for policy formulation. This article describes a modified Delphi approach in which 27 multi-disciplinary academics and 22 stakeholders from Ghana and North America were polled about ways to address negative effects of small-scale gold mining (ASGM) in Ghana. In early 2014, the academics, working in disciplinary groups, synthesized 17 response options based on data aggregated during an Integrated Assessment of ASGM in Ghana. The researchers participated in two rounds of Delphi polling in March and April 2014, during which 17 options were condensed into 12. Response options were rated via a 4-point Likert scale in terms of benefit (economic, environmental, and benefit to people) and feasibility (economic, social/cultural, political, and implementation). The six highest-scoring options populated a third Delphi poll, which 22 stakeholders from diverse sectors completed in April 2015. The academics and stakeholders also prioritized the response options using ranking exercises. The technique successfully gauged expert opinion on ASGM, and helped identify potential responses, policies and solutions for the sector. This is timely given that improvement to the ASGM sector is an important component within the UN Minamata Convention. PMID:26378557

  13. From Reef to Table: Social and Ecological Factors Affecting Coral Reef Fisheries, Artisanal Seafood Supply Chains, and Seafood Security

    OpenAIRE

    John N. Kittinger; Teneva, Lida T.; Koike, Haruko; Kostantinos A Stamoulis; Kittinger, Daniela S; Oleson, Kirsten L. L.; Conklin, Eric; Gomes, Mahana; Wilcox, Bart; Friedlander, Alan M.

    2015-01-01

    Ocean and coastal ecosystems provide critical fisheries, coastal protection, and cultural benefits to communities worldwide, but these services are diminishing due to local and global threats. In response, place-based strategies involve communities and resource users in management have proliferated. Here, we present a transferable community-based approach to assess the social and ecological factors affecting resource sustainability and food security in a small-scale, coral reef fishery. Our r...

  14. To fish or not to fish: factors at multiple scales affecting artisanal fishers' readiness to exit a declining fishery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim M Daw

    Full Text Available Globally, fisheries are challenged by the combined impacts of overfishing, degradation of ecosystems and impacts of climate change, while fisheries livelihoods are further pressured by conservation policy imperatives. Fishers' adaptive responses to these pressures, such as exiting from a fishery to pursue alternative livelihoods, determine their own vulnerability, as well as the potential for reducing fishing effort and sustaining fisheries. The willingness and ability to make particular adaptations in response to change, such as exiting from a declining fishery, is influenced by economic, cultural and institutional factors operating at scales from individual fishers to national economies. Previous studies of exit from fisheries at single or few sites, offer limited insight into the relative importance of individual and larger-scale social and economic factors. We asked 599 fishers how they would respond to hypothetical scenarios of catch declines in 28 sites in five western Indian Ocean countries. We investigated how socioeconomic variables at the individual-, household- and site-scale affected whether they would exit fisheries. Site-level factors had the greatest influence on readiness to exit, but these relationships were contrary to common predictions. Specifically, higher levels of infrastructure development and economic vitality - expected to promote exit from fisheries - were associated with less readiness to exit. This may be due to site level histories of exit from fisheries, greater specialisation of fishing households, or higher rewards from fishing in more economically developed sites due to technology, market access, catch value and government subsidies. At the individual and household scale, fishers from households with more livelihood activities, and fishers with lower catch value were more willing to exit. These results demonstrate empirically how adaptive responses to change are influenced by factors at multiple scales, and highlight the importance of understanding natural resource-based livelihoods in the context of the wider economy and society.

  15. Capture-based mud crab (Scylla serrata) aquaculture and artisanal fishery in East Africa: practical and ecological perspectives.

    OpenAIRE

    Mirera, David Oersted

    2013-01-01

    Mud crab Scylla serrata is a crustacean that spends most of its life cycle in the mangrove environment throughout its range. Fishery and aquaculture of this crab are significant economic activities in coastal areas in the tropics and sub-tropics because of the meat quality and nutritional value. However there is a significant shortage of information on the ecology, fishery and aquaculture of these crabs in sub-Saharan Africa. This impacts the development of a sustainable aquaculture and fishe...

  16. Modeling Artisanal Fisheries and Hydroelectricity in Relation to the Itezhi-tezhi Dam on the Kafue River, Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Richard Jensen

    2012-01-01

    Maximizing the production of ecosystem services is a necessity for resource management particularly when increasing the provision of one service decreases the provision of another. In these instances, it is important to estimate the value of ecosystem services to efficiently distribute resources. We estimate two major ecosystem services provided by the Kafue River, Zambia -hydroelectricity and fisheries- and discuss management implications of the relationship between hydropower controlled wat...

  17. Collective action and symbolic capital in the artisanal fisheries: An analysis of the Local Food Systems of Reloncaví Estuary (Los Lagos), Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Saavedra Gallo, Gonzalo; Macías Vázquez, Alfredo.

    2016-01-01

    In a post-industrial economy, it is as important to understand “material” productive processes in the local community as the processes through which global value chains “expropriate” or “co-opt” common immaterial assets. However, the literature on collective action and the management of common goods generally focuses on matters of the control and governance of material resources. The article commences with an analysis of the relations between the production of value, collective action and the...

  18. Collective action and symbolic capital in the artisanal fisheries: An analysis of the Local Food Systems of Reloncaví Estuary (Los Lagos, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saavedra Gallo, Gonzalo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In a post-industrial economy, it is as important to understand “material” productive processes in the local community as the processes through which global value chains “expropriate” or “co-opt” common immaterial assets. However, the literature on collective action and the management of common goods generally focuses on matters of the control and governance of material resources. The article commences with an analysis of the relations between the production of value, collective action and the rentier nature of contemporary capitalism and its entrepreneurial ideology. Then, we present a detailed analysis of the case of mytilid seed capture in the Reloncaví Estuary (Los Lagos Region, Chile. This case shows us the failure of modernisation policies which are based on converting local producers into modern entrepreneurs. To adopt a successful value strategy, a very different problem must be addressed, namely the difficulties of local communities in managing successfully their own common immaterial values. Faced with the dichotomous logic of neoliberalism, communities must reunite these immaterial values and the associated common material resources, and modulate the friction between them.En una economía postindustrial, es importante comprender los procesos productivos “materiales” en la comunidad local como procesos a través de los cuales las cadenas globales de valor “expropian” o “cooptan” los activos inmateriales comunes. Sin embargo, la literatura sobre acción colectiva y gestión de los bienes comunes generalmente se focaliza en el control y la gobernanza de los recursos materiales. Este artículo comienza con un análisis de las relaciones entre la producción del valor, la acción colectiva y la naturaleza rentista de capitalismo contemporáneo y su ideología emprendedora. A continuación, presentamos un análisis detallado del caso del cultivo de semillas de mitílidos en el Estuario de Reloncaví (Los Lagos, Chile. El caso nos muestra el fracaso de las políticas de modernización basadas en convertir a los productores locales en empresarios modernos. Para adoptar una estrategia de valorización exitosa, debe abordar un problema muy diferente: las dificultades de las comunidades locales para gestionar exitosamente sus propios valores inmateriales comunes. Enfrentadas con la lógica dicotómica del neoliberalismo, las comunidades deben reunir estos valores inmateriales y los recursos materiales comunes asociados, y modular la fricción entre ellos.

  19. Balancing firm and network-based resources to gain competitive advantage: A case study of an artisanal musical instruments cluster in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Leick, Birgit

    2013-01-01

    The question of whether firms gain competitiveness through local networks and clusters becomes more relevant than ever as globalization proceeds. This is particularly true for traditional and craft-based clusters, districts and business networks. A central question emerging for these types of networks is: (How) can they build competitive advantage using local production systems and network ties as core resources? The present article aims at shedding light on this issue by presenting a case st...

  20. How a masculine work ethic and economic circumstances affect uptake of HIV treatment: experiences of men from an artisanal gold mining community in rural eastern Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet Seeley

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Current data from Uganda indicate that, compared to women, men are under-represented in HIV treatment, seek treatment later and have a higher mortality while on antiretroviral therapy (ART. By focusing on a masculine work ethic as one of the most predominant expressions of masculinity, this study explores why for some men HIV treatment enhances their masculinity while for others it undermines masculine work identity, leading them to discontinue the treatment. Methods: Participant observation and 26 in-depth interviews with men were conducted in a gold mining village in Eastern Uganda between August 2009 and August 2010. Interviewees included men who were taking HIV treatment, who had discontinued treatment, who suspected HIV infection but had not sought testing, or who had other symptoms unrelated to HIV infection. Results: Many participants reported spending large proportions of their income, alleviating symptoms prior to confirming their HIV infection. This seriously undermined their sense of masculinity gained from providing for their families. Disclosing HIV diagnosis and treatment to employers and work colleagues could reduce job offers and/or collaborative work, as colleagues feared working with “ill” people. Drug side-effects affected work, leading some men to discontinue the treatment. Despite being on ART, some men believed their health remained fragile, leading them to opt out of hard work, contradicting their reputation as hard workers. However, some men on treatment talked about “resurrecting” due to ART and linked their current abilities to work again to good adherence. For some men, it was work colleagues who suggested testing and treatment-seeking following symptoms. Conclusions: The central role of a work ethic in expressing masculinity can both encourage and discourage men's treatment-seeking for AIDS. HIV testing and treatment may be sought in order to improve health and get back to work, thereby in the process regaining one's masculine reputation as a hard worker and provider for one's family. However, disclosure can affect opportunities for work and drug side-effects disrupt one's ability to labour, undermining the sense of masculinity gained from work. HIV support organizations need to recognize how economic and gender concerns impact on treatment decisions and help men deal with work-related fears.

  1. The use of cassava starch in the artisanal production of maltose = L'utilisation de l'amidon de manioc pour la production artisanale de maltose

    OpenAIRE

    Cecil, J.E.

    1995-01-01

    Cet article décrit les édulcorants utilisables en industrie alimentaire et compare leur disponibilité dans les pays développés et les pays en développement. Une technologie simple et couramment utilisée à l'échelle artisanale ou semi-industrielle au Vietnam, est décrite : elle permet de produire du maltose à partir de l'amidon de manioc en utilisant des équipements simples et des plantules de riz ou de maïs comme seules sources d'enzymes. Partant du fait que les potentialités de cette transfo...

  2. Effect of farm characteristics and practices on hygienic quality of ovine raw milk used for artisan cheese production in central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carloni, Elisa; Petruzzelli, Annalisa; Amagliani, Giulia; Brandi, Giorgio; Caverni, Francesco; Mangili, Piermario; Tonucci, Franco

    2016-04-01

    A survey on ovine dairy farms directly transforming own-produced milk, in the Italian Marche region, was carried out to assess flock and milking practices that may influence milk hygienic-sanitary conditions. A census survey established that 24 dairy farms were located in this region. Bulk milk samples were collected throughout the milking period in each dairy farm in 2013. Analyzed variables were: (i) chemical parameters such as fat, protein and lactose content, dry matter and pH; and (ii) total bacterial (TBC) and somatic cell counts (SCC). Chemical parameter values were in agreement with published data while, geometric mean (GM) log10 SCC was 5.91 and TBC GM was 57 978 colony forming units/mL, in compliance with Eropean Union criteria. A positive correlation was found between SCC and TBC when GMs of all farm data were considered (Spearman's rho = 0.7925; P = 0.0001). Statistical analysis did not show significant correlation between SCC or TBC GM and dairy farm principal characteristics. Although SCC levels detected in the present study should suggest the need to implement mastitis control programs, Marche's dairy sheep flocks revealed a good hygienic condition level. This is an important aspect in implementing safety for end users of the final product. PMID:26304708

  3. The engineer, sustainable development craftsman at the center of the global energy challenge!; L'ingenieur, artisan du developpement durable au centre du defi energetique mondial!

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laplatte, Benjamin; Bourque, Francis; Granger, Francois P.; Dery, Gaston; Berube, Martin

    2010-09-15

    By its omnipresence in society, the energy question is at the heart of sustainable development issues. The engineer, as a central actor of human society development, is therefore tightly linked to the energy issue and he must actively contribute to resolve it by integrating to his practices the principles of sustainable development and by applying the solutions that arises. Part of these elements include as the main ones, listening to the consideration of citizens, becoming aware of the environment importance and reducing costs at all levels. The engineer is a social actor that cannot be ignored in the resolution of these issues. [French] Par son omnipresence dans la societe, la question energetique est au coeur des enjeux du developpement durable. L'ingenieur, etant un acteur central du developpement des societes humaines, est donc inextricablement lie a la question energetique qu'il doit contribuer activement a resoudre en integrant a sa pratique les principes du developpement durable et en appliquant les solutions qui en decoulent. Parmi ces elements, l'ecoute des considerations citoyennes, la prise de conscience de l'importance de l'environnement et la reduction des couts a tous les niveaux sont des elements centraux. L'ingenieur est un acteur social incontournable pour la resolution de ces enjeux.

  4. Immigrants and Coastal Artisan Fishing in a Context of Constrained Spatial Expansion in the City of Pointe-Noire (Congo-Brazzaville)

    OpenAIRE

    Tati, Gabriel

    2010-01-01

    Cet article examine les changements, tant sur le plan spatial qu’environnemental, qui ont affecté l’habitat et la pêche artisanale au sein d’une communauté de migrants sur un site côtier qu’ils partagent avec une compagnie pétrolière dans la zone côtière de la ville de Pointe-Noire. Les observations de terrain sur une longue durée montrent que ces pêcheurs ont, de manière remarquable, démontré une capacité collective à organiser leurs activités de pêche et à transformer leur habitat informel ...

  5. Positive interactions between irrawaddy dolphins and artisanal fishers in the Chilika Lagoon of eastern India are driven by ecology, socioeconomics, and culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Lima, Coralie; Marsh, Helene; Hamann, Mark; Sinha, Anindya; Arthur, Rohan

    2014-09-01

    In human-dominated landscapes, interactions and perceptions towards wildlife are influenced by multidimensional drivers. Understanding these drivers could prove useful for wildlife conservation. We surveyed the attitudes and perceptions of fishers towards threatened Irrawaddy dolphins (Orcaella brevirostris) at Chilika Lagoon India. To validate the drivers of fisher perceptions, we : (1) observed dolphin foraging behavior at stake nets, and (2) compared catch per unit effort (CPUE) and catch income of fishers from stake nets in the presence and absence of foraging dolphins. We found that fishers were mostly positive towards dolphins, believing that dolphins augmented their fish catch and using culture to express their perceptions. Foraging dolphins were observed spending half their time at stake nets and were associated with significantly higher catch income and CPUE of mullet (Liza sp.), a locally preferred food fish species. Wildlife conservation efforts should use the multidimensional drivers of human-wildlife interactions to involve local stakeholders in management. PMID:24037950

  6. Geophagy Practices and the Content of Chemical Elements in the Soil Eaten by Pregnant Women in Artisanal and Small Scale Gold Mining Communities in Tanzania.

    OpenAIRE

    Nyanza, Elias C; Joseph, Mary; Premji, Shahirose S.; Thomas, Deborah SK; Mannion, Cynthia

    2014-01-01

    Background Geophagy, a form of pica, is the deliberate consumption of soil and is relatively common across Sub-Saharan Africa. In Tanzania, pregnant women commonly eat soil sticks sold in the market (pemba), soil from walls of houses, termite mounds, and ground soil (kichuguu). The present study examined geophagy practices of pregnant women in a gold mining area of Geita District in northwestern Tanzania, and also examined the potential for exposure to chemical elements by testing soil sample...

  7. Commis, artisans, ouvriers. Les métamorphoses du salariat dans l’Égypte du XIXe siècle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascale Ghazaleh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cet article se propose d’analyser l’évolution du travail salarié en Égypte pendant la première moitié du XIXe siècle à la lumière des modifications apportées au système des charges vénales, qui permet aux sujets du sultan d’accéder au statut de ses serviteurs en achetant le droit de toucher une rémunération. Les réformes juridiques, militaires, économiques et administratives qu’institue Muhammad ‘Alî (r. 1805-1848 en Égypte vont ériger les instances de l’État naissant en source de rémunération et point de référence primaire des détenteurs de charges. Pendant la période 1840-1860, les recrutements de fonctionnaires et de travailleurs connaîtront un repli ; et, lorsque la question du travail salarié est abordée à part entière dans le discours public des années 1880, c’est sous son versant politique, comme métaphore de la tutelle coloniale.

  8. A proteomic approach for the characterization of typical meat products: definition of molecular markers of industrial and artisanal Naples-type salami

    OpenAIRE

    Gualtieri, Liberata

    2011-01-01

    Naples-type salami is dry fermented sausages with medium-size grana made of coarsely minced lean pig, mixed with fat, salt, pepper and various spices, stuffed into natural or artificial casings and ripened for 30-60 days, native to the Campania, today produced throughout Italy. The organoleptic and sensory properties of this product are due to the degradation events (proteolysis, lipolysis) occurring during the maturation: the lipid fraction undergoes hydrolytic and oxidative changes, involvi...

  9. Application of electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) to a tailings dam project for artisanal and small-scale gold mining in Zaruma-Portovelo, Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarroca, Mario; Linares, Rogelio; Velásquez-López, Patricio C.; Roqué, Carles; Rodríguez, Roberto

    2015-02-01

    Thanks to advances in geoelectrical resistivity method over the past two decades, researchers can now gather massive geophysical data sets encompassing long distances and depths, at reasonable cost. The enhanced resolution and spatial coverage of these techniques make them, now, very attractive for use in geological engineering applications, an area for which they were previously charged to be unsuitable. The study shows the capability of electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) to identify key subsoil features that might affect a future tailings dam slated for construction at the Zaruma-Portovelo Mining District, Ecuador. The ERI profiles were gathered and processed with the aim of obtaining resistivity images of a sufficiently resolution for geotechnical use. A geophysical model was created based on these images. The resistivity images were calibrated according to geomorphological, hydrogeological and geotechnical data in order to translate geophysical information into rational geological information. The ERI results, supported by the geomorphological and geotechnical work, suggested that the rock massif is composed of weathering horizons of different rock qualities, slopes are affected by sliding surfaces and these features exert a control on the groundwater flow. These results indicated that the original site selected to construct the dam dike was susceptible to land sliding and an alternative construction site was suggested. Based on the same results, a geomorphological-hydrogeological conceptual model for layered weathered granitic massif in mountainous areas was also proposed.

  10. Orientalizing Vietnam: The American Cold War, its “Problems” with Refugee Handicraft Artisans, and their Relationship to Barthes’s Mythology

    OpenAIRE

    Jennifer Way

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines discourses of orientalism narrating the political and cultural significance of representations of Vietnamese handicraft that the U.S. State Department’s International Cooperation Administration’s handicraft production and export program in Southeast Asia published in American craft, design and art journals and used in trade and department store exhibitions from 1955 to 1961. The American program to bring economic stability to the region developed in response to anxiety abo...

  11. Crowd-Funded Micro-Grants for Genomics and “Big Data”: An Actionable Idea Connecting Small (Artisan) Science, Infrastructure Science, and Citizen Philanthropy

    OpenAIRE

    Özdemir, Vural; Badr, Kamal F.; Dove, Edward S; Endrenyi, Laszlo; Geraci, Christy Jo; Hotez, Peter J.; Milius, Djims; Neves-Pereira, Maria; Pang, Tikki; Rotimi, Charles N.; Sabra, Ramzi; Sarkissian, Christineh N.; Srivastava, Sanjeeva; Tims, Hesther; Zgheib, Nathalie K

    2013-01-01

    Biomedical science in the 21st century is embedded in, and draws from, a digital commons and “Big Data” created by high-throughput Omics technologies such as genomics. Classic Edisonian metaphors of science and scientists (i.e., “the lone genius” or other narrow definitions of expertise) are ill equipped to harness the vast promises of the 21st century digital commons. Moreover, in medicine and life sciences, experts often under-appreciate the important contributions made by citizen scholars ...

  12. Occurrence of non-O157 Shiga toxin-encoding Escherichia coli in artisanal mozzarella cheese in Brazil: risk factor associated with food workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia CARDOSO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mozzarella cheese is considered a safe food due to the high temperature treatment used in the traditional process of stretching into hot water; however, a post-process contamination during the cheese manufacture or during the processing (before distribution could occur. This study investigated the occurrence of Shiga toxin-encoding Escherichia coli (STEC strains in homemade-mozzarella cheese. In total, 59 raw milk cheese samples collected at a local producer in the Jequitinhonha Valley (Northeast of Minas Gerais, Brazil were submitted for microbiological analysis, and 38 (64.4% tested positive for E. coli. Then, 147 strains of E. coli were isolated from positive samples and screened by polymerase chain reaction for the presence of the genes encoding the following virulence factors: stx1 and stx 2 (verotoxin types 1 and 2 and eae (intimin. All the isolates were negative for the stx 2, 14 isolates (9.5% were positive for the stx1 gene, and 11 of them also harbored the eae gene. A food worker was probably involved in cheese contamination during the manufacture schedule. While the development of STEC infection in humans is not completely understood, all STEC- contaminated food can be considered potentially hazardous.

  13. A preliminary study on health effects in villagers exposed to mercury in a small-scale artisanal gold mining area in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose-O'Reilly, Stephan; Schierl, Rudolf; Nowak, Dennis; Siebert, Uwe; William, Jossep Frederick; Owi, Fradico Teorgi; Ir, Yuyun Ismawati

    2016-08-01

    Cisitu is a small-scale gold mining village in Indonesia. Mercury (Hg) is used to extract gold from ore, heavily polluting air, soil, fish and rice paddy fields with Hg. Rice in Cisitu is burdened with mercury. The main staple food of the inhabitants of Cisitu is this polluted rice. Villagers were concerned that the severe diseases they observed in the community might be related to their mining activities, including high mercury exposure. Case report of the medical examinations and the mercury levels in urine and hair of 18 people with neurological symptoms. Typical signs and symptoms of chronic mercury intoxication were found (excessive salivation, sleep disturbances, tremor, ataxia, dysdiadochokinesia, pathological coordination tests, gray to bluish discoloration of the oral cavity and proteinuria). Mercury levels in urine were increased in eight patients (>7µg Hg/L urine). All 18 people had increased hair levels (>1µg Hg/g hair). 15 patients exhibited several, and sometimes numerous, symptoms in addition to having moderately to highly elevated levels of mercury in their specimens. These patients were classified as intoxicated. The situation in Cisitu is special, with rice paddy fields being irrigated with mercury-contaminated water and villagers consuming only local food, especially mercury-contaminated rice. Severe neurological symptoms and increased levels of mercury in urine and hair support are possibly caused by exposure to inorganic mercury in air, and the consumption of mercury-contaminated fish and rice. The mercury exposure needs to be reduced and treatment provided. Further research is needed to test the hypothesis that mercury-contaminated rice from small-scale gold mining areas might cause mercury intoxication. PMID:27174690

  14. Relationships between satellite-derived oceanic events and the albacore tuna (Thunnus alalunga, Bonaterre 1788) artisanal fishing grounds in the Northeast Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coca, Josep; Ramos, Antonio G.

    2004-11-01

    Satellite radiometers are widely used to detect oceanic structures which may allow for accumulations of pelagic fish. However, little information exists with respect to the possible use of spacecraft radar sensors in the detection and management of pelagic fisheries. This paper presents the satellite-derived ocenic events obtained from the Ekman Pumping (satellite wind scatterometer data derived), the Sea Level Anomaly, the Sea Surface Temperature and the Chlorophyll-a pigment images data sets, and how they relate to the albacore tuna fishing grounds distribution patterns in the North-East Atlantic. The statistical results show that catch per unit of effort (cpue) variability can be extensively explained by the satellite derived data base. The accumulation of CPUE records in specific zones is discussed too, in relation to the specific sensitivity of albacore due to the species' physiological thermo-conserving system. This paper emphasizes the importance of the combination of several satellite data sources in order to fully investigate mathematical relationships with the cpue.

  15. Artisanal mining and preservation of the environment in Madagascar: development of a methodological approach to help identify the challenges and constraints for territorial development

    OpenAIRE

    Orru, Jean François; Rajaonson, Hugues Février; Pelon, Rémy; Andriamasinoro, Fenintsoa

    2007-01-01

    Known mainly for the richness of its biodiversity and the endemism of numerous animal and plant species, Madagascar is also famous for its considerable and varied mineral resources. Mining activities exploiting gemstones, decorative stones, ornamental stones and gold, and also industrial rocks and minerals, are scattered across the country. In this context of promoting mining activities while taking environmental factors into consideration, the aim of this communication is to contribute to th...

  16. Dealing with HIV/AIDS and poverty in fishing communities : how risky are artisanal marine fisher-folks at Elmina in Ghana?

    OpenAIRE

    Korankye, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    The work examines the knowledgeability of fisher-folks as well as determines the extent to which their livelihood influences their susceptibility to HIV/AIDS infection. By making specific reference to fisher-folks at Elmina fishing community in the Central Province of the Republic of Ghana, it particularly challenges the hypothesis that fisher-folks are highly vulnerable to HIV/AIDS infection. The analysis thereof draws on elements from risk, social cognition and diffusion of innovation theor...

  17. The state of world fisheries from a fishworkers perspective: the Ghanaian situation

    OpenAIRE

    Mensah, M.A.; Korateng, K A; Bortey, A; Yeboah, D A

    2006-01-01

    This study attempts to better understand the status of artisanal/small-scale fisheries and fishworkers in Ghana. It aims to establish the pre-eminence of the artisanal sector, with the ultimate objective of exploring the prospects, potentials and problems of sustaining and developing artisanal fisheries. The study aims to promote more equitable and sustainable fisheries. It provides baseline information on the status of artisanal/small- scale fisheries and fishworkers, especially with regard ...

  18. Assessment of the Central African Republic Mining Sector

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2008-01-01

    This report presents recommendations to assist the promotion of socially and environmentally responsible artisanal mining practices, discusses formalization of the artisanal mining sector, and advises organization into cooperatives in the Central African Republic. Best practices are outlined to improve the working, living, and community conditions of artisanal miners. The mining sector is...

  19. Atividade proteolítica e lipolítica de bactérias lácticas isoladas de salames artesanais / Proteolytic and lipolytic activity of lactic acid bacteria isolated from artisanal sausages

    OpenAIRE

    Danielle Carpiné; João Luiz Andreotti Dagostin; Herta Stutz Dalla Santa; David Chacón Alvarez; Nelcindo Nascimento Terra; Osmar Roberto Dalla Santa

    2010-01-01

    Algumas cepas de bactérias lácticas de produtos cárneos fermentados sintetizam proteases e lipases. Estas enzimas contribuem para a formação do aroma e promovem alterações desejáveis na textura e flavour do produto. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi verificar a atividade proteolítica e lipolítica de 46 cepas de bactérias lácticas isoladas de salames obtidos por fermentação espontânea. A atividade proteolítica foi testada em dois meios contendo caseína e extrato de carne. Para os ensaios de verifi...

  20. Atividade antimicrobiana de bactérias lácticas isoladas de queijo-de-minas artesanal do Serro (MG) frente a microrganismos indicadores Antimicrobial activity of lactic acid bacteria from artisanal minas cheese against indicator microorganisms

    OpenAIRE

    D.P. Alexandre; Silva, M. R.; M.R. Souza; W.L.M. Santos

    2002-01-01

    Isolaram-se 192 cepas de bactérias lácticas de cinco amostras de queijo-de-minas artesanal, oriundos da região do Serro, MG. Os resultados da prova de inibição direta indicaram que 48 cepas isoladas (25%) foram capazes de inibir o crescimento in vitro de microrganismos indicadores, dentre os quais Staphylococcus aureus e Listeria monocytogenes. As 48 cepas foram submetidas à prova de inibição indireta. Verificou-se que 20,8% (10/48) das cepas demonstraram amplo espectro antimicrobiano frente ...

  1. "It Is Only the Instructed and Trained Overlooker and Artisan That Can Successfully Compete against Foreign Skills": Nineteenth-Century Adult Technical and Vocational Education Offered by the Yorkshire Union of Mechanics' Institutes and the Foundation of Further Education Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Martyn

    2012-01-01

    Further education colleges in England and Wales have offered government-recognised courses and qualifications which receive public funding and have included technical and vocational courses since their foundation in the early twentieth century. Yet developments in such curricula and qualifications are not new and they can be traced back to the…

  2. Report 2000 of EDF nuclear park '' Humans, architects of the progress; Bilan 2000 du parc nucleaire d'EDF ''les hommes, artisans du progres''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stricker, L.

    2001-03-01

    This report presents the results of the EDF nuclear park, during 2000, in matter of safety, environment and competitiveness. In 2000, the EDF nuclear installations safety still improved. Hopeful the nuclear energy part in its power production, EDF avoids the carbon dioxide diffusion in the atmosphere. EDF also commits itself to reduce the liquid effluents, the gaseous emissions and the solid wastes. At the same time EDF remained competitive with a decrease of the kWh price of 7%. (A.L.B.)

  3. Producción artesanal del rotífero Philodina sp. y de algas para la alimentación de post-larvas de bocachico Artisan production of rotifero and algaes for bocachico post-larva feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Eugenia Quintero P

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El cultivo de algas mixtas se realizó en el Instituto de Piscicultura Tropical de la Corporación Autónoma Regional del Valle del Cauca (Buga 25 ºC y 969 m.s.n.m. utilizando fertilizantes inorgánicos en baldes plásticos, se produjeron en promedio 386 x 10³ células/ml de cultivo. En el cultivo de Philodina en frascos de vidrio alimentado con algas y levadura, se obtuvieron 410 rotíferos/ml de cultivo. Se evaluaron tres tratamientos: rotíferos enriquecidos con aceite de pescado; rotíferos más algas (Chlorella, Scenedesmus, Pediastrum, Spyrogira y Anabaena y Artemia salina + Spirulina, usando 100 post-larvas de bocachico/acuario, alimentadas dos veces al día según biomasa sembrada. El mayor porcentaje de sobrevivencia, peso y talla se obtuvo con el alimento constituido por rotíferos enriquecidos con aceite de pescado (93 %,3.2mg, 6.86mm, seguido de rotíferos + algas (80.67 %,2 mg, 6.1mm y Artemia+ Spirulina (60.6 %,1.6mg, 6.06mm respectivamenteIn the Tropical Piscicultural Institute of the Regional Autonomous Corporation of Buga, Cauca, Valley, Colombia (25ºC temperature, 969 m a s l, a research was carried out with the objective to produce and use algaes and rotifers (living food cultures to feed bocachico post-larvas (Prochilodus reticulatus magdalenae. A complete random design with three treatments and three repetitions was established. 100 bocachico/aquarium post larva were used and fed twice a day according to sown biomass. The cultures of mixed algaes were established by using inorganic fertilizers produced in plastic pails and obtaining an average of 386 x 10³ cells/ml of culture. On the other hand, the cultures of Philodina rotifers were established in glass bottles and feeding them with algaes and yeast. An average of 410 rotifers/ml of culturing was obtained . To evaluate the highest rate of survival, growing and weight of bocachico post-larvas, three kind of food were used: Rotifers enriched with fish oil; rotifers plus algaes (Chlorella, Scenedesmus, Pediastrum, Spyrogina and Anabaena and only Artemia salina and Spirulina. The highest survival, weight and size percentage was obtained with food formed of rotifers enriched with fish oil (93% 3.2mg, 6.86mm respectively, followed by rotifers + algaes (80.67%, 2mg, 6.1mm and Artemia + Spirulina (60.6%, 1.6mg, 6.06mm.

  4. Atividade proteolítica e lipolítica de bactérias lácticas isoladas de salames artesanais / Proteolytic and lipolytic activity of lactic acid bacteria isolated from artisanal sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Carpiné

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Algumas cepas de bactérias lácticas de produtos cárneos fermentados sintetizam proteases e lipases. Estas enzimas contribuem para a formação do aroma e promovem alterações desejáveis na textura e flavour do produto. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi verificar a atividade proteolítica e lipolítica de 46 cepas de bactérias lácticas isoladas de salames obtidos por fermentação espontânea. A atividade proteolítica foi testada em dois meios contendo caseína e extrato de carne. Para os ensaios de verificação de lipólise também foram utilizados dois meios diferenciais usando o Ágar Base Tributirina, um com adição de Tributirina e o segundo meio com adição de banha de porco. A atividade enzimática foi mensurada pela formação de halos ao redor de colônias isoladas. Das cepas avaliadas mais de 80% apresentaram atividade proteolítica, enquanto que nenhuma das cepas apresentou atividade lipolítica. AbstractSome strains of lactic acid bacteria in meat products have the ability to synthesize proteases and lipases, enzymes which contribute for the development of the flavor and promote desirable texture alterations of the product. The objective of this research was to verify the lipolytic and proteolytic activity of 46 lactic acid bacteria strains, isolated from fermented sausages obtained from spontaneous fermentation. The proteolytic activity was tested in different medium supplemented with casein and meat extract. For the lipolytic assays Tributyrin Agar Base supplemented with tributyrin and pork fats were both used. The enzymatic activity was measured by zone formation around the isolated colonies. Among the evaluated strains more than 80% demonstrated proteolytic activity; however none of the strains presented lipolytic activity.

  5. Population parameters of the shrimp Xiphopenaeus kroyeri (Heller, 1862 (Crustacea, Penaeidae, caught by artisanal fisheries in Anchieta, Espírito Santo State - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v35i2.13408

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werther Krohling

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The fishery on Penaeidae shrimp is done all over the Brazilian coast, especially the seabob shrimp (Xiphopenaeus kroyeri. It is captured in large quantities in the Southeast and Southern Brazil. In order to study the population structure of X. kroyeri from Anchieta Municipality, Espírito Santo State, during the period from January to December 2008, monthly samplings with one-hour-long were conducted to verify the number of individuals, biomass, sex, total length and gonad maturity stage. The specimens had total length ranging from 2.96 to 9.96 cm, and females were larger than males. It is suggested that the population of X. kroyeri presents patterns of recruitment and reproduction similar to those of the Northeast region. The estimated size of first gonadal maturation was 4.5 and 6.9 cm for males and females, respectively. The fishing operates on a stock composed of predominantly adult males and juveniles and adult females. The mesh size of the nets and the high plant biomass in the fishing areas may be contributing to the increased catch of juveniles, undermining the recruitment of X. kroyeri.

  6. Development of an artisanal tanning method of the acoupa weakfish (Cynoscion acoupa) skin and its transfer through a workshop to a community in the city of Bragança, PA, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno José Corecha Fernandes Eiras; Elias Fernandes Medeiros Júnior; Marileide Moraes Alves

    2015-01-01

    Bragança is one of the largest fishing centers in the state of Pará, northern Brazil. In the city, there are several environmental and socio-economic problems such as lack of waste management and contamination of water sources that supply to the city and the Caeté river estuary. The social and economic problems are mainly caused by social inequality, which usually occurs in communities where the population depends mainly on fishing. Fish waste forms a part of the waste disposed in the region....

  7. Community dynamics of complex starter cultures for Gouda-type cheeses and its functional consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erkus, O.

    2014-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are used as starter and adjunct cultures for the production of artisanal and industrial fermented milk products such as yoghurt and cheese.  Artisanal fermentations is propagated with the transfer of an inoculum from old batch of fermented food to the new batch (back-

  8. An investigation of the organization of canoe fisheries in Nigeria: A case study of Ilaje/Esedo local government area of Ondo State

    OpenAIRE

    Oyatoye, E.T.O.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of some socio-economic variables on the performance of artisanal fishermen were investigated. The variables include the age-structure of the fishermen, level of investment, educational background, membership of co-operative societies and marketing arrangements. All these variables were found to be crucial to productivity in the artisanal fishing sector

  9. Evaluation of primary angle closure evaluated by ultrasonic biomicroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper determines the relationship of the position of the intraocular lens in traumatic cataract surgery patients and high myopia with phakic intraocular lens implant Artisan/Artiflex at 'Ramon Pando Ferrer' Cuban Institute of Ophthalmology

  10. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory activity of milk fermented by wild and industrial Lactococcus lactis strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Figueroa, J C; Reyes-Díaz, R; González-Córdova, A F; Troncoso-Rojas, R; Vargas-Arispuro, I; Vallejo-Cordoba, B

    2010-11-01

    Angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory (ACEI) activity was evaluated and compared in milk fermented by wild and commercial starter culture Lactococcus lactis strains after 48 h of incubation. The highest ACEI activities were found in WSE from milk inoculated with wild L. lactis strains isolated from artisanal dairy products and commercial starter cultures. On the other hand, the lowest ACEI activities were found in WSE from milk inoculated with wild strains isolated from vegetables. Moreover, the IC(50) values (concentration that inhibits 50% activity) of WSE from artisanal dairy products were the lowest, indicating that these fractions were the most effective in inhibiting 50% of ACE activity. In fact, a strain isolated from artisanal cheese presented the lowest IC(50) (13 μg/mL). Thus, it appears that wild L. lactis strains isolated from artisanal dairy products and commercial starter cultures showed good potential for the production of fermented dairy products with ACEI properties. PMID:20965317

  11. 75 FR 54914 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Robotics...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-09

    ..., Artisan Robotics, Tucson, AZ; Burnham Consulting Inc., Chesterfield, MO; Esys Integration Corporation, Auburn Hills, MI; JADI, Inc., Troy, MI; Mobile Robots Inc., Amherst, NH; Oceana Sensor Technologies, Inc...., San Diego, CA; 101-Integrated Consultants, Inc., San Diego, CA; Integration Innovation...

  12. Safety Evaluation of the Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci Microbiota of Salami: Superantigenic Toxin Production and Antimicrobial Resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Raquel Soares Casaes Nunes; Eduardo Mere Del Aguila; Vânia Margaret Flosi Paschoalin

    2015-01-01

    The risks of contracting staphylococci food poisoning by the consumption of improperly manufactured salami and the possibility of this food being reservoirs for antibiotic resistance were evaluated. Nineteen coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) strains were found in commercial and artisanal salami. The species in commercial salami were S. saprophyticus, S. sciuri, S. xylosus, and S. carnosus. Artisanal salami showed S. succinus, S. epidermidis, and S. hominis but no S. carnosus. Phylogeneti...

  13. Binational Studies Leading to an Ecosystems-based Management Strategy for Common Thresher Shark in the Southern California Bight (SCB).

    OpenAIRE

    Graham, Jeffrey B.; Cartamil, Daniel P.

    2010-01-01

    Survey of the Mexican SCB Sector Artisanal and Commercial Shark Fisheries Hypotheses: a) Common thresher sharks represent a substantial portion of the catch of artisanal and commercial shark fisheries in the Mexican SCB sector. b) Exploitation of common threshers and other elasmobranchs is important to the economy of northern Baja California and, by extension, is directly linked to U.S. fishery management. Mexican SCB Longlining Survey Hypotheses: a) Thresher shark nursery grounds extend sout...

  14. Analysis of Syrian lustre pottery (12th-14th centuries AD)

    OpenAIRE

    Pradell, Trinitat; Molera Marimon, Judit; Molina, Gloria; Tite, Michael S.

    2013-01-01

    Lustre is a product of skilled artisans and its production was spread to different regions by the migration of artisans. Each lustre production has its own peculiarities not only in the composition and microstructure of the lustre but also in the paste and glaze compositions, processing and firing conditions. Syrian lustre is particularly interesting as it shows technological innovations with respect to the earlier Abbasid and Fatimid lustre productions with the use of transparent tin-free gl...

  15. The social minefield of gold digging in South-Kivu, DRC. The case of Kamituga

    OpenAIRE

    Kilosho, Janvier; Stoop, Nik; Verpoorten, Marijke

    2015-01-01

    Starting out as a Large-Scale Mining (LSM) activity in the colonial period, gold mining became more and more dominated by artisanal miners in the course of the past decades. Now, the pendulum swings back to LSM. What is the scope for a relocation and/or reorientation of artisanal miners? We study the case of Kamituga, one of Banro’s gold concessions in South-Kivu.

  16. Mortality of small cetaceans and the crab bait fishery in the Magallanes area of Chile since 1980

    OpenAIRE

    Lescrauwaet, A.-K.; Gibbons, J.

    1994-01-01

    Since 1974, species of small cetaceans, fur seals, sea lions, sea birds and to some extent sea otters, have been taken deliberately each year for bait in the Chilean artisanal fishery. In recent years, three new trends are contributing to alleviate mortality pressure on marine mammals in Magellanes: a change in fisheries legislation, an increased diversification of the artisanal fishery and an increasing public awareness of the values of marine wildlife.

  17. Community dynamics of complex starter cultures for Gouda-type cheeses and its functional consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Erkus, O.

    2014-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are used as starter and adjunct cultures for the production of artisanal and industrial fermented milk products such as yoghurt and cheese.  Artisanal fermentations is propagated with the transfer of an inoculum from old batch of fermented food to the new batch (back-slopping) to initiate the fermentation with the activity of the indigenous microbiota present in the inoculum. In industrial production, these inocula with indigenous microbiota are replaced with t...

  18. The Cetaceans of Ghana, a validated faunal checklist

    OpenAIRE

    Van Waerebeek, K.; Ofori-Danson, P.K.; Debrah, J.

    2009-01-01

    The cetaceans of Ghana and the Gulf of Guinea have, until recently, remained unstudied. Periodical monitoring of artisanal fisheries for bycatches in seven Ghanaian artisanal fishing ports and landing sites over 1996-2004 has provided photographic and specimen evidence to validate occurrence of 18 species (17 odontocetes, 1 mysticete) in a tropical, predominantly pelagic cetacean fauna. At least nine species and subspecies had not previously been documented for Ghana (with asterisk), and four...

  19. Análisis de la pesca del mero Epinephelus morio

    OpenAIRE

    Giménez, E.

    2006-01-01

    The red grouper fishery is in its decline phase presenting an average annual catch of 8191 t during the 1999 to 2003 period. Through these years Cuban fleet has reduced its fishing area toward the oriental region of the Campeche Bank while the artisanal fleet extended, increasing the overlap of sizes catched by the arisanal-industrial and artisanal-cuban fleets. The size composition of the catch shows that most of the fishes are captured before first maturation size. First catc...

  20. Evaluation of probiotic potential of yeasts isolated from traditional cheeses manufactured in Serbia and Croatia

    OpenAIRE

    Milica Zivkovic; Neza Cadez; Ksenija Uroic; Marija Miljkovic; Maja Tolinacki; Petra Dousova; Blazenka Kos; Jagoda Suskovic; Peter Raspor; Ljubisa Topisirovic; Natasa Golic

    2015-01-01

    Aim. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro probiotic potential of dairy yeast isolates from artisanal cheeses manufactured in Serbia and Croatia. Methods. Twelve yeast strains isolated in from artisanal fresh soft and white brined cheeses manufactured in Serbia and Croatia were used in the study. Survival in chemically-simulated gastrointestinal conditions, adherence to epithelial intestinal cells and proliferation of gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) cells were evalu...

  1. Female Technology: The Identity of Neolithic Potters

    OpenAIRE

    Jasna Vuković

    2016-01-01

    If the object of research is Neolithic ceramics, it would seem that the researcher is at a loss when it comes to illuminating certain social aspects of the manufacture of pottery. In archaeological inquiry the artisan always remain “invisible”, even though their identities are crucial in the reconstruction of social relations. Thus, if we wish to identify the gender and social standing of artisans in the deeper layers of history, we must turn to ethno-archaeological and anthropological resear...

  2. Environmental, Demogrphic and Socioeconomic Factors Influencing Adoption of Fisheries Conservation Measures in Niger Delta, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    J.A. Akankali; A. Chindah

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine Environmental, Demogrphic and Socioeconomic factors influencing adoption of artisanal fisheries resources conservation measures based on the perspectives of Artisanal fishers in Delta, Rivers and Bayelsa states, Niger Delta, Nigeria. The study was conducted for a period of one year (January 2008 to Decmber 2008). With the aid of well-structured questionnaires the desired information were collected and analyzed. A total sample size of 1,200 respondents wit...

  3. Local solutions to challenges of West Indian Ocean fisheries development

    OpenAIRE

    van der Elst, R.

    2003-01-01

    The West Indian Ocean is rich in biodiversity and marine resources. This paper gives an overview of fisheries development and resource management in the region. There are many shared issues that must be addressed within countries and at the regional level. These are illustrated by examples from three countries. In Mozambique the issues of lack of information about artisanal fisheries, excessive harvesting of juveniles and conflicts between artisanal and commercial sectors are highlighted. Ele...

  4. All The Work Of Artisans: Reconstructing society at Tell Deir ‘Allā through the study of ceramic traditions: Studies of Late Bronze Age Faience vessels and Iron IIc-III ceramics from Tell Deir ‘Allā, Jordan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, N.C.F.

    2011-01-01

    For already 50 years the site of Tell Deir ‘Allā in the Eastern Central Jordan Valley has been the focus of Dutch research. Despite the amount of research many aspects of the regional cultures in which the inhabitants of the subsequent occupational phases of this site were incorporated, remain obscu

  5. Antropología, comunicación y turismo: La mediación cultural en la construcción del espacio turístico de una comunidad de pescadores en Laguna, SC, Brasil Anthropology, Communication and Tourism: Cultural Mediation in Developing an Environment for Tourism in an Artisan Fishing Community in Laguna, SC

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael José dos Santos

    2005-01-01

    Basado en la etnografía de una comunidad de pescadores artesanales ubicada en Laguna, SC - Brasil, este trabajo analiza al destino turístico como un espacio culturalmente construido, es decir, un producto de prácticas a la vez sociales y simbólicas realizadas tanto por visitantes como residentes y mediadas por representaciones del imaginario moderno entre las que se encuentran aquellas que constituyen la matriz de los géneros de ficción transmitidos por los medios masivos de comunicación. Med...

  6. Atividade antimicrobiana de bactérias ácido-lácticas isoladas de queijos de coalho artesanal e industrial frente a microrganismos indicadores Antimicrobial activity of lactic acid bacteria isolated from artisanal and industrial "coalho" cheese against indicator microorganisms

    OpenAIRE

    L.G. Guedes Neto; M.R. Souza; Nunes, A C; J.R. Nicoli; W.L.M. Santos

    2005-01-01

    Quatro cepas de Lactobacillus spp. e duas cepas de Lactococcus spp. isoladas de queijos de coalho artesanal e industrial foram testadas quanto às suas atividades antimicrobianas. Observou-se atividade antagonista dessas bactérias ácido-lácticas frente a elas, a outras bactérias ácido-lácticas isoladas de queijo de coalho, aos patógenos isolados dos mesmos queijos e a cepas de patógenos de referência. Verificou-se diferença (P

  7. Salud y trabajo: minería artesanal del carbón en Paipa, Colombia Health and work: Artisanal coal mining in Paipa (Province of Boyacá, Colombia Saúde e trabalho: mineração artesanal do carvão em Paipa, Colômbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guío GARZÓN JOSÉ Alfredo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Contexto: existe relación directa entre las técnicas de minería del carbón y riesgos laborales, con estado de salud y probabilidad de enfermar, principalmente por neumoconiosis, trauma y alteraciones osteomusculares. Objetivo: describir condiciones de trabajo y estado de salud en una muestra de mineros informales del carbón en Paipa, Boyacá. Materiales y métodos: estudio descriptivo de corte transversal. Mediante instrumento previamente diseñado se evaluó a 196 mineros. Se exploró ambiente laboral y estado de salud. Además se revisaron algunas historias clínicas. La información se sistematizó y analizó en Epi-Info2002®. Se estimaron medidas de tendencia central y dispersión para las variables incluidas. Resultados: edad promedio 30 años; 16,3% menores de edad; características sociodemográficas compatibles con pobreza extrema; 34,7% no afiliados al SGSS; apenas 1% afiliado al régimen contributivo y 0,5% cubierto por ARP; ingreso promedio mensual $280.000 (US$140,0 aprox.; 48,9% consume alcohol semanalmente; promedio jornada 7,44 horas; 76,5% trabaja bajo superficie; 16,8% presentaba alguna enfermedad en la valoración; 15,65% refiere al menos un accidente de trabajo; 64,8% encuentra su labor monótona o repetitiva; trastornos oculares, respiratorios y osteomusculares se autorreportan frecuentemente. Conclusiones: alto riesgo ocupacional, población vulnerable, mal remunerada, sin protección laboral. Bajo nivel educativo, trabajo infantil, dieta inadecuada, consumo de alcohol y ambiente inapropiado son factores de riesgo encontrados, que se expresan principalmente como traumatismos, lesiones oculares, enfermedades respiratorias y alteraciones del sistema osteomuscular.Context: There is a direct relation between coal mining techniques and work related hazards with health conditions and the likelihood of getting ill, mainly due to pneumoconiosis, trauma and alterations of bones and of muscles. Objective: describe work related conditions and health conditions in a sample of informal coal miners in Paipa, Province of Boyacá. Materials and methods: observational, cross-sectional descriptive study. 196 miners were assessed through a previously designed instrument. Work related environment and health condition were explored. In addition, some medical records were reviewed. The information was systematized and analyzed in Epi-Info2002®. Modal scores and measures of statistical dispersion were estimated for the variables included. Results: average age 30 years; 16,3% under age; socio-demographic characteristics compatible with extreme poverty; 34,7% not affiliated to SGSS (basic health insurance; hardly 1% affiliated to the social security system and 0,5% covered by ARP (Occupational Risks Insurance; average income per month $280.000 (approx. US$140,0; 48,9% consumes alcohol on a weekly basis; average work day 7,44 hours; 76,5% works underground; 16,8% presented some illness during assessment; 15,65% refers at least one work-related accident; 64,8% finds it work monotonous or repetitive; eye, respiratory and bone and muscle disorders were often self-reported. Conclusions: high occupational risk, vulnerable population group, poor remuneration, no employment protection. Low educational level, child labor, inappropriate nutrition, alcohol consumption and unsuitable environment are some of the risk factors found, which are mainly expressed in traumatisms, eye damage, respiratory disease and alterations of bones and muscle.Contexto: As técnicas de mineração do carvão e os riscos de trabalho estão diretamente relacionados com o estado de saúde e a probabilidade de doença, nomeadamente, pneumoconiose, trauma e alterações osteomusculares. Objetivo: descrever condições de trabalho e estado de saúde numa amostra de mineiros informais do carvão em Paipa, Boyacá. Materiais e métodos: levantamento observacional, descritivo de corte transversal. Cento e noventa e seis mineiros foram avaliados através de um instrumento previamente des

  8. 工欲善其事,必先利其器——计算机音乐技术在高等音乐教育中的应用%An Artisan Hoping to do Fine Work must First Sharpen his Tools --The Application of" Computer Music Technology in Higher Music Education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈杭

    2012-01-01

    Computer music technology is a new discipline combining the computer technology with the music theory and skills. Computer music technology brought about a revolution to the professional music teaching in colleges and universities. It fundamentally updates the traditional teaching mode, enriches teaching contents, and makes abstract music theory lively. It broadens students' artistic vision, improves the teaching efficiency, activates student's artistic thinking, and stimulates the students' enthusiasm of music learning. It is considered as an effective means for improving classroom teaching quality for music education. Therefore, to adapt to the needs of the development of the information society, it is necessary for university music teachers to grasp the modern computer music education technology and apply it to their teaching.%计算机音乐技术是计算机技术与音乐理论与技能相结合而形成的一门新的音乐学科。计算机音乐技术与多媒体结合的教学方式,给高校的音乐专业教学带来了一场新的革命。它从根本上更新了传统的教学模式,极大地丰富了教学内容,使抽象的音乐理论变得生动活泼而富于感性。它开阔了学生的艺术视野,提高了音乐课堂的教学效率,活跃了学生的艺术思维,激发了学生学习音乐的积极性,成为音乐教育提高课堂教学质量、提高与完善自身素质的有效手段。因此,适应信息化社会发展的需要,具备应用现代计算机音乐教育技术的能力,成为高校音乐教师素质优化的一种必然趋势。

  9. Artisanal fisheries in a Brazilian hypereutrophic reservoir: Barra Bonita reservoir, middle Tietê river Pesca artesanal em um reservatório hipertrófico brasileiro: reservatório de Barra Bonita, médio rio Tietê

    OpenAIRE

    JLC. Novaes; ED. Carvalho

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the qualitative and quantitative aspects of fishery landings at the hypereutrophic Barra Bonita reservoir, Brazil. Data were collected each month (July/2004-June/2006) at three localities and the reported catch, fishing effort and fishing techniques were recorded from 745 landings, comprising a total fish catch of 86,691.9 kg. The most caught species were exotic tilapias, especially the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.), which represented 82.5% of the total biomass. ...

  10. Salud y trabajo: minería artesanal del carbón en Paipa, Colombia Saúde e trabalho: mineração artesanal do carvão em Paipa, Colômbia Health and work: Artisanal coal mining in Paipa (Province of Boyacá, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JUAN MANUEL OSPINA DÍAZ

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Contexto: existe relación directa entre las técnicas de minería del carbón y riesgos laborales, con estado de salud y probabilidad de enfermar, principalmente por neumoconiosis, trauma y alteraciones osteomusculares. Objetivo: describir condiciones de trabajo y estado de salud en una muestra de mineros informales del carbón en Paipa, Boyacá. Materiales y métodos: estudio descriptivo de corte transversal. Mediante instrumento previamente diseñado se evaluó a 196 mineros. Se exploró ambiente laboral y estado de salud. Además se revisaron algunas historias clínicas. La información se sistematizó y analizó en Epi-Info2002®. Se estimaron medidas de tendencia central y dispersión para las variables incluidas. Resultados: edad promedio 30 años; 16,3% menores de edad; características sociodemográficas compatibles con pobreza extrema; 34,7% no afiliados al SGSS; apenas 1% afiliado al régimen contributivo y 0,5% cubierto por ARP; ingreso promedio mensual $280.000 (US$140,0 aprox.; 48,9% consume alcohol semanalmente; promedio jornada 7,44 horas; 76,5% trabaja bajo superficie; 16,8% presentaba alguna enfermedad en la valoración; 15,65% refiere al menos un accidente de trabajo; 64,8% encuentra su labor monótona o repetitiva; trastornos oculares, respiratorios y osteomusculares se autorreportan frecuentemente. Conclusiones: alto riesgo ocupacional, población vulnerable, mal remunerada, sin protección laboral. Bajo nivel educativo, trabajo infantil, dieta inadecuada, consumo de alcohol y ambiente inapropiado son factores de riesgo encontrados, que se expresan principalmente como traumatismos, lesiones oculares, enfermedades respiratorias y alteraciones del sistema osteomuscular.Contexto: As técnicas de mineração do carvão e os riscos de trabalho estão diretamente relacionados com o estado de saúde e a probabilidade de doença, nomeadamente, pneumoconiose, trauma e alterações osteomusculares. Objetivo: descrever condições de trabalho e estado de saúde numa amostra de mineiros informais do carvão em Paipa, Boyacá. Materiais e métodos: levantamento observacional, descritivo de corte transversal. Cento e noventa e seis mineiros foram avaliados através de um instrumento previamente desenhado. Explorou-se ambiente de trabalho e estado de saúde e se verificaram algumas histórias clínicas. A informação foi sistematizada e analisada na Epi-Info2002®. Consideraram-se medidas de tendência central e dispersão para as variáveis incluídas. Resultados: idade média 30 anos; 16,3% menores de idade; características sociodemográficas compatíveis com pobreza extrema; 34,7% não afiliados ao SGSS; apenas 1% afiliado ao regime contributivo e 0,5% coberto por ARP; renda média mensal $280.000 (US$140,0 aprox.; 48,9% consome álcool semanalmente; jornada média 7,44 horas; 76,5% trabalha sob superfície; 16,8% apresenta alguma doença na valoração; 15,65% refere-se no mínimo a um acidente de trabalho; 64,8% considera que seu trabalho é monótono e repetitivo; transtornos oculares, respiratórios e osteomusculares ocorrem com freqüência. Conclusões: alto risco ocupacional, população vulnerável, mal remunerada, sem proteção trabalhista. Baixo nível educativo, trabalho infantil, dieta inadequada, consumo de álcool e ambiente inapropriado são alguns dos fatores de risco encontrados, expressados, nomeadamente, em doenças como traumatismos, lesões oculares, doenças respiratórias e perturbações do sistema osteomuscular.Context: There is a direct relation between coal mining techniques and work related hazards with health conditions and the likelihood of getting ill, mainly due to pneumoconiosis, trauma and alterations of bones and of muscles. Objective: describe work related conditions and health conditions in a sample of informal coal miners in Paipa, Province of Boyacá. Materials and methods: observational, cross-sectional descriptive study. 196 miners were assessed through a previously designed instrument. Work related environment and health condition were explored. In addition, some medical records were reviewed. The information was systematized and analyzed in Epi-Info2002®. Modal scores and measures of statistical dispersion were estimated for the variables included. Results: average age 30 years; 16,3% under age; socio-demographic characteristics compatible with extreme poverty; 34,7% not affiliated to SGSS (basic health insurance; hardly 1% affiliated to the social security system and 0,5% covered by ARP (Occupational Risks Insurance; average income per month $280.000 (approx. US$140,0; 48,9% consumes alcohol on a weekly basis; average work day 7,44 hours; 76,5% works underground; 16,8% presented some illness during assessment; 15,65% refers at least one work-related accident; 64,8% finds it work monotonous or repetitive; eye, respiratory and bone and muscle disorders were often self-reported. Conclusions: high occupational risk, vulnerable population group, poor remuneration, no employment protection. Low educational level, child labor, inappropriate nutrition, alcohol consumption and unsuitable environment are some of the risk factors found, which are mainly expressed in traumatisms, eye damage, respiratory disease and alterations of bones and muscle.

  11. Análise de risco aplicada ao manejo precaucionário das pescarias artesanais na região do reservatório da UHE-Tucuruí (Pará, Brasil Risk analysis applied to the precautionary management of artisanal fisheries in the region of Tucuruí reservoir (Pará, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serguei Aily Franco de Camargo

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available As pescarias no reservatório da UHE-Tucuruí no rio Tocantins, Pará, envolvem cerca de 6.000 pescadores e movimentam cerca de R$ 4,2 milhões/ano. A atividade se concentra em três espécies principais: tucunaré Cichla monoculus (capturado com anzol, pescada Plagioscion squamosissimus (capturado com rede e/ou anzol e mapará Hypophthalmus marginatus (capturado com rede. Com o objetivo de caracterizar os pescadores e as pescarias do reservatório, criar cenários de aumento do esforço pesqueiro e prever os momentos de conflito pela escassez de recursos, foram levantadas informações da literatura e realizadas duas campanhas de coleta de dados nos anos de 1999 e 2000, envolvendo entrevistas com líderes comunitários e pescadores. As seguintes variáveis foram consideradas: desembarque por espécie-alvo (de acordo com os registros fornecidos pelas colônias de pescadores, artes de pesca, estratégias dos pescadores, conflitos e formas de apropriação do espaço e rendimentos da atividade. Estas variáveis foram inseridas em um modelo dinâmico, simulado no software Vensim PLE para um período de 10 anos a partir de 1999. Os resultados indicam que a pesca de anzol é a estratégia mais rentável, e que possíveis momentos de conflito devido à escassez de recursos podem acontecer em curto prazo (2005. A metodologia utilizada para as simulações e análises de risco também se revelou adequada à realidade local e ao conjunto de dados disponíveis.The fisheries in the reservoir of UHE-Tucuruí employ about 6.000 fishermen generating approximately R$ 4.2 million/year. There are three main target-species: Tucunaré Cichla monoculus (caught with hook and line, Pescada Plagioscion squamosissimus (caught with gill net and/or hook and line and Mapará Hypophthalmus marginatus (caught with gill net. Published information was reviewed and data collected during two field trips in 1999 and 2000 that included interviews with community leaders and fishermen. The aims were: to get information on the reservoir fisheries and fishermen; create scenarios of fishing effort increase; and, forecast potential conflicts due to the collapse of resources. The following variables were considered: target-species landings (data records supplied by the fishermen's associations, fishing gear, fishing strategies, conflicts, fishing spot allocation systems, and income. These variables, covering a period of 10 years starting from 1999, were entered into a dynamic model, simulated with the Vensim PLE software. The results indicate that the hook and line fishery is the most profitable, and potential conflicts due to resource scarcity could occur in short time (2005. The methodology used for the simulations and risk analysis was found to be suitable for the local reality and available data set.

  12. Características físico-químicas de aguardentes produzidas artesanalmente na região do vale do taquari no rio grande do sul
    Physicochemical properties of spirits produced artisanally in the Region of Vale do Taquari in Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. SCHMIDT

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available

    A aguardente elaborada artesanalmente resulta num produto fi nal com características próprias e diferenciadas, porém, devido à falta de controle do processo muitas vezes não atendem aos parâmetros legais vigentes. Assim, este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a qualidade e comparar a composição química de aguardentes de canade- açúcar envelhecidas e sem envelhecer produzidas artesanalmente na Região do Vale do Taquari no Rio Grande do Sul. Foram analisados os teores de etanol, acidez volátil, compostos fenólicos, cobre, acetona, aldeídos, ésteres, alcoóis superiores totais e metanol, além dos alcoóis secbutílico e n-butílico de 15 amostras produzidas na região. Os resultados indicaram que 60% das amostras estavam em desacordo com algum dos padrões de identidade e qualidade estabelecidos pela legislação brasileira. Além disso, as altas concentrações de cobre e aldeídos em algumas amostras comprometem a qualidade da bebida e representam um risco à saúde dos consumidores da região. A partir dos resultados obtidos verifi cou-se a necessidade de adoção de estratégias de apoio tecnológico que capacitem os produtores da Região do Vale do Taquari no Rio Grande do Sul, de modo a ampliar a atividade agroindustrial e melhorar a competitividade desses pequenos produtores.

  13. Salud y trabajo: minería artesanal del carbón en Paipa, Colombia Saúde e trabalho: mineração artesanal do carvão em Paipa, Colômbia Health and work: Artisanal coal mining in Paipa (Province of Boyacá), Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    JUAN MANUEL OSPINA DÍAZ; FRED GUSTAVO MANRIQUE ABRIL; JOSÉ ALFREDO GUÍO GARZÓN

    2010-01-01

    Contexto: existe relación directa entre las técnicas de minería del carbón y riesgos laborales, con estado de salud y probabilidad de enfermar, principalmente por neumoconiosis, trauma y alteraciones osteomusculares. Objetivo: describir condiciones de trabajo y estado de salud en una muestra de mineros informales del carbón en Paipa, Boyacá. Materiales y métodos: estudio descriptivo de corte transversal. Mediante instrumento previamente diseñado se evaluó a 196 mineros. Se exploró ambiente la...

  14. Salud y trabajo: minería artesanal del carbón en Paipa, Colombia Health and work: Artisanal coal mining in Paipa (Province of Boyacá), Colombia Saúde e trabalho: mineração artesanal do carvão em Paipa, Colômbia

    OpenAIRE

    Guío GARZÓN JOSÉ Alfredo; Manrique Abril Fred Gustavo; Ospina Díaz Juan Manuel

    2010-01-01

    Contexto: existe relación directa entre las técnicas de minería del carbón y riesgos laborales, con estado de salud y probabilidad de enfermar, principalmente por neumoconiosis, trauma y alteraciones osteomusculares. Objetivo: describir condiciones de trabajo y estado de salud en una muestra de mineros informales del carbón en Paipa, Boyacá. Materiales y métodos: estudio descriptivo de corte transversal. Mediante instrumento previamente diseñado se evaluó a 196 mineros. Se exploró ...

  15. Trading Zones in Early Modern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Pamela O

    2015-12-01

    This essay adopts the concept of trading zones first developed for the history of science by Peter Galison and redefines it for the early modern period. The term "trading zones" is used to mean arenas in which substantive and reciprocal communication occurred between individuals who were artisanally trained and learned (university-trained) individuals. Such trading zones proliferated in the sixteenth century. They tended to arise in certain kinds of places and not in others, but their existence must be determined empirically. The author's work on trading zones differs from the ideas of Edgar Zilsel, who emphasized the influence of artisans on the scientific revolution. In contrast, in this essay, the mutual influence of artisans and the learned on each other is stressed, and translation is used as a modality that was important to communication within trading zones. PMID:27024940

  16. Microbiological and chemical characterization of a typical Italian cheese: Robiola di Roccaverano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonetta, Silvia; Coïsson, Jean Daniel; Barile, Daniela; Bonetta, Sara; Travaglia, Fabiano; Piana, Gianluca; Carraro, Elisabetta; Arlorio, Marco

    2008-08-27

    Robiola di Roccaverano is a traditional Italian goat's milk cheese carrying a Protected Designation of Origin (PDO). The present work studied both cheese microflora and cheese physicochemical characteristics to obtain a more accurate description of this PDO product. Multivariate statistical analysis (PCA) was performed to evaluate the influence of cheesemaking (artisanal and industrial), ripening time, and season of production on cheese characteristics. Multiplex PCR and fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) were used to identify the kind of milk employed by Robiola di Roccaverano producers. The results obtained highlight some product differences between the artisanal and industrial products. These differences were most evident in the microbiological data. The use of PCA allowed cheese samples to cluster on the basis of their age (fresh or ripened), the origin of production (artisanal and industrial), and even the season of production. Gross composition, microbiological parameters, and gas chromatographic analyses of FAMEs provided the most important parameters for Robiola di Roccaverano cheese characterization. PMID:18646764

  17. Comparaison de quelques caractéristiques biologiques entre Dinarmus basalis Rond. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae élevé soit sur son hôte habituel Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae soit sur Acanthoscelides macrophthalmus Schaef. ou Bruchidius lineatopygus Pic. identifiés comme hôtes de substitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya, NG.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Artisanal Fishing and Marketing of White Grouper (Epinephelus aeneus Geoffroy Saint Hilaire, 1817 in Ivory Coast. The artisanal fisheries in Ivory Coast is not well developed. It however comes in complement of the products of the industrial trawler and pelagic fisheries to satisfy the needs for the rural populations. Thanks to inexpensive machines and materials, artisanal fishermen exploit the demersal resources in not very deep water of the littoral of Ivory Coast. Their interest is on white Grouper (Epinephelus aeneus, fish living on the rocky bottom, easily accessible to the machines of fishing because of its facility to sell when they come back from the sea in spite of the highest prices they propose to the wholesalers and half wholesalers.

  18. Waking Up the Mind: Qualitative Study Findings About the Process Through Which Programs Combining Income Generation and Health Education Can Empower Indigenous Guatemalan Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurman, Tilly A; Ballard, Anne; Kerr, Samantha; Walsh, Janée; Petrocy, Amy

    2016-01-01

    We explored the process through which two income-generation programs that include health education empower indigenous Guatemalan women artisans. Both artisans (n = 44) and program staff (n = 11) participated in semistructured interviews. Respondents expressed that women gained support about personal issues and experienced an awakening of the mind (despertar la mente). Through active participation, women's fear of strangers and speaking in public decreased. Women also gained mobility, awareness of their rights as women, and self-confidence from earning and managing their own income. Given our findings, we suggest that programs combining income generation and health education have the potential to empower women. PMID:25635700

  19. Basket weaving and social weaving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olwig, Mette Fog; Gough, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    An important topic in climate change discourse is the question of ``climate refugees'' and climate-related mobility, which is often presented as failed adaptation. This discourse feeds into, and reinvigorates, anti-mobility sentiments, especially concerning youth, among nongovernmental and...... artisans' narratives of mobility, related in the aftermath of flooding attributed to climate change, we show, firstly, that mobility among young people is commonplace and that the decision to either stay or move is typically an active choice associated with the artisans' fabric of relations. Secondly, we...

  20. Exposure of Mediterranean Countries to Ocean Acidification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Hilmi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the potential effects of ocean acidification on countries and fisheries of the Mediterranean Sea. The implications for seafood security and supply are evaluated by examining the sensitivity of the Mediterranean to ocean acidification at chemical, biological, and macro-economic levels. The limited information available on impacts of ocean acidification on harvested (industrial, recreational, and artisanal fishing and cultured species (aquaculture prevents any biological impact assessment. However, it appears that non-developed nations around the Mediterranean, particularly those for which fisheries are increasing, yet rely heavily on artisanal fleets, are most greatly exposed to socioeconomic consequences from ocean acidification.

  1. SAMUDRA Report No. 65, July 2013

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Sticky issues - An update on the recent SSF guidelines, Forced into slavery- New Zealand, Grabbing oceans- MPAs fail to recognize human-rights issues, Getting rights wrong- GPO ignores the voices of SSF people, Smoking kilns- artisan fishers on the map, Depending on mangroves- Vietnam, Statement made at the GDF on work in fishing convention, fishy partnership- proposed GPO, Champion for fishers - Rolf Willmann

  2. Getting Students to Read: Anticipation Guides as Tools to Encourage Engagement with Academic Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaback, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    Supporting the reading development of college students is the responsibility of all professors. As experts in the field, with experience navigating and interpreting readings in a particular discipline, professors are obligated to think of themselves as master artisans apprenticing their students to the craft of reading. Texts in all subject areas…

  3. Colonial Corporatism in the French Mandated States: Labor, Capital, the Mandatory Power, and the 1935 Syrian Law of Associations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey D. Schad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The “social question” in Syria during the French Mandate (1920-1946 was by and large subordinated to the “national question”. However, one stratum of Syrian society, the artisanal-laboring segment, did press for recognition of its rights during the 1920s and 1930s. Artisans and factory workers began to organize themselves and to agitate for amelioration of their situation. Labor militancy peaked in the early 1930s with a series of strikes, coinciding with a major political and economic crisis in the Levant states that threatened to disrupt social order and challenged the maintenance of French authority. In consequence the Mandatory Power attempted to channel artisanal/working class grievances through officially controlled “professional associations”. The Mandatory’s efforts were only a partial success. Although Syrian elites largely accepted the corporatist bargain offered by the French, artisans and workers continued their quest for autonomy. In analyzing the motivations, impact, and legacy of Mandatory social legislation, it is suggested that a model of “colonial corporatism” is a useful way to approach this and similar situations.

  4. Human Resource Development for the Proposed 9.6 GW Nuclear Build Programme in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summary: • Universities can probably produce the required numbers of graduates on time, provided they start developing them now. • Technical/artisanal training requires significant work to develop the necessary capacity to develop/grow the local skills base necessary to bring the project to completion on time and within budget

  5. From Immigrants to Ethnics: The Italian Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelli, Humbert S.

    A sociological, political, and cultural history of Italians in America, this book's chapters discuss (1) Italian explorers, intellectuals, and artisans who participated in the settlement and establishment of the United States; (2) socioeconomic conditions in nineteenth century Italy that led to mass emigration; (3) the distribution of Italian…

  6. Bacterial population in traditional sourdough evaluated by molecular methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Randazzo, C.L.; Heilig, G.H.J.; Restuccia, C.; Giudici, P.; Caggia, C.

    2005-01-01

    Aims: To study the microbial communities in artisanal sourdoughs, manufactured by traditional procedure in different areas of Sicily, and to evaluate the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) population by classical and culture-independent approaches. Methods and Results: Forty-five LAB isolates were identifie

  7. Magic Hands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    THE two most amazing things on the planet may well be the human brain and human hands. When they work together, the results can be enchanting. At an international folk art fair held recently in Beijing, artisans and masters from Japan, India, Switzerland, Peru, South

  8. Characterization of Mercury Emissions from ASGM Goldshop Activities in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercury (Hg), used in artisanal small-scale gold mining (ASGM) practices, is recognized as a significant source of Hg release to the environment and is a major area of focus of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) Global Mercury Partnership. Hg is used to bind (form a...

  9. Small Scale Marine Fisheries: An Extension Training Manual. TR-30.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinson, Steven; And Others

    This manual is designed for use in a preservice training program for prospective volunteers whose Peace Corps service will be spent working with small-scale artisanal fishing communities in developing nations. The program consists of 8 weeks of intensive training to develop competencies in marine fisheries technology and fisheries extension work…

  10. Occurrence and use of an estuarine habitat by giant manta ray Manta birostris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, A M; Luiz, O J; Domit, C

    2015-06-01

    Based on the knowledge of local artisanal fishermen and on direct observations, this study presents evidence that the giant manta ray Manta birostris uses the Paranaguá estuarine complex in south Brazil, south-western Atlantic Ocean, in a predictable seasonal pattern. Behavioural observations suggest that the estuary can act as a nursery ground for M. birostris during the summer. PMID:25898851

  11. Shadows of the Plantation? A social history of Suriname’s bauxite town Moengo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. de Koning

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the social history of Suriname’s first bauxite town, Moengo, founded in the late 1910s. It recounts the rise of a new industry that drew workers away from the plantations and urban artisanal occupations to work in a massive, highly organized and orchestrated organization-cum-so

  12. Fabrication and Assessment of 3D Printed Anatomical Models of the Lower Limb for Anatomical Teaching and Femoral Vessel Access Training in Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Michael K.; Reese, Sven; Herlihy, Therese; Geoghegan, Tony; Cantwell, Colin P.; Feeney, Robin N. M.; Jones, James F. X.

    2016-01-01

    For centuries, cadaveric dissection has been the touchstone of anatomy education. It offers a medical student intimate access to his or her first patient. In contrast to idealized artisan anatomical models, it presents the natural variation of anatomy in fine detail. However, a new teaching construct has appeared recently in which artificial…

  13. Crowdfunding's Potential for the Developing World

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2013-01-01

    Crowdfunding is an Internet-enabled way for businesses or other organizations to raise money in the form of either donations or investments from multiple individuals. This new form of capital formation emerged in the wake of the 2008 financial crisis largely because of the difficulties faced by artisans, entrepreneurs and early-stage enterprises in raising funds. Crowdfunding takes advanta...

  14. Whole-Genome Sequences of Streptococcus thermophilus Strains TH1435 and TH1436, Isolated from Raw Goat Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treu, Laura; Vendramin, Veronica; Bovo, Barbara; Campanaro, Stefano; Corich, Viviana; Giacomini, Alessio

    2014-01-01

    We report the genome sequences of two Streptococcus thermophilus strains, TH1435 and TH1436, isolated from raw goat milk devoted to the production of artisanal cheese in the Friuli-Venezia Giulia region in Italy. The genome sequences of these two quickly acidifying strains are the first available genome sequences of S. thermophilus strains isolated in Italy. PMID:24435859

  15. Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mercury pollution from artisanal and small-scale gold mining. Contact Us to ask a question, provide feedback, ... 简体版 Tiếng Việt 한국어 EPA Home Privacy and Security Notice Accessibility Last updated on October 22, 2015 ...

  16. Informe Especial de la Procuraduria para la Defensa de los Derechos Humanos sobre el legado de la Mina San Sebastian y sus impactos en la vida de las poblaciones afectadas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pacheco Cueva, Vladimir; Quiñonez Basagoitia, Julio Cesar; Van Ho, Tara;

    This reports is the result of a study carried out to analyse the socio-economic impacts of the San Sebastian Mine in eastern El Salvador. The impacts are divided into 3 areas: land ownership, water resources and artisanal miner's livelihoods. The report contains 20 recommendations for the Salvado...

  17. Small-scale Fisheries Governance and Understanding the Snoek (Thyrsites atun Supply Chain in the Ocean View Fishing Community, Western Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moenieba Isaacs

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Postapartheid fisheries reform in South Africa, through the Marine Living Resources Act (MLRA 18 of 1998, used individual transferable quotas (ITQs to broaden resource access through allocating quotas to new entrants, even though the system has been created to reduce capacity through a reduction in the number of active fishers. The formal action space created through fisheries reform in South Africa left many artisanal fishers to operate in the informal action spaces, selling Thyrsites atun (snoek to poor communities to sustain their livelihoods. Artisanal fishers were not recognized by MLRA of 1998 and through class action case brought against the ITQ system, and in out of court settlement with the claimants in 2007, 1000 interim relief permits will be allocated to artisanal fishes and the development of a new small-scale fisheries policy for South Africa. In this case study of a fishing community in Ocean View, Cape Town I examine a snoek fishery that operates differently, through a community supply chain and informal markets, than that of the high value ITQ regulated species, yet plays a significant role in the livelihoods of artisanal fishers and in the food security of poor households. The findings of this case study show the failures of existing policy frameworks and the implications for the implementation of the new small-scale fisheries policy in South Africa.

  18. Community spaces in the minds of traditional craftsmen in a pottery village in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kota Maruya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available At present, the planning for the conservation or development of Japanese traditional crafts is based on administrative districts or water catchment areas. However, the conservation of Japanese traditions relies not only on the access to relevant natural resources but also on artisans׳ ability to manufacture crafts in specific environments. The perspectives of artisans on their work environments have a significant influence on traditional crafts. In this study, we aimed to investigate the changes in natural resource use in a village recognized for Koishiwara-yaki-style pottery. We employed a questionnaire and conducted interview surveys to collect data on the perceptions of the artisans working in the said village. The findings were as follows. 1 The area commonly regarded by the artisans as their place for pottery was identified. The identification of areas that are significant to local tradition can serve as a vital contribution to spatial planning. 2 The birth place of the local ceramics tradition in a local water catchment area was regarded as critically important in the preservation of the traditions of the village. 3 Several potters emphasized the value of their work environment to ver administrative support because of the historical connection between the place and their traditions. Highlighting this connection can attract historical and cultural tourism to this area.

  19. Training Needs Assessment of Fishermen on Oman's Batinah Coast: Using Exploratory Factor Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belwal, Rakesh; Belwal, Shweta; Al Jabri, Omar

    2015-01-01

    Oman's 3165-km-long coastline, which includes bays, islands and lagoons, has been rich in fish and crustaceans. In spite of this, the fishing sector and fishermen in Oman have not developed well. The fishermen have just managed to subsist and their motivation to stay in the traditional or artisanal fishery has declined. Assuming that the…

  20. Vulnerability to a small-scale commercial fishery of Lake Tana's (Ethiopia) endemic Labeobarbus compared with African catfish and Nile tilapia: An example of recruitment-overfishing?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, de M.; Zwieten, van P.A.M.; Machiels, M.A.M.; Lemma, E.; Wudneh, T.; Dejen, E.; Sibbing, F.A.

    2006-01-01

    In 1986 a motorised, commercial gillnet fishery was introduced in Lake Tana, Ethiopia's largest lake (3050 km2) in addition to the artisanal, predominantly subsistence fishery conducted from reedboats. The three main species groups targeted by this fishery are a species flock of endemic, large Labeo

  1. Pre-Incan Archeology of Peru: Paleo-Indians in the Paleo-Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alibrandi, Marsha

    2011-01-01

    Peru's prehistory, climate, and terrain are the landscape upon which one of humankind's longest migrations occurred. When the glacial period ended, a geographic and cultural transition began when the meltwaters carved river valleys across the South American continent. Culture-rich communities of fishers, miners, artisans, and morticians populated…

  2. Traditional Apprenticeship in West Africa: Recent Evidence and Policy Options. Discussion Paper No. 34.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluitman, Fred

    Apprenticeship is the main avenue to self-employment in micro-enterprises and thus a cornerstone of informal sector development in West Africa. Survey results for Ibadan, Lome, Dakar, Niamey, and other cities demonstrate that apprenticeship as practiced by informal sector artisans is often very similar from one country to the next. Dropout rates…

  3. Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro De Gloria

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This first issue represents the beginning of a new period that is even more challenging. The time of SG development as an artisanal process is ending, SG design, implementation and deployment is a scientific field well positioned in this new scientific era where multi-disciplinarity is the core of any research.

  4. n Vergelykende ondersoek na die werksmotivering van blanke en swart vakmanne in 'n chemiese bedryf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Barnard

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available The work motivation of black and white artisans in a chemical industry. The objective of this study was to determine the extent to which white and black artisans in a chemical industry consider their working environment satisfactory and thus motivating. The results showed no suggestions of an optimally motivating work environment. Black artisans showed a more balanced preference pertaining to extrinsic/intrinsic motivating factors. In contrast, white artisans placed more emphasis on extrinsic motivating factors. The two groups, however, did not differ substantially in their motivational patterns.Opsomming Die doel met hierdie ondersoek was om met behulp van Lawler en Porter se verwagtingsmodel, vas te stel in watter mate blanke en swart vakmanne, in 'n chemiese nywerheid, hul werksomgewing as toereikend motiverend van aard beskou. Die resultate dui aan dat daar vir beide groepe nie sprake is van 'n optimaal motiverende werksomgewing nie. Terwyl blanke vakmanne ekstrinsieke faktore meer beklemtoon het, het swart vakmanne beter gebalanseerde voorkeure met betrekking tot ekstrinsieke/intrinsieke faktore getoon. Die motiveringspatrone van die twee groepe het egter nie wesenlik van mekaar verskil nie.

  5. 75 FR 82075 - Notice of Quarterly Report (July 1, 2010-September 30, 2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ...)-- increase tourism Efate: Ring Road. and business Traffic Volume (average development. annual daily traffic... revenue of SME added to tourism pottery workshops. and artisan Construction and sectors. rehabilitation of... distribution activity. Transport Sector Project......... $368,847,428 Increase cash crop...

  6. 75 FR 56580 - Notice of Quarterly Report (April 1, 2010-June 30, 2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-16

    ... tourism Efate: Ring Road. and business Traffic Volume (average development. annual daily traffic)-- Santo... SME added to tourism pottery workshops. and artisan Construction and sectors. rehabilitation of Fez... distribution activity. Transport Sector Project........ 366,847,428 Increase cash crop 28,507,733...

  7. Environmental, Demogrphic and Socioeconomic Factors Influencing Adoption of Fisheries Conservation Measures in Niger Delta, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. Akankali

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine Environmental, Demogrphic and Socioeconomic factors influencing adoption of artisanal fisheries resources conservation measures based on the perspectives of Artisanal fishers in Delta, Rivers and Bayelsa states, Niger Delta, Nigeria. The study was conducted for a period of one year (January 2008 to Decmber 2008. With the aid of well-structured questionnaires the desired information were collected and analyzed. A total sample size of 1,200 respondents within the study area, were selected using random sampling technique. Logistic regression technique was used to determine the impact of the independent variables on willingness to adopt fisheries conservation measures. The regression analysis result show that eleven (11 independent variables (Public Enlightenment, Regulatory pressure, Environmental stewardship, Severity of pollutants, Economic circumstances, Institutional Support, Information access, Highest Education, Fishing Experience, Legal Structure and Age were factors that influence willingness to adopt conservation measures by the fishers. However, the level of influence was found to vary differently in the three states studied depending on the socioeconomic and educational status and other peculiarities of each of the state. Generally, based on the result of the logit analysis of the perspectives of the artisanal fisher respondents, it is therefore inferred that the willingness to adopt fisheries resources conservation measures in the Niger Delta by the Artisanal Fishers, is significantly a function of the studied demographic, socioeconomic, psychological, institutional and environmental factors as specified by the eleven variables.

  8. From food to feed: Assessment of the stationary lift net fishery of East Hainan, Northern South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumme, Uwe; Wang, Tian C.; Wang, Dao R.

    2013-04-01

    In the Asia-Pacific region, the increasing demand for low value/trash fish as feed for mariculture drives unsustainable fisheries on already overexploited marine resources. The mariculture demand may also affect artisanal nearshore fisheries operating in shallow nursery grounds, e.g., lift net fisheries, but little is known about how they work. We describe the stationary lift net artisanal fishery on the East coast of Hainan Island (northern South China Sea). A trapezoidal blanket net (mean surface area: 478 m2), stretched between four upright poles at the corners, is lowered and lifted via a rope system from a tower by a single fisher. In 2009 ˜200 households depended on 288 lift nets, 82% of which were located in the Wenchang/Wenjiao estuary. The number of lift nets decreased by 15% from 2007 to 2009. Presently, it is mainly an early retirement activity of fishers with a median age of 52 years and younger men rarely enter the fishery due to low catch rates. However, not one fisher would stop fishing even at 50% hypothetical decline in catch — due to lack of alternatives. Mean catch weight per fishing day is 12 kg (range: 0-1.7 t). In the past, the entire catch was used as food. Presently, an average of 52% of the catch is sold as feed to local pond and floating net cage mariculturists who, subsequently, supply the live food trade to markets as far as Hong Kong. Larger dead fishes are sold at village markets or at Qinglan harbor and are locally or regionally consumed. The density of lift-net operation is highest around the Wenchang/Wenjiao lagoon due to the presence of an extensive sheltered, shallow subtidal area in proximity to mariculture and export markets in Qinglan. Thus, the modern mariculture demand for low value/trash fish supports the continuation of an ancient artisanal fishery despite severe resource depletion. The existence of similar lift nets in Vietnam points to an exchange in the artisanal fishing knowledge between Vietnam and Hainan

  9. Affectivating environments in creative work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glaveanu, Vlad Petre

    ornaments commonly used for adorning houses, costumes, carpets, etc. This environment however is not only observed but ‘lived’ through by artisans, experienced emotionally since their work of decoration requires a strong bond with the materials and traditions specific for their community. Such a bond is...... primarily affective, not cognitive, as demonstrated by the fact that knowledge about the exact symbols of decoration is secondary to what artisans call ‘working with soul’, the quality of investing oneself into the artistic activity of decoration. This quality is considered in fact to be the characteristic...... feature of creativity by folk artists and a guarantee of their meaningful and experiential relation to the world surrounding them. Affectivating is consequently not only a process of constructing oneself through the world but also establishes the premise for constructing the world through the creative...

  10. Plantes sauvages à usages artisanaux chez les Pygmées "Mbuti" de la forêt de l'Ituri (République Démocratique du Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kahindo, M.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Artisanal Use of Plants by "Mbuti" Pygmies in Ituri Forest in Democratic Republic of Congo. Ethnobotanical investigations have been made with the Pygmy "Mbuti" communities living in the Ituri forest in the north-east of the Democratic Republic of Congo. Forty-three forestry species used in different artisanal practices were identified. They belong to 40 genera and 22 familles, especially Caesalpinaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Arecaceae, Rubiaceae, Apocynaceae and Marantaceae. Most of the trees, lianas and shrubs are used to supply essentially wood (51.0 %, bark (14.9 %, fruits and leaves (12.8 % for each and sap (8.5 % for making of various materials. These investigations also show the attachment of "Mbuti" people to the forestry resources regardless of animal breeding and agriculture.

  11. Mercury Pollution from Small-Scale Gold Mining Can Be Stopped by Implementing the Gravity-Borax Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Køster-Rasmussen, Rasmus; Westergaard, Maria L; Brasholt, Marie;

    2016-01-01

    Mercury is used globally to extract gold in artisanal and small-scale gold mining. The mercury-free gravity-borax method for gold extraction was introduced in two mining communities using mercury in the provinces Kalinga and Camarines Norte. This article describes project activities and...... organization facilitated the shift in Kalinga. In conclusion, the gravity-borax method is a doable alternative to mercury use in artisanal and small-scale gold mining, but support from the civil society is needed....... gathered on mining practices and knowledge about mercury toxicology. Most miners in Kalinga converted to the gravity-borax method, whereas only a few did so in Camarines Norte. Differences in the nature of the social systems impacted the success of the implementation, and involvement of the tribal...

  12. John Ruskin and the Savage Gothic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances S. Connelly

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available John Ruskin’s provocative theories concerning Gothic art and architecture bear serious consideration in light of the formative debates concerning “primitive” art and its relation to modern European society. Like many primitivists, Ruskin’s advocacy for the medieval was motivated by a reformist zeal concerning the state of modern industrial Europe. He differs markedly in his ideas concerning the value and uses of the "savage” Gothic for modern audiences. Ruskin rejected the random borrowing of stylistic elements, stressing instead the artisanal process and the communal role of Gothic monuments. It is also significant that Ruskin problematises the relationship between “primitive” and modern by repeatedly acknowledging his position as a modern viewer and emphasising the process through which he makes (artisan-like his interpretive history of the Gothic. Rejecting the mastering gaze, Ruskin constantly reminds readers that their view of this pre-modern work is fragmentary and disjunctive.

  13. Sensory profile of P.D.O. Mozzarella di Bufala Campana Cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Chianese

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to define the typical sensory profile of DOP Mozzarella di Bufala Campana cheese as related to the technological process (industrial or artisanal, the geographical area (Salerno or Caserta, the season (spring or summer and to the chemical composition of both milk and cheese. The results obtained showed that the sensorial profile of Mozzarella DOP changed for each variable considered. In particular, Caserta samples were more salty, with a more intense butter odour, higher peelability and homogeneity surface than those from Salerno area; the industrial samples, compared to the artisanal ones, were more salty, hard and “chewable”, and exhibited an external layer more difficult to remove and more homogeneous.

  14. CRAFT INTERACTIONS AND DEVELOPMENTS IN LOCAL CERAMIC WORKMANSHIP AT S’URAKI (SARDINIA BETWEEN THE EARLY IRON AGE AND PUNIC PERIOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Roppa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on pottery manufacture and use at the site of S’Uraki (west central Sardinia through the detailed study of a collection of finds from ongoing excavations. S’Uraki, originally an indigenous Nuragic site which was continuously inhabited between the Bronze Age and Roman period, underwent profound transformations during the Iron Age as a consequence of the sustained interaction which took place between indigenous inhabitants and Phoenician newcomers from the 8th c. BC onwards. Our primary aim is to trace the long-term development of local ceramic manufacture, which is understood as a traditional artisanal activity embedded within one community’s social practices. This allows us to understand, from an artisanal perspective, broader cultural changes which were triggered by phenomena of co-residence and knowledge transfer, eventually leading to the appearance of a distinctly and typologically new Punic ceramic repertoire, as well as innovations within manufacturing techniques.

  15. Microbiological characterisation of Robiola di Roccaverano cheese using PCR-DGGE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonetta, Silvia; Bonetta, Sara; Carraro, Elisabetta; Rantsiou, Kalliopi; Cocolin, Luca

    2008-09-01

    The aim of this study was the microbiological characterisation of a typical Italian cheese "Robiola di Roccaverano" with Protected Designation of Origin (PDO). Fresh and ripened robiola samples were collected from four artisanal and one industrial producer. Artisanal producers used raw goat's milk and natural fermentation, whilst the industrial producer used mixed cow-goat's milk and selected starters. The microbial communities were monitored during different seasons and ripening times with PCR-DGGE and culture-dependent methods. The cluster analysis showed that the DGGE bacterial patterns were related to the different manufacturing and climatic conditions, revealing the occurrence of species associated to Robiola di Roccaverano. The DGGE profiles of yeasts were affected by ripening in summer season. Moreover, the results obtained allowed the identification of microbial species such as Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, Geotricum spp. and Kluyveromyces lactis that are related to the production of this typical cheese. PMID:18620970

  16. Fishery and the Tourism Potential of Agbokum Waterfalls, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel Ujong Ikpi; Benedict Obeten Offem

    2012-01-01

    Species richness and human activities in natural environments are among the most important recreational needs. Monthly studies of aquatic fauna, artisanal fisheries and tourism characteristics was conducted during wet and dry seasons, over a two year period in the three landscapes along the 6817.7 m length of Agbokum waterfalls by using a close-ended pre-coded survey instrument. Through MANOVA analysis of the 1780 respondents we found strong positive association between peoples visits to the ...

  17. Number One Pery Square Wine List, 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Number One Pery Square

    2013-01-01

    Number One Pery Square is located in Pery Square, the Georgian Quarter, Limerick City, Co. Limerick. It now has its own kitchen garden right in the heart of the city. The chef is Alan Burns. The hotel has the Brasserie One Restaurant where the philosophy is to serve simple, sensibly priced dishes sometimes rustic, sometimes classic using the freshest of local ingredients. Brasserie One is a true classic Irish brasserie with strong French influences and the use of Irish artisan produce where p...

  18. Number One Pery Square Sample Easter Sunday Lunch Menu, April 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Number One Pery Square

    2013-01-01

    Number One Pery Square is located in Pery Square, the Georgian Quarter, Limerick City, Co. Limerick. It now has its own kitchen garden right in the heart of the city. The chef is Alan Burns. The hotel has the Brasserie One Restaurant where the philosophy is to serve simple, sensibly priced dishes sometimes rustic, sometimes classic using the freshest of local ingredients. Brasserie One is a true classic Irish brasserie with strong French influences and the use of Irish artisan produce where p...

  19. Number One Pery Square Sample Breakfast Menu, 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Number One Pery Square

    2013-01-01

    Number One Pery Square is located in Pery Square, the Georgian Quarter, Limerick City, Co. Limerick. It now has its own kitchen garden right in the heart of the city. The chef is Alan Burns. The hotel has the Brasserie One Restaurant where the philosophy is to serve simple, sensibly priced dishes sometimes rustic, sometimes classic using the freshest of local ingredients. Brasserie One is a true classic Irish brasserie with strong French influences and the use of Irish artisan produce where p...

  20. Number One Pery Square Sample Valentines Day Dinner Menu, 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Number One Pery Square

    2013-01-01

    Number One Pery Square is located in Pery Square, the Georgian Quarter, Limerick City, Co. Limerick. It now has its own kitchen garden right in the heart of the city. The chef is Alan Burns. The hotel has the Brasserie One Restaurant where the philosophy is to serve simple, sensibly priced dishes sometimes rustic, sometimes classic using the freshest of local ingredients. Brasserie One is a true classic Irish brasserie with strong French influences and the use of Irish artisan produce where p...

  1. Brasserie One at Number One Pery Square Sample A La Carte Menu 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Number One Pery Square

    2013-01-01

    Number One Pery Square is located in Pery Square, the Georgian Quarter, Limerick City, Co. Limerick. It now has its own kitchen garden right in the heart of the city. The chef is Alan Burns. The hotel has the Brasserie One Restaurant where the philosophy is to serve simple, sensibly priced dishes sometimes rustic, sometimes classic using the freshest of local ingredients. Brasserie One is a true classic Irish brasserie with strong French influences and the use of Irish artisan produce where p...

  2. Number One Pery Square Sample Spring Market Value Dinner Menu, 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Number One Pery Square

    2013-01-01

    Number One Pery Square is located in Pery Square, the Georgian Quarter, Limerick City, Co. Limerick. It now has its own kitchen garden right in the heart of the city. The chef is Alan Burns. The hotel has the Brasserie One Restaurant where the philosophy is to serve simple, sensibly priced dishes sometimes rustic, sometimes classic using the freshest of local ingredients. Brasserie One is a true classic Irish brasserie with strong French influences and the use of Irish artisan produce where p...

  3. Number One Pery Square Sample Harvest Value Dinner Menu,2013

    OpenAIRE

    Number One Pery Square

    2013-01-01

    Number One Pery Square is located in Pery Square, the Georgian Quarter, Limerick City, Co. Limerick. It now has its own kitchen garden right in the heart of the city. The chef is Alan Burns. The hotel has the Brasserie One Restaurant where the philosophy is to serve simple, sensibly priced dishes sometimes rustic, sometimes classic using the freshest of local ingredients. Brasserie One is a true classic Irish brasserie with strong French influences and the use of Irish artisan produce where p...

  4. Number One Pery Square: Wine List 12th. December, 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Number One Pery Square

    2012-01-01

    Number One Pery Square is located in Pery Square, the Georgian Quarter, Limerick City, Co. Limerick. It now has its own kitchen garden right in the heart of the city. The chef is Alan Burns. The hotel has the Brasserie One Restaurant where the philosophy is to serve simple, sensibly priced dishes sometimes rustic, sometimes classic using the freshest of local ingredients. Brasserie One is a true classic Irish brasserie with strong French influences and the use of Irish artisan produce where p...

  5. Number One Pery Square Sample Private Dining and Group Lunch Menu, 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Number One Pery Square

    2013-01-01

    Number One Pery Square is located in Pery Square, the Georgian Quarter, Limerick City, Co. Limerick. It now has its own kitchen garden right in the heart of the city. The chef is Alan Burns. The hotel has the Brasserie One Restaurant where the philosophy is to serve simple, sensibly priced dishes sometimes rustic, sometimes classic using the freshest of local ingredients. Brasserie One is a true classic Irish brasserie with strong French influences and the use of Irish artisan produce where p...

  6. Feeding and nutritional ecology of the edible sea urchin Loxechinus albus in the northern Chilean coast Ecología nutricional y alimenticia del erizo comestible Loxechinus albus en el norte de Chile

    OpenAIRE

    SOLANGE J GONZÁLEZ; CRISTIAN W CÁCERES; F. PATRICIO OJEDA

    2008-01-01

    The red sea urchin Loxechinus albus, an economically important species oceurring along the Chilean littoral benthic systems, has been heavily exploited by artisanal fisheries in recent decades. However, basic knowledge of its trophic biology is still scarce. Studies of this kind are critical to the successful development of farming techniques as an alternative to the harvest of natural populations. The aims of this study were to quantify the composition of L. albus' natural diet, to determine...

  7. The evolution of harmonic Indian musical drums: A mathematical perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudet, Samuel; Gauthier, Claude; Léger, Sophie

    2006-03-01

    We explain using mathematics how harmonic musical drums were discovered by Indian artisans and musicians more than 2000 years ago. To this end, we introduce a harmonic error function which measures the quality of the harmonic relationship and degeneracy of the first modes of vibration of a centrally symmetric loaded membrane. We explain that although the tabla configuration found by the ancient Indians is the most natural one, other configurations exist and some are harmonically superior to the classical one.

  8. Bionic hand exoprosthesis – Perspectives for the future in Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Pogarasteanu, ME; Barbilian, AG

    2014-01-01

    Prosthetics is a modern area of interest and a challenge in Orthopedics. Over time, there has been a transition from an artisanal method of prosthetics production to modern concepts and materials, including a re-education through virtual reality. The conditions for an efficient fitting of a prosthesis include the necessity that the prosthesis respects the form and function of the lost limb, both anatomically and biomechanically. Prosthetics are made individually, personalized according to sex...

  9. Heroes and highlights in the history of diffusion

    OpenAIRE

    Mehrer, Helmut; Stolwijk, Nicolaas A.

    2015-01-01

    The science of diffusion had its beginnings in the nineteenth century, although the blacksmiths and metal artisans of antiquity already, used diffusion phenomena to make such objects as hardened iron swords and gilded bronze wares. Diffusion as a scientific discipline is based on several cornerstones. The most important ones are: (i) The continuum theory of diffusion originating from the work of the German physiologist Adolf Fick, who was inspired by elegant experiments on diffusion in gases ...

  10. The struggles of fishworkers: new concerns for support. Triennial Conference of the International Collective in Support of Fishworkers and the Tenth Anniversary of the International Conference of Fishworkers and their Supporters, Cebu, Philippines, 2- 7 June 1994

    OpenAIRE

    1994-01-01

    For quite some time now, global fisheries have been ravaged by successive 'crises'. These have their roots in overfishing, technological overkill as well as the widespread disregard for the needs and priorities of the artisanal and small-scale fishing communities. As issues that fundamentally concern fishworkers the world over, they are also the concerns that form the mandate of the International Collective in Support of Fishworkers (ICSF), an international NGO affiliated to the Economic ...

  11. A survey and evaluation of microbased computer aided design systems for design education and practice in Scotland primarily in the area of product design: their application, problems and potential solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Carter, Roderick P.

    1992-01-01

    The initial premise of the research centred around the relatively new adoption by the Product Design sector of Computer Aided Design technology. Problems Were expected to occur in applying the hardware and understanding the terminology of the software by this sector which prides itself In its artisan skills. The aim of the work was to determine the extent of the adoption of Computer Aided Design and to clarify the problem areas. The research determined, by study of more experienced but sim...

  12. Comparative analysis of antimicrobial and proteolytic activity of lactic acid bacteria isolated from Zlatar cheese

    OpenAIRE

    Topisirović Ljubiša; Veljović Katarina; Terzić-Vidojević Amarela; Strahinić Ivana; Kojić Milan

    2007-01-01

    Traditional artisan Zlatar cheese belongs to the group of white, semi hard home-made cheeses, which are produced from no pasteurized cow's milk, without addition of any known bacterial starter culture. In total, 253 Gram-positive and catalase negative lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated. Results showed that 70 out of 253 analyzed isolates produced antimicrobial compounds known as bacteriocins. Most isolates from genera Lactococcus and Enterococcus, and isolates belonging to ...

  13. Draft Genome Sequence of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis bv. diacetylactis CRL264, a Citrate-Fermenting Strain

    OpenAIRE

    Zuljan, Federico; Espariz, Martín; Blancato, Victor S.; Esteban, Luis; Alarcón, Sergio; Magni, Christian

    2016-01-01

    We report the draft genome sequence of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis bv. diacetylactis CRL264, a natural strain isolated from artisanal cheese from northwest Argentina. L. lactis subsp. lactis bv. diacetylactis is one of the most important microorganisms used as starter culture around the world. The CRL264 strain constitutes a model microorganism in the studies on the generation of aroma compounds (diacetyl, acetoin, and 2,3-butanediol) by lactic acid bacteria. Our genome analysis shows si...

  14. Langzeitstudie zur Behandlung der hochgradigen Myopie mittels einer irisfixierten phaken Intraokularlinse

    OpenAIRE

    Shajari, Mehdi

    2010-01-01

    Zur Korrektur der Myopie bietet die refraktive Chirurgie prinzipiell die Möglichkeiten entweder die Kornea zu modulieren oder eine phake Intraokularlinse einzusetzen. Bei der Beseitigung einer hochgradigen Myopie von über 6 dpt haben sich jedoch die pIOL durchgesetzt. Besonders irisfixierte Linsen weisen sehr gute Refraktionsergebnisse bei einem geringen Komplikationsprofil auf. Zwei Modelle der Artisan-Linse (optische Zone 5 mm n = 48, optische Zone 6 mm n = 264) wurden in 312 Augen von 176 ...

  15. Global Sushi: The Political Economy of the Mediterranian Bluefin Tuna Fishery in the Modern Era

    OpenAIRE

    Stefano B. Longo

    2015-01-01

    The bluefin tuna fishery in the Mediterranean has a long history of human interaction. In recent times, this fishery has become the central source of bluefin tuna for core nations, particularly Japan. This process was set off in large part by the growth of global fish markets, driven by the valuable sushi and sashimi market, and overfishing of other bluefin stocks in other parts of the world. The transformation of this fishery from an artisanal trap fishery to a globalized industrial fishery ...

  16. Small ads as first steps to Internet business: A preliminary survey of Cameroon's commercial Internet usage

    OpenAIRE

    Zeitlyn, David; Barone, Francine

    2004-01-01

    We have surveyed current commercial use of the Internet in Cameroon. This paper provides some data on Cameroon's presence on the Internet as an initial means of assessing the impact information technologies and the Internet have had on local business practices in Cameroon. We have found some NGOs promoting entrepreneurs and artisan producers to sell their wares. Alongside tourism and import/export listings, the use of small ads is predominant. Connectivity via fixed lines remains a bottleneck...

  17. A dorsal fold in Gymnura micrura (Bloch and Scheneider, 1801 (Chondrichthyes: Gymnuridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Luiz Silva Nunes

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a dorsal fold which is a membranous structure located on the tail of two juvenile butterfly rays, Gymnura micrura (Bloch & Scheneider, 1801, caught through artisanal fishery in the shallow waters of Maranhão State (Brazil.Neste manuscrito registra-se uma nadadeira dorsal em dois espécimes juvenis de Gymnura micrura (Bloch and Scheneider, 1801 capturadas pela pesca artesanal em águas rasas do estado do Maranhão (Brasil.

  18. Current and future levels of mercury atmospheric pollution on global scale

    OpenAIRE

    Pacyna, Jozef M.; Travnikov, Oleg; De Simone, Francesco; Hedgecock, Ian M.; Sundseth, Kyrre; Pacyna, Elisabeth G; Steenhuisen, Frits; Pirrone, Nicola; MUNTHE John; Kindbom, Karin

    2016-01-01

    An assessment of current and future emissions, air concentrations and atmospheric deposition of mercury world-wide are presented on the basis of results obtained during the performance of the EU GMOS (Global Mercury Observation System) project. Emission estimates for mercury were prepared with the main goal of applying them in models to assess current (2013) and future (2035) air concentrations and atmospheric deposition of this contaminant. The artisanal and small- scale gold mining, as well...

  19. Shark Bycatch - Small Scale Tuna Fishery Interactions along the Kenyan Coast.

    OpenAIRE

    Kiilu, B.K.; Ndegwa, S.

    2013-01-01

    In Kenya and to a great extent most parts of the WIO region, shark catches majorly occur as by-catch in artisanal tuna fisheries and prawn trawls, including sport fishing activities. However, the extent to which these various fisheries catch sharks is not known but may be significant. The species structure, distribution, catch rates and levels of fisheries-shark interactions are not well documented. This information is, however, necessary to assess exploitation levels of shark spe...

  20. La alimentación de tiburones martillo jovenes (Sphyrna lewini) capturados en el Golfo de Nicoya, Costa Rica (Nota)

    OpenAIRE

    López-Garro, A.; Zanella-Cesarotto, Il.; Arauz-Vargas, R.

    2010-01-01

    Sharks present strong intraspecific changes in feeding habits, which may vary according to size, geographic location and season. This study analyzed the stomach contents of 52 juvenile scalloped hammerhead sharks (25 females and 27 males) caught by artisanal vessels in the Gulf of Nicoya. Regarding the organisms found in the stomachs, 41.07 % were teleost fish, 30.36 % mollusks and 28.57 % crustaceans. Mollusks presented the highest Relative Importance Index (RII) (43.05 %), followed by ...

  1. The status of shark and ray fishery resources in the Gulf of California: applied research to improve management and conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph J Bizzarro; Smith, Wade D.; Robert E Hueter; Tyminski, John; Márquez– Farías, J. Fernando; Castillo–Géniz, J. Leonardo; Cailliet, Gregor M.; Villavicencio–Garayzar, Carlos J.

    2009-01-01

    Seasonal surveys were conducted during 1998–1999 in Baja California, Baja California Sur, Sonora, and Sinaloa to determine the extent and activities of artisanal elasmobranch fisheries in the Gulf of California. One hundred and forty–seven fishing sites, or camps, were documented, the majority of which (n = 83) were located in Baja California Sur. Among camps with adequate fisheries information, the great majority (85.7%) targeted elasmobranchs during some part of the year. Most small, demers...

  2. Storybook China: Emei Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Craig Simons

    2001-01-01

    @@ The lowing of water buffalo and the squeals of pigs, the trill of bicycle bells and the discord of the karaoke parlors,the cries of hawkers and artisans and the general din of 91 million people packed together cheek-by-jowl. Sichuan assaults the ears, the eyes, and even the nose, as smells of pungent chilies and outhouses overtake you in the crowded city streets.

  3. Phenotypic characterization and species-specific PCR of promising starter culture strains of Lactobacillus plantarum isolated from naturally fermented sausages Caracterização fenotípica e por PCR espécie-específica de cepas promissoras como cultivos iniciadores de Lactobacillus plantarum isolados de embutidos cárneos fermentados naturalmente

    OpenAIRE

    Maristela Cortez Sawitzki; Ângela Maria Fiorentini; Fábio Cristiano Angonesi Brod; Caroline Tagliari; Teresinha Marisa Bertol; Ana Carolina Maisonnave Arisi; Ernani Sebastião Sant'Anna

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present work was to characterize promising starter culture strains of Lactobacillus plantarum isolated from naturally fermented artisanal sausage manufactured in the northwestern region of Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil. From 127 isolates of homofermentative, Gram-positive and catalase-negative lactic acid bacteria, ten isolates were randomly selected and the phenotypic characterization and species-specific PCR were performed. Genomic DNA from each isolated strain and from...

  4. Santini : a scoop of expansion

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Joana Mafalda Tavares

    2016-01-01

    Santini has been a very well-­‐known artisanal brand of ice-­‐cream, famous for the quality of its products, based on a secret recipe. In 2009, the family ice-­‐cream company, Santini decided to open its capital to external investment. This started a new phase in the life of the company that allowed it to open new stores and a ...

  5. ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT OF ENTREPRENEURIAL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME IN INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. R. Palanivelu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Economic development is the main priority for any country. Economic development means a process of upward change that is whereby the real per capita income of a country increases over a period of time. Entrepreneurial talent existed in every country, the handicraft Entrepreneurial in India as old as human civilization itself. The village community was the centre of economic activity in India before it came into contact with the west. The village community consisted of farmers, artisans and priests.

  6. Medal Marriage Made in Heaven

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    China will use jade in the medals for the Beijing Olympics in order to symbolize the nation’s culture On March 1,artisans at the Shanghai Mint were about to add the fin- ishing touch to 3,030 jade rings. These jade tings will be mounted on the reverse side of the medals to be pre- sented at the 2008 Beijing Olympics Games. A ring will encircle the Beijing Games em- blem engraved on metal in the center of each

  7. Environmental exposure to mercury in gold mining: health impact assessment in guainía, colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Gasca Álvarez, Adriana del Pilar

    2010-01-01

    Artisanal gold mining is an ancient practice that remains used in present times. Occupational exposure to mercury has been investigated in several studies, but effects related to its use in gold mining have been less addressed. Several studies are found in the literature, specially related to the gold rush in South America, and the impact of the practice along the Amazon rivers. Due to the informal characteristics of the practice, gold mining with mercury has not been well registered; thus, e...

  8. Myths and Superstition in the Small Scale Gold Mining Industry of Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    C. Addei; Amankwah, R.K.

    2011-01-01

    In most parts of the world, there are several inexplicable happenings and these are generally shrouded in myths. In the mining industry of Ghana, especially the Artisanal and Small Scale Gold Mining (ASGM), miners have several habits and conventions based on superstition and myths. Such superstitious beliefs and myths govern the selection of people to work in mining pits, gold processing, working and resting days as well as specific rituals to perform at specific times through the life of the...

  9. Testing Local Conditions for the Introduction of a Mercury-free Gold Extraction Method using Borax in Zimbabwe

    OpenAIRE

    Nadine Steckling; Stephan Bose-O’Reilly; Dennis Shoko; Stefan Muschack; Rudolf Schierl

    2014-01-01

    Background. Mercury is extensively used in artisanal small-scale gold mining in many parts of the world, including Zimbabwe. Mercury-free mining technologies are urgently needed to protect the biophysical environment and human health. Objective. The testing of local conditions for the introduction of a mercury-free gold mining technology entailing the use of borax in a field project in Kadoma/Zimbabwe. Materials and Methods. A one-day theoretical workshop and a two-day practical demonst...

  10. Youth in Tanzania's urbanizing mining settlements: Prospecting a mineralized future

    OpenAIRE

    Bryceson, Deborah Fahy.

    2014-01-01

    Over the last fifteen years many African countries have experienced a mining take-off. Mining activities have bifurcated into two sectors: large-scale, capital-intensive production generating the bulk of the exported minerals, and small-scale, labour-intensive artisanal mining, which, at present, is catalyzing far greater immediate primary, secondary and tertiary employment opportunities for unskilled African labourers. Youth residing in mining settlements, have a large vested interest in the...

  11. АРМЕНИЯ: ЦИВИЛИЗАЦИОННЫЙ ВЕКТОР В ИСТОРИИ РАЗВИТИЯ ШЕЛКОВОГО ПУТИ

    OpenAIRE

    Эдуард Л. Даниелян

    2013-01-01

    The system of the cultural values of Armenia has got a considerable place in the history of the development of world civilization. In ancient and medieval times Armenia, owing to its strategic position, rich natural resources, military-economic might, high level of artisan productions, town-planning, architecture, and particularly, a developed net of trade routs, made a great civilizational contribution to the history of the Silk Road. The hollistic historical heritage of the Armenian people ...

  12. Asian competition in the clock & [and] watch sector: what threats tp the Swiss industry ?

    OpenAIRE

    Guidi, Valentin; Régnier, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    The Swiss clock & watch industry has been the indisputable leader worldwide during many decades in terms of excellence and notoriety. Many challengers such as Japanese or American companies, tried to compete at the same level without dazzling success thus far. However, three main competitions had significant impacts on the Swiss industry over the years. The first was the new production process of American companies that forced Swiss companies to shift from an artisanal production to a mass pr...

  13. Elaboration and evaluation of maqui juice (Aristotelia chilensis (Mol.) Stuntz) by steam drag

    OpenAIRE

    Ximena Araneda; Elisa Quilamán; María Martínez; Daniza Morales

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was develop and evaluate maqui juice (Aristotelia chilensis (Mol.) Stuntz), to be potentially considered as a functional beverage of natural origin, without chemical additives and minimally processed, using the technique of steam drag of type artisanal. Fruit harvested manually was used in the Region of The Araucanía (Chile). Two juice concentrates with sugar and without sugar were produced. Analyzes such as were conducted: content of soluble solids, pH, acidity, moistur...

  14. Comparative genomic and functional analysis of 100 Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains and their comparison with strain GG

    OpenAIRE

    Douillard, F.P.; Ribbera, A.; Kant, R.; Pietilä, T.E.; Järvinen, H.M.; Messing, M.; Randazzo, C.L.; Paulin, L.; Laine, P.K.; Ritari, J.; Caggia, C.; Lähteinen, T.; Brouns, S.J.J.; Satokari, R.M.; Ossowski, von, I.

    2013-01-01

    Lactobacillus rhamnosus is a lactic acid bacterium that is found in a large variety of ecological habitats, including artisanal and industrial dairy products, the oral cavity, intestinal tract or vagina. To gain insights into the genetic complexity and ecological versatility of the species L. rhamnosus, we examined the genomes and phenotypes of 100 L. rhamnosus strains isolated from diverse sources. The genomes of 100 L. rhamnosus strains were mapped onto the L. rhamnosus GG reference genome....

  15. Comparative Genomic and Functional Analysis of 100 Lactobacillus rhamnosus Strains and Their Comparison with Strain GG

    OpenAIRE

    Douillard, François P.; Ribbera, Angela; Kant, Ravi; Pietilä, Taija E.; Järvinen, Hanna M.; Messing, Marcel; Randazzo, Cinzia L.; Paulin, Lars; Laine, Pia; Ritari, Jarmo; Caggia, Cinzia; Lähteinen, Tanja; Brouns, Stan J. J.; Satokari, Reetta; von Ossowski, Ingemar

    2013-01-01

    Lactobacillus rhamnosus is a lactic acid bacterium that is found in a large variety of ecological habitats, including artisanal and industrial dairy products, the oral cavity, intestinal tract or vagina. To gain insights into the genetic complexity and ecological versatility of the species L. rhamnosus, we examined the genomes and phenotypes of 100 L. rhamnosus strains isolated from diverse sources. The genomes of 100 L. rhamnosus strains were mapped onto the L. rhamnosus GG reference genome....

  16. The marine fisheries of Jamaica

    OpenAIRE

    Aiken, K.; Kong, G.A.

    2000-01-01

    The marine fisheries of Jamaica are almost entirely artisanal, with at least 15 000 fishers and an annual catch of approximately 7 000 t. A recent development is a small industrial fishery for queen conch and spiny lobster that earns significant foreign exchange for the country. The major aquatic resources are coral reef fishes, conch, lobster, small pelagics and seasonal large pelagics. The major fishing grounds are the southern island shelf and Pedro Bank, a large oceanic bank 150 km to the...

  17. Rights first, rights forever: small-scale fisheries and fishing communities from a human-rights perspective. A collection of articles from SAMUDRA report

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Small-scale and artisanal fisheries contribute about two-thirds of the global fish production destined for direct human consumption. They also accommodate over 90 per cent of those who make their living from fisheries. Women comprise at least half the workforce in small-scale fisheries. Despite the important contributions made by small-scale fisheries to poverty eradication and food security, small-scale fishers and fishworkers continue to be marginalized at different levels. It is in this co...

  18. Small-scale fisheries resources management options - an overview: a key note address

    OpenAIRE

    Olatunde, A.A.

    1999-01-01

    Small-scale fisheries is traditional and rural based. Therefore, the paper is an over view of small-scale fisheries resources management in Nigeria. It provides about 80-90% employment to surrounding population. The small-scale fisheries are grouped in to two major sectors:- the artisanal or capture fisheries and aquaculture farming. The paper identified some management problems such as:- multi uses of the water bodies, lack of or inadequate data upon which sound management strategies are bas...

  19. Evolución histórica de la construcción con yeso

    OpenAIRE

    de Villanueva, Luis

    2004-01-01

    The article describes the history of plaster in construction, which is divided into a series of major stages marked by revolutionary periods. The characteristics of the material are analyzed and the construction procedures in use since the Neolithic Revolution described.Throughout its lengthy history, plaster has evolved from an artisanal to an industrial product, both in terms of the manufacturing process involved and of its characteristics as a construction materialEl artículo presenta...

  20. Qualité et valorisation de l'ombrine ocellée : l'exemple de la filière pisciculture marine martiniquaise

    OpenAIRE

    Leon, Xavier; Knockaert, Camille; Regina, Françoise

    2008-01-01

    The development of marine fish culture in Martinique, Guadeloupe, Reunion and Mayotte islands is relatively new and relies on the culture of the Red Drum (official name since 2007; scientific name: Sciaenops ocellatus). The current production is of about 70 tonnes per year in Reunion (only one company), 200 tonnes in Mayotte (a cooperative deriving from an entrepreneur's cooperative and an industrial company: Mayotte Aquaculture) and 100 tonnes in Martinique (around twelve artisanal companies...

  1. A Preliminary Assessment of Coral Bleaching in Mozambique

    OpenAIRE

    SCHLEYER, M.; Obura, D.; Rodrigues, M.J.

    1999-01-01

    The 1997-1998 El Nino southern oscillation (ENSO) caused elevated sea temperatures that resulted in global coral bleaching. Coral reefs constitute an important biological resource in terms of their complex biodiversity and are the basis for tropical reef fisheries and marine ecotourism. They represent one of Mozambique's main coastal assets and its coastal communities and growing tourism industry rely mainly on reef-based resources. Mozambican artisanal fisheries are largely centred on reefs ...

  2. The Status of the United States Population of Night Shark, Carcharhinus signatus

    OpenAIRE

    John K. Carlson; Cortés, Enric; Neer, Julie A.; McCandless, Camilla T.; Beerkircher, Lawrence R.

    2008-01-01

    Night sharks, Carcharhinus signatus, are an oceanic species generally occurring in outer continental shelf waters in the western North Atlantic Ocean including the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico. Although not targeted, night sharks make up a segment of the shark bycatch in the pelagic longline fishery. Historically, night sharks comprised a significant proportion of the artisanal Cuban shark fishery but today they are rarely caught. Although information from some fisheries has shown a...

  3. Biometric characterization of sharks of the genus Sphyrna (Griffith & Smith, 1834) on the coast of Sergipe

    OpenAIRE

    Jéssica Barros Andrade; Daniela Nascimento Santos; Maraisa de Oliveira Silva; Thays Brito Reis Santos; Thiago Silveira Meneses; Andressa Sales Coelho

    2016-01-01

    Sharks, rays and chimeras belonging to the subclass Elasmobranchii of the class Chondrichthyes have a slow maturation and development, and they are animals often caught as by-catch, making them vulnerable to extinction. Six species of the genus Sphyrna are found in Brazil, in the coastal-oceanic zone, three of which were studied: Sphyrna lewini, S. mokarran and S. tiburo. This study aimed to evaluate the biometrics, sex and stage of sexual development of the genus Sphyrna in artisanal fishin...

  4. EU project for the Provision of Scientific Advice for the Purpose of the implementation of the EUPOA sharks: a brief overview of the results for Indian Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Murua, Hilario; Santos, M. N.; Chavance, Pierre; Amande, J; Abascal, Francisco J.; Ariz, Javier; Bach, Pascal; Korta, M; Poisson, Francois; Coelho, R.; Seret, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this project was to obtain scientific advice for the purpose of implementing the EUPOA on sharks as regards the facilitation of monitoring fisheries and shark stock assessment on a species-specific level in the high seas. The study was focused on major elasmobranch species caught by both artisanal and industrial large pelagic fisheries on the High Seas of the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific area, which are currently monitored and potentially managed by respective Tuna RFMOs. ...

  5. Sea Cucumber Fishery and Trade in Sta. Cruz, Davao Del Sur, Philippines: Supply Chains and Cost-Benefit Analyses

    OpenAIRE

    Shuck, Vlademir A.; Mondoyo, Rod Norbert D.; Thaddeus R. Acuňa; Gamboa, Ruth U.

    2013-01-01

    In the country, sea cucumbers are exploited almost exclusively for export. It is harvested in three ways; commercial fishing, artisanal fishing and gleaning. These methods provide disproportionate economic benefits to these players in the supply chain. In this study, sea ranching, a new culture system for sea cucumber was analyzed in terms of its economic and commercial viability. Under the sea ranching system Holothuriascabra(sandfish) is the species being raised mainly due to its high econo...

  6. Some aspects of the biology of the female blue crab Callinectes amnicola (De Rocheburne) from the Cross River estuary, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Eyo Victor Oscar; Akpan Michael Mfon; Udoh Ifiok Solomon

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate some important aspects of the biology of Callinectes amnicola (C. amnicola) such as fecundity, carapace length-weight relationship, condition factor and carapace length frequency distribution from the Cross River estuary, Nigeria. Methods: A total of one hundred and twenty ovigerous females of C. amnicola, freshly caught with basket traps, lift net trap, and gill net were collected from the catches of the artisanal fisheries in the study area between J...

  7. Distribution spatiale des stocks de poissons récifaux démersaux d'intérêt commercial et effort de pêche en Province Nord de Nouvelle-Calédonie (Pacifique occidental)

    OpenAIRE

    Letourneur, Yves; Labrosse, Pierre; Kulbicki, Michel

    2000-01-01

    Fish from lagoon and reef in New Caledonia are mainly caught by artisanal fisheries and subsistence fishing. The present study aimed at estimating these fish standing stocks, at finding the main factors influencing the spatial distribution of these fish, and at estimating the maximum sustainable yield with considerations for socio-economic aspects sensu late. A total of 1406 stations was surveyed in the Northern Province of New Caledonia. Sampling was stratified according to three zones (nort...

  8. Addition of proteic nitrogen during alcoholic fermentation for the production of cachaça Adição de nitrogênio protéico durante a fermentação alcoólica de caldo de cana para produção de cachaça

    OpenAIRE

    Elisangela Marques Jeronimo; Evelyn de Souza Oliveira; Elson Luíz Rocha Souza; Marcelo de Almeida Silva; Gil Eduardo Serra

    2008-01-01

    Cachaça is the denomination of a typical and exclusive Brazilian spirit produced from the distillation of fermented sugarcane juice must. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of adding yeast extract to the sugarcane juice used for sugarcane liquor production, because for the artisanal process no studies are available on nitrogen addition nor beverage quality, involving nitrogen complementation. Results of previous studies in the laboratory scale showed that sugarcane juice c...

  9. Daniel Silver: Openings

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Gilda

    2008-01-01

    MUCH OF LONDON-BASED SCULPTOR Daniel Silver’s work occupies an in-between state—between complete and incomplete, between handmade and mass-produced, between artistic object and castoff. For an exhibition at Ibid Projects in London this past winter, for example, Silver acquired several discarded marble copies of Roman and Greek statuary, recently carved in Carrara, Italy, that had been tossed aside by local artisans because the sculptures were cracked, chipped, or rendered crooked during their...

  10. Minerals in Afghanistan : the potential for gold

    OpenAIRE

    Benham, Antony John; Coats, Stan

    2006-01-01

    Gold has been worked in Afghanistan for centuries from many areas including Takhar province in the north and from Ghazni, Zabul, and Kandahar provinces in the south-west of the country. Currently, gold is produced almost solely by artisanal miners working the Samti Placer Deposit in Takhar Province. Gold deposits and prospects are known in rocks of Proterozoic to Neogene age. Many styles of gold mineralisation occur, in particular skarn, vein-hosted, porphyry and alluvial...

  11. Does training benefit those who do not get any? Elasticities of complementarity and factor price in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Behar, Alberto

    2005-01-01

    Commentators claim a shortage of skills, particularly artisanal labour, in South Africa is constraining output and that a rise in skill supply would benefit less skilled occupations. This assumes/implies skilled and unskilled labour are q-complements. This paper estimates Hicks Elasticities of Complementarity and elasticities of factor price. Aggregate estimates suggest more skilled (white collar) labour complements less skilled (blue collar) labour, so a rise in skill supply would lead to a ...

  12. Connecting Mercury Science to Policy: from Sources to Seafood

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Celia Y.; Driscoll, Charles T.; Lambert, Kathleen F.; Mason, Robert P.; Sunderland, Elsie M.

    2016-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a global contaminant whose presence in the biosphere has been increased by human activity, particularly coal burning/energy production, mining, especially artisanal scale gold mining, and other industrial activities. Mercury input to the surface ocean has doubled over the past century leading governments and organizations to take actions to protect humans from the harmful effects of this toxic element. Recently, the UN Environmental Program led 128 countries to negotiate and s...

  13. Panorámica de la geología médica en Zimbabwe y áreas aledañas

    OpenAIRE

    Tendai Njila; Daina Mudimbu; Ndakaiteyi Chinguno; Plaxcedes Chikwema

    2014-01-01

    Geochemical anomalies of fluorine, arsenic, mercury, cadmium and other chemical elements in soils, sediments and water, as well as exposure to asbestiform materials in mining areas may adversely affect human and animal health. Rural and peri-urban communities in Zimbabwe living within the vicinity of mining and mineralized areas are most prone to the impacts of their environment because of they often rely on artisanal, small-scale mining, and subsistence agriculture. Cases of dental and skele...

  14. Exploring hybridity in food supply chains

    OpenAIRE

    Slee, William; Kirwan, James

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, a number of dynamic aspects of food supply chains have attracted great interest among social scientists investigating rural restructuring and change. These include: the expansion of organic agriculture; the development of new value added enterprises at farm level and the revitalisation of traditional and new-old artisanal production practices; the expansion from a low base of the market share of alternative short supply chains, such as farmers markets; and the so-called quali...

  15. Exploring Trade-Offs between Fisheries and Conservation of the Vaquita Porpoise (Phocoena sinus) Using an Atlantis Ecosystem Model

    OpenAIRE

    Hem Nalini Morzaria-Luna; Cameron H Ainsworth; Kaplan, Isaac C.; Levin, Phillip S.; Fulton, Elizabeth A.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Minimizing fishery bycatch threats might involve trade-offs between maintaining viable populations and economic benefits. Understanding these trade-offs can help managers reconcile conflicting goals. An example is a set of bycatch reduction measures for the Critically Endangered vaquita porpoise (Phocoena sinus), in the Northern Gulf of California, Mexico. The vaquita is an endemic species threatened with extinction by artisanal net bycatch within its limited range; in this area f...

  16. A note on the occurrence and status of cetaceans in Togo. Paper SC/62/SM11 presented to IWC Scientific Committee, June 2010, Agadir, Morocco

    OpenAIRE

    Segniagbeto, G.; Van Waerebeek, K.

    2010-01-01

    Eight cetacean species are here reported to occur in Togo's coastal waters and all are newly recorded mammals for the country: Megaptera novaeangliae, Balaenoptera brydei, Balaenoptera cf. bonaerensis, Physeter macrocephalus, Stenella attenuata, Delphinus sp., Globicephala cf. macrorhynchus and Orcinus orca. Much of artisanal fisheries in Togolese waters are dominated by Ghanaian fishermen who have the habit of selling cetacean catches as a food product. Because the landing of cetaceans is il...

  17. Just Certification

    OpenAIRE

    Diaz Piedregal, Virginie

    2009-01-01

    Through the justice principles –equality, time, status, need, efficiency and worth– developed by Jon Elster, we show in this article how fair trade certification for producers is legitimatised by stakeholders. Based on a field investigation with coffee growers in Peru, Ecuador and Bolivia and with fair trade organisations in the North (Max Havelaar/FLO, Andines and Artisans du Monde), the analysis firstly reviews just certification according to the impersonal criteria of “mechanical” justice,...

  18. Diversity of the calabash tree (Crescentia cujete L.) in Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Arango-Ulloa, Johanna; Bohorquez, Adriana; Duque, Myriam; Maass, Brigitte

    2009-01-01

    Germplasm of the calabash tree (Crescentia cujete L.) was collected in five major regions of Colombia, i.e. the Andes, Caribbean, Amazon, Orinoco, and Pacific regions. Collecting this multipurpose tree was guided by the indigenous knowledge of farmers and artisans in each region. Large variation in fruit shapes and sizes was found, of which some forms were typical for certain regions. Overall 56 accessions were collected and roughly classified into 22 types by eight fruit shapes and eight siz...

  19. Improvement of quality insurance of data from fisheries technology experiments: Report to NORAD on a 5 months contract at IDPPE, Maputo Department of Fishing Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Soldal, Aud Vold

    2007-01-01

    This reports sums up the experiences obtained during a 5 months engagement at IDPPE (Instituto Nacional de Desenvolvimento da Pesca de Pequena Escala), Mozambique. The purpose of the contract was to support technical assistance and competence building in the field of Fishing Technology at IDPPE, and at the same time contribute to competence building at IMR, Bergen, within the field of artisanal fisheries. After initial consultations with the staff of dTP (Departemento de Tecnología Pesceira),...

  20. Apple, grape or orange juice: Which one offers the best substrate for lactobacilli growth? — A screening study on bacteria viability, superoxide dismutase activity, folates production and hedonic characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Carlin, Frederic; Renard, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Fermentation can contribute to improve functional aspects of foods. The first goal of this study was to determine amongst apple, grape and orange juices, the onewith the best bacterial growth performance during fermentation by Lactobacillus strains from commercial and artisanal food origins, at 40 °C for 48 h. The juice with the highest bacterial growth was evaluated for bacteria viability during 4 weeks of cold storage, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and folates production a...

  1. Sotsia : rahvale

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    "Sotsiaga" koostööd tegev Valgevene galerii Podzemka esitleb Tallinna Kunstihoone galeriis näitust "The Belarusian Identity cArt". 10. IV festivali avamisel Kunstihoone galeriis esitleb Artur Klinau kultuurialmanahhi pARTisan, toimuvad valgevene kunstnike Igor Savtshenko ja Ruslan Vaskevitshi performance'id. 11. IV Eesti Rahvusraamatukogus vestlusring valgevene kaasaegse kunsti teemadel, räägivad Volha Hapejeva ja A. Klinau

  2. Practical suggestions for the commercialisation of fishery production in Ondo State

    OpenAIRE

    Akegbejo-Samsons, Y.

    1993-01-01

    The paper examines the fisheries resources and activities in Ondo State, Nigeria. As a result of the geographical advantage via location along the Atlantic coast the potentials and constraints of coastal artisanal fisheries in Ondo State are assessed. Practical suggestions and approaches for a successful commercialisation of fishery production are given. These include: (a) Identification of useful and reliable fisheries institutions, (b) Inauguration establishment and coordination of a fisher...

  3. Estimates of total fisheries removal for the Balearic Isalands (1950-2010)

    OpenAIRE

    M. Carreras; Coll, Marta; Quetglas, A.; Goni, R.; Pastor, X.; Cornax, M.J.; Iglesia, M.; Massuti, E.; Oliver, P; Aguilar, R.; Au, A.; Zylich, K.; Pauly, D

    2015-01-01

    For effective fisheries management to be able to act, realistic fisheries removal data are needed, so as to assess exploitation levels and the impact of fisheries on the ecosystem. Unfortunately, official statistics underestimate catches in most countries and regions. In the Balearic Islands (Western Mediterranean), where artisanal fishing and industrial bottom trawling are the most important fishing activities, unreported catches are common. They consist of landings at ‘black market...

  4. Métiers, effort and catches of a Mediterranean small-scale coastal fishery: The case of the Côte Bleue Marine Park

    OpenAIRE

    Leleu, Kevin; Pelletier, Dominique; Charbonnel, Eric; Letourneur, Yves; Alban, Frederique; Bachet, Frederic; Boudouresque, Charles F.

    2014-01-01

    The overexploitation of fishery resources has led to a major fisheries crisis. In this context, artisanal fisheries, and in particular small-scale coastal fisheries, appear as relevant alternatives for a sustainable use of coastal resources. Marine Protected Areas (MPA) are more and more used as management tools for these fisheries, as protection effects and targeted access regulations may benefit to commercial fishers. Managers and scientists need then quantitative information not only to ad...

  5. Relative importance of habitat and fishing in influencing reef fish communities across seventeen Pacific Island Countries and Territories

    OpenAIRE

    Pinca, S.; Kronen, M.; Magron, F.; McArdle, B; Vigliola, Laurent; Kulbicki, Michel; Andréfouët, Serge

    2012-01-01

    Reef fish assessments were undertaken in 17 Pacific islands to describe the status of finfish resources in 63 villages where fishing is mainly artisanal. Surveys were performed by recording the number and size of edible fish species and benthic composition. Fishing impact was described through six proxies representing level of catch, alternative incomes, degree of commercial catch and country economic development derived from a simultaneous socioeconomic assessment. The relative importance of...

  6. Initial evidence of dolphin takes in the Niger Delta region and a review of Nigerian cetaceans. Scientific Committee document SC/62/SM1, June 2010, Agadir, Morocco

    OpenAIRE

    Uwagbae, M.; Van Waerebeek, K.

    2010-01-01

    An interview survey among artisanal fishermen from Brass Island, Niger Delta, in 2008-2009 revealed, for the first time, regular takes of delphinids in Nigerian coastal waters. Three fishermen at Imbikiri, Brass Island, were identified as dedicated 'dolphin hunters'. Evidence is difficult to obtain but one video footage authenticated the landing of a live common bottlenose dolphin. Fraser's dolphin is suggested to occur offshore (probable sighting) but no other documented sightings of odontoc...

  7. Common Dolphin (Delphinus delphis) Bycatch in New Zealand Commercial Trawl Fisheries

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Finlay N.; Abraham, Edward R.; Katrin Berkenbusch

    2013-01-01

    Marine mammals are regularly reported as bycatch in commercial and artisanal fisheries, but data are often insufficient to allow assessment of these incidental mortalities. Observer coverage of the mackerel trawl fishery in New Zealand waters between 1995 and 2011 allowed evaluation of common dolphin Delphinus delphis bycatch on the North Island west coast, where this species is the most frequently caught cetacean. Observer data were used to develop a statistical model to estimate total captu...

  8. Improved fish smoking: Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    Fish is an important source of food and income to many people in the developing world. In Africa, some 5 percent of the population, about 35 million people, depend wholly or partly on the fisheries sector, mostly artisanal fisheries, for their livelihood. Various traditional methods are employed to preserve and process fish for consumption and storage. These include smoking, drying, salting, frying and fermenting and various combinations of these. In Ghana, smoking is the mo...

  9. Then & Now:Fifty years after Zamosky’s article "Shoe modifications in lower-extremity orthotics"

    OpenAIRE

    Jaap J. Van Netten, PhD; Klass Postema, MD, PhD

    2013-01-01

    The art and science of correcting foot deformities is still a mixture of tradition, artisan skill, clinical experience, and the prescribing doctor’s professional convictions” [1]. Zamosky’s 1964 article on various shoe modifications in lower-extremity orthotics starts with this observation [1]. Reflecting on 50 years of development in this field, we ask ourselves, Have the ingredients of this mixture changed?

  10. Bacterial Community Dynamics during Production of Registered Designation of Origin Salers Cheese as Evaluated by 16S rRNA Gene Single-Strand Conformation Polymorphism Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Duthoit, F.; Godon, Jean-Jacques; Montel, Marie-Christine

    2003-01-01

    Microbial dynamics during processing and ripening of traditional cheeses such as registered designation of origin Salers cheese, an artisanal cheese produced in France, play an important role in the elaboration of sensory qualities. The aim of the present study was to obtain a picture of the dynamics of the microbial ecosystem of RDO Salers cheese by using culture-independent methods. This included DNA extraction, PCR, and single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis. Bacterial and...

  11. [Cultivation of Pleurotus ostreatus and allied species (Fungi: Pleurotaceae) upon semi-sterile natural media].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macaya-Lizano AV

    1988-11-01

    Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex Fr.) Quélet and its allies are edible mushrooms whose cultivation is successful in parts of Europe and Asia. In Costa Rica only Agaricus bisporus has been commercially cultured, but requires elaborate facilities. The use of waste material (e.g. sawdust, rice straw, sugar cane debris) and non-controlled environmental conditions suitable for easy artisanal cultivation of Pleurotus ostreatus is reported here.

  12. Microbiological, technological and therapeutic properties of kefir: a natural probiotic beverage

    OpenAIRE

    Analy Machado de Oliveira Leite; Marco Antonio Lemos Miguel; Raquel Silva Peixoto; Alexandre Soares Rosado; Joab Trajano Silva; Vania Margaret Flosi Paschoalin

    2013-01-01

    Kefir is a fermented milk beverage produced by the action of bacteria and yeasts that exist in symbiotic association in kefir grains. The artisanal production of the kefir is based on the tradition of the peoples of Caucasus, which has spread to other parts of the world, from the late 19th century, and nowadays integrates its nutritional and therapeutic indications to the everyday food choices of several populations. The large number of microorganisms present in kefir and their microbial inte...

  13. Harnessing the climate mitigation, conservation and poverty alleviation potential of seagrasses: prospects for developing blue carbon initiatives and payment for ecosystem service programmes

    OpenAIRE

    Hejnowicz, Adam P.; Kennedy, Hilary; Murray A. Rudd; Huxham, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    Seagrass ecosystems provide numerous ecosystem services that support coastal communities around the world. They sustain abundant marine life as well as commercial and artisanal fisheries, and help protect shorelines from coastal erosion. Additionally, seagrass meadows are a globally significant sink for carbon and represent a key ecosystem for combating climate change. However, seagrass habitats are suffering rapid global decline. Despite recognition of the importance of “Blue Carbon,” no fun...

  14. Harnessing the climate mitigation, conservation and poverty alleviation potential of seagrasses: prospects for developing blue carbon initiatives and payment for ecosystem service programmes

    OpenAIRE

    Adam Peter Hejnowicz; Hilary eKennedy; Mark Richard Huxham; Murray A. Rudd

    2015-01-01

    Seagrass ecosystems provide numerous ecosystem services that support coastal communities around the world. They sustain abundant marine life as well as commercial and artisanal fisheries, and help protect shorelines from coastal erosion. Additionally, seagrass meadows are a globally significant sink for carbon and represent a key ecosystem for combating climate change. However, seagrass habitats are suffering rapid global decline. Despite recognition of the importance of ‘Blue Carbon’, no fun...

  15. Exposure of Mediterranean Countries to Ocean Acidification

    OpenAIRE

    Nathalie Hilmi; Denis Allemand; Mine Cinar; Sarah Cooley; Hall-Spencer, Jason M.; Gunnar Haraldsson; Caroline Hattam; Ross A Jeffree; Orr, James C.; Katrin Rehdanz; Stéphanie Reynaud; Alain Safa; Sam Dupont

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the potential effects of ocean acidification on countries and fisheries of the Mediterranean Sea. The implications for seafood security and supply are evaluated by examining the sensitivity of the Mediterranean to ocean acidification at chemical, biological, and macro-economic levels. The limited information available on impacts of ocean acidification on harvested (industrial, recreational, and artisanal fishing) and cultured species (aquaculture) prevents any biological i...

  16. Design e artesanato : uma abordagem ao mobiliário popular alentejano

    OpenAIRE

    Jesus, Sílvia, 1988-

    2014-01-01

    Tese de mestrado, Design de Equipamento - Design urbano de de interiores, Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Belas Artes, 2014 Nowadays, in a technological and mechanized society as our, artisan and traditional products, fall by the wayside, although those that awaken the deepest human feelings, given the proximity, contact or familiar character that transmit to us. On the inadequacy of the means of distribution, for difficulty in cover wider publics or even to be unable to correspond to...

  17. Características bioquímicas de una marea roja de Protoceratium reticulatum en la bahía de Chipana (Norte de Chile) en condiciones estivales

    OpenAIRE

    Rossi, Sergio; Fiorillo, Ida

    2010-01-01

    Protoceratium reticulatum is considered a potential toxic dinoflagellate. This paper describes a high-frequency monitoring study performed at Chipana Bay (northern Chile), sampling over 48 hours in a near-bottom shallow coastal area to quantify the biochemical features of a red tide dominated by this microscopic algae. This area belongs to the Humboldt Current upwelling system, and is considered highly productive for artisanal fisheries. Total chlorophyll a, total lipids, particulate organic ...

  18. The quest for sustainable livelihoods : women fish traders in Ibaka, Niger Delta, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Udong, E.E.

    2011-01-01

      The contribution of fisheries to food security in Africa cannot be underestimated. It provides over 30 percent of the protein consumed by the Nigerian population. However, Nigeria produces only about 45 percent of the fish requirement locally while the shortfall of about 55 percent is imported. Over 80 percent of the local production is from the artisanal, small scale sector. While several studies have been conducted on the productivity of many water bodies, endemic fish species, diffe...

  19. Silk moths in Madagascar: Biology, uses and challenges related to Borocera cajani (Boisduval, 1833) (Lepidoptera – Lasiocampidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Razafimanantsoa, Tsiresy; Rajoelison, Gabrielle; Ramamonjisoa, Bruno; Raminosoa,Noromalala; Poncelet, Marc; Bogaert, Jan; Haubruge, Eric; Verheggen, François

    2012-01-01

    Borocera cajani (Lepidoptera, Lasiocampidae), also named Landibe, is main wild silk moth currently used to produce silk textiles in Madagascar. Silk production involve many member of the local population, from the wild silk harvesters, to the spinners, traders, dyers, weavers and the artisans who transform the silk into clothing, accessories and decorative items. Uapaca bojeri (Tapia) forests are the last remnants of highland primary forest, which are threatened by human destruction through b...

  20. From Seascapes of Extinction to Seascapes of Confidence : Territorial Use Rights in Fisheries in Chile: El Quisco and Puerto Oscuro

    OpenAIRE

    Gallardo Fernández, Gloria L.

    2008-01-01

    In Chile, the indiscriminate harvest for export of the edible shellfish, Concholepas concholepas or false abalone, propelled by a neo-liberal market economy during the 1970s, almost led to the extinction of the species, thereby threatening the dependant small-scale artisan fishers’ survival as well as the ecosystem. To reverse this, fishers’ organizations in Chile have adopted the state created regulatory measure, Management and Exploitation Areas for Benthic Resources (MEABR; locally known a...

  1. Chronic adaptations of lung function in breath-hold diving fishermen

    OpenAIRE

    Cristiane Diniz; Tiago Farias; Mayane Pereira; Caio Pires; Luciana Gonçalves; Patrícia Coertjens; Marcelo Coertjens

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to verify and analyze the existence of chronic adaptations of lung function in freediving fishermen whose occupation is artisanal fishing. Material and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving 11 breath-hold diving fishermen and 10 non-breath-hold diving fishermen (control) from the village of Bitupitá in the municipality of Barroquinha (Ceará - Brazil). Anthropometric measurements, chest and abdominal circumferences as well as spirometric and ...

  2. Evaluation of the current state of small pelagic fisheries in the Colombian Pacific: ensuring the sustainability of the resource and evaluating its response to climatic events

    OpenAIRE

    Zapata, L. A.; B. S. Beltrán-León; Herrera, J. C.; Jiménez-Tello, P.; L. M. Prieto; R. A. Baos; Guevara-Fletcher, C.; Zambrano, E.

    2013-01-01

    Commercial fishing of small pelagic species in Colombia, mainly "carduma" (Cetengraulis mysticetus) and "plumuda" (Opisthonema spp.), has been recorded since 1970. Both are used to produce fish meal for aquaculture and poultry and for canned foods. These two species are filter feeders, and therefore support higher levels of the food chain (other fish, birds and marine mammals), and artisanal fishermen use them as bait. Between 2005 and 2010, 86.131 t have been captured (X...

  3. Lead exposure from aluminum cookware in Cameroon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weidenhamer, Jeffrey D.; Kobunski, Peter A. [Department of Chemistry, Geology and Physics, 401 College Ave., Ashland University, Ashland, OH 44805 (United States); Kuepouo, Gilbert [Research and Education Centre for Development (CREPD), Yaounde (Cameroon); Corbin, Rebecca W. [Department of Chemistry, Geology and Physics, 401 College Ave., Ashland University, Ashland, OH 44805 (United States); Gottesfeld, Perry, E-mail: pgottesfeld@okinternational.org [Occupational Knowledge International, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2014-10-15

    Blood lead levels have decreased following the removal of lead from gasoline in most of the world. However, numerous recent studies provide evidence that elevated blood lead levels persist in many low and middle-income countries around the world at much higher prevalence than in the more developed countries. One potential source of lead exposure that has not been widely investigated is the leaching of lead from artisanal aluminum cookware, which is commonly used in the developing world. Twenty-nine samples of aluminum cookware and utensils manufactured by local artisans in Cameroon were collected and analyzed for their potential to release lead during cooking. Source materials for this cookware included scrap metal such as engine parts, radiators, cans, and construction materials. The lead content of this cookware is relatively low (< 1000 ppm by X-ray fluorescence), however significant amounts of lead, as well as aluminum and cadmium were released from many of the samples using dilute acetic acid extractions at boiling and ambient temperatures. Potential exposures to lead per serving were estimated to be as high as 260 μg, indicating that such cookware can pose a serious health hazard. We conclude that lead, aluminum and cadmium can migrate from this aluminum cookware during cooking and enter food at levels exceeding recommended public health guidelines. Our results support the need to regulate lead content of materials used to manufacture these pots. Artisanal aluminum cookware may be a major contributor to lead poisoning throughout the developing world. Testing of aluminum cookware in other developing countries is warranted. - Highlights: • Cookware is manufactured in Cameroon from scrap aluminum including car parts. • Twenty-nine cookware samples were evaluated for their potential to leach lead. • Boiling extractions to simulate the effects of cooking released significant lead. • Potential lead exposures per serving are estimated as high as 260 μg.

  4. Small scale commercial production of tilapia fingerlings in floating bamboo net-hapas

    OpenAIRE

    Otubusin, S.O.

    1987-01-01

    The inadequate supply of tilapia seed is considered as one of the major present constraints to the development of the culture industry in Nigeria. The floating bamboo net-hapa hatchery/nursery system was observed to be very efficient in the mass production of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fry and fingerlings at Kainji Lake Research Institute. This system was therefore, recommended for small-scale (artisanal) commercial operators consisting of fishermen families in order to increase their pr...

  5. Lidové textilní umění a analýza jeho využití pro podporu rozvoje cestovního ruchu ČR

    OpenAIRE

    Cihelková, Petra

    2009-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with using textile folk art and textile crafts in tourism. The first part presents the current situation of textile artisans in the Czech Republic. Also contains history of development of the textile crafts and explains the basic terms. Another section is devoted to the presentation of a blueprint, lace, weaving and folk costumes. The last chapter describes the possibilities why and how to use textile folk art and textile handicrafts for promotion of tourism in the ...

  6. Economic impacts of globalisation at the district, landing site and sub-sector enterprise levels on Lakes Kyoga, Albert and Victoria

    OpenAIRE

    Odongkara, K.; Wegoye, J.; Kyangwa, M.; Nyapendi, A.

    2003-01-01

    The Globalisation and fish utilisation and marketing study is a collaboration between the Fisheries Resources Research Institute (FIRRI) and the Mike Dillon Associates Limited , with funding from the Department for International Development (DFID) of the Government of the United Kingdom. The study is designed to examine the impact of the development of the export fishery on the fish producers, processors, traders and consumers in the artisanal fishery in Uganda. FIRRI 's role is to collect fi...

  7. Fishers' perceptions as indicators of the performance of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs)

    OpenAIRE

    Leleu, Kevin; Alban, Frederique; Pelletier, Dominique; Charbonnel, Eric; Letourneur, Yves; Boudouresque, Charles F.

    2012-01-01

    How users perceive the performance of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) is fundamental for the social acceptance of these zones. Moreover, their perceptions may be relevant for monitoring the effects of MPAs on extractive activities. This study analyzes artisanal fishers' perceptions of the performance of a north-western Mediterranean coastal MPA, which encompasses two no-take zones (NTZs). Three viewpoints have been considered: the effect on the personal activity of fishers, the effect on the lo...

  8. El valor simbòlic de la geometria a la tradició constructiva medieval de la península Ibèrica

    OpenAIRE

    Dorado Ladera, Esther

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to reveal the crucial importance of geometry in the work of medieval builders and artisans, and to evaluate its symbolic significance and its capacity for spreading knowledge. In order to do so, this study will focus on the lberian Peninsula. lt may seem a huge and heterogeneous field of research, but it also provides an interesting example of cultural exchange marked by the continued expansion of several new Christian kingdoms in the north and the permanent presence...

  9. Dangerous calling, the life-and-death matter of safety at sea: a collection of articles from SAMUDRA Report

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Fishing is arguably the world's most dangerous vocation, reporting the highest rate of occupational fatalities among industries, made only worse by declining fish prices, overfished waters and shortened fishing seasons. As fishermen are forced to move farther away from shore in search of scarce resources, the dangers they face are many: bad weather, rough seas, flooding, fire, poor vessel design, mechanical problems navigational error, missing safety equipment. For the small-scale and artisan...

  10. Variation of textural properties in pears dried by different solar methodologies.

    OpenAIRE

    Abílio, Sandra; Guiné, Raquel; Sousa, Isabel

    2011-01-01

    In Portugal, the variety of S. Bartholomew (Pyrus communis L.) pears are subject to an artisan drying process consisting of direct open-air sun exposure, leading to a traditional product with unique texture characteristics, called “Pêra Passa de Viseu”. However, the drying process does not provide the current standards of safety and, therefore, recent investigations have emerged with alternatives to the traditional drying process. The changes that occur in t...

  11. A State of the Art Paper on Improving Salt Extraction from Lake Katwe Raw Materials In Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Kasedde, Hillary; Kirabira, John; Bäbler, Matthäus; Tilliander, Anders; Jonsson, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    The characteristics of Katwe salt lake are briefly discussed. The lake is the largest of the eight saline lakes in the Katwe-Kikorongo volcanic field and is a major source of salt production in Uganda. Today, salt production at the lake is carried out using traditional and artisanal mining methods. Attempts to mechanize the production of domestic and commercial grade salt at the lake were unsuccessful due to the use of a wrong technology. In this paper, the most common available technologies ...

  12. Evaluation of Antiradical Activity of Different Cocoa and Chocolate Products: Relation with Lipid and Protein Composition

    OpenAIRE

    Vertuani, Silvia; Scalambra, Emanuela; Vittorio, Trotta; Bino, Alessia; Malisardi, Gemma; Baldisserotto, Anna; Manfredini, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Chocolate antioxidant properties are often claimed; however, they are frequently different from the parent natural sources due to the industry or artisan transformation. In particular, antioxidant property of chocolate and cocoa are not adequately taken into consideration by consumers who normally make use of this food just for its flavor and taste properties. In this study, we have investigated the antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content of cocoa nibs, cocoa masses, and corresponding...

  13. Proceedings of the seventh international food convention: nutritional security through sustainable development research and education for healthy foods - souvenir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At present, the application of advanced technology during production, processing, storage and distribution of food with an ultimate aim of strengthening the socio-economic status of farmers, entrepreneurs and rural artisan community has paramount importance. The convention made an effort to touch upon the following areas: food and nutritional security and sustainability, food processing and engineering, food safety management systems, food health and nutrition, skill development and entrepreneurship, food science and technology research etc. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  14. 1996 fisheries statistics, Lake Kariba - Zimbabwe shore

    OpenAIRE

    Karenge, L.; Mugwagwa, M.

    1997-01-01

    The report provides catch records for the Kapenta and inshore fisheries in the Zimbabwean waters of Lake Kariba for the year 1996. Kapenta usually constitute about 90% of the total catch from Lake Kariba; for statistical purposes catches are recorded for the 5 hydrological basins - Mlibizi, Binga, Sengwa, Bumi and Kariba. Whereas kapenta represent a unit stock which is harvested by both Zimbabwe and Zambia, the artisanal fishery exploits inshore species which generally occupy water less than ...

  15. 1997 fisheries statistics, Lake Kariba - Zimbabwe shore

    OpenAIRE

    Songore, N.; Mugwagwa, M.; Moyo, A.

    1998-01-01

    The report provides catch records for the kapenta (Limnothrissa miodon) and inshore fisheries in the Zimbabwean waters of Lake Kariba for the year 1997. Kapenta usually constitute about 94% of the total catch from Lake Kariba; for statistical purposes catches are recorded for the 5 hydrological basins - Mlibizi, Binga, Sengwa, Bumi and Kariba. The kapenta, which occupy the open pelagic waters of the lake, represent a unit stock which is harvested by both Zimbabwe and Zambia; the artisanal fis...

  16. 1995 fisheries statistics, Lake Kariba - Zimbabwe shore

    OpenAIRE

    Karenge, L.; Ncube, L.D.; Mugwagwa, M.

    1996-01-01

    The report provides catch records for the Kapenta and inshore fisheries in the Zimbabwean waters of Lake Kariba for the year 1995. Kapenta usually constitute about 90% of the total catch from Lake Kariba; for statistical purposes catches are recorded for the 5 hydrological basins - Mlibizi, Binga, Sengwa, Bumi and Kariba. Whereas kapenta represent a unit stock which is harvested by both Zimbabwe and Zambia, the artisanal fishery exploits inshore species which generally occupy water less than ...

  17. 1994 fisheries statistics, Lake Kariba - Zimbabwe shore

    OpenAIRE

    Karenge, L.; Mugwagwa, M.; Muchabaiwa, L.D.

    1995-01-01

    The report provides catch records for the Kapenta and inshore fisheries in the Zimbabwean waters of Lake Kariba for the year 1994. Kapenta usually constitute about 90% of the total catch from Lake Kariba; for statistical purposes catches are recorded for the 5 hydrological basins - Mlibizi, Binga, Sengwa, Bumi and Kariba. Whereas kapenta represent a unit stock which is harvested by both Zimbabwe and Zambia, the artisanal fishery exploits inshore species which generally occupy water less than ...

  18. Determination of appropriate mix ratios for concrete grades using Nigerian Portland-limestone grades 32.5 and 42.5

    OpenAIRE

    Kazeem Kayode ADEWOLE; Wasiu Olabanji AJAGBE; Idris Ademola ARASI

    2015-01-01

    The construction of buildings by incompetent craftsmen and the use of low quality building materials, including low quality concrete have been identified in the literature as two of the major reasons for the incessant collapse of building in Nigeria. The roadside craftsmen/artisans usually/generally construct buildings using 1:2:4 cement-fine aggregate-large aggregate mix ratio irrespective of the cement strength class. In this paper, the investigation conducted to determine the appropriate c...

  19. Lead exposure from aluminum cookware in Cameroon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blood lead levels have decreased following the removal of lead from gasoline in most of the world. However, numerous recent studies provide evidence that elevated blood lead levels persist in many low and middle-income countries around the world at much higher prevalence than in the more developed countries. One potential source of lead exposure that has not been widely investigated is the leaching of lead from artisanal aluminum cookware, which is commonly used in the developing world. Twenty-nine samples of aluminum cookware and utensils manufactured by local artisans in Cameroon were collected and analyzed for their potential to release lead during cooking. Source materials for this cookware included scrap metal such as engine parts, radiators, cans, and construction materials. The lead content of this cookware is relatively low (< 1000 ppm by X-ray fluorescence), however significant amounts of lead, as well as aluminum and cadmium were released from many of the samples using dilute acetic acid extractions at boiling and ambient temperatures. Potential exposures to lead per serving were estimated to be as high as 260 μg, indicating that such cookware can pose a serious health hazard. We conclude that lead, aluminum and cadmium can migrate from this aluminum cookware during cooking and enter food at levels exceeding recommended public health guidelines. Our results support the need to regulate lead content of materials used to manufacture these pots. Artisanal aluminum cookware may be a major contributor to lead poisoning throughout the developing world. Testing of aluminum cookware in other developing countries is warranted. - Highlights: • Cookware is manufactured in Cameroon from scrap aluminum including car parts. • Twenty-nine cookware samples were evaluated for their potential to leach lead. • Boiling extractions to simulate the effects of cooking released significant lead. • Potential lead exposures per serving are estimated as high as 260 μg.

  20. La alimentación de tiburones martillo jóvenes (Sphyrna lewini) capturados en el Golfo de Nicoya, Costa Rica.

    OpenAIRE

    Zanella Cesarotto, Ilena; López Garro, Ándres; Arauz Vargas, Randall

    2010-01-01

    Sharks present strong intraspecific changes in feeding habits, which may vary according to size, geographic location and season. This study analyzed the stomach contents of 52 juvenile scalloped hammerhead sharks (25 females and 27 males) caught by artisanal vessels in the Gulf of Nicoya. Regarding the organisms found in the stomachs, 41.07 % were teleost fish, 30.36 % mollusks and 28.57 % crustaceans. Mollusks presented the highest Relative Importance Index (RII) (43.05 %), followed by ...

  1. Genetic diversity and population structure of bocachico Prochilodus magdalenae (Pisces, Prochilodontidae) in the Magdalena River basin and its tributaries, Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Gilberto Orozco Berdugo; Narváez Barandica, Juan C.

    2014-01-01

    Prochilodus magdalenae is an endemic freshwater fish that occurs in the Magdalena, Sinú and Atrato hydrographic basins. It has an important economic role and is a food resource for the artisanal fishing communities. Its socioeconomic importance contrasts with the current status of its fisheries, where stocks are being depleted. Considering its importance and lack of information on its genetic structure, we used seven microsatellite markers to assess the genetic structure of wild populations o...

  2. Peche artisanale sur DCP et peche palangriere a la Reunion: antagonisme ou complementarite?

    OpenAIRE

    Tessier, E.; Poisson, Francois

    2000-01-01

    More than ten years after its launching, an evaluation of the results of the FADs programme carried on in Reunion Island has been made. Its implementation and its impact on artisanal fishery in Reunion Island have been analysed. This analysis demonstrates that, following a continuously ascending phase, the production of fish caught on fads has reached a plateau. Parallel to the FAD-associated fishery, the longline fishery has developed since 1991. This type of fishery includes production unit...

  3. Bilan et perspectives de developpement des DCP au Cap-Vert

    OpenAIRE

    Rey-Valette, H.; Martins, P.

    2000-01-01

    A new programme concerning the experimentation of about thirty Fish Aggregating Devices (FADs) is to start in the Cape Verde Islands at the end of 1999. In this context, this communication is intended: - to evaluate the halieutic, economic and social conditions of the artisanal fishery in this archipelago, notably in terms of assets and constraints. Although these conditions are very heterogeneous depending on islands, the fads seem to be able to help the stabilization and the development of ...

  4. Perancangan teknologi cloud untuk penjualan online kain songket Palembang

    OpenAIRE

    Fikri; Abdillah, Leon Andretti; Apriyani, Ema

    2015-01-01

    Cloud Computing is a paradigm in which information is permanently stored in servers on the Internet and temporarily stored on the user's computer (client) including the desktop. This study aims to design an online sales application based cloud computing technology to help the artisans Palembang songket and do not rule out the possibility for other small medium enterprises (SMEs) to manage assets and market their products online so it can be accessed anytime and anywhere via personal computer,...

  5. The Woolmark Company Announces Global Prize Awarding Excellence in Merino Wool Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The international Woolmark Prize crosses borders and cultures by seeking outstanding and emerging talent from around the world, aligning the support of emerging designers with the evolution of emerging countries. It is an award for the young generation, shifting the focus from glamour to true talent as a way to highlight wool's eco credentials. It is Woolmark's social commitment, a sharing of resources to support local artisans.

  6. Chemical characterization of majolica from 14th-18th century production centers on the Iberian Peninsula: a preliminary neutron activation study

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia Iñañez, Javier; Speakman, Robert J.; Buxeda i Garrigós, Jaume; Glascock, Michael D.

    2008-01-01

    Majolica pottery is one of the most characteristic tableware produced during the Medieval and Renaissance periods. Majolica technology was introduced to the Iberian Peninsula by Islamic artisans during Medieval times, and its production and popularity rapidly spread throughout Spain and eventually to other locations in Europe and the Americas. The prestige and importance of Spanish majolica was very high. Consequently, this ware was imported profusely to the Americas during the Spanish Coloni...

  7. Innovation in the Italian ice cream production: effect of different phospholipid emulsifiers

    OpenAIRE

    Rinaldi, Massimiliano; Dall’Asta, Chiara; Paciulli, Maria; Guizzetti, Stefano; Barbanti, Davide; Chiavaro, Emma

    2013-01-01

    Artisanal Italian ice cream (called gelato) is one of the most appreciated Italian food specialties. Mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids represent the most used emulsifiers for gelato but the demand for “clean label” products containing lower amount or no additives or stabilizers is continuously increasing among consumers. In this work, the impact of three phospholipid emulsifiers (soy, milk and rice phospholipids) was evaluated on physicochemical, thermal and flavour characteristics of a b...

  8. Langkawi's Sustainable Regeneration Strategy and Natural Heritage Preservation

    OpenAIRE

    Rugayah Hashim; Zulkiflee Abd Latif

    2015-01-01

    In the face of climate change and increased development, environmental acclimatization includes looking for alternatives for socio-economic improvement. For the island resort of Langkawi, Malaysia, agriculture is no longer a sustainable income generating venture. Eco-tourism has taken over paddy planting and artisanal fishing. The state government and local authorities are aware of the need to realign their development strategies to suit the environment. By engaging in sustainable regeneratio...

  9. ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT OF ENTREPRENEURIAL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME IN INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. R. Palanivelu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Economic development is the main priority for any country. Economic development means a process of upward change that is whereby the real per capita income of a country increases over a period of time. Entrepreneurial talent existed in every country, the handicraft Entrepreneurial in India as old as human civilization itself. The village community was the centre of economic activity in India before it came into contact with the west. The village community consisted of farmers, artisans and priests. The artisans were protected by the village community. Indian handicrafts enjoyed worldwide reputation and the artisan industries flourished till the end of 18th century. With the advent of east India Company, various changes were introduced in Indian economy. The manufacturing Entrepreneurship emerged in the second half of nineteenth century. Environment refers to all external factors which have a bearing on the functioning of the enterprise. It refers to those aspects of the surrounding of business enterprise and circumstances of business units which affect or influence its activities and operations and decides its effectiveness.

  10. Perfecting 'a sharper image': telescope-making and the dissemination of technical knowledge, 1700-1820

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Gary L.

    2012-07-01

    Telescopes, reflecting telescopes in particular, underwent considerable development during the eighteenth century. Two classes of telescope maker, the for-profit artisan and the amateur 'gentleman-philosopher,' learned techniques of optical fabrication and testing and produced usable astronomical instruments. One means of disseminating technical knowledge was via the book. The year 1738 saw the publication of a highly-influential book, Robert Smith's A Compleat System of Opticks, a work that included detailed information on telescope-making. It was this book that helped spark the astronomical career of William Herschel, and with Smith's information Herschel produced large reflecting telescopes of exquisite quality. However, artisan-opticians, even the renowned James Short, appear to have cut corners on a portion of their production, thus permitting the sale of some instruments of inferior quality. The reasons for this were clearly economical in nature: artisans depending on telescope sales to earn a living simply could not afford the time required for perfection. The mere presence of written works disseminating technical

  11. Lead exposure from aluminum cookware in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidenhamer, Jeffrey D; Kobunski, Peter A; Kuepouo, Gilbert; Corbin, Rebecca W; Gottesfeld, Perry

    2014-10-15

    Blood lead levels have decreased following the removal of lead from gasoline in most of the world. However, numerous recent studies provide evidence that elevated blood lead levels persist in many low and middle-income countries around the world at much higher prevalence than in the more developed countries. One potential source of lead exposure that has not been widely investigated is the leaching of lead from artisanal aluminum cookware, which is commonly used in the developing world. Twenty-nine samples of aluminum cookware and utensils manufactured by local artisans in Cameroon were collected and analyzed for their potential to release lead during cooking. Source materials for this cookware included scrap metal such as engine parts, radiators, cans, and construction materials. The lead content of this cookware is relatively low (food at levels exceeding recommended public health guidelines. Our results support the need to regulate lead content of materials used to manufacture these pots. Artisanal aluminum cookware may be a major contributor to lead poisoning throughout the developing world. Testing of aluminum cookware in other developing countries is warranted. PMID:25087065

  12. Abundance of sardine fish species in Bangladesh

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    Roy Bikram Jit

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted during January, 2012 to December 2012 in the sardine fisheries which is occurred both in artisanal and industrial fishing sector in the marine water of the Bay of Bengal of Bangladesh region. During this study period the total landing amounts by weight of sardines were 7352.99 MT, among these 23.76% (1747.22 MT was exploited by the artisanal mechanized boats and 76.24% (5605.77 MT captured through different industrial fishing trawlers and contributed 17.51% of the total marine fish production by commercial fish trawlers during the study period. 4 sardine species have been recorded from our marine territory. Among them, 2 sardine species are highly abundant, Sardinella fimbriata total production volumes was 5495.79 MT (74.74% contributed 1747.22MT (31.79% from the artisanal and 3748.57MT (68.21% from the industrial sector and Dussumieria acuta production amounts was 1857.20MT (25.26% contributed only from the industrial fishing sector.Species wise contribution shows that S. fimbriata contributed 100% in the artisanal sector and in the industrial fishing S. fimbriata contributed 66.87% and D. acuta contributed the rest 33.13%. The distribution of the S. fimbriata is within 10-20 meters depth and abundance was observed in the southern part of the South patches and South of south patches (N: 210.09// -22, E: 920.04/-07 to N: 200.45/-25, E: 920.18/-56 and 10-50m depth in onshore and off shore areas in the north-west to north-east of Middle ground (Kohinoor point -N: 210.36/.23, E: 900.06/.43 to N: 210.18/.18, E 910.17/.57. The distribution of the D. acuta is within 40-60 m. depth and abundance was observed in the north-west to north-east of Middle ground areas (Kohinoor point - N: 210.36/.23, E: 900.06/.43 to N: 210.18/.18, E 910.17/.57 and south-west to south-east of Middle ground (Kohinoor point- N: 200-17/.29, E: 900.15/.21 to N: 200.29/.56, E: 910.24/.22 in the Bay of Bengal of Bangladesh region. The peak capture season of

  13. Geography and Dynamics of the Industries Processing Raw Materials of Animal Origin in the Villages of Kharkiv Region during the NEP

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    A. Lapchenko

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background research related to the lack of researches in the given topic historiography. Territorial boundaries cover a large region — Kharkiv region, which until 1925 largely coincide with the boundaries of Kharkov province. And in 1925, it was divided into several provinces — Kharkov, Sumy, Kupiansk, Izyumskogo, Romney. The chronological boundaries article dated from 1921–1929’s, during which was implemented new economic polityka.Osnovnu attention paid to the article features geographically-sectoral design small-scale production of animal products in the region in 20 years of the twentieth century. On the basis of the detected and studied complex of sources the author analyzes the source base peasant industries in Kharkiv in this period. Found total number of farmers who were engaged in crafts processing animal products. Also revealed the specific industry Kharkov peasantry during nepu. Isnuvav number of factors that pushed the peasant engage in crafts: surplus agricultural products and raw materials; meet a wide range of numerous industrial, domestic and cultural needs; urgent need to replenish the family budget; surplus labor; free time from agricultural work (especially in winter and others. The development of rural industries processing animal products in the years 1921–1929 in the Kharkiv region characterized by strength and diversity. Village artisans representing an original way of small private commodity production. Basically crafts processing animal products involved in two socio-professional groups: lone artisan and peasant host of crafts. The social basis of industrial employment accounted malozemelni without sowing without Traction economy, which crafts were an important source of household income. The attention is focused on characteristic features of the state policy on «small business » peasants. Attention is paid to co-operation and effects of these industries on the further development rozvytok. Kooperatyvna form

  14. Una investigación participativa en la costa uruguaya: características, desafíos y oportunidades para la enseñanza universitaria

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    Micaela Trimble

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Approaches that promote some kind of community participation have been increasingly used for addressing socio-environmental problems. One of these approaches is participatory research (PR, a research strategy in which diverse stakeholders work collaboratively around an issue of common interest. The group formed to carry out the research participates horizontally in every stage, from choosing the research question to the dissemination of the results. The application of this approach in university education represents a challenge from various perspectives: it redefines the role of the specialist; it questions the traditional views of science and its method; and it promotes the reflection, not only about these topics but about the research/action binomial. After characterizing the participatory research approach, the objective of this paper is to describe three experiences of university education related to a participatory research in the artisanal fishery of Piriápolis (Uruguay. Based on them we discuss the potentials and challenges of the inclusion of this approach in university education in Uruguay. The PR in Piriápolis was initiated in 2011 aiming at addressing local problems of the artisanal fishery among different stakeholders: artisanal fishers, university researchers, government agency in charge of fisheries management, and NGOs. This PR was initiated during a doctoral research, encompassed an undergraduate research, and served as a platform for an undergraduate course in sciences. From these experiences we argue that PR represents a transdisciplinary approach that strengthens, methodologically and conceptually, university initiatives for integral education with emphasis on inter or transdisciplinarity and knowledge dialogue. Additionally, PR can be compatible with undergraduate and graduate theses, and can be linked to diverse educational platforms.

  15. Ethnobiology of snappers (Lutjanidae): target species and suggestions for management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begossi, Alpina; Salivonchyk, Svetlana V; Araujo, Luciana G; Andreoli, Tainá B; Clauzet, Mariana; Martinelli, Claudia M; Ferreira, Allan G I; Oliveira, Luiz E C; Silvano, Renato A M

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we sought to investigate the biology (diet and reproduction) and ethnobiology (fishers knowledge and fishing spots used to catch snappers) of five species of snappers (Lutjanidae), including Lutjanus analis, Lutjanus synagris, Lutjanus vivanus, Ocyurus chrysurus, and Romboplites saliens at five sites along the northeast (Riacho Doce, Maceió in Alagoas State, and Porto do Sauípe, Entre Rios at Bahia State) and the southeast (SE) Brazilian coast (Paraty and Rio de Janeiro cities at Rio de Janeiro State, and Bertioga, at São Paulo State.).We collected 288 snappers and interviewed 86 fishermen. The stomach contents of each fish were examined and macroscopic gonad analysis was performed. Snappers are very important for the fisheries of NE Brazil, and our results indicated that some populations, such as mutton snapper (L. analis) and lane snapper (L. synagris), are being caught when they are too young, at early juvenile stages.Local knowledge has been shown to be a powerful tool for determining appropriate policies regarding management of target species, and artisanal fishermen can be included in management processes. Other suggestions for managing the fisheries are discussed, including proposals that could provide motivation for artisanal fishermen to participate in programs to conserve resources, such as co-management approaches that utilize local knowledge, the establishment of fishing seasons, and compensation of fishermen, through 'payment for environmental services'. These suggestions may enhance the participation of local artisanal fishermen in moving to a more realistic and less top-down management approach of the fish population. PMID:21410969

  16. Extensão participativa para a sustentabilidade da pesca artesanal

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    Antônio Marcos Muniz Carneiro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work consists in a methodological proposal for the fishing activity extension project. It will be coordinated by a Production Engineering Program team from COPPE/UFRJ, focusing on the Natural Resources Management for the sustainability of the marine artisanal fishing in a southeastern Brazil seaside region. Such proposed methodology is interactive and it is recursively developed, configuring it through a dialogic advice. This methodology assumes that the whole problem is of complex extension, making essentially the interdisciplinary and interaction approaches. Therewith, the resolution problems in the handmade fishery department may be performed by sharing scientific and traditional marine knowledge. In this way, the approach is an alternative to the linear and anti-dialogical conception, as it was denounced by Paulo Freire in his seminal work "Comunicação ou Extensão?" (Communication or Extension?, about the extension in Brazil. This methodology founded the Brazilian government fishery extension politics between the last century's sixties and seventies, whose outcome was harmful to the country coastal, estuarine and seafarers ecosystems, affecting their productivity and artisanal fishing itself: rapid urban expansion, rampant growth of tourism with the devaluation of the local cultures, location of industrial parks, pollution, construction of roads, lack of sanitation and others. The purpose of this article is to provide a methodological framework for extension projects that is appropriate to the complexity of artisanal fisheries, characterized by multi-species and associated patterns of regularity of marine ecosystems interventions whose dynamics is highly uncertain with random and chaotic movements. Its main theoretical references comprise three perspectives: (a the reciprocal implications between theory and practice of action research, (b the essential communication and language in the instruments of participatory

  17. Reproductive biology of the prawn Melicertus kerathurus (Decapoda: Penaeidae) in Thermaikos Gulf (N. Aegean Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevrekidis, Kosmas; Thessalou-Legaki, Maria

    2013-03-01

    The reproductive biology including insemination frequency, ovarian maturation, gonadosomatic index (GSI), size at first maturity, and fecundity of Melicertus kerathurus were investigated using monthly samples from Thermaikos Gulf. Insemination was recorded by the presence of a spermatophore in the thelycum, and ovarian development was based on macroscopic ovarian staging (ST1-ST5). Inseminated females were found throughout the year with high percentages recorded from April to July. Although all ovarian stages were represented in mated females, insemination increased with size and ovarian maturation. High percentages of vitellogenic or mature ovarian stages were observed from May to July, while immature and developing ovaries were predominant mainly in winter. Spawned ovaries occurred from May to October. Carapace length at first maturity based on the presence of a spermatophore (CL50sp) was estimated at 39.20 mm, while that based on the presence of vitellogenic and mature ovaries (CL50ov) at 40.70 mm. The seasonal peak in the proportion of mature females (ST4) varied with size. Inseminated females at ST4 and GSI peaked in June-July. GSI varied in relation to insemination status and ovarian stage. In large females (>50 mm CL), the decline in mature ovaries and GSI increment with size indicates a relative reduction in the reproductive output. The number of oocytes ranged from 62,742 to 602,947 (mean ± SD: 268,000 ± 113,000). As the prawns are targeted during the spawning season, mainly by the artisanal fishery, and female size at first maturity is selected by artisanal net size, managerial measures toward artisanal fishery should be implemented.

  18. Gomek Gomanan: Ritual and Power Among the Tagabawa Bagobos of Davao, Mindanao, The Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Honey Libertine R. Achanzar

    2007-01-01

    IntroductionIn the course of my dealings with the Tagabawa Bagobos in the Davao district of the island of Mindanao in the Philippines, I noted their reference to the word tolus.Oftentimes, it is used to mean power, but occasionally, it referred to a spirit that guides the artisan in his work. The word tolus was briefly mentioned by Fay-Cooper Cole(Wild Tribes of Davao District ) in his 1913 ethnographic work on the Tagabawa Bagobos. In his account of traditional Bagobo metal working, he indic...

  19. LA PARROQUIA DE SAN ESTEBAN DE VALENCIA Y EL PALACIO DEL MARQUES DE CARO: UNA HISTORIA PARALELA_ PROPUESTAS E HIPÓTESIS PARA UNA RECONSTRUCCION URBANÍSTICA Y ARQUITECTÓNICA 1238 _ 1519.

    OpenAIRE

    MAÑEZ TESTOR, SANTIAGO

    2016-01-01

    [EN] This master thesis is a study about the urban evolution in the perimeter of the San Esteban church between the conquest of Valencia in 1238 by King Jaime I and the accession of the artisan guilds (Germanías) in 1519. It stress the image and urbanism of the Islamic city, the urban development within the perimeter of the parish with special emphasis on the Islamic wall of both taifa and almohade and the landmarks used to limit the district, is also part ot this study. Several of th...

  20. Draft Genome Sequence of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis bv. diacetylactis CRL264, a Citrate-Fermenting Strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuljan, Federico; Espariz, Martín; Blancato, Victor S; Esteban, Luis; Alarcón, Sergio; Magni, Christian

    2016-01-01

    We report the draft genome sequence of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis bv. diacetylactis CRL264, a natural strain isolated from artisanal cheese from northwest Argentina. L. lactis subsp. lactis bv. diacetylactis is one of the most important microorganisms used as starter culture around the world. The CRL264 strain constitutes a model microorganism in the studies on the generation of aroma compounds (diacetyl, acetoin, and 2,3-butanediol) by lactic acid bacteria. Our genome analysis shows similar genetic organization to other available genomes of L. lactis bv. diacetylactis strains. PMID:26847906