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Sample records for artisans

  1. Artisanal knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raven, Diederick

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This essay is about the ensuing problem that in general it is nothelpful to talk about non-standard knowledge practices as modeled after our Western ideas of what knowledge is. It negotiates this problem by arguing that artisanal knowledge is an independent and self-contained mode of knowledge and is arranged in three parts. In the first part an outline is given of the key assumptions of the interactionist conception of knowledge that needs to be put in place as an alternative to the basically Kantian mixture of empiricist and rationalist assumptions of the folk model of Western academic thinking about knowledge. In this interactionist conception of knowledgeartisanal knowledge gets center stage. In the second part, the notion of craftknowledge is opened up as much as possible. The third and final part takes upthe question whether craft knowledge is a cultural universal.

  2. From Artisan to Partisan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thompson, Grahame

    This paper confronts the question of what a revitalized financial sector might look like if this were to be reconfigured so as to reproduce first an artisanal like persona for the financial analyst and craft like organizational structure for financial businesses, and secondly if this were to be re...

  3. From Artisan to Partisan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thompson, Grahame

    2014-01-01

    This article confronts the question of what a revitalized financial sector might look like if this were to be reconfigured so as to reproduce first an artisanal-like persona for the financial analyst and craft-like organizational structure for financial businesses, and second if this were to be re...

  4. Invited review: Artisanal Mexican cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Córdova, Aarón F; Yescas, Carlos; Ortiz-Estrada, Ángel Martín; De la Rosa-Alcaraz, María de Los Ángeles; Hernández-Mendoza, Adrián; Vallejo-Cordoba, Belinda

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this review is to present an overview of some of the most commonly consumed artisanal Mexican cheeses, as well as those cheeses that show potential for a protected designation of origin. A description is given for each of these cheeses, including information on their distinguishing characteristics that makes some of them potential candidates for achieving a protected designation of origin status. This distinction could help to expand their frontiers and allow them to become better known and appreciated in other parts of the world. Due to the scarcity of scientific studies concerning artisanal Mexican cheeses, which would ultimately aid in the standardization of manufacturing processes and in the establishment of regulations related to their production, more than 40 varieties of artisanal cheese are in danger of disappearing. To preserve these cheeses, it is necessary to address this challenge by working jointly with government, artisanal cheesemaking organizations, industry, academics, and commercial partners on the implementation of strategies to protect and preserve their artisanal means of production. With sufficient information, official Mexican regulations could be established that would encompass and regulate the manufacture of Mexican artisanal cheeses. Finally, as many Mexican artisanal cheeses are produced from raw milk, more scientific studies are required to show the role of the lactic acid bacteria and their antagonistic effect on pathogenic microorganisms during aging following cheese making. PMID:26830738

  5. Training Artisans On-Site

    OpenAIRE

    Edoghogho Ogbeifun

    2011-01-01

    The decline in apprenticeship in both the public and private sectors, the increasing use of sub-contractors as well as the uncoordinated approach in the informal sector are contributing factors to the shortage of skilled artisans in the construction industry. Artisans training can be introduced and implemented through the adoption of progressive implementation of construction processes commencing work from areas requiring low skill demands to areas of high skill demand. The success of this pr...

  6. Training Artisans On-Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edoghogho Ogbeifun

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The decline in apprenticeship in both the public and private sectors, the increasing use of sub-contractors as well as the uncoordinated approach in the informal sector are contributing factors to the shortage of skilled artisans in the construction industry. Artisans training can be introduced and implemented through the adoption of progressive implementation of construction processes commencing work from areas requiring low skill demands to areas of high skill demand. The success of this principle hinges on the collaborative effort of the key project stakeholders. The client should be willing to absorb extra cost and delays in the project; the design and contract documentation should facilitate on-site training, and  the consultant actively guide the contractor and the construction processes to achieve the training objectives. The exploratory research method was adopted in this study and research revealed that this principle was used in a project in the UK and in the development of infrastructure in the tourism industry of South Africa .It is being recommended that the principle be adapted by the public sector for the development of small size infrastructures that can be repeated in many places. This will boost the quality and quantity of artisans, enhance employability, reduce rural urban migration and alleviate poverty.Keywords: Skilled artisans, on-site training, progressive construction processes, project stakeholders, contract documentation. 

  7. Do fish have rights in artisanal fisheries?

    OpenAIRE

    Mustapha MK

    2013-01-01

    Artisanal fishers in developing world are unaware that fish are capable of suffering or discomfort, though researches have shown that fish do feel pain. Five fish welfare domains have been identified which constitute their rights in their environment. The needs of wild fish are usually provided in their natural, undisturbed and unperturbed aquatic environment, of which the fish will prefer. However, various anthropogenic activities by humans (including artisanal fisheries itself) and some nat...

  8. Artisan retention in an organisation in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lariska van Rooyen

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: South Africa is facing a critical shortage of artisans. Therefore it is important to investigate which factors contribute to the retention of artisans by organisations.Research purpose: The objective of this study was to investigate the factors that are important for artisan retention at a South African organisation.Motivation for the study: Organisations that employ artisans need to understand what the main reasons are for keeping or losing artisans from the perspective of the artisans themselves. This information can be used to plan and implement interventions to deal with artisan retention in organisations.Research design, approach and method: A qualitative design was used and a purposive sample was taken (n = 14. A biographical questionnaire was administered and semi-structured interviews were conducted to gather data from artisans.Main findings: Remuneration had the highest rank of all the factors for the retention of artisans, closely followed by development opportunities. Other factors that were perceived as important for artisan retention included equality, recognition, management and the working environment, and working relationships.Practical implications: Organisations that employ artisans should especially attend to their remuneration and development opportunities.Contribution: The results of this study add to the knowledge of why artisans remain with a specific organisation.

  9. Phytomining for Artisanal Gold Mine Tailings Management

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    Baiq Dewi Krisnayanti

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Mine tailings are generally disposed of by artisanal and small scale gold miners in poorly constructed containment areas and this leads to environmental risk. Gold phytomining could be a possible option for tailings management at artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM locations where plants accumulate residual gold in their above ground biomass. The value of metal recovered from plants could offset some of the costs of environmental management. Getting gold into plants has been repeatedly demonstrated by many research groups; however, a simple working technology to get gold out of plants is less well described. A field experiment to assess the relevance of the technology to artisanal miners was conducted in Central Lombok, Indonesia between April and June 2015. Tobacco was planted in cyanidation tailings (1 mg/kg gold and grown for 2.5 months before the entire plot area was irrigated with NaCN to induce metal uptake. Biomass was then harvested (100 kg, air dried, and ashed by miners in equipment currently used to ash activated carbon at the end of a cyanide leach circuit. Borax and silver as a collector metal were added to the tobacco ash and smelted at high temperature to extract metals from the ash. The mass of the final bullion (39 g was greater than the mass of silver used as a collector (31 g, indicating recovery of metals from the biomass through the smelt process. The gold yield of this trial was low (1.2 mg/kg dry weight biomass concentration, indicating that considerable work must still be done to optimise valuable metal recovery by plants at the field scale. However, the described method to process the biomass was technically feasible, and represents a valid technique that artisanal and small-scale gold miners are willing to adopt if the economic case is good.

  10. Artisanal Fisheries Research: A Need for Globalization?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Gilmar C Oliveira Júnior

    Full Text Available Given limited funds for research and widespread degradation of ecosystems, environmental scientists should geographically target their studies where they will be most effective. However, in academic areas such as conservation and natural resource management there is often a mismatch between the geographic foci of research effort/funding and research needs. The former frequently being focused in the developed world while the latter is greater in the biodiverse countries of the Global South. Here, we adopt a bibliometric approach to test this hypothesis using research on artisanal fisheries. Such fisheries occur throughout the world, but are especially prominent in developing countries where they are important for supporting local livelihoods, food security and poverty alleviation. Moreover, most artisanal fisheries in the Global South are unregulated and unmonitored and are in urgent need of science-based management to ensure future sustainability. Our results indicate that, as predicted, global research networks and centres of knowledge production are predominantly located in developed countries, indicating a global mismatch between research needs and capacity.

  11. Artisanal Fisheries Research: A Need for Globalization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira Júnior, José Gilmar C; Silva, Luana P S; Malhado, Ana C M; Batista, Vandick S; Fabré, Nidia N; Ladle, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    Given limited funds for research and widespread degradation of ecosystems, environmental scientists should geographically target their studies where they will be most effective. However, in academic areas such as conservation and natural resource management there is often a mismatch between the geographic foci of research effort/funding and research needs. The former frequently being focused in the developed world while the latter is greater in the biodiverse countries of the Global South. Here, we adopt a bibliometric approach to test this hypothesis using research on artisanal fisheries. Such fisheries occur throughout the world, but are especially prominent in developing countries where they are important for supporting local livelihoods, food security and poverty alleviation. Moreover, most artisanal fisheries in the Global South are unregulated and unmonitored and are in urgent need of science-based management to ensure future sustainability. Our results indicate that, as predicted, global research networks and centres of knowledge production are predominantly located in developed countries, indicating a global mismatch between research needs and capacity. PMID:26942936

  12. Artisanal Fisheries Research: A Need for Globalization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira Júnior, José Gilmar C; Silva, Luana P S; Malhado, Ana C M; Batista, Vandick S; Fabré, Nidia N; Ladle, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    Given limited funds for research and widespread degradation of ecosystems, environmental scientists should geographically target their studies where they will be most effective. However, in academic areas such as conservation and natural resource management there is often a mismatch between the geographic foci of research effort/funding and research needs. The former frequently being focused in the developed world while the latter is greater in the biodiverse countries of the Global South. Here, we adopt a bibliometric approach to test this hypothesis using research on artisanal fisheries. Such fisheries occur throughout the world, but are especially prominent in developing countries where they are important for supporting local livelihoods, food security and poverty alleviation. Moreover, most artisanal fisheries in the Global South are unregulated and unmonitored and are in urgent need of science-based management to ensure future sustainability. Our results indicate that, as predicted, global research networks and centres of knowledge production are predominantly located in developed countries, indicating a global mismatch between research needs and capacity.

  13. Work and Masculinity in Katanga’s Artisanal Mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen Cuvelier

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article, based on 16 months of anthropological fieldwork between 2005 and 2012, examines the relationship between work and masculinity among artisanal miners, or creuseurs, in Katanga, the southeastern province of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. It argues that men’s involvement in artisanal mining should be considered not only as an economic survival strategy but also as an attempt to experiment with new ways of being a man in a context of economic crisis and changing gender relations. Furthermore, the article criticizes the tendency to downplay or underestimate the complexity and diversity of processes of masculine identity construction in Africa’s artisanal-mining areas. In order to do justice to the intricacy of these processes, the article proposes using concepts and insights from the field of masculinity studies and distinguishing between a levelling and a differentiating trend in artisanal miners’ masculinity practices.

  14. Do artisanal fishers perceive declining migratory shorebird populations?

    OpenAIRE

    de Andrade, Luciano Pires; Silva-Andrade, Horasa Maria Lima; Lyra-Neves, Rachel Maria; Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino; Telino-Júnior, Wallace Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    Background This paper discusses the results of ethno-ornithological research conducted on the local ecological knowledge (LEK) of artisanal fishers in northeast Brazil between August 2013 and October 2014. Methods The present study analyzed the LEK of 240 artisanal fishermen in relation to Nearctic shorebirds and the factors that may be affecting their populations. We examined whether differences occurred according to the gender and age of the local population. The research instruments includ...

  15. Energy Modeling for the Artisan Food Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goel, Supriya [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-05-01

    The Artisan Food Center is a 6912 sq.ft food processing plant located in Dayton, Washington. PNNL was contacted by Strecker Engineering to assist with the building’s energy analysis as a part of the project’s U.S. Green Building Council’s Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) submittal requirements. The project is aiming for LEED Silver certification, one of the prerequisites to which is a whole building energy model to demonstrate compliance with American Society of Heating Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) 90.1 2007 Appendix G, Performance Rating Method. The building incorporates a number of energy efficiency measures as part of its design and the energy analysis aimed at providing Strecker Engineering with the know-how of developing an energy model for the project as well as an estimate of energy savings of the proposed design over the baseline design, which could be used to document points in the LEED documentation. This report documents the ASHRAE 90.1 2007 baseline model design, the proposed model design, the modeling assumptions and procedures as well as the energy savings results in order to inform the Strecker Engineering team on a possible whole building energy model.

  16. Microbiological quality of artisanal ice cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maifreni, M; Civilini, M; Domenis, C; Manzano, M; Di Prima, R; Comi, G

    1993-09-01

    In the course of the years 1990 and 1991, 396 samples of artisanal ice-cream had been collected from different ice-cream shops in Udine and province and analysed. All tested flavours contained aerobic germs, coliforms, Enterococci and yeasts in different quantities. In the analysed samples neither Salmonellae spp., nor Listeria monocytogenes nor Staphylococcus aureus were detected. Numerous species of coliforms and yeasts were randomly isolated and identified. The statistical analysis, used to compare the variables (flavour, month, year), showed significant differences among the samples analysed in the two years. In September, the means of the total aerobic count were significantly different from the ones of July and of August. No significant differences were noted in the means of coliforms, total aerobic counts and yeasts in the different flavours. The techniques for recovery of freeze-stressed coliforms in artificially contaminated samples of ice-cream showed that the three techniques, which use both selective and non-selective mediums, are better than those ones, which use only selective mediums. Lastly, with regard at the coliform values, the ice-creams tested have small-medium quality. In fact 26% of the ice-creams cannot be sealed, according to the Italian Ministry Ordinance (October 11, 1978). PMID:8267839

  17. Between Tradition and Tourism: Educational Strategies of a Zapotec Artisan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Melanie G.

    2007-01-01

    This case study examines the teaching and learning strategies employed by a Zapotec weaver in Oaxaca, Mexico, to draw attention to the personal agency of indigenous artisans participating in the tourist economy, and to examine ways in which non-formal and informal education in skills and understandings related to art can function in the lives of…

  18. Start-up and operating costs for artisan cheese companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouma, Andrea; Durham, Catherine A; Meunier-Goddik, Lisbeth

    2014-01-01

    Lack of valid economic data for artisan cheese making is a serious impediment to developing a realistic business plan and obtaining financing. The objective of this study was to determine approximate start-up and operating costs for an artisan cheese company. In addition, values are provided for the required size of processing and aging facilities associated with specific production volumes. Following in-depth interviews with existing artisan cheese makers, an economic model was developed to predict costs based on input variables such as production volume, production frequency, cheese types, milk types and cost, labor expenses, and financing. Estimated values for start-up cost for processing and aging facility ranged from $267,248 to $623,874 for annual production volumes of 3,402 kg (7,500 lb) and 27,216 kg (60,000 lb), respectively. First-year production costs ranged from $65,245 to $620,094 for the above-mentioned production volumes. It is likely that high start-up and operating costs remain a significant entry barrier for artisan cheese entrepreneurs. PMID:24746129

  19. Biodiversity conservation versus artisanal gold mining: a case study of Chimanimani National Park, Zimbabwe

    OpenAIRE

    Gandiwa, E.; Gandiwa, P.

    2012-01-01

    Artisanal gold mining plays an important role in sustainable development of rural communities. The objectives of this study were to: i) assess the environmental impacts of recent artisanal gold mining activities in Chimanimani National Park (CNP), eastern Zimbabwe, and ii) discuss the associated implications of artisanal gold mining to sustainable development in the Chimanimani area. Data were collected in January 2010 and law enforcement records kept at CNP were examined to gather trends in ...

  20. Un artisan verrier crétois à Venise

    OpenAIRE

    Maltézou, Chryssa

    2016-01-01

    Dans les documents vénitiens l’artisan travaillant le cristal est mentionné comme cristallaio, cristalario (cristellarius). Une sentence judiciaire du 21 juillet 1401, conservée aux Archives d’État de Venise, se réfère à un différend entre une artisane du verre – d’après son nom probablement juive – et son associé crétois. Selon le document publié ci-après, dona Jacoba, cristalario, habitant San Zulian, avait donné à Manoli Foca (Fuga) de Candie, représentant son frère Antonio, une somme de 6...

  1. Economic analysis of rural and artisanal aquaculture in Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Recalde Ruiz, Jose Renato

    2009-01-01

    Three different types of culture and conditions were tested to determine the profitability of Rural and Artisanal Aquaculture Project in Ecuador: monoculture of the freshwater fish named locally cachama (Piaractus brachypomus), monoculture of red claw crayfish (Cherax quadricarinatus) and polyculture tilapia (Oreochromis sp.) – cachama (Piaractus brachypomus). The economic models used for this particular analysis were Net Present Value (NPV) and Internal Rate of Return (IRR). Using these meth...

  2. Not only a man's world: Women's involvement in artisanal mining in eastern DRC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bashwira Nyenyezi, M.R.; Cuvelier, J.; Hilhorst, D.J.M.; Haar, van der G.

    2014-01-01

    Artisanal mining is a key source of livelihood in the eastern part of the Democratic Republic of Congo, an area mostly known for its chronic instability and violent conflict. Although men make up the majority of the artisanal mining population, mining is also central in the livelihoods of many girls

  3. Biodiversity conservation versus artisanal gold mining: a case study of Chimanimani National Park, Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gandiwa, E.; Gandiwa, P.

    2012-01-01

    Artisanal gold mining plays an important role in sustainable development of rural communities. The objectives of this study were to: i) assess the environmental impacts of recent artisanal gold mining activities in Chimanimani National Park (CNP), eastern Zimbabwe, and ii) discuss the associated imp

  4. Temporal Stability in Fishing Spots: Conservation and Co-Management in Brazilian Artisanal Coastal Fisheries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alpina Begossi

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The management of small-scale artisanal fisheries in Brazil should be a priority because of their importance as a source of food for internal markets and their location in sites with high biodiversity, such as the Atlantic Forest coast. Fishing spots, territories, and sea tenure have been widely studied within artisanal fisheries, and, in this study, a fishing spot of this type may be a defended area or an area that imposes rules for users, making the exclusion of outsiders feasible, or even a place in which fishing occurs with some exclusivity. This analysis takes into account the importance of fishing areas for the conservation of artisanal fishing in Brazil and the relative temporal stability of these areas. In particular, examples of the use of the marine space on the coast of Brazil in areas such as Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, and Bahia States are presented. Fishing spots used by artisanal fishers were marked using a Global Positioning System (GPS. An informal division of the marine space and high temporal stability, often in the range of 10–30 yr, in the use of the fishing spots were found. For some fishing areas, information published in the 1960s provided a relevant comparison for the current use of the fishing spots at sea. Such information is very helpful for the management of artisanal fishing in Brazil because tourism has increased in some areas, recreational fishers have been fishing in marine spots used by artisanal fishers, and industrial fishers are spread over a wide range of the marine space in these coastal waters. This stability in the use of marine space among artisanal fishers plus local rules support the case for local co-management of artisanal fisheries. Reserving areas for artisanal fishers and understanding the behavior of other users are essential aspects for the management and conservation of artisanal fishing in Brazil.

  5. POWER GENERATION IN AN ORGANIZATION OF WOMEN ARTISAN PUEBLA, MEXICO

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    María del Rosario Figueroa-Rodríguez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous women artisans from Puebla state, facing poverty of their domestic groups through craft production as a breeding strategies that ensure their survival; for this reason a group of women leaders representing local groups, has formed a regional organization, "SIUAMEJ, AC", to address the lack of income. This research focuses on the study of the organization in question, in order to meet changes in gender relations and the effects of the participation of women artisans in this organization, the formation of democratic leadership and the construction of individual and collective empowerment. In the research were used theoretical and methodological from a gender perspective tools, Participatory Research and Popular Education. The techniques used were group workshops, questionnaires, interviews and participant observation. Was applied a questionnaire for women leaders of local organizations of the organization, both as participant observation group workshops were conducted with 14 local organizations covering just over 437 members applied. Among the identified results highlight the participation in collective decision-making through consensus, administrative management and access to training content that has allowed the individual and collective development of both leaders and women members of the local groups.

  6. Pars plana vitrectomy and artisan iris fixated intraocular lens for aphakia in complicated vitreoretinal referrals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lolly Pattnaik

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: Artisan iris fixated IOL's are a safe and effective option in eyes with concomitant poor capsular support and vitreoretinal complications requiring PPV. The postoperative visual acuity depends on the underlying pathological features present preoperatively.

  7. Occurrence and Genetic Diversity of Arcobacter butzleri in an Artisanal Dairy Plant in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Giacometti, Federica; Lucchi, Alex; Manfreda, Gerardo; Florio, Daniela; Zanoni, Renato Giulio; Serraino, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the presence, distribution, and persistence of Arcobacter spp. in an artisanal dairy plant and to test the isolates to determine their different genotypes in the processing plant and in foods. Samples were collected in an artisanal cheese factory on four occasions between October and December 2012. Food samples (raw milk, ricotta cheese, mozzarella cheese, and conditioning liquid), water samples, and environmental samples were analyzed by the culture met...

  8. Impact of Mercury Use in Artisanal Gold Mining on Community Health: Kahama Case Study, Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Kalwani, Jumanne Daudi; Fumbuka, Colorine

    2014-01-01

    This study is part of the main research carried out in 2010 which investigated social economic impact of uncontrolled artisanal mining on local communities and the environment using a case study of sampled gold mining sites in selected villages in Lunguya and Segese wards in Kahama District, Tanzania. The methodology involved a study sample size of 210 households, forming 70% of the targeted mining villages. They were interviewed on various social economic variables related to artisanal minin...

  9. An Integrated Assessment Approach to Address Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Niladri Basu; Renne, Elisha P.; Rachel N. Long

    2015-01-01

    Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) is growing in many regions of the world including Ghana. The problems in these communities are complex and multi-faceted. To help increase understanding of such problems, and to enable consensus-building and effective translation of scientific findings to stakeholders, help inform policies, and ultimately improve decision making, we utilized an Integrated Assessment approach to study artisanal and small-scale gold mining activities in Ghana. Thou...

  10. LIVE/DEAD YEAST VIABILITY STAINING AS A TOOL FOR IMPROVING ARTISANAL PILSNER BEER PRODUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Benedetta Bottari; Giovanni Campari; Monica Gatti

    2014-01-01

    The production of an artisanal beer, made by brewers using traditional practices on a small scale, is founded on the empirical adjustment of parameters, including yeasts handling and serial repitching. The aim of this study was to monitor yeast viability during different stages of artisanal beer productions through the Live/Dead Yeast viability staining and to correlate it with fermentation dynamics in order to increase process standardization and to maintain the quality of final products. Ye...

  11. Isolation of Cronobacter spp. (Enterobacter sakazakii from artisanal mozzarella

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    Francesco Casalinuovo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Cronobacter spp. (Enterobacter sakazakii is an opportunistic bacterial pathogen capable of causing disease and even fatalities in newborn infants within the first weeks of life if consumed as part of the diet. Premature and immunocompromised newborn infants are at particular risk. The microorganism has been isolated from a variety of foods including contaminated infant milk formula powder and milk powder substitute. The study aimed to evaluate the level of microbiological contamination in 47 samples of mozzarella cheese made with cow’s milk collected from artisan cheese producers in Southern Italy. Samples were collected from commercial sales points and underwent qualitative and quantitative microbiological analyses to test for the bacterial contaminants most commonly found in milk and cheese products. The 47 samples underwent qualitative and quantitative microbiological tests according to ISO UNI EN standards. Analyses focused on Staphylococcus aures, Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas spp., E. coli, Yersinia spp., total coliforms and Cronobacter sakazakii. The ISO/TS 22964:2006 method was used to investigate possible contamination by C. sakazakii. Biochemical identification was carried out using an automated system for identification and susceptibility tests. None of the samples examined resulted positive for Salmonella spp. or Listeria spp. Only one sample resulted positive for Staphylococcus aureus. Pseudomonas spp. was isolated in 10 (21% of 47 samples. High levels of total coliforms were found in 10 of 47 samples. Cronobacter spp. (Enterobacter sakazakii was isolated in one sample. This is the first study to confirm isolation of C. sakazakii in artisan mozzarella cheese made from cow’s milk. The presence of C. sakazakii could be related to external contamination during the phases of production or to the use of contaminated milk. Since mozzarella is recommended in the diet of children and adults of all ages, this

  12. Risks of toxic ash from artisanal mining of discarded cellphones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hibbert, Kathleen [School of Social Ecology, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Ogunseitan, Oladele A., E-mail: Oladele.Ogunseitan@uci.edu [School of Social Ecology, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Department of Population Health and Disease Prevention, Program in Public Health, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States)

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • We simulated artisanal incineration of four component categories of cellphones. • We identified metals and organic chemicals in the resulting electronic waste ash. • We used USETox model to demonstrate potential ecotoxicity and human health impacts. • We identify targets for risk reduction for hazardous chemicals in cellphones. - Abstract: The potential environmental and human health impacts of artisanal mining of electronic waste through open incineration were investigated. A market-representative set of cellphones was dismantled into four component categories—batteries, circuit boards, plastics and screens. The components were shredded, sieved and incinerated at 743–818 °C. The concentrations of 17 metals were determined using U.S. EPA methods 6010C (inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry; 6020A (inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, or 7471B and 7470A (cold-vapor atomic absorption). EPA Method 8270 (gas chromatography/mass spectrometry) was used to identify polyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds and polybrominated diphenyl ethers. EPA Method 8082A was used to measure polychlorinated biphenyls and EPA Method 8290 was used for dioxin/furans in the residue ash. The life cycle assessment model USEtox{sup ®} was used to estimate impacts of the ash residue chemicals on human health and the ecosystem. Among metals, copper in printed circuit boards had the highest ecotoxicity impact (1610–1930 PAF m{sup 3}/kg); Beryllium in plastics had the highest impact on producing non-cancer diseases (0.14–0.44 cases/kg of ash); and Nickel had the largest impact on producing cancers (0.093–0.35 cases/kg of ash). Among organic chemicals, dioxins from incinerated batteries produced the largest ecotoxicological impact (1.07E − 04 to 3.64E − 04 PAF m{sup 3}/kg). Furans in incinerated batteries can generate the largest number of cancers and non-cancer diseases, representing 8.12E − 09 to 2.28E − 08 and 8.96E − 10 and 2.52E

  13. Risks of toxic ash from artisanal mining of discarded cellphones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We simulated artisanal incineration of four component categories of cellphones. • We identified metals and organic chemicals in the resulting electronic waste ash. • We used USETox model to demonstrate potential ecotoxicity and human health impacts. • We identify targets for risk reduction for hazardous chemicals in cellphones. - Abstract: The potential environmental and human health impacts of artisanal mining of electronic waste through open incineration were investigated. A market-representative set of cellphones was dismantled into four component categories—batteries, circuit boards, plastics and screens. The components were shredded, sieved and incinerated at 743–818 °C. The concentrations of 17 metals were determined using U.S. EPA methods 6010C (inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry; 6020A (inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, or 7471B and 7470A (cold-vapor atomic absorption). EPA Method 8270 (gas chromatography/mass spectrometry) was used to identify polyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds and polybrominated diphenyl ethers. EPA Method 8082A was used to measure polychlorinated biphenyls and EPA Method 8290 was used for dioxin/furans in the residue ash. The life cycle assessment model USEtox® was used to estimate impacts of the ash residue chemicals on human health and the ecosystem. Among metals, copper in printed circuit boards had the highest ecotoxicity impact (1610–1930 PAF m3/kg); Beryllium in plastics had the highest impact on producing non-cancer diseases (0.14–0.44 cases/kg of ash); and Nickel had the largest impact on producing cancers (0.093–0.35 cases/kg of ash). Among organic chemicals, dioxins from incinerated batteries produced the largest ecotoxicological impact (1.07E − 04 to 3.64E − 04 PAF m3/kg). Furans in incinerated batteries can generate the largest number of cancers and non-cancer diseases, representing 8.12E − 09 to 2.28E − 08 and 8.96E − 10 and 2.52E − 09 cases/kg of

  14. The future of artisanal gold mining and miners under an increasing industrial presence in South Kivu and Ituri, eastern Democratic Republic of Congo

    OpenAIRE

    Geenen, Sara; Fahey, Daniel; Iragi Mukotanyi, Francine

    2013-01-01

    While the Congolese government is actively promoting large-scale industrial mining since it provides easy rents, artisanal mining seems to escape most attempts to control and regulate it. Yet artisanal mining provides employment and livelihoods to an estimated million people. This paper presents original research on artisanal gold miners in Province Orientale (Ituri district) and South Kivu. In both locations, the start of industrial gold mining operations threatens to displace artisanal mini...

  15. Total rewards: A study of artisan attraction and retention within a South African context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Schlechter

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The shortage of artisan skills remains a serious challenge in South Africa andis forcing employers to investigate which total reward factors contribute to the attractionand retention of this critical skills segment, as undifferentiated retention strategies are nolonger useful or even appropriate.Research purpose: The aim of this study was to further develop understanding of the total rewardfactors and the ideal combination and relative amount of total rewards that attract and retainartisans, including artisans from various race groups and age cohorts, using a novel approach.Motivation for the study: Limited research is available on the total reward factors and theideal combination and relative amount of total rewards that attract and retain artisans. Furtherknowledge in this area will allow organisations to develop reward models that better attractand retain artisans.Method: The study followed both a quantitative and qualitative research approach,whilst adopting a descriptive research design. Using this mixed method, primary datawere collected from individuals by means of two focus groups discussions: (1 a groupof human resource and remuneration managers (n = 4 and (2 a group of artisans (n = 7.These results were used to develop two questionnaires that were distributed to artisans (n = 143. Data from Questionnaire 1 were analysed using descriptive statistics and factoranalysis. Conjoint analysis was employed to identify an ideal total rewards compositionbased on responses from Questionnaire 2.Main findings: The results of the choice-based modelling (conjoint analysis revealed thatthree total rewards attributes were consistently deemed to be important in the retention ofartisans. These were (in order of priority: environment (work-life balance, compensation(level and compensation (variable. Environment (work-life balance was considered14.64% more important than compensation (level within the overall sample as well aswithin the race

  16. Attractors and soak times in artisanal fi shing with traps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Figueiredo Sebastiani

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Traps are used by artisanal fishers as fishing gear in places where other fishing modalities are impeded or limited. The advantage of this type of fishing modality is the possibility of keeping fish alive and in the case of capturing species of low commercial value or size below the permitted minimum this fishing gear allows the release of such specimens back to nature, resulting in a sustainability aspect to the use of this fishing gear. This study aims to evaluate the effects of different attractors and times of submersion on the efficiency of the traps used. Sardines, shrimps and trash fish were employed as attractors. To evaluate the soak time, two periods were tested: 24 and 96 hours. The sardines, used as the attractor, resulted in a production of 1,296.4 ± 397.4g, significantly superior (p <0.05 to other attractors. In relation to the soak time, the period of 24 hours resulted in an average production of 1,719.2 ± 866.0g, significantly (p <0.05 superior to the period of 96 hours. The results led to the conclusion that to optimize this capture by fishing gear, sardines should be used as the attractor, together with a soak time of 24 hours.

  17. Artisanal salt production in Aveiro/Portugal - an ecofriendly process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Carolina M; Bio, Ana; Amat, Francisco; Vieira, Natividade

    2011-11-04

    Solar salinas are man-made systems exploited for the extraction of salt, by solar and wind evaporation of seawater. Salt production achieved by traditional methods is associated with landscapes and environmental and patrimonial values generated throughout history. Since the mid-twentieth century, this activity has been facing a marked decline in Portugal, with most salinas either abandoned or subjected to destruction, making it necessary to find a strategy to reverse this trend.It is, however, possible to generate revenue from salinas at several levels, not merely in terms of good quality salt production, but also by obtaining other products that can be commercialized, or by exploring their potential for tourism, and as research facilities, among others. Furthermore, with an adequate management, biodiversity can be restored to abandoned salinas, which constitute important feeding and breeding grounds for resident and migratory aquatic birds, many of which are protected by European Community Directives.The aims of this manuscript are to present a brief overview on the current state of sea salt exploitation in Portugal and to stress the importance of recovering these salinas for the conservation of this particular environment, for the regional economy, the scientific community and the general public. The Aveiro salina complex is presented in detail, to exemplify salina structure and functioning, as well as current problems and potential solutions for artisanal salinas.

  18. Enterococci from artisanal dairy products show high levels of adaptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlos, Ana Rita; Santos, Jorge; Semedo-Lemsaddek, Teresa; Barreto-Crespo, Maria Teresa; Tenreiro, Rogério

    2009-02-15

    Enterococci are ubiquitous organisms able to promote both health (fermented food/probiotics) and illness (human/animal infections). Disturbingly, several enterococcal species commonly found in artisanal cheeses, such as Enterococcus faecalis and E. faecium, are being increasingly established as causes of infection, posing a problem for food safety. In this study enterococci from ewe's milk and cheese were compared to clinical and reference strains by growth in media simulating environmental colonization and infection sites: 2YT, BHI, skim milk, urine and rabbit serum at different pHs, NaCl concentrations and temperatures. Growth curves were obtained with Microbiology Workstation Bioscreen C and used to calculate relative indexes--RIs--(based on absorbance, lag phase and specific growth rate) for each strain and environmental condition. Similar or higher RIs were obtained for food strains growing in infection-related environments when compared to clinical ones, revealing their ability to adapt and grow in these conditions. A dendrogram built using Pearson's correlation coefficient and a PCA analysis clustered the strains regardless of their origin or species allocation, suggesting a strain-specific mode of growth and a high environmental adaptability of enterococcal strains. These evidences turn essential the evaluation of strains to be used as starters or probiotics. PMID:19108923

  19. Artisanal fisheries of the Xingu River basin in Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, V J; Almeida, M C; Cruz, R E A; Nunes, L G

    2015-08-01

    The present study characterises the commercial fisheries of the basin of the Xingu River, a major tributary of the Amazon River, between the towns of Gurupá (at the mouth of the Amazon) and São Félix do Xingu. Between April, 2012, and March, 2014, a total of 23,939 fishing trips were recorded, yielding a total production of 1,484 tons of fish, harvested by almost three thousand fishers. The analysis of the catches emphasizes the small-scale and artisanal nature of the region's fisheries, with emphasis on the contribution of the motorised canoes powered by "long-tail" outboard motors. Larger motorboats operate only at the mouth of the Xingu and on the Amazon. Peacock bass (Cichla spp.), croakers (Plagioscion spp.), pacu (a group containing numerous serrasalmid species), aracu (various anostomids), and curimatã (Prochilodus nigricans) together contributed more than 60% of the total catch. Mean catch per unit effort was 18 kg/fisher-1.day-1, which varied among fishing methods (type of vessel and fishing equipment used), river sections, and time of the year. In most cases, yields varied little between years (2012 and 2013). The technical database provided by this study constitutes an important resource for the regulation of the region's fisheries, as well as for the evaluation of future changes resulting from the construction of the Belo Monte dam on the Xingu River.

  20. Artisanal salt production in Aveiro/Portugal - an ecofriendly process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Carolina M; Bio, Ana; Amat, Francisco; Vieira, Natividade

    2011-01-01

    Solar salinas are man-made systems exploited for the extraction of salt, by solar and wind evaporation of seawater. Salt production achieved by traditional methods is associated with landscapes and environmental and patrimonial values generated throughout history. Since the mid-twentieth century, this activity has been facing a marked decline in Portugal, with most salinas either abandoned or subjected to destruction, making it necessary to find a strategy to reverse this trend.It is, however, possible to generate revenue from salinas at several levels, not merely in terms of good quality salt production, but also by obtaining other products that can be commercialized, or by exploring their potential for tourism, and as research facilities, among others. Furthermore, with an adequate management, biodiversity can be restored to abandoned salinas, which constitute important feeding and breeding grounds for resident and migratory aquatic birds, many of which are protected by European Community Directives.The aims of this manuscript are to present a brief overview on the current state of sea salt exploitation in Portugal and to stress the importance of recovering these salinas for the conservation of this particular environment, for the regional economy, the scientific community and the general public. The Aveiro salina complex is presented in detail, to exemplify salina structure and functioning, as well as current problems and potential solutions for artisanal salinas. PMID:22053788

  1. Physicochemical and microbiological evaluation of corrientes artisanal cheese during ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Myriam Vasek

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate some physical and chemical parameters (total solids, pH, acidity, fat, acid degree value of fat, salt, protein and nitrogen fractions and their effects on the beneficial (lactic acid bacteria: LAB and undesirable microbial populations (coliforms, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, moulds, and yeast during ripening of Artisanal Corrientes Cheese, an Argentinian cow's milk variety, to determine whether a longer ripening period than usual improve its hygienic-sanitary quality. The protein content was much higher than that of other cow's milk cheeses with similar values of fat. The larger peptides showed values three times higher in the 30 day-old cheese than those obtained in the beginning of the process. Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were detected (3.04 ± 1.48 log10 cfu/g of cheese, 2.21 ± 0.84 log10 MPN/g of cheese even at 15 and 30 days of ripening, respectively. The distribution of three hundred LAB strains classified to the genus level (lactococci:lactobacilli:leuconostocs was maintained during the ripening period. The high number of LAB in rennet may have contributed to the fermentation as a natural whey starter, unknown source of LAB for this specific cheese so far. The physicochemical changes that occur during ripening were not big enough to inhibit the growth of undesirable microorganisms.

  2. Is the god of diamonds alone? The role of institutions in artisanal mining in forest landscapes, Congo Basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schure, J.M.; Ingram, V.J.; Tieguhong, J.C.; Ndikumagenge, C.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the institutional framework of artisanal mining in the forests of the Sangha Tri-National Landscape (TNS) in the Congo Basin. Artisanal miners in Cameroon and the Central African Republic (CAR) commonly make sacrifices to their god of diamonds, to improve fortunes. This study loo

  3. Responding to the challenge of artisanal and small-scale mining. How can knowledge networks help?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buxton, Abbi

    2013-02-15

    This paper reviews what is known about the problems and structural challenges facing the 20-30 million artisanal and small-scale miners and their communities worldwide. Better understanding of these structural challenges is needed to improve policies and policy implementation to further sustainable development opportunities for the sector. The paper explores the current gaps in knowledge to achieve policy change from researchers, practitioners and artisanal and small-scale miners themselves. It explores how a 'knowledge intermediary', which acts to link knowledge with policy, could address these gaps and includes case studies of IIED’s work on knowledge networks and programmes. The paper concludes by proposing a way forward for designing a knowledge programme to meet the particular needs of the artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM) sector, and by inviting ASM sector stakeholders to share their views on the options outlined.

  4. LIVE/DEAD YEAST VIABILITY STAINING AS A TOOL FOR IMPROVING ARTISANAL PILSNER BEER PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedetta Bottari

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The production of an artisanal beer, made by brewers using traditional practices on a small scale, is founded on the empirical adjustment of parameters, including yeasts handling and serial repitching. The aim of this study was to monitor yeast viability during different stages of artisanal beer productions through the Live/Dead Yeast viability staining and to correlate it with fermentation dynamics in order to increase process standardization and to maintain the quality of final products. Yeast viability and fermentation activities were evaluated during seven fermentation cycles of an artisanal pilsner beer. Yeast inoculated with higher viability performed generally better in fermentation, resulting in faster sugar consumption, faster ethanol production and stability. Handling yeast and serial repitching based on Live/Dead viability measurements, could be the key way to ensure reliable manufacture of high quality beer and to improve process standardization particularly for microbreweries, where variability of production can be a challenging point.

  5. Talcosis in soapstone artisans: High-resolution CT findings in 12 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: To describe the high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) features of pneumoconiosis observed in soapstone artisans. Materials and methods: The present study included 12 soapstone artisans with chest radiography abnormalities consistent with the diagnosis of pneumoconiosis, in accordance with the International Labour Office classification. All patients had undergone HRCT, and the images were retrospectively analysed by two chest radiologists, who reached decisions in consensus. Results: All patients presented with interlobular septal thickening. Small centrilobular nodules (75%) and ground-glass opacities (67%) were also common findings. The distributions of abnormalities were predominantly diffuse. No pleural abnormality was found. Conclusion: The HRCT abnormalities observed in this group of soapstone artisans are similar to those of pure talc pneumoconiosis

  6. Implantation of iris-claw Artisan intraocular lens for aphakia in Fuchs′ heterochromic iridocyclitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Kheirkhah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Implantation of iris-claw Artisan intraocular lens (IOL is a surgical option for correction of aphakia; however, these IOLs have not been used in eyes with uveitis including Fuchs′ heterochromic iridocyclitis (FHI due to possible risk of severe postoperative intraocular inflammation. In the case reported here, we secondarily implanted an Artisan IOL in a 28-year-old man with FHI who had aphakia with no capsular support due to a previous complicated cataract surgery. Enclavation was easily performed and no intraoperative complication was noted. Postoperative course was uneventful with no significant anterior chamber inflammation during 12 months of follow-up. Although there were few deposits on the IOL surface, the patient achieved a best-corrected visual acuity of 20/20 without developing glaucoma or other complications. Therefore, Artisan IOL may be considered for correction of aphakia in patients with FHI. However, studies on large number of patients are required to evaluate safety of the procedure.

  7. To the Question of Organizing the Career Guidence in Artisan Occupations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Yefanov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper looks at the institutional and functional features of the artisan activities, and vocational training of future artisans- entrepreneurs; the specificity of career guidance in related training profiles is discussed. In the course of successful socio-economic development, the given specialists can form a considerable part of the Russian middle class strata. However, there exist the two opposite trends: on the one hand, the specialists realize the modern day requirements for vocational training and enrollee selection, while, on the other hand, the majority of the society regards the artisan occupations as common and primitive. This controversy signals the urgent need for vocational guidance addressed to the school leavers. The authors suggest using acmeology – the studies of the highest professional achievements – along with psychological facilitation and visual grounds for career guidance development. The paper is recommended to the secondary school teachers, vocational training teachers and sociologists analyzing and predicting the labor market demands. 

  8. Antimicrobial properties of lactic acid bacteria isolated from uruguayan artisan cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Fraga Cotelo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Uruguayan artisan cheese is elaborated with raw milk and non-commercial starters. The associated native microbiota may include lactic acid bacteria and also potentially pathogenic bacteria. Lactic acid bacteria were isolated from artisan cheese, raw milk, and non-commercial starter cultures, and their potential bacteriocin production was assessed. A culture collection of 509 isolates was obtained, and five isolates were bacteriocin-producers and were identified as Enterococcus durans,Lactobacillus casei, and Lactococcus lactis. No evidence of potential virulence factors were found in E. durans strains. These are promising results in terms of using these native strains for cheese manufacture and to obtain safe products.

  9. A review of mercury exposure among artisanal small-scale gold miners in developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Anders Kasper Bruun; Thomsen, Jane Frølund; Mikkelsen, Sigurd

    2014-01-01

    Extraction of gold using mercury has been a way out of poverty for millions of people in developing countries. Artisanal small-scale gold mining (ASGM) has expanded during the last decades and is often carried out under primitive conditions. Thus, workers in this industry may be exposed to high...... levels of mercury and suffer from toxic effects from mercury exposure. The objective of this review was to provide an outline of the studies available on elemental mercury exposure among artisanal small-scale gold miners....

  10. Effect of artisanal rennet paste on the chemical, sensory and microbiological characteristics of traditional goat's cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Tripaldi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In a study using three replicates, Marzolina goat cheese made with artisanal rennet paste from goat kid was compared with cheese made with commercial liquid rennet from calf. Samples of fresh cheese were subjected to chemical and microbiological analyses. Samples of ripened cheese collected after 50 days of ripening were submitted to chemical and sensory analysis. Results of this study show that cheese made with artisanal rennet pastes did not contain pathogenic microorganisms and that this kind of rennet provided the enzymatic content necessary to achieve the typical characteristics of traditional cheeses.

  11. Rapid shifts in catch composition in the artisanal Red Sea reef fisheries of Eritrea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsehaye, I.W.; Machiels, M.A.M.; Nagelkerke, L.A.J.

    2007-01-01

    Shifts in catch composition were registered in the Eritrean artisanal fisheries, which were launched into a renewed development after the end of the independence war in 1991. Our analysis of catch and effort data showed that total fishing effort as well as total annual catch increased more than two-

  12. Mining ‘From Below’: Taking Africa’s artisanal miners seriously

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jønsson, Jesper Bosse; Fold, Niels

    2011-01-01

    Artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM) is of growing importance for the livelihoods of an increasing number of Africa’s rural population. Therefore, the sector is increasingly being recognized by African governments, donor institutions and researchers for its role in national development processe...

  13. The design of Artisans' hand tools: Users' perceived comfort and discomfort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijt-Evers, L.F.M.

    2009-01-01

    Is artisans' comfort in using hand tools a necessity or a luxury? Ergonomically well-designed hand tools, which provide comfort to the user, decrease the risk of occupational health problems and increase the job performance. Therefore, it is not a luxury, but rather a necessity that hand tools be de

  14. The impact of artisanal fishery on a tropical intertidal benthic fish community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, WF; van Schie, AMP; Jocene, DF; Mabote, ABP; Guissamulo, A

    2001-01-01

    We examined the benthic fishes and artisanal fishery in the intertidal flats of Inhaca Island, Mozambique. Results of a questionnaire indicated that catches had decreased, and that piscivorous fish have disappeared. Results of a catch sampling study indicated that current catch rates are low, <2 kg

  15. Institutional aspects of artisanal mining in forest landscapes, western Congo Basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Schure; V. Ingram; J.C. Tieguhong; C. Ndikumagenge

    2011-01-01

    This contribution examines the multiple impacts of artisanal mining in the high-biodiversity forest of the Congo Basin’s Sangha Tri-National Landscape (TNS), and proposes measures for improving livelihoods in the area. It was concluded from a literature review, interviews and site visits that: diamo

  16. The economic logic of persistent informality: Artisanal and small-scale mining in the Southern Philippines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbrugge, B.L.P.

    2015-01-01

    This article critically evaluates existing causal explanations for the persistence of informality in artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM). These explanations share a legalistic focus on entry barriers and political impediments that prevent or discourage the formalization of poverty-driven ASM oper

  17. Occupational accidents in artisanal mining in Katanga, D.R.C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Elenge

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study focuses on accidents in artisanal mining, to support policies improving miners' employability. Materials and Methods: Based on a questionnaire administered in November 2009 to a sample of 180 miners from the artisanal mining of LUPOTO, in the Province of Katanga, we explored significant trends between the accidents and their consequences and behavioral or sociological variables. Results: During the 12 months preceding the study, 392 accidents occurred, affecting 72.2% of miners. Tools handling represents 51.5%, of the accidents' causes, followed by handling heavy loads (32.9%. Factors such as age, seniority or apprenticeship did not generate significant differences. Contusions were the most common injuries (50.2%, followed by wounds (44.4%. These injuries were located in upper limbs (50.5% and in lower limbs (29.3%. 80.5% of miners were cared for by their colleagues and 50% of them could not work for more than 3 days. Physical sequelae were reported by 19% of the injured miners. Discussion: Many surveys related to accidents in the area of artisanal mining report such high frequency. The unsuitability of tools to jobs to be done is usually raised as one of the major causes of accidents. The lack of differentiation of the tasks carried out in relation to age is another factor explaining the lack of protective effect of seniority as it minimizes the contribution of experience in the worker's safety. The apprenticeship reported is inadequate; it is rather a learning by doing than anything else. That is why it lacks protective effect. Low income combined with precariousness of artisanal mining are likely to explain the low level of work stoppages. Conclusion: Tools improvement associated with adequate training seem to be the basis of accident prevention. Availability of suitable medical care should improve artisanal miners' recovery after accidents.

  18. The Ecuadorian Artisanal Fishery for Large Pelagics: Species Composition and Spatio-Temporal Dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimmy Martínez-Ortiz

    Full Text Available The artisanal fisheries of Ecuador operate within one of the most dynamic and productive marine ecosystems of the world. This study investigates the catch composition of the Ecuadorian artisanal fishery for large pelagic fishes, including aspects of its spatio-temporal dynamics. The analyses of this study are based on the most extensive dataset available to date for this fishery: a total of 106,963 trip-landing inspection records collected at its five principal ports during 2008 ‒ 2012. Ecuadorian artisanal fisheries remove a substantial amount of biomass from the upper trophic-level predatory fish community of the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean. It is estimated that at least 135 thousand metric tons (mt (about 15.5 million fish were landed in the five principal ports during the study period. The great novelty of Ecuadorian artisanal fisheries is the "oceanic-artisanal" fleet component, which consists of mother-ship (nodriza boats with their towed fiber-glass skiffs (fibras operating with pelagic longlines. This fleet has fully expanded into oceanic waters as far offshore as 100°W, west of the Galapagos Archipelago. It is estimated that nodriza operations produce as much as 80% of the total catches of the artisanal fishery. The remainder is produced by independent fibras operating in inshore waters with pelagic longlines and/or surface gillnets. A multivariate regression tree analysis was used to investigate spatio-environmental effects on the nodriza fleet (n = 6,821 trips. The catch species composition of the nodriza fleet is strongly influenced by the northwesterly circulation of the Humboldt Current along the coast of Peru and its associated cold waters masses. The target species and longline gear-type used by nodrizas change seasonally with the incursion of cool waters (< 25°C from the south and offshore. During this season, dolphinfish (Coryphaena hippurus dominates the catches. However, in warmer waters, the fishery changes to tuna

  19. Effects of sediment contamination by artisanal gold mining on Chironomus riparius in Mabubi River, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chibunda, R. T.; Pereka, A. E.; Tungaraza, C.

    The contamination of sediments by mercury from in artisanal gold mining has been only assessed through bulk chemical analysis and subsequent comparison with reference values from uncontaminated areas. However, measurement of contaminant levels alone has a limited ability to predict adverse effects on living resources. This study investigated the possible effects of contamination of sediments in Mabubi River by mercury drained from Mugusu artisanal gold mine on the survival, growth and emergency of the benthic midge Chironomus riparius. Sediments collected downstream from the Mugusu Mine impaired growth and delayed emergence of the midges but did not impair survival. Mean dry body weight of larvae from sediments collected 3 km down stream (1012 μg) was significantly lower than those from the control sediment ( p River downstream of the Mugusu mine adversely affect C. riparius and probably other fauna and as such present a considerable local environmental risk.

  20. Unsafe occupational health behaviours: Understanding mercury-related environmental health risks to artisanal gold miners in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Ato Armah

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between environmental exposure and health outcomes is complex, multidirectional and dynamic. Therefore, we need an understanding of these linkages for effective health risk communication. Despite the severe health hazards, artisanal gold mining is widespread globally, with an estimated 30 million people engaged in it. In this study, the relationships between artisanal gold miners’ knowledge of environmental and health effects of Hg and compositional, contextual and occupational factors were assessed using generalized linear models (negative log-log regression. A cross-sectional survey in three urban gold mining hubs in Ghana (Prestea, Tarkwa and Damang, was carried out among 588 (482 male and 106 female artisanal gold miners. The results showed that 89% of artisanal gold miners had very low to low levels of knowledge whereas 11% had moderate to very high levels of knowledge of deleterious health effects of Hg. Also, individuals who perceived their health-related work conditions to be excellent had very low to low levels of knowledge of environmental and health effects of Hg. Interestingly, artisanal gold miners who were still working were less likely to know the environmental and health effects of Hg compared with their counterparts who were currently unemployed. Similarly, artisanal gold miners who had attained either primary or secondary education were less likely to know the environmental and health effects of Hg compared with their counterparts who had no formal education. This finding, although counterintuitive, can be understood within the fact that artisanal gold miners in Ghana without formal education tend to have considerably higher number of years of practical experience compared with their counterparts with formal education. Female artisanal gold miners were 68% less likely to know the environmental and health effects of Hg compared with their male counterparts (OR=0.32, p<0.05. Artisanal gold miners who had

  1. An Assessment of the Kenyan Coastal Artisanal Fishery and Implications for the Introduction of FADs.

    OpenAIRE

    Mbaru, Emmanuel Kakunde

    2012-01-01

    The marine fishery in Kenya is predominantly small-scale and artisanal with about 11,000 fishers intensely fishing near shore coastal reefs using minimally selective fishing gears. A large majority (88%) of fishers use outdated equipment such as basket traps, beach seines, hand lines (hook and lines), fence traps, gillnets, spearguns and cast nets. Handmade canoes propelled by paddles (kasia) or sail power are used to access offshore waters, while only a few fishers have motorized boats. Alth...

  2. Socio-ecological analysis of the artisanal fishing system on Easter Island

    OpenAIRE

    Eleuterio Yáñez; Claudio Silva; María Ángela Barbieri; Héctor Trujillo

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces a socio-ecological analysis of the artisanal fisheries system on Easter Island (27°07'S, 109°22'W) through the identification and interaction of stakeholders. It also comprises a structural analysis of the system aiming to identify any key issues and then propose research and development programs for multiple fisheries that will contribute to their sustainable development. The methodology is divided into four stages: i) identification of issues with stakeholder (fishers,...

  3. A review and analysis of Easter Island's traditional and artisan fisheries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Castilla

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Based on a review of published and unpublished reports we analyzed Rapa Nui's (Easter Island traditional and artisan fisheries. We include information from 2000-2009 on landings, species, fishing grounds, fleet and number of fisherfolks according to the Servicio Nacional de Pesca (SERNAPESCA and personal communication with SERNAPESCA officials. Presently, 29 species of fishes and two invertebrates are fished (along with a group of species reported as "non-identified", primarily from the 10 main fishing grounds within 5 nm from the shore. Sporadic fishing trips reach areas up to 25 nm offshore. Statistics about the artisan fleet and number of operative fishers is spotty and unreliable. In 2011 SERNAPESCA reported 123 artisan fishers and 31 boats for the island. Landings occur in five coves, of which Hanga Piko and Hanga Roa are the most important. Between 2000-2009 the mean annual landing ranged between 109-171 ton. The main exploited resources during this period were yellowfin tuna, snoek, Pacific rudderfin, rainbow runner, glasseye, oilfish, deep-water jack and swordfish. We highlight the urgent need to improve fisheries statistics (catch, effort, fishing grounds in order to develop a science-fishery management and conservation plan, particularly linked with artisan fishery activities. Globally, we identify the need to integrate across fields (i.e., ecology, conservation, fisheries, education, outreach more broadly in the national research system, to improve the management and conservation of Easter Island's unique marine environment. Within this framework, we identify an urgent need to create a research marine station on the island with permanent personnel, which can focus on this fragile oligotrophic ecosystem.

  4. Do ‘locally grown’ claims influence artisanal food purchase? Evidence from a natural field experiment.

    OpenAIRE

    Menapace, Luisa; Raffaelli, Roberta

    2013-01-01

    We conducted a natural field experiment in an artisanal sit-down ice-cream shop in Italy to investigate whether consumer choices are affected by information regarding locally grown products. Two aspects of locally grown products are investigated: (i) quality due to terroir (i.e., quality with a link to the territory) and (ii) reduced carbon emissions due to short transportation distance. Contrary to the evidence emerging from the majority of the stated-preference literature, our results sugge...

  5. Probabilistic assessment of risk from the exposure to mercury in artisanal gold mining communities in Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel García, Eduardo de; Clavijo, Diana; Loredo, Jorge; Ordóñez, Almudena

    2013-01-01

    Colombia is one the largest per capita mercury polluters as a consequence of its artisanal gold mining operations, which are steadily increasing following the rising price of this metal. Compared to gravimetric separation methods and cyanidation, the concentration of gold using Hg amalgams presents several advantages: the process is less time-consuming and minimizes gold losses, and Hg is easily transported and inexpensive relative to the selling price of gold. Very often, mercury amalgamatio...

  6. Strategy for the extraction of yeast DNA from artisan agave must for quantitative PCR analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchmayr, Manuel Reinhart; Segura-Garcia, Luis Eduardo; Flores-Berrios, Ericka Patricia; Gschaedler, Anne

    2011-11-01

    An efficient method for the direct extraction of yeast genomic DNA from agave must was developed. The optimized protocol, which was based on silica-adsorption of DNA on microcolumns, included an enzymatic cell wall degradation step followed by prolonged lysis with hot detergent. The resulting extracts were suitable templates for subsequent qPCR assays that quantified mixed yeast populations in artisan Mexican mezcal fermentations.

  7. Sanitation, fish handling and artisanal fish processing within fishing communities: socio-cultural influences

    OpenAIRE

    Odongkara, K.O.; Kyangwa, I.

    2005-01-01

    postive transformation of the fisheries sector in Uganda has of recent been scatted by failure to mountain fish quality and safety,akey prerequiste for retaining and gaining fish markets. The social cultural study established the extent to which social cutural practices had affected the levels and the use of sanitation facilities,fish handling facilities and artisanal fish processing techniques and the factors that influenced these practices in the fishing communities of lake victoria. ...

  8. Microbial ecology of artisanal italian cheese: Molecular microbial characterization by culture-independent method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present study will treat the next topics: ecology of the natural and man made environments and functional diversity of bacteria. The microbial communities in artisanal goat cheeses produced in mountain pastures (typical farms) in Piemonte mountain (North of Italy) change a lot during precessing and ripening time. Moreover cheese microbial ecosystems are different in each small dairy because adventitious microflora can come from the environment and contamination the milk before the cheese making process and the product during manufacture and ripening. (Author)

  9. Seaweed farming and artisanal fisheries in an Indonesian seagrass bed - complementary or competitive usages?

    OpenAIRE

    Blankenhorn, Sven Uli

    2008-01-01

    In Indonesia, coastal villages traditionally depend on artisanal fisheries. Increasing population density and fishing pressure make alternative sources of income become more important. One possibility is seaweed farming, which has been introduced in many communities. There, algae farming is restricted to shallow waters and their natural ecosystems, e. g. seagrass beds. Seagrass beds themselves are important habitats for many fish species are the basis for fisheries. If seaweed farming causes ...

  10. IT As Agent Of Social Change: Lonxanet And The Case Of The Galician Artisanal Fisheries

    OpenAIRE

    ENRIQUE DANS

    2002-01-01

    (WP26/02 Clave pdf) Information Technologies (IT) can be used as an agent to foster social change. This case study describes an Internet start-up, Lonxanet, and analyzes its role as catalyst of drastic changes in the Galician (NW Spain) artisanal seafood fisheries. These fisheries are traditionally associated to rural communities of fishers, selling their products in local auction markets known as "lonxas". Galician seafood is hugely appreciated in the Spanish market, where products can achie...

  11. Microbial ecology of artisanal italian cheese: Molecular microbial characterization by culture-independent method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colombo, E.; Scarpellini, M.; Franzatti, L.; Dioguardi, L.

    2009-07-01

    Present study will treat the next topics: ecology of the natural and man made environments and functional diversity of bacteria. The microbial communities in artisanal goat cheeses produced in mountain pastures (typical farms) in Piemonte mountain (North of Italy) change a lot during precessing and ripening time. Moreover cheese microbial ecosystems are different in each small dairy because adventitious microflora can come from the environment and contamination the milk before the cheese making process and the product during manufacture and ripening. (Author)

  12. Certifying improvement, improving certification: An analysis based on the artisanal and small-scale mining sector

    OpenAIRE

    Bodenheimer, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    There are a plethora of voluntary initiatives indirectly connected to artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM), but until recently, none of these standards were explicitly concerned with ASM. It is only with the introduction of certification schemes specific to the ASM sector that guidelines are being designed and implemented that expressly address its unique dynamics. But implementing certification schemes remains costly and it is therefore important to analyze in detail to what degree problem...

  13. Partnership on Reducing Mercury in Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining (ASGM)

    OpenAIRE

    Bernaudat L.; Keane S.

    2013-01-01

    The Artisanal and Small Scale Gold Mining Partnership area is an initiative to reduce global mercury pollution through coordinated voluntary actions. This partnership area, co-led by Natural Resources Defense Council and the United Nations Industrial Development Organization, gathers the major actors in the sector, including governments, academia and civil society. The ASGM sector remains the largest demand sector for mercury globally (best global estimates put mercury use by the sector in th...

  14. Assessing environmental impacts using a comparative LCA of industrial and artisanal production processes: "Minas Cheese" case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elbert Muller Nigri

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study uses the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA methodology to evaluate and compare the environmental impacts caused by both the artisanal and the industrial manufacturing processes of "Minas cheese". This is a traditional cheese produced in the state of Minas Gerais (Brazil, and it is considered a "cultural patrimony" in the country. The high participation of artisanal producers in the market justifies this research, and this analysis can help the identification of opportunities to improve the environmental performance of several stages of the production system. The environmental impacts caused were also assessed and compared. The functional unit adopted was 1 kilogram (Kg of cheese. The system boundaries considered were the production process, conservation of product (before sale, and transport to consumer market. The milk production process was considered similar in both cases, and therefore it was not included in the assessment. The data were collected through interviews with the producers, observation, and a literature review; they were ordered and processed using the SimaPro 7 LCA software. According to the impact categories analyzed, the artisanal production exerted lower environmental impacts. This can be justified mainly because the industrial process includes the pasteurization stage, which uses dry wood as an energy source and refrigeration.

  15. Determination of Heavy Metals and Other Elements in Artisanal Gold Mining Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Girigisu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The possible exposure of heavy elements to life as a result of artisanal gold mining activities can be of great concern because of its associated effect on health. Approach: Soil samples from the artisanal gold mining sites of Awwal and Bagega villages in Kebbi and Zamfara states of Nigeria were collected and analyzed for heavy and other elements by X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF technique. Ten of the element analyses are presented in this study, based on their toxicity levels. Results: Four of the ten elements (Pb, Si, Rb and Fe showed relatively high concentrations. Two of these four elements presented, (Si and Pb may pose latent and immediate hazards to health. Respiratory crystalline silica is the major element constituent of the ever-well-pronounced mining dusts of the two sites. Its form of occurrence portends irreversible health problem called silicosis and is well linked to cancer forming properties; both of which develop through latency periods. Pb at whatever concentration portends both immediate and long term hazards to women and children at the greatest risks of exposures. Conclusion: Based on the results presented, there exist a possibility of an immediate and long term health risks associated with the artisanal gold mining exercises in the two sites studied if the said uncoordinated and unprofessional activities of the miners are left unchecked.

  16. A retrospective analysis of the first Indian experience on Artisan phakic intraocular lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senthil Sirisha

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy, safety, predictability and stability of implanting a polymethylmethacrylate phakic intraocular lens (PIOL in high myopia. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis of the data of patients who underwent Artisan phakic IOL implantation between 2002 and 2003 with a follow-up of at least 24 months. Results: An Artisan myopia lens was implanted in 60 eyes of 36 patients with preoperative myopia ranging from -5.0 to -24.0 D. Mean patient age was 22.6 years. Mean spherical equivalent of manifest refraction stabilized by the first postoperative week. At three months follow-up, 54 eyes (90% had a postoperative refraction within ± 1D emmetropia and 45 eyes (75% had uncorrected visual acuity of 20/40 or better. Seven eyes (11.6% had loss of one Snellen line and none had loss of two Snellen lines or more at three months. The mean endothelial cell loss was 3.8% at three months, 5.2% at six months, 5.25% at 12 months and 6.38% at two years, which was not significant. Postoperative complications included anterior chamber reaction in two eyes (3.3%, rise in intraocular pressure in six eyes (10% and dislocation of PIOL in two eyes (3.3%. Conclusion: Implantation of Artisan myopia lens to correct high myopia resulted in a stable and fairly predictable refractive outcome with few complications. Significant endothelial damage was not detected in two years of follow-up.

  17. The Ecuadorian Artisanal Fishery for Large Pelagics: Species Composition and Spatio-Temporal Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Ortiz, Jimmy; Aires-da-Silva, Alexandre M.; Lennert-Cody, Cleridy E.; Maunder, Mark N.

    2015-01-01

    The artisanal fisheries of Ecuador operate within one of the most dynamic and productive marine ecosystems of the world. This study investigates the catch composition of the Ecuadorian artisanal fishery for large pelagic fishes, including aspects of its spatio-temporal dynamics. The analyses of this study are based on the most extensive dataset available to date for this fishery: a total of 106,963 trip-landing inspection records collected at its five principal ports during 2008 ‒ 2012. Ecuadorian artisanal fisheries remove a substantial amount of biomass from the upper trophic-level predatory fish community of the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean. It is estimated that at least 135 thousand metric tons (mt) (about 15.5 million fish) were landed in the five principal ports during the study period. The great novelty of Ecuadorian artisanal fisheries is the “oceanic-artisanal” fleet component, which consists of mother-ship (nodriza) boats with their towed fiber-glass skiffs (fibras) operating with pelagic longlines. This fleet has fully expanded into oceanic waters as far offshore as 100°W, west of the Galapagos Archipelago. It is estimated that nodriza operations produce as much as 80% of the total catches of the artisanal fishery. The remainder is produced by independent fibras operating in inshore waters with pelagic longlines and/or surface gillnets. A multivariate regression tree analysis was used to investigate spatio-environmental effects on the nodriza fleet (n = 6,821 trips). The catch species composition of the nodriza fleet is strongly influenced by the northwesterly circulation of the Humboldt Current along the coast of Peru and its associated cold waters masses. The target species and longline gear-type used by nodrizas change seasonally with the incursion of cool waters (< 25°C) from the south and offshore. During this season, dolphinfish (Coryphaena hippurus) dominates the catches. However, in warmer waters, the fishery changes to tuna

  18. Trace elements distributions at Datoko-Shega artisanal mining site, northern Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arhin, Emmanuel; Boansi, Apea Ohene; Zango, M S

    2016-02-01

    Environmental geochemistry classifies elements into essential, non-essential and toxic elements in relationship to human health. To assess the environmental impact of mining at Datoko-Shega area, the distributions and concentrations of trace elements in stream sediments and soil samples were carried out. X-ray fluorescence analytical technique was used to measure the major and trace element concentrations in sediments and modified fire assay absorption spectrometry in soils. The results showed general depletion of major elements except titanium oxide (TiO2) compared to the average crustal concentrations. The retention of TiO2 at the near surface environment probably was due to the intense tropical weathering accompanied by the removal of fine sediments and soil fractions during the harmattan season by the dry north-east trade winds and sheet wash deposits formed after flash floods. The results also showed extreme contamination of selenium (Se), cadmium (Cd) and mercury (Hg), plus strong contaminations of arsenic (As) and chromium (Cr) in addition to moderate contamination of lead (Pb) in the trace element samples relative to crustal averages in the upper continental crust. However Hg, Pb and Cd concentrations tend to be high around the artisanal workings. It was recognised from the analysis of the results that the artisanal mining activity harnessed and introduces some potentially toxic elements such as Hg, Cd and Pb mostly in the artisan mine sites. But the interpretation of the trace element data thus invalidates the elevation of As concentrations to be from the mine operations. It consequently noticed As values in the mine-impacted areas to be similar or sometimes lower than As values in areas outside the mine sites from the stream sediment results.

  19. Trace-elements Exposure Levels in Artisanal “Galamsey” Mines in Wassa-West District, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.K. Nuviadenu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess trace-elements exposure levels in artisanal mines within the Wassa-West District of Ghana, Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA method was used to analyse fingernails of some miners. Mean concentrations were recorded for four trace-elements, namely mercury (Hg: 8.14 μg/g, gold (Au: 1.09 μg/g, Arsenic (As: 5.53 μg/g and antimony (Sb: 0.60 μg/g. These concentration levels and their health implications for the miners, as well as the environment impact of artisanal mining activities and some remedial mitigation actions were analysed.

  20. Optimum Fisheries Management under Climate Variability: Evidence from Artisanal Marine Fishing in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wisdom Akpalu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In most developing coastal countries, the artisanal fisheries sector is managed as a common pool resource. As a result, such fisheries are overcapitalized and overfished. In Ghana, in addition to anthropogenic factors, there is evidence of rising coastal temperature and its variance, which could impact the environmental carrying capacity of the fish stock. This study investigates the effect of climate variation on biophysical parameters and yields. Our results indicate that the rising temperature is decreasing the carrying capacity. As a result, an optimum tax on harvest must reflect climate variability, as well as the congestion externality.

  1. A multi-species multi-fleet bioeconomic simulation model for the English Channel artisanal fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrich, Clara; Le Gallic, B.; Dunn, M.R.;

    2002-01-01

    and "metiers", i.e. gear x target species x fishing area), and three modules on the other hand (activity, biological production and economics). The model is described and some simulation results are presented. An example simulating a decrease of one fleet segment effort illustrates these technical interactions......Considering the large number of technical interactions between various fishing activities, the English Channel (ICES divisions VIId and VIIe) fisheries may be regarded as one large and diverse multi-country, multi-gear and multi-species artisanal fishery, although rarely studied as such. A whole...

  2. Mercury contamination from artisanal gold mining in Antioquia, Colombia: The world's highest per capita mercury pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordy, Paul; Veiga, Marcello M; Salih, Ibrahim; Al-Saadi, Sari; Console, Stephanie; Garcia, Oseas; Mesa, Luis Alberto; Velásquez-López, Patricio C; Roeser, Monika

    2011-12-01

    The artisanal gold mining sector in Colombia has 200,000 miners officially producing 30tonnes Au/a. In the Northeast of the Department of Antioquia, there are 17 mining towns and between 15,000 and 30,000 artisanal gold miners. Guerrillas and paramilitary activities in the rural areas of Antioquia pushed miners to bring their gold ores to the towns to be processed in Processing Centers or entables. These Centers operate in the urban areas amalgamating the whole ore, i.e. without previous concentration, and later burn gold amalgam without any filtering/condensing system. Based on mercury mass balance in 15 entables, 50% of the mercury added to small ball mills (cocos) is lost: 46% with tailings and 4% when amalgam is burned. In just 5 cities of Antioquia, with a total of 150,000 inhabitants: Segovia, Remedios, Zaragoza, El Bagre, and Nechí, there are 323 entables producing 10-20tonnes Au/a. Considering the average levels of mercury consumption estimated by mass balance and interviews of entables owners, the mercury consumed (and lost) in these 5 municipalities must be around 93tonnes/a. Urban air mercury levels range from 300ng Hg/m(3) (background) to 1million ng Hg/m(3) (inside gold shops) with 10,000ng Hg/m(3) being common in residential areas. The WHO limit for public exposure is 1000ng/m(3). The total mercury release/emissions to the Colombian environment can be as high as 150tonnes/a giving this country the shameful first position as the world's largest mercury polluter per capita from artisanal gold mining. One necessary government intervention is to cut the supply of mercury to the entables. In 2009, eleven companies in Colombia legally imported 130tonnes of metallic mercury, much of it flowing to artisanal gold mines. Entables must be removed from urban centers and technical assistance is badly needed to improve their technology and reduce emissions. PMID:22000915

  3. Viability of Staphylococcus xylosus isolated from artisanal sausages for application as starter cultures in meat products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorentini, Ângela Maria; Sawitzki, Maristela Cortez; Bertol, Teresinha Marisa; Sant’Anna, Ernani S.

    2009-01-01

    Viability of Staphylococcus xylosus isolated from artisanal sausages for application as starter cultures in meat products Viability of Staphylococcus xylosus strains AD1 and U5 isolated from natural fermented sausages was investigated as starter cultures in fermented sausages produced in the South Region of Brazil. The study demonstrated that the Staphylococcus xylosus strains AD1 and U5 showed significant growth during fermentation, stability over freeze-dried process, negative reaction for staphylococcal enterotoxins and viability for using as a single-strain culture or associated with lactic acid bacteria for production of fermented sausages. PMID:24031331

  4. ARTISANAL AND SMALL−SCALE MINING IN WASSA AMENFI EAST DISTRICT, (Ghana)

    OpenAIRE

    Ezeji Onyebuchi, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Artisanal and small-scale mining in Ghana has been in existence as far back as pre-colonial era. The industry which is mostly controlled by Ghanaians is highly unregulated pre 1987 (Hilson, 2001). However, because of dwindling state of the economy, the government under the auspices of the German NGO; Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) and the World Bank, decided to legalize small-scale mining as part of Economic Recovery Policies (ERP), allowing individuals to mine mine...

  5. Artisanal Fisheries in the Ndumo Area of the Lower Phongolo River Floodplain, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Hendri C. Coetzee; Werner Nell; Van Eeden, Elize S; Engela P. de Crom

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the status of artisanal fisheries in the lower Phongolo River floodplain in northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. A cross-sectional quantitative survey design was used that included the development of a questionnaire and a systematic survey among the five villages bordering the Ndumo Game Reserve. Data were collected over a 5-day period by a group of 16 fieldworkers and analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, version 21. The res...

  6. Behaviour of Salmonella Typhimurium during production and storage of artisan water buffalo mozzarella cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Rosmini

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Water buffalo mozzarella cheese (WBMC is a fresh pasta filata cheese produced from whole chilled buffalo milk. Although pasteurization of milk and the use of defined starter cultures are recommended, traditional technology involving the use of unpasteurized milk and natural whey cultures is still employed for WBMC production in Italy. The aim of this study were to assess the behaviour of Salmonella Typhimurium during the production of artisan water buffalo mozzarella cheese and during its shelf life under different temperature conditions. Raw milk was inoculated with S. Typhimurium and the evolution of S. Typhimurium count during production and shelf life was monitored. In artisan WBMC production technology S. Typhimurium multiplied in the curd during ripening, but its growth rate expressed in log CFU/g/h was lower than the growth rate reported by theoretical predictions. Stretching proved to be a process with good repeatability and able to reduce S. Typhimurium contamination by 5.5 Log CFU/g. The intrinsic characteristics of traditional WBMC proved to be unable to obstacolate the growth of S. Typhimurium during storage in the case of thermal abuse. Control of raw milk contamination and a proper refrigeration temperature are key factors in reducing the risk for consumers.

  7. Determining the minimum ripening time of artisanal Minas cheese, a traditional Brazilian cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. Martins

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Physical, physicochemical, and microbiological changes were monitored in 256 samples of artisanal Minas cheese from eight producers from Serro region (Minas Gerais, Brazil for 64 days of ripening to determine the minimum ripening time for the cheese to reach the safe microbiological limits established by Brazilian legislation. The cheeses were produced between dry season (April–September and rainy season (October–March; 128 cheeses were ripened at room temperature (25 ± 4 °C, and 128 were ripened under refrigeration (8 ± 1 °C, as a control. No Listeria monocytogenes was found, but one cheese under refrigeration had Salmonella at first 15 days of ripening. However, after 22 days, the pathogen was not detected. Seventeen days was the minimum ripening time at room temperature to reduce at safe limits of total coliforms > 1000 cfu.g−1, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus (> 100 cfu.g−1 in both periods of manufacture. Otherwise under refrigeration, as expected, the minimum ripening time was longer, 33 days in the dry season and 63 days in the rainy season. To sum up, we suggest that the ripening of artisanal Minas cheese be done at room temperature, since this condition shortens the time needed to reach the microbiological quality that falls within the safety parameters required by Brazilian law, and at the same time maintain the appearance and flavor characteristics of this traditional cheese.

  8. Socio-ecological analysis of the artisanal fishing system on Easter Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleuterio Yáñez

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a socio-ecological analysis of the artisanal fisheries system on Easter Island (27°07'S, 109°22'W through the identification and interaction of stakeholders. It also comprises a structural analysis of the system aiming to identify any key issues and then propose research and development programs for multiple fisheries that will contribute to their sustainable development. The methodology is divided into four stages: i identification of issues with stakeholder (fishers, government workers and expert scientists participation, ii analysis of a structural matrix consisting of a direct causality study of the symmetric, structural and binary matrix based on socio-ecological issues allowing the calculation of the level of influence and dependence of each issue, iii identification of key issues with an influence/dependency diagram, and iv proposal of research and development programs according to the needs and opportunities identified in the previous stages. The Easter Island artisanal fishing system is used as a case study for this methodological approach. Thus, the fishers identified 108 issues, which were then grouped by similarity, reducing the number to 27 global issues, of which seven were identified as key. Surveyed local and central government workers and expert scientists identified 7, 2 and 5 issues, respectively. Finally, research and development programs are proposed that will encourage a series of changes to the fisheries situation on the island, in order to resolve issues and promote their sustainable development.

  9. The Legal Regulation of Artisan and Trade Corporations in the Cities of Medieval Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentine G. Medvedev

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article features an analysis of the legal regulation of the formation and activity of artisan and trade corporations in the cities of medieval Europe. Based on the findings of an analysis of existing scientific theories, as well as a study of legal and regulatory acts, the author aims to explore the issue of the emergence of cities and workshop organizations in them and reveal their legal essence and content. The relevance of this paper is due to the fact that up until now a sufficiently definitive opinion is yet to be propounded in historical and historical/legal science as to the origin and development of such specific urban institutions as workshops and workshop corporations, with their special legal regulation. The author comes to the conclusion that the formation of cities and workshop organizations reflected the evolution of the economic and social development of medieval society, which was associated with social division of labor. The paper’s major focus is not on the statutory regulation of the work of masters and not on the regulation of workshop craft methods, which can be explained quite logically by the economic need for adapting medieval artisan production to the limited needs and capacity of the local market, and which is the subject of study for the majority of present-day scholars, but issues related to the very organization of the workshop, its position in the system of urban establishments, as well as the legal status of its members.

  10. An Integrated Assessment Approach to Address Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Niladri; Renne, Elisha P; Long, Rachel N

    2015-09-01

    Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) is growing in many regions of the world including Ghana. The problems in these communities are complex and multi-faceted. To help increase understanding of such problems, and to enable consensus-building and effective translation of scientific findings to stakeholders, help inform policies, and ultimately improve decision making, we utilized an Integrated Assessment approach to study artisanal and small-scale gold mining activities in Ghana. Though Integrated Assessments have been used in the fields of environmental science and sustainable development, their use in addressing specific matter in public health, and in particular, environmental and occupational health is quite limited despite their many benefits. The aim of the current paper was to describe specific activities undertaken and how they were organized, and the outputs and outcomes of our activity. In brief, three disciplinary workgroups (Natural Sciences, Human Health, Social Sciences and Economics) were formed, with 26 researchers from a range of Ghanaian institutions plus international experts. The workgroups conducted activities in order to address the following question: What are the causes, consequences and correctives of small-scale gold mining in Ghana? More specifically: What alternatives are available in resource-limited settings in Ghana that allow for gold-mining to occur in a manner that maintains ecological health and human health without hindering near- and long-term economic prosperity? Several response options were identified and evaluated, and are currently being disseminated to various stakeholders within Ghana and internationally. PMID:26393627

  11. Limitations in small artisanal gold mining addressed by educational components paired with alternative mining methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolnikov, Tara R

    2012-03-01

    Current solutions continue to be inadequate in addressing the longstanding, worldwide problem of mercury emissions from small artisanal gold mining. Mercury, an inexpensive and easily accessible heavy metal, is used in the process of extracting gold from ore. Mercury emissions disperse, affecting human populations by causing adverse health effects and environmental and social ramifications. Many developing nations have sizable gold ore deposits, making small artisanal gold mining a major source of employment in the world. Poverty drives vulnerable, rural populations into gold mining because of social and economic instabilities. Educational programs responding to this environmental hazard have been implemented in the past, but have had low positive results due to lack of governmental support and little economic incentive. Educational and enforced intervention programs must be developed in conjunction with governmental agencies in order to successfully eliminate this ongoing problem. Industry leaders offered hopeful suggestions, but revealed limitations when trying to develop encompassing solutions to halt mercury emissions. This research highlights potential options that have been attempted in the past and suggests alternative solutions to improve upon these methods. Some methods include buyer impact recognition, risk assessment proposals exposing a cost-benefit analysis and toxicokinetic modeling, public health awareness campaigns, and the education of miners, healthcare workers, and locals within hazardous areas of mercury exposure. These methods, paired with the implementation of alternative mining techniques, propose a substantial reduction of mercury emissions. PMID:22297251

  12. The role of conflict minerals, artisanal mining, and informal trading networks in African intrastate and regional conflicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirico, Peter G.; Malpeli, Katherine C.

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between natural resources and armed conflict gained public and political attention in the 1990s, when it became evident that the mining and trading of diamonds were connected with brutal rebellions in several African nations. Easily extracted resources such as alluvial diamonds and gold have been and continue to be exploited by rebel groups to fund their activities. Artisanal and small-scale miners operating under a quasi-legal status often mine these mineral deposits. While many African countries have legalized artisanal mining and established flow chains through which production is intended to travel, informal trading networks frequently emerge in which miners seek to evade taxes and fees by selling to unauthorized buyers. These networks have the potential to become international in scope, with actors operating in multiple countries. The lack of government control over the artisanal mining sector and the prominence of informal trade networks can have severe social, political, and economic consequences. In the past, mineral extraction fuelled violent civil wars in Sierra Leone, Liberia, and Angola, and it continues to do so today in several other countries. The significant influence of the informal network that surrounds artisanal mining is therefore an important security concern that can extend across borders and have far-reaching impacts.

  13. Interaction between Monk Seals, Monachus monachus (Hermann, 1779), and artisanal fisheries in the Foca Pilot Monk Seal conservation area, Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guclusoy, H.

    2008-01-01

    The present study examines some aspects of the interaction between critically endangered Monk Seals Monachus monachus and artisanal fisheries in the Foc¿a Pilot Monk Seal Conservation Area, Turkey, between 1994 and 2002. One to four permanent researchers collected the data on this interaction during

  14. Damage by monk seals to gear of the artisanal fishery in the Foca Monk Seal Pilot Conservation Area, Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guclusoy, H.

    2008-01-01

    The present study examines the operational interaction between critically endangered monk seals Monachus monachus and artisanal fisheries in the Foc¿a Pilot Monk Seal Conservation Area, Turkey between 1994 and 2002. One to four permanent researchers collected the data on this interaction during the

  15. Artisanal and experimental Pecorino Siciliano cheese: Microbial dynamics during manufacture assessed by culturing and PCR-DGGE analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Randazzo, C.L.; Vaughan, E.E.; Caggia, C.

    2006-01-01

    Traditional artisanal Pecorino Siciliano (PS) cheeses, and two experimental PS cheeses were manufactured using either raw or pasteurised ewes' milk with the addition of starter cultures. The bacterial diversity and dynamics of the different cheese types were evaluated both by culturing and character

  16. The Production of Parmigiano-Reggiano Cheese: The force of an artisanal system in an industrialised world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roest, de K.

    2000-01-01

    In many respects the Parmigiano-Reggiano production system is a unique dairy system. The processing of 1.35 million tons of milk into a high quality product in 600 small cheese dairies using predominantly artisan production techniques is not found anywhere else in Europe. The high labour input requi

  17. The influence of geomorphology on the role of women at artisanal and small-scale mine sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malpeli, Katherine C.; Chirico, Peter G.

    2013-01-01

    The geologic and geomorphic expressions of a mineral deposit determine its location, size, and accessibility, characteristics which in turn greatly influence the success of artisans mining the deposit. Despite this critical information, which can be garnered through studying the surficial physical expression of a deposit, the geologic and geomorphic sciences have been largely overlooked in artisanal mining-related research. This study demonstrates that a correlation exists between the roles of female miners at artisanal diamond and gold mining sites in western and central Africa and the physical expression of the deposits. Typically, women perform ore processing and ancillary roles at mine sites. On occasion, however, women participate in the extraction process itself. Women were found to participate in the extraction of ore only when a deposit had a thin overburden layer, thus rendering the mineralized ore more accessible. When deposits required a significant degree of manual labour to access the ore due to thick overburden layers, women were typically relegated to other roles. The identification of this link encourages the establishment of an alternative research avenue in which the physical and social sciences merge to better inform policymakers, so that the most appropriate artisanal mining assistance programs can be developed and implemented.

  18. HIV/AIDS, artisanal fishing and food security in the Okavango Delta, Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngwenya, B. N.; Mosepele, K.

    Generally, rural households pursue all year round natural and non-natural resource-based livelihood systems to diversify these options in order to cope with risks emanating from a range of shocks and stressors. Artisanal fishing in the Delta is not only a major livelihood option but also a source of food security. This paper is based on analysis of primary data collected from a survey of 248 subsistence fishers’ households through simple random sampling in 22 villages in the Delta. The overall objectives of the survey were to assess the general prevalence of HIV/AIDS in the Ngamiland district of Botswana, to investigate potential effects of AIDS-related stressors, particularly chronic illness on artisanal fishing activities, and to assess implications towards food security. Results from this study indicate that HIV prevalence rates for pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in the Delta are approximately 30% and are related to factors such as marriage, education, and employment. Despite this relatively high prevalence percentage, most of the affected households do not have adequate access to HIV/AIDS support facilities. Support services are provided on the basis of population size and/or status of the settlement (i.e. urban, urban village, rural or remote). Therefore, since about 50% of the Delta’s population lives in settlements of less than 500 people, they receive health services indirectly through major population centres whose capacity to deliver timely HIV/AIDS services is limited. This disproportionate access to HIV/AIDS services disadvantages the majority of fishing communities in the Delta, and may affect their ability to fish. Moreover, about 53% of sampled households had cared for a continuously ill person/s (CIP’s) in the last 5 years, out of which approximately 29% felt that this seriously impacted fishing activities. These serious impacts included sale of family assets, depletion of savings, and switching or abandoning fishing activities

  19. Pars plana vitrectomy and artisan iris fixated intraocular lens for aphakia in complicated vitreoretinal referrals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lolly Pattnaik; Kusai Almozawak; Susanne Binder

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate postoperative outcome of cases undergoingArtisan aphakic iris fixated intraocular lens implantation(IOL) in complicated vitreoretinal referrals, atOutpatientDepartment ofOphthalmology,RudolfFoundationClinic,Vienna,Austria.Methods:It was a retrospective interventional case series involving24 patients who have undergone pars plana vitrectomy(PPV) with theArtisan iris fixated lens implantation procedure.Herein, procedures, preoperative corrected distance visual acuity(CDVA), causes of referral, post-operativeCDVA and clinical complications were recorded.Results:The mean age of24 patients(17 males and7 females) was(69.88±14.50), with the range32-83 years.The mean preoperative visual acuity was(1.40±0.83) with the range0.46-3.00 logMAR units.After a mean follow up period for(3.12±2.54) with the range1-12 months, the meanCDVA at the last follow-up was(0.95±0.84) logMAR units with the range0.097-3.000 logMAR units.Complicated cataract surgery was the most common cause for referral with the value,54.21% among cases,n=13.Secondary glaucoma was the commonest postoperative complication25.00% withn=6.The other complications included were transient hypotony(n=3;12.51%), hyphaema(n=2;8.34%), corneal oedema(n=1;4.17%), corneal erosion (n=1;4.17%), vitreous haemorrhage(n=2;8.34%) and oval pupil(n=1;4.17%).Pairedt test result showed no significant difference between preoperative and postoperative visual acuities(P>0.05). Conclusions:Artisan iris fixatedIOL’s are a safe and effective option in eyes with concomitant poor capsular support and vitreoretinal complications requiringPPV.The postoperative visual acuity depends on the underlying pathological features present preoperatively.

  20. Does Local Development Exist? Sustainability of Artisanal Agri-Industry of Jatropha Seeds in Yucatan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Rucoba Garcia

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study seeks to analyze the benefits, as well as the likely risks of cultivating Jatropha curcas in small production units of rain fed lands in Yucatán. In order to analyze the possible development of local artisanal agri-industry in the context of policies related to biofuels in Mexico, interviews with key informants were made to identify the agricultural potential of Jatropha c. in monoculture and associated crops. Its cultivation and using for biodiesel in the country will be possible as long as it not implies competition with crops for family consumption and it not represents an environmental degradation factor. Production of Jatropha c. on small areas could be a productive choice if public policies are established to promote biodiesel production and its use in national industry.

  1. The mangrove in the ethnoecological perception of artisanal fishermen of the Santa Cruz Channel, Itapissuma, Pernambuco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Maria Euzébio da Silva

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Ethnoecology studies the way human populations interpret the connections arising from interactions between society and nature. The present research was conducted with the aim of elucidating the relationship between the artisanal fishermen of Itapissuma, Pernambuco, and the estuary-mangrove complex. Thus, a group of 54 fishermen of the Santa Cruz Channel were interviewed. They demonstrated an accurate knowledge about the biodiversity of these ecosystems, the ecological relations operating there, and the importance of these natural resources for fishing production. This knowledge reflects a cultural background in which the art of fishing is transmitted to descendants, through observations and practical learning in the traditional community in question: in such communities, the economic subsistence of families depends on those resources.

  2. Dolphin interactions with the mullet artisanal fishing on Southern Brazil: a qualitative and quantitative approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo C. Simões-Lopes

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A detailed analysis of the interactions between Tursiops truncatus (Montagu, 1821 and the artisanal fishing of mullets (Mugil spp. is presented at two localities in the south of Brazil: Laguna (Santa Catarina and Inibé/Tramandaí (Rio Grande do Sul. Its behavioral strategies and the advantages of their association are re-described and quantified based on the success of the capture and on the selectivity of the prey sizes. The mullets are the main resource involved (92% to 75% both at numerical level and as biomass. Twenty individuals of Tursiops truncatus participated in the interactions in Laguna and 9 in Imbé/Tramandaí. The participation and learning of calves is also reported.

  3. Managing artisanal and small-scale mining in forest areas: perspectives from a poststructural political ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirons, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM) is an activity intimately associated with social deprivation and environmental degradation, including deforestation. This paper examines ASM and deforestation using a broadly poststructural political ecology framework. Hegemonic discourses are shown to consistently influence policy direction, particularly in emerging approaches such as Corporate Social Responsibility and the Forest Stewardship Council. A review of alternative discourses reveals that the poststructural method is useful for critiquing the international policy arena but does not inform new approaches. Synthesis of the analysis leads to conclusions that echo a growing body of literature advocating for policies to become increasingly sensitive to local contexts, synergistic between actors at difference scales, and to be integrated across sectors. PMID:22180922

  4. Ecological interactions of sea sponges (Animalia, Porifera according to artisanal fishermen from Camamu Bay, Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loyana Docio

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This article represents the first ethnospongiological study in Brazil, and it aimed at recording artisanal fishermen’s knowledge about sea sponges and their ecological interactions. The study was carried out in the Ilha do Contrato community at Camamu Bay, Bahia State, Brazil. The data were obtained by means of open-ended interviews and projective tests, and followed the usual techniques of ethnographic surveys. The interviewees had knowledge regarding ecological interactions among fish, sea sponges and sponge endofaunal composition. According to the results, there is some congruence between folk wisdom and scientific knowledge. The importance of integrating local knowledge into management and conservation plans designed for the Camamu Bay region, as well as the set of data on ecology of reef communities, should be considered.

  5. Genetic diversity, dynamics, and activity of Lactobacillus community involved in traditional processing of artisanal Manchego cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Isabel; Seseña, Susana; Poveda, Justa M; Cabezas, Lourdes; Palop, Llanos

    2006-04-01

    A total of 248 strains of predominant lactobacilli isolated during the manufacture and ripening of artisanal Manchego cheeses obtained from two dairies were obtained and the genetic diversity of 197 investigated using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD-PCR). 51 isolates could not be lysed and were therefore not genotyped. Forty-two distinct RAPD patterns, grouped in six major clusters at a similarity level of 54%, were obtained. Phenotypic characterization of isolates enabled their assignment to the species L. plantarum, L. brevis, L. paracasei subsp. paracasei, L. fermentum, L. pentosus, L. acidophilus and L. curvatus. In samples from both dairies, the species L. plantarum, L. brevis and L. paracasei subsp. paracasei dominated during ripening. Three genotypes showed excellent physiological characteristics and were therefore proposed as adjunct cultures for Manchego cheese manufacture. PMID:16481060

  6. Heavenly Networks. Celestial Maps and Globes in Circulation between Artisans, Mathematicians, and Noblemen in Renaissance Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessner, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the iconography on a set of star charts by Albrecht Dürer (1515), and celestial globes by Caspar Vopel (1536) and Christoph Schissler (1575). The iconography on these instruments is conditioned by strong traditions which include not only the imagery on globes and planispheres (star charts), but also ancient literature about the constellations. Where this iconography departs from those traditions, the change had to do with humanism in the sixteenth century. This "humanistic" dimension is interwoven with other concerns that involve both "social" and "technical" motivations. The interplay of these three dimensions illustrates how the iconography on celestial charts and globes expresses some features of the shared knowledge and shared culture between artisans, mathematicians, and nobles in Renaissance Europe.

  7. Traditional knowledge and artisanal fishing technology on the Xingu River in Pará, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, E M C; Isaac-Nahum, V J

    2015-08-01

    In artisanal fishing, the techniques used by a community reflect the characteristics of the natural environment, in particular the distribution and availability of resources, as well as local traditions and customs. However, economic development may result in the loss of these traditions. The present study documents the fishing techniques used by the communities on the Xingu River in the Brazilian state of Pará (Maribel, Altamira, Belo Monte, Vitória do Xingu, Vila Nova, Senador José Porfírio, Porto de Moz, and Gurupá). Interviews were used to investigate traditional local knowledge and the distribution of the different fishing methods within the study area. The local fishers described the use of 12 different types of net, 10 hook and line techniques, and eight kinds of spearfishing. Free diving and scuba diving are also used for the capture of ornamental fish. PMID:26691086

  8. The situation of rural women in Spain: the case of small-scale artisan food producers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Escurriol Martinez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Rural women's discrimination and the lack of effective implementation of the legislation on gender equality is a phenomenon found around the world. Women have been traditionally the responsible of family care and feeding, thus they have developed productive tasks that allow combining productive and reproductive activities in the farm. Food processing is one of these activities and it allows women to have a paid work or to complement agrarian rents in a context where most of agricultural works are vetoed to them. Nevertheless, women are usually linked to small-scale agricultural projects which prioritize quality and local food production, and the expansion of industrial food systems has worsened the situation of artisan women. In the present research we aimed, through the use of qualitative methodologies, at conducting a diagnosis of the situation of women leading small-scale food transformation projects in Spain while eliciting their main difficulties, needs and claims.

  9. Artisanal Extraction and Traditional Knowledge Associated with Medicinal Use of Crabwood Oil (Carapa guianensis Aublet.) in a Peri-Urban Várzea Environment in the Amazon Estuary

    OpenAIRE

    Mariane Nardi; Ana Cláudia Lira-Guedes; Helenilza Ferreira Albuquerque Cunha; Marcelino Carneiro Guedes; Karen Mustin; Suellen Cristina Pantoja Gomes

    2016-01-01

    Várzea forests of the Amazon estuary contain species of importance to riverine communities. For example, the oil extracted from the seeds of crabwood trees is traditionally used to combat various illnesses and as such artisanal extraction processes have been maintained. The objectives of this study were to (1) describe the process involved in artisanal extraction of crabwood oil in the Fazendinha Protected Area, in the state of Amapá; (2) characterise the processes of knowledge transfer assoc...

  10. Etude chimique de colorants naturels et matériaux résineux traditionnels au Bénin dans le domaine artisanal

    OpenAIRE

    Fagbohoun, Louis

    2014-01-01

    Molecular plant wealth is an important source of dyes and naturally occurring bioactive molecules, have always been used by artisans and crafts and traditional healers in the therapeutic field. This work contributes mainly to the chemical study of five dye plants: T. grandis, L. inermis, K. senegalensis, I. tinctoria and P. cyanescens, which represent the most used by the artisans at from a ethnobotanical study conducted in southeastern Benin. An optimization of the extraction conditions dyes...

  11. Artisanal Fisheries in the Ndumo Area of the Lower Phongolo River Floodplain, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendri C. Coetzee

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the status of artisanal fisheries in the lower Phongolo River floodplain in northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. A cross-sectional quantitative survey design was used that included the development of a questionnaire and a systematic survey among the five villages bordering the Ndumo Game Reserve. Data were collected over a 5-day period by a group of 16 fieldworkers and analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, version 21. The results revealed that fish was the third most consumed protein in the area, that people consumed fish on average twice a week, that at least six fish species (and one recently introduced crayfish species were consumed regularly, and that most fish were obtained from local vendors, who in turn bought it from local fishermen and -women. Fishing activities also appeared to occur predominantly along the river system and targeted mainly red-breasted tilapia (Tilapia rendalli and Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus and, to a slightly lesser extent, African sharptooth catfish (Clarias gariepinus and brown squeaker (Synodontis zambezensis.Conservation implications: Given that Ndumo residents predominantly catch fish by means of non-commercial methods, that they do so for reasons of personal consumption and subsistence, and that they mostly target rivers and dams rather than the ecologically sensitive pans in the region, it would seem likely that fishing in the region might be sustainable for the moment. However, it is recommended that studies on the local fish populations and their reproductive rates be conducted so that the actual impact on local fish populations can be determined more accurately. This study serves to provide the necessary baseline data on fish utilisation in the region, which would enable the impact of artisanal fishing on fish reserves in the Ndumo region to be determined once population studies have been completed.

  12. Artisanal small-scale mining: Potential ecological disaster in Mzingwane District, Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siduduziwe Ncube-Phiri

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Artisanal small-scale mining (ASM has devastating impacts on the environment, such as deforestation, over-stripping of overburden, burning of bushes and use of harmful chemicals like mercury. These environmental impacts are a result of destructive mining, wasteful mineral extraction and processing practices and techniques used by the artisanal small-scale miners. This paper explores the ecological problems caused by ASM in Mzingwane District, Zimbabwe. It seeks to determine the nature and extent to which the environment has been damaged by the ASM from a community perspective. Interviews, questionnaires and observations were used to collect qualitative data. Results indicated that the nature of the mining activities undertaken by unskilled and under-equipped gold panners in Mzingwane District is characterised by massive stripping of overburden and burning of bushes, leading to destruction of large tracts of land and river systems and general ecosystem disturbance. The research concluded that ASM in Mzingwane District is an ecological time bomb, stressing the need for appropriate modifications of the legal and institutional frameworks for promoting sustainable use of natural resources and mining development in Zimbabwe. Government, through the Ministry of Small Scale and Medium Enterprises, need to regularise and formalise all gold mining activities through licensing, giving permanent claims and operating permits to panners in order to recoup some of the added costs in the form of taxes. At the local level, the Mzingwane Rural District Council (MRDC together with the Environmental Management Agency (EMA need to design appropriate environmental education and awareness programmes targeting the local community and gold panners.

  13. Environmental Remediation to Address Childhood Lead Poisoning Epidemic due to Artisanal Gold Mining in Zamfara, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirima, Simba; Bartrem, Casey; von Lindern, Ian; von Braun, Margrit; Lind, Douglas; Anka, Shehu Mohammed; Abdullahi, Aishat

    2016-01-01

    Background: From 2010 through 2013, integrated health and environmental responses addressed an unprecedented epidemic lead poisoning in Zamfara State, northern Nigeria. Artisanal gold mining caused widespread contamination resulting in the deaths of > 400 children. Socioeconomic, logistic, and security challenges required remediation and medical protocols within the context of local resources, labor practices, and cultural traditions. Objectives: Our aim was to implement emergency environmental remediation to abate exposures to 17,000 lead poisoned villagers, to facilitate chelation treatment of children ≤ 5 years old, and to establish local technical capacity and lead health advocacy programs to prevent future disasters. Methods: U.S. hazardous waste removal protocols were modified to accommodate local agricultural practices. Remediation was conducted over 4 years in three phases, progressing from an emergency response by international personnel to comprehensive cleanup funded and accomplished by the Nigerian government. Results: More than 27,000 m3 of contaminated soils and mining waste were removed from 820 residences and ore processing areas in eight villages, largely by hand labor, and disposed in constructed landfills. Excavated areas were capped with clean soils (≤ 25 mg/kg lead), decreasing soil lead concentrations by 89%, and 2,349 children received chelation treatment. Pre-chelation geometric mean blood lead levels for children ≤ 5 years old decreased from 149 μg/dL to 15 μg/dL over the 4-year remedial program. Conclusions: The unprecedented outbreak and response demonstrate that, given sufficient political will and modest investment, the world’s most challenging environmental health crises can be addressed by adapting proven response protocols to the capabilities of host countries. Citation: Tirima S, Bartrem C, von Lindern I, von Braun M, Lind D, Anka SM, Abdullahi A. 2016. Environmental remediation to address childhood lead poisoning epidemic

  14. Artisanal alcohol production in Mayan Guatemala: Chemical safety evaluation with special regard to acetaldehyde contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanteres, Fotis [Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH), 33 Russell Street, ARF 2035, Toronto, ON, Canada, M5S 2 S1 (Canada); Rehm, Juergen [Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH), 33 Russell Street, ARF 2035, Toronto, ON, Canada, M5S 2 S1 (Canada); Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, 155 College Street, Toronto, ON, Canada, M5T 3 M7 (Canada); Institute for Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, TU Dresden, Chemnitzer Strasse 46, D-01187 Dresden (Germany); Lachenmeier, Dirk W., E-mail: Lachenmeier@web.de [Chemisches und Veterinaeruntersuchungsamt (CVUA) Karlsruhe, Weissenburger Strasse 3, D-76187 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2009-11-01

    There is a lack of knowledge regarding the composition, production, distribution, and consumption of artisanal alcohol, particularly in the developing world. In Nahuala, an indigenous Mayan municipality located in highland Guatemala, heavy alcohol consumption appears to have had a significant negative impact on health, a major role in cases of violence and domestic abuse, and a link to street habitation. Cuxa, an artisanally, as well as commercially produced sugarcane alcohol, is widely consumed by heavy drinkers in this community. Cuxa samples from all distribution points in the community were obtained and chemically analyzed for health-relevant constituents and contaminants including methanol, acetaldehyde, higher alcohols, and metals. From those, only acetaldehyde was confirmed to be present in unusually high levels (up to 126 g/hl of pure alcohol), particularly in samples that were produced clandestinely. Acetaldehyde has been evaluated as 'possibly carcinogenic' and has also been identified as having significant human exposure in a recent risk assessment. This study explores the reasons for the elevated levels of acetaldehyde, through both sampling and analyses of raw and intermediary products of cuxa production, as well as interviews from producers of the clandestine alcohol. For further insight, we experimentally produced this alcohol in our laboratory, based on the directions provided by the producers, as well as materials from the town itself. Based on these data, the origin of the acetaldehyde contamination appears to be due to chemical changes induced during processing, with the major causative factors consisting of poor hygiene, aerobic working conditions, and inadequate yeast strains, compounded by flawed distillation methodology that neglects separation of the first fractions of the distillate. These results indicate a preventable public health concern for consumers, which can be overcome through education about good manufacturing practices

  15. Artisanal alcohol production in Mayan Guatemala: Chemical safety evaluation with special regard to acetaldehyde contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a lack of knowledge regarding the composition, production, distribution, and consumption of artisanal alcohol, particularly in the developing world. In Nahuala, an indigenous Mayan municipality located in highland Guatemala, heavy alcohol consumption appears to have had a significant negative impact on health, a major role in cases of violence and domestic abuse, and a link to street habitation. Cuxa, an artisanally, as well as commercially produced sugarcane alcohol, is widely consumed by heavy drinkers in this community. Cuxa samples from all distribution points in the community were obtained and chemically analyzed for health-relevant constituents and contaminants including methanol, acetaldehyde, higher alcohols, and metals. From those, only acetaldehyde was confirmed to be present in unusually high levels (up to 126 g/hl of pure alcohol), particularly in samples that were produced clandestinely. Acetaldehyde has been evaluated as 'possibly carcinogenic' and has also been identified as having significant human exposure in a recent risk assessment. This study explores the reasons for the elevated levels of acetaldehyde, through both sampling and analyses of raw and intermediary products of cuxa production, as well as interviews from producers of the clandestine alcohol. For further insight, we experimentally produced this alcohol in our laboratory, based on the directions provided by the producers, as well as materials from the town itself. Based on these data, the origin of the acetaldehyde contamination appears to be due to chemical changes induced during processing, with the major causative factors consisting of poor hygiene, aerobic working conditions, and inadequate yeast strains, compounded by flawed distillation methodology that neglects separation of the first fractions of the distillate. These results indicate a preventable public health concern for consumers, which can be overcome through education about good manufacturing practices, as well

  16. Characterization, mapping, and mitigation of mercury vapour emissions from artisanal mining gold shops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordy, Paul; Veiga, Marcello; Crawford, Ben; Garcia, Oseas; Gonzalez, Victor; Moraga, Daniel; Roeser, Monika; Wip, Dennis

    2013-08-01

    Artisanal miners sell their gold to shops that are usually located in the urban core, where the mercury-gold amalgam is burned to evaporate the mercury that was added during ore processing. People living and working near these gold shops are exposed to intermittent and extreme concentrations of mercury vapour. In the urban centres of Segovia, Colombia, and Andacollo, Chile, the average concentrations measured by mobile mercury vapour analyzer transects taken repeatedly over several weeks were 1.26 and 0.338μgm(-3), respectively. By World Health Organization standards, these towns are exposed to significant health hazard, and globally, the millions of miners, as well as non-miners who live near gold shops, are at serious risk of neurological and renal deficits. Measurements taken in Suriname, Ecuador and Peru reveal this to be a widespread phenomenon with unique regional variations and myriad attempts at remediation. Maps of average mercury concentrations show the spatial distribution of the hazard in relation to residential buildings and schools. Measurements from towers show the temporal variability of mercury concentrations, and suggest that large quantities of mercury are available for long-range atmospheric transport. Mercury mapping in Segovia in 2011 suggest a 10% reduction in airborne mercury concentrations over 2010, despite a 30% increase in gold production. This is attributable to the adoption of retorts by miners and regulations banning new processing centres to the rural periphery. This is the first full description of artisanal mining gold shop practices and of the character, quantity, and remediation of mercury emissions within urban mining centres. PMID:23541941

  17. Linking geology and health sciences to assess childhood lead poisoning from artisanal gold mining in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Durant, James T.; Morman, Suzette A.; Neri, Antonio; Wolf, Ruth E.; Dooyema, Carrie A.; Hageman, Philip L.; Lowers, Heather; Fernette, Gregory L.; Meeker, Gregory P.; Benzel, William M.; Driscoll, Rhonda L.; Berry, Cyrus J.; Crock, James G.; Goldstein, Harland L.; Adams, Monique; Bartrem, Casey L.; Tirima, Simba; Behrooz, Behbod; von Lindern, Ian; Brown, Mary Jean

    2013-01-01

    Background: In 2010, Médecins Sans Frontières discovered a lead poisoning outbreak linked to artisanal gold processing in northwestern Nigeria. The outbreak has killed approximately 400 young children and affected thousands more. Objectives: Our aim was to undertake an interdisciplinary geological- and health-science assessment to clarify lead sources and exposure pathways, identify additional toxicants of concern and populations at risk, and examine potential for similar lead poisoning globally. Methods: We applied diverse analytical methods to ore samples, soil and sweep samples from villages and family compounds, and plant foodstuff samples. Results: Natural weathering of lead-rich gold ores before mining formed abundant, highly gastric-bioaccessible lead carbonates. The same fingerprint of lead minerals found in all sample types confirms that ore processing caused extreme contamination, with up to 185,000 ppm lead in soils/sweep samples and up to 145 ppm lead in plant foodstuffs. Incidental ingestion of soils via hand-to-mouth transmission and of dusts cleared from the respiratory tract is the dominant exposure pathway. Consumption of water and foodstuffs contaminated by the processing is likely lesser, but these are still significant exposure pathways. Although young children suffered the most immediate and severe consequences, results indicate that older children, adult workers, pregnant women, and breastfed infants are also at risk for lead poisoning. Mercury, arsenic, manganese, antimony, and crystalline silica exposures pose additional health threats. Conclusions: Results inform ongoing efforts in Nigeria to assess lead contamination and poisoning, treat victims, mitigate exposures, and remediate contamination. Ore deposit geology, pre-mining weathering, and burgeoning artisanal mining may combine to cause similar lead poisoning disasters elsewhere globally.

  18. Participatory research towards co-management: lessons from artisanal fisheries in coastal Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, Micaela; Berkes, Fikret

    2013-10-15

    Participatory research has become increasingly common in natural resources management. Even though participatory research is considered a strategy to facilitate co-management, there is little empirical evidence supporting this. The objective of the present paper is to analyze the contributions of participatory research to help encourage the emergence of co-management, based on a case study in Piriápolis artisanal fishery in coastal Uruguay (where management has been top-down). We argue that participatory research involving artisanal fishers, government, and other stakeholders (university scientists and NGOs) can be a key stimulus towards co-management. We build this argument by considering "seven faces" by which co-management can be analyzed: (1) as power sharing; (2) as institution building; (3) as trust building; (4) as process; (5) as learning and knowledge co-production; (6) as problem solving; and (7) as governance. Our findings show that participatory research had an impact on these various faces: (1) power was shared when making research decisions; (2) a multi-stakeholder group (POPA), with a common vision and goals, was created; (3) trust among participants increased; (4) the process of group formation was valued by participants; (5) stakeholders learned skills for participation; (6) two problem-solving exercises were conducted; and (7) a diversity of stakeholders of the initial problem identified by fishers (sea lions' impact on long-line fishery) participated in the process. The case shows that participatory research functions as a platform which enhances learning and knowledge co-production among stakeholders, paving the way towards future co-management.

  19. Characterization of artisanal honey produced on the Northwest of Portugal by melissopalynological and physico-chemical data

    OpenAIRE

    Feás, Xesús; Pires, José; Iglesias, Antonio; Leticia M. Estevinho

    2010-01-01

    Honey has always been regarded as a food which is advantageous for one’s health and as a product which has healing qualities. For this reason, is necessary to protect consumers from the fraudulent mislabeling of inferior honeys. The purpose of this study was to investigate some properties of artisanal honey samples (n = 45) collected from the Northwest of Portugal by using different honey analysis tests such as moisture, ash, pH, free acidity, electrical conductivity, hydroxymethy...

  20. Trophic ecology of common elasmobranchs exploited by artisanal shark fisheries off south-western Madagascar inferred from stable isotopes

    OpenAIRE

    Kiszka, Jérémy J.; Charlot, Kevin; Hussey, Nigel,; Heithaus, Michael R.; Simon-Bouhet, Benoit; Humber, Frances; Caurant, Florence; Bustamante, Paco

    2014-01-01

    International audience Knowledge of the trophic ecology and interactions of marine top predators is fundamental for understanding community structure and dynamics as well as ecosystem function. We examined the feeding relationships of four heavily exploited elasmobranchs caught in coastal artisanal shark fisheries in south-western Madagascar (2009-2010) - Sphyrna lewini, Loxodon macrorhinus, Carcharhinus falciformis and Rhynchobatus djiddensis - using stable isotope (δ15N and δ13C) analysi...

  1. Probabilistic meta-analysis of risk from the exposure to Hg in artisanal gold mining communities in Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel García, Eduardo de; Ortega Romero, Marcelo; Gómez San Martín, Amaia; Clavijo, Diana

    2014-01-01

    Colombia is one of the largest per capita mercury polluters in the world as a consequence of its artisanal gold mining activities. The severity of this problem in terms of potential health effects was evaluated by means of a probabilistic risk assessment carried out in the twelve departments (or provinces) in Colombia with the largest gold production. The two exposure pathways included in the risk assessment were inhalation of elemental Hg vapors and ingestion of fish contaminated with methyl...

  2. A Survey of Mining and Tailings Disposal Practices of Selected Artisanal and Small Scale Mining Companies in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Chiri G. Amedjoe; Gawu, S. K. Y.

    2015-01-01

    Management of small scale mining operations for maximum profitability with good environmental stewardship requires careful planning of mining and tailings disposal strategies. Field studies and observations of eleven selected artisanal and small-scale gold mining companies winning gold from alluvial (placer) source mostly, but also mine out cropping and underground quartz veins where available from the Takwaian and Birimian Formations in southwestern Ghana. Excavation is either by pitting or ...

  3. Evaluation of impact of artificial reefs on artisanal fisheries: need for complementary approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Koeck

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In a general context of fisheries decline due to overfishing and to other phenomena such as climate change, it appears to be crucial to implement a sustainable management of natural resources by finding a balance between conservation and exploitation purposes. Artificial reefs (ARs have recently become one of the existing management tools, often in combination with fishing quotas or marine protected areas. To evaluate the effectiveness of the studied ARs, different methods have been used: (i visual census by SCUBA diving (AR scale, (ii fisheries landings survey (local scale and (iii external fish tagging (regional scale. Underwater visual census (UVC showed a significantly higher species richness and density in ARs than in the control site. Abundance, biomass and LPUE data (Landings Per Unit Effort issued from artisanal fisheries landings survey were not significantly different around the AR system from other fishing grounds of the French Catalan coast. The tagging experiments on Diplodus sargus suggested that the connectivity of demersal fish populations must be taken into account to evaluate the influence area of ARs and thus their indirect impacts on artisanal fisheries. The present study highlights the interest of combining methods covering different spatial scales in order to evaluate direct and indirect impacts of ARs on artisanal fisheries. Methods for the evaluation of AR efficiency are discussed.Dentro do atual contexto de redução nos estoques de peixes ligados à sobrepesca, e também à outros fenômenos tais como as mudanças climáticas, é indispensável implementar um plano de gestão durável para os recursos pesqueiros, conciliando sua exploração e conservação. Os recifes artificiais (RAs tem surgido nos dias atuais como uma importante ferramenta de gestão, freqüentemente combinada à cotas de pesca ou áreas marinhas protegidas. Com a finalidade de avaliar a eficiência dos recifes artificiais, utilizou-se os seguintes

  4. Aphakia correction with retropupillary fixated iris-claw lens (Artisan – long-term results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schallenberg M

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Maurice Schallenberg,1,2 Dirk Dekowski,1 Angela Hahn,1 Thomas Laube,1,3 Klaus-Peter Steuhl,1 Daniel Meller11Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospital Essen, University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany; 2HELIOS Klinikum Wuppertal, Wuppertal, Germany; 3Zentrum für Augenheilkunde PD Dr Laube, Düsseldorf, GermanyPurpose: To evaluate the technique, safety, and efficacy of the retropupillary implantation of iris-claw intraocular lenses in a long-term follow-up study.Patients and methods: This retrospective study included 31 eyes of 31 patients who underwent an Artisan aphakic intraocular lens implantation between January 2006 and February 2011 at the University Hospital Essen, Essen, Germany and at the Zentrum für Augenheilkunde PD Dr Laube, Düsseldorf, Germany. Preoperative data collected included demographics, etiology of aphakia, previous surgeries, preoperative eye pathology, intraocular pressure, clinical signs of endothelial cell loss, and best corrected visual acuity. Operative data and postoperative outcomes included the best corrected visual acuity, lens position, intraocular pressure, pigment dispersion, clinical signs of endothelial cell loss, development of macular edema, and other complications.Results: Thirty-one patients were included. The mean follow-up was 25.2 months (range: 4–48 months. The mean best corrected visual acuity postoperatively was 0.64 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR and varied from 0 logMAR to 3 logMAR. Some patients had a low visual acuity preoperatively because of preoperative eye pathologies. In 22 patients the visual acuity improved, in two patients the visual acuity remained unchanged, and seven patients showed a decreased visual acuity. Complications were peaked pupils (n=10 and retinal detachment in one case. Four patients showed an iris atrophy and high intraocular pressure was observed only in one patient. Subluxation of the intraocular lens, endothelial cell loss, and

  5. Pierre-Joseph Macquer an eighteenth-century artisanal-scientific expert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Christine

    2012-07-01

    Pierre-Joseph Macquer (1718-1784) is well known as one of the major chemists in the eighteenth century as a theoretician and a teacher. He is also known for his works on dyeing. This paper presents a new face of Macquer. He proposed a theory on mordants in dyeing as early as 1775. Besides his activity at the Académie des sciences, he played an important role in Government as the commissioner of dyeing from 1766 where he established close links with artisan inventors. Académicien chimiste at the royal Manufactory of Sèvres from 1757, he was also the inventor of French porcelain. His notebooks show his organization, method, courage, passion and obstinacy in the search for the paste for hard porcelain. He also proposed an interpretation of its formation. Macquer was both a theoretician and a practical expert in dyeing as well as in porcelain making. He managed to bridge the gap between science and art.

  6. Characterization of artisanal fishery with camboa net at the Cassurubá Extractive Reserve, Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Oliveira Freitas

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Regarded as relevant nursery areas for fishes, the estuarine systems shelter many commercially important species. From October 2008 to November 2009, we investigated the ichthyofaunal composition and described the routine of artisanal fishing with camboa net in the estuary at the Cassurubá Extractive Reserve, Bahia, Brazil. Samplings were conducted in three rivers, during the new and full moons. A total of 1,074 fishes were caught in 17 fisheries with nets, belonging to 26 species and 17 families, with a total biomass of 378.4 kg. The Gerreidae and Centropomidae families were the most abundant ones, and there was a predominance of catches. Out of the total, 50% of individuals which were at the first gonadal maturation (L50 described in the literature had a size less than the expected one, indicating growth overfishing. We recommends the establishment of management systems shared between the actors involved in this fishing art and the Cassurubá Extractive Reserve managers, in order to reduce the capture of individuals below the first gonadal maturation size.

  7. The Artisanal Production of Pulque, a Traditional Beverage of the Mexican Highlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valadez-Blanco, Rogelio; Bravo-Villa, Griselda; Santos-Sánchez, Norma F; Velasco-Almendarez, Sandra I; Montville, Thomas J

    2012-06-01

    Pulque is a traditional fermented alcoholic, acidic, viscous drink of the Mexican central highlands. Its production from the "aguamiel" (sap) of agave plants dates back ~1,500 years and continues to be made by artisanal methods. However, the variability of pulque's quality and its instability hamper its widespread distribution and consumption. Microbiological surveys of pulque from three ranches revealed tremendous variability in the types and quantity of the indigenous microbiota. The population of lactic acid bacteria ranged from 6 × 10(7) to 2 × 10(11) CFU/mL. This variability might be attributed to the conditions on the ranches where the pulque was made. In an attempt to identify these sources of variability, the microbial populations of aguamiel and pulque from a single agave plant were determined. Surprisingly, the population size of the "unfermented" aguamiel and the pulque converged by the end of 3 weeks. The potential use of bacteriocinogenic LAB and known starter cultures to improve pulque properties are discussed.

  8. Ripening-induced changes in microbial groups of artisanal Sicilian goats’ milk cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Di Marco

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the microbial flora of “Caprino dei Nebrodi”, a raw goat’s milk cheese produced in Sicily, were studied during ripening. From 2 batches of cheese, 4 samples were taken at day 0, 2, 15, and 30 of ripening. Also, samples of curd and milk used in the manufacturing process were analyzed. By the end of the ripening process (day 30, high log10 cfu/g were found for Lactobacilli (7.20, Lattococci (7.10, and Enterococci (7.00, whereas counts of Enterobacteriaceae (3.91, Escherichia coli (3.30, and Staphylococcus (3.89 were found to be lower. The study provides useful information on the microbiological properties of “Caprino dei Nebrodi” cheese, and the results obtained suggest that in order to increase the quality of this artisanal product, it is necessary to improve the sanitary conditions of milking and cheese-making. The study was intended as a preliminary step towards the isolation and identification of bacterial species found in this type of goat’s cheese.

  9. Assessment of Radiological Levels in Soils from Artisanal Gold Mining Exercises at Awwal, Kebbi State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Girigisu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the radiological levels from Awwal artisanal gold mining exercises in Kebbi State. Results show mean values of activities of 40K>226Ra232 Th numerically as 425.96±5.56, 23.85±2.01 and 18.80±1.21 Bq/kg, respectively. The average outdoor gamma dose was 34.26 nGy/h while the mean annual effective dose rate was 42.15 &muSv/year (= 0.042 mSv/year, which is less than 0.07 mSv/year benchmark given in UNSCEAR (1993. Radio logically, the values obtained are low and do not imply any significant health concerns effects on the local population. However, the observed unprofessional practices such as lack of use of gas mask while working in the dust-filled mine cafes and at the mills could expose workers to possible risks from inhalation of respiratory crystalline silica as well as exposure to radon gas.

  10. Incidental catch of marine turtles by the artisanal fisheries on Santa Catarina Island, SC, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Hanazaki

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The five species of sea turtles, which inhabit the Brazilian shore, have a wordwide distribution and are threatened with extinction. The south of Brazil is characterized as a feeding and breeding area of at least three of these species. The presence of turtles close to the shore and their incidental catch are occurrences reported by artisan fishermen of the Island of Santa Catarina in this work. The study was based on a questionnaire, applied to fishermen and fishfarmers at selected spots on the island. Scientific and popular names were matched using illustrations. The spots with the highest number of events and captures were close to the islands, rocky coasts and stony grounds, i.e. areas related with the foraging habits of the most abundant species, Chelonia mydas. The place, depth and size of the net are characteristics, which influence the capture. The time the net remains in the water is a factor which is fundamental to the survival of the captured turtles. The flesh of the turtle is used as an occasional feeding resource. Capacitation programs and training applied to the communities involved are recommended.

  11. Soldiers, Artisans, Cultivators and Revolutionaries: The Movement of Sikhs in the Indian Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali Gera Roy

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The geography of Punjab, a land-locked region divided between India and Pakistan, makes it an unlikely player in oceanic sojourns. But imperial interventions in Punjab in the middle of the 19th century triggered movements from Punjab that inserted this region in the littoral narrative of the Indian Ocean. Unlike the movements of lascars and traders, who have been central to the revisionist histories of the Indian Ocean, those from Punjab have not featured in oceanic dialogues. The absence of Sikhs in Indian Ocean studies is largely due to the silence of Sikh soldiers, skilled craftsmen and cultivators with largely rural roots who were uprooted to strange lands. The confusion of Sikhs with Hindus, Muslims and, even Afghans, in the colonial era, as well as the classification of Punjabi Muslims as Pakistani in the post-colonial, further problematizes the Sikh migration narrative. Drawing on a wide range of official and unofficial historical sources, this essay argues that twin developments in Punjab, namely the construction of Sikhs as ‘a martial race’ and their integration into the imperial capitalist economy, connects the movements of soldiers and policemen to Shanghai, Hong Kong, the Straits Settlements and Kenya with those of skilled artisans to Mombasa and Uganda. Keywords: Sikhs, Indian Ocean, labour migration, cultural identity

  12. Selection of a suitable plant for phytoremediation in mining artisanal zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamba, I; Gazquez, M J; Selvaraj, T; Calva, J; Toledo, J J; Armijos, C

    2016-09-01

    A study was undertaken with the aim of identifying a suitable plant for the phytoremediation of metal-polluted soil from an artisanal mining area in Ecuador. Three zones including a natural zone (NZ), abandoned zone (AZ) and intensively mined zone (IZ) were selected. Three common native plants grown in the three zones were identified and collected, including Miconia zamorensis, Axonopus compressus and Erato polymnioides. The percentage of arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization that benefits their own survival in polluted soil was analyzed in the root samples of these candidate species. Analysis of the soils and plants collected from the different zones showed that the concentrations of Pb, Zn, Cu and Cd were comparatively lower in the NZ, higher in the AZ and IZ, and highest in the AZ for all the metals. The concentration of all these metals in plant tissues was the highest in E. polymnioides. The data analysis including the metal accumulation index, bioconcentration factor and translocation factor strongly identified E. polymnioides as a hyperaccumulator plant suitable for phytoremediation. PMID:26940037

  13. The Production of Parmigiano-Reggiano Cheese: The force of an artisanal system in an industrialised world

    OpenAIRE

    Roest, De, Kees

    2000-01-01

    In many respects the Parmigiano-Reggiano production system is a unique dairy system. The processing of 1.35 million tons of milk into a high quality product in 600 small cheese dairies using predominantly artisan production techniques is not found anywhere else in Europe. The high labour input required both on the dairy farms and in the cheese dairies creates considerably more employment than any other dairy system. About 20,000 men and women work everyday in this very special system. In an i...

  14. The tragedy of the commons in artisanal gold mining: evaluation of mechanisms of cooperation with simulation and economic experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Saldarriaga Isaza , Carlos Adrián

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: This thesis is about how collective action –associative entrepreneurship– can be fostered in artisanal and small-scale gold mining. This kind of association is aimed at, among other things, allowing small-scale gold miners to gather the financial capital that is required to obtain the type of technologies that reduce mercury use in the gold recovery process, and therefore the harmful effects of mercury pollution of ecosystems and human health. Given the public-good dilemma that is f...

  15. From Artisanal to CAD-CAM Blocks: State of the Art of Indirect Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainjot, A K; Dupont, N M; Oudkerk, J C; Dewael, T Y; Sadoun, M J

    2016-05-01

    Indirect composites have been undergoing an impressive evolution over the last few years. Specifically, recent developments in computer-aided design-computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) blocks have been associated with new polymerization modes, innovative microstructures, and different compositions. All these recent breakthroughs have introduced important gaps among the properties of the different materials. This critical state-of-the-art review analyzes the strengths and weaknesses of the different varieties of CAD-CAM composite materials, especially as compared with direct and artisanal indirect composites. Indeed, new polymerization modes used for CAD-CAM blocks-especially high temperature (HT) and, most of all, high temperature-high pressure (HT-HP)-are shown to significantly increase the degree of conversion in comparison with light-cured composites. Industrial processes also allow for the augmentation of the filler content and for the realization of more homogeneous structures with fewer flaws. In addition, due to their increased degree of conversion and their different monomer composition, some CAD-CAM blocks are more advantageous in terms of toxicity and monomer release. Finally, materials with a polymer-infiltrated ceramic network (PICN) microstructure exhibit higher flexural strength and a more favorable elasticity modulus than materials with a dispersed filler microstructure. Consequently, some high-performance composite CAD-CAM blocks-particularly experimental PICNs-can now rival glass-ceramics, such as lithium-disilicate glass-ceramics, for use as bonded partial restorations and crowns on natural teeth and implants. Being able to be manufactured in very low thicknesses, they offer the possibility of developing innovative minimally invasive treatment strategies, such as "no prep" treatment of worn dentition. Current issues are related to the study of bonding and wear properties of the different varieties of CAD-CAM composites. There is also a crucial

  16. RIPENING OF ARTISANAL MINAS CHEESE FROM THE "CAMPO DAS VERTENTES" REGION AND THE EFFECTS OF DRY AND WET PERIODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Gonçalves Costa Júnior

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available There is an expressive artisanal cheeses production in Brazil, manufactured from raw milk, and within this context, the state of Minas Gerais has a highlight in this activity with its five micro regions officially recognized. Within these, “Campo das Vertentes” was the last to have recognition. Evaluating the effect of dry and wet periods during the ripening of artisanal Minas cheese of the micro region above mentioned was the main objective of this study, which also related aspects of physicochemical composition of 10 to 30 days of ripening. Four registered dairies were selected and who attended legal requirements and good manufacturing practice to compose the experiment. The analysis of moisture content, moisture to the non fat substance (MNFS and pH showed that these values varied greatly among cheeses and were highest in the dry season. Indexes of proteolysis behaved with variation between samples and advanced in the period of ripening, however, they were higher in the wet season. Even aware that the moisture content of the cheeses exerts strong influence on proteolysis, as well as other factors such as dosage of coagulant and “drop”, the room temperature observed in two periods of ripening was also very important for the advancement of proteolysis.

  17. Loggerhead sea turtle bycatch data in artisanal fisheries within a marine protected area: fishermen surveys versus scientific observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lozano, M.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Loggerhead sea turtles can be incidentally captured by artisanal gears but information about the impact of this fishing is inconsistent and scarce. Recent studies have observed that the bycatch, or incidental catch rate, in fishermen surveys is irregular. The aim of this study was to compare direct data (onboard observers concerning the incidental catch of loggerhead sea turtles by the artisanal vessels versus data from fishermen surveys. The study area was the Cabo de Gata-Níjar marine protected area, situated in the western Mediterranean (southeast of the Iberian peninsula. We observed two loggerhead turtles that were incidentally caught in a total of 165 fishing operations. According to fishermen surveys, a total of nine loggerheads were incidentally caught in 861 fishing operations. The differences between the loggerhead sea turtle bycatch reported by fishermen surveys and scientific observations versus random distribution (x2 = 0.3146, P = 0.575, df = 1 were not significant. We conclude that the surveys are useful but that findings should be interpreted with caution.

  18. Diversity, Dynamics and Activity of Bacterial Communities during Production of an Artisanal Sicilian Cheese as Evaluated by 16S rRNA Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Randazzo, C.L.; Torriani, S.; Akkermans, A.D.L.; Vos, de W.M.; Vaughan, E.E.

    2002-01-01

    The diversity and dynamics of the microbial communities during the manufacturing of Ragusano cheese, an artisanal cheese produced in Sicily (Italy), were investigated by a combination of classical and culture-independent approaches. The latter included PCR, reverse transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR), and de

  19. Temporal dominance of sensations sensory profile and drivers of liking of artisanal Minas cheese produced in the region of Serra da Canastra, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemfeito, Raquel M; Rodrigues, Jéssica F; Silva, Jonas G E; Abreu, Luiz R

    2016-10-01

    The Serra da Canastra region, located in southwestern Minas Gerais, Brazil, is recognized worldwide for its tradition of producing artisanal cheeses. However, as production is done by hand, great variability exists in the characteristics of artisanal Minas cheese. Thus, it is important to characterize the sensory profile of these products and verify the quality attributes that lead to their acceptance. Therefore, this study aimed to characterize the dynamic sensorial profile of artisanal Minas cheese produced in the Serra da Canastra region through temporal dominance of sensations and sensory acceptance tests and verify the attributes that lead to product quality. We observed that the texture and flavor profile varied among the evaluated artisanal Minas cheeses from Serra da Canastra, some cheeses being more characterized by creamy and soft or hard and firm sensations, whereas others had high dominance rates for crumbly texture. In relation to flavor, salty and bitter tastes were dominant in most cheeses, some also being characterized by a sour taste, and others by buttery and rancid attributes, which indicates a lack of product standardization. However, all samples obtained scores between 6 (liked slightly) and 7 (liked moderately), indicating good acceptability in relation to the texture and flavor of the evaluated cheeses. Moreover, it is possible to infer that creamy and soft or hard and firm are positive attributes for cheese texture, and bitter, buttery, salty, and acid taste drive cheese acceptance. This study provides important information for product standardization, quality improvement, and process origin indications, besides providing quality attributes that meet consumer desires.

  20. Environmental assessment of mercury contamination from the Rwamagasa artisanal gold mining centre, Geita District, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, H; Appleton, J D; Lister, R; Smith, B; Chitamweba, D; Mkumbo, O; Machiwa, J F; Tesha, A L; Beinhoff, C

    2005-05-01

    This study presents the results of an environmental assessment of mercury (Hg) contamination in the Rwamagasa artisanal gold mining area, northwest Tanzania, and the potential downstream dispersion along the River Malagarasi to Lake Tanganyika. At the time of sampling, generally low concentrations of Hg (spp. increase from about 0.01 mg Hg/kg for the River Malagarasi delta to 0.07, 0.2, and 1.6 mg/kg, respectively, for the Rwamagasa 'background', moderately and most contaminated sites. For piscivorous (Lates, Brycinus, and Hydrocynus spp.), insectivorous (Barbus spp.), and planktivorous (Haplochromis spp.) fish species, the 10-cm standardized Hg concentrations increase from about 0.006 mg/kg for the River Malagarasi-Lake Tanganyika area to 0.5 and 3.5 mg/kg, respectively, for the Rwamagasa moderately and most contaminated sites. The low concentrations of Hg in fish from the Malagarasi River delta and Lake Tanganyika indicate that Hg contamination from the Rwamagasa area does not have a readily discernible impact on the biota of Lake Tanganyika. Many of the fish samples from Rwamagasa exceed guidelines for human consumption (0.5 mg/kg) as well as the WHO recommended limit for vulnerable groups (0.2 mg/kg). Tissue total Hg (THg) of all fish collected from the River Malagarasi-Lake Tanganyika subarea is well below these guidelines. Potential human exposure through consumption of 300 g/day of rice grown on Hg-contaminated soils is 5.5 microg/week. Consumption of 250 g Nile perch (Lates spp.), 500 g tilapia (Oreochromis spp.), and 250 g of catfish (Clarias spp.) each week would result in an intake of 65 microg Hg/week for people consuming only fish from the Mara and Mwanza regions of Lake Victoria and 116 microg Hg/week for people in the Rwamagasa area consuming tilapia and Nile perch from Lake Victoria and catfish from mining-impacted streams. This is lower than the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI) of 300 microg for Hg in the diet set by the WHO and the FAO

  1. From Artisanal to CAD-CAM Blocks: State of the Art of Indirect Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainjot, A K; Dupont, N M; Oudkerk, J C; Dewael, T Y; Sadoun, M J

    2016-05-01

    Indirect composites have been undergoing an impressive evolution over the last few years. Specifically, recent developments in computer-aided design-computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) blocks have been associated with new polymerization modes, innovative microstructures, and different compositions. All these recent breakthroughs have introduced important gaps among the properties of the different materials. This critical state-of-the-art review analyzes the strengths and weaknesses of the different varieties of CAD-CAM composite materials, especially as compared with direct and artisanal indirect composites. Indeed, new polymerization modes used for CAD-CAM blocks-especially high temperature (HT) and, most of all, high temperature-high pressure (HT-HP)-are shown to significantly increase the degree of conversion in comparison with light-cured composites. Industrial processes also allow for the augmentation of the filler content and for the realization of more homogeneous structures with fewer flaws. In addition, due to their increased degree of conversion and their different monomer composition, some CAD-CAM blocks are more advantageous in terms of toxicity and monomer release. Finally, materials with a polymer-infiltrated ceramic network (PICN) microstructure exhibit higher flexural strength and a more favorable elasticity modulus than materials with a dispersed filler microstructure. Consequently, some high-performance composite CAD-CAM blocks-particularly experimental PICNs-can now rival glass-ceramics, such as lithium-disilicate glass-ceramics, for use as bonded partial restorations and crowns on natural teeth and implants. Being able to be manufactured in very low thicknesses, they offer the possibility of developing innovative minimally invasive treatment strategies, such as "no prep" treatment of worn dentition. Current issues are related to the study of bonding and wear properties of the different varieties of CAD-CAM composites. There is also a crucial

  2. Mercury pollution from the artisanal mining in Yani gold district, Northern Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonso, Pura; Freixas, Anna; Bascompta, Marc; María Aranibar, Ana; Villegas, Karla; María García-Noguero, Eva; Higueras, Pablo; Cielito Saraiva, Angela

    2016-04-01

    Artisanal gold mining is the main economic activity in the Yani district, Northern Bolivia. In this area abundant orogenic gold deposits constituted by quartz veins hosted in paleozoic turbiditic series that contain either free gold or associated with pyrite. Gold is recovered in processing plants by gravimetric methods using shaking tables in several communities of this district. Previously, miners ground the mineral in ball mills together with mercury. The present study aims to evaluate the effect of mercury used in the gold recovering process to the environment and human health in the Yani district. The assessment was based on the analysis of human hair, sediments and water from the river nearby the processing plant and drinking water from the fountain that supplies these communities. 47 samples of hair from miners and other people from the Yani and Señor de Mayo communities were obtained in 2014 and 52 samples in 2015. All were analysed to evaluate the mercury exposure in these places. The results from the 2014 sampling show a wide range of Hg concentration in hair, especially in Señor de Mayo, with values up to 136 μg/g THg. However, in 2015 among the 43 residents in Señor de Mayo, 29 (67%) exhibit concentrations higher than 2 μg/g THg, with an average value of 5.36 μg/g THg. On the other hand, in Yani only 40% have concentrations above 2 μg/g THg, with an average value of 2.34 μg/g THg. The content in Hg in most of the hair samples exhibit values above the tolerable limits established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (1 μg/g Hg) and the World Health Organisation (WHO, 2 μg/g Hg). These high Hg concentrations are found not only in miners but also in the other members of the community, in spite of low fish consumption in this area. Part of the hair was analysed before and after cleaning. Usually in the second case the content of Hg is reduced, but still show high Hg levels, then probably the atmosphere is polluted with Hg and population is

  3. Temporal dominance of sensations sensory profile and drivers of liking of artisanal Minas cheese produced in the region of Serra da Canastra, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemfeito, Raquel M; Rodrigues, Jéssica F; Silva, Jonas G E; Abreu, Luiz R

    2016-10-01

    The Serra da Canastra region, located in southwestern Minas Gerais, Brazil, is recognized worldwide for its tradition of producing artisanal cheeses. However, as production is done by hand, great variability exists in the characteristics of artisanal Minas cheese. Thus, it is important to characterize the sensory profile of these products and verify the quality attributes that lead to their acceptance. Therefore, this study aimed to characterize the dynamic sensorial profile of artisanal Minas cheese produced in the Serra da Canastra region through temporal dominance of sensations and sensory acceptance tests and verify the attributes that lead to product quality. We observed that the texture and flavor profile varied among the evaluated artisanal Minas cheeses from Serra da Canastra, some cheeses being more characterized by creamy and soft or hard and firm sensations, whereas others had high dominance rates for crumbly texture. In relation to flavor, salty and bitter tastes were dominant in most cheeses, some also being characterized by a sour taste, and others by buttery and rancid attributes, which indicates a lack of product standardization. However, all samples obtained scores between 6 (liked slightly) and 7 (liked moderately), indicating good acceptability in relation to the texture and flavor of the evaluated cheeses. Moreover, it is possible to infer that creamy and soft or hard and firm are positive attributes for cheese texture, and bitter, buttery, salty, and acid taste drive cheese acceptance. This study provides important information for product standardization, quality improvement, and process origin indications, besides providing quality attributes that meet consumer desires. PMID:27497904

  4. Assessing the Environmental and Socio-Economic Impacts of Artisanal Gold Mining on the Livelihoods of Communities in the Tarkwa Nsuaem Municipality in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Samuel Obiri; Precious A. D. Mattah; Mattah, Memuna M.; Frederick A. Armah; Shiloh Osae; Sam Adu-kumi; Philip O. Yeboah

    2016-01-01

    Gold mining has played an important role in Ghana’s economy, however the negative environmental and socio-economic effects on the host communities associated with gold mining have overshadowed these economic gains. It is within this context that this paper assessed in an integrated manner the environmental and socio-economic impacts of artisanal gold mining in the Tarkwa Nsuaem Municipality from a natural and social science perspective. The natural science group collected 200 random samples o...

  5. Scale-Up and Operating Factors for Electrolytic Silver Recovery from Effluents of Artisanal Used-Gold-Jewelry Smelting Plants in the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Catalino Alfafara, PhD; Monet Concepcion Maguyon, MS; Michael Vincent Laurio, BS; Veronica Migo, PhD; Lorele Trinidad, PhD; Elezabeth Ompad, BS; Jennifer Marie Sunga-Amparo, MA; Marlo Mendoza, MA

    2012-01-01

    Background. The Marilao, Meycauayan and Obando river system (MMORS), in the Philippines is home to many precious metals refineries, where local artisanal gold smelting industries use silver to draw gold out of used jewelry. Copper recovers the silver. The copper-rich wastewater contributes to local pollution. Alternative methods for silver recovery include electrolytic recovery: removal of silver ions from solution, and conversion of the ions into metallic silver. Objectives. Explore opera...

  6. A cross-sectional survey on knowledge and perceptions of health risks associated with arsenic and mercury contamination from artisanal gold mining in Tanzania

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    Charles Elias

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An estimated 0.5 to 1.5 million informal miners, of whom 30-50% are women, rely on artisanal mining for their livelihood in Tanzania. Mercury, used in the processing gold ore, and arsenic, which is a constituent of some ores, are common occupational exposures that frequently result in widespread environmental contamination. Frequently, the mining activities are conducted haphazardly without regard for environmental, occupational, or community exposure. The primary objective of this study was to assess community risk knowledge and perception of potential mercury and arsenic toxicity and/or exposure from artisanal gold mining in Rwamagasa in northwestern Tanzania. Methods A cross-sectional survey of respondents in five sub-villages in the Rwamagasa Village located in Geita District in northwestern Tanzania near Lake Victoria was conducted. This area has a history of artisanal gold mining and many of the population continue to work as miners. Using a clustered random selection approach for recruitment, a total of 160 individuals over 18 years of age completed a structured interview. Results The interviews revealed wide variations in knowledge and risk perceptions concerning mercury and arsenic exposure, with 40.6% (n=65 and 89.4% (n=143 not aware of the health effects of mercury and arsenic exposure respectively. Males were significantly more knowledgeable (n=59, 36.9% than females (n=36, 22.5% with regard to mercury (x2=3.99, px2=22.82, p= Conclusions The knowledge of individuals living in Rwamagasa, Tanzania, an area with a history of artisanal gold mining, varied widely with regard to the health hazards of mercury and arsenic. In these communities there was limited awareness of the threats to health associated with exposure to mercury and arsenic. This lack of knowledge, combined with minimal environmental monitoring and controlled waste management practices, highlights the need for health education, surveillance, and policy

  7. Characterization of the artisanal fishing communities in Nepal and potential implications for the conservation and management of Ganges River Dolphin (Platanista gangetica gangetica)

    OpenAIRE

    Paudel, S.; Levesque, J.C. (Juan); Saavedra, C.; Pita, C.; Pal, P.

    2016-01-01

    The Ganges River dolphin (Platanista gangetica gangetica) (GRD) is classified as one of the most endangered of all cetaceans in the world and the second scarcest freshwater cetacean. The population is estimated to be less than 2,000 individuals. In Nepal’s Narayani, Sapta Koshi, and Karnali river systems, survival of GRD continues to be threatened by various anthropogenic activities, such as dam construction and interactions with artisanal fisheries. A basic description of the ...

  8. Spearfishing Regulation Benefits Artisanal Fisheries: The ReGS Indicator and Its Application to a Multiple-Use Mediterranean Marine Protected Area

    OpenAIRE

    Delphine Rocklin; Jean-Antoine Tomasini; Jean-Michel Culioli; Dominique Pelletier; David Mouillot

    2011-01-01

    The development of fishing efficiency coupled with an increase of fishing effort led to the overexploitation of numerous natural marine resources. In addition to this commercial pressure, the impact of recreational activities on fish assemblages remains barely known. Here we examined the impact of spearfishing limitation on resources in a marine protected area (MPA) and the benefit it provides for the local artisanal fishery through the use of a novel indicator. We analysed trends in the fish...

  9. The Effects of Artisanal and Small-scale Mining on the Development of Rural Communities : The case of Nangodi in the Upper East Region of Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Following major retrenchments in the large-scale mining sector, as a direct result of the mining sector reforms that the government of Ghana undertook under its structural adjustment programme, and years of economic hardships, the Artisanal and Small-Scale Mining (ASM) sector witnessed significant growth in the 1980s and 90s. The main objective of government and communities engaged in mining activities is to use the sector to generate employment and revenue to improve the living standards of ...

  10. Seasonal Variations Affect the Physicochemical Composition of Bufallo Milk and Artisanal Cheeses Produced in Marajó Island (Pa, Brazil

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    M.G., Simões

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This research was carried out to evaluate the influence of seasonal variation in physicochemical composition and microbiological profile of buffalo milk and of the artisanal cream and butter types cheeses produced on Marajó Island. Eighteen farms located of the island were involved in the study. Milk and cheese quality were evaluated in two typical seasons. The rainy, from January to June and dry, from July to December. Samples were submitted to a detailed set of laboratorial analyses. Physicochemical composition of buffalo milk was influenced by the seasons. Compared to rainy, the dry period showed an increase in fat (5.53±0.71 to 6.74±1.19 and lactose (4.77±0.20 to 5.20±0.20 concentrations and reduction in total solids (16.89±0.92 to 15.77±1.54, nonfat dry matter (9.94±0.36 to 8.99±1.23 and minerals (0.84±0.12 to 0.62±0.09 concentrations (p<0.05. The season influence was observed in physicochemical composition of both cheese-types. Compared to rainy season, in the cream cheese type, higher values (p<0.05 were found for titratable acidity (0.63±0.02 to 0.78±0.15, fat (32.38±3.22 to 36.89±4.59, fat in the dry matter (55.06±3.26 to 63.92±2.49 but lower values for water activity (0.99±0.02 to 0.49±0.03, minerals (2.37±0.55 to 1.40±0.02 and calcium (0.28±0.08 to 0.18±0.07. For the butter cheese type, in the dry season, higher values were found only for titratable acidity (0.49±0.02 to 0.38±0.0 and lower values for water activity (0.18±0.07 to 0.45±0.08. The study have shown that some components of the buffalo milk and artisanal cheeses produced on Marajó Island are influenced by the dry and rainy typical seasons and therefore, some sensory variations are expected around the year.

  11. The air pollution of automobile origin among Parisian artisans taxi drivers: perception inquiry and exposure study; La pollution atmospherique d'origine automobile chez les chauffeurs de taxi artisans parisiens: enquete de perception et etude d'exposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zagury, E.

    1998-02-11

    The study concerns the impact of the atmospheric pollution of automobile origin in the drivers population. It includes two parts:the first part is an inquiry to 188 Parisian artisans taxi drivers, with a questionnaire. The objective is to determine the behavior about this phenomenon and what perception they have of it. The second part is an exposure study that consists in four pollutants (carbon monoxide, fine particulates in suspension, nitrogen monoxide and nitrogen dioxide). It is in order to reveal the concentrations of these pollutants inside 29 cabs during the professional activity. The taxi drivers complain of headaches, eyes and throat irritations, respiratory difficulties. The results of exposure measurements show 3.8 p.p.m. for carbon monoxide, 168 micrograms/m{sup 3} for the fine particulates in suspension, 625 micrograms for nitrogen monoxide and 139 micrograms/m{sup 3} for nitrogen dioxide. These measures are clearly higher than these ones measured in Parisian ambient air, even higher than these ones of stations that are exposed to the maximum level to automobile effluents. (N.C.)

  12. Description of two Enterococcus strains isolated from traditional Peruvian artisanal-produced cheeses with a bacteriocin-like inhibitory activity

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    Aguilar Galvez A.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to isolate and to characterize strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB with bacteriocin-like inhibitory activity from 27 traditional cheeses artisanal-produced obtained from different Peruvian regions. Twenty Gram+ and catalasenegative strains among 2,277 isolates exhibited bacteriocin-like inhibitory activity against Listeria monocytogenes CWBIB2232 as target strain. No change in inhibitory activity was observed after organic acid neutralization and treatment with catalase of the cell-free supernatant (CFS. The proteinic nature of the antimicrobial activity was confirmed for the twenty LAB strains by proteolytic digestion of the CFS. Two strains, CWBI-B1431 and CWBI-B1430, with the best antimicrobial activity were selected for further researches. These strains were taxonomically identified by phenotypic and genotypic analyses as Enterococcus mundtii (CWBI-B1431 and Enterococcus faecium (CWBI-B1430. The two strains were sensitive to vancomycin (MIC 2 μg.ml-1 and showed absence of haemolysis.

  13. Traditional Knowledge, Agave Inaequidens (Koch Conservation, and the Charro Lariat Artisans of San Miguel Cuyutlán, Mexico

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    Ana G. Valenzuela-Zapata

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The Mexican sport of charrería, or Mexican rodeo, developed in post-conquest Mexico as a way of preserving and celebrating traditional cowboy riding and livestock handling skills. Today, charrería is considered the national sport of Mexico and the charro (cowboy is also a celebrated icon of Mexicanness. Special handcrafted ropes used in charrería, known as sogas finas, or charro lariats, are made from the fibers of the Agave inaequidens. The manufacture of charro ropes is an artisinal practice that requires both cultural and botanical knowlege. In the last ten years, there has been a significant decline in the A. inaequidens population in the Cerro Viejo mountain range of the central-western Mexican state of Jalisco, putting the financial wellbeing of local lariat artisans at risk. Drawing on fieldwork and laboratory analysis conducted from 2002 through 2010, we discuss the socio-cultural significance of charro lariats, detail the harvesting of A. inaequidens in relation to lariat craftsmanship, document the physical characteristics of the A. inaequidens from this region, and describe the relationship between traditional knowledge and the local economy. The goal of this research is two-fold: 1 to stimulate feedback between producers and consumers in an attempt to leverage the existing business cluster based on traditional knowledge and 2 to initiate dialogue concerning conservation, domestication, and sustainable management of the wild A. inadequidens population.

  14. A Survey of Mining and Tailings Disposal Practices of Selected Artisanal and Small Scale Mining Companies in Ghana

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    Chiri G. Amedjoe

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Management of small scale mining operations for maximum profitability with good environmental stewardship requires careful planning of mining and tailings disposal strategies. Field studies and observations of eleven selected artisanal and small-scale gold mining companies winning gold from alluvial (placer source mostly, but also mine out cropping and underground quartz veins where available from the Takwaian and Birimian Formations in southwestern Ghana. Excavation is either by pitting or using backhoes. Sluicing, panning followed by mercury amalgamation and then roasting to recover the gold is the beneficiation method in use. Riverine waste rocks/tailings disposal is the main management invoked, however some companies do sell their waste to construction firms. Environmentally mining operations are impacting rivers with siltation, mercury pollution, channel diversions and possibly change in heavy metals concentration and water chemistry. Vast arable lands are degraded leaving peasant farmers with no livelihood due to failure by concessionaires to reclaim lands after closure. Only two companies out of the eleven somehow demonstrated environmental consciousness by constructing small tailings dam and backfilling some pits.

  15. Characterization of artisanal honey produced on the Northwest of Portugal by melissopalynological and physico-chemical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feás, Xesús; Pires, José; Iglesias, Antonio; Estevinho, María Letícia

    2010-12-01

    Honey has always been regarded as a food which is advantageous for one's health and as a product which has healing qualities. For this reason, is necessary to protect consumers from the fraudulent mislabeling of inferior honeys. The purpose of this study was to investigate some properties of artisanal honey samples (n=45) collected from the Northwest of Portugal by using different honey analysis tests such as moisture, ash, pH, free acidity, electrical conductivity, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), apparent sucrose, reducing sugars and diastase activity. 77.8% of the total exceeded the quality parameters and should be labeled as "virgin" (humidity ≤18% and HMF ≤25 mg/kg). The present study found a linear correlation (y=0.551x-0.089; R=0.995) between the electrical conductivity of honeys and their ash content. All of the samples showed an Erica sp. pollen percentage ≥15%, and 42% of the total were monofloral Erica sp. In respect to coliforms and Salmonella's presence, all the honey's samples shown to be negative. The existence of sulphite-reducing Clostridia was low, and well below the established limit by MERCOSUR. Yeasts, moulds and aerobic mesophiles were detected in low amounts.

  16. Probabilistic meta-analysis of risk from the exposure to Hg in artisanal gold mining communities in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Miguel, Eduardo; Clavijo, Diana; Ortega, Marcelo F; Gómez, Amaia

    2014-08-01

    Colombia is one of the largest per capita mercury polluters in the world as a consequence of its artisanal gold mining activities. The severity of this problem in terms of potential health effects was evaluated by means of a probabilistic risk assessment carried out in the twelve departments (or provinces) in Colombia with the largest gold production. The two exposure pathways included in the risk assessment were inhalation of elemental Hg vapors and ingestion of fish contaminated with methyl mercury. Exposure parameters for the adult population (especially rates of fish consumption) were obtained from nation-wide surveys and concentrations of Hg in air and of methyl-mercury in fish were gathered from previous scientific studies. Fish consumption varied between departments and ranged from 0 to 0.3 kg d(-1). Average concentrations of total mercury in fish (70 data) ranged from 0.026 to 3.3 μg g(-1). A total of 550 individual measurements of Hg in workshop air (ranging from gold mining communities in Colombia. PMID:24534152

  17. Probabilistic meta-analysis of risk from the exposure to Hg in artisanal gold mining communities in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Miguel, Eduardo; Clavijo, Diana; Ortega, Marcelo F; Gómez, Amaia

    2014-08-01

    Colombia is one of the largest per capita mercury polluters in the world as a consequence of its artisanal gold mining activities. The severity of this problem in terms of potential health effects was evaluated by means of a probabilistic risk assessment carried out in the twelve departments (or provinces) in Colombia with the largest gold production. The two exposure pathways included in the risk assessment were inhalation of elemental Hg vapors and ingestion of fish contaminated with methyl mercury. Exposure parameters for the adult population (especially rates of fish consumption) were obtained from nation-wide surveys and concentrations of Hg in air and of methyl-mercury in fish were gathered from previous scientific studies. Fish consumption varied between departments and ranged from 0 to 0.3 kg d(-1). Average concentrations of total mercury in fish (70 data) ranged from 0.026 to 3.3 μg g(-1). A total of 550 individual measurements of Hg in workshop air (ranging from Colombia.

  18. Integrated Assessment of Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining in Ghana—Part 2: Natural Sciences Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozhgon Rajaee

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper is one of three synthesis documents produced via an integrated assessment (IA that aims to increase understanding of artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM in Ghana. Given the complexities surrounding ASGM, an integrated assessment (IA framework was utilized to analyze socio-economic, health, and environmental data, and co-develop evidence-based responses with stakeholders. This paper focuses on the causes, status, trends, and consequences of ecological issues related to ASGM activity in Ghana. It reviews dozens of studies and thousands of samples to document evidence of heavy metals contamination in ecological media across Ghana. Soil and water mercury concentrations were generally lower than guideline values, but sediment mercury concentrations surpassed guideline values in 64% of samples. Arsenic, cadmium, and lead exceeded guideline values in 67%, 17%, and 24% of water samples, respectively. Other water quality parameters near ASGM sites show impairment, with some samples exceeding guidelines for acidity, turbidity, and nitrates. Additional ASGM-related stressors on environmental quality and ecosystem services include deforestation, land degradation, biodiversity loss, legacy contamination, and potential linkages to climate change. Though more research is needed to further elucidate the long-term impacts of ASGM on the environment, the plausible consequences of ecological damages should guide policies and actions to address the unique challenges posed by ASGM.

  19. Integrated Assessment of Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining in Ghana-Part 2: Natural Sciences Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaee, Mozhgon; Obiri, Samuel; Green, Allyson; Long, Rachel; Cobbina, Samuel J; Nartey, Vincent; Buck, David; Antwi, Edward; Basu, Niladri

    2015-08-01

    This paper is one of three synthesis documents produced via an integrated assessment (IA) that aims to increase understanding of artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) in Ghana. Given the complexities surrounding ASGM, an integrated assessment (IA) framework was utilized to analyze socio-economic, health, and environmental data, and co-develop evidence-based responses with stakeholders. This paper focuses on the causes, status, trends, and consequences of ecological issues related to ASGM activity in Ghana. It reviews dozens of studies and thousands of samples to document evidence of heavy metals contamination in ecological media across Ghana. Soil and water mercury concentrations were generally lower than guideline values, but sediment mercury concentrations surpassed guideline values in 64% of samples. Arsenic, cadmium, and lead exceeded guideline values in 67%, 17%, and 24% of water samples, respectively. Other water quality parameters near ASGM sites show impairment, with some samples exceeding guidelines for acidity, turbidity, and nitrates. Additional ASGM-related stressors on environmental quality and ecosystem services include deforestation, land degradation, biodiversity loss, legacy contamination, and potential linkages to climate change. Though more research is needed to further elucidate the long-term impacts of ASGM on the environment, the plausible consequences of ecological damages should guide policies and actions to address the unique challenges posed by ASGM. PMID:26264012

  20. Estimates of Profitability and Technical Efficiency of Artisanal Fishermen: A Case of Natural Lakes from Plateau State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawang Naanpoes Charles

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the Net Farm Income (NFI, profitability index and technical efficiency of artisanal fishing in five natural lakes in plateau state, central Nigeria, with a view to examine the level of exploitation of captured inland fisheries as a renewable resource in the country. Data were collected using questionnaire from 110 sample fishermen selected from Polmakat, Shimankar, Deben, Janta and Pandam lakes using multi-stage sampling technique and analysed using descriptive statistics, farm budgeting techniques (net farm income and stochastic frontier production function model. The study reveals a net farm income of ₦48, 734.57 and a profitability index of ₦7.67. The mean technical efficiency of 83% was obtained, indicating that the sample fishermen were relatively efficient in allocating their limited resources. The result of the analysis indicates that 72% of variation in the fishermen output was as a result of the presence of technical inefficiency effect in the fishery, showing a potential of about 17% chance for improvement in technical efficiency level. Some observable variables relating to socioeconomics characteristics such as extension contact, experience and educational status significantly explain variation in technical efficiency. Transformation for effective and sustainable fisheries exploitation will need the education of fishermen, extension education and redefinition of property rights.

  1. Assessment of Trace Elements Levels in Sediment and Water in Some Artisanal and Small-Scale Mining(ASM Localities in Ghana

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    Kofi Agyarko

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The concentrations of eight trace elements, Cadmium (Cd, lead (Pb, iron (Fe, zinc (Zn, manganese (Mn, copper (Cu, mercury (Hg and arsenic(As in sediment and water were assessed in four artisanal and small-scale mining(ASM localities in the Amansie West District (6°28′N 1°53′W of Ghana along two river courses from May 2011to July 2011. Triplicate water and sediment samples were randomly taken at five different points at each of the localities and the elements determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS . Using the Geo-accumulation Index( Igeo assessment, the sediments were found to be polluted to different degrees with Cu(Uncontaminated to moderately contaminated/Moderately contaminated, Hg (Uncontaminated to moderately contaminated/Moderately contaminated and As(Moderately contaminated/Moderately to strongly contaminated. The Enrichment Factor (EF indicated human influence - artisanal mining activities on the sediment concentration of Cd and Pb for all the localities and only some of the localities for the rest of the trace elements. The elements are major sediment pollutants ( EF > 2 in one or more of the localities. The Igeo and EF gave diverse status of the sediment qualities of the localities. Cd, Pb, Hg and As water concentrations in the four artisanal mining localities were all found to be above the WHO maximum acceptable of levels for drinking water. Inhabitants in the mining localities face the risk of getting various diseases by drinking the waters contaminated with the trace elements.

  2. Spearfishing regulation benefits artisanal fisheries: the ReGS indicator and its application to a multiple-use Mediterranean marine protected area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine Rocklin

    Full Text Available The development of fishing efficiency coupled with an increase of fishing effort led to the overexploitation of numerous natural marine resources. In addition to this commercial pressure, the impact of recreational activities on fish assemblages remains barely known. Here we examined the impact of spearfishing limitation on resources in a marine protected area (MPA and the benefit it provides for the local artisanal fishery through the use of a novel indicator. We analysed trends in the fish assemblage composition using artisanal fisheries data collected in the Bonifacio Strait Natural Reserve (BSNR, a Mediterranean MPA where the spearfishing activity has been forbidden over 15% of its area. Fish species were pooled into three response groups according to their target level by spearfishing. We developed the new flexible ReGS indicator reflecting shifts in species assemblages according to the relative abundance of each response group facing external pressure. The catch per unit effort (CPUE increased by ca. 60% in the BSNR between 2000 and 2007, while the MPA was established in 1999. The gain of CPUE strongly depended on the considered response group: for the highly targeted group, the CPUE doubled while the CPUE of the untargeted group increased by only 15.5%. The ReGS value significantly increased from 0.31 to 0.45 (on a scale between 0 and 1 in the general perimeter of this MPA while it has reached a threshold of 0.43, considered as a reference point, in the area protected from spearfishing since 1982. Our results demonstrated that limiting recreational fishing by appropriate zoning in multiple-use MPAs represents a real benefit for artisanal fisheries. More generally we showed how our new indicator may reveal a wide range of impacts on coastal ecosystems such as global change or habitat degradation.

  3. Total and free fatty acids content during the ripening of artisan and industrially manufactured “Chorizo de cebolla”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco, Inmaculada

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available "Chorizo de cebolla" is a traditional sausage made in the north west of Spain. In four batches manufactured by artisanal methods and 4 manufactured by industrial ones the contents of total and free fatty acids were assessed throughout ripening, taking from every batch samples of the mass before stuffing (0 days and of the sausage after 2, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 42 days of ripening. The profile of total fatty acids of the two types of sausage basically coincide with that found by other authors in pork fat. However, both types of sausage (artisanal and industrial differ significantly (pEl chorizo de cebolla es un embutido tradicional elaborado en el noroeste de España. En cuatro partidas fabricadas por procedimientos artesanales y 4 elaboradas industrialmente se determinó a lo largo de la maduración los contenidos en ácidos grasos totales y libres, tomando en cada partida muestras de masa antes de embutir (0 días y de chorizo a los 2, 7, 14, 21, 28 y 42 días de maduración. El perfil de ácidos grasos totales de los dos tipos de embutidos coincide básicamente con el encontrado por otros autores en grasa de cerdo. Sin embargo, ambos tipos de chorizo (artesanal e industrial difirieron significativamente (p< 0.05 en el porcentaje de ácidos grasos totales saturados e insaturados. Los chorizos elaborados artesanalmente presentaron porcentajes de ácidos grasos saturados significativamente superiores a los encontrados en los chorizos industriales. El contenido en ácidos grasos libres totales experimentó a lo largo de la maduración un incremento significativo (p< 0.05 desde valores medios de 459 ± 243 mg/100 g de grasa en la masa hasta 3687 ± 1670 mg/100 g de grasa en chorizo de 42 días, en los chorizos artesanales, y desde 560 ± 317 mg/100 g de grasa hasta 5157 ± 3673 mg/100 g en los industriales. Debido a la gran variabilidad entre las diferentes partidas, no se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas en los

  4. Diversity, Dynamics and Activity of Bacterial Communities during Production of an Artisanal Sicilian Cheese as Evaluated by 16S rRNA Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Randazzo, C.L.; Torriani, S.; Akkermans, A.D.L.; Vos, de, R.; Vaughan, E E

    2002-01-01

    The diversity and dynamics of the microbial communities during the manufacturing of Ragusano cheese, an artisanal cheese produced in Sicily (Italy), were investigated by a combination of classical and culture-independent approaches. The latter included PCR, reverse transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR), and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of 16S rRNA genes (rDNA). Bacterial and Lactobacillus group-specific primers were used to amplify the V6 to V8 and V1 to V3 regions of the 16S rRNA gene...

  5. Upgrading the quality of Africa's rice: a novel artisanal parboiling technology for rice processors in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndindeng, Sali Atanga; Manful, John; Futakuchi, Koichi; Mapiemfu-Lamare, Delphine; Akoa-Etoa, Joséphine M; Tang, Erasmus N; Bigoga, Jude; Graham-Acquaah, Seth; Moreira, Jean

    2015-11-01

    In order to increase the quality of locally produced rice, the artisanal parboiling process in West and Central Africa was reconceptualized. A novel parboiling unit was constructed using stainless steel (Inox 304) and fitted directly on an improved stove made from fired bricks. The heat profile at different locations in the unit, the physicochemical properties, cooking properties of the parboiled rice, and the fuel efficiency of the stove were evaluated and compared with that of the traditional system. The heat flow in the new unit was from the top to the bottom while the reverse occurred in the traditional unit. The percent impurities and heat-damaged grains, swelling and water uptake ratios, amylose content, stickiness, and cohesiveness were lower for rice produced using the improved technology (IT) compared to the traditional technology (TT). Whole grains (%), lightness (L*), yellowness (b*), cooking time, viscosity were higher for rice produced using the IT compared to the TT. Most of physicochemical and cooking properties of rice produced using the IT were not different from that of premium quality imported rice and this was achieved when steaming time was between 20-25 min. The improved stove recorded a lower time to boil water and specific fuel consumption and a higher burning rate and firepower at the hot-start high-power phase compared to the traditional stove. Most end users rated the IT as easy and safe to use compared to the TT. The new technology was code-named "Grain quality enhancer, Energy-efficient and durable Material (GEM) parboiling technology." PMID:26788297

  6. Linking fishery management and conservation in a tropical estuarine lagoon: biological and physical effects of an artisanal fishing gear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda, M.; Defeo, O.

    2003-04-01

    Information coming from fishery monitoring, surveys and experimental fishing with participation of fishers was employed to determine the impact of an artisanal gear, 'boliche', on the biodiversity of the Ciénaga Grande de Santa Marta (CGSM), an estuarine lagoon on the Caribbean coast of Colombia. Fishery monitoring (catch data) included landings before (1968 and 1978) and after (1994-1996) the introduction of the boliche in the CGSM (1985), whereas surveys were conducted seasonally during 1993-1994. Fishing experiments involved evaluating different mesh sizes and the short-term effect of physical disturbance by the boliche. Monitoring suggested potential trophic effects of this fishing gear: the catch of large, long-lived, carnivorous species declined after the introduction of the boliche in the CGSM, whereas catch rates of smaller, shorter-lived, and lower trophic level species increased. Surveys revealed that the boliche retained 41 species. The by-catch made up 62% of the total catch and the remaining 38% involved the three target species Eugerres plumieri, Mugil incilis and Cathorops spixii. Selectivity experiments showed that 2.5 in. stretched mesh size gill nets caught more species than the 3.0-in. mesh. The smaller mesh also increased the risk of a critical reduction in the spawning stock of target species (notably E. plumieri); a situation that could affect the fish community if mesh sizes lower than 2.5 in. were intensively used. Suspended particulate matter significantly increased after fishing activity, with higher resuspension on mud-shells and mud substrata, whereas dissolved oxygen showed no appreciable changes after fishing operations. Notwithstanding, the activity of the boliche would generate sediment resuspension between 382 and 470 t day -1, which could lead to potential cascade impacts on water quality. We propose a framework of redundancy in management measures in order to simultaneously reach management and conservation goals.

  7. Biodegradation of free cyanide by bacterial species isolated from cyanide-contaminated artisanal gold mining catchment area in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razanamahandry, Lovasoa Christine; Andrianisa, Harinaivo Anderson; Karoui, Hela; Kouakou, Koffi Marcelin; Yacouba, Hamma

    2016-08-01

    Soil and water samples were collected from a watershed in Burkina Faso where illegal artisanal gold extraction using cyanidation occurs. The samples were used to evaluate cyanide contamination and the presence of cyanide degrading bacteria (CDB). Free cyanide (F-CN) was detected in all samples, with concentrations varying from 0.023 to 0.9 mg kg(-1), and 0.7-23 μg L(-1) in the soil and water samples, respectively. Potential CDB also were present in the samples. To test the effective F-CN degradation capacity of the isolated CDB species, the species were cultivated in growth media containing 40, 60 or 80 mg F-CN L(-1), with or without nutrients, at pH 9.5 and at room temperature. More than 95% of F-CN was degraded within 25 h, and F-CN degradation was associated with bacterial growth and ammonium production. However, initial concentrations of F-CN higher than 100 mg L(-1) inhibited bacterial growth and cyanide degradation. Abiotic tests showed that less than 3% of F-CN was removed by volatilization. Thus, the degradation of F-CN occurred predominately by biological mechanisms, and such mechanisms are recommended for remediation of contaminated soil and water. The bacteria consortium used in the experiment described above exist in a Sahelian climate, which is characterized by a long hot and dry season. Because the bacteria are already adapted to the local climate conditions and show the potential for cyanide biodegradation, further applicability to other contaminated areas in West Africa, where illegal gold cyanidation is widespread, should be explored. PMID:27209555

  8. Community dynamics of coagulase-negative staphylococci during spontaneous artisan-type meat fermentations differ between smoking and moulding treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, M; Myter, N; De Vuyst, L; Leroy, F

    2013-08-16

    Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) that are naturally present in the raw meat batter of fermented sausages or that originate from the addition of a starter culture play a role in flavour development. A wide species diversity of CNS can be present in fermented meats, but it is not fully clear yet how specific process parameters select for specific CNS by affecting their community dynamics. Therefore, the influence of smoking and moulding treatments on the CNS community dynamics in spontaneously fermented, artisan-type sausages was investigated. During the fermentation stage, the meat batter was in all cases dominated by Staphylococcus saprophyticus, in addition to Lactobacillus sakei as governing lactic acid bacterium. Following fermentation, the bacterial communities were not perturbed by the smoking treatment, since both L. sakei and S. saprophyticus remained dominant throughout the ripening stage and prevailed in the end-products. Yet, when fermentation was followed by a moulding step with Penicillium nalgiovense, a shift of the CNS communities towards dominance by Staphyloccocus equorum was seen, despite a similar evolution of L. sakei. This effect was possibly due to a pH rise caused by the mould, a hypothesis which was reinforced by the finding that the isolated strain S. equorum DBX-S-17 was more sensitive to low pH than the isolated strain S. saprophyticus DFL-S-12 during growth experiments in brain heart infusion (BHI). Differences in CNS communities may affect sausage flavour, due to intraspecies variations in metabolic conversions of, for instance, amino acids. The fact that 3-methyl-butanal was only found in the moulded sausage, which was dominated by S. equorum, may be related to the finding that the isolated strain of this species was able to produce this compound in BHI medium, whereas the isolated strain of S. saprophyticus was not.

  9. Integrated Assessment of Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining in Ghana — Part 3: Social Sciences and Economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark L. Wilson

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article is one of three synthesis reports resulting from an integrated assessment (IA of artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM in Ghana. Given the complexities that involve multiple drivers and diverse disciplines influencing ASGM, an IA framework was used to analyze economic, social, health, and environmental data and to co-develop evidence-based responses in collaboration with pertinent stakeholders. We look at both micro- and macro-economic processes surrounding ASGM, including causes, challenges, and consequences. At the micro-level, social and economic evidence suggests that the principal reasons whereby most people engage in ASGM involve “push” factors aimed at meeting livelihood goals. ASGM provides an important source of income for both proximate and distant communities, representing a means of survival for impoverished farmers as well as an engine for small business growth. However, miners and their families often end up in a “poverty trap” of low productivity and indebtedness, which reduce even further their economic options. At a macro level, Ghana’s ASGM activities contribute significantly to the national economy even though they are sometimes operating illegally and at a disadvantage compared to large-scale industrial mining companies. Nevertheless, complex issues of land tenure, social stability, mining regulation and taxation, and environmental degradation undermine the viability and sustainability of ASGM as a livelihood strategy. Although more research is needed to understand these complex relationships, we point to key findings and insights from social science and economics research that can guide policies and actions aimed to address the unique challenges of ASGM in Ghana and elsewhere.

  10. Artisanal Green Turtle, Chelonia mydas, fishery of Caribbean Nicaragua: I. Catch rates and trends, 1991-2011.

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    Cynthia J Lagueux

    Full Text Available This is the first assessment of catch rates for the legal, artisanal green turtle, Chelonia mydas, fishery in Caribbean Nicaragua. Data were collected by community members, monitoring up to 14 landing sites from 1991 to 2011. We examined take levels, and temporal and spatial variability in catch rates for the overall fishery, by region, and community using General Additive Mixed Models (GAMMs. More than 171,556 green turtles were killed during the period, with a mean estimated minimum 8,169±2,182 annually. There was a statistically significant decline in catch rates overall. Catch rates peaked in 1997 and 2002, followed by a downward trend, particularly from mid-2008 to the end of the study period. Similar downward trends were evident in both study regions. Community specific catch rate trends also indicated declines with decreases ranging from 21% to 90%. Decrease in catch rates in Nicaragua is cause for concern even though the principal source rookery at Tortuguero, Costa Rica, shows an increase in nesting activity. Explanations for the apparent discrepancy between the increasing trend at Tortuguero and decreasing catch rate trends in Nicaragua include: i an increase in reproductive output, ii insufficient time has passed to observe the impact of the fishery on the rookery due to a time lag, iii changes in other segments of the population have not been detected since only nesting activity is monitored, iv the expansive northern Nicaragua foraging ground may provide a refuge for a sufficient portion of the Tortuguero rookery, and/or v a larger than expected contribution of non-Tortuguero rookeries occurring in Nicaragua turtle fishing areas. Our results highlight the need for close monitoring of rookeries and in-water aggregations in the Caribbean. Where consumptive use still occurs, nations sharing this resource should implement scientifically based limits on exploitation to ensure sustainability and mitigate impacts to regional population

  11. Integrated Assessment of Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining in Ghana - Part 3: Social Sciences and Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Mark L; Renne, Elisha; Roncoli, Carla; Agyei-Baffour, Peter; Tenkorang, Emmanuel Yamoah

    2015-07-01

    This article is one of three synthesis reports resulting from an integrated assessment (IA) of artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) in Ghana. Given the complexities that involve multiple drivers and diverse disciplines influencing ASGM, an IA framework was used to analyze economic, social, health, and environmental data and to co-develop evidence-based responses in collaboration with pertinent stakeholders. We look at both micro- and macro-economic processes surrounding ASGM, including causes, challenges, and consequences. At the micro-level, social and economic evidence suggests that the principal reasons whereby most people engage in ASGM involve "push" factors aimed at meeting livelihood goals. ASGM provides an important source of income for both proximate and distant communities, representing a means of survival for impoverished farmers as well as an engine for small business growth. However, miners and their families often end up in a "poverty trap" of low productivity and indebtedness, which reduce even further their economic options. At a macro level, Ghana's ASGM activities contribute significantly to the national economy even though they are sometimes operating illegally and at a disadvantage compared to large-scale industrial mining companies. Nevertheless, complex issues of land tenure, social stability, mining regulation and taxation, and environmental degradation undermine the viability and sustainability of ASGM as a livelihood strategy. Although more research is needed to understand these complex relationships, we point to key findings and insights from social science and economics research that can guide policies and actions aimed to address the unique challenges of ASGM in Ghana and elsewhere. PMID:26184277

  12. Artisanal Extraction and Traditional Knowledge Associated with Medicinal Use of Crabwood Oil (Carapa guianensis Aublet.) in a Peri-Urban Várzea Environment in the Amazon Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lira-Guedes, Ana Cláudia; Albuquerque Cunha, Helenilza Ferreira; Guedes, Marcelino Carneiro; Mustin, Karen; Gomes, Suellen Cristina Pantoja

    2016-01-01

    Várzea forests of the Amazon estuary contain species of importance to riverine communities. For example, the oil extracted from the seeds of crabwood trees is traditionally used to combat various illnesses and as such artisanal extraction processes have been maintained. The objectives of this study were to (1) describe the process involved in artisanal extraction of crabwood oil in the Fazendinha Protected Area, in the state of Amapá; (2) characterise the processes of knowledge transfer associated with the extraction and use of crabwood oil within a peri-urban riverine community; and (3) discern medicinal uses of the oil. The data were obtained using semistructured interviews with 13 community members involved in crabwood oil extraction and via direct observation. The process of oil extraction is divided into four stages: seed collection; cooking and resting of the seeds; shelling of the seeds and dough preparation; and oil collection. Oil extraction is carried out within the home for personal use, with surplus marketed within the community. More than 90% of the members of the community involved in extraction of crabwood oil highlighted the use of the oil to combat inflammation of the throat. Knowledge transfer occurs via oral transmission and through direct observation. PMID:27478479

  13. Impacts of Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining (ASGM on Environment and Human Health of Gorontalo Utara Regency, Gorontalo Province, Indonesia

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    Yayu Indriati Arifin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Mercury concentrations in the environment (river sediments and fish and in the hair of artisanal gold miners and inhabitants of the Gorontalo Utara Regency were determined in order to understand the status of contamination, sources and their impacts on human health. Mercury concentrations in the sediments along the Wubudu and Anggrek rivers are already above the tolerable level declared safe by the World Health Organization (WHO. Meanwhile, commonly consumed fish, such as snapper, have mercury levels above the threshold limit (0.5 μg/g. The mean mercury concentrations in the hair of a group of inhabitants from Anggrek and Sumalata are higher than those in hair from control group (the inhabitants of Monano, Tolinggula and Kwandang. The mean mercury concentration in the hair of female inhabitants is higher than that in the hair of male inhabitants in each group. Neurological examinations were performed on 44 participants of artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM miners and inhabitants of Anggrek and Sumalata. From the 12 investigated symptoms, four common symptoms were already observed among the participants, namely, bluish gums, Babinski reflex, labial reflex and tremor.

  14. Social Representations of the Artisan Work: Study of Case of an Association of Craftsmen in Viçosa, Minas Gerais – Brazil

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    Alair Ferreira de Freitas

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze the social representations of small-scale artisans working for associated Association of Artisans and food producers Homemade of Viçosa, Minas Gerais State-Brazil (Adapac. To this end we have tried to identify and analyse the trajectory of the craftsmen and the reasons for becoming involved with crafts and renditions of the craft for craftsmen linked to this Association. The methodological strategy adopted for the research consisted in case study. As an instrument of data collection, were used to survey participant and application of semi-structured interviews. The method of "content analysis" was used in the Organization and analysis of data. For discussion of the results were defined two categories: (i motivations for the craft and (ii representations of the craft. The results show that this type of work associates itself as the premier opportunity to occupation and income generation found by some members and another as vocation and manual skills. For women the social representations of craft relate the condition of personal satisfaction and possibility of reconciliation with the domestic activities, while for men representations indicate the enhancement of the economic dimension of the craft, distinguishing it from domestic activities.

  15. Artisanal Extraction and Traditional Knowledge Associated with Medicinal Use of Crabwood Oil (Carapa guianensis Aublet.) in a Peri-Urban Várzea Environment in the Amazon Estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardi, Mariane; Lira-Guedes, Ana Cláudia; Albuquerque Cunha, Helenilza Ferreira; Guedes, Marcelino Carneiro; Mustin, Karen; Gomes, Suellen Cristina Pantoja

    2016-01-01

    Várzea forests of the Amazon estuary contain species of importance to riverine communities. For example, the oil extracted from the seeds of crabwood trees is traditionally used to combat various illnesses and as such artisanal extraction processes have been maintained. The objectives of this study were to (1) describe the process involved in artisanal extraction of crabwood oil in the Fazendinha Protected Area, in the state of Amapá; (2) characterise the processes of knowledge transfer associated with the extraction and use of crabwood oil within a peri-urban riverine community; and (3) discern medicinal uses of the oil. The data were obtained using semistructured interviews with 13 community members involved in crabwood oil extraction and via direct observation. The process of oil extraction is divided into four stages: seed collection; cooking and resting of the seeds; shelling of the seeds and dough preparation; and oil collection. Oil extraction is carried out within the home for personal use, with surplus marketed within the community. More than 90% of the members of the community involved in extraction of crabwood oil highlighted the use of the oil to combat inflammation of the throat. Knowledge transfer occurs via oral transmission and through direct observation. PMID:27478479

  16. Sea turtle and artisanal cerco-fixo fishing interactions in Cananéia, south coast of São Paulo

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    Natália Cristina Fidelis Bahia

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Sea turtles are reptiles that occur on the Brazilian coast, mainly on nesting and feeding grounds. The consumption of turtle meat and eggs is an ancient habit in many coastal communities around the world. The main dangers that threaten these species are the increase in fishing and the drastic changes in the environment. This study aimed to elucidate the interaction between the artisanal fishermen and the sea turtles in Cananéia, São Paulo state, Brazil. Local fishermen had developed an artisanal trap to fish, the “cerco-fixo”, and through interviews and illustrations, as well as by accompanying the fishermen’ daily activities, three main aspects were verified: (i the perception of the fishermen about the sea turtles; (ii the identification of species and morphological characteristics of these animals; and (iii a description of the incidental bycatch of sea turtles in these traps. The data indicates that this fishing trap is not harmful to the sea turtles. Location of traps can influence the capture of these animals, particularly those traps placed on rocky shores and other similiar points.

  17. Human health risk assessment of mercury vapor around artisanal small-scale gold mining area, Palu city, Central Sulawesi, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazawa, Koyomi; Nagafuchi, Osamu; Kawakami, Tomonori; Inoue, Takanobu; Yokota, Kuriko; Serikawa, Yuka; Cyio, Basir; Elvince, Rosana

    2016-02-01

    Emissions of elemental mercury, Hg(0), from artisanal small-scale gold mining activities accounted for 37% of total global Hg(0) emissions in 2010. People who live near gold-mining areas may be exposed to high concentrations of Hg(0). Here, we assessed the human health risk due to Hg(0) exposure among residents of Palu city (Central Sulawesi Province, Indonesia). The area around the city has more than 60t of gold reserves, and the nearby Poboya area is the most active gold-mining site in Indonesia. Owing to its geography, the city experiences alternating land and sea breezes. Sampling was done over a period of 3 years (from 2010 Aug. to 2012 Dec.) intermittently with a passive sampler for Hg(0), a portable handheld mercury analyzer, and a mercury analyzer in four areas of the city and in the Poboya gold-processing area, as well as wind speeds and directions in one area of the city. The 24-h average concentration, wind speed, and wind direction data show that the ambient air in both the gold-processing area and the city was always covered by high concentration of mercury vapor. The Hg(0) concentration in the city was higher at night than in the daytime, owing to the effect of land breezes. These results indicate that the inhabitants of the city were always exposed to high concentrations of Hg(0). The average daytime point-sample Hg(0) concentrations in the city, as measured with a handheld mercury analyzer over 3 days in July 2011, ranged from 2096 to 3299ngm(-3). In comparison, the average daytime Hg(0) concentration in the Poboya gold-processing area was 12,782ngm(-3). All of these concentrations are substantially higher than the World Health Organization air-quality guideline for annual average Hg exposure (1000ngm(-3)). We used the point-sample concentrations to calculate hazard quotient ratios by means of a probabilistic risk assessment method. The results indicated that 93% of the sample population overall was at risk (hazard quotient ratio ≥1 and cut off at

  18. Feeding of guitarfish Rhinobatos percellens (Walbaum, 1972 (Elasmobranchii, Rhinobatidae, the target of artisanal fishery in Southern Brazil

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    Hugo Bornatowski

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Rhinobatos percellens is one of three species of Rhinobatidae found on Brazilian shores and is one of the most abundant species on the shallow continental shelf of Paraná and Santa Catarina States. Specimens caught by artisanal fishery between July/2001 and March/2003 by fishing communities located on the frontier between two southern Brazilian States (Paraná and Santa Catarina had their stomach contents analyzed. According to the Alimentary Index (IAi, Decapoda (69% and Teleostei (22% were the main items consumed. Polychaeta, a common prey consumed by several benthonic fishes, was poorly represented in the feeding of R. percellens. This fact may be related to the availability of prey in the environment, or to the size of the guitarfish analyzed (ontogeny. Seasonal variance of main preys (with higher IAi was observed: Dendrobranchiata and Pleocyemata displayed higher percentages in spring and autumn, Teleostei in the winter and Brachyura during the summer.Rhinobatos percellens é uma das três espécies de Rhinobatidae encontrada na costa brasileira e uma das espécies de elasmobrânquio mais abundante na plataforma continental dos estados do Paraná e Santa Catarina. Indivíduos capturados pela pesca artesanal entre Julho/2001 e Março/2003 nas comunidades pesqueiras localizadas entre o Paraná e Santa Catarina tiveram seus conteúdos estomacais analisados. O Índice de Importância Alimentar (IAi mostrou que as principais presas consumidas foram Decapoda (69% e Teleostei (22%. Polychaeta, principal presa ingerida por várias espécies de peixes bentônicos foi pouco expressiva na alimentação de R. percellens. Essa diferença pode estar relacionada com a disponibilidade de presas no ambiente ou com o tamanho das raias analisadas (ontogenia. De acordo com análises sazonais, observou-se que os camarões Dendrobranchiata e Pleocyemata foram as principais presas consumidas durante a primavera e outono, Teleostei durante o inverno e Brachyura

  19. Economic Efficiency of Artisanal Fishing Households under Oil Pollution Environment in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria

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    Gbigbi, TM.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fish supplies more than 87% of the animal protein in Nigeria, and more than 90% of coastal communities depend solely on fishing and fisheries related activities for their survival. Available information however, shows that Nigeria's inland water bodies are producing less than 13% of their estimated fishery potential. And domestic demand for fish has never been met by dependence on output from available aquatic sources. Nigeria therefore imports over US$ 200 million worth of frozen fish per annum. The capacity of artisanal fisheries to play its role of bridging this food gap, providing employment and generating income, particularly for the coastal communities in Nigeria, will largely depend on the adoption of appropriate management strategies that will ensure efficiency and sustainability given their debilitating oil pollution environment. This study employed a Cobb- Douglas stochastic frontier cost function to measure the level of economic efficiency and its determinants among these households. A multi-stage random sampling technique was used to select 160 respondents from whom input-output data, prices and socioeconomic characteristics were obtained. The results of the analysis showed that individual levels of economic efficiency ranged from 0.10 - 0.96 with a mean of 0.68. While age, household size and number of fishing trips made in a week decreased, access to credit, membership of co-operative society, and oil spill increased, significantly, the respondents' level of economic inefficiency. These observations particularly suggest that the farmers were yet to harness the potentials of farm credit and membership of cooperative societies in their farm business, perhaps as a result of poverty. We recommend training workshops and seminars to remedy this. There is also the need for policies that could compel oil companies to minimize oil spill within the farmers' fishing environment. The adverse effects of oil spill on the environment and the

  20. Analysis of artisanal fisheries in two reservoirs of the upper Paraná River basin (Southeastern Brazil

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    José Luís Costa Novaes

    Full Text Available We compared the artisanal fisheries, in terms of catch strategies, productivity, and gross per capita income, at two reservoirs: the Barra Bonita (an eutrophic reservoir with some introduced species, and the Jurumirim (an oligotrophic reservoir, with no introduced species. Published data and structured interviews with fishers were used to evaluate fishing activity, fish biomass, and the financial performance of the fisheries. In the Barra Bonita Reservoir we analysed data from 745 fishing trips, from which 86,691.9 kg of fish were landed, with a mean CPUE of 62.4 kg/fisher-1 day-1. The main type of fish caught was tilapia (71,513.5 kg; CPUE of 51.5 kg/fisher-1 day-1, which constituted 82.5% of the biomass caught. In the Jurumirim Reservoir, we analysed data from 2,401 fishing trips, from which 25,093.6 kg of fish were landed, with a mean CPUE of 10.4 kg/fisher-1 day-1. The main type of fish caught was "traíra" (6,158.6 kg; CPUE of 2.6 kg/fisher-1 day-1, which constituted 24.5% of the biomass caught. Ordination analysis (PCA indicated that there was a difference in composition between the fishing reservoirs and ANCOVA showed that there was a significant difference in fish production between the reservoirs. A Student's t-test showed that fishers in the Barra Bonita Reservoir had a significantly higher gross per capita income than those from the Jurumirim Reservoir. Although the Barra Bonita Reservoir has a higher fish production and the fishers earn a higher gross per capita income, we recommend the Jurumirim Reservoir as a model for artisanal fishery management because fishing activity in this reservoir is viable in the long term and such a model would promote conservation and sustainability. This contrasts with the Barra Bonita Reservoir, in which the fishery is not viable in the long term, due to environmental problems caused by artificial eutrophication and the introduction of alien species. It is also noted that in many countries, management

  1. Crowd-funded micro-grants for genomics and "big data": an actionable idea connecting small (artisan) science, infrastructure science, and citizen philanthropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdemir, Vural; Badr, Kamal F; Dove, Edward S; Endrenyi, Laszlo; Geraci, Christy Jo; Hotez, Peter J; Milius, Djims; Neves-Pereira, Maria; Pang, Tikki; Rotimi, Charles N; Sabra, Ramzi; Sarkissian, Christineh N; Srivastava, Sanjeeva; Tims, Hesther; Zgheib, Nathalie K; Kickbusch, Ilona

    2013-04-01

    Biomedical science in the 21(st) century is embedded in, and draws from, a digital commons and "Big Data" created by high-throughput Omics technologies such as genomics. Classic Edisonian metaphors of science and scientists (i.e., "the lone genius" or other narrow definitions of expertise) are ill equipped to harness the vast promises of the 21(st) century digital commons. Moreover, in medicine and life sciences, experts often under-appreciate the important contributions made by citizen scholars and lead users of innovations to design innovative products and co-create new knowledge. We believe there are a large number of users waiting to be mobilized so as to engage with Big Data as citizen scientists-only if some funding were available. Yet many of these scholars may not meet the meta-criteria used to judge expertise, such as a track record in obtaining large research grants or a traditional academic curriculum vitae. This innovation research article describes a novel idea and action framework: micro-grants, each worth $1000, for genomics and Big Data. Though a relatively small amount at first glance, this far exceeds the annual income of the "bottom one billion"-the 1.4 billion people living below the extreme poverty level defined by the World Bank ($1.25/day). We describe two types of micro-grants. Type 1 micro-grants can be awarded through established funding agencies and philanthropies that create micro-granting programs to fund a broad and highly diverse array of small artisan labs and citizen scholars to connect genomics and Big Data with new models of discovery such as open user innovation. Type 2 micro-grants can be funded by existing or new science observatories and citizen think tanks through crowd-funding mechanisms described herein. Type 2 micro-grants would also facilitate global health diplomacy by co-creating crowd-funded micro-granting programs across nation-states in regions facing political and financial instability, while sharing similar disease

  2. ETUDE DE L'ALIMENTATION DE L'UNITE DE CONSERVATION DU POISSON AU PORT ARTISANAL DE TEMINETAYE -CONAKRY PAR UNE INSTALLATION HYBRIDE PHOTOVOLTAÏQUE-AEROGENERATEUR

    OpenAIRE

    Bah, Mawiatou; Diaby, Idrissa; Lamarana Bah, Amadou

    2016-01-01

    RESUME Le présent travail consiste à étudier la possibilité de l'alimentation de l'unité de conservation de poissons du port artisanal de Téminétaye par un système hybride photovoltaïque et éolien (aérogénérateur). Ainsi un dimensionnement optimisé a été réalisé par des outils de calcul numérique et à partir du logiciel HOMER. La démarche de calcul numériquea permis d'obtenir les résultats suivants : pour une capacité de stockage de 3 tonnes de poissons, la puissance frigorifique de refroidis...

  3. Seasonal Shift of Bycatch in the Artisanal Shrimp Trawl Fishery of the Gulf of Salamanca, Caribbean Sea of Colombia

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    Luis Orlando Duarte

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Bycatch assessments in trawl fisheries have been mainly referred to an annual scale, ignoring possible seasonal variations. In the Gulf of Salamanca, an artisanal shrimp trawl fleet operates recently and this study evaluates its bycatch for first time, considering the climatic and oceanographic seasonality that dominates the region (runoff and upwelling. 90 hauls in the calm or rainy season (November 2010 and 86 in the windy season (April 2011 were sampled on board of fishing boats. The bycatch to shrimp ratio was 2,69 (2,37 -3,21, 95 % CI and 6,37 (5,10 – 8,24, 95 % CI for the calm season and windy season respectively. We recorded a total of 101 taxa, with a large number of juveniles. The community structure of bycatch differed between seasons (ANOSIM, pStellifer spp., Symphurus caribbeanus y Callinectes sapidus, whereas, in addition, the calm season was characterized by Cathorops mapale, Anchovia clupeoides, Trichiurus lepturus, and the windy season by Larimus breviceps, Cnidaria (jellyfish, Cetengraulis edentulus (Simper. The results showed a seasonal change in the bycatch, raising the need to implement monitoring programs and management measures that address that temporal variability. Negative ecological effects of this fishery prompt the use of mitigation strategies, involving fishermen, to balance social needs and the ecosystem conservation. CAMBIO ESTACIONAL EN LA FAUNA ACOMPAÑANTE DE LA PESQUERÍA ARTESANAL DE ARRASTRE DE CAMARÓN DEL GOLFO DE SALAMANCA, MAR CARIBE DE COLOMBIALa evaluación de la fauna acompañante en las pesquerías de arrastre se ha referido generalmente a una escala anual, ignorando eventuales variaciones estacionales. En el golfo de Salamanca, recientemente opera una flota artesanal de arrastre de camarón, cuya fauna acompañante es evaluada por primera vez en el presente estudio, considerando la estacionalidad climática y oceanográfica que domina la región (descargas continentales y surgencia

  4. Human exposure and risk assessment associated with mercury contamination in artisanal gold mining areas in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilhos, Zuleica; Rodrigues-Filho, Saulo; Cesar, Ricardo; Rodrigues, Ana Paula; Villas-Bôas, Roberto; de Jesus, Iracina; Lima, Marcelo; Faial, Kleber; Miranda, Antônio; Brabo, Edilson; Beinhoff, Christian; Santos, Elisabeth

    2015-08-01

    Mercury (Hg) contamination is an issue of concern in the Amazon region due to potential health effects associated with Hg exposure in artisanal gold mining areas. The study presents a human health risk assessment associated with Hg vapor inhalation and MeHg-contaminated fish ingestion, as well as Hg determination in urine, blood, and hair, of human populations (about 325 miners and 321 non-miners) from two gold mining areas in the Brazilian Amazon (São Chico and Creporizinho, Pará State). In São Chico and Creporizinho, 73 fish specimens of 13 freshwater species, and 161 specimens of 11 species, were collected for total Hg determination, respectively. The hazard quotient (HQ) is a risk indicator which defines the ratio of the exposure level and the toxicological reference dose and was applied to determine the threat of MeHg exposure. The mean Hg concentrations in fish from São Chico and Creporizinho were 0.83 ± 0.43 and 0.36 ± 0.33 μg/g, respectively. More than 60 and 22 % of fish collected in São Chico and Creporizinho, respectively, were above the Hg limit (0.5 μg/g) recommended by WHO for human consumption. For all sampling sites, HQ resulted from 1.5 to 28.5, except for the reference area. In Creporizinho, the values of HQ are close to 2 for most sites, whereas in São Chico, there is a hot spot of MeHg contamination in fish (A2-São Chico Reservoir) with the highest risk level (HQ = 28) associated with its human consumption. Mean Hg concentrations in urine, blood, and hair samples indicated that the miners group (in São Chico: urine = 17.37 μg/L; blood = 27.74 μg/L; hair = 4.50 μg/g and in Creporizinho: urine = 13.75 μg/L; blood = 25.23 μg/L; hair: 4.58 μg/g) was more exposed to mercury compared to non-miners (in São Chico: urine = 5.73 μg/L; blood = 16.50 μg/L; hair = 3.16 μg/g and in Creporizinho: urine = 3.91 μg/L; blood = 21.04 μg/L, hair = 1.88 μg/g). These high Hg levels (found

  5. Selection of autochthonous lactic acid bacteria from goat dairies and their addition to evaluate the inhibition of Salmonella typhi in artisanal cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Iris da Silva; de Souza, Jane Viana; Ramos, Cintia Lacerda; da Costa, Mateus Matiuzzi; Schwan, Rosane Freitas; Dias, Francesca Silva

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to select autochthonous lactic acid bacteria (LAB) with probiotic and functional properties from goat dairies and test their addition to artisanal cheese for the inhibition of Salmonella typhi. In vitro tests, including survival in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), auto- and co-aggregation, the hemolytic test, DNase activity, antimicrobial susceptibility, antibacterial activity, tolerance to NaCl and exopolysaccharide (EPS), gas and diacetyl production were conducted for sixty isolates. Based on these tests, four LAB isolates (UNIVASF CAP 16, 45, 84 and 279) were selected and identified. Additional tests, such as production of lactic and citric acids by UNIVASF CAP isolates were performed in addition to assays of bile salt hydrolase (BSH), β-galactosidase and decarboxylase activity. The four selected LAB produced high lactic acid (>17 g/L) and low citric acid (0.2 g/L) concentrations. All selected strains showed BSH and β-galactosidase activity and none showed decarboxylase activity. Three goat cheeses (1, 2 and control) were produced and evaluated for the inhibitory action of selected LAB against Salmonella typhi. The cheese inoculated with LAB (cheese 2) decreased 0.38 log10 CFU/g of S. Typhy population while in the cheese without LAB inoculation (cheese 1) the pathogen population increased by 0.29 log units. Further, the pH value increased linearly over time, by 0.004 units per day in cheese 1. In the cheese 2, the pH value decreased linearly over time, by 0.066 units per day. The cocktail containing selected Lactobacillus strains with potential probiotic and technological properties showed antibacterial activity against S. typhi in vitro and in artisanal goat cheese. Thus, goat milk is important source of potential probiotic LAB which may be used to inhibit the growth of Salmonella population in cheese goat, contributing to safety and functional value of the product. PMID:27554143

  6. Radiological survey and assessment of associated activity concentration of the naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in the Migori artisanal gold mining belt of southern Nyanza, Kenya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odumo, O.B., E-mail: benodumoo@uonbi.ac.k [Department of Physics, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 30197-00100 Nairobi (Kenya); Mustapha, A.O. [Department of Physics, University of Agriculture, P.M.B. 2240 Abeokuta (Nigeria); Patel, J.P.; Angeyo, H.K. [Department of Physics, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 30197-00100 Nairobi (Kenya)

    2011-06-15

    A radiological survey and assessment was carried out at selected sites (Osiri, Mikei, Masara and Macalder) in the Migori gold mines of southern Nyanza, Kenya to determine the levels of exposure of the artisanal miners to the naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) and dust. The activity concentrations of {sup 40}K and the decay products of {sup 232}Th and {sup 226}Ra were obtained using an innovative method in single channel NaI(Tl) gamma-ray spectrometry. The counts for both the sample and the reference material in a specific window for a particular radionuclide were compared to arrive at the activity concentration of the radionuclide in the sample. Measurement of dust loading at various crushing sites was carried out by trapping the dust particles on a 0.45 {mu}m cellulose acetate filter paper (47 mm diameter) using a vacuum pump. The activity concentration levels range widely 80-413, 12-145 and 21-258 Bq/kg for {sup 40}K, {sup 232}Th and {sup 226}Ra, respectively. The calculated absorbed dose in air range from 16 to 178 nGy/h (with a mean of 42 nGy/h). Dust loading was found to range from 1.3 to 3.7 mg/m{sup 3}. Although the activity concentration of the radionuclides and the calculated annual absorbed dose is below the world's average, the dust level at the mines was relatively high. The results obtained show that the artisanal miners are exposed to various levels of radionuclides and dust and necessary precautions need to be taken.

  7. Characterization of the artisanal fishing communities in Nepal and potential implications for the conservation and management of Ganges River Dolphin (Platanista gangetica gangetica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudel, Shambhu; Levesque, Juan C; Saavedra, Camilo; Pita, Cristina; Pal, Prabhat

    2016-01-01

    The Ganges River dolphin (Platanista gangetica gangetica) (GRD) is classified as one of the most endangered of all cetaceans in the world and the second scarcest freshwater cetacean. The population is estimated to be less than 2,000 individuals. In Nepal's Narayani, Sapta Koshi, and Karnali river systems, survival of GRD continues to be threatened by various anthropogenic activities, such as dam construction and interactions with artisanal fisheries. A basic description of the geographic scope, economics, and types of gear used in these fisheries would help managers understand the fishery-dolphin interaction conflict and assist with developing potential solutions. The main goal was to provide new information on the artisanal fishing communities in Nepal. The specific objectives were to identify, compile, and investigate the demographics, economics, fishing characteristics, and perception of fishermen about GRD conservation in the Narayani, Sapta Koshi, and Karnali rivers so conservation managers can develop and implement a potential solution to the GRD-fishery interaction problem in Nepal. Based on 169 interviews, 79% of Nepalese fishermen indicated fishing was their primary form of income. Fishermen reported fishing effort was greater in summer than winter; greatest in the afternoon (14:30 hrs ± 0:27) and during low water level conditions; and gear was set 4.8 ± 0.2 days/week. Fishermen reported using eight different types of monofilament nets (gillnets and cast nets). Sixty percent used gillnets less than 10 m long, and nearly 30% preferred gillnets between 10 and 100 m long; a few used gillnets longer than 100 m. Most fishermen reported they believed education, awareness, and changing occupations were important for GRD conservation, but they indicated that alternative occupational options were currently limited in Nepal. Nepalese fishermen acknowledged that fisheries posed a risk to GRD, but they believed water pollution, and dam/irrigation developments were

  8. The Artisanal Nuke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, M. C.

    2014-02-07

    There have been many words written about the value and importance of nuclear disarmament. There have been many words written about the value and importance to the U.S. defense posture of nuclear weapons. This thesis will not be about either one of those points of view. The commentary will not purport to tell anyone that there is a need or there is not a need for one nuclear weapon or thousands of nuclear weapons. This study is more about, "well, they are here -- now what?"

  9. Morocco - Artisanal Fisheries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millenium Challenge Corporation — The final performance evaluation roadmap for the Small-Scale Fisheries Project (PPA-MCC) is developed using a grid constructed around indicators relating to Project...

  10. 有晶状体眼前房型环曲面人工晶状体植入矫正散光%Artisan toric phakic intraocular lens for the correction of astigmatism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    涂云海; 俞阿勇; 高潮

    2007-01-01

    散光的矫治一直是屈光手术的焦点,有晶状体眼前房型环曲面人工晶状体(Artisan toric phakic intraocular lens,TPIOL)矫正散光,以其矫治范围大、安全、有效,逐渐受到临床关注.本文就Artisan TPIOL的物理特征、手术患者的筛选、术前准备、手术方法,以及对其术后安全性、有效性、准确性、稳定性、最小损害等评价作一综述.

  11. Crowd-Funded Micro-Grants for Genomics and “Big Data”: An Actionable Idea Connecting Small (Artisan) Science, Infrastructure Science, and Citizen Philanthropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badr, Kamal F.; Dove, Edward S.; Endrenyi, Laszlo; Geraci, Christy Jo; Hotez, Peter J.; Milius, Djims; Neves-Pereira, Maria; Pang, Tikki; Rotimi, Charles N.; Sabra, Ramzi; Sarkissian, Christineh N.; Srivastava, Sanjeeva; Tims, Hesther; Zgheib, Nathalie K.; Kickbusch, Ilona

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Biomedical science in the 21st century is embedded in, and draws from, a digital commons and “Big Data” created by high-throughput Omics technologies such as genomics. Classic Edisonian metaphors of science and scientists (i.e., “the lone genius” or other narrow definitions of expertise) are ill equipped to harness the vast promises of the 21st century digital commons. Moreover, in medicine and life sciences, experts often under-appreciate the important contributions made by citizen scholars and lead users of innovations to design innovative products and co-create new knowledge. We believe there are a large number of users waiting to be mobilized so as to engage with Big Data as citizen scientists—only if some funding were available. Yet many of these scholars may not meet the meta-criteria used to judge expertise, such as a track record in obtaining large research grants or a traditional academic curriculum vitae. This innovation research article describes a novel idea and action framework: micro-grants, each worth $1000, for genomics and Big Data. Though a relatively small amount at first glance, this far exceeds the annual income of the “bottom one billion”—the 1.4 billion people living below the extreme poverty level defined by the World Bank ($1.25/day). We describe two types of micro-grants. Type 1 micro-grants can be awarded through established funding agencies and philanthropies that create micro-granting programs to fund a broad and highly diverse array of small artisan labs and citizen scholars to connect genomics and Big Data with new models of discovery such as open user innovation. Type 2 micro-grants can be funded by existing or new science observatories and citizen think tanks through crowd-funding mechanisms described herein. Type 2 micro-grants would also facilitate global health diplomacy by co-creating crowd-funded micro-granting programs across nation-states in regions facing political and financial instability, while

  12. DISASTROUS/HAZARDOUS ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCE EXPLOITATION: MASS LEAD-POISONING AND MORTALITY OF CHRONICALLY-POOR ARTISANAL GOLD MINERS’ CHILDREN IN NORTHERN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. INGWE

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Disastrous/hazardous environmental resource exploitation: mass lead-poisoning and mortality of chronically-poor artisanal gold miners’ children in northern Nigeria.The claim that poverty is one of three motivations of the nearly half a decade-long terrorist war waged by Northern Nigeria’s Islamic-sectarians, Boko Haram, call to question the extent to which sociological aspects of the critical social theory -emphasizing participation of various strata of the population in the rational society have been fulfilled in the sub-national region. The presentation of over 90 percent of Nigeria’s population (total: about 170 million classified as poor (earning/spending less than US$2 a day, vulnerable to socio-economic hazards, -with poverty in northern Nigeria reportedly surpassing levels in the rest of Nigeria’s federation makes questioning of geographers’ political-economic perspectives of critical social theoretical equally urgent. One of many dimensions of this challenge is its indication of Northern Nigeria’s leadership’s failure to seriously apply public resources towards resolving social welfare problems at both central and sub-national regional scales since the attainment of independence in 1960. The recent resort to insurgency represents mistakes of political gladiators during the post-independence era (over 50 years to properly manage natural resources –including solid minerals in northern Nigeria and the rest of the country. Here, we undertake a discourse of hazards (risks and vulnerabilities and disasters associated with recent resort of northern Nigeria’s poor to artisanal/unregulated mining of gold in northern Nigerian communities: cases of deleterious consequences (deaths, illnesses, etc., of this alternative “livelihood” of coping with socio-economic challenges posed by chronic poverty, unemployment, under-employment, among other adversities in the sub-national region were also highlighted. Government’s failure to

  13. Human Health Risk Assessment of Artisanal Miners Exposed to Toxic Chemicals in Water and Sediments in the Prestea Huni Valley District of Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obiri, Samuel; Yeboah, Philip O.; Osae, Shiloh; Adu-kumi, Sam; Cobbina, Samuel J.; Armah, Frederick A.; Ason, Benjamin; Antwi, Edward; Quansah, Reginald

    2016-01-01

    A human health risk assessment of artisanal miners exposed to toxic metals in water bodies and sediments in the PresteaHuni Valley District of Ghana was carried out in this study, in line with US EPA risk assessment guidelines. A total of 70 water and 30 sediment samples were collected from surface water bodies in areas impacted by the operations of artisanal small-scale gold mines in the study area and analyzed for physico-chemical parameters such as pH, TDS, conductivity, turbidity as well as metals and metalloids such as As, Cd, Hg and Pb at CSIR—Water Research Institute using standard methods for the examination of wastewater as outlined by American Water Works Association (AWWA). The mean concentrations of As, Cd, Hg and Pb in water samples ranged from 15 μg/L to 325 μg/L (As), 0.17 μg/L to 340 μg/L (Cd), 0.17 μg/L to 122 μg/L (Pb) and 132 μg/L to 866 μg/L (Hg), respectively. These measured concentrations of arsenic (As), mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) were used as input parameters to calculate the cancer and non-cancer health risks from exposure to these metals in surface water bodies and sediments based on an occupational exposure scenario using central tendency exposure (CTE) and reasonable maximum exposure (RME) parameters. The results of the non-cancer human health risk assessment for small-scale miners working around river Anikoko expressed in terms of hazard quotients based on CTE parameters are as follows: 0.04 (Cd), 1.45 (Pb), 4.60 (Hg) and 1.98 (As); while cancer health risk faced by ASGM miners in Dumase exposed to As in River Mansi via oral ingestion of water is 3.1 × 10−3. The hazard quotient results obtained from this study in most cases were above the HQ guidance value of 1.0, furthermore the cancer health risk results were found to be higher than the USEPA guidance value of 1 × 10−4 to 1 × 10−6. These findings call for case-control epidemiological studies to establish the relationship between exposure to the

  14. Human Health Risk Assessment of Artisanal Miners Exposed to Toxic Chemicals in Water and Sediments in the Prestea Huni Valley District of Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obiri, Samuel; Yeboah, Philip O; Osae, Shiloh; Adu-Kumi, Sam; Cobbina, Samuel J; Armah, Frederick A; Ason, Benjamin; Antwi, Edward; Quansah, Reginald

    2016-01-01

    A human health risk assessment of artisanal miners exposed to toxic metals in water bodies and sediments in the PresteaHuni Valley District of Ghana was carried out in this study, in line with US EPA risk assessment guidelines. A total of 70 water and 30 sediment samples were collected from surface water bodies in areas impacted by the operations of artisanal small-scale gold mines in the study area and analyzed for physico-chemical parameters such as pH, TDS, conductivity, turbidity as well as metals and metalloids such as As, Cd, Hg and Pb at CSIR-Water Research Institute using standard methods for the examination of wastewater as outlined by American Water Works Association (AWWA). The mean concentrations of As, Cd, Hg and Pb in water samples ranged from 15 μg/L to 325 μg/L (As), 0.17 μg/L to 340 μg/L (Cd), 0.17 μg/L to 122 μg/L (Pb) and 132 μg/L to 866 μg/L (Hg), respectively. These measured concentrations of arsenic (As), mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) were used as input parameters to calculate the cancer and non-cancer health risks from exposure to these metals in surface water bodies and sediments based on an occupational exposure scenario using central tendency exposure (CTE) and reasonable maximum exposure (RME) parameters. The results of the non-cancer human health risk assessment for small-scale miners working around river Anikoko expressed in terms of hazard quotients based on CTE parameters are as follows: 0.04 (Cd), 1.45 (Pb), 4.60 (Hg) and 1.98 (As); while cancer health risk faced by ASGM miners in Dumase exposed to As in River Mansi via oral ingestion of water is 3.1 × 10(-3). The hazard quotient results obtained from this study in most cases were above the HQ guidance value of 1.0, furthermore the cancer health risk results were found to be higher than the USEPA guidance value of 1 × 10(-4) to 1 × 10(-6). These findings call for case-control epidemiological studies to establish the relationship between exposure to the

  15. Recent mercury contamination from artisanal gold mining on Buru Island, Indonesia – Potential future risks to environmental health and food safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Recent mercury contamination from artisanal gold mining, Buru Island, Indonesia. • Measured dispersal into the marine environment. • Implications for food safety. • Challenges for introducing mercury reduction strategies. -- Abstract: In November 2011 gold was found at Mount Botak, Buru Island, Mollucas Province, Indonesia. Since 2012 mercury has been used to extract the gold requiring large volumes of water and resulting in deposition of mercury into Wamsait River and Kayeli Bay. Total mercury in waste ponds was over 680 mg/kg. In sediments at the mouth of the local river and a small feeder creek >3.00 mg/kg and >7.66 mg/kg respectively. River and bay sediments were proportionately higher in available mercury than elemental mercury and more strongly bound mercuric sulfide compared to that in trommel waste. This preliminary investigation raises concerns about the long term distribution and speciation of mercury. The floodplain is an important agricultural resource, and Mollucas Province is recognised nationally as the centre for Indonesian fish stocks. Challenges for management include communicating the potential future risks to the community and leaders and identifying mechanisms to reduce mercury waste

  16. Novel starters for old processes: use of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains isolated from artisanal sourdough for craft beer production at a brewery scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marongiu, Antonella; Zara, Giacomo; Legras, Jean-Luc; Del Caro, Alessandra; Mascia, Ilaria; Fadda, Costantino; Budroni, Marilena

    2015-01-01

    The deliberate inoculation of yeast strains isolated from food matrices such as wine or bread, could allow the transfer of novel properties to beer. In this work, the feasibility of the use of baker's yeast strains as starters for craft beer production has been evaluated at laboratory and brewery scale. Nine out of 12 Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains isolated from artisanal sourdoughs metabolized 2 % maltose, glucose and trehalose and showed growth rates and cell populations higher than those of the brewer's strain Safbrew-S33. Analysis of allelic variation at 12 microsatellite loci clustered seven baker's strains and Safbrew-S33 in the main group of bread isolates. Chemical analyses of beers produced at a brewery scale showed significant differences among the beers produced with the baker's strain S38 or Safbrew-S33, while no significant differences were observed when S38 or the brewer's strain Safbrew-F2 was used for re-fermentation. The sensory profile of beers obtained with S38 or the brewer's yeasts did not show significant differences, thus suggesting that baker's strains of S. cerevisiae could represent a reservoir of biodiversity for the selection of starter strains for craft beer production. PMID:25387611

  17. Lack of autoantibody induction by mercury exposure in artisanal gold mining settings in Colombia: Findings and a review of the epidemiology literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Rodríguez, Luz Helena; Flórez-Vargas, Oscar; Rodríguez-Villamizar, Laura Andrea; Vargas Fiallo, Yolanda; Stashenko, Elena E; Ramírez, Gerardo

    2015-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) has been implicated as an immunotoxicant in experimental animal models, but its role in the induction of human autoimmunity remains unclear due to contradictory findings. Therefore, it has been claimed that it is important to examine other populations in order to clarify the role of Hg in these diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate whether occupational Hg exposure due to artisanal gold mining is associated with the prevalence of autoimmune biomarkers. A cross-sectional study was conducted comparing Hg-exposed gold miners (n = 164) with a control population (n = 127). Hair, blood, and 24-h urine samples were collected for measures of Hg levels, as well as of anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA) and rheumatoid factor (RF). Participants were clinically evaluated by a general practice physician, a rheumatologist, and a toxicologist. Statistically significant differences (p gold mining activities had a significant impact on autoantibodies as biomarkers of autoimmune diseases. In a review context, the epidemiological findings were interpreted in light of the conflicting data in the literature about how Hg exposure was linked to development of autoantibodies. Validation of these findings in prospective studies is needed to firmly establish the role of Hg in development of autoimmunity in human populations. PMID:25477026

  18. Notes on the Quality of Life of Artisanal Small-Scale Fishermen along the Pacific Coast of Jalisco, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrna Leticia Bravo-Olivas

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable fishing includes the socioeconomic status of fishers. We combined empirical quality of life (QOL and subjective lived experiences methods to explore the social sustainability of artisanal fishers in five fishery collectives along the coast of Jalisco, Mexico, where the average daily income is slightly above the poverty level. The QOL scores were also related to annual catch and incomes within each collective. A QOL index is used in this study that combines importance and achievement ratings scores; the results are indicative of an acceptable QOL for fishermen. The concept of lived experiences, incorporating aspects of life relating to Mind, Body, Work and People was explored through interviews with 12 fishers. The QOL data revealed that family and friends are important indicators related to positive QOL reported by the sample, while economic indicators were not important. Although four of the five collectives perceived that the future looks worse than the present and past, there was limited correlation between catch or income and QOL. However, while the lived experiences exercise in part supported the QOL findings, in that People was the most important dimension for almost all of the fishers interviewed, negative economic gaps related to poor catches and incomes were prevalent in the Mind and Work dimensions. The findings suggest that to understand the socioeconomic component of sustainable fisheries, both of these approaches should be considered, as they can illuminate different aspects of fishers’ lives that need to be considered during the development of fisheries’ management policies.

  19. Assessing the Environmental and Socio-Economic Impacts of Artisanal Gold Mining on the Livelihoods of Communities in the Tarkwa Nsuaem Municipality in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obiri, Samuel; Mattah, Precious A D; Mattah, Memuna M; Armah, Frederick A; Osae, Shiloh; Adu-kumi, Sam; Yeboah, Philip O

    2016-02-01

    Gold mining has played an important role in Ghana's economy, however the negative environmental and socio-economic effects on the host communities associated with gold mining have overshadowed these economic gains. It is within this context that this paper assessed in an integrated manner the environmental and socio-economic impacts of artisanal gold mining in the Tarkwa Nsuaem Municipality from a natural and social science perspective. The natural science group collected 200 random samples on bi-weekly basis between January to October 2013 from water bodies in the study area for analysis in line with methods outlined by the American Water Works Association, while the social science team interviewed 250 residents randomly selected for interviews on socio-economic issues associated with mining. Data from the socio-economic survey was analyzed using logistic regression with SPSS version 17. The results of the natural science investigation revealed that the levels of heavy metals in water samples from the study area in most cases exceeded GS 175-1/WHO permissible guideline values, which are in tandem with the results of inhabitants' perceptions of water quality survey (as 83% of the respondents are of the view that water bodies in the study area are polluted). This calls for cost-benefits analysis of mining before new mining leases are granted by the relevant authorities. PMID:26821039

  20. River transport of mercury from artisanal and small-scale gold mining and risks for dietary mercury exposure in Madre de Dios, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diringer, Sarah E; Feingold, Beth J; Ortiz, Ernesto J; Gallis, John A; Araújo-Flores, Julio M; Berky, Axel; Pan, William K Y; Hsu-Kim, Heileen

    2015-02-01

    Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) is a major contributor to deforestation and the largest anthropogenic source of atmospheric mercury worldwide. Despite significant information on the direct health impacts of mercury to ASGM miners, the impact of mercury contamination on downstream communities has not been well characterized, particularly in Peru's Madre de Dios region. In this area, ASGM has increased significantly since 2000 and has led to substantial political and social controversy. This research examined the spatial distribution and transport of mercury through the Madre de Dios River with distance from ASGM activity. This study also characterized risks for dietary mercury exposure to local residents who depend on fish from the river. River sediment, suspended solids from the water column, and fish samples were collected in 2013 at 62 sites near 17 communities over a 560 km stretch of the Madre de Dios River and its major tributaries. In areas downstream of known ASGM activity, mercury concentrations in sediment, suspended solids, and fish within the Madre de Dios River were elevated relative to locations upstream of mining. Fish tissue mercury concentrations were observed at levels representing a public health threat, with greater than one-third of carnivorous fish exceeding the international health standard of 0.5 mg kg(-1). This study demonstrates that communities located hundreds of kilometers downstream of ASGM activity, including children and indigenous populations who may not be involved in mining, are at risk of dietary mercury exposure that exceed acceptable body burdens. This report represents the first systematic study of the region to aid policy decision-making related to ASGM activities in Peru.

  1. Orientalizing Vietnam: The American Cold War, its “Problems” with Refugee Handicraft Artisans, and their Relationship to Barthes’s Mythology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Way

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines discourses of orientalism narrating the political and cultural significance of representations of Vietnamese handicraft that the U.S. State Department’s International Cooperation Administration’s handicraft production and export program in Southeast Asia published in American craft, design and art journals and used in trade and department store exhibitions from 1955 to 1961. The American program to bring economic stability to the region developed in response to anxiety about the spread of communism in Southeast Asia, which intensified following the end of the first Indochina War, the French departing Vietnam in 1954 and Vietnam dividing at the 17th Parallel a year later.At issue are the ways those who implemented the program narrated the Vietnamese handicraft artisans as problems by treating both their plight as political refugees fleeing from communist forces in the north and the vulnerability of their fledgling nation in the south to communism, as a Cold War American Orientalist tale of the U.S. salvaging Vietnam from political uncertainty including the destruction of its potential democracy and capitalism. To this point, the Orientalizing saturates Russel Wright’s article, “Gold Mine in Southeast Asia,” which overlays relationships of Western power and civilization as well as anthropological notions of salvage over references to the ways an ostensibly timeless albeit primitive culture of a non-western society (Vietnam could maintain its essential identity by serving the needs of an overly industrialized one. Of particular interest are thematic correspondences between the Orientalist thrust of the American cultural diplomacy as evidenced in Wright’s article, and Roland Barthes’ early work, especially “Myth Today”.

  2. Decree No. 12-88 of 4 December 1988, setting forth the functions of the Minister Responsible for the status of Women, Artisan Industries, and Tourism and the organization of the central administration of his department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    This Mauritania Decree provides that the Minister Responsible for the Status of Women, Artisan Industries, and Tourism has as a general objective the formulation and implementation of a policy promoting women and developing the artisan and tourism sectors. With respect to the status of women, the Minister is responsible for studying and devising programs promoting women, supporting the productive participation of women in development, and ensuring women social and primary education that will permit them to assume an active role in society. Among the directorates of the Ministry is a Directorate on the Status of Women, which has the following responsibilities: 1) to study all measures tending to strengthen the position and role of women, taking into consideration a healthy view of the country's traditional values and the requirements of contemporary society; 2) to work with the media in popularizing the rights and obligations of women; 3) to organize specific interventionist activities for the benefit of rural women; 4) to work with interested departments in developing educational and training programs for women; 5) to work with interested parties in studying employment conditions for women and in supervising the effective insertion of women into the dynamics of development; and 6) to work with educational institutions in promoting women's organizations on the national and international level. Further provisions of the Decree set forth the responsibilities of other departments of the Ministry. PMID:12344093

  3. Assessment of mercury levels in different environmental matrices in communities impacted by artisanal gold mining in the Asutifi District of Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercury (Hg) used in gold amalgamation is a major source of contamination in Ghana. Water, sediment and tailings samples from artisanal gold mining (AGM) sites in Kenyasi, Wuramumuso and Nkaseim in the Asutifi district were collected during the wet and the dry period of 2009 and 2010 respectively, and analyzed for total-Hg (T-Hg) using Cold Vapour Atomic Absorption spectroscopy. T-Hg concentration in water samples collected in the wet period were all below detection (< 1.00 μg/L) while that of the dry period ranged from below detection to 11.22 μg/L. T -Hg in water in the wet period were all below the WHO permissible limit of 1.0 μg/L whereas about 85 % of the samples collected in the dry period had values above the WHO permissible limit. In the sediment, T-Hg in the dry period was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than that of the wet period. T -Hg concentrations ranged from below detection limit (0.001 mg/kg) to 0.053 mg/kg (wet) and 0.233 to 8.564 mg/kg (dry) respectively. Likewise, in the tailings, T-Hg concentration ranged from 0.339 to 8.466 mg/kg for only dry period. The pollution status of mercury in sediment and tailings were evaluated by the geoaccumulation index and the enrichment factor. The average geoaccumulation index value indicated that sediments were practically uncontaminated (- 4.4) in the wet period but moderately contaminated (0.6) in the dry period while enrichment factor (ef) gave moderate to extremely high enrichment. In the case of tailings, average geoaccumulation index for mercury (0.5) denoted uncontaminated to moderately contaminated, while the EF indicated very high to extremely high enrichment. With regard to other trace metals, AGM seemed to have an impact on the ambient levels of As, Mn, Cu and Al as high levels were observed in sediment and tailings. The Pollution Load indices (< 1) however, suggested that the sites were not polluted. (au)

  4. A path towards networked artisans

    OpenAIRE

    Niessen, BM

    2010-01-01

    The text analyzes the rise of a digital networked makers culture, connecting the rise of Web 2.0 with new forms of crafting. In the first part, the author highlights the major changes in contemporary culture and economy that are driving to new forms of open, p2p and distributed production. In the second part, the author proposes 13 theses on the rise of digital crafting networks.

  5. El desafío de las comunidades artesanales rurales: una propuesta ecotecnológica para una artesanía sostenible* Challenges faced by rural communities of artisans: an eco-technological proposal for sustainable handcrafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Pacheco Contreras

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Bajo el enfoque del Modelo Ecotecnológico observado en las comunidades artesanales de Galapa y Usiacurí del Departamento de Atlántico; Colombia, se presentan las dimensiones que caracterizan lo artesanal. En ambas comunidades se elaboran máscaras en madera y artesanías en palma de iraca, respectivamente, las cuales han persistido a los retos de la globalización. Sin embargo, la capacidad de estos artesanos ha sido perturbada por la dinámica económica basada en el mercado, que les exige niveles de producción y utilización excesiva de recursos naturales, conduciéndolos a una ruptura entre el patrimonio cultural material, la memoria tecnológica y el balance ecológico de recursos naturales utilizados. El modelo se construye a partir de datos cualitativos obtenidos mediante instrumentos participativos sistematizados en una matriz de análisis estructural, para dar cuenta de las relaciones de incidencia y dependencia de las dimensiones del modelo. Los resultados se sintetizan en un instrumento que permite tomar decisiones sobre la productividad cultural, tecnológica y ecológica de la producción artesanal.An eco-technological model was used to determine aspects of artisanal production in the rural communities of Galapa and Usiacurí, located in the Department of Atlántico, Colombia. Galapa produces wooden masks and Usiacurí, handcrafts made with the Iraca palm. Both communities are facing the challenges of globalization and the capacity of their artisans has been affected by market economy dynamics, which demand high levels of production and excessive use of natural resources. This has led to a rupture between material cultural patrimony, technological memory, and ecological balance of natural resources used. The model draws from qualitative data obtained through participatory instruments, which are then systematized in a structural analysis matrix to determine the impact and inter-dependency of the different aspects covered in the

  6. Lactic acid microbiota identification in water, raw milk, endogenous starter culture, and fresh Minas artisanal cheese from the Campo das Vertentes region of Brazil during the dry and rainy seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, R D; Oliveira, L G; Sant'Anna, F M; Luiz, L M P; Sandes, S H C; Silva, C I F; Silva, A M; Nunes, A C; Penna, C F A M; Souza, M R

    2016-08-01

    Minas artisanal cheese, produced in the Campo das Vertentes region of Brazil, is made from raw milk and endogenous starter cultures. Although this cheese is of great historical and socioeconomic importance, little information is available about its microbiological and physical-chemical qualities, or about its beneficial microbiota. This work was aimed at evaluating the qualities of the cheese and the components used for its production, comparing samples collected during the dry and rainy seasons. We also conducted molecular identification and isolated 50 samples of lactic acid bacteria from cheese (n=21), water (n=3), raw milk (n=9), and endogenous starter culture (n=17). The microbiological quality of the cheese, water, raw milk, and endogenous starter culture was lower during the rainy period, given the higher counts of coagulase-positive Staphylococcus and total and thermotolerant coliforms. Enterococcus faecalis was the lactic acid bacteria isolated most frequently (42.86%) in cheese samples, followed by Lactococcus lactis (28.57%) and Lactobacillus plantarum (14.29%). Lactobacillus brevis (5.88%), Enterococcus pseudoavium (5.88%), Enterococcus durans (5.88%), and Aerococcus viridans (5.88%) were isolated from endogenous starter cultures and are described for the first time in the literature. The lactic acid bacteria identified in the analyzed cheeses may inhibit undesirable microbiota and contribute to the safety and flavor of the cheese, but this needs to be evaluated in future research.

  7. Viability of Staphylococcus xylosus isolated from artisanal sausages for application as starter cultures in meat products Viabilidade de Staphylococcus xylosus isoladas de embutidos artesanais para aplicação como cultivos iniciadores em produtos cárneos

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    Ângela Maria Fiorentini

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Viability of Staphylococcus xylosus isolated from artisanal sausages for application as starter cultures in meat products Viability of Staphylococcus xylosus strains AD1 and U5isolated from natural fermented sausages was investigated as starter cultures in fermented sausages produced in the South Region of Brazil. The study demonstrated that the Staphylococcus xylosus strains AD1 and U5showed significant growth during fermentation, stability over freeze-dried process, negative reaction for staphylococcal enterotoxins and viability for using as a single-strain culture or associated with lactic acid bacteria for production of fermented sausages.Investigamos a viabilidade de cepas de Staphylococcus xylosus (AD1 e U5 isoladas de embutidos com fermentação natural, para aplicação como cultivos iniciadores em embutidos fermentados produzidos na Região Sul do Brasil. O estudo demonstrou que cepas de Staphylococcus xylosus (AD1 e U5 apresentaram crescimento significativo durante a fermentação, estabilidade no processo de liofilização e conservação, ausência de produção de enterotoxinas e viabilidade para aplicação como cultivo iniciador simples ou associado com bactérias lácticas na elaboração de embutidos fermentados.

  8. Development of an artisanal tanning method of the acoupa weakfish (Cynoscion acoupa skin and its transfer through a workshop to a community in the city of Bragança, PA, Brazil

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    Bruno José Corecha Fernandes Eiras

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Bragança is one of the largest fishing centers in the state of Pará, northern Brazil. In the city, there are several environmental and socio-economic problems such as lack of waste management and contamination of water sources that supply to the city and the Caeté river estuary. The social and economic problems are mainly caused by social inequality, which usually occurs in communities where the population depends mainly on fishing. Fish waste forms a part of the waste disposed in the region. Fish skin represents a significant portion of this waste and may be used for manufacturing leather by the tanning process, thereby generating income for the community and reducing environmental impacts. The acoupa weakfish (Cynoscion acoupa has a high potential for tanning because of its large size and high yield of skin. The aim of this study was to develop a methodology for artisanal skin tanning of acoupa weakfish and the subsequent transfer of this methodology to a fishing community through a workshop. The methodology developed in the laboratory is more streamlined than traditional methods and is based on tanning methods cited in the literature and techniques applied in regional tanneries. To assess the quality of acoupa weakfish leather, resistance tests were performed, which proved its potential for manufacturing clothing and footwear. An economic analysis of the hypothetical production of leather based on the tanning methodology developed in this work revealed that the project is feasible and the effluents generated during the process are less harmful to the environment, compared to those generated by traditional tanning methods.

  9. Relative efficiency of square-mesh codends in an artisanal fishery in southern Brazil Eficiencia relativa de copos de malla cuadrada en una pesquería artesanal del sur de Brasil

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    Catarina N.S Silva¹

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The relative efficiency of two square-mesh codend designs with the same circumference (~2 m but different mesh sizes and materials (32 mm polyethylene-PE and 30 mm polyamide-PA was tested in an artisanal shrimp trawl fishery in Paraná, southern Brazil. The two square-mesh codends were hauled alternately with a 26 mm diamond-shaped mesh codend (control in a twin gear configuration. Although not significant, the mean numbers of total bycatch were reduced by 16.6 and 10.0% with the 32 and 30 mm square-mesh codends, respectively. The results indicate significant improvement in size selectivity for some species (Xiphopenaeus kroyeri and Stellifer rastrifer. The operational changes tested can be a suitable technical solution for reducing the capture of immature organisms in the shrimp trawl fishery in Paraná, Brazil.La eficiencia relativa de dos diseños de copos con malla cuadrada con la misma circunferencia (~2 m pero diferentes tamaños de malla y materiales (32 mm de polietileno-PE y 30 mm de poliamida PA ha sido evaluada en una pesquería de arrastre artesanal de camarón en Paraná, sur de Brasil. Los dos copos de malla cuadrada fueron arrastrados alternativamente con un copo de malla de 26 mm en forma de diamante (control en una configuración de doble arrastre. Aunque no es significativo, el número medio de la captura incidental total se redujo en 16,6 y 10,0% en los copos de malla cuadrada de 32 y 30 mm, respectivamente. Los resultados indican que se logra una significativa mejora en la selectividad por tamaño medio de algunas especies (Xiphopenaeus kroyeri y Stellifer rastrifer. Los cambios operacionales evaluados pueden representar una solución técnica adecuada para reducir las capturas de organismos inmaduros en la pesquería de arrastre de camarón en Paraná, Brasil.

  10. Avaliação da qualidade microbiológica do queijo-de-minas artesanal do Serro-MG Microbiological quality of artisanal minas cheese, manufactured in the region of Serro-MG

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    L.M.F. Brant

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se a qualidade microbiológica do queijo-de-minas artesanal do Serro e a variação da microbiota do queijo recém-fabricado e no último dia de validade, após estocagem sob as condições recomendadas no rótulo. Foram analisadas 40 amostras de queijo, sendo 20 analisadas frescas, imediatamente após a coleta, e 20 no último dia de validade, após estocagem em câmara fria a 10ºC. As amostras foram analisadas para coliformes a 35ºC e 45ºC, Staphylococcus coagulase positiva, Salmonella spp. e Listeria monocytogenes. Trinta e sete amostras (92,5% encontraram-se impróprias para o consumo humano, de acordo com os parâmetros estabelecidos pela resolução: RDC ANVISA nº12/01, sendo a principal causa de condenação a contagem de Staphylococcus coagulase positiva. Nenhuma das amostras analisadas apresentou contaminação por Salmonella sp. ou Listeria monocytogenes. As contagens de Staphylococcus coagulase positiva dos queijos frescos foram mais altas (PThe microbiological quality of artisanal minas cheese produced in the region of Serro-MG was evaluated. Cheeses were analyzed fresh and at the end of the shelf life, under specific storage conditions (30 days, 10ºC. Forty samples of minas cheese were analyzed, twenty still fresh, and 20 after storage at 10ºC. The microbiological analyses were counts of fecal and total coliforms, and Staphylococcus coagulase positive; and search of Salmonella sp. and Listeria monocytogenes. Twenty-seven samples (92.5% were in disagreement with the Brazilian Standard, Resolution nº 12 of January 12, 2001, from ANVISA (National Health Surveillance Agency, and Staphylococcus coagulase positive was the major contaminant. No sample was contaminated by Salmonella sp. or Listeria monocytogenes. During the storage, there was a decrease of countings in the population of Staphylococcus coagulase positive (P<0.01.

  11. Study of geohazards in the artisanal exploitation sites and their impacts on their surrounding areas. Cases of Mufwa and Kalimbi mines in the South Kivu province (D.R. Congo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nshokano, Jean-Robert

    2014-05-01

    Kivu region is located in the eastern part of DR Congo. This region is in western branch of the East African Rift. In this region there is a presence of several mineral resources. It is also a sismic zone with many cases of geohazards. Very often international NGO's (Human rights, Green Peace, etc.) consider the illegal mining exploitations as the causes of conflicts and war in that region. Those illegal mining exploitations are also responsible for the insecure and inconvenient situations in the region. The DR Congo is a country with great mining vocation and remarkable geological diversity, its people has the need and the right to understand the different challenges related to geological resources. So it's up to raise the question: "What about the unsubstitutable links which put the life beings and their physical environment, what about the interest of soil and subsoil in the human subsistence and comfort?" In undertaking natural resource exploitation, extreme comfort and ultra capitalism should not blind people. They are called to preserve a nature for all and a nature for future generations. We have a common earth where we exploit all the mineral resources. It's up to everyone as human being to be aware of our responsibility regarding to the irreversible decrease of mineral resources and the constant danger of geohazards. The project'"Earth and life" essentially aims for the strengthening of efforts in geoeducation and mass geocommunication (information and sensitization) about the challenges of oil and mineral resources on one hand, and on the other hand the natural hazards in the perspective to encourage much more a sustainable development. Through fieldwork investigations (geological survey), we are going to map the artisanal exploitation sites targeted by the project. We will proceed by sensitization and mass information about different topics of geology and mineral resources issues in the region. The fieldworks will allow us to make an inventory of

  12. O bosque de mangues e a pesca artesanal no Distrito de Acupe (Santo Amaro, Bahia: uma abordagem etnoecológica = The mangrove forest and artisan fishing in the Acupe District (Santo Amaro, Bahia State, Brazil: an ethnoecological approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José Bezerra Souto

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Os manguezais são ecossistemas que apresentam alta biomassa e concentração de biodiversidade. Estas características favorecem a utilização por muitas populações que vivem tradicionalmente da mariscagem e da pesca artesanal, como é o caso da que habita oDistrito de Acupe (Santo Amaro, Estado da Brahia, situado na margem oeste da Baía de Todos os Santos. Além dos recursos pesqueiros, a população também faz uso da vegetação do manguezal, conhecida localmente como “mangue”. O presente trabalho tem como objetivo abordar conhecimentos de pescadores e marisqueiras sobre o bosque de mangues, bem como seus usos à luz da etnoecologia abrangente de Marques (1995. Foram realizadas entrevistas semi-estruturadas buscando-se registrar os conhecimentos e comportamentosenvolvidos na utilização dos mangues. Os resultados foram analisados em uma óptica emicista/eticista, comparando-se os conhecimentos locais com aqueles disponíveis na literatura científica e correlacionando-se os comportamentos observados com suas possíveisimplicações ambientais. Os dados obtidos revelaram um corpo de conhecimentos possuído pelos entrevistados sobre a vegetação do manguezal, incluindo classificação, ecologia trófica,fenologia e ecozoneamento e percepção ecossistêmica, por vezes compatíveis com os conhecimentos acadêmicos. Interações da comunidade pesqueira com o componente vegetal revelaram formas de percepção e de utilização de recursos fortemente associadas à cultura local e com implicações etnoconservacionistas.Mangrove ecosystems feature a high biomass and biodiversity concentration. High productivity supports the exploitation by manytraditional populations that survive on shellfish catching and artisan fishing, such as those living in the Acupe District, located in Santo Amaro, in the west coast of the Todos os Santos Bay (BahiaState, Northeastern Brazil. The aim of this paper is to describe and analyze the native knowledges

  13. Eficiencia operacional del virador de palangre de una embarcación atunera artesanal prototipo de Isla Margarita, Venezuela Operational efficiency of the longline hauler on a prototype artisanal tuna fishing vessel from Margarita Island, Venezuela

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    Ernesto Trujillo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La eficiencia operacional del mecanismo de virado del palangre de una embarcación atunera artesanal de Isla Margarita, Venezuela, se determinó mediante la velocidad media de calado, velocidad media de virado, tensión de entrada del virador (T0 y su fuerza de tracción (P. Se encontró una relación directa entre la fuerza de gravedad media (q med de la sección de palangre y la tensión de entrada del virador (T0. Considerando una fuerza (Pme d en la entrada del virador (Sj, la tensión en (S3 disminuye debido a la polea de presión que ejerce una fuerza H = 23,7 N, obteniendo una fuerza S4 = 0. La velocidad media de calado del palangre fue de 208 m min-1 (~ 333 anzuelos/hora y la velocidad media de virado de 121 m min-1 (~ 160 anzuelos/hora; mientras que la tensión de entrada del virador (T0 fue de 1.013 N. Por lo tanto, la nueva fuerza de tracción (P fluctuó entre 1.317 y 1.418 N. De acuerdo al torque en las poleas del mecanismo virador, la velocidad media de virado (v med y las relaciones de transmisión (k1= k2, se estimó que para el izado del palangre se requiere una potencia media (Nmed de 5,3 hp (~ 3,95 kW, resultando eficiencia de virado por sección (Tp de 135,4 s.The operational efficiency of the long line hauler on an artisanal tuna fishing vessel from Margarita Island, Venezuela, was determined using the average setting velocity, average hauling velocity, hauler input tension (T0 and traction strength (P. A direct relationship was found between the average gravity (q med on the long-line section and the hauler input tension (T0. Considering a strength (Pme d at the input of the long line hauler (Sj, the roller tension (S3 decreases due to the force of H = 23.7 N exerted by the pressure roller, resulting in a strength of S4 = 0. The long-line average setting velocity was 208 m min-1 (~ 333 hooks/hour and its hauling velocity was 121 m min-1 (~ 160 hooks/hour, whereas hauler input tension (T0 was 1013 N. Therefore, the new

  14. Physicochemical and microbiological evaluation of corrientes artisanal cheese during ripening Avaliação físico-química e microbiológica de queijo artesanal corrientes durante a maturação

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    Olga Myriam Vasek

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate some physical and chemical parameters (total solids, pH, acidity, fat, acid degree value of fat, salt, protein and nitrogen fractions and their effects on the beneficial (lactic acid bacteria: LAB and undesirable microbial populations (coliforms, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, moulds, and yeast during ripening of Artisanal Corrientes Cheese, an Argentinian cow's milk variety, to determine whether a longer ripening period than usual improve its hygienic-sanitary quality. The protein content was much higher than that of other cow's milk cheeses with similar values of fat. The larger peptides showed values three times higher in the 30 day-old cheese than those obtained in the beginning of the process. Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were detected (3.04 ± 1.48 log10 cfu/g of cheese, 2.21 ± 0.84 log10 MPN/g of cheese even at 15 and 30 days of ripening, respectively. The distribution of three hundred LAB strains classified to the genus level (lactococci:lactobacilli:leuconostocs was maintained during the ripening period. The high number of LAB in rennet may have contributed to the fermentation as a natural whey starter, unknown source of LAB for this specific cheese so far. The physicochemical changes that occur during ripening were not big enough to inhibit the growth of undesirable microorganisms.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar alguns parâmetros físicos e químicos (sólidos totais, pH, acidez, gordura, grau de acidez da gordura, sal, proteínas e frações de nitrogênio e seus efeitos sobre as populações microbianas benéficas (bactérias lácticas: LAB e indesejáveis (coliformes, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, fungos e leveduras durante a maturação do Queijo Artesanal de Corrientes, uma variedade argentina do leite cru da vaca, para determinar se um tempo de maturação mais longo do que o atual melhora as condições higiênico-sanitárias do queijo. O teor de

  15. La pesca artesanal en la Cuenca del Plata (Argentina y sus implicancias en la conservación de la biodiversidad Artisanal fish at del Plata basin (Argentina and its implications for the biodiversity conservation

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    Juan Miguel Iwaszkiw

    2011-06-01

    de la pesquería sobre conservación de la biodiversidad de peces de la cuenca.The aim of this contribution is to consider different issues derived from fish captures from artisanal-commercial fisheries in the Paraná Basin in Argentina. We identify certain impacts related to fishing practices on the involved natural populations and its compromises in ichtiofaunal biodiversity conservation. We consider 17 years of information based on data of fisheries exports for different inland species between 1994-2010. These data includes valuable commercial big sized native fishes like sábalo (Prochilodus lineatus, boga (Leporinus obtusidens, tararira (Hoplias malabaricus, surubí (Pseudoplatystoma spp., dorado (Salminus brasiliensis and patí (Luciopimelodus pati, together with several catfish species and minor species as silversides. Freshwater fish exports show a major rise resulting in 331517 ton for these years. The target species is sábalo (88.77 %, other accompanying species are tararira (4.16 %, boga (3.7 % and Patí (1.35 % whereas the remainig catches belong to other species. There is a strong rise in the catches of these other species in certain years while there is not a clear legislation for these fish species that allow implementing a proper fishery management along the basin. The importing countries are Brazil, Colombia, Bolivia and Nigeria among others. Since 2003 Colombia buy an average of 50% of inland fisheries exports from Argentina. The analysis historical data (1994-2010 reveals the need to implement measures to control and management of fisheries and its effects on fish biodiversity conservation in the basin.

  16. Pesca artesanal de cangrejo dorado (Chaceon chilensis en el archipiélago de Juan Fernández, Chile Artisanal fishing for golden crab (Chaceon chilensis off the Juan Fernández archipelago, Chile

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    Mauricio Ahumada

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describe la pesca artesanal de cangrejo dorado (Chaceon chilensis en las islas Robinson Crusoe y Santa Clara, en el archipiélago de Juan Fernández (Chile, desarrollada entre julio de 2005 y mayo de 2006. Se dan a conocer aspectos biológico-pesqueros relativos a esfuerzo y rendimientos de pesca, proporción sexual, así como los resultados de una evaluación directa de biomasa vulnerable mediante el método de area de influencia de las trampas. La extracción se efectuó fundamentalmente en el cuadrante NE de ambas islas, mediante botes de madera de 9,0 m de eslora. Se monitorearon 157 salidas de pesca y se capturaron 13.903 ejemplares, los cuales mayoritariamente fueron machos (97,5%. La CPUE promedio fue 16,7 ejemplares por trampa y de 13,5 ejemplares comerciales por trampa. A partir del muestreo sistemático, se detectó al recurso entre 300 y 1000 m de profundidad, con mayores rendimientos entre 400 y 500 m de profundidad (19,8 y 15,9 ejemplares por trampa. Se consideran y discuten dos escenarios de evaluación de stock para ejemplares de talla comercial en el area actualmente explotada (45,8 km , el primero estimó un radio efectivo para las trampas de 13,4 m (area de 564,1 m , con una biomasa vulnerable de 1.002 ton, equivalentes a 832.983 ejemplares, mientras que el segundo consideró un radio de 30,0 m con una biomasa vulnerable de 203 ton equivalente a 168.587 ejemplares.This work describes the artisanal golden crab (Chaceon chilensis fishery off Robinson Crusoe and Santa Clara islands in the Juan Fernández archipelago (Chile developed between July 2005 and May 2006. We report biological fishery aspects related to the físhing efforts and yields, the sexual proportion of the catch, and the results of a direct evaluation of the vulnerable biomass done using the trap area of influence method. The extraction was done mainly in the NE quadrant of both islands from wooden boats (9.0 m length. Monitoring was done during 157 f

  17. Work and Masculinity in Katanga's Artisanal Mines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuvelier, J.G.R.

    2014-01-01

    This article, based on 16 months of anthropological fieldwork between 2005 and 2012, examines the relationship between work and masculinity among ardsanal miners, or creuseurs, in Katanga, the southeastern province of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. It argues that men's involvement in ardsanal

  18. Seychelles artisanal fisheries statistics for 2002

    OpenAIRE

    Azemia, R.T.; Robinson, J.

    2003-01-01

    (1). During 2002 an estimated total of 4915 tonnes of fish was landed on Mahe, Praslin and La Digue by 374 fishing boats. 83.1% of the total catch was landed on Mahe alone. The total catch increased by 625 tonnes compared to 2001, and the number of boats operating decreased by 3 over the same period. (2). The most important species groups landed (greater than 5% of the total catch) were carangues (41.5%), job (12.4%), capitaine (6.8%), becune (6.1%), maquereau doux (5.7%) and bourgeois (5....

  19. Atividade antimicrobiana de bactérias ácido-lácticas isoladas de queijos de coalho artesanal e industrial frente a microrganismos indicadores Antimicrobial activity of lactic acid bacteria isolated from artisanal and industrial "coalho" cheese against indicator microorganisms

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    L.G. Guedes Neto

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Quatro cepas de Lactobacillus spp. e duas cepas de Lactococcus spp. isoladas de queijos de coalho artesanal e industrial foram testadas quanto às suas atividades antimicrobianas. Observou-se atividade antagonista dessas bactérias ácido-lácticas frente a elas, a outras bactérias ácido-lácticas isoladas de queijo de coalho, aos patógenos isolados dos mesmos queijos e a cepas de patógenos de referência. Verificou-se diferença (PFour strains of Lactobacillus spp. and two strains of Lactococcus spp. were isolated from artisanal and industrial "coalho" cheese and tested for inhibitory activity. It was observed antagonistic activity of the lactic acid bacteria against themselves and other lactic acid bacteria and pathogens isolated from the same cheese samples, as well as against pathogenic strains from other sources. Significant difference (P<0.05 was observed among the antagonistic activities, except when lactic acid bacteria were used as indicator. From the tested bacteria, Lactobacillus spp. showed the strongest antagonistic activity.

  20. A indústria cerâmica vermelha de Campos dos Goitacazes e a inclusão social das artesãs da baixada campista através do projeto Caminhos de Barro The red ceramic industry in Campos dos Goitacazes and the social inclusion of artisans from Baixada Campista through the Caminhos de Barro project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. Ramos

    2008-09-01

    . The Project Caminhos de Barro implanted for the State University of Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro (UENF, in 2000, has as purpose to enable, in the ceramic art, these excluded communities of the ceramic industrial process. The present work has as objective to contribute for an improvement in the adopted technology, for the first generation of artisans formed in the Workshop Caminhos de Barro, adjusting the raw material used to the new activity through mapping, classification and characterization the materials of region in nature and its behavior after the burning. The same analysis technique used for characterization and adequacy of the products industrialized for the ceramic industries also revealed adequate for the workmanship. The raw material studied, in the begin, presented the necessary qualities to the artisan work as it can be observed by the gotten products leading to a lesser loss. However the creation of a standard more adjusted of raw material to be used in the ceramic art of the Baixada Campista will demand, therefore, more time, resources and study, therefore the desired properties of each device such as: color, permeability and finishing can be associates the small physical and mineralogical variations.

  1. Local knowledge of medicinal plants in three artisanal fishing communities (Itapoá, Southern Brazil, according to gender, age, and urbanization Conhecimento local sobre plantas medicinais em três comunidades de pescadores artesanais (Itapoá, sul do Brasil, de acordo com gênero, idade e urbanização

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Heindrickson Cunha Merétika

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes some of the factors affecting the distribution of knowledge about medicinal plants of three artisanal fishing communities in Itapoá Municipality, in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. Ninety semi-structured interviews were performed, which resulted in 109 cited plant species. The sample included both men (n=46 and women (n=44, in different age categories: 18-40 years old (n=18, 41-50 (n=21, 51-60 (n=28, and 61+ years old (n=23, and in three different communities: Barra do Saí (n=17, Itapema do Norte (n=31 and Pontal do Norte (n=42. Leaves are the plant parts most used by the communities (62%, and are obtained primarily through cultivation. Cordia curassavica (Jacq. Roem. & Schult. (Boraginaceae is the species most cited in the interviews, locally known as 'erva-baleeira' or 'erva-de-baleia'. The elderly have greater knowledge of species, but no gender differences were noticed. Less knowledge of plants was noticed in the more urbanized area when compared to the less urbanized areas. The most used plants are not related to the most frequent ailments. Medicinal plant use is an important resource for the health of these fishing communities, but it is declining mostly due to the lack of interest on the part of the younger members, and to improved access to public health services.Este artigo analisa alguns dos fatores que afetam a distribuição do conhecimento sobre plantas medicinais em três comunidades de pescadores artesanais do Município de Itapoá, Santa Catarina, Brasil. Noventa entrevistas semi-estruturadas foram realizadas, o que resultou em 109 espécies de plantas citadas. A amostra foi composta por homens (n = 46 e mulheres (n = 44, em diferentes categorias de idade: 18-40 anos (n = 18, 41-50 (n = 21, 51-60 (n = 28, e 61 anos ou mais (n = 23, e em três diferentes comunidades: Barra do Saí (n = 17, Itapema do Norte (n = 31 e Pontal do Norte (n = 42. Folhas são as partes da plantas mais utilizadas (62%, sendo

  2. O bosque de mangues e a pesca artesanal no Distrito de Acupe (Santo Amaro, Bahia: uma abordagem etnoecológica - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i3.5014 The mangrove forest and artisan fishing in the Acupe District (Santo Amaro, Bahia State, Brazil: an ethnoecological approach - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i3.5014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José Bezerra

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Os manguezais são ecossistemas que apresentam alta biomassa e concentração de biodiversidade. Estas características favorecem a utilização por muitas populações que vivem tradicionalmente da mariscagem e da pesca artesanal, como é o caso da que habita o Distrito de Acupe (Santo Amaro, Estado da Brahia, situado na margem oeste da Baía de Todos os Santos. Além dos recursos pesqueiros, a população também faz uso da vegetação do manguezal, conhecida localmente como “mangue”. O presente trabalho tem como objetivo abordar conhecimentos de pescadores e marisqueiras sobre o bosque de mangues, bem como seus usos à luz da etnoecologia abrangente de Marques (1995. Foram realizadas entrevistas semi-estruturadas buscando-se registrar os conhecimentos e comportamentos envolvidos na utilização dos mangues. Os resultados foram analisados em uma óptica emicista/eticista, comparando-se os conhecimentos locais com aqueles disponíveis na literatura científica e correlacionando-se os comportamentos observados com suas possíveis implicações ambientais. Os dados obtidos revelaram um corpo de conhecimentos possuído pelos entrevistados sobre a vegetação do manguezal, incluindo classificação, ecologia trófica, fenologia e ecozoneamento e percepção ecossistêmica, por vezes compatíveis com os conhecimentos acadêmicos. Interações da comunidade pesqueira com o componente vegetal revelaram formas de percepção e de utilização de recursos fortemente associadas à cultura local e com implicações etnoconservacionistas.Mangrove ecosystems feature a high biomass and biodiversity concentration. High productivity supports the exploitation by many traditional populations that survive on shellfish catching and artisan fishing, such as those living in the Acupe District, located in Santo Amaro, in the west coast of the Todos os Santos Bay (Bahia State, Northeastern Brazil. The aim of this paper is to describe and analyze the native

  3. The status of the artisanal fishery of Lake Victoria, Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Othina, A.

    1999-01-01

    Annual catches of fish in Lake Victoria, Kenya from 1976-1998 are assessed, catches from 5-15 boats selected randomly from targeted landing sites were recorded. Twenty three of the 256 Kenyan landing sites were covered by the survey. Selection of landing sites was not random but rather influenced by the presence of infrastructure and accomodation. Parameters recorded for each sampled fishing boat were: number of crew, gear type, size, time and duration of fishing. Catches were sorted into spe...

  4. Microbial ecology of artisanal Italian Cheese: environment and working conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In agro-food sector the structural features of working environments and consequently their hygienic conditions are of primary importance for a safe and quality food production and to ensure comfortable and ergonomic working conditions. In particular, as regards high-mountain dairy production, the environment is important because it can affect the development of typical microbial ecosystem. (Author)

  5. Artisanal salt production in Aveiro/Portugal - an ecofriendly process

    OpenAIRE

    Carolina M. Rodrigues; Bio, Ana; Amat, Francisco; Vieira, Natividade

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Solar salinas are man-made systems exploited for the extraction of salt, by solar and wind evaporation of seawater. Salt production achieved by traditional methods is associated with landscapes and environmental and patrimonial values generated throughout history. Since the mid-twentieth century, this activity has been facing a marked decline in Portugal, with most salinas either abandoned or subjected to destruction, making it necessary to find a strategy to reverse this trend. It i...

  6. Yeast communities associated with artisanal mezcal fermentations from Agave salmiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdugo Valdez, A; Segura Garcia, L; Kirchmayr, M; Ramírez Rodríguez, P; González Esquinca, A; Coria, R; Gschaedler Mathis, A

    2011-11-01

    The aims of this work were to characterize the fermentation process of mezcal from San Luis Potosi, México and identify the yeasts present in the fermentation using molecular culture-dependent methods (RFLP of the 5.8S-ITS and sequencing of the D1/D2 domain) and also by using a culture-independent method (DGGE). The alcoholic fermentations of two separate musts obtained from Agave salmiana were analyzed. Sugar, ethanol and major volatile compounds concentrations were higher in the first fermentation, which shows the importance of having a quality standard for raw materials, particularly in the concentration of fructans, in order to produce fermented Agave salmiana must with similar characteristics. One hundred ninety-two (192) different yeast colonies were identified, from those present on WL agar plates, by RFLP analysis of the ITS1-5.8S- ITS2 from the rRNA gene, with restriction endonucleases, HhaI, HaeIII and HinfI. The identified yeasts were: Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Kluyveromyces marxianus, Pichia kluyveri, Zygosaccharomyces bailii, Clavispora lusitaniae, Torulaspora delbrueckii, Candida ethanolica and Saccharomyces exiguus. These identifications were confirmed by sequencing the D1-D2 region of the 26S rRNA gene. With the PCR-DGGE method, bands corresponding to S. cerevisiae, K. marxianus and T. delbrueckii were clearly detected, confirming the results obtained with classic techniques.

  7. Ensinar com amor uma geometria prática, despida de toda a teoria da ciência e castigar com caridade a aprendizagem do artesão no mundo português, no final do século XVIII Teaching a practical geometry with love and punish with charity the learning of a artisan in the portuguese world in the end of the XVIII century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Newton Coelho Meneses

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A formação de mão-de-obra para a reconstrução da cidade de Lisboa no período pós-terremoto de 1755, é gerida pelo poder local e preocupa-se com a capacidade técnica, a eficiência na comercialização de seus produtos e a inserção dos artesãos em uma economia ordenada. O maior desvelo é com um ensino que limite a capacidade de saber do povo. Instruir o trabalhador mecânico era formá-lo na concepção corporativa de ordem pública, bem como dar a ele uma formação prática que se limitasse a capacitá-lo para viver em uma Corte ilustrada. Amor e caridade são pressupostos para quem se dispõe a ensinar e marcam o processo de aprendizagem com práticas formadoras ou com castigos exemplares. Nas Minas Gerais setecentistas as matrizes de organização do trabalho e da aprendizagem dos ofícios teriam seguido padrões lusitanos e tomado a cidade de Lisboa como modelo.The formation of skilled labor for the rebuilding of Lisbon after the 1755 earthquake was managed by local authorities and was concerned with technical capability, the efficiency to commercialize their products and the inclusion of artisans in an ordained economy. The main care was with a teaching system that limited people's ability to learn. To instruct a mechanical worker was to form him in the corporative conception of public order, as well as giving him a practical education that would make him apt to live in an illustrated Court, and nothing more. Love and charity were pre-requisites for those who would teach, and they mark the learning process with formative practice or exemplary punishment. In 18th century Minas Gerais the molds of labor organization and skill trade learning would have followed Lusitanian patterns and taken the city of Lisbon as a model.

  8. Trehalose accumulation, invertase activity and physiological characteristics of yeasts isolated from 24 h fermentative cycles during the production of artisanal Brazilian cachaça Acúmulo de trealose, atividade invertásica e características fisiológicas de leveduras isoladas do ciclo fermentativo de 24 horas durante a produção de cachaça artesanal brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Pataro

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Trehalose accumulation, invertase activity and physiological characteristics of 86 yeast isolates from short fermentative cycles during the production of cachaça in three artisanal distilleries of the State of Minas Gerais were studied. Among these isolates, 70% were able to grow at temperatures between 40 and 42ºC. Only Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolates were able to grow over 40ºC. Lower temperatures (As características fisiológicas, acúmulo de trealose e produção de invertase de 86 leveduras isoladas do ciclo fermentativo durante a produção artesanal de cachaça em três destilarias no Estado de Minas Gerais foram estudadas. Destes isolados 70% foram capazes de crescer acima de 40 e 42ºC. Somente os isolados de Saccharomyces cerevisiae foram capazes de crescer acima de 40ºC. Baixas temperaturas (<40ºC favoreceram o crescimento de leveduras como Candida parapsilosis-like, C. maltosa-like, Kloeckera japonica, S. exiguus and C. bombicola-like. Os isolados das três destilarias foram tolerantes ao etanol, produziram invertase e acumularam trealose na presença de glicose. As linhagens isoladas da destilaria A apresentaram maior resistência ao etanol (cerca de 84.2% das linhagens foram capazes de crescer na presença de 12% de etanol quando comparadas àquelas das destilarias B e C (nenhuma linhagem e 9,5%, respectivamente. As linhagens de S. cerevisiae isoladas das três destilarias apresentaram uma alta capacidade para produzir invertase e acumular trealose na presença de glicose. Com base nos resultados dos experimentos de estresse térmico e de etanol, foi possível observar uma forte relação entre acúmulo de trealose intracelular e viabilidade celular. O aumento da viabilidade celular foi mais pronunciado quando as linhagens foram submetidas a um pré-tratamento em temperaturas sub-letais.

  9. The use of the swept area method for assessing the seabob shrimp Xiphopenaeus kroyeri (Heller, 1862 biomass and removal rates based on artisanal fishery-derived data in southern Brazil: using depletion models to reduce uncertainty El uso del método de area de barrido para la evaluación de la biomasa y tasas de remoción del camarón Xiphopenaeus kroyeri (Heller, 1862 a partir de datos de la pesca artesanal en el sur de Brasil: la utilización de modelos de reducción de stock para disminuir incertidumbres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo R Pezzuto

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The seabob shrimp (Xiphopenaeus kroyeri represents an important fishing resource for artisanal fishermen in coastal areas of southern Brazil. Stock assessments of this species ha ve generally relied on biomass dynamics models as applied to CPUE time-series, which (a are only available for a small offshore fraction of the exploited population and (b does not comprise patterns of the shallowest artisanal fishing grounds. This work explores the use of extensive catch and effort data derived from a small-scale trawl fishery to obtain swept-area estimates of abundance and removal rates in a limited coastal area of southern Brazil (Tijucas Bay, Santa Catarina State, 27°15'S-48°33'W. Data were obtained from 7,198 fishing trips monitored at the fishing communities between June 2004 and August 2005. Because three parameters of the swept-area equation (i.e. trawl velocity, catch efficiency and wing spread were unknown, they were defined through a stochastic procedure and calibrated by estimates produced by a Leslie depletion model applied to concurrent catches obtained in one fishing ground. A 21.7% removal rate was estimated for the period June 2004-January 2005; this increased to nearly 34% between February and July 2005. This removal scenario predicted that a five-month fishery would suffice to remo ve 90% of the biomass available in the Tijucas Bay, nearing the 87% CPUE reduction observed in the same period. Whereas abundance and harvest rate estimates were likely affected by inadequate knowledge of the swept-area equation parameters, the similarity of these estimates with relative abundance indexes supports the convenience of the proposed method and justifies future efforts to improve its accuracy.El camarón (Xiphopenaeus kroyeri representa un importante recurso para pescadores artesanales en areas costeras del sur de Brasil. Evaluaciones de stock de esta especie generalmente resultan de modelos de dinámica de biomasa aplicados a series

  10.  Miners’ magic: artisanal mining, the albino fetish and murder in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bryceson, Deborah; Jønsson, Jesper Bosse; Sherrington, Richard

    2010-01-01

    purchase the albino charms, the waganga healers renowned for their healing, divination and sorcery skills who prescribe and sell the charms, and the albino murder victims. The agrarian background, miners’ ambitions and a clash of values comprise our starting point for understanding the victimisation...

  11. Local ecological knowledge of artisanal fishermen in southern Bahia, Brazil, about trophic interactions of sharks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Luiz Vargas Barbosa Filho

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite the serious threats that affect shark species living along the central coast of Brazil, knowledge about the life history of these animals is still scarce. The present study describes the knowledge and perceptions of fishermen from southern Bahia, Brazil, on the trophic interactions of sharks. The objective of this work was to generate information that contributes to a better understanding of the life history of sharks from this poorly known region. In 2012, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 65 fishermen, with over 15 years of experience, about fisheries and aspects of shark feeding behavior. The study found that the participants have comprehensive ethno-ecological knowledge about shark feeding habits, describing 39 types of items as components of the diets of these animals. They are also able to recognize the favored items in the diet of each ethnospecies of shark. Similar studies about shark feeding habits along the Brazilian coast should be developed. This will generate more detailed knowledge and/or new scientific hypotheses about the interspecific relationships of these predators and their prey.

  12. Emerging Female Leaders within the Closed Societies of American Indian and Appalachian Artisans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantzve, Jerri L.; And Others

    This analysis of intensive interviews conducted with Indian and Applachian artists examines the lives of women and men of increasing economic means. The study explores the changing roles and power structure in decision-making, as affected by increasing economic independence. The style of this research is feminist in nature. Interviews are…

  13. MARKETING PROBLEMS OF MICRO ARTISAN ENTERPRISES IN THENZAWL HANDLOOM CLUSTER, MIZORAM

    OpenAIRE

    Rama Ramswamy

    2013-01-01

    Handlooms an age old tradition of the rich cultural heritage of India is an important sector with respect to its size and employment potential. It is the second largest employment provider after agriculture, providing employment to 12 million families. Clusters and clustering of small firms is increasingly becoming an important tool in Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs) development in both developed and developing economies. Since centuries, India developed a system of specialised ha...

  14. Antimicrobial-producing wild lactococci isolated from artisanal and non-dairy origins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ayad, E.H.E.; Verheul, A.; Wouters, J.T.M.; Smit, G.

    2002-01-01

    Wild lactococcal strains with diverse properties isolated from dairy and non-dairy origins and characterised by their flavour-forming abilities were tested for antagonistic activities to assess their potential for use as new starter cultures. Thirty-two of seventy-nine strains examined inhibited the

  15. Dominant lactic acid bacteria in artisanal Pirot cheeses of different ripening period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terzić-Vidojević Amarela

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study two raw cow's milk cheeses of a different ripening period were examined. The cheeses were taken from a country household in the region of mountain Stara Planina and manufactured without adding of starter culture. A total 106 lactic acid bacteria (LAB strains were isolated from both cheeses. They are tested by classical physiological tests as well as by API 50 CH tests. Proteolytic and antimicrobial activities were done too. Identification of LAB isolates was done by repetitive extragenic palindromic-polimerase chain reaction (rep-PCR with (GTG5 primer. The LAB isolates from cheese BGPT9 (four days old belonged to the eight species of LAB (Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei, Lactobacillus delbrueckii, Lactobacillus brevis, Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus durans and Leuconostoc garlicum, while in the BGPT10 cheese (eight months old only two species were present (Lactobacillus plantarum and Enterococcus faecium. Proteolytic activity showed 30 LAB from BGPT9 cheese, mainly enterococci. From BGPT10 cheese only one isolate (which belonged to the Lactobacillus plantarum species possessed partial ability to hydrolyze β-casein. Seven enterococci from BGPT9 cheese and four enterococci from BGPT10 cheese produced antimicrobial compounds.

  16. Use of an artisan Solar Grain Dryer to dry soybeans and black beans grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanoy Morejón Mesa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El proceso de secado de granos es una actividad principal en las operaciones de poscosecha, con el objetivo de economizar en fuentes de energía y reducir la contaminación del medio ambiente es posible desarrollar secadoras solares de granos. Por esta razón se fabri- có y evaluó un prototipo para el secado solar de granos. Los principales resultados obtenidos para granos de soya y frijol negro fueron los siguientes: el contenido medio de humedad antes del secado de la soya fue 15% y después del proceso fue 10,24%, en el caso del frijol negro el contenido medio de humedad antes del secado fue 16% y después fue 12,15%, siendo la tasa de reducción de humedad 1,58%/ h y 0,54%/ h para ambos granos respectivamente, antes del secado la masa de soya fue de 116 kg y después fue 104 kg, por lo tanto fueron separados 12 kg de agua; en el caso del frijol negro la masa inicial fue de 150 kg y después fue 142 kg, por lo tanto se separaron 8 kg de agua; el consumo de combustible fósil fue nulo, así como la emisión de gases productos de la combustión; este prototipo resiste las cargas a las que se somete y las leyes de transferencia de calor validan que el mismo cumple con las características que deben tener las máquinas secadoras, también se determinó el costo de explotación el cual fue de 2,71 peso/h.

  17. The Artisanal fishery in the Sepik-Ramu catchment area, Papua New Guinea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijden, van der P.G.M.

    2002-01-01

    A survey in 25 villages in the Sepik-Ramu basin revealed that fishing was practised in all villages surveyed. The participation in catching fish decreased from 42% of the population of villages situated below 200 m altitude to 23.4% of villages al altitudes above 1,000 111, 111ain(v as a result of t

  18. Methodology for Supply Chain Integration: A Case Study in the Artisan Industry of Footwear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Raúl Pérez-Gallardo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The supply chain is a major issue in a global market. The efficient relationship between supplier-producer-retailer conforms the perfect combination to achieve a high level of competitiveness according to the needs of increasingly demanding and changing markets. The difficulty of synchronizing the members within the SC is related to the inherent uncertain factors. This paper proposes a methodology for integrating the supply chain that can be applied in any type of business. To demonstrate its relevance, a case study is performed at a handmade shoe company. An improved demand forecasting, an optimal balanced production line, a proper inventory management of raw materials, and an efficient calculation of the delivery time to the customer represent some of the main results.

  19. Where artisanal mines and forest meet: socio-economic and environmental impacts in the Congo Basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V. Ingram; J.C. Tieguhong; J. Schure; E. Nkamgnia; M.H. Tadjuidje

    2011-01-01

    While mineral exploitation can provide significant income and employment, it may negatively impact the environment, being ultimately detrimental to livelihoods in the long term. The consequences of mining are of concern in high value forest ecosystems such as the Sangha Tri-National (TNS) landscape

  20. Where artisanal mines and forest meet: Socio-economic and environmental impacts in the Congo Basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingram, V.J.; Tieguhong, J.C.; Schure, J.M.; Nkamgnia, E.; Tadjuidje, M.H.

    2011-01-01

    While mineral exploitation can provide significant income and employment, it may negatively impact the environment, being ultimately detrimental to livelihoods in the long term. The consequences of mining are of concern in high value forest ecosystems such as the Sangha Tri-National (TNS) landscape

  1. Plants traditionally used for industrial and artisanal purposes in the Arribes del Duero (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González, José Antonio

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present ethnobotanical study, performed between 2005 and 2009 at the Natural Park of the Arribes del Duero (Salamanca-Zamora, Spain, documents the traditional use for technological purposes of 68 vascular plants belonging to 33 families. We interviewed 80 people of different ages native to the zone (mean 72. For each plant species we provide the vernacular terms, the parts used, and the uses made of them (furniture, the elaboration of household utensils, plant fibres, etc.. The species most frequently cited were Quercus ilex L. subsp. ballota (Desf. Samp., Q. pyrenaica Willd., Ulmus minor Mill. and Olea europaea L. The results of this study confirm the persistence of a rich traditional knowledge in Spanish rural communities; a type of knowledge that affords abundant data for improving and adapting modern production activities to a sustainable model of development, above all as regards the rational consumption of raw materials.El presente estudio etnobotánico, llevado a cabo entre 2005 y 2009 en el Parque Natural de Arribes del Duero (Salamanca-Zamora, España, documenta el uso tradicional con fines tecnológicos de 68 plantas vasculares, pertenecientes a 33 familias. Se entrevistaron a 80 personas nativas de la zona y de diferentes edades (media de 72 años. Para cada especie de planta se proporcionan sus nombres vernáculos, las partes utilizadas y los usos a que son destinadas (fabricación de muebles, elaboración de utensilios domésticos, fibras vegetales, etc.. Las especies más frecuentemente citadas fueron Quercus ilex L. subsp. ballota (Desf. Samp., Q. pyrenaica Willd., Ulmus minor Mill. y Olea europaea L. El presente estudio confirma la permanencia de un rico conocimiento tradicional en las comunidades rurales españolas, conocimiento que proporciona abundantes datos para mejorar y adecuar las actividades modernas de producción al modelo de desarrollo sostenible, sobre todo en relación al consumo racional de materias primas.

  2. Methodology for Supply Chain Integration: A Case Study in the Artisan Industry of Footwear

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Raúl Pérez-Gallardo; Beatriz Hernández-Vera; Constantino Gerardo Moras Sánchez; Alberto Alfonso Aguilar Lasserre; Rubén Posada-Gómez; Ulises Juárez-Martínez; Giner Alor-Hernández

    2014-01-01

    The supply chain is a major issue in a global market. The efficient relationship between supplier-producer-retailer conforms the perfect combination to achieve a high level of competitiveness according to the needs of increasingly demanding and changing markets. The difficulty of synchronizing the members within the SC is related to the inherent uncertain factors. This paper proposes a methodology for integrating the supply chain that can be applied in any type of business. To demonstrate its...

  3. Enterococcus populations in artisanal Manchego cheese: biodiversity, technological and safety aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto-Arribas, Pedro; Seseña, Susana; Poveda, Justa M; Chicón, Rosa; Cabezas, Lourdes; Palop, Llanos

    2011-08-01

    Enterococci represent a considerable proportion of the microbiota in Manchego cheeses. In this study, a total of 132 enterococci isolated from good quality Manchego cheeses from two dairies at different ripening times were genotypically characterized and identified using molecular techniques. Representative isolates from the clusters obtained after genotyping were assayed for some enzymatic activities considered to have a potential role in cheese ripening, and for 2,3-butanedione and acetoin production, evaluation of odor intensity and appearance in milk and safety evaluation. Enterococcus faecalis was the predominant specie, accounting for 81.8% of the total isolates, while Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus hirae and Enterococcus avium were present in low proportions. The number of genotypes involved at each ripening time varied both between dairies and with the ripening times; genotype E. faecalis Q1 being present in almost all the samples from both dairies. Eight isolates showed a higher proteolytic activity and 3 isolates produced high quantities of acetoin-diacetyl, for which reason they are interesting from a technological standpoint. A low antibiotic resistance was found and almost all the strains were susceptible to clinically important antibiotics. On the contrary, only four isolates (E. faecalis C4W1 and N0W5, and E. faecium N32W1 and C16W2) did not harbor some of the virulence genes assayed. PMID:21569931

  4. Technical Efficiency and the Role of Skipper Skill in Artisanal Lake Victoria Fisheries

    OpenAIRE

    Lokina, Razack B.

    2008-01-01

    Lake Victoria fisheries are important to Tanzanian food security, employment, and foreign exchange, but they are experiencing declining performance largely due to overfishing. This paper studies technical efficiency and skipper skill using Tanzanian fishery data for the two major species, Nile perch and dagaa. The relative level of efficiency is high in both fisheries, and several observable variables linked to skipper skill significantly explain the efficiency level.

  5. Incentivizing biodiversity conservation in artisanal fishing communities through territorial user rights and business model innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelcich, Stefan; Donlan, C Josh

    2015-08-01

    Territorial user rights for fisheries are being promoted to enhance the sustainability of small-scale fisheries. Using Chile as a case study, we designed a market-based program aimed at improving fishers' livelihoods while incentivizing the establishment and enforcement of no-take areas within areas managed with territorial user right regimes. Building on explicit enabling conditions (i.e., high levels of governance, participation, and empowerment), we used a place-based, human-centered approach to design a program that will have the necessary support and buy-in from local fishers to result in landscape-scale biodiversity benefits. Transactional infrastructure must be complex enough to capture the biodiversity benefits being created, but simple enough so that the program can be scaled up and is attractive to potential financiers. Biodiversity benefits created must be commoditized, and desired behavioral changes must be verified within a transactional context. Demand must be generated for fisher-created biodiversity benefits in order to attract financing and to scale the market model. Important design decisions around these 3 components-supply, transactional infrastructure, and demand-must be made based on local social-ecological conditions. Our market model, which is being piloted in Chile, is a flexible foundation on which to base scalable opportunities to operationalize a scheme that incentivizes local, verifiable biodiversity benefits via conservation behaviors by fishers that could likely result in significant marine conservation gains and novel cross-sector alliances.

  6. Income diversification and fishing practices among artisanal fishers on the Malindi-Kilifi coast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorweg, J.C.; Versleijen, N.; Wangila, B.; Degen, A.

    2006-01-01

    The fishing practices of fishers at ten landing sites in Malindi and Kilifi Districts that were surveyed in 1999 as part of a larger research project are discussed in this article. The focus of the research was on income diversification among fishers, pressure on marine resources and the relationshi

  7. PIXE analysis of hair samples from artisanal mining communities in the Acupan region, Benguet, Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemente, Eligia; Sera, K.; Futatsugawa, S.; Murao, S.

    2004-06-01

    The mountainous regions of Benguet Province in the Philippines is home to some 10,000 small-scale miners who make out a living by extracting gold. In these communities, the method of extraction still involves the use of mercury, via amalgamation. In the separation of gold from mercury the method involves the release of mercury vapor into the atmosphere. This is therefore expected to affect the people living in the nearby areas. This study involves the accumulation of baseline data on the extent of mercury contamination in humans through the analysis of their hair. In 1989, Hursh et al. [Arch. Environ. Health 44 (2) (1989) 120] studied human volunteers and found that uptake of mercury vapor through the skin is only about 1% of the uptake through inhalation [World Health Organization, IPCS, EHC118, Inorganic Mercury, Geneva, 1991, p. 42]. In this light, any residual mercury which might have deposited in human hair is speculated to give an indication of how much mercury vapor the subject could have actually inhaled. A high concentration of mercury in the sample can therefore be indicative of the high rate of intake of the mercury vapor through inhalation. A sampling of the community consisted of both male (83%) and female (17%) subjects who ranged in age from 8 to 66 years old. Hair analysis was done using particle induced X-ray emission at the Iwate Medical University through Dr. Sera. With Zn set as a standard element, the rest of the elements were determined using the standard-free method. In order to obtain the conversion coefficient for hair samples, many hair samples were analyzed by this method and the internal standard method which involves the preparation of the hair samples by chemical ashing. The results obtained were comparable. The PIXE results for these samples showed the analysis of 26 elements but for our purposes, however, only the mercury analysis will be considered. Results of the analysis showed the hair samples to contain 0-27 ppm, with only seven of the 70 respondents showing no traces of mercury, while nine had levels beyond the 5 ppm limit set by the Human Biomonitor II [Bundesgesundheitsblatt 39 (1996) 221]. Further studies using PIXE analysis of hair is recommended on the same communities with a wider area base to show that PIXE analysis on hair samples as an alternative procedure which is faster without sacrificing reliability.

  8. PIXE analysis of hair samples from artisanal mining communities in the Acupan region, Benguet, Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mountainous regions of Benguet Province in the Philippines is home to some 10,000 small-scale miners who make out a living by extracting gold. In these communities, the method of extraction still involves the use of mercury, via amalgamation. In the separation of gold from mercury the method involves the release of mercury vapor into the atmosphere. This is therefore expected to affect the people living in the nearby areas. This study involves the accumulation of baseline data on the extent of mercury contamination in humans through the analysis of their hair. In 1989, Hursh et al. [Arch. Environ. Health 44 (2) (1989) 120] studied human volunteers and found that uptake of mercury vapor through the skin is only about 1% of the uptake through inhalation [World Health Organization, IPCS, EHC118, Inorganic Mercury, Geneva, 1991, p. 42]. In this light, any residual mercury which might have deposited in human hair is speculated to give an indication of how much mercury vapor the subject could have actually inhaled. A high concentration of mercury in the sample can therefore be indicative of the high rate of intake of the mercury vapor through inhalation. A sampling of the community consisted of both male (83%) and female (17%) subjects who ranged in age from 8 to 66 years old. Hair analysis was done using particle induced X-ray emission at the Iwate Medical University through Dr. Sera. With Zn set as a standard element, the rest of the elements were determined using the standard-free method. In order to obtain the conversion coefficient for hair samples, many hair samples were analyzed by this method and the internal standard method which involves the preparation of the hair samples by chemical ashing. The results obtained were comparable. The PIXE results for these samples showed the analysis of 26 elements but for our purposes, however, only the mercury analysis will be considered. Results of the analysis showed the hair samples to contain 0-27 ppm, with only seven of the 70 respondents showing no traces of mercury, while nine had levels beyond the 5 ppm limit set by the Human Biomonitor II [Bundesgesundheitsblatt 39 (1996) 221]. Further studies using PIXE analysis of hair is recommended on the same communities with a wider area base to show that PIXE analysis on hair samples as an alternative procedure which is faster without sacrificing reliability

  9. Artisan with Words: Transnational Funds of Knowledge in a Bilingual Latina's Narratives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuero, Kimberley K.

    2010-01-01

    Jeniffer, a self-proclaimed "schoolgirl" who was a bilingual Mexican American fifth-grade student, lacked confidence in her abilities in reading and language arts. However, her dialogue journal correspondence with her teacher in her native language of Spanish describing her transnational experiences demonstrated vivid, descriptive writing with…

  10. Microbial characteristics of Conciato Romano: an artisanal cheese made from raw sheep’s milk

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    Amalia Mormile

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the microbial characteristics of a batch of Conciato Romano during manufacturing and ripening. Conciato Romano is a traditional cheese made from raw sheep’s milk without starter cultures in the province of Caserta (Southern Italy using traditional methods. A total of 7 samples (raw milk, curd and cheese wheels taken after 25, 60, 120 and 180 days of ripening were screened for hygiene indicators microorganisms counts (total viable count, Enterobacteriaceae, total coliforms, E. coli, clostridia sulphite reducing, yeasts, coagulasepositive staphylococci, enterococci, for autochthonous lactic acid flora counts (mesophilic and thermophilic lactococci and lattobacilli, and also for Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes presence. In raw milk, low values were detected for total aerobic flora (3.2 log cfu/mL, Enterobacteriaceae and total coliforms (2 cfu/mL, and the autochthonous starter lactic flora was predominant (3.2 log cfu/mL. During ripening, total aerobic flora was constant (107-108 cfu/g; total coliforms, E. coli, Enterobacteriaceae and yeasts were not detected starting from the 60th day of ripening. Enterococci ranged from 4.2 to 6.2 log cfu/g. The mesophilic lactic flora was dominant with values always >6 log cfu/g during the whole ripening period. Pathogens were never detected. The results of this study highlighted how the raw milk indigenous lactic flora, the traditional production techniques and the cheesemaker’s experience are essential to guarantee the unique nature of Conciato Romano.

  11. Resilience, Social-Ecological Rules, and Environmental Variability in a Two-Species Artisanal Fishery

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    Marshall Duer-Balkind

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Social-ecological resilience is an increasingly central paradigm for understanding sustainable resource management. In this study, we aimed to better understand the effect of environmental variability on the resilience of fishery systems, and the important role that social institutions and biophysical constraints play. To explore these issues, we built a dynamic model of the pen shell fishery of the indigenous Seri people in the Gulf of California, Mexico. This model included the dynamics of the two dominant species in the fishery (Atrina tuberculosa and Pinna rugosa, several institutional rules that the Seri use, and a number of ecological constraints, including key stochastic variables derived from empirical data. We found that modeling with multiple species, rather than the standard one-species model, uncovered more of the resilience that is present in the system. We also found that it is the combination of several social-ecological rules working in conjunction with the endogenous environmental variability that helps ensure the resilience of the system.

  12. Short communication: Viable Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in retail artisanal Coalho cheese from Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, A C S; Schwarz, D G G; Carvalho, I A; Rocha, B B; De Carvalho Castro, K N; Silva, M R; Moreira, M A S

    2014-07-01

    Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the etiologic agent of paratuberculosis and it potentially plays a role in Crohn's disease. In humans, the main route of transmission of MAP might be the intake of contaminated milk and dairy products. Considering that MAP has already been detected in many types of cheese in different counties, and that Coalho cheese is an important dairy product in northeastern Brazil, the aim of this study was to report the first detection of MAP in retail Coalho cheese in Brazil by PCR and culture. Of 30 retail Coalho cheese samples, 3 (10%) amplified fragments of a similar size to that expected (626 bp) were obtained and viable MAP was recovered by culture from 1 (3.3%) sample. The DNA from the positive culture sample was sequenced and showed 99% identity with the insertion sequence IS900 deposited in GenBank. It was possible to identify the presence of MAP-specific DNA in the analyzed samples for the first time in Brazil, and to recover viable cells from retail Coalho cheese.

  13. Incentivizing biodiversity conservation in artisanal fishing communities through territorial user rights and business model innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelcich, Stefan; Donlan, C Josh

    2015-08-01

    Territorial user rights for fisheries are being promoted to enhance the sustainability of small-scale fisheries. Using Chile as a case study, we designed a market-based program aimed at improving fishers' livelihoods while incentivizing the establishment and enforcement of no-take areas within areas managed with territorial user right regimes. Building on explicit enabling conditions (i.e., high levels of governance, participation, and empowerment), we used a place-based, human-centered approach to design a program that will have the necessary support and buy-in from local fishers to result in landscape-scale biodiversity benefits. Transactional infrastructure must be complex enough to capture the biodiversity benefits being created, but simple enough so that the program can be scaled up and is attractive to potential financiers. Biodiversity benefits created must be commoditized, and desired behavioral changes must be verified within a transactional context. Demand must be generated for fisher-created biodiversity benefits in order to attract financing and to scale the market model. Important design decisions around these 3 components-supply, transactional infrastructure, and demand-must be made based on local social-ecological conditions. Our market model, which is being piloted in Chile, is a flexible foundation on which to base scalable opportunities to operationalize a scheme that incentivizes local, verifiable biodiversity benefits via conservation behaviors by fishers that could likely result in significant marine conservation gains and novel cross-sector alliances. PMID:25737027

  14. From trap to nursery. Mitigating the impact of an artisanal fishery on cuttlefish offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Melli

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Overexploitation and the impact of several types of human activities have caused declines of marine resources. The direct and active involvement of fishermen in the management of marine resources is effective not only for resource conservation, but also for changing fishermen's attitudes. In this study, we proposed and tested the efficacy and suitability of a measure for mitigating the impact of a trap fishery on cuttlefish eggs in the North Adriatic Sea. This measure directly involves fishermen in promoting the conservation of the early, and more vulnerable, stages of the cuttlefish life cycle. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Through surveys on fishing boats and interviews with fishermen, we found that traps placed in coastal areas during the cuttlefish breeding season have a high impact on cuttlefish eggs, with over 3 million eggs likely being destroyed by 3750 traps of 15 fishermen in less than 3 miles of coast. The use of removable ropes attached inside traps as an additional substrate for egg deposition allowed the recovery of 23.7% of the eggs deposited on the traps on average, without affecting the catch rate of adults. Experiments examining hatching success in the field highlighted the need for a careful choice of hatching sites to maximise the efficacy of the mitigation measure. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The proposed mitigation measure reduced the impact of fishing on cuttlefish eggs, with no significant effect on the commercial catch. Fishermen showed a positive attitude towards the application of this measure, which is inexpensive and easy to employ. The direct involvement of fishermen in the management of this resource and the maintenance of traditional fishing methods are a novel aspect of the proposed measure and represent the basis for its success.

  15. From Trap to Nursery. Mitigating the Impact of an Artisanal Fishery on Cuttlefish Offspring

    OpenAIRE

    Valentina Melli; Emilio Riginella; Marco Nalon; Carlotta Mazzoldi

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Overexploitation and the impact of several types of human activities have caused declines of marine resources. The direct and active involvement of fishermen in the management of marine resources is effective not only for resource conservation, but also for changing fishermen's attitudes. In this study, we proposed and tested the efficacy and suitability of a measure for mitigating the impact of a trap fishery on cuttlefish eggs in the North Adriatic Sea. This measure directly inv...

  16. Understanding Artisanal Fishers’ Behaviors: The Case of Ciénaga Grande de Santa Marta, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Elba Torres-Guevara

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the ecological impact caused by fishing grounds and the fishing gear/methods used by fishers in Ciénaga Grande de Santa Marta (CGSM, an estuarine lagoon located on the Caribbean coast of Colombia. To do so, we build individual and composite ecological sustainable indicators based on the opinions of a group of experienced fishers and a group of scientists. Additionally, we use those indicators to examine the influence of socioeconomic and perceptional factors on fishers’ fishing behaviors and how those behaviors may be affecting CGSM fishery resources. Our results suggest that fishers and scientists differ in their opinions about the impact of fishing on CGSM. Additionally, we found that having a higher level of education, sharing household expenses with other family members and spending more hours fishing lead to ecologically-sustainable fishing behavior, while the perception that the government is responsible for CGSM conservation leads to ecologically unsustainable fishing behavior.

  17. Problem and Project Based Learning in Hybrid Spaces: Nomads and Artisans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Thomas; Davidsen, Jacob; Hodgson, Vivien

    2016-01-01

    they create for themselves. We describe how in one of the programmes ‘nomadic’ groups of students used different technologies and spaces for ‘placemaking’. We then show how their experience and approach to collaborative work differs to that of the more static or ‘artisan’ groups of students in the other...

  18. Value of Artisanal Simulators to Train Veterinary Students in Performing Invasive Ultrasound-Guided Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hage, Maria Cristina F. N. S.; Massaferro, Ana Beatriz; Lopes, Érika Rondon; Beraldo, Carolina Mariano; Daniel, Jéssika

    2016-01-01

    Pericardial effusion can lead to cardiac tamponade, which endangers an animal's life. Ultrasound-guided pericardiocentesis is used to remove abnormal liquid; however, it requires technical expertise. In veterinary medical education, the opportunity to teach this procedure to save lives during emergencies is rare; therefore, simulators are…

  19. Characterization of yeasts isolated from artisanal short-ripened cows' cheeses produced in Galicia (NW Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanassova, M R; Fernández-Otero, C; Rodríguez-Alonso, P; Fernández-No, I C; Garabal, J I; Centeno, J A

    2016-02-01

    A total of 143 presumptive yeast isolates were obtained from the predominant microflora of 21 short-ripened starter-free raw cow's milk cheeses made in Galicia (NW Spain), and the following 68 isolates were identified by both genotyping and sequencing methods: Yarrowia lipolytica (21 isolates), Kluyveromyces lactis (18), Debaryomyces hansenii (11), Pichia guilliermondii (11), Pichia fermentans (4) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (3). Of these, Y. lipolytica and K. lactis displayed the strongest extracellular proteolytic activity on skim milk agar, and none of the D. hansenii isolates showed any activity on this medium. Y. lipolytica also displayed the highest lipolytic activity on Tween 80 and on tributyrin. This species, which was characterized by production of butanoic acid, free fatty acid esters and sulfur compounds in pasteurized whole milk, was responsible for rancid and cheesy flavors. K. lactis mainly produced acetaldehyde, ethanol, branched chain aldehydes and alcohols, and acetic acid esters, which were responsible for alcoholic, fruity and acetic notes. The volatile profiles of D. hansenii were rather limited and characterized by high levels of methyl ketones. Most of the yeast isolates were described as tryptamine producers, although low concentrations of histamine were produced by five Y. lipolytica and two P. fermentans isolates. We conclude that selected Y. lipolytica strains could be used as adjunct cultures in the manufacture of Arzúa-Ulloa and Tetilla cheeses, and selected K. lactis strains could be used as co-starters in the manufacture of acid curd Cebreiro cheese, thus contributing to the sensory quality and typicality of the cheeses. PMID:26678145

  20. Artisanal fishing net float loss and a proposal for a float design solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo de Tarso Chaves

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Plastic floats from fishing nets are commonly found washed up on beaches in southern Brazil. They are usually broken and show signs of having been repaired. Characteristics of floats and interviews with fishermen suggest two main causes of float loss. First, collisions between active gear, bottom trawl nets for shrimp, and passive gear, drift nets for fish, destroy nets and release fragments of them, including floats. Second, the difficulty with which floats are inserted on the float rope of the nets when they are used near the surface. Floats are inserted to replace damaged or lost floats, or they may be removed if it is desired that the nets be used in deeper waters. Floats may thus be poorly fixed to the cables and lost. Here a new float design that offers greater safety in use and for the replacement of floats is described and tested.

  1. [Characterization and nutritional value of a food artisan: the meat pie of Murcia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Cano, Domingo; Pérez-Llamas, Francisca; López-Jiménez, José Ángel; González-Silvera, Daniel; Frutos, Maria José; Zamora, Salvador

    2013-01-01

    Objetivos: Describir las características de un producto típico de la gastronomía murciana, determinar su valor nutritivo y energético, analizar su perfil de ácidos grasos y la calidad de su grasa. Material y métodos: Se estudiaron 24 muestras de Pastel de carne de Murcia, procedentes de los seis establecimientos de mayor venta en la Región. (Cuatro unidades por establecimiento). Mediante los métodos oficiales de análisis de alimentos se determinaron los contenidos de humedad, proteína, grasa, carbohidratos, fibra y minerales, el valor energético, el perfil de ácidos grasos (Método de Folch et al. 1957) y la calidad de la grasa. Todos los análisis se realizaron por triplicado. Resultados y discusión: El peso medio fue de 192,3 ± 11,8 g, y en él se diferenciaron tres partes (base, relleno y tapa de hojaldre). Todos sus ingredientes fueron materias primas naturales: harina de trigo, manteca de cerdo, carne picada de ternera, rodajas de huevo cocido y de chorizo, agua y especias (sal, pimienta, ajo, pimentón y nuez moscada). La mayoría de sus atributos organolépticos son debidos al tipo y cantidad de la grasa, manteca de cerdo. El resto de atributos los aporta la combinación de los otros ingredientes y particularmente la formulación de las especias. Por su contenido en proteínas (11,0%), este producto puede sustituir a otros platos a base de carne, e incorporarlo a una dieta equilibrada, pero teniendo en cuenta su contenido en grasa (17,3%) y su aporte energético (317 kcal/100 g). A diferencia de otros muchos productos actuales de pastelería, éste no contiene ácidos grasos trans. Conclusiones: El estudio revela que el producto analizado sigue siendo, en el momento actual, un alimento artesanal, y ofrece información fiable y representativa del valor nutritivo y energético del pastel de carne de Murcia, un producto típico de la gastronomía de la Región de Murcia.

  2. To fish or not to fish: factors at multiple scales affecting artisanal fishers' readiness to exit a declining fishery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim M Daw

    Full Text Available Globally, fisheries are challenged by the combined impacts of overfishing, degradation of ecosystems and impacts of climate change, while fisheries livelihoods are further pressured by conservation policy imperatives. Fishers' adaptive responses to these pressures, such as exiting from a fishery to pursue alternative livelihoods, determine their own vulnerability, as well as the potential for reducing fishing effort and sustaining fisheries. The willingness and ability to make particular adaptations in response to change, such as exiting from a declining fishery, is influenced by economic, cultural and institutional factors operating at scales from individual fishers to national economies. Previous studies of exit from fisheries at single or few sites, offer limited insight into the relative importance of individual and larger-scale social and economic factors. We asked 599 fishers how they would respond to hypothetical scenarios of catch declines in 28 sites in five western Indian Ocean countries. We investigated how socioeconomic variables at the individual-, household- and site-scale affected whether they would exit fisheries. Site-level factors had the greatest influence on readiness to exit, but these relationships were contrary to common predictions. Specifically, higher levels of infrastructure development and economic vitality - expected to promote exit from fisheries - were associated with less readiness to exit. This may be due to site level histories of exit from fisheries, greater specialisation of fishing households, or higher rewards from fishing in more economically developed sites due to technology, market access, catch value and government subsidies. At the individual and household scale, fishers from households with more livelihood activities, and fishers with lower catch value were more willing to exit. These results demonstrate empirically how adaptive responses to change are influenced by factors at multiple scales, and highlight the importance of understanding natural resource-based livelihoods in the context of the wider economy and society.

  3. Ownership of fishing areas and use of fishing resources by artisanal fishermen in a pond in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackes Mancke dos Santos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Mangueira Lagoon located in southern Brazil, has its northern portion included in the Taim Ecological Station, a federal conservation unit. The fishing practice is among the activities at this region. It has its own characteristics due to environmental conditions and specific physiography of the area. A field protocol based on geographic information was used to characterize the occupation process and the use of fishing resources. Socio-economic information was collected through interviews of the fishermen and also based on fishing data. After compiling the data a statistical descriptive analyses was completed. The average catch per fisherman in the region is 4,766.5 kg per year. The Loricariichthys anus showed the highest catch volume, ensuring the economic viability of the local activity. The constant increase of the activity may be compromising the reproductive cycle of the local ichthyological fauna, thus compromising the fishery sustainability.

  4. Analysis of dominant lactic acid bacteria from artisanal raw milk cheeses produced on the mountain Stara Planina, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Begovic Jelena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Serbian cheese production has a long history and generates products with rich flavor profiles. To enable the industrial manufacture of these home-made Serbian cheeses, the lactic acid bacteria present in them needs to be characterized. Five fresh white cheeses made from raw cow’s milk without commercial starter cultures were collected from households on the mountain Stara Planina, Serbia. According to phenotypical and molecular analysis, 262 isolated Lwere found to belong to Lactococcus, Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, Leuconostoc or Enterococcus. The unique bacterial composition of each cheese indicates that the preservation of household industry is the way to maintain production of distinct cheeses.

  5. From Reef to Table: Social and Ecological Factors Affecting Coral Reef Fisheries, Artisanal Seafood Supply Chains, and Seafood Security.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John N Kittinger

    Full Text Available Ocean and coastal ecosystems provide critical fisheries, coastal protection, and cultural benefits to communities worldwide, but these services are diminishing due to local and global threats. In response, place-based strategies involve communities and resource users in management have proliferated. Here, we present a transferable community-based approach to assess the social and ecological factors affecting resource sustainability and food security in a small-scale, coral reef fishery. Our results show that this small-scale fishery provides large-scale benefits to communities, including 7,353 ± 1547 kg yr(-1 (mean ± SE of seafood per year, equating to >30,000 meals with an economic value of $78,432. The vast majority of the catch is used for subsistence, contributing to community food security: 58% is kept, 33.5% is given away, and 8.5% is sold. Our spatial analysis assesses the geographic distribution of community beneficiaries from the fishery (the "food shed" for the fishery, and we document that 20% of seafood procured from the fishery is used for sociocultural events that are important for social cohesion. This approach provides a method for assessing social, economic, and cultural values provided by small-scale food systems, as well as important contributions to food security, with significant implications for conservation and management. This interdisciplinary effort aims to demonstrate a transferable participatory research approach useful for resource-dependent communities as they cope with socioeconomic, cultural, and environmental change.

  6. Capture-based mud crab (Scylla serrata) aquaculture and artisanal fishery in East Africa: practical and ecological perspectives.

    OpenAIRE

    Mirera, David Oersted

    2013-01-01

    Mud crab Scylla serrata is a crustacean that spends most of its life cycle in the mangrove environment throughout its range. Fishery and aquaculture of this crab are significant economic activities in coastal areas in the tropics and sub-tropics because of the meat quality and nutritional value. However there is a significant shortage of information on the ecology, fishery and aquaculture of these crabs in sub-Saharan Africa. This impacts the development of a sustainable aquaculture and fishe...

  7. Traditional Knowledge, Agave Inaequidens (Koch) Conservation, and the Charro Lariat Artisans of San Miguel Cuyutlán, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Ana G. Valenzuela-Zapata; Irma Lopez-Muraira; Marie Sarita Gaytán

    2011-01-01

    The Mexican sport of charrería, or Mexican rodeo, developed in post-conquest Mexico as a way of preserving and celebrating traditional cowboy riding and livestock handling skills. Today, charrería is considered the national sport of Mexico and the charro (cowboy) is also a celebrated icon of Mexicanness. Special handcrafted ropes used in charrería, known as sogas finas, or charro lariats, are made from the fibers of the Agave inaequidens. The manufacture of charro ropes is an artisinal practi...

  8. Phasing-out the use of mercury in artisanal gold mining in Colombia:A framed field experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Adrián Saldarriaga

    2014-01-01

    The application of conventional practices such as mercury amalgamation makes small-scale gold mining an economic activity with a high negative impact on health and the environment. Associative entrepreneurship has been proposed as a scheme that would bring cleaner technologies to miners, in order to phase out the use of mercury in the gold recovery process and to reduce the harmful effects of using this element. In this paper we investigate the extent to which miners can establish and sustain...

  9. Monitoring fisheries in data-limited situations : a case study of the artisanal reef fisheries of Eritrea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsehaye, I.W.

    2007-01-01

    Elucidating trends in catch rate and composition is important to evaluate the impact of fishing on fish stocks, and thereby guide fisheries management action. Since major changes in fish community structure can take place even at the initial stages in the development of fisheries, the onset of reef

  10. Ethnoecology of small cetaceans: interactions between an artisanal fishery and dolphins in northern Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Madeira Di Beneditto

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies in northern Rio de Janeiro indicate there are interactions between fisheries and cetaceans, but there are no studies that focus on the knowledge fishermen have about these animals. This study describes the interactions between cetaceans and a fishery through the perception of fishermen from Atafona (RJ. Between February and March 2010, 20 fishermen were selected using the “snowball” technique. An ethnographic questionnaire was given to each fisherman. Each participant described more than one species of dolphin, which explains why the sample size of the responses (N=34 is greater than the number of respondents (N=20. Based on the reports, three species and one genus were identified: Sotalia guianensis (N=15; 75%, Pontoporia blainvillei (N=9; 45%, Steno bredanensis (N=6; 30% and Stenella (N=4; 20%. The answer “collision with artifacts” was the only one given for the question about the occurrence of accidents between the fishery and dolphins (N=24; 71%; gillnets are responsible for the entanglement of the animals. The carcasses of dolphins killed by accidental capture are discarded into the sea and/or the muscle and blubber is used as bait to fish for elasmobranchs. The dolphin species identified by the fishermen corresponded to the four main species reported in the literature for the area. All interviewees said that bycatch is caused by dolphins and affects fishing.

  11. The Artisan Lens: Effects on Vision Quality, the Corneal Endothelium and Vision-Related Quality of Life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Saxena (Ruchi)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractRefractive errors are the most frequent disorders of the eye. In the ideal refractive state, emmetropia, an image is focused directly on the retina, resulting in the perception of a sharp image in a healthy visual system. Such eyes do not require glasses or contact lenses to see sharply.

  12. Effect of high hydrostatic pressure processing on biogenic amines formation in artisan caprine and ovine raw milk cheeses

    OpenAIRE

    Espinosa Pesqueira, Diana Maricela

    2012-01-01

    Descripció del recurs: 01 setembre 2012 El objetivo comprendido en esta tesis doctoral fue evaluar el efecto de la aplicación de la Alta Presión Hidrostática (APH) en la formación de Aminas Biogenas (AB) en quesos elaborados a partir de leche cruda. Para este propósito fue necesaria la participación de dos queserías artesanas como proveedoras de las dos variedades de queso elaboradas a partir de leche cruda utilizadas en este estudio, una de leche de oveja y otra de de leche de cabra. La v...

  13. Emerging commons within artisanal fisheries. The Chilean territorial use rights in fisheries (TURFs within a broader coastal landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria L. Gallardo Fernández

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Territorial User Rights in Fisheries (TURFs have spread in Chile, since the late 1990s, in the form of commons institutions. TURFs are presented by some scholars as a social-ecological success; by others as showing economic and compliance problems. Studies looking at the material conditions in which fishers produce and reproduce their livelihoods, and in which TURFs emerge, are scarcer. Ostrom’s theory on the commons claims that certain collective action conditions have to be met to become thriving commons institutions. Our hypothesis is that while institutions are moulded by local material conditions, such as geographical location and social embeddedness, these impose challenges and constraints upon fishers influencing TURFs’ long-term viability. How are collective action conditions influenced when the new TURFs commons do not emerge in tabula rasa contexts but in occupied spaces? Do material conditions influence TURFs’ sustainability? This paper set out to explore these conditions. Huentelauquén’s and Guayacán’s TURFs (central-northern Chile were chosen, as they represent two extremes (rural-urban; on private property-on State/municipal property; mainly diver – mainly fisher contexts in which TURFs have emerged. We mainly used Participatory Rural Approach (PRA tools triangulated with other qualitative methods. This study shows that both social embeddedness (private/State lands, and geographical location (rural/urban matter, resulting in different access to the coast for different TURFs, thus determining some important differences between our cases in at least three relevant areas: entrance, social relations between the fishers’ organization (entitled the TURFs and the landowner (private or municipal/State and the existence or absence of fishing and general infrastructure. Competition for space among key actors seems to affect the process of acquiring a TURF as well as the conditions conductive to collective action. TURFs’ assessments should therefore consider both, the local particularities of specific fishing communities and the larger structural context in which they emerge, that if not paid attention to, can weakens TURFs’ viability for sustainable fisheries.

  14. Characterization of lactic acid bacteria isolated from Bosnian artisanal dry fermented sausage (sudžuk during fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čolo Josip

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bosnian sudžuk is a dry fermented sausage produced in a rural household near the town of Visoko in central Bosnia and Herzegovina. This kind of sausage was manufactured only from beef and spices in a traditional way without the addition of a starter cultures. To identify lactic acid bacteria (LAB, a total number of 160 Lstrains were isolated from five samples of Bosnian sudžuk collected over 28 days of fermentation. Preliminary identification by phenotypic tests and 16S rDNA sequencing were performed for all 160 of the Lisolates. Identification of Lstrains from traditionally produced Bosnian sausage at the species level revealed the presence of six genera: Lactococcus sp., Enterococcus sp., Leuconostoc sp., Lactobacillus sp., Pediococcus sp. and Weissella sp.. Among the 15 distinct species identified, the species Lactobacillus plantarum, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactococcus lactis, Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus durans were present throughout the entire process of fermentation. Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactococcus lactis prevailed, with 21.8%, 19.3% and 13.1%, respectively, of total Lstrains during the entire fermentation process. Significant negative correlations (r = 0.892 and r = 0.829, respectively between the presence of Weissella sp. and Lactobacillus sp., and between the presence of Weissella sp. and Lactococcus sp. were recorded. Lactobacillus plantarum, Enterococcus durans and Leuconostoc mesenteroides were the best producers of aromogenic compounds while 32.3% of Lactobacillus plantarum and 28.6% of Leuconostoc mesenteroides were produced exopolysaccharides. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173019

  15. Contribution of coagulant and native microflora to the volatile-free fatty acid profile of an artisanal cheese

    OpenAIRE

    Tavaria, Freni K.; Tavares, Tânia G.; Ferreira, A. C. Silva; Malcata, F. Xavier

    2006-01-01

    The contributions of the coagulant Cynara cardunculus and of the microflora of raw milk to the volatile-free fatty acid profile of Serra da Estrela cheese were evaluated. The experimental design included both a model system and, dual cheeses. The study in the model system showed that isovaleric acid was the predominant volatile compound after 7 d of ripening. The systems inoculated with Enterococcus faecium produced the highest amount of this volatile (ca. 135.8mg kg 1 curd), while t...

  16. Identification of Response Options to Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining (ASGM in Ghana via the Delphi Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avik Basu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Delphi technique is a means of facilitating discussion among experts in order to develop consensus, and can be used for policy formulation. This article describes a modified Delphi approach in which 27 multi-disciplinary academics and 22 stakeholders from Ghana and North America were polled about ways to address negative effects of small-scale gold mining (ASGM in Ghana. In early 2014, the academics, working in disciplinary groups, synthesized 17 response options based on data aggregated during an Integrated Assessment of ASGM in Ghana. The researchers participated in two rounds of Delphi polling in March and April 2014, during which 17 options were condensed into 12. Response options were rated via a 4-point Likert scale in terms of benefit (economic, environmental, and benefit to people and feasibility (economic, social/cultural, political, and implementation. The six highest-scoring options populated a third Delphi poll, which 22 stakeholders from diverse sectors completed in April 2015. The academics and stakeholders also prioritized the response options using ranking exercises. The technique successfully gauged expert opinion on ASGM, and helped identify potential responses, policies and solutions for the sector. This is timely given that improvement to the ASGM sector is an important component within the UN Minamata Convention.

  17. Antimicrobial activity and partial characterization of bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances produced by Lactobacillus spp. isolated from artisanal Mexican cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heredia-Castro, Priscilia Y; Méndez-Romero, José I; Hernández-Mendoza, Adrián; Acedo-Félix, Evelia; González-Córdova, Aarón F; Vallejo-Cordoba, Belinda

    2015-12-01

    Lactobacillus spp. from Mexican Cocido cheese were shown to produce bacteriocin-like substances (BLS) active against Staphylococcus aureus,Listeria innocua,Escherichia coli, andSalmonella typhimurium by using the disk diffusion method. Crude extracts of Lactobacillus fermentum showed strong inhibitory activity against Staph. aureus, L. innocua, E. coli, and Salmonella cholerae. Complete inactivation of antimicrobial activity was observed after treatment of crude extracts with proteinase K, pronase, papain, trypsin, and lysozyme, confirming their proteinaceous nature. However, antimicrobial activity was partly lost for some of the crude extracts when treated with α-amylase, indicating that carbohydrate moieties were involved. The antimicrobial activity of the crude extracts was stable at 65°C for 30min over a wide pH range (2-8), and addition of potassium chloride, sodium citrate, ethanol, and butanol did not affect antibacterial activity. However, antimicrobial activity was lost after heating at 121°C for 15min, addition of methanol or Tween 80. Fourteen out of 18 Lactobacillus spp. showed antimicrobial activity against different test microorganisms, and 12 presented bacteriocin-like substances. Generation time and growth rate parameters indicated that the antimicrobial activity of crude extracts from 3 different strains was effective against the 4 indicator microorganisms. One of the crude extracts showed inhibition not only against gram-positive but also against gram-negative bacteria. Bacteriocin-like substances produced by this specific Lactobacillus strain showed potential for application as a food biopreservative.

  18. Interaction of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Lactococcus lactis in the fermentation and quality of artisanal cachaça

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Paula Carvalho

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Lactococcus lactis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae in co-culture were evaluated during sugar cane fermentantion for cachaça production. The inocula containing L. lactis UFLA CA 312 and S. cerevisiae UFLA CA 11 were used in the population of approximately 105 CFU mL-1 and 108 CFU mL-1,  respectively. The sugar cane medium plus 1% of yeast extract (SCM was efficient for growth of L. lactis UFLA CA 312 and S. cerevisiae UFLA CA 11 (letter b -Tukey test. In flasks and vats fermentation the growth of UFLA CA 11 was not negatively influenced by L. lactis UFLA CA 312. However, after 19 h of fermentation, bacterial population showed a slight decrease. Considering parameters higher alcohols and aldehydes, cachaça produced by pure culture of S. cerevisiae was similar to cachaça produced by mixed culture. Cachaça produced by mixed culture showed high values of volatile acidity (letter b -Scott-Knott test being characterized by this parameters in the principal component analysis. High percentage of acceptance (81.10% for the attribute aroma was observed in samples from cachaça produced by mixed culture.

  19. Poverty and Livelihood Diversification in Rural Liberia: Exploring the Linkages Between Artisanal Diamond Mining and Smallholder Rice Production

    OpenAIRE

    Hilson, Gavin; Van Bockstael, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Abstract This paper provides an account of the changing livelihood dynamics unfolding in diamond-rich territories of rural Liberia. In these areas, many farm families are using the rice harvested on their plots to attract and feed labourers recruited specifically to mine for diamonds. The monies accrued from the sales of all recovered stones are divided evenly between the family and hired hands, an arrangement which, for thousands of people, has proved to be an effective short-te...

  20. The paraty artisanal fishery (southeastern Brazilian coast: ethnoecology and management of a social-ecological system (SES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Begossi Alpina

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study intends to give recommendations to the management of Paraty fishery in Brazil through an interplay of local and scientific knowledge. In particular, the objectives are the following: 1 to describe the Paraty fishery; 2 to compare the fishermen’s local ecological knowledge with recorded fish landings and previous studies in Paraty; 3 to combine the data on local fishing and on local/Caiçara livelihoods with the SES (social-ecological systems Model. The methods include a systematic survey of fishing in Tarituba and Praia Grande, which are located in the northern end and the central part of the Paraty municipality, respectively. For four days each month, systematic data on catches at landing points were collected, as well as macroscopic gonad analysis data for the fishes Centropomus parallelus and C. undecimalis (snook, robalo, Epinephelus marginatus (grouper, garoupa, Scomberomorus cavalla (King mackerel, cavala, and Lutjanus synagris (Lane snapper, vermelho. Spring and summer are important seasons during which some species reproduce, and the integration of fishing periods for some target species could assist in fishing management through the use of closed seasons. Fishermen could obtain complementary earnings from tourism and from the “defeso system” (closed season including a salary payment to conserve fishing stocks. The SES model facilitates an understanding of the historical context of fishing, its economic importance for local livelihoods, the constraints from conservation measures that affect fishermen, and the management processes that already exist, such as the defeso. If used to integrate fishing with complementary activities (tourism, such a system could improve the responsibility of fishermen regarding the conservation of fish stocks.

  1. From Reef to Table: Social and Ecological Factors Affecting Coral Reef Fisheries, Artisanal Seafood Supply Chains, and Seafood Security

    OpenAIRE

    John N. Kittinger; Teneva, Lida T.; Koike, Haruko; Kostantinos A Stamoulis; Kittinger, Daniela S; Oleson, Kirsten L. L.; Conklin, Eric; Gomes, Mahana; Wilcox, Bart; Friedlander, Alan M.

    2015-01-01

    Ocean and coastal ecosystems provide critical fisheries, coastal protection, and cultural benefits to communities worldwide, but these services are diminishing due to local and global threats. In response, place-based strategies involve communities and resource users in management have proliferated. Here, we present a transferable community-based approach to assess the social and ecological factors affecting resource sustainability and food security in a small-scale, coral reef fishery. Our r...

  2. Identification of Response Options to Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining (ASGM) in Ghana via the Delphi Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Avik; Phipps, Sean; Long, Rachel; Essegbey, George; Basu, Niladri

    2015-09-01

    The Delphi technique is a means of facilitating discussion among experts in order to develop consensus, and can be used for policy formulation. This article describes a modified Delphi approach in which 27 multi-disciplinary academics and 22 stakeholders from Ghana and North America were polled about ways to address negative effects of small-scale gold mining (ASGM) in Ghana. In early 2014, the academics, working in disciplinary groups, synthesized 17 response options based on data aggregated during an Integrated Assessment of ASGM in Ghana. The researchers participated in two rounds of Delphi polling in March and April 2014, during which 17 options were condensed into 12. Response options were rated via a 4-point Likert scale in terms of benefit (economic, environmental, and benefit to people) and feasibility (economic, social/cultural, political, and implementation). The six highest-scoring options populated a third Delphi poll, which 22 stakeholders from diverse sectors completed in April 2015. The academics and stakeholders also prioritized the response options using ranking exercises. The technique successfully gauged expert opinion on ASGM, and helped identify potential responses, policies and solutions for the sector. This is timely given that improvement to the ASGM sector is an important component within the UN Minamata Convention. PMID:26378557

  3. The Artisanal Fishery for Octopus cyanea Gray in Tazania%坦桑尼亚霞水母章鱼(Octopus cyanea Gray)的个体渔业

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Martin Guard; Yunus D.Mgaya

    2002-01-01

    @@2000年4月期间坦桑尼亚霞水母章鱼(1849)个体渔业的初步结果到2001年6月才被提供.对在坦噶、马菲亚岛和姆特瓦拉三地的2546个单个渔获物和15 473个样品进行了分析.   

  4. Positive interactions between irrawaddy dolphins and artisanal fishers in the Chilika Lagoon of eastern India are driven by ecology, socioeconomics, and culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Lima, Coralie; Marsh, Helene; Hamann, Mark; Sinha, Anindya; Arthur, Rohan

    2014-09-01

    In human-dominated landscapes, interactions and perceptions towards wildlife are influenced by multidimensional drivers. Understanding these drivers could prove useful for wildlife conservation. We surveyed the attitudes and perceptions of fishers towards threatened Irrawaddy dolphins (Orcaella brevirostris) at Chilika Lagoon India. To validate the drivers of fisher perceptions, we : (1) observed dolphin foraging behavior at stake nets, and (2) compared catch per unit effort (CPUE) and catch income of fishers from stake nets in the presence and absence of foraging dolphins. We found that fishers were mostly positive towards dolphins, believing that dolphins augmented their fish catch and using culture to express their perceptions. Foraging dolphins were observed spending half their time at stake nets and were associated with significantly higher catch income and CPUE of mullet (Liza sp.), a locally preferred food fish species. Wildlife conservation efforts should use the multidimensional drivers of human-wildlife interactions to involve local stakeholders in management.

  5. Collective action and symbolic capital in the artisanal fisheries: An analysis of the Local Food Systems of Reloncaví Estuary (Los Lagos), Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Saavedra Gallo, Gonzalo; Macías Vázquez, Alfredo.

    2016-01-01

    In a post-industrial economy, it is as important to understand “material” productive processes in the local community as the processes through which global value chains “expropriate” or “co-opt” common immaterial assets. However, the literature on collective action and the management of common goods generally focuses on matters of the control and governance of material resources. The article commences with an analysis of the relations between the production of value, collective action and the...

  6. SURVEY OF THE NOCUITÉ OF THE CONTRAPTIONS AND TECHNIQUES OF ARTISANAL FISHING ON THE POPULATIONS OF NAVY TURTLES OF THE BAY OF LOANGO (CONGO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisse Akouango

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Chelonia marine turtle species preservation is one of the international community challenges through the world. In Congo-Brazzaville, the Renatura organization (ONG is engage to the biodiversity marine turtle species protection. Among the five of seven marine turtle species encountered in the coast, Turtle lute (Dermochelys coriacea; Green turtle (Chelonia mydas; Olive turtle (Lepidochelys olivacea; Turtle caouanne (Caretta caretta and Turtle overlapped (Eretmochelys imbricata. All these species of navy turtles well that protected by different international conventions, undergo several threats among which the nets and contraptions of traditional fishing constitute one of the main reasons of their decline. Indeed the accidental captures in the nets of the traditional fishers represent a serious threat for the navy turtles. This problem is delicate to manage because these holds don't depend directly on the will of the fishers. Indeed the turtles take themselves inauspiciously in the nets and entangle themselves of it while trying to clear itself/themselves of the net. To remedy this situation, Renatura Congo has, in 2005, initiated a program of liberation of the accidental captures of navy turtles in the nets of traditional fishing. About 1500 liberations are done annually by the agents of Renatura Congo. The liberation of these turtles doesn't constitute a long-term solution. Also, before the size of their accidental captures, it appeared to us necessary to bring our contribution in the survey of the nocuité of the contraptions and techniques of traditional fishing used to the bay of Loango in order to meter in evidence those that are more harmful. Such an objective reaches once, will allow us to improve these contraptions and techniques in order to reduce the risks of accidental captures while maintaining the level of the holds of fish and other aquatic organisms.

  7. Application of electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) to a tailings dam project for artisanal and small-scale gold mining in Zaruma-Portovelo, Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarroca, Mario; Linares, Rogelio; Velásquez-López, Patricio C.; Roqué, Carles; Rodríguez, Roberto

    2015-02-01

    Thanks to advances in geoelectrical resistivity method over the past two decades, researchers can now gather massive geophysical data sets encompassing long distances and depths, at reasonable cost. The enhanced resolution and spatial coverage of these techniques make them, now, very attractive for use in geological engineering applications, an area for which they were previously charged to be unsuitable. The study shows the capability of electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) to identify key subsoil features that might affect a future tailings dam slated for construction at the Zaruma-Portovelo Mining District, Ecuador. The ERI profiles were gathered and processed with the aim of obtaining resistivity images of a sufficiently resolution for geotechnical use. A geophysical model was created based on these images. The resistivity images were calibrated according to geomorphological, hydrogeological and geotechnical data in order to translate geophysical information into rational geological information. The ERI results, supported by the geomorphological and geotechnical work, suggested that the rock massif is composed of weathering horizons of different rock qualities, slopes are affected by sliding surfaces and these features exert a control on the groundwater flow. These results indicated that the original site selected to construct the dam dike was susceptible to land sliding and an alternative construction site was suggested. Based on the same results, a geomorphological-hydrogeological conceptual model for layered weathered granitic massif in mountainous areas was also proposed.

  8. Commis, artisans, ouvriers. Les métamorphoses du salariat dans l’Égypte du XIXe siècle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascale Ghazaleh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cet article se propose d’analyser l’évolution du travail salarié en Égypte pendant la première moitié du XIXe siècle à la lumière des modifications apportées au système des charges vénales, qui permet aux sujets du sultan d’accéder au statut de ses serviteurs en achetant le droit de toucher une rémunération. Les réformes juridiques, militaires, économiques et administratives qu’institue Muhammad ‘Alî (r. 1805-1848 en Égypte vont ériger les instances de l’État naissant en source de rémunération et point de référence primaire des détenteurs de charges. Pendant la période 1840-1860, les recrutements de fonctionnaires et de travailleurs connaîtront un repli ; et, lorsque la question du travail salarié est abordée à part entière dans le discours public des années 1880, c’est sous son versant politique, comme métaphore de la tutelle coloniale.

  9. A preliminary study on health effects in villagers exposed to mercury in a small-scale artisanal gold mining area in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose-O'Reilly, Stephan; Schierl, Rudolf; Nowak, Dennis; Siebert, Uwe; William, Jossep Frederick; Owi, Fradico Teorgi; Ir, Yuyun Ismawati

    2016-08-01

    Cisitu is a small-scale gold mining village in Indonesia. Mercury (Hg) is used to extract gold from ore, heavily polluting air, soil, fish and rice paddy fields with Hg. Rice in Cisitu is burdened with mercury. The main staple food of the inhabitants of Cisitu is this polluted rice. Villagers were concerned that the severe diseases they observed in the community might be related to their mining activities, including high mercury exposure. Case report of the medical examinations and the mercury levels in urine and hair of 18 people with neurological symptoms. Typical signs and symptoms of chronic mercury intoxication were found (excessive salivation, sleep disturbances, tremor, ataxia, dysdiadochokinesia, pathological coordination tests, gray to bluish discoloration of the oral cavity and proteinuria). Mercury levels in urine were increased in eight patients (>7µg Hg/L urine). All 18 people had increased hair levels (>1µg Hg/g hair). 15 patients exhibited several, and sometimes numerous, symptoms in addition to having moderately to highly elevated levels of mercury in their specimens. These patients were classified as intoxicated. The situation in Cisitu is special, with rice paddy fields being irrigated with mercury-contaminated water and villagers consuming only local food, especially mercury-contaminated rice. Severe neurological symptoms and increased levels of mercury in urine and hair support are possibly caused by exposure to inorganic mercury in air, and the consumption of mercury-contaminated fish and rice. The mercury exposure needs to be reduced and treatment provided. Further research is needed to test the hypothesis that mercury-contaminated rice from small-scale gold mining areas might cause mercury intoxication. PMID:27174690

  10. Balancing firm and network-based resources to gain competitive advantage: A case study of an artisanal musical instruments cluster in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Leick, Birgit

    2013-01-01

    The question of whether firms gain competitiveness through local networks and clusters becomes more relevant than ever as globalization proceeds. This is particularly true for traditional and craft-based clusters, districts and business networks. A central question emerging for these types of networks is: (How) can they build competitive advantage using local production systems and network ties as core resources? The present article aims at shedding light on this issue by presenting a case st...

  11. Effect of farm characteristics and practices on hygienic quality of ovine raw milk used for artisan cheese production in central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carloni, Elisa; Petruzzelli, Annalisa; Amagliani, Giulia; Brandi, Giorgio; Caverni, Francesco; Mangili, Piermario; Tonucci, Franco

    2016-04-01

    A survey on ovine dairy farms directly transforming own-produced milk, in the Italian Marche region, was carried out to assess flock and milking practices that may influence milk hygienic-sanitary conditions. A census survey established that 24 dairy farms were located in this region. Bulk milk samples were collected throughout the milking period in each dairy farm in 2013. Analyzed variables were: (i) chemical parameters such as fat, protein and lactose content, dry matter and pH; and (ii) total bacterial (TBC) and somatic cell counts (SCC). Chemical parameter values were in agreement with published data while, geometric mean (GM) log10 SCC was 5.91 and TBC GM was 57 978 colony forming units/mL, in compliance with Eropean Union criteria. A positive correlation was found between SCC and TBC when GMs of all farm data were considered (Spearman's rho = 0.7925; P = 0.0001). Statistical analysis did not show significant correlation between SCC or TBC GM and dairy farm principal characteristics. Although SCC levels detected in the present study should suggest the need to implement mastitis control programs, Marche's dairy sheep flocks revealed a good hygienic condition level. This is an important aspect in implementing safety for end users of the final product. PMID:26304708

  12. Collective action and symbolic capital in the artisanal fisheries: An analysis of the Local Food Systems of Reloncaví Estuary (Los Lagos, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saavedra Gallo, Gonzalo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In a post-industrial economy, it is as important to understand “material” productive processes in the local community as the processes through which global value chains “expropriate” or “co-opt” common immaterial assets. However, the literature on collective action and the management of common goods generally focuses on matters of the control and governance of material resources. The article commences with an analysis of the relations between the production of value, collective action and the rentier nature of contemporary capitalism and its entrepreneurial ideology. Then, we present a detailed analysis of the case of mytilid seed capture in the Reloncaví Estuary (Los Lagos Region, Chile. This case shows us the failure of modernisation policies which are based on converting local producers into modern entrepreneurs. To adopt a successful value strategy, a very different problem must be addressed, namely the difficulties of local communities in managing successfully their own common immaterial values. Faced with the dichotomous logic of neoliberalism, communities must reunite these immaterial values and the associated common material resources, and modulate the friction between them.En una economía postindustrial, es importante comprender los procesos productivos “materiales” en la comunidad local como procesos a través de los cuales las cadenas globales de valor “expropian” o “cooptan” los activos inmateriales comunes. Sin embargo, la literatura sobre acción colectiva y gestión de los bienes comunes generalmente se focaliza en el control y la gobernanza de los recursos materiales. Este artículo comienza con un análisis de las relaciones entre la producción del valor, la acción colectiva y la naturaleza rentista de capitalismo contemporáneo y su ideología emprendedora. A continuación, presentamos un análisis detallado del caso del cultivo de semillas de mitílidos en el Estuario de Reloncaví (Los Lagos, Chile. El caso nos muestra el fracaso de las políticas de modernización basadas en convertir a los productores locales en empresarios modernos. Para adoptar una estrategia de valorización exitosa, debe abordar un problema muy diferente: las dificultades de las comunidades locales para gestionar exitosamente sus propios valores inmateriales comunes. Enfrentadas con la lógica dicotómica del neoliberalismo, las comunidades deben reunir estos valores inmateriales y los recursos materiales comunes asociados, y modular la fricción entre ellos.

  13. Occurrence of non-O157 Shiga toxin-encoding Escherichia coli in artisanal mozzarella cheese in Brazil: risk factor associated with food workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia CARDOSO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mozzarella cheese is considered a safe food due to the high temperature treatment used in the traditional process of stretching into hot water; however, a post-process contamination during the cheese manufacture or during the processing (before distribution could occur. This study investigated the occurrence of Shiga toxin-encoding Escherichia coli (STEC strains in homemade-mozzarella cheese. In total, 59 raw milk cheese samples collected at a local producer in the Jequitinhonha Valley (Northeast of Minas Gerais, Brazil were submitted for microbiological analysis, and 38 (64.4% tested positive for E. coli. Then, 147 strains of E. coli were isolated from positive samples and screened by polymerase chain reaction for the presence of the genes encoding the following virulence factors: stx1 and stx 2 (verotoxin types 1 and 2 and eae (intimin. All the isolates were negative for the stx 2, 14 isolates (9.5% were positive for the stx1 gene, and 11 of them also harbored the eae gene. A food worker was probably involved in cheese contamination during the manufacture schedule. While the development of STEC infection in humans is not completely understood, all STEC- contaminated food can be considered potentially hazardous.

  14. The engineer, sustainable development craftsman at the center of the global energy challenge!; L'ingenieur, artisan du developpement durable au centre du defi energetique mondial!

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laplatte, Benjamin; Bourque, Francis; Granger, Francois P.; Dery, Gaston; Berube, Martin

    2010-09-15

    By its omnipresence in society, the energy question is at the heart of sustainable development issues. The engineer, as a central actor of human society development, is therefore tightly linked to the energy issue and he must actively contribute to resolve it by integrating to his practices the principles of sustainable development and by applying the solutions that arises. Part of these elements include as the main ones, listening to the consideration of citizens, becoming aware of the environment importance and reducing costs at all levels. The engineer is a social actor that cannot be ignored in the resolution of these issues. [French] Par son omnipresence dans la societe, la question energetique est au coeur des enjeux du developpement durable. L'ingenieur, etant un acteur central du developpement des societes humaines, est donc inextricablement lie a la question energetique qu'il doit contribuer activement a resoudre en integrant a sa pratique les principes du developpement durable et en appliquant les solutions qui en decoulent. Parmi ces elements, l'ecoute des considerations citoyennes, la prise de conscience de l'importance de l'environnement et la reduction des couts a tous les niveaux sont des elements centraux. L'ingenieur est un acteur social incontournable pour la resolution de ces enjeux.

  15. L’oppidum arverne de Gondole (Le Cendre, Puy-de-Dôme. Topographie de l’occupation protohistorique (La Tène D2 et fouille du quartier artisanal : un premier bilan The arverne oppidum of Gondole (Le Cendre, Puy-de-Dôme, France. Layout of the Proto-historic occupation and excavation of an artisanal area: first results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Gruel

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available L’oppidum de Gondole est, des trois oppida arvernes localisés dans le sud du grand bassin clermontois, celui qui reste le plus mal connu du grand public mais aussi de la communauté des chercheurs. Identifié assez récemment à un oppidum gaulois à la suite de premiers travaux exploratoires, il n’avait, jusqu’à il y a peu, fait l’objet d’aucune étude approfondie à l’inverse des sites voisins de Corent et de Gergovie.Les découvertes faites dans le cadre de l’archéologie préventive entre 2002-2005, dont de spectaculaires ensevelissements mêlant des hommes et des chevaux, sur les parcelles situées en avant de la fortification, ont marqué la reprise des recherches conduites sur ce site. À leur suite, c’est le secteur sud-est de l’occupation extra muros qui a fait l’objet d’une fouille en aire ouverte. Ces travaux ont permis le dégagement d’une partie de l’ouvrage défensif de l’oppidum (le fossé ainsi que l’étude d’une zone à vocation domestique et artisanale (métallurgie, tabletterie, production céramique immédiatement attenante.Au final, nous disposons aujourd’hui d’une documentation riche et variée qui nous permet de percevoir la topographie de cette occupation protohistorique d’une surface importante (70 ha dont la moitié extra muros, de comprendre le mode d’occupation de certains secteurs (l’habitat notamment et d’en préciser la chronologie (La Tène D2.Of the three arverni oppida situated in the southern part of the Clermont-Ferrand basin, Gondole is the least known to the general public and to the scientific communities. Unlike her sister sites, Corent and Gergovie, detailed surveys of Gondole have only recently begun, mainly because Gondole lay undiscovered until the early 1990’s.The rescue archaeology trial trenching carried out between 2002 and 2005 led to the discovery of the famous horses and human burial, and marked the beginning of the archaeological research around this site. An open-area excavation conducted outside the Late Iron Age fortification has permitted partial examination of the defenses (ditch and detailed analysis of an area dedicated to domestic and craft activities (metal working, bone working and ceramic production.In summary, the site is now richly documented and we are able to understand the layout of this large protohistoric occupation that spreads over 70 ha. We are also able to clarify the site’s chronology (La Tène D2.

  16. Assessment of the Central African Republic Mining Sector

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2008-01-01

    This report presents recommendations to assist the promotion of socially and environmentally responsible artisanal mining practices, discusses formalization of the artisanal mining sector, and advises organization into cooperatives in the Central African Republic. Best practices are outlined to improve the working, living, and community conditions of artisanal miners. The mining sector is...

  17. Boston: An Urban Community. Boston and the American Revolution; The Leaders, the Issues and the Common Man. Boston's Architecture: From First Townhouse to New City Hall. Boston's Artisans of the Eighteenth Century. Annotated Reading Lists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Eric C.; And Others

    These three annotated reading guides were developed for courses offered at the Boston Public Library under the National Endowment for the Humanities Library Learning Program. The first lists 32 selected recent works of major importance covering the areas of colonial society, political structure, and the American Revolution. The 27 titles cited in…

  18. Report 2000 of EDF nuclear park '' Humans, architects of the progress; Bilan 2000 du parc nucleaire d'EDF ''les hommes, artisans du progres''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stricker, L.

    2001-03-01

    This report presents the results of the EDF nuclear park, during 2000, in matter of safety, environment and competitiveness. In 2000, the EDF nuclear installations safety still improved. Hopeful the nuclear energy part in its power production, EDF avoids the carbon dioxide diffusion in the atmosphere. EDF also commits itself to reduce the liquid effluents, the gaseous emissions and the solid wastes. At the same time EDF remained competitive with a decrease of the kWh price of 7%. (A.L.B.)

  19. Producción artesanal del rotífero Philodina sp. y de algas para la alimentación de post-larvas de bocachico Artisan production of rotifero and algaes for bocachico post-larva feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Eugenia Quintero P

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El cultivo de algas mixtas se realizó en el Instituto de Piscicultura Tropical de la Corporación Autónoma Regional del Valle del Cauca (Buga 25 ºC y 969 m.s.n.m. utilizando fertilizantes inorgánicos en baldes plásticos, se produjeron en promedio 386 x 10³ células/ml de cultivo. En el cultivo de Philodina en frascos de vidrio alimentado con algas y levadura, se obtuvieron 410 rotíferos/ml de cultivo. Se evaluaron tres tratamientos: rotíferos enriquecidos con aceite de pescado; rotíferos más algas (Chlorella, Scenedesmus, Pediastrum, Spyrogira y Anabaena y Artemia salina + Spirulina, usando 100 post-larvas de bocachico/acuario, alimentadas dos veces al día según biomasa sembrada. El mayor porcentaje de sobrevivencia, peso y talla se obtuvo con el alimento constituido por rotíferos enriquecidos con aceite de pescado (93 %,3.2mg, 6.86mm, seguido de rotíferos + algas (80.67 %,2 mg, 6.1mm y Artemia+ Spirulina (60.6 %,1.6mg, 6.06mm respectivamenteIn the Tropical Piscicultural Institute of the Regional Autonomous Corporation of Buga, Cauca, Valley, Colombia (25ºC temperature, 969 m a s l, a research was carried out with the objective to produce and use algaes and rotifers (living food cultures to feed bocachico post-larvas (Prochilodus reticulatus magdalenae. A complete random design with three treatments and three repetitions was established. 100 bocachico/aquarium post larva were used and fed twice a day according to sown biomass. The cultures of mixed algaes were established by using inorganic fertilizers produced in plastic pails and obtaining an average of 386 x 10³ cells/ml of culture. On the other hand, the cultures of Philodina rotifers were established in glass bottles and feeding them with algaes and yeast. An average of 410 rotifers/ml of culturing was obtained . To evaluate the highest rate of survival, growing and weight of bocachico post-larvas, three kind of food were used: Rotifers enriched with fish oil; rotifers plus algaes (Chlorella, Scenedesmus, Pediastrum, Spyrogina and Anabaena and only Artemia salina and Spirulina. The highest survival, weight and size percentage was obtained with food formed of rotifers enriched with fish oil (93% 3.2mg, 6.86mm respectively, followed by rotifers + algaes (80.67%, 2mg, 6.1mm and Artemia + Spirulina (60.6%, 1.6mg, 6.06mm.

  20. Development of an artisanal tanning method of the acoupa weakfish (Cynoscion acoupa) skin and its transfer through a workshop to a community in the city of Bragança, PA, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno José Corecha Fernandes Eiras; Elias Fernandes Medeiros Júnior; Marileide Moraes Alves

    2015-01-01

    Bragança is one of the largest fishing centers in the state of Pará, northern Brazil. In the city, there are several environmental and socio-economic problems such as lack of waste management and contamination of water sources that supply to the city and the Caeté river estuary. The social and economic problems are mainly caused by social inequality, which usually occurs in communities where the population depends mainly on fishing. Fish waste forms a part of the waste disposed in the region....

  1. Crafting an Occupational Identity: Learning the Precepts of Craftsmanship through Apprenticeship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Selena

    2014-01-01

    The term craftsmanship is associated with pre-industrial craft work with inferences to skilled artisanal manufacture of bespoke products. Apprenticeship learning is often perceived to be synonymous with learning craftsmanship. How then is the trait of craftsmanship through attainment of specific artisanal approaches conveyed and learnt through…

  2. The political ecology of Palk Bay fisheries: geographies of capital, fisher conflict, ethnicity and nation-state

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Menon; M. Bavinck; J. Stephen; R. Manimohan

    2015-01-01

    Indian trawl fishers in the Palk Bay regularly engage in cross-border fishing to the detriment of Sri Lankan artisanal fishers whose nets are irreparably damaged. Increasing tension between Indian trawl fishers from the state of Tamil Nadu and Sri Lankan artisanal fishers from the Northern Province

  3. Community dynamics of complex starter cultures for Gouda-type cheeses and its functional consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erkus, O.

    2014-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are used as starter and adjunct cultures for the production of artisanal and industrial fermented milk products such as yoghurt and cheese.  Artisanal fermentations is propagated with the transfer of an inoculum from old batch of fermented food to the new batch (back-

  4. Plasma lipid profiles and risk of cardiovascular disease in occupational lead exposure in Abeokuta, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idumebor Florence

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to investigate the effects of lead exposure on risk of cardiovascular disease during occupational exposure to this metal, plasma cholesterol and its fractions as high-density liporotein (HDL, low-density liporotein (LDL and triglyceride were determined in various artisans in Abeokuta, Nigeria who have been shown to be occupationally exposed to lead and these were related to blood lead levels. Increased risk of cardiovascular disease was observed in the artisans. Total cholesterol in the artisans was between 1.5 and 2.0 times higher in the artisans than that present in controls while LDL cholesterol was between 1.6 and 2.4 times higher in the artisans when compared with control subjects [p 0.05]. A significant positive correlation was observed between blood lead and total cholesterol on one hand [r = 0.372; p = 3.0 × 10-5] and blood lead and LDL cholesterol on the other hand [r = 0.283; p = 0.001]. LDL/HDL cholesterol ratio was also higher in the artisans when compared with control. Blood pressure (systolic and diastolic and other anthropometric parameters were not significantly different between the artisans and the control subjects [p > 0.05]. Results suggest that lead exposure increases cholesterol synthesis and transport to peripheral tissues whereas reverse cholesterol transport to the liver is not affected.

  5. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory activity of milk fermented by wild and industrial Lactococcus lactis strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Figueroa, J C; Reyes-Díaz, R; González-Córdova, A F; Troncoso-Rojas, R; Vargas-Arispuro, I; Vallejo-Cordoba, B

    2010-11-01

    Angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory (ACEI) activity was evaluated and compared in milk fermented by wild and commercial starter culture Lactococcus lactis strains after 48 h of incubation. The highest ACEI activities were found in WSE from milk inoculated with wild L. lactis strains isolated from artisanal dairy products and commercial starter cultures. On the other hand, the lowest ACEI activities were found in WSE from milk inoculated with wild strains isolated from vegetables. Moreover, the IC(50) values (concentration that inhibits 50% activity) of WSE from artisanal dairy products were the lowest, indicating that these fractions were the most effective in inhibiting 50% of ACE activity. In fact, a strain isolated from artisanal cheese presented the lowest IC(50) (13 μg/mL). Thus, it appears that wild L. lactis strains isolated from artisanal dairy products and commercial starter cultures showed good potential for the production of fermented dairy products with ACEI properties. PMID:20965317

  6. Snuff Bottle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Chinese snuff bottles are artistic curiosities enjoyed by connoisseurs and collectors alike. In the 17th century, artisans of the Chinese imperial court made several different kinds of snuff bottles with a superior aesthetic. Nowadays, China still

  7. The reproductive cycle of Sardinella aurita in the Eastern Atlantic Ocean of Northwest Africa. Progress Report 2002

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mantingh, I.T.

    2003-01-01

    This progress report describes the reproduction patterns of Sardinella aurita in the Eastern Atlantic Ocean off Northwest Africa. Data have been obtained by biological sampling of the catches of the industrial and artisanal fleet.

  8. Plasma lipid profiles and risk of cardiovascular disease in occupational lead exposure in Abeokuta, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Idumebor Florence; Ugbaja Regina; Ademuyiwa Oladipo; Adebawo Olugbenga

    2005-01-01

    Abstract In order to investigate the effects of lead exposure on risk of cardiovascular disease during occupational exposure to this metal, plasma cholesterol and its fractions as high-density liporotein (HDL), low-density liporotein (LDL) and triglyceride were determined in various artisans in Abeokuta, Nigeria who have been shown to be occupationally exposed to lead and these were related to blood lead levels. Increased risk of cardiovascular disease was observed in the artisans. Total chol...

  9. Mercury Pollution from Small-Scale Gold Mining Can Be Stopped by Implementing the Gravity-Borax Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Køster-Rasmussen, Rasmus; Westergaard, Maria L; Brasholt, Marie;

    2016-01-01

    Mercury is used globally to extract gold in artisanal and small-scale gold mining. The mercury-free gravity-borax method for gold extraction was introduced in two mining communities using mercury in the provinces Kalinga and Camarines Norte. This article describes project activities...... organization facilitated the shift in Kalinga. In conclusion, the gravity-borax method is a doable alternative to mercury use in artisanal and small-scale gold mining, but support from the civil society is needed....

  10. Community dynamics of complex starter cultures for Gouda-type cheeses and its functional consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Erkus, O.

    2014-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are used as starter and adjunct cultures for the production of artisanal and industrial fermented milk products such as yoghurt and cheese.  Artisanal fermentations is propagated with the transfer of an inoculum from old batch of fermented food to the new batch (back-slopping) to initiate the fermentation with the activity of the indigenous microbiota present in the inoculum. In industrial production, these inocula with indigenous microbiota are replaced with t...

  11. Spatio-temporal variation of the pink shrimp Farfantepenaeus paulensis (Crustacea, Decapoda, Penaeidae) associated to the seasonal overture of the sandbar in a subtropical lagoon Variação espaço-temporal do camarão rosa Farfantepenaeus paulensis (Crustacea, Decapoda, Penaeidae) associado à abertura sazonal da barra de conexão com o mar em uma lagoa subtropical

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolle C Ferreira; Andrea S. Freire

    2009-01-01

    On the southern Brazilian coast, the penaeid pink shrimp Farfantepenaeus paulensis (Pérez-Farfante, 1967) is intensively captured by both artisanal and industrial fisheries. In the Ibiraquera Lagoon, artisanal fishing of juvenile stocks has declined sharply over the last 15 years. The traditional management methods used by fishermen are no longer sustainable due to conflicts with the demands of tourism and weak environmental and public agencies. The dynamics of the timing of the artificial op...

  12. Mortality of small cetaceans and the crab bait fishery in the Magallanes area of Chile since 1980

    OpenAIRE

    Lescrauwaet, A.-K.; Gibbons, J.

    1994-01-01

    Since 1974, species of small cetaceans, fur seals, sea lions, sea birds and to some extent sea otters, have been taken deliberately each year for bait in the Chilean artisanal fishery. In recent years, three new trends are contributing to alleviate mortality pressure on marine mammals in Magellanes: a change in fisheries legislation, an increased diversification of the artisanal fishery and an increasing public awareness of the values of marine wildlife.

  13. The social minefield of gold digging in South-Kivu, DRC. The case of Kamituga

    OpenAIRE

    Kilosho, Janvier; Stoop, Nik; Verpoorten, Marijke

    2015-01-01

    Starting out as a Large-Scale Mining (LSM) activity in the colonial period, gold mining became more and more dominated by artisanal miners in the course of the past decades. Now, the pendulum swings back to LSM. What is the scope for a relocation and/or reorientation of artisanal miners? We study the case of Kamituga, one of Banro’s gold concessions in South-Kivu.

  14. The Cetaceans of Ghana, a validated faunal checklist

    OpenAIRE

    Van Waerebeek, K.; Ofori-Danson, P.K.; Debrah, J.

    2009-01-01

    The cetaceans of Ghana and the Gulf of Guinea have, until recently, remained unstudied. Periodical monitoring of artisanal fisheries for bycatches in seven Ghanaian artisanal fishing ports and landing sites over 1996-2004 has provided photographic and specimen evidence to validate occurrence of 18 species (17 odontocetes, 1 mysticete) in a tropical, predominantly pelagic cetacean fauna. At least nine species and subspecies had not previously been documented for Ghana (with asterisk), and four...

  15. Binational Studies Leading to an Ecosystems-based Management Strategy for Common Thresher Shark in the Southern California Bight (SCB).

    OpenAIRE

    Graham, Jeffrey B.; Cartamil, Daniel P.

    2010-01-01

    Survey of the Mexican SCB Sector Artisanal and Commercial Shark Fisheries Hypotheses: a) Common thresher sharks represent a substantial portion of the catch of artisanal and commercial shark fisheries in the Mexican SCB sector. b) Exploitation of common threshers and other elasmobranchs is important to the economy of northern Baja California and, by extension, is directly linked to U.S. fishery management. Mexican SCB Longlining Survey Hypotheses: a) Thresher shark nursery grounds extend sout...

  16. Análisis de la pesca del mero Epinephelus morio

    OpenAIRE

    Giménez, E.

    2006-01-01

    The red grouper fishery is in its decline phase presenting an average annual catch of 8191 t during the 1999 to 2003 period. Through these years Cuban fleet has reduced its fishing area toward the oriental region of the Campeche Bank while the artisanal fleet extended, increasing the overlap of sizes catched by the arisanal-industrial and artisanal-cuban fleets. The size composition of the catch shows that most of the fishes are captured before first maturation size. First catc...

  17. Evaluation of probiotic potential of yeasts isolated from traditional cheeses manufactured in Serbia and Croatia

    OpenAIRE

    Milica Zivkovic; Neza Cadez; Ksenija Uroic; Marija Miljkovic; Maja Tolinacki; Petra Dousova; Blazenka Kos; Jagoda Suskovic; Peter Raspor; Ljubisa Topisirovic; Natasa Golic

    2015-01-01

    Aim. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro probiotic potential of dairy yeast isolates from artisanal cheeses manufactured in Serbia and Croatia. Methods. Twelve yeast strains isolated in from artisanal fresh soft and white brined cheeses manufactured in Serbia and Croatia were used in the study. Survival in chemically-simulated gastrointestinal conditions, adherence to epithelial intestinal cells and proliferation of gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) cells were evalu...

  18. 工欲善其事,必先利其器——计算机音乐技术在高等音乐教育中的应用%An Artisan Hoping to do Fine Work must First Sharpen his Tools --The Application of" Computer Music Technology in Higher Music Education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈杭

    2012-01-01

    Computer music technology is a new discipline combining the computer technology with the music theory and skills. Computer music technology brought about a revolution to the professional music teaching in colleges and universities. It fundamentally updates the traditional teaching mode, enriches teaching contents, and makes abstract music theory lively. It broadens students' artistic vision, improves the teaching efficiency, activates student's artistic thinking, and stimulates the students' enthusiasm of music learning. It is considered as an effective means for improving classroom teaching quality for music education. Therefore, to adapt to the needs of the development of the information society, it is necessary for university music teachers to grasp the modern computer music education technology and apply it to their teaching.%计算机音乐技术是计算机技术与音乐理论与技能相结合而形成的一门新的音乐学科。计算机音乐技术与多媒体结合的教学方式,给高校的音乐专业教学带来了一场新的革命。它从根本上更新了传统的教学模式,极大地丰富了教学内容,使抽象的音乐理论变得生动活泼而富于感性。它开阔了学生的艺术视野,提高了音乐课堂的教学效率,活跃了学生的艺术思维,激发了学生学习音乐的积极性,成为音乐教育提高课堂教学质量、提高与完善自身素质的有效手段。因此,适应信息化社会发展的需要,具备应用现代计算机音乐教育技术的能力,成为高校音乐教师素质优化的一种必然趋势。

  19. Salud y trabajo: minería artesanal del carbón en Paipa, Colombia Health and work: Artisanal coal mining in Paipa (Province of Boyacá, Colombia Saúde e trabalho: mineração artesanal do carvão em Paipa, Colômbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guío GARZÓN JOSÉ Alfredo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Contexto: existe relación directa entre las técnicas de minería del carbón y riesgos laborales, con estado de salud y probabilidad de enfermar, principalmente por neumoconiosis, trauma y alteraciones osteomusculares. Objetivo: describir condiciones de trabajo y estado de salud en una muestra de mineros informales del carbón en Paipa, Boyacá. Materiales y métodos: estudio descriptivo de corte transversal. Mediante instrumento previamente diseñado se evaluó a 196 mineros. Se exploró ambiente laboral y estado de salud. Además se revisaron algunas historias clínicas. La información se sistematizó y analizó en Epi-Info2002®. Se estimaron medidas de tendencia central y dispersión para las variables incluidas. Resultados: edad promedio 30 años; 16,3% menores de edad; características sociodemográficas compatibles con pobreza extrema; 34,7% no afiliados al SGSS; apenas 1% afiliado al régimen contributivo y 0,5% cubierto por ARP; ingreso promedio mensual $280.000 (US$140,0 aprox.; 48,9% consume alcohol semanalmente; promedio jornada 7,44 horas; 76,5% trabaja bajo superficie; 16,8% presentaba alguna enfermedad en la valoración; 15,65% refiere al menos un accidente de trabajo; 64,8% encuentra su labor monótona o repetitiva; trastornos oculares, respiratorios y osteomusculares se autorreportan frecuentemente. Conclusiones: alto riesgo ocupacional, población vulnerable, mal remunerada, sin protección laboral. Bajo nivel educativo, trabajo infantil, dieta inadecuada, consumo de alcohol y ambiente inapropiado son factores de riesgo encontrados, que se expresan principalmente como traumatismos, lesiones oculares, enfermedades respiratorias y alteraciones del sistema osteomuscular.Context: There is a direct relation between coal mining techniques and work related hazards with health conditions and the likelihood of getting ill, mainly due to pneumoconiosis, trauma and alterations of bones and of muscles. Objective: describe work related conditions and health conditions in a sample of informal coal miners in Paipa, Province of Boyacá. Materials and methods: observational, cross-sectional descriptive study. 196 miners were assessed through a previously designed instrument. Work related environment and health condition were explored. In addition, some medical records were reviewed. The information was systematized and analyzed in Epi-Info2002®. Modal scores and measures of statistical dispersion were estimated for the variables included. Results: average age 30 years; 16,3% under age; socio-demographic characteristics compatible with extreme poverty; 34,7% not affiliated to SGSS (basic health insurance; hardly 1% affiliated to the social security system and 0,5% covered by ARP (Occupational Risks Insurance; average income per month $280.000 (approx. US$140,0; 48,9% consumes alcohol on a weekly basis; average work day 7,44 hours; 76,5% works underground; 16,8% presented some illness during assessment; 15,65% refers at least one work-related accident; 64,8% finds it work monotonous or repetitive; eye, respiratory and bone and muscle disorders were often self-reported. Conclusions: high occupational risk, vulnerable population group, poor remuneration, no employment protection. Low educational level, child labor, inappropriate nutrition, alcohol consumption and unsuitable environment are some of the risk factors found, which are mainly expressed in traumatisms, eye damage, respiratory disease and alterations of bones and muscle.Contexto: As técnicas de mineração do carvão e os riscos de trabalho estão diretamente relacionados com o estado de saúde e a probabilidade de doença, nomeadamente, pneumoconiose, trauma e alterações osteomusculares. Objetivo: descrever condições de trabalho e estado de saúde numa amostra de mineiros informais do carvão em Paipa, Boyacá. Materiais e métodos: levantamento observacional, descritivo de corte transversal. Cento e noventa e seis mineiros foram avaliados através de um instrumento previamente desenhado. Explorou-se ambiente de trabalho e estado de saúde e se verificaram algumas histórias clínicas. A informação foi sistematizada e analisada na Epi-Info2002®. Consideraram-se medidas de tendência central e dispersão para as variáveis incluídas. Resultados: idade média 30 anos; 16,3% menores de idade; características sociodemográficas compatíveis com pobreza extrema; 34,7% não afiliados ao SGSS; apenas 1% afiliado ao regime contributivo e 0,5% coberto por ARP; renda média mensal $280.000 (US$140,0 aprox.; 48,9% consome álcool semanalmente; jornada média 7,44 horas; 76,5% trabalha sob superfície; 16,8% apresenta alguma doença na valoração; 15,65% refere-se no mínimo a um acidente de trabalho; 64,8% considera que seu trabalho é monótono e repetitivo; transtornos oculares, respiratórios e osteomusculares ocorrem com freqüência. Conclusões: alto risco ocupacional, população vulnerável, mal remunerada, sem proteção trabalhista. Baixo nível educativo, trabalho infantil, dieta inadequada, consumo de álcool e ambiente inapropriado são alguns dos fatores de risco encontrados, expressados, nomeadamente, em doenças como traumatismos, lesões oculares, doenças respiratórias e perturbações do sistema osteomuscular.

  20. Metazoos parásitos de la mojarrilla Stellifer minor (Tschudi (Osteichthyes, Sciaenidae capturados por pesquería artesanal en Chorrillos, Lima, Perú Metazoan parasites of the minor stardrum, Stellifer minor (Tschudi (Osteichthyes, Sciaenidae, caught by artisanal fishery on Chorrillos, Lima, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Iannacone

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Se investigaron algunos componentes comunitarios de la parasitofauna de 105 ejemplares de Stellifer minor (Tschudi, 1844 colectados del Terminal Pesquero de Chorrillos, Lima, Perú, entre el mayo y octubre de 1998 y necropsiados para estudiar sus comunidades parasitarias. De los peces colectados, 71 fueron machos y 34 hembras. Los peces mostraron una longitud estándar entre 10,20-20,50 cm (promedio = 15,50 ± 1,65. Los parásitos metazoos fueron colectados y censados empleando las técnicas convencionales. Se colectaron un total de 3483 especimenes durante todo el muestreo, con una abundancia media total de 33,17 (3-122. El promedio de la riqueza de especies de parásitos fue 1,9 (1-4. Un hospedero no presentó ningún parásito. 20 hospederos (19,04% mostraron infección con un solo parásito, 77 (73,33% y 7 (6,66% tuvieron una infección múltiple, con 2 y 3 especies de parásitos, respectivamente. Se encontraron cinco parásitos: Rhamnocercus oliveri Luque & Iannacone, 1991 y R. stelliferi Luque & Iannacone, 1991 (Monogenea (prevalencia = 98,09%; intensidad media = 28,85; abundancia media = 28,58, Clavellotis dilatata (Kroyer, 1863 (Copepoda (prevalencia = 2,85%; intensidad media = 1; abundancia media = 0,02, Helicometra fasciata (Rudolphi, 1819 (Digenea (prevalencia = 79,04%; intensidad media = 5,77; abundancia media = 4,56 y Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus pereirai Annereaux, 1946 (Nematoda (prevalencia = 4,76%; intensidad media = 1,6; abundancia media = 0,07. Se encontró efecto del sexo en la intensidad y abundancia media de Infección de Rhamnocercus Monaco, Wood & Mizelle, 1954 y también efecto del sexo con la abundancia media de infección con H. fasciata. La diversidad media de las infracomunidades según el índice de Shannon-Weaver de S. minor fue (H' = 0,11 y el índice de Simpson (C = 0,98. Se compararon los resultados obtenidos con la estructura comunitaria parasitaria registrada en la década anterior en S. minor en la misma localidad.A research on some community components of parasitefauna of 105 specimens of Stellifer minor (Tschudi, 1844 collected from Chorrillos Fishmarket, Lima, Peru, between May and October 1998 and necropsied to study parasite communities was conducted. Of the fishes collected, 71 were males and 34 females. Fishes showed a standard length between 10.20 and 20.50 cm (mean = 15.50 ± 1.65. Metazoan parasites were collected and counted employing conventional techniques. 3483 specimens in total during all the survey, with a mean abundance of 33.17 (3-122 were collected. The mean parasite species richness was 1.9 (1-4. One host was not parasited. Twenty hosts (19.04% showed infection with one parasite species, and seventy-seven (73.33% and seven (6.66% had multiple infection, two and three parasite species, respectively. Five parasites: Rhamnocercus oliveri Luque & Iannacone, 1991 and R. stelliferi Luque & Iannacone, 1991 (Monogenea (prevalence = 98.09%; mean intensity = 28.85; mean abundance = 28.58, Clavellotis dilatata (Kroyer, 1863 (Copepoda (prevalence = 2.85%; mean intensity = 1; mean abundance = 0.02, Helicometra fasciata (Rudolphi, 1819 (Digenea (prevalence = 79.04%; mean intensity = 5.66; mean abundance = 4.47 and Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus pereirai Annereaux, 1946 (Nematoda (prevalence = 4.76%; mean intensity = 1.6; mean abundance = 0.07 were found. Effect of the sex on mean intensity and abundance of Infection of Rhamnocercus Monaco, Wood & Mizelle, 1954 and also effect of sex with mean abundance of infection with H. fasciata were found. The mean diversity in the infracommunities of S. minor was (H' = 0.11 and Simpson Index (C = 0.98. Finally, the results of community assemblages with the parasite communities registered on S. minor ten years ago in the same locality of study were compared.

  1. Características físico-químicas de aguardentes produzidas artesanalmente na região do vale do taquari no rio grande do sul
    Physicochemical properties of spirits produced artisanally in the Region of Vale do Taquari in Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. SCHMIDT

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available

    A aguardente elaborada artesanalmente resulta num produto fi nal com características próprias e diferenciadas, porém, devido à falta de controle do processo muitas vezes não atendem aos parâmetros legais vigentes. Assim, este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a qualidade e comparar a composição química de aguardentes de canade- açúcar envelhecidas e sem envelhecer produzidas artesanalmente na Região do Vale do Taquari no Rio Grande do Sul. Foram analisados os teores de etanol, acidez volátil, compostos fenólicos, cobre, acetona, aldeídos, ésteres, alcoóis superiores totais e metanol, além dos alcoóis secbutílico e n-butílico de 15 amostras produzidas na região. Os resultados indicaram que 60% das amostras estavam em desacordo com algum dos padrões de identidade e qualidade estabelecidos pela legislação brasileira. Além disso, as altas concentrações de cobre e aldeídos em algumas amostras comprometem a qualidade da bebida e representam um risco à saúde dos consumidores da região. A partir dos resultados obtidos verifi cou-se a necessidade de adoção de estratégias de apoio tecnológico que capacitem os produtores da Região do Vale do Taquari no Rio Grande do Sul, de modo a ampliar a atividade agroindustrial e melhorar a competitividade desses pequenos produtores.

  2. All The Work Of Artisans: Reconstructing society at Tell Deir ‘Allā through the study of ceramic traditions: Studies of Late Bronze Age Faience vessels and Iron IIc-III ceramics from Tell Deir ‘Allā, Jordan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, N.C.F.

    2011-01-01

    For already 50 years the site of Tell Deir ‘Allā in the Eastern Central Jordan Valley has been the focus of Dutch research. Despite the amount of research many aspects of the regional cultures in which the inhabitants of the subsequent occupational phases of this site were incorporated, remain obscu

  3. Salud y trabajo: minería artesanal del carbón en Paipa, Colombia Saúde e trabalho: mineração artesanal do carvão em Paipa, Colômbia Health and work: Artisanal coal mining in Paipa (Province of Boyacá, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JUAN MANUEL OSPINA DÍAZ

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Contexto: existe relación directa entre las técnicas de minería del carbón y riesgos laborales, con estado de salud y probabilidad de enfermar, principalmente por neumoconiosis, trauma y alteraciones osteomusculares. Objetivo: describir condiciones de trabajo y estado de salud en una muestra de mineros informales del carbón en Paipa, Boyacá. Materiales y métodos: estudio descriptivo de corte transversal. Mediante instrumento previamente diseñado se evaluó a 196 mineros. Se exploró ambiente laboral y estado de salud. Además se revisaron algunas historias clínicas. La información se sistematizó y analizó en Epi-Info2002®. Se estimaron medidas de tendencia central y dispersión para las variables incluidas. Resultados: edad promedio 30 años; 16,3% menores de edad; características sociodemográficas compatibles con pobreza extrema; 34,7% no afiliados al SGSS; apenas 1% afiliado al régimen contributivo y 0,5% cubierto por ARP; ingreso promedio mensual $280.000 (US$140,0 aprox.; 48,9% consume alcohol semanalmente; promedio jornada 7,44 horas; 76,5% trabaja bajo superficie; 16,8% presentaba alguna enfermedad en la valoración; 15,65% refiere al menos un accidente de trabajo; 64,8% encuentra su labor monótona o repetitiva; trastornos oculares, respiratorios y osteomusculares se autorreportan frecuentemente. Conclusiones: alto riesgo ocupacional, población vulnerable, mal remunerada, sin protección laboral. Bajo nivel educativo, trabajo infantil, dieta inadecuada, consumo de alcohol y ambiente inapropiado son factores de riesgo encontrados, que se expresan principalmente como traumatismos, lesiones oculares, enfermedades respiratorias y alteraciones del sistema osteomuscular.Contexto: As técnicas de mineração do carvão e os riscos de trabalho estão diretamente relacionados com o estado de saúde e a probabilidade de doença, nomeadamente, pneumoconiose, trauma e alterações osteomusculares. Objetivo: descrever condições de trabalho e estado de saúde numa amostra de mineiros informais do carvão em Paipa, Boyacá. Materiais e métodos: levantamento observacional, descritivo de corte transversal. Cento e noventa e seis mineiros foram avaliados através de um instrumento previamente desenhado. Explorou-se ambiente de trabalho e estado de saúde e se verificaram algumas histórias clínicas. A informação foi sistematizada e analisada na Epi-Info2002®. Consideraram-se medidas de tendência central e dispersão para as variáveis incluídas. Resultados: idade média 30 anos; 16,3% menores de idade; características sociodemográficas compatíveis com pobreza extrema; 34,7% não afiliados ao SGSS; apenas 1% afiliado ao regime contributivo e 0,5% coberto por ARP; renda média mensal $280.000 (US$140,0 aprox.; 48,9% consome álcool semanalmente; jornada média 7,44 horas; 76,5% trabalha sob superfície; 16,8% apresenta alguma doença na valoração; 15,65% refere-se no mínimo a um acidente de trabalho; 64,8% considera que seu trabalho é monótono e repetitivo; transtornos oculares, respiratórios e osteomusculares ocorrem com freqüência. Conclusões: alto risco ocupacional, população vulnerável, mal remunerada, sem proteção trabalhista. Baixo nível educativo, trabalho infantil, dieta inadequada, consumo de álcool e ambiente inapropriado são alguns dos fatores de risco encontrados, expressados, nomeadamente, em doenças como traumatismos, lesões oculares, doenças respiratórias e perturbações do sistema osteomuscular.Context: There is a direct relation between coal mining techniques and work related hazards with health conditions and the likelihood of getting ill, mainly due to pneumoconiosis, trauma and alterations of bones and of muscles. Objective: describe work related conditions and health conditions in a sample of informal coal miners in Paipa, Province of Boyacá. Materials and methods: observational, cross-sectional descriptive study. 196 miners were assessed through a previously designed instrument. Work related environment and health condition were explored. In addition, some medical records were reviewed. The information was systematized and analyzed in Epi-Info2002®. Modal scores and measures of statistical dispersion were estimated for the variables included. Results: average age 30 years; 16,3% under age; socio-demographic characteristics compatible with extreme poverty; 34,7% not affiliated to SGSS (basic health insurance; hardly 1% affiliated to the social security system and 0,5% covered by ARP (Occupational Risks Insurance; average income per month $280.000 (approx. US$140,0; 48,9% consumes alcohol on a weekly basis; average work day 7,44 hours; 76,5% works underground; 16,8% presented some illness during assessment; 15,65% refers at least one work-related accident; 64,8% finds it work monotonous or repetitive; eye, respiratory and bone and muscle disorders were often self-reported. Conclusions: high occupational risk, vulnerable population group, poor remuneration, no employment protection. Low educational level, child labor, inappropriate nutrition, alcohol consumption and unsuitable environment are some of the risk factors found, which are mainly expressed in traumatisms, eye damage, respiratory disease and alterations of bones and muscle.

  4. A política pesqueira no Brasil (2003-2011: a escolha pelo crescimento produtivo e o lugar da pesca artesanal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Tavares de Azevedo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the Brazilian fisheries policy between 2003 and 2011, aiming at identifying the place of artisanal fisheries. The election of the Workers Party (Partido dos Trabalhadores, its popular basis and the announced government program created expectations that this subsector would be, for the first time, especially favored. Later, empirical evidence, the critical view that arose in the autonomous organizations of artisanal fishermen and fisherwomen, and the lack of systematic knowledge motivated this research. Therefore, in addition to the literature review, we analyzed documents and data from the institutions involved, interviewed key informants, as well as made direct and participant observation. The measures directed at the artisanal subsector, despite representing several improvements, were insufficient to strengthen it and reverse the environmental vulnerability of their communities.

  5. Trading Zones in Early Modern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Pamela O

    2015-12-01

    This essay adopts the concept of trading zones first developed for the history of science by Peter Galison and redefines it for the early modern period. The term "trading zones" is used to mean arenas in which substantive and reciprocal communication occurred between individuals who were artisanally trained and learned (university-trained) individuals. Such trading zones proliferated in the sixteenth century. They tended to arise in certain kinds of places and not in others, but their existence must be determined empirically. The author's work on trading zones differs from the ideas of Edgar Zilsel, who emphasized the influence of artisans on the scientific revolution. In contrast, in this essay, the mutual influence of artisans and the learned on each other is stressed, and translation is used as a modality that was important to communication within trading zones. PMID:27024940

  6. Comparaison de quelques caractéristiques biologiques entre Dinarmus basalis Rond. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae élevé soit sur son hôte habituel Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae soit sur Acanthoscelides macrophthalmus Schaef. ou Bruchidius lineatopygus Pic. identifiés comme hôtes de substitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya, NG.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Artisanal Fishing and Marketing of White Grouper (Epinephelus aeneus Geoffroy Saint Hilaire, 1817 in Ivory Coast. The artisanal fisheries in Ivory Coast is not well developed. It however comes in complement of the products of the industrial trawler and pelagic fisheries to satisfy the needs for the rural populations. Thanks to inexpensive machines and materials, artisanal fishermen exploit the demersal resources in not very deep water of the littoral of Ivory Coast. Their interest is on white Grouper (Epinephelus aeneus, fish living on the rocky bottom, easily accessible to the machines of fishing because of its facility to sell when they come back from the sea in spite of the highest prices they propose to the wholesalers and half wholesalers.

  7. Exposure of Mediterranean Countries to Ocean Acidification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Hilmi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the potential effects of ocean acidification on countries and fisheries of the Mediterranean Sea. The implications for seafood security and supply are evaluated by examining the sensitivity of the Mediterranean to ocean acidification at chemical, biological, and macro-economic levels. The limited information available on impacts of ocean acidification on harvested (industrial, recreational, and artisanal fishing and cultured species (aquaculture prevents any biological impact assessment. However, it appears that non-developed nations around the Mediterranean, particularly those for which fisheries are increasing, yet rely heavily on artisanal fleets, are most greatly exposed to socioeconomic consequences from ocean acidification.

  8. Basket weaving and social weaving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olwig, Mette Fog; Gough, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    An important topic in climate change discourse is the question of ``climate refugees'' and climate-related mobility, which is often presented as failed adaptation. This discourse feeds into, and reinvigorates, anti-mobility sentiments, especially concerning youth, among nongovernmental...... artisans' narratives of mobility, related in the aftermath of flooding attributed to climate change, we show, firstly, that mobility among young people is commonplace and that the decision to either stay or move is typically an active choice associated with the artisans' fabric of relations. Secondly, we...

  9. Waking Up the Mind: Qualitative Study Findings About the Process Through Which Programs Combining Income Generation and Health Education Can Empower Indigenous Guatemalan Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurman, Tilly A; Ballard, Anne; Kerr, Samantha; Walsh, Janée; Petrocy, Amy

    2016-01-01

    We explored the process through which two income-generation programs that include health education empower indigenous Guatemalan women artisans. Both artisans (n = 44) and program staff (n = 11) participated in semistructured interviews. Respondents expressed that women gained support about personal issues and experienced an awakening of the mind (despertar la mente). Through active participation, women's fear of strangers and speaking in public decreased. Women also gained mobility, awareness of their rights as women, and self-confidence from earning and managing their own income. Given our findings, we suggest that programs combining income generation and health education have the potential to empower women. PMID:25635700

  10. n Vergelykende ondersoek na die werksmotivering van blanke en swart vakmanne in 'n chemiese bedryf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Barnard

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available The work motivation of black and white artisans in a chemical industry. The objective of this study was to determine the extent to which white and black artisans in a chemical industry consider their working environment satisfactory and thus motivating. The results showed no suggestions of an optimally motivating work environment. Black artisans showed a more balanced preference pertaining to extrinsic/intrinsic motivating factors. In contrast, white artisans placed more emphasis on extrinsic motivating factors. The two groups, however, did not differ substantially in their motivational patterns.Opsomming Die doel met hierdie ondersoek was om met behulp van Lawler en Porter se verwagtingsmodel, vas te stel in watter mate blanke en swart vakmanne, in 'n chemiese nywerheid, hul werksomgewing as toereikend motiverend van aard beskou. Die resultate dui aan dat daar vir beide groepe nie sprake is van 'n optimaal motiverende werksomgewing nie. Terwyl blanke vakmanne ekstrinsieke faktore meer beklemtoon het, het swart vakmanne beter gebalanseerde voorkeure met betrekking tot ekstrinsieke/intrinsieke faktore getoon. Die motiveringspatrone van die twee groepe het egter nie wesenlik van mekaar verskil nie.

  11. Occurrence and use of an estuarine habitat by giant manta ray Manta birostris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, A M; Luiz, O J; Domit, C

    2015-06-01

    Based on the knowledge of local artisanal fishermen and on direct observations, this study presents evidence that the giant manta ray Manta birostris uses the Paranaguá estuarine complex in south Brazil, south-western Atlantic Ocean, in a predictable seasonal pattern. Behavioural observations suggest that the estuary can act as a nursery ground for M. birostris during the summer. PMID:25898851

  12. Whole-Genome Sequence of the Cheese Isolate Streptococcus macedonicus 679.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimitriou, Konstantinos; Mavrogonatou, Eleni; Bolotin, Alexander; Tsakalidou, Effie; Renault, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    It is well recognized that Streptococcus macedonicus can populate artisanal fermented foods, especially those of dairy origin. However, the safety of S. macedonicus remains to be established. Here, we present the whole-genome sequence of strain 679, which was isolated from a French uncooked semihard cheese made with cow milk. PMID:27660795

  13. 75 FR 82075 - Notice of Quarterly Report (July 1, 2010-September 30, 2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ...)-- increase tourism Efate: Ring Road. and business Traffic Volume (average development. annual daily traffic... trained on gender equality and economic rights. ID cards issued. Monetary cost of a lease transaction... revenue of SME added to tourism pottery workshops. and artisan Construction and sectors. rehabilitation...

  14. 77 FR 13637 - Notice of Quarterly Report (October 1, 2011-December 31, 2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-07

    ... tourism Efate Ring Road. and business Traffic Volume (average development. annual daily traffic)-- Santo... regularized and registered. People trained on gender equality and economic rights. Eligible population with ID... Increase value $15,965,339 Average revenue of Small added to tourism and Micro Enterprise and artisan...

  15. 76 FR 60536 - Notice of Quarterly Report (April 1, 2011-June 30, 2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ... $60,072,138 Traffic volume Project. transportation to (average annual daily increase tourism and... transactions recorded. Land parcels regularized and registered. People trained on gender equality and economic... to tourism and Small and Micro artisan sectors. Enterprise (SME) pottery workshops. Construction...

  16. 75 FR 56580 - Notice of Quarterly Report (April 1, 2010-June 30, 2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-16

    ... tourism Efate: Ring Road. and business Traffic Volume (average development. annual daily traffic)-- Santo.... People trained on gender equality and economic rights. ID cards issued. Monetary cost of a lease... SME added to tourism pottery workshops. and artisan Construction and sectors. rehabilitation of...

  17. 76 FR 19131 - Notice of Quarterly Report (October 1, 2010-December 31, 2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-06

    ...)--Efate: Ring tourism and Road. business Traffic Volume development. (average annual daily traffic)--Santo... parcels regularized and registered. People trained on gender equality and economic rights. ID cards issued...,083,742 Average revenue of SME added to tourism pottery workshops. and artisan sectors....

  18. SAMUDRA Report No. 65, July 2013

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Sticky issues - An update on the recent SSF guidelines, Forced into slavery- New Zealand, Grabbing oceans- MPAs fail to recognize human-rights issues, Getting rights wrong- GPO ignores the voices of SSF people, Smoking kilns- artisan fishers on the map, Depending on mangroves- Vietnam, Statement made at the GDF on work in fishing convention, fishy partnership- proposed GPO, Champion for fishers - Rolf Willmann

  19. Getting Students to Read: Anticipation Guides as Tools to Encourage Engagement with Academic Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaback, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    Supporting the reading development of college students is the responsibility of all professors. As experts in the field, with experience navigating and interpreting readings in a particular discipline, professors are obligated to think of themselves as master artisans apprenticing their students to the craft of reading. Texts in all subject areas…

  20. Colonial Corporatism in the French Mandated States: Labor, Capital, the Mandatory Power, and the 1935 Syrian Law of Associations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey D. Schad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The “social question” in Syria during the French Mandate (1920-1946 was by and large subordinated to the “national question”. However, one stratum of Syrian society, the artisanal-laboring segment, did press for recognition of its rights during the 1920s and 1930s. Artisans and factory workers began to organize themselves and to agitate for amelioration of their situation. Labor militancy peaked in the early 1930s with a series of strikes, coinciding with a major political and economic crisis in the Levant states that threatened to disrupt social order and challenged the maintenance of French authority. In consequence the Mandatory Power attempted to channel artisanal/working class grievances through officially controlled “professional associations”. The Mandatory’s efforts were only a partial success. Although Syrian elites largely accepted the corporatist bargain offered by the French, artisans and workers continued their quest for autonomy. In analyzing the motivations, impact, and legacy of Mandatory social legislation, it is suggested that a model of “colonial corporatism” is a useful way to approach this and similar situations.

  1. Human Resource Development for the Proposed 9.6 GW Nuclear Build Programme in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summary: • Universities can probably produce the required numbers of graduates on time, provided they start developing them now. • Technical/artisanal training requires significant work to develop the necessary capacity to develop/grow the local skills base necessary to bring the project to completion on time and within budget

  2. Community spaces in the minds of traditional craftsmen in a pottery village in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kota Maruya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available At present, the planning for the conservation or development of Japanese traditional crafts is based on administrative districts or water catchment areas. However, the conservation of Japanese traditions relies not only on the access to relevant natural resources but also on artisans׳ ability to manufacture crafts in specific environments. The perspectives of artisans on their work environments have a significant influence on traditional crafts. In this study, we aimed to investigate the changes in natural resource use in a village recognized for Koishiwara-yaki-style pottery. We employed a questionnaire and conducted interview surveys to collect data on the perceptions of the artisans working in the said village. The findings were as follows. 1 The area commonly regarded by the artisans as their place for pottery was identified. The identification of areas that are significant to local tradition can serve as a vital contribution to spatial planning. 2 The birth place of the local ceramics tradition in a local water catchment area was regarded as critically important in the preservation of the traditions of the village. 3 Several potters emphasized the value of their work environment to ver administrative support because of the historical connection between the place and their traditions. Highlighting this connection can attract historical and cultural tourism to this area.

  3. Environmental, Demogrphic and Socioeconomic Factors Influencing Adoption of Fisheries Conservation Measures in Niger Delta, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. Akankali

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine Environmental, Demogrphic and Socioeconomic factors influencing adoption of artisanal fisheries resources conservation measures based on the perspectives of Artisanal fishers in Delta, Rivers and Bayelsa states, Niger Delta, Nigeria. The study was conducted for a period of one year (January 2008 to Decmber 2008. With the aid of well-structured questionnaires the desired information were collected and analyzed. A total sample size of 1,200 respondents within the study area, were selected using random sampling technique. Logistic regression technique was used to determine the impact of the independent variables on willingness to adopt fisheries conservation measures. The regression analysis result show that eleven (11 independent variables (Public Enlightenment, Regulatory pressure, Environmental stewardship, Severity of pollutants, Economic circumstances, Institutional Support, Information access, Highest Education, Fishing Experience, Legal Structure and Age were factors that influence willingness to adopt conservation measures by the fishers. However, the level of influence was found to vary differently in the three states studied depending on the socioeconomic and educational status and other peculiarities of each of the state. Generally, based on the result of the logit analysis of the perspectives of the artisanal fisher respondents, it is therefore inferred that the willingness to adopt fisheries resources conservation measures in the Niger Delta by the Artisanal Fishers, is significantly a function of the studied demographic, socioeconomic, psychological, institutional and environmental factors as specified by the eleven variables.

  4. Genetic analysis of a novel plasmid encoded durancin locus in Enterococcus durans 41D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enterococcus durans is commonly found in the intestinal tract in humans and animals and several strains are known to produce bacteriocins. Durancin GL, a novel bacteriocin of Enterococcus durans 41D with antilisterial activity was isolated from artisanal cheese samples and its genetic determinants ...

  5. Whole-Genome Sequence of the Cheese Isolate Streptococcus macedonicus 679

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavrogonatou, Eleni; Bolotin, Alexander; Tsakalidou, Effie

    2016-01-01

    It is well recognized that Streptococcus macedonicus can populate artisanal fermented foods, especially those of dairy origin. However, the safety of S. macedonicus remains to be established. Here, we present the whole-genome sequence of strain 679, which was isolated from a French uncooked semihard cheese made with cow milk. PMID:27660795

  6. Food from the Sulawesi Sea, the need for integrated sea use planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siahainenia, Audrie J.

    2016-01-01

    Mangroves occur in the tropics and subtropics region and an important coastal habitat for the artisanal fisheries along the coast of Indonesia. Around 19% of the total mangrove area in the world is located in Indonesia. Besides providing a barrier against coastal/Delta erosion, mangrove forest plays

  7. Characterization of Mercury Emissions from ASGM Goldshop Activities in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercury (Hg), used in artisanal small-scale gold mining (ASGM) practices, is recognized as a significant source of Hg release to the environment and is a major area of focus of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) Global Mercury Partnership. Hg is used to bind (form a...

  8. Shadows of the Plantation? A social history of Suriname’s bauxite town Moengo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. de Koning

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the social history of Suriname’s first bauxite town, Moengo, founded in the late 1910s. It recounts the rise of a new industry that drew workers away from the plantations and urban artisanal occupations to work in a massive, highly organized and orchestrated organization-cum-so

  9. Vulnerability to a small-scale commercial fishery of Lake Tana's (Ethiopia) endemic Labeobarbus compared with African catfish and Nile tilapia: An example of recruitment-overfishing?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, de M.; Zwieten, van P.A.M.; Machiels, M.A.M.; Lemma, E.; Wudneh, T.; Dejen, E.; Sibbing, F.A.

    2006-01-01

    In 1986 a motorised, commercial gillnet fishery was introduced in Lake Tana, Ethiopia's largest lake (3050 km2) in addition to the artisanal, predominantly subsistence fishery conducted from reedboats. The three main species groups targeted by this fishery are a species flock of endemic, large Labeo

  10. Traditional Apprenticeship in West Africa: Recent Evidence and Policy Options. Discussion Paper No. 34.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluitman, Fred

    Apprenticeship is the main avenue to self-employment in micro-enterprises and thus a cornerstone of informal sector development in West Africa. Survey results for Ibadan, Lome, Dakar, Niamey, and other cities demonstrate that apprenticeship as practiced by informal sector artisans is often very similar from one country to the next. Dropout rates…

  11. Magic Hands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    THE two most amazing things on the planet may well be the human brain and human hands. When they work together, the results can be enchanting. At an international folk art fair held recently in Beijing, artisans and masters from Japan, India, Switzerland, Peru, South

  12. Art, Technology and Nature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    . Transdisciplinary in approach, this volume’s 14 essays explore art, technology and nature’s shifting constellations that are discernible at the micro level and as part of a larger chronological pattern. Included are subjects ranging from Renaissance wooden dolls, science in the Italian art academies, and artisanal...

  13. Bacterial population in traditional sourdough evaluated by molecular methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Randazzo, C.L.; Heilig, G.H.J.; Restuccia, C.; Giudici, P.; Caggia, C.

    2005-01-01

    Aims: To study the microbial communities in artisanal sourdoughs, manufactured by traditional procedure in different areas of Sicily, and to evaluate the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) population by classical and culture-independent approaches. Methods and Results: Forty-five LAB isolates were identifie

  14. Theory-Based Lexicographical Methods in a Functional Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Sven

    2014-01-01

    This contribution provides an overview of some of the methods used in relation to the function theory. It starts with a definition of the concept of method and the relation existing between theory and method. It establishes an initial distinction between artisanal and theory-based methods...

  15. Small-scale Fisheries Governance and Understanding the Snoek (Thyrsites atun Supply Chain in the Ocean View Fishing Community, Western Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moenieba Isaacs

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Postapartheid fisheries reform in South Africa, through the Marine Living Resources Act (MLRA 18 of 1998, used individual transferable quotas (ITQs to broaden resource access through allocating quotas to new entrants, even though the system has been created to reduce capacity through a reduction in the number of active fishers. The formal action space created through fisheries reform in South Africa left many artisanal fishers to operate in the informal action spaces, selling Thyrsites atun (snoek to poor communities to sustain their livelihoods. Artisanal fishers were not recognized by MLRA of 1998 and through class action case brought against the ITQ system, and in out of court settlement with the claimants in 2007, 1000 interim relief permits will be allocated to artisanal fishes and the development of a new small-scale fisheries policy for South Africa. In this case study of a fishing community in Ocean View, Cape Town I examine a snoek fishery that operates differently, through a community supply chain and informal markets, than that of the high value ITQ regulated species, yet plays a significant role in the livelihoods of artisanal fishers and in the food security of poor households. The findings of this case study show the failures of existing policy frameworks and the implications for the implementation of the new small-scale fisheries policy in South Africa.

  16. "Once a Miner, Always a Miner": Poverty and Livelihood Diversification in Akwatia, Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilson, Gavin

    2010-01-01

    This paper offers an alternative viewpoint on why people choose to engage in artisanal mining--the low tech mineral extraction and processing of mainly precious metals and stones--for extended periods in sub-Saharan Africa. Drawing upon experiences from Akwatia, Ghana's epicentre of diamond production since the mid-1920s, the analysis challenges…

  17. Fabrication and Assessment of 3D Printed Anatomical Models of the Lower Limb for Anatomical Teaching and Femoral Vessel Access Training in Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Michael K.; Reese, Sven; Herlihy, Therese; Geoghegan, Tony; Cantwell, Colin P.; Feeney, Robin N. M.; Jones, James F. X.

    2016-01-01

    For centuries, cadaveric dissection has been the touchstone of anatomy education. It offers a medical student intimate access to his or her first patient. In contrast to idealized artisan anatomical models, it presents the natural variation of anatomy in fine detail. However, a new teaching construct has appeared recently in which artificial…

  18. of Filigree Inlay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    Filigree inlay is a special traditional craft technique in the manufacture of Beijing jewelry. It uses gold, platinum, silver and copper as its raw materials. The artisans use very complicated processes to make different designs and patterns. Then they inlay diamonds and gems of all kinds to make delicate jewelry and ornamental objects. They are a feast for the eyes.

  19. Crowdfunding's Potential for the Developing World

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2013-01-01

    Crowdfunding is an Internet-enabled way for businesses or other organizations to raise money in the form of either donations or investments from multiple individuals. This new form of capital formation emerged in the wake of the 2008 financial crisis largely because of the difficulties faced by artisans, entrepreneurs and early-stage enterprises in raising funds. Crowdfunding takes advanta...

  20. Case of late-onset corneal decompensation after iris-fixated phakic intraocular lens implantation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijden, R. van; Vries, N.E. de; Cruysberg, L.P.J.; Webers, C.A.; Berenschot, T.; Nuijts, R.M.

    2009-01-01

    A 48-year-old myopic patient with bilateral anterior chamber depth of 3.1 mm and endothelial cell density (ECD) of 2525 cells/mm(2) and 2638 cells/mm(2) preoperatively had bilateral implantation of an Artisan iris-fixated phakic intraocular lens (pIOL). Five years postoperatively, unilateral corneal

  1. Pre-Incan Archeology of Peru: Paleo-Indians in the Paleo-Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alibrandi, Marsha

    2011-01-01

    Peru's prehistory, climate, and terrain are the landscape upon which one of humankind's longest migrations occurred. When the glacial period ended, a geographic and cultural transition began when the meltwaters carved river valleys across the South American continent. Culture-rich communities of fishers, miners, artisans, and morticians populated…

  2. Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro De Gloria

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This first issue represents the beginning of a new period that is even more challenging. The time of SG development as an artisanal process is ending, SG design, implementation and deployment is a scientific field well positioned in this new scientific era where multi-disciplinarity is the core of any research.

  3. Informe Especial de la Procuraduria para la Defensa de los Derechos Humanos sobre el legado de la Mina San Sebastian y sus impactos en la vida de las poblaciones afectadas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pacheco Cueva, Vladimir; Quiñonez Basagoitia, Julio Cesar; Van Ho, Tara;

    This reports is the result of a study carried out to analyse the socio-economic impacts of the San Sebastian Mine in eastern El Salvador. The impacts are divided into 3 areas: land ownership, water resources and artisanal miner's livelihoods. The report contains 20 recommendations for the Salvado...

  4. From Pasteur to Probiotics: A Historical Overview of Cheese and Microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Catherine W

    2013-10-01

    Cheese is a food which has been produced for centuries. While cheese was originally developed as a product which extended the shelf life of milk, over time distinct cheese varieties arose, being shaped by geographic, climate, cultural, and economic factors. Global demand for artisan cheeses is creating new economic opportunities. Consumers seeking distinctive products with regional flavor, or terroir, are becoming connoisseurs of hand-crafted cheeses with distinctive tastes and character. These demands have spurred new inquiry into microorganisms used as starter cultures and adjunct cultures, as well as the microbiological consortia of finished cheeses. Such demands have also created new concerns for food safety and international trade. New bacterial pathogens such as Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium DT104 have emerged in the food supply, causing a reevaluation of the efficacy of traditional cheesemaking procedures to control these pathogens. Similarly, pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes pose problems to susceptible human populations, and cheese can be a vehicle of transmission for this deadly pathogen. With changes in sanitary requirements due to the globalization of the food industry, governments around the world are increasingly requiring assurances of cheese safety. While many governments recognize the safety of traditional artisan cheeses manufactured from raw milk, others are demanding pasteurization of all milk intended for cheesemaking to provide assurance of microbiological safety. In response, new technologies are being proposed to increase cheese safety, but these technologies fundamentally alter the traditional artisan practices and may not enhance microbiological safety. A reevaluation of the safety of traditional artisan practices, validation thereof, and communication of the scientific principles which promote safety will be necessary to enable the continued production of traditional artisan cheeses in global

  5. From food to feed: Assessment of the stationary lift net fishery of East Hainan, Northern South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumme, Uwe; Wang, Tian C.; Wang, Dao R.

    2013-04-01

    In the Asia-Pacific region, the increasing demand for low value/trash fish as feed for mariculture drives unsustainable fisheries on already overexploited marine resources. The mariculture demand may also affect artisanal nearshore fisheries operating in shallow nursery grounds, e.g., lift net fisheries, but little is known about how they work. We describe the stationary lift net artisanal fishery on the East coast of Hainan Island (northern South China Sea). A trapezoidal blanket net (mean surface area: 478 m2), stretched between four upright poles at the corners, is lowered and lifted via a rope system from a tower by a single fisher. In 2009 ˜200 households depended on 288 lift nets, 82% of which were located in the Wenchang/Wenjiao estuary. The number of lift nets decreased by 15% from 2007 to 2009. Presently, it is mainly an early retirement activity of fishers with a median age of 52 years and younger men rarely enter the fishery due to low catch rates. However, not one fisher would stop fishing even at 50% hypothetical decline in catch — due to lack of alternatives. Mean catch weight per fishing day is 12 kg (range: 0-1.7 t). In the past, the entire catch was used as food. Presently, an average of 52% of the catch is sold as feed to local pond and floating net cage mariculturists who, subsequently, supply the live food trade to markets as far as Hong Kong. Larger dead fishes are sold at village markets or at Qinglan harbor and are locally or regionally consumed. The density of lift-net operation is highest around the Wenchang/Wenjiao lagoon due to the presence of an extensive sheltered, shallow subtidal area in proximity to mariculture and export markets in Qinglan. Thus, the modern mariculture demand for low value/trash fish supports the continuation of an ancient artisanal fishery despite severe resource depletion. The existence of similar lift nets in Vietnam points to an exchange in the artisanal fishing knowledge between Vietnam and Hainan

  6. Plantes sauvages à usages artisanaux chez les Pygmées "Mbuti" de la forêt de l'Ituri (République Démocratique du Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kahindo, M.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Artisanal Use of Plants by "Mbuti" Pygmies in Ituri Forest in Democratic Republic of Congo. Ethnobotanical investigations have been made with the Pygmy "Mbuti" communities living in the Ituri forest in the north-east of the Democratic Republic of Congo. Forty-three forestry species used in different artisanal practices were identified. They belong to 40 genera and 22 familles, especially Caesalpinaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Arecaceae, Rubiaceae, Apocynaceae and Marantaceae. Most of the trees, lianas and shrubs are used to supply essentially wood (51.0 %, bark (14.9 %, fruits and leaves (12.8 % for each and sap (8.5 % for making of various materials. These investigations also show the attachment of "Mbuti" people to the forestry resources regardless of animal breeding and agriculture.

  7. John Ruskin and the Savage Gothic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances S. Connelly

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available John Ruskin’s provocative theories concerning Gothic art and architecture bear serious consideration in light of the formative debates concerning “primitive” art and its relation to modern European society. Like many primitivists, Ruskin’s advocacy for the medieval was motivated by a reformist zeal concerning the state of modern industrial Europe. He differs markedly in his ideas concerning the value and uses of the "savage” Gothic for modern audiences. Ruskin rejected the random borrowing of stylistic elements, stressing instead the artisanal process and the communal role of Gothic monuments. It is also significant that Ruskin problematises the relationship between “primitive” and modern by repeatedly acknowledging his position as a modern viewer and emphasising the process through which he makes (artisan-like his interpretive history of the Gothic. Rejecting the mastering gaze, Ruskin constantly reminds readers that their view of this pre-modern work is fragmentary and disjunctive.

  8. Sensory profile of P.D.O. Mozzarella di Bufala Campana Cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Chianese

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to define the typical sensory profile of DOP Mozzarella di Bufala Campana cheese as related to the technological process (industrial or artisanal, the geographical area (Salerno or Caserta, the season (spring or summer and to the chemical composition of both milk and cheese. The results obtained showed that the sensorial profile of Mozzarella DOP changed for each variable considered. In particular, Caserta samples were more salty, with a more intense butter odour, higher peelability and homogeneity surface than those from Salerno area; the industrial samples, compared to the artisanal ones, were more salty, hard and “chewable”, and exhibited an external layer more difficult to remove and more homogeneous.

  9. Peche artisanale sur DCP et peche palangriere a la Reunion: antagonisme ou complementarite?

    OpenAIRE

    Tessier, E.; Poisson, Francois

    2000-01-01

    More than ten years after its launching, an evaluation of the results of the FADs programme carried on in Reunion Island has been made. Its implementation and its impact on artisanal fishery in Reunion Island have been analysed. This analysis demonstrates that, following a continuously ascending phase, the production of fish caught on fads has reached a plateau. Parallel to the FAD-associated fishery, the longline fishery has developed since 1991. This type of fishery includes production unit...

  10. Bilan et perspectives de developpement des DCP au Cap-Vert

    OpenAIRE

    Rey-Valette, H.; Martins, P.

    2000-01-01

    A new programme concerning the experimentation of about thirty Fish Aggregating Devices (FADs) is to start in the Cape Verde Islands at the end of 1999. In this context, this communication is intended: - to evaluate the halieutic, economic and social conditions of the artisanal fishery in this archipelago, notably in terms of assets and constraints. Although these conditions are very heterogeneous depending on islands, the fads seem to be able to help the stabilization and the development of ...

  11. Perancangan teknologi cloud untuk penjualan online kain songket Palembang

    OpenAIRE

    Fikri; Abdillah, Leon Andretti; Apriyani, Ema

    2015-01-01

    Cloud Computing is a paradigm in which information is permanently stored in servers on the Internet and temporarily stored on the user's computer (client) including the desktop. This study aims to design an online sales application based cloud computing technology to help the artisans Palembang songket and do not rule out the possibility for other small medium enterprises (SMEs) to manage assets and market their products online so it can be accessed anytime and anywhere via personal computer,...

  12. Number One Pery Square Wine List, 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Number One Pery Square

    2013-01-01

    Number One Pery Square is located in Pery Square, the Georgian Quarter, Limerick City, Co. Limerick. It now has its own kitchen garden right in the heart of the city. The chef is Alan Burns. The hotel has the Brasserie One Restaurant where the philosophy is to serve simple, sensibly priced dishes sometimes rustic, sometimes classic using the freshest of local ingredients. Brasserie One is a true classic Irish brasserie with strong French influences and the use of Irish artisan produce where p...

  13. Number One Pery Square Sample Easter Sunday Lunch Menu, April 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Number One Pery Square

    2013-01-01

    Number One Pery Square is located in Pery Square, the Georgian Quarter, Limerick City, Co. Limerick. It now has its own kitchen garden right in the heart of the city. The chef is Alan Burns. The hotel has the Brasserie One Restaurant where the philosophy is to serve simple, sensibly priced dishes sometimes rustic, sometimes classic using the freshest of local ingredients. Brasserie One is a true classic Irish brasserie with strong French influences and the use of Irish artisan produce where p...

  14. Number One Pery Square Sample Breakfast Menu, 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Number One Pery Square

    2013-01-01

    Number One Pery Square is located in Pery Square, the Georgian Quarter, Limerick City, Co. Limerick. It now has its own kitchen garden right in the heart of the city. The chef is Alan Burns. The hotel has the Brasserie One Restaurant where the philosophy is to serve simple, sensibly priced dishes sometimes rustic, sometimes classic using the freshest of local ingredients. Brasserie One is a true classic Irish brasserie with strong French influences and the use of Irish artisan produce where p...

  15. Number One Pery Square Sample Valentines Day Dinner Menu, 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Number One Pery Square

    2013-01-01

    Number One Pery Square is located in Pery Square, the Georgian Quarter, Limerick City, Co. Limerick. It now has its own kitchen garden right in the heart of the city. The chef is Alan Burns. The hotel has the Brasserie One Restaurant where the philosophy is to serve simple, sensibly priced dishes sometimes rustic, sometimes classic using the freshest of local ingredients. Brasserie One is a true classic Irish brasserie with strong French influences and the use of Irish artisan produce where p...

  16. Brasserie One at Number One Pery Square Sample A La Carte Menu 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Number One Pery Square

    2013-01-01

    Number One Pery Square is located in Pery Square, the Georgian Quarter, Limerick City, Co. Limerick. It now has its own kitchen garden right in the heart of the city. The chef is Alan Burns. The hotel has the Brasserie One Restaurant where the philosophy is to serve simple, sensibly priced dishes sometimes rustic, sometimes classic using the freshest of local ingredients. Brasserie One is a true classic Irish brasserie with strong French influences and the use of Irish artisan produce where p...

  17. Number One Pery Square Sample Spring Market Value Dinner Menu, 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Number One Pery Square

    2013-01-01

    Number One Pery Square is located in Pery Square, the Georgian Quarter, Limerick City, Co. Limerick. It now has its own kitchen garden right in the heart of the city. The chef is Alan Burns. The hotel has the Brasserie One Restaurant where the philosophy is to serve simple, sensibly priced dishes sometimes rustic, sometimes classic using the freshest of local ingredients. Brasserie One is a true classic Irish brasserie with strong French influences and the use of Irish artisan produce where p...

  18. Number One Pery Square Sample Harvest Value Dinner Menu,2013

    OpenAIRE

    Number One Pery Square

    2013-01-01

    Number One Pery Square is located in Pery Square, the Georgian Quarter, Limerick City, Co. Limerick. It now has its own kitchen garden right in the heart of the city. The chef is Alan Burns. The hotel has the Brasserie One Restaurant where the philosophy is to serve simple, sensibly priced dishes sometimes rustic, sometimes classic using the freshest of local ingredients. Brasserie One is a true classic Irish brasserie with strong French influences and the use of Irish artisan produce where p...

  19. Number One Pery Square: Wine List 12th. December, 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Number One Pery Square

    2012-01-01

    Number One Pery Square is located in Pery Square, the Georgian Quarter, Limerick City, Co. Limerick. It now has its own kitchen garden right in the heart of the city. The chef is Alan Burns. The hotel has the Brasserie One Restaurant where the philosophy is to serve simple, sensibly priced dishes sometimes rustic, sometimes classic using the freshest of local ingredients. Brasserie One is a true classic Irish brasserie with strong French influences and the use of Irish artisan produce where p...

  20. Number One Pery Square Sample Private Dining and Group Lunch Menu, 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Number One Pery Square

    2013-01-01

    Number One Pery Square is located in Pery Square, the Georgian Quarter, Limerick City, Co. Limerick. It now has its own kitchen garden right in the heart of the city. The chef is Alan Burns. The hotel has the Brasserie One Restaurant where the philosophy is to serve simple, sensibly priced dishes sometimes rustic, sometimes classic using the freshest of local ingredients. Brasserie One is a true classic Irish brasserie with strong French influences and the use of Irish artisan produce where p...

  1. Feeding and nutritional ecology of the edible sea urchin Loxechinus albus in the northern Chilean coast Ecología nutricional y alimenticia del erizo comestible Loxechinus albus en el norte de Chile

    OpenAIRE

    SOLANGE J GONZÁLEZ; CRISTIAN W CÁCERES; F. PATRICIO OJEDA

    2008-01-01

    The red sea urchin Loxechinus albus, an economically important species oceurring along the Chilean littoral benthic systems, has been heavily exploited by artisanal fisheries in recent decades. However, basic knowledge of its trophic biology is still scarce. Studies of this kind are critical to the successful development of farming techniques as an alternative to the harvest of natural populations. The aims of this study were to quantify the composition of L. albus' natural diet, to determine...

  2. Bionic hand exoprosthesis – Perspectives for the future in Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Pogarasteanu, ME; Barbilian, AG

    2014-01-01

    Prosthetics is a modern area of interest and a challenge in Orthopedics. Over time, there has been a transition from an artisanal method of prosthetics production to modern concepts and materials, including a re-education through virtual reality. The conditions for an efficient fitting of a prosthesis include the necessity that the prosthesis respects the form and function of the lost limb, both anatomically and biomechanically. Prosthetics are made individually, personalized according to sex...

  3. The evolution of harmonic Indian musical drums: A mathematical perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudet, Samuel; Gauthier, Claude; Léger, Sophie

    2006-03-01

    We explain using mathematics how harmonic musical drums were discovered by Indian artisans and musicians more than 2000 years ago. To this end, we introduce a harmonic error function which measures the quality of the harmonic relationship and degeneracy of the first modes of vibration of a centrally symmetric loaded membrane. We explain that although the tabla configuration found by the ancient Indians is the most natural one, other configurations exist and some are harmonically superior to the classical one.

  4. Localisation vs. globalisation of typical products and experiential consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Vittoria MARINO; Carmen GALLUCCI; Giada MAINOLFI

    2007-01-01

    The transformations taking place in the world economy can facilitate integration processes, both on a horizontal and vertical scale, and can be an opportunity for all businesses, of whatever size and sector. Nowadays, in this globalized economy consumers seem to be more and more interested in buying artisan products as synonymous of quality, tradition, culture and environment respect. The aim of this paper is to analyse and define characteristic local products in the framework of an economic ...

  5. Heroes and highlights in the history of diffusion

    OpenAIRE

    Mehrer, Helmut; Stolwijk, Nicolaas A.

    2015-01-01

    The science of diffusion had its beginnings in the nineteenth century, although the blacksmiths and metal artisans of antiquity already, used diffusion phenomena to make such objects as hardened iron swords and gilded bronze wares. Diffusion as a scientific discipline is based on several cornerstones. The most important ones are: (i) The continuum theory of diffusion originating from the work of the German physiologist Adolf Fick, who was inspired by elegant experiments on diffusion in gases ...

  6. Medal Marriage Made in Heaven

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    China will use jade in the medals for the Beijing Olympics in order to symbolize the nation’s culture On March 1,artisans at the Shanghai Mint were about to add the fin- ishing touch to 3,030 jade rings. These jade tings will be mounted on the reverse side of the medals to be pre- sented at the 2008 Beijing Olympics Games. A ring will encircle the Beijing Games em- blem engraved on metal in the center of each

  7. Chapter 1. The Global “Middle Ages”

    OpenAIRE

    Rubin, Miri

    2012-01-01

    I continue to follow the autobiographical strand with which I began. Coming to the world of historical research in the mid-1980s was tantamount to an exhilarating immersion in a gushing fountainhead. So much was fresh and new, and there was more to come. Gender was becoming established as a necessary tool of knowledge and historical understanding; groups traditionally neglected or indeed condescended to by historians—women, peasants, children, artisans, Jews, gypsies, lower clergy—had found t...

  8. Evaluation of the current state of small pelagic fisheries in the Colombian Pacific: ensuring the sustainability of the resource and evaluating its response to climatic events

    OpenAIRE

    Zapata, L. A.; B. S. Beltrán-León; Herrera, J. C.; Jiménez-Tello, P.; L. M. Prieto; R. A. Baos; Guevara-Fletcher, C.; Zambrano, E.

    2013-01-01

    Commercial fishing of small pelagic species in Colombia, mainly "carduma" (Cetengraulis mysticetus) and "plumuda" (Opisthonema spp.), has been recorded since 1970. Both are used to produce fish meal for aquaculture and poultry and for canned foods. These two species are filter feeders, and therefore support higher levels of the food chain (other fish, birds and marine mammals), and artisanal fishermen use them as bait. Between 2005 and 2010, 86.131 t have been captured (X...

  9. Chronic adaptations of lung function in breath-hold diving fishermen

    OpenAIRE

    Cristiane Diniz; Tiago Farias; Mayane Pereira; Caio Pires; Luciana Gonçalves; Patrícia Coertjens; Marcelo Coertjens

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to verify and analyze the existence of chronic adaptations of lung function in freediving fishermen whose occupation is artisanal fishing. Material and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving 11 breath-hold diving fishermen and 10 non-breath-hold diving fishermen (control) from the village of Bitupitá in the municipality of Barroquinha (Ceará - Brazil). Anthropometric measurements, chest and abdominal circumferences as well as spirometric and ...

  10. Economic impacts of globalisation at the district, landing site and sub-sector enterprise levels on Lakes Kyoga, Albert and Victoria

    OpenAIRE

    Odongkara, K.; Wegoye, J.; Kyangwa, M.; Nyapendi, A.

    2003-01-01

    The Globalisation and fish utilisation and marketing study is a collaboration between the Fisheries Resources Research Institute (FIRRI) and the Mike Dillon Associates Limited , with funding from the Department for International Development (DFID) of the Government of the United Kingdom. The study is designed to examine the impact of the development of the export fishery on the fish producers, processors, traders and consumers in the artisanal fishery in Uganda. FIRRI 's role is to collect fi...

  11. A State of the Art Paper on Improving Salt Extraction from Lake Katwe Raw Materials In Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Kasedde, Hillary; Kirabira, John; Bäbler, Matthäus; Tilliander, Anders; Jonsson, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    The characteristics of Katwe salt lake are briefly discussed. The lake is the largest of the eight saline lakes in the Katwe-Kikorongo volcanic field and is a major source of salt production in Uganda. Today, salt production at the lake is carried out using traditional and artisanal mining methods. Attempts to mechanize the production of domestic and commercial grade salt at the lake were unsuccessful due to the use of a wrong technology. In this paper, the most common available technologies ...

  12. Genetic diversity and population structure of bocachico Prochilodus magdalenae (Pisces, Prochilodontidae) in the Magdalena River basin and its tributaries, Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Gilberto Orozco Berdugo; Narváez Barandica, Juan C.

    2013-01-01

    Prochilodus magdalenae is an endemic freshwater fish that occurs in the Magdalena, Sinú and Atrato hydrographic basins. It has an important economic role and is a food resource for the artisanal fishing communities. Its socioeconomic importance contrasts with the current status of its fisheries, where stocks are being depleted. Considering its importance and lack of information on its genetic structure, we used seven microsatellite markers to assess the genetic structure of wild populations o...

  13. The Status of the United States Population of Night Shark, Carcharhinus signatus

    OpenAIRE

    John K. Carlson; Cortés, Enric; Neer, Julie A.; McCandless, Camilla T.; Beerkircher, Lawrence R.

    2008-01-01

    Night sharks, Carcharhinus signatus, are an oceanic species generally occurring in outer continental shelf waters in the western North Atlantic Ocean including the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico. Although not targeted, night sharks make up a segment of the shark bycatch in the pelagic longline fishery. Historically, night sharks comprised a significant proportion of the artisanal Cuban shark fishery but today they are rarely caught. Although information from some fisheries has shown a...

  14. Biometric characterization of sharks of the genus Sphyrna (Griffith & Smith, 1834) on the coast of Sergipe

    OpenAIRE

    Jéssica Barros Andrade; Daniela Nascimento Santos; Maraisa de Oliveira Silva; Thays Brito Reis Santos; Thiago Silveira Meneses; Andressa Sales Coelho

    2016-01-01

    Sharks, rays and chimeras belonging to the subclass Elasmobranchii of the class Chondrichthyes have a slow maturation and development, and they are animals often caught as by-catch, making them vulnerable to extinction. Six species of the genus Sphyrna are found in Brazil, in the coastal-oceanic zone, three of which were studied: Sphyrna lewini, S. mokarran and S. tiburo. This study aimed to evaluate the biometrics, sex and stage of sexual development of the genus Sphyrna in artisanal fishin...

  15. EU project for the Provision of Scientific Advice for the Purpose of the implementation of the EUPOA sharks: a brief overview of the results for Indian Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Murua, Hilario; Santos, M. N.; Chavance, Pierre; Amande, J; Abascal, Francisco J.; Ariz, Javier; Bach, Pascal; Korta, M; Poisson, Francois; Coelho, R.; Seret, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this project was to obtain scientific advice for the purpose of implementing the EUPOA on sharks as regards the facilitation of monitoring fisheries and shark stock assessment on a species-specific level in the high seas. The study was focused on major elasmobranch species caught by both artisanal and industrial large pelagic fisheries on the High Seas of the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific area, which are currently monitored and potentially managed by respective Tuna RFMOs. ...

  16. A dorsal fold in Gymnura micrura (Bloch and Scheneider, 1801 (Chondrichthyes: Gymnuridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Luiz Silva Nunes

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a dorsal fold which is a membranous structure located on the tail of two juvenile butterfly rays, Gymnura micrura (Bloch & Scheneider, 1801, caught through artisanal fishery in the shallow waters of Maranhão State (Brazil.Neste manuscrito registra-se uma nadadeira dorsal em dois espécimes juvenis de Gymnura micrura (Bloch and Scheneider, 1801 capturadas pela pesca artesanal em águas rasas do estado do Maranhão (Brasil.

  17. Some aspects of the biology of the female blue crab Callinectes amnicola (De Rocheburne) from the Cross River estuary, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Eyo Victor Oscar; Akpan Michael Mfon; Udoh Ifiok Solomon

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate some important aspects of the biology of Callinectes amnicola (C. amnicola) such as fecundity, carapace length-weight relationship, condition factor and carapace length frequency distribution from the Cross River estuary, Nigeria. Methods: A total of one hundred and twenty ovigerous females of C. amnicola, freshly caught with basket traps, lift net trap, and gill net were collected from the catches of the artisanal fisheries in the study area between J...

  18. Genetic variability of Chilean and Peruvian surfclams (Donax marincovichi and Donax obesulus)

    OpenAIRE

    Carstensen, Daniel; Herrmann, Marko; Laudien, Jürgen; Schiel, Sigrid; Arntz, Wolf; Leese, Florian; Held, Christoph

    2006-01-01

    Exposed intertidal sandy beaches are commonly dominated by surf clams of the genus Donax. In Peru and Chile these bivalves play an important role for artisanal fisheries. Beside that, little is known about the taxonomy, biology, and the clams susceptibility to climatically induced changes. The taxonomic status of the two Donax species Donax marincovichi and Donax obesulus, distributed along the Peruvian coastline, is controversially discussed. As morphometric comparisons reveal no significant...

  19. The Woolmark Company Announces Global Prize Awarding Excellence in Merino Wool Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The international Woolmark Prize crosses borders and cultures by seeking outstanding and emerging talent from around the world, aligning the support of emerging designers with the evolution of emerging countries. It is an award for the young generation, shifting the focus from glamour to true talent as a way to highlight wool's eco credentials. It is Woolmark's social commitment, a sharing of resources to support local artisans.

  20. 1996 fisheries statistics, Lake Kariba - Zimbabwe shore

    OpenAIRE

    Karenge, L.; Mugwagwa, M.

    1997-01-01

    The report provides catch records for the Kapenta and inshore fisheries in the Zimbabwean waters of Lake Kariba for the year 1996. Kapenta usually constitute about 90% of the total catch from Lake Kariba; for statistical purposes catches are recorded for the 5 hydrological basins - Mlibizi, Binga, Sengwa, Bumi and Kariba. Whereas kapenta represent a unit stock which is harvested by both Zimbabwe and Zambia, the artisanal fishery exploits inshore species which generally occupy water less than ...

  1. 1997 fisheries statistics, Lake Kariba - Zimbabwe shore

    OpenAIRE

    Songore, N.; Mugwagwa, M.; Moyo, A.

    1998-01-01

    The report provides catch records for the kapenta (Limnothrissa miodon) and inshore fisheries in the Zimbabwean waters of Lake Kariba for the year 1997. Kapenta usually constitute about 94% of the total catch from Lake Kariba; for statistical purposes catches are recorded for the 5 hydrological basins - Mlibizi, Binga, Sengwa, Bumi and Kariba. The kapenta, which occupy the open pelagic waters of the lake, represent a unit stock which is harvested by both Zimbabwe and Zambia; the artisanal fis...

  2. 1995 fisheries statistics, Lake Kariba - Zimbabwe shore

    OpenAIRE

    Karenge, L.; Ncube, L.D.; Mugwagwa, M.

    1996-01-01

    The report provides catch records for the Kapenta and inshore fisheries in the Zimbabwean waters of Lake Kariba for the year 1995. Kapenta usually constitute about 90% of the total catch from Lake Kariba; for statistical purposes catches are recorded for the 5 hydrological basins - Mlibizi, Binga, Sengwa, Bumi and Kariba. Whereas kapenta represent a unit stock which is harvested by both Zimbabwe and Zambia, the artisanal fishery exploits inshore species which generally occupy water less than ...

  3. 1994 fisheries statistics, Lake Kariba - Zimbabwe shore

    OpenAIRE

    Karenge, L.; Mugwagwa, M.; Muchabaiwa, L.D.

    1995-01-01

    The report provides catch records for the Kapenta and inshore fisheries in the Zimbabwean waters of Lake Kariba for the year 1994. Kapenta usually constitute about 90% of the total catch from Lake Kariba; for statistical purposes catches are recorded for the 5 hydrological basins - Mlibizi, Binga, Sengwa, Bumi and Kariba. Whereas kapenta represent a unit stock which is harvested by both Zimbabwe and Zambia, the artisanal fishery exploits inshore species which generally occupy water less than ...

  4. Diversity of the calabash tree (Crescentia cujete L.) in Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Arango-Ulloa, Johanna; Bohorquez, Adriana; Duque, Myriam; Maass, Brigitte

    2009-01-01

    Germplasm of the calabash tree (Crescentia cujete L.) was collected in five major regions of Colombia, i.e. the Andes, Caribbean, Amazon, Orinoco, and Pacific regions. Collecting this multipurpose tree was guided by the indigenous knowledge of farmers and artisans in each region. Large variation in fruit shapes and sizes was found, of which some forms were typical for certain regions. Overall 56 accessions were collected and roughly classified into 22 types by eight fruit shapes and eight siz...

  5. Female Technology: The Identity of Neolithic Potters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasna Vuković

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available If the object of research is Neolithic ceramics, it would seem that the researcher is at a loss when it comes to illuminating certain social aspects of the manufacture of pottery. In archaeological inquiry the artisan always remain “invisible”, even though their identities are crucial in the reconstruction of social relations. Thus, if we wish to identify the gender and social standing of artisans in the deeper layers of history, we must turn to ethno-archaeological and anthropological research. A number of ethno-archaeological and anthropological studies confirm the conclusion that pottery can be considered a female occupation in non-industrialized societies. However it seems that a rough, gender-based division of production to non-specialized – female and specialized – male, is too simplified. According to this point of view, women engage in pottery only when they have no other work to do – be it household chores or agricultural labor, and they produce pottery only to meet the needs of their own household. Ethno-archaeological research, however, shows that women can indeed become specialized artisans. The specialization of women can be observed in three forms: 1. in those communities where only some households engage in production of pottery, 2. in specialized communities and 3. in communities where female pottery makers belong to specific social groups. Based on anthropological research, we can assume that the adoption of pottery is directly linked to the gender based division in everyday activities. Beliefs, rituals and taboos connected to the production of pottery which have been ethnographically documented, and wherein the production of pottery is equated with the shift in the life cycle, birth and death, only serve to vouch for the identity of the artisan in the earliest ceramic communities.

  6. Evaluation of Antiradical Activity of Different Cocoa and Chocolate Products: Relation with Lipid and Protein Composition

    OpenAIRE

    Vertuani, Silvia; Scalambra, Emanuela; Vittorio, Trotta; Bino, Alessia; Malisardi, Gemma; Baldisserotto, Anna; Manfredini, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Chocolate antioxidant properties are often claimed; however, they are frequently different from the parent natural sources due to the industry or artisan transformation. In particular, antioxidant property of chocolate and cocoa are not adequately taken into consideration by consumers who normally make use of this food just for its flavor and taste properties. In this study, we have investigated the antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content of cocoa nibs, cocoa masses, and corresponding...

  7. Design e artesanato : uma abordagem ao mobiliário popular alentejano

    OpenAIRE

    Jesus, Sílvia, 1988-

    2014-01-01

    Tese de mestrado, Design de Equipamento - Design urbano de de interiores, Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Belas Artes, 2014 Nowadays, in a technological and mechanized society as our, artisan and traditional products, fall by the wayside, although those that awaken the deepest human feelings, given the proximity, contact or familiar character that transmit to us. On the inadequacy of the means of distribution, for difficulty in cover wider publics or even to be unable to correspond to...

  8. Características bioquímicas de una marea roja de Protoceratium reticulatum en la bahía de Chipana (Norte de Chile) en condiciones estivales

    OpenAIRE

    Rossi, Sergio; Fiorillo, Ida

    2010-01-01

    Protoceratium reticulatum is considered a potential toxic dinoflagellate. This paper describes a high-frequency monitoring study performed at Chipana Bay (northern Chile), sampling over 48 hours in a near-bottom shallow coastal area to quantify the biochemical features of a red tide dominated by this microscopic algae. This area belongs to the Humboldt Current upwelling system, and is considered highly productive for artisanal fisheries. Total chlorophyll a, total lipids, particulate organic ...

  9. Santini : a scoop of expansion

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Joana Mafalda Tavares

    2016-01-01

    Santini has been a very well-­‐known artisanal brand of ice-­‐cream, famous for the quality of its products, based on a secret recipe. In 2009, the family ice-­‐cream company, Santini decided to open its capital to external investment. This started a new phase in the life of the company that allowed it to open new stores and a ...

  10. The quest for sustainable livelihoods : women fish traders in Ibaka, Niger Delta, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Udong, E.E.

    2011-01-01

      The contribution of fisheries to food security in Africa cannot be underestimated. It provides over 30 percent of the protein consumed by the Nigerian population. However, Nigeria produces only about 45 percent of the fish requirement locally while the shortfall of about 55 percent is imported. Over 80 percent of the local production is from the artisanal, small scale sector. While several studies have been conducted on the productivity of many water bodies, endemic fish species, diffe...

  11. Silk moths in Madagascar: Biology, uses and challenges related to Borocera cajani (Boisduval, 1833) (Lepidoptera – Lasiocampidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Razafimanantsoa, Tsiresy; Rajoelison, Gabrielle; Ramamonjisoa, Bruno; Raminosoa,Noromalala; Poncelet, Marc; Bogaert, Jan; Haubruge, Eric; Verheggen, François

    2012-01-01

    Borocera cajani (Lepidoptera, Lasiocampidae), also named Landibe, is main wild silk moth currently used to produce silk textiles in Madagascar. Silk production involve many member of the local population, from the wild silk harvesters, to the spinners, traders, dyers, weavers and the artisans who transform the silk into clothing, accessories and decorative items. Uapaca bojeri (Tapia) forests are the last remnants of highland primary forest, which are threatened by human destruction through b...

  12. Environmental exposure to mercury in gold mining: health impact assessment in guainía, colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Gasca Álvarez, Adriana del Pilar

    2010-01-01

    Artisanal gold mining is an ancient practice that remains used in present times. Occupational exposure to mercury has been investigated in several studies, but effects related to its use in gold mining have been less addressed. Several studies are found in the literature, specially related to the gold rush in South America, and the impact of the practice along the Amazon rivers. Due to the informal characteristics of the practice, gold mining with mercury has not been well registered; thus, e...

  13. Distribution spatiale des stocks de poissons récifaux démersaux d'intérêt commercial et effort de pêche en Province Nord de Nouvelle-Calédonie (Pacifique occidental)

    OpenAIRE

    Letourneur, Yves; Labrosse, Pierre; Kulbicki, Michel

    2000-01-01

    Fish from lagoon and reef in New Caledonia are mainly caught by artisanal fisheries and subsistence fishing. The present study aimed at estimating these fish standing stocks, at finding the main factors influencing the spatial distribution of these fish, and at estimating the maximum sustainable yield with considerations for socio-economic aspects sensu late. A total of 1406 stations was surveyed in the Northern Province of New Caledonia. Sampling was stratified according to three zones (nort...

  14. Sotsia : rahvale

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    "Sotsiaga" koostööd tegev Valgevene galerii Podzemka esitleb Tallinna Kunstihoone galeriis näitust "The Belarusian Identity cArt". 10. IV festivali avamisel Kunstihoone galeriis esitleb Artur Klinau kultuurialmanahhi pARTisan, toimuvad valgevene kunstnike Igor Savtshenko ja Ruslan Vaskevitshi performance'id. 11. IV Eesti Rahvusraamatukogus vestlusring valgevene kaasaegse kunsti teemadel, räägivad Volha Hapejeva ja A. Klinau

  15. El valor simbòlic de la geometria a la tradició constructiva medieval de la península Ibèrica

    OpenAIRE

    Dorado Ladera, Esther

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to reveal the crucial importance of geometry in the work of medieval builders and artisans, and to evaluate its symbolic significance and its capacity for spreading knowledge. In order to do so, this study will focus on the lberian Peninsula. lt may seem a huge and heterogeneous field of research, but it also provides an interesting example of cultural exchange marked by the continued expansion of several new Christian kingdoms in the north and the permanent presence...

  16. Dangerous calling, the life-and-death matter of safety at sea: a collection of articles from SAMUDRA Report

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Fishing is arguably the world's most dangerous vocation, reporting the highest rate of occupational fatalities among industries, made only worse by declining fish prices, overfished waters and shortened fishing seasons. As fishermen are forced to move farther away from shore in search of scarce resources, the dangers they face are many: bad weather, rough seas, flooding, fire, poor vessel design, mechanical problems navigational error, missing safety equipment. For the small-scale and artisan...

  17. Characterization of Navassa National Wildlife Refuge: A preliminary report for NF-06-05 (NOAA ship "Nancy Foster", April 18-30, 2006)

    OpenAIRE

    Piniak, Gregory A.; Addison, Christine M.; Degan, Brian P.; Uhrin, Amy V.; Viehman, T. Shay

    2006-01-01

    Navassa is a small, undeveloped island in the Windward Passage between Jamaica and Haiti. It was designated a National Wildlife Refuge under the jurisdiction of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service in 1999, but the remote location makes management and enforcement challenging, and the area is regularly fished by artisanal fishermen from Haiti. In April 2006, the NOAA Center for Coastal Fisheries and Habitat Research conducted a research cruise to Navassa. The cruise produced the first high-resol...

  18. Variation of textural properties in pears dried by different solar methodologies.

    OpenAIRE

    Abílio, Sandra; Guiné, Raquel; Sousa, Isabel

    2011-01-01

    In Portugal, the variety of S. Bartholomew (Pyrus communis L.) pears are subject to an artisan drying process consisting of direct open-air sun exposure, leading to a traditional product with unique texture characteristics, called “Pêra Passa de Viseu”. However, the drying process does not provide the current standards of safety and, therefore, recent investigations have emerged with alternatives to the traditional drying process. The changes that occur in t...

  19. Minerals in Afghanistan : the potential for gold

    OpenAIRE

    Benham, Antony John; Coats, Stan

    2006-01-01

    Gold has been worked in Afghanistan for centuries from many areas including Takhar province in the north and from Ghazni, Zabul, and Kandahar provinces in the south-west of the country. Currently, gold is produced almost solely by artisanal miners working the Samti Placer Deposit in Takhar Province. Gold deposits and prospects are known in rocks of Proterozoic to Neogene age. Many styles of gold mineralisation occur, in particular skarn, vein-hosted, porphyry and alluvial...

  20. Does training benefit those who do not get any? Elasticities of complementarity and factor price in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Behar, Alberto

    2005-01-01

    Commentators claim a shortage of skills, particularly artisanal labour, in South Africa is constraining output and that a rise in skill supply would benefit less skilled occupations. This assumes/implies skilled and unskilled labour are q-complements. This paper estimates Hicks Elasticities of Complementarity and elasticities of factor price. Aggregate estimates suggest more skilled (white collar) labour complements less skilled (blue collar) labour, so a rise in skill supply would lead to a ...

  1. Myths and Superstition in the Small Scale Gold Mining Industry of Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    C. Addei; Amankwah, R.K.

    2011-01-01

    In most parts of the world, there are several inexplicable happenings and these are generally shrouded in myths. In the mining industry of Ghana, especially the Artisanal and Small Scale Gold Mining (ASGM), miners have several habits and conventions based on superstition and myths. Such superstitious beliefs and myths govern the selection of people to work in mining pits, gold processing, working and resting days as well as specific rituals to perform at specific times through the life of the...

  2. Testing Local Conditions for the Introduction of a Mercury-free Gold Extraction Method using Borax in Zimbabwe

    OpenAIRE

    Nadine Steckling; Stephan Bose-O’Reilly; Dennis Shoko; Stefan Muschack; Rudolf Schierl

    2014-01-01

    Background. Mercury is extensively used in artisanal small-scale gold mining in many parts of the world, including Zimbabwe. Mercury-free mining technologies are urgently needed to protect the biophysical environment and human health. Objective. The testing of local conditions for the introduction of a mercury-free gold mining technology entailing the use of borax in a field project in Kadoma/Zimbabwe. Materials and Methods. A one-day theoretical workshop and a two-day practical demonst...

  3. Youth in Tanzania's urbanizing mining settlements: Prospecting a mineralized future

    OpenAIRE

    Bryceson, Deborah Fahy.

    2014-01-01

    Over the last fifteen years many African countries have experienced a mining take-off. Mining activities have bifurcated into two sectors: large-scale, capital-intensive production generating the bulk of the exported minerals, and small-scale, labour-intensive artisanal mining, which, at present, is catalyzing far greater immediate primary, secondary and tertiary employment opportunities for unskilled African labourers. Youth residing in mining settlements, have a large vested interest in the...

  4. A note on the occurrence and status of cetaceans in Togo. Paper SC/62/SM11 presented to IWC Scientific Committee, June 2010, Agadir, Morocco

    OpenAIRE

    Segniagbeto, G.; Van Waerebeek, K.

    2010-01-01

    Eight cetacean species are here reported to occur in Togo's coastal waters and all are newly recorded mammals for the country: Megaptera novaeangliae, Balaenoptera brydei, Balaenoptera cf. bonaerensis, Physeter macrocephalus, Stenella attenuata, Delphinus sp., Globicephala cf. macrorhynchus and Orcinus orca. Much of artisanal fisheries in Togolese waters are dominated by Ghanaian fishermen who have the habit of selling cetacean catches as a food product. Because the landing of cetaceans is il...

  5. Exploring Trade-Offs between Fisheries and Conservation of the Vaquita Porpoise (Phocoena sinus) Using an Atlantis Ecosystem Model

    OpenAIRE

    Hem Nalini Morzaria-Luna; Cameron H Ainsworth; Kaplan, Isaac C.; Levin, Phillip S.; Fulton, Elizabeth A.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Minimizing fishery bycatch threats might involve trade-offs between maintaining viable populations and economic benefits. Understanding these trade-offs can help managers reconcile conflicting goals. An example is a set of bycatch reduction measures for the Critically Endangered vaquita porpoise (Phocoena sinus), in the Northern Gulf of California, Mexico. The vaquita is an endemic species threatened with extinction by artisanal net bycatch within its limited range; in this area f...

  6. The struggles of fishworkers: new concerns for support. Triennial Conference of the International Collective in Support of Fishworkers and the Tenth Anniversary of the International Conference of Fishworkers and their Supporters, Cebu, Philippines, 2- 7 June 1994

    OpenAIRE

    1994-01-01

    For quite some time now, global fisheries have been ravaged by successive 'crises'. These have their roots in overfishing, technological overkill as well as the widespread disregard for the needs and priorities of the artisanal and small-scale fishing communities. As issues that fundamentally concern fishworkers the world over, they are also the concerns that form the mandate of the International Collective in Support of Fishworkers (ICSF), an international NGO affiliated to the Economic ...

  7. Exploring hybridity in food supply chains

    OpenAIRE

    Slee, William; Kirwan, James

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, a number of dynamic aspects of food supply chains have attracted great interest among social scientists investigating rural restructuring and change. These include: the expansion of organic agriculture; the development of new value added enterprises at farm level and the revitalisation of traditional and new-old artisanal production practices; the expansion from a low base of the market share of alternative short supply chains, such as farmers markets; and the so-called quali...

  8. Storybook China: Emei Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Craig Simons

    2001-01-01

    @@ The lowing of water buffalo and the squeals of pigs, the trill of bicycle bells and the discord of the karaoke parlors,the cries of hawkers and artisans and the general din of 91 million people packed together cheek-by-jowl. Sichuan assaults the ears, the eyes, and even the nose, as smells of pungent chilies and outhouses overtake you in the crowded city streets.

  9. Shark Bycatch - Small Scale Tuna Fishery Interactions along the Kenyan Coast.

    OpenAIRE

    Kiilu, B.K.; Ndegwa, S.

    2013-01-01

    In Kenya and to a great extent most parts of the WIO region, shark catches majorly occur as by-catch in artisanal tuna fisheries and prawn trawls, including sport fishing activities. However, the extent to which these various fisheries catch sharks is not known but may be significant. The species structure, distribution, catch rates and levels of fisheries-shark interactions are not well documented. This information is, however, necessary to assess exploitation levels of shark spe...

  10. La alimentación de tiburones martillo jovenes (Sphyrna lewini) capturados en el Golfo de Nicoya, Costa Rica (Nota)

    OpenAIRE

    López-Garro, A.; Zanella-Cesarotto, Il.; Arauz-Vargas, R.

    2010-01-01

    Sharks present strong intraspecific changes in feeding habits, which may vary according to size, geographic location and season. This study analyzed the stomach contents of 52 juvenile scalloped hammerhead sharks (25 females and 27 males) caught by artisanal vessels in the Gulf of Nicoya. Regarding the organisms found in the stomachs, 41.07 % were teleost fish, 30.36 % mollusks and 28.57 % crustaceans. Mollusks presented the highest Relative Importance Index (RII) (43.05 %), followed by ...

  11. The status of shark and ray fishery resources in the Gulf of California: applied research to improve management and conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph J Bizzarro; Smith, Wade D.; Robert E Hueter; Tyminski, John; Márquez– Farías, J. Fernando; Castillo–Géniz, J. Leonardo; Cailliet, Gregor M.; Villavicencio–Garayzar, Carlos J.

    2009-01-01

    Seasonal surveys were conducted during 1998–1999 in Baja California, Baja California Sur, Sonora, and Sinaloa to determine the extent and activities of artisanal elasmobranch fisheries in the Gulf of California. One hundred and forty–seven fishing sites, or camps, were documented, the majority of which (n = 83) were located in Baja California Sur. Among camps with adequate fisheries information, the great majority (85.7%) targeted elasmobranchs during some part of the year. Most small, demers...

  12. Phenotypic characterization and species-specific PCR of promising starter culture strains of Lactobacillus plantarum isolated from naturally fermented sausages Caracterização fenotípica e por PCR espécie-específica de cepas promissoras como cultivos iniciadores de Lactobacillus plantarum isolados de embutidos cárneos fermentados naturalmente

    OpenAIRE

    Maristela Cortez Sawitzki; Ângela Maria Fiorentini; Fábio Cristiano Angonesi Brod; Caroline Tagliari; Teresinha Marisa Bertol; Ana Carolina Maisonnave Arisi; Ernani Sebastião Sant'Anna

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present work was to characterize promising starter culture strains of Lactobacillus plantarum isolated from naturally fermented artisanal sausage manufactured in the northwestern region of Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil. From 127 isolates of homofermentative, Gram-positive and catalase-negative lactic acid bacteria, ten isolates were randomly selected and the phenotypic characterization and species-specific PCR were performed. Genomic DNA from each isolated strain and from...

  13. Small scale commercial production of tilapia fingerlings in floating bamboo net-hapas

    OpenAIRE

    Otubusin, S.O.

    1987-01-01

    The inadequate supply of tilapia seed is considered as one of the major present constraints to the development of the culture industry in Nigeria. The floating bamboo net-hapa hatchery/nursery system was observed to be very efficient in the mass production of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fry and fingerlings at Kainji Lake Research Institute. This system was therefore, recommended for small-scale (artisanal) commercial operators consisting of fishermen families in order to increase their pr...

  14. Fishers' perceptions as indicators of the performance of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs)

    OpenAIRE

    Leleu, Kevin; Alban, Frederique; Pelletier, Dominique; Charbonnel, Eric; Letourneur, Yves; Boudouresque, Charles F.

    2012-01-01

    How users perceive the performance of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) is fundamental for the social acceptance of these zones. Moreover, their perceptions may be relevant for monitoring the effects of MPAs on extractive activities. This study analyzes artisanal fishers' perceptions of the performance of a north-western Mediterranean coastal MPA, which encompasses two no-take zones (NTZs). Three viewpoints have been considered: the effect on the personal activity of fishers, the effect on the lo...

  15. Proceedings of the seventh international food convention: nutritional security through sustainable development research and education for healthy foods - souvenir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At present, the application of advanced technology during production, processing, storage and distribution of food with an ultimate aim of strengthening the socio-economic status of farmers, entrepreneurs and rural artisan community has paramount importance. The convention made an effort to touch upon the following areas: food and nutritional security and sustainability, food processing and engineering, food safety management systems, food health and nutrition, skill development and entrepreneurship, food science and technology research etc. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  16. Determination of appropriate mix ratios for concrete grades using Nigerian Portland-limestone grades 32.5 and 42.5

    OpenAIRE

    Kazeem Kayode ADEWOLE; Wasiu Olabanji AJAGBE; Idris Ademola ARASI

    2015-01-01

    The construction of buildings by incompetent craftsmen and the use of low quality building materials, including low quality concrete have been identified in the literature as two of the major reasons for the incessant collapse of building in Nigeria. The roadside craftsmen/artisans usually/generally construct buildings using 1:2:4 cement-fine aggregate-large aggregate mix ratio irrespective of the cement strength class. In this paper, the investigation conducted to determine the appropriate c...

  17. Remotely sensed chlorophyll: A putative trophic link for explaining variability in Indian oil sardine stocks

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    George, G.; Meenakumari, B.; Raman, M.; Kumar, S.; Vethamony, P.; Babu, M.T.; Verlecar, X.

    with vital fishing efforts depending on fish availability. Fishing along the coastal waters is restricted for mechanized trawlers during a period of 45 days starting from 15 June. The artisanal sardine fishery comprising of motorized and non-motorized... (NRC, 1999; ICES, 2000). Biological studies suggest an extended spawning period from May to September for sardine (Antony Raja, 1969; Hornell, 1910; Hornell and Nayadu, 1924; Prabhu and Dhulked, 1970). After occlusion from the egg, larval development...

  18. Estimates of total fisheries removal for the Balearic Isalands (1950-2010)

    OpenAIRE

    M. Carreras; Coll, Marta; Quetglas, A.; Goni, R.; Pastor, X.; Cornax, M.J.; Iglesia, M.; Massuti, E.; Oliver, P; Aguilar, R.; Au, A.; Zylich, K.; Pauly, D

    2015-01-01

    For effective fisheries management to be able to act, realistic fisheries removal data are needed, so as to assess exploitation levels and the impact of fisheries on the ecosystem. Unfortunately, official statistics underestimate catches in most countries and regions. In the Balearic Islands (Western Mediterranean), where artisanal fishing and industrial bottom trawling are the most important fishing activities, unreported catches are common. They consist of landings at ‘black market...

  19. Métiers, effort and catches of a Mediterranean small-scale coastal fishery: The case of the Côte Bleue Marine Park

    OpenAIRE

    Leleu, Kevin; Pelletier, Dominique; Charbonnel, Eric; Letourneur, Yves; Alban, Frederique; Bachet, Frederic; Boudouresque, Charles F.

    2014-01-01

    The overexploitation of fishery resources has led to a major fisheries crisis. In this context, artisanal fisheries, and in particular small-scale coastal fisheries, appear as relevant alternatives for a sustainable use of coastal resources. Marine Protected Areas (MPA) are more and more used as management tools for these fisheries, as protection effects and targeted access regulations may benefit to commercial fishers. Managers and scientists need then quantitative information not only to ad...

  20. Relative importance of habitat and fishing in influencing reef fish communities across seventeen Pacific Island Countries and Territories

    OpenAIRE

    Pinca, S.; Kronen, M.; Magron, F.; McArdle, B; Vigliola, Laurent; Kulbicki, Michel; Andréfouët, Serge

    2012-01-01

    Reef fish assessments were undertaken in 17 Pacific islands to describe the status of finfish resources in 63 villages where fishing is mainly artisanal. Surveys were performed by recording the number and size of edible fish species and benthic composition. Fishing impact was described through six proxies representing level of catch, alternative incomes, degree of commercial catch and country economic development derived from a simultaneous socioeconomic assessment. The relative importance of...

  1. Initial evidence of dolphin takes in the Niger Delta region and a review of Nigerian cetaceans. Scientific Committee document SC/62/SM1, June 2010, Agadir, Morocco

    OpenAIRE

    Uwagbae, M.; Van Waerebeek, K.

    2010-01-01

    An interview survey among artisanal fishermen from Brass Island, Niger Delta, in 2008-2009 revealed, for the first time, regular takes of delphinids in Nigerian coastal waters. Three fishermen at Imbikiri, Brass Island, were identified as dedicated 'dolphin hunters'. Evidence is difficult to obtain but one video footage authenticated the landing of a live common bottlenose dolphin. Fraser's dolphin is suggested to occur offshore (probable sighting) but no other documented sightings of odontoc...

  2. Common Dolphin (Delphinus delphis) Bycatch in New Zealand Commercial Trawl Fisheries

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Finlay N.; Abraham, Edward R.; Katrin Berkenbusch

    2013-01-01

    Marine mammals are regularly reported as bycatch in commercial and artisanal fisheries, but data are often insufficient to allow assessment of these incidental mortalities. Observer coverage of the mackerel trawl fishery in New Zealand waters between 1995 and 2011 allowed evaluation of common dolphin Delphinus delphis bycatch on the North Island west coast, where this species is the most frequently caught cetacean. Observer data were used to develop a statistical model to estimate total captu...

  3. Improved fish smoking: Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    Fish is an important source of food and income to many people in the developing world. In Africa, some 5 percent of the population, about 35 million people, depend wholly or partly on the fisheries sector, mostly artisanal fisheries, for their livelihood. Various traditional methods are employed to preserve and process fish for consumption and storage. These include smoking, drying, salting, frying and fermenting and various combinations of these. In Ghana, smoking is the mo...

  4. Microbiological, technological and therapeutic properties of kefir: a natural probiotic beverage

    OpenAIRE

    Analy Machado de Oliveira Leite; Marco Antonio Lemos Miguel; Raquel Silva Peixoto; Alexandre Soares Rosado; Joab Trajano Silva; Vania Margaret Flosi Paschoalin

    2013-01-01

    Kefir is a fermented milk beverage produced by the action of bacteria and yeasts that exist in symbiotic association in kefir grains. The artisanal production of the kefir is based on the tradition of the peoples of Caucasus, which has spread to other parts of the world, from the late 19th century, and nowadays integrates its nutritional and therapeutic indications to the everyday food choices of several populations. The large number of microorganisms present in kefir and their microbial inte...

  5. Lead exposure from aluminum cookware in Cameroon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weidenhamer, Jeffrey D.; Kobunski, Peter A. [Department of Chemistry, Geology and Physics, 401 College Ave., Ashland University, Ashland, OH 44805 (United States); Kuepouo, Gilbert [Research and Education Centre for Development (CREPD), Yaounde (Cameroon); Corbin, Rebecca W. [Department of Chemistry, Geology and Physics, 401 College Ave., Ashland University, Ashland, OH 44805 (United States); Gottesfeld, Perry, E-mail: pgottesfeld@okinternational.org [Occupational Knowledge International, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2014-10-15

    Blood lead levels have decreased following the removal of lead from gasoline in most of the world. However, numerous recent studies provide evidence that elevated blood lead levels persist in many low and middle-income countries around the world at much higher prevalence than in the more developed countries. One potential source of lead exposure that has not been widely investigated is the leaching of lead from artisanal aluminum cookware, which is commonly used in the developing world. Twenty-nine samples of aluminum cookware and utensils manufactured by local artisans in Cameroon were collected and analyzed for their potential to release lead during cooking. Source materials for this cookware included scrap metal such as engine parts, radiators, cans, and construction materials. The lead content of this cookware is relatively low (< 1000 ppm by X-ray fluorescence), however significant amounts of lead, as well as aluminum and cadmium were released from many of the samples using dilute acetic acid extractions at boiling and ambient temperatures. Potential exposures to lead per serving were estimated to be as high as 260 μg, indicating that such cookware can pose a serious health hazard. We conclude that lead, aluminum and cadmium can migrate from this aluminum cookware during cooking and enter food at levels exceeding recommended public health guidelines. Our results support the need to regulate lead content of materials used to manufacture these pots. Artisanal aluminum cookware may be a major contributor to lead poisoning throughout the developing world. Testing of aluminum cookware in other developing countries is warranted. - Highlights: • Cookware is manufactured in Cameroon from scrap aluminum including car parts. • Twenty-nine cookware samples were evaluated for their potential to leach lead. • Boiling extractions to simulate the effects of cooking released significant lead. • Potential lead exposures per serving are estimated as high as 260 μg.

  6. Harnessing the climate mitigation, conservation and poverty alleviation potential of seagrasses: prospects for developing blue carbon initiatives and payment for ecosystem service programmes

    OpenAIRE

    Hejnowicz, Adam P.; Kennedy, Hilary; Murray A. Rudd; Huxham, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    Seagrass ecosystems provide numerous ecosystem services that support coastal communities around the world. They sustain abundant marine life as well as commercial and artisanal fisheries, and help protect shorelines from coastal erosion. Additionally, seagrass meadows are a globally significant sink for carbon and represent a key ecosystem for combating climate change. However, seagrass habitats are suffering rapid global decline. Despite recognition of the importance of “Blue Carbon,” no fun...

  7. Harnessing the climate mitigation, conservation and poverty alleviation potential of seagrasses: prospects for developing blue carbon initiatives and payment for ecosystem service programmes

    OpenAIRE

    Adam Peter Hejnowicz; Hilary eKennedy; Mark Richard Huxham; Murray A. Rudd

    2015-01-01

    Seagrass ecosystems provide numerous ecosystem services that support coastal communities around the world. They sustain abundant marine life as well as commercial and artisanal fisheries, and help protect shorelines from coastal erosion. Additionally, seagrass meadows are a globally significant sink for carbon and represent a key ecosystem for combating climate change. However, seagrass habitats are suffering rapid global decline. Despite recognition of the importance of ‘Blue Carbon’, no fun...

  8. Exposure of Mediterranean Countries to Ocean Acidification

    OpenAIRE

    Nathalie Hilmi; Denis Allemand; Mine Cinar; Sarah Cooley; Hall-Spencer, Jason M.; Gunnar Haraldsson; Caroline Hattam; Ross A Jeffree; Orr, James C.; Katrin Rehdanz; Stéphanie Reynaud; Alain Safa; Sam Dupont

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the potential effects of ocean acidification on countries and fisheries of the Mediterranean Sea. The implications for seafood security and supply are evaluated by examining the sensitivity of the Mediterranean to ocean acidification at chemical, biological, and macro-economic levels. The limited information available on impacts of ocean acidification on harvested (industrial, recreational, and artisanal fishing) and cultured species (aquaculture) prevents any biological i...

  9. Langkawi's Sustainable Regeneration Strategy and Natural Heritage Preservation

    OpenAIRE

    Rugayah Hashim; Zulkiflee Abd Latif

    2015-01-01

    In the face of climate change and increased development, environmental acclimatization includes looking for alternatives for socio-economic improvement. For the island resort of Langkawi, Malaysia, agriculture is no longer a sustainable income generating venture. Eco-tourism has taken over paddy planting and artisanal fishing. The state government and local authorities are aware of the need to realign their development strategies to suit the environment. By engaging in sustainable regeneratio...

  10. Then & Now:Fifty years after Zamosky’s article "Shoe modifications in lower-extremity orthotics"

    OpenAIRE

    Jaap J. Van Netten, PhD; Klass Postema, MD, PhD

    2013-01-01

    The art and science of correcting foot deformities is still a mixture of tradition, artisan skill, clinical experience, and the prescribing doctor’s professional convictions” [1]. Zamosky’s 1964 article on various shoe modifications in lower-extremity orthotics starts with this observation [1]. Reflecting on 50 years of development in this field, we ask ourselves, Have the ingredients of this mixture changed?

  11. Bacterial Community Dynamics during Production of Registered Designation of Origin Salers Cheese as Evaluated by 16S rRNA Gene Single-Strand Conformation Polymorphism Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Duthoit, F.; Godon, Jean-Jacques; Montel, Marie-Christine

    2003-01-01

    Microbial dynamics during processing and ripening of traditional cheeses such as registered designation of origin Salers cheese, an artisanal cheese produced in France, play an important role in the elaboration of sensory qualities. The aim of the present study was to obtain a picture of the dynamics of the microbial ecosystem of RDO Salers cheese by using culture-independent methods. This included DNA extraction, PCR, and single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis. Bacterial and...

  12. Chemical characterization of majolica from 14th-18th century production centers on the Iberian Peninsula: a preliminary neutron activation study

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia Iñañez, Javier; Speakman, Robert J.; Buxeda i Garrigós, Jaume; Glascock, Michael D.

    2008-01-01

    Majolica pottery is one of the most characteristic tableware produced during the Medieval and Renaissance periods. Majolica technology was introduced to the Iberian Peninsula by Islamic artisans during Medieval times, and its production and popularity rapidly spread throughout Spain and eventually to other locations in Europe and the Americas. The prestige and importance of Spanish majolica was very high. Consequently, this ware was imported profusely to the Americas during the Spanish Coloni...

  13. Iris-claw intraocular lens implantation: Anterior chamber versus retropupillary implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helvacı, Sezer; Demirdüzen, Selahaddin; Öksüz, Hüseyin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the outcomes of anterior chamber and retropupillary implantation of iris-claw Artisan intraocular lenses (IOL). Design: Prospective, randomized, single-blinded study. Patients and Methods: Forty eyes of forty aphakic patients were enrolled. Patients were randomized into two groups. Each group includes twenty patients. Group 1 received anterior chamber Artisan IOL implantation. Group 2 received retropupillary Artisan IOL implantation. Preoperative and postoperative corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA), intraocular pressure (IOP), and all complications were noted and compared at 6 months follow-up. Results: Each two groups obtained a significant improvement in CDVA (P < 0.05). Four patients in Group 1 and five patients in Group 2 had significant but nonpermanent increase at IOP values. There were one and two pupillary irregularity in Group 1 and Group 2, respectively. In one patient, a shallow and inferior located retinal detachment were encountered in anterior chamber group. Conclusions: The results were not significantly different between the two fixation techniques for iris-claw lens. The surgery procedure is dependent to surgeon experience and eye's conditions. PMID:26953023

  14. Abundance of sardine fish species in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Bikram Jit

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted during January, 2012 to December 2012 in the sardine fisheries which is occurred both in artisanal and industrial fishing sector in the marine water of the Bay of Bengal of Bangladesh region. During this study period the total landing amounts by weight of sardines were 7352.99 MT, among these 23.76% (1747.22 MT was exploited by the artisanal mechanized boats and 76.24% (5605.77 MT captured through different industrial fishing trawlers and contributed 17.51% of the total marine fish production by commercial fish trawlers during the study period. 4 sardine species have been recorded from our marine territory. Among them, 2 sardine species are highly abundant, Sardinella fimbriata total production volumes was 5495.79 MT (74.74% contributed 1747.22MT (31.79% from the artisanal and 3748.57MT (68.21% from the industrial sector and Dussumieria acuta production amounts was 1857.20MT (25.26% contributed only from the industrial fishing sector.Species wise contribution shows that S. fimbriata contributed 100% in the artisanal sector and in the industrial fishing S. fimbriata contributed 66.87% and D. acuta contributed the rest 33.13%. The distribution of the S. fimbriata is within 10-20 meters depth and abundance was observed in the southern part of the South patches and South of south patches (N: 210.09// -22, E: 920.04/-07 to N: 200.45/-25, E: 920.18/-56 and 10-50m depth in onshore and off shore areas in the north-west to north-east of Middle ground (Kohinoor point -N: 210.36/.23, E: 900.06/.43 to N: 210.18/.18, E 910.17/.57. The distribution of the D. acuta is within 40-60 m. depth and abundance was observed in the north-west to north-east of Middle ground areas (Kohinoor point - N: 210.36/.23, E: 900.06/.43 to N: 210.18/.18, E 910.17/.57 and south-west to south-east of Middle ground (Kohinoor point- N: 200-17/.29, E: 900.15/.21 to N: 200.29/.56, E: 910.24/.22 in the Bay of Bengal of Bangladesh region. The peak capture season of

  15. Ethnobiology of snappers (Lutjanidae): target species and suggestions for management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begossi, Alpina; Salivonchyk, Svetlana V; Araujo, Luciana G; Andreoli, Tainá B; Clauzet, Mariana; Martinelli, Claudia M; Ferreira, Allan G I; Oliveira, Luiz E C; Silvano, Renato A M

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we sought to investigate the biology (diet and reproduction) and ethnobiology (fishers knowledge and fishing spots used to catch snappers) of five species of snappers (Lutjanidae), including Lutjanus analis, Lutjanus synagris, Lutjanus vivanus, Ocyurus chrysurus, and Romboplites saliens at five sites along the northeast (Riacho Doce, Maceió in Alagoas State, and Porto do Sauípe, Entre Rios at Bahia State) and the southeast (SE) Brazilian coast (Paraty and Rio de Janeiro cities at Rio de Janeiro State, and Bertioga, at São Paulo State.).We collected 288 snappers and interviewed 86 fishermen. The stomach contents of each fish were examined and macroscopic gonad analysis was performed. Snappers are very important for the fisheries of NE Brazil, and our results indicated that some populations, such as mutton snapper (L. analis) and lane snapper (L. synagris), are being caught when they are too young, at early juvenile stages.Local knowledge has been shown to be a powerful tool for determining appropriate policies regarding management of target species, and artisanal fishermen can be included in management processes. Other suggestions for managing the fisheries are discussed, including proposals that could provide motivation for artisanal fishermen to participate in programs to conserve resources, such as co-management approaches that utilize local knowledge, the establishment of fishing seasons, and compensation of fishermen, through 'payment for environmental services'. These suggestions may enhance the participation of local artisanal fishermen in moving to a more realistic and less top-down management approach of the fish population. PMID:21410969

  16. Ethnobiology of snappers (Lutjanidae: target species and suggestions for management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clauzet Mariana

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study, we sought to investigate the biology (diet and reproduction and ethnobiology (fishers knowledge and fishing spots used to catch snappers of five species of snappers (Lutjanidae, including Lutjanus analis, Lutjanus synagris, Lutjanus vivanus, Ocyurus chrysurus, and Romboplites saliens at five sites along the northeast (Riacho Doce, Maceió in Alagoas State, and Porto do Sauípe, Entre Rios at Bahia State and the southeast (SE Brazilian coast (Paraty and Rio de Janeiro cities at Rio de Janeiro State, and Bertioga, at São Paulo State.. We collected 288 snappers and interviewed 86 fishermen. The stomach contents of each fish were examined and macroscopic gonad analysis was performed. Snappers are very important for the fisheries of NE Brazil, and our results indicated that some populations, such as mutton snapper (L. analis and lane snapper (L. synagris, are being caught when they are too young, at early juvenile stages. Local knowledge has been shown to be a powerful tool for determining appropriate policies regarding management of target species, and artisanal fishermen can be included in management processes. Other suggestions for managing the fisheries are discussed, including proposals that could provide motivation for artisanal fishermen to participate in programs to conserve resources, such as co-management approaches that utilize local knowledge, the establishment of fishing seasons, and compensation of fishermen, through 'payment for environmental services'. These suggestions may enhance the participation of local artisanal fishermen in moving to a more realistic and less top-down management approach of the fish population.

  17. Extensão participativa para a sustentabilidade da pesca artesanal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Marcos Muniz Carneiro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work consists in a methodological proposal for the fishing activity extension project. It will be coordinated by a Production Engineering Program team from COPPE/UFRJ, focusing on the Natural Resources Management for the sustainability of the marine artisanal fishing in a southeastern Brazil seaside region. Such proposed methodology is interactive and it is recursively developed, configuring it through a dialogic advice. This methodology assumes that the whole problem is of complex extension, making essentially the interdisciplinary and interaction approaches. Therewith, the resolution problems in the handmade fishery department may be performed by sharing scientific and traditional marine knowledge. In this way, the approach is an alternative to the linear and anti-dialogical conception, as it was denounced by Paulo Freire in his seminal work "Comunicação ou Extensão?" (Communication or Extension?, about the extension in Brazil. This methodology founded the Brazilian government fishery extension politics between the last century's sixties and seventies, whose outcome was harmful to the country coastal, estuarine and seafarers ecosystems, affecting their productivity and artisanal fishing itself: rapid urban expansion, rampant growth of tourism with the devaluation of the local cultures, location of industrial parks, pollution, construction of roads, lack of sanitation and others. The purpose of this article is to provide a methodological framework for extension projects that is appropriate to the complexity of artisanal fisheries, characterized by multi-species and associated patterns of regularity of marine ecosystems interventions whose dynamics is highly uncertain with random and chaotic movements. Its main theoretical references comprise three perspectives: (a the reciprocal implications between theory and practice of action research, (b the essential communication and language in the instruments of participatory

  18. Geography and Dynamics of the Industries Processing Raw Materials of Animal Origin in the Villages of Kharkiv Region during the NEP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lapchenko

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background research related to the lack of researches in the given topic historiography. Territorial boundaries cover a large region — Kharkiv region, which until 1925 largely coincide with the boundaries of Kharkov province. And in 1925, it was divided into several provinces — Kharkov, Sumy, Kupiansk, Izyumskogo, Romney. The chronological boundaries article dated from 1921–1929’s, during which was implemented new economic polityka.Osnovnu attention paid to the article features geographically-sectoral design small-scale production of animal products in the region in 20 years of the twentieth century. On the basis of the detected and studied complex of sources the author analyzes the source base peasant industries in Kharkiv in this period. Found total number of farmers who were engaged in crafts processing animal products. Also revealed the specific industry Kharkov peasantry during nepu. Isnuvav number of factors that pushed the peasant engage in crafts: surplus agricultural products and raw materials; meet a wide range of numerous industrial, domestic and cultural needs; urgent need to replenish the family budget; surplus labor; free time from agricultural work (especially in winter and others. The development of rural industries processing animal products in the years 1921–1929 in the Kharkiv region characterized by strength and diversity. Village artisans representing an original way of small private commodity production. Basically crafts processing animal products involved in two socio-professional groups: lone artisan and peasant host of crafts. The social basis of industrial employment accounted malozemelni without sowing without Traction economy, which crafts were an important source of household income. The attention is focused on characteristic features of the state policy on «small business » peasants. Attention is paid to co-operation and effects of these industries on the further development rozvytok. Kooperatyvna form

  19. Una investigación participativa en la costa uruguaya: características, desafíos y oportunidades para la enseñanza universitaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micaela Trimble

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Approaches that promote some kind of community participation have been increasingly used for addressing socio-environmental problems. One of these approaches is participatory research (PR, a research strategy in which diverse stakeholders work collaboratively around an issue of common interest. The group formed to carry out the research participates horizontally in every stage, from choosing the research question to the dissemination of the results. The application of this approach in university education represents a challenge from various perspectives: it redefines the role of the specialist; it questions the traditional views of science and its method; and it promotes the reflection, not only about these topics but about the research/action binomial. After characterizing the participatory research approach, the objective of this paper is to describe three experiences of university education related to a participatory research in the artisanal fishery of Piriápolis (Uruguay. Based on them we discuss the potentials and challenges of the inclusion of this approach in university education in Uruguay. The PR in Piriápolis was initiated in 2011 aiming at addressing local problems of the artisanal fishery among different stakeholders: artisanal fishers, university researchers, government agency in charge of fisheries management, and NGOs. This PR was initiated during a doctoral research, encompassed an undergraduate research, and served as a platform for an undergraduate course in sciences. From these experiences we argue that PR represents a transdisciplinary approach that strengthens, methodologically and conceptually, university initiatives for integral education with emphasis on inter or transdisciplinarity and knowledge dialogue. Additionally, PR can be compatible with undergraduate and graduate theses, and can be linked to diverse educational platforms.

  20. Practicing Identity: A Crafty Ideal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brysbaert, A.; Vetters, M.

    This paper focuses on the materialization of technological practices as a form of identity expression. Contextual analyses of a Mycenaean workshop area in the Late Bronze Age citadel of Tiryns (Argolis, Greece) are presented to investigate the interaction of different artisans under changing socio-political and economic circumstances. The case study indicates that although certain technological practices are often linked to specific crafts, they do not necessarily imply the separation of job tasks related to the working of one specific material versus another. Shared technological practices and activities, therefore, may be a factor in shaping cohesive group identities of specialized artisans. Since tracing artisans' identities is easier said than done on the basis of excavated materials alone, we employ the concepts of multiple chaînes opératoires combined with cross-craft interactions as a methodology in order to retrieve distinctive sets of both social and technological practices from the archaeological remains. These methodological concepts are not restricted to a specific set of steps in the production cycle, but ideally encompass reconstructing contexts of extraction, manufacture, distribution and discard/reuse for a range of artefacts. Therefore, these concepts reveal both technological practices, and, by contextualising these technological practices in their spatial layout, equally focus on social contacts that would have taken place during any of these actions. Our detailed contextual study demonstrates that the material remains when analysed in their entirety are complementary to textual evidence. In this case study they even form a source of information on palatial spheres of life about which the fragmentary Linear B texts, so far, remain silent.

  1. Efeitos colaterais do ''fomento industrial'' : o exemplo do subsector português do volfrâmio até à década de 1950

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Avelãs Nunes

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, one intends to characterise and analyse the way in which, in Mainland Portugal, from the 1870s to the 1950s, and in the mining tungsten sub-sector, the relationship between industrial or artisanal activity and neighbouring rurality was structured, in aspects such as the working and living conditions, work accidents and illnesses, pollution and the type of integration into the global economy. More than judging or taking a stand on the object of study, one seeks to describe and explain, contextualising, the traits of “normality” and of “exceptionality”, the permanences and mutations detected.

  2. Les modeles de DCP mis au point par la CPS: bilan et perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Desurmont, A

    2000-01-01

    Since the early 1980's, the Secretariat of the Pacific Community (SPC, formerly the South Pacific Commission) has contributed to the development of FAD programmes for the artisanal fisheries sector in the Pacific region. In particular, it has put considerable efforts into developing technology that would assure a two-year average FAD lifespan, while maintaining costs under US$ 4,000 per FAD unit. From 1996 to 1998, this work led to the publication of three volumes of the SPC FAD Manual. Volum...

  3. Draft Genome Sequence of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis bv. diacetylactis CRL264, a Citrate-Fermenting Strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuljan, Federico; Espariz, Martín; Blancato, Victor S.; Esteban, Luis; Alarcón, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    We report the draft genome sequence of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis bv. diacetylactis CRL264, a natural strain isolated from artisanal cheese from northwest Argentina. L. lactis subsp. lactis bv. diacetylactis is one of the most important microorganisms used as starter culture around the world. The CRL264 strain constitutes a model microorganism in the studies on the generation of aroma compounds (diacetyl, acetoin, and 2,3-butanediol) by lactic acid bacteria. Our genome analysis shows similar genetic organization to other available genomes of L. lactis bv. diacetylactis strains. PMID:26847906

  4. On the occurrence of egg masses of the diamond-shaped squid Thysanoteuthis rhombus Troschel, 1857 in the subtropical eastern Atlantic (Canary Islands. A potential commercial species?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Escanez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Data on opportunistic sightings of diamond-shaped squid Thysanoteuthis rhombus egg masses in the Canary Islands (Atlantic Ocean are presented. A total of 16 egg masses of this species were recorded and photographed from 2000 to 2010 around the western islands of the archipelago (El Hierro, Tenerife and La Gomera. These data reveal the existence of an important spawning area for diamond-shaped squid around the Canary Islands, in subtropical east Atlantic waters. We provide preliminary data for the potential development of an artisanal fishery focused on this species, and a discussion on its potential impacts on the marine ecosystem.

  5. Il filo di Aracne. Variazioni e riscritture italiane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Codeluppi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The skilful weaver Arachne proclaims the value of her work, challenges the goddess Athena and, for this reason, is punished by being transformed into a spider. Starting from the Ovidian archetype, this character has inspired several literary works in which her various peculiarities emerge. She is simultaneously a negative emblem of pride and a philanthropic heroine, an extraordinary artist and a patient artisan, a woman and an animal. This article aims to examine some of the authors who have adapted the Arachne myth, from Dante until the beginning of the twentieth century.

  6. Historical Note: The History of Taxation is Written in Letters of Blood and Fire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Passant

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Tax, war, democracy and rebellion intertwine down the ages. In this paper I introduce readers to the reasons why tax history is important and the concepts underpinning later articles. The four tax history articles that will be published in total over the next four issues (from September 2016 to June 2017 will look at history from the Magna Carta to Australia today through the prism of tax. A key theme is the role ordinary working people (peasants, artisans, workers for example play in protests against oppressive taxes and how that anger can spark rebellions and revolutions. These rebellions and revolutions often have democracy as their main demand.

  7. Economics of Conch Shell Industry – A Study in West Bengal

    OpenAIRE

    Anamitra Paul, Sebak Kumar Jana

    2014-01-01

    West Bengal is well known all over the world for its expertise in arts and craft. Its artisans have skill in architectural splendors to its excellent works on crafts of conch shell. Not only are conch shell crafts beautiful and delicate, they are also considered to be extremely auspicious, as per Hindu mythology. The beauty and uniqueness of these crafts is very difficult to be described in words. Conch shell is used as an ornament, as a trumpet, as a musical instrument, a wind instrument tha...

  8. Status of abalone fishery and experiential mariculture as a resource conservation strategy in Carot, Anda, Pangasinan

    OpenAIRE

    Emmanuel C. Capinpin, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    The study described the abalone f ishery in Carot, Anda, Pangasinan to develop mariculture and to reseed a part of the harvest as a resource conservation strategy. The abalone fishery of Anda is artisanal or smallscale, typif ied by f ishers gleaning or free-diving on shallow rocky areas which are the typical habitat of abalone. Low densities of 1.67 to 8 individuals per 250 m2 were observed. Local f ishers have knowledge of productive f ishing areas. Hence, cage culture of abalone in these a...

  9. Indian populations

    CERN Multimedia

    Spahni,J

    1974-01-01

    Le Prof. J.C. Spahni qui a parcouru les Andes, Vénezuela etc. parle de ses expériences et connaissances qu'il a vécu au cours des 14 ans parmi les populations indiennes de la Cordillière des Andes. Il a ramené des objets artisanals indiens lesquels l'auditoire peut acquérir. L'introduction-conférence est suivi d'un film, commenté par lui-même; après l'entracte il y un débat-dialogue avec le public.

  10. PROMOVER (PROMOTE) - A participative methodology in socio-environmental project formation and management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Edison; Danciguer, Lucilene; Virginio, Geraldo; Del Carlo, Sylene

    2010-09-15

    We present a program's findings in socio-environmental sustainable development (PROMOVER), implemented by GAIA/Shell Brasil partnership. Benefited communities were leaders in artisanal fisher communities, governmental and non-governmental organizations within Shell influence areas, at Rio de Janeiro and Espirito Santo states, Brazil. The main objective is to improve its economic activities in sustainable way. The program consisted of formation on socio-environmental project elaboration, follow-up and seminar presentation. It was an interactive and dynamic training, in which leaders discussed the importance of social entrepreneurship, citizen organizations, and the establishment of networks aimed to sustainable development. Community leaders concluded 10 projects, one was awarded.

  11. Characteristics of the shark fisheries of Fiji

    OpenAIRE

    Glaus, Kerstin B. J.; Irene Adrian-Kalchhauser; Patricia Burkhardt-Holm; White, William T.; Juerg M. Brunnschweiler

    2015-01-01

    Limited information is available on artisanal and subsistence shark fisheries across the Pacific. The aim of this study was to investigate Fiji’s inshore fisheries which catch sharks. In January and February 2013, 253 semi-directive interviews were conducted in 117 villages and at local harbours on Viti Levu, Vanua Levu, Taveuni, Ovalau and a number of islands of the Mamanuca and Yasawa archipelagos. Of the 253 interviewees, 81.4% reported to presently catch sharks, and 17.4% declared that th...

  12. HYGIEN AND TECHNOLOGY OF SMOKED SALMON’S PRODUCTION: COMPARISON BETWEEN STANDARD HEALTLY REFERENCE OF EUROPEAN LEGISLATION AND AN EXTRACOMUNITY ONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.M. Mannocchi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The work makes a comparison between European and Switzerland legislation through an inspection in an artisan producing smoked salmon factory. The analysis of HACCP plan, technology and microbiological characteristic of finished product, as enshrined in Switzerland law, allow to categorize the business risk level respect the European reference. The criticalities detected are: Listeria monocytogenes and Anisakis spp.. A plain was developed for improving the hygienic characteristic of the production to ensure the alignment of structure to the standards specified by the European requirements and allow to the factory send his products inside the European market.

  13. Correspondencia entre Fernando de Aragón (1644-1713, 8.º duque de Montalto, y su agente en Bruselas sobre la realización de la tapicería de la “Historia de la casa de los Moncada”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Calvo, Margarita

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The unpublished documents presented here provide valuable and unusual information on the progress of weaving and the relationship between the person who commissioned the work and the artisans involved in executing the tapestries of the “Story of the Moncada”.

    La documentación inédita que aquí se aporta proporciona una valiosa e inusual información sobre los progresos de la tejeduría y de las relaciones entre el comitente y los artistas de la tapicería de la “Historia de los Moncada”.

  14. The hierarchy of the table and the crockery’s design as elements for art education from visual culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricard Huerta

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyze new aspects of the territories of design, ceramics and teaching in art education. We review the concept of the crockery elements and boarded the table hierarchies, combining historical, aesthetic and educational issues, covering the tradition which relates the uses of food and design between the Medieval Era and modern times. We claim the role of the artisan-craftsman as a concept which relates the production of objects with school work from perception of pragmatist sociologist Richard Sennett.

  15. Structure and Dynamics of Fisheries in Nigeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The changes that have taken place in Nigerian fisheries are reviewed. Artisanal fishery has continued to dominate the fisheries, contributing over 85% of total fish production. The inland water and coastal seas are fully exploited and the increase in fishery production is not likely. Aquaculture potentials remain untapped as much as deep-sea fisheries. The combined potential of the fisheries resources-freshwater, marine and aquaculture can meet over 90% of the nation's demand for fish. Opportunities for investments, therefore, exist in the various subsectors, especially in the areas of storage, processing and preservation for the capture fishery and fish seed multiplication for aquaculture.

  16. Green and golden seaweed tides on the rise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetacek, Victor; Zingone, Adriana

    2013-12-01

    Sudden beaching of huge seaweed masses smother the coastline and form rotting piles on the shore. The number of reports of these events in previously unaffected areas has increased worldwide in recent years. These 'seaweed tides' can harm tourism-based economies, smother aquaculture operations or disrupt traditional artisanal fisheries. Coastal eutrophication is the obvious, ultimate explanation for the increase in seaweed biomass, but the proximate processes that are responsible for individual beaching events are complex and require dedicated study to develop effective mitigation strategies. Harvesting the macroalgae, a valuable raw material, before they beach could well be developed into an effective solution.

  17. Contresens possibles et nécessaire pluridisciplinarité : l'exemple des ethmaloses de la lagune Ebrié

    OpenAIRE

    Laë, Raymond; Albaret, Jean-Jacques; Durand, Jean-René

    1991-01-01

    In the Ebrié lagoon (Côte d'Ivoire), the violent conflicts opposing "individuals" and "collective" artisanal fishermen in 1982 originated in the collapse of Bonga catches and led to the total ban of purse seines for reasons of overfishing. The results of bio-ecological research, mainly in the fields of reproductive biology and distribution of the species in the lagoon, did not agree with the hypothesis of overfishing, particularly because of the great abundance of Etmalosa in several unexploi...

  18. Human mercury exposure associated with small-scale gold mining in Burkina Faso.

    OpenAIRE

    Tomicic Catherine; Vernez David; Belem Tounaba; Berode Michèle

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: In Burkina Faso, gold ore is one of the main sources of income for an important part of the active population. Artisan gold miners use mercury in the extraction, a toxic metal whose human health risks are well known. The aim of the present study was to assess mercury exposure as well as to understand the exposure determinants of gold miners in Burkinabe small-scale mines.METHODS: The examined gold miners' population on the different selected gold mining sites was composed by persons ...

  19. Introduction of Mercury-free Gold Extraction Methods to Medium-Scale Miners and Education of Health Care Providers to Reduce the use of Mercury in Sorata, Bolivia

    OpenAIRE

    Appel, Peter W. U.; Astrid Andersen; Leoncio D. Na-Oy; Rudy Onos

    2015-01-01

    Background. Artisanal and small-scale miners in Bolivia release on the order of 120 tons of mercury annually. The mercury finds its way to the Amazon with catastrophic consequences for the biosphere. A project aimed at reducing the release of mercury was carried out in 2013 and 2014. Objectives. The project had two objectives: to test whether the mercury-free gold extraction method could be an alternative to whole ore amalgamation in medium-scale mining in Bolivia and to teach mercury toxi...

  20. Avantprojecte d'una cerveseria artesana a Palau de Noguera (Pallars Jussà)

    OpenAIRE

    Roman Castells, Meritxell

    2015-01-01

    This report presents the preliminary architectural renewal and change of use of a past barn that had been dedicated to the breeding of pigs and it is going to allocate an artisanal brewery and give it to a space for tasting. First it is presented the procedure for the preparation of beer, as well as describing the different raw materials and machinery necessary to carry out the final product. Then, the main actuations that involve the renovation are presented. The main activities are the adap...

  1. Draft Genome Sequence of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis bv. diacetylactis CRL264, a Citrate-Fermenting Strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuljan, Federico; Espariz, Martín; Blancato, Victor S; Esteban, Luis; Alarcón, Sergio; Magni, Christian

    2016-01-01

    We report the draft genome sequence of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis bv. diacetylactis CRL264, a natural strain isolated from artisanal cheese from northwest Argentina. L. lactis subsp. lactis bv. diacetylactis is one of the most important microorganisms used as starter culture around the world. The CRL264 strain constitutes a model microorganism in the studies on the generation of aroma compounds (diacetyl, acetoin, and 2,3-butanediol) by lactic acid bacteria. Our genome analysis shows similar genetic organization to other available genomes of L. lactis bv. diacetylactis strains. PMID:26847906

  2. Stomach contents of the Pacific sharpnose shark, Rhizoprionodon longurio (Carcharhiniformes, Carcharhinidae) in the southeastern Gulf of California

    OpenAIRE

    Yolene R Osuna-Peralta; Domenico Voltolina; Morán-Angulo, Ramón E.; J. Fernando Márquez-Farías

    2014-01-01

    The feeding habits of the sharpnose shark Rhizoprionodon longurio of the SE Gulf of California are described using the stomach contents of 250 specimens (135 males and 115 females) obtained weekly from December 2007 to March 2008 in the two main landing sites of the artisanal fishing fleet of Mazatlan. The mean total length (TL) was 77.7 ± 12.8 cm and the respective ranges for males and females were 60-120 cm and 52120 cm. Size distribution showed two modal groups (juveniles: 52-80 cm, mode 7...

  3. KAJIAN POSTUR KERJA PADA PENGRAJIN TENUN SONGKET PANDAI SIKEK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dessi Mufti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Working position of Songket workers at Tenunan Antik Pusako Minang Pandai Sikek were not ergonomic. There were indicated by the presence of curvature, incompatibility machine dimension with operator anthropometric (artisans songket so that appear complaints on a worker’s limb. It required the assessment and review of work postures using the Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA. The results is that final score of each work posture and level of risk. There are 6 working posture is often performed by workers. Working posture has final score 7 and higher risk level is sitting hunched forward with his arms and legs on tiptoe, and sat with his arms held forward positions.

  4. Peru Mercury Inventory 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, William E.; Sandoval, Esteban; Yepez, Miguel A.; Howard, Howell

    2007-01-01

    In 2004, a specific need for data on mercury use in South America was indicated by the United Nations Environmental Programme-Chemicals (UNEP-Chemicals) at a workshop on regional mercury pollution that took place in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Mercury has long been mined and used in South America for artisanal gold mining and imported for chlor-alkali production, dental amalgam, and other uses. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) provides information on domestic and international mercury production, trade, prices, sources, and recycling in its annual Minerals Yearbook mercury chapter. Therefore, in response to UNEP-Chemicals, the USGS, in collaboration with the Economic Section of the U.S. Embassy, Lima, has herein compiled data on Peru's exports, imports, and byproduct production of mercury. Peru was selected for this inventory because it has a 2000-year history of mercury production and use, and continues today as an important source of mercury for the global market, as a byproduct from its gold mines. Peru is a regional distributor of imported mercury and user of mercury for artisanal gold mining and chlor-alkali production. Peruvian customs data showed that 22 metric tons (t) of byproduct mercury was exported to the United States in 2006. Transshipped mercury was exported to Brazil (1 t), Colombia (1 t), and Guyana (1 t). Mercury was imported from the United States (54 t), Spain (19 t), and Kyrgyzstan (8 t) in 2006 and was used for artisanal gold mining, chlor-alkali production, dental amalgam, or transshipment to other countries in the region. Site visits and interviews provided information on the use and disposition of mercury for artisanal gold mining and other uses. Peru also imports mercury-containing batteries, electronics and computers, fluorescent lamps, and thermometers. In 2006, Peru imported approximately 1,900 t of a wide variety of fluorescent lamps; however, the mercury contained in these lamps, a minimum of approximately 76 kilograms (kg), and in

  5. Microbiological properties and chemical composition of macedonian traditional white brined cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojsova Sandra

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to asses the chemical and microbial characteristics of 10 artisanal cheeses made from raw ewe’s milk without addition of starters, during maturation. Microbial populations were numerous and diverse with Lactic acid bacteria and Enterobaceriaceae as a predominant groups of microorganisms. Pathogenic bacteria were not detected. The pH of the cheeses was within the range of 4.04 – 5.05, the moisture content within 46.97 – 51.58%, total protein from 18 – 21.37%, fat content from 26 - 30% and NaCl from 4.38 – 5.43%.

  6. Web application development with Laravel PHP Framework version 4

    OpenAIRE

    Armel, Jamal

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis work was to learn a new PHP framework and use it efficiently to build an eCommerce web application for a small start-up freelancing company that will let potential customers check products by category and pass orders securely. To fulfil this set of requirements, a system consisting of a web application with a backend was designed and implemented using built in Laravel features such as Composer, Eloquent, Blade and Artisan and a WAMP stack. The web application wa...

  7. Outils d'aide à la génération automatique d'hypertextes pédagogiques

    OpenAIRE

    Forte, Maia Wentland

    1996-01-01

    La création d'hypertextes se fait la plupart du temps en utilisant des outils du commerce. Les auteurs réinventent laborieusement des contenus déjà formalisés dans de nombreux ouvrages. Ils doivent s'atteler à la tâche ingrate de définir puis de lier entre elles des unités d'information, transmettant ainsi implicitement - et parfois inconsciemment - une vision subjective du domaine de connaissancetraité. Afin de faciliter et de systématiser ce travail artisanal, nous proposons un ensemble d'o...

  8. Catch of small cetaceans at Pucusana Port, central Peru, during 1987

    OpenAIRE

    Van Waerebeek, K.; Reyes, J C

    1990-01-01

    The small cetacean catch by artisanal fishermen in Peru was the subject of a IUCN/UNEP project in 1985–1986. In a follow-up study during 1987 we monitored the port of Pucusana, on the central Peruvian coast, for 298 days. In order to estimate monthly and total annual catches, mean daily catch rates were calculated for each species, stratified by month. Total landed volume, catch seasonality and capture methods were compared to results of former years. For the four main species 1987 catch esti...

  9. Pasteurization of goat milk using a low cost solar concentrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franco, Judith; Saravia, Luis; Javi, Veronica; Caso, Ricardo; Fernandez, Carlos [INENCO - UNSa, Av. Bolivia 5150, 4400, Salta (Argentina)

    2008-11-15

    This paper presents the design of a system for pasteurizing goat milk as a part of a process for artisan elaboration of cheese. The system consists in a Fresnel type concentrator used for cooking large amounts of food with a vaporizer located in the focus. The steam bubbles into the isolated container where the milk is cooked by a double boiler. When the desired temperature is reached, the steam flow is closed and the milk remains in this condition for 30 min into the closed container. Pasteurizing of 10 l of milk is done in about 1 h. The project considers guidelines for achieving a successful process. (author)

  10. The analytical investigations of ancient pottery from Kaveripakkam, Vellore dist, Tamilnadu by spectroscopic techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravisankar, R; Naseerutheen, A; Annamalai, G Raja; Chandrasekaran, A; Rajalakshmi, A; Kanagasabapathy, K V; Prasad, M V R; Satpathy, K K

    2014-01-01

    Analytical investigations using Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Powder X-ray Diffraction (PXRD), Thermal Analysis (TG-DTA), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry (EDXRF) were carried out on ancient pottery fragments from Kaveripakkam, in order to outline manufacturing skills, technology information, firing condition and temperature of potteries. The whole set of data showed the firing temperature in the range of 800-900°C. The analytical characterization of the potsherds, by different complimentary techniques has allowed to identifying the raw materials and technology applied by the ancient artisans. PMID:24287055

  11. Shoushan Carved Stone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Shoushan stone carving is a culture unto itself. The fine and closely-textured stones are found in the Shoushan Mountain in the southeastern part of the Fujian Province. Featuring great variety in colors and veins, the Shoushan stones are divided into several categories according to the place they are found, the mining caves where they are produced, or their colors. The stones come in yellow, red, green. white and purple. Tianhuang Stone is the best of all. The history of working with the stones dates back to more than 1,500 years ago.Artisans make

  12. Características ecológicas del pulpito Octopus Tehuelchus en tres ambientes del golfo San Matías

    OpenAIRE

    Storero, L.P.

    2010-01-01

    Coastal marine ecosystems are highly variable and the inherent biotic and abiotic factors of these environments can influence the bio-ecological characteristics of the living cephalopods. The presence of the small octopus “pulpito” Octopus tehuelchus in the coastal environments of San Matías Gulf has been exploited by artisanal fishermen for more than 60 years. The aim of this study is to evaluate the variations in the life cycle of the pulpito, and the factors that could account for these va...

  13. CONSERVATION OF POLYCHROME WOOD - PRINCIPLES AND CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa-Loredana BABIŢA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Polychrome wood artefacts represent a significantly valuable component of world cultural heritege, requiring thorough scientific investigation and specific conservation-restoration treatments. These are illustrated in this paper by the case study of an artisanal hanger, originating from Szecklerland, Romania. The study is focused on the analysis of initial conservation state and indentification of the constituent materials and techniques, employing non invasive and microdestructive scientific investigation methods, such as: photographic techniques, radiography, and microscopy of cros-sections through the painting layer. The conservation-restoration process of the hanger consisted in a series of treatments meant to preserve its authenticity, while highlighting its original beauty.

  14. ‘‘‘Sister to the tailor’: Guilds, gender and the needle trades in eighteenth-century Europe’

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonton, Deborah

    2017-01-01

    Milliners, and their sisters, mantuamakers, modistes and marchandes de mode, were skilled artisans, businesswomen and tradeswomen. During the eighteenth century, they commandeered the high-class sewing that set fashion and created stars of their most famous, like Rose Bertrand, milliner to Marie...... end of the needle trades. They also confronted slander from authors and commentators who saw them acting on the fringes of female respectability. This chapter will explore this group of commercial ‘professionals’ as they carved out a niche in the world of sewing and dressmaking before the advent...

  15. Mercury Pollution from Small-Scale Gold Mining Can Be Stopped by Implementing the Gravity-Borax Method--A Two-Year Follow-Up Study from Two Mining Communities in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Køster-Rasmussen, Rasmus; Westergaard, Maria L; Brasholt, Marie; Gutierrez, Richard; Jørs, Erik; Thomsen, Jane F

    2016-02-01

    Mercury is used globally to extract gold in artisanal and small-scale gold mining. The mercury-free gravity-borax method for gold extraction was introduced in two mining communities using mercury in the provinces Kalinga and Camarines Norte. This article describes project activities and quantitative changes in mercury consumption and analyzes the implementation with diffusion of innovations theory. Activities included miner-to-miner training; seminars for health-care workers, school teachers, and children; and involvement of community leaders. Baseline (2011) and follow-up (2013) data were gathered on mining practices and knowledge about mercury toxicology. Most miners in Kalinga converted to the gravity-borax method, whereas only a few did so in Camarines Norte. Differences in the nature of the social systems impacted the success of the implementation, and involvement of the tribal organization facilitated the shift in Kalinga. In conclusion, the gravity-borax method is a doable alternative to mercury use in artisanal and small-scale gold mining, but support from the civil society is needed.

  16. INTERFON

    CERN Multimedia

    Interfon

    2010-01-01

    Les bureaux Interfon de St Genis (Mutuelle et Coopérative) seront fermés du 9 au 20 août). Au Cern, pas de permanence « mutuelle » durant le mois d’août. Les demandes de remboursement peuvent être envoyées par courrier interne et seront transmises chaque soir au Technoparc. Le bureau de la Coopérative au Cern reste ouvert jusqu’au 22 août.   POUR VOS PROJET DE CONSTRUCTION... Vous cherchez un architecte d’intérieur ? Nous vous proposons Jean-Marc Pradéra, architecte d’intérieur qui peut vous aider et vous conseiller utilement pour améliorer votre cadre de vie, dans une maison ou dans un appartement. Concepteur de mobilier, cheminées, livings, cuisine hors standard, il coordonne les artisans choisis au meilleur prix et à la meilleure qualité (artisans jurassiens ou savoyar...

  17. Artesãs de Aritapera/PA: técnicas e processos em uma perspetiva Etnomatemática

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ricardo e Souza Mafra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study discusses aspects of informal learning , evidenced in a group of women artisans living in the city Santarém / PA, Aritapera region, and how these learning styles and informal knowledge interconnect with the perspective of the Ethnomatematics Program. Their social practices, reflected in their regional craft, show particularities involving the transmission and production of knowledge, organization of communities of pra ctice and evidenced symbolic exchanges during the preparation work of ornamental gourds . Methodological procedures used in this research were organized, according to an ethnographic approach , from observation and inference of construction processes and inc isions record ed on surfaces that create the regional gourds. Research results indicate that the iconography reflected in bowls , indicate motivations especially related with social representations evidenced in the community dynamics and commercial relations involved. Possible social interactions existing in this context thus permeate a permanent flow of diversified multifaceted knowledge exchange. The production and ornamentation of gourds are closely related to a kind of technical and instrumental knowledge , which involves the community as a whole. At the same time, it adds particular elements to the practices of the artisans , closely connected with nature, revealing a dynamic knowledge integrated and balanced with the environment, without disregarding the f act that any environmental alteration threatens the cultural practice, bringing changes to its modes of production.

  18. Estrutura populacional de Portunus spinimanus Latreille (Crustacea, Portunidae na Armação do Itapocoroy, Penha, Santa Catarina, Brasil Population structure of Portunus spinimanus Latreille (Crustacea, Portunidae in the Armação do Itapocoroy, Penha, Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim Olinto Branco

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Portunus spinimanus Latreille, 1819 is one abundant Portunidae speeies whieh are eaught by sea-bob-shrimps artisanal fishery in Armaçãodo Itapoeoroy,Penha, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Aiming to analyze its population strueture, a total of 995 males and 1925 fernaleswere eollected by means of overtrawl frorn January to Decernber 1995, between the depthsof 610 10meters,in lhe periodsof morning,afternoonand evening. The width variation of lhe carapaee ranged írom 3.0 to 14.0 em in the males and 3.0 to 11.0emin females. The species presents growth isometric and the males reach width and weight assintoticand bigger that lhe females.The estirnatedfirst maturation width was between 6.8 and 7.6 em, reached with lhe approxirnated age of 15 months. The artisanal fishery in Armação do lrapocoroy is acting with a higher intensity over the juveniles stock.

  19. Antagonistic activity of dairy lactobacilli against gram-foodborne pathogens - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v36i1.18776

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Geria

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-five strains of lactic acid bacteria were isolated from artisanal raw milk cheese, presumptively identified and tested against one dairy Escherichia coli strain. Six lactobacilli, exhibiting antagonistic activity, were identified at the species level and their action was evaluated against four strains of Gram-foodborne pathogens (Escherichia coli O26, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella spp. 1023, and Salmonella Typhimurium and the control strain Escherichia coli ATCC 45922. The antagonistic activity was determined by spot method and the inhibition zones were measured by Autodesk AutoCAD 2007. Three strains, all Lactobacillus paracasei, were active against all the pathogens; the other strains, all Lactobacillus plantarum, showed antagonistic activity against some pathogens. This study highlights the intense and different antagonistic activity induced by lactobacilli against various foodborne pathogens thus demonstrating that using selected lactic acid bacteria strains as adjunct cultures could be an effective strategy to prevent the development of foodborne pathogens in artisanal raw milk cheeses, and thus improving their safety.

  20. Microbiological profile of maize and rye flours, and sourdough used for the manufacture of traditional Portuguese bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, João M; Malcata, F Xavier

    2012-08-01

    A thorough microbiological study of maize and rye flours, and sourdoughs obtained therefrom for eventual manufacture of broa--a dark sour bread typical in Northern Portugal, following artisanal practices, was carried out. Towards this purpose, samples were supplied by 14 artisanal producers, selected from 4 sub-regions, during two periods of the year. Total viable counts, as well as viable mesophilic and thermophilic microorganisms, yeasts and molds, Gram⁻ rods, endospore-forming and nonsporing Gram⁺ rods, and catalase⁺ and catalase⁻ Gram⁺ cocci were assayed for. The comprehensive experimental dataset unfolded a unique and rather complex wild microflora in flours and sourdoughs throughout the whole region, which did not discriminate among sub-regions or seasons, or flour source for that matter. However, fermentation played a major role upon the numbers of the various microbial groups: the viable counts of yeasts, lactobacilli, streptococci, lactococci, enterococci and leuconostocs increased, whereas those of molds, Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonadaceae, staphylococci and micrococci decreased.